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Full text of "The life and labors of David Livingstone, LL.D., D.C.L. : covering his entire career in Southern and Central Africa : carefully prepared from the most authentic sources, viz. his own two large volumes, "South Africa," and "The Zambosi Expedition," his "Last Journals" (edited by Horace Waller), the Reports of the London Geographical Society, the works of his cotemporaries [sic], and various other writings bearing upon the subject : a thrilling narrative of the adventures, discoveries, experiences and achievements of the greatest explorer of modern times in a wild and wonderful country ... : the whole rendered clear and plain by a most accurate map of the whole region explored and the routes clearly indicated"




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IsTETV. ATJTHEUTIC. COMPLETE. 

THE LIFE AND LABORS 




j LL, D,j U, I, L } 



COVERING HIS ENTIRE CAREER IN 

SOUTHERN AND CEITRAL AFRICA. 

CAREFULLY PREPARED 

From the most authentic sources, viz. : his own two large volumes, " South Africa," and " The Zambesi Expedition," 

bis "Last Journals" (edited by Horace Waller), the Reports of the London Geographical Society, 

the works of his cotemporaries, and various other writings bearing upon the subject, 

A THRILLING NARRATIVE 

OF THE 

ADVENTURES, DISCOVERIES, EXPERIENCES AND ACHIEVEMENTS 

OF 

THE GREATEST EXPLORER OF MODERN TIMES 

IN A 

WILD AND WONDERFUL COUNTRY, 

INCLUDINO 

His early Life, Preparation for his Life-work, a Sketch of Africa as known before his going there, the entire 
Record of his heroic Undertakings, Hazards, Hardships, Triumphs, his Discovery by H. M. Stanley, his 
lonely Death, faithful Self-devotion of his native Servants, Return of the Remains, Rurial, etc.; 
concluding with a clear and concise survey of the continent touching its Agricultural, Com- 
mercial and Missionary promise, the Nile Mystery, etc, as gathered from the works 
of Livingstone, Baker, Speke, Grant, Barth, Sweinfurth, etc., etc. The whole 
rendered clear and plain by a most accurate 

2&J±F OIF 1 THE WHOLE BEGIOIT EXPLOBED 



AND THE ROUTES CLEARLY INDICATED. 



By Rev. J. E. Chambliss. 



RICHLY ILLUSTRATED 



PUBLISHED BY HUBBARD BROS., PHILADELPHIA, BOSTON AND CINCINNATI ; 

A. L. Bancroft & Co., San Francisco, Cal.; M. M. Burnham, Syracuse, N. Y. ; 

Valley Publishing Co., St. Louis and Chicago; H. A. W. Blackburn, Detroit, Mich.; 

Schuyler, Smith & Co., London, Ont. ; G. L. Benjamin, Fond du Lac, Wis. ; 

Moore & Oliver, Davenport, Iowa. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, l>y 

HUBBARD BROS., 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 




PREFACE. 



My task has been to write a book setting forth as clearly as 
possible the life-work of Dr. Livingstone, in its connection with 
the history of the African continent, and its bearing on those 
great issues involved in the redemption of that continent from 
gloom and barbarism. I have followed, as closely as the subject 
demanded, the books and journals of Dr. Livingstone himself, 
for his personal observations and adventures, and have availed 
myself freely of whatever I have found, in a wide range of 
works, in illustration of the character and customs of the people, 
the appearance and condition of the country, the habits of ani- 
mals, and have freely seized such facts of science and of general 
history as have seemed to have a bearing on my subject. Where 
I have drawn on the works of others, I have done so more for 
facts than for the form of putting them, and I have not been 
particularly careful in making quotations, that they should be 
literal, nor has it seemed important in a work designed for 
popular patronage to make frequent mention of authorities. I 
have had at my command the most reliable sources of informa- 
tion concerning the things of which I have written, and while 
I am conscious that there are imperfections in the book, I have 
tried to make it a faithful record, a clear delineation of character, 
and a reliable witness in connection with the great interests in- 



6 PREFACE. 

volved in the question of African civilization, as far as these 

matters could be considered under the circumstances. 

If the reader gets a true and full conception of the work of 

Dr. Livingstone, catches anything of his manliness, love for 

men, and zeal for Christ, and becomes more deeply interested in 

the great enterprises on which the deliverance of the millions 

of that unhappy continent from the dominion of ignorance and 

superstition and vice depends, if he becomes only a little wiser, 

and stronger, and better, and nobler, through reading the book, 

I will be satisfied. 

J. E. C. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Early Civilization in Northern Africa — The Limit of the Ancient Civiliza- 
tion — Theatre of Mythology — Saracen Conquest — Settlement of Soudan — 
Mohammedan Failure — The Fifteenth Century — Gilianez Passed Cape Bo- 
jador — Portuguese Efforts on the West Coast — Roman Catholicism — The 
Failure — England and France — Richard Jobson — Mungo Park — Denham 
and Clapperton — Richard Lander Dispels the Niger Mystery — Kingdoms 
on the West — Dahomey, Ashantee, etc. — The Cape Settlement — Vasco de 
Gama — The Settlement of Natal by the English — Lieutenant Christopher 
— Abyssinia and the Nile — Bruce and Dr. Beke — The Nile Mystery as it 
Stands — The Unknown — Livingstone 23 

CHAPTER I. 

BLANTYBE TO THE BAKWAINS. 

Noble Names — David Livingstone — Blantyre — Home Traditions — The Fac- 
tory — Common School — Latin — Love of Books — Be Honest — His Father — 
Mother — Scottish Poor — Both well — Conversion — Missionary Spirit — China 
— Medicine — Astrology — Greek — Theology — Africa — Thorough Prepara- 
tion — 1840 — Leaves England — Goes to South Africa — Condition of Country — 
Cape Colony — Cape Town — Algoa Bay — Port Elizabeth — Kuruman or Lat- 
takoo — Dr. Moffat — Northward — Studying Language, etc. — Selects Mata- 
bosa — Settles — Kindness to the Natives — A Lion Encounter — Joins the 
Bakwains 45 

CHAPTER II. 
1843—1850. 

The Bechuanas — The Bakwains — Sechele — His Conversion — His Difficulties 
— The Government — Baptism of Sechele — Cross and Crown — Difficulties of 
the Work — Belief in Rain-Making — Drought — Noble Conduct — The Hopo 
— Kindness to Livingstone — Livingstone's Spirit — The Boers — Slavery — 
Antagonistic Principles — Boers Hate Livingstone — Sechele's Resistance — 
Livingstone Accused — His Effects Destroyed — Going Northward — Desire 
to find the Lake — Desire to see Sebituane — Sekomi — The Desert — Bush- 
men — Bakalahari — Water Sucking — Across the Desert — Difficulties — Salt 
Pans — The Zouga — Quakers of Africa — Lake Ngami Discovered — The 
Lake — Sebituane — Guides Refused — Sketch of the Zouga — Elephants — 

Trees — Fish — Bayieye — Kolobeng Again — Home-life in Kolobeng 58 

7 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

DESERTS AND FORESTS. 

Livingstone's Second Journey to the Lake — Pass the Zonga — Forests — Tsetse 
— Recross the Zouga — Lake Ngami Again — Hopes of seeing Sebituane — 
Guides Secured — Sickness of Children — Return to Kolobeng — Opposition of 
Chiefs — Sebituane's Messengers — Third Start — The Old Path — Desert — 
Guide Wonders — Five Terrible Days — Water Found — Banajoa— Guide to 
the Chobe — Makololo — Meets Sebituane — Death of Sebituane — Discovery 
of the Zambesi — Returns to Cape — Sends his Family to England — A New 
Tour Undertaken — Party — General Idea — Former Occupants of the Cape 
— Boers of the Cape — Griquas' Territory — Effects of Mission Work— Kuru- 
man — Dr. Moffat — Bible Translation — Language — War of Boers — Difficul- 
ties — Servants Secured — Starts North — Lion — Buffalo — Sechele's Tour- 
Serpents — The Ostrich — Motlasta — Belief in God — Salt Pans — Koobe — 
Famished Beasts — Livingstone's Kindness — Tremendous Trees — Singular 
Vitality — Civilized vs. Native Hunters — Unku and Sunday — Difficult Ad- 
vance — The Way to Cut with the Axe — Wild Auimals — The Sanshureh — 
Linyanti — May 23, 1853 — Circumcision — Appearance of Country 78 

CHAPTER IV. 

NINE WEEKS WITH SEKELETU. 

Arrival at Linyanti — Makololo — Their Policy — Welcome to Livingstone — 
Sekeletu — African Hospitality — Ma-mochisane's Difficulty — Livingstone 
refuses to Trade — His Labors — Makololo Ideas of Beauty— Manliness — 
Justice — Livingstone's Journey to the Barotse — The Soil along the Chobe 
— The Party — Receptions — Sekeletu loves Coffee — Huts and Hats— The 
Leeambye — Animals about Katonga — The Splendid River — The Makalaka 
— The Contrast— Cattle and War — Rapids — Cataracts — Falls — No Monu- 
ments in Africa — The Barotse Valley — Fertility — Mounds — Punishment — 
War Averted — The First White Man— To the Leeba — No Place for a Mis- 
sion — The Wildest of all — Linyanti again — For Loando — Serious Thoughts 
— Resolution — Outfit for Journey — November 11th, 1853 — Escape from an 
Elephant — The Hippopotamus — Arrival at Sesheke 102 

CHAPTER V. 

TO BALONDA. 

Sesheke — Sekeletu's Policy — Missionary Work — Wanting in Religious Ideas 
— Duties of Missionary — The Leeambye — Hippopotami — Mr. Cumming's 
Adventure — Livingstone's Idea of Lions — Andersson — Lion Confused — 
Fevers Protracted — Unwelcome News — Livingstone's Wise Plan — Libonta 
— Death by a Lion — The Canip — Cook and Laundry Work — Humanity of 
Livingstone — Beyond Libonta — Courage — First Act in Balonda — The 
Leeba — Want of Game — Buffalo Hunt — Buffalo and three Lions — Mambari 
Merchants — Manenko — Town of Shinte — Fashions of Ankle Rings — A 
Black Scold — Manenko's Dress — Fever, Rain, Hunger — Dark Forests — 
Delays — Invitation at last — Medicine Charms — A Soldier — Balonda Fash- 
ions — Full Undress of Balonda Lady — Balonda Gentlemen — Head-dress — 
Salutations — Manenko's Kindness 119 



CONTESTS. y 

CHAPTER VI. 

THROUGH LONDA. 

Reception at Shinte's Town— The Introduction— Private Interviews— Eti- 
quette of the Balonda— Love for Mothers— Slavery— Theft— Magic Lantern 
— Rains — Iron-works — Flooded Plains — A Charming Home — Death and 
Desolate Villages — Balonda Ideas of a Future State— What to Preach to 
Heathen— Troublesome Guide— Burial of the Dead — Mandans— Sioux — 
Patagonians — Bechuanas — Balonda — Sunday with Quendende — Beautiful 
Country — The Lotembwa— Katema — Reception — Provisions Presented — 
"Wisdom of Katema — Cattle — Birds in Cages — Birds and Beasts — Birds and 
Spiders — Human Spiders — Fevers Again — Not much Impression — Hero- 
ism of Livingstone — Lake Dilolo — Rivers Run Northward — Mambari Trad- 
ers — Influence on Border Tribes — Demands of Pay for Passing Through 
Country— Expected to Fight — An Ox Given— A Man Demanded— Sickness 
of Livingstone — Mutiny in his Camp — Its Cure — Men Repent — The 
Quango at Last — Bashange's Tax — Cypriano di Abrue's Kindness — Portu- 
guese Possessions — Sweet Sleep — Angels 145 



CHAPTER VII. 

ANGOLA. 

Anxiety — A Single Englishman — Sickness — Mr. Gabriel's Kindness — Settle- 
ment of Loanda — Portuguese Failure — Two Things Unfortunate — Mako- 
lolo at Work — The Ship" a Town " — Livingstone's Relapse — Long Illness 
— What Might have Been — Slave Trade — Slavery in Africa — Grounds of 
Livingstone's Opposition — Negligent Cultivation of the Soil — Two Shil- 
lings a Month — Fetich Worshij) — Portuguese Policy — Ivory Trade — Un- 
paid Labor — Mania for Litigation — " Big Funerals " — The Poison Ordeal 
— Wild Animals — The Self-denial — Looking Eastward — Departure from 
Loanda — Makololo Boastings — The "True Ancients" — A Remarkable 
Insect — Ambaca — Church or Jail — Catholic Mistake — Pungo Andongo — 
On the Road — Difficulties of Ox-Biding — Traders — Beeswax and Elephant 
Tusks — Liliputian Monster — Descending from " Tola Mungongo " — Cas- 
sange — Drunkenness — The Quango Again 170 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LONDA OR LINDA. 

Lessons of Experience — Sansawe's Demands — His Refusal — A Blow on the 
Beard — Revenge — Changing the Tune — Dandies and Belles — Lizards and 
Snakes — Seven Thousand Fowls for Ten Dollars — Many Village Mania — 
The Seasons — Sister of Matianioo — An Ox or a Man — Strategy — Trial for 
Murder — Street Fight — Dish of White Ants — Lovely Bed of Flowers — God 
in Nature — A Noble Chief — Shinte's Again — The Leeba — Life Once More 
— Buffalo Hunt — Libonta Welcome — Thanksgiving Service — A Matrimo- 
nial Drawback — Capsized in the Leeambye — Sekeletu in Full Dress — The 
True Ancients in White — Promising Opening — Preparation for the Jour- 
ney — Going Eastward — Parting Words of Mamire — The Tribute of Faith- 
fulness 195 



10 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE NEW EXPEDITION. 

Sekeletu's Kindness — Explanation of it — Providence in his Work — Novem- 
ber 3, 1855 — Terrible Storm — Two Hundred Men in Line — The Niagara of 
Africa — Victoria Falls — Rainbow and Superstition — The Batoka — A Net- 
work of Rivers — The Explanation — Traditions — The First White Man — 
Batoka Chiefs — Batoka Rebels — The Eastern Ridge — Longing for Quiet — 
Batoka Generosity — A Reception — Livingstone's Courage — Power of the 
Gospel — Awe of White Men — An Incident — Missionary Influence — Ani- 
mals — Buffalo Bird — Rhinoceros Bird — Soldier Ants — White Ants — An 
Elephant Hunt — Elephant's Character — Indian and African Compared — 
Down the Losito 214 

CHAPTER X. 

BORDER TRIBES. 

The Kafue — Longing for Peace — Negro Worship — Foreign Goods — Barbisa 
Traders — Five Ranges — Geological Features — Health of Livingstone — The 
Zambesi again — Elephant-Hunting — Suffering from Heat — The Native 
Peculiarities — Absence of Deformed Persons — Continued Friendliness — 
Adventure with an Elephant — Native Suspicions — Doubtful Conduct — 
Peace and Kindness — Portuguese Enterprise — Situation of Zumbo — Abun- 
dance of Game — Wonderful Liberality — Dancing for Corn— Livingstone's 
Example — Providence in the Council — Mpende's Favor — Slave Trade Ab- 
horred — Across the Zambesi — Sand River — Game Laws — Elevated Huts — 
Hyena Scourge — Overflow of the Zambesi — Appreciation of Gifts 238 

CHAPTER XI. 

CHICOVA TO TETE. 

District of Chicova — Agriculture — Game Laws — Banyai Prayers — Makololo 
Faith — Insect Life — Birds — Their Songs — Squirrel — Geological Features — 
Grapes — Plums — Animal Life— Superstition about Lions — The Korwe — A 
Model Husband — Helpful Facts — Government of the Banyai — Selecting 
Chiefs — Monina's Opposition — Fight Threatened — Sudden Derangement 
— Conscience at Work — "A Guilt" — An Ordeal — Woman's Rights — The 
Son-in-Law — Dignity of Woman — Good Husbands, Bad Hunters — The 
Rhinoceros — Andersson's Adventure — Terrible Encounter — Rhinoceros 
Among Beasts — Villages Avoided — Nearing Tete — Livingstone Emaciated 
— Eight Miles Only — A Retrospect — A Prospect — Noble Picture — Arrival 
of Messengers — Civilized Breakfast — Reception at Tete — The Source of 
the Zambesi Unknown — The Value of the Discovery 258 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS. 

The Village of Tete— Inhabitants— Gold Washings— Slave Trade, Evil Ef- 
fects of — Decadence of Portuguese Power — Superstitions of Tete — English 
Calico — Articles of Export — Gold — Coal — Value of Gold Dust — Appearance 
of Country — Method of Cultivating the Soil — Agriculture Neglected — Hot 
Springs — People Favorable to Englishmen — Cause of Portuguese Failure — 



CONTENTS. 11 

Leaves Tete — Nyaude's Stockade — The Gorge of Lupata — Senna — The 
Landeens or Zulus — Misery of Senna — Surrounding Country — The Shire 
— Kilimane — Livingstone's Object — His Theory of Mission Work — His 
Hopes for Africa — Arrival of the "Frolic" — Disposition of Ivory — Parts 
•with his Followers — Sekwebu — In the Boats — On Board the Ship — Insanity 
and Death of Sekwebu — Arrival at Mauritius — Dear Old England — For- 
bidden Scenes — Public Honors — The Single Desire 277 



CHAPTER XIII. 

AT HOME. 

Meeting on January 5th — Egyptian Hall — Splendid Assembly — Speech of 
Lord Mayor — Speech of Bishop of London — Speech of Sir Roderick Mur- 
chison — Livingstone's Response— Resolutions — Subscription — Travels in 
England — Public Enthusiasm — Public Meeting in Manchester — Resolu- 
tions — Public Meeting at Leeds — Addresses and Resolutions — Generous 
Rivalry of Cities and Institutions — Presentation of the Freedom of London 
to Livingstone — Distinguished Personages — Complimentary Addresses — 
Tremendous Applause — A Beautiful Casket — Imposing Ceremony — Book- 
Writing — Difficulties — Surprised by the Appearance of a Bogus Book — 
Explanation — Announcement of Dr. Livingstone's Book — Twentieth Thou- 
sand in Six Weeks — Press Comments — Extract f:-om the London Leader 
of that Date — Effects of the Book — Interest in Commercial Prospects of 
Africa — Interest in Missions — Action of Missionary Societies — Invitations 
to Oxford and Cambridge — Grand Assembly at Cambridge — The Reception 
of Livingstone, According to Professor Sedgwick — Reception of War 
Veterans— Of Chancellors — Of the Queen — None More Hearty than that 
of Livingstone 292 

CHAPTER XIV. 

LECTURE BEFORE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY. 

[Delivered before the University of Cambridge, in the Senate-House, on 
Friday, December 4, 1857. Dr. Philpott, Master of St. Catharine's Col- 
lege, Vice-Chancellor, in the chair. The building was crowded to excess 
with all ranks of the University and their friends. The reception was so 
enthusiastic that literally there were volley after volley of cheers] 303 

CHAPTER XV. 

AGAIN IN AFRICA. 

Results of Efforts at Universities — Universities' Mission — Livingstone Ap- 
pointed British Consul — Interview with the Queen— Reasons for Accept- 
ing the Governmental Appointment — Love for his Mother — Care of her — 
Government Appropriation — The Farewell Banquet — Distinguished As- 
sembly — Speeches — Sir Roderick Murchison — Livingstone's Address — 
Arrangements Completed— Members of the Expedition— The Steam 
Launch — The "Pearl" — The Departure from England— Livingstone's 
Responsibility— What the Government Expected— Letters by the Way — 
Arrival at the Mouth of the Zambesi 315 



12 CONTEXTS. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

ARRIVAL AT TETE. 

Portuguese and the Zambesi — Posterity's Applause — The Explanation of the 
Outlet — The Kongone— The Bar — The Country — Timidity of Natives — 
The Fertility of Soil— The Natives' Curiosity— Their Cupidity— The Chan- 
nel — The Departure of the " Pearl " — The First Work — Mazaro — Excite- 
ment — Livingstone's Courage — Mariano's Cruelty — The Zulus — Their Tax 
— Their Character, Hospitality, etc. — Zulu Lawyer — Shupauga — The Grave 
Under the Baobab — Eeception at Senna — Senhor Ferraro — Arrival at Tete 
— " We will Sleep To-night." 322 

CHAPTER XVII. 

THE KEBRABASA RAPIDS. 

The Journey to the Kebrabasa — Kebrabasa Range — General Appearance — 
Breadth — Pressure of Water — Portuguese Ignorance — Banyai Impositions 
— " Dreadful Rough " Night — Camp Scenes — A Camp Story — The Morn- 
ing — Climbing Still — Sleep of Exhaustion — Makololo Distrust — Mount 
Morumbwa — A Perpetual Barrier — Return to Tete — Scenes in Tete — 
Superstition — The Teaching of Nature — Holiness — Christmas in Africa — 
The Climax of Absurdities — The Rainy Season — The Portuguese Recourse 
— A Serious Matter — The Help for Fever — The Shire 341 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE SHIRE. 

Mouth of the Shire — Difficulties Vanish — " Englishman " — Shire Valley — 
African Swamp — Livingstone's Art — Mount Morambala — Mountain Vil- 
lage — Chikanda — Two Pythons — Pursued by a Buffalo — The Steamer — A 
Sinking Ship — No Note of Time — The Musician — Hippopotamus Traps — 
Shire Marshes — Water-fowl — Kites and Vultures — Forest of Palm Trees — 
Islands of the Shire — An Unhappy Chief — Village of Chibisa — Chibisa — 
— Lake Shirwa — Sympathy of Fools — Discovery of Lake Shirwa — Return 
to the Ship — Expedition to Lake Nyassa — Mangauja Hills — Village of 
Chilimba — The Manganja People — Agriculture — Cotton — Manufactures — 
Iron Ore — Native Trade — The Upper Lip Ring — Beer Drinking — Drunken 
Villages — The Muave Again — Faith — Nyassa Discovered — Return to Tete.. 361 

CHAPTER XIX. 

JOURNEYS OF HONOR. 

Regard for Obligations — Busy Preparations — Market Prices at Tete — Singu- 
lar Measures — Social Turn — Evening Gatherings — Peculiar " Tea-Parties " 
— Makololo Objections to Leaving Tete — Their Gains and Losses — The 
Outfit — Journey Begun — Linyanti — Sekeletu — The Mission — Graves — Ex- 
planation of Failure — Livingstone's Confidence — Hope Unshaken — Mako- 
lolo Faithfulness — Attentions — Growing Disaffection — Seaward Again — 
Tete — The Kongone — The " Pioneer " Arrives — The Rovuma — Return to 
the Shire — The " University's Mission " — Their Misfortunes— War Pre- 
vailing — The Slave-Trade — Lake Nyassa — The Lake Tribes — Shupanga 
— Death of Mrs. Livingstone 392 



CONTEXTS. 13 

CHAPTER XX. 

THE BEGINNING OF THE END. 

Zambesi Expedition Unsatisfactory — Zanzibar— Trade from Zanzibar — The 
Outfit — Rovuma Bay — Kiudany — The Makonde — Remarkable Vegetation 
— Cutting Right Valiantly — Rage for Doctorship — Mohammedan Influence 
— Lying Guides — Along the Rovuma — Troubles with Followers — Gum- 
Copal Tree — Extravagant Tattooing — Top of the Fashion — At Nyoinano— 
The Slave-Trade — The Makoa — A Woman Rescued — Horrors of the Trade 
in Slaves — Currency for Africa — Extracts from Journal — A Deserted 
Village — A Model Town of Africa 415 

CHAPTER XXI. 

APPROACHING NYASSA. 

A Guest of Mataka — The Waiyau — Livingstone and the Arabs — The Town 
of Moembe — Iron Smelting — Causes of Desolation — Waiyau Described — 
Livingstone's Desires — Slave-Trade : Does it Pay ? — Sepoys sent back — 
Mountains — Springs — Iron — Approaching Nyassa — Livingstone's Review 
of his Route — The Watershed — Geological Formations — Kindness of the 
People — The Single Curse — An Example of Christians — Inconvenience of 
being English — Arabs as Settlers — A Doubtful Question Settled — Pota 
Mimba — Around the Foot of the Lake — No Earthquake Known — Sites of 
Old Villages — Brooks — The First European Seen — "God Took Him" — 
Wikatani Finds Relatives — Salt-Making — Eighty-five Slaves in a Pen — 
Work Honorable 446 

CHAPTER XXII. 

ABOUT NYASSA. 

Geological Notes— The Marenga — Livingstone Preaching — Small-Pox— In- 
veterate Thieves — Kirk's Range — Love Token — Black-haired Sheep — 
Earthquakes — A Toper Chief— A Royal Escort — Whooping-Cough— The 
Hottest Month — Methods of Fertilization — No Animals — Bows and Ar- 
rows — Lip-Ring — A Prophetic Cow — Iron Works — Village of Smiths — 
Alarm of Mazitu — Native Furnaces — Livingstone's Patience — A Disagree- 
able Head Man — Level Country — Portuguese Travellers — A Herd of Buf- 
faloes — Industry — Wild Figs — A Formidable Stockade — Trying News — 
A Steady Faith 463 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

A MONTH OF WANT. 

Days of Anxiety — Manganja Blood — Manganja and Waiyau — Artisans — Na- 
tive Agriculture — Beautiful Scenery — Iron Trade — An Elephant Hunter 
— Difficulties — Carriers — Livingstone's Love for Nature — Memories — No 
Food — A Splendid Valley of Lilies — Stockades — Sunday at Zeore — Rain- 
Making — The Slave Idea in East Africa — Hedges of Bamboo — Bark Cloth 
— Huts for the Spirits of the Dead — Contrasts in Character — Forests and 
Rains — Beautiful Animals — The Zebra very Beautiful — The Loangwa — 
Bad for Worse — The Babisa — A Miserable Set — Sorrows Multiplied — A 



14 CONTENTS. 

Mopane Forest — Nyarmazi — Trading with a Woman — Loss of Goats — Ex- 
perience with a Guide — The Hills Again — Bee Hunters — Want, Want, 
Want! — Noble Utterances — "Always Hungry" — Elephant Hunting — 
Sword Hunting — Desolate Land — No Bread — Hunger — Escape from a 
Cobra — The Loss of the Dog — Mushrooms — All the Medicine Lost — The 
Worst of All — Livingstone's Gentleness—" Real Biting Hunger" — Beads 
as Currency — The Chambese at Last 482 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

FROM LAKE TO LAKE. 

Chitapanga's Stockade — An Offering Required— Audience with the Chief- 
Ceremony of Introduction — Chitapanga as he was — Some Trouble — Lying 
Interpreters — Arab Traders— Letters Sent Home— Quits Chitapanga's — 
The Chief's Parting Oath — Appearance of Country— Troublesome Customs 
— Suspicion of the Chiefs — A Familiar Trick —Eagerness for Trade — 
Moamba at Home — Chief and Judge — The Moemba — The Hopo— Bows 
and Arrows — Illness — Kasonso's Reception — Assaulted by Ants — Cotton 
— Lake Liemba — Palm Oil — The Balungu — Severe Illness — Arabs — 
Chitimba's Village — A Long Delay — Nsania — The Baulungu — Industries 
— Cupping — Charms— Dull Life — Slave-Trade — Little Things — A Large 
Spider — At Hara — Reception at Nsama's — A Bride in Style—" Tipo Tipo " 
— " Kumba Kumba " — Itawa — Desertion — Slavery Question — Different 
Motives — Arabs on the March — Arab Traders — A Fantastic Party — Potency 
of Sneers in Africa — Delays — Lake Moero at Last 507 

CHAPTER XXV. 

A MONTH WITH CASEMBE. 

Moero — Bound for Casembe— Kalongosi — Abundance of Fish — Dr. Lacerda 
— The Balonda — Enter Casembe's Village — Graciously Received — Mo- 
hamad bin Saleh — Notes from Journal — Zofu, King's Fool — " Casembe," 
General — His Character — Customs— Land Claims — Hand-Shaking — Letter 
to Lord Clarendon— Descriptive Resume — Sickness — Leaves Casembe — 
Bound for Ujiji — Mohamad bin Saleh his Companion — Hunger — Illness 
—Last Day of 1867— A Touching Record 537 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
1868. 

" Only Water " — Native Indifference — Charms of Moero — Lake Scenery — 
Indifference of Arabs — Covetousness — The Only Lesson Learned — Kab- 
wabwati — Dreadful March — Evils of being with Arabs — Livingstone's In- 
fluence — Thieving Slaves — A Dead Halt — Long Delay — Yankees of Africa 
— Duplicity of Mohamad — Desertion of Followers — Livingstone's Charity 
— Questionable Charity — Justice as well as Mercy — Arab Trouble-makers 
— Mohammedanism Not Taught — Not Adapted to Elevate Heathen — 
Christianity a Missionary Creed — Powerlessness of Ceremonies — Power of 
the Word — Africans Curious and Cautious — They Need the Gospel — Obli- 
gation of Christians — Dulness of Kabwabwati — Livingstone turns South — 
Arrives at Casembe's — Cordial Reception — Pleasing Recollections — De- 
liverances — Leopard Hunt — A Discovery — Cropped-Eared Pest — Casembe's 



CONTENTS. 15 

Kindness — Mohamad Bogharib— Starting for Lake Bemba — Discovery of 
the Great Lake — Description of it — Lake Surroundings — Wanyamwezi — 
Northward Again — Commotions — War — Delays — Beach Kabwabwati — 
Abominations of Slave-Trade — Battle — Evils in Camp — Wanyamwezi 
Women During a Battle — Weariness— Christmas, January 31st, 1868 557 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

UJIJI. 

Severe Illness — Thoughts and Memories — Some Good in All — Mohamad Bog- 
harib's Kindness — Dr. Livingstone too 111 to Walk — Sufferings in being 
Carried — Arrival at Ujiji — Hardships Endured — Disappointment — Goods 
Stolen — Ujiji — Products of the District — Market-Place — Wajiji's Saluta- 
tions — Head Ornamentation — Formal Introductions — Tattooing — A Repre- 
sentative Wajiji — Ornaments — Superstition — Superstitious Customs — Re- 
fusal to Carry Letters — A Den of Thieves — Thani bin Suellim — Manyuema 
Country — Religiously Villanous? — Bambarre — Expert Hunters — The 
Great Chief — The Covenant of Peace — How Arabs keep Covenants — 
Mockery of Superstition — "Liliputian Monsters" — A Pygmean Battle — 
Amazed at Guns — An Elephant Hunt — Unsatisfactory 479 

CHAPTER XXVII!. 

MANYUEMA. 

Manyuema Country — The Paramount Chief— Independent Villages — Living- 
stone's Object — Leaves Bambarre— Westward — Splendid Scenery — Vil- 
lages — Architecture of Manyuema — Character of the People — Hidden 
Villages — Curiosity of Villagers — Evil Influence of Traders — Prejudices 
Aroused— Return to Bambarre — Ujiji Hood — Five Hundred Guns — Liv- 
ingstone's Companion — Sets out from Bambarre Second Time — Appearance 
of Country — Huts in Trees — Elephant Traps — Bloody Feuds — Omnipresent 
Love — Newly Married Couple — Dreadful Swamjjs— Timely Hospitality — 
Promise of Letter — Hindered Again — Slave-Traders' Barbarities — Dreadful 
Murders — Katoma's Camp — Deserted by Followers — Three only Faithful 
— Singing Frog — A Nursing Fish — Musicians — Livingstone's Resolution — 
Chuma, Susi and Gardner — A Man Killed — Meets Mohamad Bogharib — 
A New Affliction — Disappointment — Return to Bambarre — Long Sickness 
— Manyuema Dreadful Cannibals— Bloodthirsty — Delight in Murder— 
The Soko — Soko Hunt — Soko and Leopard— Soko and Lion — "Soko is a 
Man " — Impatience — Despondency — Hope Revived — Men and Letter Ar- 
rive from Zanzibar — New Difficulties — Trouble with New Men — Another 
Start — Conscience Clear — His Plan — His Longing — A Young Soko — On 
New Grouud — Charming Scenery — Village Happiness — Trials — The 
Lualabaat Last 496 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

FOUR MONTHS AT NYANGWE. 

The Lualaba — Abed and Hassani — The Temper of the Traders — Livingstone's 
Situation — The Difficulty — Writing Materials — Nyangwe Market- Women 
— Old and Young — The Market Scenes — Eagerness for Barter — Indepen- 
dence of Women — Ten Human Skulk, — Cannibalism — Difficulty of get- 



16 CONTENTS. 

ting a Canoe— Ivory — The Bakuss — A Characteristic Manoeuvre — Baknss' 
Opinion of Guns — Arabs' Idea of Business — A Fiendish Plot — Duguinbe — 
No Assistance — Wonderful Underground Houses — The People of Rua — 
" Heartbrokenness " — Disappointed Utterly — Beautiful Picture Blighted 
—Dreadful Slaughter — Three Hundred and Forty Dead — Superwickedness 
— Too Much to Bear — Resolved to Return — Importuned by the Natives — 
Determined — Providence in the Disappointment — Providence in all Things 
— Precious Interests — A Despatch — James Gordon Bennett, Jr. — Henry 
M. Stanley 618 

CHAPTER XXX. 

THE DELIVERANCE. 

Mr. Stanley at Zanzibar — Selecting Followers — African Currency — Curiosity 
Unsatisfied — "Speke's Faithfuls" — Bagamoyo — The Mrima — The Fron- 
tier of Barbarism — The Baloch — The Wamrima— The Half-Caste Arab — 
Reception at Bagamoyo — The Jesuit Mission — Mr. Stanley's House — 
Great Preparations — Mr. Stanley and others — The Route Selected— On the 
March — First Hunt — The Wakwere — The Wadoe — Beautiful Scenery— 
"Envious Evil" — The Waseguhha — Handsome Savage — The Wagogo — 
Death and Marriage— Penalties of Murder and Theft — News of Dr. Living- 
stone — A Difficulty — Murder Attempted — Providence 642 

CHAPTER XXX!. 

UNYANYEMBE. 

Traditions of Unyamwezi — The Appearance of the Country — The Soil — 
" Fairy Mounts" — • Villages — The Wanyamwezi — Sons of Ham — Lovers of 
Music — Maiden Fondness for Display — Tea-Parties — Matronly Gossip — 
The Club-Rooms — Masculine Vanity — Home Life in Unyamwezi — The 
Houses— The Furniture — Dining Hall — " Sweet Earth " — Popular Preju- 
dices — Food of Wanyamwezi — Family Affection — Woman's Rights — Love 
and Law — Wanyamwezi, their Prominence — Great Travellers — The " Car- 
riers " of East Africa — Varying Character — Unyanyembe Central Province 
— Arab Settlement — Mr. Stanley's Reception— Sayd bin Salim — Stanley's 
House — Munificent Hospitality — Visitors from Tabora — Tabora Village — 
Arab Luxury — Prominent Arabs of Tabora— Mr. Stanley Visits Tabora 
— The Council of War — Mirambo — An Unhappy Alliance — Sickness — 
Climate of Unyanyembe — The Battle Array — Disaster and Retreat — Glad 
to Quit— Tables Turned — The " Flying Caravan "—A Weeping Lover— On 
the March Again — Mangara — Grand Reception of Chiefs — A Jolly Time — 
The Ammonia Bottle Uncorked — An Impression Made — Splendid Game- 
Park— Two Days' Hunting— Trouble in Camp — A Revolt— A Dreadful Plot 
—The Pledge— Mrera 660 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE MEETING. 

Approaching Each Other— The Spirit of the Man— "A Good Heart" — 
Adequacy of Christian Kindness — Africa for Christ — Effigies of Men — A 
Lesson Learned — Mistake the Man — The Ambuscade — A Third Deliver- 
ance — A Good Omen — No Vengeance — The Leopard — Weary and Indif- 



CONTENTS. 1 7 

ferent— Painful Reflections—" Little Better than a Skeleton "—Dreadful 
Disappointment — The Good Samaritan — Mr. Stanley's Caravan — " That 
23d Day of October " — Good News — A Forced March — The Tanganyika 
at Last — The First View of the Lake — Special Charms for Stanley — The 
Approach — " Good-Morning, Sir " — " Who the Mischief are You ? " — The 
Meeting — The Conversation — The Revelation Made — " God Never Failed 
Him " — The Best Medicine — A Cruise on the Lake — No Outlet Found — 
- " I Must Finish my Task." 677 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

A JOURNEY AND A DELAY. 

From Ujiji to Unyanyembe — Livingstone a Companion — Route Adopted — 
Forest Entertainment — Methods of Hunting — Makombwe Hunting Hip- 
popotamus — Baker's Rhinoceros Hunt — Wild Race — "A Horse ! a Horse ! " 
— Sword wins the Day — Stanley as Hunter — Tent- Life — Arrive at Kwihara 
— Home-Life — Busy Preparations — Livingstone Abundantly Provided for 
— Farewell of Wanyamwezi — A Wild Dance — The Farewell Song — The 
Parting — Bagamoyo Again — The English Expedition — Oswald Living- 
stone — Caravan Sent Back — The Mission Completed — England, Living- 
stone, Stanley, the World — Comfort in Disappointment — Livingstone in 
Unyanyembe — His Occupation — His Modesty — His Zeal for Missions — 
The Country Inviting — A Robinson Crusoe Life — The Mothers of the 
Country — The Call to Missionaries — "Advice to Missionaries" — " No Jug- 
glery or Sleight-of-hand " — Livingstone's Interest General — Grasp and 
Minuteness — Suspense Ended — Stanley in England — The Queen's Acknowl- 
edgment 700 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

THE LAST JOURNEY. 

The Plans of Livingstone — Route Proposed — The March Begun — Living- 
stone's Carefulness of Observation — A Reliable Observer — Indifference of 
Livingstone to Danger — A Charmed Life — Better Judges — A Midnight 
Encounter — The Old Disease — The Shores of Tanganyika — Cotton Culti- 
vated — Hunting a Business — Ominous Silence — Lake Liemba — The Slave 
Trade — Zombe — Beneficent Disappointments — Donkeys and the Tsetse — 
The Kalongosi — Nsama and Casembe — Flood and Flowers — Beautiful 
Emblems — A Flooded Country — Great Hardships — Fording "Rivers — 
Livingstone Carried by his Men — Island Villages — The Last Birthday — 
Resolution — Sufferings and Longings — Six Feet Rain-Fall! — Fishes — 
Sinking Rapidly — Utterly Exhausted — Kindness of Muanazawamba — The 
Last Written Words — Carried on a Kitanda — The Last Mile — The Last 
Words— Death 725 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

BURIAL AT WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 

The Acknowledgment — Anxieties of the Men — The Council — Chuma and 
Susi — Chitambo's Kindness — Native Honors to the Dead— Hut where the 
Body was Prepared — The Materials for Preparing the Body — A Special 
2 



18 CONTENTS. 

Mourner — The Embalmment — The Inscription — Preparation for Departing 
— Promises of Chitambo — Route of Boys — Severe Trials — The Luapula — 
Crossing — An Old Servant — An Accident — Native Surgery — "An Unfortu- 
nate Affair " — The Fight — The Results— The Excuse — Objection to Flags 
— The Kalongosi — In the Old Path — The Lake — New Scenes — Easier 
Route to Unyanyembe — The News Received — Resolution of the Men — 
Justifiable Deception — A Dreadful Snake — Arrival at Bagamoio — The 
Precious Freight— The Kilwa — Reception in England — Identification — 
Burial 752 

APPENDIX. 

Discouragements — Recent Successes of Explorers — Revival of Interest — 
Commercial Importance — Familiar Trees of North and West Africa — Trop- 
ical Africa — General Appearance — South African Forests — Lumber Ex- 
ports — Excellence of Soil — Cotton, Coffee, etc. — Mineral Resources — Gold 
Mines — Copper Mines — Diamond Fields — The Ivory Trade — Commerce of 
West Coast — The Slave Trade — Baker's Work — Slave Traders Classified — 
Slaves Classified — Sources of the Trade Classified — Total Annual Traffic in 
Slaves — Theories for Suppression — The Tendency of Events — Not an Ab- 
stract Question — Slavery has had its Mission — The Nations Against It — 
Providence in the Revolution — The Nile — Baker — Speke — Livingstone — 
Missions — The Former Successes — General Influence — The Prospect 787 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



1. Portrait of Dr. Livingstone. (From a photograph)... Frontispiece 2 

2. Egyptian Archway 25 

3. Amazon Warriors 35 

4. Rivals 39 

5. Aryssinian Horseman 41 

6. Farm Scene in the Cape Country 49 

7. Encounter with the Lion 55 

8. Driving Game 61 

9. The Pit 65 

10. Bushman's Camp 69 

11. Mission Station, Kolobeng 75 

12. Houses 77 

13. Sebituane 81 

14. Shooting Ostrich 89 

15. Land of Cummings' Famous Hunts 93 

16. Bakalahari Feast 93 

17. The Giraffe 99 

18. Scene on the Leeambye 109 

19. War-Dance by Torchlight 113 

20. Hippopotami at Home 123 

21. Lion Encounter 127 

22. African Lion 131 

23. African Buffaloes 137 

24. Burial Place 151 

19 



20 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

25. A Village of Angola 163 

26. Home Scene in Angola 167 

27. St. Paul de Loanda 171 

28. Fishing Scene in Angola 181 

29. Compulsory Service in Angola 181 

30. Mole Cricket 194 

31. Katema 205 

32. Victoria Falls 219 

33. Head of Black Rhinoceros 229 

34. Gnu 229 

35. White Ant's Nest ?. 233 

36. Stag Beetle 237 

37. Taking Hippopotamus from the Water 243 

38. Hippopotamus Trap 243 

39. Surprised by Buffaloes 251 

40. Rhinoceros Charge 269 

41. Shooting Rhinoceros 273 

42. Ant Bear 285 

43. Chifura and Kangomba..* 285 

44. Cricket 321 

45. Denizens of the Shire 327 

46. Zulu Traders 333 

47. Zulu Lawyer 337 

48. A Jungle Scene— Leopard and Ant-Eater.. 345 

49. The Great Baobab 355 

50. Monkeys in Their Element 365 

51. Caracal 371 

52. Flamingoes on Their Nests 371 

53. Zulu Women 375 

54. Palm Tree 375 

55. Manganja Belle 385 

56. A Caffre Bride 385 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 21 

57. Crocodile of Nyassa 405 

58. Grave of Mrs. Livingstone 409 

59. Mission Chapel on the Shire 414 

60. African Jungle 423 

61. Slavers Revenging Their Losses 435 

62. Left to Their Fate 439 

63. Axe, etc 445 

64. Adze, etc.... 462 

65. Knife and Assagai Heads 467 

66. Bechuana Knives 467 

67. Apron 467 

68. Ornaments made of Monkeys' Teeth 467 

69. Ant Hills 477 

70. Zebras 491 

71. Sword Hunting 499 

72. Chitapanga Receiving Dr. Livingstone 509 

73. Scenery near Lake Liemba 517 

74. Arrival of Hamee's Bride 529 

75. Cascades of the Aeasy 541 

76. Casembe in State Dress 549 

77. A Forest Grave 556 

78. Scene on Lake Moero 559 

79. Caffre Leopard Hunt 569 

80. Surprised by Elephants 569 

81. Mountain of Monkeys 583 

82. Flight of Locusts 583 

83. Chuma and Susi 603 

84. Manyuema Hunters Killing Sokos (from a sketch by Dr. Living- 

stone) 611 

85. Necklace made of Human Finger-Bones v 617 

86. Portion of Livingstone's Journal when Writing-Paper and 

Ink had failed 621 



22 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

87. Midnight Conflict with a Leopard 631 

88. Massacre of the Manyuema Women at Nyangwe 635 

89. Hunting Hippopotami 649 

90. The Manyuema Ambuscade 681 

91. A Dangerous Prize 685 

92. Forest Scene 689 

93. Stanley meeting Livingstone 695 

94. Rhinoceros Hunt 705 

95. Wanyamwezi Farewell Dance 711 

96. An Encampment 711 

97. "The Main Stream came up to Susi's Mouth." 733 

98. Fac simile of Last Journal Entry 739 

99. The Last Mile 745 

100. Evening— Ilala 749 

101. Temporary Village in which Dr. Livingstone's Body was 

prepared 755 

102. An old Servant destroyed 761 

103. Livingstone's Mosquito Curtain 761 

104. Kawende Surgery 765 

105. Catching Ants 765 

106. Jacob "Wainwright with Livingstone's Body at Aden 779 

107. Egyptian Lady 799 

108. Heads 57 

109. Heads 786 



INTRODUCTION. 



Early Civilization in Northern Africa — The Limit of the Ancient Civilization- 
Theatre of Mythology — Saracen Conquest — Settlement of Soudan — Mohamme- 
dan Failure — The Fifteenth Century — Gilianez Passed Cape Bojador — Portu- 
guese Efforts on the West Coast — Roman Catholicism — The Failure — England 
and France — Richard Jobson — Mungo Park — Denham and Clapperton — 
Richard Lander Dispels the Niger Mystery — Kingdoms on the West — Da- 
homey, Ashantee, etc. — The Cape Settlement — Vasco de Gama — The Settle- 
ment of Natal by the English — Lieutenant Christopher — Abyssinia and the 
Nile — Bruce and Dr. Beke — The Nile Mystery as it Stands — The Unknown — 
Livingstone. 

In those remote ages, when the Mesopotamian plain is repre- 
sented in Scripture history as little more than a wide and open 
common, the northern shores of Africa sustained a powerful and 
splendid civilization. " When Greece was under the tumultuary 
sway of a number of petty chieftains, Homer already celebrates 
the hundred gates of Thebes and the mighty hosts which in 
warlike array issued from them to battle." Before the faintest 
dawn of science had illumined the regions of Europe, the valley 
of the Nile was the abode of learning and distinguished for its 
incomparable works in sculpture, painting and architecture. 
"And while Egypt was thus preeminent in knowledge and art, 
Carthage equally excelled in commerce and in the wealth pro- 
duced by it, and rose to a degree of power that enabled her to 
hold long suspended between herself and Rome the scales of 
universal empire." 

Carthage sunk amid a blaze of glory in her grand struggle with 
Rome, toward which falling kingdoms of all later time have 
looked with envy. And the land of the Pharaohs, whose alter- 
nate splendor and slavery had been the admiration and astonish- 
ment of the ages, came also at length under the hand of the 
Caesars. The fostering republic soon rekindled the fires which 
the tide of war had extinguished, and Northern Africa was still 
opulent and enlightened, "boasting its sages, its saints, its heads 

23 



24 ANCIENT MYTHOLOGY. 

and fathers of the church, and exhibiting Alexandria and Car- 
thage on a footing with the greatest cities which owned the 
imperial sway." 

But while the banks of the Nile and the shores of the Medi- 
terranean were conspicuous in ancient civilization, the power 
and glory did not penetrate the continent ; there was only a nar- 
row strip of light fringing the sea and the river, back of it there 
was the mysterious and the unknown. 

The traveller who ventured into that background found him- 
self among wild and wandering tribes, who exhibited human 
nature under its rudest and most repulsive forms. If he journeyed 
far, there confronted him "a barrier vast and appalling — endless 
plains of moving sand, waste and wild, without a shrub, a blade 
of grass, a single cheering or life-sustaining object." Victorious 
armies turned back from the borders of the desert as the limit 
of the possible, and the intervening tract of alternate rock and 
valley and plain furnished many of those fabulous stories which 
have come down to us in classic measure and become a grand 
theatre of ancient mythology. 

Thither, according to Diodorus, the "ancients referred the 
early reign of Saturn under the appellation of Ouranus or 
Heaven ; the birth of Jupiter and his nursing by Amalthsea ; 
the impious race of Titans and their wars with the gods ; Cybele 
with her doting love for Atys and frantic grief for his fate." 
And there were placed the hideous Gorgons, and the serpents 
hissing in the hair of Medusa. And thence came the stories of 
those dreadful Amazons, "gallant viragoes," who ravaged all 
the region and carried victorious arms, according to the historian, 
into Syria and Asia Minor. 

But mingled with so much fable the ancient writers had also 
some just conceptions of this region, and many things mentioned 
by Herodotus, Diodorus, and particularly by Strabo, who wrote 
after the Roman sway was fully established over Africa, indicate 
that greatest care was used in treasuring the scraps of knowledge 
which floated up out of the deeper wilderness beyond. Yet that 
wilderness kept its secrets so jealously that the diligence of 
historians and the eagerness of explorers and the power of armies 
were equally ineffectual in extending the range of precise knowl- 
edge beyond the narrow confines on the north and a limited 



DSI 




EGYPTIAN ARCHWAY. 



SARACEN CONQUEST. 27 

extent of western coast. The light struggled to penetrate the 
gloom, its blunted rays rested against an opacity, and rose in 
towering brilliancy, and stood a while flashing like a resisted 
sun, than paled and quivered and fell, and left the continent a 
heritage of darkness to the future. 

When the Saracen sway swept across from Asia, in whose 
social system such marvellous changes had been wrought, and 
established itself among the splendid relics and smoldering fires 
so readily surrendered by the effeminate descendants of the 
Greeks and Romans, an auspicious day seemed to be dawning 
on the continent, the arts and sciences were revived on that con- 
secrated soil. " Even remote Mauritania, which seemed doomed 
to be forever the inheritance of a barbarous and nomadic race, 
w r as converted into a civilized empire, and its capital, Fez, be- 
came a distinguished school of learning." They introduced the 
camel from the sandy wastes of Arabia. Paths were opened 
through wilds which had hitherto defied all human effort, and a 
trade in gold and slaves was formed with countries which had 
been unknown. By successive migrations these descendants of 
the prophet multiplied in Africa. Sanguinary disputes arose, 
and the ill-fortuned sought refuge on the southern side of that 
scorching sea of sand which had arrested the ambition of 
Cambyses and Alexander. There, in the territory distinguished 
on our maps as Soudan, these enterprising travellers founded 
several flourishing kingdoms, which Europeans vainly sought 
to reach until within a comparatively recent date. They founded 
Ghana, boasting unrivalled splendor, whose royal master rode 
out attended by obedient elephants and camelopards — a king- 
dom which, after various fortunes as subject to Timbuctoo, 
Kashna, and Sackatoo, came to be identified in the present Kano. 
And there was Tocrur, the Takror of Major Denman, the Sacka- 
too of our maps — in that early day enjoying an extensive traffic 
with the people of the west, who brought shells and brass to bar- 
ter for foreign trinkets. Then came Kuku, the Bornou of to- 
day. Farther south was the ancient city of Kangha, famous for 
its industries and arts, which modern historians have recognized 
in the city of Loggun, celebrated, by Major Denham, for its 
ingenuities, its manufactures, and its witty women. 

Along the southern borders of Soudan there were districts 



28 MOHAMMEDAN FAILURE. 

known as Wangara and Ungara, mentioned confusedly by the 
early writers, whence the merchants are reputed to have derived 
vast quantities of gold. The progress rested against the Alpine 
range on the south, which divides Soudan from Guinea, and the 
dwellers in those wild regions were branded as infidels, and the 
darkness which repelled the light of Islam was made to cover 
deeds of violence and blood, and treasures for the final day 
stories of wrong for which there is no adequate condemnation in 
human censure. West of the Niger there was an extensive re- 
gion, hardly known to exist by the Arabians. On the east the 
regions of Nubia and Abyssinia, which Grecian enterprise had 
reached with ships, had received the name of Christ, and hostile 
creeds can no more touch than light and darkness ; and there 
was an unknown wilderness on the west, there were despised 
infidels on the south, and a hated creed in Nubia and Abyssinia 
— Mohammedan altars in the midst. The splendors of this 
foreign presence contrasted strangely. with the native wildness 
for a time, but it was not a corrective, assimilating light. It 
was modifying, but aggravating. The cities were bright spots 
unquestionably ; so penal fires are bright, but earth is darker 
for their glare. 

Fitful efforts were made to explore the west from the inland 
cities. Settlements were effected from southern Arabia at various 
points along the eastern coast as far down as Mozambique. But 
Mohammedanism was the inspiration of Arab energy ; Moham- 
medanism possessed no inherent vitality. The inspiration 
gradually failed ; barbarism gradually reclaimed its dominion 
by the degeneracy of its invaders, and became intenser because 
it was a little more intelligent. The life which is not nourished 
by the fruits of nature must gradually waste away and give 
itself to feed that whereon it should have fed. The civilization 
which does not assimilate the surrounding barbarism must itself 
degenerate into its stimulant. The sun itself would be but half 
a sun amid the whirling realms if it did not clothe them all with 
its own brightness and make them helpers, giving as they re- 
ceive. Aggression is the law of existence. The inefficiency of 
Mohammedan civilization in Africa was the prophecy of its 
decadence. The prophecy was only too true. The glory de- 
parted, and that which promised to elevate Africa became its 



. THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 29 

incubus : that which promised healing became a poison inflaming 
and agonizing wherever it touched. The continent was involved 
in deeper darkness — a festering barbarism — which gave off to 
the world a tribute that cursed the giver and the receiver. 

While the Crescent was resting with dazzling splendor over 
Africa, Europe was in that profound apathy which attended the 
" decline of the Roman empire, the irruption of the barbarous 
nations, and the rude systems of feudal polity which were inau- 
gurated. There was absolute indifference to all matters pertain- 
ing to science, discovery and distant commerce." Even the 
naval efforts of Venice and Genoa extended little farther than 
Alexandria and the Black Sea. Satisfied by the wealth and 
power to which they had been raised by this limited commerce, 
these celebrated commonwealths made no attempt to open a more 
extended path over the ocean. 

"About the end of the fifteenth century, the human mind 
began to make a grand movement in every direction, especially 
in religion, science, industry, and freedom. It eagerly sought 
not only to break loose from that thraldom in which it had 
been bound for so many ages, but to rival and even surpass all 
that had been achieved during the most brilliant eras of an- 
tiquity. These high aims wer peculiarly directed to the de- 
partment of maritime discovery. The invention of the compass, 
the skill of the Venetian and Genoese pilots, and the knowledge 
transmitted from former times, inspired all classes with the 
hope of being able to pass the ancient barriers and to throw light 
upon regions hitherto unknown." Portugal, whose kings were 
preeminent in intelligence and enterprise, was the first to obey 
this new inspiration. Various circumstances conspired to fix 
the eye of Portugal on the western border of Africa as the choice 
field for research. The ancient expeditions had furnished very 
limited and indefinite information of this coast, and even the 
wonderful discoveries of Columbus in later years hardly excited 
greater surprise and admiration than the voyages which so 
rapidly scattered the mists which had hung through all the past 
about the shores of Sahara, Senegambia, Guinea, and Lower 
Guinea. 

In 1433 Gilianez passed the Cape Bojador, and Portuguese 
navigators were not long in reaching the fertile regions watered 



30 Portugal's effort. 

by the Senegal and the Gambia; within forty years Portugal 
had made settlements as far down as the Congo, and according 
to the ancient maxim which gives to the victors all countries 
conquered from infidel nations, had received from the Pope a 
grant of full dominion in all lands which should be discovered 
beyond Cape Bojador and in their farther progress eastward. 
The capital of Portuguese possessions on the continent was fixed 
at Elmina, and the king hesitated not to assume the pompous 
title of Lord of Guinea. The new-comers, true children of 
Rome, appealed chiefly to their religion, in establishing their 
sway. Baptisms were made by wholesale, which was the easier 
done because the ceremony included the putting of salt on the 
tongue of the converts, and this was a commodity for a taste 
of which many of the poor creatures would have faced any sort 
of formula. The Congo princes were particularly favorable 
for a time to the new system ; various courtesies were exchanged, 
whole nations were Christianized by contract, the freest scope 
was given to the missionaries, and these worthies seemed to 
have been really animated by a very devoted and persevering 
zeal. But they unfortunately put the presentation of beads, 
Agni Dei, images of the Madonna, and saints, splendid pro- 
cessions, rich furniture, and solemn festivals of the church be- 
fore the doctrines of the Bible. They sought to dazzle the eye 
rather than instruct the mind, to secure an outward allegiance 
rather than an inward renewal. The new converts viewed the 
gospel only as a gay and pompous pageant ; they had no idea 
of the duties and obligations which were enjoined by the sacred 
name which was pronounced over them. And naturally enough, 
there was a tremendous reversion of feeling when the authori- 
ties began to interfere with some of those barbarous customs, 
which were with them time-honored and sacred, though con- 
demned by the church. The inquisition was brought to aid in 
the promotion of that practical piety which ought to have been 
sought by the faithful presentation of truth and the conversion 
of souls; wars arose, complications multiplied. The mission- 
aries toiled and endured with a heroism worthy of truer princi- 
ples, but they failed. And the banks of the Congo, especially, 
where their greatest exertion was put forth, retain no trace or 
tradition of them.' 



ENGLAND AND FRANCE. 31 

" Portugal passed under the yoke of Philip II. of Spain, and 
under that influence became involved in war with the Dutch, 
w T ho had risen to the first rank as a naval people, and whose 
splendid armaments successively stripped them of their most 
important possessions on the African continent as well as in the 
East Indies." In 1632, Elmina, their capital, the key to the 
gold coast, fell into the hands of these successful rivals. 

But the splendid results which had followed so rapidly, 
the revival of interest in maritime matters had attracted uni- 
versal attention to the ocean, and that vast trackless realm 
became the theatre where unrivalled wealth and glory seemed 
to await the seeking. The gallant Hollanders soon found their 
proud mastership of the seas disputed by powerful rivals. 
England and France had come to the front in European affairs, 
and were already pressing forward in a jealous race to surpass 
each other and all the past. For a while their settlements on 
the African coast were made with a view only to obtaining 
slaves for their new possessions in the West Indies. Soon 
there came wonderful reports of the gold-trade carried on at 
Timbuctoo. There was no hope of establishing a highway 
across the desert from the north, and a company was formed in 
England for the purpose of exploring the Gambia, by which the 
geographical systems of the age warranted them in hoping to 
reach the glittering treasures. Richard Thompson, the first 
representative of this company, after desperate engagements with 
the Portuguese, who still boasted their lordship over the region, 
fell by the hands of his own men. But a better star guided his 
successor, Richard Jobson, who, while falling far short of reaching 
the far-famed Timbuctoo, won, perhaps, the glory of being the 
first Englishman who had an opportunity to observe the manners 
and superstitions peculiar to native Africa. As he advanced, a 
new world seemed to dawn on him. All about him land and 
water were • inhabited by multitudes of savage animals. The 
enormous sea-horses sported in every pool, herds of enormous 
elephants crowded to the shore, lions and leopards moved about 
among the trees in full view, and everywhere there were myriads 
of monkeys going through their eccentric evolutions. Armies of 
baboons marched along occasionally, and displayed their surly 
tempers by horrid grimaces and angry gesticulations, as they 



32 JOBSON AND MUKGO PARK. 

watched the progress of the intruders. The appearance and 
customs of the human dwellers in the region were in keeping 
with the utter wildness, and many were the wonderful stories 
he had to tell his countrymen of the kindnesses and cruelties, 
the fashions and follies, the graces and hideousness which he 
saw, and the strange things he heard. But the goal was not 
reached. Then, for a long time, the spirit of discovery, so far 
as pertained to Africa, was dormant in England. And when it 
revived a little in 1720, it was only to be assured, by the ex- 
pedition of Captain Stibbs, that the theories of reaching the 
interior by the Gambia had been only a delusion. 

While the English sought to ascend the Gambia, Senegal 
was the Niger to the French, the stream by which they hoped 
to reach the regions of gold. They founded the settlement of 
St. Louis in 1626, but little was accomplished until 1697, when 
Sieur Brue was appointed director of the company's affairs, 
who made various journeys into the interior, penetrating as far 
as Bambouk, distinguished still for its mines of gold. But 
still there remained the vast blank on the map of Africa, and 
the fabulous stories of wonderful wealth came floating up out 
of the unknown, while the remotest extremities of land in other 
quarters of the globe were being brought under contribution to 
the general fund of knowledge and wealth. 

At length the African Association was formed in England, 
and introduced a new era in African discoveries. First, Mr. 
Ledyard, a born traveller, who had sailed around the world with 
Captain Cook, had lived in North America, and journeyed to 
the remotest parts of Asia, was sent out, and died in Egypt be- 
fore even beginning the proposed journey along the Nile. Then 
Lucas attempted to cross the desert from Tripoli ; the daring 
Major Houghton fell the victim of Moorish perfidy, while boldly 
penetrating the continent from the mouth of the Gambia. Then 
came the celebrated Mungo Park, who was destined to take the 
front rank of all the travellers of his day, whose dreadful 
sufferings, and unrivalled heroism, and unconquerable perse- 
verance were as much matter of astonishment and admiration 
as the discoveries he made, and the exploits he performed. 
"While Mr. Park was making his discoveries in Senegambia, 
Guinea^ and western Soudan, Frederic Horneman was sent out 



MYSTERY OF THE NIGER DISPELLED. 33 

by the association, penetrating the continent from the north. 
Travelling as a Mohammedan, with various caravans he crossed 
the dreary wastes to Mourzouk and thence southward, and 
never returned. Various unauthenticated reports were made 
by individuals claiming to have been shipwrecked and to have 
wandered great distances inland, and seen wonderful things 
and made wonderful discoveries. Several expeditions sent out 
with high hopes and great expense were comparatively fruit- 
less. 

The patience and zeal of those who had devoted themselves 
to this great work was at length rewarded by the very re- 
markable and successful journeys of Denham and Clapperton, 
who crossed the desert from Tripoli and traversed the whole 
region which so mauy centuries before had furnished a home 
to the wandering'sons of the prophet. Timbuctoo, Kano and 
Sackatoo were all called on to reveal their secrets. Kingdoms, 
before unknown, took their place in history. New mountains, 
lakes, and rivers, came out under the indefatigable labors of 
these heroic men, as at the bidding of a magician. But the 
course of the Niger, the mighty river which was found watering 
those distant inland regions, was still unknown. Park had 
traced it only a little lower down than Boussa, when his splen- 
did career was brought to its fatal close. It was to be the 
glory of Richard Lander to dispel this mystery. The grand 
problem which had perplexed Europe for so many ages, on 
which, during a period of nearly forty years, so many eiforts 
and sacrifices had been expended in vain, was completely re- 
solved. Park in his first journey reached the banks of the 
Niger, saw it rolling its waters toward the interior of the conti- 
nent, and theorists readily leaped to the conclusion, " This must 
be the Nile." The same traveller proved its continuous pro- 
gress for more than one thousand miles. Lander followed all 
its windings until it emptied itself into the Atlantic Ocean — a 
discovery which was hailed with rejoicing in all Europe as 
opening a highway to the most fertile and improved and 
healthful portions of the interior. 

From these settlements along the western coast various expe- 
ditions were sent into the country for purposes of discovery and 
trade, and missionary enterprises found footing at various points. 



34 BAEBAROUS KINGDOMS. 

A chain of European forts were erected along nearly the entire 
coast, but with the abandonment of the slave-trade by Great 
Britain, and the vigorous measures against it, the territory 
passed into the possession of a number of petty states, many of 
which compose aristocratic republics, turbulent, restless, licen- 
tious, and rendered more depraved by their intercourse with 
Europeans. But a little inland there are found in this tract 
several powerful and well-organized kingdoms. Conspicuous 
among them is Dahomey, one of the strangest kingdoms on the 
face of the earth. A kingdom which was begun in blood and 
cruelty, and which has maintained its existence for more than 
two centuries in spite of the terrible scenes continually enacted 
— scenes which would drive almost any other nation to revolt — 
there, almost under the shadow of Christian mission stations, are 
still enacted the bloody dramas of human sacrifices. Human 
skulls are drin king-cups. And the horrid brutalities of the king 
at home and the fiendish invasions of neighboring states are sus- 
tained by a dreadful army of Amazons, finding a Satanic solace 
for the enforced sacrifices of their celibate state in bloodiest 
deeds. There, too, are the Ashantees. hardly better than the 
Dahomey. South of Dahomey, just above the equator, in 
Lower Guinea, are the Fans — the cannibals of Du Chaillu and 
Mr. Reade, whose horrid barbarism shocks the bluntest sensi- 
bilities in civilized lands. A land where even the grave affords 
no security from the unnatural gluttony. A people " who bar- 
ter their dead among themselves ; " the rivals of the Niam- 
Niam in those orgies and wild dances on which Dr. Schwein- 
furth has cast such vivid light. Along the same tract, a little 
back from the coast, are the Ashira, the Cam ma, and various 
other tribes, whose strange customs enrich the volumes of Du 
Chailln. There, too, is the famous "Ashango Land." 

Brighter spots are seen in the midst of the darkness : the 
light of Christianity is established at various points along the 
coast; and colonization enterprises have, taken a hold which 
promise grand results in time. 

Leaving the Avestern coast, we approach the Cape of Good 
Hope, about which the contending oceans meet with a rage 
which appalled the stout heart of Diaz ; whose peaceful name 
is a memento of the bold spirit of the king who could foresee 
in its discovery the grander attainments of the future. 




AMAZON WARRIORS. 



CAPE COLONY. Oi 

The Dutch, ever wide awake to the best chances, soon seized 
on the Cape and began the settlement which has gradually ex- 
tended over the Cape country, and made its impression on many 
of the tribes of southern Africa, and furnishing, besides a foot- 
hold for the missionary, splendid opportunities to the sports- 
men, and a starting-point for many of the most important ex- 
plorations. Associated with this point we find the names of 
Hope, and Barrow, and Lichtensteiu, who shed the earliest light 
on the habits and homes of the Hottentots and various Caffre 
tribes. Hither came Campbell, and Trutter, and Somerville, 
and Moffat, to deeds of love and heroism which have enriched 
the literature of missions. 

And hither, too, in later days came Livingstone, purposing 
in his heart to do only as other men had done; chosen of God 
to do a peculiar and unrivalled work, and lift the curtain on all 
the hidden region. 

While so much attention was being bestowed by European 
nations on the western coast, the eastern had remained either 
unknown or in the undisputed possession of the Arabs. In 
1489, when Vasco de Gama had rounded the Cape of Good 
Hope, he touched at Mozambique, Mozamba, and Milinda, 
where he found the Arabs ruling in all their Mohammedan 
bigotry. Cabrial visited Quiloa, and very soon the power of 
Portugal had swept the ancient settlers from the delta of the 
Zambezi. They quickly found their way up the river and 
established the forts of Sena and Tete, and ultimately the city 
of Zumbo, with whose ruins we will become familiar. From 
these settlements several journeys seem to have been made into 
the interior, extending some of them quite into the heart of the 
region which came down to our time an unsightly blank. But 
only the dusty unexplored archives of the Portuguese govern- 
ment can reveal the now useless facts which were so jealously 
concealed when they would have been welcomed by the world. 
The same fatal policy which distinguished their efforts in the 
west brought speedy decay of power here likewise. A govern- 
ment, over anxious for gain and unscrupulous as to measures, 
and a church with nothing better to give than beads and cruci- 
fixes, and images, and solemn mummeries, can have no lasting 
glory. 

3 



38 THE EAST COAST. 

The regions south of Mozambique remained almost unknown 
until the establishment of the English colony at Natal. At a 
comparatively recent date the earlier history of this settlement 
was attended with most distressing complications with the 
natives, but at length Natal rose so far above adversity as to be- 
come perhaps the most desirable field of emigration on the con- 
tinent. The remarkable natural advantages have greatly assisted 
the labor of industry and ar£ in making this district the " Ely- 
sium " of South Africa. The tribes who surround the beautiful 
homes and carefully cultivated fields and blooming gardens of 
the foreigners retain none of their early hostility; cultivating 
more the peaceful habits so well and wisely recommended to 
them, they are rather pleasant neighbors, affording in their ig- 
norance an ample field for the philanthropist and Christian, and 
in their strange sports and rivalries entertainment unsurpassed. 
But after Natal had been made to blossom as a rose, there still 
remained a considerable extent of the African coast vailed in 
almost absolute darkness. All that vast region between Abys- 
sinia and the equator was still the land of fable. This " terra 
incognita " was believed to be the ancient Regio Cinnamonifera, 
to have undergone great revolutions, to be possessed by inde- 
pendent tribes of Gallas and Soumalis, and to teem with aroma- 
tics, spices, myrrh, aloes, ivory, ostrich feathers, indigo, cotton, 
and other valuable articles of commerce, yet it was still unex- 
plored. 

About the time that David Livingstone was taking his first 
lessons in African life, Lieutenant Christopher, in command 
of the Honorable East India Company's war-brig " Tigris," 
touched at several points on this coast, and made a few short 
journeys into the country. 

But the grandest realms of wonder here were just beginning to 
absorb modern attention. The inquiry of the ancients was being 
taken up with new enthusiasm. The theories of Pacy and the 
Abyssinians and of Bruce had been set aside. A search for the 
true source of the Nile had succeeded that for the outlet of the 
Niger as the grand problem. And rivalling this more nearly 
than any other question was the eagerness to know what lay be- 
neath that vast blank which extended from the Cape Colony to 
Soudan and from Lower Guinea to Zanguebar. 




ABYSSINIAN HORSEMAN. 



ABYSSINIA AND THE NILE. 43 

The ponderous volumes of Bruce won highest praise for the 
light which they shed ou Abyssinia, that land of long-prevailing 
mystery, where ancient credulity asserted that unicorns and 
lions held their deadly combats, and dragons flapped their 
scaly wings through air ; that golden mountains towered toward 
the sky, and river beds were paved with diamonds ; and, most 
of all, where Presto John, the priest and king, was said to hold 
his court, a Christian Solomon of the middle ages ; a land which 
in the full light of history still engages peculiar attention ; where 
beautiful women and splendid horsemen bewilder the astonished 
traveller with their accomplishments ; and most loathsome cus- 
toms disgust him; where everything is an astonishment; a 
country which has come into distinguished prominence in con- 
nection with the sources of the Nile; whose lofty mountains 
garner the showers with which it contributes to the great patron 
of Egyptian wealth and plenty. 

A host of travellers followed Bruce in Abyssinia ; most notable 
of them was Dr. Beke, who was the first to give the world a 
map of the regions in which the Nile sources were supposed to 
be involved. The Blue and White Nile were soon brought into 
notice, and the public interest deepened in the work. The 
Pasha of Egypt entered the field with an expedition, which 
started from Khartum in December, 1839, and was actively en- 
gaged seventy-two days. A second and a third Egyptian expe- 
dition was sent out ; but still the problem seemed to become 
more intricate. It remained for Sir Samuel Baker to discover 
the Albert N'Yanza; for Speke and Burton to discover the 
Tanganyika ; for Speke to tell the world of Victoria N'Yanza, 
and for Livingstone to trace the Lualaba through the Bang- 
weolo, the Moero, and the Kanalondo to its junction with the 
Lomame, and for a coming man to come in between and divide 
or unite these various waters. 

While all these efforts were being put forth east, west, and 
south, various adventurers were traversing the northern shores 
among the relics of ancient greatness, and visiting the sand-girt 
cities of the desert ; and from a thousand sources information 
was being derived about this vast continent so long wrapt in 
gloom. Only absolute darkness prevailed over the vast region 
marked on the map, Unknown ! Not only the curiosity of the 



44 THE UNKNOWN. 

world called for its explanation, commerce called for it ; there 
might be vast treasures concealed there ; there might be nations 
easily advanced in industrial interests. Philanthropy called for 
it : there were undoubtedly untold wrongs crying to the world 
for redress : there were evils of ignorance and superstition 
which might be mitigated. Science called for it : her commission 
embraces the whole world, and while there is a rock unbroken 
or a star without a name she must not rest. But, most of all, 
religion called for it — Christianity — there were in that region 
souls to be saved. The time had come, and a man came for- 
ward, little thinking of the future that lay before him ; a man 
whose joy it was to do what his hands might find to do, only 
doing all for Christ; a man not sent but led, step by step. It 
is this man whom we will follow up and down in the deep 
shadows of that vast unknown ; whose adventures we will ob- 
serve ; whose toils and sacrifices we will note ; whose character 
we will study ; and by whose wonderful guidance we will find 
out all the strange, astonishing, distressing, animating, pleasing 
and important things the land can reveal. 

The wonderful journeys of which we will read covered many 
thousand miles ; generally they will be found to lie in regions 
where not the shadow of a tradition exists of a white man's 
presence before. We will find tribes presenting every phase 
of uncivilized life. We will find every wild animal which be- 
longs to the continent represented. We will find strange and 
wonderful insects, and dreadful reptiles. We will read of 
swamps reeking with pestilence, deserts and trackless forests, 
rivers and mountains. Everywhere we will see a man alone, 
often without supplies, with no adequate means of self-protection, 
practising no deception ; everywhere appearing in his true char- 
acter; everywhere condemning vice and commending virtue; 
espousing the cause of the oppressed against the strong ; com- 
bating long-established customs, and proposing great reforma- 
tions. This man we will see passing unharmed, and seldom 
resisted by native force. We will feel that he carries a " charmed 
life," that he is " immortal until his work is done." If we ob- 
serve carefully and weigh well his life, we will be wiser and 
better than we are, besides the knowledge we shall gain of 
Africa. 



CHAPTER I. 

BLANTYRE TO THE BAKWAINS. 

Noble Names — David Livingstone — Blantyre — Home Traditions — The Factory — 
Common School — Latin — Love of Books — Be Honest — His Father — Mother — 
Scottish Poor — Bothwell — Conversion — Missionary Spirit — China — Medicine — 
Astrology — Greek — Theology— Africa— Thorough Preparation — 1840 — Leaves 
England — Goes to South Africa — Condition of Country — Cape Colony — Cape 
Town — Algoa Bay — Port Elizabeth — Kuruman or Lattakoo — Dr. Moffat — 
Northward — Studying Language, etc.— Selects Matabosa — Settles — Kindness 
to the Natives — A Lion Encounter — Joins the Bakwains. 

There are names that live, and should live. Like the men 
who make them honorable, there are names which do good, 
carrying light and strength. There are names about which 
systems, and histories, and ideal realms of wondrous beauty 
are ; which incite mankind to lofty enterprise, and impart con- 
fidence and fortitude and zeal. There are names which honor 
a world's remembrance. It is well and creditable for the 
world that some men are never forgotten. But of all, there 
is no life-work brighter and truer and loftier than that in 
the service of humanity, and the service of humanity is per- 
fected in the dignity of Christian effort. Among the securest 
favorites of history, the worthiest are those who lived for 
others, and loved and labored under the impulses of the 
gospel. 

Such a man was David Livingstone. His child-life was at 
Blantyre, by the beautiful Clyde, above Glasgow, in Scotland. 
He was born there in the year 1815. The humble home enter- 
tained some proud traditions, treasured through eight generations 
of the family. The young David listened with bounding heart 
and growing spirit, while his grandfather told the histories and 
legends of the olden time. Culloden was in the story. His 
great-grandfather fell there, fighting for the old line of kings ; 
and " Ulva Dark," the family home, had been there. Old Gaelic 
songs trembled off the lips of his grandmother, beguiling 

45 



46 HIS PARENTS 

the social hours. There was the spirit of heroism in the 
home. And among the traditions there were those of singu- 
lar virtue and integrity. He classed the dying precept of a 
hardy ancestor the proudest distinction of his family : that 
precept was, " be honest," Honesty is a matchless birthright ; 
he claimed it j he was not proud of anything else. 

His father was a man of "unflinching honesty/' and was 
employed by Montieth & Co., proprietors of Blantyre Works 
in conveying very large sums of money from Glasgow, and by the 
honorable kindness of their firm his integrity was so rewarded 
that his declining years were spent where he had lived, in ease 
and comfort. He was a man who kept the hearts of his chil- 
dren. His kindness and real love were sweeter to them than all 
that wealth sometimes bestows as its peculiar gift. He brought 
his children up religiously ; it was in connection with the Kirk 
of Scotland. It is a beautiful tribute of his illustrious son : 
"My father deserved my lasting gratitude and homage for 
presenting me from my infancy with a continuously consistent 
pious example. I revere his memory." 

The mother of the man appears only, and passes from the 
public view. She was a quiet, loving, industrious, self-denying, 
praying mother. God knows how to chose mothers for the 
chosen men. This mother was the mother of a great and 
good man. She was a women who, by her virtue and modesty, 
and fortitude and courage, could bear a hero and inspire him 
for his destiny. "An anxious house-wife, striving to make 
both ends meet," found time and place to exert a true woman's 
singular and mighty influence upon her little boy. We will 
not presume to estimate the magnitude of that influence. We 
will not say how much his home had to do with the singular 
thoughtfulness and distinguished precocity of the child that 
toiled all day long in the mill with the hundreds who worked 
there. David Livingstone was only ten years old when he 
was put into the factory. People ought not to despise little 
factory-boys. He worked from six in the morning until eight 
at night ; that makes fourteen hours a day, and a child just 
ten years of age. There were very good schools at Blantyre ; 
the teachers were paid twenty-five pounds a year. The schools 
were free to the children of the working people. David had 



t EAKLY STUDIES AND TASTES. 47 

been in one of those schools. He must have been well 
advanced for his age. The impulse that his mind received 
in the common school was aided by the attractions of the 
great University at Glasgow. Boys in the neighborhood of 
great colleges have earlier and loftier aspirations perhaps.. 
Anyhow we are informed that a part of David Livingstone's 
first week's wages went for " Ruddiman's Rudiments of 
Latin/' and that he pressed the study of that language with 
peculiar ardor, in an evening school, from eight to ten o'clock, 
during a number of years. There are many grown men who 
mourn over their ignorance whose work does not fill fourteen 
hours a day. 

In those evening hours, with a little tired child-body, 
Livingstone mastered the Latin language, and accomplished 
much in general reading. When he was sixteen years old, 
he was quite in advance of his age. The diligence and self- 
control of the boy was the prophecy of the man. At this early 
age, too, the peculiar tastes and talents which rendered his 
subsequent life singularly successful and vested his work 
with singular interest began to appear. He did not love 
novels : he loved facts. He was not charmed with the woven 
fancies of quiet effeminacy. He delighted in stories of adven- 
ture; he was always glad to put his hand in the hand of the 
historian, and be led away from familiar scenes to the new 
and the strange and the difficult. The hero spirit was in him. 
This love of the new and eagerness for travel were tempered 
and sanctified by an appreciation of the real and the useful. 
He had delight in scientific books and experiments. 

The home of his childhood was admirably adapted for the 
development ot noble character. There was a population of 
nearly three thousand. The people were " good specimens of 
the Scottish poor," as he tells us himself, " in honesty, morality 
and intelligence." There were all sorts of people, of course ; 
they were generally awake to all public questions ; their inter- 
est was intelligent ; there were some characters of uncommon 
worth ; these persons felt peculiar interest in the thoughtful, 
studious lad. There were near at hand many spots hallowed 
in Scottish history — spots with venerable associations. The 
Scottish people love old associations; they treasure the dear 



48 CONVERSION AND MISSIONARY SPIRIT. 

memorials of the past. The ancient domains of Bothwell stood 
with open door to these respected villagers. David Livingstone 
was one of the people, and loved these scenes ; he knew their 
history, all their old traditions were in his heart. 

A youth, with the spirit of these associations and surround- 
ings, fund of study, with abundant capacity, wanted only the 
touch of divine grace, and his heart would bound to noble sacri- 
fice for Christ; he would not think of himself. The time came. 
" The change," he says, " was like what may be supposed would 
take place, were it possible to cure a case of color-blindness." 
The appreciation of God's love was humiliating and controlling. 
The freeness of grace engaged his gratitude and affection ; the 
fulness and magnitude of it was unanswerable, and constrained 
him. There was no expression left him but that of a life given 
in return. He gave himself to God immediately. He deter- 
mined to give himself to the heathen. But it was not Africa 
which he thought of. He was not like Park — he did not make 
special preparation for Africa. He looked toward China ; that 
immense empire seemed to beckon him. He studied for China 
and went to Africa. It is so in God's providence. Sometimes 
the highest fitness for a place is attained indirectly. God orders 
the preparation of his chosen. His ways are not like ours. 

The practical man shows himself in the boy. Young Living- 
stone felt that whoever ministers to the souls of the people 
must reach them through their bodies. He reasoned that the 
confidence to be desired, as a spiritual teacher and helper, would 
be most easily secured by attention to the humbler interests. 
It is like seeking interview with a lord: it is easier if the 
attendants are first won. Christ paid much attention to the 
bodily necessities of people. So have all the best and wisest of 
his servants. Livingstone studied medicine in preparation for 
his missionary work. His first book led him "deeply and 
anxiously into the perplexing profundities of astrology;" 
and he only paused in his investigations when, to his youthful 
mind, the ground seemed to be perilous, and, in his own words, 
" when the dark hint seemed to loom toward selling soul and 
body to the devil, as the price of the unfathomable knowledge 
of the stars." 

He would wander, delighted and wondering, through 



AFRICA AXD PREPARATION. 51 

Blantyre and Canibuslang, collecting shells and stones long 
before geology was as popular as it is now. As a specimen of 
the help and encouragement he received, when the curious 
child one day asked a quarryman, " How did ever these shells 
get into these rocks?" he was told, "When God made the 
rocks, He made the shells in them." And when his honored 
father found his preference for such study, he insisted on creating 
a fondness for such books as "Fourfold State," by Boston, 
" Practical Christianity," etc. 

It is almost incredible that such varied and profound reading 
as filled these early years of Livingstone could have been done 
in the midst of such daily work in a factory. He really accom- 
plished all of his reading by placing his book where he could 
catch a sentence, as he passed backward and forward at his work. 
Working continually in his factory, he studied Greek at Glasgow, 
and Divinity with Dr. Wardlaw, by his own manual labor 
providing for his own education. It was a wonderful love of 
knowledge and wonderful love of Christ which strengthened 
his heart for such a work. What w r onder that he expressed his 
delight, when at last he was admitted a member of a profession 
devoted to benevolence ! How naturally he treasured most 
fondly the recollections of Blantyre by the Clyde, through all 
of his wanderings ! It was a sacrifice for such a man. Africa 
offered nothing. It asked for everything. There could never 
be a home there for him ; there could never be one anywhere 
on earth. It is a serious thing to become a missionary. Christ 
had no home. The missionary comes nearest to Christ in his 
service, and he must come nearest to Christ in his sacrifice. 
Livingstone did not go to Africa to find out Africa. He went 
there to carry Christ to the ignorant and lost. The gospel 
being his mission, he remained long enough in England to 
make special preparation in the study of theology. It is a 
mistake that the intelligence of the teacher should be graded by 
the advancement of the learner. The very best preparation is 
desirable for the teacher of the very ignorant. Little children 
should have the most accomplished teachers. Don't send a 
novice in Bible truth to the heathen. God is not in need of 
such haste on the part of his servants that the man he calls for 
a special work may not go about it deliberately. No time is 



52 ENGLAND FOR AFRICA. 

saved by rushing to the battle without one's armor and weapons. 
Livingstone was right. He knew there would be all to give, 
and but little to receive. There is great waste in missionary 
life. A man does wisely to seek thorough development before 
he sets out on such work. Livingstone was a man with a 
reasonable scientific knowledge, good medical education, a 
student of theology — all pervaded by the love of Christ and 
devotion to humanity, with a deep-felt call to the heathen. 

This is the man who left England for Africa in 1840. He 
was born in 1815. He was twenty-five years old when he 
began his great work there. It was a life in the fulness and 
elasticity of its vigor which he laid, on God's altar in the 
service of humanity. 

The portion of the benighted continent which he selected 
was full of interest and mystery. Stories of wonderful fertility 
and tempting reservoirs of wealth had for a long time been 
floating in the popular mind. Civilization looked eagerly 
toward the heathen wilderness. Accounts, all indefinite, but 
promising, of nations worthy of their sympathy, had moved 
the hearts of Christians. The missionaries, who had gone 
before, had but little more than built their fires over against 
the gloom. Now and then a man would come out of the 
deeper shadows, attracted by their brightness. These men 
revealed the hidden want. It was that hidden want which 
cried so loudly to the heart of Livingstone. His Highland 
blood was consecrated to Christ. He could not accept a service 
which was less than heroic. He could not measure his obliga- 
tions by apparent expediency and personal safety. The English 
power on the Cape had, in God's providence, provided a footing 
for Christianity on the unreclaimed territory. Light had 
stepped on the coast of darkness ; that was all. The radiance 
must be guide through the gloom. Livingstone rejoiced in the 
undertaking;. We will find that his work assumes the char- 
acter of exploration. It was the work of Christian zeal. It was 
the gospel in control of a man penetrating the "regions beyond." 
The same gospel has been the unrecognized power in all the 
histories, wrapping the world with the joys and beauties of true 
civilization. 

The Cape Colony is divided. The divisions are the Eastern 



CAPE TOWN AND KUEUMAN. 53 

and Western. Cape Town, where the missionary landed, is a city. 
It occupies a splendid amphitheatre ; three lofty mountains 
describe an arc about it. There is Table Mountain, rising nearly 
4000 feet above the sea, Lion's Head and Devil's Peak. 
The city nestles in their friendly shadows, and looks at itself 
in the sea. There are 30,000 inhabitants, all sorts of people, 
Dutch, English, Negroes, Malays, Hottentots, everything and 
nothing. The streets are straight; they cross at right angles; 
they are threaded by canals, along whose banks there are 
rows of stately trees. The houses are flat on top ; they have 
great block stoops in front, where the inmates lounge in the 
evening. There are fifteen churches. Mohammedanism is 
there, watching most jealously the intrusion of Christianity, 
There is a good government, and the sects may quarrel securely. 
They do it. It is a pity. All hearts ought to be united in 
saving the heathen. 

After a little while spent resting, Livingstone sailed from 
Cape Town around to Algoa Bay, and entered the country. It 
is well to look at it on the map ; it will fix matters in the 
mind. On Algoa Bay you will see Port Elizabeth. This is a 
town of 3000 inhabitants, an English settlement, and the 
principal shipping-point for the eastern division of the colony. 
It is a door. Civilization goes in and out with its blessings 
and the returns. There is a return for all service. Civiliza- 
tion has adventured its wealth in the service of barbarism; 
enlightened barbarism has always reimbursed civilization. 
The Church carries the gospel to the heathen at great cost ; the 
heathen receive it, and strengthen the Church. The sun loses 
nothing by lengthening its rays. 

Leaving the bay and the easy sailing, Livingstone pressed 
on to the farthest inland station of the Society. This station is 
called Kuruman or Lattakoo. It was the headquarters of Dr. 
Moffat, who had spent many years in that region ; whose 
book, issued thirty years ago, is full of interest. This hospita- 
ble home gave a noble daughter to be the companion of the 
missionary explorer. 

Now fully on the ground, Livingstone cast about him with 
characteristic deliberation and courage and zeal. It is when 
zeal is courageous and courage deliberate that great things are 



54 



STUDYING THE LANGUAGE. 



accomplished. Quitting Kuruman, and the pleasures and 
encouragements of home-faces and home-words, he sought an 
abode northward. There he denied himself all European 
society six months, that he might identify himself with the 
natives and learn their language, their customs, their habits of 
mind, their laws and way of thinking. The tribe which he 
had chosen was that section of the Bechuanas known as Bak- 
wains. The future rewarded the sacrifice he made and the 
labor he performed in those first six months. He bought, by 
those months of toil, the key which unlocked for him door 
after door in his subsequent wanderings. His home in these 
months was at Litubarnba; it was called then Lepelole. He 
proposed 'to make a settlement there; but while he was at 
Kuruman on one occasion, the friendly Bakwains were dispos- 
sessed of the territory by one of those native wars which arise 
almost as frequently and unexpectedly and terribly in barbar- 
ous countries as the wild winds. 

So after some journeyings hither and thither, he selected the 
" beautiful valley of Matabosa," and removed to it in 1843. He 
immediately identified himself thoroughly with the people. It 
was his nature and his theory to do so. The real interest which 
he allowed himself to cherish in everything which concerned 
them is the truest explanation of their regard for him and his 
peculiar influence over them. If they were in want, he would 
help to provide for them ; if they were in danger, he would 
help to deliver them. If we would give medicine to a child, 
we give it a toy first. He felt that those people must receive 
the truth like a child receives medicine. He made them like 
him by the love he bore them, manifested according to their 
comprehension ; then they would hear him in matters which 
were strange and disagreeable. This spirit led to a very serious 
affair only a short time after the settlement at Matabosa — an 
incident which has gained peculiar interest latterly. The 
lions had become singularly troublesome, venturing on most 
daring depredations in broad daylight. The cowardly natives 
had surrendered to their superstitions, and bemoaned the misery 
of their situation helplessly enough, when the killing of a single 
one of their impudent neighbors would have relieved them 
effectually. Under the circumstances, the missionary headed a 



A LION ENCOUNTER. 



57 



party which he gathered and went out to make a victim which 
should be a hint to the presumptuous marauders. After several 
failures, they at length discovered a lion sitting behind a small 
bush on a rock. The deliberate aim of Livingstone reached its 
mark, but had the effect of bringing the lion bounding upon 
him. Quicker than it can be told, they fell together to the 
ground, and growling horribly the monster shook him furiously, 
inflicting eleven wounds on the upper part of the arm, and 
crushing the bone into splinters. That wound was God's mark 
placed on the man ; it was that which thirty years later served 
to identify the human remains which were carried to England 
as the body of Dr. Livingstone. The affair was one of a 
moment ; the death-shot had been received ; the rage of death 
was in the spring and first grasp of the beast; then he fell 
over his victim, dead. Livingstone had learned the language, 
had learned to ride an ox, had acquired some skill as a pedes- 
trian, and had learned the delights of lion-hunting. He was 
prepared for his work, which was opening. The spirit was in 
him, and the mark was on him: now he might go into the 
wilderness. He attached himself to the Bakwain tribe. 




HEADS. 



CHAPTER II. 
1843—1850. 

The Bechuanas — The Bakwains — Sechele — His Conversion — His Difficulties — 
The Government — Baptism of Sechele — Cross and Crown — Difficulties of the 
Work — Belief in Rain-Making — Drought — Noble Conduct — The Hopo — 
Kindness to Livingstone — Livingstone's Spirit — The Boers — Slavery — An- 
tagonistic Principles — Boers Hate Livingstone — Sechele's Resistance — Living- 
stone Accused — His Effects Destroyed — Going Northward — Desire to find the 
Lake — Desire to see Sebituane — Sekomi — The Desert — Bushmen — Bakalahari 
— Water-Sucking — Across the Desert — Difficulties — Salt Pans — The Zouga — 
Quakers of Africa — Lake Ngami Discovered — The Lake — Sebituane — Guides 
Refused — Sketch of the Zouga — Elephants — Trees— Fish— Bayieye — Kolobeng 
again — Home-life in Kolobeng. 

The Bechuanas live in a country remarkable for its beauty 
and fertility, a country abounding in herds. They are sepa- 
rated from the Cape Colony by the Sneuwberg Mountains, 
and beyond the mountains a pastoral district, where Bush- 
men and Hottentots have their wandering sway, and after these 
the Orange river; just over the Orange are the Bechuanas. 
On the left hand, which is west, is the Kalahari Desert; on 
the right hand, which is the east, lies the Caffre territory and 
the mountains. The Bechuanas comprise a number of tribes, 
whose chiefs have independent patriarchal authority. These 
tribes are generally rather in advance of their neighbors in 
natural intelligence ; they dwell more in cities, and pay more 
attention to agriculture ; they are more advanced in the arts. 

The names of Trutter and Sumerville are associated with 
the earliest knowledge we have of this people. These gen- 
tlemen reported the discovery of Lattakoo as late as 1801. 
It was among these tribes that Mr. Campbell did his work 
of love. Rev. Robert Moffat had been there many years 
before 1840; Lattakoo, or Kuruman, was his station. The 
Bakwains are a Bechuana tribe; their territory is north of 
Kuruman. Shokuane, the city of the chief, when Dr. Living- 
58 



sechele's conversion. 59 

stone was there, is about 250 miles from Kuruman. One 
hundred miles may not be despised, in a country where all 
journeys must be undertaken with one's eyes open to the 
difficulties of forests and wild beasts and unfriendly people, 
and where oxen convey you. The first settlement, 250 miles 
in advance of the hardiest missionary effort, was no insig- 
nificant matter. Matabosa, the mission station selected by 
Dr. Livingstone, is only a few miles south of the city of the 
chief. Sechele was chief. There is frequent mention of this 
man in the books of travellers in South Africa about that time. 
He stands out distinctly, in the meagre African history which 
we possess, a noble specimen. He was a man of singular 
intelligence and liberality, and grasped with avidity the rudi- 
ments of reading and mathematics, and handled these keys 
with a masterly skill, opening readily the avenues of knowl- 
edge. He received the Christian teacher with all cordiality, 
and was greatly delighted with the beauties of the Bible. 
Isaiah charmed him ; over and over he would exclaim, " He 
was a fine man that Isaiah ; he knew how to speak." 

No wonder that such a man, coming to know the truth, 
was full of amazement that Christian people had been so long 
a time delaying to send his people the gospel. "My fore- 
fathers ! " he would exclaim, " why did they not send them this 
word ? They all passed away in darkness." O that the reproach 
of inactivity may be against us no longer ! The " fathers have 
passed away in darkness ! " The children ! the Christian world 
must vindicate the name it bears, by arising in the spirit 
of the Master, giving wings to the word. 

This noble man was greatly embarrassed by the incompati- 
bility of the demands of Christianity with the customs of his 
country, and particularly with the relations of a chief. There 
he sat, in the centre ; ranged around him, circle after circle, 
were his subjects, in the order of their dignity or family 
strength. The one bond which pervades the whole tribe is 
that of marriage. The chief binds the stronger of the under 
chiefs to himself by taking wives of their families; these under 
chiefs in turn fasten yet humbler families to them in the same 
way, and so on. 

The whole tribe is a family ; the chief is the head of the 



60 CROSS AND CROWN. 

family. The missionary did not need instruct Sechele concern- 
ing the impropriety or sinfulness of some of his customs. His 
own intelligence discovered his duty, and in the bitterness of his 
struggle he cried : " Oh ! I wish you had come to this country 
before I became entangled in the meshes of our customs." 
Here was a heathen chief. The chiefs under him were identi- 
fied with him and bound to him by the wives whom he had 
taken. If he abandons polygamy he offends the under chiefs ; 
he shakes the whole tribe to its circumference. Two years and 
a half he battled with these difficulties ; the convictions of duty 
were permanent ; the sacrifice stood facing the service. It was 
the old and ever-new Cross against the Crown. 

During those two years and a half Sechele co-operated with 
Dr. Livingstone heartily, and manifested much concern that the 
gospel might be accepted by his people. Indeed, he proposed 
to introduce it in true African style, by the lash of his whip. 
Then, when discouraged from that method, he wondered and 
grieved that only in this, where of all things he would have 
them imitate him, his people despised his example. At length 
the hour came ; the decision was strong. Sechele asked for bap- 
tism, and, influenced entirely by his own convictions of right, 
broke away from all those customs which he perceived to be 
improper. He sent home all of the wives except his first, and 
gave to her his heart anew in Christian purity. This interfer- 
ence of Christianity with polygamy is one of its most unpopular 
features in Africa. But the directness and nearness of Christian 
approach to God, the setting aside not only of their customs, 
but of their superstitions, is a still greater difficulty. 

Most conspicuously among the Bakwains was their faith in 
the art or power of the rain-maker. Their country borders on 
the desert ; frequently they need water ; the rains are withholden ; 
there are men who profess to bring rain ; they administer medi- 
cine to the elements ; they claim the rain, if it comes, as brought 
by them ; if it does not come, then they argue, " No man is 
expected to succeed in every particular matter." Now, Religion 
says, Ask God for rain ; they prefer to ask the rain-doctor ; they 
cannot see God ; they see the rain-doctor ; they see his medicine 
bag ; they are in trouble ; they think their ancestors got rain so. 
It is hard for them to decide ; they cling to the superstition. 



THE DROUGHT AND HOPO. 63 

During the three years — the earlier years of Livingstone's 
settlement — there was almost a continuous drought. Sechele 
had been a noted rain-doctor ; now he would not do anything. 
They felt that Christianity was to account for their parched 
fields and famished herds and their own great suffering. They 
were slow to embrace Christianity. To Dr. Livingstone they 
would say, "We like you as well as if you had been born 
among us, but we wish you to give up that everlasting preach- 
ing and praying. You see we never get rain, whilst those 
tribes who never preach and pray have plenty." Indeed, with 
such impressions, there is no difficulty in comprehending their 
feelings, if we can only realize their distress during those three 
years — the rivers running dry, the leaves dying on the trees, 
needles retaining their polish perfectly lying in the street, the 
mercury standing at 134° three inches under ground. Only the 
long-legged black ants seemed to prosper ; they only deserve to 
be said to live; everything else seemed ready to give up. They 
toiled on, under the cover of recurring darkness, year in and 
year out ; somehow or other finding moisture for their mortar, 
and rearing their singular mansions. It was a mockery. Birds 
suffered, beasts suffered, reptiles suffered, fish suffered, beetles 
placed on the surface died in half an hour, man suffered ; only 
the chambers of these strange creatures were surprisingly humid. 
It was a question for the curious. 

Sechele's people did nobly. They sold ornaments ; the 
women did that. There are women in Africa. It is woman's 
mission to arise to her noblest work in times which crush men. 
It is the mission of African women. They sold ornaments — 
for corn — to other tribes. The men resorted to the Hopo; this 
is a mammoth trap, which is set for the giants of the wilderness. 
If you look at the picture, it is easily understood. It is made 
of huge piles driven firmly in the ground, and boughs of trees 
closely interwoven with the piles. There is a strong barricade 
formed in this way ; it extends about a mile. At the point of 
the V formed by these hedges there is a lane ; at the end of the 
lane a pit. The men easily enclose within these hedges a large 
number of animals, which, terrified by the furious yells of the 
hunters and their sharp javelins, rush madly along the converg- 
ing hedges and the narrow lane until the treacherous pit re- 
4 



64 WANT AND BOERS. 

ceives them. It is a wild, cruel scene. It is the law of extrem- 
ity to be cruel. The Bakwains are kind until they suffer ; so 
are people generally. Want is lawless. Through all of their 
extremity Dr. Livingstone was treated kindly and wrought 
diligently for their enlightenment and salvation. The work of 
saving men is independent of their condition ; men need the 
gospel all the time. Dr. Livingstone recognized the difficul- 
ties. He knew that the uncertainty, the anxiety about the 
things that perish, the lawful solicitude about food, was indeed 
a mighty hindrance to his success. He did not suspend his 
work, but he gave the sufferers his sympathies. It will, indeed, 
be well when the Christian churches awake thoroughly to the 
importance of seeking directly the improvement of the heathen, 
not only in knowledge and in their social life, but in the condi- 
tions of bodily comfort and happiness. 

The life of Livingstone is a lesson. He was a Christian. 
He was a missionary. He determined to open a way that the 
world might enter Africa ; that the enlightened might lift up 
the benighted ; that the Church might address the people who 
have been aided, who are stronger and happier for the coming 
of the Church. But there was an obstacle to be confronted by 
our missionaries among these tribes harder to overcome than 
prejudices, than customs, than wants. That obstacle was living. 
It called itself civilized; it called itself human. It was in 
human shape ; it was encouraged by outside civilization. The 
Cashan Mountains, just north of the Bechuanas, were occupied 
by the Boers. There are people known as Boers in Cape 
Colony; they are a very industrious, honorable class. These 
are not like them. The mountains were formerly occupied by a 
cruel Caffre chief; he had been expelled. The Bechuanas re- 
joiced too soon when the Boers came in his place. They had 
too much confidence in white skin. The Caffre had been 
"cruel to his enemies and kind to the conquered. The Boers 
killed their enemies and enslaved their friends." They had 
settled in Africa out of antipathy to the African. They culti- 
vated their farms with unpaid labor. It was compulsory labor; 
they were heartless in their methods of securing slaves. They 
would murder men and women and burn a town to make cap- 
tives of the children ; the children grew up accustomed to the 



PERSECUTION AND PROVIDENCE. 67 

yoke. The tribes hated slavery, but were degraded by it. 
It seemed inevitable. Sometimes people would sell their chil- 
dren. The inevitable becomes tolerable. Besides the degrada- 
tion, there was the constant trepidation and absolute insecurity. 
The shadow of those mountains became a decree of instability. 
This hindered the missionary work; that was Livingstone's 
work. Christianity and the Boers were enemies. The Boers 
were the enemies of Livingstone ; they did everything in their 
power to prevent him in every undertaking. The missionary 
would educate the people ; he emancipated their minds ; they 
would become free and strong. Trade is the companion of 
Christianity in heathen countries. Traders follow missionaries ; 
they followed Dr. Livingstone. These traders sold guns and 
powder. The Boers were cruel to the weak, therefore they were 
cowardly. They dreaded the trader because they dreaded 
powder and guns. They dreaded Livingstone because they 
dreaded the trader. There could be no peace. And when, at 
last, Sechele arose in self-defence and killed the first Boers ever 
slain by Bechuanas, Livingstone was denounced as the instiga- 
tor of their action. It was then that the Boers destroyed his 
house, his books, his papers, his all. They were determined 
that he should not open the country. They set him free to do 
it, and forced him to do so by tearing up his nest. They were 
cruel to Livingstone, but God was kind to Africa. The mis- 
sionary could do nothing under the Boers ; he must go north- 
ward. If he went northward or eastward or westward, the way 
he went would become a road, and the light would stream in 
stronger and stronger. God's Spirit had made the missionary ; 
God's Providence was making the explorer. 

Several years had been spent battling with these difficulties. 
The labors of Dr. Livingstone had extended several hundred 
miles eastward from Kolobeng. He had established an inti- 
mate friendship with Sechele, and other Bechuana chiefs, besides 
gathering considerable information about the regions beyond. 
But the beyond was across the desert. The desert was a diffi- 
culty. It was a heartless difficulty, but it was not human ; it 
was limited. There were no Boers on the other side ; there were 
only heathen, and the Lake Ngami. This lake had long been 
an object of anxious curiosity to people interested in African 



68 THE DESEKT MUST BE CROSSED. 

matters ; and beyond Ngami, the home of a far-famed chief 
and an intelligent tribe promised a most desirable footing for 
Christianity. Sebituane was the chief of the Makololo. Se- 
bituane was a really great man ; his praise was on the lips of 
other chiefs ; he was a generous man. Dr. Livingstone longed 
to know him and teach him of Christ. He desired to gain his 
great influence and the strength of his tribe to the gospel. The 
chief of the Bamangwato, the tribe just above the Bakwains, 
almost between Sechele and the lake, knew a route to it, but he 
would not tell it, because he did not wish the ivory of the lake 
region to become accessible to the outside world. There was 
only one thing to do. The desert must be crossed. 

In this undertaking Livingstone was joined by Mr. Oswell 
and Mr. Murray, both of them noted travellers. The formida- 
ble region before them was one of peculiar interest, though 
peculiarly inhospitable. It was a desert that was not a desert. 
There was only one want. That want was water. There are 
trees and vines and grasses, and animals and reptiles and people ; 
but everything, from the men to the creeping vine, is searching 
for water. The plants search downward, and send their roots 
far beneath the parched surface ; they must find moisture, be- 
cause they seem to laugh at the sun. The animals are such as 
can go long periods without water. Their sagacity discovers 
the few fountains and pools which are here and there. The 
human inhabitants are Bushmen and Bakalahari. The Bush- 
men love the desert. The Bakalahari love freedom. They 
find the freedom in the desert which they lost elsewhere ; there- 
fore, they are in the desert. There are plants in this wilderness 
which take the place of fountains. They bear quite a number 
of tubers, which are filled with a cool, refreshing liquid ; these 
tubers are deeply buried far below the crust. They are betrayed 
only by a stalk as large as a crow's quill. There are vast 
quantities of watermelons in some years. Every living thing 
in the desert rejoices when these abound. But there were none 
when Livingstone's party was there. The human dwellers of 
the desert use all care in concealing the few watering-places 
which exist. Art helps the desolation. The women have a 
singular method of obtaining water from these hidden pools. 
They gather about the spot with their vessels, which are only 




busiiman's camp (page 61 J. 



FOE THE LAKE KGAMI. 71 

ostrich egg-shells, with a small hole in them. They thrust one 
end of a small reed down to the water, and applying the lips to 
the other end, suck up the precious fluid, which passes from the 
mouth, through another reed or large straw, into the shell. 
Thus they improvise a pump. When they have filled a num- 
ber of shells, they are borne far away from the spot to their 
homes. Nobody finds water by finding the Bakalahari. Its 
existence is accounted their sacred secret. It is because the 
tribes outside can find no water that they are secure. 

The Bushman's security is in his poisoned arrows, which he 
uses with great cordiality when occasion demands it. The 
Bushmen are manly-looking and brave; the Bakalahari are 
mean-looking and timid. The weak and the strong, the brave 
and the timid, have each their reason for chosing this home ; 
they find their interests identical, so they live together. The 
Bushmen are hunters ; the others live on roots and fruits, and 
trade between the Bushmen and the world, with skins and 
tobacco. 

It was the 1st of June, 1849, when Messrs. Livingstone, 
Oswell and Murray left Ivolobeng for the Lake Ngami. Mes- 
sengers had come from the chief of the lake country, whose 
name was Lechulatebe, inviting Dr. Livingstone to visit him. 
These messengers had brought wonderful accounts of the ivory 
to be had there. ■ Their accounts stimulated the Bakwain 
guides, though they did not lessen the difficulty of the journey, 
because wagons could not proceed by the route which they came. 
The party was furnished with oxen and wagons and guides 
and servants. We can hardly convey an impression of the 
picture. They slowly skirted along the desert, from pool to 
pool. There were a score of men, twenty horses, and about 
eighty oxen. They passed Boatlonama and Lopepe. At Mashue, 
they left the road which they had followed, and struck out 
northward, upon the desert. They pressed on to Serotli. It 
was toilsome progress — the deep sand conspired with the 
scorching sun. Serotli was only a sucking-place, and there 
was the delay of several days before the party was refreshed by 
its slow stream. There was nothing more remarkable than the 
*im patience of a guide, the herds of wild animals, and dissuasions 
of Sekomi, who sent messengers expressing the greatest anxiety 



72 NCHOKOTSA AND THE ZOUGA. 

about them. Cupidity is a hypocrite in Africa and everywhere. 
Sekomi feared Livingstone would find the ivory : he pretended 
to be afraid he would be lost in the desert. 

At Nchokotsa our travellers were entertained with a wonder- 
ful and charming illusion. Passing out of a thick belt of trees 
there burst upon their view what seemed to be a beautiful lake. 
The setting sun was casting a lovely haze over the surface ; the 
waves were seen as if dancing and rippling ; the shadows of the 
trees were true as life. The reward of their toil seemed at 
hand. They were disappointed on finding that there was no 
lake, no water — only a great salt-pan. The wonderful mirage 
had deceived them. Over and over as they passed northward 
were they deceived in the same manner. The object of their 
quest was still far away. 

At length they struck the river Zouga, flowing by the village 
of Bakarutse. The people of the village informed them that 
this noble river flowed from the lake. Now, then, they had the 
thread — an unerring guide. They had water; success was a 
matter only of days and life. When they had passed along 
this river nearly a hundred miles, they met the hospitality of 
the lake chief. The tribes had received orders to give to the 
travellers all desired aid, and expedite his advance with all 
readiness. The Bakoba was found to be one of the most inter- 
esting of these tribes. They are the men of peace, the " Quakers 
of Africa." Their pride is in their canoes. All day they de- 
light to strike their supple oars into the beautiful water of their 
river ; at night they love to sleep in their boats, safely fastened 
in the stream. The river Tamunak'le flows into the Zouga. 
The party passed its mouth; it flows down from "a country 
full of rivers." It was the 1st day of August, 1849, when our 
travellers went down together and looked on the broad Lake 
Ngami. The discovery of this lake was pronounced to eclipse 
all preceding discovery in Southern Africa. This point fur- 
nished the key to all the lower portion of the continent, and 
contributed greatly to the interest of African travel, while it 
invited a deeper interest in trade. This discovery associated the 
name of Livingstone with the noblest explorers of history. 

This lake is estimated to be nearly a hundred miles in cir- * 
cumference. It lies about two hundred feet above the level of 



ALONG THE ZOUGA. 



73 



the sea. The water is cold and soft, and fresh when full ; when 
very low, it is a little brackish. 

But after so much toil, the main object of Dr. Livingstone 
was not to be realized at this time. As we said before, while 
he was in fact an explorer, he had a loftier aim. He was a 
missionary. He desired to see Sebituane, but Lechulatebe was 
unwilling that he should go there, and refused guides, and sent 
an order to the Bayieye to refuse passage across the river. 
Lechulatebe was afraid of Sebituane, who had killed his father 
and conquered his territory long before; from whom, indeed, 
he had himself been ransomed. The season was far advanced ; 
they could not go on. The party turned back and passed 
leisurely down the Zouga, Mr. Oswell having volunteered to 
bring up a boat from the Cape. On one side, the banks of the 
Zouga arise perpendicularly ; on the other, they slope away 
gracefully, clothed with grass. Along these grassy slopes the 
Bayieye have constructed pitfalls, in which to entrap the wild ani- 
mals, when they come down to the water's edge to drink. These 
traps are so carefully concealed that every now and then some of 
the party would fall into one, though using all vigilance to avoid 
them. But not unfrequently the sagacity of the lordly elephant 
is superior to this strategy. The old ones have been known to 
precede the rest, and carefully uncover every pit before allowing 
them to go down to drink. These animals were found in great 
numbers along the southern bank of the river. A beautiful 
antelope, feeding in vast herds, attracted much attention. Its 
noble appearance, with head uplifted, gazing curiously upon the 
party; its full white breast; its long, curving antlers; the 
splendid agility displayed as it went bounding away over the 
undergrowth, were indeed charming. Magnificent trees adorn 
the banks ; their shadows are on the glassy surface. Some of 
these trees measure twenty feet in diameter. They are crowned 
with splendid flowers of various hues. Their wonderful ever- 
green foliage, drooping gracefully, presents most charming 
retreats. They are grand, natural arbors. 

When the eye falls from these majestic views, and wearies of 
the feeding herds and rests upon the water, there may be a fish 
just leaping into the sun, or a singularly beautiful and harmless 
snake gliding along the shining surface. The Bayieye are fish- 



74 KOLOBENG HOME LIFE. 

ermen, and eat what they catch. They make nets ; strangely 
enough, too, their nets are not unlike our own. They show 
great dexterity in harpooning the hippopotamus. When once 
their barbed blade has fixed itself in their victim, he has only 
one of two things to do — the boat must be smashed or he must 
surrender. 

Returning thus, as they went, Dr. Livingstone and his party 
reached Kolobeng, Mr. Oswell having gone on toward the Cape. 
The journey had been accomplished ; white men had looked 
on the water about which untangible accounts had made them 
so curious. There had been hardships, but humanity had been 
served. The way was opened for Christianity. The inquiring 
and generous sympathizers with the ignorant and degraded in 
those dark forests had received new inspiration. The news of 
this discovery had kindled a new interest in Africa. The hardy 
missionary decided to spend the winter with his family in Kolo- 
beng. But it was not lost time. His hands were full. People 
generally have a poor idea of the real life of those noble few 
whom God calls to forsake the leisure and comfort of civiliza- 
tion for the toils and responsibilities of a foreign field. While 
this noble man is waiting on the winter rains, we may look in 
upon the home which he has made. 

About the only facilities which Africa offers the architect who 
works on the models of civilized life is material. The house 
which he builds must be dearly bought with many days of hard 
work. This was emphatically so of a home among the Bak- 
wains ; because they, however willing, have a queer inability to 
put things square. Dr. Livingstone had to place every brick 
and beam with his own hand. After the house comes the living 
in it. The romance of hardship becomes very real in years. It 
must be true benevolence which finds pleasure in the want of all 
the conveniences of early experience. We smile quite seriously 
to see Mrs. Livingstone going out with a large batch of dough 
and depositing it in a great hole which the doctor has scooped 
out in a great ant-hill, the only accessible oven. It makes one 
tired even to think of the weariness and worry of improvising 
everything ; of manufacturing soap and candles and butter about 
as Selkirk might have done in his loneliness. The city pastor, 
imagining himself run to death with the duties of his position, 



TAXING MIND AND BODY. 



77 



who hardly has time to buy his own coal, forgets that the man 
who has volunteered to be his substitute under the command, 
" Go ye into all the world," must add to the work of translating 
or inventing a written language, teaching, preaching, travelling, 
praying; the cultivation of his own garden, the duties of smith 
and carpenter, the milking of cows, with the hundred and one 
things not to be thought of except as they arise. Such was the 
work on the hands of Dr. Livingstone, while every duty of his 
had its corresponding duty for his wife. Then there are ever- 
occurring acts of kindness, taxing mind and body, which the 
noblest missionaries have considered a part of their duty. The 
almost menial services for the natives, themselves unskilled in 
the arts of comfort, are not a mean part of the work which falls 
upon him. We must think of the great explorer passing back 
and forth in the whole range of this extended sphere of activity, 
from mending shoes to making Bibles, and ever cheerful and 
resolute. We must see his noble wife gladly and proudly hold- 
ing a hand with him in everything, if we would form a true 
conception of the characters of the parties. And the man rises 
loftily indeed in our appreciation, while we observe the dignity 
and humility, the tenderness and the strength, the meekness 
and the courage of his life. 




CHAPTER III. 

DESERTS AND FORESTS. 

Livingstone's Second Journey to the Lake — Pass the Zouga — Forests — Tsetse — 
Recross the Zouga — Lake Nganii Again — Hopes of Seeing Sebituane — Guides 
Secured — Sickness of Children — Return to Kolobeng — Opposition of Chiefs — 
Sebituane's Messengers — Third Start — The Old Path — Desert — Guide "Wanders 
— Five Terrible Days — Water Found — Banajoa — Guide to the Chobe — The 
Mokolo — Meets Sebituane — Death of Sebituane — Discovery of the Zambesi — 
Returns to Cape — Sends his Family to England — A New Tour Undertaken — 
Party — General Idea — Former Occupants of the Cape — Boers of the Cape — 
Griquas' Territory — Effects of Mission Work — Kuruman — Dr. Moffat — Bible 
Translation — Language — War of Boers — Difficulties — Servants Secured — Starts 
North — Lion — Buffalo — Sechele's Tour— Serpents — The Ostrich — Motlasta — 
Belief in God — Salt Pans — Koobe — Famished Beasts — Livingstone's Kindness 
— Tremendous Trees — Singular Vitality — Civilized vs. Native Hunters — Unku 
and Sunday — Difficult Advance — The Way to Cut with the Axe — Wild 
Animals — The Sanshureh — Linyanti — May 23, 1853 — Circumcision — Appear- 
ance of Country. 

Dr. Livingstone was not the man to abandon a cherished 
enterprise ; his resolution strengthened when difficulties mul- 
tiplied. He had discovered Lake Ngami, but he had not 
seen Sebituane; he had not gained his great influence for 
Christianity. He was determined he would not relinquish his 
purpose. Accordingly in April, 1850, he began a second journey 
northward. This time Sechele joined him ; Mrs. Livingstone 
also gave to the party the pleasure and singular interest of a 
woman's presence among explorers of African wilds, and the 
helplessness and gleefulness of children made the lumbering 
ox-wagons seem like a home. This time they took a more 
easterly route, and instead of striking across the desert from 
Bashue, as they had done before, Livingstone decided to go 
through the Bamangwato town. The chief there, Letoche, 
confessed himself to have been beaten by the success of the 
Doctor in his former journey, and declared himself content. 
Reaching the Zouga, this time the party crossed it, Living- 
stone designing thus to avoid the difficulty which he might 
78 



ALONG THE ZOUGA. 79 

again have in proceeding if he passed the ford and depended 
on Lechulatebe to assist him at the lake. Sechele parted 
with them here, being anxious to meet that chief. The party 
then passed along the northern bank of the Zouga. Their 
progress was slow and laborious. The great trees stood so 
thickly that the wagon-road had to be made by cutting them 
down, and the multitude of pitfalls proved a terrible affliction 
notwithstanding all possible watchfulness. The oxen were 
sadly unfortunate in combating with this difficulty ; many of 
them were killed or crippled : for although the Bayeiye were 
friendly to Livingstone's undertaking, and would gladly uncover 
the pits, they could not be always aware of his approach. Thus 
wearily the party pressed on, until they reached again the 
confluence of the Tamunak'le. The're a fresh barrier con- 
fronted them. There is a fly, called the tsetse, which infests 
certain sections of the country, whose bite is singularly fatal to 
domestic animals ; it is absolutely impossible to pass through 
such sections without the forfeit of all the oxen or horses. The 
choice of the travellers was standing in the wilderness, return- 
ing, the tsetse, and crossing to the southern side again. They 
crossed, and hurried along until once more they looked on the 
lake, by whose border the engraving gives us the pleasing 
picture of Dr. Livingstone and family enjoying the fresh 
morning as peacefully as ever a family strolled along our 
own lakes. 

The hesitation of Lechulatebe yielded at length to the solicita- 
tions of Sechele and the offer of Dr. Livingstone's splendid gun ; 
the guides were promised, and arrangements were perfected for 
the entertainment of his family, Dr. Livingstone was buoyant 
in the thought of mounting his ox for the home of Sebituane. 
The morning came ; with it came disappointment. The stub- 
born chief had consented ; a protest was entered with which 
there could be no reasoning, which could not be bought over 
even by London-made guns. The children both opened their 
eyes in the morning, their little bodies scorched with African 
fever. The servants soon were its victims. There could be no 
debating ; only the desert air would cool the fire in those swollen 
veins. The second time the hero was foiled. They returned to 
Kolobeng. 



80 THE THIRD ATTEMPT. 

When Sebituane heard of the attempts of Livingstone to reach 
him, he immediately sent his messengers to the chiefs, with 
presents, requesting them to render all the assistance they could 
to the missionary. He sent thirteen brown cows to Lechulatebe, 
thirteen white cows to Sekomi, and thirteen black cows to 
Sechele ; but though these chiefs were all deeply indebted to 
Sebituane, and greatly dependent on his clemency, so great was 
their unwillingness to have the remoter regions of the continent 
brought into contact with the world outside that they still per- 
sisted in hindering the advance of Livingstone in every possible 
manner. Even Sechele, whose friendship was a thing of years, 
and fixed by his own conversion, took advantage of the absence 
of Livingstone to allow all the messengers of Sebituane to go 
back without him. The opposition was annoying, it was not 
discouraging. 

Waiting only for returning health, the party resumed their 
travelling trim and set out on the third journey. We little 
think, who so quietly talk of the light of civilization and Chris- 
tianity spreading gradually over the entire earth, how stoutly 
the darkness resists it, how heroically the pioneers of knowledge 
and gospel hope have striven in their work. The track was 
about the same as in former journeys, as far as Nchokotsa. 
From there it led across a flat, hard country several hundred 
miles. The salt pans, which so thoroughly deceived the dis- 
coverer in his first visit, and which are found quite frequently 
on this broad plain, invite the attention of the curious. Here 
too are found a great number of wells and never-failing springs, 
among; which the Bushmen were found — a friendlier home than 
the desert. These precious fountains have their limit though. 
Beyond them a wide and cheerless waste resists with its passive 
strength the advance of the traveller. Before entering on this 
dreary scene Livingstone secured a Bushman guide ; the guide's 
name was Shobo. Shobo did not excite their hopes ; he was a 
prophet of evil on the water question. It required more than 
heroism — it required Christianity — to strengthen a man for this 
awful undertaking. As the party advanced the desolation 
deepened. They had left all signs of life miles behind them ; 
there was only the sand. The single piece of vegetation was a 
low, mean-looking scrub. "Not a bird, not an insect, enliy- 




sebittjane (page 69). 



THE DESERT AND THE CHOBE. 83 

ened the view." Two days passed, then Shobo began to 
wander ; every now and then he would throw himself down, 
crying : " No water, all country only ; Shobo sleeps ; he breaks 
down ; only country." How shall we picture the agonies of 
those days to the fmsband and father? Such a waste; a guide 
whose mind wanders ; the water in the wagons nearly exhausted ; 
the children crying for thirst ; the silent emblems of inexpressi- 
ble anguish hanging on the eyelids of their mother. Four days 
passed. They laid down in absolute helplessness, only praying 
for the morning which they trembled to see. The fifth day, 
toward evening, some of the men returned to the wagons with 
a little of the precious liquid. No wonder it was esteemed God's 
best gift. When the party reached the Mahabe they found 
Shobo, who, with inimitable acting, assumed the dignity of 
fathering the whole exploit, in the presence of the Bayeiye. 
At Banajoa, the son of the head man volunteered to guide them 
to the Chobe, in the country of Sebituane. They had exchanged 
the dreary desolation for rivers and swamps and the fatal tsetse. 
To the oxen it was escaping famishing, but death by a slow and 
terrible poison. Singularly enough the bite of this fly does not 
harm human beings. The wild animals of the country feed in 
their midst unharmed ; so does the ass, the mule and the goat. 
The horse dies in a few days after being bitten, and cattle are 
its hopeless victims. 

At the Chobe Livingstone was met by delighted Makololo, who 
conducted them joyfully to their chief. It is remarkable indeed 
to find such a man in the heart of this long-neglected continent 
as Sebituane. He was a speciman of the possible African man 
which fully repaid the toil and dangers of this long journey. 
Through varied fortunes, almost incessant wars, he had reached 
the dignity of being perhaps the greatest chief in the country. 
With the loftiest courage he blended a singular depth of sympa- 
thy and capacity for winning the hearts of his subjects. His 
praises were sounded far and near. The people would say, 
" He has a heart. He is wise." He was delighted by the visit 
of the missionary, and felt himself honored by the confidence 
which was manifested in bringing his family. But in the midst 
of his realization of his long-cherished desire this great chief fell 
sick. Livingstone desired to treat him himself, but being cau- 



84 sebituane's death. 

tioned that, in the event of his death in that case, the tribe would 
blame him, was induced to do nothing. Sebituane had become 
greatly interested in the children of his visitor. When he was 
dying, he raised himself and said to a servant, " Take Robert to 
Munku [one of his wives] and tell her to give him some milk." 
These were his last words. 

The death of Sebituane again disarranged the plans of Living- 
stone. The chief had promised to go with him through his 
country and select a suitable spot for a station. Now it would 
be necessary to put up with considerable delay while a message 
might be had from his daughter, who inherited the chieftainship. 
This time was filled up by Messrs. Livingstone and Oswell, by 
a tour to the northeast, where, after travelling some time, and 
going, perhaps, three hundred miles across a flat country, varied 
in its surface only by enormous ant-hills, clothed at intervals 
with forests of miniosse and mopane, bearing the marks of occa- 
sional floods, they found the Zambesi in the centre of the conti- 
nent — a broad and noble-looking river. Among the swamps of 
the Zambesi and the Chobe were the homes of the Makololo. 
Here too had the wretched trade in human flesh left its degrad- 
ing slime. The garments of baize and printed cotton told the 
story of the horrid traffic. While the heart of Livingstone was 
yearning for this people, the demon was approaching. Had he 
leen able to complete his first journey, he would have been on 
the ground to resist the first approaches of this destroyer. The 
Makololo, like their noble chief, despised the trade, and declared 
they had never until then heard of people being bought and 
sold. Indeed, in all Africa, it is the testimony of Livingstone 
and others that the persons sold are only the captives which a 
tribe may hold. It is a thing unheard of that a man sells his 
own children. 

The death of Sebituane and the unhealthiness of the Makololo 
region made the desired settlement there impracticable. The 
animosity of the Boers left no hope of peaceable labors among 
the Bakwains. There was no home. The heroic man deter- 
mined to send his wife and children to England, and return 
alone " in search of a district which might prove a centre of 
civilization." In the execution of this resolution he bent his 
steps toward the Cape. About April, 1852, he placed his family 



LOOKING FOR A HOME. 85 

on board a homeward-bound ship, and bade them a farewell, 
which proved to be for five long years. The distinct object in 
view was a central station in the continent, where a mission 
might be planted, from which Christian influence could radiate 
the entire land. For such an end, he gladly braved the fore- 
seen hardships and perils and endured a long forfeiture of the 
sweet society of the dearest friends of earth. 

He left the Cape in the lumbering wagon drawn by ten oxen. 
The companions were "two Christian Bechuanas from Kuruman, 
two Bakwain men, and two young girls who had come from 
Kolobeng as nurses for the children, and were now returning." 
The party in such style would be a novel sight indeed for 
many who read these pages. Think of starting in such fashion 
from New York to St. Louis ; imagine the strange forests ; 
see ever and anon the animals which we look on with wonder 
through grated bars walking freely across the plains, or bound- 
ing through thick jungles. Where our towns and cities are, let 
there be only larger or smaller clusters of queer-looking huts of 
mud and straw ; for the fashionable belles and gallants of our 
communities think of nude and dusky beings, adorned only 
with odd-looking ornaments of rude metals. But we cannot 
imagine the thing. 

This journey of Livingstone, destined to stretch across the 
whole continent, lay first along the centre of the promontory, 
inclining a little eastward. Nearer the capital the inhabitants 
are mainly of Dutch and French descent. Africa too has been 
an asylum from religious persecution. God has allowed his 
people to be driven forth "into all the world." After two 
hundred years on this shore the people are hardly changed; 
they are honest, industrious farmers, who have made a sterile 
region moderately fruitful, though to the eye of our traveller it 
was uninviting. There were no trees crowning the dark brown 
hills, and the plains looked like the promises of a desert. The 
names of the places which the party passed indicated that in 
some other time there were buffalo and elands and elephants 
roaming over this region. They have fled from the approach 
of civilization. These farmers devote most of their attention to 
herds and flocks, and the climate is peculiarly favorable to 
their choice ; though, after you leave the Cape some distance, 



86 EFFECTS OF TEACHING. 

there is a wide belt of country which opposes an almost insur- 
mountable barrier to the introduction of horses into the remoter 
or central districts. 

Just before the party reached the Orange river, which crossed 
their route some three hundred miles from Cape Town, the 
monotony of the journey was relieved by a vast herd of spring- 
bucks, which seemed to be moving away from the Kalahari 
desert. These animals are said to feed sometimes in herds 
which exceed forty thousand head. Spreading over vast ex- 
panses, their quivering motion and tossing antlers present a 
view of singular beauty. 

Across the Orange, they passed through the territory of the 
Griquas — a mixed race, sprung of Dutch and Hottentot parents. 
That famous chieftain who behaved so nobly toward the colony, 
a Christian man of whom much is said in " Moffat's Scenes and 
Labors in South Africa," ruled these people. Among these 
Griquas there are many Bechuanas living, and both the races 
have received much benefit from Christian teaching. Dr. 
Livingstone was a little disappointed in their lives. It is diffi- 
cult for even those who spend many years among the heathen 
to judge them fairly. It is hardly to be expected that persons 
brought out of such degradation to Christ should immediately 
assume the proportions and symmetry which we expect of 
Christian character in our land. Christianity has done much 
for them. The Bechuana mission has thrown over the whole 
section the air of civilization, and made Kuruman a retreat 
from the heathenism beyond. It found the Griqua woman 
clothed only with a bunch of leather strings hanging from her 
waist, and the skin of an antelope thrown over her shoulders ; 
the men were smeared over with a mixture of fat and ochre, 
with only a few square inches of leather for an apron ; that was 
their wardrobe. Christianity has clothed these people and 
induced them to attend religious meetings regularly. It has 
given a Sabbath to the people which they respect. Surely, 
though we may not compare them with the societies at home, 
we may not despise the results which missionary efforts have 
accomplished. 

At Kuruman Dr. Livingstone spent some time with his 
venerable father-in-law, who had been at that time thirty-five 



THE BECHUANA LANGUAGE. * 87 

years in Africa. He had at last completed the translation of 
the Bible into the language of the Bechuanas, and was carrying 
it through the press. He found no written language to begin 
his undertaking with ; he had first to produce that, then 
accomplish the translation. The work reveals something of 
uncommon interest. This language possesses wonderful copi- 
ousness, and yet provides for the exjiression of the Pentateuch 
in fewer words than the Greek Septuagint, and makes a much 
smaller volume than our English version. 

During the delay at Kuruman they were surprised and 
grieved by the coming of the wife of Sechele, reporting an attack 
of the Boers on the Bakwains, in which they fully gratified 
their cruelty and eagerness for plunder, and vented a little of 
their rage against the missionary work by robbing the house of 
Dr. Livingstone. 

This outrage of the Boers raised a new barrier. It had so 
terrified the Bakwains that not one could be found who would 
risk himself in the company of Livingstone; for besides their 
cruelties, the Boers had made furious threats against the man 
whom they charged with having taught the Bakwains to kill 
them. Only after considerable loss of time and much searching 
he succeeded in finding three servants, who he describes as 
being " the worst possible specimens of those who imbibe the 
vices without the virtues of the Europeans." These, with a 
colored man named George Fleming, who was induced to go 
with him, made it possible to advance, and he left Kuruman on 
the 20th of November, and skirted along the Kalahari as be- 
fore. This time there was an abundant crop of watermelons. 
This being the season just preceding the winter rains, the 
travellers were subjected to the peculiarly hot winds of the 
desert, which they escaped in former travels. The party reached 
the afflicted town of Sechele on the last day of 1852. No 
wonder that the heart of Livingstone was grieved with the 
spectacle. Never had he witnessed one so pitiable. The 
people were plunged in absolute misery. Little more could be 
done than to give them the sympathy of his full heart. These 
were the people among whom he had labored first. He had 
lived in their midst. He had left them only when the inter- 
ference of the Boers rendered his work there entirely impracti- 
5 • 



88 LIONS AND SERPENTS. 

cable. Sorrowfully enough he left them to follow the duty 
which called him again into the wilderness. He found the 
wells at Boatlanama and Lopepe all dry, and pressed on to 
Mashue, where there was delicious water. There is little which 
can interest a traveller when every step he takes is taken so 
anxiously ; but the country from Kuruman is thronging with 
all those forest monsters which have made the continent one of 
wonderful interest. By the very fountain of Lopepe a lioness 
once sprang upon the horse of Mr. Oswell, who, falling to the 
ground, was only saved by his faithful dogs. The hyena 
prowls among the forests ; the buffalo, the elephant, the giraffe, 
the zebra, the tiger, all are here. All about Mashue great 
numbers of mice trace their subterranean homes, or raise the 
odd-looking little haycocks, against the inclement season. 

Occasionally as they went they found a beautiful tortoise, 
whose hard shell is its secure castle even under the teeth of the 
lion, and a bid for covetousness to all who love the beautiful 
ornaments which they afford. 

All about Mashue there are great numbers of serpents. 
These are associated in every mind with the very word Africa. 
The saying, " Familiarity breeds contempt," applies to them. 
A residence in this country overcomes that terror which these 
gliding, coiling enemies inspire in regions where they are seldom 
seen. They are death on rats. To kill the rats is to be free of 
snakes. There a cat is a household treasure. Some of these 
reptiles are fearfully venomous. The pecakholu is a species 
peculiarly so. They are sometimes eight or ten feet long ; and 
even when its head has been cut off, the fangs have been known 
to distil clear poison for hours. The nogo-put-sone, or serpent 
of a kid, is a sort of puff-adder which imitates with wonderful 
exactness the bleating of that animal ; and, unquestionably, the 
uplifted head, the wicked, glassy eyes, the darting tongue of the 
cobra, is calculated to suggest very serious reflections on death 
and antidotes. 

Livingstone in this journey found the Bamangwato chief 
Sekomi particularly friendly. All of these Bechuana tribes 
south of the Zambesi practice circumcision, and the ceremony 
is attended with singular severities. The young gentlemen are 
subjected to severe whippings, which leave their backs scarred 



MR. GORDON CUMMINGS. 91 

and seamed with fearful wounds ; to which ordeal they must add 
the exploit of killing an hippopotamus before they are called 
men and permitted to marry a wife. There may be a worthy 
lesson in this for more enlightened people ; for truly there can 
hardly be fitness for the responsibilities of life before one is in 
some way trained to endure, or dares to do. Among these 
tribes another singular fact is, that no one knows his age, but 
measures his life only by the initiations into the national rites 
which he has witnessed. 

The Bamangwato hills, in whose shadow the party passed 
along, rising nearly a thousand feet above the plain — vast 
masses of black basalt — are scarred and split and everywhere 
present the traces of volcanic action. The soil lying in the in- 
terstices relieves the barrenness of the lava marks with pleasant 
foliage. All along were seen the chinks and cavities formed 
by the broken masses, which, slipping down, have caught and 
hang piled against each other, forming wild refuges for the 
natives in time of war. 

Twenty miles beyond the Bamangwato the party reached Mr. 
Cummings' farthest station north. This gentleman outranked, 
by far, all hunters in Africa, and many a wild and thrilling 
story is in his book, which has aroused the Nimrod spirit in the 
breast of youth. But the chase along our meadows and river 
banks of the bounding buck or cunning fox is a poor prepara- 
tion for the terrific charge of an infuriated elephant: shrieking 
like a steam-whistle, his proboscis high in air, his dread-in- 
spiring tusks gleaming awfully, his enormous tread shaking the 
earth, he rushes on, trampling under foot every opposing thing ; 
he must have nerve who stands, and skill who escapes. 

Beyond Letlachi they entered on a plain, where, for sixty 
miles, there was no water. Feeding here and there were 
seen vast herds of elands, and frequently they saw the silly 
ostrich. Hardly any occupant of these wilds engages a deeper 
interest. Its very folly is entertaining; the traveller pities and 
laughs, to see the creature, though fully a mile away, in extreme 
alarm rushing straight toward him. The poor bird seems to 
suspect that every passer-by is trying to circumvent him, and so 
invariably seeks safety by rushing across the path, frequently 
only a few yards or rods before the oxen. With enormous 



92 



WRETCHED IGNORANCE. 



strides and astonishing rapidity of motion, it rivals the fleetest 
horses in its race for life, while its feet are used with remarkable 
dexterity in warding off the dogs. Its splendid coat of glossy 
black, and white-tipped wings, flash in the sunshine, as it runs, 
with peculiar beauty. Its quick and far-reaching vision consti- 
tutes this singular individual the sentinel of the plains, and its 
timely alarm is the signal for a general stampede of all the 
game in sight. 

About the wells of Motlatsa are clustered the homes of 
numerous Bakalahari, who, though kindly disposed, and willing 
enough to hear the missionary, were yet so wretchedly ignorant 
and degraded, so driven by the wants of their poor bodies, that 
Livingstone was compelled to fall back only on the great de- 
signs of infinite compassion and sovereign grace for support in 
his labors among them ; repeatedly, as he was in their midst, 
hardly an appreciable effect was observed. It was almost 
impossible for these poor creatures to restrain their amusement 
when he would kneel down to pray. They saw no God, and 
the idea of talking to an unseen being was ridiculous to them. 
Some of these tribes are absolutely wanting in the remotest 
approaches to music, and are wild with laughter if singing is 
begun in their presence. Yet these beings believe in a God. 
Is it instinct, or the tuition of the Spirit of the Highest, which 
instructs them to refer every inexplicable occurrence to a 
Supreme Being? They believe that there is a God ; they do not 
understand that they may approach him. The missionaries 
anions the Bechuana tribes and the Caffres have found no idols, 
no places of worship, no prayer of any sort. The idea of an 
altar must be given them ; feeling that an Unseen has to do with 
them, they have no sort of conception of that Unseen which 
justifies their acting with the slightest regard for it. 

From these wells the journey of Livingstone lay toward 
Nchokotsa, along the dry bed of the Mokoko. This is the 
region of the salt pans again, and every fountain reminds the 
traveller of the fact. Livingstone records that on one of the 
salt pans passed in this trip there was a cake of salt an inch and 
a half in thickness. 

All along, just in the edge of this desert, are large flocks of 
sheep and goats, the treasures of the Bamangwato. The rich 




LAND OF CUMMINGS' FAMOUS HUNTS (page 75). 




RAKALAHAKI FEAST (page 76). 



"WANT AND TEXDEFwXESS. 95 

curd produced from the milk of goats is held in high favor, a 
fit dish for kings indeed ; for even among these poor heathen, 
on this dead level, as we may think, of human nature, there 
are distinctions, marked by matters as trifling as ever serve to 
define the borders of classes in civilized society. The rich 
master of a flock of these goats, rejoicing in his palatable dish 
of curd-porridge, is heard to say scornfully of his poor neighbor, 
" he is a water-porridge man." They are no better than civil- 
ized people in this matter ; and with all our gifts, we can never 
claim to have planted the spirit of aristocracy even in Africa. 
It is there now, heathendom though it be, as night. 

At Nchokotsa the party found worse for bad. They left salt 
and purgative waters at Orapa; to turn again from a filthier 
draught, to pause at Nchokotsa wells, was to mock the thirst 
their bitter, nitrate waters could not quench. At Koobe mat- 
ters were hardly more promising ; but it was only a promise, 
and might prove worthy. It was a dreary picture. There is 
romance in it viewed from our easy chairs ; but a wide flat 
country, over which a white sultry glare spreads, relieved only 
by herds of scorched zebras and gnus, with here and there a 
thirsty buffalo standing v Avith famished gaze bent toward the 
wells, which offer to them only mud — the recent wallow of a 
huge rhinoceros — it is hardly a landscape to charm an eye- 
witness whose supply of water is spent. The well at Koobe 
was that rhinoceros wallow. Livingstone paused there for 
w r ater for men and oxen, and looked about on that withered, 
sweltering scene. They could hardly clear a space in the dirty 
mortar in which the oozing beverage might be collected. 
And there were some days lost from their progress in waiting 
on this slow fountain, before the oxen could be satiated. 

Some men would have what they might have called fine sport 
shooting the animals, whose thirst — greater than their timidity 
— held them close about the fascinating spot. But Livingstone 
was no hunter. He was a nobler type of man. There was too 
much of the spirit of Him who guideth the sparrow's wing and 
feedeth the ravens to have pleasure in killing anything. He 
did not scruple to shoot an animal for food, but to kill them 
f »r the sport — he would not. The kindness of his heart was 
manifested in the tender sympathy which refused even to pro- 



96 MOWANA TREES. 

vide needed food by taking advantage of the desperate tameness 
of the herds which gathered in easy range of the well. It 
ought to be so always. Whoever gees forth in civilized 
or heathen lands to represent Christ in presenting his gospel 
ought to be animated with his wonderful spirit of tenderness. 
It is not mean to be touched by the woes of a dog. It is mag- 
nanimous to respect the helplessness of a worm. 

Quitting this scene, the party pressed northward across the 
great Ntwetwe pan, and rested under the shade of one of the 
magnificent mowana trees which rise loftily all over this broad 
area, of calcareous tufa, with its slight carpet of soil. The tree 
under whose branches they rested, three feet from the ground, 
was eighty -five feet in circumference. In all the forests and 
plains of the continent nothing equals the wonderful vitality of 
these mowana trees. Livingstone declared that he "would 
back one of them against a dozen floods." It does not yield 
its life to the decay within or the injuries without. It grows 
on and wears its crown of foliage as proudly when the capacious 
cavities within offer shelter to men and beasts as when its heart 
was firm and healthful. It may have its coat of bark stripped 
off year by year, and year by year it somehow weaves another 
coat and wraps itself anew. The flames may twine about it 
and sear and blacken it : it will not die. Dr. Livingstone 
testifies that he saw one which continued growing in length, 
even after it had been cut down, while it lay stretched upon the 
ground. There is only one thing to be done with them ; that 
is, let them alone. The natives say, the " lightning hates it," 
and decline even the favor of its shade. 

From this resting-place, travelling a few miles, the party 
reached Rapesh, where the inevitable Bushmen were found 
again. Their chief was Horoye, and he headed a nobler class 
of men, better specimens in every respect than their namesakes 
of the desert ; a jovial set, who love to live, and decline to 
follow their departed friends "just yet," although they recog- 
nize a future state. They love the hunting-ground of the 
present, and their country flows abundantly with water; that 
is enough for them. These men stand for courageous, because 
they kill elephants. But nowhere in Africa do the natives 
exhibit such courage in hunting as is displayed by their civil- 



MIDNIGHT VISITOR. 



97 



ized visitors. The Bushmen are more expert in handling their 
peculiar weapons, because they have had long training ; but if 
it is a question of coolness, of quietly approaching a fresh 
strong elephant, the civilized man always astonishes the native 
by his apparent recklessness. Indeed, it seems to be the testi- 
mony of history that pure courage is in the ratio of moral 
culture. Animals lower than man, and savage men, may be 
ferocious ; civilized man presents the noblest models of courage. 
Spending a Sunday at Maila, our party passed on, to be in- 
vigorated by the freshness and lifefulness at Unku. We may 
imagine, if we can, the relief. For the dreary barrenness of 
Koobe, there were now spread all around the tall grass waving 
in the breezes like fields of golden grain, all the various flowers 
blooming splendidly, and everywhere the twittering of birds 
kept memorial of the rain which had revived the scene; while 
the game, independent of mean wells, keeping a good distance, 
despised the harmless guns of the invader. Surely it is almost 
worth an experience in the desert to have the surprise and de- 
light of coming again to a world of life and beauty and joy. But 
it was hot. On the ground the thermometer marked 125° ! 
The water, on the surface, stood at 100° ; dipped from the bot- 
tom, it was pleasant. This was in March, 1853. Livingstone 
had left Kuril man in November, and was now some six hundred 
miles on his journey, though passing mainly through familiar 
places. Passing on through a dense, bushy tract, cutting their 
way with axes, the party were suddenly arrested by an enemy 
ever lurking on the footsteps of travellers passing through this 
region : four of the party were down with fever, which, in three 
days, had seized every one of the party except one Bakwain and 
Dr. Livingstone. While lying in this place nursing the sick, 
one night a hyena appeared in the high grass, and frightened 
the oxen so terribly that every one of them rushed away into 
the forests. The trusty servant had followed them, and after an 
absence of several days, with no other guide than his instinct, 
came driving up the whole herd of forty oxen. The progress 
now, burdened with the sick and annoyed with the convales- 
cent, obliged to cut a way through the closely wedged trees, be- 
came exceedingly laborious ; but good health backed the never- 
flinching spirit of Livingstone. They were in the 18th degree of 



98 SPLENDID COUNTRY. 

latitude. The forests became more and more formidable. The 
privilege of almost every step must be paid for by valiant ser- 
vice with the axe. The man Fleming was vanquished, and 
could go no farther. Livingstone pressed on. The heavy rains 
had loaded the thick foliage overhead, and the blows of the axe 
brought a continual shower-bath. 

Again they were subjected to the annoyance of a stampede of 
the oxen ; this time a lion did the mischief. The lions in the 
region through which the party was now passing are held in 
check by the poisoned arrows of the Bushmen. As this poison 
is referred to frequently, it may be interesting for the reader to 
know that it is " the entrails of the caterpillar called N'gwa ; 
the Bushmen squeeze out these, and place them all around the 
bottom of the barb, and allow them to dry in the sun. The 
effect of this poison on men and beasts is alike terrible, driving 
them to a perfect frenzy. The Bushmen told Dr. Livingstone 
their way of curing the poison was to give the wounded man 
the caterpillar itself, mixed with fat, saying, the N'gwa wants 
fat, and when it does not find it in the body kills the man ; 
we give it what it wants, and it. is content." Possibly these 
despised Bushmen may dispute the honor yet for the glory of 
Homceopathy. 

At length they came to the first hill they had seen since 
leaving the Bamangwato. It was N'gwa. They had struggled 
across quite three hundred miles of distressingly flat country, 
exchanging only almost insufferable deserts for almost impassa- 
ble forests, each in turn only two or three times refreshed by 
anything like beauty. How joyously now the hero looked down 
on the picturesque valley which wrapped the base of the hill! a 
beautiful stream was flowing along the glade, across which the 
shadows of stately trees blended ; gnus and zebras and antelopes 
stood gazing on the strangers; a splendid white rhinoceros 
moved across the stage indifferently as a lord, while dark- 
visaged buffaloes stood about quietly under the trees. The Sab- 
bath seemed to be kept by nature, all was so peaceful. They 
were now literally surrounded with wild beasts ; the roar of the 
lion was continually in their ears ; koodoos and the giraffe were 
frequently in view. The wilderness was real, but as they 
advanced became more and more beautiful. The green grass, 




THE GIRAFFE (page 80). 



LINYANTI ON THE CHOBE. 101 

higher than the wagons ; the splendid vines, hanging richly and 
gracefully among the trees, as if arranged by — they were 
arranged by the hand of God ! Small rivers crossed their way 
continually. 

When he reached the Sanshureh, he met trouble enough to 
dishearten any ordinary man. He was an extraordinary man. 
This new barrier met them in latitude 18° 4' 27" S., longitude 
24° 6' 20" E. In vain they sought a ford ; they sought east 
and west ; everywhere the same deep flood met them as they 
reached the terminus of the rank undergrowth through which 
they were splashing in water from ankle-deep to the arm-pits. 
Everywhere the river was broad and deep ; everywhere there 
was a wall of reeds resisting its approach through an inundated 
swamp. Heartily wearied, the bold explorer, with a single 
companion, pushed out a small boat upon the stream, and, 
leaving the wagons, went floating down the stream until he 
dropped among the astonished inhabitants of a Makololo town 
like one from the clouds. In the boat he had passed the confluence 
of the river, and was now on the western bank of the Chobe, in the 
land of friends. By the kindness of these Makololo of Moremi, 
they were assisted to bring the oxen and wagons across. This 
brought them almost upon the route of 1851. It was now the 
23d of May, 1853. They were at Linyanti, the capital of the 
Makololo region, among the people of Sebituane. 



CHAPTER IV. 

NINE WEEKS WITH SEKELETU. 

Arrival at Linyanti — Makololo — Their Policy — Welcome to Livingstone — 
Sekeletu — African Hospitality — Ma-niochisane's Difficulty — Livingstone re- 
fuses to Trade — His Labors — Makololo Ideas of Beauty — Manliness — Justice — 
Livingstone's Journey to the Barotse — The Soil along the Chobe — The Party 
— Receptions — Sekeletu loves Coffee — Huts and Hats — The Leeambye — 
Animals about Katonga — The Splendid River — The Makalaka — The Contrast 
— Cattle and War — Rapids — Cataracts — Falls — No Monuments in Africa — The 
Barotse Valley — Fertility — Mounds— Punishment — War Averted — The first 
White Man — To the Leeba — No place for a Mission — The Wildest of all — Lin- 
yanti again — For Loanda — Serious Thoughts — Resolution — Outfit for Jour- 
ney — November 11th, 1853 — Escape from an Elephant — The Hippopotamus — 
The Scenery on the Chobe — Arrival at Sesheke. 

That was a great day in Linyanti, that 23d day of May. 
The capital of the Makololo had never witnessed such a sight. 
The wagons were a phenomenon entirely new. The people 
remembered Livingstone as the friend of Sebituane ; they asso- 
ciated his coming with ideas of increasing greatness. It seemed 
like the hand of the great outside world reaching through the 
barriers of wilderness and distance, eager in congratulation and 
warm with brotherly love. They were glad. The nearer tribes 
had beaten back the light from the dwellers in the Chobe 
marshes for many years ; now it was breaking through, and 
found a people ready to rejoice in its blessings. The Makololo 
are the most northern of the Bechuanas, and, under the wise and 
warlike Sebituane, had become a powerful nation ; the other 
chieftains had acknowledged the greatness of this man, and 
accorded him the respect which they feared to withhold if they 
had desired to do so. The Makololo had conquered the whole 
country to the 14° S. latitude, and were scattered thinly over 
their broad domain, giving a name and laws to the tribes 
among whom their individual identity was almost lost. The 
territory which Sebituane had selected in the days when he was 
beset by continual wars, lying between the Chobe and Zambesi, 
102 



WELCOME AT LINYANTI. 103 

had furnished a natural fortress ; but the source of their security 
had almost been the extermination of the race. No enemy could 
hope to assail Sebituane successfully in those pestiferous marshes ; 
but the malarial breath of the place was an ever-active enemy 
which despised his strength. Fevers had greatly reduced the 
numbers and the bodily vigor of the Makololo proper. Sebit- 
uane had maintained the vigor and ever-increasing prosperity of 
his nations by his wisdom in thoroughly identifying all the 
conquered tribes with his own. The Makalaka were in fact 
only serfs of the Makololo, but they were called Makololo, and 
spoken of, like his own people, as the children of Sebituane. 
The kindness of their conquerors had bound them in stronger 
cords than their authority could possibly have woven. The 
Makalaka were proud to be called Makololo. 

The welcome at Linyanti was in all courtly dignity. The herald 
came bounding and capering, in most eccentric and indescriba- 
ble antics-cutting, vociferating the feelings of the people. "Don't 
I see the white man ? " " Don't I see the comrade of Sebit- 
uane?" " Don't I see the father of Sekeletu ? " " We want 
sleep ! " " Give your son sleep, my lord ! " Sleep ! quiet ! 
The people of Sebituane were tired of war. How longingly 
those who have been combating adversities through dragging 
years think of tranquil hours ! War had been threatening 
recently ; the people of the lake country, being in possession of 
guns, had grown very insulting and menacing. The Makololo 
had heard that " the white people possessed a pot which would 
burn up any attacking party." They had heard of cannon. 
Now they trusted they might obtain that wonderful "pot." It 
may seem singular that a people should desire cannon that they 
might have peace ; but it is the improvement in the implements 
of war which promotes the interests of peace more, perhaps, 
than anything except the gospel. The consciousness of strength 
increases our magnanimity. The exhibition of strength secures 
us respect. Respect on one side and magnanimity on the other 
leave no place for strife. 

Sekeletu had on his chieftainly behavior. The great cups of 
the national-beer were brought with lavish hospitality. From 
the time of his arrival the Makololo ladies were most assiduous 
in their attentions ; their presents of milk and food burdened 



104 ma-mochisane's difficulty. 

the gratitude of the strangers. Indeed, in all wild countries, 
the simple, childlike, the grand, Godlike grace of hospitality 
abounds. The poor Indian will tell you how his ancestors 
kept a home in every village for the stranger ; how the visitor, 
whoever he was, was conducted thither in joy and pride; how 
the best skins were spread and the choicest food provided with- 
out price or expected thanks — the service of duty only. In 
Africa the people never think of putting a price on their atten- 
tions to the stranger until civilization teaches them cupidity. 
It is the letter of God's great law of kindness written on their 
wild hearts which we read in their ready reception of the 
stranger. It is the writing out of God's law by the decalogue 
of the devil which we read in the selfishness and suspicion 
which makes a large part of civilization a desert drearier, for 
the wandering and the wanting, than the sands of Sahara. 
These ladylike matrons, with their short-cut hair and coats of 
shining butter, only partly hidden by the soft mantle of ox 
hide thrown over the bare shoulders, and the ox-hide kilt from 
waist to knees, their arms and ankles adorned with massive 
rings of brass and iron, and strings of beads of various hues 
twined about their necks, were only glad to wear the grace of 
free attentions with that grace of person in which they pride 
themselves. 

You will remember that Ma-mochisane had been left the 
chieftainship of the Makololo. But Ma-mochisane was a woman. 
The Makololo women all are passionately fond of children. 
The lady chieftain tried to follow the example of the chiefs, and 
selected a number of men whom she called her wives. But it 
wouldn't work. The women became aroused against her; their 
tongues could not be controlled ; their bitter speeches and cruel 
insinuations were more than Ma-mochisane could endure. She 
fretted, she cried, she got mad, she quit and vowed she would 
not be chief. She would " have a husband and children and a 
home like other women." "Sekeletu must be chief." So 
Sekeletu stood in the shoes of his father. This young man in- 
herited his father's dignity and authority, some of his wisdom 
and kindness, and all of his wives. Of these latter he distributed 
all but two among the under chiefs, and selected some new ones 
for himself. He was quite anxious to give the missionary any- 



LIVINGSTONE REFUSES TO TRADE. 105 

thing he possessed, but he refused positively to read the Book 
which taught that men should have only one wife. He must 
have "at least Jive wives." He was honest certainly. Any- 
thing is better than pretending to accept what is said, when the 
secret thought and determination are entirely the other way. 

As early as possible Livingstone assembled the people for 
worship. The Makololo observed greater decorum than some 
of the more southern tribes had on the first presentation of the 
gospel, though there were many disturbances inseparable from 
absolute ignorance of such a thing as public worship. 

Among these people, as elsewhere, Livingstone had ample 
opportunity to take advantage of the kindness and ignorance of 
the natives and of his being the pioneer of discovery, to engage 
to great advantage in trade ; but he was too deeply interested in 
the spiritual condition of the people, too thoroughly consecrated 
to the service of God. He resisted all temptations in that 
direction, and though conducting his great work on <£100 a 
year, out of which the single item of presents for the people 
through whose territory he must pass was considerable, he 
pressed on without murmuring. It was his study that he 
might impress on the minds of the poor people that he sought 
only their elevation and salvation. 

At first he found some difficulty in finding persons who 
would learn to read, for the reasons which we have given. At 
length, however, several prominent men, even the hesitating 
Sekeletu, began the work. Thus teaching, preaching, and 
searching with all the industry to be expected of one fully set- 
tled and " fixed," this wonderful man, a wayfarer only, had 
thrown himself immediately into his work. The world was the 
field he was sowing beside all waters. There was great need of 
the noblest elements of character to prosecute the work of Christ 
in such a community. It was the heart of spiritual ignorance ; 
it was the very core of chaos. 

Yet there were ideas of justice, and there was industry and 
manliness and quite familiar ideas of beauty. The women, for 
instance, admiring themselves in Livingstone's mirror, were 
entertained quite as really as any city belle you ever saw, and 
they were greatly more honest in their impressions. They had 
never seen themselves before. Very much of the self-corn- 



106 IDEAS OF JUSTICE AND BEAUTY. 

placency of the world is the child of self-ignorance and blind- 
ness. These women would say : " Is that me ? " " What a 
big mouth I have ! " " My ears are as big as pumpkin leaves." 
" I have no chin at all." " I would have been pretty, but am 
spoiled by these high cheek-bones." " See how my head shoots 
up in the middle." Their merry laughter with these jokes 
afforded the over-worked and anxious-hearted missionary much 
amusement. 

The men rejoice in their javelins and the strong ox-hide 
shields. They are dexterous in the use of the one, and throw 
the other with singular force and exactness of aim. Their 
trained courage causes them to despise pain and weariness. 

There are regular courts, where, in the settlement of the 
graver difficulties, the proper deliberation and care are employed 
to bring out the truth and render justice. In these courts the 
accused and the accuser are brought face to face, each supported 
by his witnesses ; all parties tell their stories, and the chief men 
render the decision, which none desire to question. All respect 
the decisions of the court. 

After spending a month in the hospitable town of Sekeletu, 
Dr. Livingstone was attended by that young chieftain in a tour 
northward as far as Naliele, the capital of the Barotse country. 
Their path lay along the upper bank of the Chobe. That noble 
river with its fortress of reeds was on their right hand. Every 
now and then one of those singular miniature mountains reared 
by the interminable industry of the tiny ant was passed, its 
broad, gentle, fertile slopes inviting the diligence of the natives 
to the culture of their choicest plants. The rich tenacious loam 
on the flats between these ant-hills suggested the hope of cotton- 
fields, and everywhere the hanging fruit banished the fear of 
want. The hundred and sixty attendants in a long line wind- 
ing through these scenes completed a view as picturesque as 
could be. The waving feathers, the dangling ox-tails, the flashy 
prints, the red tunics, the spears and shields, and clubs and 
battle-axes, the laughter, the shouts, the antelopes bounding 
across the way and splashing through the ponds, all the forest 
inhabitants in turn coming forward to view the trespass — it 
was a unique picture and full of interest. 

An African chief had taken up the generous man who had 



VILLAGE RECEPTIONS. 107 

struggled to the heart of the continent with his messages of 
fraternity from men and grace from God, and was bearing him 
triumphantly through all his borders. Authority went before 
them and opened the storehouses of tribes and the hearts of 
people. Servants cleared the path. The beasts behaved like 
subjects. At every village the loud lulleloo of the women pro- 
claimed their cordiality and their respect for the chief. The 
young chief received their cries of " Great lion/' " Great chief/' 
" Sleep, my lord," as composedly as he invites his companion 
to the calabash of beer which prompt Makololo have provided. 

The Makololo presented the party great bowls of milk, out 
of which they drank, dipping by means of that primitive pro- 
vision commonly known as the hollow of the hand, Nature's 
spoon. An ox was commonly killed, and, quickly divided 
amongst the company, was soon scorching in the flames, and 
while dripping and cracking with the heat was crammed 
voraciously into the capacious jaws of the men, each racing to 
be filled, in mortal terror of the law which forbids that one con- 
tinue at his food when the others have finished. Sekeletu 
became quite fond of Dr. Livingstone's coffee and biscuit. He 
would declare with unusual warmth that he " knew the heart 
of the missionary loved him by finding his own heart warm 
toward the missionary's food." A process of reasoning, by the 
way, which may hardly be trusted in the reach of the covetous 
people of lighter hue. The villages of the Makololo, besides 
the gift of food and shouts of welcome, have a singular arrange- 
ment, which makes their entertainment something like a trifling 
custom in other places. The houses are only circles of posts 
placed in the ground and vines and mortar filling the inter- 
stices. The roofs are entirely detached and independent of the 
walls. They look just like a Chinese hat, and are lifted on and 
off at the pleasure of the occupant. The guest's chamber is 
generally provided by lifting the roof of the hut off, and setting 
it on the ground. The guest sleeps under the roof. The house 
takes off its hat to you as you approach it. 

The party struck the Leeambye at the town of Katonga. 
Sekhase sent canoes across to bring them over to him. The 
region around Katonga or Sekhase differs little from the valley 
of the Chobe, except that it is higher and freer from the 



108 THE LEEAMBYE. 

malarial vapors. The sandier soil beyond the marks of over- 
flow reflects painfully the sunrays, driving the poor scorched 
hunter to despise the sport or deny the want which prompted 
him forth upon the field. 

All sorts of herds, from a tiny, fairy-looking antelope eigh- 
teen inches high, to the majestic buffalo, feed leisurely and 
peacefully over these plains. Among them there was a species 
of eland famous for its beauty. In the engraving there is a 
representation of this splendid curiosity, out of whose midst Dr. 
Livingstone carried one back to his men — better game in their 
eyes by far than the finest ox. 

The Leeambye is a splendid stream six hundred yards wide 
where the party approached it, and widening sometimes to fully 
a mile in breadth. The banks on either side were clothed with 
splendid forests. The winter wind had shaken off the floral 
crown of summer, where the rays of the setting sun loved to 
linger latest, as if they loved it best, and over the wide boughs 
a gauzy mantle of changeable brown was thrown, through 
Avhich every now and then the travellers had a glimpse of the 
fresh green date palm. Sometimes the forests would open a 
nestling place for a little village ; then their dominion would 
be resumed along the banks of the river of which they are the 
children and the glory. 

The party were gliding along in the narrow canoes which 
hardly disturbed the glassy surface of the stream in its deep, 
quiet places, and which bounded from wave to wave in the 
rougher places, where underlying rocks resisted it, lightly as 
winged things. The Makalaka were in their element. Stand- 
ing erectly in the narrow boats, they plied their long, lithe 
oars with matchless dexterity, and raced along with the reckless 
delight of conscious masters. The Makololo are their masters 
on the land, but they tremble over the edges of the shooting 
bark as if their shadows in the water pointed to a sepulchre. 
The largest animals of Africa abound along the banks of the 
Leeambye. The people who dwell in its villages are expert 
and courageous hunters, and they select the hippopotamus as 
their game. 

The Manyeti, whose country borders along the river, are a 
peaceable people. They have no cattle, therefore no contro- 



NO MONUMENTS IN AFRICA. Ill 

versy with their neighbors. Nearly all the quarrelling in the 
country is about cattle. The tsetse partly, and partly their 
desire to live peaceable, incline these people to their chosen 
handicraft in preference to having herds. Dr. Livingstone 
never knew war in this whole region except on a cattle ques- 
tion, but in a single instance ; then the trouble was like that of 
which old Homer sings — a woman. But women are considered 
among the necessaries of life, so the Manyeti hazard war rather 
than banish all the women. 

From Ivatima-molelo northward there is a succession of 
rapids, falls and cataracts which make the progress difficult and 
dangerous. The party were obliged to carry their canoes around 
some of these places ; sometimes more than a mile would thus 
be traversed, bearing their boats on their shoulders. At Gonye 
the main body of the water is collected within about seventy 
yards, and leaps about thirty feet; the entire mass falling against 
a huge projecting rock, causes a sound which is heard far away. 
There are various traditions of sudden death to hapless travel- 
lers floating about this spot. But whatever has been, there are 
no memorials more substantial than the imperfect traditions. 
There is nothing in all these wilds to commemorate the past ; 
the dead are rarely spoken of; there are no monuments in all 
Africa; "the very rocks are illiterate;" hidden in them are no 
curious shapes and characters, nothing to interest or tempt the 
attentions of science as in other rocks. 

About the 16° S. latitude the party entered the true Barotse 
valley. The forests fall back gradually from the banks of the 
river, until they are only seen across the fringe of reeds and a 
flat, fertile tract some twenty miles apart. Like the valley of 
the Nile, this valley is subject to an annual overflow from the 
river, which winds along its centre. The villages of the 
Barotse, built on artificial mounds, dot the Avhole expanse, and 
sit there like teeming islands while the waters of the overflow 
spread around them. The people love their homes beside the 
splendid stream — a home where " hunger never comes." But 
comfortable though these poor people think they are, like all of 
this wild country this noble valley is waiting for the hand of 
intelligence to find its real treasures. In one of these Barotse 
towns Livingstone witnessed a specimen of Makololo authority 



112 WAR AVERTED BY LIVINGSTONE. 

which was painful indeed. It was the town where the father 
of a man lived who had conspired to deprive Sekeletu of the 
chieftainship after the death of Sebituane. This man and an- 
other who had counselled the conspiracy were taken on the 
arrival of Sekeletu and tossed into the river. The remon- 
strances of the doctor were of no avail; Sekeletu only calmly 
answered him : " You see we are still Boers ; we are not taught." 

But Livingstone was more successful in averting a war upon 
the Mambari, to whose fortified town they came. The feeling 
of the Makololo was very bitter against them. They had been 
intimately associated with the conspirator against Sekeletu, and 
had received of him the privilege of marauding on their neigh- 
bors. Their city was full of these poor slave-gangs. The plan 
of the chief was to starve the fortress out. Livingstone, show- 
ins: them that the first and greatest sufferers in that case would 
be the helpless slaves, finally led them away and averted a cruel 
revenge. It was a part of the constant aim and eifort of Liv- 
ingstone to bring the natives of the country through which he 
passed to love peace and embrace a creed of kindness. And it 
was a blessed service. The horrors of war may not be appreci- 
ated by the poor savage, but they are real and awful still. To 
inculcate a spirit of peace in men is their highest service ; it is 
Christlike. 

Careful inquiry at Naliele convinced Dr. Livingstone that 
there had never been a white man in that region before he and 
Mr. Oswell were at Sebituane's, in 1851. Though he met some 
half-cast Portuguese at this time, they had come into the coun- 
try two years after the visit of himself and Oswell in 1851. It 
is probable that no white man had ever been so far into the 
heart of the African continent before. His eyes were looking 
upon these strange, wonderful things for the world, and it was 
the world's first glimpse of them. 

The kindness of Sekeletu provided attendants, and the mis- 
sionary continued his journey some distance beyond Naliele 
without the chief. The herald of Sekeletu, though, made the 
entrance to every village an affair of princely dignity by run- 
ning in advance of the party, vociferating, " Here comes the 
lord." " Here comes the great lion." The attentions were in 
keeping with the introduction; the party fared on the fat 



THE WILDEST OF ALL. 115 

of the land, and enjoyed all the respect to be desired. The 
public meetings were attended readily, the people heard with 
quietness, and the best decorum was observed in all the services. 

Beyond the 14° S. latitude the forests converged until they 
cast their shadows upon the river again, and the party passed 
along between the stately trees and clinging vines as far as the 
confluence of the Leeba. But nowhere could be found a spot 
exempt from the poisonous atmosphere so antagonistic to health. 
The destiny of Livingstone was more than quiet teaching; 
Providence had in hand to open Africa by this man. He was 
allowed to find no home. 

The regions through which he had passed were fertile to 
rankness. The inhabitants were the most thoroughly ignorant 
and wild of any people he had seen. The forests and plains 
were filled with every variety of animal and beast. At Libonta 
he counted eighty-one buffaloes pass slowly before his fire. 
The roar of the lion was continuous and loud. Everything, 
animate and inanimate, was wild and monstrous. 

On returning to jSTaliele Livingstone rejoined Sekeletu, enjoy- 
ing the adulations of his subjects, who did all they could to 
charm the young chief in his first visit to their borders. The 
dance which constituted their principal entertainment was in- 
deed a strange and grotesque performance, admirably appro- 
priate to a mad-house. The nearly naked men, standing in a 
circle, brandish their clubs and battle-axes, while they stamp 
first the right then the left foot, all moving together in this 
artistic performance ; while their wild, indescribable contortions 
of countenance and body conspired,. with the interminable and 
demoniacal laughter, to drive one almost crazy with perplexity 
and confusion. They consider it " very nice," and Sekeletu 
"gives them an ox for dancing for him ; " so light-heartedness 
and hunger are oddly joined in the spirit of the scene. The 
women have only a very unimportant part in the performance. 
Surrounding the circle, they clap their hands continually, only 
now and then venturing to slip into the midst of the men, cut 
a few capers, and retire to the observant and applauding place. 

The heart of the missionary had endured a great trial during 
the nine weeks of this journey. How helplessly he looked up 
to the great Master out of the midst of these poor degraded 



116 PREPARATION FOR JOURNEY TO LOANDA. 

masses ! Their dancing, roaring, singing, jesting, grumbling, 
fighting and murdering were the wild expressions of their de- 
gradation, and they rang in his ears continually like the cry of 
the lost, like an unconscious prayer for help. He suffered 
keenly, but more than ever was resolved to open Africa to the 
full light of the truth which sets men free from superstitions 
and all clinging corruptions. 

In September the explorer and Christian teacher was in Lin- 
yanti again, arranging for a journey to Loanda on the western 
coast. His eagerness to accomplish this journey found an ally 
in the anxiety of the Makololo to open a direct trade with 
white men. They felt restive under the old system of swindling 
to which they had been so long subjected by the Mambari, who 
had monopolized the trading between the interior and the coast. 
Livingstone coincided too in this desire for the establishment of 
direct trade with the interior ; for not only did the natives 
themselves suffer for the lack of it, but he was convinced that it 
would also work greatly against any missionary who might be 
dependent on intercourse with these extortioning traders for 
supplies. 

Frequent fevers had worn perceptibly on the vigorous con- 
stitution of Dr. Livingstone. A man more easily discouraged 
could have found a well-grounded excuse for claiming exemp- 
tion from duties demanding such exposure and exertion. There 
was no wavering in the heart of this man. He felt that he 
must face death very deliberately. It was painfully impressed 
on him that a lonely dissolution in wild forests, with only 
heathen attendants, was quite probable ; but he reasoned, " If 
we serve God at all it must be done in a manly way." He 
banished all fears and braced himself to "succeed or perish." 
Nothing is more touching than the picture of this great man, 
after reflecting seriously on the dangers of the undertaking be- 
fore him, sitting down in the rude hut of a savage and com- 
mending his little daughter to a brother far away and to God. 

The Boers had relieved him of anxiety about worldly posses- 
sions by relieving him of their possession. There was very 
little to dispose of now. The friendly Makololo readily assumed 
the care of his little store, and left him free to equip himself for 
the long journey. The curious reader will be pleased to know 



OUTFIT FOR JOURNEY. 117 

what sort of outfit an explorer of such wilds finds important. 
There are all sorts of things represented to be indispensable, 
but Livingstone was too inured to privations and hardships to 
trouble himself much about softening the bed which he was 
called to lie on. In his own language, he was satisfied "that if 
he did not succeed it would not be for want of 'knick-knacks/ 
but from want of pluck." The rifle and double-barrelled gun for 
himself, and the three muskets for his people, were depended on 
to provide the necessary food, and had only the supplement of 
about forty shillings worth of beads, carried for barter. A few 
small packages of the more important articles of food for civil- 
ized life, such as coffee and tea, a limited quantity of clothing, 
left room for the more important things essential to obtaining an 
accurate knowledge of the country. A sextant, a chronometer 
watch, a compass, a thermometer, and a small telescope were his 
stock of instruments. The only books he carried were a " Nau- 
tical Almanac," " Thomson's Logarithm Tables," and a Bible. 
A small tent for his house, with a sheepskin mantle and house- 
rug for furniture, and lastly his magic lantern. His attendants 
were twenty-seven men, belonging to the different tribes ac- 
knowledging the Makololo authority. 

Thus attended and equipped, the traveller left the town of 
Linyanti on the 11th of November, 1853, to embark on the 
Chobe. The purpose of good was the strength of his heart; the 
results were with God. Approaching the river from Linyanti 
the party traversed a portion of the country where Livingstone 
and Oswell had been three years before. They passed through 
the wild where Mr. Oswell had nearly lost his life on that 
occasion. This gentleman had followed an elephant into the 
dense thorny growth which borders the river, when suddenly 
he discovered the monster had turned about, and was rushing 
madly upon him. Vainly the hunter tried to force his trem- 
bling horse through the thicket ; there was only a moment, when 
he was dashed to the ground by the frightened creature as it 
bounded aside. It seemed impossible that he should not be 
instantly crushed beneath the feet of the tremendous assailant, 
who passed over him in the instant. The escape was marvellous. 
It is only a glimpse of the perils of the place, perils which 
must be hazarded everywhere in this strange wild land. 



118 THE CHOBE. 

The river on which the slender canoes were launched was a 
poor exchange for the lair of the lion and the tramp of the 
elephant. It entertained an enemy as dreadful as either. The 
hippopotamus is not generally a bold assailant of man, but 
where there are as many as infest this stream it is hardly possi- 
ble to avoid contact with him. The tiny boats may at any 
moment glide into the midst of a sleeping herd, and be suddenly 
dashed to pieces. Besides there are always certain individuals 
of the species lurking about in lonely Ishmaelitish anger which 
spares no living thing. The hippopotamus, though confined to 
the African continent, is found in all parts of it, and is generally 
of tremendous size, though its short legs, hardly lifting its belly 
from the ground, cuts off its height ; its body is large as that of 
the elephant. Its huge mouth opens like a cave, and is fur- 
nished with massive, frightful teeth, formidable enemies to the 
growing grain and luckless boatman. It is strictly gregarious 
in its habits, and dozing lazily through the day quits its river 
haunts at night in search of food. Sometimes it exhibits a 
peculiarly happy mood, sporting like a mammoth kitten in the 
yielding element. At other times the evil spirit rises and it 
bites and kicks sullenly as a demon. Once an angry member 
of the race pursued the attendants of Livingstone far away 
from the river, and often he witnessed the cruel gashes of its 
tusks in the legs of natives who had barely escaped a horrid 
death. Its thick hide is a formidable shield, even against the 
sharp, heavy lances of the country. But its flesh is healthful 
and very highly esteemed for food. 

The Chobe, from Linyanti to its confluence with the Leeam- 
bye, is exceedingly tortuous, and though deep and wide offers 
but small temptation to navigation. Many villages are passed 
on its banks. All of them were ready with the supplies which 
had been ordered by Sekeletu to be in waiting for Dr. Living- 
stone. The banks are high and crowned with many lofty 
trees, whose branches tempt the traveller with their pendant 
offerings of various fruits. 

At the confluence of the rivers the party spent a night on the 
island Mparia, and, turning up the Leeambye, landed at Sesheke 
on the 19th of November. 



CHAPTER V. 

TO BALONDA. 

Sesheke — Sekeletu's Policy— Missionary Work — Wanting in Religious Ideas — 
Duties of Missionary — The Leeambye — Hippopotami — Mr. Curnming's Adven- 
ture — Livingstone's Idea of Lions — Anderson — Lion Confused — Fevers Pro- 
tracted — Unwelcome News — Livingstone's Wise Plan — Libonta — Death by a 
Lion — The Camp — Cook and Laundry Work — Humanity of Livingstone — 
Beyond Libonta — Courage — First Act in Balonda — The Leeba — Want of Game 
— Buffalo Hunt — Buffalo and three Lions — Mambari Merchants — Manenko — ■ 
Town of Shinte — Fashions of Ankle Rings — A Black Scold — Manenko's Dress 
— Fever, Rain, Hunger — Dark Forests — Delays — Invitation at last — Medicine 
Charms— A Soldier — Balonda Fashions — Full Undress of Balonda Lady — 
Balonda Gentlemen — Head-dress — Salutations — Manenko's Kindness. 

Sesheke by the Leeambye — "the white sand-banks" by~ 
" the large river " — was the city of a brother-in-law of Sebituane, 
named Moriantsane. Its large population was representative 
of the Makololo dominion. All the conquered tribes were 
represented there. Each of them had its own head-man, 
though, of course, they all recognized the higher authority of 
Sekeletu. There were little things, however, constantly occur- 
ring, as there were all through his country, which indicated that 
the young chief had not the regard of the people which they had 
been glad to cherish for his father. There was a great differ- 
ence. Sebituane had been a wise man, and under him the 
various tribes had been held gently and firmly. He was fully 
informed of the minutest details in the government of the various 
tribes, and made the under chiefs love and fear him alike. 
Sekeletu was not like him ; the petty chiefs soon found out his 
inattention and incapacity. The father, with old Roman policy, 
obliterated all distinctions, and made his subjugated provinces a 
part of his country; his subjects became his children. Sekeletu 
revived the Makololo pride, and replaced the insignia of infer- 
iority on the tribes. These tribes began to hate him, while 
they were fearing him less and less. The people would some- 
times defy the decisions of the local chiefs with impunity. An 

119 



120 MISSIONARY WORK. 

instance of this occurred while Dr. Livingstone was in Sesheke. 
There had been a theft committed, and in the effort to find out 
the guilty party a young man who was suspected was bound 
and exposed in the scorching sun until he should make restitu- 
tion or pay the fine. The mother of this young man seized a 
hoe, and, going to her son, threatened to kill anybody who 
should interfere ; and having cut the cords led him away to her 
home. All Moriantsane could do was to send word to Sekeletu. 
So the matter ended. The reins of government were hanging 
loosely. The lawless spirit is in human nature ; the slightest 
toleration of it is the tiny crevice in authority through which 
an inexhaustible fountain sends its smallest stream ; a stream 
which will wear and widen and deepen until gigantic rebellion 
breaks up the foundations of government and bears them, help- 
lessly scattered, on its mighty, rageful surface. The history of 
the wild tribes is a miniature history of the wide world. The 
law of cause and effect is absolute and universal. 

The diligent Christian finds work in every place. Living- 
stone was immediately engaged in teaching the people of Se- 
sheke ; and such was the respect which he always inspired, such 
was the honor in which he was held, that there was no trouble 
in gathering several hundreds of these poor heathen to hear his 
message from the great Chief of all, the "King of kings." 
Their temple was by the river; the shade an "outspreading 
camel-thorn tree." How sweetly suggestive was every bough 
of this noble tree, while he recalled the probability that one like 
it furnished the timber of which the Ark of the Covenant was 
made ! No wonder the heart of the missionary was overflowing 
with confidence in God's mercy for his degraded audience. 
How could he, either, find it in his own heart to dwell on their 
sinfulness? Indeed, Livingstone was so full of tenderness and 
charity, so unwilling to see or reveal the blemishes of others, 
that he hardly draws the curtain sufficiently on the moral condi- 
tion of Africa. His own elevated purity turned away from the 
stagnant corruption about him with silent pity. He only says 
that there is corruption, that there is death, and, crying to the 
world for help, works on with the energy of devotion, almost 
of despair, healing and lifting up the people. 

The Makololo were singularly wanting in religious ideas, 



NO RELIGIOUS IDEAS. 121 

and though quite respectful and curious enough to be attentive, 
they would put their questions in such absurd confusion of the 
ridiculous and solemn that the missionary needed to exercise 
constant watchfulness over his risible faculties. As there were 
no altars to be overthrown by Christianity, there were no pre- 
judices against it, except such as hearts naturally depraved 
bring forth, or such as seemed supported by some social regula- 
tion or individual habit. Therefore there was a ready assent to 
the teachings as doctrines ; an assent, however, which amounted 
to very little so far as the actions of the people went. But 
even among these people there are those who positively resist 
the truth. Some villagers put all their cocks to death because 
they crowed the words, " Tlang lo rapeleng," " Come along to 
prayers." The nearest approach to worship to be^ found in this 
region was the habit of paying special attention to the new 
moon. This was watched for with all eagerness, and its first 
appearance was hailed with loud acclamations and prayers. 
Even the attendants of Livingstone were accustomed to invoke 
the favor of the new moon on them and their master during 
their journey. 

The duties of a faithful Christian teacher, though found most 
largely in presenting the gospel and seeking the immediate sal- 
vation of souls, have yet a range which comprehends all the 
well-being of man. It is not a reproach if a minister is instru- 
mental in reforming society or government. It is not out of 
place for him to strike off any yoke of oppression which galls 
the necks of the people. It is not a mean service which intro- 
duces systems and regulations that bring order and peace to the 
community. Those unobtrusive efforts of Dr. Livingstone, 
which left their results interwrought with the heathen codes, 
were among the most difficult and telling of his works. Those 
examples and conversations, which left their impressions, in- 
definitely even, on African society, are the unrecorded but 
imperishable testimonies to his sincerity and real greatness. 

The idea of compromise in times of dispute, of mercy to the 
offender ; thoughts of internal improvement and commerce ; new 
methods of reward and punishment ; all the variety of matters 
which a wise and intelligent Christian would think of in such 
a community, opened a field which this truly great man was 



122 LEEAHBYE IN SPRING. 

gladly disposed to enter, and in which his singular influence 
will linger through all the opening history of that continent. 

The journey up the river from Sesheke was along the same 
splendid Leeambye which we mentioned in a former chapter. 
The broad surface, the rapids and wild falls were, of course, the 
same, only the deep brown hues of winter had yielded to the 
gorgeous summer. The thick green foliage of the majestic 
trees was varied and enriched by a wonderful wealth of fruit, 
while strange, large flowers of peculiar beauty were everywhere 
like jewels in the verdure. The forests were full of birds. The 
gentle cooing doves had their nests just over the rushing, roar- 
ing torrents. The Ibis, just like those which held old Egyp- 
tian breasts in sacred awe, and found their honored graves in 
stately tombs, was sitting in its wonted isolation on the bare 
points of some withered, broken, branchless trunk. The 
singular little " hammering iron " might be seen sitting on the 
back of the hideous crocodile, or perched inside his cavernous 
jaws, quietly picking the monster's teeth. The tiny, roguish 
parrot was flashing about in the sunrays like a living emerald 
Math wings of gold, shocking the ear with a voice that seemed 
to be deliberate mockery of the eye's delight. The various 
species of fishing birds and nameless songsters of rare hues 
were always present, while every now and then a monster 
alligator came splashing from his sunny perch into the stream, 
or some unfortunate guana on a projecting bough fell a victim 
to the ready spear of a native, and dropping into the gliding 
boat was seized as choice provisiou for an evening meal. This 
animal is of the lizard tribe, and grows sometimes to the length 
of four or five feet. Its strong coat resists blows, and even the 
force of fire-arms, but it fills helpless if a straw is put in its 
nostril. 

Vast herds of hippopotami were passed, and it was amusing 
to see the youthful members of the families perched on the 
broad shoulders of their dams, while the tremendous puffing 
and snorting rumbled around like miniature thunder. Mr. 
Cumming once came on the lair of four of these singular crea- 
tures, a hazy morning on the banks of the Limpopo. The 
noise of his horse breaking through the wall of reeds alarmed 
them, and all four rushed into the shallow stream, and went 




i 



K.'.il'j 






HIPPOPOTAMUS. 125 

trotting toward deep water. The hunter, with quick aim, 
wounded a large cow, the ball striking the skull. The animal 
commenced plunging furiously round and round in a frenzy of 
agony ; a second ball only increased her misery and fury. 
Anxious to bring his game nearer the land, Mr. Cumming then 
threw off his heavier clothing and plunged into the water, and 
armed only with a long knife rushed upon the beast ; seizing 
her short tail he vainly tried to steer her landward. The tail 
was a poor rudder ; cutting a slit in the strong hide, he found a 
securer hold, and ultimately brought the huge behemoth to the 
shore, when it required the full strength of a brace of splendid 
oxen to land her. She measured, by his account, five full feet 
across the body. Floating along this stream the interminable 
roar of the lion forces that animal on our thoughts continually, 
and not unfrequently his majestic form, passing through the 
neighboring brush and matted reeds, excites the deepest interest. 
It is barely possible that the great explorer whom we are follow- 
ing through these wildernesses was hardly the man to rightly 
estimate this, or any of the ferocious monsters of the land. 
Livingstone was not a hunter; while not wanting in skill or 
courage to meet lions or elephants, he had no delight in the 
field. His mission was with men ; his lesson must be one of 
kindness ; he must inculcate a lofty moral courage ; necessarily 
almost, his habits of thought and life taught him indifference to 
all that was purely animal ; he could not appreciate the features 
in these wild creatures which filled other men with awe and 
wonder. He, for instance, only thought of the lion as the great 
dog of the forest ; he could discover no majesty in his roar, no 
special dignity in his bearing. He was quick to perceive what- 
ever was gentle and loving and intelligent, but the sterner, 
wilder, cruel features did not impress him as they would men 
generally ; and though he may have been correct in his estimate 
of the lion's courage measured by his lofty standard, it cer- 
tainly possesses a sort of courage which has made all sportsmen 
think of lion-hunting as, perhaps, the most serious of all the 
delights of wilderness life. It requires the greatest coolness 
and skill, when once a lion is wounded and thoroughly at bay ; 
every moment is precious. Mr. Anderson, in his " Wilds of 
Africa," narrates an incident in which his want of experience 



126 THE LION CONFUSED. 

was hardly atoned for by his superior courage even. The beast 
which he pursued had taken refuge, as usual, in a densely thick 
jungle, where only his horrible growling indicated his locality. 
The very few feet of reeds completely concealed the lair. Vainly 
striving to provoke the lion to advance, the hunter at last 
ventured upon the initiatory proceedings himself by attempting 
to force his way through the wall, when suddenly he entered a 
comparatively open space, and met the blazing eyes of the 
enraged animal fixed upon him. The instant allowed no aim, no 
use of the knife in his hand ; there was only the one awful sight 
of the raving monster, his crouching, the furious bound, which 
by some kind providence carried him above and beyond his 
victim, and the almost bewildered man scrambled away grate- 
fully, in consciousness that his life was hardly his own. This 
suggests a singular fact recorded of the lion : he is said to mani- 
fest confusion and shame when on any account he overleaps his 
mark or misses his object, and is never known to repeat the 
assault on such occasions, unless forced to do so in self-protec- 
tion ; frequently he has been seen to pause after such a blunder, 
and, returning quietly to the spot from which he sprang, step 
carefully the distance to that where his intended victim stood, 
then, looking up and around thoughtfully, seem to be absorbed 
in a calculation. The lion certainly is held in the highest 
respect by the Makololo people : they greatly prefer to encounter 
the lances and axes, or guns, even, of men, and, while they are 
eager to resent the slightest insult of a neighboring tribe with 
bloody war, they are in mortal dread of invading the dominions 
of this roaring, prowling individual. 

The fevers, which had begun their work some time before, 
were preying still on the energies of Livingstone ; all along the 
journey from Sesheke he was tortured by the inward fire, and 
the poor accommodations of his camp made the nights a ques- 
tionable exchange for even the toil and glaring sun upon the 
river. There was a consolation, though, in the kindness of his 
followers and the attentions of the people along the route. 
Their hospitality was rendered peculiarly refreshing by the 
modesty with which it was attended. The owner of an ox 
would gracefully present it to the stranger, remarking, "Here 
is a little bit of bread for you." Nothing is prettier in kind- 




LION ENCOUNTER. 



UNWELCOME NEWS. 129 

ness than unconsciousness. A truly generous deed, done so 
naturally that the dependent one hardly knows it, is benevo- 
lence. It is a pity that, with their progress in other matters, 
men progress so rapidly in appreciation of themselves and the 
estimate of their own works. 

At Nameta very unwelcome news was waiting for Dr. Liv- 
ingstone. An uncle of Sekeletu, named Mpololo, who main- 
tained a sort of ascendency in the Barotse valley, under a spirit 
of revenge for some former wrong, had sanctioned a foray of a 
Makololo party, headed by one Lerimo, into the territory of the 
Balonda. Lerimo had destroyed several Balonda towns, and 
taken a number of the subjects of an under chief named Masiko 
prisoners. This invasion of the territory on which Livingstone 
was about entering, by the tribe with which he was so nearly 
associated, and which was furnishing his guides and escort, 
rendered his situation exceedingly unpleasant, particularly as 
the desolated towns lay along the very route which he must 
follow. Sekeletu had been careful to guard against any such 
embarrassments of his guest and his father's friend, by issuing 
positive orders on the subject, prohibiting all such forays, and 
Mpololo had transgressed his orders. This, however, did not 
make the matter better. At Litofe, a few miles higher up, 
there was news of a fresh foray, which had to be disbanded by 
sending a messenger in advance of the party. On reaching the 
town of Sekeletu's mother, where Mpololo was, the missionary 
required them to place the prisoners who had been taken by 
Lerimo in his charge to be returned to Masiko, as a proof of his 
friendship and as an evidence, too, that the whole responsibility 
of the invasion lay with a petty chief who would be held 
accountable by his master. By this means this wise and patient 
man was able to avert probably a cruel war. Mpololo was par- 
ticularly generous of the property he had in charge, and filled 
all the orders of Sekeletu for the party with a good grace ; so 
that Livingstone left Naliele in possession of fifteen fine oxen, 
eight of which were for riding purposes, the others for slaughter 
or presents as occasion might require. They were at Libonta, 
the border town of the Makololo, on the 17th of December. 

During the delay which was necessary at Libonta the doctor 
had abundant use for his skill in the healing art ; the fever was 



130 THE CAMP. 

prevailing both among the inhabitants of the town and his own 
people. He had very little regard for the native method of 
treating this disease, which he experienced himself, on one occa- 
sion, to be a process of " charming one scientifically, while he is 
stewed in vapor baths and smoked like a red herring over green 
twigs." His gentler and surer treatment was soon in great 
demand and burdened him with a full practice, gratis of course. 
He had also occasion for surgical skill. A party of natives 
were forced to go after a bold, depredating lion. They must 
meet their game in closer quarters than the civilized hunter, for 
the spear and knife or club must do the work of powder and 
ball. It was an unlucky day for one poor fellow, who was 
brought home with the bone of his thigh crushed. Even the 
Avhite man's charms were unequal to this occasion. There is, 
according to Livingstone, a virus about the teeth of the lion 
which occasions painful inflammation, and the wound of his 
teeth " resembles a gunshot wound." It is generally followed 
by a great deal of sloughing and discharge, and if one is so for- 
tunate as to escape with life, the injury follows him all through 
life in periodical pains about the wounded part. 

Before following our hero away from the lovely valley of the 
Barotse, on his tramp to the sea, we will look just once on the 
home he nightly improvised along the banks of the lovely Lee- 
ambye. It is to be remembered that, while his party are all 
subjects of Sekeletu, only two are really Makololo. There are 
representatives of several subject tribes. The little camp pre- 
sents all the order of larger ones in regions more enlightened, 
where human foes demand the vigilance. A little gypsy tent 
marks the quarters of the white man ; he is sleeping there be- 
tween the two trusty Makololo, who have the post of honor, 
and hold his precious life in sacred trust. About the narrow 
bed the boxes form a wall. Across the entrance the faithful 
head-boatman, Moshanana, is lying, his own body given to 
form the door which violence must pass through to reach his 
leader. About this tent the rude brush sheds, arranged in 
horseshoe shape, mark the resting-places of the attendants, 
separated according to their tribes. Within the circumference 
of this force the oxen are standing ; and sometimes, lurking in 
the shadows of the trees, there is a stealthy beast of prey ; his 



COOKS AND LAUNDRY-MAIDS. 133 

glassy eyes may be seen shining in the firelight, or his deep 
growl provokes an oath from his almost as savage neighbor 
under the shed. When the clear, full moon looked down, the 
fires were allowed to burn low, and leave to its lonely guard a 
scene picturesque as could be, for the angels to look on, and 
God's benediction. 

Among his followers Livingstone selected some who were 
instructed in a few of the simpler mysteries of the white man's 
culinary system. Others he taught the process of restoring his 
travel-stained linen to its virgin purity. The ready willing- 
ness of these faithful men to do him service helped them greatly, 
and soon they did their new duty with a skill which might 
have provoked the envy of cooks and laundry-maids " to the 
manner born." The experience of Dr. Livingstone sustained 
his refined instincts and early lessons of neatness, in teaching 
him to hold fast the distinctions of civilization in all the habits 
of life as far as could be, even in the heart of the most ignorant 
and degraded continent. The barbarous people will hardly 
struggle toward a higher life whose customs are readily aban- 
doned, like the hues of the chameleon, for the demands of a new 
locality. The aifairs of every-day life, like eating and dressing, 
are the most striking features of civilization in the eyes of the 
uncivilized, and about these their wonder and respect begin ; to 
change or abandon these is to break the young tendrils of their 
confidence or admiration, and cancel all claims on their disciple- 
ship. 

It is worth while for all who think of venturing on a life- 
work in savage lands to remember that such a man as David 
Livingstone records his testimony, that "it is questionable 
whether a descent to barbarous ways ever elevates a man in the 
eyes of a savage. And is there a question whether Christianity 
is more a loser than gainer by the coming down of Christians to 
join in the doubtful avocations and delights of a worldly 
society ? " 

The almost singular humanity of Dr. Livingstone, which 
shines out so beautifully in all his career, comes strikingly into 
notice in his own journal of events occurring a short distance 
above Libonta. They had halted and sent some messengers off 
to the west, charged with the duty of returning some of the 



134 HUMANITY AND COURAGE. 

captives to Makoma. The scene was one which would have 
filled the heart of Cumming or Anderson or Harris with san- 
guinary delight. Herds of splendid animals were feeding on 
every side. He says he could easily have gotten within fifty 
yards of them ; but he adds : " There I lay, looking at beautiful 
pokus, leches, and other antelopes often, till my men, wonder- 
ing what was the matter, came up and frightened them away. 
I felt a doubt and the antelopes got the benefit of it." Even 
when he was driven to use his gun in providing food, this noble 
man was always studying to find the peculiarly fatal spot where 
the death-wound might produce the least possible pain. 

The progress up the river beyond Libonta was slower and 
more toilsome, because a division of the party had to follow 
along on the land with the oxen, and it was a trying path in- 
deed, if path it may be called, which needed to be opened almost 
every foot in some parts of it by the axe. They were not only 
leaving the lovely valley, but the empire of the children of 
Sebituane for the untried Balonda. 

It is so natural for the reader to become absorbed in the 
strange surroundings of an explorer; his novel experiences are 
so full of interest, that the man himself is hardly appreciated as 
he should be. It is peculiarly so in tracing the steps of Dr. 
Livingstone. He moves along so quietly, calling so little atten- 
tion to himself, that one almost forgets the incalculable toil and 
suffering of such long and tedious marches through an unknown 
land. And every interview and transaction with the native 
chiefs is told so simply, so devoid of all representations of the 
difficulties and perils which attended it, that one is tempted to 
forget that it is really the history of a single almost defenceless 
man dealing with barbarous chiefs in their own wild fortresses. 
"We are particularly struck with the lofty moral courage of 
Livingstone, when we find him boldly reproving these chiefs, 
and almost dictating to them their duties. He seemed to have 
no idea but that right and truth must prevail, and exhibited 
absolute fearlessness and confidence while conscience clear in his 
devotion to these. Almost the first act within the Balonda 
borders was to send quite a severe rebuke to Masiko for allow- 
ing the sale of his people into slavery. It is true his message 
was attended by the return of some captives wrenched from the 



THE BLACK LEEBA. 135 

hand of Lcriuio ; this only manifests the kindness of his heart 
and his wisdom, and does not depreciate the real courage of 
stepping on a strange territory and boldly denouncing a custom 
which brought its revenue to a savage chief. There is some- 
thing singularly Christlike in the progress of this great man, 
as we have followed him, and shall follow him, along the rivers 
and through the wildernesses of benighted Africa. His counsel 
is always peace, his example always kindness, his conduct 
always calm and his spirit bold. 

This Masiko, to whom he sent his messengers from the con- 
fluence of the Leeba and Leeambye, was not really a Balonda 
man, though reckoned now with the Balonda chiefs. He was 
the son of Santuru, the former chief of the Barotse. He had 
established himself beyond the Makololo authority, and gathered 
about him such of the Barotse as would share his fortunes. He 
was included now in the number of tribes which recognize the 
paramount authority of Matiamoo. This explanation is due to 
the people generally who bear the name of Balonda ; because, 
while they are more or less cursed by the visits of the Mambari, 
the popular sentiment denounces the slave trade, and the 
people were often expressing their envy of the Makololo, their 
exemption from its sorrows and degradation. 

From the confluence the route toward Loanda led away from 
the main branch along the Black Leeba, which is described as 
flowing through a region where nature has turned artist and 
disposed of trees and shrubs and rivulets and vines and flowers 
in true garden beauty ; where even the lowly banks are terraced 
as regularly as if to please a fastidious human taste. The whole 
scene is gentler than along the Leeambye. The Balonda arrows 
have taught their forest subjects caution, their traps and snares 
have intimidated the birds, and even the fish are fewer, and the 
crocodile has learned the fear of man. The banks of the Leeba 
are Waiting for the botanist, and offer a rich harvest. Among 
the trees rejoicing the traveller's eye with their wealth of blos- 
soms was one so like the hawthorn in flowers, fruit and fra- 
grance that the sweetest memories of other times and dearer 
scenes swept over the heart of the M r anderer. Food was not so 
easily provided now as along tke Leeambye. The young men 
were doubly interested in a buffalo hunt. Dr. Livingstone held 



136 THREE LIOXS AND A BUFFALO. 

this animal in rather higher esteem than the commonly received 
king of beasts. He could not but be impressed by the rapid, 
resistless charge of this powerful animal. His Makololo com- 
panions, who manifest a solemn hesitancy in disputing the 
rights of the lion, follow along the buffalo trail carelessly 
enough. He is a foe whom they understand ; one for which 
they may be prepared. It is rather singular to observe in this 
great lumbering monster the same cunning endeavors to elude 
the pursuers which distinguish the fox and the stag. It is 
true, however, that the buffalo observes the same shifting and 
turning, often doubling on its track, and frequently concealing 
itself within a few yards of the starting-point. When, however, 
it becomes really desperate, and comes dashing with reckless 
impetuosity upon its assailant, it is the time for cither special 
prowess or special prayers. This is the moment when the 
native dexterity is exhibited most admirably. Just at the 
instant when he seems to be a victim, and the beholder almost 
screams in terror, the young man glides aside and stabs his 
enemy very much after the fashion in a Spanish bull-fight. 
Max Vardon, who shared considerably the sporting experiences 
of Mr. Oswell, mentions witnessing a fight between a buffalo 
and thi'ee full-grown lions. The gentlemen mentioned were 
pursuing the buffalo, which they had wounded, and were in 
full sight of it, when they saw the lions spring from their lair 
and attack him. The spectacle was awful. Fastening their 
mighty teeth in the flanks and shoulders of the buffalo, the 
three tremendous lions could be seen exerting all their fearful 
strength to drag him down, while their angry growls mingled 
with his agonized and furious bellowing, and his gigantic 
bounds and struggles where amazing and awful. It is impossi- 
ble to tell how the singular and unequal contest would have 
ended but for the trusty rifles of the hunters, who terminated 
the scene by " bagging a brace of lions and the buffalo in about 
ten minutes." 

When the party had come opposite the village of Manenko, 
they received messages from her ladyship, who holds the chief- 
taincy there, requesting a delay until she could come to them ; 
but after several days of useless, interchange of messages, while 
incessant rains were aggravating impatience, Livingstone deter- 



Ifetaiii 




"he is a merman." 139 

mined to press on without having seen this lady. The rains 
and almost continuous fevers were wearing sadly on the natur- 
ally vigorous man, and he felt deeply anxious to advance as 
expeditiously as possible. 

At the confluence of the Leeba and the Makondo they found 
traces of the Mambari merchants. These enterprising men are 
satisfied to hold their valuable trade with the interior wilds, 
and feel under no obligation to enlighten their customers con- 
cerning the world beyond the rivers which bound their domin- 
ions. They represent the white men as dwelling in the sea. 
These representations of the Mambari explain the almost reso- 
lute confidence of the Balonda in the belief that Livingstone 
was none other than a merman. Indeed, the hair of Living- 
stone was the greatest curiosity. They could account for the 
deeper shades of their complexion, because he showed them the 
effect of the sun and weather in bronzing his own hands and 
face, while the skin of his breast, unexposed, remained perfectly 
white. But the hair — they had never seen straight hair. It 
must be, they reasoned ; " he comes out of the sea. The waves 
have washed his hair straight. He is a, merman." 

These people are sadly superstitious; in this they are unlike 
the more southern tribes, who, it will be remembered, mani- 
fested hardly anything of the sort. They employ every variety 
of charms, and everywhere there are evidences of their idol 
worship. 

After the failure to accomplish an interview with Manenko, 
the party advanced as far as a village over which an aunt of 
that lady, named Nyamoana, wielded the sceptre. It was rather 
a new thing under the African sun to be in the power of the 
women ; but Dr. Livingstone deported himself as graciously as 
though he had been an experienced attendant of the sex. The 
good lady who did him the honors now was bent on having him 
turn aside from the Leeba and allow her people to conduct him 
to her brother, who was the greatest chief in all that part of 
Balonda. It was no use to urge the desirableness of river 
transportation. Her head was set, and just in the midst of the 
controversy she was reinforced by the unexpected arrival of 
Manenko. The odds were against him, and the great explorer, 
who had cut his w r ay through forests and carried his point 



140 



NON-COSTUME AND LOEDSHIP. 



against chiefs, yielded the controversy to two women, and began 
preparations for an awful march through swamps and floods. 
As Manenko assumed to direct this expedition, and requires us 
to follow her majestic leadership for many days, we will take 
time for her acquaintance. She is described as tall, strapping 
and twenty. She was most elaborately arrayed in a coating of 
red ochre ; only that and " nothing more," unless the strands of 
ornaments and medicine charms about her neck may be called 
clothing. The non-costume, which she prided herself on, was 
intended to teach her people to despise anything effeminate. 
Indeed, the whole Balonda people are singularly negligent of 
clothing; the women particularly seldom wear anything but 
ornaments, and are seen everywhere in frightful nudity. The 
men are hardly better arrayed, and seem equally fond of orna- 
ments. The most prevalent insignia of wealth and position 
consist in the rings which are worn about the ankles. Some 
chiefs put on so many that they walk with considerable diffi- 
culty, and are forced to keep their feet far apart. And those 
gentlemen who are desirous to appear important are often noticed 
assuming the difficult gait of their betters. When Livingstone 
smiled at seeing one of these gentlemen walking as if his limbs 
were burdened, when really there were only one or two small 
rings to be seen, one of the people remarked, "That is the way 
they show off their lordship in these parts." 

From the village of Nyamoana, the party were to abandon 
the canoes and strike out into the forests ; and the preparations 
necessarily occupied some days, particularly as the self-willed 
Manenko preserved a most despotic indifference to the impa- 
tience of her guest, and took her own time as well as her own 
methods in the matter. It was exceedingly trying to Living- 
stone, reduced to the meanest diet, and exposed to the most 
inclement weather, to be arrested by this petticoat government; 
but the daily specimens of our lady's attainments in the pecu- 
liarly feminine art of scolding which came under his notice kept 
him in subjection, and he could only obey, when she met his re- 
bellion by very quietly and authoritatively putting her hand on 
his shoulder, and reminding him of the ready submission of his 
followers, adding: "Now, my little man, just do as they have 
done." Manenko, however, was really kind, and did all in her 



MANENKO TAKES COMMAND. 141 

power to render the weary and sick explorer comfortable. It 
was not in her power to yield her will, perhaps ; that is a hard 
thing for men to do, and more than should be expected of her. 

With the morning of January 11th the delay ended. The 
journey lay first across a succession of forests and lawns, where 
the largest evergreens were exchanged for the richest carpets 
of green grass. The singular little army marched gallantly 
along through the driving rain — the queenly Manenko in 
advance, in her coat of red grease, the picture of inde- 
pendence. And she led the party at a right good pace, and 
so steadily that they were rejoiced when she would finally allow 
them to rest. The Makololo, who were as unaccustomed to 
such leadership as Dr. Livingstone, were full of admiration for 
this phenomenon in that line, and declared that Manenko was 
" a soldier" 

It is the custom in the Balonda country for the men to carry 
their arms, and wherever our party pitched their tent they 
were surrounded by numbers of ferocious-looking individuals 
with short swords and quivers of the wickedest-looking iron- 
headed arrows. They did not receive the same attentions, how- 
ever, which had cheered their way through the Makololo tribes, 
and found none of the ready hospitality which made them 
almost careless of supplies. The missionary was made to add 
hunger to the record of hardships. Fever, rain, hunger, day 
after day, tells a story of painful sacrifice, and the gentleness, 
the faith and perseverance which could not be overcome, tell of 
singular greatness and God's upholding. The houses are the 
ordinary huts, but they are unlike the homes farther south, in 
being surrounded by strong palisades, as if designed to be fort- 
resses in case of war. War does not spare the enlightened or 
benighted: it is everywhere. The trees of the forests along this 
route were of the finest proportions, such as would almost turn 
the head of a lumberman; but they suggest no ideas of wealth 
or greater comfort to the rude men who shoot their arrows 
among their branches or stalk the game in their deep shadows. 

The gloomy depths of these forests seem to cast a shadow on 
the spirits of the dark beings who dwell in them ; charms and 
medicines are found in most unexpected places, and idols are 
more numerous as the forests deepen. The idols of Balonda 



142 INVITATION AT LAST. 

take various shapes ; are the most uncouth conceivable speci- 
mens of art. Some are intended to represent animals and 
others human heads ; but haste or carelessness sometimes satis- 
fies itself by setting up a crooked stick, before which to bow in 
worship. Even the trees are pressed into this service, and 
passing along there may be seen offerings of maize or manioc 
laid on the branches of a stately motuia, while faces of beasts 
or men are carved in the bark about its trunk. 

The prevailing superstition casts its protection over property ; 
theft is seldom heard of; a trifling charm or piece of medicine 
bark is enough to guard the most precious articles, however 
exposed, from native hands. Civilization will kill the charm, 
and inaugurate prisons. Christianity ought to put the charm 
in the breasts of the people. It carries a medicine which is a 
specific in cases of covetousness. The love of Christ in the 
hearts of men ought to be a surer protection to their fellows 
than a broken twig or scrap of bark. 

Before the white man could enter the town of Shinte, he was 
obliged to endure the delay of a tedious interchange of messages 
between the female master of proceedings and her lordly uncle. 
Livingstone was vexed by this delay, because he was only 
then finding out a very important feature of Balonda civility, 
indeed we may say of African civility. In the Makololo 
country he had been preceded by the messengers of Sekeletu, 
and found the villagers always expecting to receive him ; here, 
however, the case was different, and he had frequently fright- 
ened whole communities by his sudden appearance in their 
midst, besides the inconvenience of missing the supplies which 
he so much needed. True etiquette requires that a travelling 
party halt before entering a village, and send forward a mes- 
senger, explaining to the chief the character and objects of his 
visitors. It is then incumbent on the town to extend its 
hospitalities, and the chief is glad to do the honors of the 
occasion in his best style. The unwilling allegiance which Dr. 
Livingstone was called on- to render the dilly-dallying Manenko 
turned out a good school to him, and contributed very much to 
the facility of his future travels and pleasant intercourse with 
the tribes. 

When the invitation at last came from Shinte the party 



FULL UN-DRESS. 



143 



advanced gladly, and upon a small valley of wonderful beauty 
it broke upon their eyes, weary of the deep shadows of the 
wood, like a fairy picture. Gently meandering along the very 
centre of the valley was a beautiful stream, and a little rivulet 
came in from the west. There was the town, embowered in the 
splendid tropical trees whose broad leaves lapping and woven 
formed a splendid canopy, and everywhere in the arbor-like 
grove the banana was seen, drooping its tempting fruit just over 
the heads of the people. You remember the singular Bechuana 
abhorrence of straight lines : everything, you remember, was 
crooked; their huts were round, their streets were tortuous. 
The square houses and straight streets of the town of Shinte 
were a delightful change. These streets and huts, too, were 
thronging with strange sights. The remarkable poverty of 
clothing in use in Balonda has been mentioned, but it must not 
be understood that this is because of the poverty of the people, 
or their greater ignorance as compared with their more southern 
neighbors. It is simply fashion, and you know there is no 
disputing on that subject: fashion is fashion. There may be a 
fashion of going undressed or dressed. The former is the 
Balonda fashion. The skill which confines itself to the adorn- 
ment of the ankles and head is there displayed in most 
remarkable manner. Their otherwise pleasant features are 
distorted by the pieces of reed which they thrust through the 
septum of the nose. The hair is woven in a great variety of 
patterns: the more common appearance is that of horns like a 
buffalo ; sometimes there is only a single horn protruding in 
front. One of the most remarkable styles is almost startling to 
the uninitiated beholder : the hair is woven into a great num- 
ber of strands ; these are all so arranged as to stand out from 
the head, and are fastened at their extremities to a hoop of 
light wood, so that the face appears at a little distance as if set 
in a painful sarcasm on the nimbus with which the heads of 
saints are surrounded. 

The men are a little more conformed to our ideas of decency, 
in that they wear aprons of beautifully tanned skins ; and their 
wealth of woolly hair enables them to rival their sable belles in 
its awful arrangement. Both men and women are eager for all 
articles of foreign manufacture ; particularly are they covetous 



144 BLOOD RELATIONS. 

of the bright clothes which are sometimes exposed to their view, 
and men or women think themselves splendidly attired if they 
can get a few feet of such an article to wrap about the neck or 
body. There is much regard paid to salutations and the form- 
ing of friendships. Parties approaching each other are expected 
to stoop down and take up some sand and rub it on the arms 
and breast. There are gradations in these salutations, however, 
as in other matters. Great chiefs, for instance, only pretend to 
take up the sand, and do not really put any on the arms or 
breast ; whereas one who is very polite, or desires to be con- 
sidered so, carries a sort of white powder with him, and rubbing 
that on his arms and breast, exhibits it to the person whom he 
accosts; then, stooping down, places first one cheek then the 
other on the ground, the meantime clapping his hands joyfully. 
In many respects the people of Balonda won greatly on the 
appreciation of Livingstone. Their kindness and manliness 
and politeness were more apparent as he became better ac- 
quainted with their customs. His lady captain busied her- 
self now in more womanly duties, and was quite assiduous in 
providing such food as the doctor could eat, and proved herself 
no less a gentle friend than a bold escort. Friendships among 
the Balonda is a matter of great importance, and is sealed with 
a most solemn ceremony. The parties who have agreed to be- 
come particular friends sit down fronting each other ; beside 
each is placed a cup of beer. With a sharp knife slight gashes 
are then made in the clasped hands, the pit of the stomach, the 
right cheek and the forehead of each. A blade of grass is then 
pressed by each into his own wounds, and the blood is washed 
from the grass in the beer. The parties then exchange the 
cups, so that each shall drink the other's blood. After this 
ceremony they are blood relations. The friends of each who 
may be present are expected to share the beer. The most pre- 
cious gifts are exchanged, and the friends are bound for any 
emergency, and are pledged to assist each other in every possi- 
ble manner. "We can hardly pass such a ceremony without 
remembering the blood of Him to whom all Christians pledge 
themselves as often as they taste the emblematical wine which 
he called his blood. We are his blood relations bound in 
sacred obligation. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THROUGH LONDA. 

Reception at Shinte's Town — The Introduction — Private Interviews — Etiquette 
of the Balonda — Love for Mothers — Slavery — Theft — Magic Lantern — Eains — 
Iron- Works — Flooded Plains — A Charming Home — Death and Desolate Vil- 
lages — Balonda Ideas of a Future State— What to Preach to Heathen — Trou- 
blesome Guide — Burial of the Dead — Mandans — Sioux — Patagonians — Bechu- 
anas — Balonda — Sunday with Quendeude — Beautiful Country— The Lotembwa 
— Katema— Exception — Provisions Presented— Wisdom of Katema — Cattle — 
Birds in Cages — Birds and Beasts — Birds and Spiders— Human Spiders — Fevers 
Again — Not much Impression — Heroism of Livingstone — Lake Dilolo — Rivers 
Run Northward — Mambari Traders— Influence on Border Tribes — Demands 
of Pay for Passing Through Country — Exjiected to Fight — An Ox Given — A 
Man Demanded — Sickness of Livingstone — Mutiny in his Camp — Its Cure — 
Men Repent— The Quango at Last — Bashange's Tax — Cypriano di Abrue's 
Kindness — Portuguese Possessions — Sweet Sleep — Angels. 

Ox the morning of January 17th the spacious kotla of 
Shinte's town presented its grandest appearance. The kotla, 
we may remark, is an open space commonly reserved in the 
towns of this part of Africa for purposes of public interest, and 
renders service as temple, council chamber, or dancing hall, as 
occasion may demand. The throne of the chief was under the 
broad leaves of a splendid banyan tree, which seemed almost 
conscious of its dignity in spreading a canopy over a chieftain's 
head. Shinte was arrayed in his best. The checked jacket and 
kilt of baize were aided by a crown of woven beads and a waving 
bunch of feathers. Just behind the chief were seated a hundred 
women, and nearly a thousand men were ranged in the broad 
circumference of the place. 

The guests advanced into the kotla escorted by the subject 
lord of the matron captain of the wilderness march, who ap- 
proached Shinte first, followed by Manenko's people, who did 
the national obeisance in style. Dr. Livingstone was seated 
under the banyan, which furnished a broad shade, facing the 

chief. Then came the representatives of all the sections of the 

145 



146 PRIVATE TALKS WITH SHINTE. 

tribe, who saluted their chief and resumed their places. After 
these, distinguished men did him reverence, rubbing their 
breasts and arms with white powder. Then, suddenly, a host 
of soldiers, bursting from concealment, rushed wildly toward 
Livingstone and his men, brandishing their swords and shout- 
ing like demons ; who, having tested the courage of their visitor 
to their satisfaction, retired. 

The audience was now opened by the husband of Manenko, 
who, in an elaborate speech, declared the history and purposes 
of the white man, which, however, he considered only lies, and 
grounded his appeal in his behalf entirely on the generosity of 
the Balonda and Shinte's habitual kindness. After him the 
great men all had their talks, interspersed by the songs of the 
women and encouraged by their applause. 

During all this while the explorer sat quietly and surveyed 
the novel scene, and at the close Shinte arose and retired with 
conscious dignity, and the multitude dispersed to be lost again 
in the ordinary affairs of life. 

After the public reception, which was really only a display 
for his entertainment, certainly one in which the visitor was 
only a spectator, Livingstone was invited frequently to confer 
with Shinte in private, and received many expressions of his 
regard and of his sympathy with the purposes of the expedition. 
But one great blemish spoiled the otherwise pleasant character 
of this chief — he was manifestly in secret sympathy with the 
slave dealers. The Mambari are allowed to erect their slave- 
pens right under his eye, and nightly sorrows of parents bereft 
of their children under cover of the darkness find no redress at 
his hands. Dr. Livingstone threw his influence against the 
wicked trade, but it was only the voice of one man. Yes, it 
was God's truth, and though scattered only as fine seed, may 
ultimately spread its blessed protection over those miserable 
homes, and become a wall of principle against which the covet- 
ous importunities of cruel tradesmen in human souls shall beat 
vainly, as against the breast of Christ. 

The Balonda are on their best behavior in this town, and 
the inexorable laws of society were seen everywhere in the 
punctilious observances of the people. Social grades existed in 
most unquestionable authority. The inferior would not pre- 



MAGIC LANTERN EXCITEMENT. 147 

suine to omit their obeisance when a superior passes, but fall 
instantly to one knee and maintain that posture until the great 
one is gone. 

One beautiful trait of the Baloncla is their love for their 
mothers. The more southern tribes are singularly indifferent to 
those who give them birth ; these are not so. It was charming 
in these wild savages, their tender remembrance, even when 
burdened themselves with years, of "mamma's home." How 
sad must be the lives of those who nurse this tender fondness, 
when they are torn so cruelly away by the wicked hand of a 
trade which merits their devoutest curses ! What more plain- 
tive cry can find the ear of God than " O mother ! " whispered 
sobbingly in the deep, degrading prison-house of bondage? 
What more disastrous blight can rest on the life of man than a 
mother's prayer for vengeance against him who robs her of her 
child ? 

These people are poorly supplied with game, and their na- 
tional diet of manioc has provoked the anathemas of many an 
African traveller, for it is found all over the continent. They 
are industrious, though, and intelligent. But while there arc 
gods many and superstition- without measure, the people must 
be watched, for with their fears the doubtful grace of thieving 
is quite developed ; and while they are specimens of absolute 
honesty if there are signs of a charm about, or if the blind eyes 
of some rude deity guards the treasure, they are conscience clear 
to take all they can find if they can dodge the medicines and 
the deities. 

The magic lantern produced quite an excitement in Shinte's 
town. The first picture exhibited was that of Abraham offering 
his son. The picture, large as life and brought out vividly, 
produced a great effect, and the story filled their untutored 
minds with wonder and delight; but when at last the dagger 
was seen moving toward Isaac, the women were wild with 
fright and dashed away as if for life. Shinte himself was 
charmed, and was deeply interested in examining the instrument. 

The greatest trial to which Dr. Livingstone was subjected in 
this country was the incessant rain ; night after night the poor 
little tent was beaten steadily by the great drops, and the brief 
intervals during the days could not remove the dampness. But 



148 IRON WORKS IN LONDA. 

he was fully convinced of the great fertility of the soil, and its 
adaptation to the customs and interests of civilized life. It may 
be that these vast plains and forests are to become the store- 
houses of the world. There was a time when our western con- 
tinent was as hopelessly benighted, and offered as small attrac- 
tions to the old world, as Africa offers now. The times are in 
God's hand : the future is wide and rich in possibilities. 

After spending about ten days with Shinte, the travelling party 
picked up their possessions and resumed their tramp. Among 
the industries which were noticed, as the party passed along the 
lovely valley, were certain native iron works, for which the ore 
is obtained in a range of splendid hills clothed in verdure 
which wall the valley on the east. Indeed it is a matter of 
deep interest that this continent, although so little known, has 
already revealed such an abundance of iron as merits the 
serious consideration of the world ; and the natives, though 
untrained to think of manufacture as a means of income or 
revenue, have still acquired much skill in subjecting this un- 
sightly and unwieldy treasure to their convenience. The Man- 
yeti, it may be remembered, who won the distinction of " pirates 
of the Leeambye," were skilful artizans in iron ; and in 
Angola, in Eastern Africa generally, indeed over the continent, 
the ore is found in good qualities and abundant quantities. 

The kindness of Shinte now went in advance of the party, as 
that of Sekeletu had done, and food was found in readiness at 
every little village. Beyond the Leeba, which was crossed on 
the 31st of January, the route lay across a plain not less than 
twenty miles broad, and travelled some days where rain-water 
alone was standing from six inches to some feet in depth. But 
though all this region, as indicated on the maps, is wonderfully 
threaded by streams which contribute to the great river which 
flows away across the continent, there seem to be no fountains, 
but these tributaries of the great never-failing Chobe grow up 
amid the bogs of the vast soaking plains. 

Crossing the Lokalueje, the party encountered the old friends 
so common on the rivers of the Bechuanas and Makololo — the 
hippopotami — which excited the hope that the plains and woods 
would soon again possess the attractions of animal life and 
afford supplies of meat. 



A CHARMING HOME. 



149 



At the village of one Soana Molopo, they were a little 
troubled through the guide who had been sent on from Shinte, 
who made it his business to excite in every chief's mind the ex- 
pectation of valuable gifts from the traveller. At the home of 
a subject of Katema, Livingstone enjoyed a singular surprise : 
this man Mozinkwa possessed intelligence far in advance of his 
surroundings, and sharing his happiness was one wife, the 
mother of all his children. Around the house this good lady 
had quite a crop of cotton ; and Mozinkwa's gardens and 
hedges and court-yard showed that he too could handle useful 
implements. They had also a garden of splendid potatoes, 
while some large shade-trees, planted in the middle of their 
yard, indicated that this fine family sought comfort intelligently ; 
but alas ! brightest pictures fade; in a few months death came — 
death comes to all — death came and the mother and wife whose 
faithfulness had been the joy of the home was laid away in 
silence and darkness. We who look in the grave filled with the 
light of the cross do not know how dark it is for the heathen. 
After death has once crossed a Balonda threshold, the house has 
no longer any charms for the inmates, and the invariable cus- 
tom is to abandon it. This superstitious horror of death causes 
whole villages and towns to be abandoned at the most unex- 
pected moment ; within one week or month the town where a 
traveller was entertained most hospitably, which was teeming 
with happy people, he may find desolate, abandoned, dreaded, 
and avoided even by the path, which has been changed. A ques- 
tion finds the explanation in the death of some chief man. This 
suggests a feature of Balonda superstition which presents a 
serious barrier to the gospel. While these people believe in 
God, and seem to recognize the immortality of the soul, they 
seem almost incapable of a single idea of heaven. They only 
think of the dead as lingering about the familiar scenes of earth. 
They seem painfully conscious of their nearness. They cannot 
think of another world. Their ignorance holds them in a con- 
stant bondage of fear ; they think of the departed as vindictive, 
of their gods as full of vengeance, of their charms as summon- 
ing some unknown evil. Indeed in all heathen lands there is a 
painful ignorance of love, and hardly wonderful either, since 
only the poor sinful hearts must suggest their ideals or inter- 



150 POWER OF LOVE. 

pret the things which occur. It is this weariness of the dread- 
ful which makes the hefethen catch so eagerly at the statement 
of God's love — it is so new, so refreshing. Because he is Love, 
he is the more readily enthroned in the long dormant affections 
and faith of the people just coming to the light. It is not the 
testimony of Dr. Livingstone only, but of all who have labored 
for the enlightenment and conversion of the heathen, that noth- 
ing which can be said arrests the attention so quickly and holds 
it so strongly as the story of the cross. It is all idle to go 
about pulling down the idols : we need only set up the crucified 
One over against them, and they shall fall of themselves, out of 
the relaxing fears and confidence which have been banished by 
the goodness and won by the love of the true and gracious. 

Intemese, the guide furnished by Shinte, occasioned the party 
no little delay by his petty stubbornness and strategies, which he 
practised in order to prolong their stay within the boundaries of 
his commission as guide, because he found that position a fat 
place owing to the liberal orders of his master. It was a piece 
of this strategy which led his charge apart from the proper 
route toward the town of Katema to that of his father-in-law. 
This gentleman was named Quendende, a fine old man as it 
turned out, and one who entertained them over a Sunday with 
real kindness and pleasure. 

He had just returned from a funeral of one of his people 
when the visitors arrived. Few things in savage life are of 
more singular interest than the ceremonies of burial. The 
reader may recall very singular customs of certain Indians, 
with whose habits most of them are more or less familiar. The 
Mandans, for instance, take the body of their dead, and having 
clothed it in his best robes and ornaments, furnish it with many 
articles which are supposed most desirable, and wrapping the 
whole carefully in soft wet hides, place the precious burden on 
a scaffold some feet high. In the course of time the scaffold 
falls; then the relatives assemble and bury the remains, except 
the skull ; this they place on the ground, where there are per- 
haps a hundred skulls in a circle, all looking inward. About 
this place of the skulls the women are often seen, sitting with 
their work for hours at a time, holding in their laps the skull 
of a dead child, and not unfrequently they are seen to clasp 



BURIAL, OF THE DEAD. 153 

these skulls in their arms and lie down talking as if to a living 
child, until they fall asleep. 

The Sioux, of whom we hear so much, wrap their dead in 
skins and lodge in the branches of trees ; never forgetting to 
place a wooden dish near the head, that the friend may quench 
his thirst in the long journey he is supposed to have begun. 

Among the Patagonians the dead are frequently reduced to 
skeletons before burial, and are washed and arrayed in new 
clothing once a year. The bodies, while being prepared, are 
laid on platforms and guarded by the relatives, who, dressed 
in long robes, strike the ground continually with spears or 
staves, and keep up a mournful song to drive away the spirits, 
who they fear are unfriendly to the dead. 

The Dahomans, with all their cruelty and carelessness of 
human life, always hold an inquest over the dead, because, per- 
haps, the king reserves it as his privilege to do all the killing. 
If the inquest finds the man to have died a naturaL death, his 
friends are allowed to begin their mourning, during which they 
may not wash, but may eat and drink to intemperance if they 
please. When the coffin is ready the body is clothed in the best 
attire and furnished with a complete outfit for a change when 
he reaches the spirit land, and the burial takes place. 

The Bechuanas, among whom Livingstone spent the earlier 
years in Africa, begin the funeral service before death has really 
occurred. As soon as the relatives of a sick man are satisfied 
that his end is near they throw a mat or skin over him, and 
draw it together until the poor creature is forced into a crouch- 
ing posture, with the arms bent, the head bowed and the chin 
upon the knees. In this agonizing position the last spark of 
life is allowed to expire. The body is then borne to the cattle- 
pen, where the grave is waiting, and deposited in a sitting pos- 
ture, exactly facing the north. The next operation is to pack 
the finest clay tightly and carefully about the body, until the 
earth reaches the mouth ; then a few pieces of acacia and some 
roots of grass are placed on the head, so that a few green twigs 
may be above the ground. The slight mound is then raised, 
and when completed a few bowlfuls of water are poured over it, 
while the spectators shout as if applauding. The last scene at 
the grave is the women pouring out their bitter lamentations. 



154 SUNDAY WITH QUENDENDE. 

The Balonda, whose custom suggested this digression, are 
affected more deeply than many others on such occasions, be- 
cause of their singular superstitions which hold them in dread 
of the departed. Their funerals are occasions of great expense 
and great confusion. Great feasts are spread, and during the 
ceremonies there is kept up a clamor in which all seem striving 
for mastery. There are loud, piercing cries ; drums are beaten 
with measured, solemn beats, and if there are guns they are 
fired. All night long this wild scene continues, and is consid- 
ered the highest honor possible to be rendered. Indeed, it is 
more the amount of noise than the perfection of melody which 
delights the savage. We can hardly dwell on such accounts 
without deepest sympathy. How sweet are the Christian ideas 
of death ! How sacred and precious are the spots where we laid 
our loved ones, hoping, with our eyes on the star of Bethlehem, 
whose gentle beams were falling on the mound ! How eagerly 
we should hasten with the precious truths that may be so help- 
ful and rejoicing to the hearts of heathen ! But if Dr. Living- 
stone allowed his thoughts to wander so long — there is no 
question whether old Quendende thought him queer — Sunday 
afforded good time for the ever-faithful and diligent man of 
God to present the great teachings of the Bible to his friendly 
host. But it is almost impossible to gain the credence of the 
Balonda for the ideas of heaven or hell. They invariably meet 
all advances on the subject by saying in effect : "We do not go 
up to God as you do ; we are put into the ground." 

The country was becoming beautiful again ; the valleys and 
hills were clothed with lovely growth, and supported herds of 
buffaloes, elands, koodoo and various antelopes; and the little 
villages which were constantly appearing were cheering indi- 
cations of industry and happiness. Even in Africa it is inter- 
esting to observe the gradual improvement in the general 
appearance of the country as the towns of the great chiefs are 
approached, just as a corresponding improvement is manifest in 
the neighborhood of our larger cities. 

It was about the middle of February when Livingstone and 
his followers crossed the Lotembwa and passed on to the town 
of Katema. They were not assigned a hut, as would have been 
the case among the Makololo, or a roof, as would have been the 



KATEMA IN STATE. 155 

case in Shinte's neighborhood, but were led out to the shelter 
of some large trees, where they might provide their resting- 
places themselves. But Katema did not forget the claims of 
the stranger on his hospitality entirely, for after a little time 
there came a handsome present of food, which was vastly more 
important than huts or roofs. 

On the following day Dr. Livingstone was honored with a 
public reception, as he had been at Shinte's town. The cere- 
monies of this reception, too, greatly resembled those of the 
former. Katema was found to be a good-humored, well-fed 
looking man, and one who enjoyed a hearty laugh amazingly. 
He rode into the kotla mounted on the shoulders of an active, 
muscular young man, who moved along quite easily with his 
heavy weight of dignity. One striking element of this chief- 
tain's character was his vanity ; he could never be done with his 
self-praise. But he was generous and wise. When Intemese 
had given his statement, Katema placed sixteen large -baskets 
of meal, half a dozen fowls and a dozen eggs before his guest, 
and, remarking that he did not wish a stranger to be hungry in 
his town, said: "Go home and cook and eat; you will then be 
in a fit state to speak with me at an audience which I will give 
you to-morrow." But tall, vigorous man as he was, so genial 
and courteous, he was subject to the same degrading supersti- 
tions which were seen in the humbler people of his country. 

During the entire interview with Dr. Livingstone, he sat 
waving a large bunch of gnus' tails between himself and the 
white man, as a protection against any charms which might be 
employed against him. This man was really the younger 
brother, and held his position as chief of the tribe more by his 
wisdom and kindness than of right. His brother was unkind 
and foolishly alienated his own people, and prejudiced the sub- 
jects of neighboring tribes. Katema gradually took possession 
of the hearts of the people, and gathered with them great 
numbers of refugees from other tribes, until he became the 
greater chief, and boasted of being the equal of Matiamvo him- 
self. He did not exhibit the covetousness which had been so 
annoying in some other towns, but received quite gracefully 
the few little things which Livingstone was able to present. 

Unlike their southern neighbors, the Balonda are singularly 



156 BIRDS AND BEASTS 

destitute of herds, and though they manifest the highest appre- 
ciation of cattle, and possess a land admirably adapted to pas- 
turage, they have not learned to domesticate the few cows they 
have. Katema owned about thirty head, but could only possess 
himself of the meat by hunting it as he would a buffalo or an 
antelope, and was astonished when he was told how he might 
appropriate the milk. 

It is pleasant to think of men so far from the refinements of 
civilization finding real delight in the charming little melodies 
of the tiny canary bird. All about in Katema's country these 
charming little creatures were found in neat little cages, 
treasured fondly by the dark savages, " because they sing so 
sweetly." Perhaps it is the gratuitous tutelage of the wonderful 
choristers of their lovely forest homes which develops this 
delicate love of gentle music, for the birds are on every bough, 
twittering and singing as merrily as can be. But there are no 
ravenous beasts : you know they cannot dwell with birds ; there 
seems to be no sympathy between the voice of song and wild 
passions, even beyond the habitations of men. "We wonder 
naturally whether the monsters of the wood fly from the sight 
of innocence and glee — whether sanguinary instincts are in- 
evitably rebuked by music. Bojder cruelty among men has 
sometimes mightiest resistance in the pure sweet prattle of help- 
lessness. You remember it was a child playing by the brooklet, 
tossing white pebbles into it, and laughing at its babbling, 
which broke the crusts of carelessness and crime, and mellowed 
the heart of one long thoughtless of mercy or justice, and hung 
upon his eyelids a tear distilled of penitence, which heaven 
received in redemption of its favors so long despised. But 
there are meaner shapes of evil which whet their appetites for 
crime on the sight of weakness and innocence : they are the 
venomous spiders of society, who scheme, and watch, and wait? 
and hide; their hate and harm is by strategy and obscurity. 
Boldness redeems even crime from our contempt, who despise 
the mean malice which we only dread because we cannot see it. 
Human spiders weave their webs where human lions would blush 
to roar. Human nature has its types in lower orders of life, and 
among creatures of instinct only, as among those of thought. 
The sunniest bowers where sweetest gladness dwells reveal the 



"a plague ox the spider." 157 

beautiful deceits of the cunning foe of weakest life. The 
lovely groves, redolent with the melodies of the various song- 
sters, wear also the subtile drapery of the spiders, weaving. 
And the poor traveller must be suddenly recalled from the 
meditations of the place, must have his thoughts rudely dragged 
from their free altitude of pleasure, by the quick, light, blood- 
curdling tramp across his brow, or the sudden, sharp, painful, 
imperceptible wound on his hand, to frighten the canary which 
had charmed him, by crying, "A plague on the spider! " The 
first advances in the groves of Kate ma which were made by 
these venomous insects were in the night, and the self-introduc- 
tion was acutely painful. This spider was found to be light- 
colored and about half an inch in length. One of the uo;liest 
of the creatures is a black individual, with long hair, about an 
inch and a quarter long, and three quarters of an inch broad. 
A large reddish spider is seen as if in great excitement running 
with wonderful velocity in and out, before and behind, around 
and over everything. It dwells in a hole, and has an in- 
geniously contrived door which moves on hinges, and when 
closed completely covers and obscures the hole. Nearly all the 
species have beautiful webs, and display great ingenuity in so 
adjusting them as to entrap the unwary victims of their desire 
most readily. 

The pleasantness, however, and healthfulness of the country 
were not enough to prevent the return of fever, and before the 
time for the departure from Katema had arrived, Livingstone 
was again a sufferer by this enemy, more subtle than the spider 
and stronger than the lion. The winter time had come, but the 
thermometer was at 90°, and he could only toss about in his 
tattered tent. He was tossing so all day on the 19th, but on 
the morning of the 20th, he and his faithful band had their 
friendly parting with Katema and his people. Livingstone had 
not been able to make much impression on this vain chief 
about the Bible. It is the experience of all missionaries that 
the results are painfully small when all must be said through 
one or two careless and lazy interpreters, who themselves care 
nothing whatever about that which they are saying. But the 
chief had furnished guides for the way before them, and they 
might proceed confidently, if rather sadly. The heroism of Dr. 



158 TEADITION OF DILOLO. 

Livingstone was conspicuous now, as always, when there was 
anything to endure or to dare. A burning fever — having eaten 
nothing for two days — attended only by savages — he presses 
away into the wilderness as cheerfully and resolutely as he en- 
tered it long before from Cape Town. About six miles north- 
west from Katema's, they came to Lake Dilolo, the subject of 
a tradition which occurred to Dr. Livingstone as possibly a 
faint, lingering hint of the deluge. "It is said that a long 
time ago a village stood on the spot which is now covered by 
the lake, and that a female chief, named Monenga, one day came 
to the village and asked the wife of the chief man for some food, 
but was refused, and taunted with her helplessness by the 
woman, whereupon the Monenga began a song in slow time, 
and uttered her own name — Monenga-w-o-e. As she finished the 
last note, the village, houses, people, fowls, dogs, everything, 
sank into the space now called Dilolo." 

It only required a few days to carry the party beyond the 
dominion of Katema. They were about the turning point of 
the waters, too, and the rivers were now running northward. 
They were going somewhat west of north, and were getting 
among people who are much more frequently visited by the 
Mambari merchants than the more central tribes are. Living- 
stone found also that the people had a much stronger confidence 
in the belief of the continued existence of departed spirits than 
the more southern inhabitants of the continent. The idea of 
buying and selling, too, began to take the place of giving. 
Everybody wanted gunpowder or English calico, for the knowl- 
edge of money had not reached them, the Mambari using only 
barter in all their transactions. 

On the 27th of February they were on the banks of a beauti- 
ful river, which reminded the traveller of his own lovely Clyde 
in Scotland — the Kasai. The chief in the neighborhood, named 
Kangenke, had furnished guides quite readily, and the men 
were quite full of praise of their river. "Though you sail 
along it for months," said they, " you will turn without seeing 
the end of it." Now, for the first time in all his long journey, 
Dr. Livingstone began to be troubled by petty meannesses and 
resistances and taxes and suggestions of violence. The people 
of Kangenke practised on his party a trick for which they are 



"a man" demanded. 159 

notorious. One of them placed his knife where he felt satisfied 
that one of the party would pick it up, and sure enough a young 
man did pick it up, supposing that he had found it, and put it 
in a basket. The rascal who had planned the affair of course 
knew that it had been picked up, and waiting until the party 
had divided — a part having crossed the river in their canoes — 
he came forward, charging that some one of the party had 
stolen his knife. A search of course found the lost property, 
and the finding of it afforded a chance to impose a fine before 
they would allow those still on the side of the river with them 
to cross. At the village of Katende, also, on the 29th, Living- 
stone was called on to pay a fine for passing through the coun- 
try. This demand was stoutly resisted. Indeed, it is sadly 
apparent that these creatures have felt just enough of the in- 
fluence of the outside world to make them the most unprincipled 
thieves and extortioners. The wild animals, too, have fled from 
this region, and there was no possibility of obtaining food except 
at the hands of these ungenerous chiefs. Hungry and weary, 
receiving no hospitality, undiverted by even the welcome dan- 
gers of wild beasts, the devoted man was hardly able to appre- 
ciate the splendid plains and valleys along which their journey 
lay. 

At the first village of the Chiboque the coolness and courage 
of Dr. Livingstone was put to a severe trial. The chief of the 
town, after making very gracious promises, and pretending 
much sympathy with the enterprise of the expedition, sud- 
denly sent a demand for a slave or an ox as tribute for the 
privilege of passing through the country. And about midday 
the chief Njambi, having collected his people, suddenly sur- 
rounded the camp of Livingstone to enforce his demand. 
There is hardly an expression for our admiration of that won- 
derful man, experiencing in his heart Christlike feelings of pity 
and love for these wild men ; sitting quietly on his camp-stool 
in front of his tent, parleying with this wild and wicked chief. 
The surrounding party would frequently aim their guns at him 
and wave their swords and spears. Sometimes it seemed impos- 
sible but that a terrible fight must occur. The noble band of 
Makololo were true as could be, and carried themselves as men 
who had rather a fondness for such sport. It will be remem- 



160 A FIGHT AVOIDED. 

bered that these men had been soldiers under the great chief 
Sebituane, who with his own hand beheaded any man who 
dared to turn his back in battle. They were trained to courage, 
and it was Livingstone's full conviction that they would have 
proven victorious over twice as many Chiboque as now appeared 
against them, though only twenty-six in number. At last, 
when nothing else would do, Dr. Livingstone informed the 
chief that he must decide the question himself, and assume the 
entire responsibility if there was to be fighting. For himself, he 
wished to pass over God's ground in peace ; but if he was not 
allowed to do so, he should certainly defend himself and people 
against any enemy. This cool talk seemed to impress the chief 
men that the business they had undertaken was to be quite 
serious, and they began talking more reasonably. As the result 
of the interview, however, Dr. Livingstone gave an ox, trusting 
thereby to gain as much in moral influence as he might sacrifice 
of their much-needed supplies of food. While journeying along 
the forest paths, drenched with rain and now and then swim- 
ming the streams, terrible fevers again set in. Added to the 
already severe trials that of an almost wandering mind, the 
guides from place to place were now almost useless, and gave 
much more trouble by their foolish and outrageous demands of 
presents than would have resulted from their entire absence. 
But the bitterest of all, about the 12th of March, not far from 
the scene of the difficulty with the Chiboque, there appeared a 
disposition to mutiny in some of his own party, which proceeded 
so far that the missionary was near sending a few balls through 
the heads of the troublesome individuals. Every step of the 
way now was combated for against extortions, threatened war 
from the tribes, complaints of his followers, and fevers which 
seemed to feed on the anxieties of the occasion. Perhaps the 
most terribly trying hour of the whole journey was in the little 
worn-out tent at the encampment near the village of Ionga- 
Panza, who had acted with the most unpardonable disregard of 
truth and manliness. The sufferings of the men since leaving 
Katema's territory had been so great and so constant, everything 
had seemed to resist the progress of the party so bitterly, that 
the followers of Livingstone became thoroughly disheartened, 
and they began to discuss the wisdom of going back home. 



THE GREATEST TRIAL. 161 

The borders of the Portuguese settlement were almost at hand. 
The grand object for which the wonderful man had toiled and 
suffered during nearly two years, in which he had wandered 
amidst the perils of wilds where no white man had ever ven- 
tured, was almost accomplished. The highway for civilization 
and truth was almost open. And now the thought of abandon- 
ing all and going back. It was enough to overcome him in his 
best and most vigorous days. It could not be, it should not be 
he was determined, and after using all his powers of persuasion 
he declared to them that though they returned he should go on 
alone. The great man retired into his little tent and cast his 
eyes toward God for help. They loved him too strongly, 
though, those friends of the year of trial. Soon they began to 
gather about him, vowing that they would die before they 
would forsake him; they would go with him anywhere; "they 
had only spoken in the bitterness of their spirits, and feeling 
that they could do nothing." After this they were themselves 
again, ready for any toil, for any danger ; and were frequently 
overheard, when threatened by enemies, saying to each other, 
"That is just what we want ; let them begin." They seemed 
really anxious to reassure their "father," as they called Dr. 
Livingstone, of their love and courage. 

Although they were now so near the borders of the Portu- 
guese settlement, the natives seemed singularly ignorant of 
white men, and the straight hair of Livingstone was almost as 
much a curiosity as it had been far back in the interior. The 
Mambari do nearly all the trading between the whites along the 
coasts and the more central tribes, so that even where there are 
found many articles of European manufacture there is the same 
absolute ignorance of the sort of people who make the wonderful 
things. 

It was the 4th of April when the party reached the banks of 
the Quango, which bounds the territory of the Bangala, who 
are the subjects of the Portuguese. On the east side they were 
still in the country of the Bashange, the last of the border 
tribes, and were suffering every form of extortion. They were 
determined to make Livingstone pay for his passage over the 
river by giving them one of his men to be a slave ; while any- 
body who has followed the life history of the man to this point 



162 REST AT LAST. 

is assured that he would have died a thousand times, if possible, 
before he would have complied with such a demand. At length 
a young officer of the Portuguese militia, Cypriano di Abrue, 
made his appearance, and by his assistance the whole party were 
soon beyond the reach of the impositions and difficulties which 
had made their whole experience with the border tribes one of 
bitter anxiety and want. No wonder they passed so gladly 
along through the tall, waving grass, in the footsteps of the 
generous and friendly half-caste sergeant. And it was a lighter 
heart which beat in the little tattered tent that night, as it stood 
in front of Cypriano's house, than had been in it for a long, long 
time. And oh how thankfully the man of God, now almost 
ready to fall under the weight of his labor for Christ and souls, 
turneo! his eyes back on the great hidden world which he had 
partly found out and hastened now to make known ; and for- 
ward to the anxious, waiting brotherhood in Jesus, who would 
be glad to follow the thread of his journeys through those 
wildernesses with light and truth ! 

We will believe that he rested sweetly that night, and that 
the attending angel guard, which formed the nearer circle 
around him, looked on lovingly and with respect, and wondered 
that weak men, for love's sake only, should so endure and toil. 

The little village where the weary traveller had spread his 
storm-beaten tent so joyfully on the evening of the 4th of April 
was very far from being such a one as our imaginations might 
the more readily picture, in contrast with the darkness and 
degradation of barbarism. Angola, you must remember, is only 
an out-station of enlightenment ; but it is in the care of the Portu- 
guese government, and its mongrel population have many of 
the ideas and customs inseparable from the comfort of those who 
have been accustomed to the feelings of security and fellowship 
which legal government and enlightened society inspire. After 
so many months of anxiety and caution, the pleasure of sleeping 
under the authority of civilization, though absolutely in the hut 
of a heathen, was an inexpressibly precious privilege. The 
small cluster of neat, square houses, with the groups of half- 
caste Portuguese standing about, the whole nearly hidden in the 
tall, waving grass Avhich fringes the Quango on the west bank, 
was the scene of our friend Cypriano's dignity. In even such 



PORTUGUESE POLICY. 165 

society, and in so insignificant a suburb of civilization, Dr. 
Livingstone's condition excited wonder and pity. Wasted by 
sickness and staggering with fatigue, sun-scorched and ragged, 
whoever had dreamed of the habits and comforts of white men 
in their own light-favored and love-cheered lands would natur- 
ally wonder, and pity him and honor him. Cypriano was an 
officer in the Portuguese militia, and was in command of the 
little post on the border. He received his guest with great 
cordiality, and treated him with most careful respect and kindness 
during the few days of his sojourn with him. He was possibly 
a very favorable specimen of the half-caste population which 
composes so important a portion of Angola society. These 
people furnish the large proportion of traders who penetrate the 
" regions beyond." They retain, of course, many of the features 
of the tribe from which they are partly sprung ; the dark shade 
and the unquestionable wool are marks which decide their negro 
origin. Their Portuguese fathers, however, secured them the 
advantage of education, and what advantage may be in the 
name of Catholic. 

The Portuguese policy at Loanda has been very unlike the 
English on the Cape, and in some respects much wiser and 
gentler. The English have encouraged an overbearing spirit 
jn their subjects. The Portuguese have recognized the proba- 
bility that the white trader will be tempted to oppress the 
natives, and refuse to punish the community or tribe where 
one of these traders is killed. This naturally makes the whites 
cautious, and while it has not been enough to confine them at 
Loanda, has led to the employment of natives and half-castes 
for trading with remoter tribes. 

Dr. Livingstone reached Cassange, the most eastern station of 
the Portuguese, on the 12th. He was received at the house of 
Captain Nevis, who not only entertained him very kindly and 
generously but provided also for his followers. There was a 
feature of this settlement which impressed Dr. Livingstone that 
these Portuguese can never be successful colonists. That fea- 
ture was the entire absence of European women. The gentle- 
men come with no idea of remaining any longer than may be 
necessary for the accumulation of some money. They generally 
have taken native women into the temporary dignity of wives, 



166 WONDERFUL VALLEY. 

and unhesitatingly recognize the offspring of these unions as 
equals, and not uncommonly commit to them the most impor- 
tant trusts. 

The village of Cassange is about half way from the Quango, 
across the splendid valley which is waiting to become a granary 
for the world. "This valley is perhaps a hundred miles wide; 
clothed with dark forests, except where the tall grass covers the 
meadow land along the Quango, which here and there glances 
out in the sun as it wends its way northward." It is the vast 
reality of which the traveller said the view of the Clyde, from 
the spot whence Mary Queen of Scots witnessed the battle of 
Langside, is a miniature. The valley was entered on the 30th 
of March, by descending a precipitous path from the table land, 
which stood behind them now in the distance like a wall. The 
eastern half of the valley is the home of border tribes, who have 
learned meanness and cruelty from their imperfect acquaintance 
with white people. The western half is the frontier of the 
Portuguese, with Cassange for its principal town. 

Of course we could not expect that such a station should have 
anything of architectural beauty. The houses were built of 
wattle and daub; but they were surrounded by considerable 
plantations of manioc and maize, and furnished with gardens 
where many different European vegetables grew splendidly, 
and both native and imported fruits rewarded the almost care- 
less efforts of the people. The Makololo, too, were delighted to 
find here that ivory commanded greatly better prices than they 
had dreamed of in their own country. They had been accus- 
tomed to sell two tusks for one gun, so that their surprise and 
delight were almost amusing when they saw their leader receive 
for one tusk " two muskets, three small barrels of gunpowder, 
and English calico and baize enough to clothe the whole party, 
besides large bunches of beads." 

Many of these trading villages are to be found in this broad 
valley, and the native Portuguese in them generally become rich 
in a very few years. 

Livingstone needed to quiet often-recurring anxieties in the 
breasts of his Makololo as they drew nearer the coast. Their 
confidence in him was stronger than their fears, however; and 
though they were cautioned by some that the white people were 



THE "END OF THE WORLD." 169 

cannibals, and by others that Livingstone intended to make 
slaves of them, they followed him trustingly and lovingly as his 
children, as they called themselves. 

Having been kindly provided with a guide by the com- 
mander at Cassange, the party resumed their journey on the 
21st of April, and going twenty miles stood at the foot of the 
Tola Mung;ou°;o, which is the western wall of this wonderful 
valley, and after an hour of climbing were again on a lofty table 
land, from which they could look back a hundred miles to the 
borders of Londa. Geologists may find here, if they wish, a 
problem. They may undertake to tell the world how long ago 
it was when this broad chasm did not exist, but Tola Mun- 
gongo and Masamba Ridge were one. But while the scientists 
are making their calculations, the world will move on, and his- 
tory will be growing about these strange, wild clhTs, and nations 
succeeding each other on table lands and valleys. The journey 
to Loanda was attended now with only such delays as the kind- 
ness of the Portuguese at various settlements induced and the 
barter with natives for food occasioned. It led them first along 
a beautiful country, where splendid forests were threaded by a 
number of beautiful streams and inhabited by " true negroes." 
Then through the district of Ambaca, where the traces of Jesuit 
labor linger in the intelligence of the people, and the men 
themselves live yet in the love of those they sought to elevate. 
After that came a mountainous region which delighted the 
highland heart of Livingstone, and brought back to his mind 
many a view which charms the traveller in his own dear Scot- 
land — a region wildly beautiful and remarkably fertile. As 
they came nearer to the coast the life was not so vigorous, the 
scene became sterile. 

On the 31st of May the party looked out on the Atlantic 
from the brow of the hill which overlooks the city of Loanda, 
where all at once, as the Makololo expressed it, the world said, 
" I am finished ; there is no more of me." 



CHAPTER VII. 

ANGOLA. 

Anxiety — A Single Englishman — Sickness — Mr. Gabriel's Kindness — Settlement 
of Loanda — Portuguese Failure — Two Things Unfortunate — Makololo at 
Work — The Ship "a Town"— Livingstone's Relapse — Long Illness — What 
Might have Been — Slave Trade — Slavery in Africa — Grounds of Livingstone's 
Opposition — Negligent Cultivation of the Soil — Two Shillings a Month — 
Fetich Worship — Portuguese Policy — Ivory Trade — Unpaid Labor — Mania 
for Litigation — "Big Funerals" — The Poison Ordeal — Wild Animals — The 
Self-denial — Looking Eastward — Departure from Loanda — Makololo Boastings 
— The " True Ancients" — A Remarkable Insect — Ambaca — Church or Jail — 
Catholic Mistake — Pungo Andongo — On the Road — Difficulties of Ox-Riding 
— Traders — Beeswax and Elephant Tusks — Liliputian Monster — Descending 
from "Tola Mungongo " — Cassange — Drunkenness— The Quango Again. 

The city was strange ; the sea was unconscious. " Are there 
friends in the city ? Are there tidings on the sea?" The fare- 
well had been spoken two years ago. There had been no coun- 
sel, there had been no encouragement. The wilderness had 
been cheerless and the way had been long. The stoutest heart 
sometimes wants to lean itself upon another heart; the most 
vigorous frame may be worn by toil and anxiety. Is it strange 
that the strong man staggered to the brow of the hill and con- 
fessed a sinking heart as he looked down on the city and out on 
the sea ? And is it wonderful that he was glad when he found 
flowers blooming about the door of the only Englishman in 
Loanda ? Flowers are silent and frail, they are expressive and 
powerful; they control human passions like love, and smile a 
welcome sweeter than words may tell. It is a beautiful thing 
to enter a generous home across beds of flowers. The .home of 
Mr. Gabriel proved itself worthy of the hopes of the sick and 
destitute man of God and friend of men who sought its door. 
Dr. Livingstone was received like a brother. But his strength 
was gone. The brother's care was timely. Like a racer whom 
no fatigue can master until the goal is won, he had triumphed, 
but sank down helplessly in his success. 
170 




,::,-." 



SETTLEMENT OF LOANDA. 173 

The generous Englishman was glad to attend him in his 
sickness, and happy in the privilege of surrendering his own 
bed to the man who had known no better pillow than the 
ground for so many months. And not only Mr. Gabriel, but 
many Portuguese gentlemen were eager with their kindnesses. 
"Whoever has not felt the loneliness of such a life can hardly 
appreciate fully the happiness of such attentions. The friendly 
Makololo had been kind and zealous in his service, but they 
were heathen, and the very kindness in which they proved their 
love only provoked a deeper anxiety, for they were his care ; in 
their dusky forms all the ignorance and ills of Africa were 
revived before him. It was very pleasant to be cared for by 
equals, whose faces revived no anxiety. The good nursing of 
his friend, and the skill of Mr. Cockin, surgeon of an English 
ship which stood in the harbor, with the presence of the warm- 
hearted naval officers, were mightier, under God, than the ill- 
ness, and Dr. Livingstone was soon sufficiently restored and 
refreshed to be deeply interested in all surrounding objects. 
Loanda itself, with its lofty cliffs casting their rugged shadows 
on the sea, whose waves are forever breaking against their sides, 
and its massive castle frowning from a beetling crag; its old 
stone mansions and huts of daub and thatch ; its motley popu- 
lace of Portuguese, mulattoes and negroes; its harbor, where 
ships of all nations display their flags, is a place worthy of the 
traveller's attention. But, as the capital of Angola, it opens to 
him a volume, imperfect still and indistinctly written, but car- 
rying him back to the same eventful era in which our own land 
was snatched out of the sea and made known to the world. 
About the time Columbus discovered America, Diego Cam was 
planting the ensign of Portugal on the coast of Angola ; and the 
city — "St. Paul de Loanda" — was founded in 1578. It has 
been a splendid city. When approached from the sea, its forts 
and castles, and domes and spires and stone palaces, all white 
and gleaming in the sunshine — massive memorials of former 
glory — contradict the thought of benighted wilds. When ap- 
proached from the inland, the same stately structures burst on 
the view like works of enchantment. White men lean over the 
prows of their ships and wonder why so vigorous and decided a 
messenger of civilization has stood powerless by the sea during 



174 PORTUGUESE FAILURE. 

three hundred years. The savage gazes down from the heights 
and wonders what strange power it is that stands by their 
forests and deals with people in the sea. 

The Portuguese have not proven themselves equal to the 
task of lifting up Africa. Their labor and long-continued sway 
have been almost fruitless. The dilapidation of Loanda tells 
the story of all their efforts in Angola. The marks of failure 
are seen all over the district. The habits and customs of the 
natives are hardly modified ; their superstitions are not dispelled; 
their degradation is deepened. The white faces only supply a 
contrast unfriendly to the black. The deserted convents and 
broken crosses only cast heavy shadows on the barbarism they 
have not enlightened. The civilization has only tyrannized 
heathenism, and has not helped it. The curse of degeneracy 
has followed their unfaithfulness, and settlers themselves need 
reformation. Two things were unfortunate : the Portuguese 
Government established the colony covetously, and Roman 
Catholicism established the mission. The colony could not be 
a success which sought only wealth. The mission could only 
fail which encouraged superstition and little more than changed 
the names of gods. But the forgotten villages and lampless 
altars must not discourage civilization or daunt Christianity. 
They do not prove that Africa is irredeemable ; they only call 
our attention to a mistaken policy, and help us toward wisdom. 
They furnish a field where ignorance has been bruised under the 
heel of intelligence ; where superstition sits helplessly under the 
seal of Christianity. Angola, with Portuguese stations every- 
where, and familiar with the names of priests and saints, cries 
piteously to the Christian world, as does the heart of Africa. 

One of two splendid cathedrals in Loanda is now a work- 
shop, and the traveller saw, with sorrow, oxen feeding within 
the walls of another. Many miserable huts of wattle and daub 
have crept in between the stone mansions, and half-naked black 
men trust to their fetiches under the shadow of the walls where 
the crucifix hangs, and parade their strange customs by the side 
of European luxury. Darkness and light dwell together, and 
about them a half-caste offspring. A strange embodiment of 
intelligence and ignorance, of Christianity and fetichism, exerts 
a growing power. 



MAKOLOLO ASTONISHMENT. 175 

The Makololo attendants of Livingstone had shared the 
kindness which was so generously bestowed on their master. 
They had time to indulge their curious amazement, gazing on 
the houses and churches and out on the sea where the various 
ships were anchored. And when Livingstone was sufficiently 
recovered to go with them, they were invited to visit an Eng- 
lish man-of-war. The stories of foul play practised so fre- 
quently on black men made them a little timid ; but they had 
confidence in their " father," and soon the kind attentions of 
the generous sailors made them feel perfectly assured. Their 
confidence was almost reverence when they learned that these 
men and their ship were here to put down the trade in slaves. 
And they were delighted when they were permitted to fire off a 
cannon, and told " that is what we put down the slave trade 
with." They were amazed at the size of the ship. " It is not 
a canoe at all," they cried ; " it is a town ! " They called the 
deck the " kotla," but the rigging perplexed them, and they 
were heard to say, " but what sort of town is it that you must 
climb up into with ropes ? " They had at last proven fully the 
faithfulness of Dr. Livingstone ; they had absolutely wandered 
all through the great ship which they had been taught to dread 
as the dreaded, cruellest bondage, as more horrible than death ; 
they had been kindly entertained by other white men, and han- 
dled without injury their great guns. They gathered about 
their friend with absolute trust and affection. 

The recovery of Livingstone was too speedy to be permanent: 
a severe relapse confined him again to the bed of his noble host, 
and a long and wearying illness cut him off from his followers 
and held him a prisoner in Loanda. But Mr. Gabriel's kind- 
ness was unwavering and most assiduous. He not only nursed 
his guest faithfully, but assumed again the care of the Makololo. 
These active men won the admiration of those who saw them 
by the promptness with which they engaged in their self- 
support, though strangers and visitors. In the absence of other 
employment, they began a brisk trade in firewood, which they 
brought in from the neighboring forests on their shoulders. 
They were then employed to unload a cargo of coal. This fur- 
nished them with something to tell when they returned to their 
own people. It was a wonderful thing to be working hard a 



176 SLAVE TRADE OP LOANDA. 

" moon and a half" unloading " stones that burn/' and quit 
leaving plenty in the vessel. Indeed, everything in civilized 
life is wonderful to these sons of the distant wilderness lands. 
And the effect on the minds of these Makololo of their few 
months' contact with Europeans, who treated them with special 
kindness — a kindness secured by their association with the great 
explorer — suggests the most hopeful results for efforts made in 
the true spirit of Christ for the enlightenment of Africa. If 
there had been no slave trade from Loanda ; if there had been 
fair dealing with the natives ; if there had been a generous re- 
cognition of their manhood at the different posts of the Portu- 
guese authority ; if there had been clear Christian instruction 
by the priests ; if there had been no new superstitions engrafted 
on their ignorance ; if the open Bible had been given them in- 
stead of the mysterious crucifix and the pictures of saints ; if 
love and honest instruction had been given in the place of 
cruelty and vigorous mysticism, who will say that Angola 
would not have been the bright spot on this continent long ago, 
toward which the world might look with pride, and for which 
the churches might glorify God ? We do not need to charge 
the Portuguese with bringing about the slave trade beyond the 
coasts. There is reason to believe that it was a part of African 
life long before the settlement of Loanda. But it is a pity that 
the cupidity of nominal Christians was so eager to embrace the 
opportunity which the degradation of a people presented. It is 
a shame in Christendom that the miseries discovered in a ne- 
glected land could excite commiseration only when they had 
satiated covetousness. No one thing so engaged the heart of 
Livingstone as the suppression of the slave trade. We do not 
need to confess our faith in all the venomous charges which are 
brought against those who have owned men. We do not need 
to question whether the actual condition of Africans held in 
bondage in civilized communities is really better than the condi- 
tion of those who shrink and shudder or curse and kill in the 
wild land of their nativity. We do not need to consider the 
question of the absolute guilt or innocence of slaveholding in 
the light of the Scriptures, before we offer our hearty sympa- 
thies for the noble, life-long efforts of this singularly consecrated 
man to engage the heart of the world for Africa. And we 



Livingstone's opposition. 177 

can pray with him when we find him importuning God out of 
those wildernesses for the time when his truth may have turned 
the darkness into light, and when no man shall invade the con- 
tinent with chains of any other bondage than Christ's constrain- 
ing love. He found that the slave system existing in various 
parts of the country presented one of the most perplexing bar- 
riers to his work, and found, too, that, whatever might be the 
contrast between negroes in America and their ancestors in 
Africa, in Africa the contrast was against slavery. Wherever 
he found the tribes distinguished by systems of slavery, he 
found deceptions and cruelties and superstitions innumerable ; 
while in the tribes which denounced slavery, and counted every 
man a member of the family of the chief, and called themselves 
" men," he found generosity and kindness and comparative in- 
telligence. As a missionary in Africa he could only lament the 
slave idea, and, depending on his testimony of facts, how shall 
we not lament with him that idea, at least so far as it is con- 
nected with the internal condition of that unhappy continent? 
And how shall we not be willing to sacrifice all theories and 
privileges for the speediest redemption of those wild tribes? 
Who is there that can withhold his applause and his help when 
the conversion of Africa demands the closing of every slave 
mart on its coast, and the moral influence of the world against 
the systems of bondage that exist in the social structure of its 
tribes ? Livingstone's denunciation of slavery in the abstract 
was grounded not so much on any theory of justice and injus- 
tice, or idle prejudice, as on what he saw to be the evil influence 
of the slave trade on Africa, and its natural antagonism for 
African evangelization. He did not denounce the slaveholders 
and go to Africa, but he went to Africa, and after long observa- 
tion testified to the world that every slave ship which touched 
that continent drove it into deeper degradation, and on behalf 
of its hundred million souls pleaded against them. His heart 
was encouraged by the presence of an English commissioner for 
'the suppression of this trade in the person of such a man as Mr. 
Gabriel, and by the presence in the port of English power to 
prevent it; but it was quite clear that the strictest vigilance and 
the most sincere purpose had not been successful in effectually 
preventing its continuance. The cupidity of the traders was 
9 



178. LABOR IN ANGOLA. 

too great and their wares too tempting. The one secured them 
possession of great numbers of the poor creatures, the other 
found means to dispose of them. 

The abundance of this unrewarded labor throughout Angola 
had probably been the cause of much negligence in the masters 
of the soil. The appliances of agriculture were almost entirely 
wanting, though the soil is singularly fertile and offers a won- 
derful reward for industry. Cotton grows almost as freely as 
the native grasses, and coffee, though probably imported, is 
found in many places growing most luxuriantly and yielding 
abundantly with hardly any attention. Indeed, almost every 
variety of fruit and vegetable and important article of agri- 
culture is easily reared in the splendid valleys of this district. 
Yet singularly enough there was found no implement of labor 
except the peculiar Angola hoe with double handle, which is 
dragged lazily along across the ground to make a place for the 
seed, which when once deposited is left to its own vitality and 
the favor of climate and soil until the harvest. The labor of 
cultivating the lands falls to the women. The men are not dis- 
tinguished by as much industry as the women, and work so 
leisurely at their weaving that they only produce a single web, 
a few feet in length and twenty inches wide, in a month ; receiv- 
ing only two shillings for their task and material. There are in 
various places ruins of manufactories, aud traces of former 
works in iron and copper. The natives have become exceed- 
ingly fond of barter, in which they exchange with foolish pro- 
digality anything they may get their hands on for such articles 
as may strike their fancy. Those who are held as slaves mani- 
fest a perfect mania for stealing, and are always ready with any 
amount of lying to conceal their thefts. Their chief food is the 
manioc ; and they are in consequence more effeminate than they 
would be with a stronger diet. They are, like many of the 
more inland tribes, dreadfully superstitious, and cherish some 
strange and cruel customs, which spring from their beliefs. 
They can hardly be called idolaters in the strict sense of the* 
term, because the worship of idols implies an ultimate appeal 
to a Supreme Being. They are Fetich worshippers. The 
difference between them and idolaters is that they do not con- 
sider the object which they bow down before as an image of an 



PORTUGUESE POLICY. 179 

Unseen Being, but as itself possessing the power to which they 
appeal. Perhaps there is no form of heathen belief so degrad- 
ing and oppressive as this, none which leaves the worshipper 
more a prey to his own vicious imagination, or affords such 
opportunities for the abuses of the priests who minister at the 
strange altars. 

Dr. Livingstone found many traces of the early Jesuit teach- 
ing, which inspired him with respect for these men, as having 
really sought to benefit those whom they taught ; and in many 
places they are remembered by the natives kindly, while the 
priests who succeeded them are only referred to bitterly. 

There was nothing seen of the boldness and courage among 
the natives which frequently excited his admiration for their 
sable brothers in the distant forests which he had left. The 
prevailing slavery and military government of the Portuguese 
have taken away whatever spirit may have distinguished them in 
former times. The African is generally in great terror of fire- 
arms, and a dismantled fort with only a useless cannon fills 
the regions around with awe and will hold entire communities 
in subjection. 

The country is divided with some regularity by the govern- 
ment at Loanda, and there are officials known as commanders 
occupying these several districts, who, having little else to do,- 
and being poorly paid by their government, have time and 
temptation to abuse the natives by all sorts of impositions and 
extortions. These gentlemen generally accumulate large prop- 
erties and seem to enjoy great serenity in their little tyrannies. 
These Portuguese authorities manage quite shrewdly to relieve 
themselves of as much care as possible, and at the same time 
maintain the real authority over the people, by taking advantage 
of the gradations into which native society is divided. 

"This man, for instance, is still a sova or chief, has his 
councillors, and maintains the same state as when the country 
was independent. When any of his people are guilty of theft, 
he pays down the amount of goods stolen at once, and reim- 
burses himself out of the property of the thief so effectually as 
to be benefited by the transaction. The people under him are 
divided into a number of classes. There are his councillors, as 
the highest, who are generally head men of several villages, and 



180 



TRADE IN IVORY. 



the carriers, the lowest free men. One class above the last 
obtains the privilege of wearing shoes from the chief by paying 
for it ; another, the soldiers or militia, pay for the privilege of 
serving, the advantage being that they are not afterward liable 
to be made carriers. They are also divided into gentlemen, and 
little gentlemen, and, though quite black, speak of themselves 
as white men, and of the others, who may not wear shoes, as 
' blacks.' " 

The lordly masters of the region manifest little concern 
whether their subjects worship a bush, or the sun, or Christ, if 
only their plantations and orchards yield abundantly, and their 
pockets growing yearly more plethoric promise leisure and 
comfort when they go back to their own country. 

Next to the trade in slaves, perhaps the most material export 
from Loanda in the past has been ivory, which is brought from 
the interior by means of slave carriers in great quantities ; and 
since the serious efforts for the suppression of the former, this 
latter article is greatly increased in relative value. Slaves, in- 
deed, are very cheap. Dr. Livingstone mentions seeing a boy 
twelve years old sold for a single fowl, which was the equiva- 
lent of only a pound or two of ivory. Almost fabulous num- 
bers of tusks are brought out by the traders yearly. And as 
there is no wagon way, and all burdens must be conveyed by 
hand, there are great numbers of men who are employed ex- 
clusively in this labor. These carriers were formerly forced 
into service in any numbers, as the demand might suggest ; and 
even now it is more a service of compulsion than willingness; 
for the government, while almost forced in self-respect to enact 
laws which have a show of kindness and justice, really encour- 
ages the disregard of those laws by the leniency with which it 
regards their violation by the different commanders. Unwil- 
ling to relinquish its authority in Angola, the Portuguese home 
government seems equally unwilling to support it by the neces- 
sary expense, and prefers to hire officials for it by rich oppor- 
tunities rather than reasonable salaries. It cannot cancel the 
opportunities without increasing the salaries, so the disregard 
of all protective ordinances is winked at, and the natives serve 
for nothing. 

It is interesting to observe in the natives of Angola — who, 




FISHING SCENE IN ANGOLA. 




COMTXJXSORT SERVICE IN ANGOEA. 



BIG FUNERALS. 



183 



indeed, are more of the negro type than many of the tribes — 
much the same disposition to imitate the more enlightened 
white people, as we know to be a feature of negro character in 
our own country, and naturally enough they succeed best in 
those particulars which are least commendable. The better 
qualities in people hardly ever impress themselves as forcibly 
on the minds of the untutored as do others. These Angolese 
negroes, for instance, have developed a singular fondness for 
litigation, in which they are reckless of all results if only they 
may have the comfort of taking an antagonist to court. Living- 
stone mentions a case which came before the weekly court of 
the commandant, involving property in a palm tree worth two- 
pence. The judge advised the pursuer to withdraw the case, 
as the mere expenses of entering it would be much more than 
the cost of the tree. " Oh, no," said he ; "I have a piece of 
calico with me for the clerk, and money for yourself. It's my 
right ; I will not forego it." The calico itself cost three or four 
shillings. They rejoice if they can say of an enemy, " I took 
him before the court." 

They have also a great ambition for titles and display, in 
which the Portuguese, who have as little scruples about color as 
they have about slavery, indulge them quite freely. It is not 
uncommon for them to invite these petty chiefs, whom they re- 
tain in a seeming authority for theif own convenience, to their 
feasts, and they always appear with a show of importance which 
is sometimes extremely grotesque. 

Funerals here, as in other sections, call forth the greatest 
excitement and justify all the excesses imaginable. The highest 
ambition is a grand funeral, and furnishes occasion for more 
than ordinary forethought. Frequently when one is asked to 
sell a pig, he replies, " I am keeping it in case of the death of 
any of my friends." A pig is usually slaughtered and eaten on 
the last day of the ceremonies, and its head thrown into the 
nearest stream or river. A native will sometimes appear intox- 
icated on these occasions, and, if blamed for his intemperance, 
will reply, " Why ! my mother is dead ! " as if he thought it a 
sufficient justification. The expenses of funerals are so heavy 
that often years elapse before they can defray them. The rites 
are half festive, half mourning, partaking somewhat of the 



184 



POISON OEDEAL. 



character of an Irish wake. There is nothing more heart- 
rending than their death wails. When the natives turn their 
eyes to the future world, they have a view cheerless enough of 
their own utter helplessness and hopelessness. They fancy 
themselves completely in the power of the disembodied spirits, 
and look upon the prospect of following them as the greatest of 
misfortunes. Hence they are constantly deprecating the wrath 
of departed souls, believing that, if they are appeased, there is 
no other cause of death but witchcraft, which may be averted 
by charms. The whole of the colored population of Angola are 
sunk in these gross superstitions, but have the opinion, notwith- 
standing, that they are wiser in these matters than their white 
neighbors. Each tribe has a consciousness of following its own 
best interests in the best way. They are by no means destitute 
of that self-esteem which is so common in other nations; yet 
they fear all manner of phantoms, and have half-developed 
ideas and traditions of something or other, they know not what. 

One of the most distressing customs growing out of the super- 
stition of these people is their appeal to the "poison ordeal" in 
cases of alleged guilt. The draught is prepared by certain 
priests or pretended diviners at a particular spot on the banks 
of the river Ina. Its effects differ in proportion to the strength 
or weakness of the decoction. In a weaker state it remains in 
the stomach and produces a horrible death ; when stronger, it 
causes violent vomiting, and is not fatal. It is easily under- 
stood how the experienced priest who administers it may decide 
the destiny of a poor victim of the terrible delusion. If the 
draught causes death it is considered proof positive of guilt, and 
many a poor wife or despised daughter has fallen a victim by 
the agency of this appeal to the contempt or unfaithfulness of 
her friends or husband. It is an awful ordeal for the people, 
but a fat place for the priest. 

Some writers have spoken of Angola as abounding in wild 
animals, but with very little evidence. It seems generally 
taken for granted that because there are ferocious monsters in 
some sections of this continent that they may therefore be 
assumed to be anywhere and everywhere. There seems to be 
rather an extraordinary absence of such inhabitants in Angola. 
Even the few which may be there are so intimidated and spirit- 



THE SELF DENIAL. 185 

less that they take no part in the incidents of the day, and are 
the victims of traps rather than arms. 

Dr. Livingstone thought that he discovered a peculiarly dis- 
piriting effect of the climate on the people themselves, which is 
hardly in keeping with the idea of multitudes of wild beasts. 
He mentions that even the bulls are spiritless and serve like 
oxen for riding. "I never met a ferocious one in the country," 
says he. 

The time at length came when his health was so far renewed 
that he might resume his travels. Lying in the harbor was an 
English vessel, and her captain offered him passage homeward. 
The temptation was very great. More than two years had 
passed since he parted with his wife, fourteen years since he 
entered Africa at the Cape. Oh how his heart longed for the 
old scenes once more ! The warm friends in England, the lov- 
ing wife and children, and at Blantyre, on the Clyde, there 
were dear cherished ones fading now, and forms growing 
weaker every day. The murmuring of the sea might be the 
voices of those dear ones calling him to receive the last blessing. 
If he turned again into the wilderness, could he endure another 
journey like the last? Would he pass the hostile border tribes 
safely ? Where would he again look out on the sea ? And 
why should he go? He was now convinced that there could 
be no highway from Angola into central Africa. Wagons could 
not possibly follow his footsteps across the mountains and 
flooded valleys, and through the covetous and unfriendly tribes 
that had beset his life so resolutely. And where in all that 
region could he hope to establish a mission ? And why simply 
retrace his steps over so great a distance? Why not yield to 
the kind solicitations of his generous friend and look on the 
hills and valleys of his own native land once more, and make 
glad the hearts of his aged parents, and comfort his patient, 
faithful wife, and smile on his own children ? Surely all history 
cannot produce an instance of more delicate conscientiousness 
and nobler benevolence than he undesignedly reveals when he 
says : " I had brought a party of Sekeletu's people with me, and 
found the tribes near the Portuguese settlements so very un- 
friendly that it would be altogether impossible for them to re- 
turn alone. I therefore resolved to decline the tempting offer 



186 DEPARTURE FROM LOANDA. 

and take my Makololo back to their chief." Is it wonderful 
that such a man should be able to walk up and down among 
savages ? It was the spirit of Christ shining out in everything 
he did which charmed them and made him a master, while he 
called them his friends. There was, however, the additional 
thought and desire that from the Makololo country he might 
follow the Zambesi to the coast on the east, and possibly find a 
highway for the gospel to the hidden homes of the millions of 
poor degraded beings who were passing across the stage of life, 
who were spending the probation for eternity in helpless ignor- 
ance and " passing away in darkness." 

Furnished with a number of presents for Sekeletu, including 
a horse and a complete colonel's uniform, and suits of clothing 
for all the men why accompanied him to Loanda, and first-rate 
specimens of the different articles of trade, and two donkeys, 
which are the more valuable as being proof against the tsetse, 
which are the bane of the Makololo country, and having re- 
ceived letters of commendation to the Portuguese authorities in 
eastern Africa, Dr. Livingstone and his followers left St. Paul 
de Loanda on the 20th of September, 1854, after a little less 
than four months, nearly all of which had been spent in painful 
illness. A fresh supply of ammunition and beads, with a good 
stock of cloth, was a precaution quite in place, and a musket 
apiece for his men enabled them to present a more formidable 
display, and bid a more serious defiance if it should be necessary 
in passing the pugnacious tribes beyond the Quango. The 
Makololo had accumulated a considerable amount of treasures, 
which made it necessary to increase the party by the addition 
of twenty carriers, who were supplied by the Bishop of Angola. 

The party had the company of Mr. Gabriel as far as Icollo i 
Bengo, where they visited a large sugar refinery belonging to 
Donna Anna da Sousa, a lady owner of vast numbers of slaves, 
who seemed to be trying to furnish an illustration of how little 
may be done by a multitude nominally at work. 

They passed along some distance near the river Senza. Of 
this region Livingstone says : " The whole of this part of the 
country is composed of marly tufa, containing the same kind of 
shells as those at present alive in the seas. As we advanced 
eastward and ascended the higher lands, we found eruptive trap, 



MAKOLOLO BOASTINGS. 187 

which had tilted up immense masses of mica and sandstone 
schists. The mica schist almost always dipped toward the in- 
terior of the country, forming those mountain ranges of which 
we have already spoken as giving a highland character to the 
district of Golungo Alto. The trap has frequently run through 
the gorges made in the upheaved rocks, and at the points of 
junction between the igneous and older rocks there are large 
quantities of strongly magnetic iron ore. The clayey soil 
formed by the disintegration of the mica schist and trap is the 
favorite soil for the coffee ; and it is on these mountain sides, 
and others possessing a similar red clay soil, that this plant has 
propagated itself so widely. The meadow lands adjacent to the 
Senza and Coanza being underlaid by that marly tufa which 
abounds toward the coast, and containing the same shells, show 
that, previous to the elevation of that side of the country, this 
region possessed some deeply-indented bays." 

The men experienced much inconvenience now in travelling, 
because the hard, dry roads in the earlier part of the journey 
caused considerable soreness of the feet. But their minds were 
full of the wonderful things they had seen, and, like great chil- 
dren, they were ever planning narratives to be told when they 
reached their homes again, and composing songs in honor of 
their achievements. They would say to their leader : " It is 
well you came with the Makololo, for no tribe could have done 
what we have accomplished in coming to the white man's coun- 
try. We are the true ancients who can tell wonderful things." 

Some time was spent in the neighborhood of Golungo Alto, 
enjoying the hospitality of the commander, M. Canto, who was 
deeply interested in the improvement of the country. One of 
the most remarkable little creatures in all Africa came under 
the observation of Dr. Livingstone in this neighborhood ; and 
because the account is itself full of interest, and because the 
accuracy of it illustrates a feature in the character of the man, 
which has contributed very largely to the singular success of 
his life, we prefer to give it fully in his own language. He 
says : " Before leaving, I had an opportunity of observing a 
curious insect which inhabits a tree of the fig family (Fieus) 
upwards of twenty species of which are found here; seven or 
eight of them cluster round a spot on one of the smaller 



188 REMARKABLE INSECTS. 

branches, and there keep up a constant distillation of a clear 
fluid, which, dropping to the ground, forms a little puddle 
below. If a vessel is placed under them in the evening, it con- 
tains three or four pints of fluid in the morning. The natives 
say that, if a drop falls into the eyes, it causes inflammation of 
these organs. To the question, whence is this fluid derived, the 
people reply that the insects suck it out of the tree, and our own 
naturalists give the same answer. I have never seen an orifice, 
and it is scarcely possible that the tree can yield so much. A 
similar but much smaller homopterous insect, of the family 
Cercopidce, is known in England as the frog-hopper (Aphrophora 
spumaria), when full grown and furnished with wings, but 
while still in the pupa state it is called ' Cuckoo-spit,' from the 
mass of froth in which it envelops itself. The circulation of 
sap in plants in our climate, especially of the graminacese, is not 
quick enough to yield much moisture. The African species is 
five or six times the size of the English. In the case of 
branches of the fig tree, the point the insects congregate on is 
soon marked by a number of incipient roots, such as are thrown 
out when a cutting is inserted in the ground for the purpose of 
starting another tree. I believe that both the English and 
African insects belong to the same family, and differ only in 
size, and that the chief part of the moisture is derived from the 
atmosphere. I leave it for naturalists to explain how these 
little creatures distil both by night and day as much water as 
they please, and are more independent than her majesty's steam- 
ships, witli their apparatus for condensing steam ; for, without 
coal, their abundant supplies of sea-water are of no avail. I 
tried the following experiment : Finding a colony of these in- 
sects busily distilling on a branch of the Ricinus communis, or 
castor-oil plant, I denuded about 20 inches of the bark on the 
tree side of the insects, and scraped away the inner bark, so as 
to destroy all the ascending vessels. I also cut a hole in the 
side of the branch, reaching to the middle, and then cut out the 
pith and internal vessels. The distillation was then going on 
at the rate of one drop each 67 seconds, or about 2 ounces 5|- 
drachms in 24 hours. Next morning the distillation, so far 
from being affected by the attempt to stop the supplies, suppos- 
ing they had come up through the branch from the tree, was 



DISTRICT OF AMBACA. 189 

increased to a drop every 5 seconds, or 12 drops per minute, 
making 1 pint (16 ounces) in every 24 hours. I then cut the 
branch so much that, during the day, it broke ; but they still 
went on at the rate of a drop every 5 seconds, while another 
colony on a branch of the same tree gave a drop every 17 
seconds only, or at the rate of about 10 ounces 4f drachms in 24 
hours. I finally cut off the branch ; but this was too much for 
their patience, for they immediately decamped, as insects will 
do from either a dead branch or a dead animal, which Indian 
hunters soon know, when they sit down on a recently killed 
bear. The presence of greater moisture in the air increased the 
power of these distillers : the period of greatest activity was in 
the morning, when the air and everything else was charged 
with dew." 

A splendid country was tempting them, which could be 
reached by turning aside only a little to the west; and though 
deeply interested in the delightful district of M. Canto, the 
traveller contented himself to give up again the enjoyments of 
a home for the hard path. The country through which he 
passed before coming to the far-famed " Rocks of Pungo An- 
dongo " was not new to him, because it was on the route by 
which he came some months before. Then, however, he had 
been unable to appreciate its beauties ; indeed, unable even to 
notice the names and locations of points of interest as he passed 
them. He was then so worn out by fever that he had forgotten 
the days of the week and the names of his companions. But 
now he could look away to the lofty mountains with real de- 
light, and the splendid valleys of the numerous little streams, 
teeming with herds and waving their agricultural wealth so 
proudly in his view, charmed him. In the midst of a land- 
scape so beautiful it was a disappointment to find only a paltry 
village hiding itself as if ashamed in a recess of the mountains. 
The town of Ambaca has the same history which makes nearly 
all of the towns of Angola gloomy : it is the story of failure — 
departed glory. There were the ruins of a church, and a jail in 
good repair, which tells the whole story of the Portuguese 
efforts in the country. The church system was too benevolent; 
the Jesuits loved the natives too much. The church did not 
fill the pockets of the Portuguese settlers or afford a revenue to 



190 CHUECHES OR JAILS. 

the government. It sought the people, more than what they 
had. The church was bad policy. The government could 
receive more from jails. So the church was allowed to become 
a ruin ; the jail was honored. It was a delusion of spiritual 
blindness. The jail will be torn down some time or other 
where churches are allowed to fall. People do not realize the 
cost of jails. Larger revenues are obtained by strength of 
authority, by measures of force ; it is ignored that the revenue 
is consumed in creating the force, in sustaining the authority. 
Rulers have not fully appreciated the greater wisdom of so 
elevating the people, at any cost, that every man's conscience 
may become a constable who shall collect the dues of govern- 
ment and protect society. It was pleasing and painful to find 
in the district of Ambaca some of the traces of the good but 
mistaken men who had taught the people. It was pleasing to 
find so many of the natives reading. It was painful to realize 
that the long and other valuable labors of the Jesuits had left 
no intelligent ideas of Christ. It was not their policy to com- 
mit the word of God to their converts. The crucifixes and 
pictures withstood too feebly the surrounding ignorance and 
superstition. The Bible would have been powerful ; it would 
have been the eentre of a growing light whether there were 
priests or none. The failure or refusal of the Catholic Church 
to employ the open Bible in their missions makes the ultimate 
failure of them absolutely certain. There is no disposition to 
deny that much noble benevolence and wonderful zeal has 
characterized the labors of many of the singularly devoted 
servants of this church ; it is only lamented that they do not 
adopt a policy which might be more beneficent and more effec- 
tual in the conversion of men. The simple fact that the forty 
thousand inhabitants of the district of Ambaca are improved in 
intelligence, and remember their teachers with respect, would 
not satisfy the men who we trust sincerely desired their salva- 
tion finally and their emancipation now from the bondage of 
heathen beliefs. We will hope that a day may come speedily 
when a wiser rule and truer agencies shall change effectually the 
songs of the people, and engage them more truly in the service 
of Christ. Surely it is a sad mockery of the Master's commis- 
sion to put his name on men whose hearts continue in most 



PUNGO ANDONGO. 



191 



degraded reverence of things inanimate. Livingstone was far 
from reflecting severely on the Catholic Church or her servants, 
but he could not fail to record a remonstrance, and he could not 
record with pleasure even the most conspicuous self-sacrifice, 
followed inevitably by such results. There could only be pain- 
ful meditations tinging the pleasing influence of nature's charms 
as the missionary explorer turned away from this singularly 
favored and unfortunate district — favored in having heard, 
unfortunate in having forgotten, precious, most vital things. 

Crossing the Lucalla, he bent his way towards the paradise 
of the country. He says : " In all my inquiries about the 
vegetable products of Angola I had been invariably directed to 
Pungo Andongo." On reaching the wonderful place he found 
that the remarkable success of a single man in cultivating his 
large estate told the whole story of the reputation the district 
had gained. This man's name was Pires ; he was commander 
of the district. Coming to the country as a servant on a ship, 
he had by industry made himself the richest man in all Angola. 
His residence and the fort are under the shadow of a group of 
"columnar-shaped rocks, each of which is more than three 
hundred feet high." Of these mighty rocks Dr. Livingstone 
writes: "They are composed of conglomerate, made up of a 
great variety of rounded pieces in a matrix of dark red sand- 
stone. They rest on a thick stratum of this last rock, with very 
few of the pebbles in its substance. On this a fossil palm has 
been found, and if of the same age as those on the eastern side 
of the continent, on which similar palms now lie, there may be 
coal underneath this, as well as under that at Tete. The 
asserted existence of petroleum springs at Dande, and near 
Cambambe, would seem to indicate the presence of this useful 
mineral, though I am not aware of any one having actually 
seen a seam of coal tilted up to the surface in Angola, as we 
have at Tete. The gigantic pillars of Pungo Andongo have 
been formed by a current of the sea coming from the S. S. E. '> 
for, seen from the top, they appear arranged in that direction > 
and must have withstood the surges of the ocean at a period of 
our world's history when the relations of land and sea were 
totally different from what they are now, and long before ' the 
morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted 



192 ON THE EOAD. 

for joy to see the abodes prepared which man was soon to fill.' 
The imbedded pieces in the conglomerate are of gneiss, clay 
shale, mica and sandstone schists, trap, and porphyry, most of 
which are large enough to give the whole the appearance of 
being the only remaining vestiges of vast primeval banks of 
shingle." 

The little village, environed by these huge, immovable sen- 
tinels, is entered by narrow pathways, across which there are 
beautiful little streams flowing, and has the air of quiet and 
almost conscious security which is only natural in such a fast- 
ness. 

It was January 1st, 1855, before the party were again on the 
path. The Makololo marched along proudly enough. All 
along they passed the villages of the people who had excited 
their fears when they were approaching the coast, and they let 
no opportunity pass now which might be improved in reciting 
their exploits. Their attentions to Dr. Livingstone were more 
devoted than ever, and the happy confidence and comparative 
freshness of the entire party enabled them to move on with 
remarkable facility, though every man carried his own posses- 
sions. The method employed by the natives of Africa is some- 
thing like that by which the Chinese carry such heavy burdens 
with so much ease. The bundle or basket is fastened to the 
end of a pole, which is placed on the shoulder. They have yet 
to learn that the dividing of the burden strictly, according to 
the fashion of the Celestials, would make their labor lighter 
still. In the engraving of the rocks of Pungo Andongo, the 
travelling party is seen winding along by the base of the 
gigantic pillars, with Dr. Livingstone, mounted on his vigorous 
ox, in the midst. The Makololo could not become expert 
riders ; and Livingstone himself, indeed, found the method of 
conveyance, as furnished by the particular animal which had 
been raised to the dignity of his steed, attended with some in- 
conveniences, in which the frequent most unceremonious pre- 
cipitations into mud or sand or thorns or streams figured con- 
spicuously. 

All along the way there were passing parties of traders and 
natives, with their heavy loads of merchandise for the market 
at Loanda. These consisted chiefly of elephants' tusks and 



LILIPUTIAN MONSTERS. 193 

beeswax. The great number of these companies afforded ample 
opportunity for the " true ancients " to tell how they had them- 
selves " entered the ships of the white men." 

The absence in this region of those monsters of the forest 
whose attentions generally furnish incident for the traveller's 
story leaves us willing to notice creatures more insignificant. 
It is a question, though, whether a certain tiny individual who 
crossed Dr. Livingstone's path one day on Tola Mungongo may 
be despised in any company. This Liliputian monster was none 
other than a red ant. Livingstone may tell his own story. 
" The first time," says he, " that I encountered this by no 
means contemptible enemy my attention was taken up in view- 
ing the distant landscape, and I accidentally stepped on one of 
their nests. Not an instant seemed to elapse before a simul- 
taneous attack was made on various unprotected parts ; up the 
trowsers from below and on my neck and breast above. The 
bites of these furies were like sparks of fire, and there was no 
retreat. I jumped about for a second or two, and then in 
desperation tore off all my clothing and rubbed and picked them 
off seriatim as quickly as possible. It is really astonishing how 
such small bodies can contain so large an amount of ill nature. 
They not only bite, but twist themselves around after the man- 
dibles are inserted to produce laceration and pain more than 
would be effected by the wound." These savage little wanderers 
are often seen moving along in vast armies, and look as they 
cross a path like a brownish-red band two or three inches wide. 
Such is their voracity, and such multitudes are there, that they 
will, during a single night, devour the larger part of an ox. 
They are the plague of rats and reptiles of all descriptions. 

Descending the heights of Tola Mungongo on the 15th, and 
passing rapidly across the lovely valley as far as Cassange, 
Livingstone met again the kind welcome of the genial and 
generous Captain Neves, and on the 28th he met the young 
man Cypriano, who had so kindly come to his assistance on the 
banks of the Quango, when the Bashange disputed his right to 
passage. But the young man had become so much a slave of 
drink that he had hardly means to afford pleasant entertainment. 
Already the traders were carrying this baneful article to the 
distant chiefs. It is sad indeed that with the van of civilization 



194 



THE QUANGO AGAIN. 



this curse of the world must ever find its way, sowing in every 
new-found land the seeds of a second degradation, deeper, if 
possible, and more hopeless than that of utter ignorance and 
superstition. While the anxious laborer thought on this evil 
and all the ills of Africa, and cast his thoughts back over the 
strange condition of Angola under Portuguese rule, he stood 
again by the banks of the Quango, arranging to enter the terri- 
tory of the Bashange, who had learned only covetousness and 
treachery from their white neighbors. 




MOLE CRICKET. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LONDA OR LINDA. 

Lessons of Experience — Sansawe's Demands — His Refusal — A Blow on the Beard 
— Revenge — Changing the Tune — Dandies and Belles — Lizards and Snakes — 
Seven Thousand Fowls for Ten Dollars — Many Village Mania — The Sea- 
sons — Sister of Matiamoo — An Ox or a Man — Strategy — Trial for Murder 
— Street Fight — Dish of "White Ants — Lovely Bed of Flowers — God in Nature 
— A Noble Chief— Shinte's Again — The Leeba — Life Once More — Buffalo 
Hunt — Libouta Welcome — Thanksgiving Service — A Matrimonial Drawback 
— Capsized in the Leeambye— Sekeletu in Full Dress — The True Ancients in 
"White — Promising Opening — Preparation for the Journey — Going Eastward — 
Parting Words of Mamire — The Tribute of Faithfulness. 

Experience is a famous teacher ; its tuition has much to do 
with a man's comfort anywhere, particularly in Africa. Dr. 
Livingstone had been the victim of the border chiefs because 
he was not absolutely certain that he could be anything else ; 
but he was of a diiferent mind now, because he had learned that 
a decided independence was not only the safest course, but the 
kindest, as it would check in the outset the aggressions which 
no amount of patience could satisfy. Therefore, when he 
pitched his tent among the Bashange — this time by Sansawe's 
town — he was in no mood to put up with the covetous imposi- 
tions of that presumptuous gentleman. The party was hardly 
settled, however, before he made his appearance, in true Balonda 
fashion, mounted on his carrier's shoulders, and indulging in 
any quantity of palaver ; winding up, finally, with the expected 
information, that he would return in the evening to receive his 
dues. He manifested a little surprise when his supposed victim 
replied, with rather uncommon boldness, that he need not come 
unless he brought with him a present of a fowl and some eggs, 
as a chief should. In the evening he came, in his wonted 
dignity, and after visiting the camps of some traders, who paid 
quite extravagantly for his favor, made his respects to Dr. 
Livingstone and presented " two cocks." But when he re- 
10 195 



196 A BLOW ON THE BEARD. 

ceived only a few trifling articles, and a serious lecture in the 
bargain, he was in a very unfriendly humor. The quiet indif- 
ference of Livingstone was a hint, however, which the reputa- 
tion of the Makololo — a number of whom he saw about him, 
in possession of first-rate muskets — emphasized quite to his 
satisfaction, and there was no greater trouble than his harmless 
frown. But a little farther on, after the party had ascended 
from the valley and were on the table land once more, they met 
a more resolute individual in the person of the head man of a 
little village, where they had been detained several weeks by 
the sickness of Livingstone, who had already fallen a prey to 
the wasting fevers which had made his life almost a burden in 
this country a year before ; and besides the fevers he was now 
afflicted with rheumatism. It was hardly possible that he 
should be anything else than ill, drenched by day in the inces- 
sant rains, and sleeping at night on such beds as they were able 
to rake up of the saturated earth and dripping grass. He had 
been forced to lie by many days, and was only partially recov- 
ered, when the incident referred to occurred. The said " head 
man " had come to his camp and was bargaining and quarrelling 
with some of his men, when one of them, not overly burdened 
with the gentler qualities, administered a striking rebuke for 
some offensive speech. Nothing could atone for the " blow on 
the beard." The more the party yielded the more he de- 
manded, until Livingstone determined to do no more and 
departed. They had not gone very far, and were passing 
through a forest, when a body of men came rushing after them 
and initiated an affray by knocking down the burdens of the 
men in the rear. In an instant the Makololo were on their 
mettle and several shots were fired, and the two parties were 
taking their places on the sides of the path for more serious 
work. Hardly able to walk, Livingstone staggered quickly 
back and encountered the chief. That individual was hardly 
prepared to welcome the appearance of "a revolver with six 
barrels gaping into his stomach," and exhibited a singular re- 
version of feeling instantly, and, trembling in every limb, cried 
out, " Oh, I have only come to speak with you ! " It was 
hardly necessary for the traveller to insist much on the fright- 
ened mob's immediate departure, and our party passed on in 
safety. 



DANDIES AND BELLES. 



197 



The interminable forests and flooded streams, and the stupid 
ignorance of the people who were found living in the gloomy 
recesses of the country, all contributed to the difficulty of 
their progress, and they had not yet come to the habitat of any 
interesting specimens of animal life. After crossing the Loa- 
jima, the party made a little "detour southward," in order to 
get off of the path of traders. Hardly anything is more dis- 
gusting and provoking than the air of importance of slightly 
informed people, and in this the petty African chiefs who have 
had some little intercourse with these traders are perfect masters. 
The innocent vanities of the generous inhabitants of the more 
secluded sections were rather entertaining than otherwise. It 
may be a pleasing bit of information to the large class of our 
countrymen of the Beau Hickman stamp, that even benighted 
Africa is well supplied with dandies of as various whims as 
those who dwell in the clearer light of American civilization. 
There is, for instance, in the deep forests of Africa, the musical 
dandy, who, with the daintiest air, thumbs his iron-keyed in- 
strument in matchless hum-drum the night long. Then there 
is the martial dandy, who, like his American counterpart, de- 
lights in the display of soldierly insignia in safe distance from 
scenes of strife. And there is the effeminate dandy, who is 
always seen dandling his canary in a cage. And the dandy 
absolute, "par excellence" in the list; an aimless fop, who de- 
lights in the display of himself, with " lucubrated hair and 
ornaments innumerable." The ladies, too, who rejoice in their 
snowy poodles, may be pleased to know that their sable sisters, 
in the sequestered glens beneath an equatorial sun, arrange their 
strands of beads about their necks with greatest skill, and, 
esteeming themselves in full dress, are seen to simper artfully 
while they fondle their charming canine " pets." Civilization 
cannot claim a monopoly of the ornaments of society. For 
every young man standing on a corner in self-conscious attitud- 
inizing, there is a fellow, quite as self-conscious and fixed up in 
his way, standing about the paths and huts of Africa. And for 
every woman who lavishes caresses and baby talk on kittens 
and puppies, there is in Africa a maiden or childless matron 
who dandles creatures like them quite as fondly, with equal 
prodigality of gibberish quite as sentimental. It is so, on the 
word of a serious missionary, just as we write it. 



198 WORTH OF TEN DOLLARS. 

The nearest approach to beasts of prey the party found, before 
reaching the river Moamba, which they crossed on the 7th of 
May (lat. 9° 38' S., long. 20° 13' 34" E.), were the lizards, 
mice and serpents, whose peace they occasionally disturbed as 
they struggled through the grass and vines which lay along the 
route, and seemed to conspire with the zigzag paths to make the 
traveller's progress as slow and wearying as possible. 

There was one consolation, though, in the delays and toilsome 
progress : food was cheaper and cheaper the farther they left the 
borders of the white settlers. For the value of a penny a day 
four persons could live on the fat of the land. Livingstone 
mentions a purchase of tobacco which Captain Neves made — 
three hundred and eighty pounds for two pounds sterling, in 
Angola. The same tobacco, in central Londa, would suffice to 
feed seven thousand persons one day, giving each person a jowl 
and jive pounds oj meal. Seven thousand fowls and thirty-five 
thousand pounds of meal for about ten dollars' worth of tobacco ! 

One of the most common annoyances they suffered in this 
journey was the disposition of the people in every trifling village 
to detain them. This was a modest way of imposing a tax, as, 
of course, the delay would involve a certain amount of expendi- 
ture. But even where the desire was in pure hospitality it was 
quite as positive and persevering, and was generally pressed 
effectually, because the furnishing of guides was conditioned on 
submission. Once Livingstone became thoroughly provoked, 
and attempted to advance without the guide. It might have 
been well enough in some sections, but the particular locality in 
which he chanced to be restored his patience thoroughly, for 
after striking out in various directions, and every time coming 
to a dead halt in impassable thickets, he gave it up. 

There was no counting the villages. The African has a re- 
markable eagerness for many villages : there are no large towns. 
Everybody seems to have only one ambition, and that is to have 
a village. If only a man may have a few huts he is a chief, in 
his own eyes at least. There was one thing which made the 
present tour more unpleasant than those in which he was pre- 
ceded by messengers of the chiefs, who had formerly been sent 
to notify the villages of the approach of " the white man." The 
sight of a white man always infuses a tremor into their dark 



FEAR OF "WHITE MAN." 199 

bosoms, and in every case of the kind they appeared immensely 
relieved when he had fairly passed without having sprung upon 
them. In the villages jhe dogs run away with their tails be- 
tween their legs, as if they had seen a lion. The women peer 
from behind the walls till he comes near them, and then hastily 
dash into the house. When a little child, unconscious of 
danger, meets you in the street, he sets up a scream at the appari- 
tion, and conveys the impression that he is not far from going 
into fits. Such things are not calculated to make a man feel 
more at home there than anywhere else ; but it is hardly won- 
derful that it is so. A white man must be a singular apparition 
indeed to those poor people, and the more terrible because all 
that they have heard of white people has been of a sort to excite 
their fears. It has been the constant study of the Mambari to 
prevent, as far as possible, the inhabitants of this secluded 
region ever thinking of going themselves to the white people. 
We remember that the Makololo were constantly receiving 
warnings in which the white people on the coast figured as very 
monsters. 

After passing lat. 12°, they began to enter the country of 
animals, but they were very shy, as is generally the case in 
Londa. It was now about the middle of winter. Of this 
season Dr. Livingstone says : " The country at this time is cov- 
ered with yellowish grass quite dry. Some of the bushes and 
trees are green ; others are shedding their leaves, the young 
buds pushing off the old foliage. Trees, which in the south 
stand bare during the winter months, have here but a short 
period of leaflessness. Occasionally, however, a cold north wind 
comes up even as far as Cabango, and spreads a wintry aspect 
on all the exposed vegetation. The tender shoots of the ever- 
green trees on the south side become as if scorched ; the leaves 
of manioc, pumpkins, and other tender plants are killed ; while 
the same kinds, in spots sheltered by forests, continue green 
through the whole year. All the interior of South Africa has 
a distinct winter of cold, varying in intensity with the latitudes. 
In the central parts of the Cape Colony the cold in the winter 
is often severe, and the ground is covered with snow. At 
Kuruman snow seldom falls, but the frost is keen. There is 
frost even as far as the Chobe, and a partial winter in the 



200 SISTER OF MATTAMOO. 

Barotse valley, but beyond the Orange river we never have 
cold and damp combined. Indeed, a shower of rain seldom or 
never falls during winter, and hence the^ healthiness of the Bech- 
uana climate. From the Barotse valley northward it is ques- 
tionable if it ever freezes ; but, during the prevalence of the 
south wind, the thermometer sinks as low as 42°, and conveys 
the impression of bitter cold." " But," says he, " nothing can 
exceed the beauty of the change from the wintry appearance to 
that of spring at Kolobeng. Previous to the commencement 
of the rains, an easterly wind blows strongly by day but dies away 
at night. The clouds collect in increasing masses, and relieve 
in some measure the bright glare of the southern sun. The 
wind dries up everything, and when at its greatest .strength is 
hot and raises clouds of dust. The general temperature during 
the day rises above 96° : then showers begin to fall ; and if the 
ground is but once well soaked with a good day's rain, the change 
produced is marvellous. In a day or two a tinge of green is ap- 
parent all over the landscape, and in five or six days the fresh 
leaves sprouting forth and the young grass shooting up give>an 
appearance of spring which it requires weeks of a colder cli- 
mate to produce." 

One of the pleasantest episodes of this journey, so full of 
vexatious impositions and shrewd attentions, was the real kind- 
ness of a female chief, sister of the late Matiamoo, whose village 
was next en route from the one in which Dr. Livingstone's 
truly Scottish effort at independence was so flat a failure. She 
was so ladylike and graceful in her attentions and so liberal, 
that Livingstone felt the acquaintance almost a compensation 
for the former incivilities. Real courtesy is not confined to 
courts and city mansions, nor the peculiar charm of civilization. 
There is a civility of the soul which is more delicate and helpful 
than the formalities of most elaborate attentions, and it is a 
beauty of God's creation that this sweet blossom of his Spirit 
begems the gloomiest as the brightest places. 

But w r hile the honest courtesies of Nya-ka-longa were sugges- 
tive of the greater comfort and easier progress which awaited 
them in the country of old friends, to which they were drawing 
near, they were destined to meet at least one other serious pro- 
vocation. At the town of a chief named Kawawa they were 



DEMAND OF "A MAN." 201 

met by a very unceremonious demand for "an ox or a man." 
This was a notoriously uncivil man to all travellers ; he had 
heard of the Chetoques having forced the party to give them 
an ox as they went toward the coast the previous year, and, 
encouraged by their success, presumed to attempt a similar levy, 
unconscious of the change which had come over the spirit of 
the white man in such matters. The history of this affair, as 
given by Dr. Livingstone himself, is so graphic and so illustra- 
tive or African life that we prefer to allow him to put it in his 
own way. " To this provoking demand," says he, "I replied 
that the goods were my property and not his ; that I would 
never have it said that a white man had paid tribute to a 
black, and that I should cross the Kasai in spite of him. He 
ordered his people to arm themselves, and when some of my 
men saw them rushing for their bows, arrows and spears, they 
became somewhat panic-stricken. I ordered them to move 
away, and not to fire unless Kawawa's people struck the first 
blow. I took the lead, and expected them all to follow, as 
they usually had done, but many of my men remained behind. 
When I knew this, I jumped off the ox and made a rush to 
them with the revolver in my hand. Kawawa ran away among 
his people, and they turned their backs too. I shouted to my 
men to take up their luggage and march ; some did so with 
alacrity, feeling that they had disobeyed orders by remaining ; 
but one of them refused, and was preparing to fire at Kawawa, 
until I gave him a punch on the head with the pistol, and made 
him go too. I felt here, as elsewhere, that subordination must 
be maintained at all risks. We all moved into the forest, the 
people of Kawawa standing about a hundred yards off, gazing, 
but not firing a shot or an arrow. But he was not to be balked 
of his supposed rights by the unceremonious way in which they 
left him ; for, when they had reached the ford of the Kasai, 
about ten miles distant, they found that he had sent four of 
his men with orders to the ferrymen to refuse passage. They 
were informed that they must deliver up all the articles men- 
tioned, and one of the men besides. This demand for one of 
the number always nettled every heart. The canoes were taken 
away before their eyes, and they were supposed to be quite help- 
less without them, at a river a good hundred yards broad and 



202 TEIAL FOE MUEDEE. 

very deep. Pitsaue stood on the bank, gazing with apparent 
indifference on the stream, and made an accurate observation 
of where the canoes were hidden among the reeds. The ferry- 
men casually asked one of my Batoka if they had rivers in his 
country, and he answered with truth, 'No, we have none.' 
Kawawa's people then felt sure they could not cross. They 
thought of swimming when they were gone ; but after it was 
dark, by the unasked loan of one of the hidden canoes, they 
soon were snug in bivouac on the southern bank of the Kasai. 
They left some beads as payment for some meal which had been 
presented by the ferrymen ; and, the canoe having been left on 
their own side of the river, Pitsane and his companions laughed 
uproariously at the disgust our enemies would feel, and their 
perplexity as to who had been our paddler across. They were 
quite sure that Kawawa would imagine that they had been 
ferried over by his own people, and would be divining to find 
out who had done the deed. When ready to depart in the 
morning, Kawawa's people appeared on the opposite heights, 
and could scarcely believe their eyes when they saw we were 
prepared to start away to the south. At last one of them called 
out, 'Ah ! ye are bad ; ' to which Pitsane and his companions 
retorted, ' Ah ! ye are good, and we thank you for the loan of 
your canoe.' " 

In the town of this chief Livingstone witnessed a specimen 
of justice, which illustrates one feature of the misery of the 
people whose whole destinies depend on the will of petty chiefs 
as distinguished for heartlessness as for ignorance. The chief 
was judge, jury, and attorney, all in himself. The arraigned 
was a woman who was accused of having caused the death of 
another woman. The accuser was telling her story, when the 
" court," who had paid no attention to the statement, except 
simply to notice the nature of the charge, suddenly burst forth, 
"You have killed one of my children, yours are mine, bring 
them all to me," and the poor woman had to obey and see all 
of her children pass into slavery. While these tribes mani- 
fested a somewhat belligerent spirit to our party, they are gen- 
erally quite disinclined to settle their personal disputes by force 
of arms. But now and then individuals among the Balonda 
are known to clinch. On one occasion, an old woman standing 



A FIST FIGHT. 



203 



by Dr. Livingstone's camp continued to belabor a good-looking 
young man for hours with her tongue. Irritated at last, he 
uttered some words of impatience, when another man sprang 
at him, exclaiming, " How dare you curse my ' Mama ? ' " They 
caught each other, and a sort of pushing, dragging, wrestling 
match ensued. The old woman who had been the cause of the 
affray wished us to interfere, and the combatants themselves 
hoped as much ; but we, preferring to remain neutral, allowed 
them to fight it out. It ended by one falling under the other, 
both, from their scuffling, being in a state of nudity. They 
picked up their clothing and ran off in different directions, each 
threatening to bring his gun and settle the dispute in mortal 
combat. Only one, however, returned, and the old woman con- 
tinued her scolding till my men, fairly tired of her tongue, or- 
dered her to be gone. This trifling incident was one of interest 
to me, for, during the whole period of my residence in the Bec- 
huana country, I never saw unarmed men strike each other. 
Their disputes are usually conducted with great volubility and 
noisy swearing, but they generally terminate by both parties 
bursting into a laugh. 

Among the many delicacies with which this wonderful land 
tempts the epicure is a singular little " white ant," which many 
of the natives consider good enough for anybody. They are 
unseen, generally, and only when decided to colonize do they 
rush out of holes, in streams, and enter on a tour of inspec- 
tion; when they have discovered a desirable location, they 
alight and with singular facility " bend up their tails, unhook 
their wings " (which may be removed from the body without 
any inconvenience if turned forward), and begin with greater 
diligence the erection of their homes. When these colonies 
are ready to start for a new district, they are nothing daunted 
even by fire, but pass through it with a heroism worthy of 
more elevated beings. They are caught by the natives (who 
are quite skilful in brushing them into vessels) and roasted, in 
which state they are considered better than the choicest things 
the " white man " can produce. 

South of the Kasai they traversed extensive plains covered 
with beautiful flowers and birds. The flowers were of tiniest 
dimensions and most exquisite delicacy, and had the appearance 



204 GOD IN NATURE. 

in many places of the richest carpet. A wonderful thing about 
this splendid fabric of nature's weaving was that it displayed 
the phenomenon of successive bands, perhaps a hundred yards 
in width, these bands all of different hues. In one the golden 
hue prevailed, and the flowers varied in shade from " palest 
lemon to richest orange." Another band was blue ; in shade 
from the lightest tints to the deepest color. One flower on 
these plains attracted particular attention. Being elevated but 
slightly by its tiny stalk, this little gem seems to be set in the 
ground ; " its leaves are covered with reddish hairs," out of the 
tips of which exudes a fluid, clear and glutinous, which glistens 
in the sunlight like drops of dew or richer pearls. Truly it is 
wonderful how richly and how skilfully the great Architect and 
Builder of our terrestrial home has wrought of all things a para- 
dise for us, whose wealth and beauty are confined to no single 
zone, and are inexhaustible, though we explore the sea or land 
or rise amid the stars or delve in deepest earth. And it is 
wonderful how in it all he hath wrought his own image, and 
by all things teacheth of himself. There are steadfast moun- 
tains, which tell of strength ; and flowers, of tenderness. There 
are oceans whose unvarying ebb and flow murmur of eternity. 
The stars, shining everywhere, suggest his omnipresence. The 
sun, ruling all the realms, proclaims his authority. And 
there are encircling heavens which hint of his encircling care, 
while all things speak of goodness. And, thanks be to God, 
nature tells all the story, in Africa as in America. It is only 
left for the special deed of grace to spread its power abroad, cor- 
recting the special blindness of man incurred by guilt; then 
God's likeness shall be seen and his glory stand revealed in all 
his works. 

Livingstone became convinced at this time that the latitude 
of Lake Dilolo is really the dividing line of the waters ; the 
natives had noticed this and remarked it to him in advance of 
his own investigations indeed. He had suffered his hundred 
and twenty-seventh attack of fever on the beautiful plains of 
Kasai and was so feeble that he could hardly walk, and la- 
mented his inability to examine carefully a region which he 
considered so exceedingly important. But his sufferings were 
too great, and the additional anxiety which the vomiting of 



A NOBLE CHIEF. 207 

blood awakened made it exceedingly desirable to advance with 
as little delay as possible. Making all possible expedition, all 
his wonderful energy and strength of will need to be in constant 
exertion against the depressing influence of the dreary flat 
couutry with its deep forest gloom. Possessed of that nature 
which finds congenial companionship in the bold and beautiful 
mountain scenery, and in the wide ever-heaving and foaming 
ocean, there was no prison-house conceivable more terrible than 
such dull and dark monotony. And with the refined tastes of 
thorough culture he could not submit to the isolation of society 
so absolutely wanting in the slightest shadow of congeniality, 
except in the most entire obedience to duty and unreserved con- 
secration of soul and body to others. Such a life is noble and 
sweetened by the love of Christ, but it is still a life of pain. 
Self-immolation may be cordial and Christ-like, but it is 
agonizing. 

Leaving the Lake Dilolo by toilsome marches, the party at 
length entered the friendly village of Katema, on the old route, 
the 12th of June. He had now been three years away from the 
Cape. They were no longer troubled by unkind impositions ; 
the people everywhere manifested much sympathy and respect. 
Katema inspired Dr. Livingstone with real respect for him by 
the generous and manly bearing which distinguished him in 
their intercourse. He says : " He desired me to rest myself and 
eat abundantly, and took care to see that I had the means of 
doing so. When he visited our encampment, I presented him 
with a cloak of red baize, ornamented with gold tinsel, which 
cost thirty shillings, according to the promise I had made in 
going to Londa ; also a cotton robe, both large and small 
beads, an iron spoon, and a tin pannikin containing a quarter 
of a pound of powder. He seemed greatly pleased with the 
liberality shown, and assured me that the way was mine, and 
that no one should molest me in it if he could help it. We 
were informed by Shakatwala that the chief never used any 
part of a present before making an offer of it to his mother, 
or the departed spirit to whom he prayed. Katema asked if 
I could not make a dress for him like the one I wore, so that 
he might appear as a white man when any stranger visited him. 
One of the councillors, imagining that he ought to second this 



208 



THE LEEBA. 



by begging, Katema checked him by saying, ' Whatever strangers 
give, be it little or much, I always receive it with thankfulness, 
and never trouble them for more.' On departing, he mounted 
on the shoulders of his spokesman, as the most dignified mode 
of retiring." 

An equally pleasant reception was waiting for him at Shinte's 
town. And it delighted his heart to observe that the infor- 
mation he was able to give that chief of the uses to which slaves 
were put in Angola, and the proof he gave of the extortions 
of the Mambari, seemed to open his eyes to the evil of allow- 
ing his subjects carried away into bondage. And parting on 
good terms with him and his people, he journeyed on to the town 
of his sister, through whose importunities he had formed the 
acquaintance of Shinte as he passed up the country. Procuring 
canoes of this lady, the party launched once more on the noble 
Leeba, whose charming scenery had never faded from their 
thoughts in all their wanderings. Everything was life along 
those banks ; all the old familiar game and the more savage 
beasts made their appearance frequently, but were too cautious 
to come within the range of the guns. The sight of so many 
glossy hides and tossing antlers excited a craving for " a good 
meal of meat." His tooth became so eager for service in that 
line that Livingstone began to look rather undecidedly on his 
faithful old ox, " Sinbad" which had carried him so many hun- 
dred miles. But the Makololo had come to count Sinbad as 
one of the party, and their gentle protest was allowed to prevail. 
The faithful creature fell a victim to the tsetse though and 
ended his days at Naliele in peace. 

Though now surrounded by game, the party had passed the 
confluence of the Leeba and Leeambye before they had a feast of 
flesh. This was given them by some hunters whom they met. 
Livingstone had been so long out of the land of game that he 
had lost his skill and missed everything he shot at. About 
this time, however, he determined to try and retrieve his repu- 
tation with the gun ; and having wounded a zebra, he slowly 
followed along on the track of his men who had given it chase. 
While thus alone, he suddenly discovered a single buffalo, a 
huge bull, rushing madly toward him. He saw only one tree 
on the plain, and that some distance off; there was evidently no 



MAKOLOLO EECEPTION. 209 

escape, and lie calmly raised his gun and waited for the monster 
to come near enough for a fatal shot in the forehead. We have 
noticed before his opinion of this animal. Nothing is more 
trying than just such a position awaiting such a charge. But 
the moment came. The aim was true and the tremendous ani- 
mal bounded aside and rushing to the brink of the river fell 
dead. Livingstone felt it to be an occasion for gratitude to 
God that his life had been preserved. 

The arrival at Libonta was indeed a great occasion. This, it 
will be remembered, is the border town of the Makololo author- 
ity. They had never been received before with such demon- 
strations of joy. Livingstone's description of this scene is full 
of interest. " The women," says he, " came forth to meet us, 
making their curious dancing gestures and loud lulliloos. Some 
carried a mat and stick, in imitation of a spear and shield. 
Others rushed forward and kissed the hands and cheeks of the 
different persons of their acquaintance among us, raising such a 
dust that it was quite a relief to get to the men assembled and 
sitting with proper African decorum in the kotla. We were 
looked upon as men risen from the dead, for the most skilful 
of their diviners had pronounced us to have perished long ago. 
After many expressions of joy at meeting, I arose, and, thank- 
ing them, explained the causes of our long delay, but left the 
report to be made by their own countrymen. Formerly I had 
been the chief speaker, now I would leave the task of speaking 
to them. Pitsane then delivered a speech of upward of an hour 
in length, giving a highly flattering picture of the whole jour- 
ney, of the kindness of the white men in general, and of Mr. 
Gabriel in particular. He concluded by saying that I had done 
more for them than they expected ; that I had not only opened 
up a path for them to the other white men, but conciliated 
all the chiefs along the route. The oldest man present rose 
and answered this speech, and, among other things, alluded to 
the disgust I felt at the Makololo for engaging in marauding 
expeditions against Lechulatebe and Sebolamakwaia, of which 
we had heard from the first persons we met, and which my com- 
panions most energetically denounced as ' mashue hela,' en- 
tirely bad. He entreated me not to lose heart, but to reprove 
Sekeletu as my child. Another old man followed with the 



210 THANKSGIVING SERVICE. 

same entreaties. The following day we observed as our thanks- 
giving to God for his goodness in bringing us all back in 
safety to our friends. My men decked themselves out in their 
best, and I found that, although their goods were finished, they 
had managed to save suits of European clothing, which, being 
white, with their red caps, gave them rather a dashing ap- 
pearance. They tried to walk like the soldiers they had seen 
in Loanda, and called themselves my 'braves' (batlabani). 
During the service they all sat with their guns over their 
shoulders, and excited the unbounded admiration of the women 
and children." 

It was a scene for angels' eyes; that good man pointing 
those poor heathen away from their own prowess and their 
charms and himself to God's goodness in returning them safely, 
after so long a time and such hardships. They heard him 
gladly, and were lavish of gifts ; almost every day oxen were 
slaughtered. They manifested no concern about gifts for them- 
selves ; they were only glad to see the whole party back safely, 
and were immediately engaged in collecting tusks for a second 
journey. 

The rejoicing of the men, after so long an absence, at being 
once more in their own country, had some drawbacks in cer- 
tain changes that time had wrought. Their wives had in many 
instances grown weary of watching, and found a solace for their 
grief in the wedded love of other men. The faithful Mashuana 
was one of the disappointed ones, and he contradicted his philo- 
sophic declaration, " Wives are plentiful as grass; I can get an- 
other ; she may go," by muttering immediately, '' If I had that 
fellow, I would open his ears for him." For some of the poor 
fellows who had thus lost their only wives, Livingstone inter- 
ceded with the chief and had them repossessed of their loving 
spouses ; others he comforted with the reminder, that after their 
loss they still had more wives than he. But that was an unsatis- 
factory reflection, in view of the fact that " while they were 
toiling another was devouring their corn." 

On the 13th of August, the party left Naliele and were glid- 
ing along very quietly when, most unexpectedly, they were re- 
minded of the fact that they were no longer in the lifeless border 
region. The hippopotamus which struck the boat lifted it quite 



GRAND GATHERING AT LINYANTI. 211 

out of the water and hustled the whole party out most uncere- 
moniously, and looking back, quite indifferently, seemed to ask 
derisively, " What has happened ? " 

The river villages had much the appearance of two years be- 
fore. The entire descent of the Leeambye was a sort of ova- 
tion because of the joy of the villagers. There was another 
grand gathering at Linyanti. And the "braves," "the true 
ancients, who had seen wonderful things," told their story to 
their hearts' delight. The facts had lost nothing by the way ; 
facts hardly ever seem to be diminished by repetition. Seke- 
letu created a decided sensation when he appeared in his colonel's 
uniform. The presents of strange and wonderful things were 
received as unquestionable evidences of the truth of the most 
marvellous accounts which the man could give. But when 
the braves appeared in their white suits, and sat in the circles 
with their guns resting on their shoulders like real " braves," 
it was a signal for the delight of wives and the envy of women 
generally. The old looked serious, the young looked delighted. 
Events were pointing toward the grandeur which no tribe could 
hope to rival. The delight was innocent and commendable. 

In looking back on his journey from Linyanti, Livingstone 
felt that there was indeed a great obstacle to missionary enter- 
prises in the character of the forests, the denseness and rankness 
of the growth, and in the floods which occasion such virulent 
fevers. But he believed, nevertheless, that the interior of this 
country presents much more inviting fields for missionary labor 
than the western coast, where successful stations have been so 
long in operation. Though he suffered so greatly himself, I 
could easily see how the habits of ordinary missionary life would 
protect a man against such ills in large measure. Comparing 
the interior with the west coast, he says : " There the fevers are 
much more virulent and more speedily fatal than here, for from 
8° south they almost invariably take the intermittent or least 
fatal type ; and their effect being to enlarge the spleen, a com- 
plaint which is best treated by a change of climate, we have the 
remedy at hand by passing the 20th parallel on our way south. 
But I am not to be understood as intimating that any of the 
numerous tribes are anxious for instruction : they are not the 
inquiring spirits we read of in other countries ; they do not de- 



212 PLANS FOR THE FUTURE. 

sire the gospel, because they know nothing about either it or 
its benefits ; but there is no impediment in the way of instruc- 
tion. Every head man would be proud of a European visitor 
or resident in his territory, and there is perfect security for life 
and property all over the interior country. The great barriers 
which have kept Africa shut are the unhealthiness of the coast, 
and the exclusive, illiberal disposition of the border tribes. It 
has not within the historic period been cut into by deep arms 
of the sea, and only a small fringe of its population have come 
into contact with the rest of mankind. Race has much to do 
in the present circumstances of nations ; yet it is probable that 
the unhealthy coast-climate has reacted on the people, and aided 
both in perpetuating their own degradation and preventing 
those more inland from having intercourse with the rest of the 
world." 

May we not hope that the growing interest in this vast de- 
graded continent will overcome such barriers, and establish such 
communication with the various tribes of the interior as will 
make the most abundant labors for their conversion not only 
possible but attractive? It is only just to the missionary, that 
we remember, in the history of the explorer, that Dr. Living- 
stone was not spending his life in idle, aimless wanderings, 
through any love of adventure or devotion only to science, but 
that he might open a highway to the interior of Africa, in order 
that he might establish a mission station there on a permanent 
basis. 

In pursuance of the idea which had affected somewhat his 
action in returning directly from Loanda to Linyanti, he now 
decided to follow the Zambesi to the eastern coast, and was 
particularly encouraged to do this, as there was a good prospect 
of water facilities all the way. In the midst of the prepara- 
tions for this new journey, Livingstone found abundant employ- 
ment instructing the people and healing their sick, and seeking 
to reform their ideas according to the Christian standard as far 
as could be. But his labor was very discouraging, but still was 
not entirely without effect. Sometimes he was greatly per- 
plexed, but at last could only remember the darkness and dead- 
ness of the unregenerate soul, and remember the heathen 
gloom. The greatness of the undertaking argued its importance, 



THE TEIBUTE TO FAITHFULNESS. 213 

the discouragements of it called for prayer. There was no ex- 
cuse for retreat. His hand was on the plough : he would not 
look back. 

" The mother of Sekeletu prepared a bag of ground-nuts, by 
frying them in cream with a little salt, forming a kind of sand- 
wiches, which constitute a dish which the Makololo consider 
fit for a king." Sekeletu appointed a man named Sekwebu and 
Kanyati to head the party which should attend him. Mamire, 
who had married the mother of Sekeletu, called for a parting 
word. " You are," said he, " going among a people who can- 
not be trusted because we have used them badly ; but you go 
with a different message from any they have heard before, Jesus 
will be with you and help you though among enemies, and if 
he carries you safely and brings you and Ma Robert back again, 
I shall say he has conferred a great favor on me. May we ob- 
tain a path whereby we may visit and be visited by other tribes 
and by white men." This was the most influential man in the 
tribe, and his interest in the enterprise of Livingstone was cer- 
tainly encouraging. 

He not only gave his blessing and his kind encouragement in 
words, but added, " And as a man wishes, of course, to appear 
among his friends after a long absence with something of his 
own to show, the whole of the ivory in the country is yours, 
so you must take as much as you can, and Sekeletu will furnish 
you men to carry it." Such was the confidence and love which 
filled the breasts of this people for a man who in all the years 
of his intercourse with them had been uniformly consistent in 
his own life and devoted to their welfare ; a people by no 
means stupid, or given to hasty confidences, the most formid- 
able tribe in all southern Africa, and the most warlike. As 
the reward of his faithfulness, Dr. Livingstone was thus adopted 
by the children of the wilderness, and was allowed to employ 
their own energies and resources in opening a way for Christianity. 

11 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE NEW EXPEDITION. 

Sekeletu's Kindness — Explanation of it — Providence in his Work — November 
3, 1855 — Terrible Storm — Two Hundred Men in Line — The Niagara of Africa 
— Victoria Falls — Rainbow and Superstition — The Batoka — A Network of 
Rivers — The Explanation — Traditions — The First White Man — Batoka Chiefs 
— Batoka Rebels — The Eastern Ridge — Longing for Quiet — Batoka^ Gener- 
osity — A Reception — Livingstone's Courage — Power of the Gospel — Awe of 
White Men — An Incident — Missionary Influence— Animals — Buffalo Bird — 
Rhinoceros Bird — Soldier Ants — White Ants — An Elephant Hunt — Elephant's 
Character — Indian and African Compared — Down the Losito. 

It is interesting to observe the readiness with which the 
Makololo put themselves again at the service of Dr. Living- 
stone in his efforts to bring the tribes into communication with 
the white people and open the heart of Africa to the sympathies 
of the Christian world. The wonderful life-work of this great 
man, prosecuted so long and faithfully in Africa, presents a 
pleasing contrast with many of tho enterprises of explorers, 
which have been attended with great expense and the smallest 
results. "With the inconsiderable salary of a missionary, Liv- 
ingstone had traversed already many of the obscurest wilds, 
awaking new aspirations in various tribes hitherto unknown, 
softening the prejudices of different sections, and encouraging a 
spirit of fraternity among those petty sovereignties which prom- 
ised to ripen into a system of kindly intercourse that may 
eventually substitute confidence for distrust and honest trade 
for plunder and Avar. And now he sets forth on as long a 
journey, so abundantly provided for and so well escorted that 
he appears more like the servant of a king than a lonely toiler, 
with no commission but his love for God and men, and no 
backing but a character whose correctness commanded confidence. 
It was because the heathen honored the man and confided in 
his love, that they adopted him and his work, and because he 
found those heathen hearts so warm and liberal, he felt that 
he could endure all things for their good and immolate himself 
214 



THE EXPLANATION OF IT. 215 

on the altar of their enlightenment. We honor Livingstone 
for the purity and strength which could so charm and control 
those degraded savages, and we are conscious of a deeper inter- 
est in the savages who possess hearts so readily charmed by 
purity and in love with honor. The singular co-operation of 
the wild tribes with a lonely missionary for the accomplishment 
of ends which might dignify the noblest civilization, furnishes 
a commentary on the missionary and on the tribes, unsurpassed 
in history. 

But it ought not to be wonderful that a single Christian man 
should penetrate even those wilds and summon about him friends 
eager to help him, for there is a power of kindness mightier 
than the word of kings, and there is a providence of God 
mightier than prejudice. We cannot fail to perceive the presence 
of an influence more beneficent than chance and more sagacious 
than human wisdom in the events which were gradually con- 
verting the life of Livingstone into that of an explorer. And 
we cannot fail to perceive an influence superior to that of in- 
tellect emanating from this divinely appointed man. An edict 
had gone forth among those tribes mightier than the desire of 
a hundred missionaries, commanding their favor for those new 
enterprises, and a law was prevailing in the camps of those 
voluntary followers more potent than any outward show of 
authority. The sign of the cross was the unseen banner over 
Livingstone, the love of his heart was the unseen power of the 
man : both were new in Africa : both are powerful everywhere. 
By the favor of God and the power of love he enlisted the most 
ignorant and degraded men in the highest and holiest service. 
How real and how abundant their interest was is manifested in 
the cordiality and perseverance of their attention. A more 
warm-hearted and resolute body of men was hardly ever seen 
than assembled on the 3d of November, 1855, at the town of 
Linyanti, to attend the " friend of Sebituane " on his journey 
to the sea. Sekeletu himself accompanied him as far as the 
splendid falls of the Zambesi, and with his own eyes saw that the 
large company which he had furnished for the expedition were 
well under way and thoroughly equipped. Before they had 
reached that point indeed, while still in the valley of the Chobe, 
before reaching Sesheke, the party encountered one of those ter- 



216 TWO HUNDKED MEN IN LINE. 

rible storms which distinguish Africa pre-eminently. The storms 
of Africa even are wilder than in other lands ; the clouds are 
deeper and blacker and more angry-looking ; the thunders are 
hoarser and heavier, and lightnings flash more vividly. That 
night was made absolutely dreadful ; the swift successions of 
pitchy gloom and glaring brilliancy as of the heavens on fire 
were bewildering and terrifying ; and a pelting rain, increasing 
the discomforts of the hour, initiated the new enterprise which 
was to be full of Aveariness and adventure. 

Including the personal attendants of Sekeletu, the party com- 
prised about two hundred men when it left Sesheke. One hun- 
dred and fourteen of these had been assigned as the special 
companions of Dr. Livingstone. Some of the party floated 
along in canoes, while others marched along the bank with 
the oxen. They were following the same river which they had 
ascended in the former journey. There is not properly any dis- 
tinction to be made between the Leeambye and Zambesi. They 
are names applied to the same stream in different sections of the 
country. The distinction which has been made by some writers 
is not sustained by the observations of Dr. Livingstone or other 
travellers who have reached its banks ; both names imply 
" the river," and are applied to this noble stream as a distinction 
of eminence because it is the great river of the country. 

The grand, indescribable, mysterious scenery was a fitting 
attendant of the song of the boatmen, which ran, 

" The Leeambye ! nobody knows 
Whither it comes or whither it goes," 

and accorded well with the fables which were told of mighty 
monsters which sometimes held the canoes of the natives mo- 
tionless on the surface ; and constituted a splendid introduc- 
tion to the " grandest scene in all Africa," which was soon to 
burst on the view of the traveller : for the Niagara of Africa 
was at hand. 

This wonderful spot has always inspired the ignorant inhabit- 
ants of the country with awe ; they only view it from the dis- 
tance. Its columns of smoke like mist towering toward the 
clouds and its roar like angry thunder is all they know of the 
mystery, where the Leeambye is lost in an awful chasm. They 



THE NIAGARA OF AFRICA. 217 

call the wonder Mosioatunya, " smoke sounding." But Living- 
stone called it Victoria. "After twenty minutes sail from 
Kalai," he writes, " we came in sight, for the first time, of the 
columns of vapor appropriately called ' smoke/ rising at a dis- 
tance of five or six miles, exactly as when large tracts of grass 
are burned in Africa. Five columns now arose, and, bending 
in the direction of the wind, they seemed placed against a low 
ridge covered with trees ; the tops of the columns at this distance 
appeared to mingle with the clouds. They were white below, 
and higher up became dark, so as to simulate smoke very 
closely. The whole scene was extremely beautiful ; the banks 
and islands dotted over the river are adorned with sylvan vege- 
tation of great variety of color and form. At the period of 
our visit several trees were spangled over with blossoms. Trees 
have each their own physiognomy. There, towering over all, 
stands the great burly baobab, each of whose enormous arms 
would form the trunk of a large tree, beside groups of graceful 
palms, which, with their feathery-shaped leaves depicted on the 
sky, lend their beauty to the scene. As a hieroglyphic they 
always mean 'far from home/ for -one can never get over their 
foreign air in a picture or landscape. The silvery mohonono, 
which in the tropics is in form like the cedar of Lebanon, stands 
in pleasing contrast with the dark color of the motsouri, whose 
cypress-form is dotted over at present with its pleasant scarlet 
fruit. Some trees resemble the great spreading oak, others as- 
sume the character of our own elms and chestnuts ; but no one 
can imagine the beauty of the view from any thing witnessed 
in England. It had never been seen before by European eyes; 
but scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in 
their flight. The only want felt is that of mountains in the 
background. The falls are bounded on three sides by ridges 
three or four hundred feet in height, which are covered with 
forests and with red soil appearing among the trees. 

" When about half a mile from the falls, I left the canoe in 
which we had come that far, and embarked in a smaller one, 
with men well acquainted with the rapids, who, by passing down 
the centre of the stream, in the eddies and still places caused by 
the many jutting rocks, brought me to an island situated in the 
middle of the river, and on the edge of the lip over which the 



218 THE NIAGARA OF AFRICA. 

water rolls. In coming hither there is danger of being swept 
by the island in either of the streams which rush along at its 
sides, and the landing could hardly be effected except in very 
low water, as was the case at the time of our visit. But even 
on the island no one could possibly perceive where the vast body 
of water went. It was only when I had succeeded in creeping 
with awe to the very verge, and peered down into a large rent 
which had been made from bank to bank of the broad Zam- 
besi, that I saw a stream a thousand yards broad leap down a 
hundred feet and then become suddenly compressed into a space 
of fifteen or twenty yards. The entire falls are simply a crack 
made in hard basaltic rock, from the right to the left bank of the 
Zambesi, and then prolonged from the left bank away through 
thirty or forty miles of hills. In looking down into the fissure 
on the rieht of the island one sees nothing but a dense white 
cloud, which at the time we visited the spot had two bright 
rainbows on it. From this cloud rushed up a great jet of vapor 
exactly like steam, and it mounted two or three hundred feet ; there 
condensing, it changed its hue to that of dark smoke, and came 
back in a constant shower, which soon wetted us to the skin. 
This shower falls chiefly on the opposite side of the fissure, and 
a few yards back from the lip there stands a straight hedge of 
evergreen trees, whose leaves are always wet. From their roots 
a number of little rills run back into the gulf, but, as they flow 
down the steep wall there, the column of vapor, in its ascent, 
licks them up clean off the rock, and away they mount again. 
They are constantly running down, but never reach the bottom. 
" On the left of the island we see the water at the bottom, a 
white rolling mass moving away to the prolongation of the fissure, 
which branches off near the left bank of the river. A piece of 
the rock has fallen off a spot on the left of the island, and juts 
out from the water below, and from it I judged the distance 
which the water falls to be one hundred feet. The walls of this 
gigantic crack are perpendicular, and composed of one homo- 
geneous mass of rock. The edge of that side over which the 
water falls is worn off two or three feet, and pieces have fallen 
away, so as to give it somewhat of a serrated appearance. That 
over which the water does not fall is quite straight, except at 
the left corner, where a rent appears, and a piece seems in- 




VICTORIA falls (page 174). 



RAINBOW SUPERSTITION. 221 

clined to fall off. Upon the whole, it is nearly in the state in 
which it was left at the period of its formation. The rock is 
dark brown in color, except about ten feet from the bottom, 
which is discolored by the annual rise of the water to that or a 
greater height. On the left side of the island we have a good 
view of the mass of water which causes one of the columns of 
vapor to ascend, as it leaps quite clear of the rock, and forms a 
thick unbroken fleece all the way to the bottom. Its whiteness 
gave the idea of snow, a sight I had not seen for many a day. 
As it broke into (if I may use the term) pieces of water, all 
rushing on in the same direction, each gave off several rays 
of foam, exactly as bits of steel, when burned in oxygen gas, 
give off rays of sparks. The snow-white sheet seemed like 
myriads of small comets rushing on in one direction, each of 
which left behind its nucleus rays of foam. I never saw the 
appearance referred to noticed elsewhere. It seemed to be the 
effect of the mass of water leaping at once clear of the rock and 
slowly breaking up into spray." 

Before Sebituane had expelled the Batoka chiefs from the fast- 
nesses of the neighboring rocks and islands, they reverenced 
this spot as the abode of Deity. Dr. Livingstone noticed 
among several tribes dwelling along these rivers a decided awe 
of the rainbow. They associate it with the gods. When seen 
in the heavens it is spoken of as the " pestle of the gods," and 
seen resting so quietly and beautifully on this strange cloud of 
spray, reigning so serenely over the roaring, raging abyss of 
waters, there is no wonder that it seemed like the throne of 
Deity. 

The Batoka, who were formerly the " lords of the isles," were 
strangely cruel and tyrannical, and such was the light which his 
inquiries brought upon their history, that Livingstone was al- 
most willing to honor the warlike propensities of the late chief 
of the Makololo, in so far at least as they had to do with driving 
the horrid monsters from their fastnesses in these wild rocks. 
The beautiful country in which they had their home exerted no 
more softening influence on those savages than the beautiful 
throne of their imagined divinity above the " Smoke Sound- 
ing " pit. And the children who recognize in some sort the 
ascendency of the Makololo conquerors of their fathers, though 



222 A NETWORK OF RIVERS. 

restrained in some degree by a consciousness of comparative 
weakness, dwell with pleasure on the stories of bloody bar- 
barity which garnish their traditions. The son of the chief, 
who felt the power of Sebituane'o arms, was found residing 
amidst the ruins of his father's town, with a contemptible ham- 
let growing up about him, and about his hut were to be seen 
fifty human skulls hanging from the sharp points of stakes. 
And he gloried in the possession of these skulls as memorials 
of his father. Surely there can be no more aifecting appeal to 
the Christian hearts of our favored land, than the picture of a 
son in mature years, delighting to gaze on the skulls of the 
victims of his father's fierceness ! 

Before, however, suffering ourselves led away by the incidents 
of the journey, it will be profitable and measurably entertaining 
to take at least a glance back and around on the country which 
holds the splendid falls, like a central glory, the climax of its 
wildness and beauty. 

There is,, or seems to be, a thorough network of rivers, whose 
courses are so tortuous and whose intersections of each other are 
so singular that one is considerably puzzled in the effort to keep 
distinctly in mind and avoid the confusion of confounding them 
one with another. There is a prevalent characteristic of these 
channels, too, which suggests the thought of some violent up- 
heaval in a period more or less remote as the explanation of 
their existence. But the absence of any tradition, however in- 
distinct, which hints of an earthquake is almost conclusive 
evidence against the reference of the problem to an event so 
violent, particularly as there are many traditions which hint of 
momentous incidents in periods manifestly more remote than 
the existence of the falls or rivers even. " There was found a 
tradition which resembled the story of Solomon and the harlots." 
They have also their version of the tower of Babel, whose 
builders abandoned their work owing: to the inconvenience of 
broken heads by the falling of their scaffolding, and vague things 
about the builders of the tower having come out of a cave with 
all the animals which hints of the account of Noah. It is hardly 
reasonable that an earthquake of such extent and violence as 
might have produced the wonderful fissures all over the broad 
expanse threaded by these singular rivers would be entirely un- 



THE FIRST WHITE MAN. 223 

heard of. The observations of Dr. Livingstone pointed more 
toward the conclusion that this remarkable irrigation is the re- 
sult of the gradual elevation of the surface in a region formerly 
occupied by an extensive lake, whose waters probably forced 
their way along the cracks and deeper fissures made by the up- 
heaval of the earth. The theory is sustained also by the char- 
acter of the soil and the presence of certain shells identical with 
those to be seen in lakes in other sections of the continent. The 
rivers have each a double bed, the simple sharply cut furrow 
in the calcareous tufa which probably lined the channel of the 
ancient lake, and another bed of inundation. When these beds 
of inundation are filled they look like a great system of lakes. 

Dr. Livingstone found no indications here of the country's 
having ever been visited by a white man previously to his own 
coming, although it has been asserted that the Portuguese had 
possessed a chain of trading stations across the continent before 
that time ; though there were some evidences that the natives 
had been in contact with white men. An old head man at the 
village of Nanulanga remembered that his father had twice 
visited the homes of the white men when he was a boy, and that 
many of'the people had gone who never returned. 

These people are decidedly inferior to the Makololo in all of 
those characteristics which are pleasing in our eyes. The char- 
acters of their chiefs in earlier times had gone far toward form- 
ing their minds to cruelty and treachery. They had been 
accustomed to a premium on those acts which involve the perfec- 
tion of these arts of barbarism. Their personal appearance, at 
best more degraded and negro-like, is rendered more repulsive 
by their singular custom of knocking out the upper front teeth 
of males and females, a custom which has a very insufficient 
explanation in their desire " to look like oxen," but which is so 
prevalent that one who has his teeth is considered very ugly. 

They dwell in a fertile country and enjoy nearly the same 
varieties of fruits as the inhabitants of Angola, and are abun- 
dantly supplied. Their country also abounds in the wild ani- 
mals which were so seldom seen by Dr. Livingstone in his 
northwestern journey after leaving the borders of the Makololo. 

While the Batoka were claimed as the subjects of Sekeletu, 
a large part of the tribe had begun to disregard his authority, 



224 THE EASTERN EIDGE. 

and were understood to be in open revolt. Indeed the villages 
of Kaonga were the last whose people were on friendly terms 
with their conquerors. These rebels are enjoying the country 
which was formerly the home of Sebituane, from which the 
Matebele forced him to seek a more secure fortress amid the 
swamps of the Chobe and the Leeambye. And it was well 
worthy of the admiration of the Makololo, who were tireless in 
their accounts of the vast herds which their fathers possessed 
when they lived there. 

The route now lay more directly eastward than the bed of 
the river, which make3 a detour southward, finding its way 
around the foot of the ridge which they were gradually ascend- 
ing. The ascent was so gradual as they advanced that it was 
observed more by the westward inclination of the streams and the 
general appearance of elevation than by any remarkable hills or 
mountains. The traveller was led along the gentle undulations 
almost insensibly to an altitude of five thousand feet above 
the level of the sea. There are none of the marshes along these 
plains which generate the enervating fevers which have almost 
swept away the Makololo in the valleys. The whole region is 
remarkably salubrious as well as beautiful ; many of the plains 
are almost treeless and are covered with short grass. There is 
a noticeable absence of fountains, and the river Kalomo is the 
only river in the whole section which never dries up. This 
flows away southward after the Zambesi. 

Though the Batoka of this region claim to be independent, 
they have been sorely afflicted by the wars of the Makololo, and 
do not enjoy their splendid country as they might under other 
circumstances. They are sadly degraded, but were glad to hear 
of a name which savored of peace and rest. Surely the weari- 
ness and misery of the heathen, tossed and torn as they are by 
the convulsions of their untutored society, and by the evil pas- 
sions of their hearts, though indeed they may not comprehend 
their real need and though they may have never heard of Jesus, 
is a prayer which will move the hand of God. It was, we 
know, the pitiable spectacle of human sorrow which moved 
him to compassion and brought his dear Son to be our Saviour, 
although the Batoka could not understand the full import of 
the message when Dr. Livingstone spoke to them of him w r hose 



LONGING FOR PEACE. 



225 



word is " peace on earth and good- will to men." It is not 
wonderful that they seized the idea of peace so eagerly. Their 
country has been visited by successive scourges during the last 
half century, and they are now "a nation scattered and peeled." 
When Sebituane came, the cattle were innumerable, and yet 
these were the remnants only, left by a chief called Pingola, 
who came from the northeast. He swept across the whole ter- 
ritory inhabited by his cattle-loving countrymen, devouring 
oxen, cows, and calves, without retaining a single head. He 
seems to have been actuated by a simple love of conquest, and 
is an instance of what has occurred two or three times in every 
century in this country from time immemorial. A man of more 
energy or ambition than his fellows rises up and conquers a 
large territory, but as soon as he dies the power he built is gone, 
and his reign, having been one of terror, is not perpetuated. 
This and the want of literature have prevented the establish- 
ment of any great empire in the interior of Africa. Pingola 
effected his conquests by carrying numbers of smith's bellows 
with him. The arrow-heads were heated before shooting into 
a town, and when a wound was inflicted on either man or beast 
great confusion ensued. After Pingola came Sebituane, and 
after him the Matebele of Mosilikatse ; and these successive in- 
roads have reduced the Batoka to a state in which they naturally 
rejoice at the prospect of deliverance and peace. 

They were remarkably generous with their offers of food, and 
great numbers came out continually to greet the " white man." 
It could only be painful to a man more anxious to benefit his 
kind than to witness their follies, to see so many human beings 
exhibiting even in their salutations their extreme degradation. 
Few customs of men are more arbitrary than those which relate 
to the reception of visitors, but of all hardly anything can sur- 
pass in absurdity that of this tribe. They throw themselves on 
the ground, on their backs, and, rolling from side to side, slap 
the outside of their thighs as expressions of thankfulness and 
welcome, uttering the words, " kina bomba." And the more 
Dr. Livingstone attempted to prevent them, the more violently 
they did him their eccentric reverence. This performance on 
the part of men totally unclothed was a scene too painfully un- 
manly for amusement, rather one to provoke the deepest sorrow. 



226 Livingstone's courage tested. 

Livingstone gives an account of his entertainment at the first 
of these border villages, which ought to have a place here in 
his own language, as it illustrates some of the trials which his 
own courage had to endure, as well as manners of the country : 

" On the 4th we reached their first village. Remaining at 
a distance of a quarter of a mile, we sent two men to inform 
them who we were, and that our purposes were peaceful. The 
head man came and spoke civilly, but, when nearly dark, the 
people of another village arrived and behaved very differently. 
They began by trying to spear a young man who had gone for 
water. Then they approached us, and one came forward howl- 
ing at the top of his voice in the most hideous manner; his eyes 
were shot out, his lips covered with foam, and every muscle of 
his frame quivered. He came near to me, and, having a small 
battle-axe in his hand, alarmed my men lest he might do violence; 
but they were afraid to disobey my previous orders, and to fol- 
low their own inclination by knocking him on the head. I felt 
a little alarmed too, but would not show fear before my own 
people or strangers, and kept a sharp look-out on the little battle- 
axe. It seemed to me a case of ecstasy or prophetic frenzy, 
voluntarily produced. I felt it would be a sorry way to leave 
the world to get my head chopped by a mad savage, though 
that, perhaps, would be preferable to hydrophobia or delirium 
tremens. Sekwebu took a spear in his hand as if to pierce a bit 
of leather, but in reality to plunge it into the man if he offered 
violence to me. After my courage had been sufficiently tested, 
I beckoned with the head to the civil head man to remove him, 
and he did so by drawing him aside. This man pretended not 
to know what he was doing. I would fain have felt his pulse 
to ascertain whether the violent trembling were not feigned, but 
had not much inclination to go near the battle-axe again. There 
was, however, a flow of perspiration, and the excitement con- 
tinued fully half an hour, then gradually ceased. This paroxysm 
is the direct opposite of hypnotism, and it is singular that it 
has not been tried in Europe as well as clairvoyance. This 
second batch of visitors took no pains to conceal their contempt 
for our small party, saying to each other, in a tone of triumph, 
' They are quite a godsend ! ' literally, ' God has apportioned 
them to us.' ' They are lost among the tribes ! ' ' They have 



AN INCIDENT. 



227 



wandered in order to be destroyed, and what can they do with- 
out shields among so many ? ' Some of them asked if there 
were no other parties. Sekeletu had ordered my men not to 
take their shields, as in the case of my first company. We were 
looked upon as unarmed, and an easy prey." 

It is impossible but to admire the deliberate courage of Dr. 
Livingstone under such circumstances. It was the same singular 
disregard of danger which suffered him to give away at Linyanti 
all but five of the guns which he had purchased in Loanda, and 
undertake a new journey with only five, which enabled him to 
sit so quietly defiant when he might really have been an easy 
prey to their barbarity. The policy of travelling comparatively 
unarmed through the country may have been wise enough, but 
it was a piece of policy which required more nerve than the 
average man possesses. It was a great consolation to Dr. Liv- 
ingstone in thinking of this deeply degraded tribe to recall 
the blessed results of missionary work among' the people of 
Kuruman, who were quite as depraved and degraded as the 
Batoka. We should not forget the wonderful power of the gos- 
pel, when we question the probabilities of the ultimate conver- 
sion and elevation of even the most barbarous people. There 
is power in that precious word to melt the hardest heart. And 
there is light enough there to drive away the gloom from the 
most benighted intellect. 

Another incident which occurred in this country illustrates 
the power of a white face over these people, although they had 
never before seen such a being. 

As Livingstone and his party were approaching a village, 
about evening, they met a man running to them, bound firmly 
with cords, entreating to be released. He proved to be a man 
from a neighboring tribe who had made a home in the village, 
and had, without any show of excuse, threatened the chief man's 
life, and he was about paying his own for the privilege of the 
speech. Livingstone immediately took the case in hand, though 
an absolute stranger, and, having bound the guilty man to do 
no violence, released him. There was no complaint on the 
part of the authorities of the town. His interference seemed 
to pass as a matter of course. The awe which is inspired in 
these savages by a white face is to be noticed as quite an offset 



228 



THE LOWER ORDERS. 



to the otherwise perilous undertaking of missionary work in 
Africa. 

Both the condition of the people and the character of the 
country impressed Dr. Livingstone as offering peculiar encour- 
agements for the establishment of a mission in this region. 
The people, though ignorant and depraved, would turn readily 
to the sympathies and consolations of Christian laborers and 
their message. And the country, with its splendid climate and 
a soil which yields the most desirable articles with lightest labor, 
is unsurpassed in its offers of plenty and comfort. But he who 
undertakes the duties of a missionary among such a people 
must expect to accomplish their enlightenment very gradually, 
and remember that he will have no special influence simply 
because of being a " Christian teacher," for these people know 
nothing of Christianity. They must be made to respect his 
superior virtue and strength of character, and to think of him 
as their friend ; then they will follow him readily. 

Enjoying the abundant hospitality of these poor people and 
the bracing effects of the beautiful scenery and salubrious 
climate, Dr. Livingstone had time to notice a number of curious 
and interesting individuals of the lower order. 

It was interesting to observe the sagacity of the herds which 
were feeding along the plains in the selection of their leader. 
The leader of a herd is a very important member; the entire 
body seem to put their lives in the care of the leader. It is 
the duty of that dignitary to catch the faintest semblance of 
danger, and all his followers repose implicit confidence in choice 
of paths he may take for flight, and follow in his or her tracks 
with reckless impetuosity. Of course it is important that the 
most wary animal in the herd be selected for the leadership ; 
and the duty not unfrequently devolves on the most timid. No 
greater calamity can befall a herd than to have a leader killed. 
The whole mass is immediately thrown into confusion ; one at- 
tempts to follow another ; they invariably lose much precious 
time, only to scamper away each for itself in utter perplexity 
and consternation. Providence has kindly furnished some of 
the larger animals with little winged sentinels, whose duty it is 
to caution them df approaching danger. It is no uncommon 
thing to see a huge buffalo dashing along with his little feathered 




HEAD OF BLACK RHINOCEROS. 




GNTJ. 



SOLDIEE ANTS. 231 

friend,. like a guardian spirit, sitting on his withers, or flying 
gently on just over the object of its care. When the buffalo is 
quietly feeding, this bird may be seen hopping on the ground 
picking up food, or sitting on its back ridding it of the insects 
with which their skins are sometimes infested. The sight of 
the bird being much more acute than that of the buffalo, it is 
soon alarmed by the approach of any danger, and, flying up, the 
buffaloes instantly raise their heads to discover the cause which 
has led to the sudden flight of their guardian. They sometimes 
accompany the buffaloes in their flight on the wing, at other 
times they sit as above described. 

Another African bird, namely, the Buphaga Africana, at- 
tends the rhinoceros for a similar purpose. It is called " kala" 
in the language of the Bechuanas. When these people wish to 
express their dependence upon another, they address him as 
" my rhinoceros," as if they were the birds. The satellites of 
a chief go by the same name. This bird cannot be said to de- 
pend entirely on the insects on that animal, for its hard, hair- 
less skin is a protection against all except a few spotted ticks ; 
but it seems to be attached to the beast, somewhat as the domestic 
dog is to man ; and while the buffalo is alarmed by the sudden 
flying up of its sentinel, the rhinoceros, not having keen sight, 
but an acute ear, is warned by the cry of its associate, the Bup- 
haga Africana. The rhinoceros feeds by night, and its sentinel 
is frequently heard in the morning uttering its well-known call, 
as it searches for its bulky companion. 

But many of the most wonderful objects in the world are the 
most minute, and the soldier ants which were observed plying 
their singular industry and carrying on their depredations are 
certainly inferior only in size to the more notorious monsters of 
the continent. These pigmean marauders have the true African 
color, and when on the line of march generally go three abreast. 
They are probably half an inch in length, and possess wonder- 
ful strength and energy for their size. They usually follow a 
few leaders, who are untrammelled by any burden and furnished 
with an extraordinary quantity of the peculiar poison in which 
their special power lies. Like the red ants mentioned as being 
seen in the western part of the continent, these are generally 
found advancing in a straight line. " If a handful of earth is 



232 WHITE ANTS. 

thrown on the path at the middle of the regiment, either on its 
way home or abroad, those behind it are completely at a loss as 
to their farther progress. Whatever it may be that guides 
them, they seem only to know that they are not to return, for 
they come up to the handful of earth but will not cross it, though 
not a quarter of an inch high. They wheel round and regain 
their path again, but never think of retreating to the nest, or to 
the place where they have been stealing. After a quarter of an 
hour's confusion and hissing, one may make a circuit of a foot 
round the earth, and soon all follow in that roundabout way. 
When on their way to attack the abode of the white ants, the 
latter may be observed rushing about in a state of great pertur- 
bation. The black leaders, distinguished from the rest by 
their greater size, especially in the region of the sting, then seize 
the white ants one by one and inflict a sting, which seems to in- 
ject a portion of fluid similar in effect to chloroform, as it ren- 
ders them insensible but not dead, and only able to move one 
or two front legs. As the leaders toss them on one side, the 
rank and file seize them and carry them off." 

The white ants on which these sable monsters prey, and whose 
tiny skulls are to be found piled about their barracks, are of 
more apparent service than their murderers. Upon such tiny 
laborers the great Author of all had devolved the task of pre- 
serving and improving the soil which the indolent human in- 
habitants do not appreciate. They are appointed to the her- 
culean task of clearing away and burying the vast quantities of 
decaying vegetable matter which abounds in the vast wilder- 
nesses. It is wonderful by what puny agents many of the most 
colossal works of time are accomplished. The tiny toilers on 
land and tiny toilers in the sea are rearing monuments to in- 
dustry and instinct which shame the boastful wisdom and strength 
of man. These little ants labor too with much system and art. 
They generally perform their work without coming where they 
may be seen more than they are obliged to, and it is astonish- 
ing how rapidly they work. Dr. Livingstone was accustomed 
to spread grass in considerable quantities under the mat on 
which he slept, and frequently these little sawyers would re- 
move the entire supply during a single day and necessitate a 
new bed for the second night. Indeed, we need only a fuller 




white ant's nest (page 184). 



AN ELEPHANT HUNT. 235 

knowledge of the world we live in, with all its wonderful svs- 
tern of adaptations, that we may praise God more heartily, 
and adore him more devoutly for his wisdom and goodness, 
and prefer the keeping of his love. 

As the journey extended the country became more and more 
beautiful and abounding in large game. On the 14th of De- 
cember, in a lovely valley, they came upon a buffalo, and while 
attempting to secure him, found themselves suddenly confronted 
by three elephants, one of which Dr. Livingstone managed to 
cripple by a first shot. This one they then easily killed. The 
next day was distinguished by a grand elephant-hunt, in which 
the devoted followers engaged to " show their father what sort 
of men he had." Although scenes of the kind were only pain- 
ful to Livingstone, and possessed of none of the charm which 
causes the ordinary traveller to revel in stories of slaughter, 
he has still furnished a thrilling account of this exploit of his 
men. 

He had retired from the noise of the camp, where the men 
were cutting up the elephant which he had shot the day before, 
that he might make an examination of some rocks, when glanc- 
ing casually across the valley he saw a pair of elephants, a fe- 
male and her calf, quietly enjoying themselves by the side of a 
little stream, and beyond them a long line of his men, who 
were manifestly approaching their unsuspecting victims with no 
good intentions. The noble creature, totally " unconscious of the 
approach of an enemy, stood for some time suckling her young 
one, which seemed about two years old ; they then went into a 
pit containing mud, and smeared themselves all over with it, 
the little one frisking about his dam, flapping his ears and 
tossing his trunk incessantly, in elephantine fashion. She kept 
flapping her ears and wagging her tail as if in the height of 
enjoyment. Then began the piping of her enemies, which was 
performed by blowing into a tube, or the hands closed together, 
as boys do into a key. They call out to attract the animal's 
attention, 

" 'O chief! chief! we have come to kill you. 

O chief! chief! many more will die besides you,' etc. 
' The gods have said it,' etc., etc. 

Both animals expanded their ears and listened, then left their 
12 



236 elephant's character. 

bath as the crowd rushed toward them. The little one ran for- 
ward toward the end of the valley, but, seeing the men there, 
returned to his dam. She placed herself on the danger side of 
her calf, and passed her proboscis over it again and again, as 
if to assure it of safety. She frequently looked back to the 
men, who kept up an incessant shouting, singing, and piping ; 
then looked at her young one and ran after it, sometimes side- 
ways, as if her feelings were divided between her anxiety to 
protect her offspring and desire to revenge the temerity of her 
persecutors. The men kept about a hundred yards in her rear, 
and some that distance from her flanks, and continued thus 
until she was obliged to cross a rivulet. The time spent in 
descending and getting up the opposite bank allowed of their 
coming up to the edge, and discharging their spears at about 
twenty yards distance. After the first discharge she appeared 
with her sides red with blood, and, beginning to flee for her own 
life, seemed to think no more of her young. The calf soon ran 
into a neighboring stream and was killed. The dam moved 
more and more slowly, and, finally, with a shriek of rage, turned 
and charged furiously upon her pursuers. These charges she 
continued, wheeling when she found they had eluded her, until 
she sunk down dead." 

No animal within the range of our knowledge more justly 
receives the attention and the admiration of men than the ele- 
phant ; none betrays nobler instincts and such remarkable 
sagacity. They have figured prominently in the history of the 
world for many hundreds of years. There seems to be no very 
great difficulty about making them gentle and serviceable when 
once they have been captured ; and when once they acknowledge 
the authority of a man they become singularly obedient and 
devoted. We remember that on one occasion an elephant, 
which had been accustomed to the authority of his master, was 
seduced from his allegiance and joined his fellows in their wild 
life of the forest. Quite a long time after his running away, 
the master was out hunting elephants, and coming upon a herd 
thought that in the number he recognized his old servant, and 
immediately advancing to his side and calling him by name was 
astonished to see the powerful beast turn kindly to him and 
submit with the easiest grace to his command, suffering him to 



DOWN THE LOSITO. 



237 



mount his back as of old and guide him with perfect eas3. The 
African elephant is considered larger than those of India and 
those of the southern sections. Those, however, on the eastern 
ridge, where Dr. Livingstone witnessed the exploit of his men, 
are not generally larger than those of India. They are distin- 
guished, however, more clearly from their Indian cousins by 
their ears, which are enormous. It is worthy of remark, in this 
connection, that there is an appreciable diminution in the size 
and vigor of all animals, including man, in proportion as food 
is more abundant, and tropical climates are apparently unfavor- 
able to the development of either man or beast. 

But Semalembue is waiting for our attentions, and we must 
turn our backs on the lovely valley with its teeming herds. 
The way to the residence of that chief lay down the Losito 
and through the ranges of hills. The residence itself was found 
at the foot of the range of hills through which the Kafue finds 
its passage. 




8TAO BEETLE, 



CHAPTER X. 

BORDER TRIBES. 

The Kafue — Longing for Peace — Negro Worship — Foreign Goods — Barbisa 
Traders — Five Ranges — Geological Features — Health of Livingstone — The 
Zambesi again — Elephant-Hunting — Suffering from Heat — The Native Pecu- 
liarities — Absence of Deformed Persons — Continued Friendliness — Adventure 
with an Elejniant — Native Suspicions — Doubtful Conduct — Peace and Kind- 
ness — Portuguese Enterprise — Situation of Zumbo — Abundance of Game — 
Wonderful Liberality — Dancing for Corn — Livingstone's Example — Providence 
in the Council — Mpende's Favor — Slave Trade Abhorred — Across the Zambesi 
— Sand River — Game Laws — Elevated Huts — Hyena Scourge — Overflow of the 
Zambesi — Appreciation of Gifts. 

Semalembue's village guards the narrow gorge through 
which the Kafue finds its escape from the hills into the Zam- 
besi, in lat. 15° 48' 19" S., long. 28° 22' E. He was not 
behind any head man in the kindness and readiness of his hos- 
pitality. His present of meal and groundnuts was made in the 
best style of their country, by first expressing his regret that his 
visitors must sleep hungry, and then surprising them with his 
generosity. Like all his neighbors he received the words of 
peace with great delight. The life of anxiety and constant tur- 
moil almost inseparable from the existence of so many little 
sovereignties all crowded together, is painfully wearying ; and 
rest, peace is the magic word which thrills through all the 
tribes with unequalled power. They all long to " live in peace." 
The beautiful, fertile and healthful hills and valleys of the 
Kafue particularly have been contested ground, and this indus- 
trious and quiet populace are eager to be left in the enjoyment 
of their fields and sports. These people do not need to be told 
of the existence of the Deity, but they catch at his gospel, which 
promises a time of universal peace on earth, with singular 
pleasure. It is the same weariness of anxiety, which turns the 
heart of man universally toward the throne of God, who reveals 

in Christ his providence and grace. The religion of Jesus, 
238 



TENDENCY TO WORSHIP. 239 

establishing the soul in quietness, and filling the world with 
love, answers the inaudible prayer of human misery, whic^ 
ascends to God from every land, in every dialect, expressed in 
every custom and condition. How beautiful and touching is 
the ready yielding of heathen prejudice to this heavenly prom- 
ise ! How encouraging it is to see the eye of ignorance and 
barbarity sparkling with the hope of Christ's glorious reign, 
even before they know the Sovereign ! 

The characteristic negro tendency to worship distinguishes 
the tribes of the Kafue, and the national faith in charms enters 
into all they do. The universal fear of the white man which 
distinguishes the tribes remote from European settlements pre- 
vailed here also ; and although it is the sunny slope of the 
range constituting the eastern wall of the continent, not even 
the half-caste had ever penetrated so far. The white man's 
goods, though, had already found their way, and the followers 
of Livingstone began to find a market for their ornaments and 
beads in cotton cloth. 

The Babisa traders take the place of the Mambari, who enter 
the interior from the western coast, and barter various articles 
for ivory and slaves. Villages almost innumerable, according 
to African custom, are hid away among the hills, whose shad- 
ows offer the security of seclusion to the trembling people. The 
general conformation and nature of the rocks is strikingly like 
the western slope ; but the wonderful valley of the Quango is 
wanting, although its absence is fully atoned for by the splendid 
ranges of cloud-capped mountains, which, in the eyes of the fol- 
lowers of Livingstone, accustomed to no greater altitudes than 
their marvellous ant-hills, seemed like the pillars of the heavens. 
There are five of these ranges quite distinct and parallel, and 
between them beautiful hills covered with trees. " On the tops 
of these," says Livingstone, " we have beautiful white quartz 
rocks, and some have a capping of dolomite. On the west of 
the second range we have great masses of kyanite or disthene, 
and on the flanks of the third and fourth a great deal of specular 
iron ore which is magnetic, and rounded pieces of black iron 
ore, also strongly magnetic, and containing a very large per- 
centage of the metal. The sides of these ranges are generally 
very precipitous, and there are rivulets between which are not 



240 



EASTERN RANGES. 



perennial. Many of the hills have been raised by granite, ex- 
actly like that of the Kalomo. Dikes of this granite may be 
seen thrusting up immense masses of mica schist and quartz or 
sandstone schist, and making the strata fold over them on each 
side, as clothes hung upon a line. 

" When we came to the top of the outer range of the hills we 
had a glorious view. At a short distance below us we saw the 
Kafue, wending away over a forest-clad plain to the confluence, 
and on the other side of the Zambesi, beyond that, lay a long 
range of dark hills. A line of fleecy clouds appeared lying 
along the course of that river at their base. The plain below 
us, at the left of the Kafue, had more large game on it than 
anywhere else I had seen in Africa. Hundreds of buffaloes 
and zebras grazed on the open spaces, and there stood lordly 
elephants feeding majestically." 

But this charming scenery had to be paid for by serious toil- 
ing and climbing, which called for the forfeit of several of the 
oxen, one of which was a special beauty which Sekeletu had 
been anxious to have displayed at the settlement of the white 
people, as it was ornamented after the most approved fashion of 
the Makololo, " with more than thirty pieces of its own skin 
detached and hanging down." 

The animals abounding in these hills, however, rendered the 
party almost independent of oxen, as, being entirely unfamiliar 
with guns, they moved about in easy range of the balls. 

The health of Dr. Livingstone had continued singularly 
good, owing probably as much to his greater care of himself as 
to the greater healthfulness of the localities through which he 
had passed, and he was in the spirit to enjoy all that occurred 
or was to be seen. He was greatly encouraged in his desire to 
establish a station, where a mission might grow up which would 
act as a centre of civilization. There could be nothing to dis- 
courage such an enterprise in this magnificent region. 

Having declined the smoother route to the northeast for the 
banks of the Zambesi, Livingstone was anxious now to regain 
that stream and guided his party a little southward. The 
country became more and more thickly planted with broad- 
leaved bushes as they approached the river, and they needed 
repeatedly to shout to the elephants to stand out of their path. 



THE ZAMBESI AGAIN. 241 

The huge dwellers in these thickets seemed absolutely indiffer- 
ent to man. A herd of buffalo came up and so interfered with 
their progress by their curiosity, that one of them had to be shot 
to get them out of the way, and a female elephant dashed 
through the midst of the men, followed by three calves. The 
waterfowl in great numbers hung leisurely on the air just over 
them. The abundance of animal life was beyond anything 
ever seen even in Africa. The Zambesi itself, when it appeared 
again, was wider and deeper and more rapid than they had left 
it in the neighborhood of the falls, and unlike it had been seen 
as the Leeambye, in the great valley it was deeply discolored 
by the washing down of the soil from the surrounding country. 
It is worthy of notice that no mention is made of the slightest 
discoloration of the streams in Africa between the two great 
ridges which divide the eastern and western coasts from the 
interior. The first indications of the washings of soil in the 
rivers, in the western journey, were observed in the Quango. 
And now they are in the Zambesi east of the ridge. 

Passing down the left bank of the river there were quite a 
number of islands to attract the attention of the travellers. 
These islands were clothed with verdure and seemed to possess 
singular fertility. One of these river gems — the island of 
Mengo — entertains, besides its human population, a herd of 
buffaloes, which seem to find ample pasturage within its small 
circumference, and dispute their claim quite valiantly with their 
human neighbors when occasion requires. This herd might 
easily swim to the shore if they desired to do so; their resi- 
dence on the " little foot of soil " seems to be purely a matter of 
choice. 

About this point the river flows between the country of the 
Batonga on the north and that of Banyai on the south side. 
On both sides are ranges of hills, and the multitude of buffa- 
loes and elephants furnish unending supplies to the people. 
"They erect stages on high trees overhanging the paths by 
which the elephants come, and then use a large spear with a 
handle nearly as thick as a man's wrist, and four or five feet 
long. When the animal comes beneath they throw the spear, 
and if it enters between the ribs above, as the blade is at least 
twenty inches long by two broad, the motion of the handle, as 



242 NATIVE PECULIARITIES. 

it is aided by knocking against the trees, makes frightful gashes 
within, and soon causes death. They kill them also by means 
of a spear inserted in a beam of wood, which being suspended 
on the branch of a tree by a cord attached to a latch fastened in 
the path, and intended to be struck by the animal's foot, leads 
to the fall of the beam, and, the spear being poisoned, causes 
death in a few hours." 

The paths along the bank were only such as had been made 
by the wild animals ; there were no roads. Besides the ele- 
phants and buffaloes, which we have mentioned, there were 
herds of zebras, pallahs and water-bucks; great numbers of 
wild pigs, koodoos and black antelopes. 

The party began to feel the oppression of the sun only after 
entering these lowlands, though there were rains every day and 
considerable cloudiness. The sun frequently came out with 
" scorching intensity." The men had never suffered from the 
heat while on the hills. 

Livingstone considered it worthy of mention that in all his 
journey across the continent he never met an albino, though 
they were reported by the Portuguese to be quite numerous. 
"The natives in this section present the same admixture of 
color, ranging from very dark to light olive, which distinguished 
those of Londo. They all have the thick lips and flat noses, 
but instances of the ugly negro physiognomy are rarely to be 
seen." They have a singular fashion of marking themselves, 
from the roots of the hair on the forehead to the tip of the nose, 
by little raised cicatrices about a quarter of an inch in length. 

" The women here are in the habit of piercing the upper lip, 
and gradually enlarging the orifice until they can insert a shell. 
The lip then appears drawn out beyond the perpendicular of the 
nose, and gives them a most ungainly aspect. Sekwebu re- 
marked, ' These women want to make their mouths like those 
of ducks ; ' and, indeed, it does appear as if they had the idea 
that female beauty of lip had been attained by the Ornithorhyn- 
chus paradoxus alone. This custom prevails throughout the 
country of the Maravi, and no one could see it without confes- 
sing that fashion had never led women to a freak more mad." 

There is a remarkable absence of deformities. There is a 
horror of everything which is out of the apparent order of na- 



CONTINUED FRIENDLINESS. 245 

ture in very many of the tribes. To this is probably attributa- 
ble the fact that Livingstone found no albinos. They are so 
disliked that it is not uncommon to put the infants to death. 
Parents kill their own children who are so unfortunate as to 
possess a white face. The general absence of deformed persons 
is partly owing to their destruction in infancy, and partly to the 
mode of life being a natural one, so far as ventilation and food 
are concerned. They use but few unwholesome mixtures as 
condiments, and, though their undress exposes them to the vicissi- 
tudes of the temperature, it does not harbor vomites. It was 
observed that when small-pox and measles visited the country 
they were most severe on the half-castes who were clothed. In 
several tribes, a child which is said to " tlola," transgress, is put 
to death. "Tlolo," or transgression, is ascribed to several curious 
cases. A child who cut the upper front teeth before the under 
was always put to death among the Bakaa, and, I believe, also 
among the Bakwains. In some tribes, a case of twins renders 
one of them liable to death ; and an ox which, while lying in 
the pen, beats the ground with its tail, is treated in the same 
way. It is thought to be calling death to visit the tribe. When 
Livingstone was corning through Londa, his men carried a great 
number of fowls, of a larger breed than any they had at home. 
If one crowed before midnight it had been guilty of "tlolo," 
and was killed. The men often carried them sitting on their 
guns, and if one began to crow in a forest the owner would give 
it a beating, by way of teaching it not to be guilty of crowing 
at unseasonable hours. 

The friendliness of the tribes had continued so marked, that 
Livingstone was cherishing the hope that he would find none 
of the painful experiences which made the approach to the An- 
gola borders the bitterest part of his former journey. It was, 
therefore, as surprising as vexatious to find the town of Selole in 
great excitement, and to be told that he and his party were re- 
garded as enemies, and, to that, Selole had already sent a mes- 
senger to the Mburuma to raise that tribe against them. These 
warlike preparations, however, had grown out of a misunder- 
standing of the nature of Livingstone's expedition and were easily 
quelled by the true representations. There had been an Italian 
in the country, who entered making the best promises, but who, 



246 ADVENTURE WITH AN ELEPHANT. 

when the occasion allowed, fell upon the islands and took away 
many of the people and large quantities of ivory. Selole had 
associated Livingstone with that man, who having been killed 
some time before, he was represented as having " risen from the 
dead." 

An adventure with an elephant, which occurred just after 
parting with Selole, throws some light on the singular tenacity 
with which that animal clings to life, and may serve the would- 
be-hunters a good turn. They had come in sight of a troop of 
elephants ; it is astonishing how numerous these troops are some- 
times ; Dr. Barth once counted over ninety in a herd. The 
men of Livingstone, on the occasion mentioned, set out to secure 
some meat ; as " they drew near," says the account, " the troop 
began to run; one of them fell into a hole, and before he could 
extricate himself an opportunity was afforded for all the men 
to throw their spears. When he rose he was like a huge porcu- 
pine, for each of the seventy or eighty men had discharged more 
than one spear at him. As they had no more, they sent for me 
to finish him. In order to put him at once out of pain, I went 
to within twenty yards, there being a bank between us which he 
could not readily climb. I rested the gun on an ant-hill so as 
to take steady aim ; but, though I fired twelve two-ounce bullets, 
all I had, into different parts, I could not kill him. As it was 
becoming dark, I advised my men to let him stand, being sure 
of finding him dead in the morning ; but, though we searched 
all the next day, and went more than ten miles, we never saw 
him again. I mention this to young men who may think that 
they will be able to hunt elephants on foot by adopting the 
Ceylon practice of killing them by one ball in the brain. I be- 
lieve that in Africa the practice of standing before an elephant, 
expecting to kill him with one shot, would be certain death to 
the hunter ; and I would add, for the information of those who 
may think that because I met with a great abundance of game 
here they also might find rare sport, that the tsetse exists all 
along both banks of the Zambesi, and there can be no hunting 
by means of horses. Hunting on foot in this climate is such ex- 
cessively hard work, that I feel certain the keenest sportsman 
would very soon turn away from it in disgust. I myself was 
rather glad, when furnished with the excuse that I had no longer 



SUSPICIOUS CONDUCT. 247 

any balls, to hand over all the hunting to my men, who had no 
more love for the sport than myself, as they never engaged in 
it except when forced by hunger." 

Though the explanation of Livingstone seemed to be received 
as true, it did not inspire full confidence, as could be clearly 
seen in the absence of Mburuma himself, and the care which his 
people were at to keep always in large bodies and thoroughly 
armed. 

The greatest anxiety which Livingstone had was to pass these 
people so quietly and peaceably that they would welcome him 
should he return, as he expected to do. These people of Mbu- 
ruma were, however, manifestly so treacherous that the greatest 
caution was needed to avoid a collision with them ; and Dr. 
Livingstone found that the experience he had gained was of 
considerable value. They were clearly disposed to improve the 
slightest chance to plunder or destroy the whole party. The 
trying character of the situation may be seen in the account 
which Dr. Livingstone himself gives ; says he : 

" Mburuma sent two men as guides to the Loangwa. These 
men tried to bring us to a stand, at a distance of about six miles 
from the village, by the notice, ' Mburuma says you are to sleep 
under that tree.' On declining to do this, we were told that we 
must wait at a certain village for a supply of corn. As none 
appeared in an hour, I proceeded on the march. It is not quite 
certain that their intentions were hostile, but this seemed to dis- 
arrange their plans, and one of them was soon observed running 
back to Mburuma. They had first of all tried to separate our 
party by volunteering the loan of a canoe to convey Sekwebu 
and me, together with our luggage, by way of the river, and, as 
it was pressed upon us, I thought that this was their design. 
The next attempt was to detain us in the pass; but, betraying 
no suspicion, we civilly declined to place ourselves in their power 
in an unfavorable position. We afterward heard that a party 
of Babisa traders, who came from the northeast, bringing Eng- 
lish goods from Mozambique, had been plundered by this same 
people." 

Although the party reached the confluence of the Loangwa 
without greater trouble than the manifestly wicked designs of 
Mburuma's people, Livingstone felt by no means confident that 



248 DANGER AND DELIVERANCE. 

they would pass in safety. He could only obtain the use of 
two canoes for the purpose of crossing the stream, and it seemed 
that the Mburuma would at last accomplish his object and get 
the party divided. He confesses that he felt some turmoil of 
spirit in the evening at the prospect of having all his efforts 
for the welfare of this great region and its teeming population 
knocked on the head by savages to-morrow, who might be said 
to " know not what they do." It seemed such a pity that the 
important fact of the .existence of the two healthy ridges which 
he had discovered should not become known in Christendom, 
for a confirmation would thereby have been given to the idea 
that Africa is not open to the gospel. But he read that Jesus 
said, " All power is given unto me in heaven and on earth ; go 

ye, therefore, and teach all nations and lo, I am with 

you alway, even unto the end of the world" He took this as his 
word of honor, and then went out to take observations for lati- 
tude and longitude, which he estimated, from the ruins of a 
stone church which he found just at the confluence of the Loangwa 
with the Zambesi, and found to be: latitude, 15° 37' 22" S., 
longitude, 30° 32' E. 

When the morning came there were numbers of men armed, 
who stood by while the goods and load after load of the men 
were being sent across. ^Livingstone himself was left to the last 
boat, but, concealing whatever fear he may have felt, he be- 
guiled the time pleasantly exhibiting various articles to his sup- 
posed enemies as pleasantly as he could have done to his own 
Makololo, and, finally, when his time came to enter the boat, 
he " thanked them for their kindness," and, wishing them peace, 
passed over unmolested, feeling in his heart exceedingly grati- 
fied to God for preserving him and preserving peace, which he 
longed to bestow on Africa. 

The party were now entering the outskirts of Portuguese en- 
terprise, extending from their colony on the east coast. The 
same indications of a mistaken policy which were so abundant 
in Angola were to be seen here also, and here, as there, they 
have been rather the enemies than the helpers of the natives at 
the junction of the Loangwa and Zambesi. The town of Zumbo 
contains a number of ruins of stone houses. "They all faced 
the river, and were high enough up the flanks of the hill Maz- 



RUIXS OF ZUMBO. 249 

anzwe to command a pleasant view of the broad Zambesi. 
These establishments had all been built on one plan — a house 
on one side of a large court, surrounded by a wall ; both houses 
and walls had been built of soft gray sandstone cemented to- 
gether with mud. The work had been performed by slaves 
ignorant of building, for the stones were not often placed so as 
to cover the seams below. Hence you frequently find the join- 
ings forming one seam from the top to the bottom. Much mortar 
or clay had been used to cover defects, and now trees of the fig 
family grow upon the walls and clasp them with their roots. 
When the clay is moistened, masses of the walls come down by 
wholesale. Some of the rafters and beams had fallen in, but were 
entire, and there were some trees in the middle of the houses as 
large as a man's body. On the opposite or south bank of the 
Zambesi we saw the remains of a wall on a height which was 
probably a fort, and the church stood at a central point, formed 
by the right bank of the Loangwa and the left of the Zambesi. 

" The situation of Zumbo was admirably well chosen as a site 
for commerce. Looking backward we see a mass of high, dark 
mountains, covered with trees ; behind us rises the fine high hill 
Mazanzwe, which stretches away northward along the left bank 
of the Loangwa; to the southeast lies an open country, with a 
small round hill in the distance called Tofulo. The merchants, 
as they sat beneath the verandahs in front of their houses, had 
a magnificent view of the two rivers at their confluence ; of their 
church at the angle ; and of all the gardens which they had on 
both sides of the rivers." 

But here, as in Angola, the churches have exerted but trifling 
influence ; the people have not been turned from their supersti- 
tions; and the poorly-paid officials having become merchants 
from necessity, and allowed their necessity to become avarice, 
trade nearly altogether in slaves and ivory. Livingstone soon 
found that he had encountered the annoyance and danger of 
passing through the midst of people who had been for two years 
in war with the white settlers. Being on the north side of the 
river and without means of crossing, he was forced to expose 
himself on the savage side, while on the south side he would 
have been under the authority of the Portuguese. He had, 
however, no disposition to take sides in such a quarrel, and 



250 DANCING FOR CORN. 

moved along leisurely, although he was cautioned that Npende 
had determined to allow no white man to pass through his 
territory. 

The animal life along the river continued abundant, and 
while passing along among the trees, not far from Zumbo, three 
buffaloes, which had been passed without being observed, dis- 
covering their proximity, became alarmed and dashed through 
the company furiously. The ox on which Livingstone was 
mounted rushed off at a swift gallop, and when he succeeded 
in turning him back he saw that one of his men had enjoyed a 
very unexpected a?rial tour. A buffalo had passed so near him 
that he had thrown down his burden and stabbed him in the 
side. Thus assaulted the beast turned suddenly upon him and 
carried him off on his horns, but though he was tossed quite a 
distance there was no serious injury experienced. 

It is pretty certain that there is no other country through 
which a hundred and fourteen strong, hearty fellows could pass 
everywhere entertained with such abundance. Sekwebu, the 
principal man, had foretold the liberality of the tribes along the 
Zambesi, he having known them many years before ; all hands 
agreed that he had told only the truth. The men took care for 
themselves, and having had very little trouble by the way, they 
were light-hearted and free; they generally conducted their 
peaceable forays by going into the villages and commencing to 
dance, and, when it is remembered that there were in the party 
representatives of nearly all the tribes which are in any way 
under the Makololo authority, it is easily conceivable that the 
maidens of these villages were deeply interested by the compli- 
cation of the capers that were cut. It was as natural as could 
be for them to lavish all their corn on the gay and gallant 
strangers. These gallant men were considerably in advance of 
most of those whom they visited, and laughed among them- 
selves about their success. They rejoiced in their well-fed ap- 
pearance ; " look," they would say, " though we have been so 
long away from home not one of us has become lean." 

The rich, beautiful, fresh-looking, healthy country contrasted 
most charmingly with the sultry, parched, drooping, half-alive 
region in the south. The almost daily showers imparted a de- 
lightful freshness to all things. It was hardly possible for Dr. 




SURPRISED BY BUFFALOES (page 198). 



A FIGHT AVERTED. 253 

Livingstone to give the anxiety which might have been natural 
enough to the probable difficulties which he was to confront 
when he should reach Mpende's village. He did, however, use 
forethought enough to propitiate such of his prominent subjects 
as had villages on their path, trusting that they would be dis- 
posed to exert some favorable influence, or, if no better, at least 
might circulate the true nature of his errand in advance of him. 
But when, on the 23d of January, the sun arose on them sur- 
rounded by a large party of Mpende's people, uttering their 
strange cries and waving their charms, and kindling their mystic 
fire, they were neither surprised nor frightened. But though 
Livingstone had no fear that his men, who were rejoicing in the 
prospect of a fight, would fail to hold the day against the as- 
sailants, he preferred to stand looking to the Ruler of hearts, 
and praying to be spared the necessity of self-defence. He was 
a noble example of a man standing ready, under all circum- 
stances, to crucify his fondest affection and strongest passion for 
the accomplishment of an elevated object. His men, though, 
being trained to marauding and suffering in their wardrobes 
the effects of a long tramp, looked on the situation as quite a 
promising affair ; a " good hit " by which they trusted to dress 
up before entering the homes of the white people. Following 
the custom of Sebituane, who had trained his braves, Livingstone 
had an ox slaughtered, that they might whet their courage for 
a fight on a good meal of flesh. But while he was waiting God 
was working, and Livingstone soon saw the results of his pro- 
vidence. In the midst of his warlike preparations one of the 
men who had talked with Livingstone by the way entered the 
council of Mpende with information which changed the mind 
of that chief. He was in war with the Portuguese, and thought 
of Livingstone as one of his enemies ; but when he heard it inti- 
mated that the stranger belonged to " the tribe who love the 
black man " (they designate the English thus), he was as kind 
as he had been unfriendly, and expressed his regret that he had 
been misinformed and so led to annoy " the man ivho had a 
heart for him." When Dr. Livingstone knew the favorable de- 
cision of the council, he sent Sekwebu to speak about the pur- 
chase of a canoe, giving as one of his reasons that one of the 
men being sick he desired to get a canoe in which to carry him 



254 " THINGS, NOT MEN." 

and so relieve the others of the burden of carrying him. Before 
Sekwebu could finish, Mpende remarked, "That white man is 
truly one of our friends. See how he lets me know his afflic- 
tions ! " Sekwebu adroitly took advantage of this turn in the 
conversation, and said, "Ah ! if you only knew him as well as 
we do who have lived with him, you would understand that he 
highly values your friendship and that of Mburuma, and, as he 
is a stranger, he trusts in you to direct him." He replied, 
" Well, he ought to cross to the other side of the river, for this 
bank is hilly and rough, and the way to Tete is longer on this 
than on the opposite bank." " But who will take us across, if 
you do not?" "Truly!" replied Mpende; "I only wish you 
had come sooner to tell me about him ; but he shall cross." 

The Zambesi at this point was twelve hundred yards wide, 
but the passage was made safely, and Livingstone congratulated 
himself on being on the side less exposed to petty annoyances, 
and offering at the same time an easier path to the sea. 

It was gratifying to Livingstone to find all the people occupy- 
ing the country cursed by the slave trade of the Portuguese at 
least conscious of its meanness ; they excuse themselves quite 
after the manner of more enlightened sinners for their engaging 
in barter which requires the giving of human beings into bondage 
by putting greater guilt on the tempter. This is the old dodge, 
which was not quite equal to the emergency of our too yielding 
mother in Eden, and it cannot deliver even the heathen from 
our condemnation ; yet certainly it can hardly be a pleasing re- 
flection to those who would take the responsibility of encourag- 
ing such a trade that their victims, too weak to resist them, are 
good enough to curse them, and too degraded to be pitied by 
them, are yet noble enough to despise them. These people speak 
of the English as men, but of the slave-traders they say, " they 
are not men, they are only things." The idea is quite prevalent 
that those who have purchased slaves of them have done them 
an injury. "All the slaves of Nyungwe," said one, " are our 
children ; the Bozunga (Portuguese) have built the town at our 
expense." 

The presence of traders enabled Livingstone to replenish the 
wardrobes of his men, which they had been denied attending to 
for themselves in the village of Mpende, and they were happier. 



SAND KTVERS. 255 

In latitude 15° 38' 34" south, longitude 31° V east, on the 
1st of February, they crossed the Zingesi, one of the sand-rivu- 
lets which constitute quite a feature of the country. It was in 
flood at that time and flowed along quite waist-deep. These 
sand-rivers are the agencies which have probably had much to 
do in the changes which are manifestly occurring in the face of 
the country continually. In trying to ford this stream Dr. 
Livingstone felt thousands of particles of coarse sand beating 
against his legs. These rivers remove vast quantities of disin- 
tegrated rock before it has time enough to form soil, and one 
diving below the surface may hear thousands of tiny stones 
knocking against each other continually. And we can readily 
believe that " this attrition, carried on for hundreds of miles in 
different rivers, must have an effect greater than if all the 
pestles and mortars and mills of the world were grinding and 
wearing away the rocks." 

The general order was somewhat interrupted by the " game 
laws " which protected the animal kingdom. The lands of each 
chief are very well defined, the boundaries being usually marked 
by rivulets, great numbers of which flow into the Zambesi from 
both banks, and if an elephant is wounded on one man's land 
and dies on that of another, the under half of the carcass is 
claimed by the lord of the soil ; and so stringent is the law, that 
the hunter cannot begin at once to cut up his own elephant, but 
must send notice to the lord of the soil on which it lies, and 
wait until that personage sends one authorized to see a fair 
partition made. If the hunter should begin to cut up before 
the agent of the landowner arrives, he is liable to lose both the 
tusks and all the flesh. The hind leg of a buffalo must also be 
given to the man on whose land the animal was grazing, and 
a still larger quantity of the eland, which here and everywhere 
else in the country is esteemed right royal food. 

If these laws had been met here for the first time, Living- 
stone would probably have considered them a sort of tax on the 
traveller for passing through another's country, but they are 
found far in the south. In the interior too there are game laws, 
though not exactly such as these. The man who first wounds 
an animal, though he has inflicted but a mere scratch, is con- 
sidered the killer of it ; the second is entitled to a hind quarter, 
13 



256 THE SPOTTED HYENA. 

and the third to a fore-leg. The chiefs are generally entitled to 
a share as tribute ; in some parts it is the breast, in others the 
whole of the ribs and one fore-leg. Dr. Livingstone generally 
respected this law, although exceptions are sometimes made when 
animals are killed by guns. The knowledge that he who suc- 
ceeds in reaching the wounded beast first is entitled to a share 
stimulates the whole party to greater exertions in despatching it. 
Among his own followers these laws were in some force. One 
of the men having a knowledge of elephant medicine generally 
went boldly in advance of the others, and on his decision the 
choice depended ; and he was recognized as having a right to 
certain parts of the elephant as the tribute to his office. 

The- huts in this section they found erected on high stages in 
the midst of gardens. The spotted hyena is the scourge of the 
country, and his cowardly but savage prowling makes it neces- 
sary to sleep out of his reach. The precaution of elevated 
resting-places serves well against the lions and elephants, who 
are not scrupulous about disturbing the sweetest repose by 
their dreadful intrusions. The hyena particularly is dreaded, 
because he frequently approaches persons lying asleep and 
makes horrid work with their features. Men are frequently 
killed and children carried away; for though the voice of a 
human being fills him with terror, he never unfastens his teeth 
when once he has a taste of blood if it is possible to drag his 
victim away. These animals prowl about under cover of the 
darkness, uttering the most horrid yells. Their filthy gluttony 
finds a choice repast in the worst forms of putridity. The 
strength of its jaws is only equalled by its wonderful power of 
digestion. It will easily crush in its teeth the largest bones of 
an ox, and digest them without the slightest inconvenience. 
But the people had plenty, and though under the necessity of 
building their nests in the air like the birds, were yet quite 
comfortable and light-hearted. Their gardens are nearly all of 
them reclaimed from the forests, which abound in gigantic 
trees. It is probably the peculiarly ravenous habits of their 
sneaking enemy which explain the fact that many of these 
large trees contain the bodies of their dead. Among the trees 
of importance the tamarind is quite conspicuous, on account of 
the large numbers of them and its valuable fruit. There is an- 



Livingstone's generosity. 257 

other, not unlike it, called the motondo, the wood of which is 
very highly valued by the Portuguese for building boats. 

The Zambesi all along east of the ridge is subject to frequent 
freshets, occasioned by the rains, which were found to be of 
almost daily occurrence. Dr. Livingstone suggests that it is 
probably owing to these freshets that the Portuguese on the 
coast have failed to discover the periodical overflow of the river, 
which is discoverable in the great interior valley, where it is 
not affected by so many tributaries, and where the dry and wet 
seasons are more marked. And it was his opinion that if the 
Zambesi was continued southward to the Cape, being allowed to 
flow through the flat country of the desert, it would be seen to 
have the same character as the Nile in Egypt. 

The generosity of the people continued to lighten the care of 
travelling. The villagers were quite generous of supplies, and 
whatever disposition to ask or demand gifts they manifested 
was clearly attributable to the association with the despicable 
class of white men who have been among them as traders : the 
contemptible gifts which these men frequently make, such as a 
few buttons, or some other equally worthless object, gives rise 
to the necessity, on the part of the natives, for making demands 
for articles of some value, which may be in some sort an equiva- 
lent for their attentions. The custom of Dr. Livingstone, of 
making presents of real value, as far as lay in his power, went 
far toward elevating him in the confidence of the people, and 
contributed no little to the honor of the English name in their 
estimation. Those who pursue another course are greatly mis- 
taken in counting on the ignorance of the natives to excuse 
them. They are aware of the worthlessness of the articles, and 
receive them with a degree of shame, and ladies may be seen to 
hand it quickly to the attendants, and, when they retire, laugh 
until the tears stand in their eyes, saying to those about them, 
" Is that a white man ? then there are niggards among them 
too. Some of them are born without hearts ! " One white 
trader, having presented an old gun to a chief, became a stand- 
ing joke in the tribe : " The white man who made a present of a 
gun that was new when his grandfather was sucking his great- 
grandmother." 



CHAPTER XI. 

CHICOVA TO TETE./ 

District of Chicova — Agriculture — Game Laws — Banyai Prayers — Makololo 
Faith — Insect Life— Birds — Their Songs — Squirrel — Geological Features — 
Grapes — Plums — Animal Life — Superstition about Lions — The Korwe — A 
Model Husband — Helpful Facts — Government of the Banyai — Selecting 
Chiefs — Monina's Opposition — Fight Threatened — Sudden Derangement — 
Conscience at Work — " A Guilt" — An Ordeal — Woman's Rights — The Son-in- 
Law — Dignity of Woman — Good Husbands, Bad Hunters — The Rhinoceros — 
Andersson's Adventure — Terrible Encounter — Rhinoceros Among Beasts — 
Villages Avoided — Nearing Tete — Livingstone Emaciated — Eight Miles Only 
— A Retrospect — A Prospect — Noble Picture — Arrival of Messengers — Civil- 
ized Breakfast — Reception at Tete — The Source of the Zambesi Unknown — 
The Value of the Discovery. 

Although it was most desirable to follow the river as 
closely as possible, the continued floods, together with the hos- 
tile character of some of the petty chiefs who would be on the 
line of that route, determined Dr. Livingstone on a more south- 
ern path across the district of Chicova. This prevented his 
making any observations of the Zambesi between the hills west 
of the Chicova flats and the town of Tete. The section of 
country through which he passed was not wanting in beauty, 
and there were some things of special interest, on account of 
which he was rather gratified by the change of route. The 
district had been reported to contain silver mines, and the 
curiosity of one so long buried in the wilds was awake for such 
evidences of European enterprise. His own investigations did 
not, however, confirm the report ; the natives knew nothing of 
silver. But the finding of coal and the news of gold-washings 
relieved the disappointment as to silver. 

There were no herds to remind him of the more inland 
friends, for the tsetse dwells along the little streams and rivu- 
lets which thread the country ; the inhabitants are therefore 
devoted to agricultural pursuits, perhaps as much from neces- 
sity as from preference. They are a good-looking, manly set, 
258 



GAME LAWS. 259 

generous enough to assist and selfish enough to hinder a warm- 
hearted traveller, as Livingstone could testify out of his own 
experience. 

Among the troublesome features of their government, to a 
party dependent largely on what they might chance to kill, 
were their game laws, which differed little from those mentioned 
as existing in other parts of the continent. The operation of 
these laws may be illustrated by the fact that, the followers of 
Livingstone having killed an elephant, they dared not go so far 
as to cut it up until a messenger had been sent to the man who 
had charge of the game of the district. The delay occasioned 
by this formality rendered the meat almost useless before the 
hungry party could get at it. If they had begun cutting it up 
without this permission they would have lost the whole. On 
this occasion certain Banyai hunters chanced to be present, and 
exhibited a little of their national faith. One of them, wit- 
nessing the fight of the strangers with the beast, took out his 
snuff-box and emptied the contents at the root of a tree as an 
offering to the spirits for success; and when the animal fell, 
said to Dr. Livingstone, "I see you are travelling with people 
who don't know how to pray ; I therefore offered the only thing 
I had in their behalf and the elephant soon fell." They wor- 
ship departed spirits, and in their reverence and devotion are 
an example to some whose confidence and affection are claimed 
by a higher and worthier Being. Their modest respect for 
their Barimo contrasted strikingly with the confident and care- 
less recognition of the Supreme Giver of All by the men from 
the interior, who said, " God gave it to us." He said to the old 
beast, "Go up there; men are come who will kill you." 

The inhabitants of this country call themselves Bambari, but 
they are of the nation whose general name is Banyai. The few 
towns and villages to which Livingstone came treated him and 
his men kindly. They are surrounded by gardens which have 
been reclaimed from the forests and are exceedingly fertile. 
The abundance of insect life was truly wonderful ; almost every 
plant has its peculiar insect. The rankest poisons, as the 
kongwhane and euphorbia, are soon devoured. The former has 
a scarlet insect. Even the fiery birdseye pepper, which will 
keep off many others from its own seed, is itself devoured by a 



260 BIRDS OF AFRICA. 

maggot. There were seen also great numbers of centipedes with 
light reddish bodies and blue legs, and great myriapedes are 
seen crawling everywhere. Even in the deepest and quietest 
parts of the forest there is the distinct hum of insect joy. The 
tiny honey guides were at hand volunteering their services, but 
there were no artificial hives as in Londa, or long lines of 
honey bearers. The wax had not become an article of value as 
on the west coast. The little toilers store their treasure in the 
cavities of trees. 

The feathered tribes seemed determined to vindicate their 
characters, and contradict the assertion that " birds of the tropics 
are wanting in the power of song; " but to Livingstone, though 
they sang with power, they seemed " singing in a foreign 
tongue." " One," he says, " brought the chaffinch to my mind, 
another the robin ; two have notes not unlike those of the 
thrush, while some resemble the lark." The best songs, how- 
ever, of them all were marked by certain "strange, abrupt 
notes " unlike anything he had heard before. One utters delib- 
erately, " Peek, pak, pok ; " another has a single note like a 
stroke on a violin string. Then there is the loud cry of fran- 
colins, the " pumpuru, pumpuru " of the turtle-doves, and the 
screaming notes of the mokwa. The birds of Africa, like its 
people, are unknown and therefore despised. When they have 
been sung by the poets people will praise their songs, and the 
poets will sing of them when they have heard the songs. Like 
our birds, these choristers of the unknown land love the early 
morning and the evening with its balmy breath, or they are 
filled with joy when, on a sultry day, a sudden shower has re- 
freshed all nature, and great, cool drops hang like pearls on 
every bough or leaf, glistening in the rays of the sun, which 
glance along the clouds with broken power. It is a pleasing 
thought that God has provided the darkest wildernesses of earth 
with melodies in praise of his goodness, and it may be that we 
should consider the presence of God's choir as a prophecy of his 
coming. It may be that the voice of song which wraps the 
world like praise is to be the canopy of God's dominion. It 
may be that the birds of Africa, songful and free, hint of the 
time when all her sable sons may shout in the wonderful eman- 
cipation which shall attend the reign of Christ Jesus the Lord. 



GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 261 

The ever-provident squirrel was observed arranging his nest 
and storing his supplies in the cavities of the trees; more, how- 
ever, against the long hot seasons than against the winter, as 
with us. There were great numbers of silicified trees lying 
about over the ground ; in one place there was discovered a 
piece of palm transformed into oxide of iron, with the pores 
filled with pure silica. These fossil trees lie upon soft gray 
sandstone, containing banks of shingle, which forms the under- 
lying rock of the country. The way led across the hills Vun- 
gue or Mvungwe, which were found to be composed of various 
eruptive rocks ; at one part we have breccia of altered marl or 
slate in quartz, and various amygdaloids. The different forms 
which silica was found to assume were truly remarkable. It 
appeared in claystone porphyry here, in minute round globules, 
no larger than turnip-seed, dotted thickly over the matrix ; or 
crystallized round the walls of cavities, once filled with air or 
other elastic fluid ; or it may appear in similar cavities as tufts 
of yellow asbestos, or as red, yellow, or green crystals, or in 
laminae so arranged as to appear like fossil wood. Vungue 
forms the watershed between those sand rivulets which run to 
the northeast, and others which flow southward, as the Kapopo, 
Ue, and Due, which run into the Luia. 

The ground in the neighborhood of the Kapopo and the Ue 
was covered with rounded shingle, which, being hidden by the 
grass, greatly aggravated the miseries of the pedestrian march. 
The difficulty was increased, too, by the network of vines which 
hedged the paths on every side and spread almost impassable 
snares across it. There were among these vines, however, great 
numbers bearing wild grapes, some of which were so delicate 
that they resembled greatly the cultivated varieties ; these are 
eagerly appropriated by the natives, and the Portuguese have 
found out the value of some of the varieties for making vinegar. 
Indeed, the invitation seems to be extended quite encouragingly 
to those interested in grape culture to think of Africa. Another 
species of fruit which was found to be really "delicious" is 
known as the mokoronga. Its abundance does not diminish its 
popularity. The natives speak of it as " all fat," which they 
mean shall convey the impression of excellence. Though these 
plums are but little larger than a cherry they are greatly relished 



262 THE KORWE AND HER NEST. 

by the elephant, and they may be seen standing picking them 
off patiently by the hour. 

The bow and arrow have been ineffectual weapons against 
the multitudes of animals which make their home in this coun- 
try. Buffaloes and antelopes were found in abundance ; lions 
and hyenas also are remarkably numerous. Possibly the super- 
stition of the people has something to do with the numbers and 
audacity of the former, for the people, believing that the souls 
of their chiefs enter into them, never attempt to kill them ; they 
even believe that a chief may metamorphose himself into a lion, 
kill any one he chooses, and then return to the human form ; 
therefore, when they see one, they commence clapping their 
hands, which is the usual mode of salutation here. The conse- 
quence is, that lions and hyenas are so abundant that little huts 
are seen made in the trees, indicating the places where some of 
the inhabitants have slept when benighted in the fields. 

The courage or indifference with which Livingstone's men 
wandered about in search of honey and birds' nests quite aston- 
ished the natives. In these forays it was quite common for 
them to find the nests of the korwe. This is a very remarkable 
bird whose nests are found in the cavities of the mopane trees. 
When the female enters her nest, she submits to a real confine- 
ment. The male plasters up the entrance, leaving only a 
narrow slit by which to feed his mate, and which exactly suits 
the form of his beak. The female makes a nest of her own 
feathers, lays her eggs, hatches them, and remains with the 
young till they are fully fledged. During all this time, which 
is stated to be two or three months, the male continues to feed 
her and the young family. The prisoner generally becomes 
quite fat, and is esteemed a very dainty morsel by the natives, 
while the poor slave of a husband gets so lean that, on the sud- 
den lowering of the temperature which sometimes happens after 
a fall of rain, he is benumbed, falls down, and dies. The 
korwe generally leads her young forth about the time when corn 
is ripe, and they are fully clothed and fledged for their first 
appearance on the stage of life. The devotion which the parent 
birds manifest for each other is very beautiful ; but when a dis- 
consolate husband is found feeding another wife at the same 
nest from which his former partner was taken by voracious men 



/ 



AFRICAN PROPER NAMES. 263 

only four or five weeks before, his love becomes strongly like a 
sarcastic imitation of his human enemies, who are hardly more 
permanently disconsolate. 

The party came to Monina's village (close to the sand-river 
Tangwe, latitude 16° 13' 38" south, longitude 32° 32' east). 
This man was very popular among the tribes on account of his 
liberality. Boroma, Nyampungo, Monina, Jira, Katolosa 
(Monomotapa), and Susa, all acknowledge the supremacy of one 
called Nyatewe, who is reported to decide all disputes respecting 
land. This confederation is exactly similar to what we observed 
in Londa and other parts of Africa. Katolosa is " the Emperor 
Monomotapa " of history, but he is a chief of no great power, 
and acknowledges the supremacy of Nyatewe. The Portuguese 
formerly honored Monomotapa with a guard to fire off numbers 
of guns on the occasion of any funeral, and he was also partially 
subsidized. The ouly evidence of greatness possessed by his 
successor is his having about a hundred wives. When he dies 
a disputed succession and much fighting are expected. In re- 
ference to the term Monomotapa, it is to be remembered that 
Mono, Moene, Mona, Mana, or Morena, mean simply chief, and 
considerable confusion has arisen from naming different people 
by making a plural of the chief's name. The names Mono- 
moizes, spelled also Monemuiges and Monomuizes, and Mono- 
motapis,tas, when applied to these tribes, are exactly the same as 
if we should call the Scotch the Lord Douglases. Motape 
was the chief of the Bambiri, a tribe of the Banyai, and is now 
represented in the person of Katolosa. He was probably a man 
of greater energy than his successor, yet only an insignificant 
chief. Monomoizes was formed from Moiza or Muiza, the sin- 
gular of the word Babisa or Aiza, the proper name of a large 
tribe to the north. In the transformation of this name the same 
error has been committed as in the others ; and mistakes have 
occurred in many other names by inattention to the meaning, 
and predilection for the letter r. The river Loangwa, for in- 
stance, has been termed Arroangoa, and the Luenya the Ruanha. 
The Bazizulu, or Mashona, are spoken of as the Morururus. 

The government of the Banyai is rather peculiar, being a 
sort of feudal republicanism. The chief is elected, and they 
choose the son of the deceased chief's sister in preference to his 



, 



264 THE CHOICE OF A CHIEF. 

own offspring. When dissatisfied with one candidate, they 
even go to a distant tribe for a successor, who is usually of the 
family of the late chief, a brother, or a sister's son, but never 
his own son or daughter. When first spoken to on the subject, 
he answers as if he thought himself unequal to the task and un- 
worthy of the honor ; but, having accepted it, all the wives, 
goods, and children of his predecessor belong to him, and he 
takes care to keep them in a dependent position. When any one 
of them becomes tired of this state of vassalage and sets up his 
own village, it is not unusual for the elected chief to send a 
number of the young men, who congregate about himself to 
visit him. If he does not receive them with the usual amount 
of clapping of hands and humility, they, in obedience to orders, 
at once burn his village. The children of the chief have fewer 
privileges than common free men. They may not be sold, but, 
rather than choose any one of them for a chief at any future 
time, the free men would prefer to elect one of themselves, who 
bore only a very distant relationship to the family. These free 
men are a distinct class who can never be sold ; and under them 
there is a class of slaves whose appearance as well as position is 
very degraded. Monina had a great number of young men 
about him from twelve to fifteen years of age. These were all 
sons of free men, and bauds of young men like them in the 
different districts leave their parents about the age of puberty, 
and live with such men as Monina for the sake of instruction. 
When asked the nature of the instruction, one is told " Bonyai," 
which may be understood as indicating manhood, for it sounds 
as if we should say, " to teach an American Americanism," or 
" an Englishman to be English." While here they are kept in 
subjection to rather stringent regulations. They must salute 
carefully by clapping their hands on approaching a superior, and 
when any cooked food is brought the young men may not ap- 
proach the dish, but an elder divides a portion to each. They 
remain unmarried until a fresh set of youths is ready to occupy 
their place under the same instruction. The parents send ser- 
vants with their sons to cultivate gardens to supply them with 
food, and also tusks to Monina to purchase clothing for them. 
When the lads return to the village of their parents, a case is 
submitted to them for adjudication, and if they speak well on 
the point the parents are highly gratified. 



a night's experience. 265 

Monina did not seem as generously inclined as Nyampungo 
had been, and intimated at the first interview that he was dis- 
satisfied with the excuses given for not presenting something 
valuable. The demonstrations were decidedly indicative of an 
attack. Livingstone had reason to believe, however, that the 
chief was personally more inclined to favor him, and was urged 
to these demonstrations by his counsellors, who had the hope of 
frightening the stranger into some payment which they felt cer- 
tain he was able to make. The war dance, though, left little 
hope of anything but a fight, and Livingstone's party lay down 
on their arms, watching silently, and only allowed themselves to 
sleep when it was certain that a night assault was abandoned. 
During that night of anxiety an unexpected sorrow fell on the 
party. Monahin, who had commanded the Batoka of Mokwine, 
arose in the night, and looking toward the smouldering fires 
about which the people of Monina had been dancing, was heard 
to say, " Listen, don't you hear what they are saying ; they are 
going to kill Monahin," and then turning about he walked away 
into the forests and could not be found. This brings to notice 
again the peculiar temporary derangement which is quite fre- 
quently met with in the tribes of Africa. It seems generally 
to be the result of some uncommon strain on the mind. Mo- 
nahin was suspected by these Batoka whom he commanded as 
being the murderer of Mokwine ; they would say, " Mokwine is 
reported to have been killed by the Makololo, but Monahin is 
the individual who put forth his hand and slew him." It is 
worthy of note that while these people have no sort of compunc- 
tions about killing in battle, concerning one who kills a man of 
any standing, in a foray undertaken on his own account, the 
common people continue ever after to indulge in remarks, which 
are brought to him in various ways, until the iteration on his 
conscience produces insanity. 

There was hardly the slightest hope of finding the poor fellow 
in a country so infested with ravenous beasts, but Dr. Living- 
stone spent three whole days in the search before he could find 
heart to go on. The affliction, too, seemed to affect the heart of 
Monina; he aided in every way in his power; he seemed anxious 
least he might be suspected of having stolen the missing man, 
and assured Dr. Livingstone most positively, saying, " We never 



266 THE WITCH-DOCTOR. 

catch or kidnap people here ; it is not our custom ; it is considered 
a guilt among all the tribes." 

As the party left Monina's village, a witch-doctor, who had 
been sent for, arrived, and all Monina's wives went forth into 
the fields that morning fasting. There they would be compelled 
to drink an infusion of a plant named "goho," which is used 
as an ordeal. This ceremony is called " muavi," and is per- 
formed in this way : When a man suspects that any of his wives 
has bewitched him, he sends for the witch-doctor, and all the 
wives go forth into the field, and remain fasting till that person 
has made an infusion of the plant. They all drink it, each 
one holding up her hand to heaven in attestation of her inno- 
cence. Those who vomit it are considered innocent, while those 
whom it purges are pronounced guilty, and put to death by 
burning. The innocent return to their homes, and slaughter a 
cock as a thank-offering to their guardian spirits. The practice 
of ordeal is common among all the negro nations north of the 
Zambesi. This summary procedure excited Dr. Livingstone's 
surprise, for his intercourse with the natives here had led him 
to believe that the women were held in so much estimation that 
the men would not dare to get rid of them thus. But the ex- 
planation he received was this : The slightest imputation makes 
them eagerly desire the test ; they are conscious of being inno- 
cent, and have the fullest faith in the muavi detecting the guilty 
alone; hence they go willingly, and even eagerly, to drink it. 

The women are honored with peculiar deference by the tribes 
in this section ; they are appealed to by their husbands to decide 
important and trivial questions; for example, at the town of 
Nyakoba, there was a guide appointed to attend Livingstone ; 
he bargained that his services should be rewarded with a hoe ; 
the hoe was delivered to him in advance, and he went with de- 
light to show it to his wife, but when he returned informed the 
Doctor that his wife would not allow him to go. " Well," said 
Livingstone, " bring back the hoe." " But I want it. " " Then 
go with us." " But my wife won't let me." And when Living- 
stone said to his men, "Did you ever hear such a fdbl?" they 
replied, "Oh, that is the custom in these parts; the wives rule." 
It may be comforting to some of the humbler lords of creation 
to reflect on this incident, and it may encourage the strong- 



WOMAN S EIGHTS. 



267 



minded women who are clamorous for promotion to the dignity 
of masters to know that their dark sisters are in hearty sym- 
pathy with them. It may be suggestive also to mention the 
method by which this supremacy is maintained. And let it not 
be imagined for a moment that they are so artless as to parade 
their ambition in the matter, or that they are so unwise as to 
assert an authority, which may be maintained by gentler means, 
with force. There, as most commonly in civilized communities, 
the power lies in the feminine charms, and in the joy or pain of 
a smile bestowed or withholden. Sekwebu witnessed the scene 
of the incident mentioned above, and heard the man say to his 
wife, in the midst of their endearments, " Do you think that I 
would ever leave you ? " and then turning to himself ask, " Do you 
think I would leave this pretty woman ? is she not pretty ? " 
Indeed the potency of beauty is no more confined to our boastful 
society than is the song of the birds confined to our cultured 
groves. 

It is not only true that woman exerts a manifest influence 
among the tribes of the Banyai, it is also true that the customs 
of social life recognize her dignity very decidedly. Wives are 
not obtained by purchase as in most parts of southern Africa. 
The fortunate, groom cannot assume any authority over his new- 
found bride ; he must go to the home of her parents and live 
there, and the mothers-in-law of Africa are not more careful for 
the happiness of this class than are those of other nations ; the 
poor fellow has, therefore, sometimes at least, need of very patient 
love, and if he has spirit enough to resist, he may go alone as he 
came, or indemnify the family for the loss of his wife and chil- 
dren. The husband, though, does not seem to consider the de- 
ference which he pays his wife a hard service, but renders it with 
manifest pride and pleasure. It is a pitiful excess of selfishness 
and self-conceit which makes a man count it a degradation to 
confess his respect for the judgment or pleasure of the woman 
who commits her life to his keeping and consecrates her love 
and labor to his happiness ; and it is beautiful promise of loftiest 
possibilities of refinement that, in the midst of so much ignorance 
and depravity, there should be in Africa ever so little respect 
for woman. 

But these gentle and obedient husbands, though they win our 



268 



THE EHINOCEROS. 



respect by the exhibition of milder and more amiable tempers, 
are not the equals of the ruder tribes, in the sort of courage which 
distinguishes men in the face of the ferocious beasts which com- 
mand the forest paths and the deep jungles of Africa ; they could 
not begin to cope with the interior tribes in the more dangerous 
sports which involve the slaying of the lion or the rhinoceros. 
Indeed in all Africa there is no animal which presents a bolder 
front than this latter. There are several species of the rhinoc- 
eros mentioned by different writers ; they seem, however, easily 
included in the two prominent classes distinguished by their 
colors ; the black is the more dangerous both on account of its 
superior strength and a peculiarly morose disposition. An ex- 
perienced hunter asserts that he would rather face fifty lions 
than one of these animals in an exposed situation. The sight 
of the rhinoceros is imperfect, and this alone furnishes about the 
only hope of escape which is open to a man who is singled out 
for his rage. Of enormous bulk and amazing strength, and 
armed with a horn " sharp as a razor," he is an enemy to be 
treated with most serious consideration. 

Mr. Andersson, whose adventure with a lion has been men- 
tioned, and a rather reckless hunter, came quite suddenly upon 
one of these monsters which had been wounded, and thinking 
to make her change her position so as to offer a better opening 
for his aim, ventured to cast a stone at her. Instantly she rushed 
upon him with dreadful fury, snorting horribly, and tearing the 
ground with her feet, while her expanded nostrils seemed smok- 
ing with rage; he had no time to note the effect of his hasty shot 
before he was dashed to the ground, and his gun, cap, powder 
flask and ball pouch were spinning away through the air with 
the violence of the blow. The tremendous momentum carried 
the beast stumbling some distance beyond him, but before he 
could fully regain his feet she had turned upon him and dashed 
him to the ground a second time, tearing his thigh open with her 
sharp horn, and trampled him desperately in the dust. She 
then seemed to lose him, and as he crawled away to the shelter 
of a neighboring tree he saw her some distance off tearing the 
bushes, as if in unappeasable rage. 

Not only man, but the most ferocious beasts shrink from an 
engagement with the rhinoceros ; even the lordly elephant mani- 



TRIALS AND ENCOURAGEMENT. 



271 



fests unqualified fear in his presence. Sometimes two or more 
of these terrible creatures are known to engage in awful combats 
with each other; it is then a scene indeed for the gladiatorial 
ring ; the earth trembles under their tramp, and the horrible 
snorting and puffing sends a thrill of terror through all the 
beasts of the forest. The white species was quite extinct along 
the eastern division of the Zambesi. It falls an easier victim 
of the hunter, and the native arrows and strategy together would 
be a serious hindrance to its increase, but since these have been 
supplemented by the powder and ball of civilized warfare they 
are fast disappearing, even in the more southern country where 
they have been most numerous. 

After leaving Monina it was important for the travellers to 
avoid the villages, as the people nearer the Portuguese settle- 
ment exhibited the, natural enough, disposition to tax them, 
while in fact they were poorly able to pay anything. Living- 
stone's heart was bounding with eager anticipation of a welcome 
at Tete, which was only a few days' travel in advance of him. 
He had not suffered so seriously as on the journey to Loanda, 
but he had endured many hardships. Much of the distance 
from the falls had been performed on foot ; for many days he 
had walked altogether ; he had become so thin that his men 
could any of them pick him up like a child and carry him 
across the streams ; still he had not lost his spirit, nor had his 
interest in the well-being of his followers and the condition of 
the tribes along his route failed in the least. He lay down on 
the evening of the 2d of March eight miles from Tete, and sent 
forward the letters of introduction which had been given him 
by the Portuguese authorities at Loanda to the commandant. 
It was nearly two years since he parted with the generous 
Englishman who alone supports the dignity of the name in the 
western colony. During those two years he had traversed all 
the intervening wilderness, with only the companionship of the 
ignorant and superstitious and depraved savages, and he was 
now dragging the line of his explorations to the eastern coast. 
And though the town of Tete was several hundred miles from 
the sea, he felt that his success would be complete when he 
arrived there, because it was the border town of the Portuguese, 
and he would from thence be in the care of white men and 



272 the traveller's retrospect. 

friends. He was so fatigued that he could not sleep, and his 
mind naturally wandered back over /the long and tedious jour- 
ney, with its strange and wonderful scenery, its wild associates, 
and its wealth of singular incidents. There were the lofty 
pillars of Pungo Andongo towering grandly on the other bor- 
der like the monuments of old forgotten Titanic heroes. There 
was the wonderful valley of the Quango, a hundred miles wide, 
with its walls a thousand feet high. Then came in freshly on 
his mind the weariness and anxiety of sickness and detentions 
and petty strifes. The western water-shed next absorbed his 
thought ; the floating along the Leeba and the Leeambye, and 
the " welcome home " so cordially extended by the Makololo. 
Then the months of loving labor in the word of Christ, and the 
eager watching for the slightest evidences of good accomplished. 
Sometimes he seemed to be wandering again in the strange 
labyrinth of rivers which flow about through the remarkable 
fissures of the great interior country so unnaturally. In the 
midst of these the wild and grand and lovely falls of the Zam- 
besi burst anew on his delighted vision. The splendid hills 
and lofty ranges, with their beautiful valleys and teeming herds 
and stories of war and wrong, succeed in turn. Then the gorge 
of the Kafue. And the Zambesi again, a thousand yards wide. 
Amid all these scenes, the dark, untaught, uncared-for human 
inhabitants were seen dragging about the fetters of their super- 
stitions ; unconsciously, indeed, but wearily. He seemed to 
hear their childish laughter ringing out in the midst of wicked 
sports, or their mournful cries of sorrow on account of the 
shadow of death. It was no wonder ; he had heard them so 
often. The sigh for peace, for quiet, sweet rest : that was 
clearer in his thoughts than all else. Then ardent hope was 
busy establishing mission stations all over the land, and his 
prayer of faith would almost become thanksgiving as he imag- 
ined the redemption of Africa, and seemed to gaze on its lovely 
valleys and mountain ranges, all clothed with the evidences of a 
Christian civilization, and seemed to hear the songs of praise 
floating out of the renewed heart of the continent so many ages 
lost in darkness and sin ; floating along the rivers, until the sea 
was burdened with words of love and gratitude from Africa to 
the world., and all its murmurings were changed to shouts of 



THE MIDNIGHT VISITORS. 



275 



praise. Oh, how fascinating and how praiseful is the retrospect 
of years nobly spent in the service of Christ for the help of 
man ! There is nothing grander in human life than the delib- 
erate consecration of intelligence and refinement to the real 
service of the degraded and indifferent. We cannot find a 
grander specimen of philanthropy than lies before us in the 
lonely, weary, perilous but willing isolation of the devoted man 
who was waiting in pain and hunger for the dawning of the 
day, and loved the scenes of a life of pain and hunger which 
crowded about him and spread a canopy of memory over him 
for a tent. 

The stars were on duty still, shining like the camp fires of 
heaven's protecting army, and the heavy breathing of the dusky 
company had been undisturbed. It was just two o'clock in the 
morning when messengers arrived who had been sent forward 
with welcome and a civilized breakfast from Tete. 

No man could more fully appreciate such attentions than Dr. 
Livingstone. He seemed unconscious of the weight of obliga- 
tion which his life of self-sacrifice was bringing the world 
under. He was only laboring in the love of men and zeal for 
Christ, and he thought of no reward. No man Avas more sensi- 
ble to the helpful influences of sympathy ; his heart bounded at 
the words of cheer which were brought him. The presence of 
persons who could in any sort understand him and sympathize 
with him was like the communication of new life; his fatigue 
vanished, and he walked the remaining eight miles freshly and 
joyfully. There is wonderful power in sympathy ; loving words 
are a medicine for the soul better than all things — the specific 
for all the anxieties of the mind. 

The reception at Tete was as cordial as could be. The com- 
mandant—Tito Augusto d'Aranjo Sicard — proved himself a 
liberal and attentive host. The Portuguese authorities had 
been informed by the friends of Dr. Livingstone in England of 
his being on his way across the continent, and his expected 
arrival in their midst ; but as there had been a sort of Caffre 
war going on for two years, they had lost all hope of his ever 
reaching their settlements alive. Quite lately, though, Major 
Sicard's expectations had been awakened by the arrival at Tete 
of natives who spread the rumor that the "son of God was 
14 



276 RECEPTION AT TETE. 

approaching, and that he was able to take the sun down and 
put it under his arm ! " The major was convinced that the 
story was founded on the approach of some explorer, whom, he 
was convinced also, could be no other than the man who had 
already accomplished the wonderful journey from the Cape to 
Loanda. 

On the day of his arrival in Tete Dr. Livingstone was " vis- 
ited by all the gentlemen of the village, both white and colored, 
including the padre." Not one of them had any idea of where 
the source of the Zambesi lay. They sent for the best-travelled 
natives, but not one of them knew the river, even as far as 
Kansala rapids, which may be seen indicated on the map, not 
more than thirty or forty miles above the confluence of the 
Kafue, and but little more than half way to the "Victoria 
Falls." One man, who had been a great traveller in the south- 
western country, had heard of Livingstone's discovery of Lake 
Ngami, but he was entirely ignorant that the great river flowing 
by the town where he lived came from the interior of the con- 
tinent. Livingstone had the reward of his self-sacrifice in the 
certainty that he had not been idly employed, but that in those 
years of wandering he had performed a service which centuries 
to come would be still conferring its blessings on the world. 
He had been able to correct the errors of philosophy and preju- 
dice, and bring to waiting Christendom the assurance that in 
Africa there was a field ready for the sower, and that this broad 
river, about whose delta civilization had been standing in doubt- 
ful inefficiency for centuries, furnished the guiding cord to the 
heart of the continent. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS. 

The Village of Tete— Inhabitants— Gold Washings— Slave Trade, Evil Effects of 
— Decadence of Portuguese Power — Superstitions of Tete — English Calico — 
Articles of Export — Gold — Coal — Value of Gold Dust — Appearance of Country 
— Method of Cultivating the Soil — Agriculture Neglected — Hot Springs — 
People Favorable to Englishmen — Cause of Portuguese Failure — Leaves Tete 
— Nyaude's Stockade — The Gorge of Lupata — Senna — The Landeens or Zulus 
— Misery of Senna — Surrounding Country — The Shire — Kilimane — Living- 
stone's Object — His Theory of Mission Work — His Hopes for Africa — Arrival 
of the " Frolic" — Disposition of Ivory — Parts with his Followers— Sekwebu — 
In the Boats — On Board the Ship — Insanity and Death of Sekwebu — Arrival 
at Mauritius — Dear Old England — Forbidden Scenes — Public Honors — The 
Single Desire. 

The delight which Dr. Livingstone experienced in being 
once more in communication with people who could in some 
sort appreciate him was fully justified by the persevering kind- 
ness of Major Sicard. There was no attention withholden 
which could contribute to the comfort and enjoyment of the 
great explorer who had traversed the whole breadth of the con- 
tinent. 

It was the unhealthy season at Kilimane, and the generous 
host insisted on detaining his guest at least a month, until he 
might hope to go down to the coast safely ; and having secured 
employment for his followers, he claimed Dr. Livingstone for 
his personal charge. The village itself possessed no special 
charms ; it stands on a succession of low sandstone ridges on the 
right bank of the Zambesi, which is here nearly a thousand 
yards wide (960 yards). Shallow ravines, running parallel with 
the river, form the streets, the houses being built on the ridges. 
The whole surface of the streets, except narrow footpaths, were 
overrun with self-sown indigo, and tons of it might have been 
collected. In fact, indigo, senna and stramonium, with a 
species of cassia, form the weeds of the place, which are annually 
hoed off and burned. A wall of stone and mud surrounds the 

277 



278 AGRICULTURE AND GOLD. 

village, and the native population live in huts outside. The 
fort and the church, near the river, are the strongholds; the 
natives having a salutary dread of the guns of the one, and a 
superstitious fear of the unknown power of the other. The 
number of white inhabitants is small, and rather select, many of 
them having been considerately sent out of Portugal " for their 
country's good." The military element preponderates in 
society ; the convict and " incorrigible " class of soldiers, receiv- 
ing very little pay, depend in great measure on the produce of 
the gardens of their black wives ; the moral condition of the re- 
sulting population may be imagined. Even the officers seldom 
receive their pay from government ; but, being of an enterprising 
spirit, they contrive to support themselves by marrying the 
daughters or widows of wealthy merchants, and trade in ivory 
by means of the slaves of whom they thus become the masters. 
In former times, considerable quantities of grain, as wheat, 
millet and maize, were exported; also coffee, sugar, oil, and 
indigo, besides gold dust and ivory. The cultivation of grain 
was carried on by means of slaves, of whom the Portuguese 
possessed a large number. The gold dust was procured by 
washing at various points on the north, south and west of Tete. 
A merchant took all his slaves with him to the washings, carry- 
ing as much calico and other goods as he could muster. On 
arriving at the washing place, he made a present to the chief of 
the value of about a pound sterling. The slaves were then 
divided into parties, each headed by a confidential servant, who 
not only had the supervision of his squad while the washing 
went on, but bought dust from the inhabitants, and made a 
weekly return to his master. When several masters united at 
one spot, it was called a " Bara," and they then erected a tem- 
porary church, in which a priest from one of the missions per- 
formed mass. Both chiefs and people were favorable to these 
visits, because the traders purchased grain for the sustenance of 
the slaves with the goods they had brought. They continued 
at this labor until the whole of the goods were expended, and 
by this means about one hundred and thirty pounds of gold were 
annually produced. Probably more than this was actually 
obtained, but, as it was an article easily secreted, this alone was 
submitted to the authorities for taxation. At present the whole 



EFFECTS OF SLAVE TEADE. 



279 



amount of gold obtained annually by the Portuguese is from 
eight to ten pounds only. When the slave trade began, it 
seemed to many of the merchants a more speedy mode of becom- 
ing rich to sell off the slaves than to pursue the slow mode of 
gold washing and agriculture, and they continued to export 
them until they had neither hands to labor nor to fight for 
them. It was just the story of the goose and the golden egg. 
The coffee and sugar plantations and gold washings were aban- 
doned, because the labor had been exported to the Brazils. 
Many of the Portuguese then followed their slaves, and the 
government was obliged to pass a law to prevent further emi- 
gration, which, had it gone on, would have depopulated the 
Portuguese possessions altogether. As it was, the remaining 
representatives of Portugal were little better than none, so far 
as asserting any authority was concerned. The late war, which 
only terminated a few months before Livingstone arrived from 
the interior, had demonstrated how unable they were to cope 
with the tribes about them in case of revolt. Kasika on the 
north had plundered and burned all the plantations of the 
wealthy merchants on that side of the river, and Nyaude, who 
had placed his stockade just below the village, at the confluence 
of the Luenya, had completely blockaded it during two years, 
so that they had been compelled to send overland to Kilimane 
for goods enough to buy food with. 

The priests at Tete had no more power than the captains ; 
the church did not amount to any more than the fort. The 
natives were careful to keep out of the range of the guns from 
the fort, but acknowledged their authority no further. So they 
kept out of the church, but cared nothing for the religion. The 
Portuguese do not seem to have concerned themselves about the 
religious beliefs of their wild associates. Indeed, they were 
rather inclined to make capital of the superstitions which they 
should have sought to overcome. Certainly their metropolis 
might also be regarded as the metropolis of heathen absurdi- 
ties. Being made up of the representatives of various tribes, 
it was also a focus of superstitions. They believe that many evil 
spirits live in the air, the earth, and the water. These invisible 
malicious beings are thought to inflict much suffering on the 
human race; but, as they have a weakness for beer and a crav- 



CALICO CURRENCY. 

ing for food, they may be propitiated from time to time by offer- 
ings of meat and drink. The serpent is an object of worship, 
and hideous little images are hung in the huts of the sick and 
dying. The uncontam mated Africans believe that Morungo, 
the Great Spirit who formed all things, lives above the stars ; 
but they never pray to him, and know nothing of their relation 
to him, or of his interest in them. The spirits of their de- 
parted ancestors are all good, according to their ideas, and on 
special occasions aid them in their enterprises. When a man 
has his hair cut, he is careful to burn it, or bury it secretly, lest, 
falling into the hand of one who has an evil eye, or is a witch, 
it should be used as a charm to afflict him with the headache. 
They believe, also, that they shall live after the death of the 
body, but have no distinct ideas of the condition of the departed 
spirits. 

The principal currency of the country was English calico, 
which was received by the natives in exchange for any and 
everything which they had for sale. Labor, grain, land, gold, 
everything has its price in calico, and the cheapness of labor 
particularly would almost turn the head of one of our employ- 
ers, whose life is worried almost out of him by the system of 
strikes which is the order of the day. Two yards of unbleached 
calico is the price of a day's labor, or sixteen yards will hire a 
man a month. Provision is equally cheap. In ordinary times 
two yards of calico will buy twenty-four fowls, and a hundred 
pounds of flour bring the same price. 

The chief articles of export at the time of Dr. Livingstone's 
visit, in 1856, were ivory and gold dust, and these not in very 
considerable quantities. The gold seems to have been the 
temptation which first drew the Portuguese to the Zambesi ; but 
it is questionable whether they ever realized anything like their 
hopes in the quantities of the precious metal which they ob- 
tained. There are, however, quite a number of washings in the 
country, and it is probable that the world will yet find them 
very lucrative. Dr. Livingstone had the opportunity of exam- 
ining the gold dust from different parts to the east and northeast 
of Tete. 

Round toward the westward, the old Portuguese indicate a 
station which was near to Zumbo on the River Panyame, and 



THE GOLD FIELDS. 281 

called Darnbarari, near which much gold was found. Farther 
west lay the now unknown kingdom of Abutua, which was for- 
merly famous for the metal; and then, round toward the east, 
are the gold washings of the Mashona, or Bazizulu, and, farther 
east, that of Manica, where gold is found much more abundantly 
than in any other part, and which has been supposed by some 
to be the Ophir of King Solomon. Gold from this quarter 
was seen as large as grains of wheat, that found in the rivers 
which run into the coal field being in very minute scales. If 
one leg of the compass be placed at Tete, and the other ex- 
tended three and a half degrees, bringing it round from the 
northeast of Tete by west, and then to the southeast, we nearly 
touch or include all the known gold-producing country. As 
the gold on this circumference is found in coarser grains than in 
the streams running toward the centre, or Tete, Livingstone 
imagined that the real gold field lies round about the coal field ; 
and, if he was right in the conjecture, then we have coal en- 
circled by a gold field, and abundance of -wood, water, and pro- 
visions — a combination not often met with in the world. 

Dr. Livingstone had noticed some specimens of coal before 
reaching Tete, but he there found that there were nine different 
seams known to the Portuguese, all within the circle of gold 
which we have described. The coal had, of course, received 
very little attention, and the gold was almost as much ne- 
glected. The natives are not so fond of labor or of gold as to 
go through the tedious process by which the precious dust is 
obtained, and they only wash a little now and then when they 
stand in need of calico. They had learned the value of the 
treasure, though, and were very careful of it; they take it for 
sale in goose quills, and demand twenty-four yards of calico 
for a single penful. 

In general appearance the country where these treasures 
abound is highly picturesque ; the hills are clothed with stately 
forests, and the lovely valleys threaded by numerous streams 
are very fertile, and, according to the standards of the country, 
are well cultivated. The only farming implement here, how- 
ever, as in other parts of Africa, is the hoe ; the work is done 
chiefly by the women, too, as elsewhere. After the grain is once 
in the ground, a single weeding is all that is required. This 



282 HOT SPRINGS NEAR TETE. 

simple process represents all our subsoil plowing, liming, manur- 
ing, and harrowing, for in four months after planting a good 
crop is ready for the sickle, and has been known to yield a 
hundred-fold. No irrigation is required, because here there are 
gentle rains, almost like mist, in winter, which go by the name 
of " wheat-showers," and are unknown in the interior, where no 
winter rain ever falls. 

The plantations of coffee, which were a source of very con- 
siderable revenue previous to the opening of the slave trade, 
had been abandoned, and hardly a tree eeuld be found. In- 
digo and senna, which were mentioned as growing in the streets 
of Tete, are found growing everywhere, but are allowed to decay, 
crop after crop uncared for. 

But we must not fail to mention the existence of a number 
of hot springs which are to be found in the neighborhood of 
Tete. Dr. Livingstone visited one called Nyamboronda, situated 
in the bed of a small stream named Nyaondo ; the little spring 
bubbles up just beside the rivulet, and a great quantity of acrid 
steam was seen rising up from the ground adjacent, about 
twelve feet square of which was so hot that men could not 
stand on it with bare feet. There were several little holes from 
which the water was trickling, but the principal spring was in 
a hole about a foot in diameter and as much in depth ; bubbles 
were rising constantly ; the thermometer being a few seconds 
in the water the mercury stood steadily at 160°. A frog which 
tried the experiment of a bath was taken out in a few minutes 
well cooked. The stones over which the waters of this spring 
flowed were found to be incrusted with white salt, and the water 
had a saline taste ; about the spring were rocks, syenitic, por- 
phyry, in broad dikes, and gneiss tilted on edge ; there were 
also many specimens of half-formed pumice, with green-stone 
and lava. 

Indeed it was with ever-increasing interest and astonishment 
that the traveller wandered over this wonderful region so richly 
endowed and so sadly neglected. He was satisfied from his own 
experience with the Africans that a wise policy would find the 
people no obstacle to the opening of the singular treasuries 
which God had put just near enough to the coast to be easily 
found by the vanguard of civilization, and far enough toward 



STAETS FOE KILIMANE. 283 

the heart of the continent to insure the benighted inhabitants 
the helpful influence of the enlightened strangers who might 
come after the wealth. 

It was evident to him that those whose failure was inscribed 
everywhere had only failed because they were not true to the 
obligations which they ought to have recognized ; if they did 
not, the manifestly selfish policy could no more expect the favor 
of the savages than the blessing of God. He would not judge 
the Portuguese or the priests unkindly, but he was satisfied that 
neither captains nor priests could point to a satisfactory experi- 
ment in the country around Tete. And the ruins of forts and 
churches told the same story of the folly of the strangers rather 
than the hopeless barbarism of the natives. 

When at last the time came in which it was thought prudent 
for Dr. Livingstone to go down to Kilimane, he found the 
generous commandant as thoughtful for his comfort on the 
journey as he had been assiduous in the attentions bestowed in 
his home. There was abundant provision made for a safe and 
pleasant sail down the noble river, and orders were issued that 
the traveller should be at no expense for supplies. Full of 
gratitude to God and men, Livingstone entered the large strongly- 
built canoe which had been provided for him, and sat down un- 
der the pleasant canopy which had been thoughtfully supplied, 
and was pulled away from Tete on the 22d of April, 1856. He 
had not forgotten his trusty followers ; only sixteen of them 
attended him to the sea, but he had made arrangements for them 
at Tete, by which he was confident that they would be com- 
fortable until his return, if indeed God should spare him to 
continue his work in Africa. 

Just below the village, on the right bank of the river, he 
passed the ruins of the residences of the wealthy merchants, who 
had been so recently the victims of Kisaka's groundless rage. 
At the confluence of the Luenya he had a view of Nyaude's 
fortress, which had proven so formidable in the recent wars. 
It is only a strong stockade ; it seemed, however, to be con- 
structed of living trees, and could hardly be burned. It was 
strange to see a stockade menacing the whole commerce of the 
river in a situation where the guns of a vessel would have full 
play on it, but it is a formidable affair for those who have only 



284 THE GORGE OF LUPATA. 

muskets. On one occasion, when Nyaude was attacked by 
Kisaka, they fought for weeks ; and though Nyaude was reduced 
to cutting up his copper anklets for balls, his enemies were not 
able to enter. 

The gorge of Lupata was a point of considerable interest, and 
Dr. Livingstone spent the night of the 24th on a small island 
near its entrance that he might ascertain its latitude, which he 
found to be 16° 34' 46" south. At this point the Zambesi 
converges quite suddenly, and flows through a gorge in a lofty 
range of hills which crosses it at right angles ; on the western 
side the rock rises abruptly six or seven hundred feet, but on 
the east the range is sloping and covered with trees. The river 
in the gorge is about two hundred yards wide, and dashes quite 
impetuously along its tortuous channel, and sweeps rapidly 
around the little rocky promontories, Chifura and Kangomba, 
forming dangerous whirlpools and eddies, and widens again to 
miles in breadth, embracing many beautiful islands which were 
once the homes of prosperous planters and yielded vast quanti- 
ties of grain. 

The gorge, as might be expected, has been fixed on by the 
natives as the abode of peculiarly turbulent deities, who are sup- 
posed to preside over the perilous places, for the good or the 
injury of those who attempt to pass. But whether there are 
spirits good or bad, certain it is that the narrow pass is occupied 
by one direful scourge : the tsetse waits there for its victims, 
Elephants also and buffaloes frequent the spot. The country 
on either side of the river was in anything but a peaceful state; 
the southern shore had been ravaged recently by the Cafifres, 
here called Laudeens or Zulus, and Kisaka, who had no love 
for the Portuguese, was ravaging all the Maganga country on 
the other side. 

On the 27th the party reached Senna, which was found to be 
in a condition ten times more lamentable than Tete ; every 
building in the village was in absolute ruin. The Laudeens 
were in the habit of visiting the village periodically and levying 
fines on the inhabitants, as they considered the Portuguese a 
conquered tribe, and the half-castes, who in all the Portuguese 
possessions constitute an important class, seemed to be in league 
with them. 



ant bear (page 279). 




CHIFURA AND KANGOMBA (page 226). 



SENNA AND SURROUNDINGS. 287 

While Dr. Livingstone was there a party of Kisaka's people 
were ravaging the fine country on the opposite shore. They 
came down with the prisoners they had captured, and forthwith 
the half-castes of Senna went over to buy slaves. Encouraged 
by this, Kisaka's people came over into Senna fully armed and 
beating their drums, and were received into the house of a native 
Portuguese. They had the village at their mercy, yet could 
have been driven oif by half a dozen policemen. The com- 
mandant could only look on with bitter sorrow. He had soldiers, 
it is true, but it was notorious that the native militia of both 
Senna and Kilimane never think of standing to fight, but in- 
variably run away and leave their officers to be killed. 

The miserable state of this neglected post beggars description ; 
the officers were none of them paid by the home government 
and are forced to engage in trade. The common soldiers had 
now and then received a little calico. It is lamentable that the 
door to one of the finest regions of the world should have fallen 
into the hands of a people who have done nothing more than 
hold it against the rest of the world for centuries. If instead 
of military establishments there had been civil ones, and emi- 
grants with their wives and plows and seeds, rather than mili- 
tary convicts with bugles and kettle-drums, eastern Africa might 
be to-day the rival of any spot on earth in all that makes a 
pleasant home on earth. 

The country around Senna was more interesting than the 
village ; nature was uncontaminated and afforded a pleasing re- 
lief for the thoughts. In the village the most gratifying sight 
of all was the negroes of Senhor Isidore building boats after the 
European model. These negroes had been instructed in their 
work by a European master, and had acquired such skill that 
they could go into the forest and get out the timber, lay the 
keel, fit in the ribs, and finish up very neat boats which would 
bring from £20 to £100 apiece. This little show of life was 
refreshing, in the midst of so much misery and ruin ; for cer- 
tainly slavery and immorality had done their work in Senna. 
The European name was almost despised. The native wives of 
the white men were little better than slaves, and their children 
received none of the honorable regard which is granted them in 
Angola. Dr. Livingstone saw a son of the former governor of 



288 ARRIVAL AT KILIMANE. 

Tete a slave. In Senna there is neither priest nor school ; there 
are the ruins of churches and convents, but such ruins are a 
solemn mockery of the ignorance and sin whose blight rests on 
everything. 

It was the 11th of May before Dr. Livingstone continued his 
journey. Forty miles below Senna he passed the confluence of 
the Shire, which we shall have occasion to mention hereafter. 
Below the Shire the hilly surroundings gave place'to extensive 
flats. There was no incident of special importance until Mazaro 
was reached. At that point the delta begins. The Zambesi 
had nowhere appeared more splendid, and the temptation was 
very strong to follow it down to the sea; but Livingstone knew 
that it had been explored that far up by another in whose state- 
ments he had confidence, and he therefore felt that it was better 
for him to follow the other branch, although it was necessary to 
leave the boats and canoes. A sudden fever had set in, as if 
determined to give him a farewell embrace. With throbbing 
veins and aching temples he toiled on afoot along the banks of 
the Mutu. The fever continued raging, and the large sailing 
launch which was put at his service by Senor Asevedo, at Iu- 
terra, was felt to be truly a godsend. The village of Kilimane 
was reached on the 20th of May, 1856, and Dr. Livingstone 
was received most cordially into the home of Colonel Galdino 
Jose Nunes, " one of the best men in the country." 

It had been sixteen years since the missionary first landed at 
the Cape. He had spent nine of ten years in patient work, 
teaching and dispensing the gospel of Christ. Then providence 
had unsettled him and he could find no rest for his foot. Six 
years he had spent exploring the unknown wilds. He had 
done the work of an explorer under the inspiration of the gos- 
pel. " As far as I am myself concerned," says he, " the opening 
of the new central country is a matter for congratulation only 
in so far as it opens up a prospect for the elevation of the inhab- 
itants. As I have elsewhere remarked, I view the end of the 
geographical feat as the beginning of the missionary enterprise. 
I take the latter term in its most extended signification, and 
include every effort made for the amelioration of our race, the 
promotion of all those means by which God in his providence 
is working, and bringing all his dealings with man to a glorious 



Livingstone's theory. 289 

consummation. Each man in his sphere, either knowingly or 
unwittingly, is performing the will of our Father in heaven. 
Men of science, searching after hidden truths, which, when dis- 
covered, will, like the electric telegraph, bind men more closely 
together — soldiers battling for the right against tyranny — 
sailors rescuing the victims of oppression from the grasp of 
heartless men-stealers — merchants teaching the nations lessons 
of mutual dependence — and many others, as well as mission- 
aries, all work in the same direction, and all efforts are over- 
ruled for one glorious end." 

His experience at Kolobeng had taught him that the most 
permanent results of missionary labor could be realized only by 
bringing the people into such relations with other nations that 
a natural business interest would be felt in their improvement. 
He felt that to encourage Africans to cultivate their soil and 
gather their treasures for an honest market among Christian 
nations would most effectually open the way for the gospel. It 
was his idea to have the missions of Africa enjoy the protection 
and fostering care of nations which might feel themselves in 
some sort interested materially in the elevation of the tribes. 
In the hope of this he had traversed the country from the Cape 
to Loanda, and from Loanda across to the mouth of the Zam- 
besi, and had brought out assurances of inexhaustible resources, 
in the fertility of soil, the wealth of timber, an amazing amount 
of animal life, with birds, fowls, fishes, etc. ; the profusion of 
fruits, iron, coal, gold ; and all in the midst of people through 
whose villages he had passed unharmed ; who were weary of 
their own unsettled condition and eager for the intercourse of 
the white man. He had suffered severely in body, and had 
made sacrifice of his fondest affections ; but he was rewarded by 
the hope that his labor would be effectual in engaging the atten- 
tion of mankind for Africa. 'Tis beautiful to find this noble 
man, forgetful of his sorrows and toils, recounting so happily 
the kindnesses he had received. He was a man on whom the 
smallest attention was not lost. His humility and his independ- 
ence both forbade his making demands of his fellow-men, and 
all that they did for him was accounted kindness and received 
with gratitude. In all his discoveries he did not fail to note 
the discovery of " a vast number of good people in the world." 



290 DEPARTURE ON THE "FROLIC." 

And his heart was full of devout thanks to the Gracious One 
who had watched over him in every position, and influenced 
hearts of both black and white to regard him with favor. 

It must have seemed a long six weeks that he was waiting at 
Kilimane. But at length the "Frolic" arrived, bringing 
abundant supplies for him and ,£150 to pay his passage to 
England. The eight of his followers who had been allowed to 
accompany their " father " to the coast were eager to follow him 
still. The order of Sekeletu to them was that none of them 
should turn back until they had reached " Ma Robert." The 
simple resolution of these men, accustomed to absolute obe- 
dience, could hardly submit to the difficulty of crossing the sea. 
They only knew that wherever their " father " might lead they 
were to follow. But Livingstone prevailed on them to go back 
to Tete, where food was more abundant, and await his return 
to them. He was constrained, however, to allow the Sekwebu 
to accompany him. This man had been of great service, and it 
was hoped that it would be beneficial to him to be brought in 
contact with thorough civilization. And being a man of re- 
markable intelligence, it could hardly fail to be of great service 
to have him return filled with respect and love for the English 
and aspirations for a nobler life ; but how sadly the hopes of the 
missionary were disappointed shall be seen. 

It will be remembered that Sekeletu had committed large 
quantities of ivory to Dr. Livingstone, and commissioned him 
to procure a few articles. A man less sincerely interested in 
the heathen, or less conscientious, might have acted differently. 
This man was too anxious that no hurtful impressions should 
be made on the minds of the people — whose salvation he sought, 
and not their substance — to take the slightest advantage of his 
position ; and although the larger portion of the ivory was a 
gift to himself, he stored it all at Kilimane, that he might not 
be thought to have made off with Sekeletu's property, and deter- 
mined to purchase the articles he had ordered with his own 
means, if he should return as he expected. 

They left Kilimane on the morning of July 12th. The sea 
was in a rage, and the little boats were tossed like straws on the 
mighty waves. One moment they were trembling on some 
lofty crest, then rushing down the slope the next moment, they 



HOME AT LAST. 291 

would seem to strike the very bottom of the sea, while the wild 
breakers swept over them, making even the stout hearts of old 
seamen tremble. The experience of the sea was new to Sek- 
webu, and he looked at his friend and inquired anxiously, " Is 
this the way you go ? is this the way you go ? " The smile of 
Livingstone encouraged him and quieted his fears. At the 
ship's side the landsmen had to be lifted in as ladies usually 
are. But once on board they were at home. The hearty 
English welcome filled the soul of Dr. Livingstone with inex- 
pressible gladness. But he had almost lost command of his 
native tongue. Sekwebu became a great favorite with all on 
board. But the poor fellow was perplexed ; there was too great 
a strain on his untutored mind. When he had picked up a 
little English, he would frequently say to his " father " : " Your 
countrymen are very agreeable ; but what a strange country is 
this — all water together ! " Before they reached Mauritius the 
faithful man became insane and cast himself into the sea, and 
could never be found afterward. After a delay of two months 
at Mauritius for the recovery of his health, Livingstone reached 
the shores of his "dear old England" on the 12th of De- 
cember. 

"Who shall follow him and violate with curious gaze the 
sacredness of the joyful meeting with his wife and children, and 
tell how fondly he clasped an aged mother in his manly arms, 
and how she thanked God that her " boy " was back again ? 
And who shall interview the memories which crowded about 
him as he walked by the banks of the Clyde ? 

It is our business, though, that all England gave him wel- 
come ; that the news of his return was hailed with gratitude by 
thousands who had followed him with their prayers. 

Men of science, statesmen and Christians, cherishing each 
their different interests, accounted him their friend and helper. 
The church and government and societies vied with each other 
in doing him honor. He was concerned only that societies and 
government and church should love his work and lend it their 
support. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

AT HOME. 

Meeting on January 5th — Egyptian Hall — Splendid Assembly — Speech of Lord 
Mayor — Speech of Bishop of London — Speech of Sir Roderick Murchison — 
Livingstone's Resjxmse — Resolutions — Subscription — Travels in England — 
Public Enthusiasm — Public Meeting in Manchester — Resolutions — Public 
Meeting at Leeds — Addresses and Resolutions — Generous Rivalry of Cities and 
Institutions — Presentation of the Freedom of London to Livingstone — Distin- 
guished Personages — Complimentary Addresses — Tremendous Applause — A 
Beautiful Casket — Imposing Ceremony — Book-Writing — Difficulties — Sur- 
prised by the Appearance of a Bogus Book — Explanation — Announcement of 
Dr. Livingstone's Book — Twentieth Thousand in Six Weeks — Press Com- 
ments — Extract from the London Leader of that Date — Effects of the Book — 
Interest in Commercial Prospects of Africa — Interest in Missions — Action of 
Missionary Societies — Invitations to Oxford and Cambridge — Grand Assembly 
at Cambridge — The Reception of Livingstone, According to Professor Sedg- 
wick — Reception of War Veterans — Of Chancellors — Of the Queen — None 
More Hearty than that of Livingstone. 

The presence of Dr. Livingstone in England deepened the 
interest in the great enterprise which had engaged his heart so 
fully, and in connection with which he had commanded the re- 
spect of the noblest and most intelligent men of the land. The 
greatest respect was paid him in public and private. 

On the 5th of January a large and splendid assembly filled 
the grand Egyptian Hall in the Mansion House, which had 
been granted by the Lord Mayor of London for the purpose of 
presenting a testimonial to Dr. Livingstone for the service ren- 
dered by him to commerce, science and civilization, by his 
discoveries in South Africa. The Lord Mayor presided, and 
conspicuous in the assembly were the Bishop of London, the 
Bishop of Victoria, various members of Parliament, distinguished 
travellers and men of science. Dr. Livingstone was received 
with great enthusiasm. The Lord Mayor opened the meeting 
with a little speech, in which he " ventured to assert that the 
most gratifying event connected with his mayoralty was, that 
the first meeting in the hall was for the purpose of paying a 
292 



RECEPTION IN LONDON. 293 

national tribute of admiration and praise to Dr. Livingstone, 
the great traveller in South Africa. His decided committal of 
himself and the English people to the great work of African 
exploration, and the unqualified expressions of sympathy with 
the great and self-sacrificing man whom they now claimed as 
their guest," were most heartily indorsed by the cheers and 
volleys of applause which hailed almost every sentence, and 
only subsided in respect for the distinguished Bishop of London, 
who was next introduced. The bishop assured the audience 
that he accounted it a great privilege to be permitted to meet 
together in the greatest metropolis of the world, to express 
thanks to Divine Providence for allowing Dr. Livingstone to be 
brought back in safety from the perils which he had undergone, 
and the meeting he trusted would be permitted to hope, that 
when he was about to return to that country, where his heart 
was devoted to the service of the Lord, the same providence 
would continue to protect him. It was, indeed, most gratifying 
to meet here to express an opinion of what Dr. Livingstone had 
done. It was most gratifying to find that civilization, the spirit 
of commercial enterprise, and the missionary cause should go 
hand in hand : in the person of Dr. Livingstone they had all 
these three united. There was a lesson for themselves in this 
great man, which probably those whom he addressed would not 
be slow to apply : that they ought never to separate common 
secular pursuits from those that worked the glory of God. "A 
few years ago it was said that the age of heroism was passed ; 
but the lie had been given to that by the brilliant instances 
wdiich had recently occurred. And whilst they celebrated those 
cases at home, it was gratifying to find that in far-distant fields, 
uncheered by applause, this man whom they met to honor car- 
ried on his heroic enterprise, deserving and commanding the 
praise of his countrymen more than others to whom they had 
been ready to award it." 

' Several other distinguished gentlemen addressed the audience, 
among whom was that generous and devoted friend of Dr. 
Livingstone, Sir Roderick Murchison, the learned devotee of 
geographical science and president of the Royal Geographical 
Society. Dr. Livingstone found great difficulty in responding 
to these cordial and congratulatory speeches ; his tongue had 
15 



294 COMMENDATORY RESOLUTIONS. 

been long accustomed to other dialects ; the language of Africa 
had become more familiar than that of his mother. He could 
little more than thank the assembly for the honor and sympathy 
which he received, and promise them the opportunity of read- 
ing at their leisure accounts of his wanderings in the benighted 
land which had excited so much curiosity and enlisted so deep 
an interest. And among the interesting notices of the meeting, 
which may be found in the papers of the day, were the following- 
resolutions offered by the Bishop of London and Sir Roderick 
Murchison, and most enthusiastically carried : 

" This meeting, consisting of merchants, bankers and others, 
citizens of London, hereby present Dr. Livingstone their sincere 
congratulations on the signal care and protection of Divine 
Providence vouchsafed to him throughout his prolonged and 
perilous labors in exploring the interior of south Africa ; the 
meeting cherishes the gratifying assurance that the important 
discoveries of Dr. Livingstone will tend hereafter to advance 
the interests of civilization, knowledge, commerce, freedom and 
religion among the numerous tribes and nations of that vast 
continent." 

The resolution of Sir Roderick Murchison was characteristic 
of the man whose generosity was the handmaid of his greatness, 
and whose sense of justice was equal to his learning; he moved: 

" This meeting, highly appreciating the intrepidity and per- 
severance of Dr. Livingstone in his extended and dangerous 
journeys, deems it incumbent to originate a pecuniary tribute as 
an expression of their admiration and gratitude for his disin- 
terested and self-denying labors in the cause of science and 
philanthropy." 

The enthusiastic assembly was only too eager for an oppor- 
tunity of expressing an interest so material in such a man and 
such an enterprise, and their generous contributions underscored 
their words of love and cheer. With such an introduction, it 
was not to be expected that a year in England could be a year 
of rest and retirement for Dr. Livingstone. Various communi- 
ties desired to honor him, and he could not refuse their invita- 
tions, so candid and complimentary, if he had not considered 
every such occasion a golden opportunity for impressing the 
tremendous consequences of African exploration and evangeliza- 



MANCHESTER MEETING. 295 

tion on the minds of Ills fellow-countrymen. Thoroughly im- 
pressed with the conviction that the true system of evangeliza- 
tion in such a country should not despise the humbler agencies 
which seek only the narrower aims of the present existence, it 
was his constant endeavor to awaken and deepen the interest of 
his countrymen in the commercial offerings of Africa. The 
diligence and enthusiasm with which he was all the time striv- 
ing to enlighten the people before whom he appeared concerning 
the agricultural and mineral resources of the wild continent is 
explained, not by the deeper interest which he felt in such matters, 
but the eagerness with which he sought to bridle the mighty 
energies of human interest into the service of Christian missions. 
Nor was he unsuccessful ; all England became aroused ; there 
were meetings in all quarters, eager to hear at his lips accounts 
of the wonderful possibilities which lay concealed in the forests 
which he had so heroically penetrated and passed through from 
sea to sea. The members of the Chamber of Commerce, Com- 
mercial Association and Cotton Supply Association assembled 
in the Town Hall, at Manchester, and extended him a most 
hearty reception. He addressed them on the commercial pro- 
ducts and prospects of Africa, calling particular attention to the 
capacity of the continent for growing cotton. The deepest at- 
tention, and questions betraying a real interest in the matter, 
evinced the power of the facts which he stated and the argu- 
ments which he educed ; and at the end of his address the fol- 
lowing motion was put and carried : 

" That this meeting desires to express its warmest thanks to 
Dr. Livingstone for his visit to Manchester ; to record their ap- 
preciation of the importance of his discoveries; their high sense 
of his noble exertions for the extension of knowledge, as well 
as his self-devotion in again seeking to visit those hitherto un- 
explored countries with a view to their civilization by the aids 
of Christianity and commerce ; that, feeling a deep interest in the 
self-denying labors of Dr. Livingstone, this meeting earnestly 
requests her Majesty's government will place at his disposal a 
steamboat duly appointed and capable of ascending the navig- 
able portion of the Zambesi, with such further accommodation 
in boats and otherwise as may be deemed sufficient for the ex- 
ploration of its tributaries, and for obtaining and retaining 



296 MEETING AT LEEDS. 

friendly relations with the natives of that interesting region. 
And the public bodies now assembled pledge themselves to use 
their utmost exertions for the promotion of these objects ; that 
this meeting desire to impress on her Majesty's government their 
earnest desire that the aid of the Portuguese government should 
be especially requested towards facilitating, in every possible 
manner, the further researches of Dr. Livingstone in the interior 
of Africa, and more especially in the districts surrounding the 
river Zambesi and its tributaries ; that a sub-committee of the 
following gentlemen, being the chairmen of the public bodies 
here assembled, be empowered and requested to carry out the 
resolution of this meeting, with power to add to their number : 
Mr. John Cheetham, M. P., Mr. J. A. Turner, M. P., and Mr. 
Thomas Basley." 

Shortly after the meeting in Manchester, Dr. Livingstone was 
called on to address an aggregate meeting of the Leeds, Brad- 
ford and Halifax Chambers of Commerce, in the Leeds Stock 
Exchange. The meeting received him with great respect, and 
added their voice to the resolutions passed at Manchester. The 
commercial chambers of West Riding came in with their in- 
dorsement, and called on the county members, Lord Viscount 
Goderich and Mr. Edmund Denison, for their influence in sup- 
port 6f the explorer. The speech, in which Lord Goderich 
responded to the call, was as cordial and flattering as could be 
desired. In the course of it, he said : " When we consider the 
vast industries in England which are altogether dependent on 
the regular and extensive supply of cotton, can we doubt that 
Dr. Livingstone's discoveries are of the greatest political interest 
to the country? We ought to have the means of drawing our 
supplies of cotton from various sources ; we should be as nearly 
independent of local circumstances as possible, for these local 
circumstances might affect, at any day, both the source and ex- 
tent of the supply." But his lordship would not be understood 
as advocating the views of Dr. Livingstone and sustaining his 
enterprise solely on commercial grounds : he entered " most 
heartily into those higher motives which actuated the hero-mis- 
sionary in carrying civilization and Christianity into those distant 
regions." 

Such was the interest which, spreading beyond all missionary 



FREEDOM OF LONDON. 297 

societies and creed lines, was preparing the English people to 
adopt as their honored and trusted agent the man who, under 
all circumstances, avowed his absolute consecration to the con- 
version of Africa to Christ, which was ripening the request in 
the heart of the nation that the church would suffer their mis- 
sionary explorer to become an explorer missionary. Such was 
the interest which caused a hearty rivalry between city authori- 
ties and commercial unions and scientific societies in bestowing 
on this humble, earnest, consecrated man their highest honors. 
Various cities presented him the freedom of their corporations. 
The ceremony of this attention in London was peculiarly im- 
posing. " On the 21st of May," says the Illustrated London 
News, "the Court of Common Council presented an unusually 
gay appearance in consequence of the attendance of a number 
of ladies to witness the ceremony of presenting Dr. Livingstone 
the 'freedom of the city,' as a testimonial of his zeal and per- 
severing exertions in the important discoveries which he has 
made in Africa. Dr. Livingstone was introduced amid great 
applause by Mr. J. E. Saunders and Alderman Rose, the mover 
and seconder of the resolution ; and, after the declaration of 
freedom was read, was addressed by Sir John Key, Bart., the 
Chamberlain, in a highly eulogistic speech, in which were fully 
detailed the difficulties overcome, and the benefits to science and 
art achieved by his indomitable zeal. Dr. Livingstone's address 
in reply was vehemently cheered ; and, after receiving the con- 
gratulations of the Lord Mayor and the principal members of 
the corporation, and of the lady mayoress and several ladies, he 
retired amid great applause." 

This testimonial of the city government was presented in a 
beautifully-ornamented casket, designed and manufactured by 
the best skill. The box itself was of African oak, with repre- 
sentations of miniature palm trees in frosted silver at each 
corner. On each of the four sides there was a silver plate. On 
that in front was engraved the resolution of the court ; that at 
the back represented an African scene, with the doctor exploring 
a river, and at the ends were science and commerce in bold 
relief — science surrounded by a globe, compass and telescope ; 
'commerce by coal pits, shafts, etc. The lid was surmounted by 
a group of figures — an European holding the hand of friendship 



298 THE VEXATIOUS BOOK. 

to an African under a palm tree. Such a design, so highly 
characteristic, executed by the most exquisite skill, was a beau- 
tiful expression of the appreciation which was as thoughtful as 
it was ardent. Such an expression of regard and appreciation 
on the part of the highest dignitaries might have turned the 
head of a less earnest man ; but Dr. Livingstone was absorbed 
in the great work to which he felt that God had called him, and 
to which he had so willingly devoted himself. Among the 
many engagements which filled his time, not the least important 
or laborious by far was the preparation of his voluminous ac- 
count of his sixteen years in South Africa. Those who have 
never undertaken the making of a book have yet to learn the 
A B C of sympathy for those who contribute so important a 
part of our happiness. A volume of seven hundred closely- 
printed pages, made up largely from memoranda written years 
before, in the midst of ever-changing scenes — written, too, under 
the great disadvantage of having grown unused to his native 
tongue — was itself abundant occupation for a rest year. The 
work seemed to progress very slowly ; several times the active 
man — who could perform noble deeds more rapidly than he 
could recount them, and could suffer with a better relish than 
he could complain — was on the point of abandoning the book 
that he might hasten to the scene of fresh labors and new ad- 
ventures. It is hardly surprising that he exhibited rather 
unusual annoyance when, very unexpectedly one fine autumn 
morning, his eye read the advertisement of the "Travels of 
David Livingstone in South Africa," by an author unknown to 
him, who, depending only on newspaper articles and Geographi- 
cal Society reports, had come before the public with his work, 
while the real hero of the story was still groaning over the un- 
finished chapters of his book. The severity of the doctor upon 
this author and on the publishers as well was fearful ; but, like 
generous men that they were, finding that the traveller himself 
was preparing an account of his own adventures and discoveries, 
they threw away their labor and the money they had expended, 
by suppressing the book entirely, and the public appetite was 
only whetted by the incident for the real work of Dr. Living- 
stone, which was announced about the 1st of September, 1857, 
and an advertisement in the November following mentioned the 



EDITORIAL COMMENTS. 299 

twentieth thousand just taken from the press. Seldom had the 
reading public of England manifested a deeper interest in a 
book ; an interest, too, which was seconded by the great demand 
for the singularly interesting book in other countries. It did 
not, however, escape the severe criticism which everything 
human must expect, since there are so many people in the world 
whose single aptitude is for slaughter, and whose solitary de- 
light consists in viewing the mutilation of productions which 
they despise because they are incapable of appreciating them. 
The leading journals of England and America made haste to 
furnish their readers with very extended reviews, which were 
made up largely of lengthy quotations concerning the customs 
of the people and the features of the country which the writer 
had so vividly depicted. The London Leader for November 
24th, in the midst of an extended editorial, could not restrain 
its admiration, and burst forth into a very eloquent tribute. 
"The author," says the reviewer, "is an Aladdin wandering 
through his new palace, with its infinite series of chambers, 
each a treasury. He is a Marco Polo, recounting the marvels 
of Nigritian Carthy. A Mungo Park, coming suddenly upon 
unknown lakes and rivers. A Delia Valle in the romance of 
his adventures ; and more than a sixteenth century pilgrim in 
the intrepidity of his enterprises." 

Public sentiment ripened rapidly after the publication of the 
book. The simple, candid and careful account of the tribes, the 
soil, rivers, animals, trees, plants, climate and minerals, left no 
room for* doubt, and the foremost men of the nation were ready 
to forward with their means and influence an enterprise which 
looked to the complete opening up of the wonderful land so 
suddenly brought to view. 

Nor was the Christian community behind the commercial. 
The London Missionary Society manifested their confidence in 
the judgment of Livingstone by arranging for mission stations 
with the Makololo and the Matebele. It was with deep regret, 
too, that they relinquished from their service the man who was 
so peculiarly fitted to head such enterprises ; but they felt that 
a more extended field demanded his services. It was not for 
him to confine his attention to a single tribe or a circumscribed 
territory. God seemed to have laid it upon him to be the 



300 RECEPTION AT CAMBRIDGE. 

pioneer of his truth throughout the length and breadth of the 
land. Besides the action of the London Missionary Society, the 
Free Church of Scotland sent out the Rev. James Stewart to 
report on the practicability of commencing missionary operations 
in the newly-explored territory. The great Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge sent for him, and in those grand centres 
of learning and influence he was glad to appear with the avowed 
" purpose of striving to awaken a deeper interest in Christian 
missions to the heathen ; and he spoke with the authority of the 
greatest of modern travellers among men, and in the places 
where a missionary spirit ought to prevail pre-eminently." 
And it is a noble record of those ancient and honorable institu- 
tions, that in their reception of the man and his message they 
"proved themselves, as ever before, ready to recognize merit, 
advance science, encourage philanthropy and promote religion." 
" At Cambridge particularly," says a contemporary, " the scene 
in the Senate House was worthy of the most graphic painting of 
pen or pencil. There was a solemn majesty about it which all 
must have felt. It was an uncommon occasion. Cambridge 
elevation and culture came suddenly into contact with the 
mighty questions of African degradation and progress. Ex- 
tremes had met. Africa was appealing by the mouth of her 
warm-hearted advocate in one of the greatest centres of civili- 
zation and evangelization in the world, for help in her feeble- 
ness, light in her darkness, truth wherewith to battle her own 
error, and redress against her cruel wrongs of centuries." 

The period of the doctor's visit to Cambridge was very oppor- 
tune. The academic body, and especially the chief authorities, 
were in residence, and among the distinguished men who paid 
him marked attentions were Dr. Whewell, Master of Trinity 
College ; Professor Sedgwick, the Astronomer Royal ; Professor 
Selwyn ; and Dr. Bateson, Master of St. John's College. A few 
paragraphs of a letter by Professor Sedgwick about that time, 
for publication, cannot fail to interest every one who reads this 
book. "In the long period of my academic life," he says, "I 
have been many times present in our Senate House on occasions 
of joyful excitement. The few amongst us who remember the 
early years of this century cannot now forget the thoughts which 
filled the national heart, if not with fear, at least with sorrow 



DISTINGUISHED WELCOME. 301 

and deep anxiety ; for England saw nation after nation falling 
before the sword of the first Napoleon ; till at length she stood 
alone, with all the great powers of Europe combined against 
her. But a brighter season followed. Europe regained its 
freedom from military domination ; and England, with her in- 
stitutions safe and her soil inviolate, seemed to stand on a pin- 
nacle of glory. Again and again have I seen those good, stout- 
hearted men who, under God, had helped to work out the 
deliverance of Europe from military servitude, greeted in the 
Senate House with our loudest acclamations. I have been 
present at four installation festivals, when we met to do honor 
to the good men whom by our votes we had placed at the head 
of the University. All these were occasions of honest and great 
excitement. The last of them was graced and honored by the 
presence of our sovereign. To her was due the first homage of 
the University, and it was given by us not grudgingly, but 
with a loyalty that carried us almost beyond ourselves, and 
drew from us the most fervent gratulations that affectionate and 
grateful subjects are permitted to exhibit in the presence of their 
sovereign. Nor did we, during that season of loyalty, forget 
our youthful chancellor, or abate one jot of the honor due him. 
We greeted him as one placed by our free choice in the highest 
office of the University ; as the consort of our queen ; as the 
father of the future sovereign of England ; and as a man well 
trained in academic learning, to whose wisdom we might look 
for counsel in any times of difficulty, and to whose eloquence 
and influence we might look for protection in an hour of danger. 
All of these were grand occasions ; but on none of them," con- 
tinues the enthusiastic professor, " were the gratulations of the 
University more honest and true-hearted than those offered to 
Dr. Livingstone. He stood before them a plain, single-minded, 
cheerful man, and addressed that learned assembly in unadorned 
and simple words; telling them simple facts, which, although 
some present had read his book, had all the power of freshness 
still. There was nothing of self-glorying. More than once 
he exclaimed in the midst of his addresses, 'I have made no 
sacrifice; I have only done my duty.' Providence had guided 
him ; he had only obeyed impulses which he could not have 



302 CHRISTIAN BROTHER. 

been happy in suppressing. He was cherished and honored as 
a Christian brother." 

It may not be out of place to introduce here one of those 
addresses which held a senate of scholars in profound attention. 
It contains for us, as it contained for many in the audience to 
whom it was spoken, much that we have read ; but it may 
serve to illustrate the man; at least, may be appreciated as a 
pleasant memento of him, and as connected with an occasion 
whose influence will be felt many years to come. We will, 
therefore, dedicate a chapter to this address. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

LECTURE BEFORE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY. 

[Delivered before the University of Cambridge, in the Senate-House, on Friday, 
December 4, 1857. Dr. Philpott, Master of St. Catharine's College, Vice- 
Chanceilor, in the chair. The building was crowded to excess with all ranks 
of the University and their friends. The reception was so enthusiastic that 
literally there were volley after volley of cheers. The Vice-Chancellor intro- 
duced Dr. Livingstone to the meeting, who spoke nearly as follows :] 

When I went to Africa about seventeen years ago I re- 
solved to acquire an accurate knowledge of the native tongues ; 
and as I continued, while there, to speak generally in the African 
languages, the result is that I am not now very fluent in my 
own ; but if you will excuse my imperfections under that head, 
I will endeavor to give you as clear an idea of Africa as I can. 
If you look at the map of Africa you will discover the shortness 
of the coast-line, which is in consequence of the absence of deep 
indentations of the sea. This is one reason why the interior 
of Africa has remained so long unknown to the rest of the world. 
Another reason is the unhealthiness of the coast, which seems to 
have reacted upon the disposition of the people, for they are very 
unkindly, and opposed to Europeans passing through their 
country. In the southern part of Africa lies the great Kalahari 
desert, not so called as being a mere sandy plain, devoid of vege- 
tation : such a desert I never saw until I got between Suez and 
Cairo. Kalahari is called a desert because it contains no streams, 
and water is obtained only from deep wells. The reason why so 
little rain falls on this extensive plain is, because the winds pre- 
vailing over the greater part of the interior country are easterly, 
with a little southing. The moisture taken up by the atmos- 
phere from the Indian ocean is deposited on the eastern hilly 
slope ; and when the moving mass of air reaches its greatest 
elevation, it is then on the verge of the great valley, or, as in the 
case of the Kalahari, the great heated inland plains there meeting 

303 



304 RAIN-MAKING. 

with the rarefied air of that hot, dry surface, the ascending heat 
gives it greater capacity for retaining all its remaining humidity, 
and few showers can be given to the middle and western lands 
in consequence of the increased hygrometric power. The people 
living there, not knowing the physical reasons why they have 
so little rain, are in the habit of sending to the mountains on 
the east for rain-makers, in whose power of making rain they 
have a firm belief. They say the people in these mountains 
have plenty of rain, and therefore must possess a medicine for 
making it. This faith in rain-making is a remarkable feature in 
the people in the country, and they have a good deal to say in 
favor of it. If you say you do not believe that these medicines 
have any power upon the clouds, they reply that that is just the 
way people talk about what they do not understand. They take 
a bulb, pound it, and administer an infusion of it to a sheep: in 
a short time the sheep dies in convulsions, and then they ask, 
Has not the medicine power? I do not think our friends of 
the homoeopathic "persuasion" have much more to say than 
that. The common argument known to all those tribes is this 
— " God loves you white men better than us : he made you first, 
and did not make us pretty like you : he made us afterwards, 
and does not love us as he loves you. He gave you clothing, 
and horses and wagons, and guns and powder, and that Book, 
which you are always talking about. He gave us only two 
things — cattle and a knowledge of certain medicines by which 
we can make rain. We do not despise the things that you have; 
we only wish that we had them too ; we do not despise that Book 
of yours, although we do not understand it : so you ought not 
to despise our knowledge of rain-making, although you do not 
understand it." You cannot convince them that they have no 
power to make rain. As it is with the homoeopathist, so it is 
with the rain-maker — you might argue your tongue out of joint 
and would convince neither. 

I went into that country for the purpose of teaching the doc- 
trines of our holy religion, and settled with the tribes on the 
border of the Kalahari desert. These tribes were those of the 
Bakwains, Bushmen and Bakalahari. Sechele is the chief of 
the former. On the occasion of the first religious service held, 
he asked me if he could put some questions on the subject of 



THE FUTURE STATE. 305 

Christianity, since such was the custom of their country when 
any new subject was introduced to their notice. I said, " By 
all means." He then inquired " If my forefathers knew of a 
future judgment?" I said, " Yes ; " and began to describe the 
scene of the great white throne, and Him who should sit on 
it, from whose face the heavens shall flee away, and be no more 
seen ; interrupting, he said, " You startle me, these words make 
all my bones to shake, I have no more strength in me. You 
have been talking about a future judgment, and many terrible 
things of which we know nothing," repeating, " Did your fore- 
fathers know of these things?" I again replied in the affirma- 
tive. The chief said, " All my forefathers have passed away 
into darkness, without knowing anything of what was to befall 
them ; how is it that your forefathers, knowing all these things, 
did not send word to my forefathers sooner ? " This was rather 
a poser ; but I explained the geographical difficulties, and said 
it was only after we had begun to send the knowledge of Christ 
to Cape Colony and other parts of the country, to which we had 
access, that we came to them ; that it was their duty to receive 
what Europeans had now obtained the power to offer them ; 
and that the time would come when the whole world would re- 
ceive the knowledge of Christ, because Christ had promised that 
all the earth should be covered with a knowledge of himself. 
The chief pointed to the Kalahari desert, and said, " Will you 
ever get beyond that with your gospel ? We, who are more ac- 
customed to thirst than you are, cannot cross that desert ; how 
can you ? " I stated my belief in the promise of Christ ; and 
in a few years afterwards that chief was the man who enabled 
me to cross that desert ; and not only so, but he himself preached 
the gospel to tribes beyond it. 

In some years more rain than usual falls in the desert, and 
then there is a large crop of water-melons. When this occurred 
the desert might be crossed: in 1852, a gentleman crossed it, 
and his oxen existed on the fluid contained in the melons for 
twenty-two days. In crossing the desert different sorts of country 
are met with ; up to twentieth south latitude there is a compa- 
ratively dry and arid country, and you might travel for four 
days, as I have done, without a single drop of water for the 
oxen. Water for the travellers themselves was always carried 



306 OBJECT IN VISITING THE INTERIOR. 

in the wagons, the usual mode of travelling south of the 
twentieth degree of latitude being by ox-wagon. For four 
days, upon several occasions, we had not a drop of water for the 
oxen : but beyond twentieth south latitude, going to the north, 
we travelled to Loanda, one thousand fiv^ hundred miles, with- 
out carrying water for a single day. The country in the southern 
part of Africa is a kind of oblong basin, stretching north and 
south, bounded on all sides by old schist rocks. The waters of 
this central basin find an exit through a fissure into the river 
Zambesi, flowing to the east, the basin itself being covered with 
a layer of calcareous tufa. 

My object in going into the country south of the desert was 
to instruct the natives in a knowledge of Christianity, but many 
circumstances prevented my living amongst them more than 
seven years, amongst which were considerations arising out of 
the slave system carried on by the Dutch Boers. I resolved to 
go into the country beyond, and soon found that, for the pur- 
poses of commerce, it was necessary to have a path to the sea. I 
might have gone on instructing the natives in religion, but as 
civilization and Christianity must go on together, I was ob- 
liged to find a path to the sea, in order that I should not sink 
to the level of the natives. The chief was overjoyed at the sug- 
gestion, and furnished me with twenty-seven men, and canoes 
'and provisions, and presents for the tribes through whose country 
we had to pass. We might have taken a shorter path to the sea 
than that to the north, and then to the west, by which we went ; 
but along the country by the shorter route there is an insect 
called the tsetse whose bite is fatal to horses, oxen, and dogs, 
but not to men or donkeys. — You seem to think there is a 
connection between the two. — The habitat of that insect is along 
the shorter route to the sea. The bite of it is fatal to domestic 
animals, not immediately, but certainly in the course of two or 
three months ; the animal grows leaner and leaner, and gradually 
dies of emaciation : a horse belonging to Gordon Cumming died 
of a bite five or six months after it was bitten. 

On account of this insect, I resolved to go to the north, and 
then westwards to the Portuguese settlement of Loanda. Along 
the course of the river which we passed game was so abundant 
that there was no difficulty in supplying the wants of my whole 



HOSPITALITY OF THE NATIVES. 307 

party : antelopes were so tame that they might be shot from the 
canoe. But beyond fourteen degrees of south latitude the 
natives had guns, and had themselves destroyed the game, so 
that I and my party had to live on charity. The people, how- 
ever, in that central region were friendly and hospitable : but 
they had nothing but vegetable productions ; the most abundant 
was the cassava, which, however nice when made into tapioca 
pudding, resembles in its more primitive condition nothing so 
much as a mess of laundress' starch. There was a desire in 
the various villages through which we passed to have intercourse 
with us, and kindness and hospitality were shown us ; but when 
we got near the Portuguese settlement of Angola the case was 
changed, and payment was demanded for everything. But I 
had nothing to pay with. Now the people had been in the 
habit of trading with the slavers, and so they said I might give 
one of my men in payment for what I wanted. When I showed 
them that I could not do this, they looked upon me as an in- 
terloper, and I was sometimes in danger of being murdered. 

As we neared the coast, the name of England was recognized, 
and we got on with ease. Upon one occasion, when I was 
passing through the parts visited by slave-traders, a chief who 
wished to show me some kindness offered me a slave-girl ; upon 
explaining that I had a little girl of my own, whom I should 
not like my own chief to give to a black man, the chief thought 
I was displeased with the size of the girl and sent me one a 
head taller. By this and other means I convinced my men of 
my opposition to the principle of slavery ; and when we arrived 
at Loanda I took them on board a British vessel, where I took 
a pride in showing them that those countrymen of mine and 
those guns were there for the purpose of putting down the slave- 
trade. They were convinced from what they saw of the honesty 
of Englishmen's intentions ; and the hearty reception they met 
with from the sailors made them say to me, " We see they are 
your countrymen, for they have hearts like you." On the jour- 
ney the men had always looked forward to reaching the coast ; 
they had seen Manchester prints, and other articles imported 
therefrom, and they could not believe they were made by mortal 
hands. On reaching the sea, they thought they had come to 
the end of the world. They said, " We marched along with 



308 AEEIVAL AT LOANDA. 

our father, thinking the world was a large plain without limit : 
but all at once the land said, ' I am finished ; there is no more 
of me ; ' " and they called themselves the true old men — the 
true ancients — having gone to the end of the world. On reach- 
ing Loanda, they commenced trading in firewood, and also en- 
gaged themselves at sixpence a day in unloading coals, brought 
by a steamer for the supply of the cruiser lying there to watch 
the slave-vessels. On their return, they told their people " we 
worked for a whole moon, carrying away the stones that burn." 
By the time they were ready to go back to their own country, 
each had secured a large bundle of goods. On the way back, 
however, fever detained them, and their goods were all gone, 
leaving them on their return home as poor as when they started. 

I had gone towards the coast for the purpose of finding a 
direct path to the sea, but on going through the country we 
found forests so dense that the sun had not much influence on 
the ground, which was covered with yellow mosses, and all the 
trees with white lichens. Amongst these forests were little 
streams, each having its source in a bog ; in fact, nearly all the 
rivers in that country commence in bogs. Finding it impos- 
sible to travel here in a wheel conveyance, I left my wagon 
behind, and I believe it is standing in perfect safety where I last 
saw it at the present moment. The only other means of con- 
veyance we had was ox-back, by no means a comfortable mode 
of travelling. I therefore came back to discover another route 
to the coast by means of the river Zambesi. 

The same system of inundation that distinguishes the Nile 
is also effected by this river, and the valley of the Barotse is 
exceedingly like the valley of the Nile between Cairo and 
Alexandria. The inundations of the Zambesi, however, cause 
no muddy sediment like those of the Nile, and, only that there 
are no snow-mountains, would convey the impression that the 
inundations were the result of the melting of snow from adjoin- 
ing hills. The face of the country presents no such features, 
but elevated plains, so level that rain-water stands for months 
together upon them. The water does not flow off, but gradually 
soaks into the soil, and then oozes out in bogs, in which all the 
rivers take their rise. They have two rainy seasons in the year, 
and consequently two periods of inundation. The reason why 



AFRICAN HONESTY. 



309 



the water remains so clear is this : the country is covered by 
such a mass of vegetation that the water flows over the grass, 
etc., without disturbing the soil beneath. 

There is a large central district containing a large lake formed 
by the course of the Zambesi, to explore which would be well 
worthy of the attention of any individual wishing to distinguish 
himself. 

Having got down amongst the people in the middle of the 
country, and having made known to my friend, the chief, my 
desire to have a path for civilization and commerce on the east, 
he again furnished me with means to pursue my researches east- 
ward ; and, to show how disposed the natives were to aid me in 
my expedition, I had one hundred and fourteen men to accom- 
pany me to the east, whilst those who had travelled to the west 
with me only amounted to twenty -seven. I carried with me 
thirty tusks of ivory ; and, on leaving my wagon to set forth 
on my journey, two warriors of the country offered a heifer 
apiece to the man who should slay any one who molested it. 
Having proceeded about a hundred miles, I found myself short 
of ammunition, and despatched an emissary back to the chief to 
procure more percussion caps from a box I had in my wagon. 
Not understanding the lock, the chief took a hatchet and split 
the lid open to get what was wanted ; and notwithstanding the 
insecure state in which it remained, I found, on returning two 
years after, that its contents were precisely as I left them. Such 
honesty is rare even in civilized Christian England, as I know 
from experience ; for I sent a box of fossils to Dr. Buckland, 
which, after arriving safely in England, was stolen from some 
railway, being probably mistaken for plate. 

I could not make my friend, the chief, understand that I was 
poor; I had a quantity of sugar, and while it lasted the chief 
would favor me with his company to coffee ; when it was gone, 
I told the chief how it was produced from the cane which grew 
in central Africa, but as they had no means of extracting the 
saccharine matter he requested me to procure a sugar-mill. 
When I told him I was poor, the chief then informed me that 
all the ivory in the country was at my disposal, and he accord- 
ingly loaded me with tusks, ten of which, on arriving at the 
coast, I spent in purchasing clothing for my followers ; the rest 
16 



310 NATIVE RELIGION. 

were left at Qnilimane, that the impression should not be pro- 
duced in the country that they had been stolen in case of my 
non-return. 

Englishmen are very apt to form their opinion of Africans 
from the elegant figures in tobacconists' shops; I scarcely think 
such are fair specimens of the African. I think, at the same 
time, that the African women would be much handsomer than 
they are if they would only let themselves alone; though unfor- 
tunately that is a failing by no means peculiar to African ladies; 
but they are, by nature, not particularly good-looking, and seem 
to take all the pains they can to make themselves worse. The 
people of one tribe knock out all their upper front teeth, and 
when they laugh are perfectly hideous. Another tribe of the 
Londa country file all their front teeth to a point, like cats' 
teeth, and when they grin put one in mind of alligators ; many 
of the women are comely, but spoil their- beauty by such un- 
natural means. Another tribe has a custom of piercing the 
cartilage of the nose and inserting a bit of reed, which spreads 
it out, and makes them very disagreeable-looking ; others tie 
their hair, or rather wool, into basket-work, resembling the ton- 
sorial decorations of the ancient Egyptians; others, again, dress 
their hair with a hoop around it, so as to resemble the gloria 
round the head of the virgin ; rather a different application of 
the hoop to that of English ladies. 

The people of central Africa have religious ideas stronger 
than those of the Caffres and other southern nations, who talk 
much of God but pray seldom. They pray to departed rela- 
tives, by whom they imagine illnesses are sent to punish them 
for any neglect on their part. Evidences of the Portuguese 
Jesuit missionary operations are still extant, and are carefully 
preserved by the natives ; one tribe can all read and write, which 
is ascribable to the teaching of the Jesuits ; their only books are, 
however, histories of saints, and miracles effected by the parings 
of saintly toe-nails, and such like nonsense; but, surely, if such 
an impression has once been produced, it might be hoped that 
the efforts of Protestant missionaries, who would leave the Bible 
with these poor people, would not be less abiding. 

In a commercial point of view communication with this 
country is desirable. Angola is wonderfully fertile, producing 



THE PORTUGUESE IN AFRICA. 



311 



every kind of tropical plant in rank luxuriance. Passing on 
to the valley of Quango, the stalk of the grass was as thick as 
a quill, and towered above my head, although I was mounted 
on my ox ; cotton is produced in great abundance, though 
merely woven into common cloth ; bananas and pine-apples 
grow in great luxuriance ; but the people having no maritime 
communication, these advantages are almost lost. The country 
on the other side is not quite so fertile, but in addition to indigo, 
cotton, and sugar-cane, produces a fibrous substance, which I 
am assured is stronger than flax. 

The Zambesi has not been thought much of as a river by 
Europeans, not appearing very large at its mouth ; but on 
going up it for seventy miles it is enormous. The first three 
hundred miles might be navigated without obstacle ; then there 
is a rapid, and near it a coal-field of large extent. The elevated 
sides of the basin, which form the most important feature of the 
country, are far different in climate to the country nearer the 
sea, or even the centre. Here the grass is short, and the Angola 
goat, which could not live in the centre, had been seen on the 
east highland by Mr. Moffat. 

My desire is to open a path to this district, that civilization, 
commerce, and Christianity might find their way there. I con- 
sider that we made a great mistake when we carried commerce 
into India in being ashamed of our Christianity ; as a matter of 
common sense and good policy, it is always best to appear in 
one's true character. In travelling through Africa I might 
have imitated certain Portuguese, and have passed for a chief; 
but I never attempted anything of the sort, although endeavor- 
ing always to keep to the lessons of cleanliness rigidly instilled 
by my mother long ago . the consequence was that the natives 
respected me for that quality, though remaining dirty themselves. 

I had a pass from the Portuguese consul, and on arriving at 
their settlement I was asked what I was. I said, "A mis- 
sionary, and a doctor, too." They asked, u Are you a doctor 
of medicine ? " — " Yes." — " Are you not a doctor of mathematics, 
too ? " — " No." — " And yet you can take longitudes and lati- 
tudes." Then they asked me about my moustache ; and I simply 
said I wore it because men had moustaches to wear and ladies 
had not. They could not understand either why a sacerdote 



312 COMMERCE AND CHRISTIANITY. 

should have a wife and four children ; and many a joke took 
place upon that subject. I used to say, " Is it not better to have 
children with than without a wife ? " Englishmen of education 
always command respect without any adventitious aid. A Por- 
tuguese governor left for Angola, giving out that he was going 
to keep a large establishment, and taking with him quantities 
of crockery, and about five hundred waistcoats ; but when he 
arrived in Africa he made a " deal " of them. Educated Eng- 
lishmen seldom descend to that sort of thing;. 

A prospect is now before us of opening Africa for commerce 
and the gospel. Providence has been preparing the way ; for 
even before I proceeded to the Central basin it had been con- 
quered and rendered safe by a chief named Sebituane, and the 
language of the Bechuanas made the fashionable tongue, and 
that was one of the languages into which Mr. Moffat had trans- 
lated the Scriptures. Sebituane also discovered Lake Ngami 
some time previous to my explorations in that part. In going 
back to that country my object is to open up traffic along the 
banks of the Zambesi, and also to preach the gospel. The na- 
tives of central Africa are very desirous of trading, but their 
only traffic is at present in slaves, of which the poorer people 
have an unmitigated horror ; it is therefore most desirable to en- 
courage the former principle, and thus open a way for the con- 
sumption of free productions, and the introduction of Christianity 
and commerce. By encouraging the native propensity for trade, 
the advantages that might be derived in a commercial point of 
view are incalculable ; nor should we lose sight of the inestima- 
ble blessings it is in our power to bestow upon the unenlightened 
African by giving him the light of Christianity. Those two 
pioneers of civilization — Christianity and commerce — should 
ever be inseparable ; and Englishmen should be warned by the 
fruits of neglecting that principle as exemplified in the result 
of the management of Indian affairs. By trading with Africa, 
also, we should at length be independent of slave-labor, and 
thus discountenance practices so obnoxious to every Englishman. 

Though the natives are not absolutely anxious to receive the 
gospel, they are open to Christian influences. Among the Bech- 
uanas the gospel was well received. These people think it a 
crime to shed a tear, but I have seen some of them weep at the 



THE MISSIONARY LIFE. 313 

recollection of their sins when God had opened their hearts to 
Christianity and repentance. It is true that missionaries have 
difficulties to encounter ; but what great enterprise was ever ac- 
complished without difficulty ? It is deplorable to think that 
one of the noblest of our missionary societies, the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, is compelled to send to Germany for missionaries, 
whilst other societies are amply supplied. Let this stain be 
wiped off. — The sort of men who are wanted for missionaries 
are such as I see before me ; — men of education, standing, en- 
terprise, zeal, and piety. It is a mistake to suppose that any 
one, as long as he is pious, will do for this office. Pioneers in 
everything should be the ablest and best qualified men, not those 
of small ability and education. This remark especially applies 
to the first teachers of Christian truth in regions which may 
never have before been blest with the name and gospel of Jesus 
Christ. In the early ages the monasteries were the schools of 
Europe, and the monks were not ashamed to hold the plough. 
The missionaries now take the place of those noble men, and we 
should not hesitate to give up the small luxuries of life in order 
to carry knowledge and truth to them that are in darkness. I 
hope that many of those whom I now address will embrace that 
honorable career. Education has been given us from above for 
the purpose of bringing to the benighted the knowledge of a 
Saviour. If you knew the satisfaction of performing such a 
duty, as well as the gratitude to God which the missionary must 
always feel, in being chosen for so noble, so sacred a calling, you 
would have no hesitation in embracing it. 

For my own part, I have never ceased to rejoice that God 
has appointed me to such an office. People talk of the sacrifice 
I have made in spending so much of my life in Africa. Can 
that be called a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small 
part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never re- 
pay ? — Is that a sacrifice which brings its own blest reward in 
healthful activity, the consciousness of doing good, peace of 
mind, and a bright hope of a glorious destiny hereafter ? — Away 
with the word in such a view, and with such a thought! It is 
emphatically no sacrifice. Say rather it is a privilege. Anxiety, 
sickness, suffering, or danger, now and then, with a foregoing 
of the common conveniences and charities of this life, may make 



314 livixgstone's African life no sacrifice. 

us pause, and cause the spirit to waver, and the soul to sink, but 
let this only be for a moment. All these are nothing when com- 
pared with the glory which shall hereafter be revealed in and 
for us. I never made a sacrifice. Of this we ought not to talk, 
when we remember the great sacrifice which He made who left 
his Father's throne on high to give himself for us : — "Who 
being the brightness of that Father's glory, and the express 
image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of 
his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down 
on the right hand of the majesty on high." 

English people are treated with respect ; and the missionary 
can earn his living by his gun — a course not open to a country 
curate. I would rather be a poor missionary than a poor curate. 

Then there is the pleasant prospect of returning home and 
seeing the agreeable faces of his countrywomen again. I suppose 
I present a pretty contrast to you. At Cairo we met a party of 
young English people, whose faces were quite a contrast to the 
skinny, withered ones of those who had spent the latter years 
of their life in a tropical clime ; they were the first rosy cheeks 
I had seen for sixteen years ; you can hardly tell how pleasant 
it is to see the blooming cheeks of young ladies before me, after 
an absence of sixteen years from such delightful objects of con- 
templation. There is also the pleasure of the welcome home, 
and I heartily thank you for the welcome you have given me 
on the present occasion ; but there is also the hope of the welcome 
words of our Lord, " Well done, good and faithful servant." 

I beg to direct your attention to Africa ; — I know that in a 
few years I shall be cut off in that country, which is now open ; 
do not let it be shut again ! I go back to Africa to try to make 
an open path for commerce and Christianity ; do you carry out 
the work which I have begun. I leave it with you ! 



CHAPTER XV. 

AGAIN IN AFEICA. 

Results of Efforts at Universities— Universities' Mission — Livingstone Appointed 
British Consul — Interview with the Queen — Reasons for Accepting the 
Governmental Appointment — Love for his Mother — Care of her — Government 
Appropriation — The Farewell Banquet — Distinguished Assembly — Speeches — 
Sir Roderick Murchison — Livingstone's Address — Arrangements Completed — 
Members of the Expedition — The Steam Launch — The " Pearl " — The De- 
parture from England — Livingstone's Responsibility — What the Government 
Expected — Letters by the Way — Arrival at the Mouth of the Zambesi. 

The effort of Dr. Livingstone at the great universities was 
not only an occasion full of complimentary attentions ; it was an 
occasion which did not pass from the hearts of the noble men 
with whom he had held loving counsel, and he was rejoiced to 
witness speedy preparations on the part of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, in which they were joined by the Universities of Dur- 
ham and Dublin, for establishing a mission in Africa, to be 
known as the " Universities' Mission to Central Africa." 

The time was now drawing- nigh when he felt that he could 
no longer indulge himself in the comforts of home, even though, 
while there, his heart and hands were full of labors. He had 
been appointed by her majesty " British Consul to the Portu- 
guese Possessions in South Africa," a position which he was 
constrained to accept, because it afforded facilities for prosecuting 
his work of opening Africa to the light of the gospel, which he 
could not enjoy as the missionary of any board. There was also 
a demand on him to assume relations which would be more 
remunerative. His aged mother needed his aid, and his noble 
heart would not excuse himself from so holy a duty as that of 
providing for the comfort of his mother, by even the important 
duties of his distant mission. He loved the Africans, but he 
did not feel himself called to suffer the light to go out in the 
home of his mother that he might kindle one on the hearth of 
his adopted brethren. The little incident, coming we hardly 

315 



316 FAREWELL BANQUET. 

know how to our knowledge, sparkles like a jewel over the heart 
of the man we have already learned to love not less than we 
honor hira. 

Having appointed him as its ambassador, the government 
also appropriated <£5000 for the fitting out of an expedition to 
explore the Zambesi and the neighboring country, to be headed 
by Dr. Livingstone. And her Majesty honored the man who 
had become the central object of the time, with a personal in- 
terview. The Royal Geographical Society took a deep interest 
in the new expedition, and one of the most interesting events of 
Dr. Livingstone's sojourn in England was the farewell banquet 
with which the distinguished members of this great society hon- 
ored him on the 13th of February, 1868. The banquet was 
presided over by Sir Roderick Murchison, and there were 
more than three hundred gentlemen, many of them well known 
and of illustrious rank. Science and ai*t were there to do honor 
to a noble man. The church and the state came to bid god- 
speed to the most faithful servant of both. The ambassadors of 
Denmark, Sweden and Norway were there, and many nobles 
and ladies filled the galleries, delighted to witness the proceed- 
ings and hear the speeches. There were many of these during 
the evening. The ever-ardent president delivered a character- 
istic address, in the midst of which, after referring to the ser- 
vice which their honored guest had rendered to those interests 
which are more conspicuous in human attention, he. said: 
" These are great claims upon the admiration of men of science; 
but, great as they are, they fall far short of others which attach 
to the name of the missionary who, by his fidelity to his word, 
by his conscientious regard for his engagements, won the affec- 
tion of the natives of Africa by the example which he set before 
them in his treatment of the poor people who followed him in 
his arduous researches through that great continent." 

The speech of Dr. Livingstone on this occasion is particu- 
larly interesting, as giving a complete account of the great 
traveller's plans. He arose and said : 

" When I was in Africa I could not but look forward with 
joyous anticipation to my arrival in my native land ; but when 
I remember how I have been received, and when I reflect that 
I am now again returning to the scene of my former labors, I 



FAREWELL SPEECH. 317 

am at a loss how to express in words the feelings of my heart. 
In former times, while I was performing what I considered to 
be my duty in Africa, I felt great pleasure in the work ; and 
now, when I perceive that all eyes are directed to my future 
conduct, I feel as if I were laid under a load of obligation to do 
better than I have ever done as yet. I expect to find for ray- 
self no large fortune in that country, nor do I expect to explore 
any large portions of a new country, but I do hope to find 
through that part of the country which I have already explored, 
a pathway by means of the river Zambesi which may lead to 
highlands where Europeans may form a settlement, and where, 
by opening up communication and establishing commercial 
intercourse with the natives of Africa, they may slowly, but not 
the less surely, impart to the people of that country the knowl- 
edge and the inestimable blessings of Christianity. 

" I am glad to have connected with me in this expedition my 
gallant friend Captain Bedingfield, who knows not only what 
African rivers are, but also what are African fevers. With his 
aid I may be able to discover the principles of the river system 
of that great continent, and if I find that system to be what I 
think it is, I propose to establish a depot upon the Zambesi, and 
from that station more especially to examine into that river 
system, which, according to the statements of the natives, if 
discovered, would afford a pathway to the country beyond, 
where cotton, indigo, and other raw material might be obtained 
to any amount. 

" I am happy also in being accompanied by men experienced 
in geology, in botany, in art, and in photography, who will 
bring back to England reports upon all those points, which I 
alone have attempted to deal with, and with very little means 
at my disposal. 

" The success — if I may call it success — which has attended 
my former efforts to open up the country mainly depended upon 
my entering into the feelings and the wishes of the people of 
the interior of Africa. I found that the tribes in the interior 
of that country were just as anxious to have a part of the sea- 
board as I was to open a communication with the interior, and 
I am quite certain of obtaining the co-operation of those tribes 
in my next expedition. Should I succeed in my endeavor, 



318 FAREWELL SPEECH. 

should we be able to open a communication advantageous to 
ourselves with the natives of the interior of Africa, it would be 
our great duty to confer upon them those great benefits of 
Christianity which have been bestowed upon ourselves. Let us 
not make the same mistake in Africa that we have made in 
India, but let us take to that country our Christianity with us. 

" I confess that I am not sanguine enough to hope for any 
speedy results from this expedition, but I am sanguine as to its 
ultimate result. I feel convinced that if we can establish a 
system of free labor in Africa, it will have a most decided in- 
fluence upon slavery throughout the world. Success, however, 
under Providence, depends upon us as Englishmen. I look 
upon Englishmen as perhaps the most freedom-loving people in 
the world, and I think that the kindly feeling which has been 
displayed towards me since my return to my native land has 
arisen from the belief that my efforts might at some future time 
tend to put an end to the odious traffic in slaves. England has, 
unfortunately, been compelled to obtain cotton and other raw 
material from slave States, and has thus been the mainstay and 
support of slavery in America. Surely, then, it follows that if 
we can succeed in obtaining the raw material from other sources 
than from the slave States of America we should strike a heavy 
blow at the system of slavery itself. 

" I do not wish to arouse expectations in connection with 
this expedition which may never be realized, but what I want 
to do is to get in the thin end of the wedge, and then I leave it 
to be driven home by English energy and English spirit. 

" I cannot express to you in adequate language the sense 
which I entertain of the kindness which I have received since 
my return to this country, but I can assure you that I shall 
ever retain a grateful recollection of the way you have received 
me on the eve of my departure from my native land. 

" Reference has been made in language most kind to Mrs. 
Livingstone. Now, it is scarcely fair to ask a man to praise 
his own wife, but I can only say that when I left her at the 
Cape, telling her that I should return in two years, and when 
it happened that I was absent four years and a half, I supposed 
that I should appear before her with a damaged character. I 
was, however, forgiven. My wife will accompany me in this 



A. CHARACTERISTIC REPLY. 319 

expedition, and I believe will be most useful to me. She is 
familiar with the languages of South Africa, she is able to work, 
she is willing to endure, and she well knows that in that coun- 
try one must put one's hand to everything. In the country to 
which I am about to proceed she knows that the wife must be 
the maid-of-all-work within, while the husband must be the 
jack-of-all-trades without, and glad am I indeed that I am to 
be accompanied by my guardian angel. Allow me now to say 
just one word in reference to our chairman ; let me just tell you 
that I found a few days back an abstract from an address which 
he delivered to the Geographical Society in 1852, and which he 
had the assurance to send to me. In that address my distin- 
guished friend foreshadowed a great portion of those discoveries 
which I subsequently made, and all I can now say is that I 
hope he will not do the same thing again." 

All things were now ready. Some time before Lord Pal- 
merston, then Prime Minister, had sent a distinguished member 
of the bar to Dr. Livingstone, to ask him what he could do for 
him, and his reply had been : " Open the Portuguese ports of 
East Africa." Now he began to anticipate the realization of 
his request. He was about starting to those coasts, protected 
by English authority and clothed with the dignity of an 
English official, to search out in the name of England the hid- 
den land. The members of the expedition had been selected 
by himself. They were Captain Bedingfield, R. N., well known 
for his exploration of the Congo and other African rivers ; Dr. 
Kirk, M. D., of Edinburgh, as botanist ; Mr. R. Thornton, of 
the School of Mines, as mining geologist ; Mr. T. Bains as 
artist; Mr. Rae as engineer of the launch, and Dr. Living- 
stone's brother, who was expected to take charge of an estab- 
lishment proposed to be fixed at the confluence of one of the 
tributaries of the Zambesi." A beautiful iron steam launch 
had been constructed by order of the government for the pur- 
poses of the expedition — -a vessel seventy-five feet long, eight 
feet broad and three feet deep, in the shape of a large flat- 
bottomed boat, with both ends alike and covered with awnings 
— a precious piece of invention and workmanship, which, as we 
shall find, was better suited to dry land than such a river as the 
Zambesi. 



320 INSTRUCTIONS OP HER MAJESTY. 

The farewell passed, and the good steamer " Pearl," with the 
launch stowed away piecemeal in her capacious hull, and the 
generous supplies of a liberal government, received her more 
precious cargo of human beings on the 10th of March. Such 
men as formed the expedition could be at no loss for occupation, 
even in the narrow confines of their little floating home. There 
was opportunity to reflect and converse and familiarize them- 
selves with the plans by which they hoped to serve England 
and Africa most acceptably. For Dr. Livingstone particularly 
this was an expedition of vast responsibility. He had awakened 
the interest which had determined the action of the government, 
and which had* moved a number of organizations to project 
missions for central Africa. His responsibility imposed heavier 
labor on him than he had ever performed. He must assist the 
missionaries who were about leaving England; he could not 
think of neglecting them ; and he must see to it that the author- 
ities which had commissioned him be not disappointed in the 
results of the enterprise. The explicit instructions of her 
Majesty's government were that the knowledge already attained 
of the geography and the mineral and agricultural resources of 
eastern and central Africa be extended, that the acquaintance 
of the inhabitants be improved, that they might be taught to 
apply themselves to the cultivation of their lands with a view 
to the production of raw material to be exported to England in 
return for British manufactures ; and it was hoped that, by 
encouraging the natives to occupy themselves in the develop- 
ment of the resources of the country, a considerable advance 
might be made towards the extinction of the slave trade, as they 
would not be long in discovering that the former would even- 
tually be a more certain source of profit than the latter. The 
expedition was sent in accordance with the settled policy of the 
English government; and the Earl of Clarendon being then at 
the head of the Foreign Office, the mission was organized under 
his immediate care. It was an enterprise, however, which em- 
bodied the principles of no one party. It possessed the hearts 
of the people. 

From the various points where opportunities were afforded 
letters were sent back to England, all breathing the same lofty 
courage and vigorous resolution and humble faith which so 



ARRIVAL AT THE ZAMBESI. 



321 



fittingly distinguished those truly great spirits which have 
always led the van of Christian civilization. In due time the 
ship had passed the Cape and Natal, and drew near to the for- 
ests of mangrove, which, coming down to the water's edge, and 
casting; their shadows on the confluence of the Zambesi with the 
sea, seemed as if conspiring with the usurpers of the soil for its 
concealment. 




CRICKET. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

ARRIVAL AT TETE. 

Portuguese and the Zambesi — Posterity's Applause — The Explanation of the 
Outlet— The Kongone— The Bar— The Country— Timidity of Natives— The 
Fertility of Soil— The Natives' Curiosity— Their Cupidity— The Channel— The 
Departure of the " Pearl " — The First Work — Mazaro — Excitement — Living- 
stone's Courage — Mariano's Cruelty — The Zulus — Their Tax — Their Charac- 
ter, Hospitality, etc. — Zulu Lawyer — Shupanga — The Grave Under the 
Baobab — Reception at Senna — Senhor Ferraro — Arrival at Tete — " We will 
Sleep To-night." 

Notwithstanding the expressions of Portuguese sympathy 
with the growing interest of the civilized world in African dis- 
covery, they have the credit of studiously preventing, as far as 
they have been able, under pretence of friendliness, all those 
expeditions which looked toward the elevation of the natives in 
the grade of manhood, and avowed their antipathy to the trade 
in slaves. The care which they have been at to obscure the 
great eastern pathway toward the heart of the continent is too 
noticeable and reproachful to escape the remark and censure of 
one even whose charity was almost a fault sometimes. Dr. 
Livingstone could not suppress or conceal his impatience when 
he was satisfied that the cupidity of the nominal occupants and 
possessors of the Zambesi delta had moved them to practise 
deliberate deception, by means of maps and published papers, 
concerning the real entrance of the noble river which they had 
degraded into a highway for their unlawful and inhuman traffic. 
It is well known that the " Kwakwa," or " River of Quili- 
mane," some sixty miles distant from the mouths of the Zam- 
besi, has long been represented as the principal entrance to that 
great river; while in fact this "principal entrance" was little 
more than a natural canal along which slave-boats might pass 
from the Zambesi to Quilimane, at such times as the overflow 
322 



posterity's applause. 323 

of the river rendered it navigable ; and only when the enterprise 
of Livingstone had associated the discovery of the Zambesi with 
his name, were the "authorities" provoked to confess that the 
harbor of the Kongone had been for years a place of refuge for 
their slave-ships from the " persecutions of English cruisers." 
If we may depend on a statement which confesses such nefarious 
deceptions and such selfish disregard of the progress of geograph- 
ical science and the anxieties of all Christendom besides, in 
order to recover the forfeited glory of discovery, we cannot 
award them a prize which shall be any glory to them, except as 
it is glorious to emulate the selfishness and falseness of the arch 
enemy of human happiness, who labors always to divert the 
rays of heavenly light from human souls, that a darkened realm, 
where sin and sorrow struggle helplessly, may recognize his vile 
dominion and pay him tribute. It is certain that Christian 
people all over the world, whose hearts are swelling with hope 
and joy while they trace the advance of African missions, will 
think of David Livingstone when they pray for their sons and 
daughters ascending the Zambesi. It is certain that thoughtful 
men, the world over, will never erect their monuments to the 
Portuguese when they realize the benefits of African commerce. 
Whatever knowledge of the real highway may have been care- 
fully treasured at Lisbon, and turned to the account of selfish 
officials, the Governor of Tete testified, on the 9th of July, 
1859, in a letter addressed to a brother official of Portugal, that 
Dr. Livingstone was the first man who had passed from the sea 
to Tete over the real outlet of the Zambesi. He claims the 
glory of first exploring the mouths through which the great 
river, which has come into such prominence in connection with 
his travels, pours its waters into the ocean. He reported four 
distinct outlets— the Milambe, which is the most westerly ; the 
Kongone, the Luabo, and the Timbwe (or Muselo). Of these 
mouths the "report" says: "After the examination of three 
branches by the able and energetic surveyor, Francis Skead, 
R. N., the Kongone was found to be the best entrance. The 
immense amount of sand brought down by the Zambesi has in 
the course of ages formed a sort of promontory, against which 
the long swell of the Indian ocean, beating during the prevail- 
ing winds, has formed bars, which, acting against the waters of 



324 THE KONGONE. 

the delta, may have led to their exit sideways. The Kongone 
is one of the lateral branches, and the safest, inasmuch as the 
bar has nearly two fathoms on it at low water, and the rise at 
spring tides is from twelve to fourteen feet. The bar is narrow 
and the passage nearly straight. Were it buoyed, and a beacon 
placed on Pearl island, it would always be safe for a steamer. 
When the wind is from the east or north the bar is smooth ; if 
from the south and southeast, it has a heavy break on it, and 
is not to be attempted in boats. A strong current, setting to 
the east when the tide is flowing, and to the west when ebbing, 
may drag a boat or ship into the breakers. If one is doubtful 
of his longitude, and runs east, he will soon see the land at 
Timbwe disappear away to the north ; and coming west again, 
he can easily make out East Luabo from its great size, and 
Kongone follows seven miles west. The Kongone is five miles 
east of the Milambe ; about seven miles east of the Kongone is 
the East Luabo, and five miles east still is the Timbwe." 

It is remarkable that no Portuguese residences were found 
within " eighty miles of any mouth of the Zambesi." Whether 
they were ignorant of them, or, as they now claim, had their 
settlements so far away as a piece of strategy in the interest of the 
slave trade, is a question which we need <not pause to discuss. 
We have the testimony of the Livingstone expedition, that the 
only human beings that were seen, as the " Pearl " was steered 
into the Kongone, were the dusky natives leaping from their 
canoes and dashing away through the mangrove thickets, in 
evident terror of the white man, who, if known to them at all, 
was only associated with memories of brothers or sisters or 
children dragged away in chains to harder bondage in unknown 
lands. 

Some of the party on board the "Pearl" were unused to 
wilderness scenes and the wonderful exuberancy of nature in 
tropical lands. They seemed to have entered a new world. 
Everything they saw, every sound that fell upon their ears, had 
all the freshness of novelty. The trees and the plants were new ; 
the flowers and the fruits, the beasts, the birds, the insects, all 
were strange and wonderful. The very sky itself seemed new, 
glowing with colors or sparkling with constellations never seen 
in northern climes. The arts and industries of other nations 



THE SOIL OF THE DELTA. 325 

had not reclaimed a single square foot of territory about the 
mouths of this river. The wilderness came down to meet the 
wilderness. An untamed land and an untamed sea. The roar 
of wild beasts answered the roar of the wild waves. The mur- 
muring sea responded to the sighing forest. 

The first twenty miles along the Kongone they passed between 
rival jungles of mangrove; and when the mangroves were left 
behind, on either hand there were vast level plains of rich dark 
soil, covered with gigantic grasses which concealed the lairs of 
wild beasts and intimidated even the most expert hunters. 
Here and there the odd-looking huts of the natives, mounted 
on " stilts," were seen hid away in bowers of bananas and cocoa 
palms. The occupants of these little cotes were as industrious 
as they could be expected to be, and frequently they had about 
them an abundance of sweet potatoes, pumpkins, tomatoes, 
cabbages, onions, peas, corn and sugar cane, which would have 
encouraged the most omnivorous of our species to think of set- 
tlement. The wonderful soil of this delta can hardly have been 
surpassed by even the marvellous fertility of Egypt in the days 
when her mysterious river patron was most lavish of his bless- 
ings. Rice was found to be largely cultivated, but the peculiar 
adaptation of the soil to the sugar cane was quite apparent, and 
the members of the expedition were convinced that this region 
alone, covering an area of eighty miles by about fifty, properly 
handled, would supply all Europe with sugar. 

As they ascended the river and came among the settlements 
of the people, the steamers were manifestly the strangest specta- 
cles which they had looked on. They gathered in groups 
along the banks to gaze upon the apparitions. The " Pearl " 
was in their eyes a floating village, and one old man who came 
on board wondered if it " was made out of one tree." But 
either human nature is notably alike there and here, or those 
humble, ignorant creatures have been apt scholars of their 
white masters ; for great as was their curiosity, it did not exceed 
their cupidity. They were as full of questions as a Bostonian, 
but as eager for a trade as a Connecticut peddler. Whenever 
the ships halted, the light, swift canoes were seen shooting off 
from the banks, laden with every kind of fruit and food which 
the land afforded ; and as they steamed off again, anxious sellers 
17 



326 THE ZAMBESI CHANNEL. 

ran excitedly along the banks holding up fowls and fruits and 
baskets of rice, meal or potatoes, shouting " Malonda! malonda ! " 
" Things for sale ! things for sale! " and those in the canoes fol- 
lowed bravely along, exhibiting marvellous skill in the use of 
their short, broad-bladed paddles ; when they pleased forcing 
their narrow vessels along the smooth surface almost with the 
velocity of arrows. 

The deep channel of the Zambesi is quite narrow when com- 
pared with the width of the river ; and not only narrow, but 
singularly tortuous, winding along among the countless sand- 
banks, from side to side of the stream, marked only by the 
slight characteristic ripple when there is a fresh wind, and when 
all is calm, by a peculiar boiling up of its water from some 
action below. The fact that man is an expert navigator at the 
sea does not save him from the shame of confessing himself 
miserably at sea on such a river. Near the island of Simbo the 
" Pearl's " draught was found to be too great, and the Living- 
stone party were under the necessity of parting with their escort. 
The goods designed for the expedition were placed on one of the 
beautiful grassy islands about forty miles from the bar, and the 
few men who had been chosen to share the toils and honors of 
the devoted missionary explorer, in his new enterprise, took 
leave of the generous captain of the " Pearl," and also of their 
friend Skead, and sat down looking after the noble ship as she 
steamed away toward the sea again. It may be a gloomy pic- 
ture, that a great ship should enter an unknown harbor, sail 
along an unknown river forty miles, between forests and jun- 
gles, where there were strange birds and beasts and flowers and 
trees, and people stranger and wilder than all, and anchoring in 
the middle of the river, place on a tiny, fairy-looking island a 
few men and stores, and leave them there. But it is just what 
was done. The enterprise which God had laid upon him was 
one in which he was of necessity to be peculiarly independent. 
About all that his friends in England could do, after furnishing 
his "outfit," was just this: they could put him down on the 
borders of the unknown land. There can hardly be imagined a 
more heroic scene than the landing of those few men on that 
little island, and their quiet, manly leave-taking* of the good 
ship. They may as well be thought of as being left alone in 







DENIZENS OF THE SHIRE (page 299). 



THE FIRST WORK. 329 

the midst of savages, for the Portuguese settlements were only a 
burlesque on colonization ; their pretensions were so poorly sus- 
tained and their influence so corrupting, that it would have 
been better, on many grounds, if Livingstone had found the 
natives entirely ignorant of white people. 

It was the 18th of June when they were landed on the 
island. The first thing to be done was to transport the stores 
of the expedition to Shupanga and Senna. The difficulty and 
anxiety of this work was greatly increased by the distressingly 
unsettled state of the country. War was prevailing all around, 
but they were favored by delightful weather, and were enabled 
to rest from their initiatory labors on the 13th of August. 
During these months it was of course necessary for a portion of 
the party to remain on the island. From their little kingdom, 
over which they asserted squatter sovereignty, they could easily 
see the large game of the neighborhood moving about in the 
forests or coming down to the water's edge ; or they could watch 
the strange manoeuvres of thousands of little seed-birds, which, 
like flocks of other small birds in Africa, are wonderfully expert 
in the performance of most eccentric " gyrations and evolutions," 
separating and wheeling into columns again with the most 
thorough military precision. There were all sorts of living 
things in sight except human beings. The tedium of long 
wilderness journeys by land is beguiled by many little perils 
and difficulties and hunting exploits; but our party felt the 
unvarying wilderness becoming dully monotonous before they 
reached Mazaro. The uninhabited expanse on either hand was 
unquestionably dreary, and the sporting of the water-fowls be- 
came very commonplace ; even their interest in the enormous 
monsters, which they might see at any time, became objects of 
contempt as they became familiar. As far as Mazaro there 
were found no traces which contradicted the claim of Dr. 
Livingstone to being the true discoverer of the mouth of the 
Zambesi. There was no trade whatever below that point. All 
the merchandise of Senna and Tete was conveyed between that 
point and a small stream about six miles distant, on men's 
heads. On that little stream they were reshipped and found 
their way to Quilimane along the Kwakwa. The scenery was 
better about Mazaro. The well-wooded Shupanga ridge 



330 EXCITEMENT AT MAZARO. 

stretched off to the left, and in front blue hills rise dimly far in 
the distance. There is at Mazaro the mouth of a little creek, a 
few yards wide, flowing down with considerable fall into the 
river, its entrance almost concealed by the tall grass which 
grows up in its bed, which is the only explanation of a state- 
ment to be found in a map published in 1851 by the Portu- 
guese " Minister of Marine and the Colonies," that " at Mazaro 
the Zambesi is one mile wide and flows to Quilimane." The 
Zambesi is nowhere nearer to Quilimane than it is at Mazaro. 

This little post was in great excitement when Livingstone and 
party arrived. There had been a serious battle raging between 
the Portuguese and the people of a half-caste chief named 
Mariano, a notoriously inhuman man, who has by his rebellion 
and outrageous barbarities thoroughly incensed the Portuguese. 
The scene of action was enveloped in a dense fog, which pre- 
vented the party from hearing or seeing anything of the battle 
until they were on the ground. They had already established 
friendly relations with both parties to this quarrel, and were 
measurably protected by the charm which attaches to the Eng- 
lish name. Dr. Livingstone landed without the least hesitation 
to salute some of his old friends, and found himself in the sick- 
ening smell and confronting the horrible spectacle of mutilated 
bodies of the slain. 

The governor was very ill of fever at the time, and Dr. Liv- 
ingstone was appealed to to take him across the river to Shu- 
panga ; he tried in vain to get somebody to assist him to the 
boat with the sick man, but no one would volunteer for so 
dangerous an undertaking, and the generous visitor would not 
think of leaving another in such danger, so he entered the hut 
alone, and, with considerable difficulty, at length succeeded in 
dragging his excellency to the ship. 

The Portuguese are even weaker in actual war than they 
would seem to be if one should make an estimate of their forces 
in times of peace, from the fact that many of those whom they 
must depend on for military service are their native slaves, who 
besides entertaining no special love for their masters have fre- 
quently a wholesome regard for their own safety, and are not 
valiantly averse to securing that blessing in flight. At Mazaro 
the Portuguese were on double duty ; while some stood fighting 



MAEIANO'S CRUELTY. . 331 

with great bravery against the enemy, others were as coolly 
shooting at their own slaves who were retreating to the river. 

It may be noticed that Mariano, who was proving so very 
annoying to the Portuguese, was a half-caste, as were most of 
the chiefs who have most seriously opposed the authority of the 
colonists. Indeed this class of men are the scourge of the whole 
country ; they are the keenest slave-hunters, and most blood- 
thirsty warriors, the most atrocious villains generally, who are 
to be encountered. A gentleman of the highest standing told 
Dr. Livingstone that it was no uncommon event for his family 
to be disturbed while at dinner by a slave rushing into the apart- 
ment, pursued by one of Mariano's men, spear in hand. But 
the people who have pretended to colonize in such a community, 
on the false basis of mixed marriages with barbarous tribes, and 
encouraging a trade so demoralizing as that which has distin- 
guished the Portuguese enterprises in Africa, can hardly be sur- 
prised or complawi that they have such a harvest of trouble 
and failure. The folly of the Portuguese method was abun- 
dantly manifested by the eagerness with which the natives ex- 
tended their most cordial hospitalities to the English expedition, 
which they very quickly came to understand as representing a 
very different method and superior design. Even the rebels 
under Mariano, on finding that Dr. Livingstone and his party 
were Englishmen, not seeking slaves, but having at heart the 
real improvement of the country and the elevation of the people, 
received them with shouts of joy and welcome. 

The Maruru, who occupy the country around Mazaro, like 
the people generally who have had contact with white people 
only in the Lisbon subjects, have become very distrustful, as 
well as covetous ; they required to be paid for all services, and 
wanted their pay in advance ; and the travellers naturally sus- 
pected that the favorite canoe-song of the men — the chorus of 
which was, "Thou art slippery, slippery, truly" — was intended 
to be a witty explanation of their demands for advance pay. 

The white settlers on the west side of the Zambesi were hardly 
happier than the people of the other bank. The Zulus, or 
Laudeens, lord it there, and the merchants of Senna are under 
the necessity of paying dearly for peace or forfeiting everything 
by war ; for never did landlord keep a sharper eye on tenants 



332 THE ZULUS. 

than these dusky masters of the land keep on the Portuguese 
colonists who assert a powerless claim to it. Regularly every 
year they visit Shupanga and Senna in force, prepared to receive 
or take by force their extortionate tribute. It should not, how- 
ever, be understood that the Zulus are the meanest people in the 
world, because they improve the opportunity for securing some 
return for the accommodation of residence on their shores, which 
strangers think of value enough to pay for. Even according to 
the strictest equity, it is questionable whether those who, going 
from a Christian land, settle among heathen, with such objects 
and principles as distinguish the emissaries of Portugal, should 
be better treated. There is, in reality, very much to admire in 
the Zulu character. They belong to the great Caffre family, 
and stand complimented in history with the remarkable record, 
" History does not present another instance in which so much 
security of life and property has been enjoyed as has been ex- 
perienced during the whole period of English occupation of 
Natal by ten thousand colonists in the' midst of one hundred 
thousand Zulus." They are a good-humored, generous and in- 
dependent people. Unlike many Africans who envy the white 
skins of the foreigners, these manly individuals are proud of 
their dark hue, and if asked, "What is the finest complexion?" 
reply with ready complacency, " Like my own, black, with a 
little red." They love to number among the excellencies of 
their king, that " he chooses to be black," " he might have been 
white, but would not." The hair and features of the Zulus 
might easily confound them with the negro tribes, but the more 
careful view detects the " lofty forehead, the prominent nose 
and high cheek-bones," and a certain dignity of countenance 
which decide their claims to superior consideration. It is hardly 
wonderful that such a life as they lead, in the midst of abun- 
dance of food, which may be had for the taking it — fruit, grain, 
and game in abundance — should encourage a carelessness as to 
the future. And if we add to this the consideration that under 
the peculiar construction of their government every man's life 
is in the hands of the king, it is not astonishing that an audience 
of these people thought an address from the words, " Take no 
thought for the morrow," entirely superfluous, since they had 
" never done such a thing, nor ever expected to." They, as in- 



A ZULU LAWYER. 335 

deed do all the Caffre tribes, manifest quite surprising intelli- 
gence, and frequently display powers of Socratic argument which 
would astonish some of our knights of the green bag. In illus- 
tration of this talent, on one occasion, " some individuals had 
been detected in eating an ox, and the owner brought them be- 
fore a council demanding payment for the animal. The defence 
was that they had not killed the animal, but found it dying of 
a wound inflicted by another animal. When the defence was 
ended, an old gentleman of the prosecution began in true lawyer 
fashion to examine the previous speaker : 

" Q. * Does an ox-tail grow up, or down, or sideways ? ' 

"A. ' Downward.' 

" Q. ' Do the horns of an ox grow up, down, or sideways ? ' 

"A. 'Upward.' 

" Q. ' If an ox gores another, does he not lower his head and 
gore upward ? ' 

"A. 'Yes.' 

" Q. ' Could he gore downward ? 

"A. 'No.' 

" The wily interrogator then forced the witness to examine 
the wound which he said was inflicted by an ox, and admit that 
the beast had been stabbed and not gored." 

Another element of character distinguishes them, and one 
which is, if possible, more remarkable among savages, who are 
generally serious folks. They are very fond of joking, and 
quite practical in them sometimes. A resident mentions that a 
lad in his service once took great pains to tell his fellow-country- 
men that the English were bound by etiquette to kneel down 
and kiss the ground at a certain distance from the house. The 
natives, born and bred in a system of etiquette equal to that of 
any court in Europe, unhesitatingly obeyed, while the lad stood 
by superintending the joke with great delight. It was pleasant 
to observe, too, that when the trick was at last found out none 
enjoyed it more than those who had fallen into the snare. 

In addition to all their other virtues, they are essentially 
hospitable, and no one needs to carry supplies who travels through 
their country, except in localities where they may have been 
seduced to more selfish customs by intercourse with Portuguese 
traders. Such a digression in the interest of Zulu reputation 



336 SHUPANGA. 

will be pardoned, as it is of quite as much importance that we 
have just impressions of the actors in any of the affairs of real 
life in colonial regions as it is that we have a simple record of 
incidents. 

A single, one-storied house at Shupanga, occupying the pret- 
tiest site on the river, engrossed the attention of the expedition. 
It is a stone house ; there is a splendid sloping lawn in front 
with a fine mango orchard at its southern end ; the lawn extends 
down to the water's edge, and the Zambesi, widening grandly, 
flows softly by, and there are little green islands reposing on its 
sunny, tranquil bosom. If you look northward, beyond the 
house, there are — there were then— forests of tropical trees, and 
beyond the forests the massive mountains of Morumbwa, tower- 
ing amidst white clouds, and farther still distant hills are dimly 
defined against the blue horizon. The surveying expedition of 
Captain Owen rested at the " Shupanga house," in 1826, and 
buried one of their number under a noble baobab tree. The 
grave of an explorer, far away in a wilderness land, suggested 
very solemn thoughts to the serious men and the devoted wo- 
men who stood by it. They may have wondered whether it 
would be so, but they did not know that the shadow of that 
baobab tree would yet become a doubly sacred spot to them ; 
they did not know that of their number there should be left 
companion dust for that which years ago had been laid there 
with sorrow and left in loneliness. 

After a few days, which were improved in wooding up with 
African ebony and lignum-vitse, the expedition advanced toward 
Tete. From Shupanga to Senna they suffered great annoyance 
from the seeming conspiracy of sand and stupidity — sand in the 
river and stupidity in the black pilot. This interesting indi- 
vidual was named John Scissors, a serf. Every now and then 
he ran the " Ma Robert " aground. The inconvenience and delay 
were atoned for in some measure, for a time, by the ludicrous 
simplicity of his aggrieved manner as he ventured the very un- 
questionable assertion, "Oh, this is not the way ; it is back 
yonder ! " But even the charm of folly is easily exhausted, and 
we find it hard to laugh at stupidity which puts us to much 
trouble, however grotesquely it may express itself, and it is no 
wonder that the party felt that their dull Scissors was an unmit- 




zulu lawyer (page 271). 



RECEPTION AT SENNA. 339 

igated affliction, to say the least of it. Besides this annoyance, 
they had already found their precious steamer quite defective in 
many respects. The furnaces were badly constructed, and she 
moved along so slowly and heavily that the natives with their 
canoes would pass easily by her, and looked back in wonder 
and pity on the slow puffing " Asthmatic," as she came to be 
called. 

At Senna they received a most friendly reception. They 
were, however, under the necessity of landing at Nyamka, a 
small hamlet of rocks six miles below, and walking up to the 
village, as the steamer could not go up the channel along which 
Senna stands. From the hamlet they walked along a narrow 
winding path in Indian file, through a succession of gardens and 
patches of thorny acacias. The clouds veiled the sun softly, 
and the cool morning air seemed peculiarly fitted for the sweet, 
strange songs which the little birds poured forth in their charm- 
ing foreign accent. There were many natives passing to and 
fro — the women with hoes going to their work, but the men all 
carried spears or bows and arrows, except those who had old 
Tower muskets. Senna looked no more inviting for the two 
years of wear and neglect and oppression and war — a dull, 
dilapidated place, where " one is sure to take fever the second 
day." But the presence of a single really generous and hospita- 
ble man, claiming the miserable village as his native place, 
measurably redeemed it in the estimation of Englishmen who 
had been trained to appreciate those nobler qualities which' so 
seldom distinguished the claimants of the country. Senhor H. 
A. Ferraro's benevolence was unbounded. No stranger, how- 
ever black, was turned away from his door hungry or weary. 
He had long been the almoner of the people in time of famine. 
There was found a bit of history in connection with him which 
illustrates the Lisbon policy as hardly kinder to its own people 
than to those whom they are taught to oppress. The father of 
Senhor Ferraro had been the Portuguese Governor of Senna, 
and being a man of superior attainments and untarnished honor, 
acquired by the most unquestionable methods very large pos- 
sessions in land south of the village. The "home" govern- 
ment, asserting that it would never do for an individual to 
possess more land than the crown of Portugal, took possession 



340 ARRIVAL AT TETE. 

of his estate and cut it up into small tracts and apportioned it 
to settlers. The son, though very wealthy, held only an insig- 
nificant portion of his rightful estate. This gentleman, in 
common with other prominent Portuguese gentlemen of the 
town, welcomed the expedition, and all of them freely compli- 
mented Dr. Livingstone on his discovery of the true mouth of 
the noble river so near which they had spent their lives in 
ignorance of the error which their government had ignorantly or 
wilfully concealed. 

From Senna the expedition ascended as far as Tete without 
special incident — their object being to reach that spot as speedily 
as possible — and anchored their craft in front of that frontier 
village on the 8th of September. The Makololo were full of 
joy at the return of their " father." They hailed him with 
expressions of unbounded delight. Five of their head men 
came on board the steamer and listened in quiet sorrow to the 
story of poor Sekwebu's death. " Men die in any country," 
they said, and then told how thirty of their own number had 
gone with the Baromo since they parted with Dr. Livingstone. 
Two years had elapsed since that parting. They had waited 
patiently and confidently for the return of their friend. They 
had not been provided for by the Portuguese government, as 
had been promised Dr. Livingstone, and their sufferings would 
have been even more severe than they were but for the personal 
kindness of Major Sicard. But the waiting was over now, and 
they pressed about their tried friend with expressions of love 
which cheered his heart. They quickly carried his goods to the 
government house, so heartily tendered by the generous com- 
mandant, and left him for the time only when they were sure 
that they could bestow no additional attention. There was a 
wealth of trust and affection in their simple " good-night," and 
the expression, " We will sleep to-night," more than repaid the 
large-hearted, self-sacrificing friend 'of the race for all his toil 
and anxiety in coming back to them. ' 

All Africa, weary and neglected, was longing for repose. 
It must have been a sweet thought that he was the pioneer 
of that precious word which should give sweet sleep, rest of 
spirit, to the millions of that neglected continent. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE KEBRABASA RAPIDS. 

The Journey to the Kebrabasa — Kebrabasa Range — General Appearance — 
Breadth — Pressure of Water — Portuguese Ignorance — Banyai Impositions — 
" Dreadful Rough " a Night — Camp Scenes — A Camp Story — The Morning — 
Climbing Still — Sleep of Exhaustion — Makololo Distrust — Mount Morumbwa 
— A Perpetual Barrier — Return to Tete — Scenes in Tete — Superstition — The 
Teaching of Nature — Holiness — Christmas in Africa — The Climax of Absurdi- 
ties — The Rainy Season — The Portuguese Recourse — A Serious Matter — The 
Help for Fever — The Shire. 

It will be remembered that in descending the Zambesi, in 
1856, Dr. Livingstone turned southward in the neighborhood 
of the hills, and only came to the river again at Tete. He had 
not, therefore, seen the Kebrabasa rapids, and such were the 
reports concerning them that he shared fully the curiosity of 
his companions, and they resolved to take advantage of the 
peculiarly favorable opportunity of the Zambesi being unusually 
low to ascertain their character while uncovered by water. As 
far as Panda-Moqua, about forty miles above Tete, they sailed 
along quite comfortably, and looked with admiration on the 
splendidly-wooded hills which greeted the eye on either bank. 
The rapids, which have derived their name — which signifies 
"finish, or break the service" — from the difficulty experienced 
in carrying all articles of trade around them, over land, to 
Chicova, are in the midst of the lofty Kebrabasa range, which 
consists chiefly of conical hills covered with scraggy trees. 
" This range crosses the Zambesi nearly at right angles, and 
confines it within a narrow, rough, and rocky dell of about a 
quarter of a mile in breadth, over which large masses of rock 
are huddled in indescribable confusion. The chief rock is 
syenite, some portions of which have a beautiful blue tinge like 
lapus lazuli diffused through them ; others are gray. Blocks of 
granite also abound, of a pinkish tinge ; and these, with meta- 
morphic rocks, contorted, twisted, and thrown into every con- 

341 



342 THE KEBRABASA. 

ceivable position, afford a picture of dislocation or unconforma- 
bility which would gladden a geological lecturer's heart ; but at 
high flood this rough channel is all smoothed over, and it then 
conforms well with the river below it, which is half a mile wide. 
In the dry season the stream runs at the bottom of a narrow 
and deep groove, whose sides are polished and fluted by the 
boiling action of the water in flood, like the rims of ancient 
Eastern wells by the draw-ropes. The breadth of the groove is 
often not more than from forty to sixty yards, and it has some 
sharp turnings, double channels, and little cataracts in it. The 
masts of the ' Ma Robert/ though some thirty feet high, did not 
reach the level of the flood-channel above, and the man in the 
chains sung out, ' No bottom at ten fathoms.' Huge pot-holes, 
as large as draw-wells, had been worn in the sides, and were so 
deep that in some instances, when protected from the sun by 
overhanging boulders, the water in them was quite cool. Some 
of these holes had been worn right through, and only the side 
next the rock remained ; while the sides of the groove of the 
flood-channel were polished as smooth as if they had gone 
through granite-mills. The pressure of the water must be 
enormous to produce this polish. It had wedged round pebbles 
into chinks and crannies of the rocks so firmly that, though 
they looked quite loose, they could not be removed except with 
a hammer. It is strange that the Portuguese had continued so 
long in comparative ignorance of an object of so much interest 
which was so near them. All the information which our friends 
obtained from these remarkable colonists was that ' three or 
four detached rocks jutted out into the river at Kebrabasa, 
which, though dangerous to the cumbersome native canoes, 
could be easily passed by a steamer ; and that if one or two of 
these obstructions were blasted away by gunpowder there would 
be no further difficulty.' " But the painful exploration of several 
miles convinced the party that they must prepare for more 
serious work than they had anticipated ; that, in fact, the mere 
examination of the rapids was a more considerable task than 
their removal had been supposed to be. They therefore re- 
turned to the boat and went down the river for fresh supplies. 
When they cast anchor a second time at the foot of the hills, 
they were prepared for a serious survey of the region. It was 



BANYAI IMPOSITIONS. 343 

late in the afternoon of November 24th. They were indepen- 
dent of the surly tribes who, at even so short a distance, lived 
along the banks and manifested an impudent contempt for the 
Portuguese authority. Canoe men never sleep in their canoes 
at night, but build their fires on the shore, and the suspicions 
of these dwellers were excited by the uncommon action of the 
newcomers, and they hailed them with, " Why don't you come 
on shore like other people?" The Makololo, who felt as 
independent as their interrogators, replied, "We are held 
to the bottom with iron ; you may see we are not like your 
Bozunga." 

It was no misfortune to be denied the company of these 
Bauyai. On their account as much as anything else Dr. Liv- 
ingstone had felt it important to avoid the river, as he was 
approaching Tete, in his former expedition. Their impositions 
on travellers are frequently rather severe tests of even Christian 
patience, and our travellers were glad to avoid them. It is 
pleasant to give a present, but that pleasure the Banyai usually 
deny to strangers by making it a fine, and demanding it in 
such a supercilious way that only a sorely-cowed trader could 
bear it. They often refuse to touch what is offered — throw 
it down and leave it — sneer at the trader's slaves, and refuse 
a passage until the tribute is raised to the utmost extent of his 
means. 

The morning came, clear and pleasant, and the party enjoyed 
for a time quite a delightful shade from the hills on their 
right ; " but before long the path grew frightfully rough, and 
the hills no longer shielded them from the blazing sun." The 
assurances of the guide that they were in " the way " seemed 
like mockery; the thought of a path in connection with the 
patches of yielding sand and the huge rocks over which they 
were clambering so painfully was ridiculous ; the rocks are dis- 
located and twisted in every direction ; it was " confusion worse 
confounded ; " it may have seemed to them confounded confusion. 
The first day's march did not exceed four miles ! and all hands 
were thoroughly satisfied with themselves, and willing to stop 
when the hour to halt arrived. 

A few inhabitants, belonging to a small tribe called Badema, 
had found homes in this singularly inhospitable region, and 



344 NIGHT IN THE HILLS. 

their industry had converted the few available hollows into 
miniature corn and cotton fields, and they have the art of grow- 
ing their " mapisa (holcus sorgum) " on the steep slopes of the 
mountains. The deep ravines are brought into service as traps 
for zebras, antelopes and other animals, by stretching strong 
nets made of baobab bark across their narrow entrances. Being 
only the remnant of a tribe, they are greatly oppressed by their 
stronger neighbors, and these industrious people need to call in 
strategy to aid them in keeping what they have, and they have 
fallen upon the plan of converting the most hidden cavities of 
the rocks into stone houses ; and having thus eluded the rapac- 
ity of their human foes they confide in the bitter bark in which 
they wrap their treasures to protect them against the fastidious 
mice and monkeys, who would but for this protection fatten on 
their extremity. When the travellers entered their domains 
they had no hesitation in saying very positively that they had 
nothing, and the scanty store to be found in their homes seemed 
to confirm their statement. There was no objection made to 
their sleeping under the trees, and neither men nor beasts dis- 
turbed the quiet of their slumbers, though there were as villan- 
ous beasts about them as there are anywhere. Just across the 
river from them, a leopard boldly assailed a company of natives 
sitting together in the evening and killed one of their number. 
Such an occurrence in one's immediate neighborhood could but 
suggest serious thoughts, and naturally seasoned their conver- 
sation more or less with the " leopard." They knew very well 
that this cruel and cunning enemy might be quite near them ; 
and though they were not timid men, those of them at least who 
were unused to African experiences should not account them- 
selves slandered if we improve the opportunity to guess that 
they were as deeply interested in Iscckih xi. 6 as certain Teutonic 
travellers when half drowned by an African rain-storm were in 
Genesis ix. 11, 16. While the assaults of wild animals on the 
men themselves, in whom we are more interested, seem to give 
us a delight which we are ashamed to confess, as is proven by 
our loss of interest in a hero who is not half killed now and then, 
it ought to be considered almost as Christian to be interested 
in the combats of these ferocious disputants of forest rights with 
each other. We do not need to carry the reader far from the 



A CAMP-FIEE STOEY. 347 

very spot where the weary explorers are sleeping to introduce 
him to the leopard in the full indulgence of his most belligerent 
ferocity. The narrators of the story were making painful progress 
along what they facetiously tried to call a road, in the midst of 
the most luxurious vegetation, when they were startled by a 
most extraordinary noise proceeding from a little glade on their 
right. The singular sound resembled the confused grunting of 
a pig, and the suppressed growling of a tiger, and the worrying 
noise of a dog, interrupted with loud squeakings, snarlings and 
sudden roars; besides which they could hear a tearing and 
struggling, a rustling of the grass and a crackling of the twigs, 
as though some large animals were rolling and tumbling about 
in a violent manner. Guns in hand, the excited party crept 
stealthily along the little glade, until at its termination, amidst 
an almost impenetrable walling in and arching over of umbrag- 
eous vegetation, they saw two large animals struggling and 
plunging, and tearing each other, and rolling over and over, 
locked together in deadly combat. The approach of the strangers 
was unnoticed by the enraged combatants, which seemed obliv- 
ious of all else in their fierce conflict. One of these furious 
animals was soon discovered to be a large leopard ; all that they 
could fix distinctly of the other was a long horn-shaped head, 
tremendous claws, a huge bushy tail and a coat of shaggy fur. 
The fury of the contest was dreadful, and they stood riveted 
in wonder ; before long, however, it was apparent that whatever 
his antagonist was the leopard must prove victorious ; and as 
his huge fangs presently became firmly fixed in the other's throat 
he succeeded in pinioning him fast to the ground. They saw 
that this strange combat had been between a leopard and a 
powerful ant-bear ; and even while the witnesses levelled their 
rifles in cautious consideration of themselves, they were con- 
strained to admire the splendid dignity with which the brute 
arose above his vanquished foe and looked about him, and they 
almost grieved to mingle with the triumphant roar which re- 
sounded through the forests the harsher and deadlier voices of 
their trusty rifles. 

But not only were stories of ferocious beasts incorporated with 
star-gazing, geographical discussions, and geological examina- 
tions into the camp-fire life of the party in which such varied 



348 



THE MORNING. 



characters were associated : there were strange stories of strange 
people : of a strange race of men only three feet high, whom the 
native narrator " had seen" in the interior of the continent; 
people with horns growing out of their heads, and dwelling in a 
great town where there was plenty of food ; stories stoutly main- 
tained against the scorn of the Makololo, who counted their own 
manly proportions proof conclusive that the interior produced 
better men than dwarfs. But all places and times are prolific 
of men who are either endowed with a singular facility of im- 
personation or strongly impressed with a supposed identity with 
the heroes of those fabulous stories which have beguiled the 
leisure of men for ages ; and it may be supposed an honest mis- 
take or an innocent vanity in the poor slave of a Portuguese 
master to confound himself with the hero of adventures older 
in the traditions of Africa than the time of Herodotus. 

The morning invariably brought realities which chased away 
the pleasantest dreams, and convinced them if not of the truth 
certainly of the possibility of the strangest adventures. At one 
time the whole party were fording a tributary of the Zambesi, 
holding their guns and baggage above their heads and thoroughly 
soaked to their arm-pits, doubting whether they could produce 
a satisfactory argument against the importunities of a hungry 
crocodile, should one propose to dine on white man, just once. 
Another time they were climbing an almost scorching rock under 
the unrelenting sunrays, or watching one of their number crawl- 
ing along the glossy black rocks toward a sleeping hippopotamus. 
At length they reached the foot of Chipereziwa, whose perpen- 
dicular rocky sides, clothed with many-colored lichens, their 
Portuguese companions assured them marked the last obstruc- 
tions to navigation. But they had hardly commenced their 
backward journey, thinking over what they had seen and more 
impressed with the difficulty than dignity of Kebrabasa, when 
two natives, who came to their camp at night, assured them 
that there was still in front of them a cataract called Morumbwa. 
Drs. Livingstone and Kirk immediately decided to take with 
them three of the Makololo and go forward until they settled 
the question for themselves, and they were ever afterward willing 
to confess that it was as tough a bit of travel as they ever had 
in Africa. After some painful marching the Badema guides re- 



SLEEP OF EXHAUSTION. 349 

fused to go further ; " the Banyai," they said, " would be angry 
if they showed white men the country ; and there was besides 
no practicable approach to the spot, neither elephant, nor hippo- 
potamus, nor even a crocodile could reach the cataract." The 
slopes of the mountains on each side of the river, now not three 
hundred yards wide, and without the flattish flood-channel and 
groove, were more than three thousand feet from the sky-line 
down, and were covered either with dense thornbush or huge 
black boulders; this deep trough-like shape caused the sun's rays 
to converge as into a focus, making the surface so hot that the 
soles of the feet of the Makololo became blistered. Around, 
and up and down, the party clambered among these heated 
blocks, at a pace not exceeding a mile an hour ; the strain upon 
the muscles in jumping from crag to boulder, and wriggling 
round projections, took an enormous deal out of them, and they 
were often glad to cower in the shadow formed by one rock 
overhanging and resting on another ; the shelter induced the 
peculiarly strong and overpowering inclination to sleep which 
too much sun sometimes causes. This sleep is curative of what 
may be incipient sunstroke ; in its first gentle touches it caused 
the dream to flit over the boiling brain that they had become 
lunatics and had been sworn in as members of the Alpine Club ; 
and then it became so heavy that it made them feel as if a por- 
tion of existence had been cut out from their lives. The sun 
is excessively hot, and feels sharp in Africa ; but, probably from 
the greater dryness of the atmosphere, we never heard of a single 
case of sunstroke, so common in India. The Makololo told 
Dr. Livingstone they " always thought he had a heart, but now 
they believed he had none," and tried to persuade Dr. Kirk to 
return, on the ground that it must be evident that, in attempt- 
ing to go where no living foot could tread, his leader had given 
unmistakable signs of having gone mad. All their efforts of 
persuasion, however, were lo|t upon Dr. Kirk, as he had not 
yet learned their language, and his leader knowing his com- 
panion to be equally anxious with himself to solve the problem 
of the navigableness of Kebrabasa, was not at pains to enlighten 
him. At one part a bare mountain spur barred the way, and 
had to be surmounted by a perilous and circuitous route, along 
which the crags were so hot that it was scarcely possible for the 
18 



350 MOUNT MOEUMBWA. 

hand to hold on long enough to ensure safety in the passage ; 
and had the foremost of the party lost his hold he would have 
hurled all behind him into the river at the foot of the promon- 
tory ; yet in this wild hot region, as they descended again to the 
river, they met a fisherman casting his hand-net into the boiling 
eddies, and he pointed out the cataract of Morumbwa; within 
an hour they were trying to measure it from an overhanging 
rock, at a height of about one hundred feet. "When you stand 
facing the cataract, on the north bank, you see that it is situated 
in a sudden bend of the river, which is flowing in a short curve; 
the river above it is jammed between two mountains in a channel 
with perpendicular sides, and less than fifty yards wide ; one or 
two masses of rock jut out, and then there is a sloping fall of 
perhaps twenty feet in a distance of thirty yards. It would stop 
all navigation, except during the highest floods; the rocks 
showed that the water then rises upwards of eighty feet perpen- 
dicularly. 

Still keeping the position facing the cataract, on its right side 
rises Mount Morumbwa, from two thousand to three thousand 
feet high, which gives the name to the spot. On the left of the 
cataract stands a noticeable mountain which may be called onion- 
shaped, for it is partly conical, and a large concave flake has 
peeled off, as granite often does, and left a broad, smooth, convex 
face as if it were an enormous bulb. These two mountains ex- 
tend their bases northwards about half a mile, and the river in 
that distance, still very narrow, is smooth, with a few detached 
rocks standing out from its bed. They climbed as high up the 
base of Mount Morumbwa, which touches the cataract, as they 
required. The rocks were all water-worn and smooth, with 
huge pot-holes, even at one hundred feet above low water. 
When, at a later period, they climbed up the northwestern base 
of this same mountain, the familiar face of the onion-shaped one 
opposite was at once recognized ; one point of view on the talus 
of Mount Morumbwa was not more than seven or eight hundred 
yards distant from the other, and they then completed the survey 
of Kebrabasa from end to end. 

They did not attempt to return by the way they came, but 
scaled the slope of the mountain on the north. It took them 
three hours' hard labor in cutting their way up through the 



A PERPETUAL BARRIER. 351 

dense thornbush which covered the ascent. The face of the slope 
was often about an angle of seventy degrees, yet their guide, 
Shokumbenia, whose hard, horny soles, resembling those of 
elephants, showed that he was accustomed to this rough and hot 
work, carried a pot of water for them nearly all the way up. 
They slept that night at a well in a tufaceous rock on the north- 
west of Chipereziwa, and never was sleep more sweet. 

From what they had seen and felt they were satisfied that 
Kebrabasa must always form a barrier to navigation at the 
ordinary low water of the river; but the rise of the water in this 
gorge being as much as eighty feet perpendicularly, it was con- 
sidered probable that a steamer might be taken up at high flood, 
when all the rapids are smoothed over, to run on the upper 
Zambesi. The most formidable cataract in it, Morumbwa, hav- 
ing only about twenty feet of fall, in a distance of thirty yards, 
it was reasonable to suppose that it must entirely disappear 
when the water stands eighty feet higher. They found current 
stories which confirmed their impressions of the impossibility of 
navigation in low water and encouraging their hope of ascend- 
ing safely in flood time. One story goes that once on a time a 
Portuguese named Jose Pedra — by the natives called Nyama- 
timbira — chief, or capitao mor, of Zumbo, a man of large enter- 
prise and small humanity — being anxious to ascertain if Kebra- 
basa could be navigated, made two slaves fast to a canoe, and 
launched it from Chicova into Kebrabasa, in order to see if it 
would come out at the other end. As neither slaves nor canoe 
ever appeared again, his excellency concluded that Kebrabasa 
was unnavigable. There is another of a trader who had a 
large canoe swept away by a sudden rise of the river, and it was 
found without damage below. But the most satisfactory in- 
formation was that of a trustworthy old man, who asserted that 
in flood all Kebrabasa became quite smooth, and he had often 
seen it so. 

Having satisfied themselves, as far as possible at the time, 
concerning the famous rapids, the party returned to Tete, and, 
in accordance with the requirements of their commission, gave 
themselves up to various examinations into the agricultural and 
mineral resources of the country, and such observations of the 
customs of the people, and climate, etc., as they had opportunity. 



352 SCENES IN TETE. 

The impressions which Dr. Livingstone had received during 
his former expedition, as to the policy of the Portuguese and 
their general influence on the natives, were nof materially- 
altered. The religious ideas of these nominal representatives of 
a Christian civilization were unquestionably anything but help- 
ful to a peop^ already sadly given to superstition. Neither 
Dr. Livingstone nor any of his associates were inclined to regard 
with disrespect the rites or ceremonies of any creed, but they 
were constrained to condemn most unqualifiedly the encourage- 
ment of native ignorance and superstition, which they could not 
help observing in even the worship of those who ought to have 
felt their responsibility in some degree for the intellectual and 
moral condition of the degraded creatures among whom they 
were the recognized representatives of civilization. As an illus- 
tration of the order of things which prevailed, it is mentioned, 
that, during the prevalence of a "drought, in 1858, a neighbor- 
ing chief got up a performance, with divers ceremonies and 
incantations, to bring rain, but it would not come. The 
Goanese padre of Tete, to satisfy his compatriots, appointed a 
procession and prayers in honor of Saint Antonio for the same 
purpose. The first attempt did not answer, but on the second 
occasion, arranged to come off after the new moon appeared, a 
grand procession in the saint's honor ended in so much rain 
that the roof of the Residencia gave way ; Saint Antonio's 
image was decorated the following week with a golden coronal 
worth £22, for sending the long-delayed and much-needed rain. 
So great was the irreverence manifested on this occasion — the 
kneeling worshippers laughing and joking between the responses, 
not even ceasing their grins when uttering, ' Ora pro nobis ' — 
that they could not help believing that if, like the natives, they 
had faith in rain making, they had faith in nothing else." In- 
deed, they were convinced that, instead of scattering the dark- 
ness which they found hovering over the mind of the African, 
the native Portuguese had themselves become the victims of 
that darkness, and were hardly less the slaves of idle fancies 
than their sable subjects. Even in the most matter-of-fact 
affairs of life they were dragging the degrading chains of super- 
stition. They would not plant coffee because they believed 
that he who did so would never be happy afterward. And Dr. 



THE TEACHING OF NATURE. 353 

Livingstone was informed that shortly after his departure for 
Kebrabasa, a little rise having occurred in the river, and the 
waters becoming turbid, a native Portuguese gentleman came 
to the commander, and with a grave countenance expressed his 
fear that " that Englishman was doing something to the river." 
And while he was at Tete a captain of infantry was sent a pris- 
oner to Mozambique for administering the muave, or ordeal, 
and for putting suspected persons to death on that evidence 
alone. It was hardly surprising that under such influences the 
natives who were in contact with white people seemed, as indeed 
they were, more ignorant and degraded than those on whom no 
ray from the civilized world had ever fallen. The amazing 
fertility of the minds of these doubly unfortunate beings in super- 
stitions was not only an occasion of sorrowful reflections and 
anxious thought, and not only an almost insurmountable barrier 
in the way of their conversion ; it demanded the most careful 
vigilance on the part of strangers to their ideas, who desired to 
avoid giving offence, as certain members of the expedition real- 
ized when they found, on one occasion, that they had gravely 
offended the great crocodile school of medicine by shooting one 
of those huge reptiles as it lay basking in the sun on a sand- 
bank near the village. [Nature alone has dealt kindly with 
these degraded beings. God made nature ; it is the shadowy 
expression of God. It does not teach distinctly, but it teaches 
truly ; and nowhere is its language more beautiful than in 
Africa ; and it is an inspiration for Christian zeal in the work of 
giving the tribes of that unhappy land to know, that even in 
the depths of their ignorance, and under the influence of the 
most corrupting institutions, and the victims of most deliberate 
cruelty, there are those among these tribes who are not insen- 
sible to the charms of nature. There could hardly have been a 
more beautiful answer given than that which one of the Bechu- 
anas gave in explanation of the meaning of their word "boilse- 
faho," " holiness." He said : " When copious showers have 
descended in the night, and all the earth and leaves and cattle 
are washed clean, and the sun rising shows a drop of dew on 
every blade of grass, and the air breathes fresh, that is holiness." 
The most charming season, if one may be preferred, is toward 
the end of summer, when the rains are becoming frequent and 



354 CHKISTMAS IN AFRICA. 

vegetation is resuming its warm coat of life, whose varied colors 
distinguish its singular beauty. At that season the air becomes 
clear, inviting the most extended gaze, as if all things were 
proudly eager for display. " The young foliage of several 
trees, more especially on the highlands, comes out brown, pale 
red, or pink, like the hues of autumnal leaves in England ; and 
as the leaves increase in size they change to a pleasant fresh 
light green ; bright white, scarlet, pink, and yellow flowers are 
everywhere; and some few of dark crimson, like those of the 
kigelia, give warmth of coloring to. Nature's garden. Many 
trees, such as the scarlet erythrina, attract the eye by the beauty 
of their blossoms. The white, full bloom of the baobab, coming 
at times before the rains, and the small and delicate flowers of 
other trees, grouped into rich clusters, deck the forest. Myriads 
of wild bees are busy from morning till night. Some of the 
acacias possess a peculiar attraction for one species of. beetle; 
while the palm allures others to congregate on its ample leaves. 
Insects of all sorts are now in full force; brilliant butterflies flit 
from flower to flower, and, with the charming little sun-birds, 
which represent the humming-birds of America and the West 
Indies, never seem to tire. Multitudes of ants are hard at work 
hunting for food, or bearing it home in triumph. The winter 
birds of passage, such as the yellow wagtail and blue drongo 
shrikes, have all gone, and other kinds have come ; the brown 
kite with his piping like a boatswain's whistle, the spotted 
cuckoo with a call like 'pula,' and the roller and horn-bill with 
their loud high notes, are occasionally distinctly heard, though 
generally this harsher music is half drowned in the volume of 
sweet sounds poured forth from many a throbbing throat, which 
makes an African Christmas seem like an English May." No 
wonder it seemed strange to the Englishmen, who had always 
hailed its happy eve wrapped in their fleecy robes, or beside the 
blazing family fire, or amidst the jingling of merry bells and 
the ringing of merrier laughter, to have the day they loved so 
much appear dressed so brightly in gayest colors ; the singing 
birds and springing corn and flowering plains were in the place 
of the mantle of snow the day had always worn when it came 
with its gifts and joys to them in England. But it was not a 
new thing for men to think that everything is contrary in 



THE RAINY SEASON. 357 

Africa. Herodotus only expressed the climax of its absurdities, 
in his view, when he wrote of the hidden land, " There wool 
grows on the heads of men and hair on the backs of sheep." 
Dr. Kirk divided the year in Africa into three seasons — the cold 
period, lasting through May, June and July ; the hot, prevail- 
ing through August, September and October; and the wet, 
which extends through the remaining months. 

" The rainy season of Tete differs a little from that of some 
of the other intertropical regions ; the quantity of rain-fall being 
considerably less. It begins in November and ends in April. 
During our first season in that place, only a little over nineteen 
inches of rain fell. In an average year, and when the crops 
are good, the fall amounts to about thirty-five inches. On 
many days it does not rain at all, and rarely is it wet all day ; 
some days have merely a passing shower, preceded and followed 
by hot sunshine ; occasionally an interval of a week, or even a 
fortnight, passes without a drop of rain, and then the crops 
suffer from the sun. These partial droughts happen in Decem- 
ber and January. The heat appears to increase to a certain 
point in the different latitudes so as to necessitate a change, by 
some law similar to that which regulates the intense cold in 
other countries. The Zambesi is in flood twice in the course of 
the year; the first flood, a partial one, attains its greatest height 
about the end of December or beginning of January ; the 
second, and greatest, occurs after the river inundates the interior, 
in a manner similar to the overflow of the Nile, this rise not 
taking place at Tete until March. The Portuguese say that the 
greatest height which the March floods attain is thirty feet at 
Tete, and this happens only about every fourth year; their 
observations, however, have never been very accurate on any- 
thing but ivory, and they have in this trusted entirely to 
memory." 

The discoveries of Dr. Livingstone never sustained so great a 
rise. It rises suddenly, and with the first flood dashes along 
at four knots an hour, but gradually spreads over the surround- 
ing country, and as it extends in breadth resumes its usual 
velocity. Ordinarily the water of the river is singularly pure, 
and exhibits not the slightest discoloration, except in the floods. 

The former reports of Dr. Livingstone were abundantly con- 



358 



r GOLD! gold! gold! gold!" 



firmed by the members of the expedition, as to the agricultural 
possibilities of the soil. They had brought some cotton seed 
with them to Africa, but found that, besides the fact that there 
was already a superior grade of cotton in the country, there was 
no hope of inspiring the Portuguese natives with any ideas 
above block ivory and gold dust. 

"Gold! gold! gold! gold! 
Bright and yellow, hard and cold ; 
Molten, graven, hammered and rolled ; 
Heavy to get and light to hold ; 
Hoarded, bartered, bought and sold ; 
Stolen, borrowed, squandered, doled ; 
Spurned by the young, but hugged by the old 
To the very verge of the church-yard mould ; 
Price of many a crime untold ; 
Gold! gold! gold! gold!" 

Had brought them to this shore. 

The authorities at Lisbon, like the authorities everywhere, 
had watched the tantalizing ignis fatuus of the terra incognita 
which all tradition pointed to, until their fancies, overmastered 
by their desires, seemed to be the conclusions of philosophy and 
the testimony of history, and they hastened to possess the long- 
lost Ophir in eastern Africa, and, disappointed more by their 
own folly and idleness than by the resources of the country 
which they were neglecting, they were attempting to compen- 
sate themselves for the disappointment by converting the 
precious block ivory into gold. But gold is gold, and Portugal 
found a world full of sympathy for her in the recourse of her 
disappointment. There was no justification of this recourse. 
Gold was unquestionably plenty. They fell into the snare of 
those who make haste to be rich, and the weakness and con- 
tempt to which their colony was now reduced was only the 
rebuke of Providence. The gold fields had been forfeited, and 
their treasures remain secure still to reward a loftier wisdom' 
and truer philanthropy. 

Of course the newcomers did not think of enjoying the full' 
benefits of African life, or counting themselves to have a claim 
on all its treasures of things, new and old, before they had 
passed through the ordeal which may as well be considered the 
initiatory ceremony of the continent. One of the members of 
the expedition has written on this inspiring theme with a 



A SERIOUS MATTER. 359 

master skill. More particularly was he impressed with the 
singular effects of this rite of the continent on the minds of 
those who were called on to submit to it. His own eloquent 
words, pervaded by a depth of feeling which leaves little doubt 
of the teacher at whose feet he received his impressions, are as 
follows : 

" Cheerfulness vanishes, and the whole mental horizon is 
overcast with black clouds of gloom and sadness. The liveliest 
joke cannot provoke even the semblance of a smile. The coun- 
tenance is grave, the eyes suffused, and the few utterances are 
made in the piping voice of a wailing infant. An irritable 
temper is often the first symptom of approaching fever. At 
such times a man feels very much like a fool, if he does not act 
like one. Nothing is right, nothing pleases the fever-stricken 
victim. He is peevish, prone to find fault and to contradict, 
and think himself insulted, and is exactly what an Irish naval 
surgeon before a court-martial defined a drunken man to be : 
' a man unfit for society.' If a party were all soaked full of 
malaria at once, the life of the leader of the expedition would be 
made a burden to him. One might come with lengthened 
visage, and urge as a good reason for his despair, if further 
progress were attempted, that f he had broken the photograph 
of his wife;' another, 'that his proper position was unjustly 
withheld because special search was not directed towards " the 
ten lost tribes." ' It is dangerous to rally such a one, for the 
irate companion may quote Scripture, and point to their habitat 
- beyond the rivers of Ethiopia.' When a man begins to feel 
that everything is meant to his prejudice, he either takes a dose 
of * rousers,' or writes to the newspapers, according to the 
amount of sense with which nature has endowed him." 

It is, however, the deliberate testimony of Dr. Livingstone, 
that there is a reliable preventative against even African fever, 
to be found in " plenty of interesting work and abundance of 
wholesome food to eat," a prescription which may not be de- 
spised in any country. 

"To a man well housed," says he, "and clothed, who enjoys 
these advantages, the fever at Tete will not prove a more for- 
midable enemy than a common cold ; but let one of these be 
wanting — let him be indolent, or guilty of excesses in eating or 



360 LOOKING TO THE SHIRE. 

drinking, or have poor, scanty fare — and the fever will proba- 
bly become a more serious matter. It is of a milder type at 
Tete than at Quilimane or on the low sea-coast ; and, as in this 
part of Africa one is as liable to fever as to colds in England, it 
would be advisable for strangers always to hasten from the coast 
to the higher lands, in order that when the seizure does take 
place, it may be of the mildest type. This having been pointed 
out by Dr. Kirk, the Portuguese authorities afterwards took the 
hint, and sent the next detachment of soldiers at once up to 
Tete. It consisted of eighty men, and in spite of the irregular- 
ities committed, most of them being of the class termed 'incor- 
rigibles,' in three years only ten died, and but five of fever." 

With the opening of the new year the attention of the expe- 
dition was fixed upon the Shire, whose confluence with the 
Zambesi may be seen about a hundred miles from the sea. The 
Portuguese heard of their plans for ascending this stream with 
dismay ; it was associated in their minds with all that was 
difficult and perilous. They could give no information what- 
ever about it, although it was remembered that years before a 
Portuguese vessel had attempted to ascend it. The explanation 
of the failure must either be found in, or was concealed by, the 
fabulous amount of gigantic duck-weed which was reported to 
have been found on its surface. There were "sub rosa" whis- 
perings which suggested some uncertainty whether the duck- 
weed story was not invented to conceal the retreat of the 
Portuguese before the poisoned arrows of the natives. However 
that may be, the residents of Tete could not have been hired to 
undertake a mission up the Shire. "Our government/' said 
one commandant to Dr. Livingstone, "has sent orders to assist 
and protect you ; but you go where we dare not follow, and how 
can we protect you ? " Nothing remained to be done in another 
direction, as they had decided to wait for a stronger boat before 
attempting to force the Kebrabasa rapids, being satisfied that 
the " Ma Robert " was unequal to the undertaking. Therefore 
^ they set out in January, 1859, on their first trip up the Shire. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE SHIRE. 

Mouth of the Shire — Difficulties Vanish — "Englishman" — Shire Valley — Afri- 
can Swamp — Livingstone's Art — Mount Morambala — Mountain Village — 
Chikanda — Two Pythons — Pursued by a Buffalo — The Steamer — A Sinking 
Ship — No Note of Time — The Musician — Hippopotamus Traps — Shire 
Marshes — Water-fowl — Kites and Vultures — Forest of Palm Trees— Islands of 
the Shire — An Unhappy Chief — Village of Chibisa — Chibisa — Lake Shirwa — 
Sympathy of Fools — Discovery of Lake Shirwa — Return to the Ship — Expedi- 
tion to Lake Nyassa — Manganja Hills — Village of Chilimba — The Manganja 
People — Agriculture — Cotton — Manufactures — Iron Ore— Native Trade — The 
Upper Lip Ping — Beer Drinking— Drunken Villages — Love of Home — The 
Muave Again — Faith — Nyassa Discovered — Return to Tete. 

Sailing down the Zambesi amidst scenes which are always 
strange and wonderful to those whose imaginations have only- 
had the training of northern climes, passing many points which 
they could not call familiar, though they were not new to them, 
the expedition turned into the river whose bar of duck-weed or 
hedge of poisoned arrows had kept the secret of its wealth and 
wonders so securely against the feebleness and irresolution of 
the Portuguese, and were pleased to find deeper though nar- 
rower water than they had left. 

On their right hand, not far from the river, stood the stockade 
of Mariano, one of those villanous half-caste marauders whose 
unscrupulous barbarity justified the native saying that " God 
made the African and God made the white man, but the devil 
made the half-castes," a conclusion which the most zealous 
defender of Divine sovereignty, who has had experience with 
them, does not feel called on to question. The residence of this 
man may go far toward explaining the suspicion with which the 
natives under Tingane had regarded all approaches from the 
Zambesi. Their poisoned arrows were in constant demand in 
protecting themselves from the slave-yoke which he handled 
with a cruelty which must have been very exhilarating to his 
supposed creator. And the knowledge that he represented a 

361 



362 DIFFICULTIES VANISH. 

system introduced by white men naturally led the tribes to asso- 
ciate every lighter shade than their own dark skins with the 
evils which they knew attended the dominion of the stockade. 
It was natural enough, then, for these people to appear in force 
on the border of their territory to resist the approaches of the 
" puffing and blowing " monster that the " Old Asthmatic " 
unquestionably seemed to them to be. They may have thought 
that the resolute creator had taken in hand to do in person the 
Avork which his faithful creature had failed to accomplish, and 
it was time for them to put forth all their prowess if they would 
still be free. Dr. Livingstone did not hesitate to go on shore 
at their villages and explain to these people, whose attitude 
would have intimidated an ordinary man, the purposes of the 
expedition. The name of Englishman possessed itself a charm 
for them, and sustained by the assurance that they desired no 
slaves, but only to open a way by which their countrymen 
might come to purchase cotton, ivory, corn, etc., went far 
toward allaying their apprehensions and winning their friend- 
ship. The object, being to promote industry and commerce, 
seemed quite reasonable, and the notorious proclivity of the 
race to all sorts of trade and barter aided the argument no 
little. There was found also a general belief in a Supreme 
Being and in the continued existence of departed spirits ; and 
there was no difficulty in obtaining their attention to "the 
Book " which aided so much the designs of friendliness every- 
where. Such methods of dealing with them were as strange to 
these rude men as was the tremendous craft which brought 
them, and the poisoned arrows became as harmless as the float- 
ing duckweed. 

The Lower Shire flows through a valley varying in breadth 
from ten to twenty miles — an exceedingly low and swampy 
region ; just such a country as needs to be seen at all seasons of 
the year. A tropical swamp, if seen only when scorched and 
withered by the rays of a sun whose burning brilliancy almost 
justifies the awe with which it inspires Eastern worshippers, 
may appear desolate and forsaken, and suggest serious thoughts 
of the latter day. If in the worse season still, when the ground 
is drying and the mercury is gradually rising in the glass you 
carry, then there may seem to be flitting everywhere most 



A TROPICAL SWAMP. 3G3 

dreadful torturers, and the pulse will engage the attention above 
all possible charms of external nature. But when the frequent 
rains refresh all things, and cloudy canopies are often spread 
over trees and flowers, and the sun seems resting from its ire, 
then the wealth of foliage and flowers and fruits, the melody of 
birds whose various hues present a museum of colors, and the 
lifefulness of every creeping, swimming, crawling, climbing, 
leaping and strolling thing, from ants to elephants, rivals the 
most wonderful fancies which are wrought into the primitive 
abode of man. Thus we may appeal to the seasons for the 
explanation of the difference between the pleasant pictures 
drawn by Dr. Livingstone and the mournful, wail-like lan- 
guage of Mr. Rowley, who could only see "swamp, swamp, 
swamp — reeking, festering, rotting, malaria-pregnant swamp." 
It is very much pleasanter to settle the question between two 
men by the sun and clouds, than by bringing the "liver" into 
it. Indeed, one of the special charms by which Dr. Living- 
stone secured the attention and deepened the interest continually 
with which the eyes of the world followed him in his wander- 
ings was his capacity to find pleasant things as well as painful 
ones. He enables us to look on the world as it is. He did not 
hide the fact that there were ills in Africa. The man would be 
a "natural" indeed who should dream of ease and luxury with 
his narrative in hand. But he did not fail to observe the good 
for which men might dare to confront the ill. If a man must 
scorch with fever, why should he not see a flower ? If he must 
encounter suspicion and sometimes be in peril of his life, why 
should he not record the kindness shown him and observe the 
beauties which no blemishes should conceal, the excellencies of 
character which divide dominion with what we hate? 

The object of Dr. Livingstone, as a man and as a representa- 
tive of the British government, was not only to explore the 
river and examine the country ; that alone would have been an 
idle enterprise, and unworthy of his Christian zeal and of the 
English name. He was commissioned also to engage the 
friendly regard of the tribes, and cultivate such an acquaintance 
with them as might facilitate any subsequent enterprises of 
church or state in their midst. He needed, therefore, to be 
exceedingly careful that, with so large and varied s company as 



364 MOUNT MOEAMBALA. 

he carried, nothing should be done which might frustrate his 
design. The anxious throngs who lined the banks of the river, 
gazing on the strange " canoe " full of strange people passing by 
them, were ignorant and degraded according to our standard of 
intelligence and dignity ; but they were the people whose eleva- 
tion it was the object of the expedition to promote. 

The valley is walled on either side by beautiful hills, and for 
twenty miles those on their right hand were quite near. Then 
they came to Morambala, " the lofty watch-tower " — a detached 
mountain only five hundred yards from the river — which rises 
four thousand feet above the sea. The bold, precipitous front, 
which cast its morning shadows toward the Shire, cherished a 
charming vegetation, but repelled all thought of ascent by 
clumsier creatures than the monkeys which played at hide and 
seek from top to bottom, calling away attention from the singu- 
lar-looking horn-bill, whose dreaded death is believed to afflict 
the whole land with cold, the lumbering rhinoceros, and beauti- 
ful racing antelopes, by their queer capers. Surely if men are 
sprung from monkeys the most clownish is nearest in the line. 
Their incessant gambolling and chattering attract the attention 
even of the natives, who, despite new grudges they nearly 
always owe them on account of their plundered gardens and 
fields, cannot resist the fascination of their comical eccentricities. 

The southern end of the mountain, seen from a distance, has 
a fine gradual slope, and half way up a small village was peep- 
ing out of the foliage. The atmosphere, as some of the party 
ascended the mountain, was found becoming delightfully pure 
and bracing, and the people of the village received them kindly. 
The summit of the mountain was covered with a growth entirely 
unlike what they had seen in the valley. There were orange, 
lemon, and some pineapple trees, though the latter had been 
planted there. But these happy and friendly residents of the 
summit, about which friendly clouds rested when all the plain 
was scorched, cherishing the choicest fruits, before the later visits 
of Livingstone to their homes, had become the victims of Mari- 
ano, and had been nearly all carried away from their happy 
freedom. God knows whether they fell under his cruelties or 
are dragging out a weary bondage in some far-away land. Yes, 
God knows, and will not forget their history nor despise their 
cries. 




MONKEYS EH THEIR ELEMENT (page 294). 



THE SHIEE VALLEY. 367 

Looking from Morambala across the tongue of land which 
lies between the Shire and the Zambesi, there were seen a few 
clumps of palm and acacia trees, and herds of game which might 
have tempted Nimrod to pitch his tent there in contentment. 
Near the northern base there was bubbling up a little boiling 
fountain ready for eggs or meats, and capable of doing its work 
thoroughly enough, to the sorrow of such unlucky creatures as 
chanced to select it for their bath. 

Beyond Morambala the Shire comes winding through an 
extensive marsh. For many miles to the north a broad sea of 
fresh green grass extends, and is so level that it might be used 
for taking the meridian altitude of the sun. Ten or fifteen miles 
north of Morambala stands the dome-shaped mountain Makanga, 
or Chi-kanda ; several others with granitic-looking peaks stretch 
away to the north, and form the eastern boundary of the valley; 
another range, but of metamorphic rocks, commencing opposite 
Senna, bounds the valley on the west. After steaming through 
a portion of this marsh, they came to a broad belt of palm and 
other trees, crossing the fine plain on the right bank. Marks 
of large game were abundant. Elephants had been feeding on 
the palm nuts, which have a pleasant, fruity taste, and are used 
as food by man. Two pythons were observed coiled together 
among the branches of a large tree, and were both shot. The 
larger of the two, a female, was ten feet long. They are harm- 
less, and said to be good eating. The Makololo having set fire 
to the grass where they were cutting wood, a solitary buffalo 
rushed out of the conflagration, and made a furious charge at 
an active young fellow named Mantlanyane. Never did his 
fleet limbs serve him better than during the few seconds of his 
fearful flight before the maddened animal. "When he reached 
the bank, and sprang into the river, the infuriated beast was 
scarcely six feet behind him. Towards evening, after the day's 
labor in wood-cutting was over, some of the men went fishing. 
They followed the common African custom of agitating the 
water, bv giving it a few sharp strokes with the top of the 
fishing-rod, immediately after throwing in the line, to attract 
the attention of the fish to the bait. Having caught nothing, 
the reason assigned was the same as the reader would be likely 
to give under like circumstances, namely, that "the wind made 



368 "lake of mud." 

the fish cold, and they would not bite." Many gardens of 
maize, pumpkins and tobacco fringed the marshy banks, be- 
longing to natives of the hills, who come down in the dry 
season, and raise a crop on parts at other times flooded. While 
the croj)s are growing, large quantities of fish are caught, 
chiefly Clarias oosperms and Mugil Africanus; they are dried 
for sale or for future consumption. 

Farther up, they passed a deep stream about thirty yards 
wide, flowing in from a body of open water several miles broad. 
Numbers of men were busy at different parts of it, filling their 
canoes with the lotus root, called Nyika, which, when boiled or 
roasted, resembles our chestnuts, and is extensively used in 
Africa as food. Out of this lagoon, and by this stream, the 
chief part of the duckweed of the Shire flows. The lagoon 
itself is called Nyanja ea Motope (Lake of Mud). It is also 
named Nyanja Pangono (Little Lake), while the elephant 
marsh goes by the name of Nyanja Mukulu (Great Lake).^ It 
is evident from the shore line still to be observed on the adja- 
cent hills, that in ancient times these were really lakes, and the 
traditional names thus preserved are only another evidence of 
the general desiccation which Africa has undergone. No one 
would believe that beyond these little and great Nyanjas Por- 
tuguese geographical knowledge never extended. But the 
Viscount Sa da Bandeira, in an official letter to the Governor- 
General of Mozambique, in his patriotic anxiety to prove that 
Dr. Livingstone did not discover Lake Nyassa, quotes as the 
only information the ancient archives of Lisbon can disclose, 
that the people of Senna held commercial intercourse with the 
people on Morambala, and of course, as he avers, must have 
sailed into the little and great marshes or Nyanjas referred to 
above. No wonder that assumption exhibiting at once so much 
falseness and ignorance was rather a strain on the longsuffering 
of the man who had so patiently overcome the tremendous 
obstacles of distance and dangers in bringing the hidden regions 
to the knowledge of the civilized world. 

The channel continued quite good, but the little steamer, 
which they had long before found to be a grand humbug, gave 
them such an amount of trouble, and consumed such quantities 
of wood, that their advance was hardly easier than it would 



"no note of time." 369 

have been on the land. It was of infinite service, however, in 
impressing their neighbors on the banks with the importance 
of the travellers, and gave great emphasis to what they said. 
An appearance of strength and independence helps a man won- 
derfully in Africa, just as it does in America, and one feels 
under no special obligation to tell the gazing throng, here or 
there, that the ship which awes them is a leaking ship. If men 
do not know that it leaks they may not try to sink it. 

The people along the river, of whom, in the lower part, Tan- 
gane is the paramount chief, were found congregated in count- 
less little villages, just as in other sections; and though at first 
distant and a little inclined to be belligerent, generally yielded 
to the arguments which overcame those nearest the Shire. They 
were not quite as eager for trade when they were first visited as 
they afterward became, and consequently the party, during the 
first ascent of the river, were considerably annoyed by the loss 
of time, for which, however, they censure a people who took 
" no note of the commodity, among whom it had no " tongue." 
It was their misfortune, not the fault of the natives, that they 
held their notions of expeditious work in the midst of men who 
recognize no other reason for being in a hurry except the neces- 
sity of escaping with life from an enemy. They could not be 
condemned because they did not know the value of money, and 
cared too little for the advantages of a market to be eager about 
selling food. They were willing enough, but did not see why 
they should make haste. The state of eager competition which 
in America wears out both mind and body, and makes life 
bitter, is here happily unknown. The cultivated spots are 
mere dots compared to the broad fields of rich soil which are 
never either grazed or tilled. Pity that the plenty in store for 
all, from our Father's bountiful hands, is not enjoyed by more. 

Rice was sold at wonderfully low rates, and when they 
chanced to come to villages where the people were eager to 
trade, they could not purchase a tithe of that which was brought 
to them. This was particularly true of their experience at 
Mbona (16° 56' 30" S.) While anchored at this village, they 
were serenaded in the evening by a native minstrel, playing his 
quaint tunes on a species of fiddle with one string, and singing 
strange, wild, unmusical songs, who told some of the Makololo 
19 



370 THE NOCTURNAL MUSICIAN. 

that he intended to play all night to induce them to give him a 
present. The nights being cold, the thermometer falling to 
47°, with occasional fogs, he was asked if he was not afraid of 
perishing from cold ; but, with the genuine spirit of an Italian 
organ-grinder, he replied, " Oh, no ; I shall spend the night 
with my white comrades in the big canoe ; I have often heard 
of the white men, but have never seen them till now, and I 
must sing and play well to them." Such a proposition was 
dreadful. The situation was serious, as who may not imagine 
who has been robbed of his needed slumber by the nocturnal 
knights of the muse who infest all communities. It was an 
occasion demanding action, and the treasures were opened as 
eagerly as if to satisfy the covetous demands of an extortionate 
chief, and the few yards of cloth were considered well spent 
which were invested in buying the courteous visitor off from his 
purpose. 

A range of hills, commencing opposite Senna, comes to within 
two or three miles of Mboma village, and then runs in a north- 
westerly direction; the principal hill is named Malawe; a num- 
ber of villages stand on its tree-covered sides, and coal is found 
cropping out in the rocks. The country improved as they 
ascended, the rich valley becoming less swampy, and adorned 
with a number of trees. 

Both banks were dotted with hippopotamus traps, over every 
track which these animals have made in going up out of the 
water to graze. The hippopotamus feeds on grass alone, and, 
where there is any danger, only at night. Its enormous lips 
act like a mowing-machine, and form a path of short-cropped 
grass as it feeds. It is never seen to eat aquatic plants or reeds. 
The tusks seem weapons of both offence and defence. The hip- 
popotamus trap consists of a beam five or six feet long, armed 
with a spear-head or hard-wood spike, covered with poison, and 
suspended to a forked pole by acord, which, coming down to 
the path, is held by a catch, to be set free when the beast treads 
on it. Being wary brutes, they are still very numerous. One 
got frightened by the ship as she was steaming close to the bank. 
In its eager hurry to escape it rushed on shore, and ran directly 
under a trap, when down came the heavy beam on its back, 
driving the poisoned spear-head a foot deep into its flesh. In 




CARACAL. 




FLAMINGOES ON TIIEJIt NESTS. 



ELEPHANT MARSH. 



373 



its agony it plunged back into the river, to die in a few hours, 
and afterwards furnished a feast for the natives. The poison on 
the spear-head does not affect the meat, except the part around 
the wound, and that is thrown away. In some places the de- 
scending beam is weighted with heavy stones, but here the hard, 
heavy wood is sufficient. 

A few miles above Mboma they came to the village of the 
chief of the country through which they had been passing. 
Tingane was an elderly man with gray hair, tall and well 
made. The excited demeanor which was natural on his first 
acquaintance with white people wore away with his observation 
of his new friends, until in the later visits he could be recorded 
among the hospitable and open-hearted men of the continent. 
Some miles to the right from this village could be seen Mount 
Clarendon looming up in conspicuous grandeur, and further to 
the northwest the Milange range, which send forth from their 
shadows the river Rue, which flows into the Shire just above the 
village. Only a short distance above the confluence of the Rue 
came Elephant Marsh, with its fabulous herds of this royal 
beast. Eight hundred were counted in a single herd. This 
was truly a wonderful scene, besides the enormous herds of large 
animals everywhere to be seen. 

"The Shire marshes support prodigious numbers of many 
kinds of water-fowl. An hour at the mast-head unfolded novel 
views of life in an African marsh. Near the edge, and on the 
branches of some favorite tree, rest scores of plotuses and cor- 
morants, which stretch their snake-like necks and in mute amaze- 
ment turn one eye and then another towards the approaching 
monster. By and by the timid ones begin to fly off, or take 
' headers ' into the stream ; but a few of the bolder, or more com- 
posed, remain, only taking the precaution to spread their wings 
ready for instant flight. The pretty ardetta (Herodias bubulcus), 
of a light yellow color when at rest, but seemingly of a pure 
white when flying, takes wing, and sweeps across the green 
grass in large numbers, often showing where buffaloes and ele- 
phants are by perching on their backs. Flocks of ducks, of 
which the kind called ' Soriri ' (Dendrocygna personata) is most 
abundant, being night feeders, meditate quietly by the small 
lagoons, until startled by the noise of the steam machinery. 



374 FOEEST OF PALM TREES. 

Pelicans glide over the water catching fish, while the Scopus 
(Scopus umbretta) and large herons peer intently into pools. 
The large black and white spur-winged goose (a constant ma- 
rauder of native gardens) springs up, and circles round to find 
out what the disturbance can be, and then settles down again 
with a splash. Hundreds of Linongolos (Anastomus lamelli- 
rjerus) rise on the wing from the clumps of reeds, or low trees (the 
Eschinomena, from which pith hats are made), on which they 
build in colonies, and are speedily high in mid-air. Charming 
little red and yellow weavers (Ploeeidce) remind one of butter- 
flies, as they fly in and out of the tall grass, or hang to the 
mouths of their pendent nests, chattering briskly to their mates 
within. Kites and vultures are busy overhead, beating the 
ground for their repast of carrion ; and the solemn-looking, 
stately-stepping Marabout, with a taste for dead fish, or men, 
stalks slowly along the almost stagnant channels. Groups of 
men and boys are searching diligently in various places for lotus 
and other roots. Some are standing in canoes, on the weed- 
covered ponds, spearing fish, while others are punting over the 
small intersecting streams to examine their sunken fish-baskets. 

"Towards evening, hundreds of pretty little hawks (Erythro- 
pus vespertinus) are seen flying in a southerly direction, and 
feeding on dragon-flies and locusts. They come, apparently, 
from resting on the palm-trees during the heat of the day. 
Flocks of scissor-bills (Rhyncops) are then also on the wing, 
and in search of food, ploughing the water with their lower 
mandibles, which are nearly half an inch longer than the upper 
ones. 

" At the northeastern end of the marsh, and about three miles 
from the river, commences a great forest of palm-trees (Borassus 
JEthiopium). It extends many miles, and at one point comes 
close to the river. The gray trunks and green tops of this im- 
mense mass of trees give a pleasing tone of color to the view. 
The mountain-range, which rises close behind the palms, is 
generally of a cheerful green, and has many trees, with patches 
of a lighter tint among them, as if spots of land had once been 
cultivated. The sharp angular rocks and dells on its sides have 
the appearance of a huge crystal broken ; and this is so often the 
case in Africa that one can guess pretty nearly at sight whether 




zui/rT women (page 270). 



palm tree (page 300). 



ISLANDS OF THE SHIEE. 377 

a range is of the old crystalline rocks or not. The Borassus, 
though not an oil-bearing palm, is a useful tree. The fibrous 
pulp, round the large nuts, is of a sweet, fruity taste, and is 
eaten by men and elephants. The natives bury the nuts until 
the kernels begin to sprout ; when dug up and broken, the in- 
side resembles coarse potatoes, and is prized in times of scarcity 
as nutritious food. During several months of the year palm- 
"wine, or sura, is obtained in large quantities ; when fresh, it is a 
pleasant drink, somewhat like champagne, and not at all intoxi- 
cating ; though, after standing a few hours, it becomes highly so. 
Sticks, a foot long, are driven into notches in the hard outside 
of the tree — the inside being soft or hollow — to serve as a ladder; 
the top of the fruit-shoot is cut off, and the sap, pouring out at 
the fresh -wound, is caught in an earthen pot, which is hung at 
the point. A thin slice is taken off the end, to open the pores 
and make the juice flow every time the owner ascends to empty 
the pot. Temporary huts are erected in the forest, and men and 
boys remain by their respective trees day and night; the nuts, 
fish, and wine being their sole food. The Portuguese use the 
palm-wine as yeast, and it makes bread so light that it melts in 
the mouth like froth. 

"Above the palm-trees, a succession of rich, low islands stud 
the river. Many of them are cultivated and grow maize at all 
times of the year, for we saw it in different stages of growth ; 
some patches ripe, and others half-grown, or just sprouting out 
of the ground. The shores are adorned with rows of banana- 
trees, and the fruit is abundant and cheap. Many of the reedy 
banks are so intertwined with convolvulus, and other creepers, 
as to be absolutely impenetrable. They are beautiful to the 
eye, a smooth wall of living green rising out of the crystal 
water, and adorned with lovely flowers ; but so dense that, if 
capsized in the water, one could scarcely pass through to land." 

The village of Mankokwe, an unhappy, suspicious man, who 
divides the paramount dignity of the section with Tingane, offered 
no hospitality, and, sailing by the confluence of the Moanza, the 
expedition cast anchor opposite the village of Chibisa. This 
village, on the southern bank of the river, ci'owns a perpendicular 
bluff of stratified sand, quite sixty feet high, and covered with 
verdure. From this elevated spot the view commanded extorted 



378 THE CHIEF CHIBISA. 

exclamations of delight from the most indifferent. The noble 
river winding away toward the Zambesi, twining, about hundreds 
of verdant islands, laving gently the grassy banks, and catching 
the shadows of the splendid trees ; the valley, also, covered with 
its marvellous wealth of forest growth and animal life; and 
farther away mountain on mountain ; then, looking northward, 
their vision leaped along the summits of the numerous ranges 
of the highlands. 

The chief of the village was a remarkably shrewd man, and 
the most intelligent chief, by far, in this quarter. A great deal 
of fighting had fallen to his lot, he said ; but it was always others 
who began ; he was invariably in the right, and they alone were 
to blame. He was, moreover, a firm believer in the divine right 
of kings. He was an ordinary man, he said, when his father 
died and left him the chieftainship ; but directly he succeeded to 
the high office he was conscious of power passing into his head 
and down his back ; he felt it enter, and knew that he was a 
chief, clothed with authority and possessed of wisdom ; and 
people then began to fear and reverence him. He mentioned 
this as one would a fact of natural history, any doubt being 
quite out of the question. His people, too, believed in him, for 
they bathed in the river without the slightest fear of crocodiles, 
the chief having placed a powerful medicine there which pro- 
tected them. He sent out two men to invite Dr. Livingstone 
to drink beer with him ; but the steamer was above their com- 
prehension, they could not confront such an apparition, and, 
shouting the invitation from a distance, they abandoned their 
canoes and made for the shore with amusing earnestness. 

The most conspicuous industry of the place was the manufac- 
ture of cotton according to the primitive methods, which have 
maintained their dominion grandly, while other lands have wit- 
nessed an entire revolution in such matters. The men might 
be seen sitting about busily cleaning, sorting, spinning and weav- 
ing. It was then, as always, easy to observe the influence on 
the people of an intelligent and thoughtful chief: they were 
more generous and friendly and more readily appreciated the 
spirit and plans of the white men. 

"Leaving the vessel opposite Chibisa's village, Drs. Living- 
stone and Kirk, and a number of the Makololo, started on foot 



A SERIOUS QUESTION. 379 

for Lake Shirwa. They travelled in a northerly direction over 
a mountainous country. The people were far from being well- 
disposed to them, and some of their guides tried to mislead 
them, and could not be trusted. Masakasa, a Makololo head 
man, overheard some remarks which satisfied him that the guide 
was leading them into trouble. He was quiet till they reached 
a lonely spot, when he came up to Dr. Livingstone, and said, 
'That fellow is bad, he is taking us into mischief; my spear is 
sharp, and there is no one here, shall I cast him into the long 
grass?' Had the doctor given the slightest token of assent, or 
even kept silence, never more would any one have been led by 
that guide, for in a twinkling he would have been where ' the 
wicked cease from troubling.' It was afterwards found that in 
this case there was no treachery at all ; but a want of knowledge 
on their part of the language and of the country. They asked 
to be led to ' Nyanja Mukulu,' or Great Lake, meaning by this 
Lake Shirwa ; and the guide took them round a terribly rough 
piece of mountainous country, gradually edging away towards 
a long marsh, which from the numbers of those animals we had 
seen there we had called the Elephant Marsh, but which was 
really the place known to him by the name 'Nyanja Mukulu,' 
or Great Lake. JNTyanja, or Nyanza, means, generally, a marsh, 
lake, river, or even a mere rivulet. 

" The party pushed on at last without guides, or only with 
crazy ones ; for, oddly enough, they were often under great ob- 
ligations to the madmen of the different villages; one of these 
honored them, as they slept in the open air, by dancing and 
singing at their feet the whole night. These poor fellows sym- 
pathized with the explorers, probably in the belief that they 
belonged to their own class; and, uninfluenced by the general 
opinion of their countrymen, they really pitied, and took kindly 
to the strangers, and often guided them faithfully from place 
to place, when no sane man could be hired for love or money. 

" The perseverance of the party was finally crowned with suc- 
cess ; for on the 18th of April they discovered Lake Shirwa, a 
considerable body of bitter water, containing leeches, fish, croco- 
diles and hippopotami. From having probably no outlet, the 
water is slightly brackish, and it appears to be deep, with 
islands like hills rising out of it. Their point of view was at 



380 LAKE SHlkWA. 

the base of Mount Priniiti or Mopeu-peu, on its S. S. W. side. 
Thence the prospect northwards ended in a sea horizon with 
two small islands in the distance — a larger one, resembling a 
hill-top and covered with trees, rose more in the foreground. 
Ranges of hills appeared on the east; and on the west stood 
Mount Chikala, which seems to be connected with the great 
mountain mass called Zomba. 

" The shore, near which they spent two nights, was covered 
with reeds and papyrus. Wishing to obtain the latitude by the 
natural horizon, they waded into the water some distance 
towards what was reported to be a sand-bank, but were so 
assaulted by leeches, they were fain to retreat; and a woman 
told them that in enticing them into the water the men only 
wanted to kill them. The information gathered was that this 
lake was nothing in size compared to another in the north, from 
which it is separated by only a tongue of land. The northern 
end of Shirwa has not been seen, though it has been passed ; 
the length of the lake may probably be sixty or eighty miles, 
and about twenty broad. The height above the sea is eighteen 
hundred feet, and the taste of the water is like a weak solution 
of Epsom salts. The country around is very beautiful, and 
clothed with rich vegetation ; and the waves, at the time they were 
there, breaking and foaming over a rock on the southeastern 
side, added to the beauty of the picture. Exceedingly lofty moun- 
tains, perhaps eight thousand feet above the sea-level, stand near 
the eastern shore. When their lofty steep-sided summits appear, 
some above, some below the clouds, the scene is grand. This 
range is called Milanje ; on the west stands Mount Zomba, seven 
thousand feet in height, and some twenty miles long." 

Their object being rather to gain the confidence of the 
people by degrees, than to explore, they considered that they 
had advanced far enough into the country for one trip; and 
believing that they could secure their end by a repetition of 
their visit, as they had done on the Shire, they decided to re- 
turn to the vessel at Dakanamoio island ; but, instead of return- 
ing by the way they came,- they passed down southwards close 
by Mount Chiradzuru, among the relatives of Chibisa, and 
thence down to the Shire. 

When they reached the ship, it seemed important, before 



START FOR LAKE NYASSA. 381 

attempting further explorations, to return to Tete for additional 
supplies, and it was the 28th of August before they left their 
craft under the shadow of Chibisa's village and set out in search 
of the far-famed Lake Nyassa. It may not have been necessary 
for as many as forty-two men to set forth on such a journey ; 
but the advantage of numbers and guns, in the impressions they 
convey of strength, and the lessons they suggest of kindness and 
politeness, more than makes up for the greater trouble and 
expense of their support. And it was particularly important, 
on this journey, that there should be a reasonable display of 
strength, because their path lay across the territory of most 
unfriendly people, with whom it was of the greatest importance 
that there be no conflict. 

Following the course of a beautifully-flowing stream, in a 
northeasterly direction across the valley, they passed many gar- 
dens where cotton was growing luxuriantly. An hour's march 
brought them to the foot of the Manganja hills, up which their 
toilsome road must lead them. The vegetation changed as they 
ascended ; new trees and plants received them ; and, as they 
climbed higher and higher, a wider and more charming land- 
scape stretched away behind them. Looking back from an 
elevation of a thousand feet, the eye could take in the whole of 
a charming valley, with its silvery stream flowing in many 
windings from the shadows of the hills toward the Shire. The 
Shire itself could be seen for many miles above and below Chi- 
bisa's, and the great level country beyond, with its numerous 
green woods ; until the prospect west and northwest ended on 
the peaks of massive dome-shaped mountains that far away 
fringe the highlands of the Maravi country. On the first of 
the terraces of these hills the party found the village of Chi- 
timba, nestling in a woody hollow, and surrounded by the 
characteristic hedge of poisonous euphorbia, and sat down under 
some fine trees, as strangers are wont to do, near the entrance 
of the village. A couple of mats were spread for the white men 
to sit on ; and the head man brought a seguati, or present, of a 
small goat and a basket of meal. The full value in beads and 
cotton cloth was handed to him in return. He measured the 
cloth, doubled it, and then measured that again. The beads 
were scrutinized ; he had never seen beads of that color before, 



382 MANGANJA GOVERNMENT. 

and should like to consult with his comrades before accepting 
them, and this, after repeated examinations and much anxious 
talk, he concluded to do. Meal and peas were then brought 
for sale. A brisk trade sprang up at once, each being eager to 
obtain as fine things as his neighbor, and all were in good 
humor. Women and girls began to pound and grind meal, and 
men and boys chased the screaming fowls over the village, until 
they ran them down. In a few hours the market was com- 
pletely glutted with every sort of native food ; the prices, how- 
ever, rarely fell, as they could easily eat what was not sold. 

Every now and then, as they pursued their way along these 
splendid ranges, they passed the native villages occupying the 
most picturesque situations and commanding splendid views. 
As among the tribes generally in Africa, the villages of the 
Manganja are generally the petty kingdoms of some head man, 
and not unfrequently a man of superior power extends his sway 
over several. of those about him. Mankokwe was the para- 
mount chief of the southern portion of the highlands at the time 
of Dr. Livingstone's visits ; but while the people acknowledged 
his authority, he rarely collected the tribute due him, being a 
besotted man, who gave no thought to the affairs of his 
dominion. 

The Manganja are an industrious race; and in addition to 
working in iron, cotton, and basket-making, they cultivate the 
soil extensively. All the people of a village turn out to labor 
in the fields. It is no uncommon thing to see men, Avomen and 
children hard at work, with the baby lying close by beneath a 
shady bush. When a new piece of woodland is to be cleared, 
they proceed exactly as farmers do in America. The trees are 
cut down with their little axes of soft native iron ; trunks and 
branches are piled up and burnt, and the ashes spread on the 
soil. The corn is planted among the standing stumps, which 
are left to rot. If grass land is to be brought under cultivation, 
as much tall grass as the laborer can conveniently lay hold of 
is collected together and tied into a knot. He then strikes his 
hoe round the tufts to sever the roots, and leaving all standing, 
proceeds until the whole ground assumes the appearance of a 
field covered with little shocks of corn in harvest. A short 
time before the rains begin, these grass shocks are collected in 



AFRICAN COTTON. 383 

small heaps, covered with earth, and burnt, the ashes and burnt 
soil being used to fertilize the ground. Large crops of the 
mapira, or Egyptian dura (Holeus sorghum) are raised, with 
millet, beans and groundnuts ; also patches of yams, rice, 
pumpkins, cucumbers, cassava, sweet potatoes, tobacco, and 
hemp, or bang (Cannabis sativa). Maize is grown all the year 
round. Cotton is cultivated at almost every village. Three 
varieties of cotton have been found in the country, namely, two 
foreign and one native. The tonje manga, or foreign cotton, 
the name showing that it has been introduced, is of excellent 
quality, and considered at Manchester to be nearly equal to the 
best New Orleans. It is perennial, but requires replanting once 
in three years. A considerable amount of this variety is grown 
in the Upper and Lower Shire valleys. Every family of any 
importance owns a cotton patch, which, from the entire absence 
of weeds, seemed to be carefully cultivated. Most were small, 
none seen on this journey exceeding half an acre ; but on the 
former trip some were observed of more than twice that size. 

The tonje cadja, or indigenous cotton, is of shorter staple, and 
feels in the hand like wool. This kind has to be planted every 
season, in the highlands ; yet, because it makes stronger cloth, 
many of the people prefer it to the foreign cotton ; the third 
variety is not found here. It was remarked to a number of 
men near the Shire lakelet, a little farther on towards Nyassa, 
" You should plant plenty of cotton, and probably the English 
will come and buy it." " Truly," replied a far-travelled Babisa 
trader to his fellows, "the country is full of cotton, and if these 
people come to buy they will enrich us." And it is encourag- 
ing to know that the observation of the party inclined them to 
give much credit to his statement. Though it may seem like 
an idle flourish, they hardly ever entered a village without 
finding a number of men cleaning, spinning and weaving. It 
is first carefully separated from the seed by the fingers, or by 
an iron roller, on a little block of wood, and rove out into long 
soft bands without twist. Then it receives its first twist on the 
spindle, and becomes about the thickness of coarse candlewick ; 
after being taken off and wound into a large ball, it is given the 
final hard twist, and spun into a firm cop on the spindle again : 
all the processes being painfully slow. 



384 MANGANJA INDUSTRIES. 

Iron ore is dug out of the hills, and its manufacture is the 
staple trade of the southern highlands. Each village has its 
smelting-house, its charcoal-burners, and blacksmiths. They 
make good axes, spears, needles, arrow-heads, bracelets and 
anklets, which, considering the entire absence of machinery, are 
sold at surprisingly low rates ; a hoe over two pounds in weight 
is exchanged for calico of about the value of fourpence. In 
villages near Lake Shirwa and elsewhere, the inhabitants enter 
pretty largely into the manufacture of crockery, or pottery, 
making by hand all sorts of cooking, water, and grain pots, 
which they ornament with plumbago found in the hills. Some 
find employment in weaving neat baskets from split bamboos, 
and others collect the fibre of the buaze, which grows abun- 
dantly on the hills, and make it into fish-nets. These they 
either use themselves, or exchange with the fishermen on the 
river or lakes for dried fish and salt. A great deal of native 
trade is carried on between the villages, by means of barter in 
tobacco, salt, dried fish, skins and iron. 

The Manganja were found to be generally a pleasant people, 
and happily for some members of the expedition they were able 
almost to forget color in associating with them. There were 
peculiarities, however, which in the society of civilized com- 
munities would constitute a distinction almost as marked as 
color itself; fashions control communities more uncompromis- 
ingly than natural conditions, if possible, and the fashions which 
distinguished the Manganja would hardly find a follower even 
among the most eager hunters of novelty. There were the buf- 
faloes' horns and the rhinoceros horns which were found else- 
where ; some also had their wool hanging about their shoulders, 
while others still appeared shorn entirely, and, true to their 
natures, there was an illimitable indulgence in bodily ornament ; 
they adorned themselves most extravagantly, wearing rings on 
their fingers and thumbs, besides throatlets, bracelets, and anklets 
of brass, copper, or iron. But the most wonderful of ornaments, 
if such it may be called, is the pelele, or upper-lip ring of the 
women. The middle of the upper lip of the girls is pierced 
close to the septum of the nose, and a small pin inserted to pre- 
vent the puncture closing up. After it has healed, the pin is 
taken out and a larger one is pressed into its place, and so on 



• 




.• ' ,- ■ ~."-'. ,- 



.... - • . __ ■. ■ " - ». ': ; . /// 



1 / 




A SINGULAR FANCY. 



387 



successively for weeks, and months, and years. The process of 
increasing the size of the lip goes on till its capacity becomes so 
great that a ring of two inches diameter can be introduced with 
ease. All the highland women wear the pelele, and it is com- 
mon on the Upper and Lower Shire; and everywhere it is ac- 
counted a matchless charm. The fair belle of our great cities 
clings not more fondly to the sparkling jewel on her breast, or 
the pendants of pearl which adorn her ears, than do these Afri- 
can beauties (?) maintain the excellence of the pelele. They 
need no better justification of their custom than "it is fashion;" 
and why should they go further than that? can civilization sug- 
gest the modification of a custom which is a matter of established 
fashion ? Will not even the church of to-day admit that the 
fact of the fashion answers all objections to anything ? A bright 
idea struck Livingstone on observing the younger women con- 
stantly twaddling this queer pendant with their tongues, and it 
is a question whether, if the idea is "to find safe employment 
for that little member," it may not receive the indorsement of 
the gentlemen of the land we live in. The frequent mention 
of beer, among the abundant commodities of the country, may 
have suggested the suspicion already, that the Manganja would 
hardly pay a hundred cents on the dollar as temperance candi- 
dates for our respect. Dr. Livingstone remarked to his associates 
that he had not seen so much drunkenness during sixteen years 
in Africa as he saw among these people. As they crossed, the 
party sometimes found whole villages revelling in their favorite 
indulgence, and the drinking, drumming and dancing, with 
which they insist on hailing the morning, would put the most 
accomplished priests of Bacchus to the blush. The party entered 
a village one afternoon where every man had fallen in the action ; 
not one was to be seen, and the only indications of life were the 
few half-conscious women who were still by the beer-pots under 
a tree. There, as here, the serpent excites every man to the 
extravagance of his ruling passion, and they have topers, talka- 
tive, boisterous, silly, stupid and pugnacious. One of these 
pugnacious specimens on one occasion attempting to arrest the 
party in their journey, subjected himself to a very pointed lesson 
on politeness by one of the Makololo who had as little con- 
science about using his spear on a man as on an ox. The bev- 



388 SUPERSTITION AND RELIGION. 

erage on which these poor people were debauching themselves 
so sadly was found really a pleasant and refreshing article, and 
one which could hardly be suspected of such dreadful effects to 
the traveller who only used it moderately. 

The people are attached to their homes, and there will rarely 
be found a roving disposition among them. The Makololo 
were astonished that even a prominent chief should never have 
a " fit of travelling come over him : should never have a desire 
to see other lands and people." They sit within their hedge of 
euphorbia as securely as within a wall of stone, and often live 
to very great age; and, to the great horror of the hydropathists, 
they cannot attribute a single day of their ages to the yielding 
element; they perform no ablutions; one old man thought he 
could remember having "washed once in his life, but so long 
before that he had forgotten how it felt." 

Superstition, of course, had its place in the lives of the Man- 
ganja. The muave was there, too, the uncompromising judge 
between men in all their disputes ; it was depended on to detect 
the guilty party, and such was the universal confidence in the 
correctness of its decisions that innocent complainants did not 
hesitate a moment in resorting to its mysterious bar. But though 
they so eagerly appeal to the dreadful poison in defence of their 
characters, the grave is overshadowed by the darkness and mys- 
tery which everywhere saddens so bitterly the wailings of be- 
reaved ignorance. " We live only a few days here," said old 
Chinsunse, " but we live again after death ; we do not know 
where, or in what condition, or with what companions, for the 
dead never return to tell us. Sometimes the dead do come back, 
and appear to us in dreams ; but they never speak nor tell us 
where they have gone, nor how they fare." 

The splendid country of Manganja offered none of those ad- 
ventures with ferocious beasts which some readers are on the 
look out for in accounts of such expeditions, but the charming 
landscapes and fertile gardens were objects of greater interest. 
They were a week in crossing these hills. 

The impossibility of carrying their boat by the cataracts, 
which begin a few miles from Chibisa's village, had compelled 
them to forego the more distinguished mode of travelling for a 
time ; but they were certainly well pleased with the change which 



"it is down in a book." 389 

unfolded to them the grand panorama of tropical nature which 
invited their unwearying gaze. 

The cataracts which we have mentioned had been discovered 
some time before, and distinguished by the honorable name of 
the generous friend of geographical science, who had also proven 
himself a true friend of Dr. Livingstone. Murchison's cataracts 
extend through thirty-five miles of latitude, having in this distance 
about twelve hundred feet fall. Above the cataracts, as below, 
the river was found broad and easily navigable, and guided the 
explorers in their search for the great lake. It is hardly to be 
expected that even so short a journey could be performed with- 
out the discouragements which men ever lavish on new enter- 
prises, and the African was not behind the foremost man on the 
list in the readiness with which he finds the explanation of every 
momentous undertaking in the folly of its leader. One of these 
pests joined himself to the party in the Upper Shire valley, and 
annoyed them by telling the residents that " all of these men " 
had wandered, " gone mad," and knew not where they were 
going. There was a more serious discouragement, however, in 
the assurance which they received at the village of Muana 
Moesa that the lake had never been heard of there, but that the 
river stretched on as they saw it the distance of two months, 
and then came out from between rocks which towered almost to 
the skies. The Makololo looked blank when they heard this, 
and said, " Let us go back to the ship; it is of no use trying to 
find the lake." " We shall go and see those wonderful rocks 
at any rate," said the doctor. "And when you see them," re- 
plied Masakasa, "you will just want to see something else." 
" But there is a lake," rejoined Masakasa, " for all their deny- 
ing it, for it is down in a book." Masakasa, having unbounded 
faith in whatever was in a book, went and scolded the natives 
for telling him an untruth. " There is a lake," said he, " for 
how could the white men know about it in a book if it did not 
exist?" 

Such uncalled-for attempts at deception might have been as 
provoking to Dr. Livingstone as they were to his Makololo, but 
he had thought more about human nature than they, and could 
more easily understand and more readily pity such exhibitions 
among people so untaught. It is lamentable that the grandest 



390 DISCOVERY OF NYASSA. 

undertakings must be accomplished over the opposition of the 
very people who are to be the recipients of its richest benefits. 
The perversity of human nature invites our compassion ; it ought 
not to provoke our impatience, or weaken our resolutions. Liv- 
ingstone and his party pressed on and discovered Lake Nyassa, 
a little before noon on the 16th of September, 1859, about two 
months before the enterprising Dr. Roscher reached its northern 
end. The southern extremity of the lake was found to be in 
14° 25' south latitude, and 35° 30' east longitude. The valley 
was about twelve miles wide, and ranges of hills extend along 
both sides of the lake. It was not their policy to continue long 
at the lake, because they had found that repeated visits did more 
toward allaying the suspicions of the natives and engaging their 
confidence. The little time that they were there was long enough 
to reveal the fact that they had reached one of the great slave- 
paths from the interior. They met a party headed by Arabs, a 
villanous-looking set, whose whole demeanor indicated their 
capacity for those deeds of cruelty which are inseparably con- 
nected with this revolting business. 

In turning their steps again to their ship, the members of the 
expedition agreed with Dr. Livingstone that, except the cataracts, 
there was nothing in the way of free water transportation from 
the sea to the great lake, and they were earnest in their appeal 
to the home government for a boat to be launched on the Upper 
Shire, to ply along that portion of the river and along the lake. 
They felt confident that a single steamer on the lake would do 
more than any other single agency in impressing the people 
favorably, and in checking the slave-trade which had its great 
crossing places at different points on the river and lake. Filled 
Math the inspiration of these noble aspirations and rejoicing in 
the hope to their realization, they hastened southward, and re- 
joined their party at Chibisa's on the 6th of October, after a 
land journey of forty days. 

From Chibisa, Dr. Kirk and Mr. Rae, the engineer, under- 
took to cross the country and meet their friends again at Tete. 
The passage down the stream was full of such mournful interest 
as belongs to tormenting delays inseparable from a leaking craft 
and daily conflicts with sandbanks. After a time they entered 
the Zambesi, and landed at Tete February 2d, 1860. The 



ACROSS THE COUNTRY. 391 

journey of Dr. Kirk across the country, comparatively short, 
was accomplished with great difficulty and extreme suffering. 
It was the season of the year when there is the greatest scarcity 
of water, and the little to be found by digging in the beds of 
dry watercourses was so brackish that it increased the thirst 
which they sought to allay ; and when, at long intervals, that 
chanced to be found which was less brackish, it had already be- 
come the resort of large game whose unscrupulous habits of 
wallowing in the mud left only the choice of a filthy draught 
for a salt one. The country was level, and large tracts of it 
were covered with mopane trees, whose small leaves afforded no 
shelter from the scorching rays of the sun, which burnt off the 
grass and baked the earth. The heat was so great that the men 
frequently jumped from the path in the vain hope of cooling 
their scorched feet. The fat was melted away from the salt pork 
which was carried by one of the natives, and only the fibre of 
the meat remained. But even this path was hardly known at 
Tete before it became the highway along which merciless traders 
drove their human cattle toward a market. 

20 



CHAPTER XIX. 

JOURNEYS OP HONOR. 

Regard for Obligations — Busy Preparations— Market Prices at Tete — Singular 
Measures — Social Turn — Evening Gatherings — Peculiar " Tea-Parties " — Ma- 
kololo Objections to Leaving Tete — Their Gains and Losses — The Outfit — 
Journey Begun — Linyanti — Sekeletu — The Mission — Graves — Explanation of 
Failure — Livingstone's Confidence — Hope Unshaken — Makololo Faithfulness 
— Attentions — Growing Disaffection — Seaward Again — Tete — The Kongone — 
The "Pioneer" Arrives — The Rovuma — Return to the Shire — The " University's 
Mission" — Their Misfortunes — War Prevailing — The Slave-Trade — Lake 
Nyassa — The Lake Tribes — Shupanga — Death of Mrs. Livingstone. 

It has been observed by those who have become at all familiar 
with the life of Dr. Livingstone that he considered no difficulty 
or danger an apology for the neglect of any duty. However 
charitably he may have regarded the shortcomings of others, he 
held himself by the most unrelenting laws ; his inherited maxim 
was engraved on his heart. He knew that the chief who 
had three years before confided his ivory and his people to him 
would depend on 'his word, and every consideration forced on 
him the obligation to honor that confidence by the faithful per- 
formance of his obligation. There seemed to be no reason why 
the journey should be longer deferred, and preparations were 
accordingly begun for a journey of honor from Tete to Linyanti. 
The " Ma-Robert " was in the last stages of inefficiency ; she had 
become intolerably leaky, and the den of innumerable rats and 
roaches, and the best that could be done with her was to resign 
her to their undisputed dominion. 

In the midst of the busy preparations for this journey there 
was very little opportunity for much else, and only such events 
in Tete life as came conspicuously before them received atten- 
tion. But a man so deeply interested in the condition of the 
people, and the influences under which they were living, is na- 
turally interested in the rare specimen of authority which was 
just then making a little ripple on the surface of the ordinarily 
392 



MARKET PRICES AT TETE. 393 

dull community. Owing to the desolating wars of former years, 
the cost of provisions was nearly three times as much as in by- 
gone days ; so his excellency determined to reduce prices to their 
former standard, and proclaimed that in future twenty-four fowls 
instead of eight were to be sold for two yards of calico, and that 
the prices of sheep, goats, and oil should be reduced in like 
proportion. The first native who came to market refused to 
sell his fowls at government prices, and was at once hauled up 
before the irate commandant, and, for contumacy to this new 
re-enactment of old laws, condemned to be marched up and 
down the street all day, with his cackling merchandise hung 
round his neck, and then sent to prison to pass the night. An- 
other poor fellow brought a pot of groundnut-oil for sale, and 
was condemned to drink of it largely for refusing to sell it at 
the legal rate. 

Such measures did very well as an expression of his excel- 
lency's animus, but they were impotent so far as any general 
influence on the market was concerned. The natives simply de- 
clined to bring their possessions to the village under the circum- 
stances, and while the country is claimed with a great show of 
dignity by the Portuguese, the tax collectors, who should ven- 
ture to invade the back country for the dues of their master, 
would probably be called on to pay the " last debt " before col- 
lecting the first one. Besides the funerals and weddings, which 
are reckoned among the institutions of the place, the "tea- 
parties " are perhaps as characteristic of the mercantile commu- 
nity. They are of a " social turn," and these evening parties are 
quite popular with them, and if any man would know of the 
climate of Tete, the expedition supports us in advising him to 
select a " tea-party " for his investigations ; nowhere may he 
hope to witness so satisfactorily the strangely debilitating effects. 
Of such an occasion Dr. Livingstone says : 

" In the course of an hour a number of the members become 
too feeble to sit in their chairs, and slip unconsciously under the 
table ; while others, who have been standing up loudly singing 
or talking, fall into one another's arms, swearing eternal friend- 
ship, but gradually losing control both of tongue and limb. 
Slaves sit at the door, who, understanding these symptoms, enter 
and bear their weak and prostrate masters home. We should 



394 A TEA PAETY AT TETE. 

not hesitate to ascribe these symptoms to inebriety, if intoxica- 
tion was not described here by the phrase ' he speaks English,' 
that is, ' he's drunk ; ' so that any such charge would have the 
appearance of a tu quoque. The shocking prevalence of intem- 
perance and other vices among the Portuguese at Tete made us 
wonder, not that they had fever, but that they were not all 
swept off together. Their habits would be fatal in any climate; 
the natives marvelled even more than we did ; our Makololo, 
for instance, looked on aghast at these convivial parties, and 
Sininyane described one in a way that might have done 
the actors good. 'A Portuguese stands up/ said he, 'and 
cries Viva ! that means, I am pleased ; another says, Viva ! 
I am pleased too ; and then they all shout out Viva ! we are 
all pleased together; they are so glad just to get a little beer.' 
One night he saw three inebriated officers in the midst of their 
enjoyment quarrelling about a false report ; one jumped on his 
superior and tried to bite him ; and, whilst these two were roll- 
ing on the floor, the third caught up a chair and therewith 
pounded them both. Sininyane, horrified at such conduct, ex- 
claimed, ' What kind of people can these whites be, who treat 
even their chiefs in this manner ? ' " 

As the preparations for their departure progressed, it was dis- 
covered that some of those who had come down from the Mako- 
lolo country with Dr. Livingstone had become so identified with 
their temporary home that they were not inclined to return. 
Many had taken up with slave-women, whom they assisted in 
hoeing, and in consuming the produce of their gardens. Some 
fourteen children had been born to them ; and in consequence 
of now having no chief to order them, or to claim their services, 
they thought they were about as well off as they had been in 
their own country. They knew and regretted that they could 
call neither wives nor children their own; the slave-owners 
claimed the whole ; but their natural affections had been so en- 
chained that they clave to the domestic ties. By a law of Por- 
tugal the baptized children of slave-women are all free ; by the 
custom of the Zambesi that law is void. "When it is referred to, 
the officers laugh, and say, " These Lisbon-born laws are very 
stringent, but somehow, possibly from the heat of the climate, 
here they lose all their force." 



PREPARATIONS FOR JOURNEY. 395 

It will not be forgotten that these men were only called 
Makololo ; the only real member of that tribe since the death of 
Sekeletu in the whole party was Kanyanta, on whom the leader- 
ship now devolved, the others belonging to other tribes which 
had been added to the dominion of Sebituane. Many of these 
men had only added to their own vices those of the Tete slaves 
with whom they had been in contact; others, by toiling during 
the first two years in navigating canoes and hunting elephants, 
had often managed to save a little to take back to their own 
country, but had to part with it all for food to support the rest 
in times of hunger, and, latterly, had fallen into the improvident 
habits of slaves, and spent their surplus earnings in beer and 
agua ardiente. 

Under such circumstances it was quite an undertaking to get 
so many men in marching trim ; but the Makololo, who had 
worked for the expedition, were paid for their services, and every 
one who had come down with the doctor from the interior re- 
ceived a present of cloth and ornaments, in order to protect them 
from the greater cold of their own country, and to show that 
they had not come in vain. A merchant sent three men along 
with presents for Sekeletu. Major Sicard also furnished three 
men to assist the party on their return, and having received the 
loan of a couple of donkeys completed their preparations, and 
at 2 p.m. on the 15th of May their party filed away from the 
little village north of Tete. The journey was varied with in- 
cidents inseparable from African life, but being along almost 
the same route by which we have already followed the leader 
of the expedition in his former travels, hardly justifies the minute 
attention of those who are eager for information as extensive as 
may be of the great continent. 

Three months after leaving Tete the party entered Sesheke ; 
great changes had taken place during Dr. Livingstone's absence 
of four years. The old town was in ruins, and the people had 
built another higher up the river ; the people were all in low 
spirits ; Sekeletu was on the opposite side of the river the victim 
of a dreadful disease. A severe drought had cut off the crops, 
and destroyed the pasture of Linyanti, and the people were scat- 
tered over the country in search of wild fruits, and the hospitality 
of those whose groundnuts (Arachis hypogcea) had not failed. 



396 THE MAKOLOLO COUNTEY. 

Sekeletu's leprosy brought troops of evils in its train. Believ- 
ing himself bewitched, he had suspected a number of his chief 
men, and had put some, with their families, to death ; others 
had fled to distant tribes and were living in exile. The chief 
had shut himself up, and allowed no one to come into his pres- 
ence but his uncle Mam ire. Ponwane, who had been as " head 
and eyes" to him, had just died ; evidence, he thought, of the 
potent sj)ells of those who hated all who loved the chief. The 
country was suffering grievously, and Sebituane's grand empire 
was crumbling to pieces. A large body of young Barotse had 
revolted and fled to the north, killing a man by the way, 
in order to put a blood-feud between Masiko, the chief to whom 
they were going, and Sekeletu. The Batoka under Sinamane 
and Muemba were independent, and Mashotlane at the falls 
was setting Sekeletu's authority virtually at defiance. Sebituane's 
wise policy in treating the conquered tribes on equal terms with 
his own Makololo, as all children of the chief, and equally elig- 
ible to the highest honors, had been abandoned by his son, who 
married none but Makololo women, and appointed to office none 
but Makololo men. He had become unpopular among the 
black tribes, conquered by the spear but more effectually won by 
the subsequent wise and just government of his father. 

The utter overthrow of the Makololo dominion, which was 
only four years in the future, was strongly foreshadowed in the 
increasing discontent of the people. Strange rumors were afloat 
respecting the unseen Sekeletu ; his fingers were said to have 
grown like eagle's claws, and his face so frightfully distorted 
that no one could recognize him. Some had begun to hint that 
he might not really be the son of the great Sebituane, the founder 
of the nation, strong in battle and wise in the affairs of state. 
" In the days of the Great Lion (Sebituane)," said his only sister, 
Moriantsiane's widow, whose husband Sekeletu had killed, "we 
had chiefs and little chiefs and elders to carry on the govern- 
ment, and the great chief, Sebituane, knew them all, and every- 
thing they did, and the whole country was wisely ruled ; but 
now Sekeletu knows nothing of what his underlings do, and 
they care not for him, and the Makololo power is fast passing 
away." 

The native doctors had given the case of Sekeletu up. They 



SICKNESS OF SEKELETU. 397 

could not cure him, and pronounced the disease incurable. An old 
doctress from the Manyeti tribe had come to see what she could 
do for him, and on her skill he now hung his last hopes. She 
allowed no one to see him except his mother and uncle, making 
entire seclusion from society an essential condition of the much 
longed-for cure. He sent, notwithstanding, for the doctor, who 
found him on the following day sitting in a covered wagon, 
which was enclosed by a high wall of close-set reeds ; his face 
was only slightly disfigured by the thickening of the skin in 
parts, where the leprosy had passed over it ; and the only pecu- 
liarity about his hands was the extreme length of his finger- 
nails, which, however, was nothing very much out of the way, 
as all the Makololo gentlemen wear them uncommonly long. 
She was firmly convinced that he had been bewitched. " Mori- 
antsiane," said he, " my aunt's husband, tried the bewitching 
medicine first on his wife, and she is leprous, and so is her head- 
servant ; then, seeing that it succeeded, he gave me a stronger 
dose in the cooked flesh of a goat, and I have had the disease 
ever since. They have lately killed Ponwane, and, as you see, 
are now killing me." Ponwane had died of fever a short time 
previously. Sekeletu asked for medicine and medical attend- 
ance, but the doctor did not like to take the case out of the 
hands of the female physician already employed, it being bad 
policy to appear to undervalue any of the profession ; and she, 
being anxious to go on with her remedies, said, " She had not 
given him up yet, but would try for another month and if he 
was not cured by that time she would hand him over to the 
white doctors." She was, however, induced to resign her place 
earlier, and the superior skill of her successors soon alleviated 
the sufferings of the young chief considerably, but it had already 
become too deeply rooted, and they could only lament in their 
hearts that the glory which the wise Sebituane had bequeathed 
to his people should go down under the inefficiency of a chief 
whose vices had bound him in cords so painful and so fatal. 

But incidents of deeper interest even than the illness of Seke- 
letu and the disaffection of his people had been wrought into 
the history of Linyanti since Dr. Livingstone was there. It 
will be remembered they had expressed a desire that a mission- 
ary might come and live with them, and had committed them- 



398 THE MISSION. 

selves to a removal from their deadly swamps to some healthier 
locality. It had seemed very desirable to establish a mission 
among these people because of the extent of their dominion, and 
because at their capital Christian teachers would be in constant 
intercourse with representatives of numerous tribes. Accord- 
ingly, the London Missionary Society, under whose auspices the 
exploration of their country had been effected, undertook the 
work of establishing a mission at the town of Linyanti, and 
appointed Rev. Halloway Helmore, who had been seventeen 
years a missionary among the Bechuanas, and associated with 
him Messrs. Mackenzie and Price. These younger men, accom- 
panied by gentle and true-hearted wives, who ventured to hope 
that they could go where Mrs. Livingstone had gone, left Eng- 
land in June, 1858, and in July landed at the Cape. After 
many trying experiences, the mission party at last reached the 
scene of their appointment, in February, 1860. In August, 
when Dr. Livingstone arrived, there was only the sad story of 
their effort and a number of graves. They had come on the 
ground in the most unfavorable season, and from the time of 
their arrival were the victims of the prevailing fever of the place. 
The account of their sufferings is a discouraging page in the 
history of African missions, but we can hardly yield the con- 
victions which have grown on us in following the experience of 
Dr. Livingstone through the years of his intercourse with the, 
Makololo. The illness and bereavement through which the 
survivor of the enterprise regarded the people could hardly fail 
to give a darker shade to their characters. They doubtless suf- 
fered some wrongs in addition to the ravages of disease, but we 
would much rather find the explanation of their sickness in the 
deadly exhalations of the neighboring swamps than accept the 
suggestion of poisoning ; and with the accounts of Rev. John 
Mackenzie and the " Travels of Livingstone" both before him, 
we are convinced that a candid reader would feel confident that 
the conduct of the people toward Mr. Price, after the death of 
Mr. Helmore, might have found an explanation in some mis- 
understanding or mistake which would shield the actors from 
the charge of so ungenerously plundering a bereaved and suffer- 
ing guest. Certainly, however strongly the trials .and losses of 
the enterprise may speak against the tribe whose elevation was 



FAITHFULNESS OF THE PEOPLE. 399 

sought by it, the testimony of Dr. Livingstone to the character, 
customs and promise of the people in all the broad region which 
then acknowledged the authority of Sekeletu is unshaken, while 
his personal experience of their faithfulness and kindness cancels 
that of his more unfortunate friends. There was no particular 
reason why the chief who would deal so unjustly by the mission 
party should so carefully cultivate the friendship of Livingstone. 
There would have been no trouble in concocting an explanation 
of their loss had he desired to appropriate the many valuable 
articles which had been seven or eight years in his care. These 
were found by Dr. Livingstone just as he left them ; they had 
been guarded most sacredly during four years, and the wagon 
had stood there since 1853. Naturally enough, while his heart 
grieved for the noble man who had fallen on the spot, after 
laying two dear children and a devoted wife under the strange 
sod, and while he sympathized deeply with those who had shared 
the suffering, only escaping with their lives, his greatest anxiety 
was that the interest of the world might not be diminished by 
the accounts of their misfortunes. And it could hardly be ex- 
pected that, however much he might lament the faults he knew 
they had, he should forget the services they had done him, or 
ignore their expressions of esteem and confidence. When he 
went over to Linyanti he was escorted by men furnished by Se- 
keletu, and rode the chiefs own horse. When he arrived, the 
head men, Mosale and Pekonyane, received him cordially, and 
lamented that they had so little to offer him. Oh, had he only 
arrived the year previous, when there w r as abundance of milk 
and corn and beer! 

Very early the next morning the old town-crier, Ma-Pulen- 
yane, of his own accord made a public proclamation, which, in 
the perfect stillness of the town long before dawn, was striking: 
" I have dreamed ! I have dreamed ! I have dreamed ! Thou, 
Mosale, and thou, Pekonyane, my lords, be not faint-hearted, 
nor let your hearts be sore, but believe all the words of Monare 
(the doctor), for his heart is white as milk towards the Makololo. 
I dreamed that he was coming, and that the tribe would live if 
you prayed to God and gave heed to the word of Monare." 
Ma-Pulenyane showed Dr. Livingstone the burying-place where 
poor Helmore and seven others were laid, distinguishing those 



400 KINDNESS CONTINUED. 

whom he had put to rest and those for whom Mafale had per- 
formed that last office. Nothing whatever marked the spot, 
and, with the native idea of hiding the dead, it was said, " it will 
soon be all overgrown with bushes, for no one will cultivate 
there." None but Ma-Pulenyane approached the place: the 
others stood at a respectful distance ; they invariably avoid every- 
thing connected with death, and no such thing as taking portions 
of human bodies to make charms of, as is the custom farther 
north, has ever been known among the Makololo. 

When the wagon nvas left eight years before, several loose 
articles, as the medicine-chest, magic lantern, tools, and books, 
were given by Sekeletu into the charge of his wives. Every- 
thing was now found in safety. The wagon was in sufficiently 
good condition for the doctor to sleep in, though the covering 
had partly rotted off, and, when the chief was absent at the 
Barotse, the white ants had destroyed one of the wheels. Seke- 
letu's wives, Seipone and Mantu, without being asked, cooked 
abundance of good beef, and baked a large supply of little cakes 
after the pattern which the Makololo, who went to Loanda, had 
brought back to them. With gentle reproaches for not bringing 
" Ma-Robert," or Mrs. Livingstone, they repeated some of the 
prattle of her children in Sechuana, and said, "Are we never 
more to know anything of them but their names ? " 

Sekeletu was well pleased with the various articles brought 
for him, and inquired if a ship could not bring his sugar-mill 
and the other goods which had been of necessity left behind at 
Tete. On hearing that there was a possibility of a powerful 
steamer ascending as far as Sinamane's, but never above the 
Grand Victoria falls, he asked, with charming simplicity, if a 
cannon could not blow away the falls, so as to allow the vessel 
to come up to Sesheke. 

He was also as urgent as ever that the doctor would make 
his home with him ; but he could not offer such inducements as 
had surrounded the home of his illustrious father. His feeble 
health and foolish policy had left very little of the man or the 
chieftain about him. And though he recognized the importance 
of seeking a home in a more salubrious atmosphere he trembled 
at the thought of quitting his fastnesses, at a time when the 
growing disaffection of the subject tribes threatened to leave him 



RETURN TO TETE. 



401 



so soon with only a remnant of his strength. But it was out of 
the question for Dr. Livingstone to think of even a protracted 
visit. The new steamer for which he had petitioned his govern- 
ment was expected to arrive at the Kongone in November, and 
it was necessary that he should hasten thither. He was still firm 
in his belief that there could be found no more desirable field 
for missionary work. There were difficulties, but none which 
would not be surmounted gradually by wise and active laborers. 

The seaward journey occupied about two months, and it was 
toward the end of November when they reached Tete, and the 
Zambesi was then so low that they were compelled to wait until 
December before they could go on to the Kongone, where they 
arrived on the 4th of January, 1861. The expected vessel was 
behind time, and there was nothing to be done but to wait as 
patiently as possible for her arrival. In such a focus of decay- 
ing vegetation nothing was to be dreaded so much as inactivity, 
and they were compelled to seek exercise and amusement in 
hunting and searching about the fetid swamps. Indeed in all 
parts of Africa, as elsewhere, an active life has been found the 
safest. A mind fully occupied and hands full of work are the 
surest precautions against the subtle enemy whicK lurks in those 
vast wildernesses. On the 31st of January, 1861, their new 
ship, the " Pioneer," arrived from England and anchored out- 
side the bar ; but the weather was stormy and she did not venture 
in till the 4th of February. 

Two of her Majesty's cruisers came at the same time, bringing 
Bishop Mackenzie and the Oxford and Cambridge mission to 
the tribes of the Shire and Lake Nyassa. The mission consisted 
of six Englishmen and five colored men from the Cape. It was 
a puzzle to know what to do with so many men. The estimable 
bishop, anxious to commence his work without delay, wished 
the " Pioneer " to carry the mission up the Shire as far as Chi- 
bisa's, and there leave them. But there were grave objections 
to this. The " Pioneer " was under orders to explore the Ro- 
vuma, as the Portuguese government had refused to open the 
Zambesi to the ships of othfr nations, and their officials were 
very effectually pursuing a system which, by abstracting the 
labor, was rendering the country of no value either to foreigners 
or to themselves. She was already two months behind her 



402 



THE ROVUMA. 



time, and the rainy season was half over. Then, if the party were 
taken to Chibisa's, the mission would be left without a medical 
attendant, in an unhealthy region, at the beginning of the most 
sickly season of the year, and without means of reaching the 
healthy highlands or of returning to the sea. In the absence of 
medical aid, and all knowledge of the treatment of fever, it was 
feared that there might be a repetition of the sorrowful fate 
which befell the similar non-medical mission at Linyanti. The 
bishop at last consented to proceed in the " Lyra " man-of-war 
to Johanna, and there leave the members of the mission with 
her Majesty's consul, Mr. Sunley, while he himself should ac- 
company the expedition up the Rovuma, in order to ascertain 
whether the country around its head-waters, which were reported 
to flow out of Nyassa, was a suitable place for a settlement. 

On the 25th of February the " Pioneer " anchored in the 
mouth of the Rovuma, which, unlike most African rivers, has 
a magnificent bay and no bar. The scenery on the lower part 
of the Rovuma was found superior to that on the Zambesi, for 
they could easily see the highlands from the sea. Eight miles 
from the mouth the mangroves are left behind, and a beautiful 
range of well-wooded hills on each bank begins. On these 
ridges the tree resembling African blackwood, of finer grain 
than ebony, grows abundantly and attains a large size. Few 
people were seen, and those were of Arab breed, and did not 
appear to be very well off. The current of the Rovuma was now 
as strong as that of the Zambesi, but the volume of water is very 
much less. Several of the crossings had barely water enough 
for the ship, drawing five feet, to pass. Unfortunately, however, 
they had suffered a detention, and when they had ascended a 
short distance found the river falling rather rapidly, and they 
were obliged to give up their proposed exploration for the season. 
Hastening back to the sea, they returned to the Kongone, and 
sailed again up the Zambesi to the Shire. They had complained 
so much of their former vessel that they were unwilling to find 
a fault with the new one, but their progress was greatly impeded 
by her draught of water; five feet was found to be too much for 
the navigation of the upper part of the Shire. But after much 
difficulty they reached Chibisa's ; there was a general feeling of 
relief when the anchor was cast in the old spot where the " Ma- 



THE UNIVERSITY'S MISSION. 403 

Robert " had rested in the former time, and all hands congratu- 
lated each other that so far at least there was occasion for grati- 
tude. The history of the " University's Mission/' by Rev. Henry 
Rowly, is hardly more encouraging than the effort at Linyanti. 
But there ought not to have been felt to be any vindication in 
need of men who had proven their zeal by most arduous labors 
and painful sacrifices, and their faithfulness by at last laying 
their lives on the altar of the cause they had espoused. Nor ought 
it to be necessary to find a solution of the calamitous termination of 
it, aside from the absolute difficulty of a noble enterprise. 
The hearts of Christians ought to be so set on the salvation of 
the heathen that they will not hesitate to face the most fatal 
diseases and the most unfriendly receptions in the prosecution 
of their work. The real explanation of the misfortunes of the 
devoted members of the Shire mission can hardly be found in 
the unfriendliness of the natives or the unhealthiness of the 
country. They settled there at a time when the country was 
suffering a most distressing series of depredations. The Ajawa, 
encouraged by the Portuguese, were burning and plundering the 
upper Manganja country. From the time of their arrival there 
was no time of quiet. The general unrest and excitement was 
unfavorable, and they were ultimately driven for safety into the 
lower country to be the prey of the relentless fevers. As far 
as possible, Dr. Livingstone encouraged and aided them, but he 
served the government, whose claims could not be neglected. 

As soon therefore as they could perform such services for their 
friends as seemed most urgent, and had seen them safely on the 
spot which the good Bishop Mackenzie had selected, Drs. Liv- 
ingstone and Kirk, with Charles Livingstone, started for Lake 
Nyassa, furnished with a light four-oared gig, a white sailor and 
a score of attendants. And it may be interesting to the reader, 
that people readily engaged to carry the boat forty miles for a 
cubic of cotton cloth a day ! When they had passed the last of 
the cataracts they launched their boat " for good " on the Shire, 
and passed easily and peacefully on to the lake, and sailed into 
it on the 2d of September. It was found to be over two hun- 
dred miles long and from twenty to sixty wide, a deep sea-like 
shade resting on its surface. They had never before seen in 
Africa anything like the dense population which thronged its 



404 ON LAKE NYASSA. 

shores. Their first impression of these lake dwellers was that 
they were downright lazy ; groups could be seen during the day 
lying fast asleep under the shade of the trees along the shore, 
apparently taking the world very easily, but a better acquaint- 
ance with them revealed the fact that these forenoon sleepers 
had been at work during the greater part of the night. In the 
afternoon they begin to bestir themselves ; examining and mend- 
ing their nets, carrying them to the canoes, and coiling in their 
lines. In the evening they paddle off to the best fishing station, 
and throughout most of the night the poor fellows are toiling 
in the water, dragging their nets. 

Though there are many crocodiles in the lake, and some of 
an extraordinary size, the fishermen say that it is a rare thing 
for any one to be carried off by these reptiles. When crocodiles 
can easily obtain abundance of fish — their natural food — they 
seldom attack men ; but when unable to see to catch their 
prey, from the muddiness of the water in floods, they are very 
dangerous. 

In character and general appearance the lake tribes were 
found to be very much like the tribes among whom they had 
already travelled. Their scanty clothing was partly of cotton 
and partly of a sort of cloth woven from bark. The ornamen- 
tation of their persons was of course a matter of special pride 
and delight. 

At different points along the shore they found the established 
slave-crossing places, and only at such places were they at all 
annoyed. The lake slave-trade was going on at a terrible rate, 
and the higher they went the more deeply the travellers realized 
the horrors of a trade which encourages every vice and withers 
every beauty, and paralyzes every energy of the afflicted land 
over which it drags its accursed chain. 

Having spent nearly two months on the lake, and feeling 
amply repaid for their toil in the encouragement they had ex- 
perienced concerning the future of the great continent, they re- 
turned to the ship, which they reached on the 8th of November. 
The bishop came down from Magomero to meet them, and it 
was a joy indeed to see him in such good spirits. 

On returning to Tete, it was ascertained that the Portuguese 
government had given such instructions to the slaving parties 



DEATH OF MRS. LIVINGSTONE. 407 

within their territory as would make it impossible for the 
expedition to pursue their work at all peacefully, and their at- 
tention was again turned to the Rovuma, and they landed at 
Shupanga, with a view of perfecting such preparation as the ex- 
ploration of that river might call for. The fever was prevailing 
considerably at the time, and about the middle of April Mrs. 
Livingstone was prostrated by this disease; and it was accom- 
panied by obstinate vomiting. Nothing is yet known that can 
allay this distressing symptom, which of course renders medicine 
of no avail, as it is instantly rejected. She received whatever 
medical aid could be rendered from Dr. Kirk, but became un- 
conscious, and her eyes were closed in the sleep of death as the 
sun set on the evening of the Christian Sabbath, the 27th of 
April, 1862. A coffin was made during the night, a grave was 
dug next day under the branches of the great baobab tree, and 
with sympathizing hearts the little band of his countrymen as- 
sisted the bereaved husband in burying his dead. At his re- 
quest, the Rev. James Stewart, who had come out as the agent 
of the Free Church of Scotland to view the country before at- 
tempting a mission, read the burial service; and the seamen 
kindly volunteered to mount guard for some nights at the spot 
where her body rests in hope. Those who are not aware how 
this brave, good, English wife made a delightful home at Kolo- 
beng, a thousand miles inland from the Cape, and as the daughter 
of Moffat and a Christian lady exercised most beneficial influ- 
ence over the rude tribes of the interior, may wonder that she 
should have braved the dangers and toils of this down-trodden 
land. She knew them all, and, in the disinterested and dutiful 
attempt to renew her labors, was called to her rest instead. 

The expedition had worked under many disadvantages, and 
in the face of difficulties which would have discouraged less 
resolute men. They had been generously treated by their 
government, but unfortunately their first boat was a burlesque 
on the name, and the " Pioneer " was unadapted to the waters 
on which she was to sail. Besides the delays and embarrass- 
ments growing out of their equipment, the Portuguese jealousy 
found expression in many discouragements, and the vigorous 
revival of the slave-trade more than neutralized their influence 
on the natives over whom its degrading influence extended. 



408 THE ROVUMA AGAIN. 

When they were at last put in possession of the "Lady Nyassa" 
— the little iron steamer with which they proposed to force their 
way up the rapids of the Zambesi and the Shire — the season 
had so far advanced that they could not think of that under- 
taking until another flood time, which would involve inevitably 
a delay of several months ; and it was decided to attempt again 
the exploration of the Rovuma, which was reported to flow from 
Lake Nyassa. They were the more anxious to find out the 
truth of this report, because such a discovery would put them in 
communication with the vast fertile regions about the lake and 
along the Upper Shire, by a path free from the annoyance of 
Lisbon taxation. Accordingly they set out about the 1st of 
September, 1862, on a journey which occupied about one 
month. The results of this expedition were not gratifying, 
though much more satisfactory than their former effort. They 
ascended without serious difficulty about one hundred and fifty 
miles, where they encountered the peculiar obstructions which 
seem to belong to all African rivers. The river became narrow 
and rocky, and further navigation was found impossible. Few 
incidents occurred which would interest the reader. 

The valley was about four miles wide and bounded on each 
side by a range of high hills. During the first week very few 
people were seen. Their villages were all concealed in the 
thick jungles on the hill-sides for protection from marauding 
slave parties. The absence of bird or animal life was remarka- 
ble, and the shallow, winding channel, in the midst of absolute 
stillness, was cheerless indeed. The language of the people 
differed considerably from that in use on the Zambesi, though 
it seemed to be of the same family. The customs of the people, 
as far as ascertained, were not unlike those along the other 
rivers — the same love of ornament and the follies of fashion. 
Hunting the senze — an animal about the size of a large cat, but 
in shape more resembling a pig — was the chief business of men 
and boys along the reedy banks. In this singular sport they 
set fire to a mass of reeds, and, armed with sticks, spears, bows 
and arrows, stand in groups guarding the outlets through which 
the scared senze may run from the approaching flames. Dark, 
dense volumes of impenetrable smoke now roll over on the lee 
side of the islet, and shroud the hunters. At times vast sheets 



SCENES ON THE EOVUMA. 411 

of lurid flames bursting forth, roaring, crackling and exploding, 
leap wildly far above the tall reeds. Out rush the terrified 
animals, and amid the smoke are seen the excited hunters danc- 
ing about with frantic gesticulations, and hurling stick, spear 
and arrow at their burned-out victims. Kites hover over the 
smoke, ready to pounce on the mantis and locusts as they spring 
from the fire. Small crows and hundreds of swallows are on 
eager wing, darting into the smoke and out again, seizing fugi- 
tive flies. Scores of insects, in their haste to escape from the 
fire, jump into the river, and the active fish enjoy a rare feast. 

Great quantities of excellent honey are collected along the 
river by bark hives placed for the bees on high trees which line 
the banks. A few pieces of coal were also picked up. And 
there was little doubt that, but for the slave-trade, which finds 
one of its principal outlets eastward through this section, the 
people would be easily led to higher grades of being. And it 
was equally evident that they occupied a country which would 
repay with its offerings all the attention which friendly nations 
might bestow on its benighted occupants. But the Rovuma is 
less promising as an avenue to the interior than the Shire or 
the Zambesi, and the expedition was constrained to give up^the 
hope of reaching the lake by that route, and returned again to 
the Zambesi to battle again with the ills they knew. 

They ascended the Shire in January, 1863, and passed along 
amidst the dreadful traces of the recent ravages of Mariano, who 
was again in the field as " the great Portuguese slave agent." 
Dead bodies floated past them daily, and in the mornings the 
paddles had to be cleared of the corpses caught by the floats 
during the night. For scores of miles the entire population of 
the valley had been swept avvay by the inhuman agent of a 
government called civilized, called Christian. It made the 
heart ache to see the wide-spread desolation ; the river banks, 
once so populous, all silent ; the villages burned down, and an 
oppressive stillness reigning where formerly crowds of eager 
sellers appeared with the various products of their industry. 
Here and there might be seen on the bank a small, dreary, 
deserted shed, where had sat, day after day, a starving fisher- 
man, until the rising waters drove the fish from their wonted 
haunts, and left him to die. Tingane had been defeated ; his 
21 



412 DESOLATION ON THE SHIRE. 

people had been killed, kidnapped, and forced to flee from their 
villages. There were a few wretched survivors in a village 
above the Ruo ; but the majority of the population was dead. 
The sight and smell of dead bodies were everywhere. Many 
persons lay beside the path, where in their weakness they had 
fallen and expired. Ghastly living forms of boys and girls, 
with dull, dead eyes, were crouching beside some of the huts. 
A few more miserable days of their terrible hunger, and they 
would be with the dead. Words could not convey an adequate 
idea of the scene of wide-spread desolation which the once pleas- 
ant valley of the Shire presented. Instead of- smiling villages 
and crowds of people coming with things for sale, scarcely a 
soul was to be seen ; and when by chance one lighted on a 
native, his frame bore the impress of hunger, and his counte- 
nance the Took of a cringing broken-spirited ness. A drought 
had visited the land after the slave-hunting panic swept over it. 
Large masses of people had fled down to the Shire, only 
anxious to get the river between them and their enemies. Most 
of the food had been left behind ; and famine and starvation had 
cut off so many that the remainder were too few to bury the 
dead. The corpses seen floating down the river were only a 
remnant of those that had perished, whom their friends, from 
weakness, could not bury, nor over-gorged crocodiles devour. 
It is true that famine caused a great portion of this waste of 
human life ; but the slave-trade was deemed the chief agent in 
the ruin. The few wretched survivors were overpowered by an 
apathetic lethargy. They attempted scarcely any cultivation, 
which, for people so given to agriculture as they are, was very 
remarkable; they were seen daily devouring the corn-stalks 
which had sprung up in the old plantations, and which would, 
if let alone, have yielded corn in a month. They could not be 
aroused from their lethargy. Famine benumbs all the facul- 
ties. The effort was made to induce some to exert themselves 
to procure food, but failed. They had lost all their former 
spirit, and with lacklustre eyes, scarcely meeting those of their 
friends, and in whining tones, replied to every proposition for 
their benefit—" No, no ! " ("Ai ! ai ! ") 

Human skeletons were seen in every direction, and it was 
painfully interesting to observe the different postures in which 



GRAVE OF BISHOP MACKENZIE. 413 

the poor wretches had breathed their last. A whole heap had 
been thrown down a slope behind a village, where the fugitives 
often crossed the river from the east ; and in one hut of the 
same village no fewer than twenty drums had been collected, 
probably the ferryman's fees. Many had ended their misery 
under shady trees, others under projecting crags in the hills, 
while others lay in their huts, with closed doors, which, when 
opened, disclosed the mouldering corpse with the poor rags 
round the loins — the skull fallen off the pillow — the little skel- 
eton of the child, that had perished first, rolled up in a mat 
between two large skeletons. The sight of this desert, but 
eighteen months ago a well-peopled valley, now literally strewn 
with human bones, forced the conviction that the destruction of 
human life in the middle passage, however great, constituted 
but a small portion of the waste, and left no grounds for hope 
that a lawful commerce might be established until the slave- 
trade, which had so long brooded over Africa, should be put 
down. 

In the midst of these shocking scenes the party visited the 
grave of good Bishop Mackenzie. He had given his heart in 
sincerity to Africa, and it was sorrowful indeed to know that all 
the fond and noble hopes which had clustered round him as he 
left the classic grounds of Cambridge were all buried in a place 
so wild and so desolate. But on what nobler altar can a man 
lay down his life ? Who shall talk of " waste of precious lives," 
which are sacrificed in carrying the gospel of Christ to the 
heathen, since " Christ has died ? " Who knows but those who 
fall soonest, and in the severest trials, shall in the last day be 
allowed to lead up the hosts of Christ's ransomed ones out of 
the ends of the earth to the throne of the King ? 

There was now added, to the difficulties which had existed 
before, the disadvantage of having to bring all supplies from the 
Zambesi. It was impossible to purchase food. To accomplish 
much under such circumstances was impossible ; and the only 
plan which offered anything like success was to pass the rapids 
and get among the tribes dwelling about the foot of the lake, 
who had been exempt from the ravages which had made a 
desert of the valley. 

In the midst of preparations for this journey a despatch was 



414 



HOMEWARD. 



received from Earl Russell containing instructions for the with- 
drawal of the expedition, and there could be but little else 
attempted during the short time which must elapse before the 
condition of the river would justify the attempt to take the 
" Pioneer" down to the sea. The work of the expedition had 
come to be little better than a struggle with the slave-trade. 
The breaking up of that evil was the absorbing idea of the 
members of it. It could hardly have been otherwise. The 
humanity of Englishmen and Christians could but arise against 
such barbarities as confronted them in every path they selected. 
The short journey to the northwest, which extended as far as 
the village of Chinanga, on the banks of a branch of the 
Loangwa, only deepened the conviction of the utter hopeless- 
ness of all enterprises which might seek the improvement of the 
people and the utilization of the country until the land should 
be relieved of the fatal traffic which flourished everywhere by 
the patronage of Portugal. 

It is no wonder that Dr. Livingstone turned again toward 
the sea with anything but friendly feelings toward a govern- 
ment whose "dog in the manger" spirit had made six precious 
years, years of pain and comparative disappointment. 




MISSION CHAPEL ON THE SHIRE. 



CHAPTEE XX. 

THE BEGINNING OF THE END. 

Zambesi Expedition Unsatisfactory — Zanzibar — Trade from Zanzibar — The 
Outfit — Eovuma Bay — Kindany — The Makonde — Remarkable Vegetation — 
Cutting Eight Valiantly — Rage for Doctorship — Mohammedan Influence — 
Lying Guides — Along the Rovuma — Troubles with Followers — Gum-Copal 
Tree — Extravagant Tattooing — Top of the Fashion — At Nyomano— The Slave- 
Trade — The Makoa — A Woman Rescued — Horrors of the Trade in Slaves — 
Currency for Africa — Extracts from Journal — A Deserted Village — A Model 
Town of Africa. 

Nobody was thoroughly satisfied with the Zambesi expedi- 
tion. It had cost considerable sums of money, much precious 
time had been consumed, and some very valuable lives had been 
sacrificed, while comparatively little progress had been made in 
finding out the country, the anticipations of advantageous com- 
mercial relations greatly disappointed, and missionary enthu- 
siasm discouraged. There were however some important dis- 
coveries made : the fruitfulness of the soil was confirmed, the 
mineral resources much more accurately ascertained, and the 
real enemy of African civilization brought more distinctly into 
view. There was certainly no want of patient and heroic labor, 
brave endurance and wise counsel. In none of the records of 
his noble life have we been more impressed with the real great- 
ness of David Livingstone than in reviewing the journals of the 
wearying, unsatisfactory years of this expedition. The difficul- 
ties with which he contended were only recognized by him 
when human energy could do no more, and even then he sus- 
pended his labors only in obedience to the authority which he 
represented. 

The little time which he allowed himself at home was hardly 
a season of rest. Besides the preparation of his " Zambesi Ex- 
pedition " for the press, he felt constrained to do all in his power 
in those few months to revive the popular interest in the Afri- 

415 



416 ARRIVAL AT ZANZIBAR. 

can question, and to arouse popular sentiment against the African 
slave-trade, which he had been forced to recognize as the most 
stubborn and powerful enemy of all those schemes of benevo- 
lence which were springing up in the hearts of Christians for that 
unfavored land. The days were full of labor and anxiety, and 
passed rapidly. 

On the 14th of August, 1865, Livingstone left England for 
the third and last time, under commission as British Consul for 
Central Africa. He reached Bombay on the 3d of January, 
1866, and having received commendatory letters to the sultan 
of Zanzibar, sailed for that island in the " Thule," a vessel which 
was sent as a present to the sultan by the Bombay government. 
Twenty-three days were required for the passage, and on the 
28th of January the ship entered the harbor of Zanzibar. Dr. 
Livingstone was shown all possible respect, and the sultan im- 
mediately put one of his own houses at his disposal. Snugly 
ensconced in this temporary home, he had a little time to look 
about him, and complete his preparations for the interior. 

Zanzibar is the Bagdad, the Ispahan, the Stamboul, if you 
like, of East Africa. It is the great mart which invites the 
ivory traders from the African interior. To this market come 
the gum-copal, the hides, the orchilla, the timber, and the black 
slaves from Africa. The population of the island hardly ex- 
ceeds two hundred thousand ; about half of this number reside 
in the city. The higher and middle classes are represented by 
the Arabs, the Banyans, and the Mohammedan Hindis ; below 
these there are the half-castes and the negro. There are, besides 
these classes, a number of American and European residents. 
These are mainly government officials, though a number of in- 
dependent merchants and agents of great mercantile houses in 
Europe and America have their homes in the strange surround- 
ings of this strangest of towns. The Arabs of Zanzibar are 
Arabs, just as they would be anywhere on earth. The Arab 
never changes ; wherever he goes he carries the customs, dress, 
and characteristic peculiarities which distinguish the exactest 
representatives of his race in their own countries. Nearly all 
of those who are seen in Zanzibar are experienced travellers, and 
their very countenances and carriage tell of strange and perilous 
adventures and habitual wariness and courage. 



TRADE AT ZANZIBAR. 417 

The principal traders, however, of Zanzibar seem to be the 
Banyans. Many of these have accumulated great wealth, and 
it is in their power to take advantage of the poorer natives who 
come into their hands with their fruits or ivory, just as the rich 
may wrong the poor anywhere. The negro is the laboring man 
of the island, and the half-caste is the rascal. 

The particular line of trade which attracts the attention of 
the European traveller most anxiously is that of the slave mar- 
kets. It taxes the credulity of the most skeptical to accept the 
statements of even the most reliable travellers concerning the 
enormous profits which tempt so powerfully the unscrupulous 
to this barbarous business. Mr. Stanley, who looked about him 
with the eyes of an accomplished reporter for one of the most 
careful journals of our time, has in his book a paragraph which 
puts the matter most tellingly : " We will suppose," says he, 
" for the sake of illustrating how trade with the interior is man- 
aged, that the Arab conveys by his caravan $5000 worth of 
goods into the interior. At Unyanyembe the goods are worth 
$10,000; at Ujiji they are worth $15,000, or have trebled in 
price. $7.50 will purchase a slave in the markets of Ujiji, 
which will bring, in Zanzibar, $30. Ordinary men-slaves 
may be purchased for $6 which would sell for $25 on the 
coast. We will say he purchases slaves to the full extent of his 
means. After deducting $1500 for expenses of carriage to 
Ujiji and back — viz., $3500 — he would buy, at $7.50 each, four 
hundred and sixty-four slaves, on which he would realize 
$13,920 on an investment of $5000, or nearly $9000 net profit 
for a single journey from Zanzibar to Ujiji." At the slave 
market at Zanzibar, Dr. Livingstone found three hundred slaves 
exposed for sale, the greater part of whom had come from Lake 
Nyassa and the Shire river. One of the women remembered 
hearing of his passing up the lake in a boat, but he found none 
in the company whom he had seen before. The patience of the 
man whose heart had been so long set for the lifting up of 
Africa was hardly increased by the scenes which came so fre- 
quently before him in these markets. He says that "those of 
the slaves who were old enough to comprehend their situation 
seemed greatly ashamed at being hawked about for sale. Their 
teeth were examined, the cloth which they wore was raised up 



418 THE OUTFIT FOR EXPEDITION. 

that their lower limbs might be examined, and a stick was 
tossed for the slave to bring that he might exhibit his paces. 
Others were dragged through the crowd by the hand, while the 
price was incessantly called out. The purchasers of these un- 
happy beings were mostly northern Arabs and Persians." 

But entertaining as the scenes of that strange city must be to 
an intelligent traveller, Dr. Livingstone walked its streets with 
heart and mind absorbed with a greater work than that of an 
ordinary observer, and every moment of time spent in Zanzibar 
was coveted for the dearer work he had to do in the heart of the 
great continent whose dark outline was only a few miles away. 

Having finally arranged with Koorje, a Banyan, to send a 
supply of beads, cloth, flour, tea, coffee, and sugar, to Ujiji, on 
Lake Taganyika, to the care of an Arab living there, called 
Thani bin Suelim, and having perfected other arrangements for 
his journey, Livingstone took leave of the generous sultan and 
other friends on the island. He had secured a dhow, one of the 
coasting vessels of East Africa, for transporting the animals for 
the expedition ; of these there were six camels, three buffaloes 
and a calf, two mules and four donkeys. His attendants were 
thirteen Sepoys, ten Johanna men, nine Nassick boys, two Shu- 
panga men, and Wakalani and Chuma, two Wayans, boys who 
had been liberated from the slavers by the doctor and Bishop 
Mackenzie in 1861, and had spent three years with the mission 
party at Chibisa. Several others of the men had been with Dr. 
Livingstone in his former expeditions. Musa, a Johanna man, 
was a sailor on the " Lady Nyassa Susi," and Amoda had ren- 
dered service on the " Pioneer." The Nassick lads were all entire 
strangers, and had been trained in India. 

By the kindness of Lieutenant Garforth, the doctor and his 
followers were offered passage to the mouth of the Rovuma in 
the ship " Penguin," and under date of March 1 9th, 1 866, we find 
the opening entrance in the journal of this expedition, toward 
which the eyes of the world turned so long and anxiously, in a 
few words full of the spirit of the great and good man : " We 
start this morning at 10 a. m. I trust that the Most High may 
prosper me in this work, granting me influence in the eyes of 
the heathen, and helping me to make my intercourse beneficial 
to them." 



EOVUMA BAY. 419 

On the 22d they reached Rovuma bay, and anchored about 
two miles from the mouth of the river, in five fathoms water. 
Two or three days careful inspection of the river and the neigh- 
boring lands was enough to reveal the fact that there would be 
very great difficulty in conveying the animals to the interior by 
that route, and, following the advice of Lieutenant Garforth and 
the captain of the dhow, the party turned back to Mikindany 
bay, which lies twenty-five miles north of Rovuma, and on the 
evening of the 24th landed all the animals and bade farewell to 
the noble gentleman who had so kindly assisted them with his 
ship. Our great traveller was now once more safely on African 
soil, and the great sea ebbing and flowing heedlessly between 
him and the sympathies and affection of all who could in any 
sort appreciate his noble self-sacrifice or comprehend the nature 
and importance of his undertakings. But he was inured to the 
dangers, the privations, the loneliness and toils of travel. He 
was self-reliant, and needed little else than the freedom to look 
up to give him confidence. He did not underrate the difficul- 
ties of African travel, he knew them too well ; but it was his 
theory that " the sweat of one's brow is no longer a curse when 
one works for God," and he had become accustomed to appre- 
ciate severe exertion because it enhanced the charms of repose. 

The town of Kindany, as a starting point for a great expedi- 
tion, was no better than no place ; the only advantage it offered 
was that which would have existed as well had there been no 
town there. The harbor is described as unsurpassed, if indeed 
it is equalled, by any on the coast. It is entered by a deep 
narrow channel, and inside, sheltered by semicircular highlands, 
is the deep bay, about two miles square, where vessels enjoy 
uncommon security from the winds which so often fall merci- 
lessly on the small coasting ships of the region. There are a 
number of houses lying along this bay, small square structures 
of wattle and daub ; but there would be no evidence that the 
harbor had been in use, or even known before the recent settle- 
ment of its present claimants, if a few lingering ruins had not 
endured the wear of centuries with their hints of an old time. 
The people who live in the small square houses — the present 
Kindanians — are the poorest possible specimens of the genus 
homo, " the low-coast Arabs, three-quarters African." They are 



420 KINDANY. 

after a fashion the subjects of Zanzibar ; their jemida acknowl- 
edges the authority of the sultan, and their insignificant customs 
are presided over by an officer from Zanzibar. 

The animals which had been conveyed to the coast in the 
dhow were considerably knocked up by the voyage, and some 
time elapsed while they were getting over their wounds and 
bruises and fatigue. The delay was put in usefully, however, 
in the manufacture of camels' saddles and repairing those for 
the mules and buffaloes. 

Nature has been more lavish of her favors at Kindany than 
at other points along the coast. The land is higher, and the 
soil is almost half coral. " Coral rock underlies the whole 
place," and the rills in this rock afford good water. A dense 
tropical vegetation prevails on every hand, and conspicuous in 
the various wonders of it stands the great baobab. Great num- 
bers of large game are seen about the numerous water-pools, 
and the nominal traders of the town have so little industry that 
there is hardly anything to relieve the heathendom look of the 
region. 

After enjoying innumerable promises of service without 
receiving the slightest assistance, Livingstone set out on his 
journey, bearing southward in the direction of the Rovuma 
river, with a Somalie guide, who was to receive twenty dollars 
for taking him as far as Nyomano, the confluence of the Loendi 
and Rovuma. 

An enemy which the doctor had hoped to escape on this route 
was in waiting for him, and before he had travelled a dozen 
miles it was ascertained that the buffaloes and camels had been 
bitten by the tsetse. The progress was painfully slow at best, 
and it was a matter of serious anxiety to be threatened with so 
great a disaster as the loss of his animals so early in the journey. 
Being himself unused to camels, it was necessary to intrust them 
to the Sepoys almost entirely, and it was soon apparent they 
were exceedingly careless of the comfort and safety of their 
charge. Added to this — true to the familiar maxim, that 
" troubles never come singly " — the road they had to make lay 
through dense jungles, where the axe must do its work before 
the camels and buffaloes could possibly advance. 

The native occupants of this region are known as Makonde. 



THE MAKONDE. 421 

Their numbers have been greatly diminished by the slave-trade; 
only a remnant, comparatively, of them are left. Here and 
there the traveller emerged suddenly on a little clearing adorned 
with gardens of sorghum, maize and cassava. The people were 
much more interested in the strange animals of the unexpected 
visitors than in the human members of the cavalcade; even the 
white man himself did not attract such attention as the ungainly 
camels. The Makonde proved themselves a pleasant people 
and industrious, ready to turn an honest yard of calico as wood- 
choppers or carriers. They have been the prey of the Arabs 
from Zanzibar, just as their neighbors lower down the coast 
have been the prey of the Portuguese. They have no common 
government. There is no paramount chief whose authority is 
recognized. They are all independent, and bear themselves 
independently enough. Of their personal appearance Living- 
stone says : " Their foreheads may be called compact, narrow, 
and rather low ; the aim nasi expanded laterally ; lips full, not 
excessively thick ; limbs and body well formed, hands and feet 
small ; color dark and light brown ; height middle sized and 
bearing independent." Their language is very unlike that of 
the half-castes who constitute the population of Kindany, 
though their intercourse with the Arabs has extended consider- 
able familiarity with Swaheli among the Makonde. The 
foreign influence has done nothing toward the enlightenment of 
the natives. There was the ruin of a mosque seen at Kindany; 
but the Arabs are in the country for gain ; they mingle with the 
natives in the most intimate relations ; there is no tradition of 
their attempting to convert them. The natives might congratu- 
late themselves, however, on the remissness of their visitors in 
this regard; for if Dr. Livingstone judged rightly, African bar- 
barism would be degraded by the assumption of Arab virtues. 

The trade road, which is a path only, was along the wadys, 
frequently ascending the neighboring heights to take in a village, 
and down again to another by the dry channel. The soil along 
the route was remarkably fertile. As they penetrated the coun- 
try, some of the cassava bushes were seven feet high, and the 
pleasing sight of really heavy crops of sorghum and maize 
awaited the surprise and delight of the observer at every clear- 
ing. The whole region bore traces of having been open and in 



422 WONDERFUL VEGETATION. 

a state of cultivation in former times. There is a noticeable 
scarcity of larger vegetation, and the dense, matted, scrubby 
crop which resisted their progress so stubbornly that even the 
native choppers sometimes were almost discouraged, had only 
sprung up since the slave-trade had done its devastating work. 
Some of the twining, thorny contestants of the ground, which 
annoyed Dr. Livingstone most unmercifully, suggested a little 
reverence for Mr. Darwin's hints about vegetable instinct. One 
particularly he said " might be likened to the scabbard of a 
dragoon's sword ; but along the middle of the flat side runs a 
ridge from which springs up every few inches a bunch of inch- 
long straight, sharp thorns. It hangs straight for a couple of 
yards ; but as if it could not thus give its thorns a fair chance 
of mischief, it suddenly bends on itself, and all its cruel points 
are presented at right angles with their former position. It 
seems bent on mischief, and displays almost malicious delibera- 
tion in hanging out its cruel, tangled limbs, which are sure to 
inflict severe injury on an unwary traveller. Other climbers 
are found so tough that no hand can break them. One appears 
at its roots a young tree ; but true to the straggling habits of its 
class, its shoots may be seen fifty or sixty feet off, weaving 
themselves into the common cordage of the neighborhood. 

"Another climber is like the leaf of an aloe, but convoluted 
as strangely as shavings from the plane of a carpenter. It is 
dark green in color, and when its bark is taken off it is beauti- 
fully striated beneath, lighter and darker green, like the rings 
of growth on wood ; still another is a thin string with a succes- 
sion of large knobs, and another has its bark pinched up all 
round at intervals so as to present a great many cutting edges. 
One sort need scarcely be mentioned, in which all along its 
length are strong bent hooks, placed in a way that will hold 
one if it can but grapple with him, for that is very common and 
not like those mentioned, which the rather seem to be stragglers 
from the carboniferous period of geologists, when pachydermata 
wriggled unscathed among tangled masses worse than these." 

Dr. Livingstone had employed about ten jolly young Ma- 
konde to deal with these prehistoric plants in their own way, 
for they are accustomed to clearing spaces for gardens, and went 
at the work with a will, using tomahawks well adapted for the 



CUTTING VALIANTLY. 425 

work. They whittled away right manfully, taking an axe 
when any trees had to be cut. Their pay, arranged beforehand, 
was to be one yard of calico per day : this was not much, seeing 
they were still so near the sea-coast. Climbers and young 
trees melted before them like a cloud before the sun ! 

They now began to descend the northern slope down to the 
Rovuma, and a glimpse could occasionally be had of the coun- 
try ; it seemed covered with great masses of dark green forest, 
but the undulations occasionally looked like hills, and here and 
there a sterculia had put on yellow foliage in anticipation of the 
coming winter. More frequently the vision was circumscribed 
to a few yards till the merry woodcutters made the pleasant' 
scene of a long vista fit for camels to pass : as a whole, the 
jungle would have made the authors of the natty little hints to 
travellers smile at their own productions, good enough, perhaps, 
where one has an open country with trees and hills, by which 
to take bearings, estimate distances, see that one point is on the 
same latitude, another on the same longitude with such another, 
and all to be laid down fair and square with protractor and 
compass ; but popular hints hardly hold good while a man is 
struggling for existence in the tangled masses of rank vegetation, 
which, feeding on the steamy, smothering moisture from the 
Indian ocean, springs into marvellous luxuriance. With such 
a chance, Livingstone assures us one might as well talk of 
taking bearings while encased in a hogshead with no window 
but the bung-hole ! 

It was easier to find out the people and to record such mat- 
ters as were nearest him. Very few traces of coal were seen, 
but the doctor mentions having seen gray sandstone like that 
which is often found underlying that important article. The 
villagers generally received him with the usual hospitality, ex- 
changing gifts and kind offices. The head men of these villages 
needed, of course, to associate some special power with them- 
selves, and, as is commonly the case, assumed the distinction of 
doctors. They were not so confident, however, in their science, 
or so wedded to their particular school, as their brethren in near 
climes, as was evinced by the readiness with which they dis- 
carded any possible simples when they had the opportunity of 
benefiting by the treatment of the white man. 



426 MOHAMMEDAN INFLUENCE. 

On the 14th of April Livingstone led his party down to the 
banks of the Rovurna, opposite some red cliffs and near where 
the "Pioneer" had turned back in 1861. The next day was 
Sunday, and its rest was very sweet indeed, though the traveller 
was so far away from the cherished communion of those who 
with him might rejoice in the worship of the great God and 
sweet experiences of Jesus' love. Most of his attendants were 
Mohammedans in name ; and while their faith served a poor pur- 
pose, so far as their honesty and truthfulness was concerned, it 
was decided enough to dispute about. It is sometimes the case 
in other places that the religion which people profess does not 
amount to anything more than a fighting matter. How Mo- 
hammedan zeal may kindle and glow was seen when an old Mon- 
yinko head man presented the party with a goat. The animal 
having been received, its execution was in order. This service 
was offered by the Sepoys, who were proceeding to cut its throat 
after the fashion in their country, but the Johannes were of a 
different sect and their creed called for the cutting of a goat's 
throat by another pattern than that in use by their co-religionists 
of India. The opportunity was too good to be lost, and a fierce 
dispute ensued between these sects as to which was the right sort 
of Moslem. 

Livingstone was now in the line of the route he had projected 
years before, and free to resume the undertaking which had 
baffled him then without discouraging him. He was freer than 
he was then, and untrammelled by counsellors or ships. He might 
be called on to endure hardships, but he could not be commanded 
to return. He had not the youth and vigor though which had 
made his earlier toils lighter than they really were, though they 
seemed hard enough. 

From the point where he reached the Rovuma he led his party 
westward, along the sides of that ragged table-land which he had 
formerly seen from the river as flanking both sides. There it 
appeared a range of hills, shutting in the Rovuma, here only 
spurs were seen jutting out toward the river, and valleys retiring 
several miles inland. Sometimes wending their way around 
these spurs and sometimes toiling over them, axe in hand, the 
party advanced like men whose minds were made up ; there was 
only one mind to the party : that mind was made up. It was a 



LYING GUIDES. 427 

happy thing for all hands that there was no scarcity of food 
along the path ; particularly was it a happy thing for the Sepoys 
that rice was plenty, as the supply of that commodity which 
should have lasted until the expedition reached Nyomano was 
found to be exhausted on the 13th. 

The weariness of the march was greater than it should have 
been because the Sepoys persisted in overburdening the camels, 
which they could easily do as Dr. Livingstone was wholly un- 
accustomed to the animals. The sun too was beating: on them 
with great force, and the men taking their turns with fever. 

Arab guides are not better than other guides. It is generally 
the case that those who guide us for our convenience and their 
profit seem very unconcerned about how well we are served if 
our ignorance only abets their impositions. Guides had lied to 
justify their misguidance before the time of Ben Ali, and if they 
are not watched they will do it when the wind is playing with 
leaves above his grave. The particular guide in question now, 
as it turned out, owed a duty to a certain comely Makonde wo- 
man, who resided some distance from the proper path, and like 
a dutiful husband, though an undutiful guide, vowed that the 
wrong way was the right one as positively as ever an attorney 
asserted the worse the better reason until his point was carried. 
It seems to be no trouble to the Arab guide any more than to 
an attorney when the point is carried to confess the " sharpness " 
of the transaction ; and Ben Ali guided his employer back when 
he had comforted his spouse and reassured her of his affection 
as pleasantly as he had led him aside. The policy of the Arabs 
is like that of the Portuguese — they strengthen their influence 
with the natives by coming down to them. They do not elevate 
the African by it. They only degrade themselves and increase 
the difficulties to be met by those w r ho aim at the elevation of 
the people in the scale of manhood. 

The people among whom they were passing were very rude. 
The women particularly seemed to ignore all restraints, and sur- 
passed the men in the indecency of their deportment. The men, 
like true lovers, engaged with eagerness in cutting a path, and 
the hope of having a yard or two of cloth to make their wives' 
dresses imparted marvellous charms to the hard work ; it was de- 
lightful to hear their merry shouts and witness the almost childish 



428 ALONG THE EOVUMA. 

glee with which they marched against the most cruel jungles of 
thorns and briers. The higher up the river they went the more 
extravagantly barbarous were the specimens of tattooing and 
lip-rings which presented themselves. There were very few 
animals seen, hardly any indeed ; none exist scarcely in the 
country through which they passed except elephants, hippopotami 
and pigs. 

Ascending the Rovuma, they were still in the territory of the 
Makonde, and retracing in large measure the former route, ex- 
cept that instead of sailing along the river they were walking 
along the highlands and valleys. Now and then a familiar face 
was presented to the doctor, and some faces associated rather un- 
pleasantly Avith the events of his former expedition. The camels 
and buffaloes were frequently bitten by the tsetse without ex- 
hibiting special inconvenience. 

At the Nan gad i river, a broad stream which rises in a lakelet 
some eight or ten miles from the Rovuma, begins the territory 
of the Mabiha. A few miles above this gap the southern high- 
lands fall away, and there are broad marshes known as the Ma- 
tembwe flats ; numerous lakelets are seen glistening in the sun- 
shine here and there ; and away from these flats extends the 
Matembwe country, famous for its beautiful women, and boasting 
an astonishing supply of elephants and gum-copal. Such a 
country could hardly fail to attract the Arab traders. 

On the 25th of April Dr. Livingstone was at a village called 
Nachuchu, enjoying the day of rest so welcome to the man who 
has fulfilled the conditions of life on which the great Judge pre- 
dicated the consecration of the seventh day. Men only find 
occasion to complain of one of God's requirements when they 
isolate it. No one command of God is hard when the others 
are kept. Nobody will think the Sabbath dull who approaches 
it prepared for its rest to body and spirit by a faithful employ- 
ment of the six days, and by a proper appreciation of the rela- 
tions so clearly set forth in the Bible. Livingstone was greatly 
disappointed in not being able to communicate with the natives. 
The Nassick boys, on whom he had depended as understanding 
their language, failed him utterly, and he could only take such 
representations of them as Ali gave ; he had only the opinions 
of his class, and men are easily convinced of the impracticability 



TROUBLES WITH FOLLOWERS. 429 

of that which they are unwilling to attempt. It is easier to 
say that such heathen as these along the Rovuma cannot be 
taught anything than it is to teach them, therefore the covetous 
representatives of the Moslem creeds say with eagerness: "They 
cannot be instructed ; they know nothing of God ; have no idea 
of God ; it is impossible ; " that is the way Ben Ali talked about 
the Makonde on Sunday at Nachuchu. 

While examining a specimen of the gum-copal tree with some 
of these Makonde, in the vicinity of Nachuchu, there was at 
least a little evidence picked up which contradicted the Arabs' 
representations. The people dig in the vicinity of modern trees 
in the belief that more ancient trees, which dropped their gum 
before it became an article of commerce, must have stood there. 
Speaking of this, some of them said : " In digging none may be 
found on one day, but God (Mungu) may give it to us on the 
next." This simple remark, made as naturally as any other, 
revealed certainly more than an idle dream only of God. It 
breathed much like faith, and not improbably expressed a spirit 
of submission to God and dependence on his care which Ben 
Ali had never dreamed of, although a boasting follower of 
Mohammed. 

As may be seen by a glance at the map, Livingstone was only 
about one hundred miles from the coast at Nachuchu. The 
villanous vagabonds who had charge of his camels subjected 
him to the inconvenience of distressingly slow travel. The 
difficulties had been great enough supposing his attendants the 
best, but between rascally Sepoys and impenetrable jungles it 
had been impossible to make more than four miles a day. After 
leaving Nachuchu the country was more open, and the party ad- 
vanced without the continual cutting that had been necessary 
before. Livingstone described the scenery as beautiful. The 
country was covered with great masses of umbrageous foliage, 
mostly of a dark green color ; the leaves of nearly all the trees 
have the glossiness of the laurel. The kumbe or gum-copal 
tree is conspicuous among the trees of these forests, and perhaps 
possesses for the traveller more interest than any other on ac- 
count of the important contribution it makes to the commerce 
of the country. Burton makes more particular mention of this 
tree than Dr. Livingstone does : he says, " it is by no means a 
22 



430 THE GUM-COPAL TREE. 

scrubby thorn, as some have supposed ; its towering bole has 
formed canoes sixty feet long, and a single tree has sufficed for 
the kelson of a brig. The average size, however, is about half 
that height, with from three to six feet girth near the ground ; 
the bark is smooth ; the lower branches are often within the 
reach of a man's hand, and the tree frequently emerges from a 
natural ring-fence of dense vegetation ; the trunk is of a yellowish 
whitish tinge, rendering the tree conspicuous amid the dark 
African jungle growths ; it is dotted with exudations of raw gum 
which is found scattered in bits around its base, and is infested 
by ants, especially by a long ginger-colored and semi-transparent 
variety, called by the people maji-m'oto, which means boiling 
water, from its fiery bite. 

The special interest attaching to the tree is on account of its 
gum, which is probably the only article convertible into the 
finer varnishes now so extensively in use throughout the civilized 
world. It is not the gum which is collected from the trees 
which possesses this peculiar excellence. This is distinguished 
as raw copal, and is of comparatively little value. The true or 
ripe copal, properly called sandumsi, is the produce of vast ex- 
tinct forests. The gum buried at depths beyond atmospheric 
influence has, like amber and similar gum-resins, been bitu- 
menized in all its purity, the volatile principles being fixed by 
moisture and by the expulsion of external air. There are many 
tints and peculiarities known only to those whose interests com- 
pel them to search them out. As a rule, the clear and semi- 
transparent are the best. According to some authorities, the 
gum when long kept has been observed to change its tinge. 
There are nearly one million pounds of this valuable substance 
exported every year from Zanzibar. 

Another tree deserving special mention was the malole. The 
grain of the wood of this tree is particularly fine, and it is 
sought among all the trees because of its excellence in the quali- 
ties of strength and elasticity ; nearly all the bows of the country 
are made of it. The fruit, however, though so very tempting 
to the eye, forms only a feast for maggots. 

Livingstone appreciated very highly the natural beauties of 
the region. But as he advanced, the unworthy Indian attend- 
ants became increasingly worthless. They possessed marvellous 



EXTRAVAGANT TATTOOING. 431 

voracity, and, besides, a most unnatural capacity, which without 
any peculiar attainment would have told dreadfully on the 
stock in store of precious food. Besides their wonderful capacity 
they were most remarkable dyspeptics; accomplished beyond 
all conception in the unpardonably wasteful art of ejecting in- 
stantaneously what they had eaten, their voracious powers 
were only equalled by their amazing vomition. 

If those Sepoys were specimens of their class, then would we 
advise all travellers to beware of Sepoys. From the frequency 
with which Livingstone complained of this batch Ave are im- 
pressed that they should have gone with him for nothing and 
paid extra board besides. Either the cruelties of these men or 
the tsetse, or both, were beginning to tell on the camels and the 
buffaloes. They were rapidly becoming a burden rather than a 
help. The people, however, when they had food were quite 
generous. The villages of the Makonde were generally quite 
cleanly and pleasant looking. These were sometimes found in 
a state of anxiety on account of the kidnapping proclivities of 
their neighbors on the south side of the Rovuma, who bear the 
general name of Mabiha. These people are considerably inter- 
ested in furnishing slaves for the Ibo market, and not unfre- 
quently, if occasion offers, the women of the Makonde become 
victims. There is hardly a sadder picture of home life than is 
presented by a little African village about which a hasty stockade 
has been thrown, behind which the people go timidly about their 
duties, in hourly expectation of the enemy who has fixed avaricious 
eyes on the choicest of their number. 

After crossing the N'Konya, a beautiful stream flowing out of 
the highlands from the north into the Rovuma, the last of the 
range which flanks the river on that side was seen, and the 
country which lay before them was a plain, with a few detached 
granitic peaks shooting up. In this neighborhood there were 
some very remarkable specimens of personal ornamentation dis- 
played with unconcealed pride. The fashion of the region 
called for an extravagance of tattooing. The lovely belles who 
displayed their proportions with shameless freedom were not 
only adorned, as are other maidens of the land, about their faces 
and breasts, but their entire persons seem to have been at the 
command of the artist, and especially elaborate were the designs 



432 TOP OF THE FASHION. 

that graced the humbler parts. The hips displayed uncommon 
skill, and were surpassed only by the eccentricities which were 
traced along those posterior convexities which our refined con- 
ventionality blushes to denominate — but African belles are not 
ashamed of their buttocks. One of these beauties called at the 
doctor's camp at the village of Nyamba, and presented a very 
acceptable basket of soroko and a fowl, and as a specimen of the 
native women of the section it may be mentioned that this lady 
is described as " tall and well made, with fine limbs and feet." 
Such language, too, from so sober an observer as Dr. Living- 
stone, viewing people as he did with the eye of a scientist, means 
more in Africa than it could mean in those nearer climes where 
the arts of civilization have so greatly facilitated the disguise of 
all deformities and imperfections ; there is no place for shams, 
no possibility of padding in a land where a lady's attire consists 
of a Yew strands of beads, and possibly a few inches of cloth. 

After leaving the end of the range, passing westward, the 
"journal " mentions, among the noticeable natural changes, 
" first of all, sandstone hardened by fire ; then masses of granite, 
as if in that had been contained the igneous agency of partial 
metamorphosis ; it had also lifted up the sandstone, so as to 
cause a dip to the east. Then the syenite or granite seemed as 
if it had been melted, for it was all in stria?, which strise, as 
they do elsewhere, run east and west. With the change in geo- 
logic structure there was a different vegetation. Instead of the 
laurel-leaved trees of various kinds, African ebonies, acacias, 
and mimosse appeared, the grass is shorte'r and more sparse, and 
we can move along without wood-cutting." 

Between the Sepoys and the tsetse the animals were now 
pretty well used up, and they were about entering a section 
where a double misfortune had spread distressing desolation 
among the people. Livingstone determined to leave the Sepoys 
and the Nassick boys with the animals at Jponde, which stood 
opposite a gigantic hill on the south side of the river called 
Nakapuri. He thought it was wiser to depend on those behind 
no further than was necessary, so he transferred all his goods to 
carriers and set out, heartily glad to be relieved for a time at 
least of the provoking incubus of eighteen or twenty lazy fel- 
lows who were retarding his work almost insufferably. 



ARRIVAL AT NYOMANO. 433 

One of the plagues to which the country had been subject was 
an invasion of the Mazitu, whose plundering propensities con- 
stitute one of the most serious evils in all the lake region ; 
another was a very distressing drought. As he advanced the 
embarrassment became greater. The Mazitu had swept the 
land like a cloud of locusts. They had inspired the whole popu- 
lation with terror. It was almost impossible to get his carriers 
along, and as the south side of the river promised better fare he 
at length consented to their entreaties, and they passed over and 
journeyed on to the Loendi just above its confluence with the 
Rovurna, and though it retained the name Loendi, it was mani- 
festly the parent stream. Both rivers were rapid, shoal and 
sandy, with light canoes gliding about on them, in whose dex- 
terous management the natives take great pride. 

Xyomano was at last reached. It occupied the very impor- 
tant situation just at the confluence of the two rivers. Matu- 
mova, the head man, received Livingstone with great cordiality 
and respect; he had himself crossed the Loendi and superin- 
tended the transportation of the party, and though he had been 
sadly impoverished, and his people reduced to absolute want, 
he generously divided his small store with Dr. Livingstone as 
long as he remained at his village. The guide, Ben Ali, was dis- 
charged, and the country around scoured by the men in search 
of food. Meantime, also, word was sent back to the Sepoys, 
but his efforts to make something of them were more honorable 
to himself than effectual. The time passed heavily ; very short 
marches. The journal of his travels for days contains very 
little besides the annoyances experienced with his trifling escort : 
they had so abused the camels that they were most of them 
dead, and none of them any longer fit for service, while they 
themselves could scarcely be trusted to carry anything of value. 
In the Matembwe country he was in the favorite fields of the 
Arab slave-traders. Everywhere the huts were seen which 
these traders had built to screen themselves from the sun. Many 
of the people were found supplied with guns, and the ground 
was strewn with slave-taming sticks, which gave sorrowful evi- 
dence of the multitudes of poor creatures who had fallen down 
under the* cruelties of their masters while on the march to the 
market at the coast. Livingstone was now indeed penetrating 



434 



THE SLAVE-TRADE. 



the continent for the special purpose of deciding some great 
geographical questions as fully as it might be in his power, but 
his great heart was full of anguish as he contemplated daily the 
misery which this accursed traffic had brought to the poor un- 
taught beings who had been made its victims. 

The temptation which these traders have to offer readily 
affects the minds of many of the natives who exercise a petty 
authority over their fellows. Sometimes those who are sold are 
captives in some village war; sometimes they are accused of 
a trifling crime as a justification, and they are sometimes simply 
taken by violence and sold. There is very little difficulty about 
an Arab with beads or cloth obtaining all the claim he desires to 
any particular man or woman on whom he may fix his choice, 
and when once the slave yoke is on the unfortunate creature, he 
may hardly hope to escape. On the 19th of June, Livingstone 
mentions passing a woman tied by the neck to a tree dead ; at 
other times men were found stabbed, some who had been shot or 
struck with the axe. These the natives said were those who had 
been so unfortunate as to fall down of fatigue ; they were no 
longer able to walk, and must become the victims of the anger 
of their masters, when it was clear that they could not con- 
tribute to their wealth. Livingstone lost no opportunity to 
urge on the minds of the head men of the villages with whom he 
came in contact the great and irreparable mischief they were 
doing themselves by hearkening to the voice of their tempters ; 
warning them that the trade which seemed to enrich them for 
the time was rapidly depopulating their villages, leaving their 
gardens desolate and diminishing their strength. These head 
men seemed to be a little uneasy about it. They recognized the 
unrighteousness of selling their people even according to their 
rude ideas of justice and wisdom, but they were up to the old 
trick of blaming some one else for their faults. Village after 
village which was passed as the party journeyed along the 
Rovuma was found deserted. One of these villages had only 
been deserted a few hours before Livingstone entered it ; its in- 
habitants had moved off in a body towards the Notembue coun- 
try, where food was more abundant, and a poor little girl was 
found in one of the huts. She was too weak to travel, and had 
been left behind, and there is a wealth of tenderness in the 



THE MAKOA. 437 

simple entry which is found in the great traveller's journal — 
" probably she was an orphan." His own children were far 
away ; their mother had gone on to her rest ; he was toiling for 
the redemption of Africa. Who knows with what depth of 
feeling the great man, sitting in his lonely hut that night, wrote 
the sad-sounding sentence about a poor little abandoned African 
child? — "probably she was an orphan." Surely our hearts 
ought not to be hard toward these unfortunate people. The 
children of Africa may not have evinced the same talents, may 
not indeed possess the same capacities as those about our fire- 
side?, but they are children, needing tenderness and love. 

The Makoa, who occupy the section along the Rovuma, lived 
in the southeast in former times, and "were distinguished by the 
tattoo mark, which was in the shape of a half-moon. But since 
they have lived in the Waiyau country, they have adopted marks 
more like theirs. They are less scrupulous about their diet 
than the Makonde. They eat the flesh of all such animals as 
they esteem clean. They condemn that of the hyena and leop- 
ard, or any beast which devours dead men. One of the most 
prominent of the head men of this tribe, whose name was Chiri- 
kaloma, informed Dr. Livingstone that they were the descend- 
ants of an ancestor whose name was Mirazi, and that this was 
properly the surname of the tribe. Near one of these villages 
Livingstone observed a wand bent down and both ends inserted 
into the ground : a lot of medicine, usually the bark of trees, is 
buried beneath it. When sickness is in a village, the men pro- 
ceed to the spot, wash themselves with the medicine and water, 
creep through beneath the bough, then bury the medicine and 
the evil influence together. This is also used to keep off evil 
spirits, wild beasts, and enemies. The people do not seem as 
superstitious either as some of the tribes that have come to our 
notice. In the matter of deformities, for instance, Dr. Living- 
stone was asking Chirikaloma about their treatment of albinos; 
he assured the doctor that the Makoa never killed them. The 
parental tenderness does not relinquish the child because of any 
blemish, as in some other communities. Livingstone was told 
of a child in this tribe which was deformed from his birth. He 
had an abortive toe where his knee should have been ; some said 
to his mother, " Kill him ; " but she replied, " How can I kill 



438 A WOMAN RESCUED. 

my son ? " He grew up and had many fine sons and daughters, 
but none deformed like himself. 

After leaving the village of Chirikaloma, while passing along 
in the bright morning, they were loudly accosted by a well- 
dressed woman who had just had a very heavy slave-taming 
stick put on her neck ; she called in such an authoritative tone 
to them to witness the flagrant injustice of which she was the 
victim that all the men stood still and went to hear the case. 
She was a near relative of Chirikaloma, and was going up the 
river to her husband, when the old man (at whose house she was 
now a prisoner) caught her, took her servant away from her, and 
kept her in the degraded state they saw. The withes with 
which she was bound were green and sappy. The old man said, 
in justification, that she was running away from Chirikaloma, 
and he would be offended with him if he did not secure her. 

Livingstone asked the officious old gentleman in a friendly 
tone what he expected to receive from Chirikaloma, and he said, 
"Nothing." Several slaver-looking fellows came about, and he 
felt sure that the woman had been seized in order to sell her to 
them, so he gave the captor a cloth to pay to Chirikaloma if he 
were offended, and told him to say that he, feeling ashamed to 
see one of his relatives in a slave-stick, had released her, and 
would take her on to her husband. 

This woman was evidently a lady among them ; her supe- 
riority not only consisted in the rank which a wealth of fine 
beads indicated, but she was manifestly a woman of uncommon 
spirits. She proved herself well worthy of the kindness she had 
received. During the few days in which she was with Living- 
stone's party, her deportment was that of a lady, kind and help- 
ful, but modest and retiring enough to satisfy even the fastidious 
prudence of the most refined. And she was not ungrateful. She 
had been rescued from a dreadful fate indeed ; a few moments 
earlier or later she might have reached no friendly, pitying 
ears with her cries. Yes, there are ears always open to the cry 
of the oppressed ; there are eyes that always bend pityingly on 
the suffering. Sometimes the Lord allows the yoke to cut 
deeply into the neck that bears it, but does he ever forget to be 
gracious? Will he disregard the cry of Ethiopia when she 
stretches out her hands unto him ? and when the time of his de- 



HORRORS OF THE TRADE IN SLAVES. 441 

liverance comes, will he not avenge the wrongs which he has 
witnessed ? 

The marks of the dreadful trade became more and more fre- 
quent as he penetrated the Waiyau country. They had hardly 
released Akosakone, when they passed a slave woman shot or 
stabbed through the body, and lying in the path. A group of 
men stood about a hundred yards off on one side, and another 
group of women on the other ; they said this cruel murder had 
just been committed by an Arab who passed by, in his anger at 
losing the price he had paid for her, when he saw that she could 
walk no farther. The head men of the villages seemed greatly 
troubled and alarmed when they were told of so many dead 
bodies of their people, who had been killed by the slavers, and 
were not blind to the reasoning of Livingstone when he at- 
tempted to show them that those who sold these poor creatures 
to the Arabs were sharers with them in the guilt of these mur- 
ders. As the party came nearer Mtarika's place, the country 
became more mountainous, and the land, sloping for a mile down 
to the south bank of the Rovuma, supports a large population. 
Some were making new gardens by cutting down trees and 
piling the branches for burning; others had stored up large 
quantities of grain and were moving it to a new locality, but 
•they were all so well supplied with calico (Merikano) that they 
would not look at Dr. Livingstone's; the market was, in fact, 
glutted by slavers from Quiloa (Kilwa). On asking why peo- 
ple were seen tied to trees to die as we had seen them, they gave 
the usual answer that the Arabs tie them thus and leave them 
to perish, because they are vexed, when the slaves can walk no 
farther, that they have lost their money by them. The path was 
almost strewed with slave-sticks, and though the people denied 
it, Livingstone suspected that they made a practice of following 
slave caravans and cutting off the sticks from those who fall out 
in the march, and thus stealing them. By selling them again 
they might get additional quantities of cloth. Some asked for 
gaudy prints, of which he had none, because he knew that the 
general taste of the Africans of the interior is for strength 
rather than show in what they buy. 

These people were, however, so well supplied with white 
calico by the slave-traders that it was found to be a drug in the 



442 CURRENCY FOR AFRICA. 

market; it was impossible to get food for it. Mtarika's old 
place was reached first. The Rovuma was there about one 
hundred yards wide. The rest which was indulged in at this 
point was refreshing, as rest must ever be to honest workers who 
take it with clear consciences ; but it was obtained at a cost 
which almost turned the edge of it. The accommodations were 
paid for dearly with the best table clothes. The reader has 
surely come to understand long ago that, in Africa, the only 
bank notes are pieces of cloth, and the only hard money, beads 
and the like. When Mr. Stanley entered Africa in search of 
Dr. Livingstone, he carried several tons of currency, and then 
was sometimes in danger of running short. With the uncom- 
mon outlay at the resting-place he obtained only one meal a day. 
The people were Waiyau, as were all the people from there on 
to the lake. They are as deeply interested in the slave-trade as 
any people in East Africa, and copy the Arabs in various 
matters — dress, chewing tobacco, etc. The list of animals had 
now dwindled down to a poodle-dog, known in the camp as 
Chitaue, a buffalo calf, and a single donkey. These were nearly 
as great curiosities in the land as the white man himself. 
Nothing which Livingstone could find out indicated that the 
people had ever seen a white man before. 

At the new town of Mtarika, which was entered, after a short • 
march, on the 3d of July, they came on an interesting scene. 
This chief had gathered about him an. immense population, and 
the new town had been laid out quite regularly over an area 
miles in extent. Mtarika was a " big ugly man," full of caution 
and curiosity. 

It seemed unadvisable to attempt to follow the Rovuma 
farther. Livingstone had now no doubt about its flowing from 
Lake Nyassa, which was oniy about sixty miles away ; and to 
continue on that route he wouid be subjected to great incon- 
venience because of the unsalableness of his goods, as the 
markets in that direction were clearly overstocked already by 
the Arabs ; besides they would be compelled, as he ascertained, 
to cross several rivers flowing into the Rovuma from the south, 
and then in passing around the northern end of the lake would 
be among the Nindi, who are only surpassed in their thieving 
propensities by the Mozitu, whom they have succeeded as occu- 



EXTRACT FROM LAST JOURNAL. , 443 

pants of the land. It was therefore determined to turn south- 
ward and push on a good eight days march across a desolate 
region to the town of Mataka. Accordingly on the morning 
of the 5th the party passed on to Mtendi, the last chief, until 
they should reach Mataka. It was a serious undertaking — eight 
days journey through a wilderness desolated by famine, where 
no human habitation could be expected to appear, but Living- 
stone was accustomed to serious undertakings. A page or two 
from Livingstone's journal, just as the experiences were put down 
on the evening of each day, cannot fail to interest the reader, 
and we are glad to have it at hand. 

"July 7. — "We got men from Mtendi to carry loads and show 
the way. He asked a cloth to ensure his people going to the 
journey's end and behaving properly ; this is the only case of 
anything like tribute being demanded in this journey. I gave 
him a cloth worth 5s. Qd. Upland vegetation prevails ; trees 
are dotted here and there among bushes five feet high, and fine 
blue and yellow flowers are common. We pass over a succession 
of ridges and valleys as in Londa ; each valley has a running 
stream or trickling rill ; garden willows are in full bloom, and 
also a species of sage with variegated leaves beneath the flowers. 

"July 8. — Hard travelling through a depopulated country. 
The trees are about the size of hop-poles, with abundance of tall 
grass ; the soil is sometimes a little sandy, at other times that 
reddish, clayey sort which yields native grain so well. The 
rock seen uppermost is often a ferruginous conglomerate, lying 
on granite rocks. The gum-copal tree is here a mere bush, and 
no digging takes place for the gum : it is called mchenga, and 
yields gum when wounded, as also bark, cloth, aud cordage 
when stripped. Mountain masses are all around us ; we sleep 
at Linata mountain. 

"July 9. — The Masuko fruit abounds : the name is the same 
here as in the Batoka country ; there are also rhododendrons of 
two species, but the flowers white. We slept in a wild spot, 
near Mount Leziro, with many lions roaring about us ; one 
hoarse fellow serenaded us a long time, but did nothing more. 
Game is said to be abundant, but we saw none, save an occa- 
sional diver springing away from the path. Some streams ran 
to the northwest to the Lismyando, which flows north for the 
Rovuma ; others to the southeast for the Loeudi. 



444 A DESERTED VILLAGE. 

"July 10 and 11. — Nothing to interest but the same weary 
trudge : our food so scarce that we can only give a handful or 
half a pound of grain to each person per day. The Masuko 
fruit is formed, but not ripe till rains begin ; very few birds are 
seen or heard, though there is both food and water in the many 
grain-bearing grasses and running streams, which we cross at 
the junction of every two ridges. A dead body lay in a hut by 
the wayside; the poor thing had begun to make a garden by the 
stream, probably in hopes of living long enough (two months 
or so) on wild fruits to reap a crop of maize. 

"July 12. — A drizzling mist set in during the night and con- 
tinued this morning ; we set off in the dark, however, leaving 
our last food for the havildar and Sepoys who had not yet come 
up. The streams are now of good size. An Arab brandy bottle 
was lying broken in one village called Msapa. We hurried on 
as fast as we could to the Luatize, our last stage before getting 
to Mataka's ; this stream is rapid, about forty yards wide, waist 
deep, with many podostemons on the bottom. The country gets 
more and more undulating and is covered with masses of green 
foliage, chiefly Masuko trees, which have large hard leaves. 
There are hippopotami farther down the river on its way to the 
Loendi. A little rice which had been kept for me I divided, 
but some did not taste food. 

"July 13. — A good many stragglers behind, but we push on 
to get food and send it back to them. The soil all reddish clay, 
the roads baked hard by the sun, and the feet of many of us 
are weary and sore : a weary march and long, for it is perpetually 
up and down now. I counted fifteen running streams in one 
day : they are at the bottom of the valley which separates the 
ridges. We got to the brow of a ridge about an hour from 
Mataka's first gardens, and all were so tired that we remained 
to sleep ; but we first invited volunteers to go on and buy food, 
and bring it back early next morning : they had to be pressed 
to do this duty. 

"July 14. — As our volunteers did not come at 8 a.m., I set 
off to see the cause, and after an hour of perpetual up and down 
march, as I descended the steep slope which overlooks the first 
gardens, I saw my friends start up at the apparition — they were 
comfortably cooking porridge for themselves ! I sent men of 



A MODEL TOWN OF AFRICA. 



445 



Mataka back with food to the stragglers behind and came into 
his town." 

An Arab, Sef Rupia, or Rubia, head of a large body of slaves 
on his way to the coast, most kindly came forward and presented 
the doctor with an ox, a bag of flour and some cooked meat, an 
extremely welcome offering indeed ! 

Mataka's town was found to consist of about a thousand 
houses, and around it clustered many small villages. All about 
them were mountains, clothed in lovely green. It was a very 
beautiful spot, and though only recently selected the people of 
this chief were already entirely at home. It must be under- 
stood that towns may spring up in a night almost in a country 
where all the structures are so simple and temporary ; an entire 
tribe may settle comfortably with almost as much despatch as 
an army can pitch its tents. The famous chieftain, Mataka, 
kept his visitor waiting some time on the verandah of his house, 
but when he made his appearance his good-natured face was 
wreathed in smiles. He was about sixty, dressed as an Arab, 
and too good-humored to conceal his enjoyment of a good laugh ; 
and it was not long before he had the weary traveller snugly 
set up in a square house like his own, where we will allow him 
a little breathing time. 




axe, etc. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

APPROACHING NYASSA. 

A Guest of Mataka — The Waiyau — Livingstone and the Arabs — The Town of 
Moerabe — Iron Smelting — Causes of Desolation — Waiyau Described — Living- 
stone's Desires — Slave-Trade : Does it Pay ? — Sepoys sent back — Mountains — 
Springs — Iron — Approaching Nyassa — Livingstone's Review of his Route — 
The Watershed — Geological Formations — Kindness of the People — The Single 
Curse — An Example of Christians — Inconvenience of being English — Arabs 
as Settlers — A Doubtful Question Settled — Pota Mimba — Around the Foot of 
the Lake — No Earthquake Known — Sites of Old Villages — Brooks — The First 
European Seen — " God Took Him " — Wikatani Finds Relatives — Salt-Making 
— Eighty-five Slaves in a Pen — Work Honorable. 

In our comfortable homes, surrounded by the conveniences 
and extravagances afforded by culture and wealth, the prospect 
of two weeks' recreation in an African village where no white 
man had ever been before, with only a hut of wattle and daub 
to shield us from the rays of a tropical sun and the prying gaze 
of curious barbarians, only the rude fare of people who followed 
the simplest suggestions of nature in their culinary art, and the 
society of the most untutored heathen, would hardly be called 
delightful ; but after the weariness and anxiety of a long march 
across a thoroughly desolate country, after having been deprived 
of every comfort, travelling many days with hardly food enough 
to sustain life, Dr. Livingstone was fully prepared to appreciate 
the kindness of Mataka very highly. The chief proved himself 
a very generous, hospitable ma#, and received kindly the sug- 
gestions of Dr. Livingstone, and seemed to enjoy exceedingly 
conversation about the customs and improvements of the coun- 
try of the white man. He had been a very active participant 
in the slave-trade, and winced sometimes under the arguments 
of his visitor, which seemed to convict him of great folly and 
wrong in that matter. His town is not far from the Nyassa 
country, toward which Livingstone was journeying. The 
Waiyau have been pretty generally supplied with guns and 
446 



LIVINGSTONE AND THE ARABS. 447 

such other appliances of war as may make them useful allies of 
the Arab traders. The plan pursued by these traders, with 
considerable success, is to come into a Waiyau village, show the 
goods they have brought, are treated liberally by the elders, and 
told to\wait and enjoy themselves, slaves enough to purchase all 
will be procured : then a foray is made against the Manganja, 
who have few or no guns. The Waiyau who come against 
them are abundantly supplied with both by their coast guests. 
Several of the low-coast Arabs, who differ in nothing from the 
"Waiyau, usually accompany the foray, and do business on their 
own account : Mataka himself said that he was growing 
tired of it and desired to settle down in quiet. It was not 
the policy of Livingstone, as some have supposed, to put him- 
self in antagonism with the traders who were traversing the 
country ; he was only an individual, and bent immediately on 
the solution of problems connected with the great water-courses 
of the country, a work bearing, indeed, directly, but only re- 
motely, on the condition of the people of the continent. He was, 
however, a Christian man, a philanthropist, a missionary at 
heart, and as far as lay in his power sought to break the power 
of the evil which he saw extending its mighty coils all over the 
land. The Arabs always sought to avoid him, apprehending 
that his mission was to break up their trade. He had no 
thought of doing that, except so far as it might be diminished 
by the moral influence he should be able to exert. And on this 
journey, as on those through the more southern country, the 
personal power of the man was shown, as much as in anything 
else, by the readiness with which he impressed his ideas of right 
on the minds of the people among whom he appeared as an 
entire stranger. 

Livingstone was particularly favorably impressed with the 
country surrounding Moembe, as Mataka's town was called. 
Immense tracts of this country lie uninhabited, the scene only 
of the undisturbed revelry of wild beasts. To the northeast of 
the town at least fifty miles of splendid land lies neglected — an 
unanswerable protest against the trade which has carried away 
its once thrifty population into bondage. This vast tract pre- 
sents, as Livingstone assures us, unmistakable evidences of 
having supported in other times a prodigious iron-smelting and 



448 THE WAIYAU RACE. 

grain-growing population. Clay pipes, which had been used on 
the nozzles of bellows and inserted into the furnaces, were met 
with everywhere : # these were often vitrified. Then the ridges 
on which maize, beans, cassava, and sorghum had been planted, 
remained unlevelled, attesting the industry of the former inhab- 
itants. Pieces of broken pots, with their rims ornamented with 
very good imitations of basket work, attest that the lady potters 
of old followed here the example given them by their still more 
ancient mothers. The desolation of this splendid region could 
not be attributed to those causes which had operated farther 
south. The ground was fertile, and there were any number of 
fresh, cool fountains. It is a vast succession of hills and valleys, 
with numerous running streams. The un- African sound of 
gushing waters dashing over the rocks was sweet music in his 
ears, and brought back freshly to his mind the charming scenes 
of his own far-away land. He mentions counting fifteen run- 
ning burns of from one to ten yards wide in one day's march 
of about six hours; being in a hilly or rather mountainous 
region, they flow rapidly and have plenty of water-power. In 
July any mere torrent ceases to flow, but these were brawling 
burns with water too cold (61°) for people to bathe in whose 
pores were all open by the relaxing regions nearer the coast. 
This district is very elevated, rising thirty-four hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. The atmosphere is moist, and the 
sky is generally overcast until ten o'clock in the day. 

The Waiyau are described as far from a handsome race, but 
they are not the prognathous beings one sees on the west coast 
either. Their heads are of a round shape ; compact foreheads, 
but not particularly receding ; the alee nasi are flattened out ; 
lips full, and with the women a small lip-ring just turns them 
up to give additional thickness. Their style of beauty is ex- 
actly that which was in fashion when the stone deities were 
made in the caves of Elephanta and Kenora near Bombay. A 
iavorite mode of dressing the hair into little knobs, which was 
in fashion there, is more common in some tribes than in this. 
The mouths of the women would not be so hideous with a small 
lip-ring if they did not file their teeth to points; but they seem 
strong and able for the work which falls to their lot. The men 
are large, strong-boned fellows, and capable of enduring great 



THE DESIRES OF HIS HEAET. 449 

fatigue. They undergo a rite which once distinguished the 
Jews about the age of puberty, and take a new name on the 
occasion. This was not introduced by the Arabs, whose advent 
is a recent event, and they speak of the time before they were 
inundated with European manufactures in exchange for slaves, 
as quite within their memory. 

Besides their healthful and productive locality, they are in 
possession of cattle in considerable numbers. These, however, 
are of rather a small breed, black and white in patches, and 
brown, with humps, but they give milk which is duly prized. 
The sheep are the large-tailed variety, and generally of a black 
color. Fowls and pigeons are the only other domestic animals, 
if we except the wretched village dogs, which the doctor's 
poodle had immense delight in chasing. 

The heart of Dr. Livingstone, always burning with desire to 
see Africa open to the light of the gospel, could hardly have 
failed to fix on such a spot : he saw it not only as offering in- 
ducements to the great gain-loving world, but as proclaiming 
great encouragement to those who were waiting for a footing for 
their missionary enterprises within the heart of the continent. 
As he looked on the fertile gardens and enjoyed the plenty 
which surrounded him, he thought of the abandoned mission 
station at Magomero. He was not blind to the difficulties con- 
fronting and besetting the missionary continually. He did not 
depreciate the losses incurred — losses of money and precious 
lives as well — in prosecuting the work of saving the heathen ; 
but he saw everywhere he went in that land men hazarding as 
much and sacrificing as much for the enslavement of the people 
as the Christian world would need to hazard or sacrifice for 
their conversion, and he reasoned well and rightly when he 
entered in his journal — 

"It struck me after Sef had numbered up the losses that the 
Kilwa people sustained by death in their endeavors to enslave 
people, similar losses on the part of those who go to ( proclaim 
liberty to the captives, the opening of the prison to them that 
are bound' — to save and elevate, need not be made so very 
much of as they sometimes are." 

Livingstone was very far from having lost his interest in the 
missionary work. He had, indeed, been led away from the 



450 MOUNTAINS AND STREAMS. 

more legitimate duties of a Christian teacher, but as an explorer 
he was animated by the same desire to glorify God and do good 
to men which had animated him when he left his native land in 
the first love of his consecration. And to the last he seemed 
always animated by the desire to solve the mysteries of the land 
only that he might the more successfully carry out his great 
scheme of establishing a strong central mission in the heart of 
the country, whence the influences of Christianity might more 
readily penetrate the whole land. 

So much trouble had been experienced with the Sepoys that 
Livingstone was at last obliged to decide against attempting to 
carry them farther. They had sought by every means to pro- 
duce disaffection among his followers and even to excite the 
natives against him. So having arranged for them to return to 
the coast with a respectable trade, he parted company with them 
at Moembe, leaving them a few days in the care of Mataka. 

On the 28th of July Mataka came with a good lot of flour 
and men to guide the party to the lake ; he had before presented 
an ox, and his guests were thus prepared to set out in good 
spirits. There are two roads from his town to the lake — one to 
Losewa, which is west of this, and opposite Kotakota; the 
other, to Makatu, is farther south : the first is five days through 
deserted country chiefly ; but the other, seven, among people and 
plenty of provisions all the way. Mataka told Livingstone 
that he would not send him to Losewa, as that place had been 
recently burned, but by the more southern route, which, though 
a little longer road, was safer and better. The whole country 
was a mass of mountains, and on leaving Moembe the party 
ascended considerably, and toward evening of the first day's 
march the barometer showed the greatest altitude about thirty- 
four hundred feet above the level of the sea. Everywhere in 
these mountains there were villages; generally these villages 
boasted about one hundred houses. Numerous springs — about 
which unmistakable indications of iron appeared — afforded 
abundance of water. Beautiful green grass was waving every- 
where, and flowers of various bright hues. 

The temperature on these mountains was much lower than 
some may dream of in such a latitude ; on the 29th of July, 
about the summit of the range, it was in the morning 55° only. 



Livingstone's keview. 451 

The trees were rather small and became scantier as they descended 
toward the lake, but the ferns, rhododendrons and a foliage tree 
greatly resembling silver fir were frequently seen. 

Every day they came near slave parties, but the Arabs always 
avoided the Englishman. The country though was becoming 
more familiar-looking as they came nearer the Nyassa, and Liv- 
ingstone welcomed the appearance of the familiar grasses and 
the singing birds which now began to add their charms to their 
camping grounds. 

Under date of the 8th of August, a little more than four 
months from the time of his entering the ^puntry, in his jour- 
nal we read : " We came to the lake at the confluence of 
the Misinje, and felt grateful to that Hand which had pro- 
tected us thus far on our journey. It was as if I had come back 
to an old home I never expected again to see." Glancing 
over the district across which we have followed the traveller 
back to the lake on whose waters we remember that he launched 
his little boats some years ago, it will certainly be profitable for 
us to have his own language about its geological features ; con- 
cerning these he says : " The plateaux on each side of the Ro- 
vuma are masses of gray sandstone, capped with masses of ferru- 
ginous conglomerate ; apparently an aqueous deposit. When we 
ascend the Rovuma about sixty miles, a great many pieces and 
blocks of silicified wood appear on the surface of the soil at the 
bottom of the slope up the plateaux. This in Africa is a sure 
indication of the presence of coal beneath, but it was not observed 
cropping out ; the plateaux are cut up in various directions by 
wadys well supplied with grass and trees on deep and somewhat 
sandy soil ; but at the confluence of the Loendi highlands they 
appear in the far distance. In the sands of the Loendi pieces 
of coal are quite common. 

" Before reaching the confluence of the Rovuma and Loendi, 
Or say about ninety miles from the sea, the plateau is succeeded 
by a more level country, having detached granitic masses shoot- 
ing up some five or seven hundred feet. The sandstone of the 
plateau has at first been hardened, then quite metamorphosed 
into a chocolate-colored schist. As at Chilole hill, we have 
igneous rocks, apparently trap, capped with masses of beautiful 
white dolomite. We still ascend in altitude as we go westwards, 



452 GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS. 

and come upon long tracts of gneiss with hornblende. The 
gneiss is often striated, all the striae looking one way — sometimes 
north and south, and at other times east and west. These rocks 
look as if a stratified rock had been nearly melted, and the strata 
fused together by the heat. From these striated rocks have 
shot up great rounded masses of granite or syenite, whose smooth 
sides and crowns contain scarcely any trees, and are probably 
from three to four thousand feet above the sea. The elevated 
plains amo'ng these mountain masses show great patches of fer- 
ruginous conglomerate, which, when broken, look like yellow 
haematite with madrepore holes in it: this has made the soil 
of a red color. 

" On the watershed we have still the rounded granitic hills 
jutting above the plains (if such they may be called), which are 
all ups and downs, and furrowed with innumerable running 
rills, the sources of the Rovuma and Loendi. The highest rock 
observed with mica schist was at an altitude of three thousand 
four hundred and forty feet. The same uneven country prevails 
as we prQceed from the watershed about forty miles down to the 
lake, and a great deal of quartz in small fragments renders 
travelling very difficult. Near the lake, and along its eastern 
shore, we have mica schist and gneiss foliated, with a great deal 
of hornblende ; but the most remarkable feature of it is that the 
rocks are all tilted on edge, or slightly inclined to the lake. 
The active agent in effecting this is not visible. It looks as if 
a sudden rent had been made, so as to form the lake, and tilt all 
these rocks nearly over. On the east side of the lower part of 
the lake we have two ranges of mountains, evidently granitic : 
the nearer one covered with small trees and lower than the other ; 
the other jagged and bare, or of the granitic forms. But in all 
this country no fossil-yielding rock was visible except the gray 
sandstone referred to at the beginning of this note. The rocks 
are chiefly the old crystalline forms." 

The soil of the district is good, and water generally abundant. 
Neither had he suffered particularly in health. If he had been 
escorted by his Makololo the whole journey would have been a 
joyous march. The people of Makonde, Makoa and Waiyau 
had all been generous and kind ; the chiefs had readily rendered 
him all needed assistance, and seemed to appreciate the lessons 



WHICH IS MOKE INSPIRING? 453 

of nobler manhood he had sought to impress on them. Over 
all the district one particular curse had settled and was resting 
with most blighting influence. The people were rude barbarians, 
of course, but were teachable and kind. But no established 
creed or dominant superstition occupied the ground to withstand 
the ingress of Christianity; no popular prejudices stood armed 
guarding the coast against the purer customs of civilization. 
Only the slave-trade, encouraged by foreigners, watched with 
jealous eye every approach of the purer light and ennobling in- 
fluences of a Christian civilization to the villages and homes of 
the unfortunate people on whose ignorance it paid them to 
impose, and whose deepest degradation was the surest source of 
their unholy gains. Relieved of this one evil and the whole 
region over which he had passed might be esteemed as a goodly 
land, where Christian laborers might live peacefully and health- 
fully. And as for the difficulty of access and the transportation 
of supplies — Arabs are not discouraged by these difficulties from 
pressing their trade, which is only for gain, and surely it is 
worth as much to the Christian world to accomplish the re- 
demption of these poor people. The journey to the lake had 
been enlivened by very little of incident. Very few animals 
had been seen, except such harmless ones as excited not even 
a passing notice. But the feat was performed : the old purpose 
of Livingstone to settle the question about the country between 
the mouth of the Rovuma and the Lake Nyassa ; and he was 
once more enjoying the roar of its waves and luxurious baths 
in its delightful waters, and rejoicing in its exhilarating atmos- 
phere. The head man of the village, Mokalaose, was a real 
Manganja, and he and all his people exhibited greater darkness 
of color consequent on being in a warmer, moist climate. He 
was very friendly and presented millet porridge, cassava and 
hippopotamus meat, and asked if Livingstone liked milk, as he 
had some of Mataka's cattle. His people brought a lake fish, 
called sanjika, the best that is caught, for sale. Livingstone 
purchased fifty of these for a fathom of calico, and thought that 
they had very much the taste of herrings. 

The reader may remember that in his Zambesi expedition 
when ascending this lake Livingstone obtained knowledge of an 
Arab settlement on the western shore of the lake, the chief man 



454 INCONVENIENCE OF BEING ENGLISH. 

of which was named Jurabe. He now desired to secure a pas- 
sage across the lake, and knowing Jumbe to be in possession of 
several dhows, despatched messengers to him bearing the letter 
of Seyed Majid — received at Zanzibar — while he busied himself 
with his journal and observations. 

All of his attempts, however, to secure transportation failed, 
and he was under the necessity of making the circuit of the 
southern end of the lake. And naturally enough he felt for 
once that it was rather inconvenient to have the Arabs, even the 
slaves, hold the English name in such dread. The fear which 
the English opposition had inspired these traders with caused 
them to run away from Livingstone on all occasions. This not 
only deprived him of the relief which even the face of an Arab 
might sometimes have contributed, but greatly increased the 
difficulty of sending letters to the coast. Jumbe has made him- 
self particularly notorious in connection with the slave-trade, 
and Livingstone apprehended Mokalaose's fears of the Waiyau 
would make him welcome Jumbe at his town, and then the Arab 
would some day have an opportunity of scattering his people as 
he has done those at Kotakota. He has made Losewa too hot 
for himself. When the people there were carried off by Mataka's 
people, Jumbe seized their stores of grain, and now has no post 
to which he can go there. The Loaugwa Arabs give an awful 
account of Jumbe's murders and selling the people, but one can- 
not take it all in ; at the mildest it must have been bad. This 
is all they ever do ; they cannot form a state or independent 
kingdom : slavery and the slave-trade are insuperable obstacles 
to any permanence inland ; slaves can escape so easily ; all there- 
fore that the Arabs do is to collect as much money as they can 
by hook and by crook, and then leave the country. 

And kind Mokalaose's troubles are not all in apprehension of 
the Arabs ; he boasted a large family, numerous wives and ap- 
pendages, and how could he escape trouble ? He loved to pour 
these afflictions into the ear of the sympathizing white man ; 
among these he was particularly distressed about one of his 
wives who had taken French leave of him. It was no use to 
criticise the too-many-wives custom of these chiefs : they invariably 
fell back into the stronghold of African logic on that question, 
which is summed up in a few words: "Who would cook for 



POTA MIMBA. 455 

strangers if I Lad but one ? " This was a poser, especially see- 
ing the antagonist was a guest himself. Mokalaose was quite a 
gentleman in his way, and was proud to display his hospitality 
after a fashion more familiar in our country than some others. 
One day he invited Dr. Livingstone into his house and presented 
some beer; "I drank a little," says the doctor, "but seeing me 
desist from taking more, he asked me if I wished a servant girl 
to 'pota mimba;' not knowing what was meant, I offered the 
girl the calabash of beer and told her to drink, but this was not 
the intention. He asked if I did not wish more, and then took 
the vessel, and as he drank the girl performed the operation on 
himself. Placing herself in front, she put both hands round 
his waist below the short ribs, and pressing gradually drew them 
round his belly in front. He took several prolonged draughts, 
and at each she repeated the operation as if to make the liquor 
go equally over the stomach." It is possible that some of the 
lordly topers of this land may feel greatly disturbed that it should 
have been left for an African head man to discover this very 
original method of increasing his capacity — or possibly no such 
need is felt by our topers. 

Many matters are mentioned in Dr. Livingstone's journal 
from this point around the extremity of the lake, which would 
be of no special interest woven into a narrative of travel, but 
which should not be omitted in justice to the man who was 
toiling more in the interest of positive knowledge than for the 
entertainment of himself or others; and it seems well that we 
give the reader such extracts from his journal here as may be 
most serviceable to us in forming a distinct idea of the region, 
which is really one of real importance. 

"September 5. — Our march is along the shore to Ngombo 
promontory, which approaches so near to Senga or Tsenga 
opposite, as to narrow the lake to some sixteen or eighteen 
miles. It is a low sandy point, the edge fringed on the north- 
west and part of the south with a belt of papyrus and reeds ; 
the central parts wooded. Part of the south side has high 
sandy dunes, blown up by the south wind, which strikes it at 
right angles there. One was blowing as we marched along 
the southern side eastward, and was very tiresome. We 
reached Panthunda's village by a brook called Lilole. Another 



456 SITES OF OLD VILLAGES. 

we crossed before coming to it is named Libesa : these brooks 
form the favorite spawning-grounds of the sanjika and mpasa, 
two of the best fishes of the lake. The sanjika is very like 
our herring in shape and taste and size ; the mpasa larger every- 
way : both live on green herbage formed at the bottom of the 
lake and rivers. 

"September 7. — Chirumba's village being on the south side 
of a long lagoon, we preferred sleeping on the mainland, though 
they offered their cranky canoes to ferry us over. This lagoon 
is called Pansangwa. 

"September 8. — In coming along the southern side of Ngombo 
promontory we look eastwards, but when we leave it we turn 
southwards, having a double range of lofty mountains on our 
left. These are granitic in form, the nearer range being gener- 
ally the lowest, and covered with scraggy trees ; the second, or 
more easterly, is some six thousand feet above the sea, bare and 
rugged, with jagged peaks shooting high into the air. This is 
probably the newest range. The oldest people have felt no 
earthquake, but some say that they have heard of such things 
from their elders. 

"AVe passed very many sites of old villages, which are easily 
known by the tree euphorbia planted round an umbelliferous 
one, and the sacred fig. One species here throws out strong 
buttresses in the manner of some mangroves instead of sending 
down twiners which take root, as is usually the case with the 
tropical fig. These, with millstones — stones for holding the 
pots in cooking — and upraised clay benches, which have been 
turned into brick by fire in the destruction of the huts, show 
what were once the ' pleasant haunts of men.' 

"September 10. — In marching southwards we came close to 
the range (the lake lies immediately on the other side of it), 
but we could not note the bays which it forms ; we crossed two 
mountain torrents from sixty to eighty yards broad, and now 
only ankle-deep. In flood these bring down enormous trees, 
which are much battered and bruised among the rocks in their 
course ; they spread over the plain, too, and would render travel- 
ling here in the rains impracticable. After spending the night 
at a very civil head man's chefu, we crossed the Lotende, an- 
other of these torrents : each very lofty mass in the range 



TWENTY-FOUR BROOKS. 457 

seemed to give rise to one. Nothing of interest occurred as we 
trudged along. A very poor head man, Pamawawa, presented 
a roll of salt instead of food : this was grateful to us, as we 
have been without that luxury 'Some time. 

"September 13. — We crossed a strong brook called Nkore. 
My object in mentioning the brooks which were flowing at 
this time, and near the end of the dry season, is to give an 
idea of the sources of supply of evaporation. The men enu- 
merate the following, north of the Misinje. Those which are 
greater are marked thus +, and the lesser ones — . 

1. Misinje + has canoes. 

2. Loangwa — 

3. Lesefa — 

4. Lelula — 

5. Nchamanje — 

6. Musumba + 

7. Fubwe + 

8. Chia — 

9. Kisanga + 

10. Bweka — 

11. Chifumero 4- has canoes. 

12. Loangwa — 

13. Mkoho — 

14. Mangwelo — at N. end of lake. 

" Including the above there are twenty or twenty-four peren- 
nial brooks and torrents which give a good supply of water in 
the dry season ; in the wet season they are supplemented by a 
number of burns, which, though flowing now, have their mouths 
blocked up with bars of sand, and yield nothing except by per- 
colation ; the lake rises at least four feet perpendicularly in the 
wet season, and has enough during the year from these peren- 
nial brooks to supply the Shire's continual flow." 

[It will be remembered that the beautiful river Shire carries 
off the waters of Lake Nyassa and joins the Zambesi near 
Mount Morambala, about ninety miles from the sea. It is by 
this water-way that Livingstone always hoped to find an easy 
access to Central Africa. "We will not forget the obstacles which 



458 PAINFUL EEFLECTIONS. 

forced him to seek another path. He could not suppress his 
sorrow when he looked away toward the region watered by that 
river and thought on the disappointments experienced there. 
Many hopes had been wrecked 'there. It was an inexpressible 
feeling of loneliness came over him when he thought on the 
grave of her whose death had changed all his prospects — far 
away down on the right bank of the river under the shadow of 
the great baobab tree ; and the bitter regret with which he re- 
called the easy death of the noble Bishop Mackenzie, and the 
abandonment of the mission enterprise. It does seem sad that 
he should have been called away just when his arduous toils 
were on the eve of their best fruits ; how gladly would he wel- 
come if he was alive now the news that arrangements are defi- 
nitely made for planting strong and permanent missions along 
the Shire!] 

"September 15. — We were now a short distance south of the 
lake, and might have gone west to Mosauka's (called by some 
Pasauka's) to cross the Shire there, but I thought that my visit 
to Mukate's, a Waiyau chief still farther south, might do good. 
He, Mponda, and Kabinga, are the only three chiefs who still 
carry on raids against the Manganja at the instigation of the 
coast Arabs, and they are now sending periodical marauding 
parties to the Maravi (here named Malola) to supply the Kilwa 
slave-traders. We marched three hours southwards, then up 
the hills of the range which flanks all the lower part of the lake. 
The altitude of the town is about eight hundred feet above the 
lake. The population near the chief is large, and all the heights 
as far as the eye can reach are crowned with villages. The 
second range lies a few miles off, and is covered with trees as 
well as the first ; the nearest high mass is Mangoche. The people 
live amidst plenty. All the chiefs visited by the Arabs have 
good substantial square houses built for their accommodation. 
Mukate never saw a European before, and everything about us 
is an immense curiosity to him and to his people. We had long 
visits from him. He tries to extract a laugh out of every re- 
mark. He is darker than the generality of Waiyau, with 
a full beard trained on the chin — as all the people here- 
abouts have — Arab fashion. The courts of his women cover 
a large space, our house being on one side of them. I tried 



"god took him." 459 

to go out that way, but wandered, so the ladies sent a ser- 
vant to conduct me out in the direction I wished to go, and 
we found egress by passing through some huts with two doors 
in them. 

"September 17. — We marched down from Mukate's and to 
about the middle of the Lakelet Pamalombe. Mukate had no 
people with canoes near the usual crossing place, and he sent a 
messenger to see that we were fairly served. Here we got the 
Manganja head men to confess that an earthquake had happened; 
all the others we have inquired of have denied it ; why, I cannot 
conceive. The old men said that they had felt earthquakes 
twice, ouce near sunset and the next time at night — they shook 
everything, and were accompanied with noise, and all the fowls 
cackled ; there was no effect on the lake observed. They profess 
ignorance of any tradition of the water having stood higher. 
Their traditions say that they came originally from the west, or 
west-northwest, which they call ' Maravi ; ' and that their fore- 
fathers taught them to make nets and kill fish. They have no 
trace of any teaching by a higher instructor ; no carvings or 
writings on the rocks ; and they never heard of a book until we 
came among them. Their forefathers never told them that after 
or at death they went to God, but they had heard it said of such 
a one who died, ' God took him.' " 

From the village of Mukate Livingstone was provided with 
a number of canoes in which he and his company passed up to 
the point of junction between the Lakelet Pamalombe and Lake 
Nyassa ; but the people were very timid, and he was under the 
necessity of going on to Mponda's, which lies just south of 
Nyassa. 

In coming from the coast to the lake Livingstone had con- 
siderable trouble in conversing with the natives. All along 
that route the Waiyau language prevails — a language confes- 
sedly hard to master. It was a great relief among the tribes 
about this lake to observe a striking similarity of the language 
to that in use along the Zambesi and the Shire. They were 
again surrounded by those ferocious beasts which are so inti- 
mately associated with African travel in the mind of almost 
every reader. The first day of their stay, at Mponda's town a 
woman was carried off by a lion, and almost entirely eaten 



460 WIKATANI FINDS EELATIVES. 

before being discovered. The fatigues of travel were affecting 
very seriously the dispositions of his followers ; they were be- 
coming more and more dissatisfied, and harassing the doctor 
sadly enough. Before reaching Mponda's village he had lost 
one of the company whom he esteemed very highly. Wika- 
tani had been a favorite with Bishop Mackenzie; he had 
been liberated from bondage into which his friends had 
sold him ; he found some relatives in the neighborhood. 
Concerning the incident Dr. Livingstone wrote about that time 
as follows : 

" He met with a brother, and found that he had two brothers 
and one or two sisters living down at the western shore of Lake 
Pamelombe under Kabinga. He thought that his relatives 
would not again sell him. I had asked him if he wished to re- 
main, and he at once said ' Yes/ so I did not attempt to dissuade 
him : his excessive fevity will perhaps be cooled by marriage. 
I think he may do good by telling some of what he has seen 
and heard. I asked him if he would obey an order from his 
chief to hunt the Manganja, and he said, ' No.' I hope he 
won't. In the event of any mission coming into the country 
of Mataka, he will go there. I gave him paper to write to you, 
and, commending him to the chiefs, bade the poor boy farewell. 
I was sorry to part with him, but the Arabs tell the Waiyau 
chiefs that our object in liberating slaves is to make them our 
own and turn them to our religion. I had declared to them, 
through Wikatani as interpreter, that they never became our 
slaves, and were at liberty to go back to their relatives if they 
liked ; and now it was impossible to object to Wikatani going 
without stultifying my own statements." 

Before reaching Mponda's Dr. Livingstone mentions having 
seen several hundred people making salt on a plain impregnated 
with it. They elixate the soil and filter it through a bunch of 
grass in a hole in the bottom of the pot until all is evaporated. 
Speaking of the country Livingstone says : 

" We held along the plain till we came to Mponda's, a large 
village, with a stream running past. The plain at the village 
is very fertile, and has many large trees on it. The cattle of 
Mponda are like fatted Madagascar beasts, and the hump seems 
as if it would weigh one hundred pounds. The size of body is 



EIGHTY-FIVE SLAVES IN A PEN. 461 

so enormous that their legs, as remarked by our men, seemed 
very small. Mponda is a blustering sort of person, but im- 
mensely interested in everything European. He says that he 
would like to go with me. ' Would not care though he were 
away ten years.' I say that he may die in the journey. ' He 
will die here as well as there, but he will see all the won- 
derful doings of our country.' He knew me, having come 
to the boat, to take a look incognito when we were here for- 
merly." 

In this town Livingstone found an Arab slave-party, and 
went to look at the slaves ; seeing this, Mponda was alarmed 
lest he should proceed to violence in his town, but he said to 
him that he went to look only. Eighty-five slaves were in a 
pen formed of dura stalks (Holcus sorghum). The majority 
were boys of about eight or ten years of age ; others were grown 
men and women. Nearly all were in the taming-stick ; a few 
of the younger ones were in thongs, the thong passing round the 
neck of each. Several pots were on the fires cooking dura and 
beans. A crowd went with him, expecting a scene, but Living- 
stone sat down, and asked a few questions about the journey, in 
front. The slave-party consisted of five or six half-caste coast 
Arabs, who said that they came from Zanzibar ; but the crowd 
made such a noise that nothing could be heard. Livingstone 
asked if they had any objections to his looking at the slaves ; 
the owners pointed out the different slaves, and said that after 
feeding them, and accounting for the losses in the way to the 
coast, they made little by the trip. " I suspect," says the 
doctor, " that the gain is made by those who ship them to the 
ports of Arabia, for at Zanzibar most of the younger slaves we 
saw went at about seven dollars a head. I said to them it was 
a bad business altogether. They presented fowls to me in the 
evening." 

The next day the chief begged so hard that the doctor would 
stay another day and give medicine to a sick child that he con- 
sented. He promised plenty of food, and, as an earnest of his 
sincerity, sent an immense pot of beer in the evening. The 
child had been benefited by the medicine, and in his gratitude 
the poor man gave more than could be taken. 

One very pleasant feature of this country was the interest 



462 WORK ACCOUNTED HONORABLE. 

which all classes took in agricultural work. It did not seem to 
be held to be a servile work as in many other parts of the coun- 
try. While the slaves do the greater part of the work, the 
highest classes consider it very honorable to be so employed. 
The Manganja once had great quantities of first-class cattle, but 
the Waiyau had taken possession of them. 




adze, etc. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

ABOUT NYASSA. 

Geological Notes — The Marenga — Livingstone Preaching — Small-Pox — Inveter- 
ate Thieves — Kirk's Eange — Love Token — Black -haired Sheep — Earthquakes 
— A Toper Chief— A Royal Escort — Whooping-Cough — The Hottest Month — 
Methods of Fertilization — No Animals — Bows and Arrows — Lip-Ring — A Pro- 
phetic Cow — Iron Works — Village of Smiths — Alarm of Mazitu — Native 
Furnaces — Livingstone's Patience — A Disagreeable Head Man — Level Country 
— Portuguese Travellers — A Herd of Buffaloes — Industry — Wild Figs — A 
Formidable Stockade — Trying News — A Steady Faith. 

On the 21st of September, 1866, Livingstone marched to- 
wards the west, crossing Cape Maclear. They crossed hills 
about seven hundred feet above Nyassa; these were covered with 
trees and quite desolate — no inhabitants to be seen. They en- 
camped near the Sikoche. Here the rocks were hardened sand- 
stone, resting on mica-schist, which had an efflorescence of alum 
on it; above this was dolomite; the hills were often capped with 
it and oak -spar, giving a snowy appearance. After seven hours 
of hard travel they arrived at a village where they spent the 
Sabbath by the Usangasi, and near a remarkable mountain, 
Xamasi. This tribe, or rather the Machinga, now supersede 
the Manganja. He speaks of a marked difference in the villages 
of the latter and the Waiyau, who have handsome straw and 
reed fences around their huts, making their villages look much 
neater. They next stopped at a village of Marenga, quite a 
large one, at the bottom of the lake on the eastern side. Find- 
ing the chief quite ill and having a loathsome disease it was 
impossible for him to come to Livingstone. Many of the people 
had gone to the coast as traders, and returning with arms and 
ammunition helped the Waiyau in their forays on the Manganja, 
and finally set themselves up as an independent tribe. They 
cultivate largely, and have cattle, but do not milk them. The 
sponges here, which are formed by the vegetation, " which is not 

healthy and falls and rots and then forms thick loam of a blackish 

463 



464 SMALL-POX SEEN. 

nature, is in masses two or three feet, rests on a bed of pure 
river sand. In the dry season this loam is cracked, and fre- 
quently in as much as three inches in width and very deep. 
The whole surface is now fallen down and rests on the sand, 
hut when the rain comes the first supply is nearly all absorbed 
in the sand. The black loam forms soft slush and floats on the 
sand. The narrow opening prevents it from moving off in a 
land-slip, but an oozing spring rises at that spot. All the pools 
in the lower portion of this spring-course are filled by the first 
rains ; which happen south of the equator when the sun goes 
vertically over any spot. The second or greater rains happen 
in his course north again, when all the bogs or river-courses 
being wet, the supply runs off and forms the inundation ; this 
was certainly the case as observed on the Zambesi and Shire, 
and taking the different times for the sun's passage north of the 
equator it explains the inundation of the Nile." 

The people at the town of Marenga, on Lake Nyassa, gathered 
around Livingstone in great numbers to gaze at him. He took 
the opportunity to point them to the Lamb of God and speak 
of their souls, to which they replied, " Our fathers have never 
told us aught about the soul ; we thought the whole man rotted 
and came to nothing ; " but they listened quite attentively, 
especially when he told them that our Father loved them and 
heard their prayers. He found this village afflicted with small- 
pox, a disease which was quite extraordinary in Africa, and his 
skill was greatly sought by the sufferers. 

On the 26th of September Livingstone was met by an Arab 
who told Musa that the whole country was filled with Mazitu ; 
that forty Arabs and their followers had been killed by them 
at Kasungu and he alone escaped. Musa and all the Johanna 
men now declared they would go no farther. Livingstone 
carried him to Marenga and asked him about the Mazitu. He 
explained by saying the "Arabs and ammunition were brought 
into the country annually, and the Manganja resisted Jumbe and 
would allow no more to come — because they were the sufferers." 

When Livingstone started on his journey the Johanna men 
walked off, leaving the goods on the ground ; he was not 
sorry, however, as they were such inveterate thieves, they 
could not be trusted. The stealing too was not from effect 



A LOVE TOKEN. 465 

of hunger; when there was plenty they stole more. Musa 
shared the dainties stolen by his men ; he would reply when 
Livingstone would speak to him about it, " Me tell them 
every day no man steal doctor's things." At one time one man 
stole fifteen pounds of fine powder, another seven, another left 
six tablecloths out of twenty-four, another called out to a man 
to bring a fish and he would buy it with beads. Musa knew it 
all and connived at it, but terror drove him away at last. 

They arrived at Kimsusa's, below Mount Mulundini of Kirk's 
range (named after Dr. Kirk, who with Dr. Livingstone and 
Mr. Charles Livingstone discovered Lake Nyassa). The chief 
being absent, was sent for. Another Arab passed w T ith a similar 
tale of Mazitu, and stating his slaves were all taken. It is con- 
sidered more respectable to be robbed by Mazitu than by Man- 
ganja, who are considered nobodies. On the 30th of this month, 
being Sabbath, it was spent here, and Kimsusa's entertainment 
was cordiality and beer, but the latter was not accepted by the 
doctor. 

" The chief came quickly, and," says Livingstone, " seemed 
glad to see his old friend ; sent off at once and had a huge 
ram brought, which had either killed or seriously injured 
a man. The animal came tied to a pole to keep him off the 
man who held it, while a lot more carried him. He was pro- 
digiously fat. This is a true African way of showing love — 
plenty of food. Besides the ram, the chief brought a huge 
basket of ' pombe,' the native beer, and another of c usima,' or 
porridge, and a pot of cooked meat." They had so much, how- 
ever, that it was impossible to carry what was given. The sheep - 
are of the black-haired kind ; their tails grow very large. A 
ram given by a Waiyan chief previously had a tail which 
weighed eleven pounds ; but for the journey doubtless an addi- 
tional two or three pounds would have been on it. Kimsusa 
said that earthquakes were felt where Mpanda now lives, 
but none where he is. He seemed changed, especially seemed 
more rational about the Deity, and said it was owing to the 
advice received from the doctor that his village was larger 
and not from selling his people. On the 2d and 3d the chief 
carried him off to a dense thicket and under lofty trees, to a 
shady spot as the one in which business is transacted ; but he 
24 



466 A ROYAL ESCORT. 

drank beer incessantly, in consequence of which he became ex- 
tremely loquacious. Livingstone reproved him for his loquacity, 
and said that morning was the time if business was to be done, 
proposing to send some of his men to the Babisa country and 
he would pay them there where they could purchase ivory, and 
when they brought it back he could buy clothing without selling 
his people. The chief refused, saying that his people could not 
be trusted, and that he would buy ivory from the Arabs or 
Babisa, who would conduct his business honestly. Finally the 
chief consented to give the doctor carriers to go to the Marabi, 
but wished to be paid first. Livingstone consented to this, but 
he (the chief) could not prevail on any one to go. There was 
a Mobisa man in an adjoining village who was going to his own 
country, and as the chief thought his men would run at the 
first appearance of danger it was decided to go with the Mobisa. 
Dr. Livingstone found him so very ignorant, not knowing even 
the chief town of his country or any of the rivers, that he would 
not have him as a guide. 

Kimsusa came the next day early with a large basket of beer 
and found our friends ready to start, but not relishing this much, 
he declared he would force his men to go or he and his wives 
would go as carriers — begged them to remain. October 6th 
finds our friends about seven miles north, at a village opposite 
the Pass Tapiri, and on a rivulet, Godedza. Kimsusa behaved 
like a king, and his wives carried the loads strapped ; one carried 
beer, another meal. As soon as they got there, cooking com r 
menced. They make a preparation of meal called " toku," which 
the doctor liked very much, and they seeing he liked it made a 
calabashful in the evening ; he thinks he would have gotten 
fat if he could have taken the beer, but it required a strong 
digestion ; a little flesh is necessary to relieve the acidity it caused, 
but this is kept very carefully and dried on a stage before a 
fire to prevent putridity. 

Livingstone spoke of having heard whooping-cough in this 
village; as this disease has not before been reported an African 
one, it is worth notice. He found the Waiyau visitors quite im- 
pudent, forcing themselves into his hut uninvited, demanded 
gun or game medicine, according to a practice the Arabs had 
instituted to drive a trade. As Livingstone neared the Pass 
Tapiri, Kimsusa and his men determined to go. 



KNIFE AND ASSAGAI HEADS. 



BECHITANA KNIVES. 




APRON. 



ORNAMENTS MADE 
OF MONKEYS' TEETH. 



POPULAR INDUSTRIES. 469 

On the 8th of October they got to the first village, and here 
the wives were paid for carrying his things ; the chief offering 
beer and toku, and the latter was accepted by the doctor. They 
sang and clapped their hands until one o'clock in the morning. 
October 9th found them four thousand feet above the sea. This 
is the hottest month, but the air is clear and pleasant. The 
country is very fine, lying in long slopes, with mountains rising 
all around, from two to three thousand feet above this upland. 
They are mostly jagged and rough (not rounded like those near 
to Mataka's) : the long slopes are nearly denuded of trees, and the 
patches of cultivation are so large and often squarish in form 
that but little imagination is requisite to transform the whole 
into the cultivated fields of England ; but no hedgerows exist. 
The trees are in clumps on the tops of the ridges, or at the 
villages, or at the places of sepulture. Just now the young leaves 
are out, but are not yet green. In some lights they look brown, 
but with transmitted light, or when one is near them, crimson 
prevails. A yellowish-green is met sometimes in the young 
leaves, and brown, pink, and orange-red. The soil is rich, but 
the grass is only excessively rank in spots ; in general it is short. 
A kind of trenching of the ground is resorted to ; they hoe deep, 
and draw it well to themselves : this exposes the other earth to 
the hoe. The soil is burned too : the grass and weeds are placed 
in flat heaps, and soil placed over them : the burning is slow, 
and most of the products of combustion are retained to fatten 
the field ; in this way the people raise large crops. Men and 
women and children engage in field labor, but at present many 
of the men are engaged in spinning buaze and cotton. The 
former is made into a coarse sacking-looking stuff, immensely 
strong, which seems to be worn by the women alone ; the men 
are clad in uncomfortable goatskins. No wild animals seem to 
be in the country, and indeed the population is so large they 
would have very unsettled times of it. At every turning they 
meet people, or see their villages; all armed with bows and 
arrows. The bows are unusually long : Livingstone measured 
one made of bamboo and found that along- the bowstring; it 
measured six feet four inches. Many carry large knives of fine 
iron ; and indeed the metal is abundant. Young men and women 
wear the hair long ; a mass of small ringlets comes down and 



470 COLD WEATHER. 

rests on the shoulders, giving them the appearance of the ancient 
Egyptians. One side is often cultivated, and the mass hangs 
jauntily on that side ; some few have a solid cap of it. Not 
many women wear the lip-ring: the example of the Waiyau has 
prevailed so far ; but some of the young women have raised 
lines crossing each other on the arms, which must have cost 
great pain : they have also small cuts, covering in some cases 
the whole body. 

October 11th was a cold morning: thermometer 59° in hut; 
doctor stated 69°. The huts were well built, top plastered ; not 
a ray of light is admitted, and the only way for it to get in is 
through the door. This shows the winter is cold. They made 
a westerly march to a village of Kulu, who entertained them 
liberally ; the chief gave them a goat and started with them 
when they left, but after going about two miles slipped off and 
ran away. Some are naturally mean, some are noble : the mean 
cannot help showing their nature, nor can the noble. Living- 
stone says he always requested a head man of a village to go 
with him, because they gave a good report of them, and no one 
wishes to countenance people other than respectable, and it costs 
little. He speaks here of coming to mountains having perpen- 
dicular sides ; these have villages at the bottom as storehouses 
for grain, with large granaries on the top containing food in 
case of war. A large cow is kept there, which is supposed to 
be capable of knowing and letting the owners know when war 
is coming. | 

Livingstone speaks of a village on the western side of a moun- 
tain called Phunze (the h being an aspirate only). Many vil- 
lages are planted round its base, but in front, that is, westwards, 
they have plains, and there the villages are as numerous: mostly 
they are within half a mile of each other, and few are a mile 
from other hamlets. Each village has a clump of trees around 
it . this is partly for shade and partly for privacy from motives 
of decency. The heat of the sun causes the effluvia to exhale 
quickly, so they are seldom offensive. The rest of the country, 
where not cultivated, is covered with grass, the seed-stalks about 
knee-deep. It is gently undulating, lying in low waves, stretch- 
ing northeast and southwest. The space between each wave is 
usually occupied by a boggy spot or watercourse, which in some 



PLANTING THE CROP. 471 

cases is filled with pools with trickling rills between. All the 
people are engaged at present in making mounds six or eight 
feet square, and from two to three feet high. The sods in places 
not before hoed are separated from the soil beneath and collected 
into flattened heaps, the grass undermost ; when dried, fire is 
applied and slow combustion goes on, most of the products of 
the burning being retained in the ground ; much of the soil is 
incinerated. The final preparation is effected by the men 
digging up the subsoil round the mound, passing each hoeful 
into the left hand, where it pulverizes, and is then thrown on to 
the heap. It is thus virgin soil on the top of the ashes and 
burned ground of the original heap, very clear of weeds. At 
present many mounds have beans and maize about four inches 
high. Holes, a foot in diameter and a few inches deep, are 
made irregularly over the surface of the mound, and about eight 
or ten grains put into each : these are watered by hand and 
calabash, and kept growing till the rains set in, when a very 
early crop is secured. 

After leaving Phunze they crossed a rivulet which emptied 
into Lake Nyassa — undulation tends northward. Some hills 
were in view, but were mere mounds by the side of the moun- 
tains just left behind. This locality is over three thousand 
feet above the sea and the air is delightful ; but as they passed 
many spots covered with a plant which grows in marshy places, 
probably it would not be pleasant as a place of residence. The 
fact of even maize being planted on mounds where the ground 
is naturally quite dry tells us the climate must be very humid. 

Kauma told Livingstone of some of his people, who had 
lately come from Babisa, purchasing ivory : they would give 
him information about the path. He took a fancy to one of 
the boys' blankets, offering a native cloth, much larger, in ex- 
change, and even a sheep to boot, but the owner being unwilling 
to part with his covering, Kauma refused to send for the 
travellers on account of the boy not wishing to deal with 
him. This chieftain says his people are partly Kanthunda and 
partly Chipeta; the first are mountaineers and the latter are 
dwellers on the plain. The population of his village is large 
and ceremonious ; in speaking of them, Livingstone says, 
" When we meet any one he turns aside and sits down. We 



472 GREAT NUMBER OF PEOPLE. 

have to ask who are the principal chiefs in the direction 
which we wish to take, and decide accordingly. Zoraba was 
mentioned as a chief on a range of hills on our west : beyond 
him lies Undi m'senga. I had to take this route, as my people 
have a very vivid idea of the danger of going northwards 
towards the Mazitu." 

One day's travel from Zomba, and west-southwest, is the part 
where the Portuguese formerly went for gold. They did not 
come there, however, as it would have been entirely useless. 
The country is too full of people to allow wild animals 
elbow-room : even the smaller ones are hunted by nets and 
dogs. The doctor rested at Pachoma ; whose head man offered 
a goat and beer, but he declined and went on to Molomba. Here 
Kauma's carriers turned because a woman died that morning as 
they left the village ; they asserted if she had died before they 
started, not a man would have started. The head man of Molomba 
was poor but liberal, gave a goat and cooked for Livingstone ; 
another head man from a neighboring village also called on their 
friends here, brought beer and a fowl. He went on to Mironga 
with them ; they saw Mount Nyala in the distance, " like a sugar 
loaf shot up in the air." This place being only one and a half 
hours off, they went on to Chipanga ; this is the proper name of 
what on the Zambesi is corrupted into Shupanga. The head 
man here, a miserable hemp-consuming leper, fled from them 
(hemp-dange is smoked in Central Africa). 

They came to a smithy, and watched the founder at work 
drawing off slag from the bottom of his furnace. He broke 
through the hardened slag by striking it with an iron instru- 
ment inserted in the end of a pole, when the material flowed 
out of the small hole left for the purpose in the bottom of 
the furnace. The ore (probably the black oxide) was like 
sand, and was put in at the top of the furnace, mixed with char- 
coal. Only one bellows was at work, formed out of goatskin, 
and the blast was very poor. Many of these furnaces, or their 
remains, are met with on knolls ; those at work have a peculiarly 
all hut built over them. 

On the eastern edge of a valley lying north and south, w T ith 
the Diampwe stream flowing along it, and the Dzala nyama 
range on the western side, are two villages screened by fine speci- 






THE HOPO AGAIX. 473 

mens of the ficus Indica. One of these is owned by the head 
man Theresa, and there they spent the night after travelling 
only a few miles. It was found necessary to make very short 
marches, for the sun was powerful, and the soil baked hard, very 
trying on the feet : there was no want of water, however, as 
they came to supplies every mile or two. 

The people seemed very poor, having few or no beads ; the 
only ornaments being lines and cuttings on the skin. They 
trust more to buaze than cotton. But two cotton patches were 
noticed. The women were decidedly plain ; but monopolize all 
the buaze cloth. Theresa was excessively liberal, and having 
informed them that Zomba lived some distance up the range and 
was not the principal man in these parts, to avoid climbing the 
hills, the party turned away to the north, in the direction of 
the paramount chief, Chisumpi, whom they found to be only 
traditionally great. 

In passing along they came to a village embowered in trees. 
The head man, a fine specimen of Kanthunda, tall, well-made, 
fine forehead and Assyrian nose, proposed to them to stay all 
night, but they declined, and after a long, hot journey they 
reached Chitokola's village, a pleasant one on the east side of 
Adiampwe valley. Many elephants and other animals feed in 
the valley, and the Bechuana hopo was seen again after many 
years. The hopo, you remember, is a funnel-shaped fence 
which encloses a considerable tract of country ; a " drive " is 
organized and animals of all descriptions are urged on until they 
become jammed together in the neck of the hopo, where they 
are speared to death, or else destroyed in a number of pitfalls 
placed there for the purpose. In this neighborhood the 
Nyumbo plant was noticed, bearing a pea-shaped or rather 
papilionaceous flower with a fine scent. It grows quite wild 
and its flowers are yellow. Chaola is the poison used by the 
Maravi for their arrows; it is said to cause mortification. 

It is so cold in this climate that the huts are built with a 
coating of plaster, put on the outside of the roof before the 
grass thatch is applied. Chitikola was absent from Paritala, 
when they arrived, to settle a milando, a full day's journey oh 1 '. 
These milandos are petty lawsuits, generally caused by the 
women. This was caused by a person taking a few ears of 



474 A CASE FOR MUAVE. 

Indian corn from another. The chief administered muave 
(the ordeal poison), the person vomited: was therefore innocent. 
On the 21st he returned foot-sore and tired and at once pre- 
sented some beer. This continual reference to food is natural, 
as it is an important point in the intercourse of travellers 
with the native tribes in Africa. Before the chief arrived they 
got nothing ; the queen even begged a little meat for her sick 
child, who was recovering from an attack of small-pox. There 
being no shops they had to sit still without food. The next 
day they received a goat cooked whole and plenty of porridge. 

Chitikola guided them on the 22d to a village called Ma- 
shumba, the head man of which was the only chief who asked 
anything except medicine. He usually gave two yards of un- 
bleached calico. They had to go in the direction of the 
villages which were on friendly terms with the guides, and 
sometimes they went but a short distance, as they studied to 
make the days as short as possible. Chitoku, the head man of 
the last village, took them to a village of smiths — four furnaces 
and one smithy being at work. When they had crossed the 
Chiniambo, they found the country near the hills covered with 
gum-copal trees, the bark-cloth tree, and rhododendrons. 

Mpanda led them a short cut to Chimuna's. On this route 
they came into a herd of about fifteen elephants, and a number 
of trees laid down by them : these animals chew woody 
roots and branches as thick as the handle of a spade. Many 
buffaloes and a herd of elands were seen ; a herd of baama or 
hartebeest stood at two hundred paces, and one was shot. 

" While all were rejoicing over the meat," says the doctor, "we 
got news, from the inhabitants of a large village in full flight, that 
the Mazitu were out on a foray. While roasting and eating meat 
I went forward with Mpanda to get men from Chimuna to carry 
the rest, but was soon recalled. Another crowd were also in full 
retreat ; the people were running straight to the Zalanyama 
range regardless of their feet, making a path for themselves 
through the forest; they had escaped from the Mazitu that 
morning; 'they saw them ! ' Mpanda's people wished to leave 
and go to look after their own village, but we persuaded them, 
on pain of a milando, to take us to the nearest village, that was 
at the bottom of Zalanyama proper, and we took the spoor of 



NATIVE FURNACES. 475 

the fugitives. The hard grass with stalks nearly as thick as 
quills must have hurt their feet sorely, but what of that in com- 
parison with dear life ! We meant to take our stand on the 
hill and defend our property in case of the Mazitu coming near; 
and we should, in the event of being successful, be a defence to 
the fugitives who crowded up its rocky sides, but next morning 
we heard that the enemy had gone to the south. Had we gone 
forward, as we intended, to search for men to carry the meat, 
We should have met the marauders, for the men of the second 
party of villagers had remained behind guarding their village 
till the Mazitu arrived, and they told us what a near escape I 
had had from walking into their power." 

"Approaching Chimuna's town," he continues, "our path was 
through a forest, and saw a number of ant-hills — each the size of 
the end of a one-story cottage — covered with men on guard watch- 
ing for the Mazitu. A long line of villagers were just arriving 
from the south, and we could see the smoke arising from the 
settlements ; none but men, the women and chief were on the 
mountain called Pambe. These villagers gave us a good hut, 
and sent at once to the mountain for their chief. He came in 
the evening and begged us to remain, but we told him each chief 
wished the same thing, and if we listened to all we would never 
get on, and the rains were near; at length, however, we decided 
to remain. The next day all the people came down from Pambe 
and crowded to see the strangers." Curiosity must have been 
the special allotment of this people in the distribution of original 
graces. But they were industrious, and industry covers almost 
as many sins as charity, although it is a homespun cloak. 

Their furnaces are rather bottle-shaped, and about seven 
feet high by three broad. One old patriarch had heard of books 
and umbrellas, but had never seen either. The oldest inhab- 
itant had never travelled far from the spot in which he Avas 
born ; yet he had a good knowledge of soils and agriculture, hut 
building, basket making, pottery, and the manufacture of bark- 
cloth and skins for clothing; also making of nets, trap and 
cordage. Chimuna was hospitable, and quite grateful when a 
blister was applied by Livingstone for his rheumatic pains; 
asked the latter to fire a gun that the Mazitu might hear and 
know that armed men were here. They all say they are afraid 



476 THE TRUE SPIRIT. 

of firearms ; for this reason Livingstone believed they were not 
Zulus at all, though they adopted some of their ways. 

In going on to the village of Mapuio's several large villages 
were passed, each surrounded by hedges of euphobia, and had 
large shade trees. When they arrived, Mapuio sent a calabash 
of fresh-made beer, gave them a hut, and promised to cook for 
them in the evening. They had to employ five or six carriers, 
and they generally rule the length of the day. Those from 
Chimuna's village growled at the calico paid them, but a few 
beads pleased them perfectly, and they parted good friends. 

At this point Livingstone speaks of loving to please them, as 
it is not likely he "will ever see them again, and it is right to 
consider their desires. Is that not what is meant by ' Blessed 
is he that considereth the poor ' ? " In cases of milando they 
rely on their most distant friends and relatives, and are seldom 
disappointed, though time at certain seasons — at present, for 
instance — is precious. Delicate features are here seen, and 
small hands and feet. Ornaments are scarce; the men have 
large slits in the lobe of the ear ; the women indulge in this 
painful luxury more than the men, probably for this reason. 

They spent October 28th with Mapuio, and the next day- 
Monday — went westward to Makosa's village through an ill- 
peopled country. The morning was lovely, the whole country 
bathed in bright sunlight, and not a breath of air disturbed the 
smoke as it slowly curled up from the heaps of burning weeds, 
which the native agriculturist wisely destroys. The people 
generally were busy hoeing in the cool of the day. One old 
man in a village where they rested had trained the little hair he 
had left into a tail, which, well plastered with fat, he had bent 
on itself and laid flat on his crown ; another was carefully 
paring a stick for stirring the porridge, and others were enjoy- 
ing the cool shade of the wild fig trees which are always planted 
at villages. It is a sacred tree all over Africa and India, and 
the tender roots which drop dowm towards the ground are used 
as medicine — a universal remedy. Can it be a tradition of its 
being like the tree of life, which Archbishop Whately conjec- 
tures may have been used in Paradise to render man immortal ? 
One kind of fig tree is often seen hacked all over to get the sap, 
which is used as bird-lime ; bark-cloth is made of it too. 



A DISAGREEABLE MAN. 479 

The first rain — a thunder shower — fell in the afternoon ; it 
was effectual, in one sense : it deprived a friend of the chance 
of getting the five carriers who were in their gardens planting 
seed. He got three and was compelled to remain over. They 
journeyed westward the next day, and a little towards south 
through a country full of trees ; here they saw wild hogs in a 
group, though marks of elephants, buffaloes and other animals 
were abundant. 

Xovembcr 1st, 1866, they arrived at Chigumokire ; the next 
morning proceeded to Kangene. This village was situated in 
a mass of mountains, and to reach this they had to go a little 
farther south than desired. Their appearance caused much alarm, 
and they were requested to wait until our spokesman explained 
the unusual phenomena of the white man. Kangene was very 
disagreeable to Livingstone, and as he had to employ five car- 
riers off him he was in this chief's power. He told the doctor 
that a brother of his had been killed by the Mazitu and he 
thought that probably they belonged to them. He told some 
untruths and then began to beg powder. He represented the 
country to be quite impassable from want of food ; the Mazitu 
had stripped it ; the people were living off wild fruits. They 
were detained here, on account of the illness of Simon, for four 
days. The head man agreed to let them have five men, but de- 
manded such enormous wages that on the 7th they took seven 
loads forward, leaving two men with the rest; slept there and 
returned for the remainder on the 8th. Kangene was disagree- 
able to the last. He asked where they had gone, and, having 
described the turning point as near the hill Chimbimbe, he com- 
plimented them on going so far, and then sent an offer of three 
men ; but Livingstone preferred not to have those who would 
have been spies unless he could give five and take on all the 
loads. 

The country over which they travel at present is level and 
elevated, but there are mountains all about, which would ap- 
pear quite mountainous if on a map. The Leue or Leuia is 
said by the people to flow into the Loangwa. The Chigumokire 
coming from the north in front, eastward of Irongwe (the same 
mountains on which Kangene skulks out of sight of Mazitu), 
flows into the Leue, and north of that is the Mando, a little 



480 A HERD OF BUFFALOES. 

stream flowing into the Bua. The rivulets on the west flow in 
deep defiles, and the elevation on which they travel makes it 
certain that no water can come from the lower lands on the west. 
It seems that the Portuguese in travelling to Casembe did not 
inquire of the people where the streams they crossed went, for 
they are often wrongly put, and indicate the direction only in 
which they appeared to be flowing at their crossing places. The 
natives have a good idea generally of the rivers into which the 
streams flow, though they are very deficient in information as 
to the condition of the people that live on their banks. Some 
of the Portuguese questions must have been asked through slaves, 
who would show no hesitation in answering. Maxinga, or 
Machinga, means " mountains " only ; once or twice it is put 
down Saxa de Maxinga, or Machinga, or Mcanga, which, trans- 
lated from the native tongue, means " rocks of mountains, or 
mountains of rocks." 

November 10th found Livingstone at the " Village of 
Smiths ;" here he readily got five men to go back after his loads. 
The sound of the hammer is constant from dawn till sunset. A 
herd of buffaloes came near the village and Livingstone went 
out and shot one, thus getting meat for his party and the vil- 
lagers. During the night a lion came and gave a loud growl, and 
finding he could not get the meat went off; the people kept up 
a shouting for hours afterward in order to keep him away by 
the human voice. They had nets loaned them to protect their 
provisions from any kind of intruders. They might have gone 
on, but Livingstone had a galled heel and could not travel. 
Here he speaks of unld figs, which are nice when quite ripe. 

The people at Kalumbi, on the Mando, once boasted a formid- 
able stockade of wild fig and euphobia surrounding their village; 
but though it withstood the assaults of men, even repelling the 
warlike Mazitu, it fell before elephants and buffaloes, which 
made an attack during the absence of the villagers. There are 
many of the larger wild animals in this region, and it was not 
uncommon to see the poor huts of the natives broken in and 
even entirely destroyed by elephants ; and there are sad stories 
of lions breaking into these frail tenements and waging cruel 
war on their occupants. Often the first intimation a family has 
of the danger is the crashing of the monster through the thatch 



STEADY FAITH. 481 

roof, and their only hope is in the spear, and terrific scenes 
sometimes ensue. 

While at this village there came news by which a more timid 
heart than Dr. Livingstone's might have been greatly disturbed ; 
he was told that the Mazitu — the scourge of the whole country 
— were at the village toward which they were about journeying. 
But Livingstone was a courageous man, and besides being long 
accustomed to the perils of African wanderings, he had an un- 
wavering faith in God. He remained in the village amid the 
busy preparations of the natives who expected the enemy to 
break upon them very soon, but it is good to observe how his 
dependence on God arose far grander than his courage. It is 
good to see a strong man leaning on the care of God like a little 
child. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

A MONTH OF WANT. 

Days of Anxiety— Manganja Blood — Manganja and Waiyau — Artizans— Native 
Agriculture — Beautiful Scenery — Iron Trade — An Elephant Hunter — Difficul- 
ties — Carriers — Livingstone's Love for Nature — Memories — No Food — A 
Splendid Valley of Lilies — Stockades — Sunday at Zeore — Rain-Making— The 
Slave Idea in East Africa — Hedges of Bamboo — Bark Cloth — Huts for the 
Spirits of the Dead — Contrasts in Character — Forests and Rains — Beautiful 
Animals — The Zebra very Beautiful — The Loangwa — Bad for Worse — The 
Babisa — A Miserable Set — Sorrows Multiplied — A Mopane Forest — Nyarmazi 
— Trading with a Woman — Loss of Goats — Experience with a Guide — The Hills 
Again — Bee Hunters — Want, Want, Want! — Noble Utterances — "Always 
Hungry " — Elephant Hunting — Sivord Hunting — Desolate Land — No Bread — 
Hunger — Escape from a Cobra— The Loss of the Dog — Mushrooms — All the 
Medicine Lost — The Worst of All — Livingstone's Gentleness — " Real Biting 
Hunger" — Beads as Currency — The Chambese at Last. 

The two days in the little village of Kalumbe were full of 
anxiety. The women, who are the prizes always envied with 
most covetous eyes by the Mazitu, had been sent away, and the 
men moved about among their rude furnaces and forges with a 
watchfulness which expressed the seriousness of the occasion 
more emphatically than anything they might have said. The 
Manganja blood was clearly seen in the industry with which 
they handled the implements of their rude art. The civilities 
of this race were always appreciated as truly refreshing after 
being annoyed by the impudence and impositions of the Waiyau, 
who it could be clearly seen felt themselves the dominant race 
in the country. One of the most interesting privileges of the 
traveller is the opportunity for observing the differences which 
distinguish the tribes, all alike as they may be in their general 
conditions of ignorance and degradation. And there was rarely 
noticed a more decided difference in those so intimately associated 
than distinguished these two races. As a rule, the Manganja 
are extremely clever in all the savage arts and manufactures. 
Their looms turn out a strong serviceable cotton cloth ; their iron 
482 



CONTRASTED CHARACTERS. 483 

weapons and implements show a taste for design which is not 
reached by the neighboring tribes, and in all matters that relate 
to husbandry they excel : but in dash and courage they are de- 
ficient. The Waiyau, on the contrary, have round apple-shaped 
heads, as distinguished from the long well-shaped heads of the 
poor Manganja ; they are jocular and merry, given to travelling, 
and bold in war — these are qualities which serve them well as 
they are driven from pillar to post through slave wars and 
internal dissension, but they have not the brains of the Man- 
ganja, nor the talent to make their mark in any direction where 
brains are wanted. 

The skill of the artizans even among this clever race seemed 
to diminish, however, as the distance from the lake increased. 
They have very little knowledge of anything beyond their own 
limited possessions, and have pursued their avocations in the 
face of difficulties which can hardly be estimated by those un- 
familiar with the thoroughly commotional character of a com- 
munity comprising as many sovereignties as there are villages, 
and possessing no higher law than the capricious jealousy or 
covetousness of the hearts of men in the rudest barbarism. But 
besides their working in iron and the agricultural duties, the 
people of this region are much given to hunting with nets, and 
though there was nothing on the gigantic scale of the famous 
hopo of the Bakwains, there was certainly abundant opportunity 
for the employment of all their skill and courage. Indeed the 
country was literally overrun with the monsters of the forest, 
and we can hardly credit the accounts of the indifferent impudence 
with which they stalk about the abodes of men. 

Two days passed and the Mazitu not making their appearance 
Livingstone led his party on towards Kanyenje. The scenery 
is described as being very lovely — as most of the mountain 
scenery of the country is. Over the ruggedness a beautiful carpet 
of green hung gracefully as could be, and lofty trees standing 
proudly on summits and in gorges regulated the configuration 
of the range with wave-like symmetry. These large trees were 
more numerous than they were nearer Lake Nyassa. Frequently 
along this route, following as they did the highlands, the party 
crossed the little streams which had sources in the neighborhood 
flowing in the direction of the lake. 



484 SERIOUS EMBARRASSMENTS. 

The country continued strewn with the evidences of the ancient 
iron works. Speaking of these, the doctor says : " The iron trade 
must have been carried on for an immense time in the country, 
for one cannot go a quarter of a mile without meeting pieces of 
slag and broken pots, calcined pipes, and fragments of the fur- 
naces, which are converted by the fire into brick. It is curious 
that the large stone sledge-hammers now in use are not called 
by the name stone-hammers, but by a distinct word, ' kama : ' 
nyundo is one made of iron." Though they are greatly inferior 
to the Manganja in the lake region in their pottery, the people 
claim to have come originally from Nyassa, and they also declare 
that they received the knowledge of iron-smelting from Chisumjn 
(God). 

At Kanyenje he received the usual attentions ; and it was ex- 
ceedingly gratifying to find that this town had escaped the 
ravages of the Mazitu during the last year. The chief readily 
furnished some food, and though not entirely free from some 
of the more disagreeable traits of men of his sort, was reasona- 
bly polite. Among the men who figured most conspicuously 
about his court was an old gentleman who displayed on his arm 
twenty-seven rings of elephants' skin, which marked him as the 
great hunter of the town. And when it is remembered that 
these trophies had all been won by the spear alone, we should 
not be astonished that they are worn with great pride. 

But although there was abundance of large game reported on 
all sides the party passed on with no special adventure. Indeed 
the journey was already becoming one full of anxiety and hard- 
ship to Livingstone. They were advancing slowly toward the 
north, and his stock of goods had been sadly diminished through 
the dishonesty of the men who had already so faithlessly deserted 
him. And besides the embarrassment of these losses he was 
under the necessity of having carriers for the small store which he 
still possessed. These embarrassments, added to the devastations 
of the Mazitu, made it exceedingly difficult to procure food on 
any terms. The inconvenience of being so dependent on carriers 
was perhaps more annoying than it would have been among the 
tribes farther south, because the chiefs are less absolute and feel 
more the importance of courting their people. It was not un- 
frequently the case that some trifling whim on the part of the 



THE CHARMS OF NATURE. 485 

people made it impossible to secure transportation, and in such 
cases the only thing to be done was to post a guard about the 
packs and go on until men could be engaged to bring them 
up. This had been the case at Kanyenje. The head man, 
Kanyindula, came on the morning of the. doctor's departure 
from his village with three carriers, but they demanded payment 
in advance for their services. This was one of the tricks which a 
traveller is not Ions; finding- out, and Livingstone knew too well 
that he would be only the poorer by accepting them on those 
terms, and decided to go on to a little village at the "fountain 
eye " of the Bua, whence he sent men back for the loads. 

But the entrance in his journal of that date shows that he 
found abundant use for even the hours which might have hung 
very heavily on the hands of an ordinary man. His ardent love 
for nature always came to his relief, breaking the power of the 
innumerable annoyances of his lonely and toilsome marches. 
His eye loved to wander over the splendid mountains, and his 
habit of careful observation converted every scene itfto a study. 
In this neighborhood he noticed considerable quantities of quartz 
rock, and fragments of titaniferous iron ore, with haematite 
changed by heat and magnetic ore ; and he thought it worthy 
of mention that the little rivulets about the resting place flowed 
some of them northward toward the upper part of Nyassa, and 
others southward, making a contribution to the Loangwa and 
finding their way to the sea with the majestic Zambesi. A 
few lines of his written at this time exhibit the spirit of the 
man, and gives us a glimpse of the country which will help us 
to realize more fully his surroundings. 

" We left Bua fountain — latitude 13° 40' south — and made 
a short march to Mokatoba, a stockaded village, where the 
people refused to admit us till the head man came. They 
have a little food here, and sold us some. We have been 
on rather short commons for some time, and this made our 
detention agreeable. We rose a little in altitude after leaving 
this morning ; then, though in the same valley, made a little 
descent towards the north-northwest. High winds came driv- 
ing over the eastern range, which is called Mchinje, and 
bring large masses of clouds, which are the rain-givers. They 
seem to come from the southeast. The scenery of the valley is 
25 



486 AFRICAN MOUNTAINEERS. 

lovely and rich in the extreme. All the foliage is fresh-washed 
and clean ; young herbage is bursting through the ground ; the 
air is deliciously cool, and the birds are singing joyfully : one, 
called Mzie, is a good songster, with a loud, melodious voice." 

The charms of nature multiplied about him as he advanced ; at 
every village, however, there was the unwelcome news of " no 
food." The ravages of the Mazitu met them again. The inhabi- 
tants had generally resorted to the custom of surrounding their 
homes by stockades, and in their extremity, like true mountaineers, 
as they were, would fly to their rocky fastnesses and from the safe 
cliffs wage a most effectual war on their assailants with huge stones 
— the artillery of mountain clans in all ages — which they knew 
w r ell how to hurl down along the familiar paths. Crossing the 
Sandili, it was found that the route lay along the slope which 
inclines to the Loangwa, and very soon the mountains were 
towering behind, and a comparatively level country stretched 
away toward the north, covered with a sylvan foliage which 
might easiry deceive the most practised eye if viewed only from 
a distance. The seeming forests of stately trees on nearer ap- 
proach dwindled into mere hop-poles. Vast districts were found 
to be kept clothed with a growth of these poles, but the mystery 
was easily solved when it was noticed that the whole domain 
was swarming with charcoal burners. 

On the 24th of November Livingstone entered Zeore's village, 
on the banks of a stream of insignificant appearance, called 
Lokuzhwa, flowing away toward the Loangwa through a splen- 
did valley distinguished by its rich, dark red loam, above which 
innumerable lilies of the amaryllis kind had woven their pure 
white blossoms into a snowy carpet. The people of the village 
called themselves Echewa, and, though a tribe of the Manganja, 
were distinguished by a different marking from the Atumboka, 
who dwelt more among the hills. 

The formidable appearance of the stockade had secured this 
village from the assaults of the Mazitu, who came only and 
looked on it and departed ; and as the people had food to sell, 
Dr. Livingstone decided to remain there over Sunday. Of this 
people he says : " The men have the hair dressed as if a number 
of the hairs of elephants' tails were stuck around the head : the 
women wear a small lip-ring, and a straw or piece of stick in the 



SUNDAY SERVICE. 487 

lower lip, winch dangles down about level with the lower edge 
of the chin : their clothing in front is very scanty. The men know 
nothing of distant places, the Manganja being a very stay-at-home 
people. The stockades are crowded with huts, and the children 
have but small room to play in the narrow spaces between." 

The service of Sunday, which Dr. Livingstone never neg- 
lected, attracted the attention of the natives, and interested them 
considerably. Rain was greatly needed, and as they had the 
impression that he was praying for it, they were probably 
■watching for the effects. It must seem very strange to per- 
sons who though heathen are still so fixed in their peculiar 
beliefs, that others should account all their cherished creed a silly 
fiction. The head man of this village was intelligent, however, 
and seemed to appreciate the instruction he received. He was 
not enough interested in his visitor to be at very much pains for 
his convenience. 

Speaking of him the doctor says : " Zeore's people would not 
carry without prepayment, so we left our extra loads as usual and 
went on, sending men back for them: these, however, did not 
come till the 27th, and then two of my men got fever. I groan 
in spirit, and do not know how to make our gear into nine loads 
only. It is the knowledge that we shall be detained some two 
or three months during the heavy rains that makes me cleave 
to it as means of support." 

But he did not suffer his troubles to interfere with his obser- 
vation of the customs and country, as we see in the following ex- 
tracts : "Advantage has been taken by the people of spots where 
the Lokuzhwa goes round three parts of a circle to erect their 
stockaded villages. This is the case here, and the water, being 
stagnant, engenders disease. The country abounds in a fine 
light blue flowering perennial pea, which the people make use 
of as a relish. At present the blossoms only are collected and 
boiled. On inquiring the name, chilobe, the men asked me if 
we had none in our country. On replying in the negative, they 
looked with pity on us : ' What a wretched country not to have 
chilobe ! ' It is on the highlands above ; we never saw it else- 
where. Another species of pea (chilobe weza), with reddish 
flowers, is eaten in the same way ; but it has spread but little in 
comparison. It is worth remarking that porridge of maize or 



488 "PKOPEKTY IN MAN." 

sorghum is never offered without some pulse, beans, or bean 
leaves, or flowers • they seem to feel the need of it, or of pulse, 
which is richer in flesh-formers than the porridge. 

" Last night a loud clapping of hands by the men was fol- 
lowed by several half-suppressed screams by a woman. They 
were quite eldritch, as if she could not get them out. Then 
succeeded a lot of utterances as if she were in ecstasy, to which 
a man responded, ' Moio, moio.' The utterances, so far as I 
could catch, were in five-syllable snatches — abrupt and labored. 
I wonder if this ' bubbling or boiling over ' has been preserved 
as the form in which the true prophets of old gave forth their 
' burdens ? ' One sentence, frequently repeated towards the 
close of the effusion, was ' linyama ufa,' ' flesh of the bow,' 
showing that the Pythoness loved venison killed by the bow. 
The people applauded and attended, hoping that rain would 
follow her efforts. And next day she was duly honored by 
drumming; and dancing;." 

Here, as in so many of the villages, Livingstone found the 
idea of property in man and slave-trading. This belief in the 
right to sell a man, while it seems very widely extended, the 
doctor assures us, is found, except in the Arabs, only in two 
families of the people in the eastern part of Africa. The Zulus, 
as we know, and the Bechuanas, abhor slavery. The Waiyau 
and the Manganja only welcome the emissaries of Zanzibar 
markets with their degrading yokes. 

He was now nearing the Loangwa, and it would be refreshing 
to see again, though so far up, the river which flowed away 
through the familiar scenes of the Zambesi and on into the great 
ocean. It would be like the opening of a window on the lone- 
liness of a long imprisonment. One of the most beautiful things 
in the character of Livingstone was the fondness with which he 
cherished the sweet memories of scenes endeared by the associa- 
tions of other days, and the readiness with which his mind 
yielded to the guidance of the simplest incidents and most 
ordinary objects, which led him in imagination among them 
even when enduring severest hardships and burdened with most 
onerous duties. He was not wandering in the wilds of Africa, 
as some had unkindly hinted, because he did not appreciate the 
endearments of home; no man ever loved the refinements of 



CLOTH-MAKING. 489 

civilization more than he; and this was not a small part of his 
singular power with the untutored inhabitants of those wilds. 

The villages along his route as he approached the Loangwa 
were generally surrounded by hedges of bamboo, and the signs 
of industry were cheering. Besides the noise of forges and 
furnaces, there was heard everywhere the tap-tap-tapping, 
which reminded the travellers of the peculiar and ingenious 
cloth-making which engages so many quick hands. This cloth 
is manufactured of bark. The bark on being removed from 
the tree is steeped in water or in a black muddy hole till the 
outer of the two inner barks can be separated, then commences 
the tapping with the mallet, by which the fibres are separated 
and softened and prepared for their rustic looms. Sometimes 
there were seen beautiful indications of tenderer feelings and 
loftier thoughts than some may dream of as existing so far away 
from the confines of the light of boasted civilization. The ideas 
of God were vague indeed, and there were only the suggestions 
of the untaught souls about the existence of man beyond the 
grave, but in these villages there were often seen beautiful little 
huts, two feet high only, which bereaved parents and friends 
had made with great care, where they loved to place their daily 
offerings to the loved ones who had gone into the mysterious 
gloom. It was sad to think that they had no clearer ideas of 
the future, but it was a welcome thing to see even such evi- 
dences of the recognition of human immortality, and it was 
pleasing to observe such tender mindfulness of the dead. But 
there are painful contrasts in human nature, and in these very 
villages* where parents and relatives were so thoughtful of their 
own dead, there was no friendly hand to stretch across the line 
of consanguinity and succor the desolate orphan ; if a mother 
died, no one cared for the helpless child she might leave. Liv- 
ingstone passed- one of these poor little uncared-for ones crying 
piteously for its mother, who could not come back out of death, 
and all the passing women did was to say carelessly, "She 
is coming." _ His own tender care came too late, and the 
little crying one passed away. Surely the Christian world 
cannot withhold from the millions of Africa that blessed truth 
which, like the heart of Christ, ignores the lines of interest and 
community, and makes of all men one family in the Lord ! 



490 THE RAINS BEGINNING. 

We cannot tell how the inspiring hope of Africa's redemption 
strengthened the heart and hand of the great man who, in all 
his devotion to science, was still obeying the loftier anxieties 
which first moved him to lay himself on God's altar an offering 
for the heathen. More and more he needed to be sustained; no 
aspiration could more than match the painfulness of the daily 
life he was leading. The hills were clothed with forests of 
dwarf trees, whose spreading boughs accumulated the heavy 
drops of the rains which were beginning to fall very frequently, 
and seemed to take delight in shaking their dripping leaves just 
when the travellers passed, as if conspiring with the clouds to 
drench them most unpityingly. This region, like other parts 
of the land, receives its favors from above at regular intervals, 
and there are long periods when the sun holds undisputed 
sway ; and though the heat is not so intolerable as in the barren 
regions, and the atmosphere is purer than in the rank marshes 
of the lower lands along the great rivers, the ground becomes 
dry and hard, and all about its surface are deep cracks which, 
in the rainy season, are soon filled, and their lingering traces 
hidden by beautiful grasses and flowers. Now and then the 
monotony of the scrub forests was relieved by the appearance 
of statelier trees; the majestic mopane sometimes appeared, and 
beautiful birds, and odd little insects, and various animals — 
elands, zebras, gnus, kamas, pallahe, buffaloes, and reed-bucks. 
These are among the choice game of the country, and the doctor 
was fortunate, although he was no longer skilful as a hunter, 
in securing considerable supplies. Perhaps no animal in Africa 
is at once so much admired for its beauty and at the same time 
so highly valued for its flesh as the singularly wild and fantastic 
zebra ; his beautiful stripes flashing in the sun, and his marvel- 
lous gracefulness as he dashes about the flowers or through the 
forests, fill the beholder with admiration, and there is no finer 
sport than dashing into the midst of the splendid herds of them 
which move about almost anywhere. 

After innumerable annoyances from guides and trouble with 
carriers and days of struggling along the most unpath-like- 
paths, Livingstone at last reached the Loangwa and halted at 
the stronghold of Maranda. But wearying as the march had 
been, there was nothing refreshing to be seen or heard there, 



CROSSING THE LOANGWA. 493 

only the desolate, neglected appearance of the fields, and stories 
of the ravages of the national banditti who were the terror of 
all the region through which he had passed. And being un- 
able to obtain food of any sort for any consideration, the party 
decided on crossing the river immediately. They were now 
in 12° 45' S. — about three hundred miles above the confluence 
of the Loangwa with the Zambesi, with which we became 
familiar in earlier portions of this work. Though so far away 
from its mouth, the river was from seventy to a hundred yards 
wide and quite deep. It flows down from the mountains on 
the north out of the Chitale country. The sandy bottom which 
distinguishes so many African rivers and the great sand-banks 
were features to be expected, ,and the alluvial banks with great 
forest trees along them were familiar scenes. There, too, were 
the various animals whose presence intensify the wildness of 
the land. 

The experiences had been trying enough in Manganja country, 
but a more painful pilgrimage was before him. 

The party, which had been reduced, first by the return of the 
worthless Sepoys and afterwards by the desertion of Musa and 
his Johanna men, had recently been reinforced by two Waiyau 
and another man who had been employed as keeper of four goats, 
which Mere very highly valued by Dr. Livingstone for their 
milk. After crossing the Loangwa the doctor headed his party 
more directly north toward the foot of Lake Tanganyika. The 
route lay first across a vast extent of low flat country — a coun- 
try where nature had been very lavish of her wealth, but sadly 
cursed by human degradation. The Babisa who occupied the 
land under various local names, while dependents of the great 
paramount chieftain on the north, as is generally the case in the 
remote dependencies of African chieftains, gave little thought 
to his authority, and imitated the Mazitu in all the idle plun- 
dering habits which distinguish those tribes who make trading 
their principal business. It required only a few days in their 
midst to show Dr. Livingstone that he could expect very little 
civility at their hands. Their business was in slaves and ivory, 
and there was a poor welcome for the traveller who wanted 
neither. It was almost impossible to purchase food of any sort, 
and frequently even a hut was refused. The hardships must 



494 A NATURAL ARCADE. 

have been severe which were almost unendurable to the man 
who had already experienced patiently so much want and ex- 
posure, and who was braced by higher aspirations and deeper 
convictions of duty than had ever impelled an explorer before. 
The great difficulty of procuring guides greatly aggravated the 
other miseries of the march. It was trying indeed to be com- 
pelled to strike across the pathless forests, wet and hungry, with 
almost certainty that the to-morrow would bring nothing better 
than to-day. It was fortunate — indeed it was more than fortu- 
nate, it was providential — that this inhospitable land was alive 
everywhere with splendid game, and from these herds the entire 
store of food was supplied. Day after day there was the same 
wearying haggling of the natives al}out every trifling matter and 
the same agonizing gnawings of hunger. But there were charms 
in the forest scenery which sometimes cheered the great man's 
soul as lie passed along with his little band of followers. Some- 
times the great mopane trees prevailed : their immense size, the 
regular distances at which they stood, and the absence from their 
stately trunks of lower branches, while their splendid foliage 
wove a canopy far above through which the golden sunshine was 
filtered down on the lovely wild flowers, and the wings of birds 
and glossy coats of zebras and antelopes, formed a grand arcade 
for God to smile on. These beauties and the grandeur were 
not lost on Livingstone. 

Charming as had been the choral melodies which sometimes 
broke on his ear along the Zambesi, there were many new 
notes to be distinguished here, and there could be little doubt that 
the region w r as richer in ornithological life than any he had seen. 

On December the 20th Livingstone reached the village of 
Casembe, but not the great chief who figures elsewhere in his 
story. This man was the master of a miserable hamlet consist- 
ing of only a few huts. The appearance was enough to dash all 
the hopes which had been cherished of finding food. Nothing 
could be had ; " no grain, not even herbs." "After a short march 
from here," says he, " we came to the Nyamazi, a considera- 
ble rivulet coming from the north to fall into the Loangwa. 
It has the same character, of steep alluvial banks, as Pamazi, and 
about the same width, but much shallower; loin deep, though 
somewhat swollen ; from fifty to sixty yards wide. We saw 



THE LOANGWA VALLEY. 495 

some low hills, of coarse sandstone, and on crossing these we 
could see, by looking back, that for many days we had been 
travelling over a perfectly level valley, clothed with a mantle of 
forest. The barometers had shown no difference of level from 
about one thousand eight hundred feet above the sea. We began 
our descent into this great valley when we left the source of the 
Bua ; and now these low hills, called Ngale or Ngaloa, though 
only one hundred feet or so above the level we had left, showed 
that we had come to the shore of an ancient lake, which prob- 
ably was let off when the rent of Kebra-basa on the Zambesi 
was made, for we found immense banks of well-rounded shingle 
above — or, rather, they may be called mounds of shingle — all 
of hard silicious schist with a few pieces of fossil-wood among 
them. The gullies reveal a stratum of this well-rounded shingle, 
lying on a soft greenish sandstone, which again lies on the coarse 
sandstone first observed. This formation is identical with that 
observed formerly below the Victoria Falls. We have the 
mountains still on our north and northwest (the so-called moun- 
tains of Bisa, or Babisa), and from them the Nyamazi flows, 
while Pamazi comes round the end, or what appears to be the 
end, of the higher portion." 

But hunger, the hard master, drove them on toward the vil- 
lage of one Kavimba, who had successfully resisted the Mazitu. 
There he was destined to disappointment as usual. Kavimba 
gave only a small return-present for the offering which was 
made him, and would sell nothing except for most exorbitant 
prices. All day the 24th of December they remained trying to 
get some grain. But, besides the- ordinary difficulties of dealing 
with these professional traders, in this particular place the women 
were rather in authority, and the Kavimba very readily turned 
over the matter of bargaining to his spouse. She went about 
her business after the fashion of a fish-woman. There was no 
end to her swearing and cursing, nor could any amount of patience 
draw from her anything like a reasonable return for the articles 
she desired. 

The next day was Christmas, but instead of a Christmas 
dinner the day was made painfully memorable by the loss of 
the four goats which Livingstone had kept so carefully in his 
long march. It was a sad loss indeed ; with no bread, only 



496 BEE HUNTERS AND THEIR BIRD. 

such coarse food as could be picked up here aud there, it was 
bad to be robbed of the last article which gave him any sort 
of satisfaction. " The loss," he said, " affected me more than 
any one could imagine." But every day brought so many ills 
that there was hardly time for more than a thought about each. 
From the town of Kavimba a man had volunteered his services 
as guide : only the next day he asked for the cloth which he was 
to receive that he might wear it, as his bark cloth was a miser- 
able covering ; no sooner had he received it than he watched his 
chance and bolted on the first opportunity. 

Being thus left to their own judgment they pressed on, fol- 
lowing as nearly as possible the track of a travelling party of 
Babisa, and the afternoon of the 27th of December reached the 
hills on the north, where the Nyamazi rises ; and after passing 
up the bed of a rivulet for some time began the ascent, of which 
he says : "At the bottom and in the rivulet the shingle stratum 
was sometimes fifty feet thick, then as we ascended we met mica 
schist tilted on edge, then gray gneiss, and last an igneous trap 
among quartz rocks, with a greal deal of bright mica and talc 
in them. On resting near the top of the first ascent two honey 
hunters came to us. They were using the honey-guide as an 
aid ; the bird came to us as they arrived, waited quietly during 
the half-hour they smoked and chatted, and then went on with 
them." 

This extraordinary bird flies from tree to tree in front of the 
hunter, chirruping loudly, and will not be content till it arrives 
at the spot where the bees' nest is ; it then waits quietly till the 
honey is taken, and feeds on the broken morsels of comb which 
fall to its share. 

Near sunset the party encamped by water on the cool height 
and made their shelter for the night. A few extracts from the 
last journal will serve better to convey the true picture of the 
weary, laborious life which the great man was leading than any 
version of it we could give, and will also serve better to reveal 
the real spirit of the man. 

"The next day," he writes, "three men, going to hunt bees, 
came to us as we were starting and assured us that Moerwa's 
was near. The first party had told us the same thing, and so 
often have we gone long distances as ' pafupi (near)/ when in 



moerwa's visit. 497 

reality they were ' patari (far)/ that we begin to think pafupi 
means ' I wish you to go there/ and patari the reverse. # In 
this case near meant an hour and three-quarters from our 
sleeping-place to Moerwa's! 

" When we look back from the height to which we have 
ascended we see a great plain clothed with dark green forest 
except at the line of yellowish grass, where probably the Loangwa 
flows. On the east and southeast this plain is bounded at the 
extreme range of our vision by a wall of dim blue mountains 
forty or fifty miles off. 

" Moerwa came to visit me in my hut, a rather stupid man, 
though he has a well-shaped and well-developed forehead, and 
tried the usual little arts of getting us to buy all we need here 
though the prices are exorbitant. ■ No people in front ; great 
hunger there.' ' We must buy food here and carry it to support 
us.' On asking the names of the next head man he would not 
inform me, till I told him to try and speak like a man ; he then 
told us that the first Lobemba chief was Motuna, and the next 
Chafunga. We have nothing, as we saw no animals in our way 
hither, and hunger is ill to bear. By giving Moerwa a good 
large cloth he was induced to cook a mess of maere or millet 
and elephant's stomach ; it was so good to get a full meal that 
I could have given him another cloth, and the more so as it was 
accompanied by a message that he would cook more next day 
and in larger quantity. On inquiring next evening he said ' the 
man had told lies/ he had cooked nothing more : he was prone 
to lie himself, and was a rather bad specimen of a chief. 

" While resting en route for Chitemba's, who it was reported 
had successfully resisted the Mazitu, Moerwa, with all his force 
of men, women, and dogs, came up, on his way to hunt elephants. 
The men were furnished with big spears, and their dogs are used 
to engage the animal's attention while they spear it ; the women 
cook the meat and make huts, and a smith goes with them to 
mend any spear that may be broken." 

Continuing their journey over level plateaux on which the 
roads are wisely placed, they hardly realized that they were 
travelling in a mountainous region. It was all covered with 
dense forest, which in many cases is pollarded, from being cut 
for bark cloth or for hunting purposes. Masuko fruit abounds. 
From the cisalpinse and gum-copal trees bark cloth is made. 



498 A BEAUTIFUL SPIRIT. 

They now came to large masses of haematite, which was often 
ferruginous: there was conglomerate too, many quartz pebbles 
being intermixed. " It seems," says Livingstone, " as if when 
the lakes existed in the lower lands the higher levels gave forth 
great quantities of water from chalybeate fountains, which de- 
posited this iron ore." Gray granite or quartz with talc in it 
was discovered under the haematite. 

Of this region the doctor writes : '' The forest resounds with 
singing birds, intent on nidification. Francolins abound, but 
are wild. ' Whip-poor-wills/ and another bird, which has a 
more labored treble note and voice — ' Oh, oh, oh ! ' Gay flowers 
blush unseen, but the people have a good idea of what is eat- 
able and what not. I looked at a woman's basket of leaves 
which she had collected for supper, and it contained eight or ten 
kinds, with mushrooms and orchidaceous flowers. We have a 
succession of showers to-day, from northeast and east-northeast. 
We are uncertain when we shall come to a village, as the Babisa 
will not tell us where they are situated. In the evening we 
encamped beside a little rill, and made our shelters, but we had 
so little to eat that I dreamed the night long of dinners I had 
eaten, and might have been eating." 

Nothing could be more beautiful than the beautiful words 
which follow this mention of the bitter want which was wearing 
away the life of this singularly good man — " I shall make this 
beautiful land known, which is an essential part of the process 
by which it will become the ' pleasant haunts of men.' " It was 
Christ-like truly to be thus able to find sweet consolation in the 
hope of others' happiness. We are prepared for the words which 
come to us in his journal on December 31st: " We end 1866. 
It has not been so fruitful or useful as I intended. Will try to 
do better in 1867, and be better, more gentle and loving; and 
may the Almighty, to whom I commit my way, bring my de- 
sires to pass and prosper me ! Let all the sins of 1866 be blotted 
out for Jesus' sake ! " How the great, humble, pure, tender, 
loving and trusting soul shines out in such words ! Not unlike 
it is the journal on January 1st, 1867 : " May he who is full of 
grace and truth impress his character on mine ; grace, eagerness 
to show favor, truth, truthfulness, sincerity, honor, for his mercy's 
sake!" 



ELEPHANT HUNTING. 501 

Being obliged to remain on account of a threatened set-in rain, 
the doctor bought a senze (aulocaudatus swindernianus), a rat- 
looking animal ; he was glad to get anything in the shape of 
meat. 

The next day was no better, and the few lines he wrote tell 
a sad story : " It is a set-in rain. The boiling-point ther- 
mometer shows an altitude of three thousand five hundred and 
sixty-five feet above the sea. Barometer, three thousand nine 
hundred and eighty-three feet ditto. We get a little maere here, 
and prefer it to being drenched and our goods spoiled. We 
have neither sugar nor salt, so there are no soluble goods ; but 
cloth and gunpowder get damaged easily. It is hard fare and 
scanty ; I feel always hungry, and am constantly dreaming of 
better food when I should be sleeping. Savory viands of former 
times come vividly up before the imagination, even in my wak- 
ing hours; this is rather odd as I am not a dreamer; indeed I 
scarcely ever dream but when I am going to be ill or actually so." 

They were now on the northwestern brim of the great Loangwa 
valley. The rainy season, which had fully set in, is the harvest 
time for the expert hunters of the country. The ground soon 
becomes exceedingly boggy, and the elephant, taken at the dis- 
advantage of sinking fifteen to eighteen inches in soft mud every 
step they take, falls an easy prey to his skilful assailant. This 
great giant of the forest is always easily confused, as we know, 
by the packs of yelping dogs. The hunters of this valley are 
doubly secure when they add this confusion to the embarrass- 
ment of bad footing. They watch their time and run up behind 
the elephant and with a single blow of a sharp axe hamstring 
him. In other parts of the country the method of hunting 
these huge monsters is more perilous, and more skilful than 
with spear, axe or gun. The sword figures as the chosen weapon. 
The hunters surround the animal, and eluding all his assaults, 
while near enough to torment him greatly with their sharp and 
glittering blades, with matchless dexterity succeed in dealing 
the disabling and fatal blows. Mr. Baker, who witnessed much 
of this sword hunting, declares that nothing can excel the 
wonderful skill of these men. 

But half starved and full of pain, his whole heart set on the 
accomplishment of a great work, Livingstone thought little of 



502 TRIALS AND HUNGER. 

the sports which have been the principal charm of African ex- 
ploration to most of those who have left us the record of their 
journeys. 

It was the 6th of January before he could continue his journey. 
As he advanced the land was more than ever desolate ; no people 
except at wide intervals, and even the animals began to disap- 
pear. That day also a serious misfortune occurred ; the chro- 
nometers got injured by being dropped by the boy who carried 
them. No food was to be had ; yet the country was beautiful. 
The valley had the appearance of beautiful parks; but they 
were all full of water, and the greatest caution was needed con- 
tinually to avoid falling into the deep waterholes made by the 
feet of elephants or buffaloes. 

His own language will tell us most touchingly the story of 
those days: "In the ooze generally the water comes half-way 
up the shoe, and we go plash, plash, plash, in the lawn-like 
glade. There are no people here now in these lovely wild val- 
leys ; but to-day we came to mounds made of old for planting 
grain, and slag from iron furnaces. The guide was rather 
offended because he did not get meat and meal, though he is 
accustomed to leaves at home, and we had none to give except 
by wanting ourselves : he found a mess without much labor in 
the forest. My stock of meal came to an end to-day, but Simon 
gave me some of his. It is not the unpleasantness of eating 
unpalatable food that teases one, but we are never satisfied ; I 
could brace myself to dispose of a very unsavory mess, and think 
no more about it ; but this maere engenders a craving which 
plagues day and night incessantly. 

" We crossed the Muasi, flowing strongly to the east to the 
Loangwa river, on the morning of the 10th, and in the after- 
noon an excessively heavy thunder-storm wetted us all to the 
skin before any shelter could be made. Two of our men 
wandered, and other two remained behind lost, as our track 
was washed out by the rains. The country is a succession of 
enormous waves, all covered with jungle, and no traces of 
paths ; we were in a hollow, and our firing was not heard till 
this morning, when we ascended a height and were answered. 
I am thankful that no one was lost, for a man might wander a 
long time before reaching a village. Simon gave me a little 



DANGER UNSEEN. 503 

more of his meal this morning, and went without himself: I 
took my belt up three holes to relieve hunger. We got some 
wretched wild fruit like that called ' jambos ' in India, and at 
midday reached the village of Chafunga. Famine here too, but 
some men had killed an elephant and came to sell the dried 
meat : it was high, and so were their prices ; but we are obliged 
to give our best to escape from this craving hunger." 

Sitting down one morning near a tree Dr. Livingstone's 
head was just one yard off a good-sized cobra, coiled up in the 
sprouts at its root, but it was benumbed with cold : a very pretty 
little puff-adder lay in the path, also benumbed ; it is seldom 
that any harm is done by these reptiles in Africa, although it is 
different in India. They bought up all the food to be had, 
but it did not suffice for the marches they expected to make be- 
fore getting to the Zambesi, where food was said to be abun- 
dant, and they were therefore again obliged to travel on Sunday. 
" But although," says the doctor, " we had prayers before start- 
ing, I always feel that I am not doing right: it lessens the 
sense of obligation in the minds of my companions ; but I have 
no choice." They went along a rivulet till it ended in a small 
lake, Mapampa or Chimbwe, about five miles long, and one and 
a half broad, of which we find this note : 

" We had to cross the Chimbwe at its eastern end, where it 
is fully a mile wide. The guide refused to show another and 
narrower ford up the stream, which emptied into it from the 
east ; and I, being the first to cross, neglected to give orders 
about the poor little dog, Chitane. The water was waist deep, 
the bottom soft peaty stuff with deep holes in it, and the 
northern side infested by leeches. The boys were, like myself, 
all too much engaged with preserving their balance to think 
of the spirited little beast, and he must have swam till he sunk. 
He was so useful in keeping all the country curs off our huts ; 
none dare to approach and steal, and he never stole himself. 
He shared the staring of the people with his master ; then in 
the march he took charge of the whole party, running to the 
front, and again to the rear, to see that all was right. He was 
becoming yellowish-red in color ; and, poor thing, perished in 
what the boys all call Chitane's water." 

During the delays caused by the severe rains the doctor 



504 A DREADFUL LOSS. 

worked out the longitude of the mountain station said to be 
Mpini, but he thought it better to name it Chitane's, as he 
could not get the name from his maundering guide, who proba- 
bly did not know it. Lat. 11°9' 2" S. ; long. 32° V 30" E. 

Altitude above sea (barometer) 5353 feet. 

Altitude above sea (boiling point) 5385 feet. 



Diff. 32 feet. . 

Destitution continued; there was nothing but famine and 
famine prices, the people living on mushrooms and leaves. Of 
these mushrooms it is interesting to know that there are a num- 
ber of sorts, out of which the people choose five or six, rejecting 
the others. One species becomes as large as the crown of a 
man's hat; it is pure white, with a blush of brown in the 
middle of the crown, and is very good roasted ; it is named 
Motenta ; another, Mofeta ; 3d, Bosefwe ; 4th, Nakabausa ; 5th, 
Chisimbe, lobulated, green outside, and pink and fleshy inside. 

About this time an incident occurred which was received by 
Dr. Livingstone as perhaps the greatest misfortune he had ever 
experienced. His own version of it is as follows : 

"A guide refused, so we marched without one. The two 
Waiyau, who joined us at Kande's village, now deserted. 
They had been very faithful all the way, and took our part 
in every case. Knowing the language well, they were ex- 
tremely useful, and no one thought that they would desert, 
for they were free men — their masters had been killed by the 
Mazitu — and this circumstance, and their uniform good conduct, 
made us trust them more than we should have done any others 
who had been slaves. But they left us in the forest, and heavy 
rain came on, which obliterated every vestige of their footsteps. 
To make the loss the more galling, they took what we could 
least spare — the medicine-box, which they would only throw 
away as soon as they came to examine their booty. One of 
these deserters exchanged his load that morning with a boy 
called Baraka, who had charge of the medicine-box, because he 
was so careful. This was done because with the medicine-chest 
were packed five large cloths and all Baraka's clothing and 
beads, of which he was very careful. The Waiyau also offered 



DISTRESSING HUNGER. 505 

to carry this burden a stage to help Baraka, while he gave his 
own load, in which there was no cloth, in exchange. The 
forest was so dense and high there was no chance of getting a 
glimpse of the fugitives, who took all the dishes, a large box of 
powder, the flour we had purchased dearly to help us as far as 
the Zambesi, the tools, two guns, and a cartridge-pouch ; but 
the medicine-chest was the sorest loss of all ! I felt as if I had 
now received the sentence of death, like poor Bishop Mackenzie." 

He was prepared for losses and all manner of discourage- 
ments ; but such a loss as this cast a shadow over his ordinarily 
buoyant soul. And yet he did not murmur. " Everything of 
this kind," says he, " happens by the permission of one who 
watches over us with most tender care ; and this may turn out 
for the best, by taking away a source of suspicion among more 
superstitious charm-dreading people farther north. I meant it 
as a source of benefit to my party and other heathen." 

All their efforts to find the AVaiyau were in vain. We can- 
not appreciate the feelings of one so far away from friends, so 
entirely dependent on himself, under God, in an hour of such 
misfortune. Yet he found it in his heart to make many ex- 
cuses for the men who had robbed him so seriously. The loss 
must be endured. 

The want of food and continuous rains greatly hindered 
them, but they were now drawing near the Zambesi ; the 
streams which they crossed were all flowing northwest toward 
that great river, and all the reports were, that beyond it, in the 
immediate territory of the paramount chief, there was plenty of 
food. This hope renewed their flagging energies. Livingstone 
was not thinking of nice dishes, but real, biting hunger was 
torturing him. This was partly relieved at Moaba, on the 
banks of the Movushi. But the cloth — which was their main 
dependence as currency — was of little value here, as indeed it 
was in all the upland country, where the bark cloth is so abun- 
dant. But fortunately there was a demand for beads, and for- 
tunately, too, they had some of these. It may be interesting 
for the reader to know something about this important item of 
currency all through Africa. 

"With a few exceptions they are all manufactured in Venice. 
The greatest care must be exercised, or the traveller — ignorant 
26 



506 CURRENCY OF AFRICA. 

of the prevailing fashion in the country he is about to explore 
— finds himself with an accumulation of beads of no more value 
than tokens would be if tendered in this country for coin of the 
realm. The Waiyau prefer exceedingly small beads, the size 
of mustard seed, and of various colors, but they must be opaque: 
amongst them dull white chalk varieties, called ' Catchokolo,' 
are valuable, besides black and pink, named, respectively, 
'Bububu' and 'Sekundereche' = the 'dregs of Pombe.' One 
red bead, of various sizes, which has a white centre, is always 
valuable in every part of Africa. It is called 'Samisanii' by 
the Suahele, 'Chitakaraka' by the Waiyau, 'Mangazi' = 
' blood' by the Nyassa, and was found popular even amongst the 
Manyuema, under the name of ' Masokantussi ' = 'bird's eyes.' 
AVhilst speaking of this distant tribe, it is interesting to observe 
that one peculiar long bead, recognized as common in the Man- 
yuema land, is only sent to the west coast of Africa, and never 
to the east. On Chuma pointing to it as a sort found at the 
extreme limit explored by Livingstone, it was at once seen that 
he must have touched that part of Africa which begins to be 
within the reach of the traders in the Portuguese settlements. 
'Machua Kanga' = 'guinea fowl's eyes,' is another popular 
variety; and the 'Moiompio' = 'new heart,' a large pale blue 
bead, is a favorite amongst the Wabisa ; but by far the most 
valuable of all is a small white oblong bead, which, when 
strung, looks like the joints of the cane root, from which it 
takes its name, 'Salani' = 'cane.' Susi says that one pound 
weight of these beads would buy a tusk of ivory, at the south 
end of Tanganyika, so big that a strong man could not carry 
it more than two hours." 

At last the banks of the Zambesi were reached, and the 
weary, hungry party took lodging in a temporary deserted vil- 
lage. This was January 26th. They were detained the 27th 
by rains; that day Dr. Livingstone wrote in his journal: 

" In changing my dress this morning I was frightened at my 
own emaciation." 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

FROM LAKE TO LAKE. 

Cbitapanga's Stockade — An Offering Required — Audience with the Chief- 
Ceremony of Introduction — Chitapanga as he was — Some Trouble — Lying 
Interpreters — Arab Traders — Letters Sent Home — Quits Chitapanga's — The 
Chief's Parting Oath — Appearance of Country — Troublesome Customs — Sus- 
picion of the Chiefs — A Familiar Trick— Eagerness for Trade — Moaniba at 
Home — Chief and Judge — The Moemba — The Hopo — Bows and Arrows — 
Illness— Kasonso's Reception — Assaulted by Ants — Cotton — Lake Liemba — 
Palm Oil — The Balungu — Severe Illness — Arabs — Chitimba's Village — A 
Long Delay — Nsama — The Baulungu — Industries — Cupping — Charms — Dull 
Life — Slave-Trade — Little Things — A Large Spider — At Hara — Reception at 
Nsama's — A Bride in Style — "Tipo Tipo" — " Kumba Kumba" — Itawa — 
Desertion — Slavery Question — Different Motives — Arabs on the March — Arab 
Traders — A Fantastic Party — Potency of Sneers in Africa — Delays — Lake 
Moero at Last. 

Ox the 31st of January our traveller led his party across the 
Lopiri, the rivulet which waters the stockade of Chitapanga. 
This was quite a formidable-looking structure. Besides a triple 
stockade, the village is defended by a deep, broad ditch, and 
hedge of thorny shrub. 

The messengers from the great chief soon approached to inquire 
if the traveller desired an audience, and instructing him that 
their custom required every one to take something in his hand 
the first time he came before so great a man as Chitapanga. 
Being tired from marching, Livingstone deferred his visit to the 
chief until evening. At 5 P. m. he sent notice of his coming. 
Passing through the inner stockade and then on to an enormous 
hut, he entered the presence of the chief. His Majesty was 
seated on the three-legged stool, which is one of the peculiar 
institutions of the country. Near him were three drummers, 
beating furiously, and ten or more men with odd-looking rattles 
in their hands, with which they kept time to the drums, while 
seated and standing all about in the background were hundreds 
of eager subjects who gazed with deepest interest on the reception. 

507 



508 RECEPTION AT CHITAPANGA. 

A noticeable feature of the ceremony was the regular approach- 
ing and receding of the rattlers, who seemed to give to their chief 
some special reverence by advancing before him' and holding 
their toy-looking instruments quite near the ground, while they 
kept up still with the drummers. 

Chitapanga was a strongly-built burly-looking fellow, with a 
jolly, laughing face. Livingstone was seated on a huge tusk, 
and the talk began. He found little difficulty in interesting 
the chief in those things which he had to tell, and was treated 
with a respect and cordiality which impressed him very favor- 
ably with him. "When they had got a little acquainted, the 
chief walked with his visitor toward a group of cows and with 
a generous air pointed out one and said, " That is yours." 

Various circumstances conspired to protract the stay of Living- 
stone twenty days at this village. Though quite favorably 
impressed with Chitapanga, the necessity of holding all his inter- 
views through others gave rise to serious annoyances. He was 
particularly troubled and vexed, after killing the cow which 
had been given him, by the chief's demanding a blanket for it. 
This was more annoying because he had none except such as 
belonged to the men who were with him. This demand was 
pressed, however, and it at length turned out that one of the 
Nassick lads, who had acted as interpreter at their interviews, 
had not stated the conversation correctly. The chief had given 
the cow, expecting a blanket, but the boy had said to Living- 
stone, " he says you may give him any little thing you please." 
This presumptuous interference of interpreters is one of the most 
serious annoyances of travelling in any country; particularly is 
it so in Africa: not only Dr. Livingstone but many travellers 
there have been greatly troubled by it. 

At this village Livingstone met a small party of black Arab 
slave-traders from Bagamoio, on the coast near Zanzibar, by 
whom he was able to send a packet of letters, which reached 
England safely and greatly relieved the public mind concerning 
the great traveller, who had been reported dead by Musa after 
he had so heartlessly deserted him near Nyassa. These Arab 
traders had come into the country by a much nearer route : a 
route too which was full of villages and people who have plenty 
of goats. By these men Dr. Livingstone ordered another supply 



THE PAETING OATH. 511 

of cloth and beads and a small quantity of coffee and sugar, 
candles, preserved meats, etc., with some medicines, to be sent 
to Ujiji. 

Little else occurred during the stay with Chitapanga worthy 
of special mention. The frequent returns of illness were nothing 
uncommon now. It was sad indeed to be so great a sufferer, 
and deprived of the relief which he could have found in his 
medicine box. We cannot imagine a more painfull experience 
than the consciousness of failing health in a far away heathen 
land without a single remedy at hand. 

At length, after repeated misunderstandings and compromises 
with Chitapanga, all growing out of the unpardonable inter- 
ference of the boys, who presumed to interpret the conversation 
according to their ideas of what it was best should be said, Dr. 
Livingstone prepared to leave on the 20th of February, 1867. 
He says : 

"February 20, 1867. — I told the chief before starting that my 
heart was sore because he was not sending me away so cordially 
as I liked. He at once ordered men to start with us, and gave 
me a brass knife with ivory sheath, which he had long worn as 
a memorial. He explained that we ought to go north as, if we 
made easting, we should ultimately be obliged to turn west, and 
all our cloth would be expended ere we reached the Lake Tan- 
ganyika; he took a piece of clay off the ground and rubbed it 
on his tongue as an oath that what he said was true, and came 
along with us to see that all was right; and so we parted." 

His route lay still almost due north through the countries of 
the Babema and the Balungu. The whole country, he says, can 
be no better described than as one vast forest. " Rocks abound 
of the same domolite kind as on the ridge farther south, between 
the Loangwa and Zambesi, covered, like them, with lichens, 
orchids, euphorbias, and upland vegetation, hard-leaved acacias, 
rhododendrons, masukos. The gum-copal tree, when perforated 
by a grub, exudes from branches no thicker than one's arm, 
masses of soft, gluey-looking gum, brownish yellow, and light 
gray, as much as would fill a soup-plate. It seems to yield this 
gum only in the rainy season, and now all the trees are full of 
sap and gum." 

This march was inaugurated in unmistakable fashion. The 



512 THE REAL DIFFICULTY. 

night of February 20th was overcast with black clouds, and 
heavy thunder rolled about them and drenching rain beat 
through the huts and flooded the roads. Here, as elsewhere in 
Africa, there are customs which greatly hinder and annoy the 
traveller. The people are suspicious and ignorant, and it is 
necessary, particularly when one is almost entirely unprotected, 
as Dr. Livingstone now was, to be exceedingly careful. The 
delays attending the formal civilities which every petty chief 
either demands shall be shown him or desires to show the 
stranger are pleasant enough in their way, but are exceedingly 
vexatious when a man is sick and weary and anxiously pressing 
for a certain place. It was almost impossible to impress on the 
chiefs that no selfish purposes were to be subserved by the journey 
through their country. This was really the great difficulty : they 
generally held to the conviction that a man who had been at 
the trouble of penetrating their country must expect some great 
gains, and, naturally enough, thought they ought to be benefited 
also by his presence. It is indeed " almost too ridiculous to be- 
lieve," but so it was. When Livingstone assured the " great 
chief/' Chitapanga, that the public benefit only was sought by 
his journey, that distinguished gentleman, with the most know- 
ing laugh, pulled down the underlid of the right eye, after the 
most approved gesture of our school-boys when they say, " Do 
you see anything green ? " It was just so with his neighbors. 
Moamba, whose village was on the left bank of the Merenge, 
had the same difficulty. He was generous and good-humored ; 
was, like Chitapanga, very much interested in the books and 
instruments that were shown him, and quite curious about the 
worship of the Englishman, but could hardly be reconciled to 
his declining to buy ivory or slaves. " He was very anxious," 
says Livingstone, " to know why we were going to Tanganyika ; 
for what we came ; what we should buy there ; and if I had any 
relations there. He then showed me some fine large tusks, eight 
feet six in length. ' What do you wish to buy, if not slaves or 
ivory ? ' I replied, that the only thing I had seen worth buying 
was a fine fat chief like him, as a specimen, and a woman 
feeding him, as he had, with beer. He was tickled at this ; and 
said that when we reached our country I must put fine clothes 
on him." 



REMARKABLE SALUTATION. 513 

The chiefs in this section were found to be much respected by 
their subjects, though they do not enforce their obedience as 
positively perhaps as would accord with our ideas of govern- 
ment. Livingstone witnessed a specimen of litigation in which 
the parties argued their case before Moamba. His Majesty 
occupied the post of honor with great gravity. Oue old man 
argued his case an hour, and was heard with great patience. 
After they had ended their speeches, the chief delivered his de- 
cision in five minutes. There were features of this proceeding 
which would doubtless disturb the solemnity of an American 
tribunal. For instance, when our attorney would say, " may it 
please your honor," the Babema orator turns his back on the 
judge and stretching himself on the ground claps his hands 
loudly. This was indeed a common mode of salutation, remind- 
ing the reader perhaps of that noticed among the Batoka. The 
Mobemba displayed much more independence than the more 
southern tribes. They all go equipped with their bows and 
arrows and are decidedly warlike. And the trophies from the 
Mazitu which are frequently seen hanging about their villages 
indicate very clearly that those bold depredators do not find such 
easy work as in other regions. 

They are industrious too, and are well supplied with the com- 
forts of African life. Much tobacco was noticed growing about 
the villages, and great quantities of splendid copper wire is 
manufactured. All sorts of animals abound in their country, 
but they were exceedingly wild, as they are generally where 
bows and arrows are in common use. Here too, besides this 
effectual weapon, the hopo wages war on the game r and every- 
thing is taught the fear of man. 

After parting with Moamba, Livingstone continued his north- 
ward journey, and ascended the Losauswa ridge, which is prob- 
ably the watershed between the streams flowing southward to 
the Zambesi and those flowing north towards Tanganyika ; 
and, without special incident, crossed a country watered by 
various rivers and dotted with stockaded villages, where numerous 
herds of goats were carefully attended by boys, and the usual 
gardens and patches were to be seen everywhere, almost lost in 
the prevailing forest. His health was sadly affected by the toil 
and unrelished diet. On the 12th of March he reached the vil- 



514 on god's geound. 

lage of Chiwe, among the Balungu. Speaking of his condition, 
he says : " I have been ill of fever ever since we left Moamba's ; 
every step I take jars in the chest, and I am very weak ; I can 
scarcely keep up the march, though formerly I was always first, 
and had to hold in my pace not to leave the people altogether. 
I have a constant singing in the ears, and can scarcely hear the 
loud tick of the chronometers. The appetite is good, but we 
have no proper food, chiefly maere meal or beans, or mapemba 
or ground-nuts, rarely a fowl." 

This village, like them all, was surrounded by a strong 
stockade, and on the banks of a stream. The chiefs were 
generally anxious that he should come into their villages and 
occupy a hat; but this was found exceedingly unpleasant; 
within the stockade the people seemed to think the stranger on 
their ground, and considered themselves at liberty to be rather 
over-familiar; they would crowd about the door of his hut and 
it was absolutely impossible to have a moment of quiet or privacy. 
Besides this impudence, these huts were frequently the abode of 
certain detestable creatures who never vacate for a visitor, but 
seize the occasion of his presence for a regular carnival. Living- 
stone had a natural weakness against being eaten by bugs, and 
generally insisted on erecting his own hut or pitching his tent 
on " God's ground " outside. There he was considered as en- 
tirely independent, and escaped the prying eyes of the people 
and the midnight depredations of the bugs. 

Among the prominent peculiarities by which the Balungu are 
distinguished were three or four little knobs on the temples, with 
which they sought to improve on nature, while the lobes of 
their ears are distended by a piece of wood ornamented with 
beads, and bands of beads were stretched across the forehead 
and hold up the hair. Livingstone did not pause long to enjoy 
the hospitality or study the distinctions of these tribes ; he was 
sick, and pressed on for the village of Kasonso and the Lake 
Liemba. It was evident that he was on the watershed, but the 
streams seemed to be running every way, and the natives were 
utterly ignorant of the geography of the country. In other 
times, when the blood was bounding freely through his veins, 
he would have been charmed by the beauty of the numerous 
valleys which he crossed in rapid succession, with their innumer- 



A MIDNIGHT ENCOUNTER. 515 

able streams, where splendid trees were waving their boughs 
above the elegant green sward ; but he was parched with fever 
and could only drag himself along. It is worth remembering, 
however, that he noticed that nearly all the valleys he crossed 
inclined to the Lofu,. which receives their tributaries for the 
lake. 

On the 20th of March he entered the village of Kasonso, 
situated in a lovely valley at the confluence of two streams. 
This chief received him very cordially, and stood a long while 
shaking his hand. Kasonso gave him a grand reception, but 
another experience which made perhaps a more lasting reception 
awaited him in the hut where he sought repose. The reader 
has not forgotten the ants which assaulted the doctor in Angola: 
he may imagine the consternation when about midnight he was 
aroused by the unconscionable ravages of their counterparts 
here in the town of Kasonso. The sufferer, who ought to be 
competent to tell the story, declares it impossible to describe the 
attack. He wakened covered with them ; his hair was full of 
them ; one by one they cut into the flesh, and the more they 
were disturbed the more vicious became their biting ; he fled 
from the hut, but in vain : they were everywhere, they had him 
from head to foot, and were resolved on taking their own time. 

Near the lake there was found ' large cotton-bushes of the 
South American kind. The people were clothed in skins of 
goats and wild animals, but the patterns were more scant, if 
possible, than in other sections ; the kilts of the women were 
especially diminutive. At least one object of his desire was now 
about attained : " On the morning of the 1st of April," says 
he, " we went along a low ridge of hills at its lowest part, and 
soon after passing the summit the blue water loomed through 
the trees. I was detained, but soon heard the boys firing their 
muskets on reaching the edge of the ridge, which allowed an 
undisturbed view." 

At last he had reached the southeastern end of Liemba, or 
Tanganyika. They had still to descend two thousand feet before 
reaching the level of the lake. It seemed to be about eighteen or 
twenty miles broad, and we could see about thirty miles up to 
the north. Four considerable rivers flow into the space before 
us. The nearly perpendicular ridge of about two thousand feet 



516 LAKE LIEMBA. 

extends with breaks all around, and there, embosomed in tree- 
covered rocks, reposes the lake peacefully in the huge cup-shaped 
cavity. 

" I never saw," continues the great traveller, who had looked 
on so many lovely scenes, " anything so sAill and peaceful as it 
lies all the morning. About noon a gentle breeze springs up, 
and causes the waves to assume a bluish tinge. Several rocky 
islands rise in the eastern end, which are inhabited by fisher- 
men, who capture abundance of fine large fish, of which they 
enumerate about twenty-four species. In the north it seems to 
narrow into a gateway, but the people are miserably deficient 
in geographical knowledge, and can tell us nothing about it. 
They suspect us, and we cannot get information, or indeed much 
of anything else. I feel deeply thankful at having got so far. 
I am excessively weak — cannot walk without tottering, and 
have constant singing in the head, but the Highest will lead me 
farther." And after being two weeks by it he writes again : 
" This lake still appears as one of surpassing loveliness. Its 
peacefulness is remarkable, though at times it is said to be lashed 
up by storms. It lies in a deep basin whose sides are nearly 
perpendicular, but covered well with trees ; the rocks which 
appear are bright red argillaceous schist ; the trees at present 
all green : down some of these rocks come beautiful cascades, 
and buffaloes, elephants, and antelopes wander and graze on the 
more level spots, while lions roar by night. The level place 
below is not two miles from the perpendicular." 

Sick as he was he could not be satisfied with only the general 
knowledge, as we see by the following, extracted also from his 
"Last Journal : " "Latitude of the spot we touched at first, 2d 
April, 1867— Lat. 8° 46' 54" S., long. 31' 57"; but I only 
worked out (and my head is out of order) one set of observations. 
Height above level of the sea over two thousand eight hundred 
feet, by boiling-point thermometers and barometer." 

It may be noticed that the figures of Dr. Livingstone differ 
with those of Speke, who made this lake eighteen hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. The doctor explained to Mr. Stanley 
that he was satisfied that Speke wrote eighteen hundred only 
by mistake through the habit of putting A. d. 1800. He made 
his examination, knowing Speke's observation, and found the 



THE LAKE PEOPLE. 519 

real height above the sea to be, as he puts it, two thousand eight 
hundred feet. 

The little village at which he first touched the lake was sur- 
rounded by real west coast palm-oil trees, requiring two men 
to carry a bunch of ripe fruit. Notwithstanding great weakness, 
the unyielding man spent the time as diligently as possible exam- 
ining the region. The people called themselves Balungu, but 
they had not the bold independent bearing of those of that 
name among whom Livingstone had so lately passed. And 
their numbers had been sadly reduced by the Mazitu, who are 
constantly carrying on° their women and children. They seem 
themselves, too, to have caught the slaving spirit, and to have 
come to admire their destroyers. That is surely the deepest de- 
gradation, the most absolute and irredeemable slavery, out of 
which a man gazes with admiration on the power which op- 
presses him, and wears with pride the chain which binds him. 
God save a fallen people from the grace of a contentment which 
dispenses with hope; from a submission which kisses the yoke, 
while it forgets the galling. "As a people," says Livingstone, 
" they are all excessively polite. The clapping of hands on 
meeting is something excessive, and then the string of saluta- 
tions that accompany it would please the most fastidious French- 
man. It implies real politeness, for in marching with them 
they always remove branches out of the path, and indicate 
stones or stumps in it carefully to a stranger, yet we cannot pre- 
vail on them to lend carriers to examine the lake, or to sell 
goats, of which, however, they have very few, and all on one 
island." 

It is mentioned that weeds were observed floating northwards 
on the lake. Mention is also made of various rivers, flowing 
northeast and northwest, entering the southern part of the 
lake. The Lonzua, the Kowe, the Kapala, the Luaze, and the 
Kalambwe, flow into it near the east end, and the Lovu, or 
Lofubu, or Lofu, from the southwest. The doctor reasoned 
that there must be an exit somewhere for such volumes of water. 

We need not follow the curious traveller up and down the 
steep mountain sides as he wandered about the shores of the 
lake ; his journal for these days supplies little more than the 
names of the villages which he passed. 



520 THE SKY DARKENS. 

He did not attempt to explore this region very extensively at 
this time, knowing that he would, if spared to reach Ujiji, be 
again on its shores, and indeed on its beautiful surface. He 
was suffering very severely all the time ; twice he was seized 
with most distressing fits of insensibility, in which he was en- 
tirely helpless. On one of these occasions he says : " I found 
myself floundering outside my hut and unable to get in ; I tried 
to lift myself from my back by laying hold of two posts at the 
entrance, but when I got nearly upright I let them go, and fell 
back heavily on my head on a box. The boys had seen the 
wretched state I was in, and hung a blanket at the entrance of 
the hut, that no stranger might see my helplessness ; some hours 
elapsed before I could recognize where I was." 

On the 20th of May, 1867, we find him at Chitimba's 
village, about thirty miles southwest from the southeastern 
shore of the lake, with his heart set on reaching Lake Moero. 
He had come to this village particularly because it was at 
present the head-quarters of a large party of Arabs, who he had 
heard were in a dispute with the powerful chief ruling the wide 
expanse of country which must be crossed between the Lakes 
Liemba and Moero. The news of this difficulty had weighed 
considerably to check his advances down the Liemba, for it 
would certainly have been exceedingly unsafe for him to have 
attempted a passage through the territory of Nsama under the 
circumstances. The rumor was, that Nsama's son was killing 
all the Arabs he could find, in revenge for some wrong that 
had been done to his father's people by them. 

The Arabs were found occupying an important portion of the 
stockaded village, and when Dr. Livingstone arrived he was 
politely shown to a large shed where they were in the habit of 
meeting. The principal man of the party was Hamees Wodim 
Tagh. He was accompanied by Sydebin Allebin Mansure. 
They were connected with one of the most influential native 
mercantile houses in Zanzibar. 

When the doctor had explained whence he had come he showed 
the letter which had been furnished him by the sultan at Zanzi- 
bar. He was treated with great kindness. Hamees presented a 
goat and a quantity of flour, and such other commodities as he 
possessed, but it was next to impossible to get at the truth about 



GOOD PICKING. 521 

the difficulty. There were various versions of the matter, but 
one thing was certain : there had been a disturbance at the vil- 
lage of Xsarna, between the people of that chief and the Arabs, 
and several on each side had been killed, and all was now con- 
fusion. Xsama had fled from his village, leaving the Arabs in 
possession, and they had been plundering and burning all the sur- 
rounding villages, while Chitimba had sent for the party quar- 
tered here to come to him. An hour or two after Livingstone 
and his party arrived at the village a body of men arrived from 
Kasonso, with the intention of proceeding into the country of 
Xsama, if possible to take that chief prisoner on the charge 
that he " had broken the public law by attacking people who 
brought merchandise into the country," a remark which hints 
of something that seems like international law among these 
barbarous tribes. 

It was clear that there could be nothing else but a long delay 
now. Four weary months he lay here waiting on the tedious 
negotiations between these two parties, which was a most 
remarkable succession of delays, almost every day seeming to 
promise an immediate settlement. But the great difficulty was 
the want of faith in Xsama, who it was believed talked peace- 
ably only to gain time and get advantage of his adversaries. 
He had been the Xapoleon of the country, and had held his 
neighbor chieftains in fear. They now seemed glad to take ad- 
vantage of his overthrow, or discomfiture, to ravage his borders, 
and the Arabs too were not over anxious to give up immedi- 
ately such good picking as his land afforded. So it is not im- 
probable that while Xsama's warlike propensities were in the 
way of peace, the plundering propensities of his enemies aided 
in keeping up the disturbance. Meantime Dr. Livingstone was 
satisfied that it was decidedly best for him to wait, rather than 
either give up seeing Lake Moero, or run such serious risk as it 
must have been to attempt to go there under the circumstances. 

The village of Chitimba is one of a number of prominent 
villages, whose chiefs divide the dominion of the district known 
among the Arabs as Urungu, this being the name given to 
the region surrounding Lake Liemba, or the foot of Lake 
Tanganyika. The whole region is mountainous, and many 
exceedingly tortuous rivers water its beautiful valley, most 



522 THE BAULUNGU. 

of them finding their way ultimately into the lake. The 
calculations of Dr. Livingstone fixed the village in long. 30° 
19' E., lat. 8° 57' 55" S. Of the people the doctor says : 

" The Baulungu men are in general tall and well formed ; 
they use bows over six feet in length, and but little bent. The 
facial angle is as good in most cases as in Europeans, and they 
have certainly as little of the ' lark-heel ' as the whites. One 
or two of the under front teeth are generally knocked out in 
women, and also in men. 

" Close observation of them makes me believe them to be ex- 
tremely polite. The mode of salutation among relatives is to 
place the hands round each other's chests kneeling ; they then 
clap their hands close to the ground. Some more abject indi- 
viduals kiss the soil before a chief; the generality kneel only, 
with the fore-arms close to the ground, and the head bowed 
down to them, saying, ' O Ajadla chiusa, Mari a bwino.' The 
Usanga say, 'Aje senga.' The clapping of hands to superiors, 
and even equals, is in some villages a perpetually recurring 
sound. Aged persons are usually saluted. How this extreme 
deference to each other could have arisen, I cannot conceive ; it 
does not seem to be fear of each other that elicits it. Even the 
chiefs inspire no fear, and those cruel old platitudes about gov- 
erning savages by fear seem unknown, yet governed they 
certainly are, and upon the whole very well. 

" The owners of huts lend them willingly to strangers, and 
have a great deal of toil in consequence ; they have to clean 
them after the visitors have withdrawn ; then, in addition to 
this, to clean themselves, all soiled by the dust left by the lodg- 
ers ; their bodies and clothes have to be cleansed afterwards ; 
they add food too in all cases of acquaintanceship, and then we 
have to remember the labor of preparing that food. My re- 
maining here enables me to observe that both men and women 
are in almost constant employment. The men are making 
mats, or weaving, or spinning;" no one could witness their 
assiduity in their little affairs and conclude that they were a 
lazy people. The only idle time I observe here is in the morn- 
ings about seven o'clock, when all come and sit to catch the 
first rays of the sun as he comes over our clump of trees, but 
even that time is often taken as an opportunity for stringing 
beads. 



THE CUPPING HORN. 523 

" The people seem to have no family names. A man takes the 
name of his mother, or should his father die he may assume 
that. Marriage is forbidden to the first, second, and third 
degrees : they call first and second cousins brothers and sisters." 

Among the customs which approach nearest the arts of civil- 
ized life the doctor mentions the cupping of the temples for 
sore eyes. Having no such appliances as we consider almost 
essential, and untaught as they are in the philosophical princi- 
ples underlying it, these rude people have been aided by their 
remarkable ingenuity in devising the practical counterpart of 
our more elegant cups. In their process "a goat's horn is used 
with a small hole in the pointed end ; the base is applied to the 
part from which the blood is to be drawn, and the operator, 
with a small piece of chewed India-rubber in his mouth, ex- 
hausts the air, and at the proper moment plasters the hole up 
with his tongue. When the cupping horn is removed, some 
cuts are made with a small knife and it is again applied." It 
may seem a rough appliance, as indeed it is, but it serves the 
purpose and is in great repute all through the country. Like 
everything else in the country, however, this has its attending 
superstition ; a mother who thus extracts the blood from her 
child may be seen immediately sprinkling those precious drops, 
as a charm, over the roof of her hut. Charms were in universal 
use, over doors and gateways, everywhere that they could be 
thought of. 

But, although Livingstone was a man who could find some- 
thing of interest in almost everything and everybody, the time 
hung very heavily on his hands. He lost no opportunity to 
seek information about the surrounding country from Arabs 
and natives, but they could give but little satisfaction ; they 
were too ignorant to even notice more than forced itself on 
their observation by the difficulties or convenience of travelling. 

The intercourse of the Arabs, who were themselves blacks, 
was that of equals with the natives ; they bought and sold and 
married, came and went, formed alliances or made wars, just 
like the heathen they were with. But they were respected 
because they brought goods and carried guns. And so far it 
was a thing to be glad of, that Livingstone had their protection 
under the circumstances; and they were in constant intercourse 



524 TOWN LIFE. 

with Zanzibar, and furnished the means of sending out letters ; 
but they were no society for Dr. Livingstone. 

The country, though beautiful, presented few features of 
sufficient interest to engage one so long a time. In connection 
with the tediousness of this delay, the doctor says : 

" There is nothing interesting in a heathen town. All are 
busy in preparing food or clothing, mats or baskets, whilst the 
women are cleaning or grinding their corn, which involves 
much hard labor. They first dry this in the sun, then put it 
into a mortar, and afterwards with a flat basket clean off the 
husks and the dust, and grind it between two stones ; the next 
thing is to bring wood and water to cook it. Now and then a 
little relief was afforded by some occurrence a little out of the 
ordinary. The weather was quite cool part of the while, 
although the hot season, which comes earlier than in the more 
southern country by some months, was beginning in May, and 
the people frequently set fire to their frail huts by the careless 
use of that dangerous agent. On one occasion the chief was 
aroused and threatened to burn his own house and all his prop- 
erty because the people stole from it, but he did not proceed so 
far : it was probably a way of letting the Arab dependents know 
that he was aroused." 

The leading feature of the place was the slave-trading, as it 
is wherever these Arabs have penetrated. Of this trade, as 
existing here, the doctor says: 

" Slaves are sold here in the same open way that the business 
is carried on in Zanzibar slave-market. A man goes about 
calling out the price he wants for the slave, who walks behind 
him ; if a woman, she is taken into a hut to be examined in a 
state of nudity. 

" Slavery is a great evil wherever I have seen it. A poor 
old woman and child are among the captives. The boy, about 
three years old, seems a mother's pet. His feet are sore from 
walking in the sun. He was offered for two fathoms, and his 
mother for one fathom ; he understood it all, and cried bitterly, 
clinging to his mother. She had, of course, no power to help 
him ; they were separated at Karungu afterwards." 

" The above," writes the editor of the " Last Journals," who 
was familiar with the country, " is an episode of every-day occur- 



S 



LITTLE WONDERS. 525 

rence in the wake of the slave-dealer. 'Two fathoms/ men- 
tioned as the price of the boy's life — the more valuable of the 
two — means four yards of unbleached calico, which is a universal 
article of barter throughout the greater part of Africa: the 
mother was bought for two yards. The reader must not think 
that there are no lower prices ; in the famines which succeed the 
slave-dealer's raids, boys and girls are at times to be purchased 
by the dealer for a few handfuls of maize." 

The large animals, which have become familiar objects to the 
reader who has followed us along the track of this wonderful 
traveller, abounded in the region. But among the more insig- 
nificant creatures some curiosities are mentioned. Indeed it is 
one of the pleasant things of our experience, in examining care- 
fully the vast amount of material which has at one time and 
another been given to the world by Dr. Livingstone, that we 
are led into the obscurities of unconspicuous nature, the little 
things, which we might pass over had we a guide less thought- 
ful and intelligent. It is in the tiny existences of earth that the 
finest touches of Divine wisdom are displayed. Out of inex- 
haustible resources the Infinite Creator, who sets our sky with 
worlds like jewels, affords to fill also the hidden places with 
works of marvellous beauty and interest. Livingstone honored 
God by an unwearying curiosity : the birds and flowers, the 
earth and rocks, all had attraction for him. But the special 
objects mentioned here may hardly seem to justify enthusi- 
asm ; however, commonplace as they may seem, his notes serve 
to illustrate one important and honorable feature of the charac- 
ter of this great man — the carefulness of his observations. 

"A large spider makes a nest inside the huts. It consists of 
a piece of pure white paper, an inch and a half broad, stuck flat 
on the wall ; under this some forty or fifty eggs are placed, and 
then a quarter of an inch of thinner paper is put round it, 
apparently to fasten the first firmly. When making the paper 
the spider moves itself over the surface in wavy lines ; she then 
sits on it with her eight legs spread over all for three weeks 
continuously, catching and eating any insects, as cockroaches, 
that come near her nest. After three weeks she leaves it to 
hunt for food, but always returns at night : the natives do not 
molest it. 

27 



526 THE COVENANT. 

"A small ant masters the common fly by seizing a wing or 
leg, and holding on till the fly is tired out ; at first the fly can 
move about on the wing without inconvenience, but it is at last 
obliged to succumb to an enemy very much smaller than itself. 

"A species of Touraco, new to me, has a broad yellow mask 
on the upper part of the bill and forehead ; the topknot is pur- 
ple, the wings the same as in other species, but the red is roseate. 
The yellow of the mask plates is conspicuous at a distance." 

At last, after so long a time, and more lying and plundering 
on both sides than we could recount in a volume, affairs were 
brought to something like a settlement between Nsama and 
Hamees, and Nsama promised to seal the covenant of peace 
by giving one of his daughters to Hamees as a wife ! The way 
was now cleared of the great obstacle, and Livingstone with his 
little band set out across the country in company with the 
Arabs. 

The country is described as quite beautiful. Crossing the 
Urangu and the Lofu, which, the reader will remember, had 
been crossed nearer their sources before reaching the lake, they 
ascended the ridge Avhich forms the water-shed between Lake 
Liernba and the Moero. Descending this ridge they were in 
Itawa, the dominion of Nsama. This chief was of a different 
family from those of Urangu. Kasonso, Chitimba, and Urong- 
we, were all Urangai, and equal in rank ; Nsama was of the 
Babemba family. 

The party marched first to Hara, a district of Itawa, whose 
stockaded village had been destroyed by the Arabs during the 
" late unpleasantness " of which we have told you. 

They were here on the 5th of September, 1867. "Obedient 
to the customs of the country," says the doctor, " we waited at 
Hara to see if Nsama wished us any nearer to himself. He is 
very much afraid of the Arabs, and Avell he may be, for he 
was until lately supposed to be invincible. He fell before 
twenty muskets, and this has caused a panic throughout the 
country." 

It was distressing indeed to see so fine a district almost 
abandoned by its occupants. The strife had been short, and 
only a " little quarrel," as we, who are acquainted with civilized 
war, would think ; but the people had fled ; and there were no 



VISITS NSAMA. 527 

reapers for the fields which waved their harvests, like the ban- 
ner of divine benevolence, which kindly cheers the sorrows that 
men bring on themselves by their animosities in Africa and 
America alike. The abundance of food was amazing : " three 
hundred men, living at free quarters, made no impression on it." 

Xsama had erected a new stockade close by the old one, which 
had been burned by Hamidi bin Mohamad, and there he sat in 
state to receive the visitor. When he received Dr. Livingstone's 
messenger, he returned an invitation to him to come and see 
him, but to bring no guns. Accordingly the doctor went on to 
his stockade, attended by a large crowd of people. " Before we 
came to the inner stockade," says he, " they felt my clothes to 
see that no firearms were concealed about my person. When 
we reached Xsama, we found a very old man, with a good head 
and face and a large abdomen, showing that he "was addicted to 
pombe : his people have to carry him. I gave him a cloth, and 
asked for guides to Moero, which he readily granted, and asked 
leave to feel my clothes and hair. I advised him to try and 
live at peace, but his people were all so much beyond the con- 
trol of himself and head men, that at last, after scolding them, 
he told me that he would send for me by night, and then we 
could converse, but this seems to have gone out of his head. 
He sent me a goat, flour, and pombe, and next day we returned 
to Hara." 

Although Nsama seemed quite pleasant, and, besides manifest- 
ing considerable respect for the guns which he had learned had 
largely the advantage over his bows and arrows, had made such 
positive terms with Hamees, there were no little grounds of 
suspicion that he might after all be only seeking to encourage a 
confidence on the part of the Arabs, which might enable him to 
gain some sudden advantage of them ; he had not kept his word 
to Hamees, either about promised ivory or the wife, and 
Hamees was not trustful at best. It was beginning to be doubt- 
ful whether the hope of going on peaceably might not turn out 
a false hope. And Hamees was arranging to go back to 
Chitimba to protect his people and property there, when, much 
to the gratification of all hands, on the 14th of September, the 
promised daughter of Nsama made her appearance, in splendid 
style, the most approved fashion of this country, " riding picka- 



528 A WIFE THROWN IN. 

pack on a man's shoulders ; " and the doctor goes on to assure us 
that this bride to be was, according to the standard of the realm 
in which she dwelt, a nice, modest, good-looking young woman, 
her hair rubbed all over with nkola, a red pigment, made from 
the camwood, and much used as an ornament. She was accom- 
panied by about a dozen young and old female attendants, each 
carrying a small basket with some provisions, as cassava, 
ground-nuts, &c. The Arabs were all dressed in their finery, 
and the slaves, in fantastic dresses, flourished swords, fired guns, 
and yelled. When she was brought to Hamees' hut she de- 
scended, and with her maids went into the hut. She and her 
attendants had all small, neat features. The doctor had been 
sitting with Hamees, and now rose up and went away. As the 
doctor passed him, he spoke thus to himself: "Hamees Wadim 
Tagh ! see to what you have brought yourself! ! " 

In this connection we may add that Nsama's people are re- 
ported to have small well-chiselled features, and many are 
really handsome, and have nothing of the west coast negro 
about them, but they file their teeth to sharp points, and greatly 
disfigure their mouths. The only difference between them and 
Europeans is the color. Many of the men have very finely- 
formed heads, and so have the women ; and the fashion of wear- 
ing the hair sets off their foreheads to advantage. The forehead 
is shaved off to the crown, the space narrowing as it goes up ; 
then the back hair is arranged into knobs of about ten rows. 
They are quite intelligent and evince considerable quickness of 
perception, and it was not difficult to understand the position 
which they had gained among the tribes, when tolerably familiar 
with their characters. They are rather apt students of human 
nature, and particularly quick to detect the peculiarities of a 
man ; this was illustrated by their habit of naming those with 
whom they came in contact in accordance with the character 
displayed : for instance, they called Hamid bin Mohamad " Tipo 
Tipo," which means " gather together of wealth," he being the 
chief actor in the spoiling of the country ; and another who will 
figure hereafter as conspicuous in the slaving business was 
called " Kumba Kumba, " a collector of people. But intelligent 
and brave as they might be, they had become thoroughly afraid 
of guns. 



A LESSON IN CHARITY. 529 

It was exceedingly trying on many accounts to be obliged to 
keep the company of the Arabs, but particularly on account of 
the very dilatory movements of their party ; but there was noth- 
ing else to be done. Nsama could not be depended on, and the 
little party of Dr. Livingstone, small as it had become, was less 
and less to be trusted. Another of his men had abandoned him 
on the borders of Itawa, the very scamp who had been the cause 
of his misfortune in being; robbed of his medicine-box. He felt 
almost alone, and could not fail to appreciate the providence 
which had raised him up an escort of the very men whose trade 
was most contrary to his views. Possibly the kindness which 
was shown him by these dealers in slaves was intended, by the 
great Ruler of all, to correct any growing bitterness against the 
slave-owner, while he might detest slave-owning. It is, we 
know, one of the most lamentable weaknesses of human nature, 
that we cannot recognize, as we should, the different educations 
of men, or make allowance fully for the differences of judgment. 
We are, perhaps, more forward than we should be, to make our 
opinions of right the absolute touch-stone of human virtue. It 
is thus that we become the persecutors of men when we should 
be the advocates of doctrine. It is not to be desired that a man 
should surrender his ideas of right, because of other good he 
may find in those who differ with him on some great question ; 
but it is well if he comes to distinguish between honest differ- 
ence of opinion and personal meanness, and learns to respect a 
man though he may hate a sentiment. The question of human 
slavery has been prominent among the vital issues of centuries. 
In our own country it has been a very serious one. It is to be 
lamented that the antagonists in the great controversy have been 
so frequently unable to rise above personal bitterness in the dis- 
cussion. It ought not to be expected of any man to abandon 
his convictions of right or privilege at the bar of his neighbor's 
judgment; before a common Creator and Judge let every man 
stand or fall. 

The fact of property in man is now a thing of the past in 
our country, and the most zealous supporters of the policy 
which has cancelled it, the most ardent advocates of human 
equality, ought to reflect whether they do not violate their own 
almost deified code when they visit still with their anathemas 



530 DIFFERENT MOTIVES. 

those who decline to confess themselves sinners above others 
because they owned slaves. God grant that Americans may 
speedily outgrow all remaining taint of tyranny which shows 
itself in hating a man because of his creed, and stand before 
the world in fact, as they do in name, a brotherhood on the 
matchless basis of unfettered conscience, the keystone of the 
structure which shelters them. 

When at last the way was open, whatever may have been his 
moralizing, Dr. Livingstone was full of joy. He set out 
attended by the whole party of Arabs — they with hearts set on 
the ivory and slaves in which they saw their longed-for wealth 
and self-indulgence ; he to find the solution, if possible, of the 
problem which had engaged mankind for so many centuries, to 
settle, if possible, questions of vast importance to the continent, 
to mark out a path for civilization, to set up the standard of 
Christ in the centre of that most needing land. How strangely 
the motives of these men contrasted ! What was the difference ? 
Can color or education explain it ? Was there not a deeper 
difference than can be found in complexion, or made by teach- 
ings ? Can it be explained except by the religion of Jesus ? 

The long line went winding away from the village of Nsama, 
first northward, crossing several ridges and valleys, fording the 
Chisera and the Kamosenga rivers, to the village of Karungu, 
where they arrived on the 30th. The journey had been at- 
tended with only the usual incidents of walking and waiting, 
giving and receiving presents with the people. The people all 
along were the subjects of Nsama, though obeying local chiefs ; 
they had been kind and generous. The scenery varied ; there 
had been splendid mountain views, lovely glens, and broad 
plains, birds, and vast herds of the animals which belong to the 
land. The terror of guns, which the people had conceived from 
the experience of Nsama, was the principal inconvenience ; this, 
in some instances, made intercourse with the chiefs almost im- 
possible. An extract, in the traveller's own language, will illus- 
trate, more perfectly than we can explain, the annoyances of the 
journey : 

"Karungu was very much afraid of us; he kept every 
one out of his stockade at first, but during the time the 
Arabs sent forward to try and conciliate other chiefs he 



TIPO TIPO. 531 

gradually became more friendly. He had little ivory to sell, 
and of those who had, Mtete or Mtema seemed inclined to treat 
the messengers roughly. Men were also sent to Nsama, asking 
him to try and induce Mtema and Chikongo to be friendly and 
sell ivory and provisions, but he replied that these chiefs were 
not men under him, and if they thought themselves strong 
enough to contend against guns he had nothing to say to them. 
Other chiefs threatened to run away as soon as they saw the 
Arabs approaching. These were assured that we meant to pass 
through the country alone, and if they gave us guides to show 
us how, we should avoid the villages altogether, and proceed to 
the countries where ivory was to be bought; however, the 
panic was too great, no one would agree to our overtures, and 
at last when we did proceed a chief on the river Choma ful- 
filled his threat and left us three empty villages. There were 
no people to sell, though the granaries were crammed, and it was 
impossible to prevent the slaves from stealing. 

" When Chikongo heard Tipo Tipo's message about buying 
ivory, he said : 'And when did Tipo Tipo place ivory in my 
country that he comes seeking it?' Yet he sent a tusk and 
said, ' That is all I have, and he is not to come here.'" "Their 
hostile actions," writes the doctor, "are caused principally by fear. 
* If Xsama could not stand before the Malongwana or traders, 
how can we face them? ' I wished to go on to Moero, but all 
declare that our ten guns would put all the villages to flight: 
they are terror-struck. First rains of this season on the 5th." 

Nearly the whole of October was lost here, while the Arabs 
were trying to drive their trades with the chiefs of the neigh- 
borhood. There was very little to encourage them to continue 
their journey to the Lake Moero, as all the chiefs seemed de- 
termined to sell nothing. And it seemed not improbable that 
Dr. Livingstone would, after all his waiting, be left to continue 
his journey alone. And under ordinary circumstances there is 
not much uncertainty whether he would not have gone on much 
more rapidly. These Arab traders were themselves quite as 
much a curiosity as the natives; they seemed tremendously 
religious in their way. They consulted the Koran for every- 
thing, and depend on all sorts of conjuring. Their wedding 
and funeral occasions were just such as might be seen in any of 



532 KOEAN DECIDES ALL. 

the villages, except that the Koran figured in them. They 
were greatly perplexed by the joy which their fellow-traveller 
had in the death of Jesus. They knew of Jesus, but said he 
had foretold Mohammed, that he did not die himself, but another 
died in his place. It was certainly to be lamented that the 
name of religion should find its foremost representatives in the 
heart of Africa in such men. Yet so it was. Livingstone was 
the first white man who traversed these secluded regions. 

The inevitable Koran finally decided that the party should 
move on westward. Accordingly they set out along the broken 
country which divides Itawa from Lopere. On the 28th they 
crossed the Choma at the village Chifupa, and noticed that it 
flowed southwest to join the Chisera, and with that into the 
Kalongosi, one of the tributaries, as will be seen, of Lake 
Moero. On this march Livingstone noticed two ugly images 
in huts built for them ; they represented in a poor way the 
people of the country, and were used in rain-making, and in 
the ceremonies of curing the sick. This, he remarks, was the 
nearest approach to idol worship which he had found in the 
country. It is a matter of interest that idols are so few in 
eastern Africa. They are worshipped more commonly in the 
west. But we feel assured that the reader will not feel that too 
much time is spent by the way if we present him with a few 
pages just as they come from the hand of the man while in the 
midst of these far-off scenes : 

" We are still going westward," he writes, " and in an open 
valley remarkable for the numbers of a small euphorbia, 
which we smashed at every step. Crossed a small but strong 
rivulet, the Lipande, going southwest to Moero ; then, an hour 
afterwards, crossed it again, now twenty yards wide and knee- 
deep. After descending from the tree-covered hill which divides 
Lipande from Luao, we crossed the latter to sleep on its western 
bank. The hills are granite now, and a range on our left, from 
seven hundred to fifteen hundred feet high, goes on all the way 
to Moero. 

" These valleys along which we travel are beautiful. Green 
is the prevailing color ; but the clumps of trees assume a great 
variety of forms, and often remind one of English park scenery. 
The long line of slaves and carriers, brought up by their Arab 



SNEEES PEEVAIL. 533 

employers, adds life to the scene ; they are in three bodies, and 
number four hundred and fifty in all. Each party has a guide 
with a flag, and when that is planted, all that company stops till 
it is lifted, and a drum is beaten, and a kudu's horn sounded. 
One party is headed by about a dozen leaders, dressed with fan- 
tastic head-gear of feathers and beads, red cloth on the bodies, 
and skins cut into strips and twisted : they take their places in 
line, the drum beats, the horn sounds harshly, and all fall in. 
These sounds seem to awaken a sort of esprit de corps in those 
who have once been slaves. My attendants now jumped up, 
and would scarcely allow me time to dress when they heard the 
sounds of their childhood, and all day they were among the fore- 
most. One said to me ' that his feet were rotten with marching,' 
and this though told that they were not called on to race along 
like slaves. 

" The Africans cannot stand sneers. When any mishap 
occurs in the march (as when a branch tilts a load off a man's 
shoulder) all who see it set up a yell of derision ; if anything is 
accidentally spilled, or if one is tired and sits down, the same 
yell greets him, and all are excited thereby to exert themselves. 
They hasten on with their loads, and hurry with the sheds they 
build ; the masters only bring up the rear, helping any one who 
may be sick. The distances travelled were quite as much as the 
masters or we could bear. Had frequent halts been made — as, 
for instance, a half or a quarter of an hour at the end of every 
hour or two — but little distress would have been felt; but five 
hours at a stretch is more than man can bear in a hot climate. 
The female slaves held on bravely ; nearly all carried loads on 
their heads : the head, or lady of the party, who is also the wife 
of the Arab, was the only exception. She had a fine white 
shawl, with ornaments of gold and silver on her head. These 
ladies had a jaunty walk, and never gave in on the longest 
march ; many pounds' weight of fine copper leglets above the 
ankles seemed only to help the sway of their walk ; as soon as 
they arrive at the sleeping-place they begin to cook, and in this 
art they show a good deal of expertness, making savory dishes 
for their masters out of wild fruits and other not very likely 
materials. 

"The splendid ranges of hills retire as we advance; the 



534 LAKE MOERO. 

soil is very rich. At two villages the people did not want us, 
so we went on and encamped near a third, Kabwakwa, where a 
son of Mohamad bin Saleh, with a number of Wanyamwesi, lives. 
The -chief of this part is Muabo, but we did not see him : the 
people brought plenty of food for us to buy. The youth's 
father is at Casembe's. The country-people were very much 
given to falsehood — every place inquired for was near — ivory 
abundant — provisions of all sorts cheap and plenty. Our head 
men trusted to these statements of this young man rather, and 
he led them to desist going farther. Rua country was a month 
distant, he said, and but little ivory there. It is but three days 
of (we saw it after three days). ' No ivory at Casembe's or 
here in Buire, or Kabuire.' He was right as to Casembe. Let- 
ters, however, came from Hamees, with news of a depressing 
nature. Chitimba is dead, and so is Mambwe." 

The news of Chitimba's death, and that his people were 
fighting for the chieftainship, and other matters in an unsettled 
state there, was anything but pleasant to the Arabs ; the princi- 
pal results of their trading were stored there ; the effect of the 
news was to decide Tipo Tipo to return and join Hamees. He 
decided to remain in Buire only ten or twenty days, send out 
people to buy what ivory they could, and retire. 

Dr. Livingstone parted with Tipo Tipo on the 7th November, 
in company with a party of his men who w T ere to visit Casembe 
for ivory. They passed along a lovely valley formed by the 
Kakoma range and another in the distance to the northwest. 
This valley was thickly studded over with villages, the common 
distance from one to another not being more than one hundred 
or two hundred yards. All of these villages were surrounded, 
like those of Londa or Lunda, by shade trees. 

On the 8th they came to Lake Moero, nestling quietly between 
two ranges of mountains, and slept in a fisherman's hut. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

A MONTH WITH CASEMBE. 

Moero — Bound for Casembe — Kalongosi — Abundance of Fish — Dr. Lacerda — 
The Balonda — Enter Casembe's Village — Graciously Received — Mohamad bin 
Saleh — Notes from Journal — Zofu, King's Fool — " Casembe," General — His 
Character — Customs — Land Claims — Hand-Shaking — Letter to Lord Claren- 
don — Descriptive Resume — Sickness — Leaves Casembe — Bound for Ujiji — 
Mohamad bin Saleh his Companion — Hunger — Illness — Last Day of 1867 — A 
Touching Record. 

Leaving the special observation of Moero for the present, 
Livingstone reascended the eastern flanking ridge and turned 
southward towards the town of Casembe. There were only 
nine persons in the party ; yet the people of the villages seemed 
to fear them, and frequently closed their gates as they ap- 
j>roached. Almost daily, as they advanced southward, they 
met parties of salt traders, and learned that quite a trade is car- 
ried on from the salt springs and mud about the lake to Lunda, 
and elsewhere. These salt traders in their salutations brought 
to mind a custom which will not be new — the rubbing earth on 
the arms. The route lay across numberless streams and rivu- 
lets ; and about half way they crossed the Kalongosi, or, as the 
Arabs and Portuguese pronounce it, Karungwesi, about sixty 
yards wide, and flowing fast over stones. It is deep enough, 
even now when the rainy season is not commenced, to require 
canoes. It is said to rise in Kumbi, or Afar, a country to the 
southeast of our ford. Fish in great numbers are caught when 
ascending to spawn : they are secured by weirs, nets, hooks. 
Large strong baskets are placed in the rapids, and filled with 
stones : when the water rises, these baskets are standing-places 
for the fishermen to angle or throw their nets. Having crossed 
the Kalongosi they were now in Lunda, or Londa. 

It was noticed that the Kalongosi went north till it met a 
large meadow on the shores of Moero, and, turning westwards, 
it entered there. The fishermen gave the names of thirty-nine 

535 



536 MOHAMAD BIN SALEH. 

species of fish in the lake ; they said that they never cease as- 
cending the Kalongosi, though at times they are more abundant 
than at others : they are as follows : 

Monde; Mota; Lasa; Kasibe; Molobe; Lopembe; Motoya 
Chipansa ; Mpifu ; Manda ; Mpala ; Moombo ; Mfeu ; Mende 
Seuse ; Kadia nkololo ; Etiaka ; Nkomo ; Lifisha; Sambamkaka 
Ntondo ; Sampa ; Bongwe ; Mabanga ; Kise ; Kuanya ; Nkosu 
Pale; Mosungu; Litembwa; Mechebere; Koninchia; Sipa 
Lomembe; Molenga; Mironge; Nfindo; Pende. 

But the point, perhaps, of most interest in this march, was 
the Chungu, whose broad deep waters were found choked up 
with trees and aquatic plants. Here the distinguished Dr. 
Lacerda died ; he had penetrated as far as Casembe in his effort 
to establish a route from the Portuguese possessions on the east 
to Angola. 

Dr. Livingstone was now not exactly on familiar ground, but 
perhaps not very many days travel from the old path along 
which he led his Makololo many years before. The people of 
Casembe are Balonda, with whom we became familiar in the 
earlier part of the book. 

Profiting by the benevolent suggestion of a guide, who had 
been picked up at Kifurwa, Dr. Livingstone sent a present to 
apprise Casembe of his approach, and waited by the Chungu 
until the chief might send one of his counsellors to conduct 
them to his town. 

They entered on the 21st, and met there one Mohamad bin 
Saleh, who has had his residence in the country during the 
reign of four of the Casembes. He was a fine portly black 
Arab with pure white beard, and by his long residence had 
gained considerable influence among the Balonda as also at 
Tanganyika. This man received the doctor most graciously, 
and tendered him a hut where he might abide while his own 
was being erected. 

There the doctor made some notes, which the reader will be 
pleased to have in his own language : 

"An Arab trader, Mohamad Bogarib, who arrived seven days 
before us with an immense number of slaves, presented a meal 
of vermicelli, oil, and honey, also cassava meal cooked so as to 
resemble a sweetmeat (I had not tasted honey or sugar since we 
left Lake Nyassaj in September, 1866) : they had coffee too. 



the king's fool. 537 

" Neither goats, sheep, nor cattle thrive here, so the people are 
confined to fowls and fish. Cassava is very extensively culti- 
vated: indeed, so generally is this plant grown, that it is impossi- 
ble to know which is town and which is country : every hut 
has a plantation around it, in which is grown cassava, Holcus 
sorghum, maize, beans, nuts. 

" Mohamad gives the same account of the River Luapula 
and Lake Bemba that Jumbe did, but he adds, that the Cham- 
beze, where we crossed it, is the Luapula before it enters Bemba 
or Bangweolo : on coming out of that lake it turns round and 
comes away to the north, as Luapula, and, without touching 
the Mofwe, goes into Moero; then, emerging thence at the 
northwest end it becomes Lualaba, goes into Rua, forms a 
lake there, and afterwards goes into another lake beyond 
Tanganyika. 

" The Lakelet Mofwe fills during the rains and spreads west- 
ward, much beyond its banks. Elephants wandering in its 
mud flats when covered are annually killed in numbers : if it 
were connected with the Lake Moero the flood would run off. 

" Many of Casembe's people appear with the ears cropped and 
hands lopped off: the present chief has been often guilty of this 
barbarity. One man has just come to us without ears or hands : 
he tries to excite our pity, making a chirruping noise, by strik- 
ing his cheeks with the stumps of his hands. 

" A dwarf also, one Zofu, with backbone broken, comes about 
us : he talks with an air of authority, and is present at all pub- 
lic occurrences : the people seem to bear with him. He is a 
stranger from a tribe in the north, and works in his garden 
very briskly : his height is three feet nine inches." 

Casembe is rather a title than the name of an individual : it 
signifies general, and the queer-looking hard-hearted individual 
who wore that honor at the time of Dr. Livingstone's visit did 
very little credit to the predecessors, among whom may be 
classed the splendid-looking chief whose portrait we are able to 
lay before the reader. His people seemed to have caught some- 
thing of his harsh temper; the doctor records that they were the 
most savage set that he had seen ; without the least justification 
they would strike each other most angrily. 

Mohamad bin Saleh had a low opinion of his lordship and 



538 A LAND TITLE. 

had only been waiting for Livingstone, whom he had heard 
was approaching, in order that they might go on together, as 
early as convenient for the doctor, to Ujiji. 

One quite interesting fact in connection with this district, 
which came to the knowledge of Dr. Livingstone, is recorded 
with characteristic minuteness, as follows : 

"An old man named Perembe is the owner of the land on 
which Casembe has built. They always keep up the tradi- 
tional ownership. Munongo is a brother of Perembe, and he 
owns the country east of the Kalongosi : if any one wished 
to cultivate land he would apply to these aboriginal chiefs 
for it. 

" Old Perembe is a sensible man : Mohamad thinks him one 
hundred and fifty years old. He is always on the side of liber- 
ality and fairness ; he says that the first Casembe was attracted 
to Mofwe by the abundance of fish in it. He has the idea of 
all men being derived from a single pair." 

Here is another squib which throws light on the customs : 

"Set-in rains. A number of fine young girls who live 
in Casembe's compound came and shook hands in their way, 
which is to cross the right over to your left, and clasp them ; 
then give a few claps with both hands, and repeat the crossed 
clasp : they want to tell their children that they have seen me." 

But happily for the world, while sitting down in the town 
of Casembe, Dr. Livingstone drew up a paper addressed to Lord 
Clarendon, which not only furnishes a most valuable resume* of 
the country along which we have followed him, but embraces 
most interesting recital of incidents at Casembe's court, and 
notice of Lake Moero. This letter did not reach Lord Claren- 
don ; but finds the light when the friends are both dead, and 
we give it in full, at the risk of repetition. 

" Town of Casembe, 10th December, 1867. 
Lat. 9° 37' 13" South ; long. 28° East. 

"The Eight Honorable the Earl of Clarendon: 

" My Lord :— The first opportunity I had of sending a letter 
to the coast occurred in February last, when I was at a village 
called Molemba (lat. 10° 14' S. ; long. 31° 46' E.), in the coun- 
try named Lobemba. Lobisa, Lobemba, Ulungu and Itawa- 
Lunda are the names by which the districts of an elevated 




CASCADES OF THE A EASY. 






LIEMBA SCENERY. 541 

region between the parallels 11° and 8° south, and meridians 
28°-33° long, east, are known. The altitude of this upland is 
from four thousand to six thousand feet above the level of the 
sea. It is generally covered with forest, well watered by 
uumerous rivulets, and comparatively cold. The soil is very 
rich, and yields abundantly wherever cultivated. This is the 
watershed between the Loangwa, a tributary of the Zambesi, 
and several rivers which flow towards the north. Of the latter, 
the most remarkable is the Chambeze, for it assists in the forma- 
tion of three lakes, and changes its name three times in the five 
or six hundred miles of its course. 

" On leaving Lobemba we entered Ulungu, and, as we pro- 
ceeded northwards, perceived by the barometers and the courses 
of numerous rivulets, that a decided slope lay in that direction. 
A friendly old Ulungu chief, named Kasonso, on hearing that 
I wished to visit Lake Liemba, which lies in his country, gave 
his son with a large escort to guide me thither ; and on the 2d 
April last we reached the brim of the deep cup-like cavity in 
which the lake reposes. The descent is two thousand feet, and 
still the surface of the water is upwards of two thousand five 
hundred feet above the level of the sea. The sides of the hol- 
low are very steep, and sometimes the rocks run the whole two 
thousand feet sheer down to the water. Nowhere is there three 
miles of level land from the foot of the cliffs to the shore, but 
top, sides, and bottom are covered with well-grown wood and 
grass, except where the bare rocks protrude. The scenery is 
extremely beautiful. The ' Aeasy,' a stream of fifteen yards 
broad and thigh-deep, came down alongside our precipitous 
path, and formed cascades by leaping three hundred feet at a 
time. These, with the bright red of the clay schists among the 
greenwood-trees, made the dullest of my attendants pause and 
remark with wonder. Antelopes, buffaloes, and elephants 
abound on the steep slopes ; and hippopotami, crocodiles, and 
fish swarm in the water. Gnus are here unknown, and these 
animals may live to old age if not beguiled into pitfalls. The 
elephants sometimes eat the crops of the natives, and flap their 
big ears just outside the village stockades. One got out of our 
way on to a comparatively level spot, and then stood and roared 
at us. Elsewhere they make clear off at sight of man. 



542 ABOUT THE LAKE. 

" The first village we came to on the banks of the lake had 
a grove of palm-oil and other trees around it. This palm tree 
was not the dwarf species seen on Lake Nyassa. A cluster of 
the fruit passed the door of my hut which required two men to 
carry it. The fruit seemed quite as large as those on the west 
coast. Most of the natives live on two islands, where they 
cultivate the soil, rear goats, and catch fish. The lake is not 
large — from fifteen to twenty miles broad, and from thirty to 
forty long. It is the receptacle of four considerable streams, 
and sends out an arm two miles broad to the N.N.W., it is said 
to Tanganyika, and it may be a branch of that lake. One of 
the streams, the Lonzua, drives a smooth body of water into 
the lake fifty yards broad and ten fathoms deep, bearing on its 
surface duck-weed and grassy islands. I could see the mouths 
of other streams, but got near enough to measure the Lofu only • 
and at a ford fifty miles from the confluence it was one hundred 
yards wide and waist-deep in the dry season. 

" We remained six weeks on the shores of the lake, trying to 
pick up some flesh and strength. A party of Arabs came into 
Ulungu after us in search of ivory, and hearing that an Eng- 
lishman had preceded them, naturally inquired where I was. 
But our friends, the Baulungu, suspecting that mischief was 
meant, stoutly denied that they had ever seen anything of the 
sort ; and then became very urgent that I should go on to one 
of the inhabited islands for safety. I regret that I suspected 
them of intending to make me a prisoner there, which they 
could easily have done by removing the canoes ; but when the 
villagers who deceived the Arabs told me afterwards with an 
air of triumph how nicely they had managed, I saw that they 
had only been anxious for my safety. On three occasions the 
same friendly disposition was shown ; and when we went round 
the west side of the lake in order to examine the arm or branch 
above referred to, the head man at the confluence of the Lofu 
protested so strongly against my going — the Arabs had been 
fighting, and I might be mistaken for an Arab, and killed — 
that I felt half-inclined to believe him. 

" Two Arab slaves entered the village the same afternoon in 
search of ivory, and confirmed all he had said. We now altered 
our course, intending to go south about the district disturbed 



PEACE-MAKING. 545 

by the Arabs. When we had gone sixty miles we heard that 
the head-quarters of the Arabs were twenty-two miles farther. 
They had found ivory very cheap, and pushed on to the west, 
till attacked by a chief named Nsama, whom they beat in his 
own stockade. They were now at a loss which way to turn. 
On reaching Chitimba's village (latitude 8° 57' 55" south ; 
longitude 30° 20' east), I found them about six hundred in 
all ; and, on presenting a letter I had from the Sultan of Zan- 
zibar, was immediately supplied with provisions, beads, and 
cloth. They approved of my plan of passing to the south of 
Nsama's country, but advised waiting till the effects of punish- 
ment, which the Baulungu had resolved to inflict on Nsama 
for breach of public law, were known. It had always been 
understood that whoever brought goods into the country was 
to be protected ; and two hours after my arrival at Chitimba's, 
the son of Kasonso, our guide, marched in with his contingent. 
It was anticipated that Nsama might flee ; if to the north, he 
would leave me a free passage through his country ; if to the 
south, I might be saved from walking into his hands. But it 
turned out that Nsama was anxious for peace. He had sent 
two men with elephants' tusks to begin a negotiation ; but 
treachery was suspected, and they were shot down. Another 
effort was made with ten goats, and repulsed. This was much 
to the regret of the head Arabs. It was fortunate for me that 
the Arab goods were not all sold, for Lake Moero lay in Nsama's 
country, and without peace no ivory could be bought, nor could 
I reach the lake. The peace-making between the people and 
Arabs was, however, a tedious process, occupying three and a 
half months — drinking each other's blood. This, as I saw it 
west of this in 1854, is not more horrible than the thirtieth 
dilution of deadly night-shade or strychnine is in homoeopathy. 
I thought that had I been an Arab I could easily swallow 
that, but not the next means of cementing the peace — marrying 
a black wife. Nsama's daughter was the bride, and she turned 
out very pretty. She came riding pickapack on a man's shoul- 
ders : this is the most dignified conveyance that chiefs and their 
families can command. She had ten maids with her, each 
carrying a basket of provisions, and all having the same beau- 
tiful features as herself. She was taken by the principal Arab, 
28 



546 BEAUTIFUL HEADS. 

but soon showed that she preferred her father to her husband, 
for seeing preparations made to send off to purchase ivory, she 
suspected that her father was to be attacked, and made her escape. 
I then visited Nsama, and, as he objected to many people coming 
near him, took only three of my eight attendants. His people 
were very much afraid of fire-arms, and felt all my clothing to 
see if I had any concealed on my person. Nsama is an old 
man, with head and face like those sculptured on the Assyrian 
monuments. He had been a great conqueror in his time, and 
with bows and arrows was invincible. He is said to have de- 
stroyed many native traders from Tanganyika, but twenty Arab 
guns made him flee from his own stockade, and caused a great 
sensation in the country. He was much taken with my hair 
and woollen clothing ; but his people, heedless of his scolding, so 
pressed upon us that we could not converse, and, after promis- 
ing to send for me to talk during the night, our interview 
ended. He promised guides to Moero, and sent us more pro- 
visions than we could carry ; but showed so much distrust that, 
after all, we went without his assistance. 

" Nsama's people are particularly handsome. Many of the 
men have as beautiful heads as one could find in an assembly 
of Europeans. All have very fine forms, with small hands and 
feet. None of the west coast ugliness, from which most of our 
ideas of the negroes are derived, is here to be seen. No prog- 
nathous jaws nor lark-heels offended the sight. My observa- 
tions deepened the impression first obtained from the remarks 
of Winwood Reade, that the typical negro is seen in the ancient 
Egyptian, and not in the ungainly forms which grow up in the 
unhealthy swamps of the west coast. Indeed it is probable 
that this upland forest region is the true home of the negro. 
The women excited the admiration of the Arabs. They have 
fine, small, well-formed features : their great defect is one of 
fashion, which does not extend to the next tribe ; they file their 
teeth to points, the hussies, and that makes their smile like that 
of the crocodile. 

" Nsama's country is called Itawa, and his principal town is 
in latitude 8° 55" south, and longitude 29° 21' east. From 
the large population he had under him, Itawa is in many parts 
well cleared of trees for cultivation, and it is lower than Ulungu, 



GENTLEMEN SLAVEES. 547 

being generally about three thousand feet above the sea. Long 
lines of tree-covered hills, raised some six or seven hundred 
feet above these valleys of denudation, prevent the scenery from 
being monotonous. Large game is abundant. Elephants, buf- 
faloes, and zebras grazed in large numbers on the long sloping 
banks of a river called Chisera, a mile and a half broad. In 
going north we crossed this river, or rather marsh, which is full 
of papyrus plants and reeds. Our ford was an elephant's path ; 
and the roots of the papyrus, though a carpet to these animals, 
were sharp and sore to feet usually protected by shoes, and 
often made us shrink and flounder into holes chest-deep. The 
Chisera forms a larger marsh west of this, and it gives off its 
waters to the Kalongosi, a feeder of Lake Moero. 

" The Arabs sent out men in all directions to purchase ivory ; 
but their victory over Nsama had created a panic among the 
tribes which no verbal assurances could allay. If Nsama had 
been routed by twenty Arab guns no one could stand before 
them but Casembe ; and Casembe had issued strict orders to his 
people not to allow the Arabs who fought Nsama to enter his 
country. They did not attempt to force their way, but after 
sending friendly messages and presents to different chiefs, when 
these were not cordially received, turned off in some other direc- 
tion, and at last, despairing of more ivory, turned homewards. 
From first to last they were extremely kind to me, and showed 
all due respect to the sultan's letter. I am glad that I was 
witness to their mode of trading in ivory and slaves. It formed 
a complete contrast to the atrocious dealings of the Kilwa traders, 
who are supposed to be, but are not, the subjects of the same 
sultan. If one wished to depict the slave-trade in its most attrac- 
tive, or rather least objectionable, form, he would accompany 
these gentlemen subjects of the Sultan of Zanzibar. If he 
would describe the land traffic in its most disgusting phases, 
he would follow the Kilwa traders along the road to Nyassa, or 
the Portuguese half-castes from Tette to the river Shire. 

"Keeping to the north of Nsama altogether, and moving 
westwards, our small party reached the north end of Moero on 
the 8th of November last. There the lake is a goodly piece 
of water twelve or more miles broad, and flanked on the east 
and west by ranges of lofty tree-covered mountains. The range 



548 LAKE MOERO. 

on the west is the highest, and is part of the country called 
Rua-Moero; it gives off a river at its northwest end called 
Lualaba, and receives the river Kalongosi (pronounced by the 
Arabs Karungwesi) on the east near its middle, and the rivers 
Luapula and Rovukwe at its southern extremity. 

"The point of most interest in Lake Moero is that it forms 
one of a chain of lakes, connected by a river some five hundred 
miles in length. First of all the Chambeze rises in the country 
of Mambwe, N.E. of Molemba. It then flows southwest and 
west till it reaches lat. 11° S., and long. 29° E., where it forms 
Lake Bemba or Bangweolo ; emerging thence it assumes the 
new name Luapula, and comes down here to fall into Moero. 
On going out of this lake it is known by the name Lualaba, as 
it flows N.W. in Rua to form another lake with many islands 
called Urenge or Ulenge. Beyond this, information is not 
positive as to whether it enters Tanganyika or another lake 
beyond that. When I crossed the Chambeze, the similarity of 
names led me to imagine that this was a branch of the Zambesi. 
The natives said ' No. This goes southwest, and forms a very 
large water there.' But I had become prepossessed with the idea 
that Lake Liemba was that Bemba of which I had heard in 
1863, and we had been so starved in the south that I gladly set 
my face north. The river-like prolongation of Liemba might 
go to Moero, and where I could not follow the arm of Liemba. 
Then I worked my way to this lake. Since coming to Casembe's 
the testimony of natives and Arabs has been so united and con- 
sistent that I am but ten days from Lake Bemba, or Bangweolo, 
that I cannot doubt its accuracy. I am so tired of exploration 
without a word from home or anywhere else for two years, that 
I must go to Ujiji on Tanganyika for letters before doing any- 
thing else. The banks and country adjacent to Lake Bangweolo 
are reported to be now very muddy and very unhealthy. I 
have no medicine. The inhabitants suffer greatly from swelled 
thyroid gland or Derbyshire neck and elephantiasis, and this is 
the rainy season and very unsafe for me. 

" When at the lower end of Moero we were so near Casembe 
that it was thought well to ascertain the length of the lake, and 
see Casembe too. We came up between the double range that 
flanks the east of the lake ; but mountains and plains are so 




CAZEMBE IN* STATE PRESS. 



RECEPTION AT CASEMBE'S. 531 

covered with well-grown forest that we could seldom see it. 
We reached Casembe's town on the 28th November. It stands 
near the north end of the Lakelet Mofwe ; this is from one to 
three miles broad, and some six or seven long : it is full of sedgy 
islands, and abounds in fish. The country is quite level, but 
fifteen or twenty miles west of Mofwe we see a long range of 
the mountains of Rua. Between this range and Mofwe the 
Luapula flows past into Moero, the lake called Moero okata = 
the great Moero, being about fifty miles long. The town of 
Casembe covers a mile square of cassava plantations, the huts 
being dotted over that space. Some have square enclosures of 
reeds, but no attempt has been made at arrangement : it might 
be called a rural village rather than a town. No estimate 
could be formed by counting the huts, they were so irregularly 
planted, and hidden by cassava; but my impression from other 
collections of huts was that the population was under a thousand 
souls. The court or compound of Casembe — some would call 
it a palace — is a square enclosure of three hundred yards by two 
hundred yards. It is surrounded by a hedge of high reeds. 
Inside, where Casembe honored me with a grand reception, 
stands a gigantic hut for Casembe, and a score of small huts for 
domestics. The queen's hut stands behind that of the chief, 
with a number of small huts also. Most of the enclosed space 
is covered with a plantation of cassava, Curcus purgaris, and 
cotton. Casembe sat before his hut on a square seat placed on 
lion and leopard skins. He was clothed in a coarse blue and 
white Manchester print edged with red baize, and arranged in 
large folds so as to look like a crinoline put on wrong side fore- 
most. His arms, legs and head were covered with sleeves, 
leggings and cap made of various colored beads in neat patterns: 
a crown of yellow feathers surmounted his cap. Each of his 
head men came forward, shaded by a huge, ill-made umbrella, 
and followed by his dependents, made obeisance to Casembe, 
and sat down on his right and left: various bands of musicians 
did the same. "When called upon I rose and bowed, and an 
old counsellor, with his ears cropped, gave the chief as full an 
account as he had been able to gather during our stay of the 
English in general, and my antecedents in particular. My 
having passed through Lunda to the west of Casembe, and vis- 



552 INTERVIEW WITH CASEMBE. 

ited chiefs of whom he scarcely knew anything, excited most 
attention. He then assured me that I was welcome to his 
country, to go where I liked, and do what I chose. We then 
went (two boys carrying his train behind him) to an inner 
apartment, where the articles of my present were exhibited in 
detail. He had examined them privately before, and we knew 
that he was satisfied. They consisted of eight yards of orange- 
colored serge, a large striped tablecloth ; another large cloth 
made at Manchester in imitation of west coast native manufac- 
ture, which never fails to excite the admiration of Arabs and 
natives, and a large richly gilded comb for the back hair, such 
as ladies wore fifty years ago : this was given to me by a friend 
at Liverpool, and as Casembe and Nsama's people cultivate the 
hair into large knobs behind, I was sure that this article would 
tickle the fancy. Casembe expressed himself pleased, and again 
bade me welcome. 

" I had another interview, and tried to dissuade him from 
selling his people as slaves. He listened a while, then broke off" 
into a tirade on the greatness of his country, his power and 
dominion, which Mohamad bin Saleh, who has been here for 
ten years, turned into ridicule, and made the audience laugh by 
telling how other Lunda chiefs had given me oxen and sheep, 
while Casembe had only a poor little goat and some fish to 
bestow. He insisted also that there were but two sovereigns in 
the world, the Sultan of Zanzibar and Victoria. When we 
went on a third occasion to bid Casembe farewell, he was much 
less distant, and gave me the impression that I could soon be- 
come friends with him ; but he has an ungainly look, and an 
outward squint in each eye. A number of human skulls 
adorned the entrance to his courtyard ; and great numbers of 
his principal men having their ears cropped, and some with 
their hands lopped off, showed his barbarous way of making his 
ministers attentive and honest. I could not avoid indulging a 
prejudice against him. 

" The Portuguese visited Casembe long ago ; but as each new 
Casembe builds a new town, it is not easy to fix on the exact 
spot to which strangers came. The last seven Casembes have 
had their towns within seven miles of the present one. Dr. 
Lacerda, Governor of Tette, on the Zambesi, was the only vis- 



FORMER C.ASEMBES. 553 

itor of scientific attainments, and he died at the rivulet called 
Chungu, three or four miles from this. The spot is called 
Nshinda, or Inchinda, which the Portuguese wrote Lucenda, 
or Ucenda. The latitude given is nearly fifty miles wrong, but 
the natives say that he lived only ten days after his arrival, and 
if, as is probable, his mind was clouded with fever when he last 
observed, those who have experienced what that is will readily 
excuse any mistake he may have made. His object was to ac- 
complish a much-desired project of the Portuguese to have an 
overland communication between their eastern and western 
possessions. This was never made by any of the Portuguese 
nation ; but two black traders succeeded partially with a part 
of the distance, crossing once from Cassange, in Angola, to 
Tette on the Zambesi, and returning with a letter from the 
Governor of Mosambique. It is remarkable that this journey, 
which was less by a thousand miles than from sea to sea and 
back again, should have forever quenched all white Portuguese 
aspirations for an overland route. 

" The different Casembes visited by the Portuguese seem to 
have varied much in character and otherwise. Pereira, the first 
visitor, said (I quote from memory) that Casembe had twenty 
thousand trained soldiers, watered his streets daily, and sacrificed 
twenty human victims every day. I could hear nothing of 
human sacrifices now, and it is questionable if the present 
Casembe could bring a thousand stragglers into the field. 
When he usurped power five years ago, his country was densely 
peopled ; but he was so severe in his punishments — cropping 
the ears, lopping off the hands, and other mutilations, selling 
the children, for very slight offences, that his subjects gradually 
dispersed themselves in the neighboring countries beyond his 
power. This is the common mode by which tyranny is cured 
in parts like these, where fugitives are never returned. The 
present Casembe is very poor. When he had people who killed 
elephants he was too stingy to share the profits of the sale of 
the ivory with his subordinates. The elephant hunters have 
either left him or neglect hunting, so he has now no tusks to 
sell to the Arab traders who come from Tanganyika. Major 
Monteiro, the third Portuguese who visited Casembe, appears 
to have been badly treated by this man's predecessor, and no 



554 A HOT FOUNTAIN. 

other of his nation has ventured so far since. They do not lose 
much by remaining away, for a little ivory and slaves are all 
that Casembe ever can have to sell. About a month to the west 
of this the people of Katanga smelt copper-ore (malachite) into 
large bars shaped like the capital letter I. They may be met 
with of from fifty pounds to one hundred pounds weight all 
over the country, and the inhabitants draw the copper into wire 
for armlets and leglets. Gold is also found at Katanga, and 
specimens were lately sent to the Sultan of Zanzibar. 

"As we come down from the watershed towards Tanganyika 
we enter an area of the earth's surface still disturbed by internal 
igneous action. A hot fountain in the country of Nsama is 
often used to boil cassava and maize. Earthquakes are by no 
means rare. We experienced the shock of one while at Chitim- 
ba's village, and they extend as far as Casembe's. I felt as if 
afloat, and as huts would not fall there was no sense of danger ; 
some of them that happened at night set the fowls a cackling. 
The most remarkable effect of this one was that it changed the 
rates of the chronometers ; no rain fell after it. No one had 
access to the chronometers but myself, and, as I had never 
heard of this effect before, I may mention that one which lost 
with great regularity 1'5 daily, lost 15 s ; another, whose rate 
since leaving the coast was 15", lost 40'; and a third, which 
gained 6" daily, stopped altogether. Some of Nsama's people 
ascribed the earthquakes to the hot fountain, because it showed 
unusual commotion on these occasions ; another hot fountain 
exists nearer Tanganyika than Nsama's, and we passed one on 
the shores of Moero. 

" We could not understand why the natives called Moero 
much larger than Tanganyika till we saw both. The greater 
lake lies in a comparatively narrow trough, with high land on 
each side, which is always visible ; but when we look at Moero, 
to the south of the mountains of Una, on the west, we have 
nothing but an apparently boundless sea horizon. The Luapula 
and Rovukwe form a marsh at the southern extremity, and 
Casembe dissuaded me from entering it, but sent a man to guide 
me to different