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Full text of "Life of James Wodrow: Professor of Divinity in the University of Glasgow from 1692 to 1707"

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600003891 R 



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LIFE 



or 



JAMES WODROW, A. M. 




LIFE J/^ 



OP 



JAMES WODROW, A. M. 

PROFESSOR or DIVIXITT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF 0LA800W, 

FROM MBCXCII TO MDCCVII. 



WRITTEN BT HIS SON 



ROBERT WODROW, A.M. 



MINISTER OF THE GOSPEL AT EASTWOOD. 



WILLIAM BLACKWOOD, EDINBUKGH ; AND 
T. CADELL, STRAND, LONDON. 



MDCCCXXVIII. 



S^S 



p. KXILL, PKINTKR. 



I 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Author of the following Life has been 
long well known to the public, by his interesting 
and valuable History of the Sufferings of the 
Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the 
Revolution. 

His father, Professor Won row, was, some time 
before the Revolution, chosen by the Presbyterian 
ministers to superintend the studies of young men 
intending the ministry, and, after the happy change 
of affairs in 1688, was appointed to the chair of 
Divinity in the University of Glasgow, a situa- 
tion which he filled, till his death in 1707, with 
much credit to himself, and advantage to the 
Church. In drawing up the memoir of him, his 
son appears to have been actuated, not only by 
the laudable wish to preserve the memory of an 



vi 



excellent father, but also by the desire, which 
formed his ruling passion through life, to throw 
light on the transactions of the Church of Scot- 
land, and on the lives of her most distinguished 
ministers. Besides what relates to the Wodrow 
family, the memoir will be found to contain no- 
tices concerning several contemporaries of his fa- 
ther, facts respecting the public afiairs of that 
eventful period, and important information as to 
the state of theological instruction both before 
and after the Revolution, which are not to be 
found elsewhere. It discovers the same industry 
in collecting, and honesty in stating, facts ; and 
is written in the same plain and unambitious style, 
as the author^s History. On these accounts some 
individuals, who had access to peruse it, have 
deemed the Life not unworthy of publication. It 
is printed exactly from a manuscript in the au- 
thor''s own handwriting, which is in the posses- 
sion of one of his descendants. 

The late pious and learned Dr John Camp- 
bell of Edinburgh took the principal cliarge of 
jhis publication, which having been one of the 
last of his earthly cares, and having been com- 



i 



pleted on the day of his funeral, has thus acquired 
a melanchQly interest, which cannot fail to recom- 
mend it to the notice of the surviving friends of 
that judicious Divine, who, during the decline of 
his strength, continued as earnestly devoted as 
ever to the promotion of those sacred studies in 
which he had long attained distinguished emi« 
nence. 



EDnrBUEGH, 1 

e^ September 182a f 



LIFE 



OP 



Mb JAMES WODROW, S. T. P. 



When I have a desism of makins: all 

. *^ ° Introduction. 

the collections I can now recover, con- 
ceming the lives of persons in this church, and na- 
tion, remarkable for piety and usefulness, the 
Apostolical * rule of shewing first piety at home 
and requiting parents, seems to lead me to begin 
with my worthy and excellent Father. 

In many req)ects, I may be reckoned a most 
unfit hand for writing his life, being so nearly re- 
lated to him ; and could I have thought of any, 
who would have undertaken this, they should 
have cheerfully have had all my materials com- 
municat to them. But if in many respects I am 
unfit for this task, in other respects I must look 
on myself as in case to give not a few matters of 
fact relative to him, which others have not had 
opportunities of knowing; having enjoyed the 

• 1 Tim. 4. 4. 



Z LIFE OP PROFESSOR WODROW. 

happiness of living under his parental care till I 
was about 25 years of age, and any short hints 
he saw fit to leave behind him with respect to him- 
self, with his publick discourses, and other learned 
and pious remains of his, being in my hands. 

From these I shall essay to give some lame ac- 
count of this great man, and burning and shining 
light in this church ; and considering that my 
near relation to him might, perhaps with some, 
lessen any character I should offer to form of him, 
I shall confine myself entirely to facts, and mix 
in little or nothing of my own reflections or infe- 
rences, which might be justly drawn from them, 
and leave the reader to draw his own character of 
him, from what I shall lay down from his origi- 
nal papers, and what I have heard from him, and 
seen in him. 

Indeed I persuade myself, he is so well known 
in this church, and his remembrance so fresh 
and savoury with multitudes yet alive, as to se- 
rious solid piety, learning, and publick useful- 
ness, as a minister, and in the important charge of 
those who had their eye to the ministry, that 
though I were a fit hand to draw his character, 
there is little need of it to many in the present 
age, and those who succeed will be in case to form 
their opinion best from the plain narrative I shall 
give. 



LIFE OF PBOFC880B WODBOW. 3 

Which I the more cheerfully enter upon, when 
I reflect upon a remark he had to me not long be- 
fore his deatli ; though I am sure he had no view 
in it to the work I am now entering upon ; neither 
had I at that time : though I cannot say but my 
reflections on it since, gave some occasion to enter- 
tain the thoughts of doing somewhat relative to 
our biography. We had been talking about our 
Reformers and eminent Ministers since that time, 
which was one of his favorite subjects of conver- 
sation. After his giving me several remarkable 
accounts of them he had heard from old ministers, 
and a pause for some time, he said : ^^ Robin, I 
am very much persuaded that the Lord hath 
stooped to manifest himself in as singular a man- 
ner, in behalf of the Church of Scotland, and to 
multitudes of christians and ministers in it, if not 
in a more peculiar manner, than to any of his 
churches since the primitive times; and yet all 
this his goodness and grace, is in a great measure 
ungratefully buried by us ; and there is no ac- 
count of the liord's way with particular persons, 
save a few scraps in the fulfilling of the Scrip- 
tures, nor of his remarkable providences and ap- 
pearances in this church, recorded and transmit- 
ted to posterity .'^ He added, with much serious 
concern, " I have many omissions and failings 
in my former life to lament over, but there are 

a2 



4 lilFE OF PBOFESSOR WODROW. 

not many things more grievous to me than my 
sinful neglect of setting down in write, what I 
have had occasion to hear from old ministers and 
christians, concerning the Lord's singular way 
with them and this church ; for 28 years before 
the Revolution presbyterian ministers had not 
many publick opportunities of preaching, and 
spent much of their time in conversation one with 
another; and there I had opportunities to hear 
many remarkable things which I fear now will be 
utterly lost/' And he advised me in my youth, 
to set down what I happened to hear from good 
hands, and well attested, of this kind, which ad- 
vice I have in part followed. 

I shall then give my account of his 

Division and i»i» • ^v* j tt* j a i 

stages of his uic lu this Order : His descent and pa- 
rentage; his education at the schools 
tQl his graduation ; and then give account of him 
till his licensing to preach the gospel, from which 
till the Uberty little offers save sufferings and per- 
secution. Then I shall take a view of his settle- 
ment in the ministry at Glasgow, and the private 
teaching of divinity there, till his transportation 
to the University, where he continued till his hap- 
py and triumphant death. And in the last room, 
I shall give account of his manuscripts he has 
left behind him, and his posterity. In several 
of which I shall intermix some things of a more 



LIFB OP PBOFB880B WODBOW. 3 

private concern to myself, my brother, and my 
children and relations, that may be left out if this 
diall be ever transcribed for a more public view. 
There is a natural kind of inclina- . , ^ ^ 

A general fond- 

tion in the most part to know and in- g^S^d?. 
quire into their descent, and the fore- "^^"^ 
fathers whence they come. Whence this flows 
I need not here inquire : it may be there is more 
of pride and a foolish fondness to those we are 
sprung of in this than any real advantage. Its a 
very awful consideration, that, if the computa- 
tion of a very great man hold, could we run up our 
descent to about 130 generations, we would land 
in the first Adam, who was of the earth, earthy. 
The great mattar here is to know, that as we have 
bom the image of the earthy, so we bear the 
image of the heavenly. Which brings to my 
mind a saying of a worthy christian and relation 
of mine, who had by his own industry purchased 
a plentiful fortune. In conversation with seve- 
ral gentlemen and others, who were talking of 
their pedigree and descent from such and such fa- 
milies, he was for some while silent ; when pressed 
to speak, at length said, ^^ You are all boasting 
of your descent and relations : My father was of 
such a calling, and my grandfather such another ; 
Grod hath blessed their and my industry, that I 
have as plentiful a fartune as many of you. My 



hlFE OF PROFCSSOB WOOBOWi 

grandfather and father were children of God, and 
I am sure I am allied to heaven, and that is all 
I shall say.^ And indeed its no small comfort, as 
well as a high privilege, and what lays under 
the strongest obligations to service, duty, and 
holiness, when persons are descended from the 
children of God and allied to heaven. And this 
I am sure is my case, and that what I wish my 
children would think of, and on the ties which 
result therefrom. 

By oral tradition I hear that my 

Hia descent -^ ^ •' 

and parentage, auccstors by the father's side came to 
Scotland from England, and I have heard my fa- 
ther notice, that they did possess The Hill of 
Eglishame, or other lands there, without interrup- 
tion, for more than 300 years before his birth. 

Some while before the blessed refor- 

Mr Patrick. 

wodiow. mation of this nation from popery, 

Mr Patrick Wodrow, a popish priest, was vicar 
in the parish of Eglishame, about seven miles 
south-west from the city of Glasgow. By some 
of his papers it appears that he wanted not the 
learning of that age ; and he had one of the fair- 
est and most beautiful hands in writing that I 
believe was in that time. Some remains of it 
cHice in my father's hands were almost equal to 
copperplate. Indeed since printing came in, if s 
to be regretted that so little care is taken as to fair 



LIFE OF PROFKSSOR WOOROW. 7 

writing. This Mr Patrick was married to Ag- 
ness Hamilton, daughter to a brother of the house 
of Abereom, after the Reformation. Both their 
names are engraven on their tombstone in the 
church-yard of Eglishame. 

Mr Patrick left behind him one son 

^ ^ John Wodrow. 

John Wodrow, who lived a private life 

upon the provision his father had made for him 

in the foresaid parish, and left behind him several 

sons. 

His youneest son Robert Wodrow 

•^ . ° Robt Wodrow. 

was by his father carefully educated 
at the schools in Glasgow, and afterwards bound 
an apprentice to a writer to the signet in Edin- 
burgh, from whence he was called by Alexander 
Earl of Eglinton (commdnly named Graysteel) 
to be his chamberlain, and afterwards his clerk 
in Eglishame. And such was the EarPs regard 
to and trust in this person, that when he went in- 
to England during the civil wars there, he by a 
commission in my hands, left him sole manager 
of his estate till his return, accountable to none 
but himself on his return, and to his heir in case 
of his demise. 

Robert Wodrow, in Hill of Eglishame, was 
born, as far as I can guess, Ann. 1600. After 
his return from his education at Glasgow and 
Edinburgh, he lived honestly and creditably in 



8 LIFE OF PB0FES80B WODROW. 

Eglishame all his days, on the perquisites of his 
office, and by his skill in law ; and was in very 
great reputation in that country for his piety, 
probity, and more than ordinary knowledge of 
Scotch law and practicks, and singularly useful, 
and generally applied to a^ arbiter for removing 
debates and differences in that neighbouriiood. 

He married, first, Agnes Dunlop, 

His jnsirisffG* — 

daughter to John Dunlop of Pol- 
noon Milne, in Eglishame, an oye (grandchild) of 
the laird of DunFop of that ilk, an old family, in 
the shire of Air, a person very desirable for piety, 
and an excellent temper. She died July 14». 
1658. 

By her the Lord gave him six sons 

Posterity. "^ ° 

and one daughter, who lived to some 
years, besides two other sons and a daughter, 
who died young. Alexander, who was bom 
July 21. 1628, and died Jan. 16. 1699 ; John 
was bom June 20. 1630, and died Dec. 22. 1666 ; 
Robert was bom August 12. 1682, and died 
April 11. 1699 ; James, whose life I am writing, 
was bora Jan. 2. 1637, betwixt two and three in 
the morning, and died Sept. 25. 1707 ; Patrick 
was bom Dec. 12. 1688, and died anno 1667 ; 
Mary was bom Dec. 26. 1642, and died March 
18. 1703. Thomas was bom March 8. 1646, 
and died Feb. 3. 1681. 



LIFB OF PBOFE880B WODROW. 9 

He bred all his sons at the schools in Glas- 
gow, except Robert, who was averse from learn- 
ing, as long as they would stay at their books, 
which none of them followed but James. 
Alexander, his eldest son, betook him- 
self to the study of the law, and fell in with his 
father's business, and succeeded to him in his em- 
ployment in Eglishame, where he lived in very 
good reputation, and usefulness, and was a very 
deserving ruling elder in the session of that pa- 
rish. By his spouse Lockheart he had a 
son Robert, who left the schools a little after the 
Revolution, and went into the army, and then 
was in the Dutch fleet, and sailed to the East 
Indies about the 1700, since which his friends 
have not heard of him ; and a daughter, Agnes 
Wodrow, married before her father's death to 
Andrew Young, portioner of Eenock in Eglis- 
hame, who possesses the Hill of Eglishame. { Slie 
died Feb. 5. 1724} 

John, his second son, was a merchant in 

John. 

Glasgow, and married to Margaret Buntine, 
by whom he had three sons : John, who after a 
good education, and strict profession for some 
years, was so far left of God as to turn to the 
danmable delusions of the Quakers, to the great 
grief of his relations; Francis, a pious serious 
youth, who was taken at Bothwell engagement, 

a5 



10 LIFB OP PROFESSOR WODROW. 

and perished in the ship which was wilfully lost 
with the prisoners in Orkney 1679. Henry, mer- 
chant in Glasgow, and Mary his only daughter, 
all alive save Francis, and without male issue. 
Their father John was a singularly pious youth, 
and was taken prisoner at the gallant appearance 
made at Pentland for religion and liberty, and 
execut at Edinburgh December 22. 1666. Hi» 
letters to his wife and children and dying testi- 
mony are in Nephthali. 

His third son Robert, lived at Eglis- 

Robert. ^ ^ . . 

hame, with his father, while he lived, and 

continued unmarried till his death as above. His 

fifth son Patrick was a stationer in Edin- 

Patrick. 

burgh, and died, as far as I know, un- 
married. His youngest son Thomas fol- 
lowed the study of the law, and was 
married, and had posterity, who are living in Ire- 
land. His daughter Mary died un- 
married. 
After the death of his first wife, having so 
great a family to look after, he married Mary 
Lindsay, eldest daughter of the laird of Sheilds 
in the parish of Kilbride, at the Kirk of Cath- 
cart. May 30. 1654. She was a worthy person, 
and one of the comeliest aged women I ever be- 
held. By her he had no children : she outlived 
him many years, and after a holy religious single 



LIF£ OP PBOFB880B WODROH*. 1 1 

iife, died Jan. 12. 1704, in the 94th year of her 
age. 

No man in his station ever took ,,, ^ ^ 

Hto character 

more care of his children, or was at M»d<*«»^^- 
more expense in their education than this good 
man, reckoning what was this way bestowed, was 
the part of their patrimony which was best em- 
ployed. He was, in short, in the opinion of all 
that knew him, a person of extraordinary natural 
endowments, and rare and singular piety. And 
after much trouble, for several years, and perse- 
cution by the prelates for his nonconformity, and 
adherence to presbytery, he departed this life in 
much inward peace and serenity, at Eglishame, 
July 22. 1672, in the 72d year of his age. 
I come now to what I principally 

1 • A i» a1 • a1_ M^ Jame* 

desiOT, some account oi this worthy wodmw. 
person s fourth son, James W odrow, Wfth with an 

^ ' ' observe on It. 

bom in the Hill of Eglishame, Jan. 2. 
1637. Observations upon dates and numbers of 
years, and persons^ births, are none of these I am 
most fond of; and yet here, I do not think it out 
of the way, humbly to observe, the large and 
comprehensive views of Providence, in ordering 
out the time of persons coming to this world. 
There is a time to be born, and known to Grod 
are all his works from the beginning ; his work 
is still befcnre him and his reward with him, and 



12 LIFE OF PB0FE880B WODBOW. 

SO are his instruments for managing the various 
parts of his work he hath to do in his church. 
This year 1637, was in the former part of it one 
of the darkest, and blackest the Church of Scot- 
land had seen, since her reformation from popery ; 
not only corruptions in worship and discipline, 
were fast imposing, by the book of Canons, and 
Liturgy, framed under the direction of Arch- 
bishop Laud ; but also the vilest errors in doc- 
trine, popery and the height of Arminianism 
coming in apace, to which the church of Scotland 
had been much a stranger before, even under her 
corruptions in government; and with these, no 
small oppression in civil liberty by churchmen''s 
winding themselves into civil places of trust. 
Those excesses brought about the great turn of 
aflEairs, the end of this year, and beginning of the 
next, which issued in the glorious work of refor- 
mation in the following years, which was over- 
turned anno 1660, and 1661, as elsewhere I have 
given an account. Here is a child brought to the 
world, who was to be a young witness to the glory 
of that building ; and prepared by a course of 
sufferings, persecution and study under the fol- 
lowing 28 years of prelacy to be an eminent in- 
strument in the building the Lord's work in this 
church at and after the never to be forgotten Re- 
volution, when he was in the Lord^s hand a mean 



LIFB OF PBOFSS80B WODBOW. 13 

of preparing upwards of six hundred ministers 
for the service of the tabernacle in Scotland. 

I am sorry I have to remark it in 
the entry of my account of him, that luth deprived 
his excessive modesty has depnved me oHmiraDSkl 
of what would have put me in case 
to have given a full and satisfying account of his 
life, that is his Diary written in Latin, of which 
he formed an extract contained in a sheet of 
paper ; all, alas, which he thought good to com- 
municate, under this title, Some Notes out of his 
Diary, 1. Concerning the work of grace upon his 
soul ; 2. Miscellaneous observations and remarks 
about several things, such as he thought fit to 
communicate ; but the book itself he would shew 
to none. This extract he began to make, as its 
date bears, April 1700, and I shall bring it all 
in according to its subjects and dates, in this Es- 
say. By a few scattered leaves of 

1 . -r^. i*i-r^ 1*1* 1* A ^^^ scatter- 

his Diary which I found m his cabi- ed fragments 

•^ . . of his diary. 

net after his death, in a place that he 
had not observed, when he put the rest out of the 
way, which I shall likewise endeavour to bring in 
here ; I am only made the more sensible of the 
loss I and others are at by this excessive self-de- 
nial, in destrojdng the rest of it. 

It's but litle I know concerning him, till his in- 
stalment as Professor of divinity in the College 



14 LIFE OP PROFESSOR WODROW. 

of Glasgow, and all he says of the former part 

of his life in the above named extract is, " that 

he was bom, as above, and most be- 

^T^ hi loved by his father of all his children, 

hfetUlbrought - , , 1 , . . , 

tobeProfessor and the more endeared to him m that, 

of Divinity in ' 

ofG^o^'^ he only of all his sons followed his 
books. He was laureat at Glasgow 
1659, and the very next year thereafter King 
Charles J&l returned home, and the storm of per- 
^secution from Prelacy following, did continue for 
the space of 28 years. The said Mr James be- 
ing called by his father, teachers and others^ whose 
counsel he thought himself obliged to follow, did 
apply himself to the study of Divinity at Glasgow 
for near the space of 8 years, until Archbishop 
Fairfoul came to the city. After which time he 
followed his studies privately, waiting on pupils 
at the grammar school, and college, until the 
end of ann. 1673, about which time he married a 
godly discreet and virtuous gentlewoman, with 
whom he lived in great contentment, amity, and 
divine protection, amid the great trouble of these 
times, the space of 15 years following, and in the 
year 1687 was called by the Synod of Glasgow 
and Air to teach the students of divinity, at Glas- 
gow ; and shortly thereafter ordained minister of 
Glasgow, having been licensed to teach the gos- 
pel in the year 1673, before ; and was received 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 15 

into the College of Glasgow, after the purgation 
of the same by a commission of parliament, in the 
year 1692.'' 

This is all the account of his life that his mo* 
desty allowed him to leave. It falls to me to 
enlarge a little on these particulars where I shall 
bring in what follows in the forecited extract and 
remarks in the periods where they seem to me 
most naturally to fall in ; and add what offers to 
me, from his settlement in the University of Glas- 
gow to his much lamented death, 1707. 

Durinfi: his infancy and childhood I 

^ , '^ , Hto infancy 

have only this one thing to remark, «»«» childhood, 
which I have from several good hands, That he 
was 7 years of age before he would speak any al- 
most except some broken words about meat and 
drink, and such things, so early did his bashful 
modesty, of which we shall afterwards find him 
more than once complaining, seize upon him. 
This did not proceed from want of thought and 
reflection, although for some time the fears of this 
gave much occasion of grief to his father, for at 
length he overcame it ; and th^ first time he was 
prevailed on to speak at any length, and before ever 
he knew a letter, he repeated the short Catechism 
then in use, which he had heard his brethren get- 
ting and repeating, without missing one word of it, 
which surprised them all with much pleasure. 



16 LIFB OF PBOFESSOB WODROW. 

He himself notices his father'^s pe- 

His father's ■.. /*».• r» i« ^ ii* 

peculiar aflfeo- culiaT aiiection lor him beyond his 

tiontohlm. •' ^ 

brethren ; and as he grew up, it very 
much encreased. At his death he had a very 
large proof of it, his father leaving him 5000 
merks Scots money ; which I may say was a 
double portion, and to be sure he had the bless- 
ing with it. 

After he went through the £ns:lish 

His learning .... 

the Latine. teaching, and was initiat in the Latin 
also, by Mr J. Tran, then if I mistake not school- 
master at Eglishame, he was sent in to Glasgow, 
where I have heard him very much commend Mr 
Francis Kinkead, grammar schoolmaster, for his 
gravity, piety and exact discipline among the 
scholars. All this time he was remarked by his 
condisciples, as some of them have told me, for 
gravity, modesty and close application. 

In the year 1655, he entered to the 

Exactness in ^ ^ •' 

toougHP university of Glasgow, and profited 
Whole life. ^^^j^ beyond his feUows there. His 

application to the languages, Latin and Greek, 
was very great, and very early he came to be ex- 
act in them, as I find by the remaining scraps of 
his Diary which he chose to write in Latin, and 
through his whole life he took care to keep himself 
exact in them, and took some time every year 
once, to revise the Latin and Greek and Hebrew 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 17 

Grammars, and a vocabulary he had formed in each 
of them. By this method they were still fresh in 
his memory, and he never lost those instruments 
and organa of learning, as he used to term them, 
but continually grew in his acquaintance with and 
exactness in them. 

The philosophy then tau^^it in the 
schools, was what he peculiarly gave 
himself to the study of, though afterwards he 
very much regretted that he had lost so much of 
his precious time, in a study which when he 
came to greater ripeness and reflection, he found 
so dry and useless ; and as I may afterwards no^ 
tice, he spent many thoughts and took much pains 
in a project for reforming philosophy and scho^ 
lastick divinity, from the heap of vain terms 
and pagan and heathen fopperies mixed in with 
it. However, his sedulous application to it as it 
was then taught, put him afterwards the more in 
case to discover, and make proposals for reform- 
ing what was amiss in it. 

Who was his master during his first 
3 years^ study I cannot tell. I think at the uni- 

•^ -^ verslty. 

I have heard him say Mr Erskine came 
to be admitted Regent when the class he was in 
were Magistrands. I know not but his former 
regent might be that extraordinary person Mr 
James Vetch, after minister of Mauchlin, at least 



18 LIFE OP PROFESSOR WODROW. 

I had a copy of Logick and Ethick Dictates in 
my father'^s hand among his school books, and 
they were reckoned among the most exact sys- 
tems at that time. 

By the Theses printed at his lau- 

Theses at his . . > -.j- -n i_ . 

Laureation. rcation now m mme eye, Mr Kobert 
Erskine was his regent during his last 
year. They are printed 1659, and pubUckly de- 
fended Postridie nonas Quintileis praeside Ro- 
berto Areskino in Mde sacra Franciscanorum 
Glasguae * : and in the list of candidates I find 
several very worthy persons with whom my father 
afterwards maintained a strict friendship. Mr 
Andrew afterwards Sir Andrew Kennedy of Clo- 
bum, and conservator of the Scots nation at Cam- 
phire, Mr William Vetch, since the Revolution 
minister at Dumfries, Mr William Rogers, Mr 
Duncan Campbellj and others. School conversa- 
tion and acquaintance, by some peculiar charms, 
is many times a lasting foundation of friendship, 
through persons' lives. 

It was then customary to have at 
wasanjnoo- their publick Graduations, what came 

•ation, 

under the name of an Invocation ; the 
nature of which as far as I have heard it, was 
thus. The examinations of candidates in univer- 

* July 8th, Robert Erskine presiding, in the Black- 
friars Church, Gkagow*— See Appendix. 



JLIF£ OF PnOFESSOn WODBOW^ 19 

sitieswas in those days some more exact and close 
than I fear it is at this time, when beaming suffers 
by the too easy admission of many without exact 
trial, to the honorary title of Master of Arts. 
And their trial was not only personal, but com* 
parative ; and after the examinators were satis- 
fied as to the merits of the candidates, then to 
encourage a just emulation in the pursuit of stu- 
dies, they proceeded to a comparative judgment 
upon them ; and as they were found to have made 
advances in learning upon trial, their names were 
noted down, and the public cryer of the College 
according to that list invocat them from the place 
where they were met, in the audience of all the 
students, the gentlemen invited to the solemnity, 
and the Masters, and in the order in which they 
were invocat they came out and walked after their 
regent to the place of laureation ; and when their 
abilities and progress was judged equal, then two 
were cdlled in a breath, and they walked at other's 
sides. 

It seems it fell to my father's share And he nnt 
on the day of laureation, to be first in- 
vocat with another ; and they came out at other's 
hands, next to their regent, and the rest followed 
one by one as invocat, in their procession. I re- 
member to have heard my father tell, that the E. 
of Eglintoun being in Glasgow the day of the 
laureation, was mvited by the masters to the so- 



20 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

lemnity, and came. He knew nothing about my 
father ; but when he observed Jacobus Wodrow 
first in the invocation, he asked about him and 
whose son he was, and finding him his factor'^s 
son, after the solemnity was over he came to him 
and took him by the hand, and told him how satis- 
fied he was that he was so well liked by his mas- 
ters, and took out three or four broad pieces of gold 
and gave him, and said. Take these and buy books 
with them. Such was the regard persons of rank 
had for learning, and the plain hearty friendship 
of those days. 

The original copy of the college 
Ms Laurea- attestation of his laureation is before 

tion. 

me. It's in paper, and without the col- 
lege seal at it, which it seems is a custom brought 
in since the Restoration. The form is much the 
same yet in use ; however, it may not be unfit to 
preserve it, and so I insert it here. 

^' Rector et Senatus Academiae Gla^uensis 
Christiano Lectori salutem : 

" Vixit apud nos quadrennium totum inge- 
nuus et probus adolescens Jacobus Wodruus, et 
prseceptoribus ita operam assidue dedit, toto cur- 
riculi spatio, ut non minimos in eloquentise graecse 
et philosophise studiis progressus fecerit ; tum ho- 
norarium quod a nobis solet studiosis et literatis 
deferri, Magisterij titulum merito consecutus fue- 
rit. 'In quorum fidem litteris hisce, nomina nos* 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW« 21 

tra subscripdmus. Datum Glasguse prid. cal. 
Novemb. anno serae Christians cio.ioclix. 

FaTRICIUS GiLLESPiEUS. 
R. BALiEUS. 

JoA. Junius. 
An. Burnstus. 
Ro. Areskinus **^ 

But paulo majora canemus -f-. The Lord had 
done good to his soul before he came 
to the university ; and I find him ta- b^ on^^ 

, . . i. 1 . . 1 1 I "°"^ before he 

kmff notice of this m the short ab- wenttotheunt. 

^^ venity, with 

stract that he has made of his large ^^S^\/^i^ 
diary, and I shall give this in his 
own words if I had once noticed what a blessing 
it would be to youths to be religious in earnest, 

• The Rector and Senate of the University of Glasgow 
to the Christian reader, greeting : 
James Wodrow, an excellent young man of respectable 
parentage, hath lived with us four years complete, and 
through the whole course hath so assiduously applied to the 
instructions of the Masters, that his proficiency in Greek li- 
terature and philosophy hath been very considerable ; he then 
obtained the well^arned honorary title of Master of Arts, 
which we usually confer on the diligent and successflil stu- 
dents. In witness whereof, we have subscribed these pre- 
sents at Glasgow, October 31. 1659. 

(Signed) Fat. Gillespie, R. Baillie, John Youxo, 

And. Bukket, B» Erskine. 

t We shall attend to matters of greater importance. 



22 hXTE OF PROFESSOB WODBOW. 

and know somewhat of the Lord'^s gracious work 
upon their spirit before they come to the univer- 
sity. This would be a noble balance to all the 
temptations and vanities they are liable to when 
they come into society, and preserve them from 
the snares and evil example which is so common 
among youth ; yea, it would have a vast influ- 
ence upon their learning itself. For I am per- 
suaded saving grace not only inclines the soul to 
a sedulous and dependent diligence in all duties 
that may fit a person for serving God and his 
generation according to his will ; but the regene- 
rating work of the Spirit elevates and widens even 
the natural powers for every thing that is truly 
good and great, and is of vast use in solid real 
knowledge itself; as well that it will put a person 
on earnest prayer and supplication for the divine 
blessing, that fills and maketh rich every way, 
and adds no sorrow thereto. This advantage my 
father found in all his preparative studies. 

Accordingly he observes, " that as 

His own ac- . . . 

oountofit. to the time of his conversion, or when 
the Lord began to make him lay his salvation to 

4 

heart, see his lost and undone condition by na- 
ture, and lay hold on the hope set before him, he 
could not tell, sometimes thinking it might be in 
or from the womb, and at other times thereafter. 

Because where there is good education, no bad 

3 



Z.IFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 23 

example, nor falling into gross sins (which was 
his case), there usually the alteration from nature 
to grace is less sensible, and a law work in any re- 
markable degree not so much to be discerned. 
Especially considering, how hard it is to distin- 
guish sufficiently betwixt duties of religion flow- 
ing &om the power of education, and those that 
flow also from the power of regeneration and sa- 
ving grace. 

" But though he was in the dark when Grod be- 
gan a work of saving grace upon his soul, yet he 
remembers when God made him first reflect upon 
it, and observe the motions of God's spirit in him ; 
and that was about the year 1655, under Mr An- 
drew Gray's ministry*" (when a hearer, I sup- 
pose, in the outer church with other scholars in 
the grammar school, who hear there), " and par- 
ticularly while hearing Mr Francis Aird preach- 
ing on Gen. xvii. 1. on the Sabbath night after 
the communion at Eglishame, where in self exa- 
mination, he began to distinguish between duties 
done from the power of example and good educa- 
tion, and those done from the power of grace, and 
with the due qualifications of a right rule, right 
end, and a right manner of doing them. And 
at that time was at pains to understand the nature 
of personal covenanting with God, and did for- 
mally and solemnly enter into it, and set it down 



24 LIFE OF PROFC880B WODBOW. 

on record in his diary-book, with the ceremonies 
allowed in the scripture at the solemn manner of 
his going about this work, for which see 1 Chron. 
xvi. lS-22., Isai. xl. 6. where appear both the 
call to that duty, in a command and promise, and 
the cerenionies of that action, or the solemnity of 
going about it.^ So far his own abstract on this 
subject. I have heard him say he also profited 
much by the sermons of Mr William Guthrie, 
minister of Finwick, about this time, whom he 
frequently heard ; and used till his dying day to 
recommend Mr Guthrie's Saving Interest as the 
best book he knew next to the Bible and our Con- 
fession of faith and catechisms. 

In one of the frafi^ments of his Dia- 
covenanttag. ry remaining, I find what follows, re- 
lating to his personal covenanting, and it de- 
serves a room here. " At;yw< 6. ita locutum est, 
non retracturum. Accipio, consensum subjicio 
omnibus Dei praeceptis, promissionibus, ac omni 
Dei consilio, in hominum salutem manifestato, no- 
tis, ignotis, jucundis, injucundis, quicquid agere 
voluerit Dominus, cum omnibus animae facultati- 
bus, integre uniforme (i. e. cum omnimodo et 
aequaU nee majore nee minore proportione ad Dei 
voluntatem revelatam, vel revelandam), et sine re- 
servatione. Amen, Domine, subscribens 1. 2. 3. 
4. 5. Toties enim pactum fuit ; mutuo cum sig- 

4 



LIFS OF PBOFBSSOB WODBOW. 25 

traditione et receptiaDe, pneter baptismi pactum, 
Dd etiam pars larga et immota stat in verbo 
suo*.^ This broken hint seems to refer to the 
year 1660, and so often it seems he had renewed 
his personal covenant at ccnnmunions until Au- 
gust that year. In his abstract on the year 1687 
and 1688, he adds, " That personal covenant- 
ing of which above, was frequ^itly r^iewed, be- 
yond reckoning, upon every notable change in lot 
or firame. In distinctness in the form and man* 
ner, much light was attained by reading Mr 
Guthrie^s Great Interest, Gillespie on the Cove- 
nant, and R. Allein his Vindidse pietatis. 

After he had thus finished his course 
at the college, he was urged by his fa- study ofdivi> 
ther, his teachers, and others, whose 
coimsel he thought himself obliged to follow, to 

* August 6. Thus it is spoken, not to be retracted. 
I accept, I add mj consent to all the commands and pro^ 
mises of God ; and to the whole purpose of God manifested 
in relation to the salvation of men, whether known or un. 
known, pleasant or painful, whatever the Lord willeth to 
be done, entirely, uniformly, (L e. neither exceeding nor 
felling short of, but in perfect and equal proportion to the 
will c^ Grod, discovered, or to be discovered), and without 
reservation. Amen, O Lord. Subscribed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. [times.] 
For so often hath it been mutually renewed, with the delivery 
and reception of the symbol, beside the baptismal covenant $ 
the part of God in the mean time stands full and immutable 
in bis own word. 

B 



536 hm w PBOFmBtm w4Hmow. 

apply hittMelf to the ntudy of dhrimty, which mc^ 
coFdingly he did. I remendber to have heard him 
tefl this passage. In the summer cnr liarvest af. 
ter his laitreation, he had been some weeks in 
Olasgow, and was eoming home on his feet to his 
father's house at Egtishame, full of thougbtfulness 
what course of studies be should apply himself to. 
The day being warm, and he walking, he sat 
down by the way on a rising ground a mile or 
more above Cathcart, where he had a fuU view of 
Glasgow. All the pleasant time he had there 
these five years, in the course of his academical 
studies (and indeed where the hesurt lies to study 
and learning, as his did in a remarkable manner^ 
that period is one of the pleasantest in a personV 
life), but especially the excellent advantage of 
the gospel he was privileged with at Glasgow 
under Mr Andrew Gray for some time, Mr James 
Durham, who was his great idol, or rather he had 
for him an extraordinary value, Mr Patrick Gil- 
lespie, and others ; all this pleasant time came very 
fredi in his mind, and now he was returning home, 
and what to do next he did not know. In the 
multitude of these thoughts, it darted in as a pas- 
sionate wish, that he might live and 
f anariuo dy die in that place that had been so 
pleasant to him ; but he checked 
himself, and put a blank in the Lord^s hand 



t»iFfi «i^ noPEtaatL wimott. 87 



vidi the pBalmifit) Ctkuse out ibr me the lot 
w£ \imne inhmtanoe^ and thw farought him to 
a sveet oompomre. And as an entire aabjii- 
gadoQ to the divine 'Will i« the beat way to get 
our own wiU, so it proved here. M/ueh of his 
hie, I may aay the whole of it, aave soxoe jeus 
of the heavy peraeeution that was (Coming on 
apaoe, was spent there, and very usefully too. 

Acoordmgly he went back St the y,^^^ 
apeomg of the College, imd waited ^SS^iSC 
upon tlie divinity lessons of that great '^ 
man Mr Robert Baillie, and continued closely 
attending thaoi near three years, till BpiscoiMtcy 
turned rampant, and AvdibishGp Fai^foul caoie 
to Glasgow m a yetf great parade. 

Durinfic this period of his Jife there is „ 

. Hbdbcounet 

not much offers, and little ican be ^^ twranum. 
peeted. I find among his papers co{Hes of the 
discourses he had befc»re that ^ofessor, wMch are 
writ with that strain of piety, judgment, laxiii ac- 
curacy, that I would say much more of them did 
not my near relation forbid me to ^ater upon his 
character, and therefdve, J shall ^y set down 
die subjects and dates of them as they ;He before 
me. The first I meet with is an Exegesis in Eng- 
lish upon the efficacy <of grace. It w^ in cpm^ 
mon use before the Restoration (which once ot 
twice I mind toh^y^hmrii at .Glasgow sinoe the 

b2 



28 LIFB OF PSOrasSOR WODBOW. 

Revolution before the presbytery, but now it is 
much in desuetude) to have exegesis in Latin 
coram presbyterio, and next day in English co- 
ram pernio ; and it seems the students in the Di^- 
vinity Hall were habituated to that way. In this 
discourse he handles three important questions. 
Whereupon the efficacy of grace depends ? What 
kind of influence the Spirit hath in conversion ? 
and, Whether man be passive or not in the first in- 
stant of his conversion ? This he delivered Dec. 
24. 1661. Upon Jan. m 1662, he had a Latin 
discourse De Spiritus Sancti divinitate ; and de- 
fended his the^s under the presidency of Mr 
John Young, who was for some time colleague to 
the Rev. Mr BalUie, and ordinarily went und» 
the style of the Maiden Midwife, being never or- 
dained a minister, and died a little iGifter this an 
elect bishop. On the S7th of January that same 
year, he had a homily upon Rom. v. 5., and then 
another upon CoL i. 15. ; and upon April dd 
ianother upcm Col. i. 20. ; and a popular sermon 
soon after on 2 Cor. v. 5. Episcopacy was now 
coming in apace ; and Mr BaiUie fell into a lin^- 
gering distemper, and got to heaven under much 
grief for the change that was now forcing on this 
poor church, and Mr Wodrow left the divinity 
lessons. 

The professor Mr Robert BailUe, had a peculiar 



LIFB OP PBOFBflSOB WODROW. 39 . 

respect for this his scholar, and Mr Wodrow, his 
immediate successor under presb}rtery, retained to 
his dying day the highest value for his memory. 
I have elsewhere more publicly taken notice of 
two passages without mentioning my father's 
name, and here they deserve to be repeated, as 
instances of Mr Baillie^s excellent temper and 
rooted adherence to the principles of this church, 
whatever some ci his relations (I think it was but 
one of them) gave out, and of the familiarity he 
used the person with whose life I am writing, 
from whom I have them both. 

There were great endeavours used 
in the year 1659 and 1660 entirely S^ m to' % 

"^ debates betwixt 

to remove that unhappy rent 'twixt j^^jJ^JJJ]^ 
the public Resolutioners and Protest- 
ers in this church, and had not Mr Sharp struck 
in by his letters from London, in order to serve 
his own designs, and ruin both, and made Mr 
Douglas and other ministers at Edinburgh cold 
in this matter of the union, it had no doubt suc- 
ceeded. 

These put Mr Wodrow upon an inquiry into 
that debate, and when leaving the lessons during 
the vacation in the summer, he desired Mr Bail- 
lie^s directions what to read for understanding 
that subject. The professor said to him, Jacobe, 
I am too much engaged personally in that de- 



BO i/HTK €Gr PBorassoR wasfuyvr. 

bote to give yon either my jvdgment on tke ^f^iole^ 
or ta direct jou tapurticakr authors om the one 
side and tbe other;: bat taking him iMto las 
closed be ganne him the whcde pamphlets- that had 
passed on both sidesy in print and maBuscrip^: 
laid ranked in didr proper order, andsaid^ Theie 
is the whole that I know in that aflSdr, take thean 
hcxne to the country with -yjia^ and read thent 
canrfcdfy ; and look to* the Iiord fSor his gvat- 
ing you to determine yoursdf aright upon the 
yrbiclbe. 

The oAer passBire was, my father 

Sara uSfrtel <^*>>>^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ whcD Under his 
toKhhdttOu Inigering indispostion, of which he 

died (16@S I think},, aboot a monfdt or six weeks 
before his deadi ; and after aoine other Gonversa- 
tkn said taMr BailUe, NoWy sir, prelacy seems to 
be hasteniBg' upon us in this diurdv and I do 
not know what changes may be before I see you 
again ; and therefore begged his ophdon and adi- 
nioe in: that malta:,. (and it was the last time ever 
he saw him). Mr Baillie answered, ^^ Jacobe, I 
wiH not deal with you in thnr as I remember I 
did in the debate ^twixt Besolulioners and Pro- 
testers, but w3i tdl yoa nejr ophdon most sincevtk 
ly in that matter4 I have now for upwards of 
twenty years observed affinrs in the church of 
aeotiMld nartiow^^ I ha^e had oeoasion parti- 



LIFB: OP PB6PBS8IMI WODBOW. 31 

culary tcrdip/kitQ that tcmtxaveasmfy aod confiidcs 
it cxaetfyy and to know the qprings of affiiirs since 
the last change in efaurdi and state;, and aftec 
mf utmost pondering and trials I am pecsuaded 
that prelacy is disagreeaUe to the. wovd of God^ 
contrary to the practice c£ the pnmitiine and pib- 
rest times of christiamty,. and contrary to the 
real interests of these nations ; and though it be 
coming in, it will be but like a land flood.*" My 
fathar added when he told n^ this, ^< Yet it was 
a flood of twenty-eight years continuance.^ 
I remember likewise to have heard 

Mr Robert Blair 

him relate a passc^ Hwixt him and ^m^tSik 
the great Mr Robert Blair, minister ^EHj?to 
in St Andrew^ about this time. In 
the summer 1660 or 1661, Mr Wodrow took a 
journey to Fife and some other places, for his di» 
version, and to haire some acquaintance and con^ 
versation with ministers^ When he acquainted 
Mr Baillie with his design^ he approved it, and 
gave him letters to severab, and one to Mr Ro- 
bert Blair» My fathaf came to St Andrew's, 
and waited, on Mr Bbar, who was extremely kind 
to him, upon Mr Bailhe-s letter to him. Mr 
Blak encouraged bdkn to go on in prosecution of 
his studies, notwithstanding of the darkness and 
gloomy natuve of the tames. Mr Wodrow told 
bis disecmragements did not lie a» mucb frmn 



32 LIFE OF PBC^ESSOB WODROW. 

that as from himself. Mr Blair asked him Mrhat 
in himself discouraged him, for he found his mas- 
ter at Glasgow had a good opinion of him. The 
other answered, I am so blate and di£Sdent, and 
so much oyerrun with slavish fear in public, that 
I think God does not call me to look to serving 
him in the ministry ; and even in my discourses 
in the hall, though Mr Baillie allows me all the 
familiarity and friendship I can desire, yet, after 
I have mandated my exercises, my slavish tem»r 
confounds me so that I am in hazard of losing 
what I have prepared. Mr Blair answered, -^ Be 
not discouraged, that will gradually lessen ; and 
though it should not altogether wear off, yet it 
will not marr you ; adding, I'll tell you for your 
comfort, I have been now near forty years in the 
ministry, and the third bell scarce begins to toll 
when I am to preach, but my heart {days dunt, 
dunt.^ This from so great a man, was, as he 
UAd me, very useful to him afterwards. 

' Another passa^^e about this time 

Mr JamesGuth- * ^ ^ 

tog M?wS^ I cannot pass by, since I have it like- 
rfhi.*tt£S* wise from himself. Mr Wodrow was 
^ at Edinburgh at the time of Mr 
James Guthrie's execution, 1661. He got access 
by the favour of a minister of his acquaintance 
(whom I have forgot) to Mr Guthrie in prison 
the day before his death. The minister had 



LIFB OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 33 

given Mr Guthrie some hint that my father was 
a student of divinity in the west country, and a 
favourable character of him. After Mr Guth- 
rie had spoken to severals in the room, he came 
to the minister who brought him in, and spoke 
some things to him ; and when he had taken 
his leave of him, he turned to my father, and 
said, " I have a savoury report of you Mr Wo- 
drow ; continue in your studies, and be not dis- 
couraged under thir evil times. Let your eye be 
singly to Grod, and your aims sincere : there is a 
long and dark cloud, and a severe storm, coming 
on the church of Scotland ; but you may outlive 
it, and be useful afterwards, and I hope you will,^ 
and then took his leave of him. This was en- 
couraging to him, but it may be neither Mr 
Guthrie nor himself did know the extent of 
what he spoke, and I am sure my father had no 
prospect of the full import of what was spoken. 
But I think it becomes me now that providence 
has made him so remarkably useful in the church 
of Scotland, to record these . remarkable words 
with this reserve, that the words of . 

Remarks on the 

eminent christians and ministers on dying exiMw- 

sioni of eminent 

the confines of glory, may sometimes ^**'*»***^ 
be so guided in providence, without ascribing 
any thing of a spirit of prophecy to them, as 
they may in the issue . be seen to import more 

b6 



34 LIFB OP PBOFE880B WODBOW. 

than what was known partkidarly to the qpeakef , 
or fit in its &U import to be fiilfy known by the 
hearer ; and have in them that which ought and 
does put the hying to lay to heart and fall in with 
present dnty^ learing events to God. This^ I 
hope, may be said without any danger of enthu- 
siasm. 

I shall conclude thk period of Mr 

Hicremarkias '- 

MiotelS^id^ Wodrow's academical studies, with a 
befi«theifl8L few remarks in the extract fcMresaid 
from his diaiy, and I am sorry I have so few of 
them to insert They will give a further view of 
him as he appeared in his own eyes, in thir his 
younger and tender years before the 1661, and 
not yet come to Old Testament term of the Levites 
entering on sanctuary work, and they are in his 
own words. 

He observes, ^^ That he was oflten subject to 
despondency and dejection of spirit, and theft 
every mote of his own imperfection became a 
mountain, and he did postpone himself in all 
things to all others ; and by running to an extre- 
mity here, he felt his bands much weakened in' 
duty. 

^^ He was flexible by coimsel, as wax to the seal, 
so that after determination upon due deliberation, 
counsel to tlie contrary did either change him, or 
made him move with fear and doubting. 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 35 

^^ That he was desiroas in all things rather to 
follow a guide than to lead ; and in many things 
wherein he was truly the first mover, ready to re- 
sign the conduct to another, as content that an- 
other should have the praise, rather than either 
the design should be marred, or that he should 
venture on the uncertainty of the issue as depend- 
ing on him. This he thinks aroee from timor- 
ouaiess and self diffidence. 

^^ That upon a full and particular meditation 
on his defects and miseries in every condition here, 
he usually inclined to a desire of death, as the only 
period to all his defects and troubles.^ 

He takes notice, ^' that among ail graces, ho- 
nest resolutions, and repentance for the want ci 
repentance, go furthest, and are best seen when 
others disappear. Ordinary repentance tarminates 
on some particular sins ; but repentance for want 
of repentance, terminates on all sins known and 
unknown. This is rational, the other passional : 
Haec in emendatione, ilia in dolore consistit *. 
Yea, that sorrow is the greatest that keeps with^ 
in and does not appear without. Graves dolores 
isilent, leves loquuntur -f-." These are some of his 
observations on himself, and solid observations to 
be made when scarce twenty-three years of age. 

* This coasists in ameadment, that in i^gret. 

t We^hty sorrows are silent, the light are talkative. 



36 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

In the broken fragnnents of his diary 

Same firag- . , , . . 

3S*in^^ in this period, he observes *, " Philau- 
**'^*°^ tia ac de aliis zelotia me ssepius a mu- 

tuis colloquiis (quod optimum mutuae aedificatio- 
nis medium ut saepius convincor est), etiam cum 
ad ea vocatus sum, retinuit. Quanquam dum so- 
cietate et colloquiis utor, evidenter sentio animum 
cogitationibus idoneis, ac utilibus affluere, et mul- 
ta turn etiam per se quae antea ignorabam perci- 
pere, quod a multiplicatis objectis formalibus, et 
facultatum pro viribus intentione, fluit. 

" Foederis gratiae summa est lex seu decern 
praecepta, et promissiones. Includit itaque et com- 
prehendit totam scripturam. Haec duo reciproca 
sunt. Comminationes enim ad praecepta perti- 
nent, prophetiae ad promissiones; et quicquid aliud 

• Self-love and jealousy of others have too often kept me 
back from mutual conferences, even when I was called to 
them : though I have often felt convinced that they are a 
very excellent mean of mutual edification ; and though in 
the enjoyment of society and conversation I evidently feel 
the mind abounding in suitable and profitable ideas, and 
many perceptions, to which I was formerly a stranger, spon- 
taneously occurring,-r-the consequence of the multiplicity of 
its formal objects, and of the intense application of its 
powers. 

The sum of the covenant of grace is the law or ten com- 
mandments, and the promises. It therefore includes and 
comprehends the whole .Scripture. These two are inter- 
changeable ; for threatenings are referable to the commands, 



LIFE OP PROFESSOR WODROW. 3? 

sit, aliquo mode hue reducitur. Fersonse sunt 
Deus et Mediator (seu Sponsor, Heb. vii. 22.), et 
electi. Dei pars, est promissiones praestare seu 
vitam dare; Sponsoris, est legem implere per- 
fecte, ad filum et ungulam satisfacere» Electa- 
rum, est in Sponsorem credere, eum cum consen- 
sione cordis, prout sese in Evangelio offert, justi- 
tise satisfacturum, legem impleturum, imaginem 
Dei restiturum, &c. recipere, cum respectu ad 
Dei praeceptum et Sponsoris vocationem ; ac ei et 
Deo obligari, ac omnia committere et incumbere ; 
verbum ejus cui te confidere efficit, tanquam sig- 
num sup^ manum tuam, et pro monumento ac 
frontalibus inter oculos, in consolationem et con- 
firmationem, ponere ; sicuti ut lex in obedientiam 

prophecies to the promises; and whatever else there be, it 
is reducible to one of these. The persons are God, and the 
Mediator (or Surety, Heb. vii. 22.) and the elect. The part 
of Grod is to perform the promisea, or bestow life. That 
of the Surety is to fulfil the law perfectly, satisfying all its 
demands. That of the elect is, in compliance with the com. 
mand of God, and invitation of the Surety, to believe in 
him, receiving him cordially, as he offers himself in the 
gospel, for satisfying justice, fulfilling the law, restoring the 
image. of God, &c ; to come ilnder engagements to him and 
to^God, committing their all to him, and relying upon him ; 
to place his word, on which he causeth thee to hope, as a 
sign upon thy hand, and a memorial and frontlets between 
thine eyes, for consolation and confirmation, — so that the 
law may be continually observed and obeyed, and that thou 



38 LIFE OP PROFESSOR WODROW^ 

continuo observetttr; ut paratus sis rationaxi fidei 
quserentibus reddere,'*' 

^^ Pn^K>situm 27. Oct. I66O9 scribere conciones, 
ut multum utilius, ejus commodis eomplexe sump- 
lis (viz. colliguntur spiritus attentioiii ; plus dul* 
Gitatis saepius in apprehensione turn quam alias in 
judicio ; multa observantur udUa, quae, me non 
scribeite^ eo quod facultates non colliguntur adeo, 
alias evadunt inconsiderata; servatur cor et sen- 
sus a Tagaticxie, et etiam ab anxietate qua capior 
non scribens ob multa observabilia audita, quae 
reminisci ncm possum, quae etiam conditione mea 
pertinaitia; ita ut labyrintho huic inclusus, vel 
sequenti parti concionis non attendere, vel hoc 
quod me concemit, praetermittere ac omittere, &c. 

ma^rest be resdy to render a reason of th j &ith to them that 
ask thee. 

Purposed, Oct. S7. 1660, to take notes of sermons, as the 
te more profitable method, all its advantages complexly con- 
ffldered. The spirits are collected m attention ; there is of- 
ten more mreeiness then in the apprehension than at another 
time in the judgment. Many things profitable are observed, 
which, wefe I not writing, would escape unnoticed, because 
the &culties would be less collected i the heart and senses 
are preserved fix>m wandering, and even from the anxiety 
which c^ipresses me, when not writing, on account of many 
things whidi I hear worthy of notice, and even applicable to 
my cireumstanees, which I cannot retain, so that, involved 
in this labyrinth, either I cannot attend to the sequel of the 
diaeourse^ or I pass by and neglect many things which con. 



LIFE OF PnOFESSOR WODROW. 39 

multa) ; easque postea memoriae et meditationi m 
animi coQcocdoni mandare; ac semper praeteri- 
tarn oonoioiiem die Satumi repetere, et turn me»» 
moriam ab ea solvere, nisi ab iis in ea quae neces- 
saria quae meminisse videbuntur. 

^ Propositum, me semper quatuor vA quioquie 
substantialia Christiani ae divinitatis medullae prin^ 
cipia, in mente ac memoria retinere^ ut ^6^^, 
fiant similes Sdomonis domus ; qui semper mate- 
riam opa*andi, edendi sive pascendi, animo admi« 
nistrent ; donee alii opportuniores, rariores et uti* 
liores sese offerant ; mutandum biduo vel iriduo 
quoque d occasio mutandi detur. Partim sed 
praecipue sint scripturae loci medullosae, aliquando 
etiam exp^entia ; et ita talia axiomata fiant ex-> 

cem myselC Purposed afterwards to commit these notes to 
memory, for meditating on them and digesting them, and 
always on the Saturday repeat the past sermon, and then 
release the memory from it, those parts only excepted which 
appear worthy of being kept in remembrance. 

Purposed to retain always in mind and memory four or 
five of the essential principles of Christian doctrine and ex* 
perience, that, like the stewards of Solomon'lB hou8e> they 
may at all times furnish the mind with materials for work* 
ing, and for food to itself or others, till subjects more ap- 
posite, more uncommon, or more useful, present themselves ; 
that they be changed every two or three dajs» should occiu-. 
sion offer ; and that they be partly and chiefly massy places 
of Scripture, sometimes also experiences. Thus such axioms . 
become essays, and wUl afterwards retdily present tbenu 



40 LIFE OP PROFESSOR WODROW. 

perimenta, et facile cogitationi in posterum obvia 
erunt ; et quamvis prorsus abeant, nihil est ; nam 
successus non est meum debitum, sed opus tan- 
turn ; et si prsestetur opus, pacem habere possum, 
utrum prodierit necne.'*' There are some other of 
his observations and resolutions in those remaining 
scraps and fragments; but these may suffice to 
give some view of him in this his early age. 

When Episcopacy was set up, with 

After Prdaqr r f J r' 

JStedon pu^ ^ much force, blood and barbarity 
ESyJKfLSS accompanying it, of which I have given 
some account elsewhere, Mr Wodrc^ 
followed his studies very closely in private, most- 
ly at Glasgow, where he waited upon some pupils 
at the Grammar School and the University, and 
in the summer he was with them in the country. 
In the year 1664, I find him at Cardonald, the 
mansion-house of Lord Blantyre, whom he had 
imder his care for some years ; and till his death 
he retained a deep sense of the care my father 
took of him in his younger years. Walter, Lord 
Blantjrre, his pupil, was for much of his life un- 
der burdens and difficulties, from the debts lying 
on his family, and these hindered him from ma- 
selves to reflection ; and though they should escape from re- 
collection, no evil is done; for not success, but the work 
only, is incumbent on me, and if the work be performed, I 
can have peace, whether the advantages be reaped or not. 



LIFE OF PR0FS880B WODBOW. 41 

king those appearances otherwise he was in case 
to have made in the world. But towards the end 
of his days, when providence smiled upon him 
and his family, by a vast accession to their for- 
tune, I had occasion particularly to observe about 
the year 1703 and 1704, voy bright remains of 
the good education he had, and a considerable 
sense of religion, and most just apprehensions of 
things ; and he was so little lift up with that great 
change of circumstances, that that happy turn of 
prosperity seemed as much to be blessed to his. 
real good, as in many it alas has the quite con- 
trary effect. 

Nothing offers to me diuing this private period 
of his life, before he entered his trials in order to 
preach the gospel, save what I find in the fore- 
said extracts and fragments, to which I now come. 

He notices, " that it was his con- 

' Further re- 

stant practice to shun to debate truth, J^JSom°£; 
or defend the public cause alone ; ne- ™'**^* 
quid detrimenti caperet ecclesia *, as the great Mr 
Henderson used to do ; and he was careful that 
in all controversies the dispute should either be 
friendly, or not managed alone." Indeed, this 
was a very necessary rule in thir times, when so 
many debates fell in among the people, upon mat- 
ters both in church and state; — as hearing the 
* Lest the church should suffer any damage. 



42 LIIFS OF VHOIFBSBOR WODBOW. 

cuffates, defensive aorHis^ the beiiid'o£ peact, fas. 
In the fragments of lis diary I find one that some 
way rebftes to tha& 

*' * Silere apud pkroniue statui^ in tanparia 
contvoversiia, nisi coaoi staitui controversiam illam 
practicam miht ipsi facere r turn solitis earn serio 
s^itare cum aliis^ et c^inionem nient puhliGe di- 
vulgare, diu' antequam praxin indperem: ut £eci 
in andttione curatorum, uti voctoit, et in juramen. 
ti subscriptione ; hoc prsecipue fine, ut praxis mi- 
jms calumnietur, cmn opinionis et praxis ratio* 
nem antes audienmt, quam refellere nequiYerunt ; 
praeterea minus scandali est.^^ This was both 
the highest candour and justice in these difficult 
times. 

He dbserves that he often repented his neglect 
of these known maxims : Prsestat multum legese, 

* In the most of companies I resolved to be silent on the 
controFersies of the time, unless in cases wherein I deter, 
mined that the controversy should be 8 praetical one wit^ 
ma. Then I usuallj diseossed it serimulj viUi others, and 
made my opinion public long before I should begin my prac- 
tice : as I did in the question of hearing curates, as they call 
them, and in the subscription of the oath ; chiefly with the 
view that my conduct might be less exposed to reproach, 
when they had previously heard a reason botl^ of the pn&dple 
and practice, whid» they could not refute ; besides^ the (£» 
fence is less. 



LIPE OF PRQtPBSSOa WODBOW^ 43 

quam nnilta; and, Baiiu» textuoriaB at bonus 
theologtis ♦." 

He says, ^^ that he had fiwqosnt caut ictioM, 
that die proper motives to duty, sueh as pure re- 
spect to God'^s will and command, and toh» gbity, 
are often forgotten, and other renpeeta inferior to 
these are preferred;, yet he hopes he Ssappcoves 
this.'' 

He fAiserreSy <^ that all worship of Gcd in via^ 
toribns in this present states ought to be con- 
cluded with acknowledgments of filings, and ap. 
jdicatkm to oiur High Pricat,^ who bears the iniqui- 
ty of hotf things.'' 

^^ That our sorrow is firequentiy naire iior pii». 
nxshment, or £ear of pumi^meia^ than for an;: as 
loo much appears from this,, that when the fear 
ol punjahmeat evanidifiB^ so also does the sorrow ; 
neither can si»tow for sbi deserring'piinishBieiit 
be continued, without renewing the fcar of pti- 
nishment.'^ This is all he thought fit to preserve 
in his extracts during this period. Let me now 
add a few of his> scdid and jiudidoiim Ecniaslur from 
the few remaining parcels of hfa diai^y. 

« Maxima ira^ndia affidor f, cum 

ssepiua experior et video,/ plurimos. in htoDiwyr 

csBterisinteUigentes satis, c(»demnare alios qjuod 

* Better read mudi tEtsn fead Rumy. A -good teatttlary 
k J9^ good thefdog^an. 

f I am filled with the utmost indigoation^ when tre^ 



44 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

tale vitium agimt ; sine rubore, ipsi tamen, data 
occasione, idem simile vel pejus vitium agunt sine 
ullo pudore; quamprimum enim vitium indpit 
esse meiun vel tuum, tum aliud induit pallium, 
alium aspectum. 

^^ In rem meam esse^ ssepius compertum habeo, 
me drca fundamentalia, et absolute necessaria co- 
gitationes et studia exercere, et minus negotii, fa*- 
cessere circa reUqua : Tum quod imperfectio mea 
in omnia plane et perfecte se intendere nequeat, 
melius ergo drca optima ; tum quod animum, ma- 
gis quietum et tranquillum tunc, cum ita ago, ex- 
periar ; et bistoria martyrum docet eos ita fedsse ; 
se non defendendo, sed adversarios tolerantia su- 
perando. Prtecipue hoc teneo circa arma defensiva, 

quentlj I find and see persons otherwise sufficiently intel- 
ligent, condemning their neighbours for committing some 
&ult, and yet the j themselves, when occasion offers, unblush- 
ingly commit the same, a similar, or even a worse &ult, 
without any sense of shame; for the moment a £aiult becomes 
mine or thine, it assumes another gaib, and another coun- 
tenance. 

I have often found it of advantage to me to exercise my- 
self in the contemplation and study of matters fundamen- 
tal and absolutely necessary, and to go over other things 
more superficially : not only because my weakness being in- 
adequate to a fiill and perfedt application to all things, is em- 
ployed to better purpose about the most important, but al- 
so because I experience more peace and tranquillity of mind 
when I act on this principle. The history, too, of the nuur- 



hm OF PBOFB880B WODBOW. 45 

&c. ita tamen ut non prorsus hujusmodi negligen- 
tur, yd Tocatio ad ea omittatur ; sed ut tantum 
illuminetur animus, de jure in hujusmodi, et ut 
pergatur ad factum, cum providentia vocet.^ This 
ends in a gap in the original, yet I thought worth 
inserting. 

^^ Expertus sum inconvenientiam maximam, ur- 
gendi disputationem vel inquisitionem veritatis, 
cum iis qui , persuasionem in contrarium habent, 
imo quamvis pii, ac probi sint; si modo usu ra- 
tionis et doctrinae non adeo poUeant ; pii tamen et 
rationis ac doctrinse excellentes non ita sunt Ratio 
prions sectae et praxis est, quod fingunt concep- 
tus scripturae et rationis ita in animis suis, ut 
quicquid occurrat, pro opinione sua, sonare co- 

tyrs shows that thej acted in this maimer, overcoming their 
adversaries, not by defending themselves, but by suffering. I 
hold this chiefly with reference to defensive arms, &c. yet not 
so as that such should be altogether neglected, or a call to 
them slighted; but only that the mind should be clearly in- 
formed in the question of right, and that one proceed to act 
when providence calls. 

I have found very great inconvenience in following up a 
dispute or inquiry after truth with persons of a contrary per- 
suasion, however pious or worthy, if they be not learned or 
dulftil in the use of reasoning: godly persons excelling 
in such acquirements are not so difiicult to manage. The 
reason of the difficulty with the former class is, that they 
fbrm in their own minds such conceptions of Scripture 
and reason, that every thing which occXirs is wrested to a 



46 tJl^m ^ JRll6»«S8Ml WOOMlH^. 

gant, vA ita eonare amctumam sibi. Pythagcxid 
dkcipiilis nem absimiles, qui educati in q)ecula^ 
tione numefoirum, adeo fkmos de numeris oon- 
"oeptus ^bi Sn^emmty ut ad oontemplatioDem re- 
turn tiolUtBlium p^ogliedientes imaginanEnt se ocu^ 
lis videre quomodo elementa numeric esse dedeve 
op^bus naturee, res plane impossibilis. 

^^ Expertufl edam multa quae diffidUa et timo«. 
ri« inlena 4»ihi ad piimum iddenmt, postea usu 
et temporis processU) non adeo evaserunt, v. c. 
loqui publice^ &c. ob inaturalem metum et modes- 
tiam, difficultatis et metus plenum fuit» jam au- 
tem facilius.^ 

After a hiatus, fcdlows, ** * Jam vires 'iterum 
cblligere inoijno, ac prius lecta levisere. Inter 

tneaning &vounble to their opinion, or thej suppose such 
is its meaning. Not unlike the disdples of Pjthagoras, who 
being educikted in speculations concerning numbers, form* 
ed to themselves conceptions of them so confirmed, that, 
when ihej advanced to the contemplation of nitural objects^ 
thej imagined that thej had ocular demonstration liow the 
elements of number gave being to the works of nature,-— a 
thing utterly impossible. 

I have found many things which at first appeared to me 
fUll of difficulty or dread, in process of time, and by prac- 
tice, become less formidable. For instance, public speaking, 
&c appeared, throi^ timidity and modesty, a matter of 
great difficulty and terr(n','but is now more easy. 

" Now I begin again to muster my forces, and to revise 
what I had formerly read. In my musings this phm oc* 

8 



tneditandmn'eonsilium bocndbi advenit, Inter re- 
visendum, aocnratiim^u; pdenum indicem, cuique 
Ubro adnotaore, deinde^oum omnia perlegerim, ac 
indices fttrdculares adnotnim, nmversalein indi* 
can ex particidAribus ^cvdine .^uodam inter hos 
instituto, et paginis singulis figtaois ^uoque adno^ 
tatis, ut fadlius et acouratius in universali indice 
res singulse refMrassentain possent) extrahere or- 
dine alpbabetieo, et tantum generaliter et brevi- 
ter, quantum permittet perspieuitas, indicantem ; 
ut ita omnia quae hactenus perlegi, et apud me 
habeo, de singulo themati cum occasio vocat, co- 
ram oculis in hoc universali indice^ quasi unico 
inspectu perlustraVero. Quomodo non tantum 
vicem memorise literariae mihi prasstabit ; sed 

curred to me, to jot down in the conrie of revising an accu- 
rate and complete index of every book 4 then, when I had 
tead through it, and had made out the particular indexes 
(a certain order being adopted among them, and everj 
page numbered, that so the several subjects might, with the 
greater ease and accuracy, be exhibited in the universal in« 
dex), to retract from the particular indexes a universal one, 
ammged in alphabetical order, and pointing out the subjects 
with the utmost generality and brevity consistent with per^ 
Sfncuity. So that, when occasion requires, I can with my 
eye, as in one view, run over all that I have read, and 
have on every subject in my possession, in this universal in-^ 
dex. By which means it will not only serve the purpose 
of a literary memory, but frtll also be a great help to the 
judgment when employed on Miy sutgeet. likewise deter- 



48 LIFE OF PBOFESSOB WODBOW. 

etiam judicio de re aliqua sese exercente, magno 
adjumento erit. Item statutum magnum librum 
chartaceum comparare, cui inserendum omnia ig- 
nota ex omnibus quos lego Ubris, practicis vel 
speculativis ; in quo indicem semper scribendum 
finita quaque pagina, cum collectionibus istis; 
nam ilia est optima opportunitas indids scribendi, 
et mihi hactenus nocuit quod non antea id obser- 
vavi. Itidem observandum et hoc, inter legen- 
dum libros ignotos, indicem eorum quae apud me 
sunt, semper praevisere de singulis subjectis cu- 
juscunque libelli, antequam ego relego; ita ut 
non acta agam, et de eodem subjecto tautologiam 
non scribam ; faciet etiam multum ad lucem lec- 
tionis cujusque. Si fieri potest practica practico 

mined to provide a large paper book,< in which to insert any 
thing of which I am ignorant, out of all the books which I 
read, practical or theoretical, and in which, along with these 
collections, an index is always to be written, as every page 
is finished. For that is the best time for making an index, 
and it has been a loss to me hitherto that I have not observed 
this method before. Likewise this is to be observed, in 
reading books new to me, always to examine the index of 
those which I have read on the several subjects of every book, 
before I revise it, that I may not lose my labour, or write 
the same thing over again on the same subject. It will also 
be preferable, and will add much to the distinctness of every 
reading, if it can be done, to insert the practical parts in 
a practical book, and the speculative in a speculative one. 
From this book-judgment and memory, together with my 

4 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 49 

Ubello, et speculativa speculatiyo notare pnestabit. 
Ex librario hoc judido et memoria, simul cum pro- 
pria, et talentis a Deo datis, cum opportunitas of« 
fert, ex^eses de smgulis thematibus, quantum pro 
nosse et posse accuratas, libellis (vademeciuns) in- 
scribendum : ut ad manus sint, sive domi sive pe- 
r^re, adjumentum in quovis exerdtio. Quo mo^ 
do etiam judicium de angulis illis clarum resolu- 
tum et indubitandum fiet, Dei gratia et benedic- 
tione, sine qua omnia erunt vanitas et vexatio 
spiritus.'" This vast pains he took in reading and 
revising, though it should be of little use to others, 
yet will not be altogether useless to his posterity. 
I come now forward to the more 

His entering 

public scenes of Mr James Wodrow^s SSi^tofcinS 
life, after he had laid in a large stock "**°"*^ 
of learning and study, to prepare himself for the 
important work of the ministry ; and, which is of 
far more importance, and without which that can 
never be of real use, when he had made great 

own, and the talents which God hath given, as opportunity 
offers, exegeses on the several subjects, with all the accu- 
racy to which the degree of knowledge and capacity can 
attain, are to be inscribed in vademecums, that thej may 
be ready as a help in any exercise, either at home or abroad. 
By this means, also, the judgment concerning these several 
subjects will become clear, distinct and decided, through the 
grace and blessing of God, without which all will be vanity 
and vexation of spirit. 

c 



50 LIFE OF PB0FBB80R WQDBOW. 

progress in the knowkdgeof Ood and his son Je- 
sus C^frist, and acquaintance wi^ himseif, and 
serious solid veiigion and piety, and digested and 
ripexieA all, as a good steward to faring forth out 
of his treasui!e6 things new and old, he was, after 
about 11 years^ dose study, much pressed to ent^ 
upon his trials, toward the end of the y«ar 1671. 

It may not be improper to begin 
ooaot of it, this in his own words * : ^^ Dec. 19. 

Dec 1671. 

1671, post prolixam cum pastoribus et 
cum mdpso ratiodnationem, pro q)atio quadrantis 
anni prseterito, num homiliam coram pastoribus 
haberem, ac {H*oinde ad verbi divini presdicatia- 
nem determinarer : tandem die suprascripto tex- 
tum Heb. xii. US, mihi imponi permisi ; manente 
tamen irresolutione. Bationes, utrinque praepon- 
derantes, hes fuere, vel sunt : Adversus pastorum 
determinationem militat insuffidentia, predpue in 
heroids illis virtutibus, quae ad prsesentem ecde- 

* Bee 19. 1671 9 after long reasoning with the ministers 
and with mjseli^ for the past quarter of a year, whrther I 
should have a homilj before the ministers, and of eoune be 
determined to the preaching of the divine word, at last, on 
the day above written, I allowed that text, Heb. xii. 2a 
to be prescribed to me, my irresolution nevertheless re- 
maining. These were, or are, the more weighty leasons on 
either side. Against the decision of the ministers militate 
my own insufficiency, especially in those heroic virtues which 
are so very requisite in the present state of the church, and 



harm of PiiOFxaaos wodrow. 51 

sis statum, plurimum requimntur : £t libertas 
quam mihi adhuc remanare puto, ad quodvis vitas 
genus et stadonem. Pro pastonim determiiuu 
ticme, contendebant hae rationes, quod insuffiden- 
tia praedicta magis praxi quam speculatkme td- 
l^ida At ; et resolutio mea nunquam ad finem per- 
veniat nisi per illos qui habent potestatem ; prs- 
terea providentia divina, me haetenus ad nuUam 
aliam stationem vocare visa est. Denique, quod 
plurimum prsevaluit, condiscipulis mds olncem 
(quod et ipsorum condisdpulorum quidam mihi 
fassi sunt), ac remoram a tali opere, me esse, ob- 
jidebant pastores ; et ita offendicula essem pa«- 
toribus, tanquam sel£-willed and untractable ; et 
condisdpulis meis impedimento (ob ipsorum mo- 

the liberty to which I reckon myself still entitled, of ap- 
plying to any line and station of life. In fiivour of the de- 
termination of the ministers were these reasons ; — ^that the 
foreisaid insufficiency was to be removed by practice rather 
than deliberation, and my resolution can never reach its end 
but by means of those who have authority. Besides, divine 
providence hitherto never appeared to call me to any other 
station. Finally, what prevailed very much was, that the mi- 
nisters objected I was a bar and hindrance in the way of such 
work to my fellow students, which several of themselves al- 
so acknowledged to me. Thus, I would give offence to the 
pa^rs, who would look upon me as seldwilled and untrac- 
eable ; and would throw an impediment in the way of my 
fellow-students, (through their modesty), who had finished 
their studies later than I, though some of them appeared 

c2 



52 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

destiam qui post me e scholis egressi sunt) essem ; 
quorum quidam, dotibus spei pleuis, imbuti vide- 
bantur ad ministerium Dei. 

^^ Hoc die supradicto, foedus cum 

And Tcncwioflt 

hi* penonai Dco pactum, Christo sDODsore meo, si 
mihi in ingressu et progressu adfuerit, 
ipsi pro viribus inserviam, in serio ac diligenti of- 
ficii exerdtio, wfuu^ttg *cu tacm^ttg, 2 Tim. iv. 2. 

At this time there was a little re> 

SufatJecU him- -^ i* ^i • i n 

aeiftothePres- sDitc from the Violence oi persecution 

byterian BufEter- 

S'oilSw*" ^ ^^® remaining Presbyterian mini- 
sters. Mr Wodrow had fully consi- 
dered the controversy about prelacy, and was, 
after his utmost search, persuaded of its disso- 
nancy from Scripture, and its unlawfulness ; and 
being thus pressed by those who were his proper 
judges, with the deepest sense of his own inability 
for the awful work he was called to, and no small 
struggle with himself, he submitted to the trial of 
the few suflFering Presbyterian mim'sters, who in 
this time of breathing used to meet in Glasgow. 

endued with promising gifts for serving God in the mini- 
stry. 

On the day aforesaid, I covenanted with God, in Christ 
mj surety, that, if he be with me in the commencement and 
progress of the work, I will serve him to my power in the 
serious and diligent discharge of duty, in season and out of 
season. 



LIFB OF PBOFB880R WODBOW. 53 

Those worthy men were very exact m the proba- 
tion they made of the youths whom they licensed. 
The season they were in, called for this, and they 
kept dose by the rules laid down formerly by 
this church for the admitting of probationers, and 
even almost exceeded them in their strictness in 
probationary trials at such a juncture. 

I find amon^ my father^s papers a 
homily on the foresaid Heb. xii. 28, »*to«th«n. 
delivered Jan. S. 167S ; and an English exegesis 
pn the judge of controversies, and a Latin one 
De viribus liberi arbitrii. On these subjects he 
defended his Theses ; and having gone through 
all the other pieces of probation, with full appro- 
batkm,' he was, with much cheerfulness, by the 
underwritten ministers licensed to preach. The 
form of his licence I insert from the original. 

^^ Let all concerned know, that the 

His i.ifJfwfffT 

bear^ Mr James Wodrow has com- 
pletely passed his trials, hath been approven and 
allowed to preach the gospel as a probationer, un- 
der the inspection of faithful ministers, according 
to the rules and practices observed in our synods 
and presbyteries, and that in the place or places 
where in Providence he may have a call to reside 
or sojourn* In witness whereof, these, written at 
Glasgow the 24th of February the year of God 



54 LIFB OF FROPX880R W<M>ROW. 

1679^ are subscribed by us, ministers of the Gk>s- 
pel, as followeth. 

M. Bbbtrax. Mr Ro. Maxwbli^. 
Ja. Bbll. a. Mybtoun. 

Mb Ja. WilsOn. Mr J. Bitrnbt. 

J. Hamiltoun. 
D. Cargili*. 
Albx*. Jamieson. 

In this period of suffering we are not to expect 
nice forms, but this is a plain and substantial 
one ; and two of the granters of this license, Mr 
John Burnet and Mr Alexander Jamieson, wete 
among the most eminent persons of this day for 

remarkable measures of learning and 
>^ enunent piety. The first was numster 

at Kilbride, and wrote sereral things on the 
Indulgence, with much solidity and strength of 

reason. The other was minister at 

Mr Alexander 

Jamieson. Qovan, and justly reckoned one of the 
acutest philosophers and most solid divines at this 
time in Scotland. He had no small share, with 
my worthy predecessor Mr Hugh Smith, in the 
Apology for Persecuted Ministers, published a 
little after this ; and both of them TTere in an in- 
timate friendship with my father while they lived, 
especially the last, whose wife, sister to that fine 
gentleman and excellent christian Sir George 
Maxwell of Netherpollock, was a near relation of 



mFB OF PB0FB8S0B WODBOW. 55 

my mother^ who about this time was married to 
my father. 

Whidi brings me to take notice of 
Mr Wodrow^s marriase. He himself im, ^ lur- 
in the fore-mentioned extract, says, 
^^ About the end of the year 1673, he married a god- 
ly, discreet and virtuous gentlewoman, with whom 
he Hyed in great ccmtentment, amity, and divine 
protection amidst the great troubles of these times, 
the sjpace of fifteen years following.^ My filial 
record to her obliges me to Egress a little from 
my main work here, and give some short account 
ci her, cluefly for the use of my children. I am 
now the only male issue Ae has left, and her only 
remaining child to my worthy father,* and it is my 
duty to rise up and call her Uessed. She was taken 
aiway from me when about nine years of age« to 
ray great loss, and from personal knowledge I can 
say ahnost nothing of her ; but by accounts from 
my ISsther and others, I could say more of her 
piety, excellent temper, and sense, than is prc^r 
Ibr her son to set down ; and I only hint at thir 
things, that my children may know their oUiga- 
tioDS to Divine Providence, and the closest and 
most serious piety. 

Mariraret Habr, my mother, was of 
a stature rather low than taU, of a 
sweet and comely countenance, and a person pf 



56 LIFE OF PB0FE8S0B WODSOW. 

singular prudence and discretion, and noted for 
the management of a family. She had a firmness 
and courage that is not usual ; and it was very 
supporting and encouraging under the hardships 
and sufferings of this unhappy tune to her hus- 
band. She was not soon discomposed, and of a 
happy presence of mind in all exis^n- 
5S*!2SS!L cies. One mstance Til notice, of no 

ana prcaenoB ' 

of m&uL great importance in itself, but a pret- 

ty plain proof of what I am upon. While living 
at Glasgow, my father was denounced and forced 
to go out of the way for some days. In his ab- 
sence a presby terian minister or preacher, a friend 
of his, came to see her at her house. An infor- 
maticHi had been lodged against him, and a party 
of soldiers had a commission to apprehend him. 
He had been observed, by one who was dogging 
him, to come up to my father^s house ; inunediate- 
ly the soldiers were acquainted, and five or six came 
and found him with my mother, and told him he 
was their prisoner. They were in the hall, which 
was the room that was the first landing-place in the 
house, the common entry to the rest of the rooms^ 
and had the common door to the whole in it. 
The children were out, and only a servant with- 
in. Mrs Wodrow, when the soldiers came in, 
put on a very cheerful countenance, and desired 
them to sit down till her friend (I think it was 



LIFB OF PB0FBB80B WODROW. 5? 

Mr James Hay) went into another room and put 
on dean linens, since he must go to prison ; and 
ordered the servant to the cellar to bring up some 
ale to the gentlemen, and gave her orders, as un« 
observedly as she could, to put the key into the 
door as she came up, and after she had set down 
the ale to go out again. My mother entertained 
die soldiers the best way might be, with bread 
and drink, till her husband^s friend came to them ; 
and when she had got him near the door, under 
pretext of speaking to him, she quickly turned 
him out before her, and pulled the door with the 
key with her, and locked the party fairly in. The 
soldiers, too late, found themselves fairly tricked, 
and bawled out at the windows terribly, and 
threatened bloodily. Meanwhile Mr Hay (I 
shall call him) got fairly off, and my mother sent 
up one of the neighbours to open the door, and 
let out the prisoners. They searched for her in 
the nei^bourhood, and found her not, and not 
thinkmg proper to propale the trick put on them, 
she met with no further trouUe at that time. 

She was daughter of William Hair 
of Pennall, m the parish of Kilbar- and parents 
chan, in the shire of Renfrew. My grandfather 
was married to Janet Steuart, daughter of James 
Steuart commonly designed Tutor of Blackball, 
who was son to James Steuart, . son to James 

c5 



58 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROIT. 

Stenart of Ardgowan, whose descent derived frotn 
Sir John Steuart of Ardgowan, natural son of 
Robert the 8d ; as Mr Crawford, in his History 
of the Shire of Renfrew, makes out from diar«» 
ters dated 1390, 1396, and 1404. 

James Steuart, tutor of BladdudL 

James Steuart, 

£^ j£ ^S^" ™y grandsire, was married to Marioti 

*"*• Maxwell, daughter to Maxwell 

of Stainly : he had no male issue that I heard of, 

but seTeral daughters. Maricxi, mar- 
Marion. ® 

ried to Thomas Hutchesoii of Lamb- 
hill^ who, with his brother Mr George, made that 
noble mortification for an hospital in Glasgow, 
which justly bears their name, and left a fund 
likewise for the salary of a library keeper at Glas- 
gow, by reason of which the Magistrates of that 
dty have the nomination of the library keeper 
per vices with the College. 

Elizabeth married to Mr John 

Maxwell of Aldhouse, minister at 
Eastwood, and parson of Glasgow during ejnsco- 
pacy, son to Mr George Maxwell, minister at 
Mems, of whom the Maxwells of Sprinkell and 
Dalswinton are also descended. By her he had 
two sons, Mr, afterwards Sir, George Maxwell of 
Netherpollock, father to the present Sir John 
Maxwell of Netherpollock, one of the Lords of 
Session ; and Zacharias MaxwdU of Blauarthill, 



LtPK OP PROFESSOR WODROW. 59 

father of Mr John Maxwell of Bktuarthill,^ a 
gendeman of good hc^ies ; and one daughter Ma^ 
rion, married first to Hutcfaeson of Adngraj, 
and then to Mr Alexander Jamieson, nunister at 
Govan, fatmerly mentioned. 

Giles, married to Howie, mer- 

chant in Glasgow. 

Another married to Walter Steuart 
ofPardivin. And 

Janet, married to my trrandfather. 

•^ ° Janet, married 

I have heard very little of his issue HXJJp«au, 
with her. I know he had posterity, p««°*^ 
who went over to Ireland and settled there. I 
only knew a grandchild or a grandnephew (if I 
mistake not) of his, Mr William Hair, minister 
of the gospel, first at Imiiskilling, and since trans- 
ported scmiewhere else. My nM)ther Margaret Hair 
was educat under the care of Mrs Hutcheson, com-* 
monly called Marion Steuart of Par- 

• 1 1 , /, .1 MargaxetHair, 

tick, her aiunt. She was nrst marned married Arrt to 

^ Hugh Dunlop, 

to Hugh Dunlop, merchant, and I 
think once bailie in Glasgow, who met with many 
losses in trade and by ill creditors, and after some 
years died, leaving her with four daughters, who 
came to ^e. 

Marion, afterwards married to Alex- 

by whom she 

ander Cochran of the house of Fer- >»* Manon. 
gusely. B^h of them died a little after the Re- 



60 LIFE OF PR0FS8SOR WODRaW. 

volution, and left issue. Margaret Cochran, 
married to a Highland gentleman'^s son : both of 
them are dead, whether their son be alive or not 
I know not. Janet, married to Matthew Big- 
gart, and Marion, married to John Dobby, both 
tradesmen in Glasgow, and have issue. 

Janet, first married to James Ha- 
milton of Laiigton, in the parish of 
Mems, by whom she had one daughter, Rachel 
Hamilton, married to Henry Christie, merchant 
in Glasgow, who has issue ; and afterward to Mr 
David Fleckfield, minister at Balfron, in the shire 
of Dunbarton, by whom she had Janet Fleck- 
field, married to Robert Gourlay of Kepdarroch, 
a gentleman in Stirlingshire : they have issue. 

Giles, married to James Smith of 
Thomtoun, in the parish of Kilbride. 
She and I are only now alive of my mother^s chil- 
dren. Thomtoun has by her a numerous poste- 
rity, Hugh Smith, younger of Thomtoun, and 
several other sons and daughters. 

Elizabeth died at Eglishame un- 
married, about the 1684, of a con- 
sumption, and was a choice and experienced 
christian. 

Towards the end of the 1673, she 

Nart to Mr ' 

Jgjoj^to was married to my father. She had 
some lands in Glasgow, and sums of 



Elisabeth. 



lUHl 



LIFE OP PROFESSOR WODROW. 61 

money which she could not recover ; and my fa- 
ther and she lived very comfortably together till 
her death, which I shall narrate in its own place. 
Besides some children who died young, they had 
issue Mr Alexander Wodrow, who 
was bom 1674, and died minister of 
Grlasgow, and under a call to be Professor of Di- 
vinity and colleague with his father, March 6. 
1706, and unmarried: I design to gather up 
what I can from his papers and remains by itself. 
And Mr Robert Wodrow, bom 1679, 
ordained minister of Eastwood Octo- 
ber 1703 ; and married to Margaret Wamer, 
daughter to Mr Patrick Wamer and Mary Guth-. 
rie, daughter of Mr William Guthrie, minister 
of Eenwick, Nov. 1708, who has issue. 
I shall end my account of my mo- 
ther in this place, with a pretty provJdencM 

- - - at the birth 

Strange passage that happened at my ^J^ ^^ 
birth, which will at once give some 
view of the violence of the time, tod what my 
mother was trysted with in so critical a juncture, 
and also a remarkable preservation of my father. 
The times were then very difficult for presbyte- 
rian ministers and preachers. My father was in- 
tercommuned, if I remember, and forced to leave 
his family and go and hide. He had a secret un- 
known chamber at Glasgow, provided for him by 



63 LIPS OP PB0PBS80R WOBROW. 

a friend of my mother^ Umphrey Colquhoun, 
and nobody knew of it but the said Mr C6L 
quboun. When my mother fell in travail of me 
(April 1679) or, as others, Sept 1679) she was 
in very hard labour. I was her last child, and I 
have heard she was towards one-and-fifty years 
when I was bom, and in most dangerous circum- 
stances. After long labour, she fell into a bleed- 
ing at the nose, to that excess that she voided, as I 
have been told, near a Scotch pint of blood. Phy- 
sicians were called in this difficult case, and Dr 
Thomas Davidson, a w(^hy and excellent man, 
a relation as weU as an intimate of my fatjier's, 
waited on her. He was under no small fears of 
her death, sia all about her were. She herself was 
easy, and perfectly resigned to the divine will ; 
yet, under prospect of death, she inclined to see 
my father, and take her leave of him. She then 
lived in her own land, dbfice belonging to John 
Govan of Hogganfield, in the close just at the 
east end of the guard-house in the Trongate of 
Glasgow, which I only mention for the sake of 
what follows. My father came about the dusk of 
the evening, as well muffled up, not to be known, 
as might be. Yet being obliged to came by the 
guardhouse, he was observed and known, and in 
a little time a party of the guard came to the 
house to seize him. He concealed MifMelf the best 



LVm OV PBOFBS80R WODMOW. 63 

way he could behind the bed in my mother^s rocrn* 
The party searched all the rooms of the house, and 
at length came to the room where my mother was. 
It pleased the Lord, whose opportunity is his 
people^s extremity, that at that rery instant when 
the commander came into the iDom, she was in 
her last pangs, and at the very point of delivery. 
The captain was tcdd it, and seeing the dicum- 
stances retired presently ; but, to make all sure, 
he set two sentries at the outer docnr, with orders 
to let none go out of the house ; guards were set 
at the back side of the lK>use, lest he should be 
conveyed out at the windows, and at the close 
head and foot ; and so the captain went off for 
about an hour. Dr Davidson came in at this 
juncture to visit my mother, and had a man-ser- 
vant with a lanthom carrying before him, it be* 
ing now night, and the soldiers aflowed him to go 
in with his servant, when he told them his errand. 
It pleased the Lord my mother was safely deli* 
vered of me ; and after die was laid up, the next 
care was how to dispose of my father. A method 
offered to the Doctor, which proved effectual 
through Grod^s goodness, for his escape, and he 
proposed that my father should change coats with 
his servant, a pretty large man, and put on his 
bonnet, and briskly take up the lanthom, and 
go out before his new master, with all the assu* 



64 LIFB OF PR0FB880B WODBOW. 

Tance he was master of. The thing took, and the 
soldiers having seen the Doctor come in just now 
with a servant, when he went off let him pass 
without observing the matter. In a quarter of 
an hour or thereby, the captain returned and 
searched the whole house and my mother^s room 
with the greatest care ; so that they stugged with 
their swords the very bed my mother was l}ring 
on, jealousing he might be concealed there. My 
mother was now easy, do as they would, and told 
them, with much cheerfulness, the bird was flown, 
and they needed give themselves no further 
trouble, for he was out of their hands, and not 
in that house. At length they gave over, being 
convinced she told them the truth. 

It is time to return to my father 

Mr Wodrow ^ •' 

ggJ^JlJ^ again, though from this time till the 

notJndulged. ^y^^ ^Qg^ j y^^^ ^^^ jj^^^ ^^ ^ 

late save hardships and persecution. My father 
preached for several years, both in houses and the 
fields, at the call (^ people, and under the direc- 
tion of ministers, indulged and not indulged, be- 
twixt whom he never made a difference, and high- 
ly valued many on both sides, and was still 
against all heats and heights. Sometimes he 
preached in the fields with Mr John Welsh, and 
sometimes with Mr Cargill, who was not for some 
years so violent as afterwards, tfaiough his de- 



LIFE OF PBOFE880B WODBOW. 65 

pendence on the people and their managers, he 
was brought to be. 

He told me, one day he was preadi- 

• • 1 w 4 wr 1 • 1 ^ «■ WithMxWdth 

mg m the Hags Wood, with Mr to^Hj«^ 
Weldi and Mr Greorge Jdinstone, if 
I remember. They had their watches set at pro- 
per places, to give them warning of the soldiers, 
in case they should attack them. He was to be- 
gin in the forenoon ; and towards the end of his 
first prayer, an alarm came that the soldiers were 
coming. But it was groundless, and the occasion 
of it was some people from Paisley, and if I mind 
right the Lady Ross, with a servant, on horses. 
On this the people got up in a confused way, and 
a noise began ; whereupon my father cut shorty 
and, after a prayer, asked what was the matter. 
Some nearest desired the ministers to retire and 
shift for themselves; but straightway another 
called out from the extremity 'of the meeting there 
was no hazard, it was friends, and he might pro- 
ceed. He told me the unexpected alarm put 
him in some confusion, and, when desi^ again 
to proceed, he could not recover his text at first 
thought ; but being a person of no small presence 
of mind, and the people not fully settled, he de- 
aired them to compose themselves and sing a 
Uttle, and during this he soon recovered his text. 
However, after that he never came to preach but 



66 LIFK OF PROFE8SOB WODBOW. 

he had his BiUe folded in at his text, and after 
the Revolution he ordinarily had a littk bit at 
paper in the shape of a mark, with the general 
heads of his sermon in short hints writ on it. 

After the defeat at Bothwell Bridge 

Hepreachedlittle ^ 

fiSdie^ttfu- 1679, he preached very Kttle till the 
**^ ^^* Uberty ; and by some remaining bits 

of his diary, I find he had some difficulties whe- 
ther he ought to preach any more in public till 
matters bettered. He takes notice with much grief 
of the excesses that some preachers had run to, 
and the liberty they took to preacdi on subjects 
he reckoned were either unfit to be handled, or at 
least ought to have been handled only by ordain- 
ed ministers, and complains mudi of preachers as- 
suming the proper authority and work ci jxaai" 
sters in sermons. He seems to be of opinion, that 
no«r the ciremnstaiK^a being much ahered since 
the 1679) and people not being ready to invite to 
preach, nor ministers to ordain preadiers at the 
desire of peofde, as before the 1680 they did, and 
seems to blame their not doing so afterwards; 
that a probationer only for order^s sake, and without 
any potestative mission, licensed to preach pub- 
licly, in order to a call frcnn a peo{de to be their 
minister, mi^t lay himself aside from preaching, 
since there was no door open now for reaching 
the design of his being allowed to preach, to- wit. 



LIFfi OF PBOFS860R WODROW. 67 

a call and ordination, and the ministerial commis- 
sion going along with it, espedallj now that he 
had preached eight or nine years, without any call 
to a particular charge. This reasoning wants not 
its own weight. 
Whether it was in consequence ot 

*- studies Medi* 

this, CM- merely from the growing vio- ^^ 
lence of the times after Bothwell Bridge, or from 
a peculiar fondness he had of the study of nature, 
I will not say ; but this I know, he studied me- 
dicine rery diligently for several years, particu. 
kurly botany and anatomy, and was a pretty ex- 
act botanist. And I know about the 1686 he 
had thou^ts of going over to the universities 
abroad and taking his degrees in medicine. But 
this was happily diverted by the libwty and glo- 
rious Revolution, and he was set to higher and 
better work. I remember when very young, about 
the 1685 and 1686, he would take me with him 
to the fidds, when walking, and cause me to pull 
difierent berths in the fields and from the corns, 
and tell me their names and uses. And when 
<dd, he would still know frc»n his physidan Dr 
Kennedy what the matter of his prescriptions for 
him or his children was/ and sometimes would 
reason with him, and propose alterations in what 
he ordered for us. 



68 LIFE OF PROFE8SOB WODROW. 

However, he never quit his main 
^hkibnner studies, and constantly revi^ his lan- 
guages and philosophy every year, and 
digested what he had read, and was daily reading, 
in divinity ; and took a particular pleasure in the 
study of ecclesiastical discipline, and church his- 
tory. He used to say to me, these 
dedaftkiadis. wcrc the proper parerffa * to, and the 

dplinehirtory. r r r ^ o ^ ^ 

gentlemanly learning of, a minister, as 
the Greek and Roman history and the Belles 
Lettres are the T«(f^«9 of a gentleman physician, 
&c. In the first of these he had taken much 
pains, and had an opportunity afterwards to make 
use of all he had read, in forming the overtures for 
discipline I shall afterwards give an account of. 

When the times turned so severe 
tiesorthetinw after the defeat at BothwelL he was 

he is obliged ^ 

SiJrSd ii?i obliged to retire from Glasgow with 
^v ^S£S^ his family. He was for several years 
before frequently obliged to be on his 
hiding ; and his secret retirements coining to be 
discovered, and not daring to be seen in his own 
house, he was several times forced to lodge in the 
open fields in the night time, being denounced 
(and intercommuned, I think), and a severe or- 
der published by the Magbtrates of Glasgow, or- 
dering the families of all Presbyterian ministers 
* The employment of a leisure hour. 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 09 

and preachers to remove from that place in twen- 
ty-four hours, under the highest pains. He came 
at length to settle a resolution to go with hisfaniily 
to the place of his nativity. There, in the Town- 
head of Eglishame, he made up a house for him- 
self and family the best way he could; and to- 
wards the middle of the year 1680, his family came 
there to him, and continued till the liberty, 1687. 

This was indeed his n»TUf, and for 
about seven years tune he had there a *»«»» ««» w» 

J duJdnn were 

safe recess from the terrible barbari- p«**osdiooi, 
ties of the time. It is a very retired comer, and 
he not only enjoyed the comfort of his relations, 
but the advantage of the gospel by, and conver- 
sation with, Mr James Hamilton, indulged there, 
till his death, about the end of the 1684, and the 
benefit of a grammar school for his children and 
those of several friends who came and lodged with 
him in his house, tauffht by Mr Mi- 

' ® "^ under Mr M. 

diad Robb, who was the first Presby- "<**' 
terian minister ordained after the liberty, at least 
in the west. I mind among the scholars at that 
school, there was one about the 1688 or 4, who 
of late has made a surprising figure and blaze 
through all Europe, John Law, son 

where the 

to a goldsmith at Edinburgh, whom S^lSJ^ 
his father sent to Eglishame, both •■*°^* 
to be removed from the temptations of Edin- 



7d LIFS OF PBOFESBOB WODROW. 

burgh, and to be under the care of Mr Hamiltony 
who waa nearly related to him, and to be under 
my fatber^s inspection, who was pfetty nearly re- 
lated to him by his mother, and the Dunlops ot 
Polnoon Mill, one of whose sisters, if I remem- 
ber right, was married to Mr Law, mi- 
nistar at Neilston (or was his mother), grand- 
father to the famous Mr Law. 

Here Mr Wodrow, I may say, fi- 
^VSStH nished his preparatory studies for that 
ft^?S5S* In^ station Providence had in de^gn 
^ for him, though he knew nothing about 

it, and laid up ^uch a stock of solid digested know- 
ledge, in divinity, and other things subservient 
thereto, as he was ready to tid^e the great charge 
of youths who had their eye to die ministry, as 
soon as providence opened a doqr. So far distant 
are our views of things, and so narrow are our 
aims, when compared with the great designs <^ 
Providence, which comprdiends all things presait 
and to ccnne, in ope adorable view. I mind a few 
months before my fatber^s deadi, he was talking 
to me of the Lord^s goodness to him through his 
life, apd said, ^^ he had been now nine- 
teen years or thereby teaching theology, 
and without the least fcnret^ought of this on his 
part, the Loid, whose conduct he frequently imr 
jdored, had so ordered the course of his studies, 

3 



Hit own i^ 
mark on this. 



during twcaity-dgbt y^ars before his entry on 
teaching (^are in the time he had qpent on medi- 
doe), that were he tbo repeat them with a view to 
teach divinity, he would just take the same coune 
of studies as he had been kindly directed to, espe- 
cially his last seven years at Eglishame.^ 

I mind little more on this period, save what I 
shall give from the extracts and remains of his 
Diary. He observes, that " those ^ ^^^ 
who live on the charity and kindness SJJ)S£j*^ 
of their ndghbours and friends, and **»^p**«^ 
have no particular calling, are generally talkative, 
crying up those that give them, and down those 
that give them nothing, and have detraction or 
else flattery for their trade, feeding like wasps on 
the sores of others, especially on the faults of {m*o- 
fessors. 

^^ Common experience teaches that the most 
caisorious are the most guilty. 

^^ Scnne have the art cf gilding thdr own vices, 
fay stamjHng on a jus divinum on thdr own vile 
brats ; christening their vices with the names of 
virtues, as passion by zeal, railing by freedom, 
&c.^ 

June 1685, " after great perplexity from the 
Circuit Courts, Earl of Argyle^s death, 6cc. he 
fixed a stated time weekly f(»: meditation and 
prayer ; the first hour for his own concerns, the 



72 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

second for public concerns, with a resolution of 
continuance during life.^ We shall afterwards 
find he turned this to every day, in his more ad- 
vanced years. 

He remarks, " That there is vastly more joy in 
the expectation and pursuit of sublunary things, 
than there is in the possession of them. Hence, 
one defines human life here, to be a longing and 
a loathing ; — a longing to get them, and a loath- 
ing of them when gotten. 

^^ Sins that appear most abominable in others, 
change their aspect when considered as ours, a 
sad instance of the prevalency of selfishness. 

" To be too peremptory, curious and concerned 
in ceremonies and lesser things, diminishes a per- 
sons esteem with the wise.*" 

In the broken bits of his diary, as 

Frannenti of •* ^ 

ui Diary. f ar as I cau guess, the two following 
relate to this period I am upon * : " Perdpio 
tandem Atheniensem istam dispositionem, mihi 
maxime noxiam fuisse, quod totus genius in stu- 
diis intentus fuerat erga aliquid novi, quod impe- 
divit debitam ooncoctionem et reminiscentiam ve- 

• I perceive now that I have suffered a very great in- 
jury from that Athenian disposition, mj mind in mj^studies 
being wholly bent on some new thing, which has prevent- 
ed the due digesting and storing up of the truth which is 
after godliness, as respecting both doctrine and practice. In 



LIFE OF PBOFB880B WODBOW. 73 

rilatis secundum pietatem, tarn quoad speculation 
nem quam praxim. Adde quod maximum ad 
wa^^nrmf impedimentum fuerit duplid respectu. 
Imo, Quod plana et solida, trita et communia, 
animo non satis prsesentia fuerint, quia non cou- 
tinuse et ordinariae meditationis objecta ; cum ta- 
men ilia sola, qualia continentur in Cateched et 
Confessione, &c. apta sunt in homiliis Christianis ; 
non autem notiones istae curiosiores. 2do, Cum 
praesentia fuerant qusedam ex iis partim non satis 
pertinentia, partim ex detestabili ambitione appa- 
rere aliquem, pudebat communia proferre, et ita 
ferme obmutescere, inter praesentium rejectionem 
et rariorum venationem : oblitus interim communia 
apte et tempestive ad praesens applicata, optima esse 

addition to this, it was a very great impediment to a ready 
utterance in a twofold respect. 1. Because truths plain 
and solid, trite and common, were not sufficiently present 
to the mind, not having been the objects of continued and 
ordinary meditation ; though these (such as are contained 
in the Catechisms and Confession, &c) are the only truths 
adapted to familiar Christian discourses, and not more pro- 
found notions. 2. When some of these common truths have 
been present, yet, partly from their not being pertinent 
enough, partly from a detestable ambition of appearing to be 
somebody, I was ashamed to express them, and thus became 
nearly speechless, between refusing what was at hand, and 
hunting after rarer ideas ; forgetting in the mean time that 
common things, suitably and seasonably applied to the pre- 
sent purpose, are the best and most edifying. Those things 

D 



74 LIFX OF PB0FS860B WODBOW. 

et maxime aedificantia. Quae hactenus n^lexi et 
calcavi^ jam mihi optima apparere incipiunt. 

<< * Quam pauci cujusvis prsetii sestimaiit pas- 
tores qua tales; sed tantum vel quia si^nentes vel 
quia docti, vel quia boni sodi, vel quia cum ipsis 
consentiunt,^ &c. 

I come now forward to a pleasanter 
berty, jidy and much more useful period of Mr 

1687. * 

James Wodrow's life, from the liberty 
granted 1687 till his settlement in the University 
of Glasgow; and I shall pass it in a few short 
hints. When the first accounts of a liberty for 
Presbyterians came to be spoken o£^ there were 
many fears, and little expectation frcHn a bigotted 
prince. I have elsewhere given an account of the 
long stand the Presbyterians made, till at length 
they got an unclogged and extensive liberty, which 
I find was very acceptable to some of the best 
of the episcopal ministers, to whom I will do that 
justice as to narrate, from some of their own ori- 
ginal letters in my hands, that they appear pleased 
with, the toleration, as what might be improven to 

which I have hitherto neglected and despised, begin now to 
appear to me the most important. 

* Very few esteem ministers as such ; but solely either 
because they are wise, or because they are learned, or be- 
cause they are good companions, or because they coincide 
with themselves in sentiment, &c. 



LIFB OF PB0FBS60B WODBOW. 7^ 

the union of Protestants, and the breaking of 
popish measures. 

In July, when the accounts came 
of a full liberty, Presbyterians could 2*cS!SSJf 
scarce beheve it. I remember my fa- baminEgUs- 
ther went into Glasgow immediately 
after he heard of the last proclamation ; and the 
Sabbath after, at the pressing desire of many, 
preached in a large hall, in Provost Gibson^s land. 
Next Sabbath, he preached in his own bam at 
Eglishame, which was full, and many without 
doors. And after forenoon, I mind I was going 
about the yard and fields, and heard the sound of 
weeping and supplication, multitudes being re- 
tired ^twixt sermons there alone, and employed in 
prayer, and serious at it, and I wondered what 
could ail them. My father preached sometimes 
in the old castle of Mems, and in other places up 
and down, for the harvest was great, and the Leu 
bourers few. The appetite and cravings of the 
people were very large, and at this time the gos- 
pel had much success, and was received in much 
love. 

The meeting of Presbyterian ministers at Edin- 
burgh gave their overtiures and advice, as I have 
narrated elsewhere. These were followed as much 
as could be at that time. The ministers of the 

j>2 



76 LIFE OF PBOFE8SOB WODBOTT. 

Synod of Glasmw and Ayr met, and 

The Synod of / » . , , , 

^S^^riS" tliough the persecution had been very 
^*S^e*^ hot in the west, yet there was as many 
SSreyetothe if not more ministers in that pro- 

iiuiii8try« , 111 

vmce as any where else. The Pres- 
byteries of Glasgow, Dunbarton and Paisley were 
united by the general meeting, as Hamilton and 
Lanark, and Ayr and Irvine were. When the 
Synod met in September, I think, at Glasgow, 
they unanimously recommended it to Mr Wodrow 
to take care of the youth who had their eye to 
the ministry. They had a full acquaintance with 
him and knew his studies, fitness, and abilities, 
and recommended it to the united Presbytery of 
Glasgow to use their interest with him to come 
in to Glasgow as soon as possible, and take that 
great work upon him. 

I mind the parish of Walston, I 
have thdr eye think in Lanark Presbytery (where 
I have heard there is a gentleman of 
our name), the parish of Campsie, and some other 
places, had their eye upon my father; and he 
would willingly have settled in Eglishame, or some 
other remote congregation, where he would have 
had time yet farther to follow his beloved studies; 
but means were taken to prevent any application 
from these places, that nothing might interfere 
with the far greater work now designed for him. 



LIFB OF PBOFE880B WODBOW. 77 

Glasgow likewise had their eye upon him for their 
minister ; but it looked like over-burdening him 
to speak at first.of this. 

Over much saise of insufficiency, he 

^ ' Jan. 1688, he 

was at length prevailed with to come {Sf^Jdw^ 
in to Glasgow with his family, and ^^"■«*^- 
take the care of the students of divinity of the 
Presbyterian persuasion ; and we left our retire- 
ment at Eglishame January 1688. The scrap 
of his diary relative to this is as follows ♦ : " Sy- 
nedrio vocante conventu pastorum con- 

^ *• ^ Hfa own ao- 

sulente, cum indulgentia variarum cir- count of twi. 
cumstantiarum, et nullo alio vocante; ex mera 
conscientia inclinationem, et reluctantiam, aliquaiu 
tulum superante, Deum istuc sequor : ut Abram 
ex patria, T^T^ TTt^ ^^ fl^S^^P Cant. viii. 6. 

eique credens ; quia misit aderit, quia vocarit ad- 
juvabit. Resolvensque si aliter contingat (cum 
prorsus ex meo defectu hoc erit) humiliter sub- 

* At the call of the Presbytery, by the advice of the mi. 
nisters met in synod, various circumstances favouring, and 
having no call elsewhere, overcoming in some measure, and 
from conscientious motives alone, my inclination and reluc- 
tance, I follow God to this place, as Abraham did from his 
native coimtry, leaning on mybehved^ Song, viiL 5. and trust- 
ing, that because he hath sent he will accompany, and be- 
cause he hath called he will support ; resolving, also, should 
Itfidl out otherwise, (which can take place only through my 
awn de&ult), humbly to submit to divine sovereignty ; de- 



78 LIFB OF PR0FS8S0B WODROW. 

mittere bene pladto divino, abnegatus proprio ho. 
nori delectansque in Deo, si ipse in me et per me 
honoretur, quomodocunque fiat. Conformiter 
transmigratio incepta fuit Glasguam versus, Ja- 
nuarii die 17. 1688.'' 

Soon after my father's fmntt in to 

Hit son nud- -^ ^ ^ 

gj^^**»« Glasgow, I remember I was put to 
^****^ the public Grammar School, under 

Mr George Glen. The Archbishop Paterson's 
second son was then in it, and was what we then 
called victor, and carried with as great arbitrari* 
ness in the school as his father did in the town 
and at the council-board at Edinburgh. After I 
had been a day or two in the school, Mr Pater- 
son, it seems, had got notice of me, and when w& 
were dismissing, he came up to me and asked me 
if I was a Presbyterian preacher's son? I an- 
swered, What if I was, that was nothing to him* 
This put him in a rage, and being several years 
elder than I, he fell a swearing, and took me by 
the neck, and threw me against the tessera chest 
at the door of the school, and set me a-bleeding 
at mouth and nose. I came home in this pickle, 
and complained to my father, who sent for Mr 

nied to my own honour and r^oicing in God, if he in any way 
whatever be glorified in me or by me. Accordingly, my re- 
moval to Glasgow commenced the 17th day of January 
1088. 



LIFE OF PROFEaSOB WODROW. 79 

Glen and told him what had passed, adding, that, 
knowmg his dependence on the Bishop, he would 
ask no acknowledgments, but desired to know if 
he could protect me in time to come, and upon that 
condition he would send me back. Mr Glen was 
an easy well-natured man, and very frankly said 
the Bishop^s son was a very rambling youth, and 
brought him much uneasiness, and indeed he durst 
scarce make any complaints of him, nor check 
him for any thii^ he did. My father said if he 
could not preserve his scholars from insults, he 
reckoned him very unfit to have the government 
<^ a sdiool, and told him he would see to provide 
for me scnne oth^ way. 

I wouM not have noticed this little „^, ^ _ ^ 

Which, \rtth 

incident, had it not been with many ^^ ^^l 
<Aher things the occasion of setting up of *!j^^ 
private teaching in Glasgow about this ** ^^^^ ^* 
time. Before this, or much about this time, many 
of the best inclined of the youth and their pa- 
rents were groanipg imder the corruptions among 
the Masters of the College. One of them was 
suspected ci popery, and others too palpidbly 
guilty of drunkenness and other evils. Thi& 
brought about a pn)]ect fc»* private teaching phi- 
losopby, which was encouraged by Mr Rogers, 
my father, and many others in the town. Mr 
Raines Gilchrist, afta*wards mimster at Kirkmi- 



80 LIFE OF PBOFESSOB WODROW. 

chael, Mr John Loudon (I think), and some 
others, taught private classes. And my father 
got some of the most considerable merchants in 
Glasgow, who had children at their Latin, to join 
with him. We were taught for some weeks in a 
room in my father^s house; but our number so 
increased, that in a little time we were obliged to 
go to one of the meeting-houses, where we soon 
drained the public school, and were obliged to 
have two masters, both my father'^s scholars at 
divinity, since worthy ministers, Mr John Mac- 
laren and Mr Mungo Lindsay. 
„ ^ In the former part of this year, my 

He preacDed * j */ 

SS^^^md father preached frequently, especially 
iiayto^iS- with Mr R. Rogers, between whom 
there was the greatest friendship ; and 
though the charge of the youth which now came 
in great numbers to my father^s lessons, was, as 
he used to say, too great a load for one man, yet 
the paucity of hands in that large city, and the 
earnestness of the ministers and people to have 
my father fixed to that place was so great, that 
in May he had a very ample and harmonious call 
given him to the ministry there, the form of which 
is worth the preserving here from the original : 

" We underscribers, ministers, el- 

Form of his 

«H- ders, and other inhabitants, of the pres- 

byterian persuasion, within the city of Glasgow, 



LIFE OF PROFESSOB WODBOW. 81 

bdng under a great necessity of more ministers, for 
preaching and dispensing of gospel ordinances 
among us ; and being fully persuaded and con« 
vinced of the gifts and abilities of you Mr James 
Wodrow, preacher of the Grospd, and especially 
how useful you may be to students that have an 
eye to the ministry, from the sincere and earnest 
desire of tlie edification both of our own souls 
and others by your gifts, do cordially invite and 
call you to be one of our ministers in this place ; 
earnestly beseeching you in the Lord that you 
would forthwith embrace this our call, and un- 
dertake the charge of the ministry among us, for 
the dispensing of the ordinances of Jesus Christ 
for our edification and comfort, as God shall en« 
able you thereunto, requesting you in the bowels 
of Jesus Christ that you would listen to no ten- 
tation that may divert you from hearkening to 
this our serious call, in which we are both affec- 
tionate and harmonious ; and we do promise sub- 
jection to your ministry in the Lord, giving you 
all suitable encouragements due from a loving 
people to their faithful pastor ; and we are confi- 
dent in the Lord, that you shall have divine as- 
sistance in your work, and that your after reflect- 
ing.upon your closing with this our call shall be no 
grief of heart to you, but matter of joy, in the day 
of your accounts. In testimony whereof, we have 

d5 



82 LIFE OF PItOFBSSOR WODBOW. 

subscribed these presents, at Glasgow, the I5th 
day of May 1688^ 

Mr Ralj^ Rogers and Mr Robert Landess, 
and towards £00 men of the town, of the great- 
est piety, and substance too, at that tune, signed 
the call. When I write this there are scarce six 
or seven of them alive, as far as I can guess. 
There is no attestation of the call by the. presby- 
tery, so it would seem this is a custom come in 
since the Revolution. This call (as I see was the 
custom in the former presbyterian times) is iDld- 
ed up in the shape of a letter, and direct on the 
back For Mr James Wodrow, preacher of the 
Gospel, for the present at Glasgow. 

Upon this call the presbytery en- 

Hia trials for * , , r j j 

of^iaatim. tered him on trials, and considering 
he had now the charge of students of divinity com- 
mitted to him by the Synod, we need npt question 
his sufficient abilities, nor the Presbytery'^s har- 
monious approbation of him on the trials they 
thought proper to take ; and so his ordinaticm to 
the holy office of the ministry was appointed, af- 
tar the ordinary preliminary steps, upcai August 
21. of this year. 
^. ^ . It may not be imfit here to insert 

which is or- *' 

sL^mm ^^^ passage in his diary that happens 
•ciiuntofit to be preserved as to this. " ♦ Augus- 

* On the 20th of August at night Before my ordination. 



LIFB OP PBOFX880K WODROW. 83 

ti die £0. noctu, ante ordinationem eras celebran- 
dum, foedus gratias personale, ante saepius initum 
denuo renovavi et confirmavi, (sicut etiam foedus 
iUud particulare pnecedente paragrapho comme- 
numtum) corde ut existimavi plus solito divini- 
tus motus, aooessum aliqualem cum importunity, 
te ad thronum gratiae habeham, confitendo pecca- 
ta et defectus, et auxilium supplicando; meque 
omxnmodo Deo subjidendo, resignando ad opus 
illud eximium, secundum illud Ps. Ixxi. I69 in 
fide persuasionis ac exauditionis ; ac imprimis sa- 
lutis in ChristOy w^hrmttf supplicans pro perpetua 
modestia, humilitate, et respectu tenerrimo cum 
asfiiduitate erga agnos Dei, ne uUo modo me fu« 
giamt."" 

which is to take place to-morrow, besides that particular co- 
venant mentioned in the preceding paragraph, I again re- 
newed and confirmed the personal covenant of grace, which 
I had frequently entered into before, with my heart (as I 
apprehended) under a more than ordinary divine influence. 
I attained some measure of access with importunity to the 
throne of grace, confessing my sins and defects, and suppli« 
eating assistance ; submitting myself wholly to God, yield- 
ing myself to that excellent work, according to Psalm 
Ixxi* 16, in the assured faith of being heard, and especially 
of salvation in Christ ; earnestly pleading for continued 
lowliness of mind, humility, and tender regard, accompanied 
with unwearied attention to the lambs of God*s flock, lest 
hy any means I should lose them. 



84 LIFB OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

aiidMrR.Ro- Acx»rdingly, August 21, his ordi- 
Sd? p5Sd»* nation was gone about, if I remember, 
in the south meeting-house, called 
Merk-daily meeting-house. On the back of his 
call I find written with his own hand, " Ordained 
August 21. 1688, Mr Rogers preaching and pre^ 
siding in the action, with the presbytery and 
committee of the Synod ;^ of which last clause I 
can give no account, unless it was that the last 
Synod, in prosecution of their former recommen- 
dation, thought fit to countenance this action by 
the conciurence of a committee of their number. 
Mr Ralph Rogers preached an excellent sermon 
upon Matt. ix. 37, 38., " Then saith he unto his 
disciples. The harvest truly is plenteous, but the 
labourers are few. Pray ye therefore the Lord 
of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers 
to his harvest." An apposite text, considering 
my father's double capacity of a minister and 
teacher of young students. 

I'll add what follows of his diary 

Fragment of 

wjaiMyasto with relation to this remarkable day 

of his life. " * Aug. 21. Quo die or- 

dinatio celebrabatur a R. R. qui explicavit et me 

intravit in Foedus Levi, quod magis clare et dis- 

* Aug. 21. This day my ordination took place, R. R. 
presiding, who explained the covenant of Levi, and admit- 
ted me into it. At home in the evening I formally em- 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 85 

tincte consideravi ac formaliter amplexus sum, ac 
inivi domi noctu solus cum solo Deo.^ 
The extract of his ordination is 
before me m parchment; and since ^Jjl ***■**" 
I incline to preserve here all the prin- 
cipal papers relative to him, 1^11 also insert it 
tram the original. " Glasgow, August 21. 1688. 
These are to testify, that Mr James Wodrow, 
having undergone all the several parts of his 
trials, according to the acts of the General As- 
sembly, in order to his ordination to the town of 
Glasgow; and being approven by the brethren 
of three presbyteries, viz. of Glasgow, Paisley, 
and Dunbritton, united by order of the general 
meeting at Edinburgh, was publicly ordained in 
one of the meeting-houses there, by imposition of 
the hands of the foresaid brethren ; whereat also 
was present the most part of the elders of the said 
place, who (after his receiving of the right hand of 
fellowship) received the said Mr James, in name 
and behalf of the whole people, as their fixed and 
settled minister. This was publicly performed 
upon the 21st day of August, as is recorded in 
the] presbytery book of Glasgow, et extractum 
per Rob'^. Campbell, Cler. Pres.'^ 

braced and entered into this covenant, after a more clear 
and distinct consideration of it in my retirement with God 
alone. 



86 LIFE OF PBOFB980R WODBOW. 

Acoordingly, for more than four 

He 6xerdM8 ^ 

^"fo^^ years he continued in the exercise of 
y««»- his ministerial office in that city, and 

particularly to the quarter termed the Middle 
quarter, till he was transported to the University. 
And the double toil he had of meeting with the 
students of divinity five days every week, (and on 
Saturday I mind he used to meet with his elders 
weekly in his chamber from 9 to 12 for prayer), 
and the superadded weight of the ministerial work 
in all the branches of it, save preaching on the 
week days, {rem which ^he was freed ; all this 
work and close attendance I say broke his health, 
and laid the foimdation of the gravel and other 
troubles, whidi attacked him for the last nine or 
ten years of his life. 

Very soon after his ordination, wise 

Two 8ore af- "^ , t* . t 

J^»jj^ and sovereign Providence saw good 
^^^ to tryste him with two of the most af* 

flictive losses he could possibly sustain^ — that of 
his nearest and dearest relation, my mother, and 
of his most intimate friend Mr Ralph Soger, the 
one on the heels of the other. 

I shall bemn with his own account 

His wife's ° 

t^t S tt" ®^ ™y J^other's death from his diary, just 

^"s^^" after what was last inserted. «*Quum 

^ omnia quantum percipere potui, medi- 

* On the last day of September, when, as far as I could 



LIFE OF PBOFB880B WODBOW. 8? 

ocriter succedebant secundum optionem ; die uL. 
dmo Septembris, plaga ilia quae Ezekieli, cap xxiv. 
16, 17, 18. inddit, me prorsus intercepit, ac plu- 
rimum stupefecit. Nolo circumstantias agravaa* 
tes, hie oommemorare, ne extet monumentum do« 
laria ; quod noluit Jacob, in nomine filii sui Gren. 
xxxv. 18. Tantum notatu opus est, me adeo attri- 
tum fiiisse, ut nequirem in eam reflectere, sine ni- 
mia compunctione, et aliquali cordis deliquio; 
mentem ab ea prorsus divertere studebam, quan- 
doquidem coram ea stare nequibam diu. 

^ Diu ut dictum est, misere attritus, tandem 
postquam alta mente repostum mihi erat, me re- 
um esse idololatriae et nimiae amoris creaturae; 
quod postquam Deo confessus eram, et remissio- 
nem obnixe supplicans, alleyiaitio quaedam a Deo 

perceive, all was succeeding indifferently well to my wish, 
that stroke whidi lighted on Ezekiel, ch. xxiv. 16, 17, 18. 
fell upon me at once, and exceedingly confounded me. I 
incline not to mention here the aggravating circumstances, 
lest it ^ould remain a monument of grief, such as Jacob 
would not have in the name of his son, Gen. xxxv. 18. On- 
ly it deserves notice, that I was so broken down that I 
could not reflect upon it without excessive distress and some 
d^pree of hunting. I studied to divert the mind from it 
entirely, seeing I could not long stand before it. 

After I had been a considerable time in this very dis. 
tjressing state, I became deeply impressed with the convic- 
tion that I had bc^i guilty of idolatry and excessive at- 
;tacfament to the creature. This I confessed to God with 



88 LIFE OF PBOFESSOB WODROW. 

mihi propitio, concedebatur Octob. SS. noctu : ac 
mihi resolutum, Davidem imitandum, S Sam. xii. 
20. 22. 23., ac dixi ut Daniel, cap. x. 19. et PsaL 
bcxxvL 17, Isai. xii. I.'' 

I was not so sensible of so great a 
of thisguddai loss as I would havc been, had I been 

death, . ' 

older than mne years of age. How- 
ever, I remember some of the circumstances of 
that sudden death of my mother, and which with 
that of my dear brother, and my worthy father 
afterwards, all of them I may term sudden, should 
put me to a habitual and diligent preparation, 
that I may be as a servant with his loins girded, 
and his lamp burning, waiting for the coming of 
his lord. 

That Sabbath day, Sept. 20, my mother had 
taken me with her to the Wynd Meeting-house. 
Worthy Mr Robert Landess preached ; and in 
his last prayer had an expression to this purpose, 
which probably I had not much noticed, had it 
not been for what followed, " that probably we 
might never all meet again, till we met before the 
awful judgment-seat of Christ.^ This it seems 
affected my mother, and I noticed her give a deep, 
and yet a sort of. a silent, groan, which made me 

ardent supplications for for^veness, and he was graciously 
pleased to grant me some alleviation on the 23d of October 
in the evening, and I was brought to the exercise of David, 
Daniel, &c, 



LIFB OF PBOFS880B WODBOW. 89 

wonder what the matter was. After dismissing 
the congregation, she went up the way to a bu- 
rial of John Kelso, son to an eminent father, and 
worthy mother, both singular Christians; his mo- 
ther was now a widow, and an intimate of my 
mother^s. We did not hear my mother felt any 
uneasiness till she had sat a little with Mrs Kelso ; 
and then, with a groan, her head fell back to the 
chair, and she could speak none. It was a pleu- 
risy and apoplexy seized her; a surgeon was 
brought, but her blood was stagnant She was 
soon brought home in a chair, and cupping glasses 
and all means applied, but in vain ; she died about 
two of the dock next morning. On the. Wednes- 
day after she was buried under a stone upon 
which her name is graven, toward the middle of 
the south side of the High Church yard. She 
was at no loss, being undoubtedly ready ; but 
her husband and children were at a great loss, 
though the Lord very graciously provided for us. 
Mr Roger's death was the sharper , ^ ^ ^ 

^ * And that of 

trial, that it came soon after so great ^Ljf^ 
breach. I remember that good and *^^ 
great man was a great comfort to my father that 
night when my mother died, and stayed all night 
with him. He came and spoke in the most affec- 
tionate manner to my brother and, me, and gave 
us excellent advices ; but I was so young that X 



90 LIFE OF FB0FE8S0B WODROW. 

» 

soon forgot them. 1 shall set down my fktber^s 
account of this heavy providaM^ as follows in the 
foredted diary. 

" ♦ Mors Bodulphi Ro£^rs inci- 

Acoountcrfthis .. 

ftom Mr Wo- dcHS JaDuaril die tertio 1689) m«i- 

dioWs diary. ' 

tem plurimum perturbavit : Deus ta- 
men aliquantulum me prseparavit, ante hanc tem-^ 
pestatem ortam. IHe enim secundo, circiter ho- 
ram quartam matutinam, B. R, me advocavit a 
foco ad lectum, interrumpens Mm Thomam Ram- 
say, qui eum alloquebatur, ita dixit, ^ I would 
speak somewhat to Mr Wodrow.' Whereupon 
I went to his bed-side, and moving his hand from 
beneath the clothes, he stretched it forth to me, 
which he took a grip of. Then he added, ' You 
are one who has been denied to popular applause, 
and has not affected it. I know that you came 
to this place over mudb reluctancy of your incli- 
nations ; but God hath been with you, and he 
will be with you, I assure you of it, (and grip-, 
ping my hand, which, all this while he held, more 
straitly), I assure you of it.** Then making a 

* Balph Rogers's death, whidi took place the 3d of Ja- 
nuary 1689, filled me with the greatest perturbation, yet 
Ood prepared me in some measure for the storm before it 
arose. For on the second day, about four o'clock in the 
morning, R. B. called me from the fire to his bed-side, and, 
interrupting Mr Thomas Bamsay who was speaking to him, 
said, ^< I would speak," 6cc. 



LIFE OF PB0FS880R WODBOW. 91 

pause for some time, I said to him, ^ Sir, if the 
liord remove you, I fear both ^scouragements 
and difficulties.^ He rejdied, < Dear Billy, be 
not discouraged, you will not want your own dif<- 
ficokies from some men, but Grod will dither make 
them subject themselves to you, or else he will 
make them bear their own burden.^ And (grip- 
ping my hand more rtndtly) he said, ' I awure 
you of it, I assiure you of it.^ Then be added, ^ I 
am desirous to speak much more, but am not able. 
People would be careful to hear ministers when 
they are able to speak." Then holding his peace, 
and loosing the grip, I put in his hand again be- 
neadi the bed-clothes. 
Mr Roirers^s death was a great loss 

^ o MrRogen'f 

to the town of Glasgow and the pres- chai»ct«. 
byterian interest at this juncture. He had been 
tranqwrted from Ardrossan to Glasgow about 
the 1658, at Mr Duiiiam^s nomination, in a very 
remarkable manner, after he had fixed on Mr 
David Vetch for his successor, as I shall take no- 
tice of if ever I come to give an account of Mr 
Durham^s life ; and was a person of the greatest 
gravity and endearing majesty I ever saw. He 
was a person of great prudence and solidity. I 
remember to have heard, that some little before 
his death, one of the then Magistrates under 
King James insulted him, and offered to put him 



92 LIFS OF PB0FS880B WODBOW. 

in prison ; he carried so wisely, and the other so 
foolishly, that the matter was soon made up. But 
it was observed after this insult, the person who 
gave it (whom I do not name) never prospered, 
and the Lord seemed to plead a controversy with 
him even in worldly substance. Perhaps it was 
for some act of this nature my father forecast dif- 
ficulties, against which Mr Rogers supported him 
as above, though this is but my conjecture. 

I shall only add a passage I was 

Hit expreiskm , , -^ r -o 

R oTorantf^ witucss to in Mr Rogers a few weeks 
htosuoceM. ^j^Qj,^ jjjg jgg^^jj^ ^jjj^jj affected me 

much. The account had come to town on a Sab- 
bath-day of the Prince of Orange safe landing at 
Torbay, if I remember. Mr Rogers was then 
confined to his bed, and very weak : (I know not 
but it might be his motion toward or arrival at 
London, for it was I think but a few days before 
Mr Rogers^s death). My father after sermon had 
a written note sent to him containing the news, 
and he sent me over to Mr Rogers^s house. There 
was nobody with him but his wife, and when I 
came in I told him my father had got some news 
in a note, and had sent me to him with them. 
He said, " Robin, I know you can read write, 
read them to me."" I did so, and when I was 
done he lift up his eyes and hands to Heaven and 
aaid to this purpose, ^^ I bless the Lord I have 



LIFB OF PB0FE8S0B IFODBOW. 93 

lived to hear the long-looked-for news. Were 
there need to tell them in the place I hope I am 
going to, I would gladly be the messenger of 
them thither ; but there is no need. My heart, 
see what you have to give Robin for bringing 
them.^ But to return. 

My father was much supported 
under those afflictive providences by w^Smii^ 
the glorious scene of providence, now ^J^^ "^<>" 
opening out at the happy Revolution ; 
and kept from poring too much on them, by the 
great throng of work upon his hand, both pasto- 
ral, with the students, and the more publick 
meetings at Edinburgh, where he frequently was, 
ordinations, and purgation of parishes, and many 
others. 

About this time, he was sent by the 

*' He if MDt to 

Presbytery to supply the church of ^^"^"■■SJf* 
Eglishame, after the curate had left ^^ 
it, which he did very early, and to pave the way 
of that people to Mr Robert Young, who was 
for some time minister there ; and went, though 
he was justly freed by the Presbjrtery from sup- 
plying vacancies, because, if any could have in- 
fluence on that people, it might be expected he 
would, I only mention this to introduce an ac- 
count of what would be almost incredible, had I 
not had it from my father himself, and heard him 



94 LIFE OP PBOFE880R WODBOW. 

tell it more tiiaa onee, as one of the strangest 
passages that he had personally known; and I re- 
member to have been present, though very young, 
at least I think so, though indeed it's hard for 
me, I find, to distinguish, at this distance, from 
things I have heard my father tell, and what I 
think I was present at. 

There was one Robert Crawford 

Acoarfing toa 

^rt? oS^ who lived in Eglisdiame : his main 
Crawford. work wos to thatch houses ; he was 

then of no ill fame, but since the Revolution, 
when^ upon hearing my father tell the story, I 
inquired about him, I find he set up for a kind 
oi fortune-teller, and discoverer of stolen goods ; 
and he left EgUshame, and lived in the Bridge- 
end of Glasgow, and pretended to astrology, paL 
mistry, and such things. My father had employ- 
ed this man to thatch our house, towards the end 
of the year 1685. Mr William Ker, afterwards 
minister of Monkland, was then with his uncle 
Alexander Hume, Sheriff-depute of Renfrew, who 
lived in the town of Eglishame ; and as he used 
frequently to be with my father, so that day they 
had been ^ying at the chess, which was the 
only diversion, my father used, if I may call it a 
diversion, for it is rather an uptaking study. 
Whai wearied with chess, they both came out to 

take a walk (and I think I came out with them), 

3 



hirm OF FBOFBflBOB WODBOW. 95 

and my father stood a little at the door, looking 
to the thatching of the house. Crawford left his 
w(H*k a little, and sat down upon the head of his 
ladder, and took a snufp, and said to my father, 
Mr James, what news ? My &tber said he I^ard 
none. Crawford says. Well, Mr James, if you 
will tell me no news, 1^11 tell you news. What are 
these, said my father, Robbie ? Sir, said he, fools 
take long trysting days, but I shall not take a 
very long term ; — within three years and a half 
m bear you preach in Eglishame Kirk, and re- 
peated it with much confidence. My father ask^- 
ed him what he meant by that, and said he be- 
lieved he was raving. No, answered he, Mr James, 
you will see it. A great change is coming, and 
the persecuted ministers will come in, and the 
king will be forced to leave us, and 1^11 hear you 
preach in yonder church. My father seeing him 
very confident, said, Rabbie, what makes you say 
so, and that so peranptorily? Sir, said the other, 
I know it by some old prophecies I have by me 
that there will be a change, and a near friend of 
the king^s will bring it about. What friend is it, 
said my father or Mr Eer ; that, said the other, 
I cannot tell, but he is a near friend of the king^s. 
They named several, the Prince of Orange, Prince 
Greorge of Denmark, &c. : he said he did not know 
who it wc^ but it was one that lived beyond sea ; 



96 LIFB OF FB0FBS80B WODBOW. 

and he desired my father to remember he had told 
it him. They parted, and my father never thought 
on it further till the Revolution came about, and 
Mr Eer put him in mind of what Robert Craw- 
ford had said. And Mr Ker happening to be at 
the Presbytery of Glasgow when he was sent to 
preach in Eglishame, when they came out put 
him in mind again of the passage, and remarked 
to him, that it was within a very few days of the 
three years and a half. My father went and 
preached there^ and inqiiiring, found Robert Craw- 
ford was in the church ; and save that time, he 
never preached in that church, unless it was with 
Mr Hamilton some time before the 1685 ; but I 
know not if he did preach for him. And after that 
time Crawford left hearing much, and neglected or- 
dinances. That Crawford might, from prophecies, 
or a confederacy with Satan, know somewhat of a 
change coming, is strange ; but his peremptory 
foretelling of the contingent event of my father^s 
preaching in Eglishame church, and his hearing 
him, when save at that time he scarce ever preach- 
ed there, is one of the strangest passages I have 
ever almost known. 

Another odd -^j^^ this brings to my mmd an- 
^SmgJ^ other passage, very singular, that I 
■t caidxoai, havc both from him and Mr John 

Mr Wodiow 

Ritchie, minister of Eirkpatrick, who 



. LIFE OF PSOFESSOB WODBOW. 9? 

was 'present In the year 1689 or 1690, when 
aome regiments of Danes were brought over by 
King William to Scotland, my father was going 
in to some meeting of ministers at Edinburgh^ 
and met with Mr James Gordon, minister of Car- 
dross (of whom, when I come to his life, I can 
give several passages of this same nature), and 
Mr John Ritchie at Kilsyth, and rode with them 
to Falkirk, where they lodged that night. When 
they alighted, they met with a very grave gentle- 
man in black, to whom Mr Gordon looked in a 
very earnest way till the gentleman went off. 
When he was passed by them, Mr Gtnrdon asked 
the servant what a irentleman that was who had 

he was told that he was chaplain to a Danish 
raiment lately come there. When they were 
come up to their room, my father observing Mr 
Gordon^s earnestness in staring the man in the 
fiice, and his inquiry about him, asked him what 
he meant to inquire so much concerning him ? 
Mr Gk^rdon waved answering ; but being urged, 
he said. That fellow is one of the greatest whore- 
masters in Europe. My father and Mr Ritchie 
inquired a little to the man^s character at the 
house, and heard nothing to his disadvantage. 
But after staying two or three weeks at Edin* 
burgh) in his return my father lodged at the same 



96 LIFE Of PROPSSSOB WODBOW. 

house, and then renewed hin inquiry as to the 
Danish diaplatn, axid fotind by that time two or 
three f(»iucations had broke out oa him, and se- 
rethl attempts towards adultery. Thir two pas- 
sages are so mueh oat of the ittdinary road of 
things, that if I had not had them confirmed, and 
from so good a hand, I should not have inserted 
them. 

Durinfi^ his imnistry at Gbussow, I 

Hisusefulnen ® "^ ® ' 

teri2le5k!lt '^^^ ^^^ Lord blessed his pains and 
ciMMgow. preaching with success, and he was 
▼ery acceptable and useful to many solid and ju-» 
dicious persons, though some of the coanmoa 
people (who likewise had a gr^t opinion of him), 
took up a thought that he was a deep preadier, 
as they called it, and so learned that he was above 
them ; and yet by Ihs sermons in my hands, and 
the faint remembrance I have of his way (for he 
preached very litde after the 169^), I know he 
studied the greatest plainness and deamess ia bis 
sermons, and delivered still matter that was agree- 
able to the uptakingof an ordinary auditory. His 
voice was but low, and none of the strongest, and 
he had no motion, but the greatest gravity and 
equality in his delivery; and this I believe was the 
reason he was not reckoned by the vulgar a po- 
pular preacher. Yet I remember well, that mul- 
titudes used to come to him in his chamber, who 



LIFS OF PBQFB860B WODBOW. 99 

were under soul distress and temptadoDs, and 
awakenings of canfidence, and communicated their 
spiritual distress to him ; and he was nngulariy 
fitted of God to speak a word in season to the 
£amt and weary soul, and had a most happy me- 
thod in clearing up of intricate cases, and com- 
forting those that were cast down. 

Little farther <^ers to me durinir 
this period of his life, before his trans- ^thiiim. 
portation to the Univa*sity. He had a great and 
growing number of students und» his hand. At 
this time, the circumstances of the church needed 
many labourers, and the Lord touched the hearts 
of many to direct their studies to the holy mini- 
stry. It was some time before other Universities 
ittid even Glasgow came to be settled, and so many 
students from all the comers of the kingdom, and 
not a few from Ireland, to enjoy the benefit of his 
teaching, and so his work and toil in this respect 
increased still upon him year after year. 

He had a happy talent, pnticularly 
m dealinffwith those who had sepa- withttieMpa. 
rated from this church. The pomts 
upon^iwhich the unhi^y divisions begun by the 
Priotesters and Resolutioners, and the flames that 
broke out upon the Indulgence, and other con-' 
troverted heads, had been particularly studied by 
him : his temper was calm, and his reasoning clear^ 



100 LIFB OF PB0FSS80B WOimOW. 

abort, and strong. I remember he bad a confer 
rence in bis cbamber witb wortby Mr Alexand^ 
Sbields, Messrs Linning and Boyd, before tbeir 
going in to tbe Assembly 1690, which, as I heard 
afterwards, mueh payed the way for thdr join- 
ing with this church. 
. ^ Another thins in which he had a 

His diaie in ^ 

dteS^e 2Sd chief share at that time, though it was 
SSSth°to"l! not ownpleted till he came to the Uni- 
versity, was the bringing our disci- 
pline and forms of procedure in ecclesiastical judi- 
catories in this church to some bearings This 
was a work of time^ and fell very soon under the 
consideration of our Assembly; and indeed that 
supreme court can have no subject beforle them 
more worthy of their consideration. The As- 
sembly 1690 were so taken up with multitudes of 
things, after so long an interval of Assemblies, 
that though scnnewhat of this nature was before 
them, they could do little but set the thing a* 
going. At that Assembly, there were several 
overtures given in to committees, anent our 'me* 
thod of procedure in judicatories. The acts of 
Assembly in.ljyt^^j^rmer J^^ had 

r^ulated some,; but very.' few things this way; 
the conmion forms of procedure were regulated 
by use and practice, without any special rules 
provided. The old Presbyterian ministers, in 



LIFB OF PaOFESSOS WODBOW. 101 

whose hands the government of this national 
church had been settled by law, were pretty much 
versed in forms and practice ; but then it was to 
be expected these would soon wear off the stage, 
and the younger sort of ministers and entrants 
were much at a loss for stated rules this way. 
Accordingly, several short proposals were laid be- 
fore committees in that Assembly as to the man- 
ner of procedure in Sessions and Presbyteries, in 
calling and - ordination of ministers, &c. by Mr 
Matthew Crawford at Eastwood, Mr Patrick SiuK 
son, Mr Patrick Warner, and others, and some 
lawyers gave their thoughts upon them, as Sir 
James Stewart, my Lord Halcraig, and others. 
This important matter was left to the commisnon, 
and the burden of it came very much on the mi- 
nisters of the S3rnod of Glasgow, because there 
the greatest niunber of old Presbyterian ministers 
were. 

This work came in some time to de- ,, , ^ ^ 

^ HewithPrin- 

volve on that excellent person Prind- ^Sed"S? 
pal Dunlop and my father ; and the S^^gSl 
Principal being much taken up with 
the College business, much at Edinburgh, and 
for some time at London, the weight of it came 
to fall on my fatb^, who, as I noticed before, 
had very much studied ecclesiastical discipline, 
and was extremely well versed in our acts of As- 



1Q2 IiIFE OF PB0FE8S0B WOJDBOW. 

sembly. I had among his papers the overtures 
given in to the Assembly 1690, with the r^narks 
on them as above. To this great work he ap» 
jdied himsdf mostly in the vacation, during the 
summer, since in the winter his hands were so f uU 
that he had little room fen* it; and towards the 
1604 he brought it to a bearing. I have by me 
the original draught of the overtures concerning 
the discipline and method of proceeding in eccle^ 
siastical judicatories in the Church of Scotland, 
gaierally in my father's hand, and a secticm or two 
in Principal Dunlop's hand,'with many miscellany 
collections relative thereto. 

Those, aft^ they had been commu* 

Printed flrtt . , . , , _ 

itt^flndthcn nicated to many mmisters m the west, 
and those about Edinburgh, were 
printed first in the year 1696, and proposed to 
the ocHisideration of Prebyteries, in order to be 
ripened for the General Assembly. Accordingly, 
they were transmitted by the Assembly or Com- 
mission to the consideration of Synods and Pres^ 
byteries, who were to send their reports to the 
next Assembly. I have a copy of them, with the 
additions and amendments of the Synod of Glas- 
gow, 1697, and several other remarks, under that 
truly great man, Mr Robert Wylie's hand. B&^ 
marica were still year after year coming up to the 
Genaral Assemblies, and lodged in the derk^a 



lilFB OF PB0FE880B WODBOW. 103 

liaiida, till the 1704, when, as the result of many 
private committeesi they w^e reprinted 1706, 
with several altarationSy md the addition of two 
diapters concerning Synods and Assemblies^ with 
an advertisement (vide Overtures 1705), declaring 
these not to be the deed of the Church, but being 
revised so much, and having gone through the 
hands of so many judicious ministers, are now 
printed by the order of Assembly, as what may be 
useful for advice and direction, and ought to have 
great weight ; and are farther ranitted to Fresby- 
taries, that their amendments and additions may 
be sent in to the derk of Assembly, in order to 
the perfecting of this work. 

From those overtures was extract- 
ed the form of process with rdation to ^'fg^ ^ 

, T T , . , . ^ Proceag was 

scandals and censures* which was print- inpurtdravii. 

-*- which iB ap- 

ed first by way of overtures, and tran&- S2I^b!w 

mitted to Presbyteries, to send their 

r^narks thereupon to the next Asaembly. This 

excellent system of discipline this church owes 

very much to that great man and eminent lawyer 

Sir James Steuart, who was at much pains in 

committees and subcommittees at the commission, 

aad the committees of the Assembly, to ripexi and 

finish the first draughts of it And this form of 

process was a^^roved of with very great delibeara^ 

tion, and mature pondering oi it, by the General 



104 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

Assembly 1707> which I remember my father 
when he heard of it was much satisfied with, and 
said that was a step of reformation and advance 
beyond what this church had attained to in for- 
mer times. 

The Assembly had no time to take 

And tot MOM • 

ywn^terthe anv morc of the overtures for disci- 
Smth^ to- P^^® before themselves, but still kept 
^ap^}^ the matter in dependence, continuing 
their appointment on Presbyteries to 
send up their remarks, and leaving it to the com- 
mission to ripen the rest of the overtures gra- 
dually, as the Assembly could overtake them. 
And accordingly, in some posterior Assemblies, 
several branches of the overtures were taken in 
their committee for overtures, as what relates to 
baptism, ordination of ministers, &c. and turned 
to acts of Assembly. Thus matters were going 
on, when first the change of the ministry 1710, 
and then the burden of patronages and toleration 
1711, came on. These, with our unhappy dijBFe- 
rences about the oath, and other matters that were 
then on the field, diverted the General Assemblies 
from this their great and proper work of perfect- 
ing the body of rules and canons for this church. 

Indeed, after our king'^s happy ac- 



But ..^ 

mmfld iTii^ cession, about the 1718, this wcnrk was 
twiw about resumed, and the matter of completing 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 105 

our rales remitted to the commission. 

Kidc«Miik)ns 

All that was done till the next As- «? * 5?*y*^ 

net dnwnim 

sembly was the classing of the remarks ^ Sefor- 
of the Presbyteries upon the printed "**' *^* 
overtures. The next Assembly 1719 remitted 
that affair to the commission, by whom it was 
sent again to the brethren at Glasgow, and some 
few in that neighbourhood, since, as was urged, the 
overtures had their rise there. Those appointed 
met, and went through the class put into their 
hands by the clerks of the Assembly, containing 
the remarks, additions, and amendments from 
Presbyteries and Synods; and from these and 
the printed overtures, formed another addition, I 
may say, of the overtures 1696 and 1705, which 
was approven by the commission, and printed un- 
der the title of Overtures concerning Kirk-sessions 
and Presbyteries, and transmitted to Presbyteries, 
to send in their remarks upon it to the next As- 
sembly. 

The treatment those overtures met 
with is so recent, and I am so nearly ^.SJStobte 
concerned in them, both in their first ^^ 1720^' 
and last edition, that I shall say little ddayedtman- 

•^ other time. 

of it. What had been printed and ge- 
nerally practised and approven for upwards^0f 
twenty years, was given out to be done with' par- 
ticular views to a particular place and person, 

E 5 



106 XiIFK OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

without the least shew of reason, and plainly oon<- 
traty to fact and the nature of things ; and such 
a clamour was raised, and parties made, as if the 
whole of our constitution had been in hassard, 
that in aU our differences I never saw such a 
flame in this country. Many pamphlets were 
writ pro and con ; and the Assembly, because of 
the clamour, and that our state parties were mix- 
ing in with this foolish clamour, thought proper to 
dday them till a more proper time. I shall make 
no reflections upon this at all. When people^s 
heats are cooled, and they come to understand 
the Presbyterian constitution, as it stands in op- 
position to Independency and Prelacy, and when 
our scandalous parties and private designs and 
humours are at an end, these overtures will come 
to be considered. But indeed, till we come to a 
better temper in this church, we are capable of 
no changes and alterations save those to the worse, 
and must jog on in the former road the best 
way we can. This I am sure of, had these last 
overtures been proposed eight or nine years soon- 
er, before our parties and divisions began, they 
had been passed into rules without the least difii- 
culty. But the old men that saw the glory of 
the first house are gone, and the season they hap- 
pened in providence to come abroad was a time of 
groundless jealousy and suspcion. I hare a little 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROV. 10? 

enlarged upon this head of our rules and canons, 
because my worthy father was the first beginner of 
them, and I have had occasion since the 1706 to 
observe and know as much as many the procedure 
of this church, with relation to this important 
matter. 

I shall now end this period of Mr 

* ^ His own re- 

James Wodrow^s life, by giving what J^^SSJ*^ 

further offers from his own remarks, **^p«^*<^- 
and the imp^ect scraps of his diary, which, as 
far as I can guess by what remains, he did not 
carry much £uther than the 1695 ; and the re- 
marics, as I noticed, were writ 1700, and two or 
three more in 1708. What concerns this period 
I have been on, I give in his own words. 

** When the hopes of a revolution began to ap- 

« 

pear, my great fear was, that there might be more 
danger arising from proq)erity than had been 
under adversity.'*' 

He observes, that " by the good providence of 
God, the acts of our national Assemblies for Pres- 
bytery, since our reformation from popery, stand 
firm and unrepealed to this day, by the sevaral 
courses of prelacy^ either before the 1638 or since; 
and though enemies should destroy the records, 
yet Mr Petrie hath preserved the most material 
parts of the acts of Assemblies till the 16S8 in 
his history, and those sinoe are in print."" 



108 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

7hat ^^ learning of languages without the know- 
ledge of things, is of little use, and (xAj a know- 
ledge of words and sounds, not of things. Ocular 
inspection is like geography illuminating history, 
and figures in botany. A child (yea, a man) will 
get three Latin words sooner by heart, if he have 
seen and known the things ^gnified by them, than 
one word otherwise." 

That *^ humility is the shortest cut to honour, 
and it is much better to abide below one^s station 
than go above it." 

That <^ it appeared strange to him that nien of 
mean parts are of more account in the ministry 
(by the vulgar and too many) than in any other 
calling. The reason is, that folks are more igno- 
rant and eafiilier cheated in their soul concerns 
than in any other. 

^^ The common people naturally affect inde- 
pendency, and ministers prelacy, I mean by cor- 
rupt nature. 

*' Regular reformation by the magistrate is 
liable to many more defects than popular refor- 
mation (by mobs, as some call them), as appears 
by comparing England with Scotland, and gene- 
rally through the history of all the Reformed 
Churches. 

^^ Physicians call dark diseases which they im- 
derstand not, the Scurvy ; philosophers what they 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 109 

know not, OcuUa qualitas ; the polemic divine, 
and philosc^her, the state of the question thej 
reach not, Logomachia ; the disciplinarian divine, 
in cases which either he cannot be at pains to 
search out, or wherein he loves not to appear, flies 
to non-liquet; — all which bewray ignorance, or 
somewhat worse. Or, Sdly, they design an evasion 
from what may be objected against them, not be- 
ing careful to search out truth and duty. Yea, 
8dly, they do as really state themselves aUera 
pars J as those that declare their mind by yea or 
not ; for the non-liquet men further those that 
are for the negative; the physician falls to the 
cure of such diseases as well as if he knew what 
diseases they were, et sic de cceterls^ 

He observes, that ^^ those who are of an ambi- 
tious and aspiring spirit, can never be satisfied 
and find rest ; for though they obtain some one 
design or another, yet their aspiring spirit still cries 
Give, give, they are still a burden to themselves 
and others, and (as all designed courtiers gene- 
rally are) can never be a friend to any, further 
than may promove their own mterest and aspiring 
designs. Those two evils follow them, 1st, They 
are never content ; 2dly, They are continually in 
vexation, with the many vanities they aspire af- 
ter." 

In the last room, he notices, that ^^ whosoever 



110 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

tolerates that evil in another which is in his power 
to hinder, partakes with him in that sin. Hence 
when rulers in church or in state tolerate errors 
or ill manners which they can hinder, they are 
guilty. Outward gain to themsdves or to the 
commonwealth, wiU be no excuse. Hence when 
a heretic, schismatics, or malignants, act their wick- 
ed scenes, though within their own sphere, against 
die truth or their godly neighbours, we may 
diarge the ruler as well as them before God |for 
all that wickedness.'*' 

Those are all plain truths, generally self-evi- 
dent, and yet, I fear, very much neglected by 
multitudes. I wish the solid and judicious ob- 
server of them had left more of this nature ; and 
it should have been carefully inserted. I come now 
to add what remains of his diary ; the most ma* 
terial passages in this period are already inserted, 
and these will give a further view of the writer. 

" Anno 1690. * Toto prseterito 

More fragments ^ ^ ^ ^^ * 

of his diary. intervallo plurimis negotiis oocupatus, 
sub magna corporis infirmitate, sed spe alleviatio- 
nis a duplici opere, vel per purgationem acadc'^ 
miae, vel urbis plantationem cum pastoribus, sed 

• During all the past interval I was occupied with a mul- 
tiplicitj of afiKdrs, under much infirmitj of body, in the hope 
of my double toil being alleviated, either by the purgation 
of the College, or by the plantation of the city with pas- 



LIFB OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 11] 

hactenus spe utraque frustratus. Die 20. Octo- 
bris renovavi foedus Leyi ; me robore Christi ad- 
jutum, fideliter ac diligenter officio functurunii 
si vel ad academiam transtulerit, vel hie sine con- 
temptu retineret^ 

What follows I imagine is that from which cme 
of the former remarks is gathered ; however, I 
shall insert it. ^' * Observandum reformationem 
regularem a magistratu inchoatam multis sspe 
defeccibus laborare, ac tantum semi-reformatio- 
nem. Exempli gratia, reformatio AngUcana; d. 
militer prsesens reformatio ecclesise et scolarum 
Scotise, quousque peracta a plebe, plenaria fuit ; 
at tam cita, ac regularis evasit, immutabatur in 
semi-reformationem. 

" Plurimum spei in ecclesia nostra, ab iis pas- 
tors ; but hitherto both expectations hare been frustrated. 
On the 20ih of October I renewed the covenant of Levi, 
that, through Christ strengthening me, I would faithfUUj 
and diligently discharge the duty of my station, whether he 
translate me to the university, or continue me here with- 
out contempt. 

• It is worthy of observation, that a reformation regular- 
ly commenced by the magistrate often labours under many 
defects, and is only a half reformation ; such, for instance, as 
that of England. In like manner, the*present reformation of 
the church and universities of Scotland, so &r as conducted 
by the people, was complete ; but no sooner had it become 
r^plar, than it was converted into a half reformation. 

The hope of our church is chiefly in those ministers who 



112 I^IFB OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

t(»ribus, qui persecutionis tempestatem 30 annis 
passi ; deinde a junioribus qui sub tentationibus 
diu versati sunt, cum nullam expectationem re- 
formationis videbant, hi nuncupari possunt ihe 
Tap^swarm; ii demum qui immunes a commuiii- 
bus maculis reservati sunt. 

^^ Anno 1691* * Mirum magis magisque Jaoo- 
bitos tarn proterve morose et superdliose apicere, 
noa obstante immoderata moderatione praesen- 
tium reformatorum ; et rebus Jacobi, et Gallo- 
rum magis semper in pessum euntibus. . Miranda 
eorum malitia erga reformationem hinc apparet, 
eo quod tota ipsorum spes poni videatur in re- 
gem Gallorum, non Jacobum. Quis enim tam 
mentis inops ut credat Francum subjugaturum 

weathered the storm of a thirty years^ persecution ; after 
them, in the younger ministers who were long exercised 
with trials, while they saw no prospect of reformation ; these 
may be named the Tap-swarm; those, in fine, who. were 
kept free of the common fiiults. 

* One is more and more surprised to behold such perversi- 
ty, peevishness, and haughtiness in the Jacobites, notwith- 
standing the immoderate moderation of the present reform- 
ers ; while the affairs of James and of the French are always 
going completely to wreck. Their astonishing malignity to- 
ward the reformation appears from this, that their whole 
hope seems to be placed in the French king, not in James ; 
for who is so foolish as to believe that the king of France 
would subdue these nations to hand them over to James P 
So enslaved are they to their lusts, that they would rather 



LIPB OP PROFB880R WODROW^ 113 

has gentes, ut eas Jacobo tradat ? Adeo manci- 
pati sunt suis cupiditadbus, ut potius sese dedant 
Papfe, et Grallioo, quam Christi disciplinfls sub* 
jecti sint. 

^' Plus offendiculi dederunt Episcopaturientes 
ac maligni, his duobus annis proxime elapsis, 
quam 88 prseoedentibus ; cum ex infirmitate et 
malis prseoeptis et moribus, abducti tunc vide- 
bantur ; jam autem quasi ex nativa indinatione 
proruunt. 

^< Apostatae nostrates jam papaturientes, cum 
omnem consdentiam excussisse videntur ; non 
ampUus rationibus demonstrativis, petendi sunt : 
sed tantum arimmentis ad hominem, cuiusmodi 
sunt, imo, pi^eriani, conadentia sJastricti 

deliver themselves up to the Pope and French King, than be 
subject to the discipline of Christ. 

The conduct of the prelatic and malignant party has been 
more offensive these two years last past, than during the 
preceding twenty-eight : then they seemed to be hurried 
a^ng through infirmity, and by wicked laws and examples ; 
but now they rush on as influenced by native propensity. 

Our apostate countrymen now popiahly inclined, having 
apparently shaken off the yoke of conscience entirely, are 
no longer to be attacked with demonstrative reasons, but 
only with arguments ad hominem ; such as, 1st, Presbyte- 
rians are in conscience bound to presbytery as the only form 
of government instituted by Christ in his church ; but the 
partizans of episcopacy are not more bigotted than the Coun- 
dl of Trent, and all the modem scholastic doctors of the 



114 hJFS OF PROFBSSOB WODBOW. 

sunt j»*8esb7terio, tanquam iinica regiminis forma, 
a Christo in eoclesia sua instituta; episoopatu- 
rientes ye]!o> non magis bigoti sunt, quam Cond-* 
lium Tridentinum, et omnes doctores pondfidi 
acbdasdci modemi, qui secundum Dominum For- 
bes, in Irenico suo, presbyteratum, ordinem in 
ecclesia fundamentalem tenent. 2do, Pietas eC 
HMXrum reformatio promovoitur sub presby teratu, 
nisi in quantum episcopaturientes hisce impedi- 
mento sunt. 3tio, Impudenter et insolenter sese 
gerunt in libdilis suis, scatent mendadis ; exempli 
gratia, historia persecutionis daicOTum Scot. &c. 
^^ O I arcana sapi&itiae divinarum dispensation 
num! dupla sunt imo centupla supra id quod 
cognoscitur ; Job xi. 6. Instantiam hujus obser- 

Popisb church, who, according to Mr Forbes in his Ireni« 
cum, hold presbyters to be a fundamental order in the 
ehurch ; Sdly, Piety and reformation of manners are pro* 
moted under presbytery, unless in so &r as episcopalians 
have been a hinderance to them ; 3dly, These latter conduct 
themselves impudently and insolently in their pamphleta, 
stuffed with lies; such as ^^ An Account of the present Per- 
secution of the Church in Scotland," &c. 

O ! the depths of wisdom in the divine dispensatimia ! 
they are double, yea an hundred fold, above that which kt 
known ; Job xt 6. An instance of this may be seen in my 
tedious reading during my afflictions, which I often intend 
ed for wearing away the time ; yet, after my removal to 
Glasgow, it was of vast advantage to me in my labours both 



lilFB OF PSOFE80OB WODBOW. 115 

Tabids, in taediosa lectione mea, tempore afflictio* 
num ; quam intendebam ssepius ad tempus teteDf 
dum ; et tamen quanto usui fuit, ex quo ad Glas* 
guam perveni, in labore cum theologis, turn po^ 
pulo. Nisi Deus ita providisset, prorsus nibili 



^^ Anno 169^9 Martii 5. * (transpoitatio mea ex* 
pedita fuit a presbyterio, a civitate ad collegium 
Fdb. 24), ssepius de mutatione hac cogitans, hac 
Docte, statui et executus sum renovare ftedus cum 
Deo (more solito in quaque notabiliori sortis mu. 
tatione)) piomittens fidelem curam theologorum, 
et rogans conductum Spiritus et auxiliimi in pr»- 
fELtiooe habenda die Martii 9, ut jam intenditur.^ 
This is all remains of his diary, and leads me to 
the last period of his life. 

The public profession of divinity in the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow, in which he continued until 
his deadi : This was the only period wherein I 

«rith the students and people. Had not God made thk pro- 
vision, I should have been nothing. 

* M J translation from the cit j to the college faavii^ been 
expedited on the 24th of Februaiy, I often reflected on this 
change, and this night resolved and executed the renovation 
of my covenant with God (according to my usual practice in 
any important diange in my lot), promising fidelity in the 
oversight of the students, and b^^ging the directioii of the 
Spirit in the inaugural oration to be delivered on March 8. 



116 LIFB OF PB0FB880B WODROW. 

can say I know any thing about bim, and that 
dining the last part of it either ; and it is but 
little I can say, and less I incline to say, for about 
eleven years in which I was with him till 170S, 
when I came to be settled at Eastwood. . Till I 
came to attend upon his lessons 1695 (if I remem- 
ber), I was but young, and could not know him 
save in his family. Soon after I came out two 
summers, and was in my relation Sir John Max- 
welTs family ; and when I went in again I had 
the charge of the library six years, and was mudi 
thereby taken up with company. In short, I may 
write it with regret, that I neither remember nbr 
have improved as I ought the excellent things I 
might have during that period observed in him. 
And so it is but a very lame account I can ofifer, 
especially now that his remarks, save i^ a few 
things and diary, fail me. 

As soon as was possible considerinir 

Mr Wodiow *^ ^ ® 

g^ggjjto b^ the multiplicity of affairs after such a 
'''*^«*«y- pubUc revolution, and a tract of twen. 
ty-eight years' disorder, the visitation of Univer- 
sities was fallen about. Mr William Dunlop, my 
father's old and intimate friend, was soon placed in 
the University of Glasgow as Principal (of whom 
I design some account by himself), and he and aH 
others concerned bad their eye on my father as prob 



X.IFI OP PBOFE880R WODROW. 117 

feasor of Divinity ever lunce the Revolution ; and 
as soon as the visitation of that college was over, 
the Masters who have the election of that profes- 
sor gave him a joint call to that work, which I 
set down here frokn the original. 

<♦ We the Moderators of the Uni- 

Fofm Ok nw 

versity of Glasgow, being well satisfied «"• 
of the piety, learning, and other good endowments 
and qualifications of you Mr James Wodrow, one 
of the ministers of the gospel at Glasgow, for the 
£Edthful discharging of the office of Professor of 
Theology in this University, now vacant, do here- 
by seriously invite, call, elect, and present you 
the said Mr James Wodrow to be Professor of 
Theology in this University, and to bruick and 
enjoy all the liberties, privileges, immunities^ and 
salary, belonging, or that ought to belong, to the 
said profession ; entreating you earnestly to lay 
aside all delays of your acceptance of this our call 
and presentation ; that thereby you may have oc^ 
casion to do Gt)d) this Church and University, 
faithful fflid good service, hereby promising and 
assuring you from this University and us all 
suitable assistance land encouragement in your 
said charge. In testimony whereof, we have sub- 
scribed these presents with our hands, at the Col- 



118 LIFB OF PROFB880R WODSOW. ^ 

/ 

lege g{ Glasgow, this SSd day of Fetmiary 1^92 
years. 

Will. Dunlop, Princ, et Vic Cane. 
Jow Tean, p. p. 

JOH. BOTD, P. P. 

Geo. Sinclair, M. P. 
Jo. Law, p. P, 
Ja. Kkiblb, p. p.'' 

When this call was presented to 

Tansported * 

^^ ^^ faun, a process in common form was 
•^ ^^ raised before the Presbjrtery, for loos- 

ing his relation to the town ci Glasgow, as minis- 
ter of that city. The Presbytery had settled him 
there, only frcnn the present paucity of ministers, 
and with a reserve as to his prindpal work, the 
charge of students of divinity ; those he was to 
take with him to the university, and the matter 
was easy, though both his people and the town 
were most willing to be under his ministry ; yet 
he would not hold both charges, and so he was 
unanimously transported as above, Feb. 24. 

Being thus transported, the 9th of 

And was pub> _ , 

^adn^tted March was appomted for his puUic 
admission in the University. Accord- 
ly, he had his inaugural oration bef<»:e a large 
auditory, in the ordinary place for those appear- 
ances ; his subject was De Sacrse Scripturse Dig- 



LIFE OF PRCnraSSOB WODBOW. 119 

tiitate et Excellentia. Therein he spoke the in- 
ward sentiments of his own soul, on that whidi 
had been his own chief and principal study 
through his life, and wliich he resolved to lay 
down as the rule and foundation of all his public 
and private inquiries. Thoue^h I still 

, . , HisinauguMi 

think public discourses of this nature, o»tion' 
wherein people are limited by custom to forms, 
and confined to about half an hour, are no great 
rules whereby to judge of a person^s abilities, yet 
I have inserted it from his own papers, in the 
Appendix, No. I. as a valuable remain of this ex- 
cdlent person, (Vid. Reliquiae, Na II.) 

By this time the session of the Cdlege was 
drawing to a close ; and so I shall delay sa3ring 
any thing of his public teaching till the opening of 
the next session in October this year. He went 
on with the scholars he brought with him for the 
months remaining, in the methods he had used the 
preceding four years. 

In harvest this year, being now in a 
more public station, and having many y*^^ ^ 
strangers coming to his house, and the 
cares of a family needing a help, he a second time 
entered to a married life, and made a very happy 
chcnce for himself and his children. In Septem- 
ber he was married to Janet Luke, eldest dau^« 
ter to John Luke, merchant in Glasgow. She is 



1^ LIFB OF PBOFB880B WODBOW. 

yet alive, and her modesty and self-denial do not 
permit me to speak much of her, and I shall only 
say she is a religious, virtuous, grave, and worthy 
person ; and he lived with her till death separated 
them, in the greatest atnity and aiFection, and com- 
fort ; and she was very useful and aiFectionate to 
my brother and me, and a blessing to us. Her 
relations were of good reputation, and of the old- 
est standing in trade and business of many in 
Glasgow, and by blood and affinity related to 
most people of any fashion and continuance in 
that place : the Andersons, Grahames, Gibsons, 
Campbells, Crosses, &c. Her grandfather George 
Luke was a person of great substance and trade, 
and much solid piety, as was also his wife. Her 
father John Luke was among the first that brought 
the sugar manufactory there to a bearing and 
head. The Lord blessed him very much in his 
substance and family. He had, I think, eighteen 
children, all of them who are dead, at their depar- 
ture, and most of them through life, have given 
plain evidences of real and solid religion, and 
their well-grounded expectations of heaven ; and 
those that remain I do not question are in the 
way to it. Such instances of religion seizing a 
whole family are not very common, and therefore 
the more to be observed where they are, especial- 
ly in so numerous a family. Indeed Mr Luke, 

4 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW* 121 

their father, was one of the most eminent chri^ 
tians I have ahnost heard of. Through his life 
he was one of the closest walkers with Grod, and 
much in secret duties beyond many. He fa- 
voured, supported, and stuck by presbyterians in 
their sufferings, and suffered by impositions and 
finings very much. He was modest, private, and 
reserved in religious matters, almost to a fault ; 
but in his last sickness, and for some weeks before 
his death (1686), as his daughter my mother-in- 
law, who waited mostly on him, tells me, his tem- 
per was changed as it were, his tongue was loosed 
in public commending of religion, and in the high 
praises of his God, and speaking particularly to 
the various circumstances of those who came to 
visit him ; in short, he died in the most pleasant 
and triumphant manner one could have wished 
for^ 

By this marriafi^e the Professor had 

^ . ^^ . His cfafldm 

(besides one child who died young) *»yi»«- 
my brother John, now Doctor in Medicine in 
Glasgow, bom May 25. 1695. He and I are now 
the only remaining children of oiu* father : May 
we follow his steps, and at length obtain that hap- 
piness through Christ he is now possessed of. 

The Professor having again settled his family, 
plied himself closely to his great and important 
work when the CoUege gathered in October ; and 



122 I4FX W PBCH^BSSOB WODBOW. 

managed k this session, and till his death, with 
gcnenil stitis&cition to all concerBed, great useful- 
ness to this dhurch, and I do not question with 
the divine approbation, wliich was the great thing 
ke sought and endeavoured. 

His methdd of teaching when I was 

His method i i • i i n ▼ 

imtneDM- uHder his lessons, and, a& iar as I 
loiow^ save with some variations which 
I m«j take notice oiy wad this. He met wiih his 
sishohtrs five days every week, cmce a-day, aiid 
wh^ the multitude of students, and the taking 
their exercises, made it necessary, sometimes twice 
iMky. 

Upon Monday g^ierally smne stu- 

Mondays* 111 • 

dent h£td an exegesis upon some qoes- 
ticni in polemic divinity, in Latin (I do not mind 
we used to have any English). This was pre- 
scribed publicly some weeks before ; and the per- 
son who had it read all he could find upon that 
subject, and, if difficulties remained^ he had liber-i 
ty ci free ccmversation with the Professor in pri^ 
vdte, and then formed his thoughts accc»*ding to 
tJie method my father laid down, of which after- 
wards. This and all other discourses were deli- 
vered without reading, to habituate scholars in 
that way, though their papers were allowed to lie 
hekfpe them iii the delivery. Then the Professor 
UffttaUy eais&A the observes and eensures of the 



LIFB OF PBOFSSgOB WODBOtT. 133 

students, who were very exact and narrow m their 
remarks upon this and all other discourses b^bie 
them, both as to matter, style, and manner of de- 
Uyery. The deliyerer was allowed to make his 
defences ; and the Professor, in the last room, 
gave his obserres, and ordinarily he had little left 
to do, but give a general twut^mi *, Then the 
student took hss place and read his theses, copies 
of which had been delivered some three or four 
days before, and a few named to impugn them. 
When this was over, if the subject was of import- 
ance, my father would have made some further 
remarks for the dearing of it, if necessary, and 
desired any that had difficulties upon it to pro- 
pose them, and be answered them very shortly 
and dearly. My father used to order our exege^ 
ses so as the most important questions in the sys- 
ttan 'W&t prescribed during one session, as far as 
could be reached. I shall only add, that he still, 
aflter the discourse was over, called for a clean co- 
py (tf it from the deliverer, which he kept, and, 
by 9ii&c consideration of their discourses, formed 
Ms judgment oi the scholars, gave them his ad- 
vices iXk private, and granted his testimonials. 

On Tuesday we had English dis- 
courses,^ generally two, a lecture and a 
homily, or a presby terial exercise both parts of it, 

* Judgmeoi. 

f2 



124 IfXFB OF PBOFSSSQR WODBOW. 

and sometimes a popular sermon, and at othar 
times a catechetical sermon^ As texts for these 
homilies, he went through most of PauFs Epistles., 
and in lectures much of the -Scriptures, for he still 
prescribed a whole chapter. . Those were strictly 
caisured as above, and copies deUvered in. 

On Wednesdays, when the Presby- 

Wedoflidays* 

tery met, we had no meetings in the 
divinity-hall, for, in a particular manner, my far- 
ther urged the theologues to wait on judicatories, 
and observe the forms and reasonings there. And 
before he was transported to the college, as soon 
as they had their particular and general session 
formed in Glasgow, he procured an apt of the 
general session, before whoi^ then much of their 
discipline came, allowing the students of divinity 
to be present in all processes of discipline. When 
the Presbytery did not meet, for many years my 
father taught Hebrew, of which he was peculiar- 
ly master, and the study of which he pressed up- 
on his scholars with much earnestness, and some 
other incid^:ital things, as Scripture chroQology, 
&c ; and .that day generally he dictote or gave 
some of the studoits his copy of the methods and 
other things he wrote, to diq^te to the scholars. 
- On Thursday (and sometimes Tues- 
day also) in forenoon, after sermon in 
the dty, Scripture doubts were handled^ some- 



LIFB OF PBOFE880B WODftOW. 135 

times dictated and given out to some one or two 
to consult commentaries and critics, and form an- 
swers ; and sometimes, but that was generally I 
think (HI the Thursdays, both forenoon and after- 
noon, the answers were brought in and read be- 
fore the Professor and the scholars, and he gave 
his judgment on what was brought in, and his 
own answers. This was one of the peculiar 
things he pressed on his schdars to be exact in, 
understanding Scripture difficulties. And I find 
by his papers, that he has gone through almost 
the whole Scripture with Iiis students. In the 
afternoon scmietimes he took English exercises, 
because those were much more niunerous, and ne- 
cessary to habituate students in than the Latin. 
And I think it was this diet that now and then, 
twice or thrice in a session or oftener, he took in 
the performances he termed Skeletons. His me- 
thod was this : He divided the meeting in four 
parts, we were frequently fourscore, and to every 
part he prescribed a text ; the subject was gene- 
rally practical and plain ;• and obliged every one 
of that class to bring in, in write, all the materiid 
parts of a homily or sermon upon that te^t, not 
exceeding .what might be read in a quarter of an 
hour or less. This was delivered in by every one 
in write, sighed. He would have caused read one 
of them on each text if time allowed, and took the 



196 LIFB OF PB(»*BS80B WODBOir. 

rest vkh him. This was both a personal and a 
kind of comparative trial, and gave him views of 
the capacities of his scholars, being three or four 
timeis repeated every session. 

Upon Friday we ardniaiily had tibe 
throngest and latest meetings. That 
day the Professor explained Wendetine^s System. 
He had it so divided as he went throu|^ ^ whole 
every session. He prescribed eight days beCore 
what period he was to explain, and ordered all the 
students to read it dosdy, and w^hat other books 
they had upon that subject, and be ready to be 
interrogated by him upon the principal matter in 
that subject. And he used to parcel out some 
other books that handled the subject he was to 
be upon, to eight or ten students of the longest 
standing in the hall, and ordered one, ixx in- 
stance, to read Turretine, another Chamicr, an* 
other Voetius, another Walaeus, &c. and to be in 
a readiness to give 9ixv account of what those 
authors had different from Wendeiine, and what 
he said in explication of lum ; and others of the 
ddest standing ordinarily were ordered to nead 
BdUannine, Socinus, Arminius, Limborch, and 
oth^ adversaries of the received doctrine, ^lat 
they nught be ready to propose their strongest 
difficulties and objections. After he had read 
and explained as he found necessary Wendelme^ 



LIPB OF PSOFSaeOA W02>]IQW. 127 

System, he used to call for the additions f]«oin 
other writers he had directed to, aiMi then to c^ 
for the ot]gectk)ns of adversaries, and answer tbem 
with much solidity ; and tlien he gave liberty to 
the students to propose thdr scruples or diffi* 
culties upon any part of the subject that remained 
dark to them, generally in liatin, but sometimes 
he allowed them to propose in English (because 
iCHne were hampered in expressing themselves in 
Latin) what remained dark to them. 

The Saturday he left for meetings 
among the students themsdives, for ^"' 

prayer, conference, and answering cases on pra&r 
tical subjects, in difiereat societies into which the 
students classed themselves. Those private cAm- 
tian meetings, I may term them, were, tor some 
years after I entered to the divinity lessons, the 
pleasantest and most useful (for our souls) that 
we had. The members prayed by turns, three 
or four at a meeting, and more upon private fast 
days, before sacraments, and other extraordinary 
occasions. In the intervals of prayer, practical 
cases, which had been {proposed to the members 
of the meeting to have th^ thoughts on, were 
answered, one or two at first, for the present sa- 
tis&cdon of real soul distress, without writing any 
thing on it, unless the party ccmcemed saw fit to 
take notes of the answers, or the meeting to record 



128 LIFE OF PROFBSSOB WODBOHr. 

them ; and a third case, the answers to which 
were recorded by the clerk of the meeting, and 
by the preses and him, drawn up i« m«ndo, and 
afterwards read, and, after correction, insert in a 
register the sentiments of all the meeting upon the 
subject proposed, taken as they sat. Ten, twelve, 
or fourteen were ordinarily present, and generally 
very great satisfaction was given in the head un- 
der consideration. For three or four years after 
I came to be a member of these meetings, there 
was much christian freedom used ; nothing was 
ever carried out of our meetings ; we were all like 
brethren, and deeply concerned to give satisfao- 
tion to one another^s difficulties. But in a little 
time matters altered; many of the elder and 
graver students left us, and entered upon their 
trials ; many strangers came, with whom the same 
freedom could not be used ; and the gravity and 
real concern in one another came to lessen, and a 
levity, and even some measure of untendemess, 
in some began to appear ; and so we came to have 
but one private and two publick, as we termed 
them. At length all the three turned to be pub- 
lick, that is, the answers writ down and put in a 
shape, and read and approven by the next meet- 
ing. And monthly, we had a general society of 
the three, four, or five private societies, where the 
cases or answera to practical questions in divinity. 



LIFB OF PR0FE880B WODBOW. 126 

drawn up by the particular meetings, were read,' 
and, when approven, were inserted in a book in an 
alphabetical ordar ; and when I left the lessons, 
the societies had got the length of die letter S. 
' In an alphabetical list of practical heads which 
had been formed, all the questions and answers 
to them were fairly Writ out in three little folio 
books. The generality of those cases and an* 
swers were extremely well done ; there were in- 
deed some inequality among them, by reason of 
the different abilities of the preses who first formed 
them, but, generally speaking, I do think, as far 
as that design went, it was one of the most solid 
and judicious systems of cases and practical divi- 
nity that hath been gathered ; what is now be- 
come of them I know not. 

Besides those meetinips, my father 

^ ' -^ HfaCoUegium 

had another, that he kept once a-wedt privatum. 
for some years with eight or ten of the students 
of the best capacity ^d eldest standing, in bis 
chamber, which he termed his collegium priva- 
tum. This was just a friei;ully and familiar con- 
versation on the more abstruse and knotty subjects 
of divinity, for an hour or two, and there all free- 
dom was used in propounding and answering dif- 
ficulties of all kinds, and discoursing on such sub- 
jects as were thought proper, and that lay out of 

F 5 



ISO hsg% or PBOFSSeOH wojdaow. 

tbe common and ordiairy road. This was ex- 
tremely useful and mstrvictive. 
^^ Under aU this ptuis takeu upon 

Students pro- * * , 

^g^g^^ the fitudents, any that had a capaei- 
v^coQva. jy f^^ ^j indinatioa to, karaing, 

could not but pcofit yery much, by 
dw blessmg oi God, and yet I had particuhur oc- 
oasion to observe, and severals have told me, that 
they thou^t they had as much benefit by the 
frequent conversation the Professor allowed thou 
with him in private, as by any part of his pains. 
Indeed, he had a peculiarly happy talent that 
way, and at all hours allowed his scholars to eome 
and visit him, and receive his directions as to 
the method of their studies, and propound their 
doubts and questions to him ; and those that ei- 
ther through modesty, or otherwise, did not use 
to visit him, he would have called to him, at par- 
ticular times. Tlien it was, wh^i alone with hira, 
that he knew most <^ them, and used much free- 
dom with them as to their soul and spiritual con- 
cerns, and applied himself to them in private di- 
rection, reproof and comfort, as he found cause ; 
and from those private ccmversations, with his 
observations at other times, he made his judg- 
ment of them, when to recommend them to pasa 
trials ; in recommending them to families, and 



LIPS OF PBOFBaSOIi WODB0V. 131 

Other posts, and granting testunonials, in all which 
he was most tender and conscientious. 
This was his method, as feir as I 

n Meeting once 

can now, after twenty years, recover a-wediimi»« 

•' * vacation. 

it, during the sitting of the College, 
and even in the summer vacaticxi, because there 
were several students who staid even then in town. 
He used to convene them in his own room once 
ar-week, and take English exercises from th^oa, 
and give them directions in their studies. . 

During some years after his admis- 
sion to the divinity chair, he had pub*- i9ct£«f for 

' someyeaw. 

lie discourses and prelections, which he 
delivered viva voce to his scholars once or oftener 
a-week. These cost him a great deal of reading, 
and in them he .epdeavoured to set the subject he 
undertook in the plainest light he could. I have 
them all in his last draught of th^n fairly writ 
out ; and were I to be a judge of what he has done, 
they deserve to be communicate to the world, and 
I doubt not but they would stand the test of this 
learned age. But I know he never had any de- 
sign to publish them faimsidf, and they are upoa 
scholastical subjects which lie not in t^e way of 
many. I shall only here set down the titles of 
them. Praelectiones viva, voce habitar 1693, 1694. 
DeVeritate. De Falsitate. De Veradtate. De 
Mendacio et FaUacia. De lUtionia humane mar 



132 LIFE OF PB0FE8S0R WODBOW. 

tura^ et variis de ea controversiis inter authores 
agitatis. Oratio de methodo Studii Scholastid 
in genere. Orationes de Exercitatione ad Pieta^ 
tern ad 1 Tim. iv. 7. Some of these are large 
and learned tractates upon the subjects named, es- 
.pecially that De Ratione humana, and contain 
many sheets in write. 

He himself told me more than once, that he 
would have gone on in these public prelections 
and discourses, but he found them very useless 
among his scholars, and when he examined them 
upon the subjects he had handled, he found they 
minded very little of what had been delivered. 
This made him very much afterwards against all 
such public discourses by teachers in universities, 
as what did not answer tlie ends proposed by them, 
and what had a great deal more of a parade and 
form than usefulness going along with them. 

Accordinscly, he laid aside that way 

His methodi & J^ J 

Sd'djSSSf' ^^^^ *^ 1®9^> ^"^^ ^^ *"^ *^^ ™^" 

"^ thod I have described, which, with 

little variation, he kept by till his death; and 
drew up his methods of studying, and of the exer- 
dses he used in his divinity hall in writ, and dic- 
tated compendsof them at first as rules, and then 
gave them the larger tractates to copy. I shall 
give some further account of these afterwards^ 
among the works he has left. 



LIFE OF PBOFESSOB WODBOW. 133 

I think I can scarce end this head 

logues. 



f 1 i. 1 • 1-1 '^ advicei 

of the manner of his teaching: better tothexheo- 



than with some hints out of some short 
papers of advices to the Theologues, which I find 
among his loose papers. I remembler his custom 
was, both at the first meeting of a session in the 
College, after prayer, with which he still began, 
to entertain the students with a serious pathetical 
discourse in English as to their souls^ concerns, 
and religion in the general, salvation-work, and 
their studies ; and ordinarily at dismissing his 
scholars, immediately before prayer, with whidi 
he still ended all his meetings, he had another dis- 
course. In some of these I have observed him 
particularly afiectionate and serious, and he had 
a way of intermixing passages concerning the lives 
of our eminent Christians and ministers, most ap- 
posite to what he was upon, which were extreme- 
ly moving. Before he went out, he took some 
hints of what he was to say at those times, and 
set them down in scraps of paper, very short, not 
the tenth part of what he was to deliver ; for he 
would have sometimes been near half an hour in 
these discourses. From. his broken hints, I shall 
take notice of what follows, just as they lie, with- 
out any order ; for I love to give every thing in 
his own words as far as I can. 



134 X«IFB OF PBOFXtlSOR WOOBOW. 

^ ,_ In October 1696, " he tdls them, 

Odobsr 1005* 

that till their condisciples come up in 
November, he will dictate to them a compend of 
the directions about the method of their studies, 
whidh he had oken delivered to them viva voce 
wkm together in public, and severally in private, 
adding, but because vox audita pent litera scripta 
masiet^, therefore I have once for all (to save 
time in public) resolved to give you a short copy 
of them in -write. You may remember I have 
UAd you, diat the school learning of humanity 
and philosophy is of perpetual use to you, and 
that things more necessary must be preferred to 
things less necessary, and a competency of them 
kept by repetition as subservient to your main 
deeiga.'^ When the convention waa full, he gives 
them directions as to their behaviour in the divi^ 
nity Hall, that they come timeously ; that there 
be no private talkings ; that none speak till call- 
ed ; that a copy of every public discourse be given 
to him immediately upon the delivery, that he 
foay preaaiitly look upon it when any debate arises, 
or confer with them in private on it ; and some 
others needless to insert. 

_ An. 1697, he advises them ** to give more 
time to the reading of the holy Scriptures, 

* A word spoken is transient, a word written is perma* 
nent 



UFS OF FSOFS890]! WOPROW. 135 

2 Tim. ill. £. Keepwhstyouhav^leftmed^STiinu 
ill. 14. Non juiaor «8t virtus, quam quserere, 
peritetueii*« There a»inaiiyixttstake8 here, such 
as tldnking if once you are mastics of what you 
are kaming, you will not forget k ; and that when 
you are making some progress in your studies, 
it is below you either to gire or taJkie account of 
yourselves, as to what you formeriy have learned 
and understood. 

• << In your reading many authors csi the same 
subject, labour to keep a right method, else you 
will soon fall into confusion ; for instance, in read- 
ing several systems of divinity, make yourself 
master of one of them before you read the rest. 
Thereafter, you may read as many others as are 
needful, with advantage. The same will hoLd as 
to particular heads of doctrine. 

" Do not satisfy yourselves with a superficial 
and indistinct knowledge of what you read ; but 
continue to read and meditate on what you are 
about, till you have some sadsfstction on each 
pcdnt, before you go on to anotha*. 

^^ Be much and frequent in revising what you 

have formerly read and received ; and at every re*- 

vising, make some r^ecdons on what you have 

received only fide humana -[*, and by education, 

* It is no less meritorious to preserve acquisitions than 
to acquire them. 

t By human testimony. 



£36 LIPS OF PBOFESBOB WODBOW. 

and what truths you have receiyed upon their 
own evidence, et fide divina *, and consequently, 
observe carefully, what tenets of the common opi- 
nion, both among philosophers and divines, ap- 
pear groimded on self-evidence and the Scrip- 
tures, and are to be received fide divina, and what 
not ; particularly what of the commonly received 
opinions are sound or unsound, appear rational, 
or imply absurdities, are christian, or only handed 
down to us from pagans, and schoolmen, in many 
respects worse than pagans.^ 

Anno 1698, ^^ That you may advance in 
your studies, and thereby in due time come 
to serve God and your generation, according to 
his will, in the station you design, there are seve- 
ral things needful to be seriously minded by you, 
relative to yourselves, your studies, and your con- 
verse. 

>^ As to yourselves, 1 . Make your calling and 
election sure ; if you be not friends to the Mas- 
ter of the house, what confidence can you have to 
be stewards therein, ^dly, Be clear about your 
call, Heb. V. 4, 5. ; Josh. i. 5, 9. ; Gen. xxxii. 9. ; 
Jo. viii. 29. 3dly, Be deliberate and fixed in 
the dedication of yourselves to that work you are 
called unto, Luke ix. 6S. 4thly, Be students in 
holiness. Let this study be intermixed with all 

* By divine testimony. 



LIFB OF FB0FE8S0B WODBOW. 13? 

Other studies, and preferred to all others. Holi- 
ness becometh thy house for ever, O Lord, Psal. 
xciii. 5. ; eminent and exemplary holiness is call- 
ed for and expected from you, Math, v. 18, 16. 

" As to your studies, revise what you learned, 
and read frequently. Whatever you neglect, for- 
get not your pensum quotidianum lectionis bibli- 
cae *, Ps. i. 2, 8. Be acquainted well with the ori- 
ginals, and authentic editions of the Old and New 
Testament. I know not how any Christian scho^ 
lar can have peace, or how a minister can be con- 
scientious about his work, that is ignorant of these, 
or expect success in dependence upon God, when 
he sinfully neglects this principal mean of all 
sound and saving knowledge and practice, ^rite 
sermons that you hear : this was a good old cus- 
tom, both of religious gentlemen and pious scho- 
lars. In revising what you have gone through, 
make reflections on, and a distinction betwixt the 
truths you have received from self-evidence et 
jide divina^ and those you have drunk in only 
^fide humana^ and as the common opinion. In 
short, in all your studies, mind those things most 
which are to continue with you in heaven. Math, 
vi. 19-21. and v. 38. 

** As to your converse, be dvil and discreet to 
all, but familiar and intimate only with the true 

* Daily task of reading the Scriptures. 



)38 MVB OF PBOFB860B WODBOW. 

feai^rs of Grod. Visit ministers frequently, as 
becomes the sons of the prophets. Make a wise 
choice of some few of your condisciples and others, 
for friendly communication of your thoughts and 
doubts. Endeavour to have fdiowsbip with some 
smd-esercised private Christians, where you will 
leara many things which you will nether &oA in 
books ncMT from learned men. In your converse 
delight most in the company of those whom ye 
hope to be with to all eternity, and conv^'se with 
those here most, that you think will be your com- 
panicsis in heaven* Beware of indiscreet visiting 
one another at your chambers. There are two 
kinds of visits : one oi dvility, which need to be 
only at the time of your gathering and departing 
from the University ; the other is of familiar 
friendship and intimacy. In these many exceed 
in frequency, and thereby much predous time is 
wasted, and stolen foully from more necessary 
work ; and an excess here may be also in their 
nnseajBonableness, when in the forenoon, or after 
six at night.'" 

Anno 1699, ^' mind the one tiling need- 
ful, Luke X. 41. and that in the first place, 
and by way of express intention, Math. vL 38. 
In your minding any end and design in the 
world, be sure it be in subordination thereunto ; 
especially your dunce of your station and eondi- 



tion of Jtife. Fonda: seriotidy what station or oe* 
cupation offering itsdtf to you may mo&t contri-* 
bute for your salvation, and will most further it^ 
and let that be laid hcid of. Upon tMs head you 
may obeerve, that it will be better for you to be 
choaen thereto, than peraofiptorily to choice it, or 
to be passive than to be active (PaaL xlvii. 4. Choose 
out for me the lot of mine inheritance) ; only ly- 
ing in the way <^ God's call, by a diluent use c£ 
the means fitting you thereunto. 

^^ In your life and ccmversation in the world, 
endeavour to ke^ a strict watdi, and make a nar^ 
row account of the rule, end, and nu^ner of all 
your actions, 1 Pet. iv. 3-17. Be severely cau- 
tious, 1st, That the mind of God and his will be 
your rule in all thii^s, and not the oj^icm or will 
of mean, far less your own ; etiam in moralibus, 
dvilibus et naturalibus *, as they are eommonly 
distinguished, a supematuralibus et s^ritualibu3*f . 
2dly, That God'^s gl<»ry9 aiid not your own, be 
your end. 3dly, That you do notUng upon your 
own strength, but, on the strength of Christ, nor 
do it unto God immediately, but in manu media- 
toris J, Jo. XV. 4.; Eph. ii. 1.; GaL iii. 19.; 1 Tim. 
ii. 5. As thare is no strength in us to do any 
thing acceptable to God, so there is and can he 

* £ven IB things xnorsl* dvil and natuxaL 
t F^om 9upeni|itttral an4 spirituaL 
X In the hand (^ the Mediator. 



140 LIFB OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

no acc^tance of us or what we do but in a me- 
diator, Heb. xii. 29. with Math, iii 17. ; 2 Cor. 
V. 9- ; Eph. 1. 6.^ 

Anno 1701, ^^ A compend of the duties 
1701. . . ^ 

of a Christian, or the whole duty of cdian, 
may be summed up in those two — to work out his 
own salvation with fear and trembling, Phil. ii. 
12. — and to serve his generation according to the 
will of God, Acts xiii. 96. So likewise the great 
dexterity of Christian students is, so to order 
their studies, as the work of their salvation, and 
the work of their generation or particular station, 
their general or particular calling, do not inter- 
fere, but be duly subordinate the one to the other, 
so that the one do not jostle the other out. Gkxl 
hath ordered our happiness and the way to it, our 
diief end, and the means leading thereunto ; so 
that there is a sweet consistency between both. 
Our being exercised unto godliness doth not hin- 
der our being exercised and busy in our particu- 
lar calling. God requireth both at our hands, 
and each of thir are mutually helping one to an- 
other. 

^^ The command, indeed, calls for a due dis- 
tinction as to the order and moment of them, 
Math. vi. 83.; Luke x. 41.; therefore mind the 
one thing needful, in the first place, and that by 
way of express intention. It is true the school- 



LIFE OF FAOFE860B WOPBOW^ 141 

jxiea talk of a virtual, habitual, or interpretative 
intention, as sufficient about our chief end. There 
is a difference betwixt the state and frame of a 
believer : the virtual and implicit intention may 
be a mark of a person^s being in a spiritual state, 
but an explicit and actual intention is our duty, 
and therefore required for our comfort, and to a 
right frame. 

^' Again, all other things that fall in by way of 
means, in order to our chief end, should be va- 
lued by us according to their fitness hereimto, ac- 
cording to that common maxim of our moraUsts, 
Finis ponit mediis modum et mensuram, conciliat 
etiam ipsis amorem *." 

At another time, without any date, 
he directed the students in the manner 
of their delivery as follows : ^^ Root out self-seek- 
ing, and have as little of self as you can, especial- 
ly in the delivery : nothing is more abominable in 
itself to God and man, than to see a man wrest- 
ling for himself in the pulpit, S Cor. iv. 5. 

" Have your Master in your heart and eye, 
and do all in his name, and for his sake, as in the 
last cited scripture. 

^< Let the manner of doing be suitable to the 
work, design and master of it. That is, 1st, With 

* The end fixes the manner and measure of the means, 
and coDciHates love to them. 



142 LIFB W PBOFE8SOB W9i>BOW. 

aM gravity : ^j, with all audiority : 8dlj, with 
distinctBess, wher^ three things besides others 
are to be adverted to, I. An audible voice; 2. 
Neither too swifit not too slow, though rather slow 
than swift ; S. No more matter than you cm make 
so foil and pkm in amplij6eati(H3, as all sorts €i 
hearers m&y take it up^ and most part remember 
the heads of it. For to have more distmet heads 
than an ordinary memory can retain, is to beat 
upon the air ; and to deliver faster of mc^e heads 
than are made plain, is obruere non instruere *. 

^ Let there be neither stops nor indecencies of 
the voice in delivery. Let the voice be whole, 
equal, and audible. All the foresaid may fait im- 
der a suitable pronunciation. That the voice be 
audible, whole through, and equal, rightly pomted 
and pathetic. Where these are, affections wfll 
break forth generally, love, joy, courage, aaad a 
ooncem^g zeal, or zealous seriousness, as being 
concerned! l)Oth with the matter spoken, and for 
the good of the hearers. 

At another time, the year not named. 

At another 'J y 

***• I find to this purpose, ^* There are 

some things you may be in pursuit of, iduch 
are to be preferred to others in point of exoellen. 
cy, of necessity, and in respect of bo(^. In pcant 
of excellency^ universal learning, and knowledge 
of all things, either of natijure or art la fxiiiit of 
• To confound, not to instruct 



LIFB OF PROFEfiSOB WODSIOm 148 

neceasitj, a competency of kiiowledge, in the best 
and most necessary oi things, to our present con- 
dition, design and capacity. In respect of both, 
knowledge of God, Christ and ourselves, peace 
with God, and the practice of piety. 

^^ Some things that are mean in respect of ex- 
cellency, must be prefenred, in point of necessi^ 
and use, to things far more excellent, yea to the 
most excellent things. Thus as a righteous blessed 
life is to be preferred, in point of exoellaicy, and 
also in regard of design and ine^tion to life ; yet 
because the first cannot be without the second, 
therefore care of life must precede even the eare 
of righteousness and blessedness, in respect of 
time and work ; and so provision of food and rai- 
ment for maintaining of Ufe, in respect of necessi- 
ty, is preferred to aU, and must faswe llie first , 
place in our endeavour ; and whosoever falls about 
the practice of virtue and pety , so as to take no 
care as to the maintencmce of life, proceeds pre- 
posterously, and will mar both. 

<^ A good mem(n*y and judgment, with rnueh 
reading, leads a man to acccmifdishments, satisfy- 
ing to himself and to the judiciouB. But the 
greatest learning and parts are of no account with 
the vulgar, imless there be a plausiUe pronuncia- 
tion and expression suited to their fancy, i e. 
prompt, pathetic, &c. 



144 LIFE OF PBOPE880B WODBOW. 

^^ Promptitude, then, in the three principal 
languages, with the technologemata * of philoso- 
phy and divinity, brings a person in vogue and 
some repute for learning among learned men; 
but promptitude in lingua vemacula -|- does this 
among the vulgar: and therefore such as are 
talkative, et maxime loquaces j, are the darlings 
of the vulgar. 

^^ Promptitude being necessary for communi- 
cating learning to others, therefore revising and 
repetition are most necessary, and one of the best 
parts of learned men^s diUgence.^ 

Those are but memorandums the Professor 
dashed down of what he was to speak to the theo- 
logues at the opening, and sometimes the dismis« 
sion, of his annual meetings ; and in his delivery 
he enlarged on them, and illustrated them from ex- 
amples and instances, and added many things now 
lost; yet broken and imperfect as they are, I 
thought they deserved a room here. 

Having thus run through the ge- 

icai in. neral method of his teaching, and his 



advices, I shall only add, that under 
his direction, the students were at some pains to 
make collections for two indexes, which were of 
no small use for their direction and help in their 

* Terms of art f One*s native language. 

X And most loquacious. 

3 



LIFK OF PaOFESSOB WODBOW. 145 

studies. The one was polemical, and the other 
practical ; a good many hands were used in ma- 
king collections for them, but the forming and 
completing of them was my elder brother^s work, 
whose [diligence and industry was indefatigable. 
The originals of both are in my hands, and a copy 
of the practical index was transcribed for the use 
of the students, and lies in the library. The 
theologues were employed at their spare hours to 
come to the library, and went through all the 
books that handled theological subjects, either by 
the by or directly as systems ; particular tractates, 
polemical, problematical, and didactical ; these 
were all indexed, and reduced to a scheme of 
questions under each common head in divinity, 
formed by my father, but vastly enlarged from 
the perusal of so many writers ; to which we add- 
ed aU that were wanting in the pubUc library, and 
to be found in the libraries in town and the neigh- 
bourhood. To each question the authors with 
edition and page were added^ as they could be 
best reduced under the heads of Wendeline^s Sys- 
tem. Many thousands of writers that handle the 
particular subjects and questions are collected. 
And the same way was taken (mutatis mtdamUs) 
in the practical index for practical divinity ; only 
that was put in an alphabetical order. My bro- 
ther and I, while in the library, added some thou- 



146 liiFS OF vwxFKaBcm woKaiow. 

sands, ci writers to Crowe'» Catakguc; ia Englisby 
and his Latin one. But those sobieets: are aliU 
growing and endless. 

I remember for aone yeora aCber 
t999imS^^ Mr Wodcow^s settteoaent in the ool- 

R^gisteft' of 

^^j^^ lege^ be urged anieh in Presbjirtaies 
and Synods that pains should be used 
to recover the r^jstecs of sessions, presbyletiesy 
and synods^ as^ far back as might be since the re- 
fonnation^ This iras a dtfficnk work, and rery 
little progress made ia it. During the late un- 
happy times of jvc lacy^ die £Qrmer regist^^ ge- 
nerally caiae into the hands of the bishops and 
curates : they took no* care of them, and it was 
hard now to trace them out, and except in some 
few instances where poverty made them take a 
little money for them, few were reeoverecL And 
I doubt ministers and presby teriea ware* also a Iktie 
too negli^m in this matter. 

April 16d4^whea, if I mistake noi,: 
^S^^ Principal Dimlop was at London, b€tk 

duatlonl©4. -r ir -^ 

QD the diurdb'^s and coUcge affiuvs, tise 
public laureation, which wa& gone about in the 
Tron Cburdb m Glasgow,, for this time fell on 
the Professor, who had a commission sent luia 
to act as the Vke-Chancellor of the University. 
He was averse from all such public shews, but 
wbcsi oUaged to manage them, he did it 



LIFK OP PAOPBeSOB WODBOHr. 14? 

much learmDg, seriousnmy and grdvi- 
tf' He had a discourse to the candi- ^ ai* cmmu- 
dates^ whidi left fiotne impresrions up^- 
o» some who heard it, upon the dangers and du- 
ties of youth when leaving the university, which 
being a subject as ringular as necessary, I have 
inserted it, App. No. II. Oratio hortatcma ad 
magisterii candidatos, jdmjam kurea donandas, 
el magistros creandos ; Glasg. Ap. 10. 169^ *. 

The students of divinity at this time, 
and for several years following, I may SSSSf Z 

11 . . , ^ . • moret!han700 

say all the eifi^it or mne years I was afterwards mi. 

Jo J Mfeter* hare 

present, were very num^^us; so that, ^wMtorwa 
as I have elsewhere taken notice, my 
ftrtber had the honour to be employed in forming 
aa many of such as afterwards have be^ em^ 
ployed in the ludy ministry as maay, if not any 
ever in this churdv. His highly valued friend 
Mr G. Campbell, px^fessc^ at Edinburgh ^ and he 
fer some years bad upon the matter the whole of 
the youth who had their eye to puUic j. service, 
under them. The other universities were either not 
p«irged or lay remoter, and wanted fnany advan- 
tages tibBt Edifnburgh and Glasgow have. I once 
made a catculation from the Professor^s roHs for 
fourteen or rixteen years^ and found near TOOi, 
afterwards ministers, who had been at my father^s 

* TiAt ha» n«t "been reetnrered. 

g2 



148 lilFB OF PROFS880B WODBOHr. 

lessons. Several of those no doubt were likewise at 
other universities also, and in this reckoning I omiu 
ted the students from Ireland and England, which 
I may moderately reckon towards SOO ; and even 
at this very time there are still living some hun- 
dreds of (I hope) worthy, painful, and pious mi- 
nisters and preachers, who owe some part of their 
instruction to him ; and with them I know his 
memory is savoury. But many are got to hea- 
ven, and rest from their labours, and their works 
follow them. 

My father was much weighted un- 

tyoft^JSp^" ^^^ ^^s great work, and the nume- 
'^iS^uni: rous charge. He stiU thought it too 
great a work for one man, and wished 
that since in foreign universities there are in some 
four, and in all two or more, professors of Divi- 
nity, that in Scotland there might at least be two. 
This he judged was both necessary for the church, 
and would be for the reputation of the nation. 
He used to say, that the public and ordinary 
forms of teaching might be cursorily gone through 
by one ; but he still reckoned these to be the 
smallest part of a professor^s work,->— conversa- 
tion with, and particular dealing with, students 
was a work of far greater use, and time also. 
And besides, professors of divinity ought to have 
time to write, and give their thoughts (if need 



LIFS OF PBOFB880B WODBOW. 149 

were) upon things of a more public concern, and 
be ready to repress error and vindicate the church 
and truth against enemies. Whereas now, in our 
present circumstances, there is nobody almost to 
engage in these, at least with such advantages as 
otherwise they might have. It is true Principals 
ex officio are professors of divinity ; but, generally 
speaking, unless at Edinburgh where the Town are 
patrons, they are so involved in the civil affairs of 
the college, that they have little time for any 
other things. 

The necessity of this he uri?ed be- 

, Easays for a 

fore his admission to the office of pro- ^colleague, 
fessor, especially at Glasgow, where in the former 
presbyterian times there were two professors of 
divinity ; and had groimds given him to expect a 
colleague, there being a probable way of a fund 
for two ; and in King William^s gift to that Uni- 
versity, there was at first (I know not how it is 
since) a clause appropriating a sufficient salary 
for a second professor ; but that was afterwards 
(though it was said only to be designed for a sea- 
son) applied to bursars of divinity, who were to go 
abroad. I mind of no steps taken for settling a col- 
league to him, save one about the 1694, if I re- 
member, and the person he pitched on was the 
reverend and worthy Mr G. Meldrum, „ ^ 

■^ Mi Owrgtt 

afterwards professor at Edinburgh, MeWrum. 



150 LtvB or paopE«8oa wodbow. 

and thenminister at Kilwinning. A prpceoi of 
transportadoa wai raised befoi^ the Presbytery 
and Synod, but the town of Edinbui^ gave him 
about the same time a call to be one of their mi- 
nisters, and their circumstances at that time were 
ao clamant that he was taken to Edinbuigh, and 
my father disappointed. He still urged a colleague, 
and complained to his dear friend Mr Dunlop ; and 
save in this, I believe there was never a complaint 
betwixt them, diat he was not so forward in that 
affair as he wished. But nothing this way was 
done till the 1705 and b^inning of the 1706, when 
a call was £dven to my elder brother to 

Mr Alexander , ^ ^ 

wodnm. \^ his fath^T^s cc^league, which came 
before the Presbytery, and by them was referred 
to the Synod, who would undoubtedly have trans, 
ported him to that charge, but his much lament* 
ed death before their meeting prevented this, and 
sent him to higher and far more glorious work. 

Thus for about fifteen years he hiu 

His close study , , i • i 

brought on the boured in this sreat work without a 

graveL o 

colleague, so much desired by him ; 
and during this period of his life I have very 
little further to take notice of in these papers, in 
which I have confined myself to facts, and the 
principal events of his life. His close application 
to his work, and his hard study and sedentary 
life, at length brought him under the sore distem- 



I4IFJI OF PBOFfiBaOft WODSOW. 161 

per oi the gravel. At first Che fits of it w^e ex* 
traordioarily severe^ and abundant mattar for the 
exercise of ihMt angular patience the Lord had 
endued him with. Afterwards tb^ turned more 
frequent) and a Jittk more easy, thoi^h still very 
distressing. During the last ten or twdve years 
of his life he was very mudhi confined to his house 
and the divimty-Jiall, and came very little abroad, 
save in the sunmiear he would walk a little in the 
college garden. It was many a time his prayer, 
that, if consistent with the Divine will, he might 
not be called into eternity imder the rack of the 
gravel, and he had this his desire granted, and 
his passage was short and mudi easier than be ex- 
pected. 

When in the years 1698 and 1699, 
the design of printing a national system S^ST^Sm 
OI philosophy was on toot, and persons 
were named, by the commission for visiting univer- 
^ties in ev^y college, ftxr forming the different parts 
of that system, to be printed and tau^t in every 
college, his heart was mudi set to forward that 
matter, so as it might answer the valuable ends 
ptopoised. I can give litde account of this pro- 
ject, and shall only say it proved abortive, and 
nothing was brought to any public bearing. I 
remember Mr John Tran at Glasgow was eoK 
ployed to form the ethics, and I think Mr Black 



152 lilFB OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

at Aberdeen the physicks ; both were drawn up, 
and I read them, but they did not take, and were 
not printed. I doubt not but the other parts 
were also formed, but the matter dropped. I 
find a letter upon this subiect from 
Se*DamJ£ "worthy Principal Dunlop (whose death 
condenmandn. ^j Dr Rule's uot long after this I be^ 
lieve much contributed to the dropping of this 
design), dated February 16999 which, with the 
Dogmata condemnanda, and my father^s additions, 
I have inserted, App. No. III. (Reliquiae, p. 373. 

374.).* 

The Professor's thoughts ran higher 

this and the than oulv the reformatil)n of philoso- 

lawofnature. •' *^ 

phy, though he was very earnest to 
have that begun with ; yet he was for carrying 
the work further, as I shall after observe. How- 
ever, because it relates in part to the national sys- 
tem now on foot, I shall next insert a letter of 
my father's, which I am sorry breaks o£F abrupt- 
ly, and is not completed upon that design and the 
law of nature ; App. No. IV. (Reliquiae, p. 355.) * 
Whether it was designed to Principal Dunlop or 
Principal Rule, or writ out at length and only co- 
pied this far, I cannot say. But I thought, 
though but a fragment, it deserved to be pre- 
served. 

* These papers appear to have been lost. 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 153 



I shall insert a passage in his for- 
cited remarks, writ, as I guess, after SSJ^i^?* 
the 1703, relative to this matter, and ^^hya^i 
leave any thing further about it till I 
come to give some account of his papers in my 
hands; and it is as follows. ^^ He was much 
troubled in his thoughts anent the school doctrine 
of the reformed churches, both as philosophy and 
a good part of divinity, which hath never been 
hitherto sufficiently reformed. Mmiy particulars 
whereof, near a hundred, he hath noted down in 
a manuscript, intitled Meletemata de Erroribus 
vulgaribus, most of which did appear to him since 
he passed his course in philosophy ; and Mr Cart- 
wright, Amesius, Dr Owen, and many other 
writers, have the same thoughts. He took also 
occasion to discourse frequently with learned men, 
and several of the theologues, concerning these 
errors. Some seemed convinced thereof, but such 
is the power of education, that whatever were 
their inward sentiments thereanent, they could 
not be brought off those terms and manner of 
speaking, wherewith they had been taught ; part- 
ly because of the diligence requisite for their 
forming a new system of philosophy and divini- 
ty, and partly * in imitationem vulgi scholasticor 

* In imitation of the common run of schoolmen, and of 
the learned world, as it is usually caUed. 

65 



154 LIFE OP P&OFESSOR WODBOW. 

rum et mimdi literati, ut ioqui solent.' He began 
to essay the forming a short sjrstem both of phi- 
losophy and divinity, purged from these errors.^ 
(I find little among his papers of this nature, un- 
less it be his Compendium Meletematum, of which 
afterwards, but that seems not to come up to this 
he calls a short system, &c.) ^' But shortly after 
he b^^an to this, it pleased the Lord to afflict^him 
with the gravel, which did so weaken him, that 
he could not proceed therein. Only he prevailed 
with Principal Dunlop at Glasgow, and Principal 
Rule in the CoUege at Edinburgh, to deal with 
the Commission of Parliament for visitation of 
Colleges, to discharge the teaching of some of 
them ; which accordingly they did, and resolved 
to have gone on in that work, but shortly after 
this they were both removed by death. The use 
that he made hereof was, that God^s time for the 
reforming of schools was not yet come."" 

When I am upon this head, let me 

His remarks '■ 

Sd*to^^ add some remarks of his on the difife- 
"**°* rent sorts of learned men. They are 

just dashed down in a spare bit of paper ; but 
having some relation to the subject last spoken of, 
I thought them worth the preserving here. The 
paper runs, 

" There are sundry sorts of scholars and learn- 
ed men* 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODBOW. 155 

1. ^^ Such as read much and take all upon 
trust, are all for the common opinion, and their 
only fear is innovation. 

2. ^< Such as study to give reasons for the holding 
of the common opinion, but mind no reformation. 

S. ^^ Sudi as mind reformation, and have it 
for their work to try truths received and discover 
more. 

4. ^^ Reformation is no innovation, and disco* 
very of truth is no affectation of singularity and 
novelty. 

5. ^^ Inventors of truth, and arts and sciences^ 
were counted the best philosophers; and what 
was their invention but discovery of truth from 
the law of natmre, whidi the vulgar had not dis- 
covered ? So reformers are nothing but discerU'- 
ers and discoverers of truths hitherto not discerned 
from the law of Scripture. 

6. ^^ The best scholar, th^i, is the greatest re^^ 
former in doctrine and manners, and not the brag- 
gers of sdiool terms and pagan knacks.; far less 
those that make an empty shew and profession of 
learning, and have neither pagan nor christian 
learning or reading. 

7. ^* It is one thing to be read, and remember 
what they read, and another thing to be learned. 
Learning is to judge aright of what we read ; or 
to read with examination and judgment of the 



156 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

reasons of things, and to discover truths formerly 
not discerned. And he that judges most fully of 
what he reads, and makes the largest discovery, 
is the greatest scholar.'' 

These were his thoughts of true learning and 
learned men, and they are so judicious, short, and 
clear, that I cannot help wishing he had left us 
more of them. I see no place more proper to 
bring in the rest of his remarks than here from 
that paper I have so often cited, and am to bring 
in the whole of it that remains iminserted ; and I 
give them in his own words. 

" As he grew in years, he was more 
wmariw on and more disposed to observe the dis- 
pensations of Divine Providence, espe- 
cially in answering his prayers, which he always 
looked on as double mercies, by obtaining where- 
of he was the more engaged. It was usual for 
him to pray ten times each day ever since he had 
any sense of religion, besides ejaculaiory prayers, 
which were innumerable, occasional, and stated, 
fixed, and solemn ; which (as above) he entered 
upon 1685, and afterwards 1703, was changed 
from weekly to daily ones ; two hours each day, 
at the most convenient time, when freest of diver- 
sions, and most often before going to bed; and when 
either sickness or insuperable difficulties occurred, 
to supply the defect thereof the days following. 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 157 

Knowing that the nearer he drew to his end, he 
had need to run the faster ; and the more unfit 
he grew for other work, to be the more at that. 

" His stated prayer was (what in some respect 
may be termed) premeditated, and consisted of 
several particulars generally used, some heads for 
supplication and petition, others for thanksgiving 
and praise ; and differed from a formulary, that 
it was not still in the same words, and that on 
special occasions there was diversity of matter. 

^' He much wondered at the providence of God, 
that gave him so good occasion, and so great in- 
clination to reading, the languages, philosophy, 
divinity, history, physic, law, &c. all the twenty- 
eight years time of the prelatic persecution, and 
yet could see so little appearance of the use there- 
of for the public. But when he was called to the 
profession of divinity, he saw this unriddled, and 
that God thereby was preparing him for that 
work, without which preparation he could not 
have gone about it ; though all the time of his 
studies he had no thoughts of that design, but 
was prompted thereunto to be free of idleness, 
and for his own satisfaction, no door appearing 
open to him for any other work. 

^' As in this immediately foresaid, so in all. 
other public work, he observed and admired the 
Lord^s special indulgence to his modest, diffident 



158 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

and bashful nature, in carrying him on thereunto 
by steps and degrees, from the lesser to the great* 
er and harder parts of the work ; whereas, had 
he at first been brought to the more difficult and 
public part of the work, bashfulness would have 
made all to stick. So also the Lord dealt thus gra- 
ciously with him in afflictions and trials, which 
greatly mitigated them to him.'' Thus far his 
remarks go, and by the original it appears he de> 
signed more, but scmiewhat or other has stopped 
him. Thir last seem to be writ about the 1703. 

Some of them are plainly designed 
MTTes on for private use, and that of his chil- 

dren after his death ; and allowances 
must be made in that respect. So close and re- 
served was he, and unobserved in his times for 
stated prayer, that I never had occasion, though 
in the family with him, to notice them, though 
sometimes in the Saturday afternoons I observed 
him retired ; and after supper, when entering on 
discourse, I would sometimes have noticed him 
not to entertain it, but knew nothing of the true 
reascm, till I met with it in his papers. 

However, by thus eiving himself 
&atti£i2to ^° P^^y^^j ^^^ "IS secret hidden reli- 
SSSr^teT" gion, and close walking with God, he 
S^aodiS^ attained to such a length of serenity 

and calmness, as to the Lord's favour 



ranoe. 



LIFB OP PROFESSOR WOBROW. 159 

to him, that I am (^ opinion few attained to the 
like in his day and time, which I came to know 
very incidentally from himself ; and the manner 
and occasion of it desenre to be narrated here, 
containing some things very remarkable. 

Some little time after my ordination 
at Eastwood, coming in to see him, as I ifoiiaiacniuit 
did ordinarily once a^week, I happened 
to tell him a passage I had lately met with, which 
affected me much. I happened to be in conversa^ 
tion with a worthy and excellent Christian of my 
charge, under no small depths and distress, and 
after hearing aU the particulars, I reasoned a little 
upon them, and happened to say, that I did not 
take any of these things to be singular, or temp- 
tations not common to m&if and I had known 
Christians, and very worthy ones, under them. 
Yes, says the other, that was an answer given me 
a long time ago by worthy Mr John 
Baird at Paisley, who, after I had told ^^•'^ 
how matters were with me, he desu*ed me not to 
think my case singular, for he himself had gone 
through many of those things, and some others he 
hoped I should not be troubled with, and yet he 
could now say to the conmiendation of free grace, 
that for twenty-one years or thereby (that was 
some years before his death), that he had never 
gone to his bed without some, he hoped, wdl 



160 LIFE OF PBOFESSOB WODROW. 

grounded assurance that the sins of the day were 
pardoned through Christ. 

When I told this to my father, he said, " Robin, 
I knew Mr Baird in part, and he was one of the 
worthiest men for learning and piety in his time. 
I can make no judgment on so long a tract of full 
assurance, unless I knew the man, nor how he came 
by it. If there was any thing extraordinary he 
met with that was the ground or the occasion of 
his assurance, I do not so much wonder at it, of 
which ni give you one instance in Mr Donald 
Cargill. 
,. _ ,^ "I had occasion to be very intimate 

Mr Donald ^ ^ •^ 

<^**e^' with him when he was but a young man, 
and he told me the passage a little after he met 
with it. Mr Cargill was under very much of a 
law work before his entry to the ministry, and 
while a student, and that with grievous tempta- 
tions, and fiery darts mixed in with it, and his 
too great reservedness, and not communicating 
his case to such as might have given him counsel 
and support under it, drove him to terrible ex- 
cesses ; in short, he came to the very height of 
despair, and through indulging melancholy, and 
hearkening to temptations, he at length came to 
take up a resolution to put an end to his miser- 
able life. He was living then (if I mind) with 
his father or some relation in the parish of Both- 



LIFE OF PROFE880B WODBOW. 161 

well ; and under the horrible hurry of those fiery 
darts, he went out once or twice to the river of 
Clyde with a dreadful resolution to drown him- 
self. He was still diverted by somebody or other 
coming by him, wUch prevented his design at 
that time. But the temptation. continuing, and 
his horror by yielding to it increasing, he fell up- 
on a method he thought he should not be pre- 
vented in. On a summer morning very early, he 
went from the house where he staid to a more un- 
frequented place, where there were some old coal- 
pits, and coming up to one of them, was fully de- 
termined (Juyrresco r^erens*) to step in; but 
when very near it, a thought struck him in the 
head, that his coat he had upon him and vest be- 
ing new, might be of some use to others, though 
he was unworthy to live, and deserved to be in 
hell ; and so he stepped back and threw them ofi^, 
and then came up to the very brink of the pit, 
and when just going to jump in, that word struck 
him. in the mind, Son be of good cheer, thy 
sins are forgiven thee. He said it came in with 
that power and life upon his spirit, which was 
impossible for him to express, and he did not 
know whether it was by an immediate impression 
of it on his mind, or a direct voice from heavew 
(which last he inclined to think), but it had such 
* I shudder to relate. 



an evideDce and energy accompanying it, as at 
once put an end to all his fears and doubts, and 
which he could no more resist than he coutd do 
the light of a gun-besm darted upon his eye." 

My father added, that in the year 1681 he went 
in and saw Mr Cargiil in Edinburj^ pristm a day 
or two before his death, and, after some conversa- 
ticm, asked him how he found matters with him ? 
Mr Cargill answered him, " As to the main point, 
my interest in Clirist, and the pardon of my sins, 
I have no doubts there, neither have I been ever 
i^ken since the Lord's condescension to me in 
my ractremity about twenty-five years ago, which 
I communicated to you a little after ; and no 
thanks to mc, for the evidence was so clear that 
I could never since once doubt. But then as to 
many other things, I have sad fears and damps. 
I see a dark and heavy cloud coming on the 
Church of Scotland, and our trial is not yet at iti 
height." 

y^ " Now," added my father, " if Mr 

"*"™°'" Baird had any tiling of that extraordi- 
nary nature, as the spring, occasion, and ground of 
his assurance, I do not so much wonder at it ; but, 
Robin, 1^11 tell you what I can say as to my own 
case, though I be perfectly a stranger to voices, or 
tfaoae extraordinary impressions of Scriptures, and 
I have not been much dealt with in the way of 



imjH^sgJone of Scriptures on my soul : the L<h^'s 
way of com mual eating himself to me was in the 
road of meditatiui and prayer (and I think he 
told me, for many years he had set apart two 
hours in the Saturday, when not hindered, for 
clase self-examination and prayer) ; and yet," addeil 
he, " this far I can say, that these thirty-nine 
years I do not remember I was ever two hours, 
save when asleep, or taicen up with other neces- 
sary attendance, but I could go, and did go, to 
God in Christ, as my God and father." I mind 
that night before he die<], I asked him if he had 
had any dianges or clouds since that time he spoke 
sometime since of to me, hinting what is above to 
ine, and he answered me pleasantly. No. 

Such a close and tender walk dis- 
posed him for meeting with all events 1"^°"^"^™" 
in the most christian manner; and "U^'^^rwi^ 
that appeared much at the death of ^ ™' ■ 
my dear and excellent brother Mr Alexander Wo- 
drow. This was the most aiflicting trial that pos- 
sibly could befal my father in this life, and an in- 
expressible loss to me, yea, I may say, 10 this 
whole church. My brother had every thing about 
him that could promise great and good 
things, shining piety, one of the sweet- 
est tempers that perhaps any was ever blessed 
with. He was just formed for ust^'ulness and di- 



164 LIFB OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

ligence, and had a quick apprehension, a solid 
judgment, and had laid in a stock of learning of 
all kinds. He was fully master of any thing he 
applied himself to, and was still applying himself 
to somewhat useful, and that with the greatest 
imweariedness that ever I knew any master of. 
In his ministerial work at Glasgow I may say 
none were more acceptable, and few were in so 
short a time ever so useful. My father's eye 
could not but be upon him for a helper, and a 
staff to him in his old age, and the eyes of all 
WCTe upon him for his colleague. Accordingly, 
a call, as I noticed before, was given 

Cantobe hfa , . , « ^ _^ . 

Cither^ col- him, and a process of transportation 

league. ^ *• ■■' 

was raised before the Presbytery : he 
was modestly averse, from the s^fise that great men 
have stiU of then- own insufficiency for eminent 
charges ; and though he was most willing to give 
all the assistance he could to his father in his de- 
clining age, and had assisted him for two winters 
in the divinity lessons, to the great satisfaction of 
all concerned, yet he was somewhat peremptory 
against his transportation : his people and the 
whole town stuck to him as one man. The Pres- 
bytery referred the matter to the Sy- 
motxSaeoa nod. I remember I was in the Pres- 
bytery, and when I came out and told 
him the vote was split, and the moderator de* 



LITE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 165 

dined to give the casting vote, and so the matter 
was referred to the Synod, he said to me, I am 
very glad it has gone so : many things we see not 
yet may fall in before the Synod come. Whether 
he had any presages of his coming dissolution, I 
cannot say : it was the least thing, alas ! in my 
thoughts ; but when it came about, I could not 
but reflect on what he spoke, with no little serious- 
ness and concern. On Wednesday March ^. 
1706, he was in the Presbytery all 

•' . . Hlg steknen 

day, only he complained of a pain m i^d«^^ 
his head, and told me he had trysted 
a ¥ag, and was to cut his hair. On Thiursday he 
was worse, and was twice vomited without sue- 
ceiss. If I remember, on Friday he was out at a 
burial. After that, his pleuritic fever increased 
on him. On Sabbath night, I came in after ser- 
mon from the country, and sat up with him his 
last night in time. His fever was very high, and 
his pain great, but he raved none : he slept little. 
We discoursed upon many serious subjects. I 
did not apprehend him so near death, neither did 
he seem to apprehend it himself, yet he was ready 
for it, and pleasantly resigned to the divine will, 
and perfectly easy as to the event of his sickness. 
Monday, April 1. his fever continued, but he was 
so easy that he would have my father and me to 
leave him, and go to dinner. Just as we ended din- 



166 LIFB OP PR0FB880R W<»>ROW. 

ner, we were snrprizii^Iy called Vipan : be had gireB 
a groaQ, and the person in waiting knocked down. 
When I earae up, I observed his lips quivering, 
and that was all ; and while mj fother was re- 
signing him to God, the Lord teck him to him- 
self. He seemed to be removed in the verj erisis 
of the fever ; and I still imagmed a vessel withm 
was either broken or weakened by the artress of 
vomiting, and upcm the mom &e Uood broke 
within and cmried him off. 

Here was a trial to his father^s faith and pa- 
tience, and under it he indeed i^wed himself a 
saint, and tSiat in an eminent degree. He was 
dumb^ and opened not his mouth, because die 
Lord did it. I remember that night at su{q[>ar 
he entertained us with reikctions on that strange 
step of providence in the Lord'^s removing many 
of the greatest men in this church before they 
were fixty, some befOTe thirty. He instanced the 
great Mr Durham, Mr David Vetch, Mr Andrew 
Gray, Mr Hugh Binning, Mr G-eorge Gillespie, 
and five or six others I have forgot. Next mom- 
ing, an hour cnr two before my brother was coffin^ 
ed the ministers ot the town came in to my fadier, 
when one of them, from whom I have this, was 
come in, and I think another also, my father left 
them a httle, and came down softly to the room 
where the corpse ky, and drawings aside tfie 



I/IPE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 167 

curtain a littk^ he kxiked a few minutes on, 
and retired without speaking a word, and came 
up to the ministers in the greatest composure that 
could be. My informer, after a little silence, says, 
<^ Are you wdl enough. Professor, where have you 
been ?^ He answered, ^ I have been viewii^ an 
adorable and strange ixistance of cSrine matchless 
and absolute sovereignty, and taking my last look 
of dear Sandie, for I do not incttne to be present 
at the coffining.* The Lovd indeed wonderfully 
mipported my father in this shocks and enabled 
him to carry every way suitably. But no doubt 
this loss, which could never be made up to him 
in time, helped on his growing weakness, and 
made his leaving the world to be much longed 
for. However, it pleased the Lord to give him 
as much health and freedom from pain, for the 
year and a half he had to live after this, as for 
many years before. Thus, ** he stayeth bis rough 
wind in the day of his east wind."** Yea, I have 
scarce ever known him mcM*e serene, easy, and 
cheerful, than sometimes I found him after this, 
a certain proc^ that he found a sweet balance to 
thia heavy loss in God himself, and the smiles of 
his uplifted countenance, and from the sweet 
prospect of his own approaching haj^ dissolu- 
tion, when he would se^ Christ, and all his pur- 
<^8e, and sorrow no more. 



168 LIFE OF PB0FB880R WODROW. 

/ 

These papers being now swelled 



More occaskm- 



aipmamoan- far beyond my nrst view, by severid 
things worthy of remark that have 
offered themselves to me in writing, though at 
first view they may appear foreign to my design, 
and some of them may be lopped oiF, with what 
concerns my relations, which I design mostly for 
my children'^s information, if ever this essay be 
transcribed for a public view : I shall only add 
a few passages more, the times whereof I do not 
so well remember, and give some general hints 
concerning my father which came under my ob- 
servation, and then come to his much lamented 
death. 

My memory is so frail, that I have lost multi- 
tudes of excellent advices and solid remarks, that 
in conversation with him I was favoured with. I 
remember, when I was very young, a little after 
our coming to Glasgow, and reading Latin, I 
turned a little discouraged. One day my father 
observed it, and asked me what ailed me. I said 
I did not find that satisfaction in reading my 
grammar and Latin books, and found little that 
way as to any thing that was serious and relative 
to eternity, of which I had had some thoughts, 
though alas, very raw, then and since. My fa- 
ther said, ^' Robin, your knowledge is but small ; 
\y\xt you would remember, when you are reading 



I.1PE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 169 

your book and repeating Despauter^s rules, if you 
have God's glory before you, and serving him and 
your generation, you are as really serving Grod, 
and he is as well pleased with you, as if you 
were praying and reading the Scriptures. This 
was of use to me. 

I remember a little before I entered on trials, 
I had a great mind to go abroad and be a winter 
in Holland and elsewhere in study. He urged 
me much to pass trials before I went abroad, 
since the character of a preacher would be of use 
to me, and get me access to professors and minis- 
ters. Besides, he said I would, after a little prac- 
tice myself, be much better in case to observe the 
different manner and gifts in preaching among 
ministers in Holland and England. This pre- 
vailed with me, and in the winter 170^ I yielded 
with reluctancy to enter on my trials. After 
these were over, two calls were put in my hands, 
which, to my great regret, hindered me from see- 
mg England and Holland. I mind after I was li- 
censed, my father gave me his advice to write all 
I delivered, and for some years to keep close by 
my papers. He said it was the safest way, and 
would bring me to a habit of diligent study, and 
noticing well every thing I delivered to Grod^s 
people from his word, which was a matter of the 
last importance to me and others. This I have 

H 



170 LIFS OF FBOFEBSOR WODROW. 

obeyed^ and I fear am too much tied down by 
custom to my papers. 

He used much to press reflection on what is 
read) and frequent revising of languages, philo- 
sophy, and theology, and keepmg them fresh in 
the mind; and that old rhyme was frequently 
cited by him, 

'' Lecta relegere, relecta tenere, retenta docere : 

'^ Hsec tria discipulum &ciunt supengre ma^istrum *." 

The languages and terms of philosophy and 
school learning, he used to observe, were attained 
with some difficulty, they were very soon lost, 
and ready to be neglected when people came to 
apply themselves to more important matters ; and 
yet these are absolutely necessary for all kinds of 
learning, and especially the making our learning 
useful to others. 

When- one day I inquired at him what might 
be the reason why he and other learned men 
of reading and learning did not print more, and 
be useful that way to the world; and noticed 
that in the reformed churches abroad, there was 
very much printing, and professors published 
somewhat every year ; he said, ^^ Robin, the pro* 
feasors abroad seem to be in one extreme, and we 

* To revise what one has read, to retain what he has re- 
Yised, to teach what he has retained ; these three make the 
iGfcholKr surpass his master. 



t»lPB OF PROFESSOR WOOROW. 171 

in the other; they print every thing, and we 
little or nothing. There are two things hinder 
us in Scotland from printing— pride and poverty. 
Pride, in that we will print nothing that is com- 
mon, whereas abroad the pbdne^t and most com- 
mon things are printed and reprinted every year, 
but we will not appear unless we have somewhat 
new and surpriring to the world ; and poverty, 
we want money to print, and the people want it 
to buy books, and there is no sale for them when 
printed/' 

Another remark be miade tb me of 
far snreater importance. One day I was the iSg^ef^- 

'^ *^ •' sionoftheSpi- 

talkincr with him about the remarkable ^t «incfe th* 

c? Revolution. 

success of the Gospel and conversions 
after the Reformation, and sinee in the former 
presbyleriafi times, the Stewarton sickness, the 
communion of the Shotts, &c. and the great and 
eminent men in this church formerly, and regret- 
ting that we were not like to be witnesses to such 
remarkable outpourings of the Spirit as our fa- 
thers had been blessed with. After he had heard 
me a little on this strain, he said, ^^ Robin^ I am 
of opinion the Church of Scotland never enjoyed 
such a plentiful measure of the outpouring of the 
Spirit as since the Revolution ; though the Lord 
has been pka^d to bestow it in a different man- 
ner. Ir former times the gift was more, much 

h2 



172 LIFK OF PROFESSOR WOOROW. 

more particular, confined, and restricted, to some 
particular persons here and there ; but since the Re- 
volution, I hope,and am persuaded,it isformoredif- 
fused, enlarged, and general.'*' He added, ^^ I mind 
pretty distinctly the state qf things before the resto- 
ration, and th^e were some few particular ministers 
eminently and remarkably gifted ; and some emi- 
nent, christians here and there, one in one parish, 
another in another. But I did observe even then a 
very general ignorance among the people, in most 
places ; it was not so indeed in others, where mi- 
nisters were painful and diligent; and matters 
were growing much better generally under the 
eight years^ peace we ha4 during the English 
usurpation ; but all was blasted for a while at the 
restomtipn. And even during the former pres- 
byterian times, when any was 'converted by the 
gospel, it was very soon known, and made some 
noise, , for they had few or none to communicate 
their case to but the minister, and a few chris- 
tians, and the change was the more remarked. 
But in the times of persecution which followed, 
he observed that knowledge did much increase 
beyond what could have been expected, both by 
people^s being grounded in reading at the schools 
under presbytery, whereas many of the elder 
people, even the generality by far in the country 
in those times could not read, and so necessarily 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 173 

remaiDed ignorant; and by being deprived of 
their ministers they were put to their own pur- 
chase ; they had much converse with ministers in 
their wanderings and sufferings, and christians, 
and afterwards knowledge increased much by the 
field conventicles, and under the indulgence.^ He 
observed that at the liberty and revolution, people 
I^kI, after a long fast, a great appetite for the 
gospel ; and considering the knowledge that has 
been since to be met with, and the orderly, regu- 
lar lives and pleasant deaths of many, he could 
not but reckon the gospel has done much good, 
and there has been a more plentiful communica- 
tion of the Spirit, though more diffusive, and con- 
sequently less observable as to particular persons, 
places, and times, than even in any of our former 
times. And though in point of eminent mea- 
sures of the Spirit conferred upon single persons, 
the present ministry come not up to the Welshes, 
Bruces, Durhams, Dickson, Guthries, Gillespies, 
&c. of the former times ; yet he hoped there was 
never such a set of pious, painful, and diligent 
ministers that has been in Scotland as at the li- 
berty and since, and by for more numerous, than 
ever in any of our former periods. So that, upon 
the whole, he thought we were under a large, yea 
fL larger, efiiision of the Spirit than ever since the 



174 tira dv FwwfEAaom wodbow. 

rafono»tioo. This remark he made to nie not 
long before hi^ death. 

He was one of the dosest and most 

His ck)i6 study. 

Hewe4«wdi- laborious studeuts I evcT knew, and 
^***^ that to hi8 end. He nevor wearied, 

and used no diversions save walking a little in the 
summer, and playing at ebess before the Revolu* 
tion. But afterwards he had no time for tbiit 
I do not mind to have seen him play at chess, 
save a little with that strange, and I think pious, 
person the dumb laird of Duntreth, and onoe 
about the J170Q, with Mr Alexander Cunningham 
of Bloak, his old acquaintance. Mr Cunningham, 
after playing a game with him, md he thought 
he wai$ able to give him a ro(^ and a bishqp of 
advantage, apd his very outmost was queen, but 
he doubted that would be too much, which was a 
high pom^iendatian from him who is reckoned the 
best chess-player in Europe. He did not ao 
much almost as divert himself by the change of 
reading, but kept much by what he tho^ght ne^ 
cessary to his work. He was a great reader of 
the Qkl Testament in the original) and took a pe* 
cuUar delight in Isaiah^s style. A week or two 
bef^pre his death, when I came in to him I found 
him at it, and be asid to nne he had read ovec Isaiah 
that summer (I really cannot say how oft, but it 
was very frequently, I think) above twenty times. 



LIPB OP PR0FB880R WODROW. 175 

and this last time it was sweeter than ever to Mm, 
and he had seen many beauties and elegancies in 
it he had missed before. He used to iiay he had 
diversion enough from his sttidies by his scholars, 
and other times he needed no more but what he 
got from visits of his friends or brethren, vnth 
which I have seen him uneasy in the throng of 
his work, and when his health was firm ; but in 
his declining years they were more acceptable. 

And this would lead me to add, 
that he had a sin&rtilar talent in con- fuJ^incemva- 

o satlon. 

versation. He was then ordinarily very 
cheerful and pleasant, and still profitable and ad- 
vantageous to those he conversed with. He had a 
happy way of bringing in judicious remarks upon 
every thing, and plain and instructive compari- 
sons, and singular accounts of ministers dnd chris- 
tians in former times, and remarkable provi- 
dences ; and he was (as I believe I have already 
noticed) peculiarly happy and close in the advices 
and directions he gave to scholars and younger 
ministers. 

In his family he walked with God 
at home in his own house, with a i^r- caMsfoibiMs 

'■ fkniily. 

feet heart, as much as many in his 
time. He was a most affectionate husband, a du- 
tiful master to his servants, and I mind frequent- 
ly^ in the Sabbath night he would order the ser- 



176 lAVE OF PBOFB880B W(M>BOW. 

vants to get better fare and food than at other 
times, and observed that the Sabbath was in part 
instituted lor their rest and refreshment. He took 
pains to instruct them. And as to his children, 
he was the most tender parent that almbst' ever 
was, both as to our souls and bodies ; and yet 
he knew well how to use the^just authority he had 
over us. I could eaaly run out upon his' dutiftd 
care this way, but I must draw to a dose. 

His charity and alms were very 

Hi» cfaaritj^ -^ ^ 

j^j^JSSouB ^8^5 ^^^ ^^ secret ; but I had oc- 
**™^* casions to know some branches of 

them, and many more escaped me. He was far 
from restricting it to those of his own sentiments. 
I know he was very bounti^ to the ejected epis- 
copal ministers, in straits. He used to say he 
adored Divine Providence that had brought them 
to such circumstances as they needed his help, 
and blessed God he had to relieve them in their 
straits. I think alms and diarity of the right 
sort flow first from love to God, and then from a 
generous temper and love to men ; the first was 
his ruling principle,, and he was very remarkable 
for the last. One mstance of which comes to my 
mind, that, during the times of sufiering and per* 
secution, he would never take any thing of the 
collections now and then made at Glasgow and 
elsewhere for the straitened presby terian ministers 



LIFB OF PHOFBSSOB WODBOW. 177 

and preacberSs though it was frequently offered to 
him. He said that when he needed any thing 
thiB waj he would be so far from being adiamed 
to take it, that he would rejoice in Gkxl^s good- 
ness that provided it, and even ask help of those 
that were able and willing to give it ; but when 
Grod in his providence provided for him and his 
family, he reckoned it a piece of injustice to take 
it from those who needed it. And I have heard 
him speak with as much sharpness as he used al- 
most at any time, against any body^s taking a 
part of those bounties who did not need it ; espe- 
cially ministers, who ought beyond all to abhor 
any thing that is penurious, sordid, mean, and 
narrow. He used to say frequently he did not 
know what to think of a private-spirited, narrow, 
covetous minister; he could not see how such 
could escape being an abomination in the eyes of 
God and man. 

So much had he observed of the ne- 

His greftt re- 

cessity of keeping close by rules and {^*S,5^ 
forms in our ecclesiastical matters, and o'^MemUy. 
an exact subjection in all things lawful of minis- 
ters to judicatories, and inferior judicatories to 
superior, and the close observance of our acts of 
Assembly of this church, that he carried this 
point as high as any I almost ever heard. He 
reckoned .the ^ory of God, the peace of the 

H 6 



178 Liwrn Of FBWS680B wopmow. 

^ureh^ ils rcfmtatioii a& a soeiety, and the edUi- 
cation of peofde> and the oomeljr order and deo^- 
cy of matt^ra among us» were extremely concerned 
h&» ; and he frequwtly noticed that, if ministera 
shewed no regard to their oy^n constitutions, they 
coidd not pcM^ibly expect that others should oons- 
sider them at all ; that if ever the subordination 
of judicatories over necessary forms, and reason- 
able acts of Assi^nbly, were broke in upon, con- 
fusion and every evil work would come in upon 
this church. 

He had yet a far greater regard to 

Hi« lingular . , . 

i9teotaor«- Chrises gospel ordinances and institu- 



nances. 



tions, word, and sacraments. These 
he regularly attended when able with the greatr 
est pleasure. He used to say he very seldom 
heard an ill sermon, though some were better to 
him than others, and generally he liked the last 
sermon he heard best, when he was as he would 
be; that none needed sermons more than ministers; 
though he was much against long sermons, espe^ 
cially at sacraments, which he complained of as an 
usage coming in after the Revolution, that in the 
issue would not have good consequences; and 
frequently he used to cite a saying of Mr James 
Guthrie^s to a minister who preached with him : 
*^ Brother, for the first half hour I heard you 
wdl, and with edification and application ; during 



LIFB OF PR0PB88OR WODROW. 179 

the second half hour I heard some ; but the third 
half hour I heard none at all."" 

In short, I observed in him the 
greatest modesty and self'^ffidence I h^du^fwd 
ever met with in a person of his learn- 
ing, unless it was in his excellent friend and fel- 
low-labourer Mr George Campbell: they were 
both modest, almost to a fault. His humility was 
singular under his great attainments and singular 
usefulness ; and this was a grace that he urged 
much upon others. And as his station called him, 
so his temper led him to a constant stayedness 
and gravity ; so that his very speech and looks 
had a commanding awe with them, especially 
when joined with so much real kindness, love, 
and frankness, as he was possessed of. But I 
must stop, lest it should be thought I am intend- 
ing to draw his character and write encomiums 
on him, when I am only indeed narrating facts I 
had occasion to observe in him. 

In a word, he Uved for many years 

• xi- J •! • ^ J ^i_ J ^ He lived under 

m the daily views of death and eter- hautiua views 

, , , of death, and 

nity, and waited and wished for it. longed ft»r ». 

•^ ^ Twoobeervable 

My mother-in-law tells me one pas- SS^***®' 
sage, and Principal Stirling's wife an- 
other, which I think deserve their room here. 
Some considerable time before he died, he was 
sitting one morning in his fore-room that was up- 



180 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

on the street, when my mother came in to him ; 
the bell commonly called the Dead-bell rung be- 
fore the windows. Aft» he had listened to the 
cryer, and heard who was to be buried that day, 
he said to his wife, '^ My dear, how sweet and 
pleasant would it be to me, were it possible to 
hear that bell going through the streets for my 
didaXh ; but that is a foolish wish, the Lord^s time 
is best, and I wait for it.*" The other passage is 
this : Principal Stirling's lady came in one day to 
see him the summer, or that save one^ before he 
died. He happened to speak of deaths as pretty 
frequently he did, and he said to her, ^^ Mrs Stir- 
ling, Do you know the place in the new kirk-yard 
that is to be my grave, (for in that burial-place 
the masters of the college have particular allot- 
ments made, and there is one for the professor of 
divinity) ? She answered she did* " Then,'' says 
he, ^^ the day is good, and I'll go through the Prin^- 
cipal's garden into it, and take a look of it" Ac- 
cordingly they went ; and when they came to the 
place, as near as she could guess, i^e pointed it 
out to him, next to Principal Dunlop, and her 
own son and only child. My father looked at it, 
and lay down upon the grass, and stretched him- 
self most cheerfully on the place, and said, with 
the greatest composure, ^^ O how satisfying would 
it be to me to lay down this carcass of mine in 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 18*1 

this place^ and be delivered from my prison ; but ^ 
it will come in the Lord^s time.^ 
Not kmff before his death, he wrote 

^ , Tb«last things 

five or six sheets of a practical essay SS^tS^Sy 
upon death, which, as far as I know, SlL^^ts'S^ 
was the last subject of that kind he 
wrote any thing of; and the last part of the Scrip- 
tures he studied was the book of Revelation. When 
I came in to him toward the end of July, before 
his death one day, he had several books lying be- 
fore him. I took the liberty to ask him what it 
was he was so close at : he said, ^^ Robin, I am 
fallen again to the dark but sweet book of the Re- 
velation. I think I understand all the Scripture 
tolerably save that, and this is my third essay at it, 
and will be my last. I tried it, and read over Mr 
Durham with care, a little after my laureation. 
I fell to it again a little after I was transported 
to the College, but my throng of work that fell 
in upon me stopped me. Now, I am resolved to 
essay it once more : I know not if I shall live to 
get through it.'' Accordingly, I find among his 
papers two or three sheets upon the chapters as 
they lie in order, with blanks left for more collect 
tions. What he has is generally taken from an ano- 
nymous writer on the Revelation, translated from 
the French, Fleming's Apocalyptical Thoughts, 
and CoUings, and a rude draught of an introduo- 



182 LIFS OF PROFBS80R WODROW. 

^ tion to the understanding of the book in general, 
in a sheet or two, which contains a great many 
judicious and solid, and some (to me, at least,) 
very uncommon but short hints for the getting 
into the sense of this book, and stating the gene- 
ral meaning and the different epochas in it. I 
am ready to think this was the last subject ever 
he wrote any upon, for this introduction is quoted 
by him July 19. 1707. And while taken up in 
those considerations, which would have been of 
great use had he completed them, he was carried 
away to that place where there is no temple, and 
the Lamb and the Lord Grod Almighty is the 
light thereof. 

Which brin^ me to give some short 

His sickness *-' ^ 

sSpt ail'^d account of the last hours, and to us 
**• ^''^' surprizing, but to him sweet and easy 

death of this truly great and extraordinary per- 
son. For several months before, my father was 
as well and free from pain and weakness as he 
had been for a considerable time. I was with 
him the day before he turned ill, September 23. 
1707, and staid a good while, and found him 
very easy and cheerful. To-morrow morning, 
betwixt seven and eight, he felt a pain pret- 
ty sharp, which he took to be the hsemorrhoids, 
vrith which he was pretty frequently troubled. 
In a little, the trouble continuing, he called up 



LIFE OF FBOFS880A WODBOW. 183 

my mother^B-law, told her of it, and that he 
felt himself uneasy, and his body in some confu- 
sion. Dr Kennedy was called about nine, but 
he was not much alarmed. His pain and un* 
easiness continuing, my mother sent out an ex- 
press to me, but I was abroad, and had not left 
word with my servant whither I was gone. All 
day my father continued worse, and about four, 
another express came out, with orders to stay 
till I came home. I came towards six, and meet- 
ing with this heavy news, rode straight into 
Glasgow. When I came in, I found my father 
much lower than I expected, and he was not 
able to speak a full sentence. His pulse was fe- 
verish, and the Doctor, who still had hopes of 
him, said to me it was an acute fever he was un- 
der. I found he was not able to speak much, and 
so I formed any thing I had to say so as he might 
answer yes or no ; for he very distinctly heard 
and understood me. I asked several questions 
which I have now forgot ; but I remember I 
asked if he had any clouds or fears of death ? 
he answered. No. I hinted at what is above nar- 
rated, as to his access to God, as his God and fa- 
ther, and asked if there was any change since that 
time ? he answered, No. I spoke somewhat anent 
the orderedness, sureness, and everlasting nature 
of the covenant, and said I hoped he had through 



184 LIFK OF PR0FS880B WODBOW. 

that a well grounded peace. He answered^ '^ Yes, 
joy and peace in believing.^ This was I think the 
last word that he spoke. He continued pretty 
much slumbering, and, as far as I could ob^rve, 
very much free of pain and unea«nes9, till about 
two of the clock in the morning, when I observed 
his pulse to be intermitting, and sent for the Doe- 
tor, who, when he came and felt his pulse, was 
much commoved, for there had been a long inti- 
macy betwixt them ; and in a very little time he 
fell asleep most stveetly in the Lord, with viery 
little struggle or uneasiness. Thus his passage 
to his Father^s house was very short, and made 
very easy, as he had frequently wished for. By 
his death, I . lost the best of parents, and the 
Church of Scotland lost one who bad been made 
singularly useful to her. 

To form his character is what I don'*t pretend 
to, and is really above me, and I must leave that 
to be drawn from the plain narrative I have given. 
I wish I had done this sooner, and then I might 
have remembered much more about him. What 
I could recollect I have set down with much plain- 
ness and sincerity. He well deserved a better 
and more particular account to be given of him, 
but what I have, I have given. Much more might, 
and by others, ought to have been said ; but this 
must suffice from a son, who desires graee to follow 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 185 

him, as he followed €hrist, in faith and patience, 
now that he inherits the promises. 
It remains in the last room that I 

His manu- 

give some account of his manuscripts, ^^Si^be- 
and works he left behind him, now in *********"• 
my hands. In the entry, I shall observe, that his 
self-denial and modesty was so great, that I know 
he never designed any thing of his for the public, 
though I am persuaded several things left by him 
well deserve the view of the public, had he fi> 
nished them himself. But I cannot say any thing 
of his has sot his last hand, unless it 

P , Prelections. 

be his public prelections, of which I 
have already given some account. 
Besides a considerable number of 

Sermons. 

his sermons, which are all written pret. 
ty largely, and rather more fully than he delivered 
them, and all of them upon plain practical and 
important subjects. What I shall first take no- 
tice of, is his Directories to the students, or the 
methods he drew, and dictated most of them, or 
caused dictate to them, both as to their studies, and 
the discourses they were to have in the Divinity 
Hall, and more publicly afterwards. Upon these 
he took a great deal of pains, and read over all he 
could meet with in print on these heads; and, 
from his own conversation with ministers, and ob- 
servations upon the manner of preaching and 



186 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

handling of subjects by different persons in this 
church, reduced those matters to many excellent 
observations, rules and directions, in a more regu- 
lar and exact method than, for what I know, any 
before him had done. I shall give some short 
view of each of them, as they lie in his papers. 

Directorium, seu directiones quaedam 

Directorium ^ ^ 

sih^scho. 3^ Methodum Studii Scholastici in ge- 
nere. This seems to have been a ge- 
neral introduction to what follow, and contains a 
few general directions as to the manner and me- 
thod of reading and study in general, in twenty 
short directions, which may deserve a room in the 
Appendix, No, V. 

The next is much larger. Metho- 
du Thfioiogid. dug Studii Theologici, sive Directo- 
rium quo Theologise Studiosi in studio suo pro- 
moveant. The copy in my brother's hand seems 
larger a little than that in the original, and I 
shall insert the general heads of the subjects con- 
tained in it. After a short introduction, he di- 
vides it into two chapters, and these again into 
sections and subsections* 

Cap. I. De praecognitionibus ad Studium Theolo- 
giae requisitis. 
Sect. I. De Natura Theologiae. 

2. De veri Theologi vero cbaractere. 

3. De Natura studii Theologise et aliis hue spec- 

tantibuB. 



LIFB OF PROFB880B WODROW. 187 

Cap. II. CoDtinens directiones et admonitiones ad 

8tudio608 Theologiae, quibus in studio hoc 

promoveant. 
Sect. 1. De quibusdam aerio ponderandis, (priusquam 
quia intendat studium Theologise* 

2. De quibusdam observandia a studiosis Theo- 

logUe in ipaorum ingressu ad studium hoc 

3. Continens admonitiones quasdam ad studioaoa 

Theologiae in progresau auo per studium hoc. 
Subaect. 1. Admonitiones generaliorea continens. 

2. Continena admonitiones de lectione 

BibUca. 

3. De lectione ayatematica directiones 

continens. 

4. Continens quasdam directiones de 

Theologia Gjmnastica. 

4. Ctmtinens admonitiones ad studiososTheologiae 

in illonun egressu ex schola ad Ecdesiam. 

This method he caused dictate to his scholars, 
Oct. 1695, and indeed it deserves to be pub- 
lished, the rather that I doubt many incorrect 
copies of it are abroad already in the hands of 
many. 

But the largest of all thir methods, 
and what cost him a great deal of Method© ex©. 

o gedca eC ^Ho- 

pains and labour, is, " Tractatus de "*****^ 
M ethodo Exegetica et Homiletica, quae in Exer- 
citiis Theologicis hactenus apud nos in usu fuit,'' 
of which I shall likewise give the general scheme 
and its contents. 



188 LIFB OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

PRiEFATio. — In qua studiosus Theologian admone- 

tur et ratio prsesentis instituti exponitur. 
Cap. I. De Methodo Exegetico. 

Sect. 1. De Ex^resi in genere et terminoruxn ezplicatione. 

2. De Exegesi stricte uc dicta seu de parte ejus 

Kttrtta-Kivu^tKny ac modo construendi ex^esin. 
Subsect. 1. De Exordio seu Introductione ad £xe- 
gesin. 

2. De Narratione vel quaestionis in exe- 

gesi tractandae propositione. 

3. De Terminorum Explicatione. 

4. De variarum sententiarum enarratione. 

5. De Quaestionis status Declazatione. 

6. De Quaestionis secundum fixum illius 

statum Besolutione. 
7* De veritatis orthodoxae secundum re- 
solutionem confirmatione, 

3. De parte Exegesios etfar»%veta-rtKn seu disputa* 

tione theologica exegesin subsequente. 

Cap. II. De Methodo Homiletica. 

Sect. 1. De Artis Concionatoriae natura ac proprietatibus. 

2. De Concione in genere, et ejus etjmologia, defi- 

nitione, causis ac divisione, 

3. De praerequisitis ac pneparatoriis quibusdam ad 

Concionem formandam. 

4. De Concione formanda. 

Subsect. 1. De Concionis Exordio sep Introduc- 
tione. 

2. De Verborum sacri textus scopo, ac il- 

lius inyeniendi et dignoscendi modo. 

3. De Textus Analysi seu division^, alias 

narratione ac propositione. 

4. De Textus Explicatione, 



LIPK OF PBOF£8SOR WOD&OW. 189 

Subsect.5. De Paraphrasi seu Expositione Tex. 
tus paraphrastica. 

6. De Doctrinis ex Textu explicate eru- 
endis vel formandis. — [This far mj 
brother's copy comes, and &rther, I 
suppose, was not dictated to the stu- 
dents.] 

7* De Doctrinse e Textu ut supra elicits? 
ac propositse tractatione et amplifica- 
tione. 

8. De Usubus ex doctrina eliciendis. 
Imo, In genere. 

2do, De Usubus in particulari seu de va- 
riis usuum speciebus. 

1. De Usu Informationis. 

2. De Usu Refutationis. 

9i De Usu Reprehensionis. 

4. De Usu Consolationis. 

5. De Usu Terroris seu in Terrorem. 

6. De Usu Exhortationis et Dehor- 

tationis ubi de Exploratione et 
Examinatione. 

9. De Applicatione. 
10. De Epilogo. 

Appendix ad Sect. 4tam, de Rationibus 
quibus astruitur hsec Methodus con. 
cionandi. 
Sect. 5. De Concione habenda. 

Subsect. 1. De prseparatione ad concionem haben- 
dam. 

2. De Sermonis pronunciatione. 

3. De Actione, seu variis corporis gesti- 

busetsingulorum ipsius membrorum. 

4. De Sermonis Qualitate. 



.»•• 



190 LIFB OF PROFESSOR WODB0W. 

Subsect. 5. De Sermonis Quantitate. 
Sect. 6. De Variis Concionum speciebus earumque ziatu- 
ris et diffl^rentiis. — ^This aection seems not com- 

m 

pleted fUllj. However, he has cast it into 
Subsect. 1. De Concione Scholastica. 

2. De Concione Ecclesiastica. Both 
• these, or a compend of what he de- 

signed in them, he dictated to his 
scholars October 1696, under the 
title of Adnotationes qusedam de va- 
riis Concionum speciebus,. earumque 
naturls ac diflPerentiis, with two Ap- 
pendices, De Concionibus explorato* 
riis et probationariis. He designed, 
also, 

7. De Kegulis generalibus inter prsedicandum ob- 

servatu necessariis* 

8. De Uet^etXunrtfintt^, seu de quibusdam in prsece- 

dente capite prsetermissis. But both these 
are blank, and not filled up. 

This tractate he bes^aii to dictate to 

This work ^^ 

SS!°6e'*SuSte ^^ scholars in the year 1692, and it 
StiSSTc^* was one of the first things he engaged 
SusHomiietica in ; but I think scarce the half of it 

in English. 

was ever dictated to them. Matter 
came in upon him apace, and the work swelled, 
so that he found it would run too great a length 
for his scholars, and indeed the whole would 
amount to thirty or forty sheet in print; and 
therefore he formed a compend of it, and reduced 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 191 

it to a far narrower compass. He omitted the 
Tractatus de Methodo exegetico in this, and re- 
stricted himself to the Tractatus Homiletica ; and 
made an abstract in English, which being like- 
wise in the hands of several in manuscript, and I 
fear not so exact as it ought to be, and being 
what may be contained in three or four sheets in 
print, and perhaps as particular and regular a me- 
thod of preaching as has been published (if thought 
proper), I have added it ; App. No. VII. (See the 
original Orat. &c. and brother^s copy.) Its title 
is ^^ Compend of the Tractate called Methodus 
Homiletica ; being a short direction to students of 
theology, for making of and criticizing upon ho- 
milies, as also for the forming of popular ser- 
moQs, as they are called thereunto.'' He just 
keeps the order of the large tractat. 
He likewise formed a short Direc- 

Oirectoiy for 

tory as to those useful and necessary l«*«»«- 
exercises we in this church call Lectures, which 
being but very short, may be placed App. No. 
VIII. (See Origin. Orat. &c. and brother's copy.) 
Those methods being upon the matter untrod- 
den paths, save that of preaching, upon which 
there is indeed much written, were what he ap- 
plied himself unto the first two or three years af« 
ter his first translation to the University. I find 
somue other things of his among his papers, writ 



192 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 



Compeodiolum 



I suppose in this time also. Such 
i^SSSrZ" as Compendiolum duodecim Pnelec 

tionum de Ratione humana ; and 
FonteB soiutio- Fontes SolutioDum seu obiectiones 

num. V 

praecipuse contra veritatem solutse, 
where he goes through the whole system of pole- 
mic divinity, and states the objections against our 
received doctrine, and gives short and substantial 
answers to them, in as plain and clear a manner 
as I have any where seen. 

But that which his heart and thoughts were 
most set upon (as I have noticed above) (luring 
the most part of his time in the University, was 
the reforming the corruptions he was of opinion 
had crept into the doctrine of the reformed 
churches, both in philosophy and theology. Up- 
on this important subject he set down what was 
offered to his thoughts at various times, in short 
observations to the number of upwards of 200. 
I haive written them out from his loose scrolls, 
but they are not finished and completed by him, 
his health and strength failed him, and he was 
not able to perfect so large a work. The title of 
it is Meletemata de Doctrina in Scho- 
Doctrina in lis Christiauis tradita, or Vulfi:ar £r- 

Sdiolis tradiU, ° 

or v^ Er- rors marked and refuted, which have 

Ton, dec ' 

crept into philosophy and divinity, 
and through long use are defended by modem 



LIFE OF PB0FE8S0R WODROWi 193 

writers: to be corrected in the national system ^ 
first rude draught. They are partly in Latin, 
and sometimes in English, just as they offered to 
him in his thoughts on these subjects^ which were 
many and deep. 

From lliose he began to form a 

^ ^ Compendium 

larger work, but neither is that com- Mdetematum. 
pleted. There are twelve or fourteen chapters of 
the first part, and several chapters here and there 
in the rest some way formed. He divides his de- 
sign into four parts. 

1. De Recta Ratione, Lege Naturae, seu Intel- 

lectu, et Veritate ; and contains twenty-five 
chapters. 

2. De Voluntate, Bonitate, Moralitate ej usque 

regula ; and contmns seventeen chapters. 

3. De Viribus Naturae^ libero arbitrio et ima- 

gine Dei in Homine. In ten chapters. 

4. Miscellanea. In seventeen chapters. 

The general title he gives to this large design is 
Compendium Meletematum de Vulgaribus in Doc- 
trina Scholastica Erroribus ; and certainly it is a 
very considerable loss to leamingthat he did not live 
to finish this important matter. He hath drawn a 
compend of the first twelve chapters of the first part 
of this work, which he entitles Schema 

Schema Com- 

Compendioli Meletematum, de Vulga- ^^{J^^®' 
ribus Erroribus. Had he gone through 



194 Lirm of professor wodrow^. 

urith this, it had been of great use to have let us 
into the substance of his whole design; but I 
suppose he was stopped in this by my Inrotber's 
death, and after that he was nev^ able to go 
through the rest of what he had in view. How- 
ever, since this, ad far as 1 can guess, contains 
some <^ the most imporlaiit of his thoughts on 
those subjects, I incline (if it be thought prc^r 
by better judges than I am) to insert it in the 
App. No. IX. (Vid. ReKquiae, p. 8^.) 

There are a few other papers of his in my 
hands relative to this subject, which I imagine he 
points at in the above cited remarks, when he 
says he began to essay to form a i^rt system 
purged from these errors, but was hindered — Two 
or three sheets De Recta Ratione et aliis hue spec- 
tantibus^ — About as much De Libero Arbitrio 
et Viribus Naturae in Homine lapso, seu de Na- 
turali Dei c(^itione, et reliquiis imaginis Dei in 
Homine lapso— About a ^eet De Vera Litera- 
tura et Doctrina tradita in Scholis Christianis — 
Some less De Veritate, Bonitate, et Lege — But 
all of them are incomplete. 

' I may join to these another sub- 

Overtures about . /» i • 

Education and iect of Kin to the formcr, which he 

Reformation of "^ ' 

Schools. in some measure completed, and I 

might have taken notice of in his life, but it escaped 
me. In the year 1698, the Synod o{ Glasgow 



LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 195 

came particularly to consider the state of teach- 
ing in the schools within their bounds, and every 
Presbytery sent up their overtures and proposals 
to the Synod. My father was very much con- 
cerned to have this excellent design carried through. 
The Synod had several committees relative to this 
affair, and, so far as I mind, it was brought to 
some kind of bearing towards the 1702. But 
King William'*s death, and fears of changes after 
that, and other affairs coming in, brought that 
good design to be much laid aside. However, 
my father formed his thoughts on that matter 
in three or four sheets, entitled Overtures anent 
the Education of Children, and Reformation of 
Schools. And though he designed it only to go 
in with the other papers from Presbyteries to the 
S3naod, yet I am of opinion it deserves to be pre- 
served here. App. No. X. (Vid. MSS. Fol. 35, 
No. 9.) 

These are the most considerable manuscripts 
the Professor has left behind him. I might add 
a good many other essays and thoughts of some 
particular subjects; but it is needless to swell 
this with the titles of them ; and his 

A ^ ^j ^ -L • J Answers to 

Answers to the most obvious and scripture 

Doubts. 

plain Scripture Doubts, some of which 
he dictate to his scholars, is another valuable re- 
main of his. At some oonaderable length he has 

i2 



196 LIFE OF PBOFESSOR WODROW. 

gone through the Old Testament to Isaiah ; and 
the four Evangelists, and the Acts, and PauF* 
Epistles, a little more cursorily. He has likewise 
Remarks on ^^^ shcets ou the obsolete and darker 
word?^?^ words in our translation of the Scrip- 

somepartsof i • i i 

our Transja- ture, together With many short emen- 
BiWe. dations on our translation. But I 

think those, though begun by my father, are 
mostly carried on by my brother, who was extreme- 
ly well seen in the originals. 

I have above observed, that my 

His posterity "^ 

now alive. youngcr brother and I are the only 
remaining posterity of this excellent person, whose 
life and works I have given now some account of. 
My brother is yet in a single life {married to 
Sophia Douglas, March 19. 1726}. I shall now 
conclude this work with the names of the chil- 
dren the Lord hath raised up to him 

His grand- ^ '• 

children. ]^y uig ^ud my wife ; and only add 

my earnest wishes that the God of my father may 
appear to them, be with them, and their God, 
and of theirs, to all generations ; and that they 
may still remember the more than ordinary ties 
they are imder to love, fear, and serve God ; and 
make religion and usefulness to mankind their 
constant study, by their being descended from 
such forefathers as Mr James Wodrow, Mr Pa- 
trick Warner, and Mr William Guthrie. 



LIFE OP PROFESSOR WODROW. 197 

Mary Wodrow, bom Monday, September 26. 1709, 8 in 
the morning. Baptized by Mr James Macdougall, mi- 
nister at Memes, October 2. 1709. 

James Wodrow, bom October 18. 1710, Wednesday, be- 
twixt 7 and 8 in the morning. Baptized by Mr John 
Stirling, Principal at Glasgow, Sabbath, Oct. 22. 1710. 
[He died in the Lord, Saturday, April 19. 1729, about 
10 at night.] 

Robert Wodrow, bom Dec 21. 171 1» Friday, about 4 of 
the clock afternoon. Baptized Dec 30. 171 1? by P. 
Stirling. 

Patrick Wodrow, bom Sabbath, at 4 of the clock morning, 
March 8. 1713. Baptized Tuesday, March 10, by 
Mr William Low, minister at Cathcart. 

£benezer Wodrow, bom Wednesday, May 12, 1714, at 
4 of the clock afternoon. Baptized May 16. by Mr 
Henry Hunter, minister at Mems. [He died very 
surprisingly upon Friday, June 19. 1738. I hope God 
was merciAil to his souL] 

Alexander Wodrow, bom Nov. 19. 17^5, Saturday, be- 
twixt 11 and 12 at night. Baptized by Mr David Ar- 
cher, minister at Laurence Kirk, Sabbath, Nov. 27. 
1715. [He died in the Lord, Thursday, Nov. 12. 1730, 
about 9 of the clock, pleasant in his life and in his 
death.] 

Margaret Wodrow, bom Sabbath, Feb. 24. 1717, at 8 in 
the morning ; and that same day baptized by her grand- 
father Mr Patrick Warner, formerly minister at Ir- 
vine. 

William Wodrow, bom on Sabbath, April 20. 1718, at 4 
of the clock afternoon. Baptized by his grandfather 
Sabbath, 27th, 1718. Died June 11th, the same year, 
about 10 o*clock at night, I hope in the Lord. 



198 LIFE OF PROFESSOR WODROW. 

Marion Wodrow, bom Monday, Sept. 21. 1719, at 4 of the 
clock afternoon. Baptized by her grandfather Sept. 
26. the same year* 

Janet Wodrow, bom on Friday, March 24. 1721, at 2 of 
the clock in the morning. Baptized by her grandfa- 
ther Sabbath 26th. 

John Wodrow, bora May 30. 1723, Thursday, about 12. 
Baptized by Mr John Stirling, Principal, Tuesday 
June 4. the same year. [He died Thursday, April 1. 
1725, about half 12, I hope in Christ.} 

[Lillias Wodrow, born Oct. 28. 1724, Wednesday, a quar- 
ter before 2 in the afternoon. Baptized by Mr John 
Stirling, Principal, Nov. 1. the same year. Died, I 
hope in the Liord, Feb. 3. about half 3 afternoon. 

Martha Wodrow, bora Thmrsday, Sept. 22. 1726, ten mi- 
nutes after 8 in the morning, and baptized by Mr Hen- 
ry Hunter, minister at Merna^ Sabbath, Sept. 2^ the 
same year. Jeliova Jire ! 

William Wodrow, bora Jan. 11, Saturday, 7 of tiie clock 
at night. Bapti^d by Mr Henry Hunter, Sabbatii, 
Jan. 19. He died Feb. 16. the same year, about 9 at 
night, in the Lord. 

James Wodrow, born March 21, Saturday, 7 in the morn- 
ing ; and baptized by Mr Henry Hunter, March 29. 
1730. 

Alexander Wodrow, born Sept. 20. 1731, half 10 in the 
moraing. Baptized by Mr Henry Hunter, Sabbath, 
Oct. 26.] 

So prays their parent, 
Sic subsC. 

RO. WODROW. 

Eastwood^, y 
February 5. 1724. ( 



APl^BNDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



Ik the revision of the proof sheets of this small work, it 
has been remarked, that Mr Robert Wodrow, while writing 
the memoir of his father's life, had occasionally satisfied 
himself with the record of memory, without consulting all 
the written documents to which he might have had access. 
His familiarity with the subject might tempt him to depart 
from the practice to which he was accustomed to adhere, 
not less strictly in his biographical notices of eminent men, 
than in his elaborate work on the Sufferings of the Church 
of Scotland. It would not be difficult to supply particulars 
relating to Mr James Wodrow which his son has omitted to 
commemorate, and to detail at much greater length some 
of the occurrences which have here been slightly and tran- 
siently introduced. The several papers to which reference 
has been made in the text would have been introduced in 
the form of an appendix ; but some of the most valuable are 
of great length, and it is apprehended that the others which 
can be recovered in an entire shape would not prove inte- 
resting to all classes of readers. 

The few papers which are here inserted may be gratify- 
ing, not only to those who feel an interest in the University 
of Glasgow, but to all who are disposed to inquire into the 
history of theological study, and the means of promoting its 
advancement. 

i5 



202 APPENDIX. 

One of the cases in which Mr Robert Wodrow has been 
less minute in his details, and less observant of the exact or- 
der of events, than might have been expected, though in it- 
self verj immaterial, maj here be taken notice o£ It is 
stated, in page 117, &c. that, on the 22d of February 1692, 
Mr James Wodrow received a call to be Professor of Theo- 
logy in Glasgow ; and it is added, in page 149, that about the 
year 1694 steps were taken for settling a colleague to him, 
and that the person suggested by him was Mr 6. Meldrum, 
then minister at Kilwinning, afterwards professor at Edin- 
burgh, whose appointment did not take effect, because it was 
thought more necessary to station that excellent man at £din- 
bui^ as one of their ministers. It is no more than justice to 
the Principal and Professors of the College of Glasgow to state, 
that so early as the 25th of February 1691, they resolved (after 
lung and most seriously considering how much it would con* 
duce to the glory of GU)d, to the advantage of church and state, 
and to the honour and interest of the university, that theo' 
logy be well and fully taught, and that it was the practice in 
the most flourishing time both of this church and state, to 
have two professors of theology beside the Principal) to call 
two professors of theology immediately, on the understand- 
ing, however, that the two should, during the then state of 
the revenues, be satisfied with the salary possessed twenty 
years bygone by one single professor of theology, viz. 1000 
merks money and seven chalders victual yearly ; and accord- 
ingly, on that day they elected and called Mr George Mel- 
drum, minister at Kilwiiming, and Mr James Wodrow, mi- 
nister at Glasgow, to be the two professors of theolc^. The 
faculty deferred the prosecution df Mr Wodrow^s translation 
till Mr Meldrum*s call was discussed in the Church Courts ; 
and, on the 22d of February 1092, when it was reported to 
the College by the Principal that the General Assembly had 
resolved to send Mr Meldrum to Edinburgh, the faculty. 



APPENDIX. 203 

considering the great necessity of settling the professor of 
theology without further delay, and that the calling of Mr 
Wodrow had been delayed to &cilitate the call of Mr Mel- 
drum, thought fit to order a new call to be given to Mr Wo- 
drow to be sole professor of theplogy. 

It is highly honourable to the memory of Professor Wo- 
drow, that, at a period when the number of students was 
comparatively small, and when the provision for the support 
of the professor was also inconsiderable, he was so anxious to 
have another professor associated with him, though, if any 
such appointment had taken place, it would have been neces- ' 
sary fur him to sacrifice one half of his too slender emolu« 
ment. There is reastm to believe^ that the students of theo- 
logy in Glasgow alone are more numerous now than the stu- 
dents of theology attending all the universities in Scotland 
in the year 1692, when Mt Wodrow entered on the dis- 
charge of those duties to wluch be confessed himself to be so 
unequaL 



204 APPENDIX. 



No. I. 



PROFESSORS AND STUDENTS AT GLASGOW AT THE^ 
TIME OF MR JAMES WODROVs GRADUATION. 

Of the subscribers of Mr James Wodrow's diploma, it 
may be proper to mention, that Patrick Gillespie was Prin- 
cipal, the well-known Robert Baillie (afterwards Principal) 
and John Young were Professors of Divinity, Andrew Bur- 
net and Robert Erskine were Regents, the former admitted 
in September 1653, and the latter in December 1656. In 
the year 1659, Patrick Young and George Sinclair were also 
Regents and Professors of Philosophy. George Sinclair, ad- 
mitted in October 1654, was well known in his own time as 
the author of several mathematical and physical works, but 
his name is more familiarly associated with another book 
of which he was the author, entitled '' Satan*s Invisible 
World discovered.^ He published also, as if it had been 
his own, the work entitled " Truth's Victory over Error,'* 
written by Mr David Dickson, Professor of Divinity. Sin- 
clair was ejected in 1666, but restored after the Revolution. 
Being then far advanced in life, he was unequal to the great 
labours of a Regent, and was therefore appointed to what 
was then accounted the easier station of Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Experimental Philosophy ; in which capacity he 
delivered a public prelection once a- week. He was succeed- 
ed in 1699 by Dr Robert Sinclair. 

The number of students who entered the same class with 
James Wodrow in 1656-7 was forty-one, and twenty-four of 
the number received the degree of Master of Arts in 1659. 
The names are inserted in the records in the following vr^ 
der, under four divisions.^ 



APPENDIX. 205 

1. Jacobus FawsycL 
Jacobus Wodrow. 
Alexander Kinneir. 
Joannes Frow. 
Andreas Kennedie. 
Robertus Dalloway* 

2. Jacobus Rattray. 
Gulielmus Liston. 
Alexander Thomson. 
Joannes Eincaid. 
Jacobus Sharp. 
Henricus Maule. 
Jacobus Hutchison. 

3. Jacobus Stewart. 
Gulielmus Roger. 
Gulielmus Vetch. 
Andreas Arbucle. 
Patricius Essone. 

4. Jacobus Smart. 
Gulielmus Stewart. 
Andreas Brown. 
Joannes Paterson» 
Archibaldus Maclachland. 

Extra Ordinem. 
Jacobus Drummond. 

The place of graduation is understood to have been the 
church of the Blackfriars, adjoining the College, where the 
professors and students were generally accustomed to attend 
divine service. The words quoted by Mr R. Wodrow from 
the title of the theses (in sede Franciscanorum), properly 
signify the church of the Greyfriars ; but it does not ap. 
pear that any edifice in the city of Glasgow was then known 
by that name, though the convent of the Greyfriara had 
been almost contiguous to that of the Blackfriars.^ 



9D6 APpemitx. 

It is not unworthy of renuizlt, tliftt the BlackfHars church, 
though rebuilt in 1622 (when it first became a presbyterian 
place of worship) on ground given by the College, on condi- 
tion of receiving a certain number of the second best seats, 
was declared in 1669 to be in danger of becoming ruinous *. 
At that time the regents and students appear sometimes 
to have attended the Inner Kirk (now called the High 
Church), sometimes the Outer Kiik, and sometimes a tem- 
porary place of worship in the CoUege hall« On this subject 
the following notices are found in the Appendix to Mr Cle- 
land*s Statistical Tables, (Qiug. 1823.) 

^ 1658. CoUege.^Dsc 3. Mr John Young and Mr Bur- 
net from the College^ detire, in name of the Masters of the 
College, that the Session may think on a way how the re- 
gents and scholars may be the PrincipaPs ordinary hearers. 

'M6d9. ColkffeChurehAc(mmO(kttion,^The Session allow 
the College the wester loft In the Outer Kirk, as fiir as they 
have interest in the matter* A committee sent to desire the 
Principal to preach in the Outer Kirk, to which congregation 
he hath still a tie, and ofikdng any other seat, even the ses- 
sion'loft, to the College. The ^Mndpal answered, he thanked 
the Session for their respect to him, imd said it was the cold- 
ness that induced him to come down to the College to preach, 
and that he would think on their denre in due time. There- 
after Mr Gillespie, the Principal, r^uresents that, in regard 
the Magistrates had refused his scholars and the students 
a seat in the Inner Kirk, and had set town-officers to keep 
the seats and door, he thought good to acquaint the Session, 
for his own exoneration and vindication, that, fbr eschewing 
contention, he intended to preach to the scholars in the Col- 
lege-hail on the afternoons on the Sabbaths following, till 
the Lord should please to give him tiberty, with peace, to 

* The Bkckfirian Church, a roost magnificent Gothic building, ww de^ 
Btroyed by lightning in 16G6. 



APPENDIX. 207 

preach to them and to the people elsewhere. The Session 
cannot admit this expedient, in regard he continues fixed 
minister of the easter-quarter congregation, as to preaching 
to them once on the Lord's day when his health permits, 
and was never yet altogether loosed from that charge ; and 
a committee appointed to him and to the Magistrates ahout 
giving back to the beddal the keys of the kirk, and suffering 
him to go about his calling. Soon after this the Principal 
expressed his willingness to preach in the Outer Kirk as his 
health would permit him, and he would have the College to 
hear him in any of the kirks.*' 

It is proper to add, that, in the year 1651, the Modera- 
tors of the University (viz. George Jjockhart, Bector, Ito'> 
bert Ramsay, Principal and Dean of Faculty), with the As- 
sessors of the Rector (being the Ministers of the city and 
suburbs, the Professors and Masters of the University, and 
the Master of the Grammar-School), unanimously agreed, 
^^ That no Principal or Professor shall engage in the minis- 
try, nor meddle with any part of the ministerial change, ex- 
cept in preaching of the word and administration of the sa- 
craments ; and that so &r only as the Moderators, after due 
consideration, shall find consistent with the discharge of all 
their duties in the College, and by particular concession shall 
allow to them ; which they declare shall not be refused to 
any who shall crave it, so &r as has been granted to their pro- 
fessors hitherto, Mr David Didrson and Mr Robert BailHe." 

Mr R. Ramsay was Principal from 1651 to 1653, when 
he was succeeded by Mr Patrick Gillespie, minister of the 
Outer Kirk. 



206 APPENDIX. 



No. II. 

A COMPEND OF THE TBEATI&B MBTHODUS HOMILETI- 
CA^ BEING A SHORT DIRECTOBY TO STUDENTS OF 
THEOLOGY FOR MAKING OF AND CRITICISING UPON 
HOMILIES^ AS ALSO FOR THE MAKING OF POPULAR 
SERMONS^ AS THEY ARE CALLED THERETO. 

1. The method of preaching is that whereby a discourse 
is so framed upon and from any text of Scripture, that the 
ogreeance of all the parts thereof among themselves, accord- 
ing to their natural order, may be clearly discerned by the un- 
derstanding, and easily retained in the memory, both of the 
preacher and hearers, for the glory of God, and edification of 
his people. 

2. There are many kinds of this in use ; but that which 
proceeds by way of doctrine and uses is most commended by 
the best divines, and is in itself most easy, and best suited 
to the natural order of things, . and also most conform to 
plain scripture precept and practice. 2 Tim. iv. 2. ; chap. 
iii. 16 ; Luke iv. 16-30. 

3. For the more clear and direct procedure in this me- 
thod, the several particulars pertaining thereto may be re- 
duced to these six heads. 1st, Concerning the art of preach- 
ing ; 2dly, Its objects ; 3dly, What things are pre-required 
to the making of a homily or preaching ; 4thly, Of its com- 
posure; 5thly, Of the delivery of it ; 6thly, Of the several 
kinds of it, according to which the treatise is divided into so 
many sections. 



APPENDIX. 209 

SECTION I. 

OF THE ART OF PREACHING, ITS NATURE AND PROPERTIES* 

This art is called by the ancients Ars artis, as Gregorius 
in prima parte sui pastoralis, and is defined by Perkins Ars 
spiritualis qua unus Christus, per Christum, in Christi lau- 
dem prsedicatur. 1 Cor. iL 2. 

The end of this art is, first, to teach distinctly ; 2dly, To 
convince clearly ; and, 3dly, To persuade powerfully. See 
the properties of it in the treatise. 

SECTION II. 

OF PREACHING IN GENERAL. 

Though there was never any nation or society of men so 
barbarous as not to own a deity, and consequently some pub- 
lic worship of that deily ; yet this way of worshipping God, 
and religion of instructing the people by public preaching, 
was always peculiar and proper to the church of God. Open 
publication of divine truths is called preaching, x«r' f|o;ci}y. 
Preaching is a gracious mean appointed by God, whereby all 
things pertaining to the kingdom of God are explained and 
applied to the glory of God and salvation of man. Reading 
of God's word in public, or in the church, is termed preach- 
ing in the Scriptures, Acts xv. 21, ch. xiii. 27 ; as well with 
explication as application, Neh. viii. 8 ; and also in the writ- 
ings of the fethers. 

SECTION III. 

OF CERTAIN THINGS PBE-REQUISITE TO BE KNOWN AND 
DONE BEFORE THE COMPOSURE OF A SERMON. 

1st, Serious and ardent imploring of divine assistance 
thereunto. 2dly, The choice of a pertinent and seasonable 
text. 3dly, Sufficient reading of books upon the text and 



210 APPENDIX. 

subject-matter of it 4thly, Pious and profound meditation, 
and sedulous use of your own invention, awakened and assist- 
ed as is found. Concerning all which see at length in the 
Treatise. 

SECTION IV. 

OF THE RIGHT MANNER OF COMPOSING A HOMILY OR 

SERMON. 

The composition of a sermon consisteth in a due dispo- 
sition of a fit mattter intended by the preacher, through the 
foresaid helps, upon a text of Scripture, wherein every part 
is set down in its native order and place. 

As the matter of a sermon must all be drawn from and 
correspondent unto the word of God ; so in every full and 
pertinent sacred oration accurately formed, there ought to be, 
and usually are, these parts, and in this order fdlowing, viz. 
1st, A preface or Introduction unto the explication of the 
text and sermon upon It ; 2dly, The narration of Uie scope; 
3dly, The analysis or division of the text ; 4tMy, The ex- 
plication thereof; 5thly, The paraphrase; Othly, The de- 
duction of doctrines ; 7thly, The explication and ampHfi- 
cation of the same ; ^hly. The inferences or uses there- 
from ; 9thly, The application thereof; lOthly, The epilogue 
or conclusion. Of all which in order in the subsecitions fol- 
lowing, 

SuBSECT. 1— -Of the Preface. 

1. The pre&ce or introduction is the finit part of the ser- 
mon, whereby the minds of the hearers are prepared and 
wakened up to hear what the preacher is to deliver to them. 

2. The. dexterity of a sacred orator appears in nothing 
more than by some apposite and taking expressions to catch, 



APPENDIX. 211 

engage^ and captivate the hearers* hearts, in the entry unto 
a fixed attention to the purpose in hand. 

3. We are to imitate the examples of the Apostles and 
Prophets herein more than any particular rule that can be 
assigned, who oft began their sermons, Thus saith the Lord, 
and this not only in the entry, but often also through the 
sermon, as often as the preacher discerns the bearers to 
grow heavy or slack in attention, or before any purpose of 
more special concernment or reproof and admonitions (at 
which some have prejudice) be delivered, whereof ye may 
see instances. Is. i. 10, Acts ii. 

4. Great liberty is allowed us for exordiums. Sometimes 
they may be passed over when there is much matter to be 
delivered in short time, as Moses begins the excordium of the 
creation without a pre&ce. The majesty of sacred scripture, 
and the excellency of heavenly things, are sufficient, without 
ou^t added to engage pious minds. Sometimes again a pre- 
face is used, Luke i. 1, 2. 

5. These general rules may be applied here as prudence 
shall direct, as, 1st, A pre&ce being, as it werei, the pordi 
leading to the temple, or the gates oi the city, it may be very 
fitly taken for the connexion of the text fh>m what goes be- 
fore. 2dly, If ye have preached on that tstt or purpose be- 
fore, ye may reduce yourself by a compendious repetition of 
what was formerly spoken from the text ; or, 3dly, Remo- 
ving what purposes might be expected to be vpoken ^om such 
a text from your present design, and by narrating what ye in- 
tend to handle at that time, ithly. By quoting sonre appo- 
site Scripture, and by a dhort gloss upon it, leading yourself 
into the text. 

Let it be short, that the auditors be not too Icmg in sus- 
pense, not knowing whither you are tending, except when 
you are beginning a book or chapter, or making a preaching 



212 APPENDIX. 

or opening up some things necessarily previous to your in- 
tent. 

6. Begin with a low, still, calm voice, and weak affec- 
tions, and grow higher in all as ye go on in the sermon, and 
most of all in the close. 

7. The pre&ce may be a commendation of the author, 
book or purpose, in the text; so the ancients called the 
books of Moses, Oceanum theologise— Genesis, librum promis- 
sionum et fundamentum totius scripturse— the book of the 
Judges, Librum promissionum et minarum — the epistle to 
the Romans, Clavem Scripturse. Or, 

8. It may be taken from the scope or intention of the 
author. 

9. Or from some general sentence or thesis applied to 
the hypothesis in the text, as if one be about to preach on 
the history of the feeding four thousand with seven loaves, 
he may begin with Ps. xzxiv. 10, ' Fear ye the Lord ye his 
saints, there is no want to them that fear him ;* or from any 
fit maxim or pertinent scripture parable, e. j^ if ye be to 
speak against theft, fraud, or covetousness, make use of Luke 
xvi. 1-13 ; or against oppression and injustice, you may make 
use of that, Luke xviii. I-.?* 

10. If your text be metaphorical, take your pre&ce &om 
that thing from which the metaphor is borrowed, shewing the 
more general nature of it, and then wherein it comes near 
to that which ye are to handle. 

11. In sermons upon extraordinary occasions, as fasts, 
thanksgiving, &c. begin with shewing the occasion and im- 
pulsive cause of your choosing such a text, and that such an 
occasion agrees with the scope of the text. 

12. Mix in some observations and applications, by the by, 
in your pre&ce, whereby it becomes more savoury un,to the 
spiritual hearers thereof. 

Of all others the fittest prefaces were most usual with the 



APPENDIX. 213 

prophets, vi^. to persuade the hearers that what ye are to 
deliver to them is the mind and will of God, concerning their 
eternal happiness and salvation of their souls ; that ye are in 
Christ's stead speaking to them ; that their receiving or re-, 
jecting of you will be reckoned as the receiving or rejecting 
of him, Luke x, 16; 2 Cor. v. 20. 

All apologies, personal insinuations, begging of fiivours to 
or from the hearers, are unbecoming and below the office and 
commissions, majesty of Christ's ambassadors, more proper 
for theatre or stage ; yet some use may be hereof Iq dealing 
with enemies and schismatics in the troubled state of the 
church, after the example of Paul, Acts, xviL 28. 

Let your preface of every kind have a native and clear 
connection with your text and purpose handled therefrom, and 
shew this plainly, that the hearers may more easily under- 
stand it. Let a short ejaculatory prayer be the exordium of 
your exordium, as also of every part of your sermon, this 
being as needful and useful here, and Nehemiah's petition, 
Neh. ii. 4. 

SuBSECT. 2 — Of the Scope. 

The scope of the text is that which is chiefly there in- 
tended by the Holy Ghost, the knowledge whereof is as ne- 
cessary to the preacher for the right ordering of his sermon 
upon that text, as that of the pole star to the mariners, in 
guiding them of their way aright ; and the finding is more 
difficult than it is useful when found out to make a pertinent, 
well knit discourse. Some define the declaration of the 
scope of a text thus : A general proposition or narration of 
the theme which properly and pertinently is to be handled in 
his text, and they distinguish a threefold kind of this narra- 
tion of the theme to be handled. 1. General, wherein is 
shewed that such a theme is the truth of this text intended 
that ye may understand the dependence or independence of 



214 APPENDIX. 

in it, and only properly and pertinently to be handled £rom 
it, which, shortly and perspicuously proposed at the entry 
upon the text is i»lled the narration of the scope, or what 
the Holy Ghost intendeth primarily to be tau^t from the 
text : whence it is evident, that this narration of the scope 
should immediately follow the preface, and cannot be de- 
ferred without hindering the edification of the hearers, whose 
minds are still in the daiir about what is aimed at in the 
preaching, till this be told th«n. 2dly, Special, wherein the 
theme to be handled is more specially opened up to all the 
parts of it, in the analysis of the text. 3dly, Particular or 
doctrinal, wherein all the particular heads of the theme to be 
handled are particularly proposed and explained in the am- 
plification of the doctrine, and afterwards applied in the uses. 
2. There is a fourfold scope to be considered for the more 
clearing of every particular text. 1st, Of the whole book in 
which the text is ; 2dly, Of the chapter where it is ; 3dly, 
Of the particular part of the chapter wherein it is ; 4thly, 
Of the individual text itself, if the text read be a particular 
of the particular part of that chapter (the first paragraph of 
this subsection is to be understood of this last scope). The 
clear and distinct understanding of all these doth not a little 
conduce to the finding out of the true sense of the text, each 
of them being subordinate unto, and depending upon, the for> 
mer, and giving clearness one of them to another ; and it is 
convenient for the preacher to have all these in his eye, nor 
unprofitable for the preacher to propose them to his hearers,, 
providing it be done with due brevity, both to carry on and 
discern accuracy in the sermon ; and to understand, among 
various interpretations of the text, which is right, and which 
wrong, viz. as they agree or disagree with the scope. 

3. To find the^true scope of the text hoe opus hie labor est ; 
for helps therein, among other things, consider the following 
rules. 1. Read and seriously consider the whole context, 



APPENDIX. 215 

the text, on what goeth before or what followeth after. 2« 
Beside your own translation, read and compare therewith all 
oth^ translations that are beside jou, but especially the ori- 
ginal and authentic editions. 3. Take the help of best an- 
notations, commentators, accurate analyses, in particular Pis- 
cator and lexicons, together with tike best critics, as Pool, 
Lei^, &c. 4. Consider the general scope of the book, the 
special scope oi the chapter, and tibe particular scope of that 
part of the chapter wherein your text is, which are more ob- 
vious, wherein ye will iind authors more express than in the 
scope of the verse or sentence which ye make your text ; by 
proportion from these you may get light to gather the indi- 
vidual scope of your text. 5. If after all these ye remain 
in the dark about the scope of your text, reiterate your dili- 
gence in all the foresaid respects to more profound medita- 
tion and imploration of divine assistance, until ye find what 
ye are seeking. 6. Remember that here lenie festinanekim e«f, 
it being a matter of such moment, as that upon the invention 
of the true scope of your text, doth' depend the right divi- 
sion and explication of it, deduction of doctrines, prosecution 
and amplification, and application, not only as to accuracy, 
but also as to the truth of this place. ' Quid est turpius, in- 
quit Quintilianus (Orat. Inst. lib. ii. cap. ult.), quam ideo 
obscurum ipsum quod in eum solum adhibetur usum ne 
sint csetera obscura ;' for as the text is the foundation of 
the preaching, and of its whole fabric, so the narration of the 
true scope is the guide and directory of all the structure. 

SuBSECT. 3. — Of the Analysis or Division of the 

Text. 

As the declaration of the scope is a general narration of 
the theme to be handled in the sermon of the text ; so the 
divisions of the analysis of the text is a more full and special 
narration of the same* Some, who speak more precisely. 



216 APPENDIX. 

distis^ish the analysis of the text from the division thereof 
thus, viz. That the analysis of the text is the resolution of 
it into its own parts, of what kind soever, and, considered in 
any respect, is the foundation of the ensuing sermon ; but 
the division is the resolution of the text into such parts as 
pertain unto the theme t^ be treated o^ and which make up 
the same, or point out the order of handling of it. The di- 
vision arises from the analysis ; the analysis is the anatomi- 
zing or dissection of the text ; the division is the distribution 
of it into its several heads, or the enumeration of its several 
parts. This last perfecteth the former, and as the analysis 
leadeth to the division, so the division of the text tendeth to 
the perfecting of the sermon or tractate to be formed from 
that text; yet most of authors use these terms promiscuous- 

A fit analysis is most necessary to lead us into and to 
reach the whole matter contained in the text. Piscator for 
your analysis upon the whole Bible is among the best. 

Division is one of the common modi sciendi. By it the 
text is formed, and the pearls therein searched out ; by this 
we are brought unto the banqueting house, and his fruit be- 
comes sweet unto our taste. These spices by being thus 
broken and rubbed, make the words of the sacred text shew 
forth a most delightsome odour ; and the more we pore into 
the text by an accurate and severe analysis, still more and 
more divine truths occur to us, and the mind so ravished with 
admiration of the divine truths thereof, that we must cry out 
with Tertullian, ' Adoro plenitudinem sacrse scripturse.' 

Particular texts, verses, or sentences of the Scripture are 
connected or abrupt. If connected, then they may come un- 
der a double consideration, viz. relative unto the antecedent 
or consequent purpose with which they are connected ; or 
absolute, as they stand in the text or sentence. Abrupt texts 
are those which have no connection, as those in the begin- 



APPBNDIX. 217 

ning of books, or in the Proverbs or Eccliesiastes in some 
places. It may happen in several places, that there is no 
need of a division of the text, as, Ist, When the text doth 
not contain more parts or members in it than one, viz. when 
the whole text is an argument from a preceding thesis ; 2dly, 
When we mind to handle some one purpose only from the 
text, and spend the whole time upon that which alloweth us 
not to stay upon an analysis. 

When the text needs a division, these following rules 
may be useflil in the making of it. 1st, The division of the 
text must consist of particulars contained in it, and not of 
things deducible from it, or of purposes which the preacher 
is to deliver in his sermon, as is done by some, for this is to 
bring in upon, and not to make a division o^ the text. 2dly, 
It must be adequate to the text, t. «. it must consist neither 
of more nor of fewer 'parts than are to be found in the 
text. 3dly, Let it be short and perspicuous { shortness is 
good for the memory, and perspicuity for the understanding. 
Breaking of the bread of life into many and small pieces is 
rather a losing than explication of it. Too much division 
is much one with none at alL A prudent distinguishing of 
the general heads from the particular ones in the text, and a 
reducing of the particulars under the general ones by a divi- 
sion thereof is both useful and necessary. 4thly, Observe 
the natural order of things, rather than the order of the 
wording in the text, and make each part of the division sub* 
ordinate and dependent upon another, as far as may be. 
5thly, Beware to bring in public a logical or grammatical ana- 
lysis, whereby things are cut into new and needless midges, 
though ye may make your own use in your minds to help 
you into a theological division. 6thly, If there be any con- 
nection of the text with what precedes or follows after, either 
expressed by some connective particle in the text, or vir* 
tually or eminently contained in it : make that one part of 

K 



218 iVPPBNDIX. 

your division to be the fi>undation of connectional or gene* 
ral doctrines. Vtby If yovr text contain a historical or para- 
bolical narration, make as many parts of the text as ye can 
discern circumstances therein, whether physical or moraL 
The physical circumstances of things are contained in the 
following ^stidion : 

Fonna, fignra, loccu, stirps, nomen, patria, tempiB. 
Patria sunt septem qiue non habet warn et alter. 

Moral circumstances are such as affect the morality of ac- 
tions ; and they are either eiggrirvanteSy which do not change, 
but augment the morality of good or evil (^the action with- 
in the same species ; or mutantes, chan^ng the species of the 
action from good to evil, in genere moris et eontroy ex. gr. to 
play at a game is law^l through the week, but on the Sab- 
bath it is sinfuL Aggravating circumstances are properly 
so called circumstances, and they are^ contained in the follow, 
ing distichon : 

Quis, quid, ubi, quibtu auxiliis, curt quomodo, quando ; 
Qualisque, et qnantus, cujusque peristasb esto. 

8thly, If your text contain a similitude, let the first part or 
the division be of the thing to be illustrated by the simili- 
tude, and the other the agreeance of the similitude with it. 
9thly, If your text contain precepts, prohibitions, threaten- 
ings, &C. it may be so divided that its parts may be re- 
duced to these circumstances, guis, eui, et quareif or any of 
them. lOthly, If ye cannot easily fiJl upon a division of the 
text, put a brief paraphrase in the room of it, and then ex- 
plain it »«T«0%fva(0'r<itArf . 

SuBSECT. 4.«»Of the Explication of the Text. 

1st, The explication of the text is the interpretation of 
obscure words, dark phrases, and connections therein con- 
tained, by other words more clear, according to the mind of 
the Holy Ghost speaking in scripture, whereby one entire 



APPENDIX. 219 

and genuine sense may be had thereof. 2dly, Some put 
the explication before the division, most part after it, and 
some conjoin them for brevity*s sake, and perhaps such do best. 
Sdly, These three are worthy of consideration here, /vrst^ 
The means whereby we find out the sense of the Scripture ; 
secondly. The various way s t)f interpreting Scripture; thirdly. 
Some rules to walk by in the explication of the text. 

The means of finding out the sense of Scripture, are, 1st, 
The scope of the Spirit of God in that place ; 2dly, The sense 
which agreeth therewith is to be retained, and that sense which 
disagreeth therewith is to be rejected ; 3dly, The grammati- 
cal force and emphasis of the word in the original, also among 
famous classic authors, is to be pondered according to the 
propriety, either separately or in statu vonstmcto. In every 
accurate disquisition that the Philosopher holds, iu t^ira^uv 
Tcc Ait^fMrn, and this is not to be neglected in divinity. 4thly, 
Take the help of rhetoric for understanding a word, phrase, 
or whole sermon, taken properly or figuratively ; as ye are 
not to make a trope wh&re it is not, so deny it not where it 
is. When things spoken of in Scripture cannot be taken pro- 
perly without contradicting some place of Scripture, failing 
against faith and charity, or supposing somewhat impossible 
or absurd, then we are to take them figuratively, as Luke ii. 
37 ; John vi. 53. Where also the Spirit of God goeth before 
sense, Scriptura est optima sui interpres; so did Paul, Acts 
XX., and the Levites, Neh. viii. 8. In the original it is, they 
read and made them understand by the Scriptures. 5thly, 
Admit no sense that is contrary to the analogy of faith, which 
is to overrule us in exposing the Scripture, Rom. xii. 6. 
The analogy of faith is a certain epitome of the Scriptures, 
gathered from the most plain and clear places thereof, called 
by the apostle a form of sound words, 2 Tim. i. 13. ; in faith, 
that is shortly summed up in the creed, and love, i. e. sum- 

k2 



220 APPENDIX* 

med up in the commandments. See more to this purpose 
in Wendelini Christ. TheoL Prolog, ch. 3, thes. 6. sect 4. 

5thlj, As to the Tarious ways of interpretation of Scripture, 
the explication of a text is either analytical, which is either 
more general above in the division, or special as here, of which 
see in the tractate ; or paraphrastical, of which in the fol- 
lowing subsection. 

6thly, Make use of these rules in the explication of the 
text. 1. If the text be clear in itself ye may pass over the 
explication to the raising of doctrines ; for to endeavour to 
make that plainer which is enough already, happens rather to 
obscure, and proves the needless spending of time, postponing 
the word of exhortation from it, so much desired by the audi- 
tors. 2. Where the text needeth explication, proceed to it with 
all brevity and perspicuity ; for the being too prolix on ooe part 
wastes the time which should be reserved for the other part of 
the sermon : it is sufficient here to open up the words so far 
as is needful to understand the meaning of the text, deferring 
the more ample explication of the things herein contained to 
the amplification of the doctrines and uses. 3. As to the quid 
nominis, remove homonomy and ambiguity, mark the etymo- 
logy, and assign some Scripture synonyms ; and whether ye 
give one or more significations to any word in the text, endea- 
vour to cite some place of Scripture where the word is so ta- 
ken. 4. If the text be hypothetical, ye may reduce it to a 
general thesis, and so open it up ; if theoretical, ye may de- 
scend to the hy])othesis in the explication of it. 5. Bring no- 
thing in by way of explication that is doubtful or obscure, for 
how can that give light to another that needeth light to itself 
6. The knowledge of the time and the occasion upon which 
the authors did write, gives much light to every particular 
passage of that book. 7* Many interpreters insist long upon 
the answering of objections and solutions of the doubts of the 
-text ; but it is better to wave objections to their own pro- 



APPENDIX. 221 

per places. Objections seasonably brought tend muth to 
awaken the attention, and gather wandering minds ; only 
those objections that at the first sight appear obvious to the 
hearers, are to be answered in this place. 8. If the text and 
sense thereof be controverted and retorted by heretics, «. g. 
that text. This is my body, ye are to clear the words from 
the abuse thereof by adversaries at lenglh, especially from 
the circumstances of the context, nvUa est objectio in lege (in- 
quiunt Ilabbini), qiuB rum habet sottUwnem a latere^ leaving the 
dispute the thing in controversy unto the use of refutation. 
9. Finally, mix in with the spiritual parts of the explication 
some moral observations and short uses, to make it more 
savoury and refreshful to the hearers ; and beware of all 
vain affectation of finding out or bringing in some new con- 
ceit upon the text. Such new conjectures in divinity (says 
one) materia est aptissima ex cujus- potentia, Imo, Scepticus ; 
2do^ HaretiotiSy ac denigue Atheos producatur. 2dly, Mention 
no different or contrary senses of the text in public which 
you are to reject, except the hearers know the text to be 
controverted ; 1 Cor. iv. 3. Beware of needless digressions 
and curious conjectures in any part of your sermon, but espe- 
cially in the explication of the text, which generally should 
be most clear, eminent, and brie£ 

SuBSECT. 6. — Of the Pa&aphrase, or Paraphrastical 

Exposition of the Text. 

1. The analytical explication of the text is to be carried 
on according to tHe directory in the two former subsections, 
and then proceed to the paraphrasticaL 

2. The paraphrase here is a recollection and short recapi- 
tulation of all the heads of the analytical explication proceed^ 
ing with respect unto the scope ; including also a clear and 
brief deduction of all the grounds of the doctrines which ye 
intend to raise from this text ; and if any of them be want- 



222 AFFEKDIir. 

ing the paraphrase is imperfect. In a word, the paraphrase 
is presenting, as in a map, ta the minds of the hearers the 
substance of the whole analytical explication ccmjunctly, what 
was separately by parts opened np before, as alsa the sum of 
the ensuing sermon. In ft-aming the paraphrase, cibeerYe these 
rules following, tst. It must be in other words than is con- 
tained in the tei^t, to prevent the appearance of a tautology. 
2dly, It is to be expressed in the first person, personating 
the speaker in the text, and therefore the greater spiritual!' 
ty of frame, and caution in expression, is to be studied here 
than in any other part of the sermon. 3dly, The transition 
from the analytical explication ((»: &om the rea^ng of the 
text when there is an paraphrastical exposition) to the para- 
phrase is usual after thds or the lile manner, at if he had 
aauL, &c. viz. the Spirit of God, or the writer* Others think 
this transition better, Conceive with me the sense of the word 
to be this. 4thly, Let it be short and sueeinct, for there is 
nothing more hurtful to the understanding than long periods 
and perplexity of words, when it might be otherwise, espe- 
cially in these parts of a discourse vrhich are intended to be 
compends of the rest. 5thly, Let it be perspicuous, so that 
we may rather seem to demonstrate and point out with our 
finger than to speak out with our mouth, the purpose we are 
treating of, which is in a most special manner necessary, if 
we consider that the rudeness of the common [people] is un- 
known and incredible. 6thly, This kind of interpretation is 
chiefly to be used in the books of the Psalms and Prophets, 
^e may see instances of it in Janaenio m Psalmoay Cartwrighio 
w. Evangelia^ ei Ercume in Navtim Testamentum. 

SuBSECT. 6.-»0f Doctbines to be dbawn fbom the 

Text. 

1. In the by past parts, the sermon is spent in dissecting 
the text, In the following parts it is spent in teaching from 



APPENDIX. 223 

it. Hitherto the analysis follows the genesis, consisting of 
doctrines and uses : in the former part much judgment is re- 
quired ; in the following part much heavenly wisdom, and 
supernatural prudence ; Mat. xiii. 52. ' Every scribe which 
is instructed to the kingdom of heaven, is like unto a man 
that is a householder, that brings out of his treasure things 
new and old.* This latter part of the sermon is named 
'dgSvrojW«», 2 Tim. ii. 15. ' Study (says Paul to Timothy, and 
in him to all the preachers of the gospel), ' to shew thyself 
approved unto Qod a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, 
rightly dividing the word of truth.* It is a metaphor taken 
from the Levites, who might not rashly divide the sacrifice 
into parts, but by precept ; Is. L 4. ' The Lord hath given 
me the toiigue of the learned, that I should know how to 
speak a word in season to him that is weary.* 

2. A doctrine is a theolr^cal proposition, informing the 
understanding about things to be believed or done, either ex- 
pressly contained in the text, or inunediately or by direct 
consequence foUowing therefrom. 

3. Hence some doctrines are express and explicit, and 
others by consequence, and implicit.. This distinction is 
a forma et materia : some are theoretical, de veritate ac fide ; 
others practical, concerning manners. This distinction is ta- 
ken from the end and^use ; for in sermons all are referred to 
practice. 

4. Concerning the right manner of drawing right doctrine 
from the text, observe these rules : 

1«^, The Directory of the Westminster Assembly for 
preaching of the word, p. 26. runs, thus : ' In raising doc« 
trines from the text, the preacher's care ought to be, 1st, 
That the matter be the truth of God ; 2dly, That it be con- 
tained in and grounded upon the text, that the hearers may 
discern how God teacheth it from thence : Sdly, That be 
chiefly insist on those doctrines which are principally intend. 



224 APPENDIX. 

ed, and make most for the edificacion of the hearers : 4thl/, 
The doctrine is to be expressed in plain terms : 6thly, The 
consequence of the doctrine, must also be clear, and if need 
be cleared.* 

2(Up, Seeing a multitude of doctrines may be raised from 
every text, there is need of special prudence to choose the 
fittest, and to pass oyer the rest ; for thei^ is a certain plea- 
sant harmony betwixt some sacred truths and the hearers, 
which, when the preacher falls thereon, his sermon becomes 
acceptable and successful 

Zditf, Let the doctrines be distinct, really as well as in 
words, that the hearers weary not upon pretence of tautology 
and vain repetition. 

4thlt/y Though you are not to multi]dy your doctrines too 
much, yet ye are not to pass any that are obvious in and from 
the text ; and although ye cannot get them all pres^ited at 
one time, yet it is fit that ye enumerate them all, that the 
hearers may know that ye have passed over none that de« 
serves to be marked. 

dtkly, 3Let your doctrines be drawn forth from the text in 
a natural order, each of them depending on another ; and if 
they be many, let them be classed in and according to the se- 
veral parts of the text, and the general observations first, 
and then the particular : if the matter contained in the text 
and doctrines be collateral, then follow the order of the 
words in the text, and let that which first oceurreth be first 
handled. 

athiy^ Insist at greatest length on that doctrine in which 
the greatest force and design of the text is, handling the 
principal doctrines of the text fully, passing over the acces^ 
sory doctrines shordy, and referring their full handling to 
their proper places and text. 

7thly, JLet your doctrines be enunciated in simple propo- 
sitioiia, so they will be more easily understood, remembered^ 



APPENDIX. 225 

proven, and amplified : what modifications ye incline to add 
to the subject or attribute, may come in better in the ampli- 
fication than the proposition of the doctrine. Complex pro- 
positions are more hard to be proven, nor can they accurate- 
ly be amplified or applied, but only with respect to the con- 
nection, which is often tery difiicult to be done. 

Sihly^ Let your general and implied doctrines go before 
those that are particular, and expressed in the text, as preli- 
minary thereunto. 

9t?ily, When ye handle two doctrines that are only formally 
distinct, ye should shew plainly and fully wherein they differ, 
and how the prosecution of the one is different from that in 
the other, that your hearers may not think that there is a co- 
incidence betwixt them. 

lO^A/^, Doctrines are after the same manner to be raised 
firom every text. Observations may be gathered from the 
scope, connection, or any circumstance of doctrinal texts, but 
only from the scope of parabolical texts, because not every 
part but the whole concurs to make up the scope. Besides, 
observations from historical texts should not be long insisted 
upon, because they are chiefly and properly intended for il- 
lustration, as doctrinal texts for doctrines. 

llthlpy Doctrines should not be drawn in upon but from 
texts. 

l2tMpy Shew the foundations and grounds of your doc- 
trines at the delivery of each of them : this makes the text 
speak, and all sure ; for as the doctrine is an immediate con- 
sequence from the text, so its ground is the clearness of its 
consequence^ and an illustration of its immediate dependence 
on the text. 

SuBSECT. ^, — Of the Prosecution and Amplification 

OF the Doctrines. 

It was observed before, that there may be a threefold pro- 
position or narration of the theme and purpose handled in the 

k5 



226 APPSN]iix^ 

fermon. 1st, General, in shewing the scope of the text : 2diy, 
Special, in the analytical explication thereof; and, 3dly, Par- 
ticular, which pertains to this place, and it is a fiill enumera- 
tion of all the particulars to be handled in the sermon, and it 
is partly analytical in explication, and partly genetical in con« 
fiirmation and amplification. 

The prosecution and handling of the doctrine, or the par- 
ticular proposition or narration of all things to be spoken of 
(taught and applied) in the sermon, may be reduced to these 
three : 1. Explication ; 2. Confirmation ; and, 3^ Amplifica- 
tion of both. 

1. In the explication of the text, the theme was only so 
fai explained as was necessary for forming of the doctrines ; 
but here it comes to be more fully explained to the satis&c- 
tion of the hearers, in order to the application of it, where 
the several truths scattered up and down the Scriptures and 
in common-places are contracted into a method, and presented 
to the understanding in a compact order. 2dly, In order 
hereunto, first try what matter your memory and invention 
can furnish to you upon the doctrine ye are to prosecute : 
if these be jejune and scant, look what authors you have be- 
side you upon this subject : if these also fail your expecta- 
tion, then go to Newman*s Concordance with the most mate- 
rial words of your doctrine, and read over and consider the 
{Scriptures relating thereunto, which, through the blessing of 
God, will present to your invention matter for several heads 
as to the qitod Hi, quid nt, et cur sit of your doctrines, and also 
motives, means and directions, and marks belonging to your 
application of them, which you may digest in order a^ they 
occur, with this special advantage, that as the Scriptures give 
occasion for the invention of these several heads, so ye can- 
not want one apposite Scripture for each of them. 3dly, 
Among all the ways of explaining and amplifying your doc- 
trine (concerning which see the Tractate in Latin, out of 



APPENDIX. 227 

which this is drawn), this is preferable to the rest, as being 
the most plain and popular, whereby your doctrine (either in 
its parts or in the complex of it, as your discretion shall de- 
termine it) is explained by the resolution of these three ques- 
tions : 

1. What it presupposeth. 

2. What it imports. 

3. What it inferreth. 

As, for example, if your example to be amplified be about 
saving faith, proceed thus : (1st), It presupposeth knowledge 
of God, Ps. ix. 10 ; (2dly), historical &ith of all supernatural 
revelation. Acts, xxvi. 27* ; Heb. xi. 6. ; (3dly), a sight of 
the sufficiency of the Mediator, Heb. vii. 25. 2dly, It im- 
ports, (1st), the receiving of Christ, as he is offered in the gos- 
pel, John, i. 12. ; (2dly), adherency unto, recumbency upon, 
and acquiescence in him, Is. xxvL 3. ; Acts, x. 43 ; xi. 23. 
3d/^, It infers, (J st), confession of him and of his truths, Rom. 
x. 10. ; 2 Cor. iv. 13. with Ps. cxvi 10. ; (2dly), hope of sal- 
vation, Rom. viii. 24. ; and under this head come in all the 
properties, effects, concomitants, and consequents of faith : 
thus by proportion you may proceed in all other themes. 

The second thing in prosecution of the doctrine was pro- 
bation or confirmation, which is twofold, to &ri, that it is so, 
the truth of the doctrine may be proven by Scripture and 
reason ; two or three apposite Scriptures are enough, with a 
short gloss on each of them, shewing how it proves the doc- 
trine : 2dly, rt ^i&n, why it is so, which perfects the under- 
standing of the hearers, not only by further confirming the 
truth of the doctrine i but also further holding forth the 
equity of it^ and so making the hearers more prompt and so- 
lid in receiving it. There is no need of confirmation where 
the doctrine is expressed in the text, or questioned by none. 
Where there is need thereof then let your confirmation be 
by proo& and arguments that are^more clear than that which 



228 APPENDIX. 

is to be proven : let them be proper, and not common, evi* 
dent and certain, not debateable, not nakedlj proposed only, 
but explained, proven from some Scripture, and ampli^ed : 
let them be more scriptural than philosophicaL If there be 
a reason contained in the text, insist mainly upon that ; the 
same may be a reason of the dqetrine, as it respects the in- 
tellect, and a motive to the exhortation, considered with re- 
spect unto the wilL 

7thlp^ In the last place, both explication and probation of 
the doctrine are to be amplified, ea omnilnu argumeni&rum lods^ 
nuunme autem ex disaentaneia^ et comparaHs* — See twenty rules 
in the Tractate for the right amplifying of the doctrine, 
among which this is one, that ye are to distinguish, and ac- 
cordingly to make use of three kinds of citation of Scripture^ 
viz. probative, allusive, and illustrative from examples. Also- 
reduce all your doctrines to some head of the catechism, creed,, 
decalogue, or the Lord's prayer ; for so the common people 
will both understand and remember better what is delivered 
to them ; the catechism being as it were the little Bible. 

SuBSECT. 8. — Of the Uses that are to be made of 

EACH Doctrine. 

1. Of ihem in general. 

As this is the most profitable, so it ought to be the largest 
part of the sermon, as being most accommodated to the edi- 
fication of the hearers, which is the main scope of all the for- 
mer parts, shewing what is truth, and the respecting it as 
good, in order to the practice. 

2. As the doctrine should be an Immediate consequent 
from the text, so the use should be an immediate consequent 
from the doctrine, and the connection is clearly to be shewn ; 
for nothing is more helpful both to the understanding and 
memory than a plaiB order of deduction of one part of the 
sermon from another, fA9r»fixa-i9 nq «AA« yf ye; ; and running 



APPENDIX. 229 



* 



from one thing to another, without any connection, doth nu 
ther confound than edify the weak hearers, and is a dragging 
of here and there without any fruit 

3. Alstedius, TheoL lib. v. cap. 9. doth elegantly illus- 
trate this by the following comparison : 

Textus sit condonls radix seu centrum doctrliue, 
Sint loci communes, rami ; usua doctrinarum tracbOB. 

4. The various uses that may be made of each doctrine 
may be reduced to these six, viz. information, refutation, re- 
proof, consolation, terror, and exhortation. The first two 
have respect to the understanding (as also the use of exami- 
nation, which is rather a qualification of the rest of the uses 
than a distinct species of them, and it may be made in each 
of them), the last four to the will ; dehortation comes in 
with, exhortation, with respect to the contrary object. 

5. The discretion of the preacher must guide him in the 
kinds of the uses which he is to make in each doctrine with re- 
spect to the case of the people. . The people is not to be drawn 
to the preaching, but the preaching is to be accommodated to 
the people^ as the foot is not to be made for the shoe, but 
the shoe for the foot. We need not anxiously seek to draw 
all kinds of uses from every doctrine, but only such as natu- 
rally and of thctr own accord flow from it ; and if the same 
uses arise from several doctrines, ye may refer some of these 
to one of the doctrines, and some to another, or amplify the 
doctrine and apply them together in all these uses ; or press 
these uses from all the doctrines together, and if ye insist 
long upon one doctrine the first day, you may touch a little 
upon the uses, and the next insist upon them the more fully. 

6. For an example of gathering uses from the doctrine, 
take these following instances : 

Doct. That God is every where present. 
1st, An use of information, speculative or dogmatic : learn 
hence that the doctrine which our church teacheth concern- 



230 APPENDIX. 

ing the omnipresence of the divine essence is true. Infor- 
mation practical or admonitory, that wherever we are we 
have need to mind and believe that God is present where we 
are. 

2d/^, Use elenchtical, or of refutation, for reforming the 
mind, or for vindication of the truth, runs thus— -heretics 
teach falsely that those Scriptures which mention God*s om- 
nipresence, are not to be understood of his essence, sed de 
virtiUe et injuria, 

3dlp^ Use of reproof to all kinds of sinners, is — they sin 
in the sight of the Judge, and sin is in God's presence wher- 
ever they commit it. 

4thlt/, Use of consolation to those who trust in God ;— 
they are nevei deserted of him wholly ; they are ay in the 
sight of their Father while the world is wronging them. 

bthlp, Use of terror to those that pi^ovoke God to anger ; 
—he will find them out ; they cannot hide themselves from 
him ; Ps. cxxxix. throughout. 

6/^^, Of exhortation ;— therefore, let us believe that he 
is still present, and let us walk always as before him ; and of 
dehortation from aU sin, because it is ay done in his sight. 

Ttfily, The use of practical information above, which may 
be called an use of instruction, or instrucUo ad prasensy may 
go immediately before this of exhoHation. Thus much on 
the uses of the doctrines in general, now follows to speak of 
them in particular. 

1st, OfiJie Use of Information. 

Ist, The use of information is that whereby the mind is 
informed of such divine truths as have a connection with and 
may be naturally inferred from the doctrine. 

2dly, This by the order of nature, claims the first place 
among the uses, as the intellect goes before the will and exe- 
cutive faculty. It may be amplified through all the common- 



APPENDIX. 231 

places, dogmatical, essential and practicaL J t is of very large 
extent, that the preacher may expatiate here more than many 
other uses, not only in bringing in many truths, and duties 
to be done, but also sins to be eschewed, as also by vindica- 
tion and confirmation of the truth, and marks for discovering 
the same ; but in such a large field there should be a choice 
made of the more principal and immediate truths pertaining 
to the doctrine. 

3dly, This use is distinguished into information specula- 
tive, elenchtical, and practical, or instruction tending unto 
practice, which difiers firom admonitions or exhortations in 
that where the practice of the duty is exhorted to be done ; 
but here such a duty is asserted to be duty with respect to 
the conviction of the understanding, and the use of convic- 
tion either anent duty or sin comes under this head. 

2dly, Of the Use of.RefutaHan. 

This use claims the second place in order, as relating to 
the mind, and the reformation of it from error, as the former 
did belong to the information thereof Truth is to be taught 
before its adversaries can be convinced, and truth must needs 
be known, before error can be refiited. Confutation, then^ 
is that whereby the sentences and arguments of heretics con- 
trary to the doctrine in hand, are recited and refuted, either 
by way of prevention and antidote to those errors that the 
auditors are in hazard of, or by way of remedy from those er- 
rors that they already are infected with. 

In this use these things would be adverted to : 1. That 
nothing be condemned as an error that is not truly so ; for 
this brings under that curse. Is. v. 20. 2dly, That the opiu 
nion of the adversary be fidthfuUy cited, and in such terms 
as they would take with it, else it is needless to refute that 
which they disown. 3dly, Let the refutation be founded on 
solid arguments, not with reflecting or passionately, for tbej 



232 APPENDIX. 

irritate more than convince, adversarius ad abstirdum daetUur, 
abtque [medUs absurdis, 4thl7, It is unfit to mention the er- 
rors which our auditors never heard of^ nor are in danger 
o^ nor such blasphemous ones as by their horror would more 
offend by narration of them, than edify by refutation of them. 
6thly, More meekness is to be shewn forth in refuting error 
than reprehending vice, and in controverted scandals, except 
blasphemy and obstinacy accompany the errors. 6t£ly, Be- 
ware of mentioning before the people the arguments of the 
adversaries (except those that are known to them), lest their 
weakness make them receive more hurt by hearing these ar- 
guments, than profit by resolution of them. Besides, usual-* 
ly the arguments that have weight with people to error, are 
more to be sought among the people, than out of the writings 
of their leaders; for ye will find often that such scruples sway 
with the people that will not enter into the heads of the 
learned, and ye are mainly to yoke with these scruples, and 
clear them before the people. 7thly, If the error be not com- 
mon, but in one or few, it seems more convenient to deal 
with them in private than in public, upon many accounts. 

3dly, Of the Use of Reproof . 

The two foregoing uses relate to the understanding: now 
follow those that pertain to the will, heart and affections. 
And they respect the heart, either, 1st, under some present 
distemper and indisposition, in which it needs rectification 
and correction, as the use of reproof and consolation ; or, 
2dly, with regard to some that is future of exhortation and 
and dehortation. 2. The use of reproof is when men are re- 
buked for not doing their duty, either in the practice of grace 
and virtue, or abstaining from vice and sin, 2 Tim. iv. 2. The 
formal object of reproof is the evil of sin not repented of; the 
end is to stir up to sorrow and repentance. The mean for 
ttaining this end is to argue and urge this evil, both as pre- 



APPENDIX. 233 

sent, and as great ; the presence of it, is to be decided bj marks 
taken from the properties, adjuncts, effects, and opposites to 
it ; and the greatness of it is to be proven from its aggrava- 
tions, of which see at large in the Tractate. 

This use presupposes information and refutation, and by 
order of nature follows ; therefore reproof properly pertains to 
them who will neither learn truth nor be convinced of error. 
To this may be referred the use of lamentation, sometimes 
used in Scripture, which is an indirect reproof of sinners for 
that which is lamented ; and this lamentation is either taken 
up presently. Is. i. 2, 21, or foretold to be coming, 2 Cor. xii. 
21. ; and both are either over sin, out of respect to God, or 
over punishments, out of compassion to man. 

This use may be amplified, 1st. By giving some observa- 
tions out of Scripture, whereby the Spirit of God thunders 
against such a sin. 2dly, By dissuasives, to be drawn from 
the aggravations of that sin, threats denounced against it, 
and the execution thereof upon such sinners. 3dly, By di- 
rectives treating of the impediments which hinder us from 
forsaking this sin, and of means and helps for eviteing and 
overcoming of it. 

Right reproving is not the least part of the ministerial 
work ; for managing it, advert to these, 1st, Clearly to con- 
vince the person of his guilt, as 1 Sam. xv. 14 ; 2 Sam. L 
14. Other marks are very requisite when the sinner is inu 
pudent, or of a seared conscience. 2dly, It will go the better 
down that it be sugared with instructions of duty with re- 
spect to the person reproved. 3dly, Shew no bitterness, but 
compassion, name none, no not by a periphrasis, for such is the 
object of discipline or reproof. 4thly, Take your formularies 
of reproof out of the Scripture ; this offends least when done 
in Scripture words, othly. Hold not in general, dum in ge- 
nere est sermo nemo in parte tangitur. 6thly, Direct this uS|Q 



234 APPENDIX. 

most especially against the sin of the time and place ye live 
in. Sit cants Domini fidus, nee mutus nee mordax, 

4thl7, Of the Use of Consolation. 

1. Consolation here is the application of the doctrine, and 
the comforts resulting therefrom, to the particular state and 
conscience of the hearers, for removing or mitigating grief or 
sorrow, and confirming, strengthening and comforting our 
minds against the evils of our life, either spiritual or corpo- 
raL The formal object is maivm sive ciUpa sive pcma^ either 
really or apparently oppressing the mind : the end hereof ex- 
cites unto joy ; the mean for attaining this end is the pro- 
posing to the heart some great and present good. 

2. This use is one of the special ends of sacred Scripture, 
Rom. XV. 4, and of the gospel ministry, 1 Tim. iv. 13. Give 
attendance rn TFet^eucM^ru, to consolation, like a prudent phy- 
sician, who, after he hath given purgatives and corrosives in 
the use of reproof, administers lenitives and cordials accord, 
ing to the use of the patient. 

3. Consolation follows reproof by the order of nature ; 
for consolation is proper unto them who, being conyinced of 
their errors and sins, take reproof in good part ; Job xx. 3. ; 
2eph. iii. 2. 

4. This use maybe amplified these three ways: 1st, from 
the promises ; 2dly, the experience of the saints; 3dly, re- 
moving those scruples and doubts which the afflicted soul 
suggests to itself. 

5. For the right managing of this use, 1st, Let the conso- 
lation be pathetically expressed : 2dly, Because they are to 
be applied, not simply and absolutely, but upon condition of 
the promised being in the person comforted, that so ye may 
apply the promises : 3dly, It being the proper work of the 
Holy Ghost to comfort, hence called the Comforter, John, 
xiv. 16. The ends that God hath, both in affliction of his 



APPENDIX. 235 

children, and letting sin remain in them while here, are also 
much to be improven for consolation* 

Sthly, Of the Use of Terrw, 

1. This use follows next in order of nature, for terror is 
due, and no consolation, to those that are not touched either 
with information, refutation or reproof. To such, both by 
the prophets and apostles, curses and woes are denounced, as 
Lev. xxvi. 14^4. ; Deut. xxviii. 15^8. ; Is. v. 8, to the end; 
so also by Christ, Matt. xi. 16, 25. Mount Ebal is situated 
in the church forth against Mount Gerizzim, Deut. xi. 29, 30.; 
xxvii* 4, 6. 11-26. with Joshua, viii. 31-35. The curses fol- 
low our refusing the blessing, as well those which are writ- 
ten in the Bible, Deut. iv. 26, 27, 28. ; xxx. 19, 20. as those 
that are not written therein, Deut. xxviii. 61.; and for this 
end, that whom the love of God does not constrain, the ter- 
rors of the Lord may persuade, 2 Cor. v. 10, 11. with 14. 

2. This use is contained under the Apostle*s fTFe^vt^ddtm, 
with the text 2 Tim. iii. 16. whereby men are to be frighten- 
ed from sin, and is near of kin to the use of reproof and de- 
hortation, which are for correcting and amending the man- 
ners of men. It may be amplified, or man may be terrified 
from sin, 1st, By the threatenings, as Matt, xxiii. often in- 
culcated. 2dly, From example, as Luke xiiL 1, &c. 3dly, 
By comparing of contrary examples, as Luke xvi. 16, 31. 
These rules are to be looked to here, firsty that it be pro- 
pounded pathetically ; Is* xxii. 4. ; Jer. ix. 1. ; Luke xix. 
41. ; Rom. ix. 1, 2, 3. ; x. 1. ; secondly ^ peremptorily, Mark 
xvi. 16. ; 1 Thess. v. 3. ; thirdlyy distinctly, by putting a dif- 
ference between sins of infirmities and stubbornness ; avowed 
enemies, malicious hypocrites are to be thundered against by 
the law; and summoned to Christ's tribunal, as MatU iii. 7< 
with 12. ; 1 Tim. vi. 17* ; 2 Tim. iv. 1, 2. ; fofwrifUyy enume- 
rating examples of God's wrath in Scripture ; as Cain, Saul, 



236 APPENDIX. 

Achitophel, Sennacherib, Belshazzar, Ananias and Sapphira, 
Sodom and Gomorrah, &c. 

ethly, Of the Use of ExhwrkUifm and DehortaHon. 

1. Of Exhortation. 

1. This use respects the heart, with respect to somewhat 
future, whether it be exhortation or dehortation. 

2. The use of exhortation has respect to some future good 
which pertains to the hearers, spurring their heart on to the 
prosecution of it ; which future good is some grace or virtue, 
or the exercise thereof; the scope hereof is to excite hope or 
desire, therefore it propounds that which is exhorted unto, 
subfomuUi ratkme objecHy quod est bonum futurwaiy arduum, pos- 
sibile. 

3. This comes under various names among various au- 
thors, as persuasion, instruction, direction, admonition, &c. 

4. This is so chief a part of the preaching, that the whole 
Uiereo^ jea the whole pastoral work, is called by this name ; 
Acts ii. 40. ; xiiL 15. ; 1 Tim. iv. 13. ; vL 2. 

5.- This use may be drawn pertinently from any doctrine, 
and in what order seems best to the discretion of the preach- 
er, and suits best to the edification of the hearers : yet it is 
fitly left to the last place, because, Jirst^ it is best to close a 
sermon with it ; secondly, because the prophets, apostles, yea, 
and Christ himself used to do so ; they usually closing their 
sermons anent promises, threatenings, blessings, judgments, 
with exhortation ; Amos iv. 12. ; Mark ix. 50. ; and general- 
ly in all the epistles, exhortation following doctrine ends the 
epistle. 

6. This use may be amplified these five ways : 1st, By 
explication of that which is first exhorted to, beside the tex- 
tual and doctrinal explications, and more and more full and 
practical comes in fitly at the beginning of exhortation, that 
the hewers so may know, and have in their eye, what they 



APPENDIX. 237 

are pressed unto. 2diy, Motives to persuade the heart, and 
engage the will and affections to the things exhorted unto. 
These motives are, certain considerations and arguments to 
incline, impel, and animate us to the duty, £ccL xii. 11. 
They differ from the reasons, cur «t/, of the doctrine, ^stj 
That the reasons of doctrines prove the truth or goodness of 
the theme that is propounded therein; hut motives shew that 
such a thing is to he done hy us ; second. Reasons of the doc- 
trine respect the understanding, hut motives the will; third^ 
That reasons of the doctrine are drawn from the virtue of 
the things propounded therein, hut motives from the rela- 
tion that the thing exhorted unto, is to us as it is useful and 
necessary. Hence, motives are to he drawn from necessi- 
ty, utility, decency, honour, honesty, fiicUity, hurt, &c. Ex- 
amples have also much force to draw us to imitation. In 
moving the affections, flrsty lean not to the strength of your 
reasons, hut to the Spirit of Grod his motions, 1 Cor. ilL 
7. ; Paul may plant, and Apollos may water, hut it is God 
that giveth the increase; PhiL iL 12, 13. it is God that works 
in us to will and to do ; yet God gives his assistance in the 
use of the means : therefore, secondly, draw motives from all 
the common-places thereof, as a commodo, ineommodo, honesto, 
tUUi, necessario, facili, ejtemplis, &c and add a pertinent Scrip- 
ture to each argument ; thirdiy, explain clearly what ye per- 
suade unto, futm iffnoH nulla cupielo ; fou/rffUy, speak to the se- 
cond person, nam loqui in tertia persona magis dooere quam mO" 
vere est; fifthly, have some formularies of sound words that 
are most apt to move with ; 2 Cor. v. 20. ; Phil. iL 1, 2. ; 
svsthiy, repeat and inculcate the exhortation, reiterate in va- 
rious phrases, intermix threats, promises, reproofs, consola- 
tions, &C. and all with authority, fervency, &c Be moved 
yourself for moving of others ; see the Tractate. 3dly, Means 
and helps to do that ye are persuading unto, and these either 
general, as first, knowledge of what Is to he done; second, con- 



283 APPENDIX. 

viction that it is duty, and of your own impotency and defi- 
ciency ; thirdy a purpose to do it ; fowrthy sense of obligation 
to do so from divine precept; >?fi^prayer for your help; <ur<A, 
diligent use of the means : or special, such as come nearest, 
and are proper unto the nature of that which is exhorted un* 
to, wherein the sacred Scriptures and the preacher's own ex- 
perience directs him. Motives have respect unto the will and 
end ; but means relate unto all the fiiculties, especially the 
executive &culty ; therefore, as intention and resolution goes 
before action, so, by order of nature, motives go before means. 
Again, means are of two sorts, either direct, as those above, 
or indirect, per modum removendi prohibens* There are two 
kinds of lets and impediments to be removed, jSrt/, common to 
elect and reprobate ; second, peculiar to serious and well mean- 
ing souls, commonly called objections, which use to be the 
matter of souLexercise, wherein exercise of conscience was 
more to be seen than now it is. We call the first kind real, 
which are more gross hindrances of duty and ^godliness, and 
the other supposed, being for most part sophisms and misre- 
presentations of the way of God and the soul's own case, ma- 
liciously suggested by Satan from without, through the com< 
pliance of a deceitful heart within. These are also more re- 
fined and twisted out of ourselves, wherein, though in the 
persons objecting there be ordinarily honesty and seriousness, 
yet in the exercise itself there is much sin, vain and curious 
disputings against the plain word of God, much marring folks 
own comfort, and prejudice to their establishment, and for 
the most part do rather hinder the exercise, growth, progress 
and joy of fidth than faith itself and the beuig thereof and 
argue many defects in those that have them, either ignorance 
or compliance with temptations against the Spirit, and your 
own souls, or at least not such holy and humble hearkening 
imto and compliance with Grod*s voice as should be. We use 
to call the former sort hindrances or impediments, and the 



APPENDIX. 239 

latter obstructions, for diFtinction^s sake, ex. gr. of the first 
kind, seeking to establish their own righteousness, &c* Of the 
latter, '* I would &in believe, but I cannot; my heart will 
not come forward with me, I fear I have sinned the unpardon- 
able sin." Before ye make mention of the means, if there be 
any general proposition required thereunto, without which ye 
cannot profit by these means, put that in by way ofpramitten' 
dum. 4thly, Directions, which are certain qualities or reasons, 
teaching how and what way to do that to the doing whereof 
motives and means have been proposed, Heb. xiiL 3. ; Eph. 
V. 15. Means and directions differ thus, that means have re- 
lation to it, as the cause to the effect ; but directions aitineni 
ad modum agendli and are usually pronounced by adverbs, as to 
do it wisely, prudently, cordially, cheerfully, seriously, sin- 
cerely, &c. 5thly, Here usually comes in the use of trial and. 
examination by signs and marks, whether they be in a state 
of grace ; whether they be endued with such a virtue, or 
guilty of such a vice, it h^ place in all other uses, but chiefiy 
in this. Great caution is to be used here, especially in as- 
signing marks of good or bad estate, that no occasion be given 
either to presumption on the one hand, or despondency on 
the other. Therefore, let your marks be, first, few and 
fully explained and cautioned ; second, proper and reciprocal ; 
third, drawn rather from the being and sincerity, than the 
measure and degree of grace ; fourth, rather from the princi- 
pal motive, manner and end of acting, than from the matter 
of the action, &c. If ye cannot get such kind of marks, ra- 
ther pass over the work than not do it aright ; and exhort 
them to diligence in duty, which will at length bring to 
clearness anent your state : it is better to be diligent at duty 
one day, than to dispute about a state one year. 



240 APPENDIX. 

2. Of the Uge qf Dehortatum. 
In this we dissuade from sin, whether we be guilty or in 
hazard thereof and proceed after the same manAer as in ex- 
hortation to duty ; but here we term these motives dissua- 
sives, and the means remedies, preventives or cautions. If 
it be asked whether exhortation or dehortation should go 
ibremost in order, I answer, according to the nature of your 
doctrine ; so if it be concerning a virtue^ then exhortation 
should proceed, if about a vice then dehortation. Some con- 
sider the evil dehorted from as future only, and not present, 
and so they distinguish this use both from the use of reproof 
and consolation. If ye desire to read of all these uses and 
foresaid parts of a sermon more fuUy, and to have an example 
of each out of the Scripture and practical writers, see the 
Tractate. 

SuBSECT. 9.-^Of the Application. 

This being proper to actual ministers who have a faU 
commission, and are to speak from authority, it is needless 
to say any thing of it in this little directory for students of 
divinity, but let reference be to the reading of the Tractate. 

SuBSECT. 10.— Of the Epilogue, oa Conclusion of 

THE Homily. 

In the peroration, there is a twofold end proposed, 1st, 
To help the memory as to what hath been said : 2dly, To 
move the affections, according to which these two things 
must be done in it ; Jlrst^ there should be a compendious repe- 
tition of the heads of the homily ; second^ great fervour of 
spirit in doing it : the repetition should be such as if it seem- 
ed a new oration, wherein all the several heads of the sermon 
compacted into one body are set in a mass to the hearers* 
mind. Naked repetitions without some garnishing goes not 
well down, and it should be expressed vivaciously, tamquam 

• 



APPENDIX. 241 

parta jam victoria et causa evicta^ cum affectu condonatoris et 
exporrecta facie, verbis emphasin singtdarem JuiU)erUibtis omnia 
proferantur: see an example Gal. vi. 11. to the end. Some 
close with a general exhortation to practise what hath been 
delivered, some end abruptly with the time ; but the most 
ancient custom is to close with a doxology or prayer unto 
God, who only can make his own word effectual. Lutheri t/. 
Ivd erat momhtm, ut him fimret concionator, quando poptdum 
cemeret atterUissimum^ quo scenes akwrior postmodum iterum re* 
dtret. 



242 APPENDIX. 



No. III. 

A DIRECTORY FOR COMPOSING A LECTURE^ ACCORD- 
ING TO WHICH CRITICISMS ALSO ARE TO BE MADE 
AFTER THAT IT IS DELIVERED. 

1. Read over the whole text and chapter on which ye 
are to lecture before ye begin to lecture. 2. Make the lecture 
upon the whole chapter albeit long, and the longer the chap- 
ter be, let the lecture be the more shcMrt and compr^ensive. 
3. When the chapter is read over, introduce yourself to the 
lecture by a short pre&ce, rarely exceeding one sentence, 
apposite to the contents of the chapter, and the matter ye 
are to deliver from it. 4. Propose the scope of the chapter, 
according to which ye are to level your division, and all that 
follows. 6. Sometimes the occasion of writing such a por- 
tion of Scripture is to be shewn, which does not always occur, 
except at the beginning of a book ; and frequently in the 
Psalms, pointed at in the titles thereof; and in some singu- 
lar and distinct portions of Scripture here and there, inserted 
either without apparent dependance on what goes before or 
following aftei:, or else when the connection is surprising, 
until the occasion thereof be shewn : when this occurreth, 
it naturally takes place after the prefiwie, before the scope, 
and he is to discover the same. 6. After the scope, make a 
brief analysis or division of the chapter, subordinating each 
of the divisions to the scope. 7. Then make a short expU- 
cation of the hard words of the several parts of the chapter, 
more abstruse phrases and dark connexion of the several parts 
of the chapter, keeping the order wherein they stand in the 
text and several verses, and making a choice of those that 
are most necessary to be understood, and the obscurity of 
which is most obvious to the hearers ; for often ye cannot in 



APPENDIX. 243 

half an hour*8 time (which is all the time allowed) absolve 
the several parts of a lecture, and all that seems to need ex- 
position you may expound ; yea, it will be necessary to give 
a short hint at those which you cannot well pass over. 8. 
Remember that in all the foresaid particulars ye do not spend 
more than a quarter of an hour, that the other quarter may 
be reserved for the notes to be drawn from the chapter, so 
divided and explained as said ; the latter being most accept- 
able to the generality of the hearers, as the former is to the 
more judicious. 9. Let the transition from the explication 
of the chapter unto the observations deducible from it, be af- 
ter this or the like manner. Thus, having explained the 
chapter in an analytical and textual way and manner, we 
proceed to lay open the chapter further unto you in a more 
full and practical way in these following notes, which ye 
may observe with me for instruction and direction. 10. In 
gathering notes from a chapter, observe these rules : first^ 
In proposing them keep this order, have one or two from the 
scope, or general from the whole chapter ; next a few from 
each part of the chapter. 2t/, Let them be (as much as ye 
can) sim pie propositions. 3<i, Shew the ground of each of them 
from the text, with some gloss (as need shall be), to shew 
the clearness of the inference of your note from the text, and 
as the ground of it. 4^ Let not the number of your notes 
be above ten or twelve at the most, for that would overwhelm 
the memory of your hearers, but let them be as few as can 
be, with dependence one upon another, bih^ Apply one of 
your most useful and seasonable notes in the several usual 
six uses, making only one inference by way of information, 
another by way of refutation, &c. all so far as simple perspi- 
cuity will admit, in simple propositions, remembering that the 
nature of a lecture will not admit the application of many, 
or the amplification of any, but that these pertain proper- 
ly to the sermons. 6/A, Endeavour, if the matter of the 



244 APPENDIX. 

chapter will allow, to take the note which ye apply from the 
last part of the chapter, and so have it last in order, that so 
ye may both conclude it and your lecture with a fit epilogue ; 
but if the matter determine you to amplify a note frcnn an- 
other part of the chapter, study always to make it the last part 
of the notes which ye have from that partof the chapt^^— .1 1. 
Forget not to conclude your lecture with an apposite epilogue 
according to the common rules. 12. Remember that the ri- 
gorous observation of the doctrine foresud is to be expected 
only in scholastic lectures, the method of popular lectures 
admitting that latitude the discretion of the preacher and 
the necessity of the hearers calls for, Quare MUfieatio popuH 
suprema kie sit, providing that the substance of a lecture be 
observed, and some of its specific difierences from a preach- 
ing ; in short, that there be these three things in it, viz. 
lit. That the whole chapter be read over ; 2d, That there 
be some short analysis and explication of all the parts of the 
chapter ; Sd, That there be several notes, and these not am- 
plified and applied at such length as in sermons. 13. Fi- 
nally, as to that method used by some in lectures, to subdi- 
vide each part of the chapter, and sometimes each verse, and 
explain the words thereof, and deliver the notes therefrom al- 
together before they proceed to explain the following part or 
verse, it hath its own advantages when the portion of Scrip- 
ture lectured upon is short, or when the preacher makes the 
lecture long. But I see not how any man, in the space of 
half an hour, can go through a large chapter after that me- 
thod. 2d/^, This method seems to make as many individual 
lectures as it makes parts of the chapter, each part so having 
aU the essentials of a lecture. 3<%, I have not yet reached 
how a discourse of half an hour's length, thus methodized, 
can contain the substance of a large chapter homc^neously 
disposed, and each part appearing dependent and subordina- 
ted to the scope, so as the hearers may discern this ; yea the 



APPENDIX. 245 

parting of the explication of the chapter after this manner, 
and intermixing heterogeneous things between the several 
I)arts of the explication, does hinder that clearness that the 
sense of the whole chapter when together would have from. 
the scope and context; also the natural order among the 
notes from the whole chapter is thus marred *. 

* The copy from which these two brief TreatJaes have been printed appears 
to have been taken by a Mr Gcoros Fobman in 1709> The transcriber has 
not executed his work very Iuippi]y« and, in q»ite of all the pains which could 
be taken to recover the true reading, several passages are not altogether intel- 
Ugible. 



FINIS. 



PRINTED BT P. NEILL. 



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