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Full text of "Life and labors of Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge .."

NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 



3 3433 08241678 9 



', 



THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Astor. Lenox and Tilden Foundations 



PRESENTED BY THE 

NATIONAL TEMPERANCE SOCIETY 

JANUARY 1917 




PUBLIC Lib. 

ASTOR, LFNOX 
TILDEN FOONDAi IONS 



LIFE AND LABORS 






Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge 



WHO WAS FOR SIX YEAks IKI slDENT OF THF OHIO W. C. 
T. U.; FOR SEVENTEEN YEARS RECORDING SECRETARY OF 
THE NATIONAI W. I T. l\; Also SUPERINTENDENT OF 
PETITIONS AND LEGISLATION; PEACE LECTURER OF THE 
W.C. r. I. AND ITS LECTURER TO COLLEGES AND HIGHER 
EDUCATIONA1 INSTIT1 rlONS, AND CORRESPONDING SEC- 
RETARY OF THF WORLD'S AND NATIONAL WOMAN'S 
CHRISTIAN JT.MPERANCE UNION 



BJ 

REV. A. M. HILLS 

EVANGELIST, OBERLIN. OHIO 



AITH AN 

Introduction by Miss Frances E. Willard 

AND ( I INTRIBUTIONS BY 

LADY HENRY SOMERSET, JOSEPH COOK, 
JOHN G. WOOLLEY and others 



PUBLISHED BY 

F. w. WOODBRIDGE, Ravenna, Ohio 

i 












PUBLIC LIBRARY 

79516^ 

.-iSTOR. LENOX AND 
JTILDEN FOUNDATIONS 

' R 1918 L 



-< 



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1895 
by F. W. WOODBRIDGE, in the office of the Libra 
rian of Congress at Washington, D. C. 



To the noble women of the Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union, the elect of God, who go forth in the Na?nc of 
fesus, through evil report and through good report, to cure 
the world of intemperance and kindred vices; and to their 
husbands and sons who give them up, as God gave his well- 
beloved Sou, to save a sin-cursed humanity ; and to that 
larger company of cultured Christian women who, with abun- 
dance of ability and leisure, are standing i>i the vineyard 
all the day idle, not having as yet heard their call or seen 
their heavenly vision, this book is lovingly and reverently dedi- 
cated by 

THE AUTHOR. 



INTRODUCTION. 



BY PRANCES I , \\'l I.I.AK : I 

THE pages that follow are dedicated to a beautiful mem- 
ory. Few know better than I do the remarkable intel- 
lectual aptitudes and the rare culture o/ Mary A. Wood- 
bridge. These came to her alike by nature and nurture as 
will be shown by the brotherly pen of him who writes this 
book, and one who appreciated her as only a large and 
noble soul could do. Thanks to his loyal zeal her great 
life work will be adequately presented. It is like a golden 
thread running through the warp and woof of that rich 
fabric of events that we call the Woman's Crusade ; but 
when I think of her win mi I have known so long and loved 
so well, it is on none of these things that my mind rests. 
In happy reflection and fond recollection, I seem to see her 
where she moved, in an orbit of perpetual harmony. 

She always met everybody with kindly glance, with 
smiling lip, with warm handclasp, with deep, resonant toues 
of mother-hearted greeting. This in itself is one of the 
rarest gifts ever received or bestowed. It makes radiant 
the atmosphere of home and sends its pleasant light out 
into the great pathetic world. 

Perhaps I noted this more, because it was so like my 
household "Saint Courageous." I do not believe that any 
one ever came in contact with either of these two great 
characters without feeling that they had done him good 
and not evil all the days of his life during which he was 
privileged to share the sunshine of their presence. 

(9) 



INTRODUCTION. 

It is a theory of mine that natures equally genial have 
an exceedingly unequal gift in diffusing that geniality. 
This is doubtless partly temperamental and partly the re- 
sult of education. Although a native of New England, 
there was no sense of self-repression in the manner of 
"Our Mary"; her nature was expansive, her manner 
inclusive, not exclusive ; the diffusion of her individuality 
had a long radius and a wonderfully brightened circumfer- 
ence. Whoever has the gift of humor must possess along 
with it the gift of imagination ; and perhaps it was the 
power to put herself in another's place and her keen per- 
ception of the droll side of things that made Mary A. 
Woodbridge a companion so delightful. But I rejoice to 
remember that she did not, as we say, " make fun of peo- 
ple," although she had a rare gift of personation in both 
her look and tone. 

The exercise of this gift was always connected with 
such a bubbling up of good spirits, such a pleasant general 
concept of the person concerning whom she spoke, that the 
sting was gone and the personated might, if present, have 
been inclined to say, "How well you have done that ! " 

Reformers are a serious folk, and it is good to have had 
in our central group so long, a spirit so full of cheer and 
brightness. She was especially dear to my dear mother, 
and was considerate of her to the last degree. Many a 
time has my mother called our attention to the beautiful 
set of table mats (which, by the waj-, she only permitted us 
to bring out on special occasions), when she would say, 
" Mary Woodbridge knitted these for me while she was 
traveling, doing much of the work during her various de- 
tentions in wayside railway stations," or she would hold 
up the pretty silver souvenir from Stratford-on-Avon and 
say, "Mary Woodbridge thought of me when she was in 
Shakespeare's town." 

As we came down the stairs at Rest Cottage we were 



INTRODUCTION. M 

wont to stop and study the historical chart lining the entire 
stairway, and mother would playfully observe, "When 

yotJ have so good a chance to glean a fact and from a friend 
so kind, you must stop and get one, as little Jack Horner 
put in his thumb and plucked out a plum from the Christ- 
mas pudding." We had roses in our garden that Mary 
sent out from her own beautiful grounds, in which two 
hundred varieties shed their fragrance on the dear old home 
where she was reared and where once I had the pleasure of 
sharing the delightful and well-ordered home life, of which 
she was the central figure, and which, with the revered 
presence of her father and the brotherly kindness of her 
husband and son, made me feel as much at home as if I 
had dwelt there from the first. 

I remember when we went to Washington to present 
the memorial portrait of Mrs. Hayes to President Garfield 
at the White House, and there is a droll story connected 
with our experience as comrade-guests which is not here 
permissible, but the recital of which in Mary's rich tones 
has made the group that heard it fill all the air with laugh- 
ter many a time. 

But what I more particularly recall of that experience 
is that our dear Mary was unable to carry out her cher- 
ished hope of being present at the inauguration. Some of 
us offered to remain with her, but she spurned the idea, 
and without a word of repining urged us out of her room 
in that strong, self-sufficing, genial way that was her most 
pronounced characteristic, and when we returned at night 
was delighted to hear all we had to tell her of the pag- 
eantry, and seemed to enjoy it with us more than a less 
endowed nature w T ould have enjoyed the actual participa- 
tion in the scene. 

I do not believe there is a white-ribboner living who 
has ever met Mary Woodbridge who would not testify to 
the beautiful characteristic which I make the principal 



1 2 IN TROD UCTIOX. 

point in this introduction, because I think it so high and 
fine a trait, and one, alas ! so rare ; for the most cordial 
have moods in which they seem to drop from their high 
estate, but Mary never. 

When I landed with Anna Gordon in New York in 
June, 1S94, after an absence on my part of nearly two years, 
Mrs. Woodbridge came from Chicago to participate in the 
beautiful welcome tendered me by my comrades and lead- 
ing women's societies of that city. She seemed well and in 
excellent heart. All who heard it will remember the re- 
markable vigor and eloquence of her address, its clear call 
to battle, its tender pathos and unfailing humor. We had 
a conference together, and a few weeks later I was with her 
in Chicago where we held repeated meetings for routine 
work. She was not a little amused by the frequency with 
which she was called upon to bid me welcome ; for it fell 
to her lot to perform this service in my own town, and at 
the meeting in Chicago on my birthday, when addresses 
were presented by most of the leading philanthropic socie- 
ties, our dear corresponding secretar) 7 came forward once 
more and bade me welcome home in one of her most pow- 
erful addresses, which proved to be, alas ! one of her final 
appearances before the public. 

My last remembrance of her brings to mind the beauti- 
ful Woman's Temple, with the glory of a golden autumn 
day enveloping its walls and resting on its turrets. The 
interior of the Temple has always seemed to me the sun- 
niest and most heartsome place in which I have ever found 
good people assembled for good purposes. Here in her 
bright, pleasant office she was seated at her desk, and we 
conferred concerning plans for the Cleveland convention. 
When the time came for my train I bade her good-bye in 
our usual sisterly way with a kiss, and the mutual reminder, 
' ' I shall see you in a few days at the Ohio W. C. T. U. 
convention." But to that convention she did not come, 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

being detained, I think, by the wedding of a beloved grand* 
daughter, so that I have the happiness of remembering hei 

as she stood at the door of the secretary's office, smiling in 
her genial way upon me with that warm clasp of the hand 
and those friendly, loving words, "Take care of yourself, 
Prances ; don't overwork." While my own last words to 
her were : " Promise that not a day shall pass before you 
get extra clerical help in preparing for your annual report." 
And she promised. Daily her letters came, full of informa- 
tion about the plans for our " Comiug-of-age Convention," 
replete with suggestion and query; but never was she so 
hurried as to omit some enlivening bit of raillery or recital. 
Her last letter was written to me on the 23d of October, 
and the next I heard was the telegram two days later, 
" Mary is dying." 

Somehow I can but think her fortunate to have gone in 
her prime, to have stepped so suddenly beyond the bound- 
ary line that lies so close around this cradle of a world. 

She went from us in her beautiful prime and in the 
midst of her benignant work. Her eye was not dimmed 
nor her natural force abated ; she was as full of expecta- 
tion, aspiration, nay, of eagerness even, as a girl in her 
teens. Who shall say that on the other side of silence, in 
some world of finer harmony, that clear, kind voice is not 
still speaking on and on ? 

Boston, Jan. /, /SpS- ^ 



PREFACE. 



THIS book has been written tor two classes, — the moral 
reformers and the general readers. The former class 

will welcome the speeches as mines rich in fact and argu- 
ment, which will be of great service to them. And as a 
matter of history, too, it is due to this noble woman that 
her best thoughts and efforts should be given to the world 
in some permanent form. 

The latter class will, I trust, find enough in the book 
besides speeches to elicit their deepest interest. 

I commend to men, especially, the careful reading of 
the addresses, which will throw much light on the duties of 
citizenship, and will be " strong meat " for the ablest minds. 
They will discover before they have read far that " there is 
no sex in intellect." 

I commend the wdiole to my sisters. This is a woman's 
book, written about a great woman — an ornament to her 
sex, by a man. All women can learn from these pages 
what kind of a female character commands the profoundest 
respect and homage of ever- man whose esteem is worth 
having. 

For the uplifting of humanity, and the extension of the 
kingdom of Him whom my great friend tenderly loved and 
faithfully served, I send this volume forth on its mission, 
begging for it the generous favor of a considerate public. 

A. M. Hills. 

21S6 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, O., March 21, 1895- 



CONTENTS. 

r \c.k. 

Introduction by Frances i.. Willard 9 

Prbi lcb 15 

CHAPTER I. 

Ancestry — Origin of the Brayton Family traced to the Norman 
Conquest — Captain [saai on'a characteristics and life 

work — O/igin of the Mitchell family Love Mitchell — Nan- 
tucket women -Mrs. Woodbridge's tribute to her Quaker 
ancestry 25 

CHAPTER II. 
Childhood — Fortunate environments— Nantucket — The G 
prodigy — Horace Mann's prophecy — Moving to Western Re- 
serve, Ohio — Her father's home — Anti-slavery reformers — 
School at Hudson 31 

CHAPTER III. 
The model husband — The meeting of Frederick Wells Wood- 
bridge and Mary brayton — Description of them — Mr. Wood- 
bridge's aucestry and boyhood- ge — Mr. Woodbridge's 
delight in his wife's public labors — Daily writing — Conjugal 
felicity — Providences 37 

CHAPTER IV. 

After marriage — The empty nest— The large family— The beau- 
tiful wife— The young mother— New books — Discipline and 
preparatio'.i — Moved to Newberg — Garfield's compliment — 
Three providential events — God's hour struck 43 

CHAPTER V. 

The Crusade — Origin — Progress — Sweeping across the state of 
Ohio — The author's mother and sister— John G. Woolley's 
mother — Mrs. Woodbridge's call — Baptism of the Holy Ghort 
— Chautauqua address on "The Crusade" — Crusade rallying 

call— Mary T. Lathrap's " After Twenty Years " 49 

(17) 



1 8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 

PAGE. 

Early addresses — Missionary Address — Sabbath school talks — 
Chautauqua course — Studies — Address before Vermont Legis- 
lature—President of Ohio \V. C. T. U.— Annual address— Com- 
mending Bible study— Her opinion of a License Law — Dom- 
ination of the Liquor Power 70 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Prohibition Amendment Campaign — Work in Cleveland — 
Petitions — Consummate Generalship — Fasting — Headquarters 
— Founding a paper, The Amendment Herald — Wonderful 
success — Enthusiasm — Ballot-box knavery — " Crush the 
Amendment" — Suppressed reports — Mrs. Woodbridge inter- 
viewed — Bain's opinion of the Campaign — Letter of Sallie F. 
Chapin, South Carolina — The result of the ballot — Editorial — 
Annual Address 81 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Mrs. Woodbridge as Editor — 100,000 subscribers — Half-million 
copies of editorials — Prolific correspondent — Robert Graham's 
insult — Mrs. Woodbridge on " Sweetness "—Another editorial 
— "Straws" — Light on Kansas Politics — Contribution to 
" White Ribbon Love Feast " — Bugle call from sick bed — Fran- 
ces Willard's letter 96 

CHAPTER IX. 
Joining the Prohibition Party — Causes — Miss Willard's address — 
Mrs. Buell's and J. Ellen Foster's — The American Reformer's 
editorial— " Who Was to Blame?" — Mrs. Woodbridge's edi- 
torial — "Dishonor! Disgrace!" Resolutions of National W. C. 
T. C. — National Republican Party defeated ! — Mrs. Woodbridge 
defends her action — Mrs. Woodbridge's mental processes — 
Studying on her knees no 

CHAPTER X. 
Giving up her paper — N. W. C. T. U. going over to Prohibition 
Party— Mrs. Woodbridge to Ohio W. C. T. U.— Her address at 
Chickering Hall, New York, December, 1SS4— Boston Herald 
interview— Division of Ohio W. C. T. U.— Cleveland W. C. T. U. 
—J. Ellen Foster's Protest at National W. C. T. U. and Mrs. 
Woodbridge's reply — John B. Finch's comment — Mrs. Wood- 
bridge takes Mrs. Foster's place — Her open letter to Iowa W. 
C. T. U. — Pain and peace 125 



C0NT1 NTS. 19 

CHAPTER XI. 

TA'.l 

National Reform Labors- Address iii Pittsburg, April, 1885, <>n 
■•Shall the American Republic be Perpetuated?" Address at 
Chautauqua in [886 on "Shall the United States acknowlei 
Christ as Sovereign ? " 157 

CHAPTER XII. 
Mrs. Woodbridge on Woman's Suffrage Photograph — " Ameri- 
can Woman and Her Political Peers" Address in Chicago on 
"Woman Suffrage and Prohibition"- Address before South 
Dakota W. C. T. U. Convention on Woman Suffrage 177 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Address in Buffalo on "The Nation's Peril " — Address in Cleve- 
land before Knights of Labor — Effects of the Speech 195 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Labors for Peace and International Arbitration — Address on 
" Peace " in Philadelphia 20S 

CHAPTER XV. 
Tribute to John B. Fin ch— Both kindred souls — Gift from the 
X. W. C. T. I' 222 

CHATTER XVI. 
Labors in the Pennsylvania Amendment Campaign— Speech in 
Allegheny, May, 1SS9 231 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Mrs. Woodbridge's trip abroad— Representing five organizations 

— Reception in Loudon, Edinburg, and other places— Descrip- 
tion of Lady Henry Somerset by Mrs. Sarah A. Tooley — Fran- 
ces E. Willard on Lady Henry Somerset's home life — Lady 
Henry Somerset's description of Mrs. Woodbridge's reception 

— Mrs. Woodbridge*s comments on Lady Henry Somerset . . 247 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Mrs. Woodbridge as a preacher— Ordained by the Holy Spirit- 
Letter from Olean, about ten conversions— Other conversions 

— Labors with a drunken man on the train — Letter to a lawyer 

— Printed letter— Letter from Gertrude Ferguson, of Kentucky 

— Holy Ghost Power — Her own experience — Address before 
Female Seminary • . . . 259 



20 COX TEXTS. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

PAGE. 

Mrs. Woodbridge as a church member and friend— Her spirit- 
ual support of her pastor— My Cato— The list of church mem- 
bers—Her ministry to the sorrowing— Letters to her pastor— 
His resignation— Her letter to his wife and him— Trial of her 
friendship— The "awful letter "—Forgiveness— Her comfort 
in supremest sorrow — Letter to her pastor— Letter from Fran- 
ces E. Beauchamp, of Lexington, Kentucky — Letter from 

— Letters, Mrs. Frances J. Barnes, of New York, and Mrs. Free- 
land from Wellsville, N. Y., and Jennie Casseday, of Kentucky, 
and Neal Dow and others — From Anna Gordon, Mrs. Wood- 
bridge "the right arm " of W. C. T. U.— Letters from Ida 
Clothier and Amy Kellogg Morse and Augusta A. Conner . . 287 

CHAPTER XX. 

Last labors and incidents — A night of terror on a Kansas prairie 
— A noble conductor — Her exhausting labors — A bugle blast 
— Welcomes to Miss Willard ; her response — Last journey to 
South Dakota, Kentucky and Indiana— Wedding of her grand- 
daughter — Last day at home — Preparing for convention — Sup- 
per to scrub-girls — Last letter to husband — Last appeal . . . 310 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Translated — Presentiment of death — The marked poem — 
Stricken with apoplexy — Death— Sensation in Chicago — The 
poor in sorrow — Miss Sudduth's description of services in Chi- 
cago and Ravenna — Address of Anna Gordon — The Cleveland 
Convention Memorial service — Miss Willard's prayer — Re- 
marks of Mrs. Bullock and Henrietta Moore 326 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Tributes of her Co-laborers— Ex-Senator Henry W. Blair— Mrs. 
E. J. Thompson — Mrs. Frances J. Barnes — Mrs. Mattie McClel- 
lan Brown— Joseph Cook— Geo. W. Bain— Mrs. L. M. N. Ste- 
vens— Mrs. K. L. Stevenson— Mrs. H. M. Barker— John P. St. 
John— Mrs. Hannah Bailey — Rev. Wm. Weir — Rev. Josiah 
Strong, D. D.— Rev. H. C. Delano 34S 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Resolutions, letters, poems, press tributes from Cairo, Egypt, 
Queensland, South Australia, Australasia, Mrs. Burkhalter, 
Cedar Rapids, la.— Anna M. Hammer, Philadelphia— Poem 



CONTENTS. 21 

from Blla Beechei Gittings, Col.— Poem from Loi i er- 
holtzer, Berlin -Marj E.Green, Eionolnln— Poem in Western 
Christian <4 ?, by Mrs. Hanna V.. Foster— Reaolutiona o( 

Home Missionary Society of M. B. Church of America Re 
lntionaoi National W. C. T. r. -U-tu-i (nun Mrs. J. T. Ellis, 
New Jersey— From Jennii >rn, Ravenna— Mrs. Carse, of 

Chicago — From Rev. Simeon Gilbert, in Chicaj ince — 

I'miii New York Constitution — Prom Enquirer and Mirt 
Nantucket— Prom :» Poughkeepsie journal Pi Mes- 

B • ton — Portland, Me., Argus —Manchester, Conn., Pi 
— Findlay, O., Press — Judge Campbell, Yankton, Dak.— /.' 
ite, Huron, D.ik. — Bloomington Leader— Dakota Standard — 
Pasaaic, N. J., Echo -Bridgeton, Me., News — The Genesee Val- 
ley Post — Telegrams— Poem by Mrs. Hall of Ravenna .... 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

luthor's estimate of Mrs. Woodbridge — John G. Woolley's 

Tribute — Conclusion 

APPENDIX. 

I. Genealogy of the Brayton Family 397 

II. Genealogy of the Mitchell Family 400. 



.USTRATK INS 



tes 



»1 






Portrait op Mrs. Mary a. Woodbridg /■>■ - 

f. w. woodbridge 36 

Mother Thompson - - 40 

Mrs. Woodbridge 

Frances E. Wiu 

Lady Henry Somerset 

TheDi:\r Home op Mrs. Woodbridge - 300 

Mrs. I. M. X. STEVENS 

.Mrs Mary T. Lathrap 



LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 



CHAPTER I. 

ANCESTRY. 

And uow I see with eye serene 

The very pulse of the machine ! 

A being breathing thoughtful breath, 

A traveler betwixt life and death. 

The reason firm, the temperate will, 
Endurance, foresight, strengtb and skill, 
A perfect woman nobly planned 

To warn, to comfort and command. 
And yet a spirit, pure and bright 

With something of an angel-light 

— // rth. 

SCIENTISTS tell us that the career of any living thing 
is the product of three forces, — ancestry, environment 

and the vital force of the individual itself. Few persons 
better illustrate these well-known principles of science than 
Mary A. Woodbridge, one of the foremost leaders of the 
greatest reform movement of our century. 

So great a man as Matthew Henry has said that 
" neither wisdom nor grace runs in the blood." And yet 
heredity is one of nature's divine laws, and "blood will 
tell." A great character is not formed in one generation. 
Mirabeau, when asked at what age he would commence 
the education of a boy, is reported to have replied : "I 
would be.e;in twenty years before he is born by educating 
his mother." To a similar question, the late Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes replied: " I would begin one hundred years 
before he is born by educating his great-grandmother." 

The latter is the more correct answer. The truth is, we 
not only ought to begin, but we, in very fact, do begin to 



26 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

lay the foundations of temperament and character a hun- 
dred years before a little immortal puts in his appearance 
on this planet. For that reason one's ancestry is a matter 
of no slight importance. That of Mrs. Woodbridge was all 
that could be desired for a reformer, coming as she did from 
the purest New England stock, to whom the atmosphere 
of agitation and reform seems to be the native, vital air. 

The writer is indebted to the noble brother of Mrs. 
Woodbridge, Col. George M. Brayton, of the U. S. A., for 
the genealogy of their parents. With that thoroughness 
and zeal which have characterized all his military career, 
he has traced the lineage of the family back to the eleventh 
century. From him I get the following concerning the 
father. 

BRAYTON — ORIGIN OF THE NAME. 

Bretons are of French origin of Norman extraction. 
The Breton families came into England with William the 
Conqueror, as I find in an early pedigree of the Bretons in 
1 197. This is the first date therein, and there are four gen- 
erations at the beginning of the pedigree previous to the 
date 1 197. 

The name Breton is derived from a province in France 
called Bretagne. The armorial bearings are the same in 
France as in England, and the name in France is Le Bre- 
ton. 

BRETON OF TRENTON. 

Baker's History of Northamptonshire, Vol. I, page 220, 
has a long pedigree of the Breton families, running back 
from four generations before 1197. The pedigree seems 
to have been prepared from papers in the family of William 
Le Breton in 1197. This pedigree brings the family down 
to the year 1708, with arms. 

Burke's armorial bearings has the coat of arms (which 
I have) with the name Brayton, which is the only English 
work I have found with the name " Brayton." But in the 
same book under Breton is precisely the same coat of arms 
and crest as Brayton. This I consider the best proof that 
can be had of the origin of the family name — that Brayton 



ANCESTRY. -7 

was Breton, and that the family is of French origin, N 

man extraction. 

There are at the present day many persona in France 

who are descendants of the <>1<1 stock, Le Breton, and who 
by "The Heraldry of Prance " have the same arms. 

In the Parliamentary Gazette of 1839, page 259, Is a 

description of Brayton Parish and Brayton township, in 
Yorkshire. The first oi the name in this country was 
Francis Brayton, horn in iCm:, died in 1692. He was a 

member of the Colonial Assembly in Rhode Island, in 

[662, Colonial records give the line of descendants. 
Their places of residence were Tiverton, R. I., Newport, 
and Nantucket, Mass. 

The generations in thi^ country are as follows : 

1. Francis Brayton. 

2. Stephen Brayton. 2d son of Francis and Mary, mar- 
ried Ann Tallman. 

3. Israel Brayton, 3d son of Stephen and Ann, mar- 
ried, [St, Kliphael Sanford ; 2d, Elizabeth Law ton. 

4. Isaac Brayton, 4th son of Israel and Elizabeth, 
married Sarah Hussey. 

5. Isaac Brayton, 2d son of Isaac and Sarah, married 
Love Mitchell. 

6. Mary A. Brayton, daughter of Isaac and Love, mar- 
ried F. W. Woodbridge. 

Thus Mary A. Woodbridge was of the sixth generation 
in this country of an ancestry that can be traced back for a 
period of eight hundred years. Her father, Isaac Brayton, 
was a typical New Englander. He was born in Nantucket 
in 1801, and became early in life captain of a whaling 
vessel. April 28, 1833, he landed the largest cargo of oil 
ever brought into Nantucket — 2,824 barrels. He helped 
to land one of the first, if not the first, missionary on the 
Sandwich Islands, and was for many years on most inti- 
mate terms with the missionaries. His name is gratefully 
mentioned in a history of the islands, by Rev. Hiram 
Bingham, for more than twenty-five years a missionary of 
the American Board. Even in those early days he was 



28 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

strictly temperate, never using tobacco or intoxicants. He 
was one of the few sea-captains who daily assembled his 
crew and led them in religious worship. He was physic- 
ally "as round as a barrel," measuring exactly the same 
from breast to back as from side to side, possessing such 
exceptional vigor and vitality that he lived to be nearly 

ninety years of age. 

He had such a practical talent for business and public 
affairs, and such a rare gift of eloquence, that he was rec- 
ognized by his fellow-citizens as a born leader of men, and 
they sent him to the Massachusetts legislature in the days 
when Edward Everett was governor, and when that body 
was composed of as able men as ever sat in any state as- 
sembly. 

He afterward moved to Ohio and served the common- 
wealth as associate judge with Ben Wade, and still later as 
a member of the Ohio senate. He was the father of the 
law by which the charitable institutions of Ohio are still 
governed. Few men anywhere could make so interesting 
a religious or missionary or political address. He was a 
man of wide reading and equally wide experience, at home 
on any question of public interest. There are citizens still 
living who speak of his brilliant address of welcome to 
Louis Kossuth as Hungary's exile and America's guest. 

In moral principle he was a very Puritan, firm in will, 
with an enlightened and tender conscience. In religion 
he was a godly Quaker, well read in Scripture, and most 
gifted in prayer. All his best qualities, physical, mental 
and spiritual, he repeated in his illustrious daughter. 

And Mrs. Woodbridge was not less fortunate in her 
Quaker mother, whose maiden name was Love Mitchell, 
the sister of William Mitchell, who, with his daughter, 
Maria Mitchell, were astronomers of world-wide fame. 

Col. George Mitchell Bray ton traces his mother's ances- 
try as follows : 



ANCESTRY, 

i. Ritchard Mitchell, born 1686 at Brixton, Isl< 
Wight. His residence was in the Isle of Wight. Married 
Mary Wood, died in [722. 

Richard Mitchell, son of Richard and Mary, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Tripp. In [708 came to Rhode Island. 

3. Richaid Mitchell, son of Richard and Elizabeth, 

married Mary Starbuck and lived in Nantucket. 

4. Peleg Mitchell, son of Richard and Mary, married 
Lydia Cartwright. Lived at Newport and Nantucket. 

5. Love Mitchell, daughter of Peleg and I^ydia, mar- 
ried Isaac Brayton. 

6. Mary A. Brayton, daughter of Isaac and Love, mar- 
ried F. W. Woodbridge. 

Captain Isaac Brayton married Love Mitchell by the 
Quaker ceremony, June 25, 1825. Of this union Mary 
Ann Brayton was born April 21, 1*30. 

Such ancestry and immediate parentage relieved Mary 
of all credit for being possessed of talents of the highest 
order — executive ability, astute intellect, unerring logic, 
clear reasoning, exuberance of spirits, ready wit that could, 
on fit occasion, flame into merciless sarcasm ; graceful, 
majestic yet thrilling eloquence ; a divine, insatiable hun- 
ger for books and learning, and an untiring energy in the 
pursuit of knowledge which is genius itself. Joined to 
these was a physical vigor that could support all the facul- 
ties in exercise at white heat, in a strain and tension of 
effort for forty years, the knowledge of which fills one with 
amazement. 

What women the Island of Nantucket produced! Abiah 
Folger, the mother of Benjamin Franklin, Lucretia Mott, 
brilliant and saintly Maria Mitchell, the immortal female 
astronomer, Phoebe A. Hannaford, preacher and poet, and 
their own cousin, Mary A. Woodbridge, the reformer, of 
whom the Nantucket Mirror says : "There is uo nobler 
name in history." 

Mary Clemmer once wrote: "This continent could 
scarcely produce another spot whose conditions of atmos- 



30 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

phere, of intelligence, of self-reliance, of thrift, would all 
tend to so unique a training, to so distinctive a life for its 
women as does Nantucket. In no other place in America 
is its womanhood so distinct, original and independent, 
both in thought and action, as on Nantucket. This little 
island of the sea, on account of its isolation, has preserved 
the strong individualism of its early settlers and become 
a community unique and fascinating in New England 
history. 

In June, 1888, Mrs. Woodbridge in an address to a 
gathering of Friends in Pennsylvania, paid this beautiful 
tribute to them and to her Quaker mother : "In this relig- 
ious society I had my birthright, and among such saints as 
Elizabeth Comstock, beloved of the Lord and of humanity, 
clad in softest robe of drab, my eyes first saw the light ; 
and that 'plain language,' sweetly euphonious when cor- 
rectly used, my tongue first lisped. The gone before, the 
mother loved (though spirit, which I cannot understand) is 
in my mind arrayed like these, with added sheen that comes 
from off the throne of God, as walking in His light, she 
waits the coming of her own. 

1 ' I linked the lessons of the ' moving of the Spirit ' of 
the childhood days with the Spirit's call of later years, and 
though I ' married out ' and can no longer claim member- 
ship in the society, their lessons will remain, and I rejoice 
that W. C. T. U. means 'Welcome Christians To Union,' 
and we are one in Him." 



CHAPTER n. 

TUXATK ENVIRONMENTS OP CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH. 

CHILDHOOD. 

Be yood, sweet child, and let who will be clever : 
Do noble things, not dream them, all day long. 

So shalt thou mak( 1, and that vast forever 

One grand sweet Bong. 

—Kingsley. 

And all fancies yearn to cover 
The hard earth whereon she passes, 
With the thyme scented grasses. 

And all hearts do pray, " God love her ! " 
Ay, and always, in good sooth 
We may all be sure He doth. 

—Elizabeth II arte tt Browning. 

NO living thing can escape the influence of environment. 
Any record of life is incomplete without this factor. 
The giant oak of the fat valley dwindles to a scrub tree on 
the barren, thin-soiled mountain-top. The luxuriant vege- 
tation of the tropical Amazon valley dwarfs as we journey 
northward and finally disappears in the ice-fields. Henry 
Buckle, in his immortal "History of Civilization," makes 
human life little more than a compound of climate and ele- 
vation above the sea, latitude and scenery, food and sky 
and storm. However much we may wish to qualify his 
view by adding stress to the importance of the human will 
and self-sovereignty, and the direct influence of God, yet 
none will deny that a talented, impressible, highly organ- 

(30 



32 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

ized woman will unconsciously receive much from her sur- 
roundings. 

Was it nothing that Mary Brayton ran with perfect 
freedom and bare feet on the sands of the seashore, breath- 
ing vitalizing ocean air, and treasuring up that wealth of 
health upon which she was to draw so unsparingly in her 
last years ? Was it a mere accident, unplanned and useless, 
that like Demosthenes of old, she constantly pitted her 
childish voice on summer days against the roar of the sea, 
and gained that strength and depth and compass of tone 
that used to nil the vast auditoriums at Chautauqua and 
Ocean Grove, and the largest assembly halls in the land, 
causing thousands to wonder and admire ? She gained the 
cheerful gentleness of the sunshine, the rollicking, over- 
flowing vivacity of perfect health, and the unconquerable 
might of the ocean tempest. 

It was surely, too, no misfortune that nine bright youth- 
ful years were spent on that island home of Nantucket. 
There could scarcely have been found a better school for 
the development of independent, self-reliant, female char- 
acter. "This," as Frances Willard has justly observed, 
' ' explains much in her brave career. Left to themselves 
during the long and dangerous voyages of men who sought 
the northern seas ' for light, more light ' (in the halcyon 
days of spermaceti before Colonel Drake struck oil from 
Pennsylvania's bosom), the women of Nantucket were by 
nature and nurture hardy, strong and self-reliant. But 
with these qualities not sufficiently emphasized in the ' reg- 
ulation pattern ' of the softer sex these unique islanders 
combined great tenderness and depth of head and con- 
science. How could it fail to be so, when they fervently 
prayed for the safe home-coming of their best beloved, and 
kept their memory green by constant recitals to their chil- 
dren of the virtues of their absent sons and sires ? ' ' 

They were a quiet, sturdy, natural, pious and intellect- 



ENVIRONMENTS OF YOUTH 33 

ual people, entirely free from the blighting follies of a fa 
ionable world. Little Mary's life was as nntrammeled and 

unconventional as a sea-bird's, fitting prelude to that wholly 
unstudied, natural but matchless grace of the later years. 
Captain Bray ton, her father, returned from a long whaling 
voyage when Mary was three years old. She had never 
seen him before — at least since her baby days. The family 
were invited out to tea. The little girl had never learned 
to call him " father." When she was requested to announce 
the meal, she went to the parlor, and with childish dignity 
and naturalness said : " Mr. Captain Isaac Brayton, tea is 
ready." Her joys were few, but wholesome, perhaps 
watching the rolling deep, 

" As here and there .1 fisher's far-off liark 
Flies with the sun's last glimpse upon its sail," 

or taking a long morning walk to Scouset Beach, or visiting 
the old historic windmill, built of oak in 1740, and pierced 
by a cannon-ball during the Revolution. 

Perchance sometime she climbed some sandy height, to 
scan the sea for a glimpse of her father's sail, or repaired to 
the commercial wharf to get some news from an incoming 
vessel of the far-off wanderer of the deep. No doubt her 
imagination was quickened as she looked off from the little 
island of seven miles' diameter, and thought of that large, 
large world with which her brave father was so well 
acquainted. 

Nantucket in the '30s, like every other part of the com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, had a very practical public 
school system, under the control of Horace Mann, the state- 
superintendent. The people of no other state were so well 
or so universally educated. Mary Brayton s sunny years 
were most carefully improved under the watchful guidance 
of wise parental counsel and able teachers. She was the 
prodigy of the school-room, especially in mathematics. 



34 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

One day the great Massachusetts educator, Horace Mann, 
visited the Nantucket school. Little Mary, scarcely more 
than six years old, went through the multiplication table 
forward and backward up to the 20s. The great man 
was surprised at the precocious child, and laid his hand 
kindly upon her head and said : " Mary, if you persevere 
you will be a notable woman." 

This reminds us of the boyhood of Charles Spurgeon. 
Rev. Richard Knill once visited Rev. James Spurgeon, the 
grandfather of Charles. On walking in the garden with 
his host's grandson, then about ten years of age, he felt a 
prayerful concern for the intelligent and inquisitive boy, 
put his arms around him under a yew-tree and prayed for 
him. He then put his hand on his head, telling him that 
he believed he would love Jesus Christ and preach His gos- 
pel in the largest chapel in the world. ' ' Calling the family 
together he took me on his knee," said Charles in after 
years, "and I distinctly remember him saying, 'I do not 
know how it is, but I feel a solemn presentiment that this 
child will preach the gospel to thousands, and God will 
bless him to many souls. So sure am I of this, that when 
my little man preaches in Rowland Hill's chapel, as he will 
one day, I should like him to promise me that he will give 
out the hymn commencing — 

" ' God moves in a mysterious way, 
His wonders to perform.' 

' ' The promise was made by the little boy ; the prophetic 
declaration was fulfilled, and the promise kept." It leads 
one to ask— is the race of prophets extinct ? Has not God 
still some favored ones blessed with visions as in the olden 
days ? 

Before she was seven years old the bright Nantucket 
girl had read her Bible through. At nine years of age her 
father moved West and the narrow island was exchanged 



! v/v.v • NMENTS OF YOUTH. 

for the Western Reserve of the enterprising young stati ol 
Ohio. Dr. Leonard Bacon, of New Haven, once said to the 
writer, when a student at Yale, "The Western Reserve is 
New England moved West." Dr. Edward Beecher also 

said to the writer: "The Western Reserve is new Con- 
necticut, more Connecticut than old Connecticut." To the 
'heart of this Western Reserve came the Brayton family, — a 
section of Ohio peopled by the purest New England blood, — 
enterprising men and women who had pushed out from the 
parent nest to enter upon a wider career in a new state. 
They cherished all the Puritan instincts and moral princi- 
ples ; but on a new Geld, under changed conditions, their 
social life could take on new forms, unrestrained by the 
conservatism of the fixed habits and customs of the older 
east. 

Hon. Isaac Brayton, with his experience in the Massa- 
chusetts legislature and his signal ability, was immediately 
recognized as a social and political leader. He was facile 
primus — the foremost man in the community. His purity 
and piety and ardent love of liberty, and his devotion to 
humanity, made his home the rallying place of reformers 
and humanitarians and eminent public men. Within his 
four walls often met together Hon. Joshua R. Giddings, 
Senator Benjamin Wade and Hon. Salmon P. Chase to 
consult with Judge Brayton about the conduct of public 
affairs. Here, too, came the immortal John Brown to dis- 
cuss his one theme. In this room sat Louis Koxsnth, the 
immortal Hungarian patriot. At the family table in the 
room adjoining this he dined with the Brayton family, 
Mary being present. What a school for a future reformer ! 
One can almost see the bright eyes of the thoughtful girl 
dilate and flash their fire at what she heard. Her bosom 
heaves with emotion at the story of some wrong. Her 
heart kindles with enthusiasm for humanity, whenever and 
wherever cursed by oppression. Her inmost soul is filled 



36 LIFE OF MAR Y A. WOODBRIDGE. 

with a divine abhorrence of national sin, as alike perilous 
to the nation and offensive to the nation's God. All these 
things are slowly but surely shaping her character, fitting 
her mind and heart for a service of which the world as yet 
does not dream. 

In this connection, too, should be mentioned the fact 
that twelve miles from Ravenna, at Hudson, Ohio, was 
located Western Reserve College, now the Adelbert Col- 
lege of Western Reserve University at Cleveland, and in the 
same town at that time there was also a female seminary. 
This latter school Mary Brayton attended, having the addi- 
tional advantage of college lectures and influences, which 
her eagerly receptive mind was quick to improve. Thus 
her intellect was in training for large achievements, and she 
was being tempered and fashioned as a noble instrument for 
use in the right hand of God. 

Of other helpful providences we have yet to speak ; but 
we must not forget to note here that at the age of fourteen 
she passed from death unto life and became a loving child 
of God. 




P. \Y. \V< h >DBRIDGE 



. AS 
TILC 



CHAPTER III. 

THE MODBL HUSBAND. 

MAIDENHOOD. 

Maiden ! with the meek brown c 
in whose orbs a shadow lies 

I.ikc the <lusk in evening skies! 

Standing with reluctant feet, 
Where the brook and river m< 
Womanhood and childhood fl< 

i razing, with a timid glance, 
On the brooklet's swift advance, 

On the river's broad expanse ! 

Deep and still that gliding stream 
Beautiful to thee must seem 
As the river of a dream. 

Like the swell of some sweet tune 
Morning rises into noon, 
May glides onward into June. 

And that smile, like sunshine, dart, 

Into many a sunless heart, 

For a smile of God thou art. 

— //. W. Longfellow. 

OXE beautiful winter afternoon a company of young' 
people took a sleighride from Hudson to Ravenna. 
One of the company was Mary Bray ton. The party 
drove up before her home. Mary alighted and ran into 
the kitchen and asked : "Where is father?" The house- 
keeper roguishly replied : "In the parlor." Mary bounded 
in to find — not her father, but a young man, a bookkeeper. 
His coat was off. He was deep in the mysteries of day- 

(37) 



38 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

book and ledger, making the annual statement and balance 
of the account of Judge Brayton for the Eastern L,and 
Company, whose immense business was all in his hands. 
It was the first meeting of these two persons. 

Mary was nearly seventeen years old. The man, Fred- 
erick Wells Woodbridge, was twenty-three. She saw the 
joke that had been played upon her, blushed, and inquired 
the whereabouts of her father. But more ; she looked at 
him with a woman's sharp, almost superhuman intuition, 
and received a strange, never-to-be-forgotten impression. 
He, too, looked at that radiant young womanhood, with a 
wealth of brown hair, which, when down, swept the floor 
two inches as she was standing, crowning a noble forehead, 
flashing laughing eyes, red cheeks, smiling, clean-cut lips, 
and strong chin, making altogether a rarely intelligent, 
soulful countenance. The figure of the maiden was five 
feet four inches high, firm, lithe, graceful with the majestic 
poise of a statue. Was it strange that this busy young 
man, five feet five inches high, with fair cheeks, and blue 
eyes and flaxen hair, should just then think of something 
else besides figures ? 

It matters not what we call it, whether presentiment or 
revelation. The result is just the same. That moment 
was never forgotten ; never will be. How could it be ? It 
was the moment and the place where two streams of life 
met, for evermore to mingle. It is probably the private 
opinion of every reader of these lines that on the way back 
to Hudson, Miss Brayton thought of some one else beside 
the student at her side. And Mr. Woodbridge that even- 
ing thought,— well, it is a thousand wonders that the 
books balanced ! But they did, and Judge Brayton was 
so pleased about it that a few days afterwards he shook 
hands with young Mr. Woodbridge with a crisp hundred 
dollar bill in his hand. Some nine months later he gave 
him something else infinitely more precious, even Mary. 



THE MODEL HUSBAND. 39 

In this historic room to the right of the hall as one enters, 
Frederick Wells Woodbridge and Mary Aim Brayton were 
married, September 28, [847. 

Mr. Woodbridge was born in Manchester, Conn., in 1824. 
His lather, who had been wealthy, lost his all in the finan- 
eial panic of 1837, ;nu ' came to Ohio with his son in [839. 
In [840, the youth was converted while living in Franklin 
Mills — now Kent, Ohio. lie has now a Bible given him 
by his father, when six and a half years old, for reading 
the Bible through. In 1S41 he began to clerk for Clapp 
ec Spellman, at Akron, ami soon after was engaged to clerk 
for Zenas Kent, of Ravenna, who had noticed his character 
and ability. With characteristic unselfishness he gave his 
father his wages to help him buy a farm, denying himself 
many comforts for that purpose. Too poor to venture into 
society, he was yet too rich in self-respect and principle to 
indulge in bad habits. He went into business for himself 
in 1S46. 

If a marriage is to be judged by the mutual helpfulness 
and domestic bliss and unmarred conjugal felicity which 
results from it, this was certainly an ideal union. Forty- 
seven years without a disagreement or an uncivil word is a 
blissful experience that leaves a holy memory in the heart 
of him who lingers, waiting for the coming of the train 
that shall bear him to her and make the parted one. 

Kach found his and her complement in the other, and 
the delicate chivalry and tender pride of Mr. Woodbridge 
in his gifted wife were fully equaled and rewarded by her 
own loving, trustful devotion to him. Who that came close 
to her has not heard her say with that deep ring of happy 
wifely pride in her voice, " My husband is, without a ques- 
tion, the best man on earth ! ' He gloried in her advance- 
ment in usefulness and public esteem far more than she did, 
and sacredly devoted himself to the work of assisting her in 
her public sen-ice. He furnished her with money without 



40 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

stint or measure all these years to prosecute her reform 
work, and cheered her by sympathy in trial and helpful- 
ness in toil. Men of grosser mould and more selfish heart 
have pitied him as a man deserted by an ambitious wife. 
He has asked no man for his pity and thanked no man for 
such misplaced sympathy, and has listened to words of 
condolence with a silent pity for those who could not appre- 
ciate the exalted spirit of consecration and self-sacrifice that 
animated both himself and his adored wife. It was his 
delightful daily task to write her when she was absent, 
and every night before he slept he made an entry in his 

book, — "Mary is in , speaking to-night," naming the 

town or city. He can refer to his record and tell where she 
was speaking any night during all these past years, and 
now that she is gone he often sits at the table before retir- 
ing and perhaps takes the book, and then, — his mind, 
instead of his pencil, makes the entry, " Mary speaks in — 
heaven, to-night." 

The writer remembers once walking with him on the 
street on a winter's day. He had just received an account 
of a very successful series of meetings in an eastern city 
in which the cause of temperance was greatly helped and 
several persons were converted. He stopped in the street, 
and, looking me squarely in the face, his own countenance 
all aglow and eyes glistening with tears, said : ' ' What a 
wretch I would be and deserving of what contempt if I 
should keep my wife from such blessed service for the Mas- 
ter just that she might remain at home to minister to and 
delight and serve me !" In the same spirit, when the 
blessed one had passed within the veil, "her great-souled 
husband, with the light of heaven's smiles mingled with 
the tears of earth's sorrow into a glorious rainbow glow, 
which those who saw can never forget, said : ' Do not feel 
that I regret her work or this year of separation. It was 
my work as well as hers. It was my part in it to give her 




MOTHER THOMPS< >N 



THE MODEL HUSBAND. \\ 

up to go forth, and I did it gladly. We are perfectly 
content.' " 

One month before the noble woman was translated from 
us, Mr. Wbodbridge wrote her, Lamenting that she was 
working so hard while he was doing so little. .She wrote 
hack a letter dated September [8, 1894, as follows : 

My <>wx DARLING: — I am almost ready to go home, but 
wait a few moments to give you a hit of a scolding. Don't 
you feel that you deserve it when you write unkind things 

of my husband, better, dearer to me than any other soul 
in the wide world? I wonder what would have come to 
me all the years that I have been spending money and 
gaining nothing had it not been for that same dear one 
who has ever been full of cheer and hope and help, and 
supplied all my needs? No, no, my darling, there is never 
a thought in my heart but gratitude that I am given health, 
strength, ability and opportunity at my age to do what I 
am doing. Farewell, my own beloved. Von are the dear- 
est and best husband known in the world. The Lord be 
with you and give you every good thing. You are coming 
to live with me if I stay. 

Your own loving wife, 

Mary. 

But she did not stay. The summons came to appear 
before her King to receive her crown of eternal reward. 
There, in another city, fairer than any of earth, she awaits 
his coming to live with her forever. 

We may pause here and ask : Was it an accident that 
gave to a woman destined to be such a chosen vessel of the 
Lord, such a husband ? Who can doubt that it was a 
blessed providence of God ? Who can fail to see that had 
this noble man been narrow and selfish and exacting, the 
kingdom of Christ would have lost one of its most valiant 
servants, and the world one of its brightest names? Mrs. 
Woodbridge once said: "I think Wells' crown will be 
brighter than mine." 

Mrs. Elizabeth L. Bailey, of Trenton, X. J., wrote to 



42 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

him: "Our greatest sympathy is for thee, who in a lofty 
sacrifice hast dedicated thy dearest treasure to the cause 
you both loved so well." 

His one earthly wish now is to be spared long enough 
to give the record of her noble life to the world. May this 
chapter now closing ever link his name with hers as her 
model husband, and keep his memory fresh in white- 
ribboners' hearts. 



CHAPTBB IV. 

BOMB LIPS— STUDIES AND SOCIETY. 

We remember Dr. X. Murray, the famous " Kirwan " of America, 
mentioning that in his youth he met an old disciple ninety-one years 
of age . and, in taking leave, the venerable pilgrim left with his young 
friend a charge which he had never forgotten : "Do all the good 

you can, to all the people von can, in all the ways you can, and as 
long as you can." If that rule were carried out by each Christian it 
would soon change the face of society. If you, who are the Chris- 
tiau member of the family, were setting a watch over your lips, and 
were in all things wise, gentle, obliging, self-denying, high-toned, 
few in the household could withstand the quiet, persistent sermon; 
and if the Christian households of the laud were as peaceful as they 
are pure — if the several inmates were fair-minded, kind-hearted, 
mutually helpful . . . the synagogue of Satan would disappear 
from the laud. — James Hamilton, 

Wait not for extraordinary occasions. The present moment, and 
the mite you can contribute as it passes, are your all. For, rightly 
viewed, what is the present moment but the index on the dial plate, 
forever moving till it makes up your whole life ? The whole of re- 
ligion, then, is comprised in one simple direction : " Do all you can 
from a pure motive NOW."— C. A. Bartol. 

IMMEDIATELY after marriage Mr. and Mrs. Wood- 
1 nidge began housekeeping by themselves, happy as 
any two birds over their first nest. Three weeks later 
Mr. Woodbridge went to Xew Vork to buy goods. On 
returning he hastened to his home, eager for the greeting 
of his precious young wife ; — and, lo ! the nest was utterly 
empty ; the bird had flown. 

Upon hastening to father Brayton's home the mystery 
was solved. During the young husband's absence the 

(43) 



44 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

parents and three brothers had come to a unanimous vote 
that the}' could not live without Mary, and wouldn't try. 
So with masterly decision they ended their trouble by 
going to that new home in a body and carrying off every 
piece of furniture, and Mary, too. They forthwith in- 
stalled the captive as mistress in her old home ; and when 
Wells got back, father and mother and three brothers were 
living with his Mary. So, in six weeks after marriage, the 
young wife of seventeen and one half years was presiding 
over a family of eight persons. 

So beautiful did she make her home, so attractive was 
her personality, so gracious her hospitality, that from that 
time on for thirty years she always had a house full. No 
one ever became an inmate of the household who did not 
prolong his stay. Her three brothers lived with her till 
they were grown to manhood. A clerk, who came to stay 
a week, tarried three years. Her husband's father came to 
make a visit, and stayed eleven years — till death. Her own 
mother lived with her over twenty years and her father 
over forty — till each went to the everlasting home. 

The wife of Col. George Brayton writes a letter of sym- 
pathy to Mr. Woodbridge, making the following grateful 
mention of the above facts : ' ' Your greatest comfort must 
be that all your life has been an act of devotion to her. It 
has been unfailing, and has included her whole family. 
We have all so many acts of kindness to remember that 
you have shown us ; and it was your love for Mary that 
prompted you to do them." 

Airs. Woodbridge was the mother of three children be- 
fore she was twenty-one — all she ever had, save one who 
was born thirteen years later. Such an early marriage and 
such a family would have been with most women the end 
of all study and intellectual achievement ; but it was not so 
with her. She never lost her enthusiasm for books, nor her 
thirst for knowledge. She had too much energy of charac- 



//. WE LIFE— STL 'DIES . WD Si nil. rv. 45 

ter and power of perseverance to be balked by difficulties. 
Her mind must have food, and she fed it, studying with 

her book oil a rack before her while her quick hands were 
engaged with household tasks. She took lessons in Ger- 
man and French, and recited in her own house while hold- 
ing one of her babies on her knee and quieting another 
at her side. She was at that time presiding over a family 
of twelve, having the entire management of her domestic 
affairs and performing many of the commonest duties her- 
self. 

1 1 was her husband's custom for years to bring her some 
volume fresh from the press weekly. These her insatiable 
appetite for knowledge eagerly devoured. One of her 
daughters tells me she well remembers when Holland's 
poem, "Bitter Sweet," was published. Her father brought 
it home on Saturday evening. The daughters begged their 
mother to read aloud to them, and she read the volume at 
a single sitting, finishing about midnight. Thus her busy 
mind ranged over past and present, feeding upon history, 
poetry, essays, periodical literature, and most of all upon 
the Word of God. She kept in touch with the best thought 
and life of the day, never allowing her intellect to stagnate 
on account of excessive cares. 

We can look back now upon those years as a marvelous 
discipline and preparation for the later life. We can under- 
stand how that critical literary taste was cultivated, the 
reasoning faculties developed, and the mind stored with the 
needed furnishings which, later on, gave her that readiness 
and aptness which made all audiences marvel. And it may 
be the very multiplicity of those family cares, so diverse 
and distracting, was exactly the thing needed to bring to 
perfection that unsurpassed executive ability which man- 
aged the Ohio Amendment Campaign, and the offices of 
Corresponding Secretary of the National and World's W. 
C. T. U. God has His own select school for each of us. 



46 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

He evidently knew what He was doing with her and for 
what purpose. The last twenty years amply 'explain the 
previous forty-four years, and justify the doings of His 
guiding hand. 

For the first six years of married life Mr. and Mrs. 
Woodbridge lived at Ravenna. Then the family moved 
to Newburg, now a part of Cleveland, O., where for twenty 
years she lived the life of a cultured Christian matron, and 
an unusually brilliant member of society, yet otherwise 
undistinguished from the multitudes around her. During 
this period there was for a few years in Newburg a little 
select literary society which met regularly in the parlor of 
Rev. James Shaw, D. D. It was composed of some bright 
persons, both James A. Garfield and Mrs. Woodbridge 
being numbered among the members. About the time 
that Mr. Garfield was nominated for the presidency of the 
United States, he saw Mr. Woodbridge on a railroad train, 
and he left his political companions and sat down beside 
him and said : "Wells, how is Mary ? Has she as wonder- 
ful a memory as she used to have when we were members 
of the literary circle in Xewburg ? I remember once that 
I made a speech and thought I had fortified my argument 
securely. She followed me and upset all that I had said 
by quoting against me from memory an argument that I 
myself had made a year before. I was profoundly im- 
pressed with her ability and have watched her public career 
with a great deal of pleasure." 

This is only a specimen of the impression she made 
upon all appreciative minds, even in those years of private 
life, with the heavy burdens of household cares resting 
upon her. 

We may mention here in closing this chapter three 
other incidents that now may be regarded as providential. 
For many years before her death Mrs. Woodbridge's 
mother was quite deaf. Multitudes of persons have com- 



HOME LIFE— STUDIES AND .'). 47 

mented on Mary's v. rful, almost unequalled v< 
which, without any effort, once successfully addressed 
Beven thousand people. " I cultivated my voice for my 
mother's sake." she once said, "as she was deaf for many 

years. Hlis fact itself," as Mrs. Katharine Lente Ste- 
venson observes, "was a wonderful index to her character." 
What might have seemed only a trial was truly a divinely 
appointed means to prepare her for her life's work. 

During the time of her father's residence in Columbus, 
O., as a member of the legislature, Mary often visited him. 
Miss Kate Chase, the brilliant daughter of the ever- famous 
Salmon P. Chase, was then the social leader of the capital. 
Mrs. Woodbridge often met her and the most prominent 
women of the state in social life. It was a preparation for 
her entrance into the best Christian homes of this land and 
England, where her queenly presence, her grace and gra- 
ciousness were admired by all. 

In [873 Mr. and Mrs. Woodbridge returned to Ravenna. 
She entered again into the same uneventful, everyday life, 
surrounded by those friends of her early womanhood that 
were still living. The far-reaching influence of this change 
of residence was not then foreseen. It doubtless appeared 
at the time a matter of no significance whatever, whether 
they lived here or there. We can understand it now. Mr. 
Woodbridge knowing his wife's early and intense aversion 
to publicity, a feeling that never wholly left her, now feels 
sure that had she been living in the larger city of Cleve- 
land at the time of the Crusade, others more prominent and 
ambitious would have gone to the front. There would 
have seemed to be no call for her, and she would never 
have been brought out. It was the hand of compulsion 
that drove her from her privacy and seclusion. And for 
this God seems to have made complete arrangements. He 
had a great mission to fill, a great service to be performed, 
and, at the opportune time, He had a great soul ready. 



48 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

She was near!}- forty-four years old. Early marriage, 
usually so undesirable, had in her case brought her family 
to a condition where she could safely leave home. She 
had several grandchildren, one of them nearly seven years 
old. Without her thought or planning, everything was in 
readiness for the hour of God to strike. It struck ! 



CHAPTER V. 

THE CRQSADE. 

'Tis not for man to trillc ' Life is brief, 

Ami sin is here. 
Our age is hut the falling of a leaf, 

A dropping tear. 

We have no time to sport away the hours. 

All must be earnest in a world like ours. 

— Bonar. 

There is in man a Higher than love of happiness; he can do 
without Happiness and instead thereof find Rlessedness ! Was it 
not to preach forth this same Higher that sages and martyrs, the 
Poet and the Priest in all times, have spoken and suffered ; bearing 
testimony through life and through death of the Godlike that is in 
man, and how in the Godlike only has he strength and freedom.— 
Carlyle. 

THE Crusade came — came with the suddenness and 
power of Pentecost ; bringing also, like it, a baptism 
of the Holy Ghost. It was twenty-one years ago, Decem- 
ber, 1S73, — holy Christmas time. How the years are fleet- 
ing ! When the babe born to-day comes to his majority 
most of the participants in that wondrous movement will be 
in glory singing not Christmas carols nor Crusade hymns, 
but the Hallelujah Chorus of the eternal ages, "Worthy 
is the Lamb that was slain." The Crusade will then be a 
thing of the long ago, about which many will be curious 
to know what that unparalleled movement was and how it 
came about. 

For this reason I insert here two accounts of great 

interest, being sure tbat the Crusade sisters will pardon me 

(49) 



50 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

for stoppiug the narrative a few moments to traverse ground 
which is to them quite familiar. The first is 

THE STORY OF THE CRUSADE AT HILLSBORO. 

MRS. ELIZA J. THOMPSON. 

On the evening of December 22, 1873, Dio Lewis, a 
Boston physician and lyceum lecturer, delivered in Music 
Hall, Hillsboro, Ohio, a' lecture on " Our Girls." He had 
been engaged by the Lecture Association some months 
before to fill one place in the winter course of lectures, 
merely for the entertainment of the people. But finding 
that he could remain another evening, and still reach his 
next appointments, he consented to give another lecture on 
the evening of the 23d, and so a free lecture on temper- 
ance became the order of the evening. I did not hear Dio 
Lewis' lecture (although he was our guest), because of 
home cares that required my presence, but my son, a 
youth of sixteen, was there, and he came to me on his 
return home, and in a most excited manner related the 
thrilling incidents of the evening. He told how Dr. Lewis 
told of his own mother and several of her good Christian 
friends uniting in prayer with and for the liquor sellers of 
his native town, until they gave up their soul-destroying 
business, and then said, " Ladies, you might do the same 
thing in Hillsboro if you had the same faith," and turning 
to the ministers and temperance men who were upon the 
platform, he added: "Suppose I ask the ladies of this 
audience to signify their opinions upon the subject." 
They all bowed their consent, and fifty or more women 
stood up in token of approval. He then asked the gentle- 
men how many of them would stand as backers, should the 
ladies undertake the work, and sixty or seventy arose. 

" And now, mother," said my boy, " they have got you 
into business, for you are on a committee to do some work 
at the Presbyterian church in the morning at nine o'clock, 
and then the ladies want you to go with them to the 
saloons." 

My husband seemed asleep as he rested upon the couch, 
while my son, in an undertone, had given me all the above 
facts, but as the last sentence was uttered he raised himself 
upon his elbow, and said, "What tomfoolery is that?" 



THE CRUSADE. 5' 

My son slipped out of the room quietly, and I betook my- 
self to the task of consoling my husband with the promise 
that I should not be led into any foolish act by Dio Lewis 

or any association of human beings. But after he had re- 
laxed into a milder mood, continuing to call the whole 
thing, as he understood it, "tomfoolery," I ventured to 
remind him that the men had been in the " tomfoolery " 
business a Long tune, and suggested that it might be God's 
will that the women should now take their part. Nothing 
further was said upon the subject that had created such 
interest the night before, until after breakfast, when we 
gathered in the family room. First my son approached 
me, and placing his hand gently upon my shoulder, in a 
very subdued tone said, " Mother, are you not going over 
to the church this morning?" As I hesitated, and doubt- 
less showed in my countenance the burden upon my spirit, 
he emphatically said, "But, my dear mother, you know 
you have to go." Then my daughter, who was sitting on 
a stool by my side, leaning over in a most tender manner, 
ami looking up in my face, said, " Don't you think you 
will go?" All this time my husband had been walking 
the floor, uttering not a word. He stopped, and placing 
his hand on the family Bible, that lay upon my work-table, 
said emphatically, " Children, you know where your 
mother goes to settle all vexed questions ; let us leave her 
alone," withdrawing as he spoke, and the dear children 
following him. I turned the key, and was in the act of 
kneeling before God and His Holy Word to see wdiat 
would be sent me, when I heard a gentle tap at my door ; 
upon opening it I saw my dear daughter, with her little 
Bible open, and the tears coursing down her young cheeks, 
as she said, "I opened to this, mother. It must be for 
you." 

She immediately left the room, and I sat down to read 
the wonderful message of the great " I am" contained in 
the 146th Psalm. Xo longer doubting, I at once repaired 
to the Presbyterian church, wdiere quite a large assembly 
of earnest workers had gathered. I was at once unani- 
mously chosen as the president, Mrs. General McDowell as 
vice-president, and Mrs. D. K. Fenner, secretary, of the 
strange work that was to follow. Appeals were drawn up 
to druggists, saloon-keepers, and hotel proprietors. Then 



52 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

the Presbyterian minister (Dr. McSurely), who had up to 
this time occupied the chair, called upon the chairman- 
elect to come forward to the " post of honor," but I could 
not ; my limbs refused to bear me. So Dr. McSurely re- 
marked, as he looked around upon the gentlemen : "Breth- 
ren, I see that the ladies will do nothing while we remain ; 
let us adjourn, leaving this new work with God and the 
women." 

As the last man closed the door after him, strength be- 
fore unknown came to me, and without any hesitation or 
consultation I walked forward to the minister's table, took 
the large Bible, and opening it, explained the incidents of 
the morning; then read the Psalm, and briefly (as my tears 
would allow) commented upon its new meaning to me. I 
then called upon Mrs. McDowell to lead in prayer — and 
such a prayer ! It seemed as if the angel had brought 
down " live coals " from off the altar and touched her lips 
— she who had never before heard her own voice in prayer! 
As we rose from our knees (for there were none sitting on 
that morning) I asked Mrs. Cowden (our Methodist minis- 
ter's wife), to start the good old hymn, 

" Give to the winds thy fears," 

and turning to the dear women, I said : " As we all join in 
singing this hymn, let us form in line, two and two, the 
small women in front, leaving the tall ones to bring up the 
rear, and at once proceed to our sacred mission, trusting 
alone in the God of Jacob." 

It was all done in less time than it takes to write it, 
every heart was throbbing, and every woman's countenance 
betrayed her solemn realization of the fact that she was 
going "about her Father's business." As this band of 
''mysterious beings" first encountered the outside gaze, 
and as they passed from the door of the old church and 
reached the street beyond the large churchyard, they were 
singing these prophetic words, 

" And far above thy thought, 
His counsel shall appear, 
When fully He the work hath wrought 
That caused thy needless fear." 

On they marched, in solemn silence up to Main street. 
After calling at all the drug stores, four in number, their 



THE CRUSADl 53 

pledge being signed by all the dealers save one, they en 

tered saloons and hotels, on this and subsequent days, with 
varied success, until by continuous daily visitations, with 
persuasion, prayer and song, and Scripture readings, the 

drinking places of the town were reduced from thirteen to 
one drug stoie, one hotel and two saloons, and they sold 

" very cautiously." 

Prayer-meetings were held during the entire winter and 
spring, every morning (except Sunday), and mass-meetings 

in the evenings, at the Methodist church one week and at 
the Presbyterian the next. This is, in brief, the story. 

The second account is condensed from the pen of Mrs. 
M. V. Ustick and is the history ol" 

THE CRUSADE AT WASHINGTON COFRT IinrSE. 

On the evening of Dec. 24, i.S; ; v the lecture association 
of Washington Court House had in its course a lecture on 
"Our Girls," by D10 Lewis, of Boston. During his ad- 
dress he offered to suggest a new plan for fighting the 
Liquor traffic, which, he asserted, if carefully adhered to, 
would close every saloon in the place in one week's time. 
Accordingly on Christmas morning, at nine o'clock, in the 
Presbyterian church, were assembled quite a large congre- 
gation of men and women, eager to hear about a plan that 
promised so much. In a most elegant address the Doctor 
proceeded to fulfill his promise of the preceding evening, 
arousing the enthusiasm of his entire audience ; and there 
\\ is organized one of the grandest reformatory movements 
of the age, — nowso well and fitly known as the "Woman's 
Crusade." In the evening a prayer-meeting was held in 
the M. E. church, at which the chairman of Committee on 
Appeal, Mrs. M. G. Carpenter, reported the following : 

" Knowing, as you do, the fearful effects of intoxicating 
drinks, we, the women of Washington, after earnest prayer 
and deliberation, have decided to appeal to you to desist 
from this ruinous traffic, that our husbands, brothers, and 
especially our sons, be no longer exposed to this terrible 
temptation, and that we may no longer see them led into 
those paths which go down to sin, and bring both body 
and soul to destruction. We appeal to the better instincts 
i f your own hearts, in the name of desolated homes, blasted 



54 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

hopes, ruined lives, widowed hearts, for the honor of our 
community, for our happiness ; for our good name as a 
town ; in the name of the God who will judge you as well 
as ourselves ; for the sake of your own souls, which are to 
be saved or lost, we beg — we implore you to cleanse your- 
selves from the heinous sin, and place yourselves in the 
ranks of those who are striving to elevate and ennoble 
themselves and their fellowmen ; and to this we ask you 
to pledge yourselves." It was adopted. 

On Friday, Dec. 26, 1873, after an hour of prayer in 
the M. E. church, forty-four women filed slowly and sol- 
emnly down the aisle and started forth upon their strange 
mission, with fear and trembling, while the men remained 
to pray for their success. The tolling of the church bell 
kept time to the solemn marching of the women, as they 
wended their way to the first drug store on the list. (The 
number of places within the city limits where intoxicating 
drinks were sold was fourteen — eleven saloons and three 
drug stores. ) 

They entered each place singing, presented their appeal, 
and this was followed by prayer ; then there was earnest 
pleading to desist from their soul-destroying traffic, and to 
sign the dealer's pledge. 

Thus it went on, all day long, going from place to 
place, without stopping for dinner or lunch, till five 
o'clock, meeting with no marked success, but with invari- 
able courtesy. They entered dens of iniquity, back rooms 
and dark cellars, and saw what they had never seen before, 
and were filled with heart sickness. There was a crowded 
house at night to hear the report of their day's work. 

Saturday morning, December 27th, after an hour of 
prayer an increased number went forth again leaving the 
men in the church who continued in prayer all day long. 
Every few moments the tolling bell cheered the hearts of 
the Crusaders, and notes were sent back to the church 
from every place visited. On this day the contest really 
began. The doors of the first saloon were found locked. 
With hearts full of compassion, the women knelt in the 
snow upon the pavement, to plead for the divine influence 
upon the heart of the liquor dealer, and there held their 
first street prayer-meeting. 

At night the weary workers reported that two druggists 



THE CRUSADE. 55 

had signed the pledge not to sell, except upon the written 

prescription of a physician. 

The Sabbath was devoted to union mass-meetings and 
prayer. Monday the ladies had increased to nearly one 
hundred. That day, December 29th, is our long to be re- 
membered as the day upon which occurred the first surren- 
der ever made by a liquor dealer, of his stock of liquors of 
every kind and variety, to the women, in answer to their 
prayers and entreaties, and by them poured into the street. 

Nearly a thousand men, women and children witnessed 
the mingling of beer, ale, wine and whisky, as they fdled 
the gutters, while hells were ringing, men and boys were 
shouting, and women were singing and praying to God. 

On the fourth day, the town was filled with visitors from 
all parts of the country ; there was another public surren- 
der and more liquor emptied into the street. Mass-meet- 
ings were held nightly with new victories reported until on 
Friday, January 2d, one week from the beginning of the 
work, at the public evening meeting the secretary of the 
ladies reported that every saloon had surrendered. The 
campaign of song and prayer had won the field. Prayer- 
meetings were held daily thereafter. Physicians were 
pledged to care in making prescriptions, property owners 
not to rent property for saloons, and a thousand persons 
were pledged not to drink. Within three weeks this 
work had extended to every village and school-district in 
the county. 

But a new man in the third week came with a license 
and opened a saloon with a $5,000 backing from a whisky 
house in Cincinnati. On Wednesday the 14th of January, 
his whisky was unloaded. Forty women were on the 
ground, followed the liquor in and remained until eleven 
o'clock at night. The next day, bitterly cold, was spent 
in the same place and manner without fire or chairs. On 
the following day, the coldest of all the winter of 1S74, the 
women were locked out and held religious services on the 
street all day long. 

Next morning a tabernacle was erected in front of the 
saloon and w r as occupied for the double purpose of watch- 
ing and prayer. Before night this saloon-keeper of four days 
surrendered. A short time afterward he was dying, and he 
sent for those Crusade women to fill his dying ears with 



56 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

their songs and prayers. January 20th, another man 
opened a beer-garden ; and the women surrounded his 
house daily for days, until he said in German fashion : 
"You comes so many I quits." Another came February 
6th and after days of prayer in the Presbyterian church he 
publicly pledged himself to quit the business forever. The 
women and God had won. 

This strange movement swept over hill and valley from 
county to county, covering a large part of the entire state, 
and touching the borders of other states. Hundreds of 
saloons were closed and thousands of drunkards were re- 
claimed and families saved. The writer's blessed mother, 
now in heaven, and his sister, now a minister's wife in 
Springfield, Mass., were members of a Crusade band who 
filed out of a church, and marched down Main street in the 

city of Mt. , to the drinking and gambling saloon of 

Mr. Mc , the worst house of sin for many miles 

around. The sister led in prayer. The proprietor, an ex- 
pugilist, was converted, rolled his liquor into the street, 
became the president of the Y. M. C. A., superintendent 
of a Sunday-school, the president of the county Bible So- 
ciety, and of the county Sabbath association. 

John G. Woolley tells the following incident with match- 
less pathos: "In '74 I saw my mother kneeling in the 
snow to pray at a saloon door, and I crept out by a side 
way, stepping softly in the sawdust, ashamed — of her. 
That day's work caused her life, and the saloon not even 
paused, and her only child sped downward to the hell of 
drunkenness ; — but that snow-set prayer persisted at God's 
throne through thirteen awful years, and for her importu- 
nity He could but always hear, and when I ' would ' He 
spoke to me ; and speaks— and will speak on — and on — 
until on some sweet Christmas Eve, I find my mother's 
arms again, and, leaning on her great heart, celebrate the 
end of the Crusade." 

The writer has a friend in Akron, Mrs. P , who was 

one of the finest soprano singers Ohio ever produced. She 



THE CRUSADE. 57 

received a thousand dollars a year for singing in church 
while she was yet in her teens. She took that noble voice, 
of rarest, richest quality, and used it in the open winter air 
to lead her sisters in Crusade hymns. God kept it for her 
and made her doubly Consecrated thereafter. Her pastor, 

Dr. M , says : " No movement ever reached my church 

that gave it such a spiritual uplift." 

Such was the spirit of this heaving tide of heavenly 
influence that flowed over us from the throne of God, In 
its onsweep it reached Ravenna, and if it did not close as 
many saloons as elsewhere, it did very much more. It 
lifted Mrs. Woodbridge into the lii^ht, freed her from the 
trammels of custom and made her ever after herself. In 
common with thousands of others of her Ohio sisters, she 
felt the movings of the Spirit. Her eyes were opened to 
see in a new light the woes caused by intemperance. She 
went to her closet, and there, when alone with her God, 
heard the divine voice asking, "Whom shall I send?" 
She had the grace given her to lay herself upon the altar 
in consecration, with the prayer, " Here ami ; I will be or 
do whatever pleaseth Thee." 

But she did not yet understand the vision, nor realize 
that a live coal had touched her lips. She had been a pro- 
fessing Christian for thirty years, but had never spoken a 
word in public or offered an audible prayer. Soon she 
attended a great union meeting which had come together 
in the excitement of the hour without anyone having been 
appointed to preside. It was thought best that this should 
be done by a woman. Who should it be ? One after an- 
other thought of Mrs. Woodbridge and she was asked to 
take the place. She was utterly overcome with fear and a 
sense of inability, and pleaded to be excused. Her aged 
father, who knew her better than she knew herself, came 
to her side and tenderly reminded her of her consecration 
vow and left her. Her pastor came a second time, when, 



58 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

with a struggle, she said to a deacon sitting near her: 
"Doctor Alcorn, ask the audience to rise and sing ' Coro- 
nation ' ; I never can walk up the aisle with those people 
looking at me." As they sang she went forward trembling 
with weakness and praying every step, " Lord, help me ! 
Lord, help me!" She called upon a brother to pray ; then 
read a verse of Scripture, and began to speak — she knew 
not what. God, even her own God, fulfilled His promise, 
and put His own message into her anointed lips. The 
depths of her woman's heart were moved. Self was for- 
gotten in her message. She pleaded for the degraded vic- 
tims of drink, for their heartbroken wives and mothers, for 
their suffering and degraded children. Her words poured 
forth in tender and resistless eloquence, till the multitude 
was moved as one man. The strong were melted to tears, 
Christians wept and prayed together. A cool-headed judge 
arose and solemnly declared that he had never been in an 
audience so manifestly moved by the Holy Ghost. 

In that one sacred hour she was lifted by the providence 
of God into a new life. Her mission had come. Like 
St. Paul she had had a revelation ; and she was never 
afterward disobedient to the heavenly vision. 

Here we will digress from the chronological order of 
the story for the sake of the unity of the theme, and intro- 
duce an address delivered in the amphitheatre at Chau- 
tauqua, Sunday, August 15, 1880, by Mrs. Woodbridge on 
"The Ohio Crusade." This speech will not only show 
how much she had made of herself in six years as a speaker, 
but will also throw additional light upon this great epoch- 
making movement which will yet be the wonder of men. 
It was by no means a theme at which she could be at her 
best ; for it was in its nature a narrative, while she rose to 
her true altitude only in some masterly argument. But 
its reverence and tender grace and Christian spirit are ap- 
parent throughout. 



77//: CRUSADE. 
ADDRESS : THK i niin CRUSADE 

The sufferings resulting from intemperance hive rested 
most heavily upon women, who in their agony looked upon 
this scene with clear vision ; they have listened to warning 
admonitions and to the voices of those crying unto God 
for fathers and husbands and brothers and sons swept by 
the maelstrom of death if so be He would rescue them'; 
and the Lord has heard and answered, and in 1873-4 came 
npon the women of Ohio the baptismal blessing. On the 
day we are wont to celebrate as the natal day of Christ, a 
cry was heard from Hillsboro as of one in deepest agony, 
finding expression only in the words of the Psalmist read 
in your hearing to-night. As Mary "who had chosen that 
good part which never could be taken away from her" list- 
ened in loving attitude to her Lord, they had sat still in 
the house until called. 

The Lord spake also unto the women of Washington 
Court House and they answered, "Rabboni," and under 
His command they went forth unto the battle, retreating 
not therefrom until there was victory over all their foes. 
God has drawn near and "in a still small voice" called 
name after name of women who had prayed His coming. 
They stood still, scarcely daring to lift the eye and only 
breathed a prayer, when to them sweetly, softly, came the 
grace to say: "Thy will, O Lord, not mine be done;" 
and while waiting that will, Dr. Dio Lewis, through whom 
the Lord had spoken in quickening words at Hillsboro and 
Washington Court House, called a convention of Crusaders 
to meet in the city of Columbus, where women, who before 
these weeks, had never heard their voices in public audi- 
ence above a whisper, not even in social or religious gath- 
erings, in the liberty with which Christ had made them 
free, spake of all they had looked for, the redemption in 
Jerusalem. 

This convention was called not alone to tell the old, 
old story, but to conserve the rising interest through or- 
ganization. But at this crisis such effort could only be 
embryonic. A bureau of correspondence was established, 
of which Mrs. Dr. McCabe, of Delaware, was made chair- 
man. Little could be done at this time but reply to the 
teeming inquiries which came from all over the laud, with 



60 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

regard to this strange phenomenon in Ohio, and to answer 
timorous veterans and speakers of the old school, who de- 
sired to speak in the state, that the movement would admit 
of nothing but its own spontaneous eloquence, and that 
mostly from the lips of praying women. 

At this time, through this baptism there evolved a 
threefold conviction to the women of the nation; first, that 
as God had joined moral and civil law upon Sinai, it was 
to be a precedent for all time ; secondly, for the glory of 
God, and for the good of humanity, the statute of man 
must harmonize with the statutes of God ; thirdly, as in 
a republic, national responsibilities can not be separated 
from individual action, and the people are interested in 
and responsible for its weal or woe. This responsibility 
requires immediate action on the part of all for the over- 
throw of this bitterest of all woe. 

At this very time, in the city of Cincinnati, in session 
ivas a body of men, representatives, framing for us a new 
constitution. Fearing the introduction of a clause per- 
mitting license for the sale of intoxicants in the state, a 
call for a convention on the 2 2d of the same month, to 
consider this subject, was issued. Although but six days 
intervened between the date of the call and the opening of 
the convention, five hundred and sixty delegates presented 
themselves, and others, unable to send representatives, 
spent the days in prayer, and sent messages of sympathy 
to the body in session. 

The convention assembled in Ninth Street Baptist 
thurch, which was filled to overflowing. A committee on 
memorial to the constitutional convention was appointed, 
tvhose adopted report was presented to that body, of which 
I mention but two clauses, showing a mutual interest 
tvhich was roused in the society of protection by law. 
First, no license for the sale of intoxicating drinks shall 
be granted within this state. Fifth, nothing in this article 
shall be construed by the Assembly as denying to it a 
right to restrict or prohibit the liquor traffic. The results 
are eternal ; the immediate gain was a vote on no-license, 
which was carried by an overwhelming majority. Thus, 
to-day (August 15, 1880), Ohio is not guilty of licensing 
the sale of intoxicants within her boundary ; but the 
grand, the most imposing feature of this chapter of our 



THE CRUSADE. 6l 

history, was the spontaneous and the silent, solemn march 
to the esplanade, where, in the presence of five thousand 
people, the very heavens seemed opening as prayer after 

prayer ascended to the throne from six hundred souls, who 
bowed there with the very chrism of the Crusade fire upon 
their DrOWS and their whole being enthused by the Holy 
Ghost. 

Mrs. Dr. McCabe, before made chairman of a bureau 
correspondence, was made chairman of a committee to call 
a convention of the state for organization under the same 
name that we had taken for our regular home unions. 
This convention took place at Springfield, Ohio. Large 
numbers gathered together and there formed the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union of Ohio. Although Ohio 
had thus far been the scene of Crusade action and our or- 
ganization dates earlier than others, all over the land we 
found women ready to take action for themselves. As a 
wild prairie fire this Crusade had spread, and voices, at- 
tuned to heaven's harmonies, chanted the same rhapsody. 
Soon we heard from afar one voice and another calling to 
us for help, and so it went forth, on, on, until we found 
women who recognized the call of the Lord to them as 
clearly as that call which was given to Paul in the olden 
time, and they go in that grace which overmastereth, to 
the feet of Jesus, rebuked, humbled, emptied, ready to 
realize that His feet was the highest station to which crea- 
tures might attain. They went forth proclaiming the glad 
voice of the gospel of temperance, and in the power of the 
Holy Ghost, reproducing the image of the Son of God in 
dying souls, until in the length and breadth of this land 
there are homes once dark and imbruted, where now is 
found a sanctity as pure as that within our own. 

While women in great numbers received this pente- 
costal blessing, Christian men at this hour of need also 
received the same gift from God, and among them one 
from the Crusade state. Lewis Miller, of Akron, moved 
for the good of all mankind and the glory of God, sought 
through the better education of the children in the Sab- 
bath schools of the land this great end, and called into 
counsel kindred minds. This led to the formation of the 
Chautauqua Sabbath School Association, and to its first 
assembly in 1S74. Was ever year so prolific of good as 



62 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

this ? As we have looked in these days into the faces of 
our leaders, Miller, Vincent, Willard, we have praised God 
that in His infinite mercy He so gloriously works through 
human weakness where human will is in harmony with 
His. 

The management of the Sunday School Assembly, rec- 
ognizing the fact that women do four-fifths of the Sunday- 
school work and nine-tenths of the teaching in the public 
school, invited a woman to make its inaugural address, 
and also to speak upon women's temperance work and the 
Crusade then just passing its first swell of enthusiasm. 
We cannot soon forget the glowing faces of the women 
during that first Chautauqua temperance meeting. After 
his sister, Mrs. Jennie Fowler Willing, had addressed the 
meeting, Dr. C. H. Fowler gave an account of the march 
of the host through the streets of Cincinnati to the com- 
mon jail. At the close of the meeting the enthusiasm ran 
high. 

On yonder hill where was first situated the tabernacle, 
a prayer-meeting was held, and that tabernacle was full, 
not only of men and women but of the glory of God, even 
as the assemblies of old. Nearly all the women were from 
the Western states, but all were one in Christ Jesus, and 
in their desire for the overthrow of this fearful evil. After 
days and hours of prayer and solemn consideration a com- 
mittee was appointed to call a convention for the organiza- 
tion of the various states into a Woman's National Chris- 
tian Temperance Union. Mrs. Willing was made chairman 
of this committee, and Mrs. Emily Huntington Miller its 
secretary. On our way from this assembly to our own 
homes, we held counsel with God and one another, and 
sent forth a call for a meeting in the city of Cleveland that 
fall. The response was the Christian womanhood and the 
Christian motherhood of the land yearning for its children. 
The Woman's National Christian Temperance Union was 
then formed. To-day, our anniversary day, we bring our 
tribute of honor and of thanksgiving to this woman of 
positive conviction and of moral power, our Crusade sister, 
Lucy Hayes, a woman for the nation. 

Our Woman's National Christian Temperance Union 
was founded in faith, and has prayed continually for direc- 
tion with regard to the building. One state after another 



THE CRUSADE. 

was given her for the structure, It has Instituted and 

carried on juvenile work, u- i<x* literature, work in 

prisons and in jails, public readings, evangelists' meetings; 
discontinuance <>f the use of fermented wine at the table 
of our Lord ; introduction <»t" systematic temperance teach- 
in colleges and seminaries, Sabbath schools and day 

 lis; work among sailors and Indians, Chinese and 
colored people ; reading rooms and restaurants, until twen- 
ty-six standing committees direct in as many ways the 
women of twenty-seven states and territories, all of whom 
praise God for this direction and fall with willing hearts 
to the work. Thus the work has gone on, and to-ni^ht 
we realize that it hath done for women what nothing else 
could have done; for all this reaching out after others is 
what it hath done for her mentally, morally and spiritually. 

This Chautauqua gathering; opened the gateway ; it 
showed us the pathway of this great work, for with the 
baptism of the Holy Ghost came the desire for increased 
knowledge of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, and when 
these very women, who only five months hefore had never 
lisped aloud in public audience, left the Chautauqua As- 
sembly, they went to the various Sunday-school Unions, to 
count}', to district and state, and established local classes in 
their own localities where they might carry the teaching; 
they had here received, and thereby spread the good work. 

Still another stone was given for our structure, and as 
no woman could give her own or her neighbor's son to the 
death fiend, this stone was labeled " Prohibition of the Liq- 
uor Traffic," and as we lifted it in place, every woman in 
the length and breadth of our organization, with heart and 
voice pronounced it good. 

We looked upon the boys just entering manhood, 
around whom the arms of the mother had been folded to 
the moment of their leaving; home ; who had gone out with 
a fresh baptismal blessing;, but who, in an unwary moment, 
yielded to temptation and being overcome, bent down with 
shame and remorse, henceforth sought forgetfulness in con- 
tinual debauchery. We found others coming into our 
homes gifted with kingly will in the moderate use of the 
intoxicant, but the time came when even their will had 
lost its kingliness, and misery and sorrow and death were 
their household companions. We looked out upon the 



64 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

community and we found communist and nihilist banding 
against and in secret planning the assassination of rulers 
and the overthrow of the government. We found the 
laboring classes banding themselves into unions against 
capitalists as if they were natural enemies, and employers, 
for self-defense, banding against employes as if their inter- 
ests were antagonistic. We entered the court of justice and 
we looked upon the prisoner in the box, the witness on the 
stand. We listened to the stumbling pleading of the law- 
yer, and we saw jurors asleep in the box ; we heard a judge 
pronounce the sentence of death upon a fellow man in 
incoherent tones and with indifference ; we learned that 
all alike were partakers of the same death draught. We 
looked constantly for some that should help this work of 
the Lord. We sat in our churches and we failed to see why 
the word took so little root in the hearts of men, and it led 
us to the inevitable conclusion that that which works such 
misery, such sorrow, such evil in the nations should be ut- 
terly put away ; and that as God had joined moral and civil 
law on Mount Sinai, " What God hath joined together no 
man must put asunder." It is said that in the city of St. 
Louis seventy-five thousand people visit the beer garden 
Sabbath after Sabbath, and there with their hands reeking 
in whisk}' and beer, Celtic or Teutonic as they may be, 
plot the overthrow of the government which has opened 
wide its arms to receive them. 

We came to the conclusion that liquor dealers and liq- 
uor manufacturers must be made to have a practical knowl- 
edge of the law if our land was to be saved. Closely 
pressing upon this conclusion of necessity came the ques- 
tion, how can it be done? And herein consists our only 
difference throughout these years of our organization. We 
have been a perfect unit in our plans and work and we 
know God is our cohesive power. God has promised us 
that He will guide us with His eye and we shall hear His 
voice, and we believe He will verify to us these promises 
and make us one in Himself. It may not be our way, it 
may not be others' way, if it be in His own way we will 
praise, and honor, and glorify His holy name. It will be 
done. 

As large numbers of women read those words of Bishop 
Simpson, in which he tells of the circulation of a temper- 



THE CRUSADl , 

ance petition in the city of Cincinnati, when he learned 
with how much more willingness women signed, and in 
how much greater numbers than men did, said, " I believe 

Cod will overcome OUT enemy by giving tons a StTOUj 
ally, even woman with the ballot," they recognize the fact 
that throughout the world's history in every case of n© 

sity God has laid His hand upon woman and in all these 
public exigencies has found her equal to the responsibili- 
ties. Deborah was judge in Israel in her day as truly as 
Samuel in his. Joan of Arc was an inspiration to the 
French legion in a time of need. Necessity knows no law 
and God hath made clear to a very large proportion of our 
women that the necessity of this occasion will never be met 
exeept through the powers of the ballot. Temperance wo- 
men ask not for office, they ask not for emolument, but they 
cry aloud for a pure companionship at the fireside, for the 
salvation of their children and the children of this land, that 
it may no more be called desolate or forsaken ; a city set at 
naught, and forsaken. 

During all this time the thought has been noticeable 
that women who have sent forth this call have been led 
near the cross that the work has received multiplied bless- 
ing, and side by side with our work scores of men and 
women during these months have got the light through 
the reflected Christ. God has called upon the Christian 
men of this nation ; lo, for many years, who has not heard 
the tramp, tramp, tramp of an answered host and He has 
laid His hand upon woman and she has answered, " Behold 
the handmaiden of the Lord." But never has woman 
desired to be elevated in this direction at the expense of 
her honored father, of her beloved husband, or of her dear 
brother or son, who stand day after day more and more 
firmly by her side. God created for Adam a helpmate 
and blessed her by his side, and woman only asks to-day 
that in this great work of salvation she may be a helpmate 
to her husband whom she so honors, whom she would so 
gladly see in the right path. 

Under these circumstances what is our duty, and what 
is the need of this time? Surely, to each one of us comes 
a positive conviction of the right and the Christ power for 
its prosecution ; a quickening spiritual hearing through 
which shall come to us a voice, saying : " This is the way. 



66 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

walk ye in it," so clear that selfishness shall be stilled and 
no human veto can be heard. The Scriptures are perfectly 
clear with regard to this evil, and surely every Christian 
man and woman acknowledges his or her duty. While 
the Christian may not be conscious of evil to his own per- 
son from the uses of intoxicants, does he not render him- 
self unfit to teach the Gospel of Jesus Christ, who will 
deliberately continue in a course which injures another? 
How can the nation to-day mistake the word of God unto 
it? It is as clear as the bugle blast before the battle. He 
hath opened a way of deliverance. 

The English sky-lark builds its nest in the grass, and 
on the approach of footsteps, it rises therefrom and sings a 
song so sweet that the passer-by looks up, and sweeter and 
clearer it sings its notes, as higher and higher it rises until 
lost to sight. The fullness of the melody falls upon the 
ear. Now we are found in danger of yielding to the temp- 
tations which are about us on every side, in connection 
with this evil ; they come to us in every class of society. 
But let us look up to heaven, to the hills from whence 
cometh our help, and as we look our lives will be a song 
for the masses, and as we come nearer and nearer to Him, 
purer, and deeper, and stronger will be its tones until lost 
to self; and swallowed up in Christ we shall sing the song 
of victory, even having victory over the beast, and over his 
image, and over his mark. 

This chapter is not complete without adding the follow- 
ing article written by Mrs. Wood bridge and printed in The 
U?iion Signal, November 30, 1S93. It shows her rapid 
growth, and reveals the maturity of her intellectual powers, 
and the deep spirituality that characterized everything 
that came from her hand or lips during her later years. 
The most careless reader cannot fail to notice that every 
line breathes the spirit of the gospel. The article was : 

A CRUSADE RALLYING CALL. 

How changed life has been since those eventful Crusade 
days ! How precious above all utterance, beyond all con- 
ception, is every portion in the Spirit light then poured 
upon the " Daughters of the King " ! How anything God 



THE CRUSADL . 

lias given — health, sickness, youth, age any power of pleas- 
ing or influencing others, every relationship of life, every 

moment of time, are stamped with the seal of God, and 
things once dust and dross, now linked with God and eter- 
nity, are sacred and priceless. 

\\ 'iio can tell of that baptismal season? As well might 
one attempt to describe that moment when, led from dark- 
ness into Light, the soul could Say, " My Father and my 
God." 

Then, women who had sat for years at Jesus' feet aud 
learned of Him realized for the first time the power of an 
indwelling Christ. Then was heard a call to special ser- 
vice, in tones as clear as was the voice of the Master to 
Mary on the resurrection morning, and, following, they 
were able to join with Bryant in his ecstatic song : ' We 
have had our turn, have been lifted from the darkness of 
the clod, and for one glorious moment have seen the bright- 
ness of the skirts of God." 

Such women were renewed, recreated, and went forth 
obedient to the will and the word of their Lord. The Spirit 
led on from shore to shore, until there is not a state or terri- 
tory where the voice is not heard ; from shore to shore, 
until England and Scotland, Ireland and Wales, the conti- 
nents of Europe, of Asia and of Africa, with the islands of 
the sea, are bound together with the white ribbon in the 
name of the Lord. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union of the world 
is the lineal descendant of the Crusade. We have more or 
less observed the anniversary from year to year, but two 
decades will have passed when it shall come again. We 
shall be within a single year of our majority — twenty years 
of mercy and blessing from our Lord. Ofttimes we have 
grieved Him. 

" The mistakes of our life have been many, 
The sins of our heart have been more." 

But He has not cast us off! He bids us come again to the 
fountain, and receive a fresh enduement of His Spirit for 
the service of the last year of our minority, that coming 
to the fullness of our responsibility we may be found 
"reaching forth unto those things which are before," as 
we "press toward the mark for the prize of the high call- 
ing in Christ Jesus." 



68 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Surely not a woman will be unmindful of such proffered 
blessing ! Does some one say, " It will be so near the holi- 
days ! ' No Christmas was ever so joyous as that on which 
women celebrated not alone the birth of Christ to the world, 
but the birth of Christ to power of service in their own 
souls ; when added to gifts bestowed on loved ones of earth, 
the gift of self was made to Him. Glad should we be that 
the joy of the one anniversary may illume the other, and 
will not cease when the New Year shall come, but will be 
a continual possession, for then " our life shall be hid with 
Christ in God." 

Yours in Crusade bonds, 

Mary A. Woodbridge, 
National Corresponding Secretary. 

Wonderful Crusade ! that, with its " sober, second 

thought," the W. C. T. U., is already belting the world 

with its holy influence. It is pouring the white light of 

the Gospel upon the public conscience of the nations, and 

lifting the moral sentiment of kings and peoples into the 

radiance that streams from the Cross. In that day men 

shall walk the earth in sobriety and righteousness, families 

shall dwell together in peace, and all peoples shall know 

the Lord, for 

" Right is right, since God is God, 
And right the day must win. 
To doubt would be disloyalty, 
To falter would be sin." 

We have found the following, written by Mrs. Mary 
T. Lathrap a score of years after the Crusade, which may 
well be inserted here. It will awaken added interest now 
since both Mary Woodbridge and Mary Lathrap are among 
the translated : 

"Twenty years since the bell outrung — 
Twenty years since the song was sung, 
Twenty years since the tainted air — 

Of the hall of death— 

With its poison breath — 
Its drunken revel, and fell despair, 
Was smitten through by a woman's prayer ; 
When love and pain under holy spell 
Asked for their own at the doors of hell." 



THE CRUSADE. 69 

"The noble, great ones, gone '" What though the hope 
of immortality stirs our souls, that we know they dwell 
in fairer regions, and in their joy rejoice? Still the battle 
Beems a little sterner set since they are off the field, and 
between us and them lies that silence across which life's 
common language may not reach. What wonder, then, that 
memory, mute-lipped and tender-eyed, holds our hearts in 
thrall as, pausing, we look back over the way of the years ! 

A sadder thing must memory note, that some have with- 
drawn from the yet unfinished battle, and camp to-day on 
the ground of ease and compromise. 

Crusaders of '73, afraid of the stern issue they them- 
selves raised, in its logical outcome in '93. Leaders of '73, 
whose trumpet-call to the defense of principles not yet vic- 
torious, rang across the world, silent and inactive in '93. 
Comrades of '73, pledged in a fight to the finish, for " God 
and Home and Native Land," out of the ranks in '93, or 
doing dress-parade duty on non-combative ground. Time 
makes savage analysis of character, and develops or rots the 
fibre of it, according to quality. 

The farewells to our faithful dead are jubilant peans 
compared with those spoken to such as falter in danger, or 
betray by any stress of temptation, a cause like that for 
which the white ribbon is a token. 

At our stone of remembrance this year let a great 
prayer ascend for a call as divine and clear, a separation as 

iplete, daring and unselfish, and a purpose as single and 

inite, as gave to us this anniversary. Memory sings out 
of the past : 

" Moved by loving and stung by pain, 
Poor with losses, from vigils vain — 
Swift from the homes whence life had tied, 
Where hope was smitten ami love lay dead— 
Women bereft went out to cry 
In the ear of the world as it trampled by : 
We've watched and tended, have loved and prayed, 
But stronger than we are the snares they laid. 
To a guilty nation we now make moan, 
Aud seek at the doors of hell our own.' " 

This is the issue and the battle-cry which lying on the 
hushed lips of memory, is taken up by the thrilling voice 

Prophecy as she looks on the future into which our cause 
is leading and our feet must go. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EARLY WORK BEFORE THE PUBLIC. 

Alas that I so long have fed 

Upon the husks of empty pride ! 
That of Thy sweet and living bread 

My soul its portion has denied ! 
Alas that thus so late I plead 
My hunger and my bitter need ! 

Yet, Lord, Thou hearest, even late ! 

Forgive the pride that would delay ; 
And while in weakness here I wait, 

Give me my manna by the way ! 

So shall I eat and stronger be, 

Because my food was had of Thee ! * 

— A. A. Hopkins. 

Little by little the world grows strong, 
Fighting the battle of right and wrong ; 
Little by little the wrong gives way, 
Little by little the right has sway ; 
Little by little all longing souls 
Struggle up nearer the shining goals ! 

Little by little the good in men 
Blossoms to beauty for human ken ; 
Little by little the angels see 
Prophecies better of good to be ; 
Little by little the God of all 
Lifts the world nearer His pleading call ! * 

— A. A. Hopkins. 

NO single experience could well make a more marked 
change in a woman's life than that night's trial effort 
at public speaking. If one is at all given to looking at 
life seriously from the standpoint of duty and obligation, 
the first really successful public address, and especially if 

• From a volume presented to Mrs. Woodbridge by the author, A. A. Hopkins. 

(70) 



EARLY WORK BEFORE THE PUBLIi 7 1 

it be the maiden effort, fills one with a strange, solemn 
sense of being set apart for some high and sacred purpose. 

This was eminently true of Mrs. Woodbridge. She 
was still humble and utterly void of self-seeking. That 
beautiful trait of humility, as rare as it was beautiful in 
one so preeminently successful, remained with her to the 
last, and, if anything, deepened with the years. But she 
at once accepted all opportunities to speak for her Master 
that were providentially opened to her ; and they came 
without limit. She knew that, with all her gifts of which 
she could n<>t have been wholly unconscious, she must still 
serve an apprenticeship ; and no one ever did it more faith- 
fully. At once the country churches around began to call 
upon her, and she would speak to them on any subject 
chosen. It was a time when women's auxiliary mission- 
arv societies were first organized to help the great mission 
boards. The Chautauqua Assembly, a child of the Cru- 
sade, as the reader has seen, gave a quickening impulse 
to Sabbath school work. These and the temperance work 
brought abundance of calls to speak to all who could or 
would respond. Mrs. Woodbridge girded her soul for work. 
She betook herself to her Bible and her books with a zeal 
never felt before. It was done now in Jesus' name and for 
His dear sake with a deeper spirit of conscious consecra- 
tion than formerly. She joined a Chautauqua circle and 

- one of the first graduates. She spoke almost weekly 
for Sabbath school work, or missions or temperance, and 
sometimes daily even in those first mouths after the Cru- 
sade. 

She pursued for some time the study of Hebrew that 
she might better understand the commentaries on her 
blessed Bible. No opportunity to do work for Christ or 
humanity was ever slighted, and no occasion was ever 
too insignificant for her to do her best. To the last she 
retained that sweet spirit of her Master, who, with equal 



72 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

willingness, would address the multitudes on the mountain 
side, or the one wicked woman at the well. 

Her ability as a speaker was immediately recognized, 
and it was not long before the announcement that she was 
to speak would call a larger audience than any other name. 
During her first summer she spoke in country churches 
that were literally packed, and farmers had their flat- 
topped, dairy wagons under the windows covered with 
people, eager to hear and get a sight of this rare, womanly 
woman. Once, it is said, there was a larger audience out- 
side than the densely crowded audience inside. 

Mrs. Woodbridge truly complied with Rev. E. E. Hale's 
injunction : "Take hold with God in His steady work for 
uplifting the world." She could not have been more la- 
borious and faithful if she had continually kept Lowell's 
stanza in her mind and heart as the motto of her life : 

" O small beginnings, ye are great and strong, 
Based on a faithful heart and weariless brain ! 
Ye build the future fair, ye conquer wrong, 
Ye earn the crown, and wear it not in vain." 

Or if she had heard in some night vision her own 

blessed Lord saying to her in the language of Bishop 

Coxe : 

" On ! let all the soul within you, 
For the truth's sake, go abroad ! 
Strike ! let every nerve and sinew 
Tell on ages — tell for God ! " 

it is difficult to see how this dear soul could have been 
more faithful, or earnest. 

A few months ago Mr. Woodbridge, viewing with con- 
sternation the vast and ever growing quantity of temper- 
ance documents and papers and reports of speeches stowed 
away in his garret, consigned a wagon-box full of them to 
the flames. Among them were the newspaper reports of 
the public efforts of the years between 1874 and 1880. 



( 



\ 



EARLY WORK BEFORE THE PUBLIC 73 

One of the papers that somehow escaped destruction 
is the following letter and testimonial from the Vermont 
legislature : 

SBNATB Cli \Mi- R, MONTPKUER, 

Nov. 20, [878. 

Mrs. Woodbridgb : — 1 take this fust opportunity to 
send to yon this testimonial of our appreciation of your 
Lecture and hoping for your continued stay in our state. 
May God bless and spare you Long to " cry aloud and 
-•pare not " against this ureal sin. 

Respectfully yours, 

John B. Mead. 

MONTPELIER, Nov. 20, 1S7.S. 
This may certify that we, the subscribers, — members 
of the Vermont Legislature, — listened with great pleasure 
to an address from Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, of Ohio, on 
the eve of November 18th, upon the subject of temperance ; 
and we hesitate not to cordially recommend to all good 
people, everywhere, who are desirous of advancing this 
great reform, as a very interesting, eloquent and forcible 
lecturer, at the same time evincing the grace and dignity 
peculiar to her sex, as, in the name of her Master, she 
entreats His followers to be diligent in the business of 
helping to redeem the world from the rum traffic. We 
hope she may receive a cordial reception and suitable rec- 
ognition among our people, and that she may tarry long 
in our state. 

John B. Mead, Senator. 

F. G. BUTTERFIELD, Judge Advocate Gen I. 

Edward Conant, State Supt. of Education. 

Cn \s W. King, Senator. 

H. P. Cusiiing, Chaplain of the House. 
She went from Ohio on a telegram's notice to deliver 
this address and the bill she advocated was carried. 

The above testimonial shows that within a little more 
than four years of the time that she first heard her own 
voice in public, she was instructing and delighting one of 
the most intelligent legislatures in the land. Many a time, 
since then, has her voice been heard in legislative halls ; 



74 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

and no man ever heard it who was not impressed with at 
least two things : — first, that she was a perfect lady in her 
manner ; second, that in intellect she was the peer of any 
legislator in her presence. 

In 1879, Mrs. Woodbridge was elected president of the 
OhioW. C. T. U. In 1880, she delivered her first annual 
address in which are passages of beauty and power worth 
preservation. Some were as follows : 

Sisters of Ohio ! Children of the King ! We are met 
to-day on the mountain side. Looking downward and 
back over more than six years of travel, we praise God for 
the way He has led us, and for what He has wrought 
through us. Looking upward and on, trembling with 
human hope and fear, but steadfast in this promise, " Lo, 
I am with you alway, even unto the end," we renew our 
allegiance to Him, and once more bring ourselves a willing 
offering for His service. His light, sometimes dimly rec- 
ognized, has led us through the darkness of the past ; and, 
though the clouds have not scattered and the sky is not 
clear, we know at the mountain-top is the shining of the 
Sun of righteousness, and when reached, "the kingdoms 
of this world will be the kingdoms of our Lord and His 
Christ." . . . 

At this, our Seventh Annual meeting, with "our eyes 
lifted unto the hills, from whence cometh our help," we 
consider the special interests of our state, and the general 
interests of the National society. 

The year has been one of great prosperity. In all 
directions there has been activity, and we have learned the 
meaning of our Crusade Psalm as never before, even in the 
days of the anointing. While praising God, the injunction 
has been heeded. " Put not your trust in princes, nor in 
the son of man, in whom there is no help," and we have 
realized, "Happy is he that hath the God of Jacob for 
help, whose hope is in the Lord, his God," and with new 
power have grasped the assurance that " the way of the 
wicked He turneth upside down," and with renewed 
praises have sung, "The Lord shall reign forever, even 
thy God, O Zion, unto all generations." 

Do not, I beseech you, let anything supersede the study 



EARLY WORK BEFORE THE PUBLIC. 75 

Of the Word, and of prayer, when Wt assemble ourselves 

together at our weekly meetings. Prayer is our "vital 
breath" ; without unceasing, importuning prayer of faith 
we die. The Word of God is our daily bread, and no more 

can we live without food than without breath. 

[n 1876, a woman of Ohio, as wife of 

the President of the United States, was called to preside 
over a home from whence, as she has proven, untold influ- 
ences for good or evil may proceed. Lucy Webb Hayes, 
born of God, and baptized with Crusade lire, determined 
that good, and good alone, should flow therefrom while 
she was its presiding genius. When, disregarding the 
harmful precedents of the past, and the demands of society 
into which she had just entered, she banished intoxicating 
liquors from her table, saying, " I must do what is ri.uht ; 
God will take care of the rest," she enshrined herself in 
the hearts of the men and women of this nation. How 
shall this woman of positive conviction and moral power 
be honored ? How shall her name and influence be perpet- 
uated? was the query. This has been answered by the 
earnest temperance people of Delaware, the President's 
birthplace, and the early home of Mrs. Hayes, who have 
proposed a suitable testimonial for which a fund is being 
raised. God called this woman from the Crusade State ; 
and I trust our gratitude for this baptismal blessing to us 
and to her, and this honor, will be made manifest by liberal 
donations. ... . 

I cannot close this address without a few words to those 
sisters into whose families the death angel has come within 
the year. There are few of us who, at s >me time, have not 
known such sorrow, and while I bring loving sympathy to 
the afflicted from those who have this year been exempt, I 
would that the closing words of the beautiful little poem, 
sent me by one who understands that the Master's chisel 
cuts in many ways, might be the breathing of every soul 
and ascend as sweet incense to our God. 

'Tis the Master who holds the mallet, 

And day by day 
He is chipping whate'er environs 

The form, away ; 
Which, under His skillful cutting, 

He means shall be 



j6 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Wrought silently out to beauty 

Of such, degree 
Of faultless and full perfection, 

That angels' eyes 
Shall look on the unfinished labor 

With new surprise, 
That even His boundless patience 

Could grave His own features 
Upon such fractured and stubborn stone. 

'Tis the Master who holds the chisel ; 

He knows just when 
Its edge should be driven sharpest, 

To fashion then 
The semblance that He is carving ; 

Nor will He let 
One delicate stroke too many, 

Or few, be set 
On forehead, or cheek, where only 

He sees how all 
Is tending — and where the hardest 

The blow should fall, 
Which crumbles away whatever 

Superfluous line 
Would hinder His hand from making 
The work divine. 

With tools of thy choosing, Master, 

We pray thee, then, 
Strike just as thou wilt ; as often 

And when, and where 
The vehement stroke is needed, 

I will not mind. 
If only thy chipping chisel 

Shall leave behind 
Such marks of Thy wondrous working 

And loving skill, 
Clear carven on aspect, stature, 

AndyJz^, as will 
When discipline's ends are over, 

Have all sufficed 
To mould me into the likeness 

And form of Christ. 

—Margaret Preston. 

No one can read these gentle words without perceiving 
that here was a woman sitting at the feet of Christ, and 
feeding her soul upon the heavenly manna. The Bible was 
her favorite volume, and its spirit shapes every line. And 
evidently, too, the Master's mallet and chisel had been do- 



EARLY WORK BEFORE THE PUBLIC. 77 

ing its work, moulding her " into the Likeness and form of 
Christ." 

But the conflict deepened. Two years later the Repub- 
licans of Ohio in their platform proposed an amendment 
to the Constitution permitting the taxation and license of 
the liquor traffic. This act roused Mrs. Woodbridge to the 

depths of her s< ml. Her annual address in [882 rang out 
with a keenness of relentless logic, a vigor of pithy English, 

and a sweep and force of eloquence that would bring glory 
and honor to any male orator in America. 

She said of this proposed amendment to license: 

I can hardly think that any woman sufficiently inter- 
ested in the cause of temperance to attend this convention, 
can need reasons adduced tor opposition to this form of leg- 
islation ; but, in response to earnest requests, I state : 

First. To tax a crime, thus virtually permitting and 
licensing it, is a sin which Christian women cannot endorse. 

Second. If the liquor traffic is not a crime, but is right, 
it should not be especially taxed ; if wrong, it should be 
prohibited. 

Third. Though it might close numbers of the so-called 
"lower saloons," the higher would multiply their attrac- 
tions, and an increased number would become victims of 
their allurement. Our sons do not learn to drink in the 
lower, but the higher places. If any were legalized moth- 
ers would choose the lower. 

Fourth. The diminution in number of saloons would 
be temporary, and lead to final increase. Those entering 
the temples of death would in a few years be unfit for pala- 
tial residences and the lazar houses would be a necessity. 

Fifth. " Where the treasure is, there will the heart be- 
also. " We hear the financial benefit to county and to 
state arrayed as argument in its favor. Were such a law 
upon our statute book the state and liquor traffic would be 
allied, and stand as partaker and thief. 

Sixth. In the Mosaic ritual, upon which we are told 
law is founded, sin is nowhere sanctioned or regulated, but 
condemned and prohibited, and God's blessing will not 
rest upon a nation whose laws are not in harmony with 
His. 



78 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

As the tax law passed for Ohio was copied very nearly 
from the Michigan law, I believe Mrs. Lathrap, president 
of the W. C. T. U. of that state, who is familiar with every 
feature of its working, will permit me to repeat to you her 
words of experience, given to her constituency at their 
annual meeting two weeks ago. 

CRIMINAL FRUITS OF THE LIQUOR TAXATION SYSTEM 

IN MICHIGAN. 

The annual drink bill of our state is about $21,000,000, one mil- 
lion more than it took to run the state government for the twenty 
years between i860 aud 1880, including the erection of public build- 
ings. 

As a partial result of the money put into the 5,000 saloons, we have 

In Jackson prison, inmates 678 

In Ionia prison 347 

In Lansing Reform School 347 

In House of Correction, Detroit 600 

Total 2,in 

Outside of this more fixed and settled prison population the sher- 
iffs' reports for the year 1881 give us the following jail statistics : 

In jail Jan. I, 1881 258 

Received during the year 9> T 59 

Total 9,417 

Of these 8,627 are males and 544 females. The increase over the 
year 1880 was 1,268. 

The Northwest is athrill with the determination to 
carry the question to the ballot box, where the clamor of 
the whisky ring may be silenced by the voice of the peo- 
ple. Failing to reach this through the existing parties 
after years of patient waiting and seeking, the demand 
for separate political action is deemed imperative ; and 
such action will come, if the parties much longer ignore 
the most important moral question of the hour. We 
should not, and do not, forget that the Republican party 
of Kansas was grand enough to fight the battle for Con- 
stitutional prohibition to the victorious end, and that 
brave St. John is a Republican Governor. 

We should not, and do not, forget that the same part}' 
is at the front in Iowa, and stand now, God bless them, in 
the heat of the conflict ; but the same results cannot be 
reached everywhere. 



EARLY WORK BEFORE I'll! PUBLIC, 79 

These states have such a party majority that thej can 
risk the loss of a few thousand votes without defeat, In 
states more doubtful in the- great campaigns, the parties 

will never take a dangerous issue until toned to do SO. 

These two states have no overwhelming forces massed in 

great Cities tO Which all else must how, and can therefore 
be more easily brought to their present position ; hut in 

others, which have these great centers, and therefore fi 
the danger of loss to party, the temperance victory will 

scarcely he reached, except by revolution, and revolution 

m ians the overthrow of the old, and the incoming of the 

new. A moment's thought will bring proof of the state- 
ment. 

What governs the Empire State, Stretching in its pride 
from the eastern sea to the western lakes' Xew York- 
city. 

What controls the Crusade State, baptized first of all 
into this greatest reform of our day ? Cincinnati. 

What beclouds the vision of the average Wisconsin can- 
didate to public honors' Milwaukee lager. 

What speaks with a tone that moves all Illinois? Chi- 
cago. 

What silences the voice ami drugs the conscience of 
the Michigan legislature in a great moral crisis? Detroit 
and the liquor interests of the first district. These things 
being so, party success does not lie along the track of a 
reform that cuts through the greed of avarice, appetite and 
ambition for place. 

The golden calf is enthroned in the midst of an enslaved 
and war-fed public opinion. What is to be done? Go in 
among the worshipers and bow the knee with them in the 
name of expediency, or in the hope of a far-away good ? 
No, nkvhr ; to the gate, rather, with the cry of separation. 

"Who is on the Lord's side 2 Let him come.'' 

That cry is in the land, and God is in it ; let all the 
brave remember that after that call in Israel the calf was 
ground to powder. 

As we stand where we mark this slow but mighty lift 
of the tide of public opinion, and hear its beat on the shore 
that girds the to-morrow of our country's destiny, we nat- 
urally ask what of woman's work and part in the present 
aspect of affairs, and in that yet to be accomplished ? 



80 LIFE OF MARY A, WOODBRIDGE. 

When we look on the coral islands that lift themselves 
from the ocean there is a voice forever in their caves that 
speaks of the patient toilers at the bottom that made what 
is seen, possible ; and no one may look at the temperance 
reform to-day and forget the women of this republic. A 
song floats on the air from the southern part of Ohio ; a 
psalm falls on the ear as if freshly spoken from heaven ; a 
band of gentle women go out with solemn but shining eyes 
in the strength of God, to face for the first time, in his own 
horrid lair, the hyena of our civilization. A prayer from 
the mouth of hell falls on the outer air, and shakes with a 
trembling, such as came to the Philistines' camp, the moral 
foundations of society. 

That song swelled to a chorus ; that band grew to an 
army ; that prayer brought salvation straight from heaven 
to hopeless souls, and a reform to the nation. In that 
heroic day of womanhood, kings were crowned, prophets 
anointed, apostles chosen to lead in the oncoming strug- 
gle, and the temperance question was lifted on a level with 
the eyes of the civilized world, and it will never go down 
again until settled in righteousness. 

After nearly a decade we pause to ask, what of these 
aroused daughters of our people, whom a saloon-keeper 
honored by calling "The Rock of Ages Women"? and the 
answer comes, " Here we are." 

Meanwhile organization has run from ocean to ocean 
until there is no state or territory where their voice is not 
heard. Children have listened until boys and girls of ten 
years know more of the nature and danger of alcohol than 
their grandfathers ever knew. The church has listened 
until it has declared against the wine of commerce on the 
table of the Lord. The nation has listened until within 
two years past nearly every legislature has faced the prob- 
lem in some form. Within this year the conservative 
South has been invaded by the matchless President of the 
National W. C. T. U. ; and down the Mississippi, along 
the gulf and into the Lone Star State has been carried the 
law and the gospel of this movement. The "Rock of Ages 
women" still live. This convention is only a division 
drill, for we are "in the army" " to fight it out" "till 
prohibition or eternity." 



CHAPTER VII. 

TH1-: PROHIBITION AMENDMENT CAMPAIGN'. 

The crisis is upon ns I face to face with us it Btands, 

With solemn lips of question, like the sphinx on Egypt's Bands. 

This day we fashion destiny, the web of life we spin, 

This day for all hereafter choose we holiness or sin. 

Even now from misty Gerizim, <>r Ebal'a cloudy crown, 

Call we the dews of blessing or the bolts of cursing down. 

The crisis is upon us, face to face with us it Btands, 

With lips of solemn question, like the sphinx on Egypt's Bands. 

By the future that awaits us, by all the hopes thai cast 

Their faint and glimmering beams across the blackness of the past; 

By the blessed thought of Him, who for earth's freedom died, 

My people, O my countrymen ! choose ye the righteous side. 

—Selected. 

Once to every man and nation comes the moment to decide. 
In the strife of Truth with Falsehood, for the good or evil side. 
Some great cause, God's new Messiah, offering each the bloom or 

blight, 
Tarts the goats upon the left hand, and the sheep upon the right, 
And the choice goes by forever 'twixt that darkness and that light. 

—fames Russell Lowell. 

IN the year 1882, under the constantly increasing influ- 
ence of the Ohio W. C. T. U., the public mind began to 
generally agitated on the question of how to deal with 
the liquor trafhe. It was recognized to be too vast and 
growing an evil to be allowed to go on longer unchecked. 
Three different methods of restraining it were proposed, 
viz.: to tax it, to license it, or to prohibit it. But taxation 
and license are practically the- same. Senator John Sher- 
man proved himself a logician on August 31, 1882, when 

(81) 



82 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

he said : " I cannot see how you can have a taxlaw without 
its operating as a license law. A license is a permit by a 
legal grant. A tax on a trade or occupation implies a per- 
mission to follow that trade or occupation. We do not tax 
a crime. We prohibit and punish it. We do not share in 
the profits of a larceny, but by a tax we do share in the 
profits of liquor selling, and therefore allow or license it. 
What Ohio wants is a good tax law." 

The Pond-bill taxlaw referred to by Senator Sherman, 
was declared to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. 

In the autumn of 1882 the Ohio W. C. T. U., under the 
leadership of Mrs. Woodbridge, began to agitate for a pro- 
hibitory amendment to the Constitution. She was backed 
by a number of wealthy men in the state, who furnished 
her at first in abundance the sinews of war. This was the 
beginning of the most fiercely contested moral battle ever 
decided at the ballot-box. It was a fit field for the exhibi- 
tion of unequaled executive ability and consummate gen- 
eralship ; and never did a leader rise more grandly to the 
occasion. Fenelon once wrote his king. " It is no trifling 
matter to change the opinions of a whole people." But 
" the} 7 conquer who think they can." A more courageous 
body of mortals led by a more hopeful, faith-inspired and 
heroic leader, never entered a moral conflict. 

*Early in October preparations were begun at the 
union's headquarters in Cleveland for circulating a peti- 
tion for the amendment. The place soon presented a scene 
of intense activity. After the state election in Octo- 
ber, the people of Ohio were informed through the pub- 
lic press that the movement had begun. Immediately 
everybody opened their eyes and asked: "What is the 
matter?" Liquor dealers of the state raised $100,000 to 
defeat the project. Less than a week after Mrs. Wood- 
bridge's pronunciamento, three thousand copies of the 

*Condensed from Mrs. Emma Adams' narrative in New York Witness 



PROHIBITION AMENDMENT ( AMPAIGN. 

petition, bound in firm covers, and bearing specific directions 
for the canvass, were started OUt to their work. Ministers 
of all denominations and the temperance women were re- 
quested, by letter, to push the circulation. From a thou- 
sand points came back answers of assent. Able pastors 

and Lecturers Of known ability were put into the field to 
arouse interest in all towns and cities, discussing the ad- 
vantages of Prohibitory Constitutional Amendment. h'or 
many weeks the speakers were moved rapidly from place 
to place, speaking daily. This preliminary campaign occu- 
pied four months. During that time one hundred thou- 
sand general letters and two hundred and twenty-five thou- 
sand special documents, treating of license, taxation, pro- 
hibition and Constitutional Amendment, were prepared by 
the union and mailed to one thousand three hundred towns 
in the state. The correspondence of this brief campaign 
exceeded twenty thousand personal letters, besides postal 
Cards innumerable ; two thousand standard volumes touch- 
ing every phase of the temperance question, were sent to 
ministers, teachers, and the presidents of local unions. 

The officers of the seventy-one lines of railway in Ohio, 
and of all the colleges, as well as of the mining and manu- 
facturing corporations were addressed by special letter. 
Clergymen were appealed to for labor at critical points. 
Thousands of public addresses were delivered, all to make 
people think and to produce public sentiment. 

The result of all this effort exceeded the most sanguine 
expectations. The petitions came back with one hundred 
and fifty-seven thousand signatures of people over twenty- 
one years of age, seventy-six thousand of them being voi< 
During that single four months the W. C. T. Unions of 
the state had increased from two hundred and thirty to 
six hundred, making Ohio the banner state in the nation. 

This campaign was conducted with such signal ability 
that men looked on in amazement. At the outset four 



84 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

women could transact all the business at headquarters. 
Soon double that number were needed ; in six weeks eight- 
een were employed. And how they worked ! — ten hours 
a day until into February, conducting correspondence, 
writing campaign documents, laying out routes for speak- 
ers, superintending printing, forming unions, finding out 
the sentiment and needs of every little hamlet in the en- 
tire state. 

Men qualified to judge often declared that no campaign 
had been conducted with sounder judgment or with more 
unerring foresight, and never with so great economy, so 
little taint of evil, so bountiful of blessing to all classes of 
the community. 

When the petitions were finally presented to the legis- 
lature, a Democratic member of the house rose in his 
seat, and holding a volume of the petition, said: "This 
petition, as presented to this house, is in more intelli- 
gible form than any ever submitted to the Ohio Assembly. 
Most petitions introduced here are a mere jumble of names. 
Often, to learn from them the desire of the petitioners is 
most difficult. But this work is definite, wholly to the 
purpose. A glance will show each member just where his 
constituents stand in relation to this question." 

But this was only the preliminary skirmish. The 
women and their leader, Mrs. Woodbridge, well under- 
stood that the real battle was }^et before them. After a 
little pause to study conditions and take bearings, the final 
struggle began. The saloon-dominated politicians did not 
dare to offend the rapidly rising temperance sentiment by 
refusing to grant the petition ; they were equally afraid to 
offend their masters. Although the Supreme Court had 
decided that the Pond tax law was unconstitutional, with 
satanic adroitness the politicians passed another tax law, 
'The Scott L,aw," mildly taxing saloons, and shoved it 
before the people ahead of the amendment called for, say- 



PROHIBITION AMENDMENT CAMPAIGN. 

lug: " Fix the tax law upon the people; let them clearly 
see that :i definite sum pert ipita is taken from the yearly 
tax, and it will be indorsed, and we will risk prohibition. 
To still further confuse and complicate the matter, two 
amendments were laid before the people instead ol one, the 
first proposing to license the liquor traffic, the second, pro- 
hibiting it. It gave, and was meant to give, a world oi 
opportunity for misunderstanding and confusion of thought 
and misprint and miscount of ballots. 

Mrs. Woodbridge foresaw the difficulties and the com- 
plications of the struggle, but undismayed by these hin- 
drances planned with rare adroitness and energy. heeling 
that it was her one chance of a lifetime to rid her beloved 
Ohio of its greatest curse, in humble reliance upon Cod, 
she appointed a day for fasting and prayer. Then, like a 
very Deborah, she rose up and girded her soul for battle. 
Long before the great political parties had begun their 
campaigns, she was in the field mustering her hosts. She 
had twenty-five chosen speakers to meet the vast assem- 
blies in cities, at camp-meetings, and in parks, and open air 
gatherings. Every minister or lawyer or public speaker 
that could speak was pressed into service. The keynote 
of public address was struck by Hon. John B. Finch, of 
Nebraska, who of all of us twenty-five general speakers, 
was easily the chief of the debaters. We followed a-- we 
severally could. 

The headquarters was again a bee-hive of industry. 
From ten to twenty secretaries were once more at work 
arranging places for speakers, appointing meetings innu- 
merable, at first in the cities later in the towns and vil- 
lages, and before the close, in every ward of the t i ties, and 
in every township center and even in every school district 
throughout the state. So accurately was this work done that 
the writer, who spoke in sixty towns, never reached but 



86 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

two where preparations were not complete, and that was 
due to imperfect mail service. 

The politicians who voted to submit the amendment to 
the people did not dare to work for it. No leading news- 
paper in Cleveland, Columbus or Cincinnati favored it, or 
gave fair opportunity for discussion in its columns. Mrs. 
Woodbridge had to found and edit a paper of her own in 
order to fairly get her views before the people. We will 
reserve for another chapter the story of her wonderful 
newspaper work which is almost incredible ; it is enough 
to remark here that before the campaign was over, her own 
paper had a greater circulation than any other in the state, 
and that more people read some of her editorials than the 
combined circulation of all the dailies in the state. 

The politicians looked on in silence, simply dumb with 
amazement. Few of them had any calls to speak any- 
where. The popular thought all flowed in the "Second 
Amendment" channel. In Cleveland, there were eighty- 
five meetings a week, in the great tabernacle, in churches, 
in halls, in the open air. Gen. Ed S. Meyer, of Cleveland, 
surpassed all his fellow citizens, speaking nightly with 
great ability, and the night before election addressing in 
the park, five thousand people. Second amendment wag- 
ons strikingly decorated with such sentences as, "Destroy 
that which destroys men," and "Give freedom to the slaves 
of Alcohol," were sent through the streets with bands of 
musicians. Each wagon contained a speaker's stand so ar- 
ranged as to be quickly adjusted at the rear of the wagon. 
From these wagons, driven from ward to ward, immense 
audiences were addressed nightly. In Cincinnati there 
were from thirty to fifty meetings a night. And so the hot 
fight was waged over the state. 

'The entire direction of this amendment work," says 
a newspaper, "centered in Mrs. Woodbridge, and with 
singular clearness of method, and comprehensiveness of 



PROHIBITION AMENDMENT CAMPAIGN 
grasp, she led the forces forward to the magnificent result." 

One Of the general Speakers wrote tO B newspaper in .!!: 

other state: "A million tickets are m>w being printed 
under the direction of Mrs. Wbodbridge. Without any 
exception I believe her to be the brainiest woman in the 
United States. Her executive ability is something won- 
derful, and Grant or Napoleon never more wisely planned 

a campaign than she has this. There are on an average 

one thousand speeches daily on the Amendment ; millions 
of pages Of literature have been sown broadcast. You 
hear nothing but constitutional amendments on trains, at 

public gatherings, every where ; and it is averred that wives 
wake their husbands at night to impure, ' How is so and 
so on the Amendment ? ' " 

In Cleveland alone one million three hundred and sev- 
enty-two thousand three hundred and seventy pages of 
Amendment literature were given out by the Cleveland 
\Y. C. T. U. in a most painstaking manner. Sixty-eight 
thousand Amendment Heralds were distributed. Ten thou- 
sand posters were placed on bill boards and fences and barns. 
The state was sown with temperance literature like the 
falling of the leaves of the forest. 

Who can measure the opposition that confronted Mrs. 
Woodbridge and the difficulties she faced? Who can tell 
what dastardly deeds the Liquor Association's gold can 
bribe men to do ? Be it said to their shame, the politicians 
of both parties so printed their tickets as to count against 
tlu- Amendments relating to the liquor traffic it put into 
the ballot box unchanged by the voters; although the 
word Yes appeared after another Amendment called the 
Judicial Amendment. This forced the women to print 
tickets of both parties and send over the state with the 
word Yes after their amendment. The first tickets were 
printed correctly according to the requirements of the law. 
Thousands were sent out and distributed. Late Saturday 



88 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODS RIDGE. 

afternoon it was discovered that many of the tickets then 
being printed were imperfect. Near the lower end they 
were cut off at the side so as not to be wide enough for 
legal requirement. In some instances the Yes after the 
Second Amendment was partially or wholly missing. The 
final letter of the name of a certain candidate was frequently 
omitted. Investigation proved that the electrotype plates 
had been tampered with, causing the omission of letters. 
Tickets, too, had been carelessly cut, making them too 
narrow to comply with the law. 

Late that Saturday night new tickets had to be printed, 
sent out and circulated, and the other tickets recalled be- 
tween then and Monday night. Heroic energy was equal 
to the emergency and the wicked scheme was defeated. 
But this was not all. Quite frequently during those last 
days of the contest telegrams were retained, letters mis- 
carried and mail was stacked up in a city postofhce, till it 
seemed as if men in places of public trust were in league 
with the powers of darkness to defeat the cause of tem- 
perance and righteousness. In one ward in Cleveland for 
a square in either direction from the polling place, a con- 
tinuous line of saloon-keepers and those working in their 
interests could be seen on each side of the walk on both 
sides of the street, so that the vote of every man was so- 
licited again and again, by those opposed to the Second 
Amendment. There were but three men who had the 
needed courage to face that motley crowd and work for it. 
But godly women were there w T ith ballots in their hands, 
asking men to vote for God and home. 

Mrs. Woodbridge and other officers went from one vot- 
ing-place to another, encouraging the women. She had 
learned before this with what desperate and determined 
forces she was contending. Within three days she got 
word from five chairmen of county committees that orders 
had been telegraphed from the state headquarters : "Crush 



/'A'< V///.7 TION XMENDMENT CAMPAIGN. 

the /Amendment ; we are sure of the election and we 
not want it on our hands for enforcement." She saw three 
of the telegrams. She knew that ambitious, depraved and 
selfish men were willing to resort to any measures, how- 
ever unhallowed, to defeat her cause. But she quietly 
rested in Cod. doing her own duty and leaving results with 
Him. 

Mrs. Woodbridge and the friends of her causi ired 

to the great Cleveland tabernacle I eive the election 

news. Telegraphic communication had been arranged. 
With her characteristic piety the meeting was opened by 
prayer and the singing of Gospel hymns; in marked con- 
trast with the drunken, howling mob enveloped in tobacco 
smoke that usually gathers in the cities to hear election 

news. It was a beautiful prophecy of the good time com- 
ing when our best women, our mothers and sisters, shall 
have a hand in politics. 

In the early part of the evening the most encouraging 
reports came from every voting precinct heard from in Cin- 
cinnati. All at once, those reports stopped coming, and 
not another one was received, though message after D 
sage was sent asking for them. They were simply being 
held back after the fashion of the Tammany gang in New 
York. 

Here are a few facts. In a ward of one of the small 
cities, a man was hired to stand at the polls and count 
the Second Amendment ballots ; he counted one hundred 
and thirty-nine actually cast : the judges reported thirty. 
There was a careful recount of the votes in Trumbull 
County. The reported vote was three thousand; the act- 
ual vote was five thousand three hundred and twenty-three. 
Gen. Ed S. Meyer, an able lawyer of Cleveland, said : 
" In Lucas and in other counties in the state, the Republi- 
can ticket was printed with these words at the bottom: 



90 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

" Regulation and taxation of the liquor traffic — Yes. 
" Regulation and taxation of the liquor traffic — No. 
" Prohibition of intoxicating liquors — Yes. 
" Prohibition of intoxicating liquors — No. 

"And men were told that to vote the straight ticket was 
to vote for the Second Amendment and the first as well. 
All such tickets were counted as against the Second 
Amendment. 

"The resolution of the legislature made no provision 
for a negative ballot whatever, as the Constitution requires 
a majority of affirmative votes in order to carry the Amend- 
ment. Each of these tickets so counted against the Second 
Amendment, having had upon it : ' Prohibition of intox- 
icating liquors — Yes,' must be counted under the law for 
the Second Amendment, and all other words thereon be 
regarded as surplusage. We have been the victims of 
considerable frauds in the way of illegal tickets. The 
Republicans of Lucas County put up a detestable job on 
us in the way of a fraudulent ticket. We have just heard 
from Bucyrus, that we are entitled to three hundred more 
votes there than w T ere accorded to us. Heretofore the re- 
turns from the counties having the four large cities have 
always been in first, and it has been customary to say : 
' Wait till we hear from the back counties.' It looks very 
ominous now that we cannot hear from the city counties. 
It was at first reported that the Second Amendment had 
received thirty-one thousand votes in Hamilton County. 
Now it is said that forty-one thousand votes were cast 
against it. The number w r ould be fixed at sixty thousand 
if that number were needed to defeat the Amendment." 

Some of these illegal tickets were submitted to Judge 
Day of Ravenna, a member of the Supreme Court of the 
state, and he pronounced them illegal in their make-up 
and a shameful imposition upon the people. Let it be re- 
membered that both Judge Day and General Meyer were 



PROHIBITION AMENDMENT CAMPAIGN. 91 

Republicans. The writer, too, was a Republican ; so that 
what is being recorded here, is not colored by party preju- 
dice. 

Mrs. Woodbridge was afterward met on a train by a 

Voice reporter who said to her: "Can you give the Voice 

an interview on the counting of the Second Amendment?" 

"Yes, I will give you time reasons for holding that 
the Amendment was not lost by fair means. 

" 1. The tickets printed under the State Committee of 
both parties were printed not according to the forms re- 
quired by law. To this there was but one exception — that 
of Ashtabula County. 

"j. When the count was being made reports were 
regularly wired us at headquarters until the returns were in 
in sufficient numbers to warrant the conclusion that the 
Amendment had carried, when suddenly communications 
ceased, and by no effort of ours could they be resumed. 
Two weeks passed. The vote of Hamilton County that 
the day after election was reported as over thirty-one thou- 
sand for the Amendment, had mysteriously dwindled down 
to eight thousand. The vote was reported and the Amend- 
ment was declared lost. 

"3. We have at headquarters nine hundred letters re- 
ceived from different parts of the state on the matter of the 
re-count. Whenever the count was examined it was found 
to have been carelessly done, and in many cases falselv 
returned. It was carried far enough to convince all parties 
interested in the matter that the Amendment was carried at 
the ballot box, and lost by falsifying the returns. But 
there was no way provided by law for enforcing a re-count 
or correcting the result." 

"All aboard," said the conductor. 

"Good-morning," said the clearest-headed, stoutest- 
hearted woman of the Buckeye State. 



92 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

G. W. Bain of Kentucky, next to John B. Finch, Mrs. 
Woodbridge's most winning orator, wrote : 

" It was the best run campaign, so far as temperance 
work was concerned, I have ever known. Neither party- 
committee handled forces with such generalship as did 
Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, nor were there ever better 
division commanders than Miss Duty and Mrs. Prather of 
Cleveland, or Mrs. Leiter of Mansfield." 

A Baltimore paper said : ' ' One of the brainiest women 
in America is Mary A. Woodbridge. She organized and 
led the Second Amendment forces in the late struggle in 
the Buckeye State. It was the testimony of all who fought 
under her that the campaign could not have been managed 
with more skill. It is simply wonderful how she did so 
well when we remember that every leading politician 
opposed her ; and men in official positions tried to thwart 
her plans. Telegrams were retained, and letters went 
astray and money was poured out like water." 

The expense of that ever-memorable campaign on the 
part of Mrs. Woodbridge was $30,000. She had ten times 
as many speakers in the field as all other interested parties 
and circulated ten times as much literature. Yet it was 
computed that others expended in that campaign $500,000. 
The query is, What was all that money used for ? 

A letter from the president of the South Carolina W. C. 
T. U. will illustrate how the struggle was watched from 
the outside, and with what feeling the news of the result 
was received : 

Charleston, S. C, Oct. 11, 1883. 
Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge : 

I am weeping with you, dear friend, over your disap- 
pointment. We prayed for you throughout our state, and 
my faith was so strong. I am almost sick over it, but 

Delay with God is not denial, 

Though He His answer long withhold ; 

'Tis His appointed furnace trial 
To separate the dross from gold. 



PROHIBITS >\ XMENDMENT I AMPAIGN. 93 

" We must through much tribulation enter the king- 
dom," I am convinced. I have Dot taken one day's holi- 
day this summer, and I feel, as I am sure you must, a 
little the worse for wear. However, 

When I tell Hun 1 am weary and fain would i> ( - a1 rest, 
That I'm daily, hourly longing for a home upon His breast, 
i [e answers me so Bweetly, in tones of tenderest love, 
I .mi coming soon to take thee to thy loved ones now above. 

So I am working and waiting, sometimes discouraged, 

and then taking heart, but fully resolved to die fighting for 

"God, and Home and Native Land." 

Again accept my heartfelt sympathy, hut he not cast 
down, for has not God promised that " He will fulfill the 

desire of them that tear Him?" and " No weapon that is 

formed against them shall prosper." There must be light 
somewhere, though like Job we are saying, "Oh, that we 

might fiud Him " in this disappointment. 

God bless you, 

Sallie F. Chai'in. 

The result as reported by ballot was : Whole number of 
votes east, seven hundred twenty-one thousand three hun- 
dred and ten ; for first amendment, ninety-nine thousand 
eight hundred and forty-nine ; for second amendment, 
three hundred twenty-three thousand one hundred and 
eighty-nine. Thirty-seven thousand four hundred and 
sixty-seven more favorable votes would have carried the 
state for prohibition. They were certainly cast. 

After the contest was over, Mrs. Woodbridge stated the 
cold, naked truth about the fraud as follows in her own 
paper, the Amendment Herald: 

THE FALSE PROPHETS. 

The False Prophet has been making a temporary head- 
way in Egypt. The False Prophets have also been given a 
temporary chance in Ohio. They said, " You will not have 
prohibition in Ohio this year," and now they point to the 
result and say, " We told you so." They are having their 
justification, apparently, but by no means in reality. The 
great thing, the mighty thing, the thing to ponder upon 



94 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

and consider is that more than one-half of the votes of 
Ohio were in favor of prohibition, that more than one-half 
meant to vote for prohibition, and that more than one-half 
really did vote for prohibition. They were outwitted, sold 
out, cheated, and swindled by the politicians — that is all. 
The managers who had the matter in official control were 
tricksters, and did by underhanded means what they could 
not do by an open show of hands. When the legislature 
submitted the second amendment to the people it was ex- 
pressly declared that " Prohibition of Intoxicating Liquors 
— Yes" should go on the tickets, and no provision was 
made for a "no" anywhere about it. "This," says an 
exchange, " was published in almost every paper of note in 
Ohio for six months. There was not a politician in the 
state who was not familiar with the form prescribed by law, 
yet the managers of the dominant parties had the cheek to 
boldly violate the law, and perpetrate a trick to defeat the 
will of the people by printing ' Yes— No ' after the second 
amendment, knowing that it would confuse the judges and 
in haste be counted ' no ' instead of ' yes ' as it should be 
according to law and justice." This is plain talk, and it 
also has the merit of soundness. It was not through mere 
haste but by deliberation that many of the judges of elec- 
tion of both parties counted these ballots against the 
amendment, when they knew that they had been cast in its 
support. Enough boxes have already been looked into to 
show that a fair count would have given the amendment a 
total vote nearer four hundred thousand than three hundred 
thousand. The False Prophets are none the less false be- 
cause a mean trick and a slippery chance have given appar- 
ent justification to their malign prophecies. 

This is an awful arraignment of the muddy, slimy poli- 
tics of a great state when a moral question was the issue 
Whoever else was false ; whoever else sold out his birth- 
right honor for a mess of pottage, and covered himself with 
shame by helping to perpetuate a great vice among a peo- 
ple, one name that came out of that campaign radiant with 
imperishable lustre was Mary A. Woodbridge. 

Although she felt that her cause was counted out, yet, 
overjoyed at the wonderful endorsement of the principle of 



PROHIBITION A ME VDME VT ( 'AMPAIGN. 95 

prohibition at the polls, she called upon her followers foi a 
special thanksgiving service in these words : 

It would seem that no state has so great reason for 
thanksgiving as Ohio. Here was first heard the call to 
women, as that given to the apostles by our Saviour. Here, 
where the Liquor traffic has its strongest hold upon commer- 
cial and political eirchs, has been given the largest vote 
for prohibition known to history. 

The interest which culminated in that vote can be 
steadily traced from the day when the baptism of the Holy 
Ghost and of power was granted to woman. 

In return for the goodness of God in making Ohio His 
chosen place for this work, and His continual blessing, even 
to the present hour, we believe her thankofiering will ex- 
ceed that of any other state, and to both state and national 
societies will he furnished " sinews of war " for the coming 
victorious battle. 

May the Lord grant to one and all a renewal of Pente- 
costal grace, that with consecration and sacrifice we may 
joyfully bring unto Him our offerings, and in obedience to 
Hisword, "Go Forward." 

In her annual address before the National W. C. T. U., 
a few weeks later, Miss Frances Willard paid this deserved 
tribute to her ever loyal friend : " Who dared to dream at 
our first convention in Cleveland, that nine years later this 
wondrous battle autumn would in these magnificent states 
find the white plume of the Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union in the front ranks, like the Henry of Navarre? 
Subtract the prayers and work of woman from the long 
struggle in Iowa, and how much would be left? While a 
more heroic fight and better planned than Mrs. Woodbridge 
led in the glorious Crusade state is unknown to history's 
annals. When, before, was there a vote in whose presence 
politicians on both sides were dumb, and the ' vest-pocket' 
ballot with which men were fitted out at home was the 
leading feature of the day ! Whatever the ' count ' may 
finally reveal, we point to the admitted 323, 1S9 votes for pro- 
hibition as the grandest result of woman's work ever seen." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

NEWSPAPER WORK. 

Looking over the books of devotion which Mrs. Woodbridge had 
with her in Chicago upon which she fed her soul, the writer found a 
redline-edition volume of poetry by an English lady. The fly-leaf 
had this inscription : 

"To my beloved Friend and Comrade, Mary A. Woodbridge, 
with deep appreciation of her love and loyalty. From Frances E. 
Willard. Christmas, 1893." 

Her last Christmas gift to her " beloved "! 
The title page reads : 
" Verses by Christina G. Rossetti." 

Underneath this Frances Willard wrote : " Who ought to be Poet 
Laureate, and would be if she were a man !" 

Here is a window through which we may look in and read the in- 
most thoughts of the most gifted women of our day. They feel and 
know that they are not yet rated at their true worth. Alas ! that it 
should be so. The Son of God was born of a woman. His infant 
head was pillowed on her mother-breast. This is woman's century. 
The most illustrious sovereign living is a woman. And yet this most 
gifted singer in all her realm must be denied her meed of honor, be- 
cause, forsooth, it pleased God to have her born a noble-souled — 
woman ! 

Saints are like roses when they blush rarest, 
Saints are like lilies when they bloom fairest, 
Saints are like violets, sweetest of their kind. 

Bear in mind 
This to-day. Then to-morrow; — 
All like roses rarer than the rarest, 
All like lilies fairer than the fairest, 
All like violets sweeter than we know. 

Be it so. 
To-morrow blots out sorrow. 

— Christina G. Rossetti. 

WE have already observed that during the great 
Amendment Campaign, Mrs. Woodbridge launched 
into journalism. It was not the result of any ambitious 
plan of hers to pose as an editor in the newspaper world. 
It was a grave necessity which pushed her out into this 

(96) 



NEWSPAPER ICO A 1 A'. 97 

untried field of effort, where she achieved at once a bril- 
liant and unparalleled success. Speaking to a friend 

her paper, the Amendment Herald, .she called it " My 
from God." 

She would gladly have used the columns of newspapers 

already in existence, but they were all with one accord 

against her and her cau.se. Not one newspaper <>f an> 

considerable circulation In the state was friendly to the 
Amendment campaign ; on the contrary, their attacks upon 
the cause that was dearer to her than her life, were bitter 
and persistent ; and, further, the friends of the liquor traffii 
could get space in any of the dailies for the publication of 
the rankest falsehoods, the stupidest arguments, the weak- 
est drivel, while the truth could get no space for argu- 
ments on the other side without paying advertising rates — 
fifty cents or a dollar a line. We do not pretend to explain 
these things, or to know the inside mysteries of these great 
"blanket sheets" — noble expounders of morality, and 
exponents of Christian civilization ! Perhaps the explana- 
tion is that men are not in the newspaper business either 
for pleasure or health ! Be that as it may, Mrs. Wood- 
bridge saw at once that she must have some medium for 
communication with the general public in which her cause 
could be advocated and defended, and her own views could 
have free and ample expression. She said of the situa- 
tion : "We greatly felt our need. Not a general officer, 
however, had known anything of the conduct of news- 
papers ; none of us had written for them directly, but we 
believed it a necessity for the furtherance of our work that 
a paper be established. No editor could be found, and 
though I would have been perfectly conscientious six 
weeks before in answering ' no ' had I been asked to do 
such work, I did what I could, and the Lord blessed all 
the way, until before the campaign closed we had 100,000 
bona fide subscribers and a circulation of 200,000 papers 



98 LIFE OF MAR Y A. WOODBRIDGE. 

weekly. Even then we did not think of its continuance, 
but the demand had been so great that we dared not stop. 
I have learned one lesson — that I have no right to say ' I 
cannot,' and profess to be in the Lord's hands for His un- 
restricted use." 

Such was Mrs. Woodbridge's modest account of her 
work to a friend in private conversation. This would 
have brought fame enough to anybody as an intellectual 
achievement. As Dr. Josiah Strong says : ' ' What man 
ever founded a newspaper without a dollar's capital, which 
every week paid its own way and in less than three months 
reached a circulation of 100,000 copies ? " 

But this is not nearly all that may be said of her edito- 
rial work. Her cleverness as a paragrapher, her skill in 
argument, her clearness in dissecting and exposing the 
sophistries and fallacies of her opponents, and the strength 
and brilliancy of her longer articles, made her easily first 
among all the contributors to her paper. Its most striking 
feature was her own editorials. So great was the call for 
them that it became necessary to have even- paper electro- 
typed in order to supply the ever increasing demand. One 
of her pungent editorials struck off as an extra by itself 
reached a circulation of half a million. 

During that campaign Joseph Cook visited her office as 
she was editing her paper, dictating to secretaries, and 
making appointments for scores of speakers throughout 
the state, and he declared that she was doing enough work 
to tax the mental and physical resources of any three men 
in Ohio. Most of her editorials were written between ten 
o'clock and one o'clock at night. After a long, hard day at 
the headquarters, spent in performing prodigious tasks, she 
would go to her room and write those striking productions 
that would electrify the people of the state like a bugle blast. 

Mrs. Woodbridge has not only written in her own paper, 
but has been a most generous and prolific contributor to 



NEWSPAPER WORK. v9 

other reform publications. About her home we have fotuid 
articles of hers in Tki N v York Witness, The American 
Reformer, The Christian Statesman, The Christian Nation, 
The Union Signal, The Delaware Signal, The Common 

wealth, The Public Good, The Sixteenth Amendment, The 
New Era and The Pioneer. For how many Others she 
wrote we cannot tell, but when we remember that for some 
of these papers she was responsible for one or two columns 
a week, for long periods of time, it will be seen that her 
labors were most abundant in this direction alone. 

It will no doubt be delightful to her friends, and withal 
instructive to some who may possess her " Life," to have 
some specimens of her newspaper articles given here, and 
we will gratify them. 

The first we select was contributed to The Public Hood of 
Boston, entitled : 

CAN WE KEEP SWEET? 

Editor Public Good : 

Michigan's disgraceful amendment fiasco has brought 
freely to mind Ohio's count-out, and aroused my indigna- 
tion to an unparalleled degree. It has fired me with new 
determination "to do with my might what my hands find 
to do " ; to lay the lash of facts upon evil doers who rob 
God, curse the American home, and undermine the Ameri- 
can Republic. In this indignant mood I read this morning 
Mr. A. A. Hopkins' letter to The Public Good, of the iNth 
inst., in which, among other good things, he advises his 
Michigan friends to "keep sweet." 

With full appreciation of Mr. Hopkins' meaning, and 
admiration of his ability ; with delight in his correspond- 
ence, private and public, and more in his personal friend- 
ship, I cried out : " Yes, keep sweet ; sweet as the Christ 
we love, for whom we labor, who drove the changers from 
the temple with a 'scourge of cords' made by His own 
hands', who with His own lips declared: 'Woe unto you 
Scribes and Pharisees, — hypocrites ! for ye are like unto 
whited sepulchers but are within full of dead 






r »~ 



• •  ; > 



IOO LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

men's bones and all nncleanness. Ye serpents • ye genera- 
tion of vipers : how can ye escape the damnation of hell? " 

True, there is a certain sweetness required in the pres- 
entation of truth that it may gain listening ears, and con- 
vince minds open to conviction, but even God, who hates 
sin and loves the sinner, tells us of a limit to His endurance. 
We have, as workers for prohibition, not only to fight the 
liquor enemy, but his abettors ; men of position in society, 
in the nation and in the church, and " vice is the most dan- 
gerous when it puts on the garb of virtue." 

'Tis an old adage that "if the best man's faults were 
written upon his forehead it would make him pull his hat 
over his eyes," but when a man boldly proclaims against 
the good ; when a man uses his position to make himself 
the center of a great force of evil, or to strengthen such 
force, surely righteous wrath should be poured out upon 
him. 

Such power has developed in the late temperance 
campaigns — Robert Graham, an importation from across 
the water; (you remember such were sent during our 
earlier struggle for freedom) ; Howard Crosby, of New 
York ; D. Bethune Duffield, of Michigan, and others. 
These speak freely their views of persons and things, and 
thoughts with them are poisoned arrows sent straight to 
the heart of avarice, appetite and ambition, and quicken 
every evil passion. 

Writing of these reminds me of an incident which 
occurred during the remonstrance against Crosby's high 
license bill, made before the temperance committee of the 
New York legislature, by the National Temperance Soci- 
ety, the Sons of Temperance, the Good Templars, the W. 
C. T. U., and the Prohibition party. The representative 
of the latter organization, Frederick F. Wheeler, chairman 
of the state committee, said with great suavity, "We are 
all looking toward the same goal, but would reach it by dif- 
ferent roads. We are all working for the prohibition of 
the liquor traffic." Mr. Graham, of the Church of England 
Temperance Society, seated at the table with the commit- 
tee, turned quickly toward him and said with much acer- 
bity, "We have declared nothing of the kind. How do 
you know this? " After the W. C. T. U. was represented, 
Mr. Graham arose and standing before the lady, insisted 



NEWSPAPER WORK. 101 

that she had "no lij;' 11 here," and added, " I care noth- 
ing for these men, but for you women tocome in here is 
outrageous." A little later he remarked, "If you Prohi- 
bitionists defeat this bill, you will be obliged to endure 
more than you have dreamed of." Such as these, we are 
told by the New York 7~>ih;<>i<\ have accomplished the 
defeat >'t the Amendment in Michigan and secured the 
enactment of the high license law in New York. What 
lover of his country will not rejoice that "the wrath of 
man" (Governor Hill* has praised God in its defeat? 

Can we treat such with sweetness 5 Yes, as the loving 
parent weeps before Cod ere he punishes his child, hut in 
the fear of God administers the punishment. As the 
mother bird, having in vain coaxed the fledgelings to leave 
the nest, and soar aloft, shakes and mils and puslus. until 
they are dislodged and rise in their full bird nature 
these must he met and routed. Effective bullets can never 
be made of sugar plums. 

When those few young men at Williamsport formed the 
American Hoard of Commissioners tor Foreign Missions, 
they deemed it wise to keep their net a secret, lest they 
meet opposition which would defeat their project. When 
George Stevenson calculated the average speed of a railway 
train at ten miles an hour, he dared not estimate it higher, 
thinking practical men would turn a deaf ear to him, 
believing him to be an enthusiast or a visionary. We have 
kept our silence : we have made our low estimates. We 
n<>w want promptitude of action in all emergencies, capac- 
ity for simplifying work and organizing the labors of mul- 
titudes for aggressive action against this most dangerous 
enemy. They who succeed must, with all possible sweet- 
ness, have an iron will, and recognize in a difficulty only 
a thing to he overcome. They must he willing to yield 
even so great a price as their own servitude for the estab- 
lishment of the right in the victory over wrong. 

These against whom we stand " have consented together 
with one consent; they are confederates against God." 
Let us therefore with equal surety, perseverance, intrepidity 
and sweetness fight for the right, pleading as the PsaLmi 

"O my God, make them as a wheel : as the stubble before the 
wind. 

"As the fire burneth the wood, and as the flame setteth the moun- 
tains on fire. 



102 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

"So persecute them with thy tempest and make them afraid with 
thy storms. 

" Fill their faces with shame ; that they may seek thy name, O 
Lord. 

" Let them be confounded and troubled forever ; yea, let them 
be put to shame and perish ; 

"That men may know that thou, whose name alone is Jehovah, 
art the Most High over all the earth." 

Mary A. Woodbridge. 

Ravenna, O. 

These burning words were written with the spirit of an 
anointed Hebrew prophetess. She had studied this aw- 
ful iniquity that is ravaging the nation, until her aroused 
soul glowed with fiery indignation. She had looked at 
the sorrow and woe it occasions with steady eye until her 
heart melted and dissolved in tears. From the depths of 
her soul she believed her cause was the cause of purity 
and righteousness, in short, the cause of God, and she had 
little patience with those who served His enemies, and 
helped to fasten a great crime upon the nation, by a method 
that made it an accomplice in and a sharer of the profits of 
iniquity. When in that frame of mind, even the impreca- 
tory Psalms had a meaning which she could appreciate. 

When Mrs. Woodbridge started her paper, she was crit- 
icised on the trivial and childish plea that " an organiza- 
tion of women could be in better business than the pub- 
lishing of a newspaper." 

To this she answered as follows : 

Were we disposed to advocate here the advent of wo- 
men into practical politics we might press forward the 
natural retort that as men have lamentably failed in sup- 
pressing the liquor traffic, it might be well for them to 
retire and see what women can do. But we feel that the 
subject has legitimate claim to a higher ground than this. 
We feel that the cobwebs of sophistry and the puny shafts 
of ridicule which have been allotted to some phases of this 
"woman question" belong to the past rather than the 
present. When you can divorce woman from the sorrows 
and the sympathies of life, then you can rightly ask her 



NEWSPAPER WORK. 10;, 

to keep hands and heart away from these questions ol 
moral reform. When you can prove- that she has no fathei 
or husband or brothei or son in danger from the saloon. 
then you can ask her to leave the Liquor question alone 
and not until then, When \<ni can show that the shadow 

of this curse falls on man and man alone ; that there is no 

mother-heart to wound and no children to be maimed in 

soul and body : thai there i> DO immortal soul needing hei 
counsel and her tears, then and not until then can yon ask 

her to hush her voice to the circle ot tin- fireside, and to 
speak to no ear except that into which her soul is poured 

in the silence of the closet. Ami if she has a right to he- 
heard at all in the world, she has a right to he heard by 
all. The newspaper is the forum of this age, and from 
that the words of truth must now he spoken. We have 
sent forth this Herald to announce the truth as we have 
heard it revealed ; and if its messages are not suited to 
the ears of all, we are consoled in the thought that there 
are some to whom the truth is never welcome. 

In one of her lecturing tours, Mrs. Woodbridge came 
to a town whose pastor had been hung in effigy lor voting 
the Prohibition ticket. May these words fall under his 
eye and gladden his heart — her touching tribute to him in 
the New York Witness, September 9, [886 : 

STRAWS THAT SHOW HOW THE WIND BLOWS. 

From time to time there are circumstances that call for 
special gratitude. Rarely has this been more keenly real- 
ized than last evening, when permitted to speak in a simple, 
capacious M. E. church in southern Illinois. The audi- 
ence was large and intelligent, but the man of note, akin 
to God, in whose presence I felt like "taking the shoes 
from off my feet," was he who, for three years, had broken 
the " Bread of Life" from that pulpit. 

As I strove to proclaim political truth as God has given 
to the women of Crusade call to understand that truth. 
and response was heard on every side, ( ' his face with joy 
did glow and every lineament beamed with light and 
hope." A few days more and the ties that have bound 
him to that people must be severed, and ere he left, to 



loa LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDCE. 

have another proclaim that truth for which he had suffered, 
was answer to his prayer. 

Two years ago he stood among the men who cast the 
ballot for " God and Home and Native Land," bearing the 
name of the hero, St. John. The spirit of anarchy is not 
confined to cities, nor to foreigners, nor to the ignorant, 
nor to the people of the world, but is found even among 
some called Christian. 

For this act, hands in which he had placed emblems 
of the dying love of Christ, suspended him in effigy from 
the steeple of the church he served. The wife who taught 
the little ones in Band of Hope, was told "she might re- 
tire " ; but these two went their way. 

To eye of man they heeded not, though hosannas and 
palm branches were exchanged for Gethsemane and Cal- 
varv. They went in and out before the people performing 
the'duties which God had laid upon them, and He who sees 
and notes and rewards faithfulness poured out His blessings 
on their souls. 

They sowed their seed by morning light and raised a 
mighty harvest for the Lord. Young men were born again, 
and looking upon their pastor as he walked politically as 
spiritually with God, they followed where he trod. 

Can greater hero live than such a man ? Can nobler 
monument be reared than a full score just stepping into 
manhood who declare : " Because of his pure life we stand 
redeemed in Christ, with ballot pledged to total prohibi- 
tion, that we in turn may do our part in redeeming the 
nation from the curse of the liquor traffic"? I think it 
honor enough for a lifetime to take the hand of such a 
man ; to stand where he has stood and view his work well 
done. With such as these the Prohibition party is widen- 
ing its borders, making firm its stakes, and building ever- 
lasting foundations of righteousness for a true Republic. 

While speaking through Kansas in March, 1887, she 

wrote the following correspondence to the Pio?ieer of New 

York: 

NO PARTY BEHIND THE LAW. 

"Hosannas and palm branches" to-day, Gethsemane 
and Calvary to-morrow, is the experience of the ages ! 
Reforms and reformers are hated of men ! 



NEWSPAPER WORK. io.s 

John P. St. John was the honored of Kansas. He w 
the Prohibitionist whom Republicans exalted ; his name 
was upon their Lips and his praises were their song. The 
Republican party of Kansas once endorsed prohibition, and 
the prohibition leader remained true to the principle, while 
the party ignored it, declaring, " Prohibition is not a part} 
measure, but was adopted by the people, regardless of 
party." Anything to get this man who utters the truth 
out of the way — the truth that is marching on and gath- 
ers advocates on every hand. 

The following headlines are found in the Kansas City 
Journal, and their counterpart thi »ut the press of 

Kansas: "The Kansas Legislature The Bill to Change 
the Name of St. John County Passes the House —Receives 
the Governor's Signature and Becomes a Law." 

The vote stood sixty-tour ayes ; fifty-six nays. A 
meaner, more pusillanimous act was never performed. 
That " aye" will stigmatize every man who cast it, as the 
Salary Grab Vote has marked the grabbers, while they who 
stood for the ri.^ht will increasingly receive the honor of 
true men and women. 

" From God and our record we can never be separated." 
The pure and unselfish love of prohibition hereby mani- 
fest, was earlier seen in the election of J. J. Ingalls to the 
United States Senate. An Anti-Prohibitionist representing 
prohibition Kansas! and this man elected by a Republican 
legislature ! 

Leavenworth, under Republican government, is a hot- 
bed of anti-prohibition sentiment. D. R. Anthony, brother 
of Susan B., editor of the Leavenworth Times, not a third 
party man, has held the law-defying element before the 
people, without fear or favor, ami is meeting the fate of 
all such radicals. A " Meeting of Citizens " was called at 
which, by resolutions, this factor pledged itself to the boy- 
cott ; to ignore his paper altogether ; to appeal to the A 
dated Press authorities to withdraw from him all privileges 
granted, and practically made declaration of their intent to 
ruin his character and his exchequer. The name of Mayor 
Neely appears among these citizens. An Anti-Prohibition- 
ist Mayor of the city of Leavenworth! 

Who outside of a political rin^; will not see the neces- 
sity of a Prohibition party in Kansas, to enforce the pro- 



106 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

hibitory laws, which the Republicans claim to have en- 
acted ! The foregoing so aroused Senator Blue (surely of 
Connecticut ancestry) the author of a bill against " Bucket 
Shops," making such speculation a "Crime punishable 
with a fine of not less than $500, nor more than $1,500, or 
by imprisonment of not less than six months," that he 
immediately pressed another bill creating a Criminal Court 
for Leavenworth County. When it appeared on the cal- 
endar for third reading, subject to amendment and debate, 
Senator Blue spoke at some length in its support. He 
declared a necessity existed for a criminal court, in Leav- 
enworth County, on account of the numerous violations of 
law in that city, and in particular the prohibitory liquor 
law. As an evidence of this he cited the action of recent 
mobs. He also read from the morning paper a report of 
the "citizens' meeting" held in Leavenworth and de- 
nounced it as "a gathering of saloon-keepers and their 
sympathizers," and declared a criminal court necessary 
for just such law-breakers. The bill became a law by a 
vote of twenty-nine ayes ; eight nays ; three being absent. 

The " Murray Drug Bill" has aroused much interest 
throughout the state. The liquor traffic of Kansas is car- 
ried on by unscrupulous druggists. I am told by a leading 
business man that in the city of Wichita, beautiful and won- 
derful beyond description, there are more than forty drug 
stores, while a dozen would suppl} 7 all need of drugs and 
medicines. The great number are supported by the clan- 
destine sale of intoxicants. But while sobriety is a marked 
feature (I have not seen an intoxicated person since com- 
ing into the state, or smelled the odor of alcohol but once 
upon the breath of an Ohio man) the people are aroused 
concerning the danger that threatens them. The new law 
requires a druggist to secure the signature of twenty-five 
men and of twenty-five reputable women before he can be 
granted the liberty of selling liquors for any purpose; and 
it is to be hoped that this, with other provisions, will hold 
dealers somewhat more closely within boundaries, though 
the law is not considered perfect. 

Women are rejoicing over their enfranchisement, the 
ballot and liberty to hold office having been granted them 
on equal terms with men in all municipalities. May each 
woman waken, not alone to her privilege, but to her ac- 



NEWSPAPER WORK. 107 

countability therefor, and recognizing the brotherhood of 
humanity accept the responsibility and fulfill its obliga- 
tions ! 

One can see from this last article the striking bent of 
her mind. She was traveling about the country and cor- 
responding with a dozen papers. She did not write fanciful 
little nothings; she saw trees and skies and flowers and 
streams (for she was a lover of nature) but did not write 
about them. Albeit a woman, she was a statesman in 
brain and heart, and saw what a wise statesman might see 
— what transpired in legislative halls, what mayors did in 
company with their saloon followers and how the laws were 
obeyed. 

Great in intellect, great in soul — planned by God for 
great things ! A person said to the writer a few weeks ago, 
one who had labored with her and knew her intimately : 
" Had she lived a little later in the world's history she 
might have been Secretary of State in Washington; for she 
had the intellectual breadth and strength and astuteness 
sufficient for the highest statesmanship." 

Yet she was never masculine or unwomanly; only a 
sweet-souled, prayerful, holy woman, as the following con- 
tribution to The Union Signal will show. The "elect 
women " of the W. C. T. U. were asked to tell what their 
work had done for them. She gave this to the 

WHITE-RIBBON LOVE FEAST. 

As I read the questions sent me by the editors of The 
Union Signal, quickly the long ago, the past and the pres- 
ent were before me. The long ago when the hope of eter- 
nal life was mine, but it seemed afar off; a boon to be 
received when things of time had passed; to be taught to 
the little ones that they, too, might enter heaven at last. 
Of the past when we heard of the wonderful crusade against 
sin in the southern part of our state; when Mrs. Thompson 
at Hillsboro, Mrs. Carpenter at Washington Court House, 
Mrs. Monroe at Xenia, and Mrs. Leavitt at Cincinnati, be- 



io8 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

came my sisters, for whom I prayed, the while wondering 
if the Lord would come to me as He had come to them; 
wondering if I could endure His presence and fearing I 
should fail. Of that hour when I heard His footsteps, 
nearer and nearer, until I stood in His very presence; when 
I heard His voice as clearly as did Mary in the olden time, 
and scarcely daring to lift my eyes, He gave me grace and 
strength to answer as did she, and filled my soul with joy 
and peace and wondrous love. 

Changed myself, I did not know that all else must 
change to me ; but faith was tested, and sacrifice demanded. 
The Lord said, " Go work in my vineyard to-day." No time 
to spare ; the King's work required haste ; and in utter 
weakness there was obedience. 

Standing for the first time before a great company as 
leader, as I opened the Bible to read the words selected, I 
had lost the place, and my eyes rested upon the Chronicles 
of God's people. Then, lost to self, a mighty cry for help 
reached the ear of the loving Father, who quickly answered 
with the thirty-seventh Psalm, in reading which all was 
forgotten but the yearning love of God for dying souls, 
the sacrifice of Christ for their salvation, and the unction of 
the Holy Ghost who had come down, until, closing the 
Book, the soul found utterance in the words of the apostle, 
"Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed 
upon us that we should be called the sons of God." How 
sacred from that moment His Word ! What wonderful 
things have been seen in His Law ! How fully have we 
learned that the law of man must be as His if blessing 
shall be ours. 

What days since then ! How women have known the 
indwelling Christ ! How all things have been counted loss 
for the excellency of the knowledge of our Lord ! How the 
Holy Spirit has lighted the pages of God's word, while 
home has been sweeter and country dearer ! " Heaven has 
come down our souls to bless," not the promised heaven 
beyond, but heaven within, the present joy of the Lord ! 
And not for us alone ; for to-day we look into homes once 
dark and imbruted, where now is life as sweet and pure as 
that within our own, where the white ribbon tells the same 
story of a new being, of hope and love ; where little ones 
are trained " for God and Home and Native Land," who in 



NEWSPAPER WORK. 109 

the near j^lacl future will lay their hands on the [ever of 
power in this glorious Republic and fulfill the promise of 
(»in I. onl. 

Thanks be unto God, we see His eternal luster in the 
saving and the cleansing, and with faith, fearing not, we 
believe "It is the Father's good pleasure to give the king- 
dom tO I Us little ones." 

The following bugle call was written for The ( r >u'o>i Sig- 
nal from hersiek bed last June, as if, though sick, she had 
no time for idleness : 

STRONG WoRDS PRODI TlIK SHUT-IN SECRETARY. 

Last week, had I been able to write, I should have given 
you in our own column that magnificent telegram from the 
secretary of the state prohibition committee of Virginia, 
announcing the complete prohibition victory achieved at 
Norfolk, — the capital of the state — a note of which was 
found among first page items. It was a trial to be laid 
aside, but while I have lain in my bed looking straight up 
the words have sunk deeper and deeper into my heart, and I 
have " thanked God and taken courage." " There is more 
and more to follow," if the W. C. T. U. will stand with 
unbroken front against every form of compromise, even 
though it be the specious Gothenburg system of tax, 
license, local option, high license to include brandy and 
lighter drinks, etc., his honor, the governor, being the final 
referee. Anti-saloon, anti-license are in the same category, 
aud " whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise." 



CHAPTER IX. 

JOINING THE PROHIBITION PARTY. 

They are slaves who will not choose 

Hatred, scoffing and abuse 

Rather than in silence shrink 

From the truth they needs must think ; 

They are slaves who dare not be 

In the right with two or three. 

— James Russell Lowell. 

We are slowly, but surely, attaining to the grandest mastership 
in all the world — mastership over our own spirits. The noblest 
figure of contemporary history is Gladstone, England's govern- 
mental chief, because with the people ready to mob him one day 
and worship him the next, he holds on his way quietly and pa- 
tiently, but dauntlessly true to his convictions. God has set the W. 
C. T. U. for a grander confession and defense of the faith than we 
have dreamed as yet ; one which would blanch our cheeks, perhaps, 
and make our hearts heavy with fear, could we to-day know aMl that 
it involves. But if we are true and tender-hearted, holding fast the 
hand of Christ, we shall be equal to the consequences as they arise, 
no matter how perilous or great. Let me give you De Tocqueville's 
words for a motto in 1SS4 : "Life is neither a pleasure nor a pain. 
It is a serious business to be entered on with courage and in a spirit 
of self-sacrifice." — Frances E. Willard. 

DOUBTLESS the reader has already noticed from the 
brief newspaper articles quoted in the last chapter 
that in her later years Mrs. Woodbridge affiliated with the 
' Third" or Prohibition Party. It is the aim of the wri- 
ter to set forth in this chapter the causes which brought 
about her changed attitude toward political parties. What 
is recorded here is not written to excite animosity or to 
antagonize any person or party, but simply to truthfully 
represent Mrs. Woodbridge as she actually lived among 

(no) 



JOINING THE PROHIBITS > V /'. XRTY. 1 1 1 

us. She was not a rush and impetuous person ; whatever 

position she occupied on these great public questions was 
taken alter calm, deliberate, careful investigation. It is 
certainly due to this thoughtful, prayerful, conscientious 

SOU] to present her life to the world as she lived it, in the 
fear of God and lor the good of men. Of her motives 
there can he no question. As to the wisdom of her course 
there are now divided opinions ; hut of this, the future 
rather than the present, will be the more accurate judge. 

Mrs. Wood bridge's father, — Hon. Isaac Brayton — was 
one of the founders of the Republican party ; her husband 
joined it at the time of its organization. She was in the 
fullest sympathy with them and with that party all 
through the years until the latter part of the year 1S83. 
Her change of party allegiance was gradual, a compound 
resultant of three influences, her associations, her studies, 
and her experiences. 

Her work to secure the Amendment was wholly non- 
partisan. No audience ever knew to what party any of 
her leading speakers belonged. But her chief reliance was 
upon the constituency of the Republican party, which, it 
was admitted, actually did furnish from two-thirds to three- 
fourths of the votes cast for prohibition. 

But all the leading politicians and newspapers of both 
the old parties set themselves "like a flint" against her. 
When to the natural force of their hostile influence was 
added political trickery, — such as the putting of the 
Scott tax-law ahead of the Amendment, specially cham- 
pioned by the Republican party, the submission of two 
amendments, the misprinting of the ballots, the mutual 
agreement to crush and count out the Amendment, — it 
gave a rude shock to her faith in her own dear party that 
filled her alike with pain and disgust. 

But her intimate associates were also passing through a 
similar mental strain and anguish. Miss Frances Willard, 



112 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

three weeks after the election, had the following passage 
in her annual address before the National \V. C. T. U.: 

" 'Prohibition, immediate and unconditional,' is our 
watchword all along the lines. We have seen that the 
principle of prohibition must be grounded in organic law, 
beyond the reach of demagogues, and that this must be 
done through non-partisan methods by means of a consti- 
tutional amendment. We have seen, however, that en- 
forcement can only be secured by the election of officers 
who will enforce ; hence, this involves a party committed by 
its hopes and ambitions hardly less than by its principles 
to the successful working of the law. We have seen that 
such a party must be recruited from the moral elements of 
society, and that these cannot include the majority save as 
the women of the land become its devoted and practical 
adherents. Hence we have perceived ourselves to be the 
natural allies of those courageous men, who, in states 
where prohibition is repudiated from the platforms of both 
Republican and Democratic parties, with the balance of 
opinion turned against them, and the partisan press vitu- 
perative in its contempt, still plant their votes for prohi- 
bition, looking for a harvest in the 'sweet by and by.' 
We have beheld the germination of this harvest in half 
a dozen states where the ' divine right of bolting has been 
exercised,' finding by curious coincidence that recognition 
of the prohibition principle in caucus and legislature has 
followed, not preceded said bolt." 

Caroline B. Buell, then corresponding secretary, had 
this passage in her annual report at the same convention : 

"The old lines which once were so closely drawn are 
giving way. Political party promises are the husks upon 
which the temperance people in the past have been gradu- 
ally but surely starving. Their aim has been to put into 
office 'good temperance men,' and they have been slow 
to learn that the man must be subservient to the majority 



JOINING THE PROHIBITION PARTY. 113 

that has elected him. It is not the man or what he per 
sonally believes, but the power behind the throne, the 

great aggregate Of sentiment which we in this country call 
party. 

"How, then, must we attain our ends? Simply and 
only by making the parts' what it should he, and this is 

not effected by the best man method. The leopard does 

not easily change his spots, nor is it easier for old parties 
to clothe themselves with new issues. Observation, nat- 
ural law, history, in fact, every voice that can speak on 
this subject, tells us that there is one way, and only one, 
by which great moral questions can be treated, viz: by an 
aggregation, the units of which were drawn together by 
the magnet of principle." 

At the same convention, in a still stronger strain, Mrs. 
J. Kllen Foster said : 

"It has been a very general belief among politicians 
of all parties that this question does not come within the 
domain of political action ; the Prohibition party in state 
and nation more clearly set forth that the whole question is 
the proper subject of political action. .... 

Every temperance woman ought to oppose, by voice and 
influence, the action of any party in which it ignores or 
refuses to submit this question to the votes of the people. 
She ought also to support the action of any party wherein it 
commands its representatives to thus aid the people in the 
expression of their will. In some instances this will lead 
women contrary to their otherwise political preferences ; 
hut since we believe the prohibition of the liquor traffic 
to be the subject of paramount importance, we are justi- 
fied in so doing. We do not thus give ourselves to the 
support of any party as a party, but we follow wherever 
we see the white banner of prohibition. 

"Do not be afraid of the charge of partisanship. A 
grand manifesto of principle will be of no avail unless 



114 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

the living personality of human effort makes it effective. 
The grand chorus of majorities, as in unison they cry, ' The 
saloon must go,' shall possess no coercive force unless that 
unison, merged into legislative, judicial, executive har- 
mony, and guided by the baton of a political party, shall 
take up the strain and still sing on, ' The saloon must go, 
the saloon shall go, and by our hand its power is broken.' 
God forbid that any temperance woman should with doubt 
or discord weaken the strain or cause the time to drag." 

It surely did not keep Mrs. Woodbridge back from the 
logical conclusions to which her bitter experiences were 
bringing her, to listen to such words as the above from her 
sisters and co-workers. They did not shape her convic- 
tions ; for she always reached her conclusions through in- 
dependent processes of reasoning: they may, however, have 
helped to make her conclusion more swift and certain. 

The comments of the press, also, must have helped to 
confirm her conclusion. The Republican press universally 
blamed the prohibition movement and Mrs. Woodbridge for 
the defeat of the Republican party in Ohio ; — blame utterly 
undeserved, for she expressly charged every one of her 
speakers to be absolutely non-partisan. 

But the reform press of the country, with perfect una- 
nimity, told the naked truth. The following from The 
America?i Reformer, of New York, is a fair specimen of 
their comments : 

"WHO WAS TO BLAME?" 

"The Republicans were beaten in Ohio, and some one 
was to blame. Who ? By the party press at large, Prohi- 
bitionists are held responsible. But what did they do to 
cause Republican defeat ? Let us look facts squarely in the 
face. The Republican party, in response to the petitions of 
the people, submitted prohibition to popular vote. 

" By simply doing as desired, it could have relegated the 
matter absolutely to the people and relieved itself wholly 



FINING THE /'A'( '////,7 77< >X P. I AT)\ I 15 

from partisan relation to the temperance issue, and been rid 

<>\ it. Ik-lore taking such action, however, the Republican 
party, either fearing the popular choice, and eager to con- 
trol it, or anxious to demonstrate .superior statesmanship, 
devised and enacted the Scott law, for which it must stand 
sponsor before the people and at the polls. Having through 
its leaders and its representatives declared the best and only 
wise treatment of temperance to be in taxation, it entered 
on a campaign to defend it. Its standard-bearer (Mr. For- 
akei ) accepted the situation bravely, if not wisely, with the 
distinct anti-prohibition utterance that ' the principles of 
regulation and taxation are unending and eternal, and to 
them the Republican party is unalterably committed.' 

"What followed? Leading party journals and orators 
attacked the Amendment with bitter vehemence and daily 
repetition. From choice or from seeming necessity, the 
Republican party had become the avowed champion of tax- 
ation and the open enemy of prohibitory law. Were the 
Prohibitionists to blame for this when they had not asked 
the party to take sides at all ? Were they responsible for a 
stupid blunder in party management which made it impos- 
sible for the party to be neutral, and arrayed it in large 
measure squarely against them ? 

"In former years the Republican policy had not been 
avowed so boldly, and a belief that Republicanism meant 
good order and Prohibition by gradual steps, had held 
thousands of Prohibitionists true to old party lines. Now 
they were outraged and ready for rupture. But radical 
leaders were temperate and took no advantage. Under 
great provocation the Prohibitionists remained almost en- 
tirely neutral as to party and worked only for principle. 
The Prohibition party polled one-third less than the vote of 
last year. The Republican deft at in Ohio, then, was the re- 
sult of Republican stupidity or blind regard on the part of Re- 
Publican leaders for the liquor traffic and its perpetuation." 



Il6 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Mrs. Woodbridge copied that article in her own paper. 
It shows to what conclusions she was coming. 

One other event deepened her impression that all hope 
of help from either of the old parties was vain. The Ohio 
W. C. T. U. after their defeat hastily circulated petitions 
for a resubmission of their question by itself to the people. 
The new legislature spurned it with contemptuous neglect 
— though two hundred thousand persons asked for temper- 
ance legislation. A beggarly three hundred and thirty- 
five persons asked for saloon legislation and their request 
was heeded. This called out a ringing, scathing editorial 
April 17. 1884, from Mrs. Woodbridge, worthy of any mas- 
culine pen and brain in America, which probably decided 
her political attitude forever. It was as follows : 

DISHONOR ! DISGRACE ! 

No intelligent person in Ohio (and none can be intel- 
ligent in these days of a nation's danger, who do not study 
carefully the daily record of events) can read the above 
words without immediate recognition of their meaning. 

The closing days of the first session of the Sixty-sixth 
General Assembly have been equaled in shame and dis- 
grace only by the council of the nation, when fifteen or 
more United States senators held high carnival of sin in 
drunken debauch upon the floor of the senate ; and when 
upon the close of a session of the United States house of 
representatives, "there were not sober men enough upon 
the floor to transact the business of the body ; when, could 
the hand not have been laid upon a member of color, who 
was not drunken as the white, there would have been na- 
tional disaster." 

Who can feel Ohio's dishonor more than Ohio women? 
More than those women who through heat and cold have 
labored to secure from that body an action which would 
bring prospect of relief from the evils of the liquor traffic ? 

Who have more right to cry out against the iniquity 
which has been wrought by omission and commission, by 
activity and inactivity in the State Assembly ? And who 
can say that these women who have plead and prayed, and 



JOINING THE PROHIBITION PARTY, 117 

wept and labored are not justified in adding to all their 
condemnation of the late action ? Who can doubt their 
call to renewed effort for the removal of such men from all 
official positions, or the attainment ol office by men who 
are controlled by the powers of evil, or who heed such in- 
fluence more than that of good? who for personal or party 
aggrandizement will openly conspire against all religion 

and all law, except the law of sin ami death ? 

What has heen the legislative record during the few 

past years of aggressive effort of the temperance people of 

the State? i^t. A tax law, pronounced unconstitutional 

by the supreme court, because through it such desperate 

effort had heen made to secure the liqnor dealers' desire, 
LICENSE ' 2d, The defeat of a hill requiring the exami- 
nation of teachers in "the properties of alcohol, and its 
physiological effects on the human character, brain and 
tissues." 3d, The submission of a double-headed amend- 
ment, in which action no man was called upon to express 
his opinion upon the propositions contained therein, hut 
relegated such right to electors; and 4th, The enact- 
ment of another tax law, ere the authority to whom the 
whole question had been submitted, had expressed it-- 
desire. 

Scarcely had the present legislature assembled before 
the dictum of liquor dealers was heard. There seemed but 
little hope that any effort for temperance would be success- 
ful with the body, but the fear that inactivity might be 
construed as acquiescence in the present or proposed status, 
led the \V. C. T. U. to the circulation of petitions asking a 
re-submission of a prohibitory constitutional amendment, 
and enactment of a statutory law, "requiring the stud}- of 
physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the 
effects of alcoholic drinks, stimulants and narcotics upon 
the human system, in all schools under state control, or 
supported by public money." 

For the former, notwithstanding the floods which ren- 
dered their circulation in the southern part of the state 
almost impossible, there were secured 121,535, and for the 
latter 84,906, aggregating more than 200,000 names of 
persons who desired some decided temperance action. 

Upon our first visit to Columbns, which was reported by 
the corresponding secretary in our last issue, the chairman 



118 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

of the Temperance Committee, Hon. Frank Cunningham, 
voluntarily and courteously said, "If such resolutions or 
bills as you desire were prepared, presented and referred 
to the Temperance Committee, they shall receive due con- 
sideration." A most satisfactory educational bill was 
presented by Mr. Wilson of Lawrence county (almost a 
duplicate of that lately enacted by the New York legisla- 
ture), which was referred to the Temperance Committee 
and ordered printed. 

A resolution for prohibitory amendment was prepared 
and left in the hands of a Republican member, who prom- 
ised its presentation. No record of the fulfillment of such 
promise being found in the report of legislative proceed- 
ings, we again visited the capital on Tuesday of last week, 
and was told by the member that " upon counseling with 
his associates, he was advised not to offer it," the reason 
given being that "the majority were unfavorable, and 
would lay it upon the table." 

Judge ye, one and all who signed those petitions, which 
the Republican members most feared, the liquor or the tem- 
perance factor of the state, as they stood face to face be- 
fore a Presidential election ? Last year more than 200,000 
of the party voted for prohibition. What think such voters 
of this omission ? this fearful, fearing, time-serving inac- 
tivity ? Will ye, too, be as silent as these Representatives? 
God forbid ! Had they not the power to force the other 
party to record itself, and would it not have been the rec- 
ord of the true and the false, of the friends and the foes of 
humanity ? Is it wonderful that having no opposition, the 
representatives of the liquor element ignored 200,000 peti- 
tioners, and as the Cleveland Leader informs us in the fol- 
lowing item, listened to the plea of 335 ? " Mr. Cogan, of 
Hamilton county, presented a petition for the passage of a 
bill for a graded liquor tax, the minimum being $50 and 
the maximum $200. It is signed by 45 persons of Crouth- 
ers, 60 of Ashtabula, 55 of Nobleville, 50 of Youngstown, 
30 of Franklin Square, 45 of Orangeville, and 50 of Coal- 
bridge, making a total of 335." 

One hundred thousand Democrats voted for prohibition. 
Have they no reckoning to make with these men who have 
misrepresented them ? Read the words of Mr. Ellsworth, 
of Michigan, spoken in the National House of Representa- 



JOINING THE PROHIBITION PARTY. 119 

lives when the sale of liquor in the Capitol was under con- 
sideration in t88o, and answer, docs it not meet the present 
? May it not be said of each, "Thou art the man" ? 
Von say you will not meddle with their business. Why 
not ? Why not meddle with their business? Because men 
l,»ve to drink ; that is why. Then be manly enough to 

proclaim the fact to the people at home and not work a 

fraud on them. 

It is petty larceny; petty larceny of the confidence and 
opinion of the constituency yon represent; petty larceny of 
the meanest sort known to men. Say to the people you 

approve the sale of intoxicating liquors in the Capitol. Say 

it bravely and boldly, like honest and honorable men. Say 
you want the ruby wine, the sparkling champagne and the 
Riddling whisky close at hand, and that you will not drive 
it out. Say that you came to have a good time, a jolly sea- 
son, and you propose to allow no disturbance of your plans. 
Say you are not to be influenced or turned aside from your 
program of pleasure by the wishes, the prayers, nor even 
by the tears of the suffering ones at home. Dare you say 
so much in plain truth-telling words ? You say the same 
by the want ot action in the premises. You say every day 
by your winking at the violation of the rules of the House 
and' the revenue laws of the land by these sellers of whisky 
and venders of champagne, that you are satisfied with the 
course they are pursuing. 

But the day of reckoning is at hand. By tax and by 
license there is compromise with sin, and the judgments of 
the Lord are upon us — by flood, by fire, and by riot the 
hoarded treasures are taken. Will ye still tempt the Lord? 

Again the " Battle Hymn of the Republic" speaks, and 
every true soul must heed : 

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord ; 

He is trampling out the vi n't age where His grapes of wrath are 

stored ; 
He has loosed the fateful lightning of his terrible swift sword . 
His truth is marching on. 

He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat ; 
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment seat, 
Oh, be swift, my soul, to answer Him, be jubilant, my feet ! 
Our God is marching on. 



120 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE . 

At the National W. C. T. U. annual meeting the fol- 
lowing resolution was adopted : 

We will lend our influence to that party, by whatever name 
called, which shall furnish the best embodiment of prohibition prin- 
ciples, and will most surely protect our homes. 

It was not difficult to foresee to what political camp this 
path would lead. All the national parties were waited 
upon by a committee as they met in their great conventions 
prior to the presidential contest of 1884. The two great 
parties spurned the memorial of these pleading women. 
The Prohibition party embodied their principles. The 
leaders of the National W. C. T. U. crossed the Rubicon 
and marched into the Prohibition camp. Mrs. Woodbridge 
was among them. The die was cast ; bridges were burned 
in the rear. It was henceforth war to the end, for prohibi- 
tion, with the Prohibition party. 

Had this noble woman and her cause been treated with 
chivalry and courtesy how different might have been our 
history ! Had the politicians of her own party merely 
remained neutral and deferential, letting the people have 
their own way, and abiding by their will, instead of fore- 
stalling their action in favor of the saloon power ; had they 
not vied with their rivals, and fairly tumbled over each 
other in their haste to bow to saloon mandates and to dance, 
like so many clowns, at the snap of the liquor associa- 
tion's lash, how different might have been the story of the 
last decade. From what jangled politics, financial depres- 
sions and panics, national debauchery, riots and crimes the 
nation might have been spared ! As it was, a great moral 
force left the Republican army. Mr. Foraker was defeated 
in 1883, and James G. Blaine, the greatest Republican 
statesman then living, was defeated in 1884 ; and the end 
is not yet. A leading Republican said to George W. Bain, 
' We made a great mistake in 1883, and found it out when 
it was too late to mend." 



JOINING THE PROHIBITION PARTY. \2\ 

Let us hope that the time has come or will speedily 

conic when no political party, ambitious lor power, will 
venture again to despise the wishes of the wisest ami holi- 
est American women. 

In the late autumn of [884, the writer, in a letter, eriti- 
'1 Mrs. Woodbridge tor her political action that yea;. 
In a reply she justified her course as follows : 

You refer to my non-partisan position during the Amend- 
ment campaign. It was the result 1 if that campaign that be- 
gan to open my eyes to the impossibility of success through 
non-partisan action. When I saw that the will of the peo- 
ple, the power of majority, was a farce in the hands of 
unprincipled leaders, opponents to the cause advocated, it 
came to me with mighty power that no moral reform, that 
must be settled at the ballot box, could be enforced when 
no party advocated it ; therefore there must be an enforc- 
ing party behind it. As this conviction came I studied 
speeches on the pro and con of the anti-slavery question, by 
the best minds of that day; I could see by comparison that, 
although the rank and file desired prohibition, and declared 
it at the ballot box, the one party to this hour has advo- 
cated tax as a party measure and the other license. Had 
the Amendment been permitted to become a part of our 
organic law there would have been no enforcing power. 
I went East in the summer and conscientiously studied the 
enforcement of prohibitory laws in Vermont, New Hamp- 
shire and Maine. I found commonly when nothing but 
local or state interests were at stake, the Republican party 
advocated prohibition. But when a United States repre- 
sentative was to be elected, an outspoken endorsement of 
the principle could not be secured. Henry W. Blair, of 
New Hampshire, as you know, has been specially promi- 
nent in the advocacy of prohibition. Because of this he 
was made United States senator. But Republicans told 
me (who professed deep regret) "There is no possibility of 
his re-election on account of his strong temperance princi- 
ples." " But," I would say, "did you not put him there 
for that very reason?' "Yes, but the liquor power has 
grown in these years and we cannot do it now." Win- 
has the liquor power grown ? Because the party that 



122 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

elected him has not maintained the principle of prohibition, 
and has been overpowered by the enemy. I went to Maine 
and worked on a non-partisan basis, as all amendments to 
constitutions must be worked, not being submitted to par- 
ties but to electors. While I heard some of the grandest 
pleas to which I ever listened from Republicans, as I did 
from Democrats, the Democratic press was silent concern- 
ing it, and the Republican press in the larger places said 
very little. But on Thursday before the election the Re- 
publican papers of Portland and Augusta came out against 
it. Mrs. Stevens, state W. C. T. U. president, lives three 
miles out of town, and the fact was telephoned to her before 
daylight. On Friday the Democratic papers said, "The 
Republicans have gone back on Prohibition," but Dem- 
ocrats knew too well its value to the state to take such 
action and rallied their forces to its support. On Saturday 
the Republicans, being frightened, declared, "The articles 
of Thursday were not official, but only the opinions of 
individual editors." At the polls at Portland, where I 
visited ever} 7 precinct, I repeatedly heard the argument : 
"The amendment must be defeated or Mr. Blaine will 
lose." While Democrats undoubtedly hoping that very 
result, endorsed it and voted for it ; and it is generally con- 
ceded that the amendment was carried largely by the vote 
of the Democrats. We all know they are not in favor of 
the principle ; the Republicans are not pledged to it, and 
there is not an enforcing power in the state. Unless there 
should be such a prohibition uprising in the country as to 
create a strong sentiment I believe Maine is already turned 
backward and will go downward. 

I have written all this, not because I feel it necessary to 
defend my position, or because you demand it, for I would 
gladly have written it all the way ; but I am glad to have 
you know how continuous and straightforward have been 
my processes of thought. And I can say to you what I 
could not say to another, that each time a new light or 
conviction seemed to come to me, I took it to the Lord. I 
have been blessed with wonderful nearness to Him, and 
He has, I believe, marvelously revealed Himself. I have 
sometimes waited before Him pleading promise after prom- 
ise given to His children who know nothing, who can do 
nothing of themselves, and His very glory has appeared to 



JOINING THE PRi >////;//'/< >\ r. \R TY. I 23 

be in my soul. Then I have gone forth into the world 

(for I have surely known what it is to be apart with none 

but God) and proclaimed the truth with unwonted power 

and without a doubt. 

Again, I have prayed as earnestly, hut have suddenly 

found myself praying, it may be tor you or .some other ; 
>on or thing, without a special thought of that for which I 

came, and I have said it is not God's will. I have nothing 
to do with it. Praise he to His holy name! Another 
experience has been that no conclusion would be reached 
at the throne, and having the thought I would arrange for 
its presentation in prayer and it would not come to my 
mind ; anil not understanding for a while I tried the experi- 
ment two or three times with the same result, until now, 
alter presenting a wish to the Lord and having no assur- 
ance I do not attempt to speak it again until He brings it 
to my mind ; and sometimes He does not and I am per- 
fectly satisfied. 

Since the campaign has closed I have not made a parti- 
san reference. I never spoke as last fall and since. At the 
clo^e of my Sabbath speech at Chickering Hall, Rev. Dr. 
Brown, chairman of the General Assembly temperance com- 
mittee, came to the platform with his wife and thanked me 
over and over. Dr. Graves, of Newark, Dr. Honeyman, of 
Plainfield, where I spoke twice on the Sabbath, and Dr. 
Cuyler — all Presbyterians, also Dr. Thompson, Baptist, of 
New York, have much encouraged and sustained me by 
their words ; yet they all know that when a campaign is on 
us again I am likely to do as I did during the last. 

Have I done right ? And am I right when praying for 
you never to ask that the Lord will bring you where He 
has brought me? I have not been able to do it; I have 
said : He is thy servant ; thou hast ordained that thy 
praise shall be perfected through him. I bring him to 
Thee in the arms of faith for Thy blessing, wdiich I pray 
mav be full and never ceasing. 

■J O 

This letter has thus been quoted at length because it 
gives such a rare insight into the mental and spiritual proc- 
esses of this wonderful woman. 

The writer once heard a lawyer say in a public speech 
that Mary A. Woodbridge could draft a better temperance 



124 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

law in fifteen minutes than the state of Ohio has ever 
passed. She studied the question thoroughly in its every 
phase. There is probably not an American statesman in 
public life to-day who has so complete a mastery of this 
greatest question of government as she had. She knew 
the past and present laws, the financial and social and 
moral bearings of every kind of legislation, being as mi- 
nutely acquainted with everything pertaining to the ques- 
tion as James G. Blaine was with the tariff question. Yet 
she took her wealth of information and her strength of 
intellect and laid all before God in prayer like a little child 
and humbly sought divine guidance. She did not lean 
to her own understanding. No Hebrew priest or seer or 
ruler ever sought wisdom and direction from God more 
reverently and truly than did she. 

President Finney once said to the writer : "I did not 
get my theology from books and commentaries but from 
the Bible, and on my knees." This great woman literally 
studied her civic questions and came to her conclusions on 
her knees ! Who shall say that she and her companions 
were not right ? If our statesmen, so called, had her 
strength, her thoroughness and her methods, this nation 
would soon be purged of its giant iniquities, and we should 
be the redeemed of the Lord. 



CHAPTER X. 

GIVING OP HER PAPER— SPEECH AT CHICKERING iiai.i., 

NKW YORK- inti:kyik\yi:i> CONFLICT — 

DIVISION — PAIN. 

M. Renan Bays: " The multitude has do voice; it knows hut to 

feel ami to stammer ; it needs an interpreter, a prophet, who shall 

speak for it. Who will be this prophet? Who will tell of its suffer- 

Ing, denied by those whose interest it is to he blind to them." To 

you, dear timid ones, has Come this honor, to voice the sohs of little 

children, the heart hreaks of women, the groans of drunkards 
speak for those who cannot speak lor themselves; to slum- that the 
Christian system finds its fullest scope, its most perfect development, 

under a popular form of government ; that a popu! .r form of govern- 
ment is only possihle under the peaceable rule of the Lord Jesus 
Christ in human heart-. What a mission! what a dignity! Let 

every woman, with Mary, answer, " Behold the handmaid of the 
Lord."—/. Ellen Foster. 

"But," some one ohjects, "we are a 'Christian' Temperance 
Union. Let us not descend to politics." Yea, verily! Because we 
are Christians let us lift politics to a higher level. Reflect that upon 
Christ's shoulder the government should he ; and remember that we 
live in a country where the majority rules by ballots rather than bay- 
onets. To my thought this line of reflection le ids irresistibly to the 
conclusion that Christians, in proportion as they are such, should be 
a constant factor in politics. 

Belove 1 -.isters, we helong to a national movement ; one that shall 
bring North and South side by side. We must put away old issues 
and battle-cries outworn. We must have a great unifying party 
along the lines of longitude. We must rally side by side with the 
lovely women of the South, who fight for "God and Home and 
Native Land." The women of the Crusade must lead in this move- 
ment. It never was their call to follow. May you speak once more 
unto the children of Israel that they ma)' go forward. — Frances E. 
Willard. 

IT is no flower}' path which the reformer treads. It is not 
an easy task to oppose the iniquities and cure the \-ices 
of a people. Moses was opposed, Jeremiah was impris- 
oned, Paul was mobbed and stoned, and the Son of God 

(«5) 



126 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

was crucified. "If they have persecuted me they will 
persecute you also." Mary A. Woodbridge fouud it true. 
She could not lag ; she was born to lead. She marched 
faster than some would follow, and so was stoned alike by 
friend and foe. 

All the recognized National leaders of the National W. 
C T. U., with one exception, and an overwhelming major- 
ity of the membership went over to the Prohibition party in 
that crucial year, 1884. It was a time that tested women's 
souls. Mrs. Woodbridge threw off every hindrance that 
might trammel her perfect freedom of action, or impede her 
race in the path conscience marked out. Conscious of the 
delicacy of her situation as state president and editor, and 
unwilling to compromise or misrepresent any who had not 
yet come up to her position, she refused election to the 
presidency of the Ohio W. C. T. U., and resigned her posi- 
tion on the Amendment Herald. The following statement, 
printed in that paper September 25, 1S84, explains itself. 
The firmness of its moral principle and the sweetness of its 
Christian spirit are unsurpassed : 

FROM MRS. WOODBRIDGE. 

To the Executive Committee of the Ohio W. C. T. U.: 

Dear Sisters: — I have carefully considered your prop- 
osition yesterday made through Mrs. E. J. Phinney, our 
loved president, viz.: "my continuance as editor of the 
Amendme?it Herald with liberty of full and free expression 
of thought." 

Had such offer been made at an earlier date, I would 
gladly have accepted, but two months having intervened 
since my resignation was forwarded to headquarters (as 
found below) during which time the only proposition made 
me was accompanied by such provisos that I could not 
withdraw it, engagements have been made that cover sev- 
eral months. This fact, with impaired health, renders it im- 
perative that I decline added labor. 

Though no longer holding official position in the union, 



GIVING UP HER PAPER. 

our relations have been so cl M nder that I feel 

our heart bond is in Christ our Beloved, and is eternal. 

In this crucial hour, may we all live above the fear of 
men, and the fear of God, and may our wisdom be horn of 
that fear. 'The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ he with 
you all, amen." 

M akv A. W' ><>: ,!■;. 

Ravenna, O., Sep.'. -•/, / vv/. 

LETT ER 1 1 i ' RESK i N A T I O N . 

R vvi:nn \, <)., July 26, 1 
Dear Readers : — The irrangement made with me by the com- 
mittee appointed at our late convention was j : in the //<  

of the 17th of July. After the proposition there a< 1 was re 

ceived and dnly considered, I wrote Mrs. Bateham, cl a of the 

committee, that I could not accept, giving as one reason therefor the 
declaration which I understood to have been made at the annual 
in- (.ting that the "union was non-partisan, "and as the "Herald was 
to bi ponent of the views of the union," I wis not a true rep- 

resentative. I was a partisan. As clear as G< ice in the di 

the Crusade was the utterance that had fallen upon my car, bidding 
me turn aside, keep aloof from all parties or organizations that re- 
fuse to graut protection to our homes to the full measure of their 
ability. 

In reply, I was requested to meet the committee in Cleveland, 
and there being assured "no such declaration was made, no such 
action had been taken and that I would not be thus bound," I with- 
drew my refusal and consented to meet the desire. Upon my return 
from the Prohibition nominating convention held at Pittsburg, my 
early thought was of the paper. Taking in hand the Herald of the 
24th, preparatory to the fulfillment of my duty for the coming week, 
I eagerly perused it. An article was soon found entitled, "Politics 
of the W. C. T. I*.," being a letter of inquiry from a subscriber and a 
reply from our state officers. In the letter occur these words, "In 
reply to the first question we would say, that to prohibition princi- 
ples we are, aud have been unalterably committed, but to no party 
do we owe allegiauce. That some of our workers sympathize with 
the third party is unquestionably true aud some will attend the Pro- 
hibition convention at Pittsburg, to participate in the proceedings, 
others to look on, but in neither case will they compromise the 11011- 
• • tisan attitude of the Ohio W. C. T. TJ." In proof of this I need 
only say that a resolution was offered at our recent State Convention 



128 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

at Cincinnati, asking that five delegates be appointed to the National 
Prohibition Convention at Pittsburg, which, after some discussion, 
was laid upon the table." 

I make no issue with the union, but you will readily see that I 
cannot with honesty to myself and to you, longer continue my work. 
I was a participant in the Prohibition Convention. The general offi- 
cers of the National W. C. T. U., Miss Frances E. Willard, Mrs. Car- 
oline B. Buell, Mrs. L. M. N. Stevens, Miss Esther Pugh and myself 
were made vice-presidents of the organization. All but Mrs. Stevens 
were in attendance and by word, or action in convention, accepted 
the honor conferred upon us. The members of that convention 
pledged themselves to do all in their power to further the interest of 
the cause through the party organization. Upon none can this be 
more binding than upon the members of the W. C. T. U. who were 
present. At the last annual meeting of the National W. C. T. U. held 
at Detroit, it was resolved, almost, if not quite unanimously, that, 
"We would lend our influence to that party by whatever name called 
which shall furnish the best embodiment of prohibition principles 
and will most surely protect our homes." That the leading parties 
with which our women through family affiliations have been more or 
less allied, might have knowledge of our action and opportunity if 
they wished to meet the condition, a full statement of our intent was 
prominently set before the public. In fulfillment of the convention's 
commission the following memorial was prepared : * 

MEMORIAL 

TO THE NATIONAL CONVENTION OF THE PROHIBITION PARTY. 

We, the members of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
herein represented by the signatures of our officers, believe that while 
the poison habits of the nation can be largely restrained by an appeal 
to the intellect through argument, to the heart through sympathy, 
and to the conscience through the motive of religion, the traffic in 
these poisons will be best controlled by prohibitory law. We believe 
the teachings of science, experience and the "golden rule" combine 
to testify against the traffic in alcoholic liquor as a drink, and that the 
homes of America, which are the citadels of patriotism, purity and 
happiness, have no enemy so relentless as the American saloon. 
Therefore, as citizens of the United States, irrespective of sect or sec- 
tion, but having deeply at heart the protection of our homes, we do 
hereby respectfully and earnestly petition you to advocate and adopt 
such measures as are requisite to the end that prohibition of the im- 
portation, exportation, manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages 
may become an integral part of the National Constitution, and that 
your party candidate shall be by character and public pledge com- 
mitted to a National Constitutional Prohibitory Amendment. 



GIVING UP HER PAPER. I - 1 I 

Copie9 were Bent to each state and territory and to the Iiistru :l 
Colombia, for the signatures of the officers of Buch unions, and a 
copy of each, with another, ed by the officers of tlu-NatiMii.il w 
C. T. CJ. have been pn the Republican, Democratii 

back, and the Prohibition Conventions, The Erst pat ''1 it by in 
mtempt. The second reiterated their antagonism to "sump- 
tuary laws that vt-x the citizen." The third gave Blight endorsement 
of the submission to the vote of the people, by the Tinted status 
Congress, of a Prohibitory Amendment to the Nation .' ( titution. 
But when as Miss Willard has said, " after wandering as Noah's dove 
and finding no resting place, it came to the last, a hand was pul forth 
and it was drawn into the ark of prohibition." The- convention re- 
ceived the memorial, endorsed it by a rising vote, and granted its 
request. Do we not then owe allegiance to the Prohibition party? 
Are we not pledged to its support by our action at 1 1 also by 

the action of the convention and our own union therewith ? Can we 
do our full duty with closed mouths? if at one place, at one time, we 
when it will not offend or will not affect our inter- 
ests and in another place and other time and circus I we are 
silent? 

True, we were non-partisan during the amendment campaign. An 
amendment is never suhmitted to a patty 1 nit to electors. Our < 
were upon the issue of prohibition and license, I might say of life 
and death, and most faithfully we kept ourselves aloof from : 
pointing out as far as we were able, the evils of all, toucl 

tion under consideration, but never asking any man I i cial 

v vote or for any form of bargain Or Compromise. Indeed, our 

fence posters in every part of the state exhorted Republican 
OCratS, vote your own party ticket, and vote Prohibition of the liquor 
traffic, Yes ! " Neither politicians, nor the press of either party aided 
US, but in their united power deprived us of our well earned victor} . 
Amendments were placed upon the tickets of all the parties and our 
duty in such a case was clear, to bring every possible, honorable in- 
fluence to bear upon every man, in whatever party, to achieve victory 
for the right. 

There is no amendment before us to-day, but a political campaign 
which involves all national issues. We are assured that the old par- 
ties will do nothing whatever to protect our homes from their worst 
enemy, and mothers may plead in vain, but the liquor power which 
debauches and degrades our people to the level of ruffianism 
communism, which robs our homes of their brightest jewels, which 



130 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

fills the hearts of women with an agony too deep for words, receives 
attention, and as the politicians are " taken up into a high mountain 
and shown all the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them," 
which for a consideration are promised them, they bow at the shrine 
of Bacchus and Gambrinus. Would that it were not so ; would that 
the old parties would say we do, and not "we have done." A record 
of deeds however just and noble, is as naught if hidden beneath 
injustice and wrong. In the presence of these facts, does not love to 
God and our homes and to the Republic demand that we turn from 
them and unite in the upbuilding of a party whose every effort is to 
secure and maintain " righteousness that exalteth a nation " ? 

I think all will pronounce my resignation right ; but ere I bid 
adieu to my readers whose interests I have earnestly sought to fur- 
ther, whose needs I have striven to meet, and more than all turn 
from the Amendment Herald, the child of my heart and brain and 
prayer, I pray you, my Christian brothers, permit me to ask that you 
look on the one hand upon your first-born, who it may be has wan- 
dered far away into the paths of sin, or your best beloved daughter 
who sits broken-hearted in a drunkard's home, or upon the fairer 
younger, " whom God hath graciously given you," and on the other 
hand, view your party, through the action of which it will be almost 
impossible for those younger children to reach their majority clean 
and pure, and answer to your own soul and to God (not counting 
political consequences, for the Christian should leave the result of 
right action with the Lord) for the salvation of which should you 
labor? For your children, whom you have promised to train for 
God, for whom the son of God has died, or your party, which is of 
man and will perish as the grass ? 

Christian sisters, will heaven be home to us, if "bone of our 
bone, and flesh of our flesh " be cast out because we have not stood 
in the fear and courage of the Lord, and proclaimed the whole truth? 
When we render our account for the " deeds done in the body," will 
it comfort us that these children are not with God because the party 
preferences, the ambition of friends, or the thought of what we may 
lose financially or socially, has bound us in silence? I know if 
"you withstand, and having done all, stand," your joy may be 
turned into sorrow, your riches into poverty ; the world may change 
its honor for you into contempt, but sorrow and contempt and pov- 
erty and God, are better than joy and honor and riches, with the 
world. Though the hosannas and the strewn palms of to-day may 
be followed by a Gethsemane and a Calvary, soon will come the en- 



ADDRESS AT( 'NICKERING HALL. 1 3 1 

:e into glory, and the "forever with the Lord," befort 
shall lay down yonr Bheavea, and from whom yon Bhall 
the " well done," and the crown of gl< 

Farewell, 

Marv a. Woodbridi 

On Sabbath evening, Dec. 7, 1884, Mrs. Woodbridge 
delivered an address at Cbickering Hall, New York. We 
find in an old note hook the fust rough outline of that 
address, unfinished and ending abruptly in the middle of 

a sentence. We find no printed report and must depend 
on this incomplete first draft of the speech as the substance 
of her 

ADDRESS. 

Not long ago I looked from a car window at an early 
morning hour. A faint shimmer of light was seen upon 
the low mountains in the foreground on the opposite side 

of the Hudson. On and on it crept until it flashed from 
a window pane. Suddenly the whole low mountain seemed 
kindled as with fire, and not a single pane hut the whole 
hillside and valley reflected the morning. The high hack- 
ground of mountains seemed frowning on all the beauty 
below ; but the king of day rose higher and higher, until 
their cloud-wrapped summits were bathed in his light, 
and the clouds in the heavens and their images in the 
waters beneath reflected his glory. 

While with others I looked upon that scene with de- 
light, it seemed to vanish from me, and my mind's eye- 
was fixed upon a memory picture. I saw a woman in the 
southern part of Ohio, as the spirit of God entered her 
being, and sped on and on without measure of time or 
space, until not alone the women of Ohio, but of all the 
land and across the water had reflected the heavenly radi- 
ance that will never grow dim while the Author of light 
sits upon the throne. 

In the midst of those women was the high, frowning 
mountain of the liquor traffic. Their eyes were fixed 
upon it, and with undaunted souls they listened to the 
words of Jehovah, spoken of other sin, as they came ring- 
ing through the centuries to them : "I am against thee, 
O destroying mountain, that destroyest all the earth. I 



132 L IFE OF MA RY A. J! V ODE RIDGE . 

will stretch out mine hand upon thee and roll thee down 
from the rocks, and thou shalt be a burnt mountain. They 
shall not take of thee a stone for a corner or stones for 
foundations but thou shalt be desolate forever." And 
clearer still were the words of command : " Blow ye the 
trumpet among the nations with the kings thereof, the 
captains and all the rulers, and the land of their dominion : 
for the land shall sorrow and tremble, and every purpose 
of the Lord shall be performed." 

Obedient to the command, women went forth, and meet- 
ing co-laborers on every hand, men and women alike cried 
mightily unto God, that He would fix the eyes of the 
people upon the destroying mountain of the liquor traffic ; 
that He would open their ears to hear its record, and give 
them understanding how it should be destroyed. The 
Lord heard and answered ; and to-day in the length and 
breadth of the land, there is an interest concerning the 
liquor traffic alike in defender and opposer thereof, and it 
is the Omnipotent God within us quickening conscience, 
the great moral nerve of our being, which on this subject 
has long seemed paralyzed. As I looked, my vision seemed 
to reach on and on until I saw the earth not as now, but 
in the light of fulfilled prophecy. The valleys had been 
exalted, the mountains made low ; the crooked" places were 
straight and the dark places light. On the mountain of 
holiness, shrouded in His glory, sat the King of Kings, 
who had trodden the liquor traffic beneath His feet, and 
about Him were gathered the peoples who sang : " Holy, 
holy, holy, Lord God Almighty," for the kingdoms of this 
world were the "kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ." 
But a clear voice fell upon my ear saying: "This is not 
yet ; this generation has much service to perform ere this 
shall be accomplished." "Up, sanctify the people against 
to-morrow : for thus saith the Lord God of Israel, there is 
an accursed thing in the midst of thee, O Israel. Ye can 
not stand before your enemies until ye take away the ac- 
cursed thing from among you, neither will I be with you 
any more until ye destroy the accursed thing from among 
you." _ And turning from that which is to be, to that 
which is, the question pressed more deeply, How shall this 
mountain be destroyed ? To consider the ways and means, 
we are gathered here. 



ADDRESS AT CHICKER1NG HALL 133 

By tlic Logic of events certain axioms have been | 
Bented to the people which we believe- in time all candid, 
thoughtful minds will receive: 

[St. The suppression of the liquor traffic is the para- 
mount issue before the American people. 

2d. It is an issue of such great importance that none 
can be long indifferent to it. 

3d. It is an issue of such great importance that it 1 
Dot be set aside, and they who press it will not be satisfied 

with restriction, or regulation of the traffic. 

4th. It is an issue 01 such great importance that law 

in harmony with those enacted against murder, theft, bur- 
glary, highway robbery, — the pronunciamento " thou shalt 
not," and attachment of penalty to a violation of the law 
portionate to the crime, must be enacted against this 

traffic, which is the foundation on which is built the great 
pyramid of crimes, against which our legislation is di- 
rected. 

The continuation of the liquor traffic is proof that the 
great majority of the people have not accepted these prop- 
ositions, which to many of us are self-evident truths. For 
unity of thought and action we labor ; and to attain such 

dition four things are necessary: agitation, education, 
concentration and consecration. 

John C. Calhoun insisted, " To save the nation the gov- 
ernment must stop the anti-slavery agitation." National 
responsibility and national action in a republic cannot be- 
rate from the individual. By agitation, in which Mr. 
Calhoun saw danger to the Union, individual conscience 
wis aroused. And as it was under the touch ol G and 
concerning His people, it could but eventuate in the arousal 
of the government ; for we, the people, are to an important 
decree the government. 

Those old agitators were wont to present their cause 
at all times and in all proper places. Literature was dili- 
gently circulated ; the condition and sufferings of slaves 
Were vividly portrayed, by which means interest was 
aroused in the race, and consequent indignation because 
of their bondage. North nor South, nor both combined 
could stop the agitation, for there was a natural antago- 
nism between slavery and freedom. Can any one think the 
antagonism between the bondage or freedom of the body 



134 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODB RIDGE. 

can compare with the bondage of body and soul to the 
drink habit or freedom therefrom ; or the bondage of this 
nation to the drink traffic and that freedom in which there 
would be liberty to do right ? 

What constitutes a national issue ? In the olden time 
it was an evil resting upon a single race, in a single local- 
ity. At the present time it is an evil that rests directly 
or indirectly upon every man, woman and child in this 
great Republic. Can such an issue be confined to the 
states ? What is a state's power touching this traffic? To 
incorporate prohibition into its organic law and to enact 
statutory laws of enforcement. What is the power of the 
United States ? To put an end to license in the District 
of Columbia, in the territories and all property belonging 
to the government within the states, where may be forts, 
arsenals, national homes, etc. To-day, if New York had 
both organic and statutory laws of prohibition, the United 
States could license the sale of intoxicating liquors on 
Governor's Island, in your very harbor. The United States 
has power to stop the sale of liquors on interstate lakes 
and rivers and railroads ; on the high seas, and enter its 
prohibition into treaties with other nations ; to withhold 
intoxicants from the army and navy, and to submit to state 
legislatures an amendment to the national constitution 
prohibiting the manufacture and sale and importation of 
intoxicants. 

Maine has lately secured organic prohibition which 
interested temperance people even-where ; but prohibition 
enacted by the national government in any of the lines 
within its power, would affect equally all states and reach 
all citizens. This national issue is before the American 
people, and the golden calf is enthroned in the midst of an 
enslaved and war-fed public opinion. What is to be done? 
Go in among the worshipers and bow the knee with them 
in the name of expediency, or in the hope of a far-away 
good ? No, never ; to the gate rather, with the cry of sep- 
aration, if need be. We must agitate, agitate, and call out 
so loudly that none will fail to hear, — "Who is on the 
Lord's side? Let him come ! " That cry is in the land, 
and God is in it ; let all the brave remember, after that call 
in Israel the calf was ground to powder. 

Prohibition agitation cannot be stopped in a Christian 



ADDRESS AT < //.'. KERING HALL. [35 

nation in this nineteenth century, and the sooner liquor 
men and their abettors recognize the fact the better for all. 
fundamental laws of civil society do not owe their 
authority to the consent of the governed. To be a man — a 
good citizen, one must be a number of society, and subject 
to law. As it is the duty of states and nation to secure 

justice to their citizens, they are certainly under obligation 

to use the means best adapted tO accomplish that end. 

To determine the restraint that should be put upon the 

liquor traffic we have but to consider what evil it has 
wrought, and what evil it is working. Toleration should 

be allowed only tO the extent of its usefulness. It is a 1 
rect principle in law as well as ethics that no man may use 
his own property to the injury of others. On this princi- 
ple laws are made for the prevention and the punishment 
of crime. A man may be restrained from committing a 
breach of the peace or injuring his neighbor as readily as 
he may be punished for a wrong already committed. To 
whatever extent the liquor business promotes crime or 
tends to injuring it should be restrained, though no overt 
act could be charged to it. 

We are also unjust in legislating against the evils of 
intemperance without equally strong enactments against 
its cause. No city would support a fire department, and 
then tolerate and license an incendiary : but this is the 
way we have always treated the liquor traffic. We cannot 
build a good social structure on perishable foundations. 
We all know the strongest appeals to our moral nature may 
be thwarted by influences affecting our baser passions. 
The cause and the effect should both be subjects for legis- 
lation. The government punishes smugglers and counter- 
feiters and always confiscates the property with which 
their crime is committed. Much is said of sumptuary laws, 
as if restraining a man from doing wrong was restricting 
his liberty. But the question is not what a man shall eat 
or drink, but whether he may use his liberty to the injury 
of another. No one may set fire to his own house, or com- 
mit a nuisance upon his own property which shall endan- 
ger the comfort or safety of his neighbor. Parents may 
correct but not abuse their children, under the protection 
of law. Even cruelty to animals is prohibited and pun- 
ished bv law. 



136 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

If laws are really made for the greater good of the 
greater number, what right has any assembly to legislate 
for the lesser number to the injury of the greater? And 
has not the greater number right to demand protection, 
not alone from the results of such laws, but from their 
enactment ? 

Sir James Mcintosh's definition of liberty was " Secu- 
rity against wrong." A perfectly wise and just system of 
laws would forbid everything that is unjust in society, 
everything socially wrong ; permit everything just in so- 
ciety, everything socially right. If such a system were 
carried into perfect execution it would furnish perfect 
security against wrong, and perfect liberty to do right. 
Hence, perfection of law would secure perfection of lib- 
erty. 

Are we protected from the evil effects of the liquor 
traffic by the laws found upon our statute books ? We all 
know two states have organic prohibition. Three others 
have prohibitory statutes ; beyond this, except what we 
call local option, and excise laws (and you can judge in 
this city of their success), the laws touching this traffic 
are not even claimed to be protection. Have you or I, 
has any man or woman a right to sit still beneath this 
condition and quietly acquiesce, or fail to labor for its 
change because individually we cannot overthrow it, or be- 
cause some power may declare against sumptuary laws, or 
another may oppose the reform because it cuts through 
the greed of appetite, avarice and ambition ? It cannot 
be ! We must agitate or this sin will be ours ; agitate 
until the aggregate of individuals will be the majority of 
the people, when the reform will be accomplished. Gov- 
ernment will not have reached the limit of its power or 
its duty against that organized evil which threatens its 
moral and political life till it has put all the power of 
organic law squarely and solidly down, not upon its ex- 
cesses, but upon its existence. Men may talk as they will 
of the impracticability, the unconstitutionality, or even the 
wrong of prohibition, if honest in their statements. I 
have never known an unprejudiced man to listen to the 
calm, thoughtful arguments in its favor without conviction 
that it was perfectly compatible with rational liberty and 
all the claims of justice ; and that it would be highly con- 



ADDRESS AT ' ///< BERING HALL. iyj 

ducive to the development of morality and progressive 
civilization. 

All these things must be brought to the public, and 
will inevitably lead to an agitation which will result in 
deep conviction. Momentary action or temporary excite- 
ment will not suffice; agitation must lead to intelligent, 

persistent effort. 

A wave of sentiment may he lifted so high by a tempo- 
rary excitement that it tan never recede to its former level ; 
hut we must depend upon education to render permanent 
ami effective that for which we agitate. Then let education 
he pressed. Let it he in every possible form, didactic, 
descriptive, pictorial, for the high and the low, the rich and 
the poor, the wise and the simple, tin- young and the old. 
Let .science, which is continually bringing its tribute to the 
shrine of total ahstinence, and thus deductively to total 
prohibition, prove to those men of Wehsterian brain, who 
have made fame their goal, who are reaching out for its 
attainment with all their powers, that the glass of wine 
which may kindle to ready wit or sarcasm, or even logic, 
is weakening the will, deadening the sensibilities, dulling 
the perceptions, — all faculties required to attain intellect- 
ual greatness. 

Let science point out to every medical association that 
alcohol is evil and only evil, if possible, by some scientist, 
who, like Dr. Richardson, has wrought out the proofs, not 
from a total abstinence basis, but from a life practice of 
moderate drinking. 

Such truths presented to such men, to such bodies, in 
which are many of our wisest and best, will certainly 
stimulate thought, and lead to questioning and research- 
Thus error will be found and truth established. Press 
every educational institution to the study of the science 
of alcohol and hygiene, and urge that it be made atopic 
of discussion at teachers' institutes, that when it shall he 
taught under compulsory law, pupils may receive the truth 
clearly and effectively. 

Children must be trained to lives of total abstinence, 
and to accomplish this mothers must better understand the 
laws of their being, and the science of heredity and of hy- 
giene. And it will not be enough that all this be commu- 
nicated to their own children. These women must gather 



138 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

together the thousands who are not found in our secular 
or Sunday schools. With the touch of humanity and of 
God they must train them for a pure life, and into the ear 
of the thousands who cannot be gathered must be dropped 
the kindly word which under the fostering spirit of God 
ma3 r spring up to bear fruit to His glory in the salvation 
of the nation. 

Be not satisfied with understanding the physical effects 
of alcohol. We must reach out to its moral and its spir- 
itual results. Charles L,amb, one of the brightest of 
gentle spirits ever lost in the fires of alcoholism, wrote: 
' ' Would that the youth to whom the flavor of his first 
glass of wine is delicious, could know my desolation. 
Would that he could understand what a dreary thing it 
is when a man feels himself going down a precipice with 
open eyes and passive will, to see his destruction and to 
have no power to stop it ; and yet to feel it all the way, 
emanating from himself ; to perceive all goodness emptied 
out of him and yet never to be able to forget a time when 
it was otherwise — to bear about the piteous spectacle of 
self-ruin ! ' ' 

Convince the young men of the land, in whose hands 
will shortly be the government, that the gift of poetry or 
power of logic, wealth, position, education and refinement 
are not barriers to the attacks of this enemy. 

The tintinnabulation of the bells as they ring, or chant, 
or toll, remind us of that brilliant genius whose body lies 
in a Baltimore churchyard, and from whose grave seems 
to come to us his piteous " Nevermore." 

When the National W. C. T. U. held its annual meet- 
ing at Louisville, we were told that Sam Houston Jr., 
when about to take his father's place in journalism, came 
to that city to see his ideal journalist, George D. Prentice, 
that from him he might gather inspiration for his life work. 
At four o'clock in the afternoon he accompanied Mr. Pren- 
tice's partner to the office. Mr. Casseday threw open the 
door of the editorial sanctum, and there, with his arms 
outstretched upon a table, his face in his hands, with hair 
disheveled, and clothing disarranged, lay George D. Pren- 
tice in a state of intoxication ! "There," said Mr. Cas- 
seday, "is your ideal journalist ! and to that must ever} 7 



ADDRESS A T < llh BERING II. ILL. i3 ( > 

man of genius come who allows himself to use intoxi- 
cants." 

Two years from that time not George I). Prentice alone, 
but his partner also filled a drunkard's grave. 

And yet to the families oi these men had never come 
the thought that the wine cup at dinner might have led to 
this end. There was education, there was Christianity in 
one of these homes ; but they followed the ways of their 
social life to which had never tome these truths. Hut it 
pleased Cod here to raise up the rarest of His little ones, 
whose heart is burdened for dying humanity, whose hand 
is laden with beauty of truth which she bestows upon the 
Buffering everywhere. 

An this evil comes not to the individual alone, we must 
study and teach the relation of the traffic to the state and to 
the nation in all their interests. No matter how startling 
the facts given ; no matter who may deny them, if they are 
incontrovertible. 

Do you not think when capitalists and business men real- 
ize as given us with the seal of the government, that in 1870 
there were paid by this people for intoxicating liquors, S715.- 
575.000, and that in a single decade after there were paid 
1900,000,000, being an average annual increase of $18,442,- 
500. and that in but four years afterward, the year closing 
June 30, 1884, the amount had increased to $1,043,000,000, 
not an annual increase of eighteen, but of over thirty-five 
millions, nearly double that of the last census decade, — it 
will be clear to them that the finance of the nation cannot 
withstand such depletion? They will utter a dictum which 
will be heard and heeded by political parties. 

How quickly, too, will comparison be instituted between 
this expenditure and that for education. One billion for 
intoxicants ; eighty-five millions for education. Twelve 
times as much to ruin as to save. 

A nation defrauded of this great sum annually, and this 
robbery accompanied with a moral degeneracy which more 
and more complicates the maintenance of the Republic and 
the effort made by the abettors of the traffic to quiet the 
people by the return through license and taxation of seventy 
or eighty millions, without the least reduction of the bane- 
ful efforts, must and will arouse. Think of four saloons to 
one church ! of six saloonists to one minister of God ! of 



140 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

thirty dollars for intoxicants to one dollar for the conversion 
of the world ! Robert West has well said : ' ' This cannot 
last. The broad common sense of average men must revolt. 
The laws of the mind are against it ; the government of God 
is against it. This great moral issue is like the stone cut 
out of the mountain without hands ; the man or the party 
who falls upon it may be broken ; but the party or man 
upon which it falls will be ground to powder." 

All of these things are of unspeakable importance in 
their relation to the immigration of foreigners to our shores, 
a danger I fear estimated by few. 

During the ninety years preceding 1880, ten millions of 
foreigners have made the United States their home. If the 
rate of increase from 1871 to 1881 be sustained to the close 
of the century,* 28,800,000 more will have come when the 
new century opens. In 1830 the number of immigrants 
was 8,ooo ; in 1880, it was 800,000. The census in 1880 
shows us that of the 43,000,000 white inhabitants of the 
states, 21,600,000 were born on foreign soil, or were the 
children of foreign born parents. 

In 1880 one-fifth of the population of New England was 
foreign and furnished three-fourths of the criminals. Do 
we understand ? Twenty per cent foreign furnished three- 
fourths of the criminals ; eighty per cent native population 
furnished but one-fourth of the criminals. 

Seventy-five per cent of immigration pushes into the 
new West ; and in the territories, where the population is 
being determined by immigration, thirty-two per cent is 
already foreign. And what is its character? Utah and 
New Mexico and Arizona too clearly reveal. All the con- 
ditions of Europe are such as will bring to us a constant 
tide of immigration ; and of their character we learn from 
the New England statistics. 

Matthew Arnold said upon the lecture platform at Cleve- 
land last winter: "You are sowing to the wind, and you 
will reap the whirlwind. It is not our educated, our refined, 
our honorable people of whom you are making citizens ; it 
is our paupers, our criminal, our ignorant and ungoverna- 
ble classes." 



*Thank God, it has not been sustained.— Author. 



ADDRESS AT < 7/A KERING 1 1. ILL. 141 

As wl' have opened wide our arms to receive such, are 
we not bound to protect them, and by the prohibition of the 
liquor traffic, remove from them the temptations which it 
now presents to them ? I do not for a moment suggest that 
foreigners per se are better or worse than Americans; but 
they are ignorant of Republican forms. They come from 
monarchies where all the power, vested in the hands of one 

pel son, has been exercised over them, to a land in which 

they soon have equal share in the government with our 

own people. Is it not clear that we are constantly adding 
to the ignorance of the nation, and by the liquor traffic 
stimulating the worst passions of their being, which require 

intelligent control tor the maintenance of good citizenship? 

Almost the only idea of freedom possessed by these peo- 
ple was gained through their social life in their fatherland, 
and it is not surprising that they should desire its con- 
tinuance with the newly gained freedom of their adopted 
country ; but every consideration, intellectual, moral, and 
political, demands their protection. Yes, patriotism and 
philanthropy should move us to make of this country an 
asylum, entering which they shall he taught that all good 
requires them to cast aside the hindrances of the past, and 
to press forward to a new manhood. About them should 
be thrown every influence "to make it easy to do right 
and hard to do wrong." Each foreign child reaching our 
shores should meet a law of compulsory education. 

Ex-Governor Vest of Missouri startled the United States 
Senate when he said : "I call the attention of the senator 
from Ohio to the fact that he represents a city (Cincinnati) 
the property in which is not worth the taxation paid upon it, 
or life the paper upon which is printed or written the laws 
purporting to be for its safety. Fifty-one thousand of the 
children of Cincinnati are not recorded upon the public 
school lists. It may be possible ten thousand are in pri- 
vate schools. But over forty thousand are wandering her 
streets in an ignorance as dense as the jungles of Africa, 
and yet are submitted to the influences of the sharpened 
culture of civilized vice." 

Could this be done for our foreigners they would come 
into a new understanding, enter a new life, and unite with 
us in the creation and maintenance of law, which would be 
for the upbuilding of the Republic. 



142 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

We Americans are at fault. Think you such liberty 
would be granted us on foreign soil ? Never : and unless 
we turn about quickly ; if we permit the millions more to 
come within the next sixteen years under the present 
regime, we shall be outnumbered, overruled. We shall 
not be a nation of Americans, but of foreigners, and disin- 
tegration will be as inevitable with us as with Germany. 
A wise man said : " England must destroy the liquor traffic 
or the liquor traffic will destroy England." This truth 
will apply with equal force wherever the liquor traffic 
exists. A free popular government must crush it or be 
crushed by it. To license, thus lifting barriers behind 
which the criminal may hide, or to tax, which is recog- 
nition of its existence and permission for its continuance in 
the interest of revenue, — is too immoral to bear the test of 
the light of God, or an educated Christian sentiment. 

Bat if license or taxation would lessen the evil or were 
in harmony with God's laws of prohibition of all sin, we 
might consider them; but experience has proven their utter 
worthlessness. Judge Pitman has said : "License has had 
its century in the courts, and over and against it all has 
been written failure and disgust. The traffic has been 
under some form of restriction and regulation in every state 
at some time during its existence, and with three excep- 
tions is so to-day. Thus it is under these conditions that we 
have attained our present status, and what reason have we 
to believe that a continuance will work a different result? 
It is true that it has caused a lessening of the sales in a 
certain direction, but not a lessening of the amount sold." 
Mr. Duffield, author of the Michigan law, wrote: "The 
number of so called drinking saloons has lessened under 
the tax law, but the number of drug stores selling liquor 
for drink has greatly increased until the number of places 
where it is sold is greater than before the enactment of the 
law. The liquor oligarchy has also been strengthened and 
officials disregard the enforcement of the law." 

The love of money is the root of all evil ; and when a 
nation receives a revenue from such a source its mouth is 
closed against it, and through avarice it is led to its sup- 
port and perpetuation. We must, I think, clearly see there 
can be no stopping place on half-way ground. As we 
really believe that it is neither right nor politic for the 



ADDRESS AT CHIi KERING I /.ILL. [43 

state or nation to afford legal protection or sanction to 
traffic or system that tends to increase crime, to waste our 
revenues, to corrupt social habits, and to destroy the health 
and lives of our people, we must act with the liquor traffic 
as we do with other evils, -place it beneath the ban of 
prohibition. To this end there must be concentration. 
The National \V. C. T. V . has thirty four departments of 
work, in lines of organization, prevention, education, social, 
religious and legal. Other temperance organizations have 

these and their equivalents, and all should he mack- to con- 
centrate on the one issue of prohibition of intoxicants and 
the maintenance of an enforcing power. Let us press for- 
ward in solid phalanx, remembering that, as surely as the 
soul that sinneth must die, will a Republic of dying souls 

perish also. 

Let us concentrate our efforts, bringing all to hear upon 

the salvation of the individual from this drink habit through 
total abstinence, and the salvation of the nation from the 
drink habit through prohibition of the manufacture, sale 
and importation of alcoholics ; and place the government 
upon His shoulders who is Wonderful, Counsellor, the 
Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, the I'rince of Peace. 

And even this will not be enough. A consecration 
such as we have never known will he required ; a trust 
in God as unwavering as was that of Luther and of Crom- 
well. The Lord is calling to His people to go forward. 
A bitter cry is heard ; a wailing fills the land, a cry for 
help, a wailing of the oppressed. From the gallows, from 
every prison and poorhouse, from homes made desolate 
by strong drink, from men and women enslaved by a per- 
verted appetite. Surely this sad appeal of unnumbered 
thousands should move every generous nature, and urge 
to untiring, united effort to turn back this fearfully iner. 
ing tide of woe. Can a Christian soul refuse 3 Does some 
one say : "Such action would ostracize me from society ; 
it would bring contumely " ? 

What of the Christ whose followers we are? Was He 
not charged with casting out devils in the name of Beel- 
zebub — the prince of devils ? Is the servant better than 
his Master ? Have we not prayed, lead us in thy footsteps, 
O Lord? And is He not doing it? Can we refuse to 
walk therein ? 



144 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Here the notes of the address stopped with an unfin- 
ished sentence. We shall never know how this noble 
speech closed. It is safe to say, the audience gathered 
that night in Chickering Hall never went home from a 
Sunday night service with more to think about. No 
thoughtful reader could fail to notice the calm, stately 
march of the argument to resistless conclusions. It was 
not an attempt at brilliant oratory. But there are pass- 
ages as lucid and free from superfluous words as Lincoln's 
immortal speech at Gettysburg ; and the clear-cut, cogent 
legal argument, in the steady advance of its relentless 
logic, reminds one of Webster's plea before the United 
States Supreme Court on the Dartmouth Will case. If we 
mistake not it will be ranked as one of the classic orations 
in the temperance literature of our country. 

Toward the close of this same year the Boston Herald 
sent a reporter to interview Mrs. W T oodbridge as to the at- 
titude of the W. C. T. U. toward political parties, and its 
support of the Prohibition party. To show how absolutely 
it was a matter of conscientious conviction with those great 
women we condense the published interview, which was 
as follows : 

"Mrs. Woodbridge, will you tell the Herald why your 
President, Miss Frances E. Willard, has declared for St. 
John and Daniel ? " asked the reporter. 

' ' Miss Willard is loyal to her principles and organiza- 
tion," she replied. "She does not say one thing to-day 
and another to-morrow. She has but one guiding star, viz., 
principle. And she will not sacrifice principle for public 
applause, money, or official favors bestowed on friends. 
The reason why the W. C. T. U. support St. John and 
Daniel is that at the last annual meeting of the National 
Union, held at Detroit, in 1883, it was determined that in 
each nominating convention of 1884 there be presented a 



INTERVIEWED. I | 

memorial asking for a plank in its platform, indorsing the 
submission of a prohibitory amendment to the United St  
constitution, and the nomination of candidates committed 
by character and public pledge to such action. 

"It was resolved that, 'we will lend our influence to 

that part)-, by whatever name called, which shall furnish 

the best embodiment of prohibition principles, and will 
most surely protect our homes.' These recommendations 
were in the reports of Mrs. J. Ellen Poster, of Iowa, and 
Mrs. Mary B. Willard, of Illinois 

"These memorials were presented to each political 
party. The Greenback party indifferently endorsed the 
memorial. The Republican party treated it with silent 
contempt. The Democratic party reiterated its utterance 
of 'opposition to sumptuary laws that vex the citizen.' 
The Prohibition party received the memorial, indorsed it 
by rising vote, and nominated candidates committed by 
character and public pledge to constitutional prohibition. 

"Seven months elapsed between the public announce- 
ment of the intent of the National W. C. T. U. and the 
conventions. It must, therefore, have been carefully con- 
sidered by the party leaders, and their action was the result 
of mature deliberation. Are we not then pledged to the 
support of the Prohibition party and its nominees? The 
silence and defiance of the old parties is the expression of 
the liquor element within them, to which they are subserv- 
ient. So long as these parties are assured of the vote of 
temperance men (by which the temperance and liquor ele- 
ment mutually strengthen the liquor traffic) they have no 
reason to grant our desire, and they will be subservient to 
the wishes of the enemy, who will vote for that party and 
those men who will do their bidding. Is it not, then, our 
duty, in this crucial issue, to throw all our power on the 
side of right, and righteous leaders who will protect out 
homes from their most bitter enemy ? Shall we escape the 



146 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

condemnation of God if, as Christian women, we permit 
education, prejudice, social position or personal ambition to 
withhold us from right action ? 

"It is also the only party that has espoused the cause 
of woman suffrage, and those to whom the necessity of the 
ballot in the hands of woman has become a conviction will 
be bound in gratitude to its support." 

In the following year, 1885, her heart was pained by 
divisions that came into both the state and National unions, 
a few seceding from each. It would be a pleasure to omit 
any mention of these facts ; and it is not to probe any 
wounds of the past, that it is done. The record of this 
precious life cannot be given to the world without at least 
a brief mention of these divisions and struggles in which 
she was a most unwilling participant, and the firm but dig- 
nified Christian spirit she exhibited, the rare grace of char- 
acter that shines forth in her conduct, is worthy of a place 
in these pages. The following open letter to the Ohio W. 
C. T. Unions will explain itself : 

Headquarters Ohio W. C. T. U., 
No. 55 N. High Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

To the Locae W. C. T. Unions of Ohio : — In the 
questioning that will naturally come to your minds, as you 
read that the Cleveland W. C. T. U. has withdrawn from 
the State and National Unions, because of the adoption of 
a resolution at the National Convention at St. Louis, and 
the state at Kenton, promising our influence to that party 
which has given us the best embodiment of prohibition 
principles in its platform, we desire to commend a careful, 
dispassionate thought of the following : 

We have so long been of one mind and one heart that 
it does not seem possible there can be division, without 
disaster ; but this is by no means a sequence. There is not 
a church or a party and rarely an organization where diver- 
sity of opinion does not exist, but it is usual for the minor- 
ity to yield to the will of the majority, and a two-thirds 
affirmative vote is a parliamentary settlement of test ques- 



DIVISION, 147 

dons. Such vote was taken in both conventions after I 
exchange of thought and discussion of the question. A 
minority lias, however, a right to protest, by usual form at 
a convention or by separation from the body from whose 

action it dissents. 

The latter course has been taken by the Cleveland W. 
C. T. U., and if time shall prove " it can do better work as 
an independent organization," than in its old connection, 
we shall add to the " Godspeed " we now give it, our grat- 
itude that they have been wisely led. 

Do not, however, he deceived by the representation that 
the union is an entirety in this action. Though it was a 
public meeting, held in a leading chnrch, and the follow- 
ing invitation had been sent out, less than fifty persons were 
present when the action was taken, including the members 
of the union, the Advisory Board, ministers and visitors. 

INVITATION. 

Cr.KVEi.ANn, Ohio, July 10, i^ s s. 
The present crisis in the affairs of the Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union demands the attention of all its members and <>f every 
person interested in its work. V<>n are urged thei to attends 

meeting to l>e held at the First Baptist Church, Monday, 13th inst., 

at 3 : 30 p. in. Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, of Iow.i, will address the meet- 
ing. Mrs. J. S. P rather, President. 
jknnie Duty, Secretary, 

All but three who did not approve the object of the 
meeting absented themselves, and when one asked "how, 
with so small a number present, a fair expression could be 
secured," reply was made, "absentees will be written to." 
The Cleveland union has not been identified with the state 
union more than five or six years, and a portion now 
returns to the former independence. It has not conducted 
its work strictly in line with our methods, many of its mem- 
bers belonging to various churches, having paid dties with- 
out special identification with the work. Hence, meetings 
have not been as elsewhere of the complete membership, 
but all work has been planned and prosecuted by the exec- 
utive committee, except when special work has pressed, 
as in the Amendment campaign, in the circulation of peti- 
tions, etc., when others have been called into service by 
the committee. The membership at large therefore knows 
but little of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and 



143 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

nothing whatever of the question at issue, except from 
hearsay and through journals of opposing parties. The 
union has also had an advisory board of men. 

Unless lately established it has not held prayer-meet- 
ings regularly, and the bond of the Spirit has not reached 
beyond the Executive Committee, in consequence of which 
they have not been bound to the state and National union 
as have others, and it has not been difficult to sever the tie. 
They have done much good work, and no doubt will con- 
tinue therein, and having been richly endowed by their 
advisory board and friends, have been generous in their 
gifts to both organizations. 

Many loyal women numbered with them in the past, 
have not withdrawn from the state union. The Saturday 
before the secession, a telegram was received at headquar- 
ters, bearing several signatures, asking that "Mrs. Wood- 
bridge or Miss Willard be with them on Monday to repre- 
sent them," and many letters since received expressed the 
utmost loyalty. 

Other local unions in the county, the county organiza- 
tions, and still other unions, to be organized in response 
to requests received, will be in harmony with State and 
National Unions and the regular departments of the W. C. 
T. U. work will be prosecuted. 

We believe God has led us on step by step since the day 
He called us to the work. While in "green pastures and 
beside still waters," He has permitted us to gain strength 
and experience, we cannot doubt His power to sustain us, 
though " passing through the rivers," or " walking through 
the fire," neither can we believe He would have us turn our 
face from the storm through which He will bring the vic- 
tory. " We wrestle against the rulers of the darkness of 
this world." Wherefore let us take the whole armor of 
God, that we may be able to withstand — and having done 
all to stand, and standing, ever be ready to give ' ' reason 
for the hope that is within us." To convince the world of 
our God-given mission, we must show forth the fruits of the 
Spirit under all provocation, and in that spirit which is so 
sweetly exemplified in the letter of our friend, seek to make 
our calling and election sure. 

While every nerve of our being may quiver under the 
misrepresentation and detraction by which we are assailed, 



DIVISION. i ; 

even though it come from those we have loved and hon- 
ored, let us remember, " we arc children of the King," and 
or.i royal lineage forbids that we descend to unworthy 
things. 

Mary A. Woodbridgb, President. 
ESTHBB PUGH, Correspondin tary. 

It would seem that Mrs. J. Ellen Foster had forgotten 
her own arguments in her annual address of [883, «>r had 
become frightened at her own logic, or the logic of events. 
At least some influence or consideration moved her to head 
a minority that seceded from the National union in 1 
having for four years previous presented an annual protest. 
Her protest and the National W. C. T. U's reply were as 
follows : 

THE NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE 
INION— ITS RELATION TO POLITICS. 

The following resolution was adopted at the recent Na- 
tional Convention of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, in Philadelphia, October 30 to November 3, 1885 : 

We refer to the history of ten years of persistent moral suasion 
work as fully establishing our claim to be called a non-political so- 
ciety, but one which steadily follows the white- banner of prohibition 
wlu-rever it may he displayed. We have, however, aa individuals, 

always allied ourselves in local ami state political contests with those 
voters whose efforts and ballots have been given to the removal of 
the dram shop and its attendant evils, and at this time, while recog- 
nizing that our action as a national society is not binding upon s: 
or individuals, we reaffirm the position taken by the society at Louis 
villein [882, and at Detroit in 1883, and at St. Louis in [884, and 
ratified bya >arge majority of the states and territories in the Annual 
Couventionsof 1SS5, pledging our influence to that party, by what- 
ever name called, which shall furnish us the best embodiment of 
prohibition principles, and will most surely protect our homes. And 
as we now know which National party gives us the desired embodi- 
ment of the principles for which our ten years' labor has been ex- 
pended, we will continue to lend our influence to the National polit- 
ical organization which declares in its platform for National Prohibi- 
tion and Home Protection. In this, as 111 all progressive effort, we 
will endeavor to meet argument with argument, misjudgment with 
patience, denunciation with kindness, and all our difficulties and 
dangers with prayer. 

Upon the adoption of this resolution, by a vote of 245 
to 30, J. Ellen Foster, of Iowa, presented a protest bearing 



ISO 



LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 



twenty-six signatures. Mrs. Mary Woodbridge, of Ohio ; 
Mrs. Mary T. Lathrap, of Michigan, and Mrs. Clara C. 
Hoffman, of Missouri, were appointed a committee to pre- 
pare an answer. The protest and the answer will be found 
in parallel columns below. 



PROTEST. 

With a deep sense of the grave 
responsibility resting upon us at 
this hour, and with a conviction 
of duty so overmastering that it 
will not permit us to be silent, 
we solemnly, and in the presence 
of Him whose name we bear, 
protest against the action of this 
Convention in committing this 
Christian organization to the aid 
and support of a political party. 

I. This action is wrong in 
principle. A moral reform asso- 
ciation, having as its test of 
membership a total abstinence 
pledge, ought not to ally itself 
with any organization, political 
or otherwise, having no such test 
of membership. 

II. It is a specific abandon- 
ment of that spirit of toleration 
and of Christian courtesy which 
has permitted harmony of action 
with a wide diversity of opinion. 
It establishes a new test of alle- 
giance, and is a practical refusal 
on the part of the majority, in 
the interests of a political party, 
to recognize that equality of 
rights which is the sure basis of 
permanent organized effort. 



REPLY. 

I. No action which has been, 
or can be, taken bv the National 
W. C. T. U. will have the effect 
to make us in reality a compo- 
nent part of any political party. 

As women and non-voters, we 
can only stand in this outside 
position and express our sym- 
pathy with the only party in the 
country, the central principle and 
aim of which is identical with 
our own, viz.: the total prohibi- 
tion of the liquor traffic. 

Being therefore in no full sense 
members of the Prohibition 
party, our pledge of total absti- 
nence is not compromised. 



II. We deny that our action is 
an abandonment of the "spirit 
of toleration and Christian cour- 
tesy," unless the triumph of any 
majority over the minority is in- 
tolerance. 

A clear division of opinion in 
any organization where the ma- 
jority decides new departures in 
method, or advancement in sen- 
timent, necessarily establishes a 
new "test of allegiance," for the 
dissenting members of the so- 
ciety. Woman's Suffrage, Fi- 
nancial Basis, and other debated 
questions furnish illustrations. 
A refusal to accede to the will of 
the majority after fair research 
and debate, is not only unworthy 
the spirit of our noble Christian 
organization but against the very 
genius of our free institutions. 



Dfl/SIOX. 



15' 



III. In contravention of this 
equality of rights, while profess 
bag to leave Individuals and 
states free, it uses the collective 

influence Of the union, and its 

moral powei . as an entiretj . in 
eluding that of the opponents "i 
this policy, in the upbuilding and 
advancement of a political party 

to which some of our uicmhi 

as individuals, refuse allegiance. 

it lends our influence and may 

appropriate our money to aid B 
political party over which we 

nave uo coutrol. 



IV. It circumscribes the grand 
moral power of this great body 
of Christian women and wounds 
the confidence of the Christian 
public, subjecting our work to 
party limitations without confer- 
ring added political power. 



Ill Individuals and states are 

left to free expression of opinion 
on this, as other questions, and 
have in the past used sucfa 1 1 
dom, nnrebuked and without 

loss of Offi< ial or friendly rels 
tions to the National Woman's 

Christian Temperance Union. 
This unquestioned right is still 

accorded, provided, always, that 

fidelity to the union, its unity, 

and its officers be sacredlv main- 
tained. The fact that the influ- 
ence of the minority may be 

compelled into channels against 
tlnir will, by the fact of their 
membership, is not sufficient 

cause for the suppression of the 
decision of the majority whose 
right it is to rule. 

We also reply that not one dol- 
lar from the treasury of the Na 
tional Woman's Christian Tern 
perance Union has ever ^one for 
party purposes. When such use 
of funds shall appear in the re- 
port of the Treasurer, proper 
action can be taken. 

IV. In reply to the fourth alle- 
gation, we appeal to the history 
of a year of unprecedented suc- 
cess in every line of our many- 
sided endeavor for this great re- 
form. In organization, evangel- 
istic and educational work, we 
hive reached more ears, and 
moved more hearts than in any 
previous twelve months, and to 
the temperance question has 
come such serious and decisive 
action in legislative halls, as 
plainly shows that the will of the 
home is on its way to expression 
in government. In demonstra- 
tion that the confidence of the 
Christian public has not been 
wounded by our action of last 
year, more churches have been 
opened, more pastors, more 
Christian and philanthropic asso- 
ciations than ever before, have 



152 



LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 



V. It transforms the broad po- 
litical -work of our organization 
for the triumph of prohibition 
principles, and will unnecessarily 
hinder the speedy accomplish- 
ment of our purpose. 



VI. It makes the official organ 
of our union a partisan political 
sheet and tends to lower its high 
standard of Christian journalism 
to the level of partisan political 
controversy. 



VII. It is unjust. The parti- 
san political policy of the Na- 
tional Union, so detrimental to 
Prohibition work in many states, 
has been made possible by the 
votes of representatives from 
states which will not carry out 
or tolerate that policy in their 
own states. 



come to the National Convention 
of 1885, offering their greeting, 
and inviting our co-operation. 

V. The action was taken for 
the transformation of the work 
from the " broad political " basis 
of pointless effort to the focus of 
power, where alone the finality 
we seek can be secured. 

The momentum of the prohi- 
bition movement, evidenced by 
the vote of Kentucky, Ohio, New 
York and other states, proves 
the wisdom of our action and the 
directness of our aim. This suc- 
cess has been secured by the 
effort of those temperance advo- 
cates who are in opposition to the 
utterances of the protest. 

VI. It is the province of an 
official organ to set forth the con- 
victions and methods of the or- 
ganization it represents; fairly 
and impartially to record diverse 
views of the members thereof, 
excluding none from the freest, 
fullest expression of opinion. 
This has been eminently true of 
our organ, during the past year. 
An unprejudiced review of its 
columns will show that more 
space proportionately has been 
given to the arguments and pro- 
tests of a small minority than to 
the utterances of the majority. 

VII. The allegation that the 
action was "unjust" because 
made possible by representatives 
from states which do not pursue 
the same policy in their territory, 
is incorrect, as shown by the 
recorded vote on the St. Louis 
resolution. The majority vote 
which decided the question was 
from Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, 
New York, New Jersey, Missouri, 
Nebraska, and other states, 
which, in their own convention 
expression, and home prohibi- 



DIVISION, 



153 



VIII. A year Of the dominance 
of this policy baa brought confu 
rion o! thought concerning Pro 
ition &s& principle andpariy 
Prohibition as a policy, its con- 
tinuance tends to alienation and 
dissension among our members 
or the inevitable disintegration 
of our unions. 

In view of these facts, we can- 
not conscientiously keep silence; 
but that we may, as far as possi 
ble, free ourselves from the re- 
sponsibility of this action we en- 
ter this our most solemn protest 
against this action of the Con- 
vention in committing this body 
and those whom we represent to 
the Bupport of a political party. 

Here we stand ; 

We can do no other ; 

So help us God. Amen. 
J. Hllkn Foster, 
and twenty-five others. 



tion work, have proven thai the 

position taken by their represent- 
atives in National Convention 

one year ago, was sustained Ijv a 

well-nigh solid constituenc) at 
bome; and now aftei a '.ear 
which lias severely tested the 
wisdom of ibis policy, th< 
Btatea again take the same posi- 
tion with unbroken line and 

doubled majorities. 

VIII. The debate upon the 

question at St. Louis resulted in 

[88 yeas t<> 48 nays After one 
yeai of calm, prayerful consider- 
ation, the result of the vote at 
Philadelphia was 245 yeas to 30 
nays. 

Forty •-tales, territories, and 
the District of Columbia, were 
represented at the latter conven- 
tion. A fraction of delegates 
from five of these entered their 
protest, viz.: Pennsylvania, 10; 
Iowa, S ; V« rmont, 4 ; West Vir- 
ginia, 2 ; Massachusetts, 2 ; total, 
26. Thirty-five states, territo- 
ries, and the District of Columbia 
were, almost a unit in its advo- 
cacy. 

In the interim between these 
conventions, state unions in the 
above ratio endorsed the St. 
Louis action, and by continuous 
discussion upon the platform 
and through the public press, 
the "principle of Prohibition," 
more clearly understood, has laid 
hold of the public conscience 
and its speedy achievement 
through party action has be- 
come an assured fact to defend- 
ers ami opposers of the liquor 
traffic. As to alienation, dissen- 
sion or disintegration the num- 
ber aggrieved has in no degree 
compared with the number add- 
ed to our forces, which is a 
promise for the future. There 
has been no loss in Maine, Mich- 
igan or Indiana, but large gains 



154 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

have been made in each. These 
are representative of a large ma- 
jority of the states. 

We reply to the allegations of 
the protest in the spirit of Chris- 
tian courtesy which has ever 
characterized our association one 
with another, praying the bless- 
ing of our God upon each mem- 
ber of the National Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union. 

Mary A. Woodbridge, 
Mary T. Lathrap, 
Clara C. Hoffman, 

Committee. 

A letter lies before me from John B. Finch in which he 
writes : 

Dear Sister Mary: 

Accept congratulations on your reply. ... In every- 
thing that goes to make a complete answer, it is as near 
perfect as can be. I am happy that I can call three such 
women as Mary A. Woodbridge, Mary T. Lathrap and Clara 
C. Hoffman my friends. . . . 

Your friend, 

John B. Finch. 

Mrs. Woodbridge was elected to the position of Super- 
intendent of Petitions and Legislation made vacant by the 
departure of Mrs. Foster from the National W. C. T. U., in 
1889. 

A letter written by Mrs. Woodbridge to her co-laborers 
in Iowa, and published in the Iowa Signal, May, 1894, con * 
cerning the progress of events in Mrs. Foster's own state, 
may throw some light upon the question of the wisdom of 
these parties, which each reader may interpret for himself. 

FROM NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS. 

Dear Co-laborers of Iowa : — Your editor having kindly given 
me permission to speak to the Iowa W. C. T. U. constituency through 
the columns of the Iowa Signal, I gratefully avail myself of such 
courtesy. 

The eyes of the world have been upon "prohibition Iowa" dur- 
ing the last session of its legislature. Men and women have been 



DIVISION. 155 

pnt upon record during these months, hut history that cannot be 
wiped out datef long before. There have been noble [owans among 
nun and women, and a dozen years ago these pressed prohibition so 
forcibly to the front that the ruling part] was brought to terms and 
•ubmitted an amendment to the constitution prohibiting the manu 
facture and sale of intoxicants, a second legislature ratified the 
amendment, and it was adopted by nearly thirty thousand majority. 

This took politicians by sui prise, and a clerical error was found 
which though frequently made and disregarded, was now considered 

ofsufficienl importance to wipe out the will of the people x and const! 
tutional prohibition was soon hidden heneath judicial folds. The 
people would not he pacified and the legislature found it necessary 
to enact a prohibitory statute. I5y such means the Republican party 
posed as a temperance party, and political Prohihitionists returned to 
Republican ranks, and were (deservedly) deceived. Year by year the 
national Republican party has laid its hand more and more heavily 
upon the party of the state. Thus more and more lightly has prohi- 
bition been endorsed in the party platform, until the silence of death 
fell upon it. The past winter funeral obsequies have been observed. 
" Prohibition Iowa" was. License Iowa is. The W. C. T. U. also 
IS, What will it do? It cannot sit at such a time in inanition, 
quietly abiding by such legislative decisions on prohibition and on 
license— on woman suffrage and age of consent. Awake, Deborah, 
awake, remembering when the "song of Deborah " was heard in the 
olden time, a woman " put her hand to the nail and her right hand 
to the workmen's hammer, and the great enemy bowed, he fell, he 
i. iv down"; and "where he bowed, he fell down dead." God's 
power through woman is no less to day, and His command to each 
" to do whatsoever her hand finds to do," and His promise " to be 
with her always," is the same. Stand, beloved, put on the full 
armor and withstand every temptation of the enemy. Look not to 
the right nor the left— but up to God and on to victory. Make no 
league with any man or woman, but remember wherever a W. C. 
T. U. exists there is a prohibition league that through organization 
and agitation, has become sturdy in the faith and ready for action, 
the hour for which has struck. There no other is needed, as regu- 
lars are always the trusted power, worth an innumerable force of raw- 
recruits, and not one, we are sure, will at such a crisis, desert the 
ranks, for every member is enlisted by the Captain of our salvation, 
and should bear the seal of the Spirit's truth and power. We believe 
each W. C. T. C woman of Iowa will do her duty at this crucial 
time for the prohibition of the liquor traffic, and by striving to lead 



156 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

every other woman within the radius of her influence to do the same. 
Surely gratitude for life at such a time will lead each woman to prove 
to the world that her influence will tell for God and Home and Native 
Land. Shun any proposition of change. What form of league has 
stood a score of years but our own — the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union ? Stand, beloved, pray and work — work and pray, 
and endowed with wisdom from on high, may the Lord through you 
deliver Iowa from its bondage. 

Mary A. Woodbridge. 

It is evident that these divisions in the ranks of the 
great sisterhood brought her pain. She said but little, and 
wrote but little; but her great heart was filled with sorrow 
at the action of the minority, and the consequent sepa- 
ration of loved co-laborers. She felt that time and events 
would set their own seal of endorsement upon one side or 
the other. Conscious of her own integrity, and guided by 
the light that came, she felt that she could calmly wait. 



CHAPTER xr. 

NATIONAL REFORM LABORS. 

I believed and therefore have I spoken.— S¥. Paul. 

The real corrupters of society may be, DOl the corrupt, hut those 
who have held back the righteous haven, the salt that has lost its 
aavor, the innocent who have not even the moral courage to show 

what they think of the effrontery of impurity, the serious, who yet 

timidly succumb before some Loud-voiced scoffer, — the heart trem- 
bling all over with religious sensibilities that yet suffers itself 
through false shame to be beaten down into outward and practical 
acquiescence by some rude and worldly nature.—/. H. Thorn. 

[The above is found in one of Mrs. Woodbridge's books of devo- 
tion (the volume presented to her by Martha B. Reynolds, Peoria, 
111.) The leaf was turned down. It no doubt voiced the feeliug of 
her inmost soul.] 

FOR several years prior to 1S85, Mrs. Woodbridge was 
a personage of national prominence, and each suc- 
ceeding year was adding to her reputation and increasing 
her well-deserved fame. Every reform paper in the land 
coveted her as a contributor or correspondent. The Na- 
tional Reform Association earnestly requested her help, 
which she freely granted, as it was directly in line witli 
her own chosen labors. She delivered several addresses 
for the association at their various National Conventions. 
We give selections from two,— the Pittsburg address of 
1885, and the Chautauqua address of 1886. The thought- 
fnl reader of these speeches cannot help feeling that the 
distinction between the male and female intellect is some- 

(■57) 



158 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

times very shadowy. These massive, masculine argu- 
ments would do credit to any of our great statesmen. 

SHALL THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC BE PERPETUATED? 

DELIVERED BEFORE THE NATIONAL REFORM CONVENTION, IN 
PITTSBURG, APRIL 22, 1885. 

In the discussion of any subject of vital interest it is 
important that a broad and comprehensive view be taken. 
An isolated fact may be of small moment, but when com- 
pared or grouped with others may become instinct with 
significance. 

The falling of an apple may attract no attention, but 
when taken in connection with many similar facts enabled 
Newton to announce to the world the law of gravitation, 
the value of which we cannot estimate. 

In this philosophic spirit would we consider the ques- 
tion, "Shall the American Republic be Perpetuated ? " We 
also desire the discussion to be of such catholicity that no 
honest sentiment may be antagonized but each may be 
enabled to rise above personal interest for the good of the 
whole, while maintaining individuality to the full develop- 
ment of individual power, for the laying of the hand upon 
any lever of relief that God may ordain. 

To this end we implore the divine presence and guid- 
ance, that our convictions may be from God ; that the 
Spirit may " help our infirmities," giving us power for the 
prosecution of such convictions. 

We advance as a fundamental proposition that the per- 
petuity of the American Republic is dependent upon the 
treatment of the liquor traffic. 

By the logic of events certain parallels to this proposi- 
tion have been presented to the people, which to some 
seem axiomatic and we believe will in time be accepted by 
all candid and thoughtful minds. 



There may, however, be those before me who do not 
regard the overthrow of the liquor traffic to be a national 
issue, or if such, would prefer that it be reached through 
the channel of states alone. 



NATIONAL REFORM LABORS. 159 

Wc arc glad that by contact of minds, as of facts, error 
may be discovered and corrected and truth established, It 
is the truth wc seek, and if to-night any one led 1>\ <'.<>d 
into clearer light may do such service, none will rejoice 

more than the speaker ; and if our premise is right, as we 

believe, or it would not be presented, God will surely bless 
its proclamation. As a relevant question therefore we ask, 

Should the overthrow of the lienor traffic be an immediate 
national issue ? 

What max constitute a national issue? 

In the olden time to which we have referred, it was a 
single evil, resting upon a single race, in a single locality. 
It has often been a matter affecting a limited portion of 
our people and territory. The liquor evils rest directly 
or indirectly upon every man, woman and child within the 
boundaries north, south, east and west of this great repub- 
lic. Can such an evil be overcome by states when scarcely 
two-thirds of our territory and of the area of this sin has 

ched state organization ? But if it were not so, if our 
domain was thoroughly organized, how long, think you, 
would it be ere by the action of individual states, in the 
adoption of prohibitory amendment, we could constitution- 
ally demand of Congress the submission of such amend- 
ment to the United States Constitution ? 

What is the history of such effort? 

Maine and Kansas have organic prohibition. Maine 
under training of statutory prohibition for thirty years se- 
cured her amendments through great opposition and by a 
political maneuvering which cannot elsewhere be executed. 

Kansas, born in adversity and matured amid difficulties 
almost insurmountable, having by national assistance over- 
come one great evil, laid her hand upon this traffic before 
overwhelming forces were massed in great cities, to which 
all else must bow, and thus attained her status. 

But what of the older and larger states of Eowa and 
Ohio? 

Ohio spoke in still clearer tones. Alternate proposi- 
tions were submitted ; prohibition on the one hand, license 
and taxation on the other. By an affirmative vote of less 
than 100,000, and (as per her constitution) by a negative 
vote of more than 600,000, she said, we will neither tax 
nor license the traffic. It is believed that prohibition was 



l6o LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

largely adopted, but, by the machination of politics, was 
not entered into her organic law. 

Shall I give you an incident illustrative ? 

On the evening of election day, thousands of Cleve- 
land's citizens, including nearly all her ministry, were 
gathered in the Tabernacle, where were brought the tele- 
graphic wires that placed us in connection with the cen- 
tral committees of the leading parties at our state capital. 
Message followed message rapidly, almost all of victory. 
At half-past eleven the words were received: "Hamilton 
county has given thirty thousand votes for prohibition." 
Could you have heard the "Praise God, from whom all 
blessings flow," which rang through the rafters of that 
building, and reached the ear of Jehovah, you would have 
gathered some idea of the pent-up agony of desire in the 
hearts of those people, which had been growing more and 
more intense during the past months. No other message 
was received, and in reply to our oft-repeated requests we 
were told, " We have only received gubernatorial and legis- 
lative reports." The morning papers gave the night re- 
ports, but when the vote was officially announced, Ham- 
ilton county did not give 30,000 votes for prohibition, but 
8,000. Twenty-two thousand were swept out of sight and 
count, and this is representative of all counties containing 
large cities. The aggregate vote of the state for prohibi- 
tion was declared to have been 223,18s, just short of the 
requirement for adoption. If these facts are not sufficient 
proof that the overthrow of the traffic cannot be accom- 
plished by state action alone, we have the testimony of the 
enemy, Mr. Oothout, president of the New York Brewers' 
Association, at the last annual meeting held at Albany, 
who said : ' ' Happily for us, we have but little to fear so 
long as the question of prohibition remains a state issue." 
Wh3 r should they fear ? 

What are the relative powers of state and nation to this 
traffic ? The state has but two. A legislature may sub- 
mit to the vote of electors an amendment to the Constitu- 
tion prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicants, 
which may be adopted and become a part of the organic 
law. It may also enact a prohibitory statute, which may 
be repealed, amended, or annulled at the will of any future 
legislature. But what are the powers of the national gov- 



NATIONAL REFORM LABORS. 161 

iTTimcnt ? The Constitution says, "Congress has the right 

to exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever ' 
Over the District of Columbia ; the territories ; ou national 
property Within the state-, as fortS, arsenals, homes, etc.; 
on the interstate lakes and rivers ; on the interstate rail- 
roads ; on the foreign import and export trade ; on the 
high seas and in international treaties ; in the public serv 
ice ; and in the submission of amendments to the national 
Constitution. Thus in nine directions, and still another 
to be mentioned, covering a far larger area of territory 
than the states, Congress lias power to prohibit and aid in 

the prohibition of the traffic. 

What has been its legislation ? 

The granting of permits to more than a thousand men 
and women in the District of Columbia to sell intoxicants, 
and to others throughout the territories. Not a Gloating 
palace on our lakes and rivers, not a railway dining-car 
where liquors are sold, that does not receive its permit 
direct from the United States authorities. It is often said, 
"Prohibition does not prohibit in Maine." Does any one 
think it can be a complete success while the government 
permits a traveling saloon to pass through the state daily ? 
It is believed had New York organic and statutory pro- 
hibition these laws could not be enforced, owing to the 
large number of harbors, forts, homes, railways, lakes, 
rivers and reservations under government control where 
liquor is sold. 

In the year 1828 Russia asked Christian America to pro- 
hibit the exportation of liquors to Alaska, then a Russian 
\ >o -session. It was afterwards ceded to America, and in the 
report of a commission sent a few years ago by Congress to 
investigate the conditions and needs of Alaskans, I find 
these words : " We believe the Greek Church and prohibi- 
tion to be more conducive to an upright manhood and a 
good government, than American Christianity and the 
liquor traffic." 

Section 8 of Article I of the Constitution says : " Con- 
gress shall have power to regulate commerce with foreign 
nations, among the several states, and with the Indian 
tribes." In 1834, under General Jackson's administration, 
a law was enacted prohibiting the manufacture and sale of 
spirituous liquors, including wines, among Indians, and the 



1 62 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

importation of the same to them, under very severe pen- 
alties. When the Hon. Mr. Medill was Indian Agent, he 
called the attention of Congress to the non-enforcement of 
the law, and asked for stringent amendments. The amend- 
ments were granted, but the law was not enforced, and still 
remains among onr statutes, a dead letter, officers appointed 
being in harmony with the traffic and not with the law. 

We have the testimony of the late Hon. Samuel Morrill, 
of Maine, who introduced into the House of Representa- 
tives a bill "prohibiting the sale or supply of intoxicants 
to government employes and officers in the public service," 
and said in his advocacy of the bill, on the authority of an 
army general : " More than a hundred thousand Union sol- 
diers were sacrificed during our civil war by the drunken- 
ness and consequent incompetency and corruption of our 
officers in the civil service, through all its branches, arising 
from the use of alcoholic liquors ; and more than five hun- 
dred millions of the public debt should be charged to the 
same source." 

But more than all these, the government through the 
revenue laws, in the issuing of tax receipts "on the busi- 
ness of liquor-dealing," defies state prohibition. You may 
say it is not a license, " only a tax on an existing evil." 
Legally it is not a license, morally it is. It reads : " Re- 
ceived from John Smith the sum of $25 (or $100, wholesale 
or retail, as it may be), for special tax on the business of 
retail liquor dealer, to be carried on at No. 6 Main street, 
state of Maine, for the period represented by the coupon 
or coupons attached." Dated Portland, etc., and signed 
by the internal revenue collector for the port or district. 
These are issued in states having prohibitory laws as in 
others. Morally, is not the United States Government 
particeps criminis with the liquor dealer in breaking the 
law of his state ? What are the possibilities of success 
through states while the government is multiplying and 
strengthening the traffic in its larger territory ? 

My friends, this national issue is before the American 
people, and "the golden calf is enthroned in the midst of 
an enslaved and war- fed public opinion. What is to be 
done ? Go in among the worshipers and bow the knee 
with them in the name of expediency or in the hope of a far 
away good ? God forbid ! To the gate, rather, with the 



X. I r/( WAL Rl /'( )RM LABORS. 

cry of " separation " from this iniquitous traffic We must 
agitate, agitate, and utter the olden call so loudly that no 
man shall fail to hear : " Who is on the Lord's side ? U I 
him conn." Do not. we pray you, () men of God — you at 
whose feet the women of this nation have sat and listened; 

you who have been our earthly spiritual guides charge US 

with assuming the role of "holier than thou." It is not 
so. I plead not as one of yourselves, fitted by the training 

Of years, but as a Christian woman, a member of a great 
Organization of Christian women, a very large proportion 
Of whom have been led to this decision ; not without strug- 
gle, not without full consciousness of the power of educa- 
tion and prejudice; but God spake, we heard His call over 
and over, and believe He has given us the grace and strength 
to say: "behold thy handmaidens!" Our lady of the 
White Ibmse, Miss Elizabeth Cleveland, has said: "God 
see- in the tearful cry of the bruised and baffled mother, 
.si>ter, wife, His own argument for the utter extinction of 
intoxicating beverages, the suppression, root and branch, 
of the liquor traffic, and in that cry He makes His argu- 
ment to men." 

I repeat that cry in your presence to-night, because of 
the commission given us by the Master, "Go, preach the 
Gospel to every creature." We believe this uniting of 
state and of nation for the immediate overthrow of the 
liquor traffic, is the gospel of freedom to a dying Republic, 
and " let all the brave remember when the olden cry had 
been heard in Israel, the calf was ground to powder." 

We praise God prohibition agitation can no more be 
Stopped in this Christian nation in the nineteenth century, 
than could the anti-slavery agitation in the years gone by. 
A do/en years ago an enraged workman kindled a fire 
in a mine near Wilkesbarre, thinking it could be extin- 
guished at will, but when a stream of water was brought to 
bear upon it, quickly the heated coals crackled on every 
side, and the tongues of flame leaped through every crevice. 
Powder was used, but it opened new channels for the fiery 
fiend to enter. Dynamite has been tried, but in vain ; the 
fire will burn on ami on until the mountain is destroyed. 
We must have a mighty torrent of public sentiment, with 
all the powder of state law and the dynamite of national 
power, to destroy the mountain of the liquor traffic ; and to 



1 64 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODB RIDGE. 

secure it, we must educate, educate, for upon education we 
depend to make permanent and effective that for which we 
agitate. 



After dwelling upon the vast financial waste of the 
liquor traffic, and the vast tide of foreigners pouring in 
upon us like a flood, she said : 

As they step upon our shores we meet them with this 
liquor traffic, which stimulates their passions, weakens 
their self-control, unfits them for the duties of citizenship 
and makes of them paupers and criminals. We have 
opened our arms to receive them, and every consideration 
of" philanthropy and humanity demands that we lift them 
into a higher manhood, into a nobler womanhood ; that 
we throw about them all reformatory influences. This can 
only be done through the complete overthrow of the liquor 
traffic, and the establishment of compulsory education. 

Referring to the growing ignorance of the populace in 
our cities, corrupted by contact with licensed civilized vices, 
she closed as follows : 

Can the Republic be preserved under such conditions ? 
Can such an evil be overcome through the effort of indi- 
vidual states ? Nay, though more than one were to attain 
victory each year, the flood tide from abroad would be 
pouring in, and 1900 with inevitable Communism or Nihil- 
ism would be upon us ere all would be reached. How 
may it be done ? Only by the concentration of state and 
national power upon its overthrow, which means the conse- 
cration of individual power. 

It was my privilege a few weeks ago to visit on five 
consecutive days in the state of New York, churches whose 
pastors were fully awake to this issue, and whose churches 
partook largely of their spirit. One minister said to me : 
" My conversion is recent. I pleaded with a dying soul to 
come to Christ, when he said : ' I want Christ, I need 
Him, I know I must be lost without Him, but to-morrow 
I shall pass my old haunts and the odor of alcohol will 
make a fiend of me again.'" Said the minister, "The 
scales were not thicker that fell from Paul's eyes when he 



NATIONAL REFORM LABORS. : r 'S 

looked upon his Lord, than those which had hidden from 

me my duty." I met others who did not, and would not, 
investigate, who held preconceived ideas, who did not de 

sire to listen; but sitting beside one of them, I k r:iV( -" to 
him the facts 1 have given to you. Before I left his home, 
taking my hand, he said : " You arc right, right, right ; 

I .strike my hand with yours, I bid you tell the truth wher- 
ever you go, for through the truth will come freedom." Is 
it not true when the Christian church throughout the land 
will stand hand in hand for the overthrow of this iniquity, 
from the positive pole of God's power will come that cur- 
rent of divine electricity which shall not only quicken His 
own, but redeem the nation as it shrivels and parches and 
shatters to atoms this sin? To outstretch the hand may 
require a consecration such as we have not known since 
the mothers, wives and sisters, with breaking hearts, hade 
the loved ones go forth in defense of their country and their 
homes. God demands such consecration of every Chris- 
tian to-day ; can we refuse ? I know the honor of the 
world may turn into scorn, the hosannas and psalms of to- 
day may be followed by the Gethsemane and Calvary of 
to-morrow, but there will surely come the reward, not alone 
in the perpetuation of the American Republic, but "God 
will set it on high above all nations of the earth, and all 
people of the earth shall see that we are called by the name 
of the Lord, and they shall be afraid." 

SHALL THE UXITED STATES ACKNOWLEDGE CHRIST AS 

SOVEREIGN" ? 

ADDRESS DELIVERED AT CHAUTAUQUA, AUGUST, l8S6. 

We live in an age of conviction ; such as preceded the 
Cromwellian period, the German Reformation and the late 
Civil War. It is also an era of activity and of immense 
responsibility. Professor Austin Phelps has said, ' Five 
hundred years of time in the progress of the world's sal- 
vation may depend upon the next twenty years of United 
Slates history," — an utterance which arouses thought and 
leads us to ask, whether the United States is fulBlling its 
mission to the world, and its duty to the world's Redeemer ? 

Born in oppression and nurtured amid difficulties almost 
insurmountable, the American Republic has grown with 



1 66 LIFE OF MARY A. W00DBR1DGE. 

the years and strengthened through the century just closed, 
until its influence is felt and acknowledged throughout the 
world. 

Mr. Gladstone says we " have a natural base for the 
greatest continuous empire ever established by man." 
With an area of 3,547,000 square miles of land surface ; 
with a single river, which, with its branches, affords 35,000 
miles of navigation ; with two rivers conjoined, upon whose 
waters a steamboat may pass a distance equaling that from 
New York to Constantinople, we may well believe our ter- 
ritory sufficient for all demands. 

Oar late census accords us 50,000,000 of people ; yet in 
1879, we not only fed that number, but exported 283,000,- 
000 bushels of grain. Mr. Edward Atkinson, a most reli- 
able authority, estimates that " 100,000,000 people could 
be sustained, without increasing the area of a single farm, 
or adding one to their number, by merely bringing our 
product up to our average standard of reasonably good agri- 
culture, and then there might remain for export, twice the 
quantity we now send abroad to feed the hungry in foreign 
lands." Yet but one-ninth of our arable land is cultivated. 

The bowels of the earth are continually yielding their 
treasures at our will. In 1880, they brought forth 9,500,- 
000 tons of iron ; 55,000,000 tons of coal ; 860,000,000 gal- 
lons of petroleum, and we have scarcely begun to develop 
their resources. 

With English pluck and Scotch endurance in our veins, 
climatic influences have so wrought with conditions and 
circumstances as to produce in three generations a people 
of clear brain and intellectual activity. We once turned to 
our ancestors as our superiors in art, science and literature. 

From the late "powerful work," entitled " Our Coun- 
try," by Rev. Josiah Strong of Cincinnati, I learn that at 
the International Electrical Exposition, in Paris, a few 
years ago, five gold medals were given for the greatest 
inventions or discoveries. How many of them, think you, 
came to the United States? Justy?w. American inven- 
tions are more numerous and more valuable than those of 
other nations, because American mechanics and operatives 
are the most intelligent of the world. Every honest, in- 
dustrious man may here make a living and count his sur- 
plus. While the manufacturers of France from 1870 to 



NATIONAL REFORM LABORS, 167 

1880 Increased $230,000,000, those of Germany, $1.^0,000,- 
and those of Great Britain, $580,000,000, those of the 
United States increased $i ,<>.v >,•>< kj.ooo. 

[f great area oi territory, 11 rapidly increasing popula- 
tion, if unparalleled development of material wealth and 

imes, constitute "a basis for the greatest continuous 
empire ever established by man," Mr. Gladstone's words 
are indeed true. History, however, teaches us that all 
these things have tended to the decay of nations and of 
men ; and no thoughtful person can look upon our pros- 
perity and its attendant conditions without alarm. 

The United States constitute an essential portion of a 
great political system, embracing all the civilized nations 
of the earth, and the sovereignty of the people is a con- 
ceded axiom. We are called a Christian nation ! Surely not 
because of our freedom from sin, nor from any acknowl- 
edgment of Christ in our organic law. The Constitution 

is, "We, the people of the United States, in order to 
form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic 
tranquillity, provide for the common defense, and secure the 
blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do or- 
dain and establish this Constitution for the United States of 
America." Nothing suggestive of a divine being is found 
in the instrument, save the words : " He shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation;" (in whose name it shall be 
taken, however, it does not state ;) the words, " In the year 
of our Lord," and the exception of the Sabbath from the 
number of days granted the President for the consideration 
of a bill. 

Dr. Alden, whose writings on the science of government 
are everywhere accepted, teaches that " Men become mem- 
bers of civil society — of the state — by the act of God." 
" Government," he says, " is a divine institution — is of di- 
vine origin. God is the author of man's nature. Govern- 
ment is the necessary result of that nature. Therefore, 
government is of God." We distinctly understand that the 
state is not a sovereign ; it is amenable to the national gov- 
ernment. Its Constitution must be in harmony with the 
National Constitution. Is it not equally clear, if " govern- 
ment is of God," He, being " the author of man's nature." 
that our general government, which is but a compact of 
states and individuals, is as truly responsible to its Creator, 



1 68 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

as the state to the nation ? Do not state constitutions har- 
monize with and declare their allegiance to the National 
Constitution? Should not the National Constitution as 
well be in harmony with the law of God, and acknowledge 
Christ as Sovereign, the United States being part of His 
universe ? 

It would seem that Christians need not doubt concern- 
ing this, nor wander in any uncertain fields of conjecture. 
Paul has expressly declared of the second person of the 
Godhead, "By Him were all things created, that are in 
heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible ; whether 
they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers ; 
all things were made by Him and/^Him." Should not 
the fundamental law of a nation calling itself Christian so 
affirm ? 

It may be said, the Constitution is a document almost 
sacred to us, and we would have it remain as prepared for 
us by men whom we honor. True, we revere the men who 
wrote it, and many associations have made it dear to us ; 
but again and again it has been found necessary to amend 
it. Its framers were not infallible, and if we with the light 
of added years, find their work wanting in an essential 
element, does not the responsibility of its supply rest upon 
us? 

Our forefathers fled from religious oppression and found 
in this land a home where they might worship God accord- 
ing to the dictates of their own conscience. They were 
true souls, reaching out after God and individual purity ; 
but for years they were stung to the quick by wicked 
accusations ; every power of their being was exercised to 
maintain physical existence and protect themselves amid 
bitter persecutions. While true and undefiled religion 
existed, the logic of events, with victories gained, tended 
to make them self-reliant, dogmatic, autocratic, and thus 
their work was of themselves, and for themselves, and they 
failed to recognize a superior power. We believe none can 
study their history without coming to this conclusion. 
Yet, in the providence of God, all things worked together 
for the establishment of that national independence in 
which we delight. 

Many of us have lately listened to the reading of that 
wonderful declaration of 1776, and our hearts have offered 



NA Th >.\. XL REFi >A'.V LAB( )RS. 

their Incense of thanksgiving unto Him who inspired its 
writers. The reference to God in its beginning ; the ap- 
peal to the Supreme Judge of the world, and the expres- 
sion of "a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Provi- 
dence," at its close, are to us an assurance of the Christian 

character <>f its authors and of its acceptance and endorse- 
ment by God. Its inherent divine power is unconsciously 
received by us and renders the document immortal. 

In 1787 the National Constitution was framed. The 
Christian may shudder at its ^odlessness, but cannot won- 
der, when he rememhers that the prayerless element pre- 
vailed, and an appeal for God's help Was not permitted in 
the assembly which prepared it. Of that instrument Dr. 
Horace Bushnell, on the Sabbath after the Bull Run dis- 
aster in 1861, said : " Proximately our whole difficulty is 
an issue forced by slavery ; but if we go back to the deep- 
est root of the trouble, we shall find that it comes of try- 
in- to maintain a government without moral ideas, and 
constitute a loyal feeling around institutions, that, as many 
reason, ar** only human compacts, entitled, of course, if 
that be all, to no feeling of authority, or even of respect. 
In all these schemings of theory, by which we have been 
contriving to generate, or have generated, a government 
without going above humanity, we leave out all moral 
ideas and take away all true forces necessary to govern- 
ment. Our merely terrene, almost subterranean, always 
godless fabric, becomes more and more what we have taken 
it to be in our philosophy." Well may Melville's words 
addressed to James VI of Scotland, be adapted to us : "Ye 
are God's silly vassals. There are two kings and two 
kingdoms in America ; there is king 'people,' the immedi- 
ate head of the commonwealth, and there is Christ, the 
king; over both the church and the commonwealth : whose 
subject the ' people ' is, and of wdiose kingdom the ' people ' 
is not king, nor lord, nor head, but subject only." 

The Son of God is upon the throne of the universe, 
and a just edict has gone forth : " The nation and king- 
dom that will not serve Him shall perish ; yea, all those 
kingdoms shall be utterly wasted." Do we stand in dan- 
ger of punishment ? If so, shall we pursue our evil way 
unto death ? or shall we bring forth fruit meet for repent- 
ance, unto salvation ? 



170 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

" The religion of a nation is its largest factor." Jeho- 
vah left His throne and sat upon the mount with Moses, 
not alone to instruct him of the building of the taber- 
nacles, nor of the vestments of the priests, but to write 
with His own finger upon the tablets of stone, the com- 
mandments to which He claims our obedience to-day, and, 
as well to give him a code of civil law, by which the deal- 
ing of friend with friend, brother with brother, was estab- 
lished ; and so closely were these interwoven, that they 
seem as but one to us, and thus Moses spake of them in 
his farewell to the people : ' ' And it shall come to pass if 
thou shalt hearken diligently unto the voice of the Lord 
thy God, to observe and to do all His commandments 
which I command thee this day, that the Lord thy God 
will set thee on high above all nations of the earth ! And 
all blessings shall come upon thee and overtake thee, if 
thou shalt hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God." 
"The religion of India, a pure pantheism, has produced 
caste ; has influenced the character, fashioned the habits, 
created the literature and affected the industries of the 
people. Old Egypt, hoary with antiquity, mother of his- 
tory, was made by her priests. Only a narrow sea sepa- 
rated Rome and Greece ; but their peoples were as unlike 
as were their religions. Greece, with a religion of culture, 
produced poets, and artists and philosophers, while Rome, 
with a religion of law, brought forth lawgivers and war- 
riors. The conception of their deity which these peoples 
entertained, and of the character of their relation to him, 
and of their worship, contributed more than all other in- 
fluences toward making them what they became." But 
all these proclaimed to the world their god, his character 
and their form of religion. 

We claim to be a Christian nation, and individuals 
believe in Christ, who has died for all mankind, but may 
we not question whether, as a nation, our claim has any 
foundation ? Is not the people our God ? Do we not say, 
this great Republic is the work of our hands ? Is it not 
built by the might of our power, and for the honor of our 
majesty? If we served Jehovah as our ruler, would not 
our law r s necessarily conform to His decalogue, as do statu- 
tory enactments to state and national Constitutions? But 
alas ! our nation has its God ! we bow down and worship 



.v. / /■/, >.v. \L REFi )RM LABORS. I 7 I 

it ! We take the name of the Lord of heaven and earth in 
vain ! we do not remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy ! 
W speak of " Young America" with carelessness, forget- 
fnl that often these are they who fail to honor father and 
mother! Forgetful of divine law, our enactments abel 
murder, adultery, theft! Our political campaigns are a 
continual bearing of false witness, and we covet all things 
for ourselves, even time and place and opportunity to secure 
our ends ' Appetite, avarice and ambition lead us on and 
when, through all these, one is crowned victor, in political 
or financial circles, unto him is brought the honor and 
praise of the people. Is it not SO ? are not our ears greeted 
with curses and imprecations as we pass by the way? 
Have we not sent the Sunday trains whirling through the 
laud? and are not our lakes and rivers made places of 
Sunday rioting? Are not Sunday mails and Sunday news- 
papers established facts? In section 525 of the "Postal 
Laws of the United States" we read, "When the mail 
arrives on Sunday, he (the postmaster) will keep his post- 
office open one hour or more after the arrival and assort- 
ment thereof, if the public convenience requires it, for the 
delivery of the same only. If it he received during the 
time of public worship, the opening of the postoffice will 
lelayed until the services have closed." Hon. Hiram 
Price, United States Indian Commissioner, has written 
that "the Washington office has been kept open all day." 
Postmaster Pierson, of New York, says, " Half my force are 
on duty part of the day, ami including the branches about 
seven hundred persons are employed a portion of every 
Sabbath." Postmaster Palmer, of Chicago, says, "Of my 
entire number employed, seven hundred and fifty, only 
thirty-eight are entirely free from Sabbath work." The 
postmaster of Cleveland, a smaller city, says, "Fifty-nine 
men are on duty Sabbath forenoons and twenty-three in the 
afternoons, and mails are received and forwarded the same 
as on weekdays." On that holy day, baseball, fights of 
leasts and of men, horse-racing, theatres and evil amuse- 
ments are common in our cities and at public resorts ; while 
tile cars and mails are patronized, newspapers are printed, 
purchased and read ; dinners are given and visiting is fre- 
quent among at least nominally Christian people." 



172 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

A large proportion of Sabbath breakers are intemperate 
and freely exercise the liberty given them by the govern- 
ment, for a stipulated sum, to sell and to drink intoxicants ; 
for license to sell practically licenses whoever will to drink. 
A public place of entertainment could not be supported on 
the Sabbath day without intoxicating liquor. I by no 
means assert that all attendants use it, but the larger num- 
ber do thus stimulate their passions to the enjoyment of 
such occasions, and to entrance into their various features. 



Millions of drinking, Sabbath desecrating foreigners 
come to our shores, — a living stream of humanity, ever 
flowing through the years. They come utterly ignorant of 
Republican institutions and with false ideas of human 
liberty. We meet them with this crime-bleeding liquor 
traffic, and surround them with every corrupting and vitiat- 
ing influence. 

Yet thus environed, we demand of them obedience to 
our laws. They soon rebel, considering each man equal 
to any other in this government of man. They say, Why 
should one become subservient to his equals? The cry of 
equality is heard on every hand, a natural result of a 
political compact without an omnipotent sovereign. Dur- 
ing the late strike among iron workers in Cleveland, they 
frequently marched the streets, with the red flag, bearing 
the old Robespierrean motto, " Fraternity, Liberty and 
Equality." 

Attempt to hold such within bounds, or talk of restric- 
tion by law, and they prate of personal liberty, regardless 
of its interference with the rights of their neighbors. Un- 
der restraint they join hands with their kind, and from 
this union evolve socialism, anarchy and revolution. All 
these are fed in turn by legalized liquid fire, and are 
made factors in the hands of unscrupulous politicians, in 
turning the scale at elections, in Congress, in state legisla- 
tures, in political caucuses and conventions. They are 
tools in the hands of politicians and monopolists. The 
nation writhes beneath their inflictions, but is not ready 
to institute or support measures to change these tools into 
men, lest it thwart other machinations and crush selfish 
ambitions. We have been somewhat conscious of this 



NATIONAL REFORM LABORS. [73 

unde r cu r rent for years, but man being omnipotent in this 
commonwealth, not until threatened with overthrow so 
forcibly that none could fail to recognize it, has the alarm 
been sounded. When the socialists of Chicago, in public 
meeting, declared, " Dynamite ran be made out of the dead 
bodies of capitalists as well as hogs"; "All Chicago can 
be set ablaze in B minute by electricity"; " Private prop- 
erty must be abolished, if we have to use all the dynamite 

there is and blow ninety-nine hundredths of the people off 
the face of the earth," the people trembled. 

The conditions are in harmony with the demand of 
some religionists, that the Bible be excluded from the pub- 
lic schools, and renders compliance with such demand a 
possibility ; for so long as our Constitution remains as it 
is, the words of Holy Writ read daily in our institutions of 
learning must be an oft-repeated condemnation. Well do 
the enemies of truth realize that the Christianity which 
pervades our individual and home life has its promised 
relation to our children ; and were the question, "What 
think ye of Christ?' 1 to be presented with secular teach- 
ing, their effort to "Away with Him" and His Word 
would be futile. Is it not true that in ratio with our 
desire for God's blessing upon our children, will be our 
effort to insure the Bible a permanent, undisputed, honored 
place in our educational institutions and the proclamation 
of its divine authorship and authority in our organic law ? 
We are not dealing to-day with the few, nor with redeemed 
people, who are seeking for Christian liberty and Chris- 
tian homes ; but with the great hungry masses, who are 
crying for bread ; crying unto us, with whom is not the 
falling of the rain, nor the coming of the sunshine. We 
cannot point them to the Lord of the harvest, who hears 
the ravens when they cry and much more those made in 
His own image; whom we acknowledge as our national 
King, and of whose supply of our needs we have promise, 
because we are His obedient subjects. Do you not think 
it would be easier and far less expensive to do duty than 
to neglect it? To meet all this pressure, will it not be 
wiser to turn unto God and bring uuto Him an accepted 
sacrifice? 

In every hour of national sorrow or necessity we reach 
out our hand to those about us. The bond of humanity 



174 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

makes itself felt. Think of our pitiful condition ! Hand 
touches hand, but there is no link that binds us to the 
divine. Let civil war fasten upon us ; let the chief officer 
of our nation be stricken down, and we cry unto God, 
knowing that from Him alone can come help. Is it not 
time that this consciousness, which involuntarily leads us, 
shall have voluntary expression in our fundamental law ? 
Shall we not so amend our national Constitution that the 
world shall know that we acknowledge Christ as our Ruler, 
as the head of our nation, and in His name, and for His 
glory, shall not "We, the people, in order to form a more 
perfect union," thus "ordain"? While we render unto 
Caesar the things that are Caesar's, shall we not render 
unto God the things that are God's? 

"By me," He says, "kings reign and princes decree 
justice." "Byrne princes rule and nobles, even all the 
judges of the earth." And He said of a nation that served 
Him not, "I will cast thee out and the mother that bare 
thee, into another country where ye were not born and 
there ye shall die." 

Some may ask, will thus amending the Constitution 
make us a Christian people ? Would that it might ; but 
not then would we be individually saved. It would, 
however, be the turning of a nation unto God. Who can 
estimate the result of the lifting of the eyes of the whole 
people unto Him ? An amendment to the national Con- 
stitution requires the endorsement of two-thirds of the 
states, to become law. Although the action must be taken 
by state legislative bodies, let such an amendment be sub- 
mitted, and it would become the paramount issue at the 
election of legislators and thus God would be in the thought, 
and His name upon the lip of every man. May not this 
be the way opened to us ? How to bring the gospel of 
Christ to the masses, has been and is, the vexing problem 
of the church. Would not the problem be solved ? Yea, 
Christ would then be lifted up, even as the serpent in the 
wilderness, and would we not have right to claim the ful- 
fillment of the promise, that " He will draw all men unto 
Himself" ? 

Gog and Magog would be arrayed against it, but, 
" Their rock is not as our rock, our enemies themselves be- 



NATIONAL REFORM LABORS. '7S 

ing judges;" and hear the word He hath spoken, " I am 

He, and there is no ( V >d with me. I kill and I male* alive ; 

I WOnnd, and I heal ; neither is there any that can deliver 

out of my hand." And in considering the submission oi 
such an amendment, we may use the very argument used 
by Moses, in lus song containing these words of Jehovah, 
" For it is not a vain thing lor you ; because it is your life : 
and through this thing ye shall prolong your days in the 
land." How prayerfulness would he stimulated! Con- 
science would press the words, "If the Lord he God, fol- 
low Him, but if Baal, then follow him." Then would 
there he searching of heart, as David's, of which we learn 
in the fifty-first Psalm. Prayer would bring faith and the 
power of the Spirit : and when snch power shall rest upon 
the children of God, there will "he added to the church 
daily snch as shall be saved." 

The National Reform Association makes this plea in the 
name of the Lord and His suffering ones. It asks the 
prayerful consideration of an amendment to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, by which if adopted, we, the 
people, will crown Christ the Lord, as our rightful Sover- 
eign. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union, pursuing 
its work " For God and Home and Native Land," in thirty- 
nine departments of reform, can but see that were a nation 
to be thus aroused, were it to make such acknowledgment 
at the ballot-box, the laws of our land would ere long be 
truly " founded on the old Mosaic ritual." Then we could 
have no other God. Unto the Lord Jehovah would we 
bow. Should we take His name in vain, or fail to keep the 
Sabbath day holy, we would be criminals. Xo more regu- 
lation and restriction only of the liquor traffic, but in har- 
mony with the divine Constitution, which prohibits all 
things harmful to God's creatures, there would be com- 
plete prohibition. Learning of God would lead us to honor 
father and mother ; while murder and adultery and theft 
would be heinous in our eyes. Remembering 'the pit 
from whence we were dug," how could we bear false wit- 
ness against our neighbor, or covet his goods ? Do you ask 
if I think the millennium is to be hastened by the adoption 
of such an ameudment? May I uot ask, in reply, if we 



176 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

would not, by such action, turn our back upon the sin of 
the past and our face toward God, and thus walking do our 
part toward hastening on that glorious da}- ? 

If this Republic is to stand, it must be with feet of 
granite, planted on everlasting foundations. If it is to stand 
secure, it must be by the fine gold of thought, the silver of 
purity, the brass of endurance, the iron of solidity, taking 
the place of the mire and the clay. It must be sound 
through and through, and the government must be on His 
shoulders, who is the Christ ; and w r e must crown Him 
King of kings and Lord of lords. 

From an item in the Christian Statesman (Nation), we 
learn that Mrs. Woodbridge was for years one of the exec- 
utive committee of the National Reform Association, and 
that her successor was elected December 20, 1894. 



CHAPTER xil. 

MRS. WOODBRIDGE ON WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

We have given hostages, cot to fortune but to humanity. We are 
building better than we know. We stand not only for the causi 
temperance, but for the diviner womanhood that shall ere long bring 
iu the era of "sweeter manners, purer lav« We Btand for the 

mighty forces that level up, not down, and which Bhall drawn 
hood up to woman's standard of purity in t! nal conduct of 

life. We arc the prophets of a time when the present fashionable 
frivolities of women and moneyworship of nun shall find themselves 
confronted by God's higher law of a complete humanity resulting 
from : 

"Two heads in counsel ; two beside the hearth ; 

Two in the noisy business of the world. 

Two in the liberal offices of life ; 

Two plummets dropped 

To sound the abyss of science and the secrets of the mind." 

For the world begins to see that 

" No lasting links to bind two souls are wrought, 
Where passiou takes no deeper cast from thought." 
In all this wondrous battle let our motto be, " Womanliness first ; 
afterward what you will." Let us follow with unchanged devotion 
the gleaming cross of Him " Who is holiest among the mighty, and 
mightiest among the holy," even that loving Christ whose gospel 
raises woman up, and with her lifts toward heaven the world ! 
" The combat deepens ; on, ye brave-- ' 
The battle is not yours but God's." 

— Frana % E. H 

THIS is a subject on which Mrs. Woodbridge lor y< .•- 
never dreamed of publicly expressing an opinion. 
Her whole nature instinctively shrank from it. Before she 
ever thought of leaving the privacy of domestic life she 
had read in a thousand papers and books thrusts at the un- 
womanliness of the advocates of female suffrage. Wheth r 
these criticisms were ever deserved or not made no differ- 

( — 



178 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

ence whatever. Her dignified, queenly soul felt an abhor- 
rence of anything that had the taint of unwomanliness. It 
is safe to say that no human being ever sat in an audience 
that Mrs. Woodbridge addressed without being profoundly 
impressed with her charming and gracious presence, and 
saying inwardly, " Behold a royal woman ! " 

No doubt the fact above mentioned deterred her for 
years, as it does thousands of other women, from a critical 
study of the subject. Mrs. Woodbridge often discussed the 
theme in a casual way with the writer. Neither of us had 
then reached a conclusion. The leaven was at work ; but 
the dread of being other than God would have her be — 
"pure womanly" — hung like a ghostly shadow over the 
subject and frightened her away. But the womanly heart, 
touched with a Christ-like pity for a sin-cursed humanity 
in a country where the ballot is the expression of wish and 
will, character and prayer, the final registry of influence 
and sovereign power, could not always be frightened by a 
ghost. The exigencies of moral reforms forced her to think 
long, consecutively, logically, on her knees as usual — think 
until she reached a conclusion. 

There is a photograph of a group of five persons be- 
longing to Mrs. Woodbridge, lying here on her table before 
me, which mutely but eloquently tells the conclusion to 
which she came. In the upper lefthand corner is the 
picture of an idiot ; in the upper righthand corner a pris- 
oner in stripes ; in the lower lefthand corner an Indian 
bravely decked in paint and feathers, with a necklace of 
bear's claws ; in the righthand corner, a lunatic with wild 
eye and disheveled hair, clutching a stick and waving a 
battered hat in fantastic defiance of an imaginary some- 
thing ; and in the center, Mrs. Woodbridge's honored 
friend, "the uncrowned queen of America" — Frances E. 
Willard ! Underneath the picture is written the interpre- 
tation, " American Woman and her Political Peers. 



> » 



WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

In other words, the most cultured women of our land 
are exactly equal, in the eye of the law that regulates 
American suffrage, to idiots, prisoners, Indians and luna- 
tics. The immortal author of " Uncle Tom's Cabin " can 
not vote, while the Mark, ignorant freedman who grooms 

her hor^e, ran. The woman who owns squares of property 
in the heart of Chicago, covered with granite structui 
ten stories high, and has millions of taxable property, ran 

not vote, while the male street-scavenger or rag-picker 

ran. The woman who wears the title of LL.I). after her 
name, and would be a fit associate of Plato or Aristotle, 
can not vote, while a male biped, who scarcely knows 
enough to go in when it rains, is honored with the ballot. 
The woman whose ancestry for six or eight generations 
have been making the best history of this country and 
fathering educational laws in legislative halls, whose 
shoulders supported a Websterian brain, ami whose saintly 
life would have made her a beloved of the apostle Paul, 
could not vote ; while foreigners of a few months' residence 
who cannot read a ballot, and who have formed their char- 
acters in the slums and jails ami almshouses of Europe, 
are dignified with the rights of citizenship, and permitted 
to guide the destinies of the nation ! It is this insult to 
womanhood, this mockery of reason, this outrage upon 
justice and travesty of Republican institutions, that sooner 
or later shocks the thoughtful woman, and opens her i 
to the wisdom, propriety and necessity of woman suffrage. 
American womanhood is not always going to be frightened 
by a spook of mail's invention. 

There lie before me two letters written to Mrs. W I- 

bridge in the autumn of 1887 by one in authority, asking 
her to address the coming meeting of the National Com- 
mittee of the Prohibition Party on " Woman Suffrage, its 
Relation to the Prohibition Party." 



180 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Mrs. Woodbridge answered the first letter, modestly 
pleading unfamiliarity with the subject which she had 
never discussed, and suggesting other women who had 
made the theme a specialty. The answer came back : 
' The topic is the most difficult before the conference. We 
can not afford to have the question treated by any other 
than one whose recognized position commands a hearing. 
We carefully went over the list and after mature delibera- 
tion fixed on you to open the discussion. You may select 
your own way to open it. ' ' 

She finally consented and delivered the following ad- 
dress in Chicago, December i, 1SS7. 

WOMAN SUFFRAGE AND PROHIBITION. 

WHY THE TWO MOVEMENTS ARE MUTUALLY DEPENDENT AND 
SHOULD KEEP COMPANY. 

k\. this important period of our national and political 
existence, twenty minutes are few in which to discuss so 
momentous a topic as "The Proper Attitude of the Prohi- 
bition Party Toward Woman Suffrage." Therefore, from 
the standpoint of justice and righteousness, as God gives 
me to see it, I present several propositions which I briefly 
support. I premise there are not many before me who 
deny the right of woman to franchise ; few who would not 
say with George William Curtis, "Women have quite as 
much interest in good government as men, and I have 
never heard any satisfactory reason for excluding them 
from the ballot-box." There may, however, be some who 
have conscientious scruples concerning it ; who really be- 
lieve a loss of womanliness would be the sequence. What 
women are more advanced in this line of thought and 
effort than the leaders of the National Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union ? Is Frances E. Willard, whom you so 
honored as she stood before you last evening, unwomanly ? 
and does not she lead the host ? Do you say she has not 
been at the ballot-box ? She pleads for the privilege ! 

Are the polls worse than the saloons where she and 
other women have been ? Have you seen less to admire 
and love in those women who once sat in their own homes 
" at the feet of Jesus and learned of Him," but who in the 



.! WAN •./'//.'. 

dnv of crusade blessing in 1874, realized for the first time 
the indwelling power of Christ, and entered the very gates 
of hell to carry the glad tidings of salvation to the dying? 
In that "the loveof Christ constraining," I stand before 
you to represent thi I body of women who ask no1 

alone recognition by the Prohibition party on the basis ol 
constitutional and moral right, but for the handclasp with 
the forgotten half of the home, which will be the fulfillment 

of God's order of duality and yet of unity — "the two in 

one," which will lift this government upon the shoulders 

Oi Him wdio is Wonderful, the Counsellor, that Christ may 
1)0 crowned our Sovereign, and His law he our rule oi 
governmental as of individual action. 

We ask the recognition of women as equal with your- 
selves in all the functions of government, that politics, now 
represented by the saloon, through ministers and brewers, 
Christian laymen and anarchists, wdio cast their ballots for 
the licensed perpetuation of the licpior traffic, " may be re- 
deemed from the prince of this world and given into the 
hands of our Lord." 

In so doing we but express the oft-repeated belief of our 
enemy, that nothing will so successfully antagonize his in- 
terest, and build up the cause of righteousness as the ballot 
in t!ie hands of women. Do you say, "Women are not 
equal to its exercise?" "A republic," says Guizot, " re- 
quires the highest degree of intelligence and virtue." No 
one denies that the virtue of the nation is largely with its 
women. Look into the state prisous — forty men to one 
woman ! But more than two-thirds of the church mem- 
bership are women, and if the law of the land was as 
that of my state of Massachusetts in its early years, only 
church members being allowed to vote, this would b< 
government of women. If the church is to be a power 
through which the purpose of God for the redemption of 
the world is to be accomplished, woman, who is so large a 
factor in that organization, should have every opportunity 
to impress her personality upon society and government. 

But not the virtue alone; the intelligence as well, in a 
ratio exceeding the increase of our population, is with 
women. Three times as many girls as boys graduate at our 
high schools, and so likewise the number of young women 
entering our higher institutions of learning is more and more. 



1 82 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Some tell us, " men are more willing to grant the ballot 
than women to accept it." A mistaken thought, we 
believe, save where the ballot is so restricted that the 
difficulties attending its use are greater than the good that 
ma}- be accomplished through it. The municipal ballot 
was given to women in Kansas scarcely a month before 
they were called to cast it. Yet Hon. F. G. Adams, secre- 
tary of the state historical society, says : " It is no longer a 
question whether women want to vote. They do want to 
vote. This is proven by the fact that they have voted at 
the first opportunity given them. They voted with an 
intelligent, zealous, earnest interest in the good of the com- 
munity in which they have their homes. If the issue in- 
volved in any town was one affecting merely the local 
material interest of the conirnunity, they voted with good 
judgment and for the common welfare. If the question 
was one of better school management, they voted for the 
best ; if it was for street, sanitary or other reforms, they 
voted prudently for what it would seem the good of all 
demanded. 

" If it was for a change of an administration notoriously 
involved in speculations with waterworks or other corpo- 
rations, they voted to deliver the city from such corrupt 
entanglement. If political parties, controlled by saloon 
influences, put up candidates with the odor of whisky upon 
their garments, the women rebuked the party managers, 
and voted for candidates who would better promote the 
welfare of the community. In every instance they voted 
for home and fireside, for the freeing of the community from 
those demoralizing influences and temptations from which 
every good woman would deliver those of her own house- 
hold." 

Lifelong opponents of impartial suffrage are won to its 
advocacy whenever the}' become eye-witnesses of its exer- 
cise and the results therefrom. 

The editor of the Rawlins (Wyoming) Journal writes : 
"Woman suffrage has elevated politics, had a beneficial 
influence in the way of temperance, and makes our elec- 
tions as quiet as a Sunday-school. If the question of 
woman suffrage were to-day left to the vote of the people 
of the territory, four out of five would vote for its continu- 
ance : and among the best people there is not one in fifty 



W( WAN SUFFRAGl 

who is not in favor of it. Woman suffrage is very popu- 
lar. There has been no opposition to it since the ; 
year; and the men who opposed it then are among the 
wannest supporters now, the writer anion- the number." 
"Tlie city election last Monday," says the Seattle Mir- 
ror, "was tor more reasons than one the most import 

ever held in Seattle. The presence of women at the voting 

places had the effect of preventing the disgraceful proceed- 
ings usually seen. It was the first election in the city 
where women could vote, and the first where the gambling 
and liquor fraternity, which had so long controlled the 
municipal government to an enormous extent, suffered 
defeat." 

The Olympia Tran script, which had thrown all its in- 
fluence against the law, said : " The result shows that all 
parties must put up good men, if they expect to elect them. 
They cannot do as the)- have in the past —nominate any 
candidate and nominate them by the force of the party lash." 

Women who are indifferent, or who do not want the 
ballot, " have not considered its power to bless the world, 
wdiat large beneficent measures may be reached, and only 
reached through it ; have not been touched by the heav- 
enly vision of a government based on equal rights and 
uniform justice." What, think you, would have been 
Atlanta's verdict last week had women had the right of 
franchise? Joseph Cook has said: "Voting would in- 
crease the intelligence of women, and be a powerful stim- 
ulus to female education. It would enable women to pro- 
tect their own industrial, social, moral and educational 
rights." Vet, it is not woman's good alone that we seek, 
but the common good. Mr. Cook has added, "Woman's 
vote would be to the vices in our great cities what the 
lightning is to the oak." All injustice works loss, and 
to-day the nation, yea, all humanity, sutlers loss from the 
domination of the liquor traffic, through the injustice done 
to woman. We sometimes hear: " Bad women will com- 
bine and carry bad measures." Are there not bad men. 
and do not they combine ? But as good women prepon- 
derate, would not their union with good men overthrow 
the evil combination ? 

In 1SS3 the women of Ohio prosecuted a campaign in 
the interest of prohibitory constitutional amendment ; but 



1 84 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

were not permitted to crystallize their thought and effort 
into law at the ballot-box. The result you know. By 
the combination of evil forces their labor was rendered 
futile. Would it have been thus if the tens of thousands 
of women who worked and prayed had voted ? From that 
day innumerable women who, with agonized hearts had 
seen the saloon antagonize the interest of their home, have 
believed that as queen of her home, each woman should 
be crowned with the prerogative of citizenship for the pro- 
tection and safety of her kingdom. 

The Prohibition party is the only political organization 
demanding the annihilation of the liquor traffic. A vast 
majority of women are in harmony with this demand, and 
naturally become allies of the party. Women are on its 
National and executive committees ; they are sought for 
service in all party lines and are acknowledged equal thereto. 
Is it not, then, strange that after years of party endorse- 
ment of her equality, this discussion should be heard ? 
Answer comes clearly: "We believe all you have said, 
but we seriously doubt the advisability of reuniting the 
two issues in one great movement, believing that but one 
great issue can be carried at one time." Does history so 
attest ? 

The National Republican party was formed in 1854, 
for the specific purpose of restricting slavery ; but side by 
side with this issue, they placed in their platform in 1856 
their platform planks concerning " Polygamy, the Pacific 
Railroad, and River and Harbor Appropriations." In 
1860, at a crucial period, these so-called "side issues" 
were doubled in number, there being added declarations 
on Tariff, Homesteads, and Naturalization. As a matter 
of political history, while it is true that public thought 
will be mainly engrossed by one idea, it is not true that 
but one reform can be or has been carried by a party at 
one time. 

The Republican party elected Abraham Lincoln on its 
policy of opposition to the extension of slavery. It was 
soon called to face a totally different issue, that of rebell- 
ion. What more natural than that a party composed of 
men of strong moral convictions on one subject should be 
adapted to settle other moral questions? So it proved, and 
the Republican party preserved the Union. It abolished 



WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

slavery where it existed under the Constitution, a measure 
which it had not proposed to carry out. It inaugurated a 
system o( tariff. It created a national currency, and < 
ried other measures of national importance v<]\ distinct 
from each other. 

The same is true of the Liberal party in England, of the 
Puritans in the time of Cromwell, and of every great moral 
party. Practically it is never true that a great party car- 
ries but one reform at a time. Who so well prepared to 
carry the needed reforms as a party of clear-headed, con- 
scientious people, who are right on the dominant ISSU( 
the age? Disaster often attends refusal to accept collateral 
issues. The very plea We make to day was made to the 

Free Soil party in 1848, and Salmon P. Chase and Benja- 
min F. Wade pleaded earnestly that it be regarded. Mr. 
Chase said : " I think therewill he no end to tin- good that 
will come by woman suffrage, on the elected, on the elec- 
tions, on government and on woman herself.'' While Mr. 
Wade's words were : " Every argument that can he adduced 

to prove that males should have the right to vote applies 
with equal force to prove that females should have the 
same right," but they could not carry two great isstu - ' That 

party was of short duration, becoming a part of the great 
Republican party, upon which was pressed the temperance 

question. They did not refuse to listen, but fould not add 
another issue. Indeed, they positively promised future ac- 
tion, hut the laws upon our statute books, allowing the use 
ot intoxicants upon the battlefield and in hospitals (which, 
had the party espoused the cause, could have easily been 
repealed), multiplied the drunkenness of our people. To 
satisfy this new and constantly increasing constituency 
seemed a political necessity, and in [863, promises to tem- 
perance people forgotten, a treaty was made with the enemy 
by the party then in the control of the government, which 
has been repeatedly satisfied. Probably there is no one 
within hearing of my voice who does not believe that this 
is the rock upon which the Republican ship of state will be 
forever stranded. If the Prohibition party is to be a i^reat 
national party, we believe it cannot, if it would, avoid all 
other issues than the prohibition of the liquor traffic. 
Therefore we insist that "the attitude of the Prohibition 
party toward woman suffrage" should be in harmony with 



1 86 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

the utterance of Ohio's noble prohibition pioneer, Hon. 
Gideon T. Stewart. " Where," said he, "is the safety of 
a Republic which creates a ruling caste, and robs one-half 
of its citizen sovereigns of all power in the government 
because they are not of the same sex as the other half? 
Every such violation of the fundamental law of liberty and 
equality tends to the rapid ruin of Republican institutions. 
Woe to us if the despotism of sex is to decide the destinies 
of the Republic." 

We ask this: i. Because of woman's relation to the 
temperance reform. Never until the Spirit of God came 
down upon Ohio women in the Crusade baptism of Pente- 
costal power, was the question lifted to a level with the 
eyes of the civilized world. Have women been found 
wanting in the intervening years, going from one point to 
another, as men often do from one party to another ? Nay, 
through scorn, through contempt, through misrepresenta- 
tion, they have stood for God and Home and Native Land. 
Has not the last election proved that such an unswerving 
element is needed in the Prohibition party ? 

2. We do not ask a new departure — that the party will 
take on a new and possibly diverting issue. The casting 
out of the woman suffrage plank would be a change of the 
base upon which the party has won its present position ; 
and, without doubt, more prominence would be given it 
than by leaving it in its subordinate place in the platform. 

3. It is often alleged that certain men will not join the 
ranks if such indorsement continues ! Are they better than 
their contemporaries ? Is it not manifest that their opposi- 
tion to the enfranchisement of woman is stronger than their 
hatred of the liquor traffic and their desire for its prohibi- 
tion ? When among the advocates of impartial suffrage we 
may name John Quincy Adams, Abraham Lincoln, James 
A. Garfield, Henry Wilson, Charles Sumner, Salmon P. 
Chase, Benjamin F. Wade, Henry W. Blair, Geo. F. Hoar, 
Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Bishop Simpson, 
Bishop Bowman, Bishop Fowler, Bishop Hurst, Bishop 
Gilbert Haven, Henry Ward Beecher, Joseph Cook, Henry 
W. Longfellow, John G. Whittier, Ralph Waldo Emerson, 
and a host of others equally great and good, may we not 
believe that others will follow ? If on the ground of policy 



WOMAN SUFFRAGl [87 

and not because of changed convictions the plank is cast 
out will there not be attack from two directions ? Will not 

Republicans say, " Look upon the party that talks of con- 
victions, which Urges VTOters to leave victorious ranks and 

Btand alone for conscience 1 sake ' See this party dropping 
its convictions upon woman suffrage because it finds them 

unpopular!" And will not southern Democrats, behold- 
ing the act, at once say to their brethren, "The northern 

and controlling wing of the party believes in impartial suf- 
frage, and the plank has been cast from its platform only 
because it fears that you will not enter its ranks ; but when 
through your aid the power is theirs, they will surely carry 
their scheme." Will it not be far better to stand, and, 
when the principle is challenged, join issue with opponents 
and show that reason, justice, the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, the theory of Republican government, the Golden 
Rule, the New Testament and the example of Christ are in 
its favor? A leading minister, also a leading Prohibition- 
ist and impartial suffragist, has written me: "I can con- 
found opponents and win the people more easily on suffrage 
than on prohibition. Impartial suffrage is in harmony 
with American theories of government, and is the neces- 
Bary outcome of applying principles of government every- 
where admitted among us ; while prohibition at first seems 
contrary to our traditions of individual liberty." 

4. Most Prohibitionists will admit that woman suffrage 
must come before prohibition secures its complete triumph. 
As Prohibitionists come in sight of possible victory in some 
states, they see that a long, desperate fight is before them 
after political power is gained. A determined minority, 
able lawyers, immense financial resources, the habits and 
inbred appetites of generations, the example of other states 
not yet won, the collusion of the victim with the seller to 
shield the victim — all these will make a desperate contest. 
The lines of battle will waver and sometimes fall back un- 
less, as soon as a legislature is favorable, woman is enfran- 
chised, and thus an overwhelming majority is secured. 
May not this good time be hastened by a party endorse- 
ment of the submission of an amendment to the Federal 
Constitution prohibiting any distinction of sex by the sev- 
eral states iu the enfranchisement of their citizens? The 



1 88 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

emancipation of the political power of women is as essential 
to triumph over the liquor traffic as the emancipation of the 
slaves was to the triumph of the Union zxmy. 

5. Since impartial suffrage is wrapped up in prohibition 
as a means to an end, is it not more honest to admit it in 
the part} T platform and in addresses and win opponents to 
this reform also, than to gain a legislature of the people by- 
prohibition arguments and then thrust impartial suffrage 
upon unprepared constituents as a necessary means to an 
end? 

6. This seems to us to be the only honorable course open 
to the party. In a Prohibition platform maybe found these 
words : "We acknowledge Almighty God as the source of 
all authority in civil government, and Christ as the King of 
all nations. We believe that all human enactments should 
conform to His will.'.' If a party making such declarations 
violates a principle of justice and right for the sake of ex- 
pediency, what must be the result ? Inevitably a cooling 
of ardor among its friends, a lessening of enthusiasm, a loss 
of confidence, until the agonized mother-heart of the nation 
will join with its manhood standing upon God's eternal 
truth in unceasing cry to Jehovah for a party, in which 
there shall be "neither bond nor free, male nor female," 
but all shall have part in the healing of the nation. God 
grant that such cry may never be, because this party now 
is, and its name is Prohibition. 

At the close of her address Dr. I. K. Funk, of the Voice, 
said : 

"We have had our age of stone and of iron, and our 
golden age ; and now before us, just before us, is the age of 
the Spirit. In that age woman will be a prophet and priest. 
It is not the gathering of darkness — the sun has not said 
good-night ; it is the breaking of a new day — the sun is 
kissing the earth good-morning." 

It is needless to say that this lucid argument carried the 
day, sweeping all opposition before it. It was a surprise 
to the public ; many even of her intimate friends never 
having heard her express an opinion on the subject. 

In the autumn of 1894 Mrs. Woodbridge was asked to 



WOMAN SUFFRAGE. lS ) 

deliver the annual address before the South Dakota \v. C. 
T. U. Convention. Less than a week before she was to start 
for the convention she received a request to speak on suf- 
frage. She regretted the choice of this subject, as it was not 
with her a favorite theme, nor one she often discussed. But 
she complied with the request, and we have found among 
hei papers a sketch in lead pencil of at least a part ol that 

address. She always spoke without notes, and easily added 
any fresh material which the inspiration of the occasion 

might suggest. Hut this is undoubtedly " for substance of 

doctrine," a portion of this speech, which was one ol her 

last. 

WOMAN SUFFRA< .1. 

Men and women alike are awakening to the necessity 

of a new political factor to overcome the continually increas- 
ing and degrading power of a liquor oligarchy ; and in their 

arrest of thought, they proclaim their convictions to listen- 
ing ears and thoughtful minds, ami neither man nor woman 
suffers thereby. Lucy Stone has told us that years ago, 
when about to hold a meeting in Maiden, Mass., the pastor 
of the Congregational church being asked to give notice of 
the meeting, which was under the auspices of the Massa- 
chusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Win. Lloyd Garrison and 
Wendell Phillips being officers of the society, he held up the 
notice to hide his face, and said: "I am requested to say 
that a hen will undertake to crow like a cock at the town 
hall this afternoon at five o'clock. Anybody who wants to 
have that kind of music will of course attend." The con- 
sequence was she had a large meeting ; everybody came, 
for everybody wanted to hear the crow. A better advertise- 
ment could not have been given, whatever may have been 
the minister's intention. Augmenting numbers are now 
recognizing that, if there be any principle upon which our 
form of government is founded, and wherein it varies trom 
aristocracies, monarchies and despotisms, that principle is 
that every human being of mature powers, not disqualified 
by ignorance, vice or crime, is under the law the equal of 
any other such individual, and is equally entitled to all 
rights and privileges of citizenship. 



190 LIFE OF MARY A. IVOODBRIDGE. 

We are told that women are represented by men. I 
appeal to you all — is there usually council between the 
adult members of a family, men and women, on the eve of 
an election concerning the casting of the ballot by the family 
representatives? I have in mind a friend, a minister of the 
gospel, who tells how long he stood in just that attitude, and 
when his wife and daughter expressed their desire for the 
ballot, that they might the more effectively aid in molding 
the government policy, he repeatedly replied : " You have 
a husband and father who represents you." Election 
morning came, and, about to leave his home, the daughter 
said, ' ' Just a moment, father ; where are you going ? ' ' He 
replied as she expected, " I am going to the polls." She 
said, "Father, you often tell us that mother and I are 
represented there by you, — will you please remember that 
two- thirds of this family are Prohibitionists? ' That man 
went his way, and says he had no thought of voting other 
than his party ticket, but there was an arrest of thought ; 
conviction that he had not so much as considered the opin- 
ions of his wife and daughter seized him, and he walked to 
and fro, two long hours before prejudice, habit and dread 
of what others might say were overcome, and he acted as 
a true representative of wife and daughter. Had the three 
possessed the ballot, how it would have counted for right- 
eousness ! 

Woman being made an equal factor with man, the latter 
is less likely to vote blindly, indifferently a straight party 
ticket, let the character of the candidates be what it may. 
The moral influence of woman under such condition would 
be felt not alone through her ballot but through that of 
men as well. Twelve municipalities of Illinois at one 
time gave women the right to vote on temperance under a 
local option law. Every town was carried for prohibition, 
though some were river towns, one, of such character that 
it was not considered safe for boats to remain there over 
night. As voters entered the polling place, the ballot box 
for prohibition was appropriately on the right ; the license 
box upon the left. Gentlemen escorting ladies naturally 
turned upon entrance to the right, and there men and 
women largely cast their ballot, as proven upon count. It 
was found that a majority of the votes of men had been 
thus cast, though license had always before prevailed. In 



WOMA V SUFFRAGE. roi 

the largest town, but one woman voted with the rabble for 
license. A. new era dawned. Why? Because of woman's 

presence. Wh.it good man could sec his wife voting foi 
great moral issue- (and every election in a republic must 

present a moral issue I and deliberately east his vote in 

opposition to hei s ? 

Von may say these are special cases, chosen for illus- 
tration. Always, thus far, woman suffrage has proven a 
Buccess. Most heartily the governors of Wyoming and 
Washington have endorsed the results of woman's enfran- 
chisement in their states. The municipal ballot of Kansas 
has, iu spite of all party 0] ad determination to 

undermine and overthrow the prohibitory law, maintained 
it in numberless places. An incident which transpired 
when I was in the state is proof. In one of their small 
cities there was high dudgeon among men, because the 
right of suffrage was given to woman, and they determined 
not to appear at the caucus. The preliminary was well 
attended, but mostly by lookers on. Thirty women and 
twenty men took part. Eight men voted for one candidate, 
twelve men for another; the thirty women voted for a 
third, who was a man of unspotted character, for whose 
consent to run they had labored for days, and whom the 
people immediately recognized as a nominee whom they 
gladly made their mayor. 

While women are excluded from suffrage the trust of 
administering justice for all is with men, as a monarch is 
wont to act under other than republican forms of govern- 
ment. But if it be true that all just government is founded 
upon the consent of the governed, then the government of 
woman by man without her consent, all other requirements 
being met, — is a violation of natural right, and an enforce- 
ment of servitude and slavery. The unconsenting subject 
is ruled, a>i<{ not represented. 

It is sometimes claimed that the duties of motherhood 
disqualify for the act of voting. It cannot be, and I think 
is not claimed by any one, that tin- mother who otherwise 
would be fit to vote, is rendered m -ntally or morally less 
fit to exercise this high function in the state because of 
motherhood. On the contrary, if any woman has a motive- 
more than another person, man or woman, to secure the 
enactment and the enforcement of good laws, it is the 



192 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

mother, who, beside her own life, person and property, to 
the protection of which the ballot is as essential to her 
as to man, has her little contingent of immortal beings to 
conduct safely to the portals of active life through all the 
snares and pitfalls woven around them. Not more than 
one-half the female population of voting age is liable to 
this objection. Then why disfranchise the 7,500,000, the 
other half to whom the objection does not apply at all? 
and these, too, as a class, the most mature and intelligent 
and therefore the best qualified to vote of any of their sex. 
But how much is there in this objection of want of time to 
vote in its application to women who are bearing and train- 
ing the coming millions ? 

That same mother will attend church at least forty 
times yearly on the average from her cradle to her grave, 
besides an infinity of other social, religious and indus- 
trial obligations, which she perforins and assumes to per- 
form, because she is a married woman and mother, rather 
than for any other reason whatever. Yet it is proposed to 
deprive women — yes, all women alike — of an inestimable 
privilege and the chief power which can be exercised by 
any free individual in the state for the reason that on 
any given day of election not more than one woman in 
twenty of voting age will probably not be able to reach the 
polls ! 

Then, too, we are told that husband and wife will dis- 
agree and thus suffrage will destroy the family and ruin 
society. If a married couple will quarrel at all, they will 
find the occasion, and it were fortunate indeed if their 
contention might concern important affairs. There is no 
peace in the family save where love is, and the same spirit 
which enables the husband and wife to enforce the tolera- 
tion act between themselves in religious matters, will keep 
the peace between them in political discussions. At all 
events this argument is unworthy of notice at all unless we 
are to push it to its logical conclusion, and, for the sake of 
peace in the family, prohibit women absolutely the exer- 
cise of freedom of thought and speech. Men live with 
their countrymen and disagree with them in politics, relig- 
ion, and ten thousand of the affairs of life, as often the 
trifling as the important. What harm then if a woman be 
allowed her vote upon the tariff, education, temperance, 



WAN SUFF1 

pence and war, an 1 whatev  the suffrage decides, an 1 

disagree with her neighbors? Be will not the serious, 

sober consideration of these matters together tend to a •••. 
conclusion on the part of both ? 

But we are told that no government of which we have 
authentic history ever gave to woman a share in the sov 
ereignty. This is not true, for the annals of monarchies 
and despotisms hav • been rendered illustrious by queens of 
surpassing brilliance and power. But even if it be tru  
that no republic ever enfranchised woman with the hallo*, 
so until within <>ue hundred years universal or general 

rage was unknown among men. II is the millennium 
yet d iwned ? Is all progress at an end ? If that which is, 
Should therefore remain, why abolish the slavery of men ? 

Popular approval of the ballot for woman is constantly 
increasing. Men and women are demanding that she shall 
be granted the opportunity to try her ease before the 
American people. Many, who once knew it should not be, 
are now uncertain. This is one of the most encouraging 
features of the times. There is a natural opposition to 
radical changes. Kducation, prejudice and environm 
often stand in the way. We realize that reforms often 
lead to revolution, and revolution means the outgoing of 
the old and the incoming of the new. Hence, there are 
many honest doubters who for a time stand still ; yet all 

»rms are made victorious by the increase of their num- 
ber and their aggregation at the focus of power, wherever 
ami whatever it m iv be. 

Thomas, our E/htTs disciple, doubted that his brethren 
had seen the Lord in his absence, and declared that he 
would not believe until he had thrust his finger into the 
prints of the nails in His hands and into the wound of His 
si le. But when he heard this at his following visit, it was 
enough. His heart leaped for joy as he, too, declared a 
risen Saviour. Copernicus and Galileo doubted the belief 
Of their age that the earth was ilat, and press,,! their inves- 
tigations until its rotundity was proven. Columbus was a 
target for the scorn and contempt of the people; but by 
persevering continuance, he won the honor of the world, 
and America is his monument. Luther, a monk in a Ger- 
man monastery, and Calvin, a pirish priest, doubted the 
right of the Pope to sell indulgences for the building of 



194 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

St. Peter's, and bursting the bonds of education and preju- 
dice, the one led to the great Reformation, the other to the 
establishing of the faith of many. John Wesley and Wil- 
liam Lloyd Garrison came through doubt to knowledge ; 
and, tell me, what would the world be to-day, if they had 
not stood through contumely and scorn and persecution, true 
to their convictions ? That honest doubters may reach the 
light, I proclaim the truth to-night, as God gives me to see 
the truth. If some entered this house opposed to this 
great reform and pass from it doubters, we praise the L,ord, 
knowing that from both these classes will come added 
forces that will hasten the victory. 

Mrs. Woodbridge made so profound an impression upon 
her audience, that on the Sabbath following the suffrage 
address, she spoke twice to the same people. Sunday even- 
ing she was greeted with the largest audience that ever 
attempted to crowd into the opera house. Every foot of 
available space was occupied, and hundreds despaired of 
admission and turned away. 



CHAPTER xiii 

ADDRESSES * N ' BUFFALO ON 'Tin. nation's PERIL," AND 

in CLEVELAND BEFORE THB KNIGHTS 

OF LABOR. 

They im> from strength to strength. — PscUihi '. 
First the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear. — 
Jesus. 

Build thee more stately m msions, < > my soul, 

\s the bw 1ft Bea» >n9 roll ! 

Leave thy low vaulted past ! 

Let each new temple, nobler than the 1 isl 

Shut thee from Heaven with a dome more vast, 

Till thon at length art free, 

Leaving- thine outgrown shell by life's unresting 

I Hitter Wendell Holme*.. 

" High hearts are never long without hearing some new call, some 
distant clarion of God, even in their dreams; and soon they are 
observed to break up the camp of ease, and start Ot] some fresh 
march of faithful service. And, looking higher still, we find those 
who never wait till their moral work accumulates, and who reward 

resolution with no rest; with whom, therefore, the alternation is 
Instantaneous and constant ; who do the good only to see the better, 
find see the better Only to achieve it ; who are tOO meek for trans 
port, too faithful for remorse, too earnest for repose ; whose worship 
iction, and whose action ceaseless aspiration."* 

WE find in her home among the innumerable press 
notices of Mrs. Woodbridge's speeches, the following 
report in a Buffalo paper of a speech delivered in that city, 
some time in February, 1886. This speech was delivered 
in the afternoon, followed by another in the evening, of 
which we find no report. These speeches were delivered 
by her under the auspices of the Woman's Prohibition Alli- 
ance. 

THE NATION'S PERIL. 

The temperance question, in its relation to the life of 
the nation, is the greatest issue before the American people, 

•This also was marked in one of Mrs. Woodbrid if devotion. Was 

ever wom.m filled with .1 divim tisfaction with v " one build 

higher and faster than did " Our Mary " during her last twenty years? 

095) 



196 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

to the consideration of which men and women are alike 
called. Joseph Cook has said : "From God and our record 
we can never separate ourselves." The nation's record of 
the liquor traffic is fearful to contemplate, from which we 
w r ould gladly be free were it possible. The interest of all 
men in this question is constantly increasing ; defenders 
and opposers alike have eyes and thoughts riveted upon 
this traffic, which is fraught with such peril to every fam- 
ily in the land. 

There is an old Indian legend that a morsel of a dwarf 
once presented himself to a king and asked the gift of all 
he might cover with three strides. The king looked upon 
him and seeing his exceeding smallness, granted the re- 
quest, whereupon that dwarf shot into a monster giant. 
With one stride he covered the sea, with another the land, 
and with a third he overthrew the king and sat upon his 
throne. 

With the founding of this government a hideous dwarf 
gained foothold, whose dimensions to-day exceed our 
power of measurement. L,ike that old Indian giant he 
has strode over sea and land, but unlike him has permitted 
the king to keep his throne, yet rules him with a rod of 
iron thrice heated in furnace financial, commercial and po- 
litical, until the United States, though under other name 
and nominal rule, is a kingdom over which alcohol holds 
sovereign sway. To prove the truth of my statement I 
need only to remind this audience that when the nation's 
chieftain w r as laid low by the assassin's bullet, the chosen 
cortege of death was but a drunken debauch, and so famil- 
iar were they with the demoralized condition of the United 
States congress, they presented the bill for such carnival. 

We are wont to believe our republican form of govern- 
ment the best known to man, and all desire its perpetua- 
tion. But forms of government are never absolutely, only 
relatively, good, and that form which is the very best for 
ourselves may be the very worst for our neighbors, for dif- 
ferent degrees of intelligence and virtue fit different peo- 
ples for different forms of government. That form is ever 
the best which couples the greatest personal liberty with 
the greatest personal security for its citizens. This can 
never be in a republic except as each man is to a proper 
degree a law unto himself; that is, there is a high develop- 



ADDRESSES. 197 

ment of the individual. Where this does not exist a more 
centralized form soon becomes a necessity, as in Mexi 
where an election is a mere euphemism for revolution. 
Spain by frequent trial and failure has proven herself in 
pable of self-government, How long France's present 
form may endure we cannot tell : she often seems toppling 
on the verge of overthrow. That imperialism is the 1 

Russia can possibly sustain, no thinking man or woman 

will doubt. Guizot, the wise old historian, has said, " re- 
publicanism requires the highest degree of intelligence and 

virtue." [f this he true, .and probably none questions it, 
and a republic is sinking in these two requisites and con- 
tinues to sink, it can he only a question of time when the 
more centralized form of government will become a neces- 
sity. 

This American repuhlic is founded on the two pillars 
named by Guizot "intelligence and virtue," and repre- 
sented in the concrete by our public schools and churches. 

Remove either of these and the republic must fall. 
Without our schools our rulers and law-makers would he 
well meaning hlunderers. Without our churches, they 
would he educated villains, for however honest a man may 
he, he is not fitted tortile unless he knows : yet knowledge 
of the right way does not create desire to walk therein. 
Knowledge does not transform character, it merely multi- 
plies a man. 

Thence when we fall below a certain plane of virtue, 
whatever our intelligence, or degree of intelligence, what- 
ever our virtue, republican institutions must fall. 

Our schools are our guarantee of intelligence, our 
churches are our schools in virtue ; hut besides these, 
through the years of the republic's existence, we have per- 
mitted, to grow up and to attain alarming proportions an- 
other class of educatory institutions, for that our saloons 
teach immorality and vice we all agree. 

By the late census I learn there were in this nation 
nearly two hundred and fifty thousand such schools pay- 
ing tax to the United States government, while with our 
kindergarten and normal grade there are less than two hun- 
dred and twenty thousand scnools of intelligence. 

The schools of intelligence teach their lessons five or 
six hours, five or six days in the week ; while the schools 



198 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

of vice and death dispense instruction fifteen or sixteen 
hours of every day in the week. 

Which of these schools is doing the most work ? In 
which do we find the most effective teaching ? We have 
an answer to both of these questions upon the record to 
which I have referred, which you may study at your leis- 
ure, where we learn "while the children in the public 
schools increased more than fifty per cent, crime with all 
our schools, with all our churches, increased more than 
sixty per cent." Already many of our large cities, under 
certain pressure, owing to the increase of vicious and ig- 
norant elements, are incapable of self-government. A few 
years ago I sat in a street car in the city of Chicago one 
of the hottest summer afternoons and watched a marvelous 
procession in their streets. I queried of my neighbors in 
the car what it meant ? They could not tell, but from the 
evening paper I learned "a week before communists in 
small numbers had marched through the streets of the 
city at will. While there was an under-current of terror 
in the hearts of the people, no definite action was taken, 
which encouraged the riotous element, and the morning 
light revealed the city filled with placards rallying their 
comrades to a grand parade on the following Sabbath day." 
The people were alarmed ; they demanded action ; the 
council was called together and an ordinance issued ; city 
officials were armed and volunteers called to add to the 
force, but it was soon evident this power would not be suf- 
ficient to quell the riot that was likely to occur and it be- 
came necessary to call the military from without the city 
and to procure a gatling gun that would sweep great 
swathes of death as Sisera's chariot swords, and for hours 
that procession marched to and fro, that it might impress 
upon the people the police power. We are familiar with 
the riots of New York and Pittsburg, of Cincinnati and 
Chicago, of St. Louis and San Francisco, and repeatedly 
have I been told, the latter city, "having been from time 
to time in the hands of sand-lotters, would long since have 
been razed to the face of the earth had it not been for the 
presence of the military." 

Perhaps a citizen of no state should feel more shame- 
facedness in speaking of this condition than one from Ohio, 
when in the city of Cincinnati two years ago occurred one 



ADDRESSES. 

of the most fearful riots of the age. During that time 
the New York Tribune asked: "Prom whence came th< 
demon that smeared his face in the Mood <>i two hundred 
dead and wounded, and exulted as t he fire destroyed the 
record of the law courts ? ' There probably was not a 
sensible man or woman in the state who could not have 

answered that question, but the secular press was as silent 

as death concerning the real cause, while the religious press 
was softly hinting at it, even in the very city, though it 

was well known that the mayor's order for the closing ol 
the saloons was obeyed only at the point of the bayonet, 
or within the range of the muskets of the militia, and a 

leading minister of thecity told me, " beyond, liquor flowed 

BS a river and was furnished by many means, not alom I 
the rioters, but to men in arms who were there for the pro- 
tection of the people." Cincinnati with its hundreds of 
thousands of people and but eighteen thousand church 
sittings for Protestants, including Germans, and then, as 
Dr. Leavott has told me, "not more than half filled <>n 
the Sabbath day," but with about four thousand saloons 
and hill-top resorts, where thirty-five thousand tickets have 
been sold on a single Sabbath for the zoological garden, 
the most fashionable hill-top resort, wdiere three balloons 
ascended, and into which, as the same divine has said, 
' leaving his Sabbath school that he might know the truth 
or falsity of reports constantly brought him, he entered 
shoe-deep in the beer mud, when all day long these thir- 
ty-five thousand had drank their beer and tossed the foam 
upon the soil." 

We therefore believe there must be a speedy change in 
the habits of our people or change in our form of govern- 
ment is inevitable. 

Trace a single habit, upon which we often look with 
complacency, to its effect upon the republic ! A leading ocu- 
list stated before a science congress, that " by request of the 
school board of Boston he had examined the eyes of twelve 
thousand of the boys and eighteen thousand of the girls of 
the public schools ; that he found four per cent of the boys 
color-blind, while but ten girls were thus afflicted. The 
boys could tell black from white, but they could not tell 
blue from green or the various shades of different colors and 
this he believed to be the result of bad habits ; for, said he. 



200 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

I find the average boy of thirteen in this city with a cigar- 
ette in mouth, dipped in nicotine, a single drop of which in 
its purity would kill a small animal in three minutes and 
always more or less affects the optic nerve." Notwith- 
standing the learning of the oculist and the culture of that 
great audience, they were not willing to receive it, and the 
oculist asked liberty, then and there, to bring his science 
test to bear. These were men, not boys ; women, not girls, 
and not four per cent, but ten per cent of these men were 
color-blind, and not a woman, which the oculist assured 
" was the increased effect of the increased use of tobacco." 

The result of such habits is manifest in the decreased 
number of boys in our public schools from the fifth grade 
and upward, and carefully collected statistics show but twen- 
ty-five per cent of the boys entering the public schools in 
the eastern states, pass through the grades and graduate 
therefrom. Since that time equally careful investigation 
has been made in Ohio, and but seventeen per cent is the 
ratio of graduates, while, as in New England, the number 
of girls remains almost intact. Does not this foreshow the 
weakening of the politics ? The late census shows us that 
twenty-two per cent of American voters are unable to read 
and write. You will doubtless say, as have others, this is 
owing to the addition of the colored votes, but that addition 
was made before the last decade and the census report has 
given us an item which should startle every lover of God 
and humanity. It says, " but one state maintained in 1880 
the status of intelligence of 1870." Thus we have the seal 
of the United States government upon the decadence of the 
intelligence of the people as a whole. 

Yet even under this regime there is hope ; our young 
women are entering life with trained thought and cultured 
mind, keenly alive to all national issues. 

As I go up and down the land I find large numbers of 
Chautauqua classes and of classes in political economy, with 
the ratio of man to woman as that of boys to girls in the 
high schools. 

Soon after President Garfield's inauguration he said to 
a class of teachers who called upon him : "I am delighted 
to see women puzzling over the questions of political econ- 
omy, tariff and finance, capital and labor class dissensions 
and internal strife. I notice their keen observation of pass- 



ADDRESSES. 

Ing events and their wise deductions therefrom and believe 

the future of this republic is in the hands of its women." 

A.ges .i-; > the world's R leemer 1 i a the 

His first commission w.is t > ;i woman, "To tell the brethren 
I ascend to my Father, and your P : to my God and 

your God." All through these ages those have been ex- 
ceptional cases of obedience, but never until the spirit of 

G 1 entered into the hearts of women in Ohio in the Cru- 
sade days, and deepc mvicti >n sw ; ' over the entire nation, 
did they recognize their disobe I From that hour, 

inducted into new lines of thought and of action under such 
conditions as I have i ipi sented, • • conscious of 

their weakness ; keenly alive to the diffi 9 which edu- 

cation and prej udice would place in their way, goaded by 
nev< ng agony as the companion of their life, or their 

boy, dearer than their very being, v. ' in a vor- 

tex of the nation's crime, they banded themselves together 
in the name of Jehovah to cease not to think and to act 
until there shall be found amendments in constitutions of 
States and nations prohibiting the manufacture and sale of 
everything that intoxicates ; planks so broad and protective 
that upon them they may stand in safety with their loved 
ones. 

The boys of whom I have spoken, who turn their backs 
upon the schools of intelligence, soon enter the schools of 
vice and death. 

Their descent is not often rapid, they almost always en- 
ter into business relations, and as inevitably marry the girls 
with whom they have associated through life, who, though 
more cultivated than themselves, permit the passion of the 
hour to overcome judgment. 

Almost the first revelation of their marriage is the supe- 
riority of the wife, which under such circumstances is i 
demoralizing, soon leading the husband in his consc; 
weakness to treat the wife with indifference, disrespect and 
neglect. For a time she finds compensation in study and 
her children, but the little ones often become a counterpart 
oi the father, who without resource, goes deeper and deeper 
into sin until he becomes abandoned to the drink passion. 

With neglect of business comes poverty. The wife- 
reaches out to become the breadwinner, but meager the 
supply she gathers under such conditions. From necessity 



202 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

the children are withdrawn from the school, and under the 
pressure of heredity, circumstances soon add to the mass 
of debauched, debased humanity. 

Thus, through the demoralization of the family, God's 
own institution, and the multiplication of vicious elements 
thereby, and the planting of foreign immorality in our 
midst, which for political ends receives political favor, the 
church is worldly, the standard of morality is low. We 
have not so held up Christ that all men have been drawn 
unto Him, for the Lord ever keeps covenant with the faith- 
ful. 

The children even of Christian parents are not brought 
under gospel influences as in the olden time. The time 
was when every child who could walk to the church of God 
was expected to be in his place with regularity, even 
though he might not understand the words spoken by the 
holy messenger. The Sabbath became sacred to him, and 
the habit of attendance upon the services of the sanctuary 
fixed. 

Because of all this, the Holy Ghost rests not upon be- 
lievers. This ministerial influence and power are not upon 
the church, or His convicting or converting power upon the 
world in answer to its prayer. The tongue of fire rests upon 
but few. 

Is it not clear that our intelligence and our virtues are 
diminishing ? From whence shall reform come ? Who 
shall be our Saviour ? What our salvation ? 

We are a nation of patriots. Ample proof had we of 
this when Abraham Lincoln issued the call for 75,000 men, 
which was answered almost before the sun went down. 
The same patriotism burns in the hearts of men to-day. 
Bring to them facts and figures, no matter how startling, if 
they cannot be controverted. Prove that the liquor traffic 
will never loosen its hold upon this republic, though it fall, 
except under compulsion, and they will come to the rescue. 
They will again be our saviours, but what shall be the salva- 
tion ? Surely not regulation, restriction of the traffic ! God 
forbid ! I need not argue the question before such an audi- 
ence. 

Coleridge, hearing a friend enlarge upon a new scheme 
of redemption for the world, threw a bit of thistle-down 
into the air, and said, "The tending of this thistle-down is 



ADDRESSES 203 

toward China, but I know with assured certainty it will 
never reach there ; nay, it is more than probable that after 
eddyings and gyrations up and down, backward and for- 
ward, it will be found near its starting place. This is hut 
an epitome of every attempt made to regulate the liquor 

traffic, and under the effort we have attained our present 

status." 

S >me will say, "educate your children. Teach them 

the right way and the wrong, that they may seek the one 

and shun the other." Never was the motherhood of Amer- 
ica SO awake to the necessity of education. I find mothers 
te iching their children of the " thus saith the Lord " in His 
Word, in science and in nature. This teaching through 
the \V. C. T. U. is in every form and for every grade, hut 
the evil goes on and the children are lost. 

Passengers on the deck of a steamer saw in the air a 
little brown sparrow, weary and worn, just ready to falter 
ami fall, when it spied the ri^-in-. Kadi heart hounded 
with joy as they saw the little bird at rest, hut suddenly 
the feathers began to fall upon the deck, and the drops ol 
blood told that the talons of the hawk had fastened in it. 
So we send our boys and sometimes our girls, out from 
Christian cultured homes. Boys around whom the arms 
of the mother have been folded to the last moment of home 
life ; boys who have been brought to a morning and even- 
ing altar, who go out with a fresh baptism of prayer and 
of tears, but when out upon the sea of life they enter into 
the temptations about them, which is repeated o'er and o'er 
until every feather of their manhood is lost, and often to 
the old home comes the word that their life has gone out in 
blood drops of crime. 

I stood at the death-bed of an aged saint a few years 
ago. We had known her but a little time, but she had so 
helped Christians into higher life ami sinners into the king- 
dom, that we watched her in these last moments, as if we 
might catch a glimpse within the gates ajar, when she was 
gathered in. We thought life had ceased, when she sud- 
denly looked upon her husband and said, in almost super- 
human tones, " The old home is a shadow to him, but he 
is the life care of my heart. Tell him, tell him." When 
we had performed the last rites for that woman, and sat 
with the lonely husband at his fireside, he told us of a boy 



204 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

who years before bad gone out from their old home. For 
a time he came bringing pleasure, but the interim between 
his visits grew longer and longer, until he was lost to 
sight. A friend had met him in Australia and had said, 
" Go home ; your father and mother are going down with 
gray hairs in sorrow to the grave ; go home and cheer the 
last years of their life." The boy said: "The old home 
is a shadow to me" but the mother's last words were: 
" He is the life care of my heart." 

I go up and down the land and find numberless women 
like these holding such life cares to their heart. I enter 
with such women the closet, where the} - are wont to tell 
their sorrow unto God, and kneel with them before the 
throne and listen, as they pour forth their pleadings for the 
" salvation of their loved ones, victims of this awful sin," 
(for never have I heard a woman speak with bitterness of 
such) but have heard them cry out as perfect furies in their 
call for God's vengeance to rest upon their destroyers. 
What can a Christian woman say ? Only the words of Je- 
hovah, "Vengeance is mine, I will repay." 

No, my friends, education will never do it, while legally 
opened on every side are places of temptation and death. 
But how long can the republic endure such vengeance of 
God ? When shall the salvation be wrought ? Whenever 
men act upon their full knowledge that interests touching 
humanity, must, in a republic, crystallize at the ballot box, 
and are ready to cast aside personal interests for the good 
of humanity, whenever women are obedient to God in the 
salvation of the people ! To this end women should seek 
by study of every phase of political economy to prepare 
themselves for any and all emergencies of the age. Do you 
say it is not womanly ? Selfishness is never womanly, 
weakness is not womanly. It is selfish to tamper with sin ; 
weak to fear what man will say if we boldly declare the 
truth, ' ' as God gives us to see the truth," but it is womanly 
to stand alone with God, if all the world be against us. 
What matters the verdict of men if the soul hears the 
" well done" of the Master? 

Oh, woman, endowed by God for a work which man can 
never do ; with motherhood, sisterhood, throbbing in )'Our 
veins, God holds you responsible for all that He has given. 
Nothing can be unwomanly that He calls you to do, and as 



ADDRESSES. 

your heart beats in sympathy with the suffering <»n every 
side, limit not your powers, I pray you, by refusal to try 
your hand on any lever of relief that He may ordain. 

Woman cannot conceive of a nation without law, and to 
her nothing is law that is not in harmony with God's edicts, 
and as study reveals to her that almost every law upon our 
statute book touching the liquoi traffic is at variance with 
the Divine, while lessening not her efforts lor the personal 
salvation of men, she will reach out to the multitude whom 

her own hand can never touch, but from whom may he- 
taken the temptations which hind them to a life oi sin. 

In this extension of effort, she will stand in behalf of men, 
of women, of children, of society, alike outraged, defied, 

dishonored, destroyed, and will cry out in the name of the 
law and with the power of the law, " F will be guilih a be- 
V.- my Christian wotnankood shall annihilate this 

from our land " 

My sisters, when this is, then will the word of our Lord 
run and be glorified ; then will the kingdom of this world 
soon be the kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ. 

Mrs. Woodbridge was commissioned by the National \V. 
C. T. IT. to carry its greetings to the Knights of Labor, to 
be convened in General Assembly, in Cleveland, May 25, 
1886. She addressed them in words so appropriate, and 
with manner so winning and impressive that the Knights 
were profoundly moved. The Cleveland Leader tells us 
that " the applause that followed her remarks lasted fully 
five minutes." 

ADDRESS. 

Brothers, intelligent people read with interest the utter- 
ances of public leaders ; the messages of the President of 
the United States, the governors of states — of representa- 
tive men and women ; but rarely has it been their privilege 
to peruse a document comparable with the circular of your 
honorable leader, lately addressed to his constituency. 
Not more gently could the silver-tongued Frances K. Wil- 
lard, president of the W. C. T. U., have urged obedience 
to the Golden Rule, ''Do unto others as ye would they 
should do unto you." Not more earnestly would she have 



206 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

pleaded for diligent study of political economy, that no 
man may be found "who cannot vote intelligently, and 
will not watch the man for whom he votes, if elected." 
Who will not rejoice at the utterance, "They will never 
need the gun or dynamite in this country ; if the head, the 
brain of man, cannot work out the problem now confront- 
ing us, his hand alone will never solve it." Because the 
National W. C. T. U. commends and advocates such princi- 
ples, believing intelligence and virtue to be pillars of the 
American republic ; because we are workers with you for 
the uplifting of humanity, we extend to you greeting, and 
thank your leader for his magnificent appeal to drinking 
men ; words worthy of a Gough : 

To our drinking members I extend the hand of kindness. I 
hate the uses to which rum has been put, but it is my duty to reach 
down and lift up the man who has fallen a victim to the use of 
liquor. If there is such a man within the sound of the secretary's 
voice when this is read, I ask him to stand erect on the floor of his 
assembly, raise his hand to heaven and repeat with me these words : 
" I am a Knight of Labor. I believe that every man should be free 
from the curse of slavery, whether the slavery appears in the shape 
of monopoly, usury or intemperance. The firmest link in the chain 
of oppression is the one I forge when I drown my manhood and 
reason in drink. No man can rob me of the brain my God has given 
me unless I am a party to the theft. If I drink to drown grief, I 
bring grief to wife, child, and sorrowing friends. I add not one iota 
to the sum of human happiness when I invite oblivion over the rim 
of a glass. If one moment's forgetfulness or inattention to duty 
while drunk brings defeat to the least of labor's plans, a lifetime of 
attention to duty alone can repair the loss. I promise never again to 
put myself in such a position." 

I pray you, gentlemen, respond to this appeal and 
through the resolutions that shall go forth from this assem- 
bly repeat the words of your leader, and may God help 
you to keep your pledge. A man who utters such a senti- 
ment, an organization that shall embody and personify it, 
will move the world. No longer will its members be wage- 
workers only, no longer ' ' tools used to further the schemes 
of individuals, cliques or parties," but men in the image of 
God, upon whom the nation may depend ; brothers having 
the same standard of purity as the sisters by their side, pos- 
sessed of the true essence of Christianity, the love of country 
and the brotherhood of humanity — who with recognition 
and fulfillment of individual responsibility, will ever defend 



ADDRESSES. 207 

the honor of women and the glory of the cross. We in- 
voke the blessing oi God upon your convocation, that when 
yon shall have adjourned, the world, whose eyes are upon 
you, may be able to say as Lord Chatham to the British 
parliament of the first colonial congress ol Ameri ( m 

bled in 1774: "For solidity of reasoning, force oi ity, 

and wisdom of conclusion, no body of men could stand in 
preference." Tims would the National Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union join hands with the Knights oi Labor in 
placing this " government upon the shoulders of him who 
is wonderful, counsellor, the mighty God, the everlasting 
father, the prince ol peace," and in crowning Christ, our 
Lord, as the ruler of nations. 

The Toronto Globe of the next day, May 26, published 

the Letter of the National W. C. T. U., and Mrs. Wood- 
bridge's address, with this observation : ' A Woman's 
Eloquent Words on the Temperance Question. Nearly 
every paper in Canada has published the letter and ad- 
dress, and a hundred thousand workingmen are reading it 
who never before thought of these thin. 

Tims, the patient, toiling women of the W. C. T. I". 
are sending their messages into all lands winged by ' 
and prayer, that gladden countless homes and purify innu- 
merable hearts. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

LABORS FOR PEACE AND INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION. 

War is the statesman's gain, the priest's delight, 
The lawyer's jest, the hired assassin's trade, 
And to those royal murderers whose mean thrones 
Are bought by crimes of treachery and gore 
The bread they eat, the staff on which they lean. 

— Shelley. 

Daughter of God, that sit'st on high 

Amid the dances of the sky, 

And guidest with thy gentle sway, 

The planets on their tuneful way ; 

Sweet Peace ! Shall ne'er again 

The smile of thy most holy face, 

From thine ethereal dwelling-place 

Rejoice the wretched, weary race 

Of discord-breathing men ? 

Too long, O gladness-giving Queen ! 

Thy tarrying in heaven has been ; 

Too long o'er this fair blooming world 

The flag of blood has been unfurled, 

Polluting God's pure day ; 

Whilst, as each maddening people reels, 

War onward drives his scythed wheels, 

And at his horses' bloody heels 

Shriek Murder and Dismay ! 

— William Tennent. 

Peace is more strong than war, and gentleness, 
Where force were vain, makes conquest o'er the wave. 

And love lives on, and hath a power to bless, 
When they who loved are hidden in the grave. 

— Lowell . 

WITH faces turned toward the future and with hearts 
eager to respond to every inspiration from God, the 
W. C. T. TJ. closely scans the present, to read from passing 
events some new duty and discover some additional line of 
effort. In thus keeping in touch with God's movements in 

(20S) 



f< /•• A VD ARBITRATION. 

history, it has been quick to discern the impulse of the 
world toward universal peace. The department of Peace 
and International Arbitration was early added to the 
various other forms of work. Mrs. Hannah J. Bailey, of 

Winthrop Center. Me., was pi iced over it, and Mrs. Wo 

bridge was made the department lecturer for tin World's 
and National \V. C. T. U. For several years prior to the 

last year of her lite she did much work in this field 
effort, lecturing in hundreds of towns and cities in this 
d luntry and in Europe. 

We find among her papers and notebooks a manuscript 

of an address to he delivered in Philadelphia, at what time 
or place is not indicated. Presumably, it is substantially 

the line of thought she followed in any d ion of the 

theme. We know a certain famous lecturer in this country 

who once said to a friend : ' I never feel that I have mas 

tered a theme or have a subject well in hand until I have 

spoken upon it at least fifty times." \\><\\ well Mrs. 

Woodbridge spoke her fiftieth time on this great theme we 

shall never know. The best we can give the reader is this, 

— perhaps the first unfinished draft of the speech. The 

vanquished rival of Demosthenes once read Demosthenes' 

great oration on the " Crown," to an audience, and was 

rewarded by a storm of applause. "Ah," said he, "but 

you ought to have heard him deliver it ! ' However this 

address may read, we can sincerely say, " Ah, but you 

ought to have heard her deliver it! " 

PEACE AND ARBITRATION IN NATIONAL AND INTKK 
NATIONAL AFFAIRS. 

To speak of " Peace " in this city of " Brotherly Love," 
or to talk of " arbitration " when the Society of Friends has 
held sway during the Republic's existence, seems but a 
travesty on reason. Yet from whence could such truth 
better proceed, than where precept and practice are ever 
aiming at the fulfillment of that Bethlehem prophecy, 
" Peace on earth, good will toward men " ? 



2IO LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

During the present century interest in this subject has 
been awakened, and has slowly but steadily grown until, 
under the quickening of conscience, civilized Christian na- 
tions are recognizing the fact that individual and national 
life are so interwoven that what interests one person or one 
nation, more or less concerns all. 

Taking the Scriptures as a standard, we present as a 
fundamental proposition, that war is contrary to the will 
and the spirit of Christ ; a hindrance to the building of 
His kingdom upon the earth in withholding ' ' the govern- 
ment from His shoulders." This is not a conviction of the 
latter day ; for history reveals to us the sensitiveness of 
conscience among early Christians concerning war, military 
organizations and the entrance therein of those who pro- 
fessed the name of the Lord. In the early centuries of 
the Christian era, ere the brightness of Christianity was 
dimmed by the sinful ambitions of Christ's professed fol- 
lowers, all disciples held to the incompatibility of a soldier's 
life with obedience to the Master's teachings. Justin, the 
martyr, calls the devil "the author of war," while Tatian 
and Tertullian held like opinions ; the latter asking : "Can 
a soldier's life be lawful when Christ has said, ' He who 
lives by the sword shall perish by the sword ' ? Shall he who 
is not to revenge his own wrongs be instrumental in bring- 
ing others into chains, imprisonment, torment and death?" 

Chrysostom and Jerome spoke with equal clearness. 
No well authenticated instance has been found of a Chris- 
tian's entrance into the army during the first two centuries 
of the Christian era ; though then as now the military pro- 
fession was considered most honorable, and almost the only 
calling in which a man of humble origin might hope to rise 
and achieve glory. Early writers speak of Christians and 
soldiers as two distinct classes of men, and Clemens of 
Alexandria expressly says: " Those who were the follow- 
ers of peace used none of the instruments of war." 

Not only did Christians refuse to enter the army, but 
many instances are recorded in which conversion led men 
to retire from its ranks. Eusebius tells us that " numbers 
laid aside a military life and became private persons rather 
than abjure their religion." Every Christian writer of the 
second century who mentions the subject, and there are 
many, regarded it unlawful for Christians to bear arms. 



/'/ .h 7 AND ARBITRA Th >\. 2\ I 

Kvcn to martyrdom were men ready to stand for this 
principle. Who can fail to admire the spirit of thai M 
imilian who, when called before Dion, the pro-consul, to 
be enrolled as a soldier, exclaimed : ' I am a Christian ; 
1 cannot fight." Dion said: "Bear arms or thou shalt 
die," and Maximilian answered : "I cannot fight it I die." 
Refusing to receive the government mark, 1>' he al- 

ready bore the stamp of Christ, Dion said: "I will quickly 
semi thee to thy Christ." As if he caught a ravishing 

glimpse of his heavenly home, Maximilian replied : "Thou 

mayst do so hut the glory will be mine." 

The sentence was speedily executed and his loving 

mother buried the body of her son beside that of Cyprian, 

the martyr, where, hut thirteen days alter, she too was 
laid to rest. 

Was not the husband and father well named " Victor," 
who could turn from that spot rejoicing and praising God 
that he had been permitted to make such offering to his 
Lord, well knowing he, too, must soon follow ? 

Thus when the lamp of Christianity burned brightly, 
when there was singleness of eye and of purpose, nun 
stood ; and not until paganism crept in during the third 
century was there change. But under its influence, this 
principle seems to have been almost forgotten. 

For centuries the pagan view of the subject has been 
dominant ; war has largely been regarded by the nations 
as the necessary and only honorable method by which in- 
sult should be met, or encroachment resisted. If its dec- 
laration has been delayed, preparations have been made 
for strife, armies and fleets equipped, national enmity 
awakened and inflamed, while forbearance and love have 
been forgotten, until judgment has been biased and peace- 
ful settlement of difficulties often rendered impossible. 

The religious society of Friends has from its organi- 
zation held as a distinctive tenet that bitterness ol spirit, 
Unkind retaliation, military tenure and action are contrary 
to the gospel of peace, and at variance with the teachings 
of the Prince of Peace. 

As the Prince of Peacehas thus been held up, the prom- 
ise has been fulfilled. He has drawn men unto Himself, 
and to the advocacy of His principles. And though 
tumely and martyrdom were their portion in early days, 



212 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE, 

which the}- suffered as their Master without opening their 
mouth, they are now honored by the increasing acceptance 
throughout Christendom of the principles for which they 
stood. And not alone their teaching against unrighteous 
warfare, but their recognition of the position and sphere 
of woman in the affairs of the church, and the honor they 
have ever paid to the office of the Holy Spirit, have been 
of unspeakable blessing to the world. They have accepted 
heartily in its spirit the Golden Rule which leads directly 
to a system of arbitration in the settlement of national 
and international difficulties that cannot be met by nego- 
tiations or treaties. The time is fast ripening for its adop- 
tion as our rule of action if "the earth shall ever be a 
paradise and human life a psalm." 

There is no doctrine of Scripture more self-evident than 
that peace is God's will for man; that He has ordained it 
to be the result of right conduct ; that perfect peace is the 
divine gift of those who are stayed on Him. There is no 
truth more axiomatic than that our homes should be the 
abiding place of peace, as the result of virtue and justice 
within its walls. And as the nations are but the aggrega- 
tion of homes, can any reason be found why they should 
not be equally pure and righteous ? 

Let peace depart from the home, let dissension enter 
and the home life is banished. If this be confined within 
four walls there is misery to the family, and often to asso- 
ciates ; if it be in the nation, its results reach to the limits 
of its territory, and if international, to the world. 

Cast the eye over our land and count if we can the cost 
of our civil war. Statisticians tell us that 656,000 fathers, 
brothers and sons were torn from home and home influ- 
ences to fall upon the battlefield or die in hospital or prison 
cell. Men made in the image of God, snatched from every 
holy association, and returned to the earth from whence 
they came, without apparent thought of that immortality 
which God has given to every soul ! Numberless thou- 
sands returned decrepit and unfit for life's duties, physical 
or moral wrecks. Four long years these and others were 
consumers of the nation's wealth ; and an enfeebled host 
and their children are consuming still, none the less a fact 
because such provision has been made in honor and justice 
to the nation's defenders. Manufacturing interests were 
depressed and resources diminished by the withdrawal of 



/'/•:./( /' . \Nl > . \RB1 Tk\ 1 v/< > v. 2 1 3 

workmen, while three billion seven hundred million dollars 
wei :nded, demanding increased taxation for y< u 

A n> 1 these arc but few of the many traceable evils 
resulting from the great war of the rebellion. 

'But," you may ask, "what could have 
W :re we not I • take such action ? " Who would not 

have answered yes at the moment of Our provocation, under 

stupefied moral condition of the people forgetful of the 
[den Rule of Christ? Hut who can affirm that through 
tration the difficulty might not have been amicably set- 
tled, even after the boom of that gun at Sumter that rang 

through the land 5 This was the belief of President Lin- 

i. who, in his message of March 2, 1862, exhorted to 
a settlement of difficulties on the I f compensation, 

which, had there been a willing response by Congress, 
lid doubtless have been done. Do you ask what would 

have been saved? Six hundred and fifty-six thousand 
men for God and home and country ! a solid South and a 
1 North ! incomputable suffering and sorrow and de- 
moralization, from which the nation cannot be freed lor 
generations I 

And what would have been gained ? The honor of our 
God, and that seal of national brotherhood which would 
have lifted us above all nations of the earth. 

From Cooper's American Politics we learn that thevalu- 
n set upon the slaves at the request of Mr. Lincoln in 
:, by members of Congress, w > each, man, woman 

and child. Assuming their number to have been four mil- 
lions, the value of all the slaves in the United States was 
but one billion, two hundred million dollars, less than 
one-third the direct cost of the war. 

Suppose we had paid twice that amount, or all the nation 
ended for the four years of warfare, would it not have 
□ a grand investment ? a magnificent lesson in material 
and moral economics? The foundation cause, or can 
that lead to war, are seen and understood by few. War is 
always the outcome of evil ; usually of slow growth : but 
striking deep root into the national heart. Back of the 
apparent cause are the unseen passions of men, fostered by 



* The direct cost of the war. interest I rid destroved property 

already foot up over eight billions.— T}i >r. 



214 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

human avarice, appetite and ambition. The almost inevi- 
table result of this upon the people is the kindling of a 
spirit of excitement and hostility; pride is stimulated, and 
the computing of one's own strength and the believed weak- 
ness of others. One side becomes impatient and eagerly 
grasps the first provocation for the trial of power. 

Why did William Penn live in peace with the aborigines 
while other early settlers in like condition met with difficul- 
ties which often led to bloodshed ? He treated them as fel- 
low beings, subject with himself to human frailties, whose 
judgment could not exceed their knowledge. He considered 
their displacement by the coming in of a new race, and their 
sorrow of heart as their homes and their habits were changed 
by the new environment. He thought of them as well as 
himself; thus manifesting a Christian sympathy which com- 
manded respect. It is said that Indians, entering his hut, 
would drop on their knees, and as he laid his hand on their 
heads they would point upward to the Great Spirit, of whom 
he was their reminder. In him was found the esseuce of 
Christianity ; — the recognition of the brotherhood of man 
on the one hand, and on the other the acceptance of indi- 
vidual responsibility to God. 

It is said that Europe began the year 1889 with fifteen 
million trained soldiers under arms, or on the reserve corps. 
It is doubtful if any year in the history of the world has 
had such a showing. For years the nations have been 
working up to this military climax. As these armies have 
increased in size the nations have decreased in prosperity. 
The support of so large an army of non-producers drains 
their exchequer. Their industrial, educational and moral 
forces are proportionally weakened, pressing to the alter- 
native of fighting to maintain their life, at the expense of 
others, or of disbanding their armies that their own life 
may be preserved. 

One of the interesting factors is found in the very heart 
of this condition. In the center of Russia with her four 
million soldiers, we find Count Leo Tolstoi advocating with 
a rare intensity of zeal the friendly theory that violent resist- 
ance to evil is never justifiable ; that violence as a means of 
redressing wrong is not only futile, but aa aggravation of 
the original evil, since it is the nature of violence to multi- 
ply and reproduce itself. 



\Ci A VD XRBITR I /" > X 21 5 

G lorge ECennan, reporting a visit to the Count, tells us 
that he went directly from the political exiles in Siberia, 
where all the belligerent, retaliatory elements of his nature 

had been arOUSed, to the home of the C' mnt. He listened 
to the Count's advocacy of his theory without sympathy, 
almost with defiance. Then he narrated to him a most heart- 
ding experience Of a woman of education and refinement 
whom he had met among the exiles, and said: "Suppose 
that woman had been your daughter; would you have 

refused to interfere by an act of violence? ' The Count was 

silent. His eyes tided with tears as he pictured in mind 
the horrors of such a situation. After a moment he asked : 
" Do you know that was done ? ' "I did not see it done," 
was Mr. Kennan's reply, "but I have it from those in whom 
I have implicit confidence." A iter another silence the Count 
again spoke: "Even under such circumstances, violence 
WOUld not be justifiable. Let US analyze the situation care- 
fully." And the incontrovertible truth set forth in that anal- 
ysis was in these words : " The whole history of the world is 
a history of violence ; and you can of course cite violence 
in support of violence. But in human society there is an 
endless variety of opinions as to what constitutes wrong 
ami oppression ; and if you once concede the right of any 
man to resort to violence, to resist what hr regards as wrong, 
he being the judge, you authorize every other man to enforce 
his opinion in the same way; and you have a universal reign 
of violence. It does not seem to me that is the way to 
bring about the reign of peace and good- will on earth." 

What an arbitrator the Count would make ! And there 
are such in almost every nation. Who would not gladly 
trust in such hands the settlement of national and interna- 
tional difficulties? Who would not rejoice in the removal 
of Mich questions from the political influences of the present 
day to a general permanent system of arbitration, or to an 
international court wdiose decisions would be received by all 
governments without demur ? 

As General Grant said, though the decisions might not 
suit either nation at the time, it would satisfy the conscience 
o\ mankind. 

And the glad day dawns. The star of hope rises higher 
year by year. Though the sun still shines on bristling bay- 
onets throughout all Europe, conscience is awake ; the 



216 LIFE OF MARY A. W00DBR1DGE. 

world is coming nearer together. We are neighbors as 
never before, and men are weary of strife and long for 
peace. 

What an exhibition of fraternal love and Christian 
brotherhood was the appearance of that committee which 
presented to Congress a memorial bearing the names of 
233 members of the English House of Commons. A me- 
morial asking for a treaty between the United States of 
America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, stipulating for a reference to arbitration of all differ- 
ences between the two countries which could not be settled 
by diplomacy. The aim of the proposal it was said was 
"to confirm the friendship and increase the security of each 
nation." And to this end it was proposed "to substitute 
the arbitrament of reason for the arbitrament of the sword." 

Memorials for peace have been repeatedly presented to 
Congress from various societies and more than was even 
hop^d has already been done. 

Hon. John Sherman, of Ohio, on June 14, 188S, intro- 
duced into the Senate a bill which provides that the presi- 
dent be, and is hereby requested to invite from time to 
time, as fit occasion may arise, negotiations with any gov- 
ernment with which the United States has or may have 
diplomatic relations ; that any difficulties or disputes arising 
between the two governments, which cannot be adjusted by 
diplomatic agency, may be referred to arbitration and peace- 
ably settled without resort to arms. This was adopted and 
led directly to the calling and later the meeting of the Pan 
American Council, consisting of seventeen American nations 
betweenVhich a treaty of peace was established covering 
nearly the entire territory of the two Americas. 

It was a wonderful coincidence that on that same 14th 
day of June, a committee of the French Assembly passed a 
resolution petitioning the French government to enter into 
a permanent treaty of arbitration with the United States. 
John Bright, then the English Friend in the House of Com- 
mons, now the glorified in the Father's Kingdom, said: "I 
think if the government of the United States were willing, 
and were in anyway to signify their willingness to become 
a party to such a treaty, there is force enough of good men 
with us, to induce our government to consent to it.'- 
Every Chamber of Commerce of the United Kingdom has 



PEAi /' AND ARBITRATE 217 

in the annual meeting of the Association, endorsed such 
treaty by resolution, 

What triumphs over the old war sentiment these 
9 dedication of the American continent to tual 

peace is one of the most important forward movements oi 
modern history. The nations included cover a territ 
: »ur times the si. i oi Europe, or nearly one- third of the dry 
land of the globe. Their combined population will, in a 
few years, exceed that of all Eui | The force of such an 

example must he powerful in the Old World and will give 

to the friends of peace and arbitration therea leverage which 
will greatly increase their influence. 

Hut in connection with this great good there comes to 
us an illustration of the power of evil. It is believed by 
many that the United States has been unjust toward Chili 
in the past. Let the truth be as it may, thus regarded by 
Chili, that nation refused to confirm the treaty of the Pan- 
American Council, and late conditions, with which we are 
all familiar, were possible. Had Chili joined the compact, 
and the like acts had transpired, all would have been re- 
ferred to arbitration ; through which there would undoubt- 
edly have been speedy settlement without ill feeling. 
' behold, how great a matter a little fire kindleth! " 

Arbitration is fast becoming a recognized duty. ITu- 
tnanity is loudly calling for its establishment as a perma- 
nent and authoritative part of the law of nations. Other 
I is ire also working to the same result. The devotion 
to material interests which characterizes our age, exerts a 
powerful opposition to war — the great waster and destroyer 
of wealth. The growing power of the masses as opposed t>> 
the classes, the enlargement of the place and influence of 
the people in the sphere of government, make it more diffi- 
cult for sovereigns to array their armies for the settlement 

of disputes. 

The increasing communication between nations, and 
the establishment of a world's public opinion by which all 
nations and governments are judged, have thrown a new 
restraint around the ambitions and resentments of ml© 
The glamour which was once over the eyes of men, blind- 
ing them to the folly and wickedness of war, is 1 ;-t passing 
away. 

All these are greatly aided by the quickened forces of 



218 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Christianity ; but there is urgent need and room for more 
resolute action by the church ! Should not the Christian 
ministry lead public sentiment in this great cause? 

The revelations of science are calling a halt to war. At 
the centennial celebration of the adoption of the consti- 
tution of the United States in September, 1887, the late 
General Philip H. Sheridan, not a private citizen but com- 
mander of the United States army, gave his view of the 
future in these words : "There is one thing you should 
appreciate, and that is, that improvement in the material of 
war, in dynamite and other explosives, and in breech-load- 
ing guns, is rapidly bringing us to a period when war will 
be eliminated from history ; when we can no longer stand 
up and fight each other, and when we will have to resort to 
something else. Now what will that something else be? 
It will be arbitration. I mean what I say when I express 
the belief that any of those here present, who may live 
until the next centennial, will find that arbitration will 
rule the whole world." 

The force of this utterance is seen in the presence of the 
Maxim gun now coming into general use in Europe, which 
fires six hundred bullets a minute, automatically, that is, 
by its own recoil. It needs only to be touched off by an 
operator, through a telegraphic wire of indefinite length 
buried in the ground. To send a regiment of soldiers to 
fight such a machine would be to send them to a shameful, 
inevitable and useless death. As well order an army over 
the crater of a volcano in eruption, or send it to resist a 
cyclone. It would be a wholesale murder without excuse 
or palliation. 

In one of his brilliant essays Macaulay pointed out the 
improbability that England would again engage in military 
contention with her neighbors on the ground of her jeop- 
arded wealth, were such a disastrous event to occur. And 
accordingly that great country has for many years held 
aloof from such complications as might lead to this result. 
But what is true of England is true of all other nations, 
which have made progress in illustrating the advantages 
of an uninterrupted commerce. Even what is styled " na- 
tional honor," must everywhere yield in time to national 
prosperity. Yet this time will not come until the world's 
traders unite to force its arrival. We know, indeed, that 



PEACE AND ARBITRATION. 

the most potent factor in the premises is that spirit of oui 
divine religion, the universal prevalence of which shall 
necessarily be also the prevalence of universal peat e. All 
the same, however, means must be employed for achieving 
the spread of this spirit throughout all lands. And one of 
these means is the getting of those men to act in concert 
who, in addition to their benevolent wish to see the world 
in perpetual peace, have also the desire to keep in constant 
movement those wheels of an earth-wide industry which 
Christianity itself approves. 

There are statesmen who talk of the principle of arbi- 
tration : journals of influence throughout Christendom give 
to this principle their occasional advocacy — even congresses 
and parliaments discuss and resolve it ; but after all it will 
H St largely upon commercial leaders to construct a method 
for ridding mankind of the cyclonic curse of money-wast- 
ing war. 

Thus philanthropy, science and commerce join the 
divine demand for peace, while duty to our fellows and 
to God renders imperative upon us earnest efforts for its 
maintenance among men. 

General Philip Sheridan put the day of universal peace 
and arbitration a century ahead. Did he take into con- 
sideration the great army of women whom the Lord has 
steadily added to that band of suppliants in whom He ful- 
filled the prophecy of Joel iu 1873-74? Did he think of 
the womanhood of America and of the world, who have 
been called to take their part in the great movements of 
the ages that will exalt Christ as Sovereign of the whole 
world? Nay, he could not have remembered that to them 
has been opened channel after channel of opportunity 
which they have readily entered for the glory of God and 
the salvation of suffering mankind. In forty-two such 
pathways is continually heard the tramp, tramp, tram; 
the ever increasing host who wage their peaceful war for 
God and home and humanity. The foundation of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union was laid in faith 
and prayer, and as petition for guidance reached the throne 
and ear of Jehovah, He gave stone after stone for the 
mighty structure, as precious to Him as the pure gold and 
the precious stones with which He has made beautiful the 
walls of His eternal city. On one of these — the peace 



220 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

department — we find the dove in sombre garb, which to 
white-ribboners has been so long an emblem of spirit love 
and calm, with outstretched wings, as if to brood o'er all 
the weary, battling souls and give them rest. And from 
its bill depend the words of poet old : 

" Peace greatness best becomes, Calm power doth guide 
With a far more imperious stateliuess, 
Than all the swords of violence can do, 
And easier gains those ends she tends unto." 

From Ohio, where God's first call to woman to enter 
this great work was heard, this effort came. The spirit 
moved on in widening sweep of blessing until the nation's 
heart was stirred. Scarcely had it reached the limits of 
our own fair land, ere bounding over the deep it went to 
our sisters on the other side ; and back it comes to us in a 
manifesto of French women against war. Think you, as 
children hear these truths in nursery rhymes, from gentle 
mother lips ; as hosts of maidens shall speak of peace to 
wooing swains, and as their elders ring the Advent anthem 
on, that a century will pass ere this bond of humanity will 
be world-wide? It cannot be. Agitation and education 
are doing their work mightily in the presentation of the 
physical-economic and moral features of this great subject. 
Concentration and consecration are fast hastening the time 
when practical exercise of this spirit of brotherly love will 
lead to the consideration of the interests of our fellow- 
beings as our own. 

Plato looked for the ideal state only with the coming of 
ideal men, saying, " Until then, kings are philosophers, or 
philosophers kings ; cities will never cease from ill ; no, 
nor the human race ; nor will our ideal polity ever come 
into being." 

We believe as one nation and another and another shall 
come under this reign of peace, toward which the thought 
and the heart of the people are being rapidly turned, there 
will be real men and women who will do real work for the 
extension of the Lord's kingdom through arbitration with 
those governments where His light has not been so clearly 
seen. When national action shall be subjugated to this 
principle, Christianity will become dominant, and good 




MARY A \Y< ►ODBRIDI ■! , 



PEACE AND ARBITRATION 

will to others will prove that God is Christ and Christ is 
king. 

Yes, it is coming ! [t may be that in its progress I 

will, in His wisdom, lay His hand upon nations that will 
not serve Him, and they shall not be ; but the wide world 
isopening to His gospel and the messengers of peace re 
ushering in millennial glory. 

For sustained power and nobility of thought the above 

plea for peace is worthy of England's great peace advoc 

John Bright himself. 



CHAPTER XV. 

MRS. WOODBRIDGE'S TRIBUTE TO JOHN B. FINCH — GIFT 
FROM THE NATIONAL W. C. T. U. 

Be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the 
Lord. — SI. Paul. 

It is a melancholy fact that the religion of many persons is not 
constantly operative, but is manifested periodically, or at some par- 
ticular time. It is assumed for instance on the Sabbath, but it is 
laid aside on the shelf during the week days ; but true holiness, be 
it remembered, is not a thing to be worn for occasions ; to be put 
off or put on, with an easy accommodation to circumstances or to 
one's private convenience. It is meat with which we are fed ; cloth- 
ing with which we are clothed ; the interior and permanent principle 
of life, which animates and sustains the whole man. — T. C. Upham. 

Haste not, rest not, calmly wait, 
Meekly bear the storms of fate ; 
Duty be thy polar guide, 
Love shall linger at thy side. 
Haste not, rest not, conflicts past, 
God shall crown thy work at last. 

— Selected. 

AMONG all the many men who by pen and voice and 
purse assisted the great campaign for Constitutional 
Prohibition in Ohio, it is no disparagement to others to 
say that Mrs. Woodbridge most admired John B. Finch. 
In strength of intellect, force of inexorable logic, keenness 
of perception, power of subtle reasoning, all matched by 
wit and warmed and irradiated by the tenderest spirituality 
— they were kindred souls. From conversations with both 
we know that they had an exalted appreciation of each 

Other's character and equipment for the battle of the Lord 

(222) 



TRIBl » JOHN B. FINCH. 223 

which both were fighting with equally holy purpose. T1 
were in council like Deborah and Barak. Both fell in 

battle and went from US like a flash of 1 i.^lit , as Elijah went 

from earth in a moment to eternal Kl" r . v - Mr. Finch was 

translated first, or we should have had his estimate of her. 

Fortunately we have the next thing to it — her estimate 

of him, which we copy from "The I. w f John B. Finch." 

It throws its own sidelight upon her life and writings 
and associations, which will be of abiding interest. Mr. 
Finch, after addressing a great audience in Lynn, Mass., 
fell dead in a Boston depot, October 3, 1887. 

She wrote of him as follows : 

I knew John B. Finch when he wrought, as one who 
thou- ht the welfare of the nation depended upon his able, 
skillful, honest, upright discharge of the important trust 
committed to him. 

lie came to Ohio in June, 1883, and with brief excep- 
tions was in the state until the close of the prohibitory 
amendment campaign on November 9 — more than four 

iths "f unceasing labor. During that time he never 

rred to hardships — of hours early and late ; of two or 
three addresses a day, or of long distances traveled to meet 
appointments. All seemed to him a part of the service 
which he gladly performed, though sometimes battling 
with disease. 

After one of his mighty efforts he was suddenly stricken, 
and while patiently enduring untold agony, his constant 
fear was that he might fail to meet an important engage- 
ment the following day. Under the influence of medicine 
he rested, but rose with the morning. Friends who minis- 
tered to him in the night endeavored to dissuade him, but 
in vain. Firmly he said: "I must be up and doing; it 
will not be long ! " And tins the strong soul marched on ! 
He was never baffled ; but when some new phase presented 

If, he would diligently study the problem, until rein- 
forced he stood before his opponent a battery of facts and 

.res, and poured them forth with a power that shattered 
and shriveled all objections. 

He carefully examined his own position, and as keenly 



224 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

questioned the standing of others. He proclaimed total 
abstinence for the individual and total prohibition of the 
liquor traffic for state and nation. The eloquence of his 
deep conviction and the enthusiasm of his faith encouraged 
doubting hearts. 

One evening in an elegant church, he found no minis- 
ter of the gospel willing to ask God's blessing to rest upon 
his service. The president of the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union was troubled, but when the Scriptures had 
been read, Mr. Finch calmly rose and poured forth his soul 
in prayer. Those ministers will never forget the words of 
truth that fell from his lips that evening. 

The balance and versatility of his mind were an aston- 
ishment to his co- laborers. He was by nature a detective. 
Nothing that could be made useful in the warfare in which 
he was engaged escaped him. He was the first to learn of 
the intrigue hy which the amendment was to be crushed. 
Walking to and fro in the parlors of the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union Headquarters in Cleveland, he 
turned suddenly and addressed me : 

"Sister Man-, our cause is lost ! Ohio politicians, state 
and national, have held council in a murderer's den in Cin- 
cinnati, and the word has gone forth, ' The amendment 
must not carry.' Speak it not but work as for life, that we 
may have done our part, and the curse may not rest upon 
us as unfaithful servants." 

The array of facts I presented, the encouragement I 
gathered from telegrams and letters, were all in vain. He 
replied, "You are helpless as children; the prohibition 
vote is to be counted out. I have it from one who has 
already received the command but will not obey it." He 
first discovered that the amendments were to be printed 
incorrectly upon the tickets of the old parties, and aroused 
our overworked women in various places to almost super- 
human effort to counteract the effect. 

The press bitterly assailed him. When reading the cruel 
attacks, his thin lips would compress, his matchless eyes 
would flash, but he would sit in silence until self was con- 
quered, then calmly say, " My work will bear the test of 
God ; they will not dare to stand before Him with those 
falsehoods upon their lips." Finding his popularity ever 
increasing, politicians branded him as a traitor ; and when 



TR ' ". FINi '//. 225 

it was proclaimed that "as a Democrat he had aided and 
abetted secession," and he was asked "how shall the charge 
be met?" he answered, "Give the date of my birth, 1852, 
and perhaps they will not only recognize the falsity of their 

Charge, but .see their contemptible meanness as others see- 
it." 

Mr. Pinch did not begin his amendment work in Ohio, 
He had before struck mighty Mows for the cause in Kansas 
and Iowa, and h.ul greatly aided in creating the public sen- 
timent that secured the adoption of constitutional prohibi- 
tion in those states. 

A compilation of his speeches had been published under 
the title of " The People vs. the Liquor Traffic." Through 
the generosity of Hon. Ferdinand Schumacher, the Ohio 
YV. C. T. r. was able to send a copy to each minister of 
the state. Thus Mr. Finch's name became a household 
word anion;.; the people. Before his arrival the demand 
for Ins labor was far in excess of the possibility of supply. 
Frequent appeals were received for his return to fields 
where he had stirred the people to action, with the assur- 
ance that the people would vote right if he could be heard 
again. 

He adapted his addresses to all classes. State officials, 
legislators, ministers, magistrates, business men, and farm- 
ers were alike impressed with his logic, clear, forcible argu- 
ment and pointed illustrations. He felt his personal respon- 
sibility, and endeavored to impress upon others the duty of 
extirpating the liquor traffic through a vote for prohibition. 

Ere he left the state the eyes of the nation were upon 
him. Drunkard makers and their abettors feared him, and 
lovers of home and good government rejoiced in him with 
thanksgiving. Maine and Rhode Island witnessed his heroic 
labors, and when the battle waged in Michigan he again 
buckled on his armor and entered the hottest of the fight. 
His crowning victory was his debate with D. Bethune Duf- 
field, the pro-slavery, anti-prohibition advocate of Detroit. 

Temporary victory or defeat were as one to him ; he 
worked for the fulfillment of the prophecy of Bethlehem — 
glory to God in the highest, and on earth, peace, good-wi'.'. 
toward men, which he saw could not be until the lirpjor 
traffic was destroyed. 

Ten days before his death, when a similar campaign was 



226 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

in progress in Dakota, in which we were both engaged, 
there came to me the request, "Wait until the afternoon 
train; I will arrive before noon." Never had I seen him 
look physically better, nor listened to his speech when the 
radiance of his intellect more impressed me. He told me 
of his hopes and fears for the crucial year 1888, and seemed 
as one inspired. As I entered the carriage to go to the sta- 
tion, he said: "I have told you what I believe should be 
done in the campaign of next year ; what I would seek to 
have accomplished if my hand were on the helm ; but it will 
not be there ! " 

On the following Wednesday we met for a moment at 
Yankton, where his hearty handshake, pleasant greeting, 
and kind farewell cheered and strengthened me. But five 
days, and then flashed to the civilized world the words, 
"John B. Finch is dead! " Not a nation only, but a vast 
host from north, south, east and west stood dumb with 
sorrow ; for their chieftain was gone, and they would not be 
comforted. 

The earthly chrysalis was broken on that memorable 
night, October 3, 1887, and the wings of the new being, 
illumined with heavenly light, fluttered in the zephyrs of 
the eternal morning. He put on the freshness of perpetual 
prime, and his cheeks were mantled with eternal bloom. 

These two unequaled leaders of the temperance hosts, 
so alike in zeal and courage and a tireless, divine enthusi- 
asm for humanity, have received their crowns and entered 
upon their reward. "They rest from their labors and their 
works do follow them." 

Into the hard, prosaic toil of a reformer's life there 
comes occasionally some little touches of tenderness. The 
clouds of abuse and scorn and hate that make their life's 
day dark are sometimes silvered with gleams of the sun- 
light of human kindness. Sometimes even here there are 
grateful recognitions of abundant service, and tender words 
are spoken to gladden the weary heart. Usually they are 
stoned while living and honored with chaplets and monu- 
ments when dead. Occasionally they have foregleams of 
the coming glory while still with us. 



GIFT FROM THE N. W. C. T. U. 227 

It was so with Mrs. Woodbridge. After tea years of 
most laborious service as a National officer, at the annual 
meeting in New York city in [888, she was made the 

recipient of a COStly and beautiful onyx dock. She was at 
her desk busily writing up the minutes when a lady came 

forward, and began making a speech. When nearly 

through she used the name " Mary." Mrs. Stevens said 

to Mrs. Woodbridge, " Mary, they are talking about you." 

" I Mi, I think not," was the reply, and the busy pen kept on. 
" Yes, they are, anil you would bitter listen! ' 

She listened : ami in one minute the surprised woman 
was 0:1 her feet responding to a speech, little of which she- 
had heard, and accepting happily a present of which she 

had n< 't dreamed. 

The press account of the speeches, ami the description 
of the present we give below. It was one of those gracious 
deeds that give delight and tender recollections to all con- 
cerned. 

A PLEASING BPISODE. 

A most pleasing episode was the presentation of two 
beautiful clocks — one to Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, re- 
cording secretary of the union ; the other to Mrs. L. M. 
N. Stevens, of Maine — as a slight recognition by the con- 
vention of their more than ten years' work as secretaries. 

The presentation to Mrs. Woodbridge was made by 
Miss Henrietta Moore, and that to Mrs. Stevens by Mrs. 
Frances J. Barnes, both admirably done, and the responses 
were equally happy. 

Miss Moore accompanied the presentation with the fol- 
lowing words, expressive of the appreciation of the work 
which the gifted recipient has accomplished by zealous and 
eloquent labor and utterance : 

Madam President, Sisters, Brothers and Friends .• 

At one time upon the throne of Russia sat two brothers, 
Peter and Ivan. Everything that was brought before them 
was disposed of with wonderful wisdom and judgment. 
There seemed to be the clear-headedness and mercy of the 



223 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Great One on the throne. All suppliants were listened 
to with that patience and mercy and gentleness that we 
generally take on after we have lived some time in the 
world. And so there seemed to be this maturity of thought 
and this maturity of wisdom in all the judicial decisions 
and renderings. And it was ever so, for just behind the 
throne was the Princess Sophia, and she was really on the 
throne. Her brain was there, her wisdom, her knowledge 
and her pity were there, and so was everything save her 
person. She was simply personated in those boys. 

Dear sisters and brothers, in the revolutions of the 
world, and in the revolving of the people with it, woman 
can no more be kept behind the curtain, can no more 
be hidden. Justice is beginning to draw aside the cur- 
tain of separation, and we find woman with her feet upon 
the first step that reaches upward to controlling power, 
and whoever shall wear the crown in the coming time, will 
be that boy or that girl who is best God-endowed, because 
best mother-made ; will be that boy or that girl whose 
mother was a queen. And one of the women who has 
been foremost for years and years in the work of organ- 
izing this Woman's Christian Temperance Union, which 
is doing so much for the making of this future royalty and 
this royal future, is with us to-night. The highest honor 
that I can pay her, the grandest that I can speak of her, 
is to say that she is a woman of my own state of Ohio. 
I wish I might say that she was a citizen. We will say 
this some of these days. She has kept pace with the times. 
I have just said she has been one of the foremost, and she 
has been one of our most faithful ones. She is a woman 
of many titles, for this Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union has called her to many places of trust. But I shall 
speak of her simply by that name by which we best love 
to call her, for she has the sweetest name ever given to 
woman. Her name is Mary. She stands to-night with 
her foot on this first step. She is here with her two hands 
reaching upward, and she is here with her brain as clear 
and strong as the brain of any man, and we want that it 
should never fail. We want this brain to continue to think, 
and think quickly ; and so we have concluded, we of the 
W. C. T. U., to give her to-night this clock, which I think 
is the prettiest clock I ever saw ; and it is in agreement 



(,//■/ FROM THE N. W. C. T. U. 

with this organization to 1 p the besl tim  of any cl 
in the United States. So we give this to our Mary (but 
I guess we will be polite, and call her Mrs. Mary A. Wood- 
bridge - [Applause.] This is the woman to whom I 
ild make no more honorable mention than by saying 
she is the queen among women of my own state ol Ohio ! 

Mrs. Woodbridge responded as follows \ 

I am surprised beyond expression, having no thought, 
even when the word "Mary" was spoken, that it could be 
me <.A~ whom the previous words had been said. 

1 looked into the face of this worn in [ Henrietta Mo< 
years ago, as I stood before an audience in the city ol Cin- 
cinnati, and as her eyes were fixed u\>>n me, I felt the 
earnest, unspeakable reach::-.-' out of her h r the good 

of humanity, and when that meeting closed, 1 extended my 
hand to her and welcomed her as my sister, though I knew 
not her name. When we went to the restaurant nearby, 
we sat down and talked of what we each hoped might he 
the future. I saw in her what you have heard to-night, 
and as I said, " My sister, God hath called you to a service 
of which you have never dreamed, " she put her hand in 
mine, she reached out her heart to God, and she said to me 
and to Him, " Here I am, do unto me as seemeth unto thee 
good." And then the days came when we stood together 

dicers of the \V. C. T. U. of Ohio. Then, teaching all 
the day long, she waited anxiously for the night time to 
come that she might do service for the cause she loved 
well. A little later, I heard her at one of our state conven- 
tions pay the sweetest tribute to the husband of my love 
and home, to which I have ever listened; and as she told 
of the flowers that day after day, as I sat in that home, 
were laid beside my plate at the table, that were placed at 
my breast, that I might carry with me, step by step, evi- 
dence of love and faith, as I was called to go through the 
nation up and down, I said, "God ble^s that woman for 
what she has done for me, and my beloved." I have 
watched her as she has gone on, standing upon the 
step, but going higher and higher, Step by step, until she 
has come near the top of the ladder. I have seen her some- 
times when the flesh has grown less, and weariness has 
come into her face, □ 1 I have pray ' O God, spare 



230 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Henrietta Moore." He has spared her, and has given her 
victory on earth, and it is assured her in the kingdom be- 
yond. And to-night she has stood here, and spoken the 
words to which we have listened. 

Sisters : why have you given unto rne this gift, which 
will be to me verily a time-keeper, as day by day I strive 
to do service for you, for humanity, and for God? Not 
alone do I bring you thanksgiving, but reach out to each 
of you, and ask my Infinite Father, your Father and your 
God, to bring unto you for this thought, for the many 
thoughts which you have worked out into such deeds as 
these, a blessing such as He alone can give. Then, dear 
sisters, I ask that in His spirit we may work on, until we 
reach that future which we to-day see with eye of faith ; 
when regulation of the liquor traffic shall be a thing of the 
past, for prohibition will have been obtained : and with 
united hearts we will sing praise, and thanksgiving, and 
honor, and glory, unto Him who has delivered us from this 
iniquity forever and forever. 

Thanks unto you, my sisters, and [turning to Miss 
Moore] thanks to you, my beloved. 

General Clinton Fisk being upon the platform, and rec- 
ognizing that neither lady had in her presentation men- 
tioned the fact that these secretaries had patiently worked 
on from year to year, without a penny of remuneration, 
came forward and made the statement, and said, "When 
the women of the organization began to realize this, they 
sought in some measure to express their regret and their 
appreciation of such faithful, sacrificing service, and could 
find no gift so appropriate as a clock, ever holding its hands 
before its face." The clock is of onyx, and a model of 
artistic design and finish, fully meriting the reference 
made to its beauty by Miss Moore in her felicitous presen- 
tation, and is one of the most perfect in every detail of 
completion we have ever had the pleasure of examining. 

On the center of the apex is a handsome metallic plate, 
bearing the following inscription : 

" Presented to Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, Recording 
Secretary of the National Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, at the fifteenth annual meeting, held in New York 
City, October 19-23, 1888." 



CHAPTER XVI. 

LABORS in THE PENNSYLVANIA :•■"- -SPEECH r- 

PHILADELPHIA. 

She looketb well to the ways of her household and <■ ttetfa n«>t the 
bread of idleness. — Pro 

And you who wish t<> remain always joyous, pure and loving, im 

: upon yourself each day some taslc God has given 

to oo up iti m the mission of the north wind,— that <^f purifying the 
miasma of the heart, as the wind purifies the miasma of the atmos- 
phere. — Golden & ! 

Eschew the idle life ! 

Flee, flee from doing naught ! 
There never was an idle brain 

But bred an idle thought. 

—George TurberviUe. 

Lord, send me work to do for Th< i 

Let not a single daj 
Be spent in waiting on mys 

Or wasted pass away. 

— /■.. Prenh 

Every hour that fleets so slowly, 

Has its task to do or bear ; 
Luminous the crown and holy, 

If thou set each gem with care. 

— . Idelaide Procter. 

THE year 1S89 was a very busy and eventful year 
Mrs. Woodbridge. Her correspondence- was enormously 
large, and was constantly increasing as her acquaintance 
enlarged while life lasted. Her husband's record shows 
that she visited that year in her speaking engagements, 
twelve different states, journeyed over seventeen thousand 
miles, and spoke about two hundred and forty times. 

(23O 



232 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

An effort was made that year in Pennsylvania to se- 
cure a Prohibition amendment to the constitution. The 
friends of the cause sent for her. After speaking elsewhere 
through the state she spent over a month in Philadelphia, 
speaking thirty-nine times in that city alone. We find in 
The White Ribbon Herald of Asbury Park, N. J., July 18, 
1889, a five column account of that memorable campaign 
by Henrietta H. Forrest of the Philadelphia W. C. T. U. 
She wrote of Mrs. Woodbridge's labors as follows : 

Five weeks preceding the election we all felt that we 
should bring to our aid some one who had had experience 
along the line of the proposed amendment, one whose 
counsel, advice and presence would ever be to us a nucleus 
around which to rally our untried forces. Our selection 
was Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, of the National Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, who so successfully planned 
the Ohio campaign, but who by strategy and fraud was 
counted out ; she came to us May 18, and remained one 
month. Better work was never done by any woman, or 
man either. She was ever ready and ever willing to do 
with her might whatever her hands found to do, or what- 
ever was suggested. In the month she was with us she 
spoke twenty-three times in churches, halls or open air ; 
she spoke in eight mills at the noon hour, the men giving 
her a most attentive hearing. The mill owners who so 
kindly opened their door, always gave the half hour from 
their time, so the employes received the instruction and 
were at no pecuniary loss — this meant in some cases more 
than one hundred dollars to the employer. Their verdict in 
each case was, "We are glad to have the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union come with their speaker and litera- 
ture," as we always carried thousands of leaflets for distri- 
bution. 

In the first mill visited, May 24, during noon hour there 
were fourteen converts made and these men began to work 
so that on election day we were informed that the result 
of that talk would be one hundred votes for the amend- 
ment. At the close of an evening meeting, a gentleman 
said to Mrs. Woodbridge, ' ' I was present and heard you talk 
at a certain mill — your arguments and appeal have not been 



THE Pi VNSYLVANIA CAMPAIGN. 

without results ; a few hours after you had left an cmp". 
came to my office door, and said, ' Dusey went upstairs and 
knocked a hole in his tomato-can,' not long after another 
said, 'Dusey went upstairs and knocked four holes in his 
growler, ' " this was a man by the name of Dusenbury but 
called Dusey tor short, who kept this tomato can or growler, 
and each day procured his beer from the nearest saloon, 
h Monday afternoon for five weeks we held an informal 
conference ( Mrs. Woodbrid pi siding); to this conference, 
men and women were cordially invited, the exchange of 
plans and hopes were always preceded by devotional exer- 
cises, asking of Him whose we were, and whom we served 
that He would direct our every act that we should make no 
mistake, and that every act should be done to His -lor}-. 

We have found among her papers a draft of a speech 
which she delivered in Allegheny and many other cities 
ing this campaign. We give it to the readers of this 
k because the struggles with the liquor traffic have only 
begun in earnest. The workers in the cause will find here 
facts and arguments for future use. Her speech no doubt 
was substantially as follows : 

CONSTITUTION OHIBITION IN' PENNSYLVANIA. 

This audience is gathered to consider the duty of citi- 
zens concerning that amendment to the state constitution, 
submitted to the electors by the General Assembly. After 
many years of legislation relating to the liquor traffic with 
various reverses and successes, the law-makers of the state 
have proposed that the people of this commonwealth em- 
body in the constitution a provision which will lift the 
question of the liquor traffic far beyond the reach of party 

sect. Two consecutive assemblies have carefully con- 
sidered the question and have submitted its decision to the 
people, thus investing it with dignity and solemnity which 
will not admit of cavil or silence, but demands careful, seri- 
ous consideration, followed by conscientious action at the 
ballot-box. 

Dr. Hargreaves, of Philadelphia, has said: "It is of 
vital importance that a people encourage only those trades 
and habits that will tend to promote in lustry, sobriety and 



234 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

virtue ; for a community is only safe when its members are 
virtuous." This axiomatic utterance commends itself to 
our reason, and we have but to measure the traffic by this 
test to determine the citizen's duty at this time. Individu- 
ality must be merged in the patriot and citizen. Each 
owes it to his manhood and to truth to weigh carefully 
every argument that may be brought on both sides. To 
take the liquor traffic and all the good it may claim to have 
done and put into one side of the scales of his mature judg- 
ment ; in the other scale to place all the evil that can with 
certainty be charged against it, is the duty of the hour. If 
the traffic is proven to be a blessing to the individual, the 
home, the church and the Republic ; if it makes better 
citizens ; increases morality and intelligence ; discourages 
crime and illegal voting and false-swearing, every patriot 
owes it to his citizenship to uphold and to support it. 
Even r Christian should pray for it, and every minister pro- 
claim its merits from the pulpit. 

If, on the contrary, it is made clear that the traffic is an 
enemy to our institutions, that it desolates homes, debases 
manhood, degrades womanhood and brings suffering to 
childhood ; if it is opposed to law and order and good gov- 
ernment, then no good reason can be found why it should 
be permitted to live, and the inevitable conclusion must be 
that it is the privilege and the duty of every upright man 
to cast his ballot for its extermination. In this trial, as in 
any other, the verdict must be based on the weight of evi- 
dence presented. 

Why did the General Assembly submit the amendment? 
The question may be answered in general terms. Because 
of the pressure of the people. But why did the people 
make such pressure ? I am told that they charged the 
traffic with the crime of treason against the state and na- 
tion, and brought voluminous and, as they believe, indis- 
putable proof of the truth of the charge. 

It is not necessary that I largely repeat the evidence 
relating to the evil effects upon the individual. We are all 
familiar with it. No close observer has come a long dis- 
tance to this house or will return to the home without see- 
ing it. With some of us the enemy sits at our fireside and 
holds sway in our home ; and if the blood upon the lintel 
and door-posts has kept the angel of death without, no 



THE PENNSYLVANIA CAMPAIGN. 

thoughtful Christian mother can open the door to send her 

children forth to be fitted for the duties of life without fear 

that this enemy may be met upon thevery doorstep. I pre- 
sume there are women before me to-night who, returning 
to their homes, will listen for the coming of their loved ones. 

If the step be firm and manly tluir hearts will heat with 
j >v, as fear is dispelled ; hut if heavy and unsteady, deeper 
and deeper will grow the agony which during many days 
has been gathering about the heartstrings of the mother or 

the wife. 

So largely does it reach out into every ramification of 
society that George W. Bain, standing a little time ago 
upon the platform at Ocean Grove and looking out over 
that audience of 7,000 people, asked: "Is there one here 
Who cm say ' I am free from this evil to the very limits of 
my family relationship?'' For a moment no one arose; 
then a solitary man stood tip afar off. Mr. Bain said in his 
cheery tone, — "Can you tell us that?" He answered: 
" May I tell you why? My father fills a drunkard's grave. 
My mother died of a broken heart and lies by his side. 
My twin brother with whom I walked in my early years 
has followed the footsteps of my father ; while the sister 
who has been the companion of the later days has fallen 
beneath that disease consequent upon the use of intoxi- 
cants which we scarcely dare to mention in such audiences 
as this. Yes ! I am free to the very limits of my relation- 
ship ! I have neither father nor mother, brother nor sister, 
not one in all the wide, wide world that I can call my own ; 
but am I free? Look at me — a poor, wretched, scathed 
soul, bearing about with me continually the awful appetite 
which, were it not for the grace of God, would soon place 
me beside my loved and lost." 

The effect upon the state and nation are not less appall- 
ing. Salmon P. Chase in 1856, when for the second time 
inaugurated governor of the state of Ohio, said: "It is 
well authenticated that of crimes of violence nearly one- 
half have their immediate origin in intemperance and more 
than four-fifths of the public offends are due to the same 
cause. It is also the abundant source of pauperism, lunacy 
and disease. Its cost to society is beyond the power of 
computation, and its multiform influences for evil exceed 
our power of estimate. 



236 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Ten years afterward Judge Hale of New York said : 
"Three-fourths of all crime is committed under the influ- 
ence of intoxicating drink." Three years later Gov. John 
A. Dix said: "Four-fifths of the crime of the country 
must be attributed to the liquor traffic." Judge Noah 
Davis has lately declared that an experience of more than 
twenty years on the bench has taught him that more than 
seven-eighths of the crimes of violence are directly traceable 
to the use of intoxicating liquors, and besides that a very 
large proportion of every other class of crime. 

Nearly one-half in 1856 ! In 1866, three-fourths ! In 
1869, four- fifths, and to-day seven-eighths of the crimes of 
violence and a large proportion of other crimes is by these 
authorities to be charged to the liquor traffic ! Thirty 
years of steadily increasing liquor traffic, and thirty years 
of steadily increasing crime ! Knowing as we all do some- 
what of the past, what may we expect of the coming thirty 
years if this cause of crime is perpetuated? 

But not more certainly is crime the legitimate offspring 
of the liquor traffic than is pauperism. Dr. Bowditch, 
chairman of the Board of Charities of Massachusetts, in 
preparing a late annual report, sent two inquiries through 
the state, and received replies from two hundred and 
eighty-two towns and cities. He asked : ' ' What propor- 
tion of the inmates of your almshouses are such from 
intemperance? What proportion of children are there 
from the same cause ? He expresses surprise at the una- 
nimity of estimate, — not one computing less than seven- 
eighths, while the superintendent of the largest institution 
of the state replied : "I would answer both questions 
unqualifiedly ninety per cent." The authorities of Spring- 
field also reported the feeding of eight thousand tramps, 
nine-tenths of whom were drunkards. 

Paupers beget paupers. Pauperism descends as surely 
as disease ; and thus in determining the duty of citizens to 
the amendment we cannot confine our thought to the pres- 
ent generation. 

Doubtless some will remember the verified statistics of 
the outgrowth of a single life of misery and neglect, pre- 
sented by Dr. Harris, registrar of the Board of Health of 
New York, at an annual meeting of the society of charities 
of that state. "One Margaret," he said, "was left adrift 



TH VNSYLVANIA CAMPAIGN. 

upon the upper Hudson -a solitary soul without family 
or home or friends. Bui that little unregarded being lived 
her animal life, grew, met others of her kind, and perpetu- 

1 that life She died, and dying left a long line of 
scendants, criminals and paupers. Shooting down through 
six generations, two hundred years of time, the county i 
ord clearly shows more than seven hundred of these de- 
scendants of this one abandoned life, all of whom fa 
been, or are, drunkards, lunatics, imbeciles, idiots, pau- 
pers or prostitutes, two hundn d of them having been i 

d ot" crime and punished in the prisons of that state. 
The total cost to the state in arrests, trials, imprisonment, 
relief, property stolen and destroyed, and loss in productive 

energy was found to have been over a million and a quar- 
ter of dollars." 

All such persons and many others dependent U] 
them are thus thrown upon the commun ipport, 

while they render necessary police courts, jails, asylums 
and penitentiaries. Thus a large number of our people 
are made consumers instead of producers of wealth and the 
laboring classes are heavily taxed for their support. That 
most careful statistician, Dr. II I computed 

from United States reports that the lossof n 00,000 

persons employed in liquor trades : of 700,000 drunkards 
and more than two million moderate drink' -rain de- 

stroyed in distilleries ; cost of support of paupers, crimi- 
nals, the insane and idiots and of criminal prosecutions is 
more than nine hundred and twenty-four million dollars 
annually ; while another nine hundred millions are paid for 
intoxicating; drinks. Thus the material wealth of the na- 
tion is annually diminished nearly two billion d( 

It is further believed that one-fifth of our population is 
changed from producers to consumers, and so every man 
who labors ten hours a day must toil two of those hours 
for the support of this class. 

But wdiat says the defendant in answer to these charges ? 
Listen. " Ours is a great national industry. We employ 
a vast number of men who have no other means of support. 
Indeed, we reach out to every branch of laboring interesl 
to builders and coopers and lumber dealers ; to farmers for 
horses and grain, to all lines of transportation, to bankers 
ami brokers and money lenders. We own our property 



23S LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

and pay our taxes, while the United States revenue from 
our trade is nearly one hundred millions annually, and the 
revenue to the state of Pennsjdvania through license is 
between three and four millions each year. We have im- 
mense capital invested which the government is bound to 
protect." 

Cross-examine the witness : "Are there not nine hun- 
dred millions spent annually for your products ? " 

"Yes, have we not said ours is a great national in- 
dustry ? ' ' 

:i Do you return value received for this expenditure ? " 

"That is not our lookout. The people make the 
demand and we furnish the supply." 

" Can you bring rebuttal of the facts we have adduced 
concerning the effect of your traffic on individual, state and 
national interests ? " 

" We make no attempt. Temperance people are always 
unfair, — always fanatics. We make our goods and sell 
them and we pay the government a share of our profits for 
non-interference in our business, which is as legal as an)' 
other in the land, and we have right to protection." 

Has the traffic proven the charge of the people false ? 
Nay, it has failed altogether, falling back on its claim of 
right to do these very things which they will declare to be 
resultant from the abuse and not the use of their manufact- 
ures. Not one, however, will dare to say that it promotes 
industry, sobriety and virtue. But, as a community is only 
safe when its members are industrious, sober and virtuous, 
it follows logically that this traffic endangers the physical, 
mental and moral life of this Republic each moment of its 
existence. 

What, then, shall be done with it? Surely there can- 
not be one within these walls who will utter that shibbo- 
leth, "Personal Liberty, " which rang out from the liquor 
dealers' convention at Harrisburg after the submission of 
the amendment, and long before the temperance forces 
gathered in state convention. 

Neither in law nor equity can there be personal liberty 
to any man which shall be bondage and ruin to his fellow- 
men. John B. Finch, the great constitutional amendment 
advocate, was wont to settle this point by a single illustra- 
tion. He said, "I stand alone upon a platform. I am a 



THE PENNSYLVANIA CAMPAIGN. 

tall mail with long arms which I may use at my | ire. 

I may even double my fist anil gesticulate ;it my own 
will. Bu1 if another shall step upon the platform, and in 
theexerci.se <>t my personal liberty I bring my fist, against 
his face, I v • >n find that my p rsonal liberty ends 

where that man's nose begins." 

The law tint is in I in every individual, the right 

of self-defense, is also inherent in the state of which the 
individual firms a part. , >verument has the right 

to defend its own life, not al ■.. linst slavery as in past 

days, but against any enemy ; any i i l, any trade that 

Is to destroy by debauching the ch iti- 

i ens. The highest courts of the nation have affirmed this 
again and again, and in no instance more clearly than in 
the decision of the United Slates Supreme Court in deny- 
ing compensation to the liquor manufacturers of Kan 
when their property w 

Shall then this traffic be licensed, and, as we often hear, 
regulated and restricted? But license is not regulation! 

use is not restriction ! license i.s permission ! 

Noah Webster's definition of license is : " I.: mse is i 

aal permission from proper authorities to perform 
• in acts." And more, "To license is to remove from 
legal restraint by a grant of permission." 

S -lion I of the Brooks law of Pennsylvania reads: 
" Be it enacted that it shall be unlawful to keep or main- 
tain any house, room or place, hotel, inn or tavern where 
any vinous, spirituous, malt, or : 1 liquors, or any ad- 

mixture thereof, are sold by retail except a license shall 
have been obtained." " Unlawful ex :ept — a license shall 
have been obtained." Then it shall be no longer unlawful, 
for permission has been giv n I > the person who holds the 
license. 

Thns the people, who are the I '. bring upon 

themselves all the fearful conditions presented this even- 
ing : and the most awful fact connected with it all is that 
some within the Christian chnrch are ready to compromise 
with this iniquity which is debasing the morals of society, 
breaking down the respect of the ma  and order 

and good government, and hastening a day of anarchy and 
revolution in this free republic. Gerrit Smith said: "If 
the traffic in ardent spirits is immoral then of necessity are 



240 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

the laws which authorize the traffic immoral." And if the 
laws are immoral, then we must be immoral, if we do not 
protest against them, repeal them and make better ones. 

The Brooks law, under the discretionary power of up- 
right judges in Philadelphia and Allegheny, has lessened 
the number of saioons in those cities. But no one has had 
the boldness to suggest that the amount of liquor sold has 
been less. If this were the case we would have heard a 
wail from every manufacturer of intoxicating drink ; but no 
such has been heard. We are also able to give government 
proof that it is not the case ; for the last United States 
revenue report tells us that the production of fermented 
liquors has increased in Pennsylvania in the last year three 
million, three hundred thousand gallons. The Georgia cit- 
izen asks : " Does it make any difference, if all the liquor 
in a single cask is drawn out, whether the cask is tapped in 
one, two or ten places, so the liquor is all drawn out ? High 
license proposes to draw all the liquor the people will buy, 
but to draw it through a few less taps." By such law as a 
whole a monopoly is established, and a robe of respectability 
is thrown about the traffic, which is protected against inter- 
ference with a zeal worthy of a righteous cause. And why ? 
Because by the money paid for the license and received by 
the government, a partnership is established between the 
government and the traffic. And never were the partner- 
ship funds distributed with more worldly wisdom than in 
the Brooks law. The enemy has his hand on state, county, 
city and borough. Each has its interest in the revenue, 
and thus gives endorsement to the license system, while 
the mill grinds on, and the never-ending grist of fresh 
humanity, with capabilities for good, goes into the hopper, 
and out comes the horrible grist of lunatics, paupers, drunk- 
ards and criminals. And all this in face of the positive proof 
of the failure of the license system. 

Statistics bearing the seal of officials in control during 
the existence of high license laws can alone be accepted as 
proof of its fraud and deception. 

Atlanta, Georgia, was under partial prohibition two 
years, licenses expiring from time to time during the whole 
of the first year, while wine rooms were not prohibited. 
But even in this limited form the benefits under prohibition 
were so great as to stamp high license in the first four 



THE PENNSYLVANIA CAMPAIGN. 

months of its rule with failure and dis i In the last 

four months of prohibition there were 273 arrests; in the 
first four of license at $1,500 there were 81 3. Bverywhi 
that the system has been tried the verdict is, high I 
neither regulates nor restricts but promotes drunkenness 
ami crime. 

When the brewers of London called upon Mr. Gladstone 
in the interest of their trade he said: "Gentlemen, I can 
not permit a question of mere revenue to be considered 
along side of a question of mere morals; but give me a 
sober population, not wasting their money in strong drink, 
and I will know where to ] iy revenue." 

Canon Wilberforce said: "T rerevenue from the 

hitter suffering and grinding pauperism of the people is a 
terrible offense. " 

The Queen of Madagascar's words were: "I cannot 
consent as your Queen to take revenue from that wh 
destroys the souls and bodies of my subjects." The Em- 
ir of China, whom we call " heathen, " declared that 
"nothing would induce him to derive a revenue from the 
suffering and degradation of his people." 

Are we less kindly and less principled than they a< 1 
the water? — than even a heathen ruler? Certainly not in 
Pennsylvania, where for so many years there has been 
effort f»r Constitutional prohibition. In [837 the Si 
Temperance Alliance sent petitions to the I ! ral A.SS 
blv, asking that "The Constitution should be so revised 
that the patronage of the state should no longer be given to 
the liquor traffic for revenue or for any other object, and 
that public houses should no more be permitted to distrib- 
ute the deadly poison." 

Still earlier in 1817 the Society of Charities asked 
license money, " Should these wages of iniquity be put into 
the treasury ? They are the price of blood, and their 
gate would be inadequate to buy fields enough in which to 
bury the multitudes who are the victims of the dreadful 
traffic." 

Surely there is not less interest in the right, in the mor- 
ality and virtue of the people, in th perity of the 
government, in her financial statu- standing in 
the greater Commonwealth of the Republic than in the 
olden time ! 



242 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODB RIDGE. 

This appeal which has been ringing out from the hearts 
of Pennsylvania's citizens for more than fifty years will 
certainly receive affirmative response at the ballot box on 
the iSth of June. A traffic that wipes out the wealth of 
a state like Pennsylvania, should surely be prohibited. 
Does any one doubt it ? 

Do we not always prohibit crimes that bring us to des- 
perate straits ? Does any one think that anything short 
of prohibition would keep them at their minimum ? Has 
not Judge Noah Davis said: "The liquor traffic is the 
cause of seven-eighths of the crimes of violence, and a 
very large proportion of all public offenses" ? Shall we 
prohibit the effect and not the cause ? Does some one say: 
' ' Prohibition does not prohibit " ? I will agree with them. 
Law does not enforce itself: neither will enforced law ut- 
terly exterminate the manufacture and sale of intoxicating 
drink while sin is in the hearts of men. But why not use 
the same argument touching other crimes, murder, theft, 
burglary, highway robbery ? No man wants to lose his 
life and would therefore have murder prohibited. No more 
is he pleased to lose his property, hence, all manner of 
theft must be prohibited. But this traffic is the crime of 
all crimes, and certainly no less means than is applied to 
the extermination of other crimes can be approved. ' 'Thou 
shalt not" was thundered from Sinai ages ago, and though 
that prohibitory law has been broken, it has never been 
repealed ; neither has sin been sanctioned nor regulated. 

Will prohibition of the drink traffic be enforced, is 
asked ? A question suggestive of two fearful conditions ! 
First, Failure of our Democratic form of government. 
Second, Treason in the hearts of the people. Constitutional 
prohibition is proposed. How is it to be secured ? By 
the will of a majority of the people expressed at the bal- 
lot box. Is the majority to yield to the minority ? How 
then can there be failure to enforce it ? I am reminded 
of the olden time when Salmon P. Chase, Joshua R. Gid- 
dings, Benjamin F. Wade and my own father sat in coun- 
cil concerning the slave traffic in this nation, when one 
after another would say to the veterans : "Slavery can 
never be outlawed. It is a great commercial interest. It 
must be regulated, kept within bounds," but to-day there 
is not a slave within our domains ! 



THE PE VNSYL I 'ANL I C \MPAh ;.V. 

X> state seemed a less propitious field for prohibition 
in i s 5 r than Maine. But lor thirty-eight years the law 

has obtained, not a complete annihilation <>f tne evil, no 
one claims it, hut not a brewery nor a distillery can he 
found in the state, where once there were many, and every 
person selling intoxicating drink is by constitution and 
statute an outlaw. In 1883 during the Constitutional 
A •" □ Iment campaign of Ohio, Hon. James G. Blaine 
wrote: '[do not believe there are six hundred and fifty 

thousand as sober, industrious and honest citizens in the 
Same area of territory in the United States as 111 Maine, 
and this is wholly due to oar prohibitory law." 

Massachusetts with its free rum has wrought mightily 

to undermine that law, but there it stands in all its consti- 
tutional majesty ! L,ook at Kansas ! Hear the late gov- 
ernor, John A. Martin, not a Prohibitionist when elected, 
hut becoming one by the logic of events, saying : " Fully 
nine-tenths of the drinking and drunkenness prevalent in 
Kansas eight years ago have been abolished and I affirm 
with emphasis and earnestness that this state to-day is the 
tno^t temperate, orderly and sober community of people in 
the civilized world." By statistics that may be secured by 
all, he proves that the population, intelligence, mora', 
and material wealth of the state have increased more r 
idly than in any other state in the Union in the same num- 
ber of years. I have spent two months in Kansas in the 
last two years, and did not see a drunken man nor a place 
where I might suppose intoxicating drinks were sold. 
Church audiences are unprecedentedly large and their most 
marked features is the large number of young men, who, as 
a pastor of Topeka told me, are glad to come, there being 
no places of temptation to lure them away. 

Iowa is a notable example of the speedy benefits of pro- 
hibition. Time has not been sufficient to overthrow the 
evil in all large cities ; but from a no less reliable authority 
than Senator Wilson we learn of its magnificent victories. 
Not as in high license Omaha is there one arrest to each 
twelve of the population, but one to two thousand, and in 
forty-eight of the ninety-nine county jails not a person has 
been confined during the year. 

If, indeed, prohibition does not prohibit, why does the 
trade fear prohibition ? Why their combination against it ? 



244 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Why is such an unparalleled fund raised to defeat it ? Has 
such an attempt ever been made to overthrow or defeat 
high license ? Nay, they fear prohibition with the dread 
of death ; and their own journals are continually rallying 
the trade, saying they must be asleep or they would see 
that ruin stares them in the face if prohibition should pre- 
vail. 

Joseph Cook once said : ' ' Tell me what liquor dealers 
want, and I will tell you what I do not want." The re- 
verse is equally true. Liquor dealers do not want prohibi- 
tion, and therefore every good citizen should want it. Is 
it not pitiful that with all these facts before us there is 
needed so much pleading for the home, for the church, for 
the republic ? Is it not strange that a man will dare to call 
himself a Christian and stand with the forces of wicked- 
ness? 

Think of some of the ministers furnishing by their 
words and acts liquor dealers' circulars at a critical time 
like this ! Praise God the numbers of such are few. Is it 
not true that, if this amendment is lost in this state, it may 
be charged to the failure of the church to stand with God 
and the forces of truth ? Have we not to give account for 
every deed done in the body ? Will any one who thus 
fails dare to give answer to the question, "Where is thy 
brother ? ' ' knowing that that brother has gone into eternal 
darkness because he, a professed child of God, refused to 
take from him the drink temptation ? 

The adoption of this amendment will be the expression 
of the will of the people concerning the liquor traffic. The 
constitution is thoroughly guarded, and when the principle 
of the prohibition of the drink traffic is embodied in it, there 
will be ample opportunity to test its value before it could 
be removed. It will not be subject to judiciary or legisla- 
tive action; but will remain until the people vote it out of 
the constitution, as they have voted it in. 

If this proposition should be adopted the drink traffic in 
intoxicating liquors would be absolutely illegal, even with- 
out legislation. I do not mean that the constitution thus 
amended could enforce itself, or that legislation would not 
be necessary to make it effective in preventing the traffic ; 
but it would have the stamp of constitutional outlawry upon 
it, and could have no legal standing, whatever might be 



THE PENN TA CA ' V. 

the will of the Genera] Assembly. Conti 
the manufacture and sale of liquors to be used as a bevei 
woul L be illegal, and could m I in thecourl 

the state. Capital invested in the business woul 
without legislation, withdraw fi >m it. Butthei ndraent 
makes it the absolute duty of t I anal Assembly to enact 
an enforcing law, with sufficient penalties, as may be nec- 
iry. T of the General Assembly before en- 

tering upon their duties are required to tak •. □ i th 
support the Constitution of the I I States and the con- 

stitution of this state, and faithfully discharge the duties of 
their office." They cannot disregard this mandate to legis- 
late to cany this provision iir t without absolute and 
willful perjury. The General Assembly, whether favoring 
or not favoring this provision, would hardly presumi 
violate so plain a direction as well as their oaths of office. 

This is, also, theonly effective means to t ike this vexed 
question out of party polities, x,, party does or will com- 
bat constitutional law. They all alike conform their p 
form of principles to its mandates. The resistance to con- 
stitutions is individual, not party. 

There will be no danger, should this be adopted, that 
legislation will not follow for its enforcement, no matter 
what party may succeed to power. The will of the people, 

I only are C institution makers, when declared by cor. 
tutional enactment, will always he respected. The General 
Assembly, like constitutions, is elected by the people. It 
could not, if it would, disregard this will. When i 
have been adopted, each political party will try to be f 
most in their adhesion to it, and most outspoken in favor 
of it. Political parties are wonderful in their devotion to 
constitutions, and are always first to denounce infractions 
in other parties. 

This amendment will he practically enforced if adopted. 
The drink traffic, being wholly illegal, its enforcement will 
not be surrounded with the difficulties that have always 
attended and ever will attend the enforcement of regula- 
tory laws. The saloons, the great source of crime and 
wrong, can easily be driven from public gaze. The mag- 
nificence and elegance with which they are now built and 
furnished ; the allurements and sports they exhibit to entice 
the young men, would be a thing of the past. The drink 



246 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

traffic like all other illegal things, would be driven into 
darkness and obscure places. Their glory would depart, 
and they would take their places alongside of all other out- 
laws, with no party or people for their defenders or advo- 
cates. 

On the other hand, if you fail to adopt this amend- 
ment, if you let the liquor dealers understand their traffic 
is approved, nothing can hold them within bounds. They 
will demand and secure their "personal liberty," and no 
power will be sufficient to prevent it ; for they will declare 
it to be the expressed will of the people at the focus of 
power — the ballot box. 

A refusal to adopt by a state like Pennsylvania will 
discourage temperance people elsewhere and will be derog- 
atory to every effort made for prohibition. On the eight- 
eenth day of June may the men of Pennsylvania stand for 
God and home and humanity, meeting the duty of the 
hour to their honor, and save this great Commonwealth 
from the ravages of the liquor traffic ! 

In the year 1SS9, in addition to her other cares and re- 
sponsibilities, Mrs. Woodbridge was made by the National 
union their lecturer to higher educational institutions 
and colleges. This called her before many of the most 
learned assemblies of the land. And just such audiences 
her charming address and calm, thoughtful, logical speeches 
were calculated to delight. We find a very able address 
delivered before a college which we would gladly give to 
the readers ; but the superabundance of material and the 
lack of space prevent. 





&MU&0- 




CHAPTER XVII. 

MKS. WooDHRIDC.K'S TRIP ABROAD -HER RECEPTION 
ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND— LADV IlKNRY SOM- 
i RSET AND BER ESTIMATE OF MRS. 
WOODBRIDGE. 

AT the National Convention of the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union in 1890, Mrs. Woodbridge • 
made a fraternal delegate to the British Women's Temper- 
ance Association to meet at London, May 25 2-, 1891. 
She was also a delegate to the London Yearly Meeting of 
Friends ; to the Right Worthy Grand Lodge at Edinburg : 
to the Social Purity Conference at Geneva ; to the P< 
and Arbitration Congress at Rome, and to the Congrega- 
tional Council at London. She playfully wrote to the au- 
thor : " It is much to put in the hands of one poor woman." 
We would be glad to give a more complete and detailed 
report of her work abroad, her wonderfully successful little 
speeches at the innumerable receptions given her when she 
was so happy, and one or more of her more formal pub- 
lic addresses which made such a deep impression. But we 
are unable to do it. Mrs. Woodbridge lived and acted, ut- 
terly unmindful of her reputation and enduring fame. She 
was not making a biography, much less an autobiography ; 
she was simply living for Jesus day by day, making her life 
sublime in most efficient service for her Lord. She sent 
home no newspaper reports, and wrote not a line of what 
she ever said before the public. With her characteristic 
hiding of herself in her work, she scarcely referred to her 
constant addresses even in her letters to her most inti- 



24S LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

mate friends or to her own family. Were it not for a few 
scattered and very brief references to her receptions and 
speeches in letters to her husband and to the author, and 
also the kindness of that noble woman, Lady Henry Somer- 
set, it would be impossible to give any conception of her 
work abroad. 

She w r rote almost daily to her husband ; her bright and 
often amusing descriptions of scenes and places of interest 
we omit as aside from our purpose. This is not a book of 
travels ; were it such we could fill a large volume from her 
foreign letters alone. We glean the following, which 
throw light upon her life : 

London, May 29, 1891. 

I went with Dr. Thomas and his sister to present my message at 
the London Yearly Meeting, on Friday, and on Saturday was obliged 
to go to Edinburg, as the Grand Lodge which had not expected to 
hold its meeting until Tuesday found it could close on Monday. We 
had a most enthusiastic time. I returned to Loudon. Lady Henry 
is here at present among her London tenantry. She is the finest 
speaker among women that I have heard, possessing in a marvelous 
degree qualifications for a leader, and her co-laborers almost worship 
at her feet. Hannah Whitall Smith made a delightful lunch party for 
me the day after convention, at which we were all together. All con- 
spired to show me everything that time would permit. 

Edinburg, beautiful for situation, is wonderful, charming ; and 
you feel yourself at home at once. I certainly do at Mr. Barclay's 
where I am entertained — a marvelous man with a marvelous wife 
who is engaged in innumerable philanthropies. 

Edinburg, Scotland, June 4, 1891. 

I am to speak at a popular mission founded by Mr. Moody 
when he was here, at which the attendance is about fifteen hundred. 
On Sunday evening I speak at Assembly Hall, belonging to the 
Free Church of Scotland, where the General Assembly has just 
closed ; — the largest and finest hall in the city. I have much en- 
joyed meeting the great ecclesiastical lights, Dr. Norman McLeod, 
Andrew Bonar and daughter, Mrs. Oatts, the son and daughter of the 
late Dr. Guthrie, etc., who are all friends of Mr. and Mrs. Barclay. 

To-morrow we go to the home of the Earl of Devonshire, where 
we expect to have a pleasant visit. 



HER TRIP ABROAD. \ 

June 9, [891. 

Edinburg will ever be a most delightful memory. We are to 
return there m tt Tuesday, as a reception has been arranged for by 
all the temperance organiz itionsof the city. I have also an invita* 
from Southampton to a cept a reception at their hands, and 
have arranged to go there upon my return to London. Saturday 
night I spoke at Carubbers Close to fifteen hundred people, which 
led to an invitation to address the meeting at Assembly Hall on Sab- 
bath evening, when Dr. Cummings presided and gave me a most 
delightful introduction. Every possible attention has hern paid 
me, and I am full of gratitude for the privilege. I find myself so 

continually occupied that writing is almost impossible. I shall have 
much to tell you of meetings at Carubbers Close. It carries eight}* 
meetings a week, the great one being Saturday night at which I 
spoke. Entirely different from America, leading divines, Common- 
Lords and Members of Parliament, take their part and you have 
DO thought that the temperance cause is confined to any particu- 
lar class. Dr. Bonar tells me that if Scotland could have Home 
Rule, she would adopt prohibition certainly four to one, perhaps six 
to one. . . . I cannot say just how long I shall stay in Edinburg ; 
for never was woman SO favored, — lunches, dinners, teas, rides, invi- 
tations and calls are continuous, and the very best of the people vie 
with each other it would seem, to do me kindnesses. 

Edixburg, June 25, 1S91. 

I write away as if I were talking to you, and yet I may say I 
think I have a right to be highly gratified that Edinburg, with its 
intellectual supremacy, has received me so kindly and accorded me 
such meeds of approbation. The spiritual atmosphere delights me 
and I ought ever to be a better woman. Our meeting yesterday 
afternoon was delightful. The professors from the University v 
there and many ladies, and a most elegant repast was afterward 
served. 

Edixburg, June 29, 1S91. 

A family by the name of Darling have kept what is called Dar- 
ling's Regent Hotel for many years. It is a most noted family in 
religious and philanthropic circles. One after another has passed 
away and biographies of most thrilling interest have been published. 

When I first came I was entertained at Mr. Barclay's, and I in- 
close a letter received from him this morning asking my return. 
When we returned from our northern trip Mrs. Barclay awaited us 
at the station. Mr. Marshall, the leading jeweler of the city, with 



2 50 L IFE O F MA RY A. WOO DB RID GE . 

his wife and family joined in a plea that we go to them. Professor 
Blakie from the University came with an urgent invitation for a 
week, but Miss Darling would not take nay, and being in the center 
of the city from whence we could go in every direction, we accepted. 
This afternoon I go to a parlor meeting at one of the lovely homes, 
and on to Professor Blakie's to tea. 

Melrose, Scotland, July 2, 1S91. 
Od Tuesday I go to Lady Henry Somerset's. I shall meet Han- 
nah Smith there, and she much desires that I go to Haselmere with 
her. Possibly, I may go down for the night, but no longer, for there 
is so much to do this week in London that I cannot run away ; and 
every spare moment (if such can be found 1 I shall be at the Congre- 
eational Council which opens to-morrow. "Wednesday I attend a 
gathering of policemen, and invitations to speak which I cannot 
accept for lack of time are coming in. 

London, July 16, 1S91. 

Lady Henry invited a delightful coterie of women to take tea 
with me day before yesterday, and by her urgent request I talked 
half an hour. I was also invited to speak at the policemen's meet- 
ing. To-day I go with Lady Henry out to Hannah Whitall Smith's. 

Lady Henry Somerset combines the rarest physical, mental, and 
spiritual gifts, as truly a world's leader as is our own president, a 
woman lost to self in Christ. Her remarkable characteristic is un- 
selfishness, which I believe to be synonymous with complete conse- 
cration or holiness. She continually " seeks the best gifts," not for 
personal aggrandizement, but as a better fitting for the Master's 
service. She shrinks from nothing which she believes to be the 
will of God, His will, apparently, being as sweet to her as the sing- 
ing of birds. She has had many trials, but must have said in her 
heart, "Why should I start at the plow of my Lord that maketh 
deep furrows on my soul ? I know that He is no idle husbandman, 
but purposeth a crop." She has brought blessings to multitudes, 
especially to those who come into close relations with her. She 
never suggests to one the idea of caste, or earthly difference or posi- 
tion, but brings out one's best, and constantly educates by her char- 
acter. She has what Canon Wilberforce has called the four elements 
of life and experience, it having been hers to admit, to submit, to 
commit and to transmit. She is like the sun who pursues his noise- 
less track, and everywhere bears in his beams a blessing to the 
world. 



HER TRIP ABRi Kin. 251 

This single item from a newspaper is found : 

Mis. Woodbridge meetawith acordial reception wherever she goes 

treat Britain. Canon Will. tendered tl I 

(-1 Southampton the grounds of the Deanery foi .1 reception in hex 
honor. She deserves it all. 

Mrs. Woodbridge filled her long and beautiful letters 
with descriptions of people and places and famous build- 
ings and scenes, and said so little about herself and her 
work (what we are now most interested in), that we should 
he dependent on these few references quoted above for our 
knowledge of the flattering way in which she was received 
abroad, were it not for the kindness of Lady Henry Somer- 
set, who is as humble and obliging as she is great and 
good. 

I knew she admired my friend, for as I wrote this book, 
I sat facing the wall of Mrs. Woodbridge's sitting-room, 
on which hung Lady Henry's picture with her autograph 
upon it, giving it to her "beloved Mary Woodbridge." 
There was also a beautiful paper weight on the table before 
me with a heart-shaped gold frame, holding the picture 
Lady Henry, whose sweet, pure face looked up at me as a 
perpetual inspiration while I wrote. It, too, was a present 
from Lady Henry. It held her autograph letter which 
read as follows : 

Office 25, Memorial Ham,, Fa&ring 3t. j 

London, Aug. 15, \ 

Dear Mrs. Woodbridge :— I have sent you as a souvenir to-. lay, 
a httle paper weight and paper clip. Will you keep it 0:1 your table 
as a remerubrauce of 

Your sincere friend, 



hakU^ 



Knowing of this friendship and of this noble woman's 
great kindness, I was emboldened to write for her account of 



252 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Mrs. Woodbridge's reception in England, and the impres- 
sion she made upon the general public. Before it is given, 
however, I wish to make the general reader better ac- 
quainted with this rare Christian woman, whom rank can 
not spoil, nor wealth corrupt, nor power make proud and 
heartless, and whose name and fame will yet fill the earth 
as one of the most remarkable Christian women of our cen- 
tury. 

There are many American women of wealth and cul- 
ture, social position and great influence who sincerely pray 
for usefulness ; they do not open their eyes to this match- 
less field of moral reform and enter it because, forsooth, 
they imagine that all the W. C. T. U. women are cranks, 
and they would be degraded by joining them! I want to 
tell all such that the leaders in this greatest reform move- 
ment of this century of reform, are the very elect of God. 
I hold up before them this queenly woman, of purest aris- 
tocratic blood, of unquestioned rank and position in the 
noblest aristocracy of the world, who has meekly laid her 
rank and wealth and eloquence on the altar of humanity's 
service for Jesus' sake, and I ask them if they are too good 
to stand beside her and her Lord in Christian service ? 

In order to make my readers better acquainted with this 
sweet-souled reformer who meekly follows her Saviour and 
regards Christian as her noblest title, I was emboldened 
to write to Miss Willard for some description of her noble 
friend. She kindly complied and sent me the following : 

LADY HENRY SOMERSET AT HOME IN LONDON — HER 
WORK, AND HOW SHE DOES IT. 

FRANCES E. WILLARD. 
President of the World's W. C T. I". 

It would be inaccurate to speak of Lady Henry Somer- 
set as being especially at home in London, though she has 
a house there always open and ready when it suits her con- 
venience to occupy the same for days or weeks. Her beau- 



HER TRIP ABROAD. 

titul Castle of Bastnor is over a hundred miles from the 
Babel of* the metropolis, and her charming seat al Reigate 
Prioryismore than twenty miles from the modern Babylon. 
She often says that two of the cardinal principles of her life 
until within a few years were these : First, J will live in 
the country; second, I will not travel. 

While bringing up her son, Henry Somers Somerset, 
now twenty-one years of age, Lady Henry adhered strictly 

to these rules ; but she has now become so much involved 

in temperance work and the philanthropies closely associ- 
ated with that great reform that she has been obliged to 
restate her principles. This she has not done in so many 
words, but in action. The change is to the following 
effect : First, I have no home ; second, I am obliged to be- 
on the wing, and the round earth is my parish. For I. 
Henry is Vice-President at largeof the World's Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, and letters come to her fi 
every nook and corner of the earth urging her presence and 
help in the foundation of national and local unions. From 
seventy-five to one hundred letters a day and from a dozen 
to twenty telegrams must be taken care of as a mere inci- 
dent of her greatly preoccupied life. Engagements with 
leaders with whom conference is desirable occupy much 
time ; her conferences with women whom she desires to 
enlist take her out through the towns and cities of Great 
Britain ; and her attendance at great mass-meetings in the 
strategic centres makes the final draft upon her strength. 

All these first, exclusive of an immense business 
which she insists upon knowing the "true inwardness." 
Her estates at Eastnor are fifteen miles in length, and the 
number of her tenants there, at Reigate, and in Somers' 
Town, London, is very large, besides this she has the 
circle of her relationships in society, and her comrn 
in the middle class, wdiich is so well defined in England. 
But the health, education, and interests of her son are 
paramount to all other considerations. He is a fine young 
fellow, over six feet tall, and resembles his mother in gen- 
eral appearance, having the same dark eyes, dark hair and 
tresh complexion ; he is devotedly attached to her, and is 
an exemplary young man in the purposes and habits of 
his life. 

Lady Henry has each of her three homes well supplied 



254 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

with servants and kept open the year round, as she can 
never tell to which she may wish to go on account of her 
own engagements or in order to entertain friends. She 
does a great deal in the way of giving holidays, vacations 
and outings to those who otherwise would not know what 
a pleasant thing these variations are in the lives of those 
who have not the money to provide themselves with such 
pleasures. 

Like all other English women of her antecedents and 
training, Lady Henry sits up late at night, and hence rises 
late in the morning, taking a light French breakfast in 
bed between eight and nine, and having breakfast about 
ten, lunch between one and two, tea at five, and dinner 
anywhere between six and eight o'clock. She reads her 
innumerable letters as rapidly as they come, unless they 
are purely routine letters, when they go to her secretary. 
Lady Henry sits with stenographers all day long, unless 
she is obliged, which is often thecase, to attend committees 
or fulfill engagements. Her greatest deprivation is the 
lack of time to read, for she has always been devoted to 
books ; it is pathetic to see her put a copy of Tennyson, 
Wordsworth, Drummond, or Matthew Arnold into her 
traveling bag, hoping to get a few minutes to read on the 
train or in the intervals of meetings. She works as busily 
on the cars as in her office, and has immense power of 
concentration, so that she throws off letters, articles, para- 
graphs, speeches with remarkable facility. Perhaps noth- 
ing in the study of her life strikes one as more character- 
istic than that she should have become such an expert in 
writing, speaking, organizing, and conducting the forces 
of a reform movement on a great scale, when all her life 
until the last few years was spent in a manner so totally 
different ; for she was wont to live at Eastnor Castle or 
Reigate Priory, spending a great deal of time in the open 
air, following the hounds, visiting the cottagers, entertain- 
ing large parties of friends, and reading with a persistence 
worthy of a scholar. Her life was then wholly one of 
self-direction ; now she is impelled by the exigencies of a 
movement which involves hundreds of thousands of co- 
workers. 

For a long time I have been associated with Lady 
Henry in all her work, having been a guest in her home, 



HER TRIP ABROAD 

and, tb ■, speak " by the book" in tl 

relative to her home life. Sin- is beloved by :ill 

with whom she is associated, is most Liberal and indulg 
to those dependent on her, and has a remarkable powei ol 
calling out the affection of comrades, friends and helpers in 

all grades Of the social scale. The elasticity, buoya: 
wit and humor of Lady Somerset have not been adequal 

set forth. She is a delightful companion, a remarkable 
conversationalist, and never brightens her talk with 

many quaint allusions, quips, and turns of apt expression as 
when she is with those in whose presence she feels pi 
at home. To the public generally she presents the appear- 
ance of a woman of the highest culture, having a certain 
gentle dignity mingled with great consideration in word 
and deed. 

Lady Henry Somerset's method of conducting the tem- 
perance work is on progressive modern lines. Wherever 
the liquor traffic is intrenched there she would (figura- 
tively) plant a gatling gun. She believes the movement 
to be much wider than has been supposed in the past ; she 
thinks that it includes the effort to teach the children in all 
schools what science has to say concerning the effect oi 
Stimulants and narcotics upon the body, the mind, the 
purse, and the perceptions of every boy and girl. She 
believes that the circulation of scientific temperance litera- 
ture is of vital importance. She thinks that the ballot in 
the hand of woman means the outlawing of the drams': 
and for that reason she is working most ably to change the 
public sentiment so that this weapon shall be placed in the 
hands of the women of the world ; in all her writings and 
speaking, and in her interviews with journalists, she in- I 
upon this measure. She also believes that until this great 
question .u r "<-'s into politics it will never come into power, 
and she does not hesitate to say so. In the ,<;reat p (J ]j: 
struggle of the spring of 1892 Lady Henry Somerset spoke 
for the Liberal party thirty-six times in fifteen days and she- 
did this because the Liberals had made the " direct ve 
a plank in their platform. There is not another woman 
in England who has such sympathetic power over an audi- 
ence. Her gentle presence, tender tones, and wide hos- 
pitality of thought win every heart. Lady Henry has the 
mind of a statesman ; its scope and grasp are altogether be- 



256 LIFE OF MARY A. W00DBR1DGE. 

yond those of most women ; and she unites in her thinking 
and character the best powers of a capable man and a 
thoughtful and highly educated woman. Her career has 
but begun. If she goes on at the present rate for a quarter 
of a century or even half that time, she will have cut her 
name deep and high on the scroll of her country's bene- 
factors. 

Here is Lady Somerset's simple eloquent tribute, en- 
titled, 

THE VISIT OF MRS. WOODBRIDGE TO GREAT BRITAIN. 

LADY HENRY SOMERSET. 

In the spring of 1891, Mrs. Woodbridge came to the 
annual meeting of our British Women's Temperance Asso- 
ciation as a fraternal delegate from the National W. C. T. 
U. She was also the secretary of these two societies which 
form the largest circles of all into which the Crusade move- 
ment has extended. In this threefold capacity Mrs. Wood- 
bridge was thrice welcomed and thrice honored by us all ; 
but more than all she was loved for her charming manners 
and high character. 

The impression that she made on our convention when 
introduced was one of the finest that I have ever witnessed. 
Her tall, well proportioned figure, her great dignity of 
bearing, her beaming countenance, her deep, pleasant tones 
of voice, all combined to make us glad and grateful that a 
representative so equal to every emergency that might arise 
had been sent to us by our white ribbon sisters in America. 

I saw her repeatedly in private and was specially im- 
pressed by the combination of dignity, suavity and humor 
that formed an amalgam of rare attraction and magnetic 
power. Her smile was contagious and her rippling laughter 
musical. She seemed a happy woman ; happy in the equi- 
poise of her character, in the enrichment of her home life, 
in the good will of her comrades, in the " peace that pass- 
eth understanding." 

From England Mrs. Woodbridge went to the Continent 
and made the usual summer round. She also visited sev- 
eral places of interest in our Island and endeared herself to 
every one of our members who had the privilege of meet- 




I. \]»Y HENRY Si >MERSI T 



HER TRIP 

ing her. I have heard but one opinion from the lips of all 
and that is the one which I have here set down as simply 
and directly as I know how. It comes from a heart that 
has always loved and cherished this noble representative 
white ribbon woman, and which deeply sympathizes with 
her loving friends and co-workers in the sndden separation 
that has removed her forever from our earthly sight. 

Hut the world invisible gTOWS dear and rich when s 

have entered there freighted with so much that was beau- 
tiful and blessed in the world that now is. 

"We follow that way." We shall soon be with them 
once again. 




Boston, /<i?!. i , 18$ ,-. 

These tWO noble women met. The one was one of 
the finest products of the aristocratic institutions of old 
England ; the other was an equally choice specimen of the 
products of republican institutions in New England. As 
they stood in each other's presence, rank and title were 
forgotten. The}- saw in each other only the "pure wo- 
manly," and that higher nobility of mind and spirit which 
each possessed. They had much in common to call out 
mutual admiration. Each was an orator of wide fame. 
Each had literary ability and editorial gifts of acknowl- 
edged power. Each was by instinct and choice and train- 
ing a moral reformer ; ami, best of all, each was by pro- 
fession and practice, a devout, humble, and truly conse- 
crated follower of the meek and lowly Jesus. For I 
such queens in the kingdom of God to meet was instantly 
to love and be loved, and to form a friendship that will 
never end. Death has only translated and crowned one ; 
the other "follows that way " to join the loved in the 
blessed world, where separations are unknown and unions 
are never broken. 



258 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

One of the greatest dukes of the realm entertained 
Mrs. Woodbridge, and with great courtesy showed her the 
treasures of art and historic interest in his ancestral halls. 
Before retiring the nobleman called all his many servants 
together, and like an ancient patriarch, the priest of his 
household, he led them in worship. Perhaps nothing she 
participated in abroad touched her heart more than that. 

After Mrs. Woodbridge returned home, the wife of a 
very famous American millionaire said to her, " The next 
time you go abroad I want to go with you." "Why?" 
asked Mrs. Woodbridge. "Because," said the wealthy 
lad}-, "you can get an entrance into circles in England 
where mere money can never take any of us Americans." 

Thank God that it is so ; that there is society in this 
world where intellect and character and Christian useful- 
ness count for more than money ! 



CHAPTER Will. 

MRS. WOODBRIDGE AS \ PREACHER. 

Who is my neighbor? — Luke to; . . 

First of all he is literally our neighbor who is nexl to na in our 
own family ami household. Then it is he who is close to ns in our 

own neighborhood, in our own town, in our own parish, in our own 

street. With these all true charity begins. To love and to behind 
to these is the very beginning of all true religion. Bnt beside tl 
as our Lord teaches, it is everyone who is thrown aero rpath by 
the changes and chances of life; he or she, whosoever it be, whom 
we have sny means of helping the unfortunate stranger whom we 
may meet in traveling, the deserted friend whom no one . 
look after. — Dean Stanley. 

I would not have this perfect love of ours 

Grow from a single root, a Bingle stem, 
Bearing no goodly fruit, hut only flowers 

That idly hide life's iron diadem : 
It should grow always like that Eastern I 
Whose limbs take root and spread forth constantly ; 
That love for one, from which there doth not spring 
Wide love for all, is but a worthless thing. 

—JciDu Ru ell I d ell. 

THIS biography would not be complete without some 
mention of Mrs. Woodbridge's work as a her 

of righteousness — a real ambassador of Christ. Her first 
speech, as we have already observed, was in a church, 
so was her last. She probably spoke first and last in more 
than two thousand pulpits, and hundreds of times she took 
a text and preached from it as any other preacher might 
do. Many a time ministers have listened to her words, and 
when she closed her plea for her Master with the audience 



260 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

strangely moved, they have involuntarily exclaimed, " She 
ought to be ordained at once to preach the gospel." 

And she was ordained by the best possible ordination — 
that of the Holy Ghost. It was the same kind that Dwight 
L. Moody had, years before any minister thought of giving 
him recognition. When the}- finally did recognize him, it 
honored them far more than it helped him. Many minis- 
ters have been honored with " the laying on of holy hands," 
and have been helped very little by it. But when the Holy 
Spirit lays His hand on a soul and " separates " it for great 
service, touches the lips with "a live coal," and enables 
them to speak with a divine unction and heavenly persua- 
siveness, it then matters little whether men ordain them or 
not. They are ordained by a higher than human power. 
It matters not whether churches call such persons preach- 
ers or not ; they preach, and they get a hearing. He who 
called them into the ministry calls the people to hear them, 
and He sets His own seal on their ministry of converting 
power. 

Such was "our beloved Mary's*' ordination; and from 
the beginning she made ' ' full proof of her ministry . ' ' Few 
ministers could gather such an audience as she could. She 
did not preach to " fill an appointment," "kill time," 
"delight the audience," or "make a name" for herself. 
With her it was serious, very solemn work. She had, as 
she felt, a commission from God to proclaim an important 
message to dying souls. Her whole heart was in it. 

An old Scotch lady once went to hear that earnest young 
minister, Rev. Robert McCheynne, who died so early, and 
yet who lived long enough to fill the realm with the sweet 
odor of his influence. She was asked how she liked him. 
She paused as if to measure her words, and then said : 
" He seems to me to preach as if he was just dying to have 
somebody converted." So was it with the preaching of 
Mrs. Woodbridge ; and it made her a soul-winner. 



.IS .1 PREACHER. 

[t is difficult to know just, how she  
Newspapers do not often punt sermons, and we find d 
Mrs. Woodbridge's in any papers. We can find little 
ving accounts of the marvelous power and blej 
suits of Ikt .sermons. There are also multitudes of living 

witnesses who tell how she moved them, and won them and 

others to Jesus ; but it is impossible to give to the public 

my of her discourses as she delivered them. We know 

that she was sought for far and wide to go to . • I ther- 
ings and camp-meetings and preach annually ; and that 
months together she would fill s ulpit every Sabbath 

morning, preaching a sermon, and in the evening speaking 

on moral reform. 

If she had been more willing to write about herself we 
should have known more of her si: 5 and triumphs. 

Even if she ever did break over her reserve and self-hiding 
and talk freely it was always with an ... lb 

specimen from a letter to the author ami his wife: 

Depot Olean, March io, 
My Drc.\R Friends : — The train being much delayed I 
am almost alone in the depot and after having written my 
precious husband cannot resist the opportunity to write you 
hastily and again record the mercies and blessings of God, 
which have attended my pathway. Do you clearly under- 
stand that I write no one but my husband of these thil 
in any degree as I do you ? If you do not my letter will 
seem very egotistical, while in reality I am so astonished 
(lack of faith, perhaps) and so grateful, that I was never 
more humble. 

She then tells of her work on the previous Sabbath, — 
speaking three times — once in the largest church in the 

city* of W , w'hose pastor was always before averse to 

the \Y. C. T. U. and all their speakers. At the close of 
her address the pastor arose and said : ' Never until to- 
day have I known the work of the W. C. T. U., but I 
desire now to be furnished with all vour books and leaflets 



262 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

which I will faithfully study, and I hope to lead the Chris- 
tian women of my flock, who, I fear, from ignorance like 
my own, have never entered the work to join the goodly 
and the godly host." 

The collection for her cause was twice as much as it 
had ever been before in that city. She closed her letter as 
follows : 

The Lord was in all the gatherings and my heart was 

full of gratitude. Yesterday I went early to B where 

I addressed an audience, giving a scientific talk on alcohol. 
I called it the Water of Death. You will see how natu- 
rally I could turn it into a talk on "The Water of Life." 
I got them by uplifted hand to promise never to drink the 
Water of Death. Then I persuaded them to promise to 
drink of the "Water of Life." 

Among those that held up their hands were eleven per- 
sons between fifteen and twenty years old. Some were in 
tears ; others by their countenances showed the striving of 
the Holy Spirit. I had conversation with each of them 
after the meeting, and all but one seemed clear in their 
mind and fully determined to serve the Lord. One poor 
girl, seventeen years old, said: "I have so wanted such 
an opportunity," and, laying her head on my shoulder, she 
wept, and said, " Praise the Lord that you came." 

Do you wonder that I wanted to tell you of the mercy 
of my God ? Is He not wonderful, marvelous, to give to 
such as I, privileges and blessing and opportunity like 
this ? Will you not praise Him for His goodness and im- 
plore for me that faith whereby I shall so trust Him that I 
shall have no will but His, and may be lost to self? 

Yours ever, 

Mary A. Woodbridge. 

Think of it! ten souls for Jesus as the result of a scien- 
tific talk about alcohol! But it was because she had what 
John Angell James, of sainted memory, called "an eye to 
the Lord Jesus." She had the true preacher's passion for 
souls. 

We learn through a letter from a fellow-passenger, and 
also from a letter to her husband, that she preached by 



./ PREAi m 

invitation, on the steamer in her passage ovei to England. 
As part of the result one prominent citizen ol an Am 
city was deeply convicted by the Holy Spirit, and, in a 
private interview with her afterward, gave himself to 

Christ. 

She was once speaking in an [ndiana city, and at the 

close of her address an engineer am' his fireman rose- and 
asked the privilege of saying a few words. It being 
granted, theysaid: "Some months ago we were in 

and heard Mrs. Woodbridge speak, and we were led ho- 
lier words to give ourselves to Jesus, and we are now 
joicing in His salvation, and we wish to bear this testi- 
mony to the grace of God in sending us the mess 
salvation through this His servant." 

She once spoke at a well-known Methodist camp-m 
ing in Ohio. " Before speaking," as she wrote the author, 
" I went to my God, I plead that He would speak through 
me and keep me in His fear only. When I closed my 
mou the silence was like death. After the benedict: 
been pronounced, Dr. Merrick, of Delaware, came to me 
and said : ' I do not want to compliment, for it would be 
unworthy of such an hour as this ; but I thank God that if 
lie ever spoke through His own, He has done it this after- 
noon.' As he used the very words of my prayer of the 
noon-time, I was lifted to exultation, and my soul 
sponded : ' Not only hast Thou answered my prayer, 
Thou hast declared it unto me through the lips of thy 
vant.' " 

And Mrs. Woodbridge not only preached before the 
great audiences, but, also, like her Master at the well of 
Samaria, she was a wayside preacher, even to an audience 
of one. 

Riding from her home to Cleveland oik- day on the 
train, there was but one vacant sitting in the car, and that 
was beside a man quite intoxicated. A gentleman i 



264 LIFE OF MAR Y A. WOODBRIDGE. 

to exchange seats. She said: "No, I thank you ; I am 
not afraid of a drunken man." Soon he was aroused, and 
half opened his eyes and stared stupidly at her. She 
began a pleasant and kindly conversation with him, and 
deftly turned it into a religious channel and presently she 
was holding up Christ to him as the only one who could 
set him free from the bondage of drink and all other sin. 

Six months later, in the eastern part of the state, she 
had an appointment to speak in a town which she was late 
in reaching on account of the delay of the train. The 
audience had gathered, and, while waiting for her, was be- 
ing addressed by a gentleman. She sat down in a seat in 
the rear and listened. It was her once drunken car com- 
panion, who was telling how Mrs. Woodbridge had ridden 
with him on the train, and had pointed him to Christ, 
whom he had accepted as a Saviour, who had given him 
deliverance and made him once more a man. 

This was probably but one of countless instances of her 
wayside work in reaching out for individual souls. And 
she used not only her lips but her facile pen for Jesus, pray- 
ing for souls as led by the Spirit, and then writing to them 
some gospel message to reach their quickened hearts. Since 
her death one letter has been shown to her husband which 
she once wrote to a young lawyer. This man now stands 
at the head of the bar in his county, and he has treasured 
this letter nearly a score of years. It reads as follows : 

Ravenna, Jan. 8, 1878. 

Respected Sir : — Since the hour that the Lord called me 
(in a small way) into public life, I have closely scrutinized 
my every act, lest one might be considered unwomanly. 
Keenly sensitive upon this point, when addressing a stran- 
ger, as I am now doing, even on religious subjects, so dear 
to my heart, and which I feel to be a vital interest to all, 
I shrink, but cannot withhold. For some reason (the Lord 
knows) you have been the burden of my prayer for many 
days. When waking in the night time you have been 



./ . ./ PREAi HER. 

upon my heart, and not until in faith I haw been able to 
leave you with the Lord have I slept. 

Last evening Mr. made an earnest appeal " thai 

those who love the Lord would go out in search of any 
to whom they might be directed by Him." This I have 
been blessed in doing from day to day. But this morning 
when I asked direction for my feet, none was given me 
and only the more heavily was the burden of your soul's 
salvation iolled upon me. During the forenoon one came 
to me for counsel, and I praised God for His blessing, and 
the privilege He granted. At half after one, an hour of 
daily communion with my Beloved, I could not free myself 
from the burden. Therefore, knowing it was not likely 
that I could meet you undisturbed, I take this means of 
communication. Will you please accept my reason for 
writing ? I believe it is only with desire for your good and 
the honor of the dear Master. 

What can I write ? Not a word that you do not already 
know, and yet the inexpressible joy that is in my heart 
because I have Christ there, as my Hope, my Guide and my 

ious Redeemer, and the remembrance of the barrenness 
of the field before He took possession, leads me to long that 
other souls receive this joy and honor this blessed Jesus. 

So deep has 1>< en my yearning for you that I have felt I 
would be willing to wander where there is " neither rain nor 
dew," to go into barrenness and desolation for a time, if SO 
be you might taste of this joy, — taste so you would never, 
never be willing to turn to things of time and sense for hap 
piness. Doubtless with you, as with numberless cases, the 
inconsistencies of such as I are a stumbling block. Would 
that the external life of Christians could be brought into 
harmony with the internal; — that we were all "sealed on 
the forehead," that others might see that we were followers 
of the blessed Son of God! For it is not profession that 
the ungodly want ; it is the life of Christ lived out. You 
want reality. But because many a lawyer lives unworthily 
you were not hindered from entering the profession. 
Because others had failed you did not expect that your 
manhood and honor would be lessened by joining the ranks. 
You were doubtless even stimulated thereby to honorable 
effort. Why not in this much more important interest, sep- 
arate the reality which you desire — the Christ from all 



266 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

earthly surroundings, and answer the question at once and 
forever, — "What shall I do with this Jesus which is called 
Christ ? ' ' You are not required to do, simply to accept, 
receive, and having received, honor your Saviour by yield- 
ing to His requests, as you honor an earthly friend whom 
you dearly love. There is no " do " even in the answer to 
the Philippian jailer — all the "do" is in the question. The 
answer is still ' ' Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and thou 
shalt be saved." 

Once more I beseech you, by the love of God in giving 
his Son for our salvation, by the love of Jesus, our Sacri- 
fice, by the tender mercy that hath followed you all your 
days, come to Jesus and be forever His. It is hard to 
cease pleading, for this longing for souls brings a near inti- 
macy with Him who has said : "Oh, turn ye, turn ye, for 
why will ye die ? ' ' Your friend praying for you, 

Mary A. Woodbridge. 

It is evident that Mrs. Woodbridge did much of this kind 
of Christian preaching by letter ; and to save her time, she 
finally had the following letter printed which she might 
enclose in some other epistle with a prayer that Christ 
might be found by the one to whom she wrote : 

BEING A CHRISTIAN. 

My Dear Friend : — This list of questions has been pre- 
pared with the hope that they will be helpful to inquirers. 
They are intended to embrace those points of belief and 
experience which we learn from the Scriptures are necessary 
in order to become a true follower of Christ. I will ask 
you to examine each question separately, in a careful and 
prayerful spirit, and then write your own answer under each 
one. The simplest form of an answer would be, I do, or // 
is, or I will. When you have answered all that you clearly 
understand, or all that you can answer honestly and can- 
didly, make the two copies just alike, keep one for your 
own use that you may review it from time to time, and 
return the other to me. 

May God help j*ou to answer each question in His fear 
and to your own salvation. 

Affectionately your friend, 

Mary A. Woodbridge. 



.1\ .! PRE \CHER. 

Do yon believe that the Bible is the Word of God ? [I Tim. | i6, 

'7- 

Is it your Bettled purpose to make its teachings the guide and i 

of your life? Psalm 119:105, 1 

i>o you believe that when you an- without Christ yon area L 

sinner? John 15 : 5. 

Do you believe that Christ is able and willing to save you if you 
truly come to Him ? John 3 : 16. 

Do you understand that coming to Christ is turning from your 
sins mid believing, loving and obeying Him P John 14 : 21. 

Have you so come to Christ? 

If not will you do so now? Matt. 11 : 2S 30. 

If you have, do you now believe that He has received yon and 
secured the pardon of all your sins? Acts 16: 31. 

An- you willing to confess Christ before men in tin- way of His 

appointment? Matt. 10:52. Mark 16 : 16. 

Are yon willing to give np all amusements and practices that will 

hinder you from Being an earnest and spiritually minded Christian ' 
Rom ins 12 : 2. II Cor. 6: 17. 

Will you consecrate yourself to the service of Christ in th; 
— that you will do all you can to be a faithful follower of Christ 
yourself, and to briutf others to I Iim ? Luke 9 123. Mat; 

Do you make these promises humbly trusting in the help 01 the 
Holy Spirit to enable you to keep them, and promise that yon will 
pray every day for such help ? Zech. 4 : 6. Matt. 26 : 41. 

Sign your name at the bottom that I may know whose answers art 
written above. 

I take pleasure at this point in quoting from a letter 
by Miss Gertrude Ferguson, of Louisville, Ky., as follows : 

I am glad to write a few words received from Mrs. 
Munnell who has been our state president for years, and 
was associated with Mrs. Woodbridge both at state and 
National conventions. 

Mrs. Munnell says : 

" Mrs. Woodbridge was with us at our last three annual 
meetings. She was loved and honored by the Kentucky 
white- ribboners who knew her, better than any other one of 
our great leaders of the National W. C. T. U. and was re- 
garded by them as a very queen among women. She usu- 
ally preached our annual sermon, and to the citizens where 
we held our conventions, she was a wonder and surprise. 
That she should be able to deliver a logical argument on 
the great question of prohibition, often convincing the in- 
different and those opposed to the movement, was a surprise, 
but that a woman could preach a sermon was a wonder as 
well as a surprise. 



268 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

' ' She drew large crowds always, and those who heard 
her wanted to hear her again. I well remember the 23d 
of September, 1894, at Paducah, when I heard her for the 
last time. I recall my impressions of the quiet, dignified 
woman whom we had loved and revered since first we met 
her in Louisville in 1882, and who was to us always a 
new revelation of the divinely beautiful. The thought 
came into my heart, ' Why are we denied the rare gift of 
proclaiming the unsearchable riches of God's love with such 
power ? ' Her very attitude at that moment was one of 
beauty, and her face was glowing with the Divine Spirit 
which she was portraying with such energy. After the 
services closed one of the ministers present exclaimed : 
' She is the most wonderfully clear preacher I ever heard ; 
I forgot she was a woman while I listened to her eloquence.' 

" It was his first experience, and he had overcome his 
prejudices against women in the pulpit while listening to 
our magnetic leader. God was good to give her to us for 
awhile. She showed the women of the South, to whom 
she was a special friend and to whom we always went when 
we were in trouble — how very sweetly womanly a public 
woman may be, and how elegantly polished and cultured a 
woman speaker can be. To me she was pre-eminently the 
foremost woman in America, standing side by side with our 
chieftain, Miss Willard." 

Gertrude Ferguson then adds : ' ' After a National con- 
vention I would say to Miss Jennie Casseday, ' Of all the 
grand and good women there, there was none I admired 
more than Mrs. Woodbridge,' and she always smiled so 
sweetly and was eager to hear more about her. I sincerely 
hope Rev. Mr. Hills will be successful in his undertaking 
and give to the women of our land a book, the influence of 
which will be felt and only second to the life of her whose 
name is like perfume to those who know her best." 

What was the secret of this pulpit power ? I believe it 
was something aside from and above her dignity, sweet 
womanliness, wonderful voice and natural gift of elo- 
quence. These were all helps. But of themselves they 
must ever fall short of the divine and abiding effects at 



AS .1 PREAi 111 k\ 

which every true preacher ought to aim ; yea, and t\ 
truly heaven-sent preacher must achieve. I believe the 

secret of her power has been an »  j « ^- 1 1 s<cut ever since 

Pentecost. It was Holy ('.host power. Here is something 

written many years ago by herself about herself, found 

recently among her papers, that explains her power over 
human hearts for good. 

"For years my poor feet were upon the Rock Christ 

Jesus, — oh, what a rock ! hut the rains descended and the 

floods came and the winds blew and heat upon the Rock, 
and though I was not washed from it, many times I could 

not feel a foothold. I was conscious there was a cleft 
within, where many whom I loved had found refuge, and I 
longed to be there. I cried mightily to God, .sometimes 
with groanings that could not be uttered, but relief came 
not. I strove day by day to consecrate myself unto the 
Lord. I held up my husband saying, Lord, he is thine. 
My children I gave to Him — all my treasures ; but th 
was something lacking. Still I cried. Although ui . 
on all sides, I could not speak for Jesus. Educated in a 
society where from my youth I had been taught that ' the 
women should keep silence in the churches,' I felt that 
I could not speak — but the Lord to whom I had been cry- 
ing and wdio had heard, led me to a meeting for the pro- 
motion of holiness, and there saying unto the Lord, ' 1 >. i 
with me as Thou wilt,' He stood me upon my feet and 
opened my mouth to proclaim Him as my Saviour. As I 
sat down I said to myself, 'What has entered within my 
soul?' Oh, joy indescribable — the mystery was revealed 
and the Spirit of God which then and there took pus- 
sion, hath never left His throne. Self dethroned, lie hath 
accepted the vacated seat (which He never claims by for 
and reigns and rules complete. While I am nothing, lie 
is all in all — and lovingly permits me to labor for Him, and 



270 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

accepting that labor, the result is with Him, to whom be 
glory and honor and power forever and ever, Amen ! ' ' 

The " baptism of the Holy Spirit" can make preach- 
ers, while natural gifts and university training and human 
ordinations can and do signally fail. I believe Mrs. Wood- 
bridge had the divine anointing — the most precious gift 
that God gives to mortals in answer to prayer. 

I would like to give some specimen of her preaching. 
We know that she preached a sermon on "Christ the 
Rock " which was often repeated at conventions and an- 
nual gatherings by request and always made a profound 
impression. 

She preached another at Lake Bluff on " The Constrain- 
ing Love of Christ," the manuscript of which lies before 
me. It would do credit to a Doctor of Divinity. And 
she had a missionary address that was pronounced by a 
cultured lady, the daughter of an eminent minister, the 
ablest address on missions she ever heard. We will, how- 
ever, reproduce none of these. 

Among her addresses is one evidently prepared for some 
young ladies' seminary. It was not a sermon ; yet it is so 
deftly turned into her favorite Christian appeal that it 
answers all the ends of a sermon. Moreover, it is so per- 
fect a picture of her conception of womanhood, and is 
such wholesome reading for young women that it deserves 
wide circulation, and I commend it to their attention. 

ADDRESS BEFORE A FEMALE SEMINARY. 

Our Lord said to His disciples, "A little while and ye 
shall not see me, and again a little while and ye shall see 
me. 

Joseph Cook opened one of his lectures thus : "A little 
while ago we were not in the world, and a little while 
hence we shall be here no longer." 

Axiomatic statements, yet startling at each presenta- 
tion ! We come and go ; live, and live again ; our earthly 



AS A PREACHER. 271 

existence so like the dew which is gone with the smiling 
of the sun, or our breath which is and is not, yet SO fraught 
with the interests of eternity ; not with the may or may 
not, but with the will, or will not of the future, that each 
moment of time should be to us as the first grain of gold 
found, after long search, by the miner, not weighty in it- 
self, but an assurance of the richness of its companions. 

A cannon is a short tube ; but its direction at the mo- 
ment of discharge governs the whole flight of the ball ! A 
clay mold is a fragile thing, but the molten metal poured 
therein may retain its form centuries after the mold has 
perished. The photographer exposes his plate to the light 
but a few seconds, but the expression then taken may last 
for ages ! 

A flower is frail and falls into the ground, but its ripen- 
ing seed may perpetuate its species for all time ! I address 
you to-night, young ladies, with longing desire for your 
good. As the teachers, as the mothers of the future, to 
you it is given to train souls for happiness or misery, for 
life or for death. 

Your brothers have their part in life more noticeable, 
it may be, than your own ; but, save those whom God has 
called to the pastoral relation, none can so touch the son Is 
of the race as yourselves. I would, therefore, that some 
word might this night be spoken that shall lead you to so 
aim the artillery of your powers that the evil you meet 
in your pathway may be overcome, and the good be victo- 
rious ; that your molding may be such that when the mold 
is not, your work may be a glory forever ; that as photog- 
raphers of your own lives, the impressions made may !>■ 
of lasting beauty, and that the flowers you scatter may 
perpetuate seed that in turn shall emit fragrance for gen- 
erations to come, even sweet incense unto our God. 

We enter life helpless, ignorant, yet the embryo man 
or woman. Our triple life of the body, the mind and the 
soul is there ; the lower element, the physical, the most 
developed, that within might be enshrined the higher. 
Soon the dawn of intellectual power is seen. The child 
looks at its fingers with strange bewilderment, and by the 
repetition of the act and manifest delight therein shows 
quickening thought. While these two seem dallying with 
one another, something awakens passion in the child, and 



272 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

from that hour the trinity appears complete. Each strug- 
gles for the mastery during the years of childhood and 
early youth, until suddenly the child, the individual, be- 
comes a recognized factor in the world, and there comes 
a moment when, whether we will or not, we stand face to 
face with the question — What shall the future be ? 

We are constituted with an inherent love of variety. 
Monotones in music, similarity in scenery, sameness in 
thought or expression, soon become wearisome. We enjoy 
what is new, fresh and varied ; hence, we find that God 
our Maker has created the world to meet our necessities, 
having given to it infinite variety. There are no two 
human faces or minds precisely alike. This feature even 
characterizes the climates and the seasons. It is not always 
spring or summer ; not always autumn or winter ; but 
these come to us in beautiful succession, their very diver- 
sity making the whole year more delightful. Variety 
always and everywhere meets' one's eye and ear, furnishing 
never ceasing food for our hungry natures. 

This is not only met in God's works, but in His Word. 
In it truth is presented in every possible form, from the 
severest logical statement to the loftiest poetical imagery ; 
by means of history, biography, psalms, sermons, prayers 
and prophecies. 

As I sought for illustrations among the lives of women 
of types of character to be emulated or shunned, there came 
trooping before me women great and good — Semiramis in 
Assyria, Zenobia in Palmyra, Catherine in Russia, Eliza- 
beth in England, Isabella in Spain, Maria Theresa in 
Austria — all of whom graced the thrones on which they 
sat, shed additional lustre on their nation's glory, and 
blessed the age in which they lived. In living beauty 
seemed to stand before me Joan of Arc, who fought her 
nation's battles; Martha Glar, the heroine of Switzerland, 
who led two hundred women to the gory field of Fan en 
Brun in defense of liberty ; Volumnia and Virgilia, the 
mother and wife of Coriolanus who saved Rome by their 
appeal to the heart of that indignant warrior ; Lady Jane 
Grey, who preferred imprisonment and death rather than 
have English blood shed in defense of her claims. Even 
Harriet Newell, the girl heroine of our own country, who 
for Christ and humanity laid down her life on the Isle of 



.is .1 PREAi HER. 

Prance, and Mrs. Judson, who, worn and v. t upon 

the bank of the Martaban, each bringing lessons of beauty 
and power. 

But these were aot enough and none bo met the want 
ni this occasion as those characters limned by God's own 
finger within His blessed Word. Bve, so unlike Sarah, 
and Sarah unlike Rebecca, and Jochebad, Miriam, Ruth, 
Balkis, the Queen of Sheba, Esther, the resisl peti- 

tioner, Elizabeth, and Mary, the mother of our Lord, 
through whose histories have come to us lessons from the 
Divine Teacher, which, if learned and practiced will fit ns 
lor ever}- circumstance of life. 

Onr first mother knew not infancy, or childhood or 
growth, or youth, but came fresh from the hand of her 
Creator, in the maturity of perfect womanhood. Of her 
personal appearance we have no account, but we know that 
she was the divine ideal of a perfect woman. A true 
artist's idea of a perfect woman is beautiful, as we see in 
the Venus of Titian and the Greek slave of Pow< rs ; and 
how supremely glorious must have been the embodiment 
of ( '.oil's idea ! How resplendent her beauty ! How un- 
sullied her purity ! How matchless her j^r.; Y I 
Scarcely do we know of her creation ere we learn of her 
sin — the first human sin ! 

To understand its nature we must remember that our 
first parents were made by divine arrangement, represent- 
atives of their race, whose moral character, whether j.' 
or bad, must descend to their posterity. That they w 
created moral agents, endowed with the power of choice of 
good or evil, whose happiness and moral condition as well 
as that of their race, depended on their choosing the good, 
and whose highest virtue, therefore, consisted in voluntary 
obedience. The strength of their will to obey, could only 
he tested by trial, and there could be no trial without temp- 
tation. Therefore temptation was permitted, but accompa- 
nied with the most fearful warning. Surprise has often 
been expressed at its power ; but they could not 1 c been 
tempted as are we. Idolatry, blasphemy, Sabbath-break- 
ing, dishonoring parents, murder, theft were all unknown ; 
and the goodness of God did not permit temptation through 
any necessity of their being 1 Amply were they Supplied ; 
they did not need the fruit of that tree. Infinite wisdom 



274 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

ordained, then as now, that the trial of love and faith and 
virtue should be simply obedience to His will, expressed in 
the clearest and most distinct form. 

What element did the seducing tempter awaken in 
Eve's soul? Was it not discontent with her conditions? 
A desire to have more than her allotted portion, to be 
something more or different from what God intended her 
to be, to know what her Father thought best to conceal ? 
She sinned, she fell into the snare, and how fearful was her 
fall ! We can but weep when we think of that beauty 
formed for eternal bloom, which so soon began to fade ! 
Of the effacement from her soul of the glory of the divine 
image ! Of the departure of that innocence which fitted 
her to be the companion of angels ! Of the incoming to 
her soul of a brood of dismal horrors, and the terrible bit- 
terness of that remorse which must have fastened upon 
her once joyous spirit ! 

Does not one of woman's chief dangers now arise from 
the same source ? Does not the unchecked desire to be 
different from her natural self, as God created : — a desire 
to rise, not intellectually, but positionally above the sphere 
in which Providence has placed her; to be herself the ob- 
ject of admiration, lead her often to forget God, to trample 
on His laws, to pervert her moral nature, and so occupy 
her mind with frivolity and her time with frippery, as to 
make her whole life a failure? Let us remember that 
whatever leads us to forget God, to wander from the path 
of duty, however alluring it may seem, how much soever 
it may promise, is a tempter, though beauteous in form. 
God is our best and truest friend. His will our sublimest 
privilege, our most imperious duty ; His favor is our surest 
protection, and His service is our noblest mission. 

Another lesson that we may learn from Eve's history, —  
a lesson concerning woman's influence is that God ever 
intended it should be great. How inconceivably vast has 
been that of the first woman ! And the same law prevails 
to-day. We may make lighter or heavier the trials of all 
about us. We may call out their higher or their lower 
nature. A wise writer has said: "The treasures of the 
deep are not so precious as are the powers of woman to 
influence the world." 

Is the fact significant that in the next two thousand 



AS .1 PREAi 'INK. 

years we find no woman prominent ? Not until Sarah, 
who, according to her Light, w;is ;i worshiper of the true 
God. She also was beautiful, and I speak of her beau 

that I may ask you to consider Sarah's practical estimate 

of her personal appearance. 

As a general fact the beautiful woman is proud and 

vain, and often extravagant ; yet nearly all women desire 
beauty. Look upon Sarah, with loveliness s i A that 

its fame has come to us through the ages, and you see no 
false estimate of its real worth, no such baneful effect U] 
her character. It was enough for her that she was beauti- 
ful in the eyes of those whom she loved, and who loved 
her. There is no appearance of vanity, no artificial airs, 
no elTort at display ; but a modest, gentle, retiring, loving 
woman, presiding with bland dignity over her numerous 
household. Beauty is a gift of God to be valued ; but its 
physical type is its lowest, though often most highly 
prized. There is beauty in a cultivated mind enriched 
with knowledge; there is beauty of expression, which 
sometimes makes the plainest features surpassingly lovely : 
there is beauty in graceful, modest manner, and in a good 
and useful life, which far exceeds beauty of complexion, 
of feature or of form. And shall we forget that in the 
sight of God a meek and epiiet spirit is of great price ? — 
that spirit of experimental Christianity which brings into 
highest development every element of female loveliness, 
and throws over the entire character its sweetest grace and 
its truest charm. 

Fidelity to truth is a characteristic of the Bible, and 
thus all its characters are creatures like ourselves. In 
painful contrast to the beauty of Sarah, I bring you Re- 
becca, the Jewish maiden, who as such commends herself 
to us, but who as mother and matron brought sorrow and 
trial to her people. We see clearly in her life how, in the 
providence of God, great importance may gather about a 
few hours of human existence. 

One day a Syrian maiden was quietly pursuing her 
accustomed duties in her home at the city of Xahor. In 
the evening, as was her wont, she went to the well for 
water. How little she dreamed as she wended her way, 
perchance warbling some air of her native land, that she 
was approaching her life's crisis ! While the soft breezes 



276 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

from the far reaching plains of Padan Aram were fanning 
her cheeks, she knew not that a stranger was praying at 
the well, and that God was listening there, or that as she 
moved along, God's unseen hand was touching the springs 
of sublime events and moving the keys of untold destinies. 
The morrow's evening found her the betrothed wife of 
Isaac, on her way from her native to her new home ; made 
her a link in the golden chain which reached to the Mes- 
siah. Thus sometimes the destinies of a life seem crowded 
into an hour ; thus our life crisis comes upon us unawares. 
God help us to be ready ; and as such shadowy hour draws 
near, may He irradiate and purify our spirit's inmost vis- 
ion. How beautiful Rebecca's simplicity and trust ! 
Would it might have continued ! But at length we find 
her a partial, presuming and deceptive woman ; and of this 
latter feature I would speak. Falsehood and deceit are 
always as unprofitable as they are wicked. Let woman be 
true to herself, true to her God, true to truth ! Let her 
despise deceit as the abominable thing which God hates ! 
Despise it as that which would corrupt her entire nature ; 
as that for which no beauty of face or form, no accomplish- 
ment of mind or manner can compensate ! Above all let 
her abhor falsehood as a thing as low as it is sinful. What 
more mournful sight can you see, or deplorable wreck can 
you find, than a lying woman ! 

Next in our lessons we find Miriam's life — one of the 
three associated in the leadership of Israel — the loved sister 
of the noble brothers, Moses and Aaron, to whom, it would 
seem, she must have been bound by indissoluble ties. But 
Miriam became jealous of the power of Moses. Perhaps 
imperceptibly to herself, ambition had risen within her, 
and slowly grown, until, stifling all the sweet affections of 
her womanly nature, and her sisterly heart, it arrayed her 
in opposition to her brother. She professed to be offended 
with Zipporah, the Ethiopian wife of Moses ; but her eagle 
eye perceiving elements similar to those within her own 
being working in her brother Aaron, she took him aside, 
and the record says, "spoke against Moses." Appealing 
to his pride she said, "Hath the Lord spoken only by 
Moses ? hath He not also spoken by us?" A conspiracy 
was matured ; but God's eye saw it all. His ear heard 
every word, and He commanded the three to go up to the 



AS .1 PREAi III A' 2 77 

tabernacle. What a picture they present in the sanctuary ? 
Behold tlnj three ! Moses, in the majestic calmness ol inno 
cence ; Aaron, tremulous with guilt ; Miriam, pallid Imi 
firm. The pillar of cloud radiant with divinity app 
out of which issued the awful voice of God, approving Hi 
faithful servant ami condemning the conspirators. 

Thecloud disappeared, and as they turned and looked 
upon one another, lo ! the once magnificent Miriam was 
stricken with leprosy. Overwhelmed with grief, Aaron, 
too guilty, as he felt, to plead lor another, fell at the feet ol 
Moses and besought him to intercede for their sister. 
Moses wept, and cried, "Heal her now. «i God, I beseech 

Thee." The leper trembled as .she heard her brother, 
whom she had injured, pleading for her. God refused to 

remove the punishment immediately and for seven days she 

was banished from the camp, and then, deeply penitent, 
die was healed ami restored to her place an humbler, better 
woman. 

What is the name which we give to this sin of which 
Miriam was guilty? It is the sin of detraction ; the sin of 
speaking against another unjustly ; that sin which is so 
common of depreciating others, of detracting from their real 
merit in character and conduct. Oh, how cruel it is! It 
made Miriam forget her vigil at the Nile, when alone she- 
watched with tearful interest her brother Moses. [t made 
her forget long years of sweet companionship with him and 
ten thousand kindnesses received from him. The world is 
full of the sin of detraction to-day. It is not confined to 
either sex. But jealousy, secret and unacknowledged, is 
oftentimes the cause of gossip among women, when the 
weaknesses of others, their style of dress, their manners and 
expressions are detailed privately to willing ears. I am 
often astonished at the feebleness of woman's sympathy 
with woman. I am grieved that women often have far 
greater charity for the sins of men than for those of their 
own sex. I am alarmed at the petty jealousies which s,, 
often disturb their social relations; at their speaking 
against each other by repeating expressions uttered in 
moments of unguarded converse, by criticising each other 
in many ways. Is it kind ? Is it womanly ? I know with 
many it is the result of thoughtlessness ; but are we sinless 
even' then ? The influence extends much farther than we 



278 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

can compute. It excites prejudice in the minds of the 
young, which live long after the speaker is dead. It wrings 
many innocent hearts, and God and themselves only know 
the bitter tears that are shed on account of it. Let us 
guard our hearts and pray with David, "Set a watch, O 
Lord, before my lips." 

" Full oft a word that lightly leaves the tongue 
Another heart has rudely, sadly wrung ; 
And were that wound but present to the eye, 
We'd mourn the pain that solace might defy. 

" We toy with hearts as if the thousand chords 
That vibrate to the touch of hasty words, 
Could join our discord all the livelong day, 
Nor any tension cause them to give way. 

" O ! strike them gently ; every human breast 
Is by a secret load of grief opprest ; 
Forbear to add a note of timeless woe, 
Where discords ever are so prone to flow." 

With joy we turn from Miriam, grand and proud, but 
weak and sinful, to Ruth, the lovely maiden ; and I desire 
to call your attention to a strange fact. We are all accus- 
tomed to speak of her as " Ruth, the beautiful" and you 
never saw an artist's ideal of her that was not exquisite as 
his skill could make it. But who ever told the world that 
she was beautiful? I confess my own surprise that the 
Bible says nothing of her beauty. Why, then, has she 
been pronounced beautiful ? The answer embodies a lesson 
to every woman. It is because of the exceeding beauty of 
her character, her mind, her heart, her disposition, her life. 
Thus it is evermore. The highest type of beauty is the 
outgleaming of internal virtues, of sweet graces of charac- 
ter. Wherever these exist within a woman's soul, they 
will give such sweet radiance to her life that whatever may 
be her physical appearance she will be lovely to all and 
most lovely in the eyes of those who know her best. She 
has what will make her beautiful when her dark hair shall 
be white with the snows of age, when the brightness of her 
eye shall be dimmed with tearful sorrow, the rose of her 
cheek faded, and the symmetry of her figure departed. 
May such treasures be ours. 

We may be profited and I trust interested in developing 



AS .1 PRl . f< Hi R. 

some of the tmits of Ruth's character. First. She was 
unselfish ! Selfishness in woman is especially t<i be dej 
cated. It deadens sweet sympathy ; it shrivels the afl 
tions and penetrates the whole nature with an icy coldness. 
It leads a woman to Li as the center ol her own 

universe, the sun of her OWH Sphere, the idol of her own 

idolatry, and therefore makes her offensive in the sight i 

benevolent God; repulsive in the sight of all good nun, and 

unfits her for the relations in life she was created to sustain. 
A second characteristic was the strength and depth ol 

her love! What a picture of tine affection and generous 

magnanimity, when casting no blame on her sister, she 
weepingly exclaims: " Entreat me not to leave thee, or to 
return from following after thee : for whither thou K (,( -st I 
will go, and where thou lodgest I will lodge; thy people 
shall be my people, thy God my God:" and it arises to 
positive sublimity when she adds, " Where thou diest will 
I die, and there will I be buried : the Lord do SO to me and 
more also, if aught but death part thee and m< 

Glorious woman ! We wonder not that heaven's rich- 
est benisons were thine in life, and that thy name hath 
been a fragrance to the world ! 

A third feature was industry. When she decided to go 
with Naomi, she well knew that the support of both would 
depend on her labor. Hence as soon as she reached Beth- 
lehem she said: "Let me DOWgO to the field and glean 
ears of corn, after him in whose si.-ht I shall find grai 
And she went forth an humble gleaner in the harvest field, 
an occupation peculiar to the poorest of the poor. Sin 
had known better days ; she had been delicately nurtured 
in the land of Moab; she had moved in the circles ol 
Opulence, admired and caressed for her beauty and virtue. 
But see with what true woman's energy she adapted her- 
self to the conditions in which her unselfish love had 
her. vShe had health; she had decision of character, but 
no false pride, no foolish ideas of mock dignity. 

Her last and crowning characteristic was her piety ! 
She was not only unselfish, not only strong in her dis- 
interested love, not only a patient worker, but a p; 
woman' Though born and nurtured amid the idolatry 
of Moab, she abandoned her idol gods and becami 
worshiper of Jehovah ! In all that land there was but 



280 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

one family that worshiped the true God, and that family 
was Naomi's, and religion shone there like a lamp in a 
sepulchre of gloom. With that family she became allied; 
from them she learned ; with them she bowed in wor- 
ship. Thus her young heart was won and she laid its 
beautiful affections on Jehovah's altar. Hence with all 
the intense earnestness of her nature she said to Naomi : 
"Thy people shall be my people and thy God my God." 
Religion imparted its highest sublimity to her character, 
and " like the morning star glittering above the horizon, 
foretold the day of gladness which should succeed the 
night of her sorrow." Therefore it was when Boaz blessed 
her in the field, he did so in the name of the God under 
whose wing she had come to trust. 

Sisters of the W. C. T. U., women of this audience, is 
the God of Naomi and of Ruth your God ? Ruth had but 
one example of piety ; you have many. Have you made the 
choice that she made ? If you have, cleave to the Beloved 
as a true daughter of Zion, saying, "Entreat me not to 
leave thee, for where thou goest I will go." If you have 
not, I beseech you by His tender mercies, by the blood 
streaming cross of Calvary, by the sacred spirit that strives 
with you, to seek Him now ; bow before Him and dedicate 
your life to Him. 

As noble and as true, yet as unlike to Ruth as the full 
shining of the sun to the golden sunset, as the fresh breeze 
that exhilarates to the balmy zephyr, is the last character 
I present you,— Balkis, the Queen of Sheba. She is an- 
other proof of God's love in giving to us that variety in His 
word which adapts it to every humati soul. I speak of this 
woman of whom I hear so little said ; not because of her 
official position, for this was not her chief superiority ; but 
first because of the intellectual character she presents us. 
She was superior to all externalities. We find her soul not 
sleeping in the low animal life of the senses ; her heart not 
set upon the gay amusements of the passing hour ; but 
conscious of the hollow emptiness of all these we find her 
awake to the superior dignity of her mental and moral 
nature, desirous of obtaining knowledge, of learning wis- 
dom. 

She had exhausted the learning of her own sages ; had 
fathomed the depths of Arabian philosophy ; had grasped 



AS A PRl At 'HER. I 

the breadths of a gorgeous Pagan mythology; had soared 
far above the loftiest flights of Oriental poetry and was 
familiar with all the glowing romance which springs up 
so luxuriantly from Arabi in ideality. The praii >ur- 

tiers and of an admiring people were i ontinually hers ; but 
she was not satisfied. There was a void within her soul 
which all these could not fill. She heard rumors of wis- 
dom high ami lofty possessed l>v a Jewish monarch. < ^learn- 
ings of a strange northern light had fallen <>u her spirit; 

hut it was dim, far off, in a distant clime. This would 

have discouraged an inferior woman ; bul Balkis, undis- 
mayed by the perils before her, unterrified (woman though 
she was > by intervening mountains, desert wastes, or brid 

less rivers, determined upon a journey which would take 
her from all the luxuries of home, a journey of three thou- 
sand miles, requiring nearly fair months of time to con- 
summate; and, heroine that she was, she accomplished it 
that she might gain knowledge. 

How this fact in her history, all radiant as it is with 
deathless glory, eclipses the mere dignity of her i 
station and the splendor of her surroundings. Hear and 
believe, I pray, when I sac that the mind of each woman 
before me, as was that of Balkis, is superior to the body ; 
the one an earthen casket, the other an immortal gem worth 

re than all the material univei- I speak in kind 

faithfulness. I appreciate genuine accomplishments of 
person and manner ; but I plead for the nobler, higher 
nature. I plead for the mind with its 0, xl-like pow 
capable of eternal expansion and acquisition. Let us seek 
to cultivate it. Like Sheba's queen, let no obstacle deter 
from the pursuit of that which alone can develop and ele- 
vate to a position worthy of our heaven created womanhood. 
Let us avail ourselves of whatever advantages we may have 
for acquiring information, for storing our intellect with 
the imperishable wealth of knowledge. Seek for wisdom, 
practical and genuine, as for hidden treasun And if 

others will be the gaily decked, pleasure seeking, sunbeam 
loving, yet short-lived and useless butterflies of humanity, 
let us be true women ! wise women ! humanity's brightest 
ornaments, humanity's nearest approximation to the celes- 
tial glory of God's beautiful angels. 

Notice again, her religious character. I referred in the 



282 LIFE OF MAR V A. WOODBRIDGE. 

beginning to the three departments of our being — the phys- 
ical, intellectual and spiritual. Balkis must have given 
proper attention to her physical constitution, or she could 
not have endured such a journey and have secured its de- 
sired results. That she sought the cultivation of her in- 
tellect the evidence I have adduced is abundant ; that her 
higher, nobler, moral and spiritual nature was cultivated 
her action proves to us. The Word says : ' ' And when 
the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon con- 
cerning the name of the Lord, she came to prove him with 
hard questions." Doubtless she had become dissatisfied 
with the religious system in which she had been educated, 
unable as that system was to answer the great questions 
that rose up within her mind ; unable as it was to satisfy 
the yearnings of the immortal nature which clamored for 
a purer enjoyment than luxurious ease could afford in the 
present life, and something more exalted in the life to come 
than the transmigration of Hindu philosophy, or the sen- 
sualities of an Arabian heaven. Having heard of the wis- 
dom of the man of the north, she resolved to leave her 
gorgeous throne to visit him and find that wisdom which 
she could obtain from no other source. Her mind in its 
capacity and thought was far ahead of her age. She 
wanted to know of the true God, His nature and her re- 
lation to Him. It was to obtain this highest of all wisdom 
that she visited Solomon, and when she was about to re- 
turn to her own land, having seen and heard and been made 
acquainted with Israel's God and His connection with the 
glory of the Hebrew nation, she uttered these expressive 
and memorable words : ' ' Blessed be the Lord thy God 
which delighteth in thee ; because the Lord delighteth in 
Israel forever, He hath made the king to do justice and 
judgment." And thus from her lips issued praises and 
adoration of Jehovah, the God of the whole earth. Is not 
this superadded glory of religion the crowning beauty of 
her life ? 

Young women, sisters mine, let us accept the lessons 
taught by the characters I have brought you to-night. 
Receive the warning presented by Eve. Aim not, I be- 
seech you, for the high things of this world, though ever 
coveting the best gifts of God. Enter ye not into tempta- 
tion ; then shall ye never influence another to evil. Un- 



AS .1 PREAi '//.' 

known to the great world, but known to the great God, 
many uoble, heroic women, living to purpose, devoting, it 
may be, their energies to poorly paid toil ; or borne down 
by poverty, yet content in all things, because it is the will 
of God, and on whom rests the benedictions of heaven. 
When the morning cometh they shall hear the plaudit, 
"Well done, good and faithful servant." 

Seek as Sarah to hold in proper estimate the- charm 
person with which God in His loving kindness hath 
dowed you, remembering that they add to your responsi- 
bility to Him. 

Slum Rebecca's sin of falsehood and deceit, and let 
your life be so pure, that, as the light of God shines upon 
it, of each it may be said, " Behold one in whom there is 
no guile." Let God's rebuke of Miriam's sin i 
tion, His severe punishment thereof, and her hitter - 
and remorse, lead yon ever to speak with kindness, even of 
the erring, and to remember the infinite patience of God 
with your sins and mistakes. 

May you emulate the unselfishness, the love and the in- 
dustry of Ruth, and Balkis' careful attention to the culti- 
vation of her physical and intellectual being; and may the 
piety of both so commend itself to you, that from this day, 
like them you may follow after God. Let me urge this 
last, most important step. Oh, rest not satisfied with at- 
tending to the culture of the body. It will fide like the 
leaf which in its bright greenness fluttered in the summer 
breeze, but now, withered and torn from its parent bough, 
is swept away by the careering wind. Rest not satisfied, I 
pray you, with the cultivation of the intellect; for there 
may be, and often is, high mental culture without moral 
purity, much less religious experience. But while, like 
Balkis, you pay proper attention to your physical and men- 
tal culture, like her, seek to cultivate your higher, y 
spiritual nature, that you may know God and that it may- 
be your joy to serve Him. 

To this end I earnestly commend to you the stud 
the Word of God. In it yon will discover mountain I 
vations and ocean depths of truth ; ever-flowing rivers of 
consolation ; cataract dashings of indignation and denun- 
ciation, and all intermingled with scenes of softest beauty, 
— echoes of living voices, fragrance of richest dowers found 



2S4 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

in its records of individual or national history. In the 
Bible is greater wisdom than ever Solomon knew. "The 
Queen of the South shall rise up in judgment with this 
generation and condemn it ; for she came from the utter- 
most parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, 
and behold a greater than Solomon is here." In this Book 
God is manifest in the flesh. Here in the person of His 
Son, Jesus Christ, who is both the wisdom and the power 
of God, is made manifest to you a Saviour, — a loving, suf- 
fering, dying, atoning, risen Saviour, who offers freely to 
make all of you "wise unto salvation." He will remove 
your guilt, purify your hearts, fill them with ravishing joy, 
and make you the adopted daughters of the Lord God 
Almighty. Yea, here is a Redeemer, Christ the Lord, who 
offers to become your elder brother, as well as redeeming 
Saviour ; to clothe your souls with the white robe of His own 
righteousness, — that robe which even the icy hand of death 
shall not be able to tear from you, — that justifying right- 
eousness, which shall open heaven's crystal portals, and 
place on your immortal brow a crown of glory far surpass- 
ing the jeweled coronet of Sheba's Queen, and give you a 
throne infinitely more exalted than that on which she sat. 

This will lead you to active labor for the world's re- 
demption. Oh, friends ! surrounded by the allurements of 
a deceitful world ; exposed to the fascinations of godless 
pleasures which injure the health of the body, weaken the 
power of the mind, plant thorns in dying pillows, and 
shroud eternity with hopeless gloom: — young women, — 
my sisters, exposed to temptations which jeopardize mor- 
tality and immortalit}', fly to those open arms, which were 
once nailed to the cross for your redemption. Take shelter 
in the love of the infinite heart whose mighty throbs are 
for your welfare. 

Listen to this, another invitation to Christ and heaven, 
another invitation to His service ; and if you become true 
Christians ; if you sit at Jesus' feet and learn of Him ; if 
you ever know Him, whom to know aright is life eterual, 
and become co-laborers with Him, you will say, as did 
Balkis, but with deeper emphasis and meaning, — "Surely 
the half w r as not told me." 

Who that knew Mrs. Woodbridge, or who that gets the 
right conception of her from this book, did not see her in 



.is .1 PREACHER. 

mental visum, as he read the above address? It was her 
own noble womanhood that she was picturing in her ad- 
dress to the young ladies. She had in her own heart that 
hatred of sin, that loathing of deceit and jealousy and 

detraction which she was Commending to them. She had 
in herself that modest estimate of her own persona] charms 

that she found in Sarah. She was herself the very imper- 
sonation Of the noble industry and disinterested love 

kindred, and the tender piety that she pointed out in beau- 
tiful Ruth. A more dutiful sister, or a mere filial daughter 
or daughter-in-law, I have never met; nor 
that even approached her in self-sacrifice. And [ doubt if 
the Queen of Sheba ever had more hunger for knowledge, 
or showed more diligence in the pursuit of it. She was a 
lifelong student. Even when in Chicago, during the Last 
year ot her life, though performing prodigies of labor in 
the office that would have taxed two or three ordinary 
women, she was rising long before breakfast in the morn- 
ing to pursue a University extension course. And as for 
religion, the hart does not pant for the waterbrook as her 
soul thirsted for God. One may well believe that as she- 
addressed those young women with noble mien, and mag- 
netic eye and thrilling voice, there was awakened in more 
than one young heart a thirst for God that brought her to 
the fountain of life. 

Since the above chapter was closed, Mr. Woodbri 
has written to me : "I have been reading the vast mass of 
letters received by Mary, and am amazed by what they 
reveal of the fruitfulness of her Christian labors. So many 
letters tell about the good accomplished by her and the 
many conversions, that my estimate of her life-work has 
increased about a thousand fold." 

He also sends me this: "From George R. Scott in 
Weekly J I 'ilness of March 5, 1885. On Sabbath morning 
I had the pleasure of listening to a sermon delivered by 



286 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, which was crowded with so 
many sweet thoughts for Christian workers, that I hope to 
see it published in Sabbath Reading. Two gentlemen near 
me remarked, after its finish, ' How grand ! — everybody 
ought to have heard it.' It was filled with interesting 
stories that brought tears to the eyes of the audience. 
After the meeting the gifted lady was warmly congratu- 
lated by those who had been blessed during its delivery." 



CHAPTER 

MKS. WOODBRIDG] AS A CHURCH MBMBBR IND PRIEND. 

God measures bouIs by their capai 
For entertainii angel, Loi  

Who loveth most is m k d to i rod, 

Who is all love or nothing. 

He who sits 

And looks out on the palpitating world, 
And feels his heart swell in him large enough 
Co hold all heaven within it, he is mar 
His great Creator's standard. 

What < '.ml wants of US 

Is that outstretching bigness that ignore 
Ul littleness of aims, or loves, or i 
 d clasps all earth and heaven in it- embrai 

— Ella Wheeler WUcoa . 

* Lord, make us all love all ; that when we v.. 
Even nyriads ^f earth's myriads at Thy bar, 
We m;v be glad as all true I are 

Who h ving parted count reunion sweet. 
Safe gahered home around Thy blessed ' 
Come hone by different roads from near or far, 
Whetherby whirlwind or by flaming car. 
From pa.gs or sleep, safe folded round Thy » 
Oh, if ouibrother's blood cry out at us, 

How shallwe meet Thee, Who hast loved US all, 

Thee When we never loved, not loving him r 1 

The Uulovug cannot chant with Seraphim 

Bear harp Cj^old or palm victorious, 

Or face the T ision Beatifical. — Christina G. Rosselti. 

MANY person. 1 have filled a large place in the public 
eye and hav become very famous, who were in 
nificant in privatelife. Many, too, have been lifted into 
publicity, and hax; achieved great things that perhaps 



* Marked by Mrs. Woodrklge in ume. 



288 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

have been of lasting benefit to mankind, and yet were too 
coarse in their natures, too narrow and too selfish to be any- 
body's friend. It was not so with that great soul who is 
the subject of this sketch. She could stand in the pulpit, 
and sway the people and lead them, humbled and contrite 
and inspired, into the conscious presence of God ; but she 
was equally radiant in the pew, walking in meekness and 
lowliness of heart before her God, in loving and prayerful 
intimacy with her Beloved, ever shining by thi light re- 
flected from Him. 

Probably every pastor, consciously or unconsciously, has 
a church within a church — an inner circle whose opinions, 
because of their superior wisdom and piety, cone to him as 
the voice of God. He seeks their counsel and gives great 
attention to their criticism and their advice, because he 
feels that the secrets of the Lord are with trem that fear 
Him. 

Looking back over nearly a score of } r ea's of pastoral 
experience, and recalling the long list of persons who gave 
me sympathetic, prayerful, spiritual suppot in my work, 
who were quick to appreciate everything 7 tried to do for 
the Master and to assist me in every g»od work, Mrs. 
Woodbridge was easily foremost. In my irst church were 
many professional people, — teachers, edit»rs, lawyers, doc- 
tors, and judges ; my third pastorate was over a college 
church with perhaps twenty professors atd ministers in the 
congregation. But of them all, beyoid question, Mrs. 
Woodbridge had the keenest intellect md the most spir- 
itual and prayerful soul. Of them ai she was beyond 
compare the best orator, and the mot gifted in prayer. 
In the latter respect only one or two n my third church 
could even be spoken of in comparisci with her. I usu- 
ally called upon her or one other wonan, now with her in 
heaven, to close the weekly prayer-meeting with prayer. 
They could gather all the best thoughts of the theme and 



AS .1 CHURi // MEMBER AND FRIEND. 

the suggestions of the houi and spit-. ul them before God 
with a sweet-voiced fervor, a fitness of expression, a ten- 
derness and devoutness and childlike faith and a i< h- 
bag spirituality that was something wonderful. We would 
often be lifted into heavenly places in Christ Jesus, and 
the meeting would close with a holy, solemn i 
God was consciously there. I am not alone in this < 
mate. John O. Woolley, of Chicago, said to me a few 
mouths ago: "When Mary A. Wbodbridge is at her I 
she can surpass in prayer any human being I ever In 
address the throne of grace." 

Cicero said : " Polydamas will throw in my teeth that 
I have been bribed by th< sition. I mean ( who 

is one out of a hundred thousand to me." It is evident 
that Cicero was anxious to so live as to be approved 
Cato. I am free to say that all these long years Mr.s. 
Woodbridge has been my Cato. When she advised, I 
listened. When she criticised. I heeded. When she ap- 
proved, I felt encouraged and strengthened, as if I had • 
through her the smile and approbation of I 

What a church member she was ! Never absent from a 
preaching service or a prayer-meeting if she could 
there ! Never wanting in any spiritual service that " 
ever requested of her, whether to preach at a chapel or fill 
the pulpit, or lead a meeting or hold private interviews 
witli any to lead them to Christ ! A leader in the mission- 
ary society contributing by her pen and v< ad gifts 
munificently that all felt the contagion of her enthusiast 
A leader in the social life of the church, yet all subdu 
and sobered by the constraining love of Christ ' A le 
in every effort for a revival, with a sensitive heart to nol 
the least spiritual decline, or the first reviving breath of 
the returning spirit of God ! 

When we had over three hundred church members 
asked uie one day for a complete list of their names. Siie 



2QO LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

was then carrying overwhelming burdens and labors, and 
in amazement I asked what she could want of them. She 
replied: " Sometimes I can get a little leisure for special 
seasons of prayer, and at such times I want to call their 
names before God in definite prayer for each individual." 

Death never came to a home in the parish that did not 
call out some token of sympathy from her. Her deft fin- 
gers would weave a chaplet of flowers from her husband's 
garden to lay upon the casket, and then they would write 
a comforting note to the mourner breathing in every line 
the spirit of heaven. She rejoiced with those that rejoiced, 
and wept with them that wept. Who that were there will 
ever forget her tender and gracious words at silver and 
golden weddings, when thoughts of unions and separations, 
and joys and sorrows, and precious memories of the de- 
parted, were woven into gracious speech so fitting and 
touching as to thrill all hearts. Somehow there was a 
divine grace about what she said and did that was born of 
the Holy Spirit within her ; the influence of which was 
like the odor of some precious ointment, filling the society 
in which she moved with the perfume of heaven. 

And what a friend ! tender, true, faithful, enduring ! 
What pastor ever had one more generous and helpful ? 
Xow that she is gone, let me give some of her letters to 
me that are simply so many windows through which we 
can see into her soul, and through which also there shines 
out the radiance of her piety. 

She sat in her home one day, two squares from mine, 
and wrote me as follows : 

My Dear Pastor : — Please accept thanks for the ser- 
mon which has been re-read this morning with profit, as 
upon its first perusal. May not children of God talk 
plainly of things pertaining to the kingdom? Believing 
it may be, I take the liberty of a sister to tell you how my 
heart is filled with thanksgiving for the spiritual feast of 
which you are partaking, and week by week spreading for 



AS .1 CHURCH MEM \ND FRIEND. 

our strengthening and support. For a Length of time your 

words in sermon and in prayer have led me so near t.» God 
that I have seemed in my physical weakness to touch in- 
finite strength, and have said and beli< 'The h'.sts.>i 
the Lord are with us." I praise the Lord that through 
vou He is fulfilling His promise to send His truth as fresh 
as showers, which He always does when we dispense and 
return for more. I am confidently expecting a powerful 
outpouring of the Holy Spirit in our midst before many 
months shall have passed. At the hour of the dav set 
apart tor special pleading for you and your work, I am 
blessed with that rest and peace which is to my mind an 
assurance from the Lord. I pray you, remember me at the 
throne, for though my work is comparatively small ami 

humble, the Lord has honored and blessed it, and in my 
weakness and Utter unfitness for SUCh labor, I stand awed 
before Him, and while crying for help ami power, my 
thought is, " Who is sufficient for these things? ' 

May you be granted such manifestation of the divine 
presence as your soul desires, and in the full panopl} 
power do mighty works among this people for the glory ol 
the Father and His Son Jesus Christ. 

Yours in the blessing of "Our Beloved," 

Mary A. \V< odbridgb. 

A year and a half later there was a little friction in the 
parish which grieved her heart, and by way of comfort and 
encouragement she wrote my wife and me the following : 

R WKN.s'A. Feb. I I. 

My Precious Friends : — Over and over again have I 
spoken those words into the ear of 'Our father " as I 
have taken you in the arms of love and faith to Him ; and 
as I write the rich appellation, which brings yon 5 
to my heart, dearer and more precious do yon become. 
Precious friends, "to have and to hold until death do US 
part." Ah ! sweeter and more blessed assurance, to pos- 
sess and enjoy forever. 

Where we find the joy of loving, 
As we never loved he:" 

Loving on, unchillerl, unhindered, 
Loving once, for evermore. 



292 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Heaven's highest, holiest happiness will surely be found 
in communion with our best " Beloved," in the friendship 
of the God-man, Christ Jesus, when bowed and hushed at 
His feet we listen to the voice divinely tender, which in 
brooding love will unfold the perplexities of life which 
puzzle us strangely now. He will make its rough places 
plain and surprise and dazzle us with revelations of beauty, 
the perpetual growth of our homely bits of life, some of 
whose sharp edges have drawn blood in their handling. 
With the floodgates of our souls opened, I think we shall 
pour forth thanksgiving unto our God "For ignorant 
hopes that were broken in answer to our blind prayer ; for 
pain, death and sorrow sent unto our chastisement." 

I have known deep affliction, and in thoughts like these 
have I been comforted ; and therefore I bring them unto 
you, stealing an additional moment to tell you, with a 
heart swelling full of gratitude, and eyes overflowing with 
tears, what unspeakable blessing you have been to me and 
mine. 

My constant prayer for you is that you may be kept. 
As wide the portals of memory's chambers open, revealing 
pictures of days and times and scenes, in which God has 
so strangely and wonderfully kept me. often constraining 
my unwilling feet to walk in paths of His choosing, rather 
than my own, but which always led into the light, I know 
it is enough. God keep you. 

Yours with never-ceasing affection, 

Mary A. Woodbridge. 

Within twenty months of the last letter our church 
received one hundred and twenty members nearly all by 
profession ; and I think under God her prayers, with those 
of the other kindred souls she rallied around her, were 
largely instrumental in bringing about the gracious result. 

In March, 1884, after a ten years' pastorate, during 
which the church had grown from two hundred to three 
hundred and fifty-four members, and the benevolences had 
about quadrupled, I resigned. I had spoken about sixty 
times the previous year for the prohibition amendment to 
the constitution of Ohio. The speeches were all non-parti- 



.is .1 CHURCH Ml MBER AND FRIEND. 

san, politics never being mentioned. But some members ol 
the church became very sensitive, and, though there was no 
open rupture, my heavenly* minded wife thought it would 
be as well for us to leave our first home, whatever sorrow it 
might cost us personally, ami let the church try some other 
pastor. 

Mrs. Woodbridge voiced her feelings about the matter 
iu the following tender letl 

M \kion\ O., March 8, r 
Dear Friends: — Have you ever been assured that a 

prophecy had been recorded ially for you : tli ' 

everlasting God, who cannot lie, had m ua prom- 

ise; that He would have you receive it, and that in receiv- 
ing He gives you rest? All this is representative of my 

condition this morning. 

I have my " Bible forget-me-n I before me, from 
which morning and evening I gather (and yet they 

never lessened), and as I hide the precious words in my 
heart, if the Spirit does not show me their direct relatioi 
me, I search for the secret of the L >rd therein hidden. It 
has become a Very delightful exercise ; but this morning 
no study was required. The word- of the "eighth morn- 
ing " were, " As one whom his mother i rteth, SO will I 
comfort you ; and ye shall he comforted in Jerusalem." 

Is it not enough? I receive and rejoice in Him who 
hath spoken. I should not have written you this morning 
had I not felt condemned after I left your house last even- 
in-, lest I had added to your trials, and seemed ezceedin 
selfish in my own. 

There comes to me in your going such an unutterable 
loneliness, which no one else can understand, that I have- 
not been able to keep the tears back since I listened to the 
announcement on Sabbath morning. And yet, dear ones, I 
am not repining or unreconciled. I believe it will be the 
very best thing for you, and I hope for the church. I 
has said, "Yet will I not make a full end of thee; but I 
will correct thee in measure," and, " There hath not tailed 
one word of all the good promise which II pr >mised." 

I have been to your home many a time so borne d ■• 
with responsibility that I have felt I must have human 



294 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

sympathy, as well as divine. Perhaps not one word of my 
special anxiety has been mentioned ; but the Christ whom 
I love has come to me through yourselves, and we have been 
one with Him. Blessed unity, which I know nowhere else 
except in my own home. 

You may perhaps so understand this that you will for- 
give me if I have added a feather's weight to your trial. It 
is the thought of being deprived of this one resort that has 
rested heavily upon me. You have helped me all the way. 
My home, which through natural affection has always been 
delightful, has, largely through your labors, been made 
blissful ; my public life has been made easier and stronger. 
Your words have kindled my desire to be like the Master ; 
have led to increasing hatred of sin, and a fuller consecra- 
tion of my powers to God. May you be to many another 
struggling soul what you have been to me. 

Ma}' you remain so faithful in your representation of 
Isaiah 6r : 1-3, that, as now, they who mourn your loss 
will be the poor, the afflicted, the youthful and the needy, 
the ' ' little ones ' ' whose prayers for you, God will answer. 

Lovingly yours, 

Mary A. Woodbridge. 

What a friend ! Who has not had friends who went 
with them while there was nothing to strain or tax or test 
their friendship ; while it was mutually profitable and de- 
lightful ? But the first rude touch of a mistake or fault, 
or the first tempting appeal to self-interest, or the first hour 
of soul need, led the supposed friend to desert you and per- 
haps stab every tender sensibility of your nature, till you 
stood dumb with sorrow. 

It was not so with my friend, as I shall now prove. 
One incident occurred that put her soul to the test and 
shows that she was made for an ideal friendship that 
binds heart to heart with " hooks of steel." 

During that awful political campaign of 188 \ I was an 
ardent Republican. All the world knows the part played 
by the leaders of the W. C. T. U. and the temperance forces 
of the country that year, and the surprising result. I have 



AS A < 'HURi ;.' M  R AN  />. 

never yet been clear in my mind that th< ership  

altogether wise and I rts wisely dii I .'. en I 

survey calmly, after this length of time, i long ti 

consequences of that y Bfort, in which the counti 

yet sadly flounder in I am not sure that those whom I 
dearly love t"<>k the course that was the m< t< L to 

advance that cause that commands the allegian my 

heart. Hut that is neither lure nor there. Whether I or 
they were right then is no matter now. 

After all was over, Mrs. Woodbridge wrote me asking 
suggestions for a speech she was todeliver in D< r in 

Cooper Institute. New York. I wrote back SUCh a letter 
as perhaps any one of a hundred thousand Republic 
might have written in that hour to one of the tempt 
Leaders. I cannot recall definitely one line of that letter ; 
but in my sorrow, not to say bitterness of heart, I wrol 
keenly sharp epistle. I dare say that it was not what it 
ought to have been from me to her; and it true!!;/ lacerated 
her sensitive nature. 

However much reproach this affair may bring upon me 
I spread it before the public that otherw mid never 

have heard of it, because by so doing I may glorify my 
friend and set forth a trait in her character which could not 
in any other way be so well revealed. 

After giving me time to cool and regain my habitual 
tone, the dear woman wrote us a long, precious lettei 
fourteen pages such as she only could write, and toward the 
close was this passage which gave me the final consummate 
proof that Mary A. Woodbridge was a friend indeed ! 

I think you will not ask me to write of politics. 1 
not do it, and do not think that God wants me to. That 
dreadful letter crushed me more than all the contumely 
reproach I have suffered during my public life ! Not a I 
or unkind thought ever came to me ; and it was only 
cause I loved so well that it hurt so much. 

Day after day I opened it before the Lord as I w 



296 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

into my closet where I asked, as I read it over, if there was 
anything in my acts, my words, or even my thoughts touch- 
ing these things that were not in harmony with His will, 
that He would show it to me ; but I would go out calm and 
assured, and my mourning was turned into joy. I coupled 
with unspeakable longing in all my prayers the plea : 
" Father, forgive the friend who has wounded, for he knows 
not what he has done. Thou lovest us both. Oh, let equal 
blessing rest upon each !" But for all this, and with a ten- 
derness toward you which, under the circumstances you 
cannot understand, I cannot write a word of our great 
national problem which otherwise it would be so great 

pleasure to talk over with you 

Mary A. Woodbridge. 

This letter brought me to my knees before God, and I 
wrote her at once a letter of humble apology, asking her 
forgiveness. Instantly there came back another letter 
finely written, in which was the following : 

I read your letter until my forgiveness was asked, and 
then laid it down and cried like a child ! " Forgive ! " It 
had not occurred to me that wrong had been committed 
directly against me ; but I was so grieved that one whom I 
had so tenderly loved as my spiritual guide could so far 

forget that God ruled Can you not see I 

was disappointed and sadly grieved ? But my heart was no 
more changed toward you than is God's heart toward His 
erring children. How then can I forgive? I can easily 
say yes, if there is such possibility ; not only forgive but 
forget in the true sense, and all things shall be as in the 
past. 

Great, true friend ! Alas ! that there are not more 
such friendships ; that there are not more hearts capable 
of them ! 

And I was not the only one with whom she had to bear 
in those memorable days that followed. Some of her own 
W. C. T. U. sisters, as we have seen, parted from the great 
organization a few months after the above was written. 
Some had been very intimately associated with her, and 



AS A CHURCH MEMBER AND FRIl \. 
counted among her warmest friends. And when the break 

came, she felt greatly wounded by the ungra< IOUS I ondtt< I 

of a few whom she had once honored and blessed with 

love. Letters from her are before me giving full i 

tions <>t the trials through which she was passing. One 

closes with these words : 

" Tray that the Lord will endue me with wisdom, cour- 
age, strength and charity, all brightened vet subdued by 

the beauty of holiness, which shall he Unto Him as a s 

savor." 

Another closes thus : 

"To you who have so long been my counsellor and 
helper, I turn lor counsel and help. The Lord graciously 
answers your prayers, and I pray von to plead for me th 
by no word or deed I may dishonor God ; that walking in 
the sight of the Lord, I may he filled with peace and jov in 
the Holy Ghost." 

Friendship, in the last analysis, seems to be a great 
sympathy in active, benevolent exercise, that can rejoice 
with those that rejoice and weep with them that wi 
The friend enters helpfully into the inner life of others, do- 
ing whatever is to be done, bearing whatever is to be borne, 
mi tiering whatever is to be suffered, and counting it all joy 
for love's sweet sake. And what a capacity this woman 
had for thus entering into other lives and making their ex- 
periences her own ! Who that ever had the tender mini 
of her affection, can forget how rich and helpful it was? 

Out of the past comes the memory of three days of 
awful agony, when the wife of my youth, aftei rief an 

illness, left us and went home. Mrs. Woodbridge ] tssed 
through Allegheny to meet a lecture engagement on the 
second day, and, stopping off to call, found my wife very 
sick. She stayed to the last possible moment, and hastened 
back the next morning, the last of our beloved rth. 

Whose hands were then so tender and skillful ? Whose 



298 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

ministry was so helpful ? Whose voice was so low and 
sweet? What other human presence was or could have 
been such a benediction as the great friend who had knit 
her life into ours ? She left us during the last few hours, 
only when she must. And when, three days later, the 
stricken husband and three motherless children passed 
through Ravenna with all that was left to earth of the 
heart of the home in the casket, who should take the train 
but Mrs. Woodbridge to make that journey of sorrow her 
own as well as ours ; to say kind words of comfort and 
hope to aged parents and brothers and sisters ; to smooth 
the soft hair for the last time ; and fold the gentle hands in 
their final rest, and put into them and also pin upon the 
neck the tube roses, because they were favorites with the 
departed, and connected with precious memories of her life 
and mine. Everything done that an own sister might do, 
and all with the unfailing thoughtfulness and tender grace 
of deepest love ! And then she sat down with the mourners 
" To weep with them that weep," and no truer mourner 
in all the company was there ! 

And when all was over and she had returned to her 
home, there came back from her dear hand, that has written 
comforting letters to multitudes, the following epistle : 

My Dearly Beloved Friend : — Can it be that the 
everlasting arms in which our loved one sweetly rested 
without fear have enfolded her from our sight ? I know it 
not — this breaking of the closest tie of earth ; this rupture 
of the mystic cord that binds two human souls in one, with 
love akin to God's ! 

Because of this must I be still ? And may I not, my 
friend beloved, whom in mute agony I hold up to God, for 
comfort and for strength, tell how I'm dumb to-night and 
sit beneath the shadow of affliction and try to breathe a 
prayer for you, whom I love in the Lord — my pastor, and 
my stricken friend? 

I have lived over the years of our acquaintance in the 
few hours that have passed since the "gone home " was 



AS A CHI Ri !I MEMBER   
spoken in my ear, and hav< and faith, and tru 

ami sacrifice in all. Her work has been well done. She 

needed not, like those who are left, the longer monldii 
and her rare spirit, that helped me onward day by day, 

not content, and could imt feel a lull and perfect bliss until 
the word was spoken and she could "enter in." 

But, now, husband, blessed! in having one who -till 

is yours and yet is God's; who lias laid aside the partial 
life (A earth, and in her Lord's fair comeliness is satisfied ' 
Her touch will no more be h, but spirit puriib 

She'll minister where and when she knew not how befi 
No weariness with her, Imt health and Strength, and life, 

which will infuse your being all the way. I find I cannot 
write to-night. Words cannot tell tl pi iousne lov- 

ing and of having loved a soul so pure on earth, now glori- 
fied in heaven. 

In anguished petition, I cry for His peace in the mi 
of your pain, ami the grace of a patient sub- n, with 

new hope and new power as your days pass on. I pray 
that abiding in the presence of our Christ and walking in 
His light, He maybe revealed unto you as never before; 
and seeing Him, upon whom the eyes of our beloved 1. 
already rested, you may be like Him. 

Bonar writes of " Reknitted Companionship ' 

I'pon this earth we 1 h 

Ours was a fellowship of light ; 
The outer circle might be d.irk, 

But all within was fair and bright — 
A day without a night 

" One faith, one hope w - — the i 

That can the cl 
That seeth the unseen ; the fa 
That looks into the jo: me, 

Fore-dating rest and boi 

" We parted ; one went up to be 
Where partings are forgotten 
Life in its fulness dwells : where love 

Breathes its bright perfume through the air 
And everv face is fair. 



300 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

" And I was left behind, to wait 

A solemn while on earth, to long 
For the eternal meeting, where 
All sing together with one tongue 
The everlasting song ! 

" The earth is lonelier now, when she 

Who walked with me its ways is gone ; 
But soon the loneliness is o'er, 

Tbe blank forgotten and unknown ; 
Not long, not long alone ! " 

The poet speaks sweeter, wiser words than mine, but 
none will bear to you a spirit of deeper love and sympathy 
in these hours of affliction than those of your pleading 
friend. 

Oh, may the Lord love and bless, and bind us one and 
all to His side ; making our communion with Him more 
warm and sweet, even here on this cold earth, until all are 
perfected and we meet the loved one who has " gone home " 
before. Each of my dear ones enfold you in their arms of 
love and faith. 

Mary A. Woodbridge. 

I will not speak further of this blessed friendship for me 
that so enriched my life, e'en to the last hour of hers ; and 
the hallowed, helpful memory, which will abide with me 
forever. Multitudes of others, also, considered their ac- 
quaintance with her and the resulting friendship as one of 
their choicest blessings. I learn from letters that there 
are guest-chambers in many homes lovingly called " Mrs. 
Woodbridge' s chamber." People old enough to be her 
parents loved her as a daughter. Children younger than 
her grandchildren, having once made her acquaintance, 
were her loving correspondents to the end of her life. And 
such loving, precious, helpful letters as she wrote to them 
all! 

Frances K. Beauchamp, of Lexington, Ky., wrote No- 
vember i, 1894 : 



AS A CHURCH MEMBER FR/EA 

I have a great batch of letters from her, as who of u 
has not? I shall keep them as a sacred memento Hei 

last was written the last day she was in her office tt was 

just a friendly communication, and she said : "Do let me 
hear from youwhen you can. Your letters do mi good. I 
feel assured there is a sincerity in them for which I often 

long." Oh, how I loved her and I feel assured she 1"' 

me. ... At present I can only shed tears with you 
over our irreparable loss. 

Mr. Woodbridge remarked tome : "I< ould pi five 

hundred such letters as that. They have come to us from 
Kurope and Africa and from the far off Pacific islands : and 
they are still coming, all breathing the same Si c." 

The reason is Mrs. Woodbridge* s great loving sold was a 
magnet that drew other hearts to her by an irresistible 
attraction. 

The reader will be interested in the following incident 
as an illustration of her power to charm and bind to her- 
self even strangers : 

A lady of rare culture, a graduate of a state university, 
and the wife of a brilliant professional man in a state < 
ital, heard Mrs. Woodbridge address the annual con-. 
tion of her state and also heard her speak at the capital. 
Soon after she attended the National W. C. T. T\ and 
heard her preach, and saw her throughout the convention 
which met that year in Philadelphia. 

Before the convention closed she came to Mrs. Wood- 
bridge with tears in her eyes and asked her with feel- 
ing if she might write to her. The permission was granted 
with wonder on the part of Mrs. Woodbridge as t<> what it 
all meant. 

The following letter received a week later gave the 

planation : 

. Nov. 9. 1NS5. 

Dear Mks. Woodbridge : — The enclosed was written 
a week ago in Philadelphia, after listening t" your ^er- 



302 LIFE OF MARY A. IVOODBRIDGE. 

mon in Association Hall. I might not have had the cour- 
age ever to send it to you, but for your very kind permis- 
sion to me to write to you. I hope I have not asked too 
much of you and shall be most grateful for a single word. 

Sincere^ yours, 



Sunday Afternoon. 

Dear Mrs. Woodbridge : — Forgive me if I am im- 
posing upon you, but I am much distressed by a point of 
conscience ; and if you would let me submit it to you and 
give me just one word, sometime when you can, I shall be 
so very grateful. 

You will understand why I come to you when I tell 

you that since I heard you speak in I have not 

closed my eyes in sleep without seeing your face and hear- 
ing your voice in my last waking thoughts. Your expe- 
rience with others will explain to you why I have thus felt 
your influence. I know I need not apologize for coming 
to you. 

Six years ago I felt a strong desire to join the W. C. 
T. U. One of our dear workers in addressing the union 
convinced me that I had, as a Unitarian, no place there. 

One year ago Miss Wi Hard's article on this subject told 
me that in her judgment W. C. T. U. did not mean, " We 
can't take Universalists " ; and I stretched a point, substi- 
tuted "Unitarian" for "Universalists," and joined the 
union. 

The work has become very dear to me during the past 
year. . . Your sermon this morning moved me strongly. 
When you said "us" I trembled, and I know you think 
your women should be examples in this spiritual experi- 
ence. I did not drift from indifference into Unitarianism. 

My spiritual education was not neglected when I was 
a child. I was born into a family having deep religious 
convictions, and educated in the Unitarian Sabbath schools. 
I believe that I am a Christian. I know that my spiritual 
life should be infinitely richer and fuller ; but I cannot 
hope to turn it into new channels, and I have never felt a 
desire to do so. I only say this that you may know just 
where my trouble is. Am I so far removed from you all 



AS A CH \ND : 

in this that [ cannot fitly 
of this grand work } 

My dear Mrs. Woodbridj Lo not consid< 
answer, /. e., do not spare me. el that 

representative of the W. C. T. r 

power and it-> gentleness, its spiritual its 

practical work also. So that yon can give me tfa 
unbiased answer. 

Above all things I want to be true, and m t 1 i to 

stand for what I am not; and though I shall never l< 
the ranks of the white ribbon army, I fear I mu up 

the little active work I have begun at home. 

My unworthiness in this respect will give m< but 

no bitterness, and I beg that yon will no', spare me. I 
give me for writing so much. 

tfully and loving 



We wrote to this lady for Mrs. Y. r to 

her, and received the following reply: 

, Dec. 29 

Dear vSir: — I regret exceedingly that I have not the 
ter from Mrs. Woodbridge for which requ It 

was, I remember perfectly, a kindly ami helpful letter, well 
illustrating the broad, charita W. C. T. V. 

I was much grieved to learn of Mrs. W Ibridge's de 

Among all our \V. C. T. U. women I think she made the 
strongest personal impression upon me as ; Ing a na- 

ture rarely uniting power and gentlenc 

With many regrets that I cannot send you her lett. 1 I 
am, Yours truly. 



Mrs. Frances J. Barnes, of New York t neral S 

retary of the Young Woman's Bran< h, writes as folio 

" How can we get on without our dear beloved Mary 
Woodbridge? She was always £ ler, so tru< 1 dm, 

SO just right. I loved her deeply. My busbar. 
her beyond most of our women, and the Y's all felt drawn 
to her. I know you are hearing this from every side, but 
we cannot help pouring out our hearts with you. I am so 



304 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

glad I did not keep her waiting for my part of the National 
program. And she was so sweet in commanding me ! " 

Mrs. Freeland writes from Wellsville, N. Y., to Mr. 
Woodbridge : "Words are inadequate to express the feel- 
ings of those who loved your noble wife as I did. Our 
friendship was a source of great pleasure and profit to me. 
I entertained her eight years ago, and though through the 
dishonest}^ of a servant she was robbed on this her first 
visit, every year since then, often on Easter, always on 
Christmas we have exchanged tokens of love, and I learned 
to look eagerly for the sweet, womanly letters that always 
accompanied her royal gifts. They are among my treas- 
ures." 

Dear Jennie Casseday of Kentucky, the precious invalid 
who from her sick chamber managed the Flower Mission 
Department, received constant proofs of friendship from 
this great-hearted busy woman. A loving letter from Mrs. 
Woodbridge to her called out the following : 

Sick-Bed, Nov. 4. 

My Precious Friend: — Your dear blessed letter is re- 
ceived by the afternoon's mail, and I hasten to reply. It is 
one of those heart-clasp missives which will make gladness 
and joy for many days to come, and I can do nothing else 
but answer at once 

"Just for to-day" is my morning prayer now, and ear- 
nestly do I ask : 

" Keep my heart pure, O Christ, 

Clean swept, I pray; 
Let thy love conquer doubt, 

Cast fear away. 
Guide me, guard me, use me, Lord, 

Just for to-day." 

Oh, I am so glad that you pray for me every day and 
that you told me so- in the last letter ; for it comes (again) 
just when I need it. I was thinking this very morning of 
the upholding of the prayers my dear friends are offering 
for me, and that this is the reason I am kept so full of rest 
and comfort. I did stay by you in the convention, and I 



. IS . 1 < IK 'Aw 7/ MEMBER A\ I Xl>. 

feel as if I was never more there ... I am so proud 
to I),- called by you our pet that I have put tight around 
your neck my poor little rheumatic anus, hugging you up 
to your little invalid. Ji nnie C 

Another time she writ-. 

My dear, I can't tell you what your love means to me 

now. for I am bearing heavy burdens, and you know how- 
sweet is the blessedness of friendship tor our dark days. I 
am scarcely able to write, now. and this scrawl is quite 
illegible, I fear, but it is the best a weak hand in nervous 

prostration can do, so I know your tender heart will forgive. 

. God bless you, my noble, beautiful friend, and 
give you all needed strength for your arduous duti< 

Lovingly your little sick sister, 

Jknn: ay. 

General Neal Dow, of Maine, wriu 

I have before me upon my table open, a letter from her 
just received when the news came to me of her sudden p 
ing away. I was for the moment stunned, as I was when 
the news came to me of the death of President Lincoln. 
She was very near to me as a tried and trusted friend who 
won the hearts of all who had associated with her in the 
work to which she was devoted. In all my large circle 
friends there was not one who had more of my love and 
respect. 

A lady from Tennessee writes to Mrs. Woodbridge : 

I used sometimes in the Boston days to long to goto 

you and tell you how much I loved and admired you ; but 
somehow there never seemed a fitting moment when I 
say it to you. Now I can only write it though it <:• 
look cold on paper. 

A daughter of a great leader in an eastern 
to her : 

Of all the women in the X. W. C. T. U. mother held 
you in highest esteem. Among her treasures I find a letter 
written a longtime ago by you in which ai' \ I 3 of appre- 
ciation. She had prized it and written upon the outside — 
" Preserve this." I am so glad you said the words th< 
how they helped her ! 



306 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

A lady from a western state writes : 

No one in my long catalogue of friends has given me 
more cheer and encouragement in my work than your dear 
self. I cannot tell you the comfort you have been to one 
of Christ's little ones. 

When the women of the National W. C. T. U. elected 
Mrs. Woodbridge to the office of corresponding secretary, 
to sit at one center of power, they knew in whom they 
trusted. Mrs. Woodbridge was not the woman whom self- 
ishness could pervert or ambition bribe. Miss Willard does 
but pay a deserved tribute when she speaks of her as ' ' My 
beloved, true and loyal friend." 

In a letter from England in 1892, Miss Anna Gordon 
said to Mrs. Woodbridge : "You are the right arm of the 
organization." When she was dying this telegram came: 

"Mary A. Woodbridge, the right hand of our society ; 
sorrow in ten thousand homes. 

" Frances Willard. 
" Isabel Somerset. 
"Anna Gordon." 

From abundance of letters in my possession I can say 
that never, in written line, or deed, or word, or thought, 
was that right arm disloyal to its head, or to the body it 
served. 

Miss Ida C. Clothier, an organizer in the Young Wom- 
an's Branch, one day wrote her : 

' ' One of the pleasantest memories of the National Con- 
vention is of you, dear Mrs. Woodbridge, not only in the 
sweet little greeting, but as I saw you daily. For years 
you have been held close to my life, as the ideal strength 
and sweetness of perfected womanhood, and I wanted you 
to know how much you have helped me." 

While she was in National Convention one day, the fol- 
lowing note was sent to her : 




THE DEAR HOME OP MRS. WOODBRIDG1 



AS .1 CHURCH MEMBER AND FRIEND. 

Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge : My Pi Friend 

I thank God for you always, Oh, your noble, wonderful 
womanhood means so much to me ' My heart is so full oi 
love for yon no words can express it ; hut by that love I 

feel I am lifted nearer the Infinite. 

Always yours, 

Amn k i:i. i. ogg Mors] 

Need more be written to show that Mrs. Woodbridge 
was fitted by nature and grace for the most exalted and 
enduring friendships ? 

Since this chapter, as I supposed, was closed, another 
letter has fallen under my eye, so like the above, and so 

illustrative of the fascinating influence of her noble woman- 
hood, that it deserves a place here. It was written by a 
cultured lady who had listened to three addresses of Mrs. 
Woodbridge's the day before. 

Minneapolis, Minn., June 30, 1890. 

Dear Mr?. Woodbridge : — I find I cannot taken]) my 
regular writing this morning until I have again said good- 
bye. Hearing you three times yesterday has filled me with 
a new conception of the grandeur and power of woman ; 
and as you may never pass this way again, I will not let the 
moment go by without telling you of the impression you 
have left behind. I would make every line warm with ten- 
derness for you. May rewards and delights be yours all 
through the march of life, and may there be some sign or 
watchword that I may know you in the beautiful hereafter. 
God bless and keep you is my constant wish and prayer. 

Yours sincerely, 

Augusta A. CONNER. 

Great, heart-winning soul ! 

Mr. Woodbridge writes : 

Dear Brothkr Hills : — In looking over Mary's Bible 
I find the following written by her on the fly-leaf: 

"Finish thy work, then n I 
Till then rest never : 
The rest prepared for thee by God 
Is rest forever." 



308 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE, 

THE CHRIST-CHILD IN OUR HEART. 

Our Lord was born in Bethlehem, 

Full many years ago ; 
But is He born within my heart? 

Is what I want to know. 

The wise men came with gifts of gold, 

And worshiped at His feet : 
But have I brought my heart to Him 

An offering complete ? 

He occupied a lowly place — 

The manger and the stall — 
But well deserves within my breast 

The highest seat of all ! 

My heart is but a lowly place, 

Yet better than the stall ; 
I'll garland it with evergreens, 

And He shall have it all. 

The angels sang a holy song 

When Jesus Christ was born ; 
My soul sings far more joyously 

This blessed Christmas morn. 

I've brought the fine gold of my heart 

Its myrrh and frankincense : 
And Christ I know the gift accepts 

With loving tenderness. 

Flashes the guiding star of hope, 

The promises are true ; 
For I have found the newborn King 

And you may find Him too ! 

The world presents its Christ to-day, 

In poetry and art ; 
Be ours the simple faith to know 
The Christ-child in our heart. 
Christmas, 1887. —Mary A. Woodbridge. 



AS .1 CHURCH MEMBER AND FRIEND. 
These lines also were found in her Bible on three small 

sheets of paper, in her handwriting, signed and dated as 

above, and without quotation marks. I do not recollect to 
have seen them before. Whether she simply appropriated 

them or composed them in an hour of Christmas devotion, 
we cannot say ; but we do know that it was the constant 
longing of her heart that Christ might have His home 
there. 



CHAPTER XX. 

LAST LABORS AND INCIDENTS. 

BEFORE speaking of those last labors that made the 
close of Mrs. Woodbridge's life like an unclouded 
summer sun setting in a sea of glory, I wish to reproduce 
the following from The Union Signal, as an illustration of 
her heroic trust in God. In point of time it is out of date 
in this chapter ; but the definite account did not reach me 
earlier : 

WHITE-RIBBON HEROISM. 

BY SOPHIE F. GRUBB. 

[Our readers will welcome the following chapter from 
the life of Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, so touchingly nar- 
rated by her comrade. The fact that Mrs. Woodbridge 
was by nature quite timid when on the streets at night, 
unless accompanied by a friend, throws even a brighter 
light upon another side of her character, which ever pre- 
sented a dauntless front when going forward in the cause 
of right.] 

The following are incidents of Mrs. Woodbridge's trip 
through Kansas eight years ago. She came to my house 
the day following the events narrated, and I received from 
her a full account of them at that time. We talked them 
over again when she was my guest a year ago. They are 
a fine illustration of her heroic devotion to duty, and illus- 
trate the splendid character of Kansas men represented in 
the conductor. 

Mrs. Woodbridge had an engagement to speak before 

the M. E. Conference, then in session in C . In order 

to meet that engagement she was obliged to take the train 
to a small station, a mere stopping point, and from there 
depend on a private conveyance for the twenty miles yet 

(310) 



LAST LABORS AND INCIDENTS. ;n 

to be traveled. When she showed her ticket to the con- 
ductor he hesitated, and then said, " I think yon would 
better not stop there. The train docs not reach the pi 
until about midnight. There is no station, and it is prob- 
able there will be no one there." 

but Mrs. Woodbridge replied that she must stop, as 
she could leach C in no other way, and it was ab 

lutely impossible tor her t<> break her engagement. The 

young man seemed troubled but went on. He afterward 
returned and said t<> hei' that unless there was some one at 

the train who could take care of her, he could not consent 

to leaving her. With indomitable courage our Mary re- 
plied, "I must stop." When the station was reached a 
man with a lantern was seen, and the conductor gladly 
hailed him and asked him to take the lady to the "hotel." 
The man replied, however, that he was going On business 
to the next town and it was impossible for him to stay. 
"Then," said the conductor, "I will wait my train and 
take her at least part of the way myself." lb- explained 
to her that the only house where she could stay was more 
than half a mile away, but that lie could take her to 
where he thought she would be safe. They proceeded for 
about a quarter of a mile, then giving her his lantern he 
charged her to hold it low, to walk in the ditch f dug for 
a railroad) which she was on no account to leave. 

She saw from his manner that he had some special cause 
for anxiety and this added to her feeling of loneliness and 
even alarm. He told her as he left her to be sure and let 
him know of her journey and giving her his address he 
bide her good-bye. 

Mrs. Woodbridge told me that she had never known so 
long a journey as that was (little more than a quarter of a 
mile) but she talked to the Lord and felt His arms about 
her. Finally she reached a small house and knocked on 
the door. A man answered her and told her the tavern 
was farther on but to her great relief a woman's voice came 
from an inner room, like one addressing a tired child and 
trying to comfort it, "Never mind, my husband will go 
with you; will take good care of you. Never mind." 

The man accompanied her a few rods farther and 
stopped at a rough building called by way of custom, "the 
hotel." They were here admitted by a man who asked 



312 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Mrs. Woodbridge to take a chair by the stove. She men- 
tioned that she had a trunk where the train stopped, and 
he said immediately, " Then we must go down and get it." 
She protested that it would do in the morning, but he 
called his son and said they must get it now. They left 
her, and she found when her eyes had become accustomed 
to the dim light of a turned down lamp that there were 
some dozen or fifteen men sleeping in beds ranged round 
the large room. Heads were raised and inquiries made, 
and she felt that some action must be taken. Rising she 
said, " Gentlemen, I am a temperance lecturer obliged to 

fill an engagement at C to-morrow. I am a mother 

and grandmother. I am doing, as I believe, the Lord's 
work, and now, as you loved and honored your mothers I 
beg of you not to address me again." Not a head was 
raised, not another word spoken that night. 

The man and his son returned after nearly an hour's 
absence, and he then explained that a railroad was being 
built and there was a large company of Italians camping 
between there and the station and it was necessary to be 
very careful. That explained the conduct of the conductor 
and his anxiety for her safety. As the host was speaking 
to her a woman's voice at an inner room asked her if she 
were not tired, to which she emphatically assented. 

" Well, come right in here and lie down." The only 
place for this welcome rest was by the woman's side 
" where my man sleeps." 

Mrs. Woodbridge put her large shawl over the bed, lay 
down and knew nothing more until at nine o'clock the 
next morning, she found as nice a breakfast as one could 
desire, awaiting her. The host had hunted up a comfort- 
able conveyance and was ready to take her across to C . 

She said their kindness and civility almost made amends 
for their unfavorable surroundings and quite made her 
realize that good and true hearts abound in all the world. 
She reached me at two o'clock that day with the feeling 
that she had found an oasis in a dreary desert, but with 
gratitude toward the conductor and her other new-found 
friends. She told me afterward that Miss Willard wrote 
one of the most appreciative letters to the young man she 
had ever known her to write. 

One might infer from this incident that Kansas was a 



LAST l ABORS AND INCIDENTS. 3*3 

wild war.tc, but it was only a chance combination «»f cir- 
ctttnstances by whicb Mis. Woodbridge was thrown into 

this railroad building camp, for in eight years' residence I 
have known no such wild adventure. 

But how rare a devotion to duty was exhibited by that 
timid, delicate woman in tilling her engagement under SUCb 
unfavorable circumstances. No wonder she died in the 
harness ! " She is not, for God took her." 

Miss Frances I'.. Willard's letter to the conductor, or a 
duplicate of it in her own handwriting, is before me. It 
reads as follows : 

Evanston, Ii.L., May 1 6, 1887. 
Charles Millikcn, Condi/, lor A', and A. Division, Missouri 

Pacific R. A'., If olden, Mo. 

Dear Sir : — Ever since hearing of your great kind- 
ness to our honored and beloved National recording secre- 
tary of the W. C. T. U., I have desired, as president, to 
write you of our appreciation. It was help rendered at a 
trying time when she had to leave the train at night on a 
wild prairie, and your action was most kind and noble. 

May God bless you and yours with the same good will 
from others that you showed to your distinguished passen- 
ger. Believe me your friend sincerely, 

Frances B. Wiu.ard. 

I have heard an addition to this story to the effect that 
the passenger who boarded the train threatened the con- 
ductor that he would report him if he stopped the train to 
help Mrs. Woodbridge, and that he did so report him and 
secured his discharge ; but the friends of the W. C. T. U. 
secured him a position on another railroad. Israel's God 
was watching over Mrs. Woodbridge, and we cannot but 
believe that He will amply reward her courteous and un- 
selfish helper. 

Surely Charles Milliken's name deserves an honored 
place in this book, and perpetual remembrance. Let us 
hope it will also be found written in the Lamb's Book of 
Life. 



314 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

During her later years Mrs. Woodbridge was an over- 
burdened, overworked woman. Her influence and reputa- 
tion had become literally world-wide. She was sought for 
constantly as one of the ablest platform speakers of the 
day to plead for every moral reform. Her pulpit work was 
exceptionally able and effective and in great demand. She 
wrote much for the press. Her warm, magnetic nature 
constantly attracted new friends and increased the ever- 
widening circle of her friendships. 

It is said that letter-writing is getting to be a lost art. 
Mrs. Woodbridge certainly had the art, and as certainly 
never lost it. I have all the letters she ever wrote me, and 
they would of themselves make a large volume. The pen- 
manship is as beautiful as a copy-plate, and ten, twelve 
or fourteen pages would be written without an erasure, 
blot, or misspelled word, and full of interesting, tender, 
friendly and Christian thought. 

Even her official letters were characterized by the same 
ample fullness and friendly helpfulness, — the delight and 
inspiration of all who received them. Here is a letter in- 
forming me that the next to the last year of her life she 
wrote personally two thousand official letters, besides the 
immense correspondence with friends, and the daily letter 
to the husband. That, with her press work, and travel and 
public speaking, will show something of the amount of her 
work. 

Here is another letter saying : 

"I have had thirteen days steady brain pressure, eight- 
een and one-half hours a day, from 6 : 30 a. m. to 1 a. m., 
having found it impossible to retire before the latter hour." 

Then she had to give up two appointments to speak in 
Connecticut and one in New Jersey, because she could not 
keep awake. ' ' Always a blessing, you see ! how much 
better than inability to sleep!" Yet after all that awful 
strain, she sat down in a Boston hotel while waiting for a 



/ \ST LABORS AND INCIDENTS, .V.S 

train, and wrote me a ten page letter mechanically, anil in 
thought and .spirit as beautiful as evei ! 

One clay her husband exclaimed as he was examining 

letters: "I could rover the Moor of this room a t""t deep 
with Mary's writings and letters. How she ever found 
time and strength tor it is to me a mystery." It must have 
been a labor of love ; tor she could easily have slighted her 
correspondence ami made it less irksome. But, though she- 
loved us all, though affection inspired the busy brain and 
guided the swiftly moving pen, it was labor still that must 
have been most exhausting to her nervous system. 

Toward the close of her life she wrote still more, for 
during her last year she was corresponding secretary both 
of the World's and the National Union, — the former hav- 
ing auxiliaries in forty-six nations, and the latter covering 
the United States and Territories. She was also secretary 
of the Woman's Temperance Publishing Association. At 
the same time she led one noon prayer-meeting each week 
at Willard Hall, and was president of the Society of Char- 
ities and Corrections of Portage County, Ohio, which is one 
of the best organized and most systematic institutions of its 
kind. 

Writing to the author about all this work, she observed: 
"You will see that I am not likely to rust out, and have 
none too many hours to rest ; but I am a thankful woman 
for health ; a good measure ol strength, for opportunity to 
work in the field of the Master, ami that I have reason to 
believe that He accepts and honors my work." 

She further wrote a column weekly for The Union Sig- 
nal, which was so unique and able and suggestive that it at 
once sent a new thrill of life through the entire organiza- 
tion, and made every tired and discouraged worker in the 
local unions feel the inspiration of a new, great-souled, cour- 
ageous and unselfish leadership at the heart of the W. C. 
T. U. As one wrote, " She made you feel that she not only 



31 6 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

tried to grasp the needs of all, but she held us all close to 
her inmost soul, and strove to help us all on, and knit us 
together." 

A letter to Miss Willard, from Des Moines, Iowa, after 
Mrs. Woodbridge's translation, read as follows : 

Dear Miss Willard : — I am sure I voice the Temple 
Union of Des Moines when I express our personal bereave- 
ment in the death of our beloved Mary A. Woodbridge. 
Her practical helpfulness in the National secretary's cor- 
ner of The U?iion Signal is 'her eulogy. 

Tenderly yours, 

Mary A. McGonegal. 

Thus day by day and week after week she was pouring 
out the rich treasures of her vital forces upon the cause 
she loved with a glowing devotion unlimited, an enthusiasm 
unbounded, and a loyalty and unselfishness that was simply 
absolute. It was all done with a meekness and modesty 
and simplicity that was an ideal pattern for all co-laborers, 
and will be an abiding example to the world. 

Here is her opinion on the New Anti-Saloon movement 
which shows the keen, incisive action of her mind, her self- 
poise and rigid loyalty to conviction and moral principle. 
Whether the people who have gone into this new move- 
ment agree with her or not they can afford to hear and weigh 
well her ringing words. To her W. C. T. U. sisters it will 
be like a bugle-blast calling to action, coming now from a 
glorified leader : 

Dear Co-laborers : — I am deeply moved. I have 
been reading a symposium in a religious paper on "The 
next step in Anti-Saloon Legislation." The first article is 
by the Rev. Editor, who proposes restriction not extinction 
— continuance not extermination — compromise with the 
liquor traffic, not prohibition of the iniquity. By far the 
larger number of contributors endorse (not altogether the 
editor's methods), but his propositions. Two men speak 
without fear or favor, save in the fear of God and in favor 



LAST LABORS AND /\< 7DENTS. 317 

of the people; Joseph Cook, of Boston, and John G. Wool* 
ley, of Chicago, and I was glad that Mr. Wbolley said, 
"This is a Christian man's fight and there are abundant 
forces at his hand, but they will never fall into line until 
he rings clear and he will ring very clear when he sees 

clearly. But he docs not sec clearly yet. and of this your 
own article, which in its prefatory part is a very fair ex- 
pression of the common view, is excellent evidence, for 
your sincerity is above suspicion." "Avery fair expres- 
sion of the common view." Alas, eighteen of the twenty- 
four contributors, three-fourths of the whole number Spoke 
of nothing but compromise; two guardedly approved pro- 
hibition ; of four I have spoken. 

Women are said to constitute two-thirds of the church 
of Christ and we are grateful that an aroused womanhood, 
led by God to the organization of the National \V. C. T. U., 
adopted as the Preamble of their Constitution the follow- 
ing : " We, Christian women of this nation, conscious of 
the great evils of, and appalled by the danger of intemper- 
ance, believe it to be our duty, under the providence of 
God, to unite our efforts for its extinction and for the entire 
prohibition of the liquor traffic." Every word of it is 
accepted and endorsed by each member upon joining the 
union, and thus pledged to the protection of the home, we 
are pained to-day to find in many states an attempted legis- 
lation of local option — versus prohibition — anti-saloon — 
versus anti-traffic. Good temperate people are deceived 
thereby and join the ranks, though in their heart they 
know nothing but annihilation of the evil will bring na- 
tional safety and peace. It is an old dodge ; local, optional, 
here to-day and gone to-morrow; hurting no-body and 
nothing ; even saloonist and politician undisturbed by the 
effort. What they want, W. C. T. U. women do not want, 
and dutv calls on us to arise immediately and like Crom- 
well's army, stand united, alert, listening for marching 
orders from the Captain of our Salvation, who never makes 
mistakes, and whom we will instantly obey. This can be 
done only by the arousal of each individual, in each union, 
in city and country, throughout the land. No national 
political party would expect victory by the quickening of 
its forces in one city or one state ; it must be throughout 
the field. Iowa is in an agony of discussion, local option, 



318 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

anti-saloon and prohibition legislation before the people ; 
and the intelligent prayer and aid of every W. C. T. U. 
woman is needed in behalf of righteous action. Ohio will, 
if possible, enact the Haskell bill, and even churches are 
minimizing God's law of " Thou shalt not," by an attempt 
to accomplish it. At this very time the Governor of South 
Carolina proposes to establish dispensaries in twenty coun- 
ties where prohibition has prevailed, because of the com- 
promise law which renders it possible and the demand of 
the traffic in politics that it shall be done. 

"Awake, Deborah — arise and lead thy captivity cap- 
tive," in the name of God, of your homes, of the republic 
we love. Shrink not, but do your part to put this iniquity 
out of the way, that Christianity, civilization and purity 
may reign. Will some one say, what can we do ? — we have 
no money and no leader. There is not a union in the 
United States that cannot by effort secure twenty-five cents 
to purchase the documents of Herrick Johnson and others, 
that will furnish all necessary material for a live meeting. 
Some man, some woman or some children (in Demorest 
medal contest), can be found to present the truth to the 
people in every locality. If the people of the town are too 
busy to attend a meeting, let a company of women or chil- 
dren go to a country school-house, where they will be 
heartily welcomed, and will be heard with delight. Why 
not make the first a Neal Dow meeting, to be held on 
March 20th ? ample supplies for which can be purchased at 
headquarters for ten cents. Let each district be visited 
thus, over and over, if need be, until the pressure upon the 
town can not be resisted. This will furnish something to 
do that will tell for the cause. 

Dear President, your constituency looks to you for lead- 
ership ; what are you doing ? and what will you do ? I 
pray you in review of the field, do not say, " This union or 
that union — this woman or that will do nothing, it is use- 
less to ask it." How do you know but the spirit of God 
has spoken to some soul who will be as a very fire-brand 
setting all aflame, if you but open the way ? Are you not 
as truly bound to do what you can for the least as for the 
greatest in your ranks ? — to make fallow and ready for seed, 
the ground of the hardest as of the easier field ? The great 
Commander calls. Your past faithfulness is to Him assur- 



LAST LABORS AND INCIDENTS 3ig 

ance that yon will again answer and are ready to fall into 
line. Up — " Agitate," "Organize." I.'t each remember 

that she is a W. C. T. U. woman ; a daughter of the- King, 

and must be at her Father's business, which requires haste. 

Your comrade in the work, 

M \ky A. \\"c>< >DBB [DGB. 

In midsummer of [894, Miss Prances E. Willard re- 
turned to this country after an absence of about two years 
spent with Lady Henry Somerset in an effort to 6nd rest 

and recovery of health. A great reception was given her 
in New York city, another in Kvanston, and a third in 
Chicago. Mrs. Woodbridge was chosen to give the address 

of welcome in behalf of the National \V. C. T. U. at each 
meeting. It was felt that she was the one woman able to 
voice in fitting speech the loving welcome of the white- 
ribbon sisterhood to their chief. In the greatly abbrevi- 
ated report of the New York meeting, one gem of her 
speech was preserved : 

" Perhaps in no two years has there been more stir than 
during those just passed. Christ has been with US and 
we have learned of the sin and wretchedness, the poverty 
and woe ; we have heard the cry for bread, have seen the 
laborer asking in vain for employment, have looked upon 
women on their knees holding up their babes to public gaze 
in pitiful plea for help. By such scenes as this are we 
brought to a social platform which unites all who lore in the 
cause of all who suffer."' 

Miss Willard eagerly asked for the manuscript of her 
Kvanston speech, declaring it a gem of oratory; but not a 
line had been written. It was thought out while on the 
train from Chicago. 

The Chicago speech shone like a lustrous jewel of sur- 
passing brilliance. A learned divine said, " She spoke as 
one inspired." Fortunately we have it as reported, and we 
give it here. All will say that it was finished enough to 
meet the most exacting demands of oratory. 



320 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

WELCOME TO MISS WILLARD. 

BY MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

[Reception at First Congregational church, Chicago, 
September 28, 1894.] 

Five minutes time is all too short to bring fitting wel- 
come to our Chieftain, though twice before since your 
return it has been my privilege and honor to stand before 
you as representative of the great white ribbon host of 
which you are leader, to voice the welcome of the half 
million mothers and daughters and children of the Na- 
tional W. C. T. U. and its honorary constituency — the fath- 
ers and husbands and sons whose hearts beat in unison 
with our own, — and once for the World's Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union, an aggregate of forty-eight Na- 
tional unions. 

Love counts hours as months and months as years, and 
as the long, long time that you were gone grew longer 
still, as a mother clasps her child to her heart and will not 
loose her hold, we have held you to ourselves and to our 
Lord. England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales, the conti- 
nents of Europe and of America, benighted Africa, enlight- 
ened America, with the islands of the sea, bound to one 
another and to Christ by the white-ribbon tie, have spoken 
in the ear of the Father for you, and thus your leadership 
has been not only o?i but up, while we have learned that 
weakness in ourselves is often strength in God, and we can 
better understand your own prophetic words, " For God 
and home and every land." 

Yours has been a teaching of broad principles — the 
brotherhood of humanity and the universal Fatherhood 
and justice of God. Women have listened and wondered 
and almost unconsciously followed as you led, while God 
held you in His own intention until this hour should come, 
when you emerged in spirit and in power and embodied 
His handmaidens in the best and holiest human institution 
known — the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 

For a time women clung closely to the hope of home 
protection which you aroused, but as the years and age 
crept on and still their hearts shed drops of blood, as if to 
cleanse the home and wash the nation from its sin, they 



LAST LABORS AND IN< 'IDENTS. 321 

brought to you their daughters, themselves renewed iii 
youth, a gift of holy motherhood, with prayer that stamp 
of character like yours might seal each one, until — 

"The old order changed, yielding to a new, 
And c.od fulfilled himself in many ways." 

Thus girls, who scarce remember when their mothers 
knelt on sanded floors within the open doors of hell, and, 
hiding behind the cross, strove to hold some poor, lost 
soul before the Lord of life and light, are now the strong 
right arm of our great body, and look with us to that good, 
glad day when brother and sister shall stand upon the same 
platform of social purity, upon the same plane of rights and 
privileges, that through the glorious trinity of man, woman 
and God, man and woman the instruments, God the power, 
iniquity shall be banished from the home, the church and 
the republic. 

We cannot stop. God bids us on ; we must and will 
obey. God bless you now! God bless you ever! Hold 
fast to the Infinite, the positive pole of holiness and power. 
Another palm shall strike your own, and on and on — until 
the negative pole of the world's weakness and sin shall be 
reached. Then will the divine current flow, and not only 
will His children be quickened, but the iniquity against 
which we inveigh shall be shivered and shattered to atoms. 
Then with voices tuned in the harmonies of heaven, we 
will sing "glory and honor and praise and thanksgiving to 
Him who has redeemed us forever and forever." God bless 
you, beloved, and keep you to that day. 

To this and a dozen other speeches, Miss Willard re- 
sponded as follows : 

Dear Friends : — I have at last adjusted my mind to 
this occasion. It took me a considerable length of time. 
At first I was very shamefaced, but then it popped into my 
head at last that this is all a case of composite photograph. 
These dear, kind, noble friends who have spoken out of the 
affluence of their own generous natures have seen in one 
whom they trusted the charm and quality and the gifts of 
more women than I could count. You have endowed me 
in your thoughts with the dauntlessness of a Carse, with 
the brilliancy of a Rounds, witli the statesmanship of a 



322 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Woodbridge, with the " Marshal Ney " qualities of a Bar- 
ker, with the Boanerges vigor of a Hoffman, with the mas- 
sive might of a L,athrap ; you have just seen us all in one, 
and so you have talked to the lot ! It is the white ribbon 
that makes us all seem fair ; we have borrowed of its lustre 
and of its love and of its purity. And so, taking this view, 
I don't feel very much embarrassed. 

I did not know I had lived so long till those little girls 
went slowly down the aisle, and I whispered to Mrs. 
Rounds, " That is lengthened sweetness long drawn out." 
Yet I never felt more chipper in my life. I never felt more 
as if I could "run through a troop and leap over a wall." 

You don't know how proud I felt when the Boys' Brigade 
came marching along with drum and flag and marshaled 
us over as a guard of honor all the way from Mrs. Carse's 
house. With all the hope and confidence that I have in 
the white-ribbon people nothing has more encouraged me 
than to know that these young folks are coming with their 
light steps — you know they don't use any liquor or bad 
words — and it makes an old lady glad to have them honor 
the cause and her. 

I like the light let in on Old Tammany by the Lexow 
committee ; I like the Civic Federation in Chicago ; I be- 
lieve that when good men are standing up and good women 
side by side with them to let in the Diogenes lantern turned 
to an electric light, on the saloons, gambling houses and 
other kindred abominations of our cities it is not a time to 
be disheartened. It is time to say, " God is moving among 
these dry bones. ' ' He sent upon us great calamities, strikes, 
financial troubles, but they gave us such a shaking up that 
we began to say, " Neighbor, where is your hand ? Let me 
get hold of it in an honest, sturdy clasp, and let us make all 
this different." And the people who care for home and for 
purity and righteousness are clasping hands in America 
to-day and all around the world as they have never done 
before. 

I had a letter this morning from a sweet woman who 
said, " What shall be the stimulating force in these degen- 
erate times? Shall it not be Christ ?" And I had another 
letter from a labor leader to whom I had written to ask 
what were the best books and papers to study that I might 
better understand the movement, and he wrote naming vari- 



LAST LABORS AND IN '/DENTS. 323 

cms books, papers and pamphlets. Bat he closed with the 
words: "Our great text-book is tin- New Testament!" 
Now when the hard hand of toil is turning over the pages 
of the New Testament, when the national flag floats over 
the school-house, when the Loyal Temperance music keeps 
time to the company's music of " saloons must go," I, as a 

Christian and a patriot, with a strong Sense upon me of re- 
newed health and the confidence and the affection of a great 
rallying host, believe we are going forth, we who represent 
all these saving influences, " fair as the moon, bright as the 

sun, terrible as an army with banners." Nothing has 
touched me more to-night with all the gracious words that 

have been uttered here than when these brothers sang, 

"Jubilee, Jubilee, Jubilee, come !" I said then in my heart, 

" By God's grace I'll help it come," and so will we all ! 

Mrs. Woodbridge left Chicago for Aberdeen, S. Dakota, 
September 6, 1X94, to deliver the annual address of the 
state convention. She spoke three times, and the news 
papers tell in the most glowing terms of her great triumph 
as an orator on those occasions. She returned to Chicago 
and gave herself with renewed energy to the arduous task 
of preparing for the coming convention at Cleveland. She 
left Chicago for Paducah, Ky. , September 30th, to deliver 
the annual address before the convention of that state. 
Returning to the office in Chicago, she again left Octo- 
ber 6, for Indianapolis to deliver the annual address before 
the convention of Indiana. 

She reached Cleveland the night of the 9th, attending 
the wedding of her granddaughter; spent the nth in 
Cleveland arranging with \Y. C. T. U. ladies for the Na- 
tional Convention, reaching her home in Ravenna, O., on 
the 1 2th. The day of the 15th was spent in visiting the 
Portage county infirmary and county jail as president of 
the board of charities and corrections, and presiding at a 
meeting of the board. She left her home for the last time 
at 6 p. m. that evening for Chicago, taking with her some 
fruit and flowers from her own grounds. 



324 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Again at work with all zeal in the office through the 
long days, and rising daily to study an hour or two before 
breakfast, as was her custom, in her Chicago University 
Extension course. Either the last or next to the last Sun- 
day night of her life she filled the pulpit of Millard avenue 
Congregational church. The house was packed to the 
walls on every side. On the last Saturday afternoon of her 
life she gave a supper to the scrub-women of the Temple, 
and sat down and ate with them, giving those humble but 
deserving women the benediction of the presence of her 
magnificent womanhood. 

The day before she was stricken with the death- angel 

she wrote the last letter to her beloved husband, closing 

with these words : 

There is a lull for a few minutes, of which I take advantage to 
write. Things go with a rush these days, and there seems hardly 
time to do anything but Convention work. We ate our last pears 
and grapes to-day, and they were good and tasted like home, and re- 
minded me of the love and blessings of the years. 

Your own faithful, loving 

Mary. 

Annual reports were slow in coming in from the officers 
of local unions to state officers, reports much needed by the 
general officers. The last known work from her brain and 
hand was an appeal for fidelity and promptness on the part 
of these local officers. It is full of her own spirit of consci- 
entious fidelity to duty, for Jesus' sake, as in the sight and 
for the glory of God. I give it to her sisters of the W. C. 
T. U. May this her dying message teach them all a needed 
and never-to-be-forgotten lesson. 

Mr. Woodbridge wrote to Miss Willard the following note: 

Dear Miss Whurd : — This is the last work done by Mary and 
the last you will ever receive from your ever true and loving friend. 
I found it on her table when I came here this morning. She was un- 
conscious when I arrived, and is slowly passing away. Can't write 
more at present. Your deeply afflicted friend, 

F. W. Woodbridge. 



LAST 1 ABORS AND tNCIDENTS. ;;-\s 

I [er appeal : 

Perhaps no point is so frequently made no plaint bo 
often heard, as of carelessness or indifference concerning 
reports. The Local union is the working force of the organ 
i/ation. Local unions are expected to report to superin- 
tendents of departments adopted by them and the work 
which they arc prosecuting ; and annually the state corre- 
sponding secretary sends her blank to each union, pleading 
for its year's record, from which B report for the National 
corresponding secretary may he collated. 

Greatly desiring that reports should be full and fully in 
time, blanks and requests for their filling were sent out 

from National headquarters. Superintendents made the 
Same effort to secure the record of work done in their de- 
partments ; but all have met the same difficulty. State 
Secretaries and superintendents have alike, in despair, sent 
incomplete reports or held them in partial preparation until 
their delay has been an embarrassment to the National soci- 
ety. And why? There is reason to fear there is great laxity 
among local unions in recording their work ; and often when 
called up there is nothing to ,u iv< j except from memory. 

We are a Christian organization, professedly organized 
for the blessing of humanity and the glory of God. We 
cannot think of Christ as simply living for Himself. Ik- 
lived for others ; and as His children we are to he His rep- 
resentatives, carefully fulfilling every duty as He obeyed 
the word of His Father. The coss was His emblem — a 
symbol of obedience and sacrifice. We can have no other ; 
and however small a duty may appear it is a test of our 
faithfulness as truly as is a larger thing. 

Will not all be more faithful in the performance of their 
duty in the time to come? It is impossible for one to do 
duty, to render service, except it is done, except it is ren- 
dered out of a heart that is full of faithfulness, that is 
brave and true — that is Christ-like. 

That word " Christ-like," was, so far as we know, the 
last word the dear hand ever wrote! That appeal to her sis- 
ters to be faithful in duty, brave, true and " Christ-like," 
was her last appeal. Could anything have been a more ap- 
propriate conclusion to the earthly labors of such a con- 
scientious, dutiful, "Christ-like " soul ? 



CHAPTER XXI. 

TRANSLATED. 

Lying a- dying 

Have done with vain sighing ; 

Life not lost but treasured, 

God Almighty pleasured, 

God's daughter fetched and carried, 

Christ's bride betrothed and married. 

— Christina G. Rossetti 

This near-at-hand land breeds pain by measure : 
That far-away land overflows with treasure 
Of heaped-up good pleasure. 

Our land that we see is befouled by evil, 

The land that we see not makes mirth and revel 

Far from death and devil. 

This land hath for music sobbing and sighing : 
That land hath soft speech and sweet soft replying 
Of all loves undying. 

This land hath for pastime errors and follies : 
That land hath uuendiug, unflagging solace 
Of full-chanted " Holies." 

Up and away, call the angels to us ; 

Come to our home where no foes pursue us, 

And no tears bedew us ; 

Where that which riseth sets again never ; 
Where that which springeth flows in a river 
For ever and ever ; 

Where harvest justifies labor of sowing ; 

Where that which buddeth comes to the blowing, 

vSweet beyond your knowing. 

 • • • • • • 

Crowns like our own crowns, robes for your wearing ; 
For love of you we kiss them in bearing, 
All good with you sharing : 

(326) 



TRANSLATL D .^7 

Over your gladdening, in your delighting ; 

Come from your famine, your failure, your fighting ; 

Come to full wrong-righting. 

Come-, where all balm la garnered to ease v<>u ; 
Come, whin- .ill beaut] is spread out t" please you ; 
Come, gaze upon J( 

— Christina G. RosseUi.* 

DID Mrs. Woodbridge have any foreshadowing or pre- 
sentiment of her sudden departure? We arc inclined 

to think it is probable. On her trip to or from Dakota in 
September she took a told that assumed the nature of 
la grippe. She felt lingering effects from it to the last. At 
the time of the marriage of her granddaughter, when alone 
with her daughter-in-law, she suddenly started from pain. 

She was asked about the cause of it. and replied. " I am 
having such pains frequently and am a little worried about 
it ; please do not tell Wells, as it might make him anxious 
about rue." 

She went from the office on her Last working day as 
usual, and carried her usual cheerfulness into the evening 
circle and finally bade a cheery good-night to all and re- 
tired to her room to be alone with her God. Probably 
then and there she penned the ringing call to duty that 
closes the previous chapter. And then came her parting 
communion with Cod. Did some pains traverse the weary 
body and remind her that she was mortal ? —telegraph 
along the line of the tired nerves that the end was Hear- 
ing ? Did a sense of weariness conn- on that lifted her 
thought like a prayer for heavenly rest? We may nut give 
positive answer to these queries. 



* Since the above wa* quoted for this chapter new. baa come to OS that Chris- 
tina G. RossettJ this Sweet mil '.i 1 e Mr-. Woodbridge, ijone 
to gaze upon Jesus. The tve brought I rowna like their own 
crowns, robes for their wearing, all good with them sharing." 



328 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

But among her books of devotion found on her table by 
Mr. Woodbridge when she was dying, was a volume of 
Frances Ridley Havergal's poems, with a leaf folded in to 
the poem, " A Lull in L,ife," as if recently read. It might 
well have voiced the prayer of her overworked nature for 
rest with her Beloved. 

A LULL IN LIFE. 

Oh, for "a desert place " with only the Master's smile ! 

Oh, for the "coming apart " with only His "rest awhile ! " 

Many are "coming and going " with busy and restless feet, 

And the soul is hungering now, with "no leisure so much as to eat." 

Dear is my wealth of love from many and valued friends, 
Best of the earthly gifts that a bounteous Father sends ; 
Pleasant the counsel sweet, and the interchange of thought ; 
Welcome the twilight hour, with musical brightness fraught. 

Dear is the work He gives in many a varied way, 
Little enough in itself, yet something for every day, — 
Something by pen for the distant, by hand or voice for the near, 
Whether to soothe or teach, whether to aid or cheer. 

Not that I lightly prize the treasure of valued friends, 
Not that I turn aside from the work the Master sends, 
Yet I have longed for a pause in the rush and whirl of time ; 
Longed for silence to fall, instead of its merriest chime ; 

Louged for a hush to group the harmonies of thought 
Round each melodious strain that the harp of life hath caught, 
And time for the fitful breeze ^Jolian chords to bring, 
Waking the music that slept, mute in the tensionless string ; 

Longed for a calm to let the circles die away 

That tremble over the heart, breaking the heavenly ray, 

And to leave its wavering mirror true to the star above, 

Brightened and stilled to its depths with the quiet of " perfect love ;" 

Longed for a Sabbath of life, a time of renewing of youth, 
For a full-orbed leisure to shine on the fountains of holy truth, 
And to fill my chalice anew with its waters fresh and sweet, 
While resting in silent love at the Master's glorious feet. 



TRANSLATED. 329. 

There are Bongs whicb only Bow in the loneliesl shades of night ; 
Their are Bowers tit it cannot grow in .1 bl ical li^m ; 

There arc crystals whicb cannot form till the vessel '• cooled and 

Btilled . 
Crystal, and flower, and song, given as God hath willed. 

There is work which cannot be done in th( of a hurrying I 

But my hand is not OD the helm to tmii my hark aside ; 

Yet I cast a longing 1 ye on the hidden and waveb 
Under the shadowing rock, currentless, clear, and cool. 

Well ! I will wait in the crowd till He shall call me apart, 

Till the silence fall which shall waken the mu mind and heart ; 

Patiently wait till He give the work of my secret cho 
Blending the son- of life with the thrill of the Master's voice. 

Well, while she was thus waiting for Him whom she 
loved supremely to call her apart, her heart full of a holy 
Longing to commune with Him mure intimately and rest 
at His feet, the Master came ! 

She had a chill Tuesday night, October 23. Wednes- 
day morning she did not go to the office. During the day 
it became evident that she was stricken with apoplexy. 
Messages were sent to the Temple, to Frances E. Willanl 
and to the devoted husband. He took the night train 
Chicago; and as it was rolling into the city he bought a 
morning paper and its leading headlines read, "A Noble 
Woman is Dying." He found her voiceless and uncon- 
scious. Her anointed lips had spoken their last love-mes- 
sage, offered their last prayer, and given their last testi- 
mony for Christ, and their last witness to the truth. 

As the sun was sinking Thursday, October 2s. 1^94, 
" The song of her life blended with the thrill of the Mis- 
ter's voice," bidding her welcome to her rest and her re- 
ward. She entered in, into the uncreated glories of His 
presence "whom not having seen she loved," and whom 
now seeing and standing in His presence, she rejoices 
" with joy unspeakable and full of glory." 



33° LIFE GF MAR Y A. WOODB RIDGE. 

When her friend and co-worker, Mary T. Lathrap, of 
Michigan, heard from her sick-bed that her great friend 
was stricken down, she said with a kind of holy joy : 
"Who knows but Mary Woodbridge and I will enter 
heaven arm in arm together?" She soon "followed that 
way," and the two great Marys of the W. C. T. U. are 
now together with their Lord. 

The reporters of the city papers and the messenger 
boys came in throngs to the residence of Mrs. Bigelow on 
Adams street where she died. The best people in the city 
were there to express their sympathy, offer their help and 
join in the universal sorrow. And the poor were there 
also, among the sincerest of the mourners. Canon Farrar 
once said : " Westminster Abbey has witnessed many glo- 
rious and pathetic spectacles ; but probably it never pre- 
sented an aspect so dear to angels and the King of angels 
as when the representatives of the sick, the suffering 
and the destitute — the alleviators of every form cf misery 
— were gathered under its high embowed roof to witness 
the funeral service in Lord Shaftesbury's honor. Jeremy 
Bentham wrote of his friend, John Howard, and it may 
be written even more truly of Lord Shaftesbury, ' For de- 
parted kings there are appointed honors ; and the wealthy 
have their appointed obsequies. It was his nobler fortune 
to clothe a nation with spontaneous mourning, and to go 
down to the grave followed by the benedictions of the 
poor.' " 

Such a tribute might be truly paid to Mrs. Woodbridge. 
There was no moral reformer or friend of the poor and dis- 
tressed that did not mourn her departure, and the bene- 
dictions of the poor followed her to her grave. A large 
company of them came in a body and stood on the side 
street and sent one of their number to ask Mr. Woodbridge 
if they might come in and look upon the dead face of her 
whom they had loved. They feared they might not be 



TRANSl ATI 

welcome where so many rich people were thronging. Mr. 
Woodbridge consented and they marched in and filled the 
room and shed their tears of unfeigned sorrow together. 
Nothing in all the tender ami melting services in Chics 
so touched the stricken husband's heart, and he cannot 

speak o!' it yet without tears. Another poor woman came 
alone and said in anguish, " I haw- found m> Other SUCfa 

friend in Chicago." "She heard the poor that cried and 

him that had none to help. The blessings of them that 
were ready to perish" fell upon her: she " caused the 
widow's heart to sing for joy." 

Request was made that her body might be permitted to 
lie in state in the Woman's Temple that the people might 

view the precious dust. The husband said, " Xo : it would 
not be like Mary ; all through life she shrank from any 
personal publicity or self-glorification, and now it must be 
as she would wish, could she speak." 

The Union Signal, Miss Margaret A. Sudduth, man- 
aging editor, gave the following account of the funeral and 
farewell services in Chicago and at Ravenna. 

HEAVENLY PROMOTION OF AN >THER LEADER. 

THE I. AST DAYS. 

Towards the close of one of the busiest days of the past 
busy week came a message to our office which was I 
startling to believe. The message was brief, with no in- 
troduction or alleviation in the telling — "Mrs. Woodbridge 
is dying ! " 

" What !" we exclaimed. Our minds refused to accept 
that statement, as instantly the previous day's happy hours 
and the unusually bright and active Labors of our National 
corresponding secretary were recalled. 

Tuesday, October 23, Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge was 
at her desk, or, intent upon her many arduous duties, was 
flitting in and out of the publishing offices in the best of 
health and the fullest of spirits. Seldom had we seen her 
in so joyous a frame of mind. Never could we have asso- 






332 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

dated sickness or death less with any being than with her 
on that day. She left at five o'clock, with a tender re- 
monstrance to a companion who insisted upon remaining 
a little longer to work. In the evening she accompanied 
her secretary to a lecture in a church near her residence, 
and returning to her home chatted merrily with Mrs. Bige- 
low, her hostess, till ten o'clock, when she retired. 

The next morning she did not come to the office, but no 
surprise was felt, for it was known that she always had 
reserve work at- home. Some proof requiring her personal 
attention was sent to her in the afternoon, and upon the 
return of the messenger the sorrowful news was learned. 

Mrs. Helen M. Barker, to whom the word first came, 
immediately canceled her engagement for the Missouri 
state convention, to which she had almost started, and 
went to her comrade's bedside, accompanied by several of 
our office force. But it was even then too late for recogni- 
tion or administration, for a consultation of eminent phy- 
sicians had already declared restoration to health or con- 
sciousness impossible, as paralysis had attacked the brain. 

It was then learned that at seven o'clock in the morn- 
ing Mrs. Woodbridge had asked for extra heat, as she was 
having a chill. Immediate attention was given her, and 
upon hearing that another chill had come in the night a 
physician was called. But all remedies proved ineffectual, 
and by ten o'clock the same morning complete paralysis 
prevailed, and the feeble breathing alone gave sign that 
the spirit still lingered. 

Through the long day and night and until evening of 
the second day, the painful watching and waiting contin- 
ued, the faithful white ribbon friends being reinforced by 
Mrs. Woodbridge' s devoted husband and one daughter, 
Mrs. Way, the other daughter, Mrs. Brooks, and the son, 
George, arriving three hours after their beloved mother had 
"passed on." 

At thirteen minutes past six on Thursday evening, Octo- 
ber 25, the beautiful spirit took its flight so peacefully and 
sweetly that it was difficult to tell when the end came. 

Telegrams were speedily sent to all the officers of the 
National and World's W. C. T. U. and to the many rela- 
tives. And when all was done that could be done, we en- 
deavored to comprehend the sad event, but so far it is 



TRANSLATED. 

ond all comprehension. Only the coming days and 

months can make it a reality, as the irreparable loss will be 
daily felt. 

THE FAREWELL SERVICE, 

Before the dust — so recently aglow with life — was borne 
to her Ohio home, her friends and co-workers gather* d 

around the silent form OH Friday afternoon to unite in a 
farewell service, —we can hardly say funeral, for that som- 
ber word seems all out of place. The first thing which met 

the eyes of those who entered the door of Mrs. Bigelow's 

home was the wreath of fresh green ivy fastened with pur- 
ple ribbon, and thoughts were turned to eternity and im- 
mortality rather than death. 

Dr. Goodwin of the First Congregational church, con- 
ducted the simple service, and the keynote of his words 
was life. He scarcely needed a text in that hour, for there 
in the ([iiiet room lay one whose eager steps had trod the 
Ways of "life, whose steadfast hands had SOUght to lessen 
the power of sin which is the Sting of death, and whose lips 
had borne abundant testimony of Him whom to know is 
life eternal. Thus his words were of one who had lived 
abundantly and were addressed to those who were yet to 
carry on the warfare against death. Never before had the 
listeners realized, perhaps, what a holy war is ours, as they 
did during that brief talk in which the speaker emphasized 
so strikingly the place the temperance cause holds in the 
church and in the world. Never before, it may be, had 
they realized the length and exceeding bitterness of the 
struggle, as when they looked with cleared vision back 
over the score of years during which Mrs. Woodbridge had 
not once laid her armor aside. Never before had the battle 
seemed so worth the fighting, the victor}- so assured. 
There may have been in the hearts of some in the presence 
of the dead a shrinking from the days to come without the 
counsel and comradeship that had been so strong and so 
sweet, but while the speaker's words fell npon their hearts 
they gathered courage, and even in her death their yoke- 
fellow had done them good. 

When Dr. Goodwin had finished speaking the friends 
gathered to look upon her face once more, while about 



334 LIFE OF MARY A. W00DBR1DGE. 

the head of the casket stood a group of honorary pall- 
bearers, who might well be called a guard of honor, — Mrs. 
Barker, Mrs. Rounds, Mrs. Carse, Mrs. Hobbs, Mrs. Grow 
and Mrs. Bigelow, all friends and comrades of Mrs. Wood- 
bridge. 

There was nothing unnatural in the scene, save, in- 
deed, the black color of the casket and the stillness of her 
who lay therein. All about were flowers — white flowers, 
" Congratulatory blossoms," as one called them later ; not 
a display of ornate designs, but just a wealth of bloom 
disposed as if for the reception of an honored guest. 
There was a Guest present, the one who overcame death. 

Softly upon her upturned face fell the light from above 
her resting place, and it seemed as if she were listening 
intently, and presently would look up and answer in her 
own bright, winsome way. No death-pallor, no decay, no 
lines of pain ; just peace, rest, satisfaction, majesty — over- 
comingness ! Her friends looked — it would not have been 
strange had they spoken to her — and passed on comforted. 

Then, a little later, that inner circle of the bereaved, 
husband and children, came to sit with her awhile, — for it 
seemed still that she was not away. It was only in har- 
mony with the dominant keynote — life — that there should 
be no despair, no rebellion in their words. Tears were 
there, but tears lie deep where joy dwells, and smiles lit 
up the clouds. It was all as Mrs. Woodbridge would have 
wished. 

Later in the afternoon those employes of the W. T. P. 
A., whose inexorable duties had not permitted them to 
attend the service, went to bid her their temporary fare- 
wells, and to them her triumphant repose spoke eloquently 
against the " king of terrors." To one and all her going 
has been but the completion of what was her living — a 
benediction — a speaking unto good. 

THE HOME FUNERAL. 

The spacious home in Ravenna, O., was filled to over- 
flowing, Monday afternoon, Oct. 29, large numbers stand- 
ing patiently outside during the entire service. The rela- 
tives present were the husband, Mr. F. W. Woodbridge, the 
two daughters, Mrs. Way and Mrs. Dr. Brooks and son, of 



TRANSL. 335 

Cleveland, the only son, l . his wife and little b 

Fred, two granddaughtei b Way II ind An 

Way, Mrs. Woodbridge's brother, Mi G >rge Brayton, 
and two brothers and a sister oi Mr. Woodbrid 

There was a remarkable delegation of seventy-six white- 
ribboners, representing every union in Port ounty, 

Ohio. Mrs. Perkins, Mrs. Oviatt, Mrs. Terrell and Mrs. 
Stevens represented the Federated W. C. T. Unions 
Cleveland, (>. Francis Murphy, Mr. L^ogan, and other dis- 
tinguished people were present. 

Flowers in great profusion attested the fact that many 

loving friends had sent them as tokens of their love and 
esteem. Underlie. ith the casket was a carpet of ferns and 
flowers, while the wall back of the casket \va 1 with 

white cloth, literally covered with cut flow:s and sprays 
of ivy. Upon the casket stood the tribute of the V. 
W. C. T. U., a large globe of roses and chrysanthemums 
belted with white ribbon. The card attached bore tl 
words: "In tender memory of our beloved friend and co- 
worker, Mary A. Woodbridge. Fr< m the General l 
of the World's W. C. T. U. ' Allured to brighter worlds 
and led the way.' " Upon the casket also lay a large 
double bow of roses white, the badge of our society, the 
gift of the National W. C. T. U. Upon the mantel at the 
head of the casket stood a beautiful Maltese cross of white 
roses sent with a lovin e by the 'Royal Helpei 

Circle of King's Daughters ofW. T. P. A." A most lovely 
design was sent by the W. T. P. A. A pen of purple flowers 
was embedded in a large open book of blossoms white, 
and the word " Finis " showed the book finished and the pen 
laid down. A vacant chair was another beautiful desi 
a tribute from the Ohio Pr.ohibitionistS. Her children 
gave a pillow, with " Mother" in dark letters amid a pro- 
fusion of white. A wreath of roses from Lady Henry 
Somerset bore this message : "A token of loving remem- 
brance to our promoted comrade from her sisters a< i 
the sea." Mrs. Whitelaw sent a wreath of callas and smi- 
lax. A sheaf of wheat spoke of a ripened life, and w 
token sent by Mrs. Grow. A floral offering from the Fed- 
erated unions of Cleveland was also received, and cut 
flowers from a host of loving friends made the parlor iu 
which she lay one of purity and brightness. 



33& LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

The choir sang the two favorite hymns of Mrs. Wood- 
bridge, " Lead, Kindly Light," and "Abide With Me." 

Rev. A. M. Hills, for many years pastor of the Ravenna 
Congregational church, of which Mrs. Woodbridge was 
long a member, officiated at the services, reading the Scrip- 
tures, offering prayer and speaking eloquently of Mrs. 
Woodbridge's beautiful and consecrated life in its different 
stages of unfolding. Mr. Hills spoke of the special Provi- 
dences that had shaped her life, of her devotion, not only 
to her church and temperance work, but to her family and 
friends. As a wife and a mother no criticism could pos- 
sibly be made, for to husband and children her life's best 
was given till they no longer needed her entire care. 
Special mention was made, too, of Mr. Woodbridge's devo- 
tion to his wife and her work. 

Mr. Hills read a beautiful letter from Miss Willard, of 
which we can give only a part : 

"Unbind the armor, her long day's work is done." How faith- 
fully and well she did it let the records of the white ribbon move- 
ment in this and in all lands attest ; for she was our gracious, vigi- 
lant and swift ambassador who, at the pen's point, carried victory 
everywhere that her strong, sisterly words penetrated, informed as 
thej* all and always were, by a personality of rich endowment in in- 
tellectual attributes, moral worth and religious enthusiasm. 

Mary A. Woodbridge will always be a radiant name in our white- 
ribbon annals from the day of the Crusade to that " coming of age " 
for which she was preparing with her unequaled grasp of the situa- 
tion and skill in the handling of details. Her benignant presence 
will be incalculably missed and mourned at the coming convention 
in Cleveland, and her clear, womanly voice, with its deep tones, will 
be listened for instinctively by thousands who had known and loved 
it long. 

Miss Anna Gordon read the following most tender and 
fitting tribute in behalf of the World's W. C. T. U., and 
as the representative of Miss Willard : 

She lies here in her dear old "home, sweet home" 
about which she never tired of talking, the flowers of which 
she was so fond are all about her, the trees her .hildish 
hands helped to plant will overshadow her casket as she 
is borne away by tender, loving hands from the home of 
her youth. She lies here with her nearest and dearest 
close around her, but we have not lost her either from this 



TRANSLATE 337 

home or from the Woman's Christian Temp 

she loved so well and served with such devotion, 

"God Isouj home and in that state 

We cannot bo I 

As not to make the distance n 

And Lnow the loved are always here." 

For twenty years that busy brain, that loving, sympa- 
thetic heart, that diligenl hand, that strong personality 
have been felt in cur work, and by voice and pea with 
steadfast love, with untirii i d she has helped to make 

it true that 

"All round tin- world the ribbon white is twii 
All round | 1 tin- light ol God has Bhined, 

All round tin.- world oui i iuse lias right of v, 
We'll take the world f<>r Christ's own kingdom — 
Some glad day." 

The last time I was in her office at the Temple, replies 
had been coming in to letters asking if there were any 
names in the official ranks of the states t<> he remembered 
in a memorial service at our coming convention in Cleve- 
land. A bundle of postal cards lay upon her desk and 
taking them up one after another with such a bright, ha] 
face, she read them over rapidly, saying as she clos 
"There, isn't that beautiful — no loss in our official ranks — 
no names to report, we shall not need a memorial service 
at all, but ought to have a praise meeting instead." And 
could she speak to US now, dear friends, she would still 
say, " Let it be a praise meeting," so strong a keynote in 
her life was praise to God. " She has fought a good 
she has kept the faith," and can you not see her rad; 
face as she hears the welcome words, "Well done, good 
and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.'" 
Her brave, strong, joyous spirit will evermore inform our 
efforts in the cause so dear to her. We shall seek to foil 
her as she followed Christ, and in looking for the last time- 
on the beloved face of our precious, our promoted comrade. 
we cannot say, " good-night," but in some brighter clime 
we'll bid her " good-morning." 

Mrs. L. M. X. Stevens, who for fourteen years had been 
most closely associated with Mrs. Woodbridge officially, 
spoke with great feeling and with broken voice of the work 



338 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

of our promoted comrade. She referred touchingly to a let- 
ter she had received the last day Mrs. Woodbridge was in 
the office, in which she told of the bright prospect for a 
most successful convention in Cleveland, closing with the 
words, " Praise the Lord." 

Mrs. Helen M. Barker made most appropriate closing 
remarks, referring especially to her work during the last 
year while they had been in the office together, and testi- 
fied to her faithful, loving service, not only in her official 
capacity, but in missionary work in the city, and urged the 
women present to labor for the cause that she loved. 

After the friends had taken an affectionate farewell and 
the casket was closed, a white draper}' completely covered 
with ferns and roses was laid over it, entirely hiding its 
sombre black. It was then borne gently down the long 
walk shaded by grand and graceful trees which she had 
assisted her father in planting when she was a little girl. 
A long line of carriages filled with sincere mourners fol- 
lowed the silent form of our loved one to the beautiful 
cemetery one mile away from her home. Here she was 
lovingly laid to rest. 

In many cities and towns there were held memorial ser- 
vices at the same hour of the funeral services in Ravenna. 
The following is the account of the service in Chicago, as 
recorded in The U)iio?i Signal: 

THE MEMORIAM MEETING. 

A stranger finding himself in Willard Hall at two 
o'clock on Monday afternoon, the same hour of the home 
funeral at Ravenna, Ohio, would have observed nothing to 
indicate that a memorial sen-ice was about to be held for 
one whose name was loved and revered all around the 
world. There was nothing funereal in the aspect of the 
beautiful little auditorium, none of the trappings of woe 
upon pillar or platform, no suggestion of gloom, or of the 
doleful soundings of the tomb. Magnificent white chrys- 
anthemums adorned the speaker's desk and mingled with 
fern leaves surrounding a picture of Mrs. Woodbridge, 
which stood on a table at one side. 

Notwithstanding the unfavorable weather, the hall was 
filled with those eager to honor the memory of the loved 



\NSLATl 

friend and comrade so suddenly lost. The \V. C. T. U. and 
the W. T. P. A. occupied scats specially i ?ed for th< 

Mrs. Clara C. Hoffman conducted the service, and a 
a quartet had feelingly sung, "We would sus," she 

said that we were not there to sing a dirge, but to realize 
that " rest is raptun 

The Rev. II. A. Delano, a lifelong friend i Wood- 

bridge, read part of the second chapter of Ruth, the twenty- 
third Psalm and the fourteenth chapter of St. John. 
"Ohio," lie said, "was to-day weeping, not i- : any of her 
gifted sons, but for a gifted daughter. It was just like 
Mary Woodbridge I iway in the quiet, matter-of-fact 

manner she did. She had lived to see woman's faith and 
love — of which her own sturdy, indomitable life was a fit 
exemplar — belt the globe." He then offered prayer, and 
the quartet sang " Lead, Kindly Light." 

Mrs. Hoffman, in presenting Mrs. Carse, "comrade of 
Mrs. Woodbridge from the beginning," remarked that we 
were "too Christian, too scientific, too sensible, in tl: 
days to mourn as they which have no hope." " But after 
all," said Mrs. Carse, " our hearts are very tender, and He 
who wept allows us also to weep over the bier of OUT loved 
ones. We rejoice that a wide door has been opened for 
them, but we are still amid, and of the mists and shadows." 

A more recent friend of our beloved was then intro- 
duced, Miss Frances Griffin, formerly of Alabama, now of 
Chicago: " Our society," she said, "was often referred to 
as a 'mutual admiration society,' the lesser, it was said, 
giving undue worship to the few great ones. God sifted 
the nation for workers, and it is not to be wondered at 
that we should admire those God-appointed, Cod-selected 
women." Brought up as she (Miss Griffin | was in an 
atmosphere of conservatism, Mrs. Woodbridge was one 
of the first public women to draw her attention, at once 
by reason of her wonderful voice and her womanlim 

Mrs. Katharine Lente Stevenson was the next to pay 
loving tribute to the departed one. She was impressed 
most, she said, during her year's association with Mrs. 
Woodbridge by the all-roundness of her character— one 
so symmetrically developed. She did so many things ex- 
ceptionally well. How well she could speak all know. 
"I cultivated my voice for my mother's sake: she was 



34° LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

deaf for many years," she said once, when this valuable 
possession of hers was commented upon. This fact of 
itself was a wonderful index to her character. At the 
height of her power God called her to a better service 
beyond. Her nature was a remarkable combination of 
greatness and gentleness. 

The Rev. Frances Townsley, of Nebraska, spoke of 
:< our Mary " as a woman who "had time to be friendly." 
" Said a friend on our way to this meeting, « We shall find 
the Temple draped in black,' and I was considering the 
propriety of tying a black ribbon in with the white, but 
we saw no badges of mourning — not even on the eleventh 
floor, only white flowers everywhere, even on her own desk 
— congratulatory blossoms. We are here to give her joy ! " 
The speaker referred lovingly to incidents in her friend- 
ship with Mrs. Woodbridge, first in Nebraska, later in 
Chicago. Her last words to her a few days ago were, " I 
will meet you at the Willard Hall prayer-meeting." We 
shall meet her soon in a praise meeting ! 

"Morning Laud" was here beautifully sung by Miss 
Addie Austin and Mr. Shaffner. 

Mrs. Hoffman closed the service with a brief and affec- 
tionate tribute to Mrs. Woodbridge as corresponding sec- 
retary of the National W. C. T. U. 

After the choir had exquisitely rendered a beautiful 

'Good-night" song, the benediction was pronounced by 

Rev. Frances Townsley, and the audience dispersed with 

a quiet joy in their hearts, despite the deep sense of loss 

that is just beginning to be realized. 

As has already been indicated, Mrs. Woodbridge had 
arranged a praise service in the program of the annual 
convention that met in Cleveland two weeks after she died, 
to take the place of the usual memorial service, because no 
National or state leader had died during the year. Alas ! 
little did she or others think that it would be the saddest 
National convention of W. C. T. U. women ever assembled, 
because she, who stood next to the head in the great coun- 
cil of leaders, would be promoted to the skies ! 

During the sessions these beautiful allusions were made 
to the sainted dead : 



TRANSLATED. 34 > 

Preceding the ,r and delegates by 

L- M- N. Stevens, MissWillard said most tenderly : 

" A.nd, oh, for the touch of a vanished hand and the 
sound of a voire that is still. 1 For fifteen years when we 
came to the next item of the program, that gra< ions, ma- 
tronly, motherly presence was just here, ready, che i 
smiling, resourceful. How she did look forward to this 

time ; how she worked for it ; how happy she was over 
it! I used to get a letter from her every day and some- 
times two and sometimes three, and no expression 
more frequent on her lips than the one that is most fre- 
quent in the Crusade Psalm, ' Praise the Lord.' She would 
tell me that such a woman was going to come ; sin- would 
tell me that such a plan we had made to enrich the Con- 
vention had promised completion ; she would tell me how 
earnestly and capably the women were working in Cleve- 
land, and then she would put at the end of the sentence, 
' Praise the Lord.' She is not with us to-day. 

"Our Mary Woodbridge. There is her genial pictured 
face, and those sweet emblems of nature (the wreath over 
her picture i were first planted by her hand, the ivy and 
the myrtle from her home not far from here, brought by 
loved ones nearest her at our request, that something of 
the old life and the old happy times might hind us to that 
honored friend. I can hut think she is with us in spirit. 
You know it says in the old hymn, ' unperceived they mix 
with the throng.' There is a great W. C. T. U. that has 
passed up into heaven. It can hut he they know about ns 
and are glad." 

In Miss Willard's annual address occurred the following 
touching passages : 

IN MEMORIAM. 

And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto 
them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven 
in a cloud. — Rev. 1:12. 



342 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

It has been admirably said that " Death is the sover- 
eign alchemist who assays the value of the coin struck in 
the mint of life." 

Such a valuation we were called to put upon the life 
and character of the second officer in our National society 
when, by a stroke that bewildered our eyes and smote our 
hearts, Mary A. Woodbridge was removed beyond the mys- 
tic boundaries of the life that is. " All narrow jealousies 
are silent now, and we see her as she moved — how kindly, 
modest, all accomplished, wise, with what serene repres- 
sion of herself bearing through the long tract of years 
the white flower of a blameless life." She was here with 
us at the first National Convention, coming from her sweet 
and happy home in Ravenna, less than forty miles away ; 
for she was one of the original Crusaders, her eloquent lips 
having been first unsealed by the touch of that Pentecostal 
baptism. She is the first of our National officers whom we 
have lost in all these years. 

Her executive ability was of the highest order, and her 
patience and power in the mastery of detail were unsur- 
passed. With all this she had absolutely none of the self- 
consciousness that so often mars the symmetry of a great 
nature upon the heights of success. In the stress of these 
working years most of us have been too serious, and it was 
a perpetual refreshment to note the smile, and hear the 
ringing laugh that accompanied the perpetual witticisms 
and drolleries of recital and commentary that brightened 
all our intercourse with this genial comrade ; but her light- 
ning did not strike, it was the shimmer on the summer 
cloud. 

But twenty-one years from now most of us will be gone 

"Past night, past day, 
Over the hills and far away." 

The good gray heads that all good women know, of 
Mother Thompson, Mother Stewart, Mother Wallace, will 
have been laid under the clods of the valley. Some of us 
will hear the bugles of immortality summoning us away 
while we are struggling in the thick of the fight, even as 
our brave Mary Woodbridge heard them, but to most of us 
the call will be less sudden, and we may have to rust out 
the strength she was so happy as to wear out. So intense 



\NSL< . . 343 

has been the pressure in these formative years i 
mightiest movement to which women have 
called, that we who are veterans have lived already 
beyond the appointed span, having mortgaged our future 

and discounted our Stock Of notes mi the hank of constitu- 
tion. "Our company before has gone," and we move 

forward often with weary steps, but always with the same 

tender love and unconquerable faith. ' N'<>t as though we 

had attained" shall we pass onward, hut by God's 

we shall have "fought a good fight," and when we have 

" finished our course" the best outcome of our live- will 
not have been the building up in systematic fashion of the 
fair edifice of woman's work for temperance, for home pro- 
tection, and for purity, although the world may e 
hut it will he that by word and deed, and nm^t of ail by 

character, we tried to follow the Gospel's gleam along the 
hills of hope and to help prepare the way for the coming 

of our Lord in custom and in law; it will he that we tried 
to teach and live a consecrated Christian life. To the 
young women in school and colh ge to whom we are look- 
ing to gather the bright web of the white ribbon work 
out of our weary and erelong nerveless hands, and to ex- 
tend ami brighten its already radiant fahric, I would in 
your name send forth a trumpet call ; I would hid them 
haste to the rescue ; I would call upon them I ise the 

pessimism that among the cultured so largely character- 
izes the closing up of the present century, and to saturate 
their thinking with the optimism of Christianity. I speak 
for you, the " mothers of us all:" for you. Crusaders, stal- 
wart, invincible; for you, Neal Dow, father of Prohibition, 
with that shining face and fearless forehead so long pa- 
tiently uplifted to receive the handwriting of Time. In 
the words of the Christian heroes who stood hefore the 
Roman Emperor at the gladiatorial games, I say to j 
young women, for these veteran reformers. "We who arc- 
about to die salute you. " 

In the afternoon set apart for the memorial service V 
Willard asked Mrs. Hoffman to read one of the sweet 
verses from Mary T. Lathrap that had given a refrain to 
the thoughts of all. 



344 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

" Ah ! comrades, we stand in the silence 

Homesick for a day ; 
But how can our anguish be bitter ? 

We follow that way. 
Let us lift up our hearts, our beloved, 

Love on as of yore ; 
Who knows but in stress of the battle 

She hastes to the fore ? 
Then, onward, ye brave ; to the duty, 
Not far, with the King in His beauty, 

We greet her once more." 

Following the reading of this poem, Miss Willard led 
in prayer as follows : 

"Our blessed heavenly Father, we believe in Thee; we believe 
that Thou hast made us for Thyself, and Thou inhabitest eternity. 
Time is not great enough for Thee, and so it is not great enough for 
us. We bless Thee that we have always believed that this is just an 
island of a world where we have cast anchor for a little time, but we 
are bound for the Continent of Immortality. We bless Thee, though 
we did not always, for the cables Thou hast thrown across to bind us 
nearer to that great invisible world of souls. We bless Thee, our 
heavenly Father, that tears make the heart mellow and anoint the 
eye so that we can see the land that seemed far off; and it comes 
nearer to us as we go nearer to it. We bless Thee at the thought so 
dear and cherished in every heart to-day that the beloved companion 
who has been with us always in these great feasts of tabernacles hith- 
erto, that she whom we have come to remember and to speak about, 
knows that we are here ; that she is glad, and not sorrowful ; and so 
should we be glad, even these her best beloved, whose hearts beat so 
close to her own and who were enclosed with her in one home sanc- 
tuary. We thank Thee that we see in them that token of the divine 
Spirit's indwelling, that they tell us with a smile on the lip and a 
tear in the eye that she does not seem far off. 

Dear Heavenly Father, we know that when Thou didst send us 
Christ to show us what Thy heart was like and to bring us back to 
Thee, He used to say, "If it were not so I would have told you," 
and He always took immortality as the central cardinal truth of all 
worlds. We know that immortality has been loved by the great and 
gentle, and has been clung to even when they doubted, and perhaps 
there are even here to-day true and kindly souls who doubt, and yet 
who love and reach out the trembling hand, and would fain see and 



IXS/.I/; 345 

know and love ; and we know that they an- dear to Thee, and that 
th"\ shall see and know and love. 

We thank Thee for all that we have lost. We did not aW 
But now we t more grateful to Thee for anything than that 

they have Bwept on into [mmortality, those great kind souls that 
made life rich to us in our own households in the sweet and sat 
circle of our comradeship among the great illumined natures that 
have taught, guided and helped us by their > indtheii 

We pray Thee that every one here this day may feel that this is an 

illumined hour, that this is a holy and blessed time when we may 
reverently think of those who are onr promoted eon.- rhen we 

may reverently call the roll of those who are on the roll of honor 
now. 

Comfort the heart of our dear brother and those dear daughters 

and that son, and all the loved relatives of Mary Woodbridge, and 
may the sense they have of Our love to them, the sense they have of 

that close entwining sympathy with which we have turned onr hi 

to them, be a consolation to them, and may Thy Spirit give them 

visions of the immortal hills of God. Help < of ns highly to 

resolve, and with a holy purpose, that we will cling steadfastly to 
Thee ; that we will hold to and illustrate that heavenly faith which 
presses to that which is within I : and Bays in its soul, " Beyond 

the smiling and the weeping we shall he soon" in the better conn- 
try, in the sweet summer land i  and purit; 
each ami every one of us, that it is only by character that allies with 
the white light of God that we shall evei -.ell in that 
light. Help us each one to be so transformed in the spirit of our 
minds that we shall prove and know what is that g od and perfect 
and acceptable will of (rod, and as we love each other here, may it 
be the sweetest part of our comforts and associations that we shall 
together soon in the country, the sweet home of the soul; 
do not suffer us t > cherish now- any thought that will he unwelcome 
when we recall it on the mountain top of the tram I life in 
heaven. So melt all our hearts into unity and charily and tender- 
ness, and make us as little children before Thee, and bring us each, 
we pray Thee, into that unity that gives the bond of peace. 

We know that tender, great heart is with us, is thinking and not- 
ing the hour and noting the time, she whose clear voice has so often 
winsomely lifted us up into the mount of vision. We bless Thee for 
the faith her childhood knew, the faith that has been her bright 
armor in all these laborious vears. 



346 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

God bless our Mary Lathrap here among us still, as Thou hast 
blessed our Mary Woodbridge who swiftly and painlessly passed to 
the better country, and bring us along gently in thine own good 
time and way ; give us a peaceful hour, if it please Thee, in which to 
die, and bring us to those holy reunions with those whom we have 
loved and lost, while through riches of grace in Christ Jesus, who 
taught us when we pray to say, 

Our father which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy 
kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven. Give 
us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive 
our debtors. And lead us not iuto temptation, but deliver us from 
evil ; For thine is the kingdom and the power, and the glory, 
forever. Amen. 

Mrs. Helen M. Bullock, who had charge of the memo- 
rial exercises, said : 

' ' I shall never forget her kind and encouraging words 
to me when I first came into this work and was a stranger 
to nearly all of you. I shall never cease to thank God for 
her sympathy and her helpfulness all the way along, and 
now, dear friends, if she was so much to me who had 
known her for these few years, how much more must she 
be to those of you who have known her longer and more 
intimately, whose privilege it has been to be with her in all 
these years of her work. And so I am going to ask her 
own state president, Mrs. Henrietta Monroe, to say a few 
words to you in regard to her life and her work." 

Mrs. Monroe : 

Mary A. Woodbridge was a woman admired, honored 
and loved, so that to-day her memory is enshrined in the 
heart of every Ohio woman. She was one of Ohio's most 
gifted women. She was the brilliant president of the Ohio 
union for five years ; she was the peerless leader of the 
second amendment campaign, sitting here in the city of 
Cleveland, speaking words which vibrated throughout this 
whole state. She was the faithful recording secretary of 
the National W. C. T. U. for fifteen years ; last year she 
was promoted to the second place in the coterie of the 
general officers, but there was higher promotion for her 
before her year of service had closed. 



TRANSLAT1 347 

We were to have w< tned her to this city by the lake, 
but she has been welcomed t<> the heavenly city, the city 
by the golden sea, whose pearly gates op ned wide to re- 
ceive her. We were to have welcomed hei with word 
love, but she has heard the welcome plaudit, " Well done, 
good ami faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy 

I 1." BlOSSOmS, these beautiful flowers, which she loved 

so well, were to have breathed a welcome to her, but I 

she walks in green pastures and by Still waters in the land 
of immortal bloom where leal fades not and the flower 

never withers. She was to be welcomed l>v the voice of 

SOng, but hark ! ten thousand harps and \ have wel- 

comed her to her heavenly home. She was to have been 
welcomed to this beautiful house and to this great audience, 
but she has been welcomed into mansions above, and her 

npany is to-day an innumerable company of angels, and 
she is beholding the glories which our eyes have not seen 
nor our ears heard, nor hath it entered into our hearts to 
conceive the blessedness which awaits her. 

There is one less here ; the charmed circle has been 
broken, the dear face that we have missed from its accus- 
tomed place is saved and cleansed and purified by 
There is one more in heaven. To her our voice of welcome 
is hushed and to her the farewell word is forever n. 

Mr>. Stevens read the following on behalf of Mr. 

Woodbridg 

While my lips refuse to speak my heart urges me to 
tender a word of heartfelt thanks to the dear sister of the 
W. C. T. U., who have so kindly by word and deed em- 
phasized their affection for my wife, dear beloved Mary. 
Their tender sympathy for her family comes to us all as a 
silver lining to the dark cloud overshadowing our now 
olate home. I wish to express my undying interest in the 
cause Mary loved so well and served so faithfully, ami I 
am ever Your bereaved and trusting brother, 

V- . W. WOODBRIDGB. 

We will close this chapter with submissive and hopeful 
hearts, praying, "Thy will be done on earth as it is in 
heaven." We will not think o{ her as dead, but as living 
the real life, transfigured ami rifled. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

TRIBUTES OF HER W. C. T. U. SISTERS AND HER CO- 
LABORERS IX MORAL REFORM. 

Dear Brother Woodbridge : — You used to say : 

" I wait for thee ! " I said it in my dreaming, 
Then fell a hush beyond the hush of night ; 
And, fairer far than southern waters gleaming 
A Presence passed in soft celestial light. 
Then calm and sweet and clear 

A spirit voice came singing, 
Far, far away, yet near, 

Like star-bells' crystal ringing, 
Oh, well my own heart knew 
That voice so clear and true — 
"I wait for thee !" 

Now you may say with tearful hope : 

" She waits for me ! " I said it in my weeping, 
For never more she cometh o'er the sea ; 
She waits for me ! A glorious vigil keeping 
Beyond the stars, she waiteth there for me. 
And now I wait awhile 

Beneath the shade-trees lonely, 
And learn once more to smile, 
For she hath gladness only 
Beside the Crystal Sea, 
Until the shadows flee 
" She waits for me!" 

— Frances Ridley Havergal. 

IT might be thought that perhaps the author, having 
long been a pastor and personal friend of Mrs. Wood- 
bridge, had an exaggerated estimate of her character, abil- 
ity and life work. It might be reasonably feared by some 

(348) 



TRIBUTES FROM FRIENDS. 

that his picture of her personality, achievements and influ- 
ence would be somewhat rose-colored. Hut so confident 
was he of the accuracy of his estimate of her worth and 
her place among the leaders of the foremost reform move- 
ment of the century that he sou-ht an independent esti- 
mate of her from her great comrades. All responded hut 
dear Mary T. Lathrap, who was too near death's door to 
write. 

These several tributes are well worth the most careful 

reading. Theyreveal the deep impression she made upon 

the most widely different minds. They are no less remark- 
able for their variety of testimony than for their unanimity 
of judgment that as a woman, a leader, a thinker, an orator 
and a reformer of world-wide influence, she w tt even 

among the greatest of our time. 

TRIBUTE OF EX-SENATOR BLAIR. 

Washington, D. C, March 6, 1895. 

My DEAR SIR : — During the first fifteen years of the 
existence of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
I met Mrs. Woodbridge on several important occasions, and 
also had the honor of considerable correspondence with her 
upon the work of the great department with which she was 
entrusted. She was one of the ablest and most devoted of 
that wonderful body of women who have developed, and 
have been developed by the most extraordinary intellectual, 
moral and religious, social and political movement going on 
among the women of our time. 

Her mind was cool, clear and profound, exhibiting in all 
its operations great delicacy and strength, so that no task, 
whether requiring tact or vigor, or both these qualities, 
seemed beyond her powers. 

She was a threat organizer and an indefatigable worker, 
who had the rare gift of so directing effort as t<> waste noth- 
ing and to accomplish the most possible with the least 
expenditure of energy. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is an insti- 
tution of far wider scope than its name indicates. It takes 
in almost every form of activity, and directs its efforts 



350 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

against everything that injures in promotion of everything 
that blesses humanity. 

Whoever looks over its various departments and com- 
pares this organization as a whole with any other now on 
earth or known to history, will be mute with astonishment 
at what these women have wrought, if, indeed, it be they 
who have wrought it. What they are yet to do no mortal 
can fully conceive, but certainly these women have taken 
the world. 

It is not probable that they themselves realized what 
they were doing while it was being done ; and indeed they 
are even now but just beginning. In all these earlier days 
of marking the outlines, laying foundations and adapting 
the great machine to the work of saving th© human race, 
and so forward unto the day of her death, Mrs. Woodbridge 
was a leader of leaders, and her name will always survive 
among the apostles and martyrs of her generation who have 
suffered and died for mankind. 

Henry W. Blair. 

New Hampshire. 

TRIBUTE OP MOTHER THOMPSON. 

The well rounded life and character of dear Maty A. 
Woodbridge is an object lesson for all to study. Hers 
was a symmetrical character, so strong and helpful, and 
yet so womanly and gentle, inviting all who were associ- 
ated with her to ' ' rest fulness ' ' which comes to the heart 
in the presence of such a "tower of strength" ! As 
daughter, wife, mother, co-worker and friend, in any de- 
partment of toil she was sufficient, and those who knew it 
best, will ever " rise up and call her blessed." 

Our dear friend was wonderfully endowed with that 
quick perception, so available in making fast friends. She 
always struck the keynote of the heart, and the music that 
followed was a consequence. During her brief visit to our 
town on temperance missions, we were privileged to claim 
her as our guest, and never can we forget the pleasure of 
those occasions. Her beautiful method in life, told even 
as a guest, her gracious, kindly appreciation of every 
trifling attention, and her cheerful acquiescence in all our 
plans for her usefulness, as well as her evident zeal and 



TRIBUTES FROM FRll NDS. 

pleasure in her work, I have never known surpassed. In- 
deed, our de.ir departed was ;i noble nd an < >rna- 
ment to womanhood. Oh I how we miss her everywhei 

But God claims His own, and ever and anon 
I . 
Then let us, her co-workers in the field that 

"white to the harvest," strive to learn from her beautiful 
life the diligence that bright) i skylight of the soul ; 

for in some "Sweet Daj " the same heavenly messes 

will come lor us. Then shall we meet 

 Tho 
Which we have loved long Bince and 

Eliza J. Thomps< »n. 
HUlsboro, O. 

FKom Tin: GENERAL SECRET >F Tin-: V. W. C. T. U. 

Wi itteu ir 'in • 

While traveling amid strange sights and sounds I have 
not forgotten the loss we all .sustained when dear Mary 
Woodbridge was called from works to rewards. 

We know that eulogies do not always give a suitable 
portrayal of character, and J know that much has been 
told by others; hut I wan; ' ; my testimony to the rare 

combination of Christian -races which was centered in her 
personality. She was ^,> sweet in spirit, so dignified and 
quiet, so happy and hopeful, so gracious and kind, that as 
I look hack I cannot remember ever to hav' ryed a fail- 

ure to meet any occasion great or small. 

I am still gn time and strength to inter- 
esting young people in our cause. We need them to take 
Up the work these revered comrades have bequeathed, and 
I can only pray and trust other faithful oiks may heed the 
call and, as Miss Willard has said, " follow the gleam." 

Fkancks J. Barn: 

FROM MRS. MATTTK MC CI  BROWI CINCINNATI. 

Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge was one of the r. Bfect- 

ive officers in the National Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union. She was a woman of broad views and com- 



352 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

prehensive judgment. Hence her value as an executh r e 
officer was inestimable. As a speaker she was clear, calm, 
deliberate and convincing. She was more intellectual than 
sentimental or electrical, depending wholly upon the con- 
viction of the judgment for results in her work. She was 
so diligent that she gathered very large fruitage for her 
labors before the public, whether speaking to secure mem- 
bers to her cause, or money for its treasury, or voters for 
her party. Her advocacy of any measure which she 
adopted was a guarantee of its success wherever she plead 
its cause. 

Having been born in Nantucket, Mass., of Quaker par- 
entage, she seemed to have carried through life the strong 
coast lines of eternal principles in her character ; the wide- 
open outlook over vast interests of the future ; a quiet spirit 
of" trust in the infinite, and a birthright belief in the per- 
fect equality of womanhood, with the greatest of manhood. 

PROM JOSEPH COOK, OF BOSTON. 

The beauty of character displayed in Mrs. Woodbridge's 
alert and inspiring life floated through the wide field of the 
W. C. T. U. as an aroma, giving the most priceless refresh- 
ment to all who breathed it. In many states of the Re- 
public I have met the sweet savor of her good name. 
She lived in the light of the Sun, behind the Sun, and we 
can think of her as possessed of immeasurable peace and 
bliss in the land on which that Sun never sets. 

FROM GEORGE W. BAIN, OF KENTUCKY. 

Mary A. Woodbridge was one of the great women of 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, led out into 
public life, and by so doing placed a bright star in its crown 
of glory. It was my fortune to work under her leadership 
during the Amendment Campaign in Ohio, and there I 
was first impressed with her abilities. 

To her wealth of inherited gifts of nature, she added a 
culture which made her a magnet wherever she moved. 
There was a well-roundedness about her character but few 
public men and women possess, and a whole-heartedness in 
her nature, so necessary to success in serving our kind. 
This unstinted and unselfish nature doubtless led to her 




MRS. I. M X. STEVENS 






. 



.**• 



TRIBl lis FRl ■.'.' FRIENDS. 353 

sudden death, for she Belf in her devotion to the 

cause she so faithfully served. 

As the dv>lian harp is r< sponsive to the breath of every 
wind that blows, so was her great heart responsiv* 
worthy emotion. Like the great river which rills 

and rivulets, so she absorbed facilities and brought them 
to serve her great purpose. Such a life ought to inspire 
the young womanhood of our land to noblest ambitions, 
for surely every beat of her heart was to the march of high- 
est aspirations, and her life shames the lives of those who 

flirt with life's follies and worship at fashion's shrine. 

Mary A. Woodbridge crowded her days with industry ; 

marked them with a record of good deeds; crowned her 

life with a dignified purpose; <\\<<\ in tin- forefront of the 
battle for "God and home and every land," and has gone 
to the rest and reward i>( the faithful. While I ran 1 
gratulate her happy spirit, I mourn for the cause that suf- 
fers by such a death, for the home from which SO much 
light has gone, and for the leaders who have lost such a 
counselor. Who will fill the places of the great lead 
who are passing away? is a question worthy of the mem- 
bers of the Young Woman's Christian Temperance Uni 

FROM THK VICE PRESIDENT AT LARGE OF THE NATIONAL 

w. C. T. U. 

I can hardly realize that Mary Woodbridge has gone 
never more to mingle with us as in days gone by. She was 
most closely connected with the work of the W. C. T. I". 
from its very beginning. Another, prompted by warm and 

enduring friendship will review .all this. It remains for me 
to simply place a flower in the garland of tender memory 
woven by other hands. For Well-nigh twenty years we 
walked together in the work she loved so well. As a 
speaker she excelled. I have never heard any one tell the 
Crusade story with such power and pathos. She has 
spoken frequently in Maine and other parts of New 1. 
land upon the great questions which grew out of the C 
sade, always with ability and with the marked approval 1 :' 
her audiences. She was rightly ranked among the f 1 
most speakers of the National W. C. T. U. As a fr: 
she had the love of her comrades to a remarkable degree. 



354 LIFE OF MARY A. U'OODBRIDGE. 

Her attractive manner, her smiling face, her winsome words 
gained for her the love and admiration of her associates. 

Thousands of hearts were made sorrowful when she 
went away from us so suddenly. Humanly speaking it 
was hard to have her go ; and yet she is not lost to us — we 
have not said farewell, — although we saw the casket which 
enshrined the precious form. We recall that the blackness 
of it was covered with flowers, beautiful emblems of life 
and love. 

Edwin Arnold in the Song Celestial meaningfully says : 

" Never the spirit was bora — the spirit shall cease to be never 
Never was time it was not ; end and beginning are dreams, 
Birthless and deathless and changeless remaineth the spirit forever 
Death hath not touched it at all." 

L. M. N. Stevens. 
Portland, Me. 

FROM THE CORRESPONDING SECRETARY OF THE NATIONAL 

W. C. T. D. 

So many in the pages of this memorial volume will pay 
tribute to the many sided ability of Mary A. Woodbridge 
as writer, speaker, reformer and leader, that mine shall be 
the humbler tribute of one who best knew her as a toiler in 
the busy round of life's daily task. 

I had known her, as all white-ribboners knew her, on 
the platform and in the great conventions, but had had no 
personal acquaintance until November, 1893. 

The first characteristic which impressed me was her 
familiarity with her work in its minutest details and her 
faithfulness in the performance of its duties. She knew 
the W. C. T. U. as few women have known it. She knew 
its workers, and their especial needs or fitness. Not the 
National workers alone, but many whose sphere had been 
confined to state, district, county or local unions were 
familiar to her to a degree that was marvelous to me. 
Moreover, in the discharge of her duties she was, if pos- 
sible, over faithful, preferring to carrjr on herself many of 
the details of the work which would, ordinarily, be left to 
an assistant. Her powers of application seemed exhaust- 
less and her industry was indefatigable. 

She always carried sunshine with her. There were a 



?/BC/TES FROM FRIENDS. 

certain crisp sparkle in her voice, an electric thrill in her 
touch, and a magic in her smile which must make thi 
selves felt. One of th< kers in the Willard Hall me- 

morial service, which was held at the same hour ;is the 
funeral in Ravenna, chose for her topic, "The woman who 
had time to be friendly." it wa an apt and fitting char- 
acterization. Such a woman I always found her. 

matter how crowded her day she always met one with an 

air of gracious welcome which suggested large leisure. 

Von never felt that she was hurried or flurried. She en- 
tered into plans or difficulties, as the case might he. with a 
ready sympathy which was marvelous to One who was he- 
hind the scenes and knew the mountains of accumulated 
work through which she must toil. I used to think of her 
that those two lines of Anna Waring' s were a fitting de- 
scription : 

"A mind at leisure from itself 
To soothe and sympathize." 

Above all, through all, and under all, she impres 
me as heing deeply and devoutly religious, with a religion 
which was above cant ; which rested in the eternal veril 
of God, and therefore could not hut he glad. Skilled, 
indefatigable, cheerful, buoyant, an optimist of optimi 
dignified, gracious, kindly, sympathetic, great in her great 
simplicity, a glad, obedient child of God ; as such I knew 
Mary A. Woodbridge in her daily work. As such I loved 
her. As such I must think of her as working in a wider 
sphere, a fairer life, somewhere to-di 

Katharine Lsnte Stevenson. 
Chicago, III. 

FROM THi: TRB  PHE X. W. C. T. T\ 

Prohahly no official in the W. C. T. U. was better DO 
in all the details of the work than was M;^. Woodbridge, 
hence when at Chicago she was elected corresponding 
retary of the W. C. T. U. she brought to Headquarters her 

valuahle equipment of practical information, gained by I 
years of faithful study and active experience in the many 
lines of work. Then she knew the women from the At] in- 
tic to the Pacific, ami was a good jud^e of their fitn 
any definite commission. Not only this, she was person- 



356 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODB RIDGE. 

ally acquainted with the prominent leaders of all kindred 
organizations, and was ready to co-operate with each in a 
fraternal spirit that was truly helpful in every way. Again, 
she wielded a facile pen that was never idle during the 
hours of work. Every state president and secretary felt 
that they could at all times come to Mrs. Woodbridge for 
information on any point without fear of refusal of a hear- 
ing or a prompt and full reply. I do not believe that dur- 
ing her term of office, a communication asking for instruc- 
tion, for advice, or for sympathy was ever unanswered. It 
did not matter how obscure or uneducated were the writers, 
they received from her ready hand a prompt, sympathetic 
and helpful reply. One of the important duties of the office 
at Headquarters is the courteous reception of visitors from 
every state in the Union, and as Chicago is the acknowl- 
edged center of the Nation, and in the direct line of all east 
and west travel across the continent, these visitors are not 
few. Sometimes they come on very busy days, but Mrs. 
Woodbridge never locked her door and became inaccessible. 
Even though it necessitated two or three hours of night 
work to make up lost time, every visitor was welcomed 
with a smile and a hearty handshake and, if desired, a lov- 
ing conference. She did not believe that her duty consisted 
in merel3 r receiving the letters that came to her and answer- 
ing them in a perfunctory manner, and sending out blanks 
and compiling her report, as many secretaries of great socie- 
ties do; but she had a broader view of the responsibilities of 
her office. 

She was not only the right hand of the President, but 
she was a continual inspiration to all the state, district and 
even local workers. It was her province to suggest new 
methods and stimulate to new efforts, and instead of being a 
passive recipient she was emphatically an awakening and 
arousing power. Every da) 7 was filled with work, and fre- 
quently it went over into the evening. Often she was 
called to speak in some missionary field of the great city, 
and this she did without compensation other than the con- 
sciousness of having helped a church to higher ground on 
the temperance question. 

Those who came in to take her work in the office found 
her desk in good order, and her work so well planned and 
methodical that there was no difficulty in taking up the 



TRIBUTES FROM FRIENDS. 357 

threads that her fingers 1 1 a « 1 so suddenly dropped. Verily 
a " workman that needetfa not to be ashamed " hath fallen. 
She stepped from her high place of active Labor t<> a higher 
one of well earned rest. Her works will follow her, and 
her influence for good will never die. 

Helen M. Barker. 
Chi III. 

PROM Till- RECORDING SECRETARY OF THE I -Al. 

W. C. T. r. 

The first time I ever saw Mrs. W Ibridge was in 

in the X. \V. C. T. V . convention held in Detroit, Mich., 

when her clear, resonant, musical voice rang out through 

the great convention, compelling attention, while she read 

the minutes in such manner that listeners forgot they were 
but the recital of convention proceedings. The manner 
dignified and glorified the matter. 

I was always impressed by Mrs. Woodbridge's serene 
dignity and self-possession, and have seen her under most 
trying circumstances where this gracious armor proved to 
be invulnerable. She possessed with this dignity a sweet- 
ness and graciousness of manner that made her very popu- 
lar with all white ribbon women, as well as with the 
larger public. Every one felt sure Mrs. Woodbri 
would help if she could, and SO went freely to her for hi 
which she never refused. The one year sh< I at 

Headquarters, brought every union and every member 
closer touch with the National society than ever before; 
each felt there was a " friend at court." 

Mrs. Woodbridge combined many "talents'" in the 
work she gave the temperance cause. She was a forcible 
writer and a logical speaker, and besides these, had a v. 
derful grasp of details as was shown in her varied work as 
corresponding secretary. Her vision took in the whole- 
field, and for the whole she planned and toiled. She had 
untiling energy, and indomitable persistence. 

So long had she stood at the very front with the n< 
and devoted leaders of the white ribbon army, that we did 
not think we could lose her, and when she was " called up 
higher" we were distressed and bewildered. Onr hearts 
were sore and bereaved. Afterward we remembered she 
had only "gone before' and that soon., very soon, we 



358 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

should "follow that way." Though still our tears may 
fall, we sav not "farewell" but "Beloved comrade, all 
hail! allhail!" Clara C. Hoffman. 

Ka?isas City, Mo. 

FROM EX-GOV. ST. JOHN. 

I enjoyed the honor and pleasure of a personal acquaint- 
ance with Sister Woodbridge, for more than ten years prior 
to her death. She was certainly a woman of great ability — 
an unusually clear, forcible, and logical speaker, who 
always commanded the closest attention, and the profound 
respect and sympathy of her audience. She was a prom- 
inent and influential figure in every good work. Always 
true to our cause, true to our country, and true to God. 
She has her reward. John P. St. John. 

Kansas. 

FROM THE NATIONAL SUPERINTENDENT OF THE PEACE 

DEPARTMENT. 

You may feel assured that it will give me great pleasure 
to add my word of esteem and affection to the volume that 
is so soon to go forth carrying its tender story of a life 
"hid with Christ in God." For nearly seven years her 
voice has sounded forth with no uncertain sound the call of 
peace and arbitration for the nations of the earth ; for many 
years previous I believe it had been her heart song, but 
during the last five she has been more intimately connected 
with this branch of the work in the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, and consequently brought into closer 
comradeship with me. 

Every moment spent in her company was helpful and 
cheering ; the bright, sunny disposition rose above all ob- 
stacles, and behind each cloud she found the sun still shin- 
ing, for the face of the "Sun of Righteousness" shone 
upon her. She indeed "allured to brighter worlds, and 
led the way." 

Her lectures delivered for the department were whole- 
some, elevating, strengthening and convincing in their 
tender, plain-spoken truthfulness. Her clear voice and 
commanding presence held her audience with great attract- 
iveness even before the earnest words and ready flowing 



TRIBl 1  FRIENDS. 359 

arguments for the cause she loved won their undivid id 
interest and attention. I cannot say too much in comm< 
dation of her whom we loved and honored and who has I 
us for a little whil 

Outside of all her grand work for tin- cause, and her 
wonderful executive ability in the ranks of theW. C. T. ' ".. 
as a womanly woman I loved her. None who met her 
could tail to do so. I lei I. load charity and stron ler- 

heart love Went out to one and all. and while she ]o\ 

justice, she wanted it administered in a gentle, winsome 
way. 

" Tender and sweet are our thoughts "t thee, 

And we feel thee lingering still, 

We seem t.> he.ir through the twilight fair 

The >on- "t the .1:1. 

Thou'rt singing th( 

( >f ' peace uii earth and to men { 1 will.' ' 

Maine. Hannah J. BAILEY. 

FROM Till- SECRETARY OF Till. EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE. 

The strongest impression which I have of Mrs. Wood- 
bridge is of her habitual good cheer. Her hopefuln 

was not of that superficial kind which refuses to fai 
and to know the full extent of evil — not a hopeful: 
based on delusions, but one springing from a deep faith in 
God and in humanity. To Mich faith and hope the world's 
evils operate only as a stimulus, and her long sustained 
and arduous labors to mitigate the world's woes bear wit- 
ness to the vitality of her faith, because it was quickened 
and not paralyzed by difficulties. 

Through the W. C. T. V  her influence is felt and will 
continue to be felt, not only throughout the United State-. 
but also in other lands. " B are the dead wh- 

in the Lord that they may rest from their lab ttd their 

works do follow them." J< SIAH STRi 

> City. 

FROM A DISTRICT SKCKKTAKY OF THE NATIONAL 
FORM ASSOCIATION. 

A dignified, earnot woman with her Bible in her b 
reading the message of God from the platform to an ai 
ence that packed to the doors a large hall in Martin's 



360 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Ferry, O., and following with an overwhelming attack on 
the drink traffic — such was my first view of Mrs. Wood- 
bridge. 

We can easily see now that she stood there for so 
much ! 

She stood both a representative and type of the W. C. 
T. U., of coming womanhood in its power and privilege ; 
but above all of the true, the Christian reformer, speaking 
against sin and for righteousness in the land, not merely 
because this was financially, or politically good, but be- 
cause it was the will of Christ and needful in the setting 
up of His kingdom. 

Along this line of Christian reform she grew by the 
inevitable law that guides human progress. She saw what 
so many reformers see not, that she must be a builder in 
society as well as a destroyer. That the kingdom of Jesus 
embraces society as well as the individual. That govern- 
ment, laws, institutions, and all political life are redeemed 
by Christ, belong to Christ, and must serve Christ ; and to 
secure this is the true mission of the reformer. She saw 
this because she was a devoted Christian ; for human eyes 
only gather that far and searching sight from looking into 
Christ's eyes of flame. So upon this sure foundation she 
based all her work. The touchstone ever was, — Jesus is 
king. 

In harmony with this idea she was for many years a 
vice-president of the National Reform Association, secre- 
tary of its department, "Peace and Arbitration," and its 
lecturer to the higher educational institutions. Her paper 
on " The Kingship of Christ," at Chautauqua on National 
Reform Day, was a noble discussion of our civic relation 
to Christ, conceived in the Spirit, both of the statesman 
and the evangelist. 

At parting after a convention in College Springs, la., 
March 15, 1894, having asked her when she would speak 
for me again, she said, with a smile, " I suppose when you 
hold another convention." But when she left the train at 
Tarkio, Mo., I had seen her for the last time. 

William Weir. 



TRIBUTES FROM FRIENDS. 

A Tki Bl Ti. IS i B SB < .1 '.i r \i.smr. 

For years I have taken active pait in local, state and 
national work, tor prohibition, but I never knew one con- 
ducted with Bucfa consummate generalship as the Ohio 
Amendment campaign. Mrs. Woodbridge collected and 
organized an efficient corps of helpers of which she was 
the presiding and controlling genius. Every detail was 
planned with surprising minuteness and ao uracy. All the 

speakers were told where and win n to go by the best rente, 

who would take cai of them, and all the arrangements 
were made with rarely a break or a change. It was a 
privilege to work under such inspiring Leadership. Her 
winning social powers were continually at work for our 
enjoyment. The genera] offices in Cleveland were idled 
with tireless ami kindly and enthusiastic toilers, and visited 
often by the best friends of our grand reform. In their 
midst working harder than any other of the force, our 
leader found ample time to answer every question of lip 

and telegraph, to direct every forward movement, and 

meanwhile to receive company after company of men and 
women wdio were eager to help and to be helped that the 
Amendment might prevail. Who that saw and heard and 
felt, could ever forget the gracious courtesy, the serene- 
dignity of Madam General Woodbridge I Whatever sug- 
gestion was made by attache lecturer or delegation or i 

respondent was carefully yet promptly considered, and if 
useful, taken advantage of. She apparently made no writ- 
ten note of questions, advice or requests, yet none v. 
forgotten, nothing was neglected. I well remember that 
a delegation was led by one of the most honored clergy- 
men of a mighty denomination. Sin- received them with 
courtly deference, and yet during the interview she most 
kindly attended to every other claim upon her attention, no 
more eager to consider her noted visitors than the hum- 
bler worker or the poorest man or woman. Her winning 
courtesy, tact and dignity were unfailing in every install 

I gladly bear testimony to the kindly and gracious help 
she gave me and the cause we loved. Indeed, Mr-. Wood- 
bridge and the other "elect ladies" of the W. C. T. T T . 
have given invaluable encouragement to the men who be- 
gan to work long before the great host of white-ribbon- rs 



362 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

was formed. She and they lost not courage and hope in 
the darkest time, and they could always be relied upon for 
the high and inspiring qualities of wise leadership and true 
comradeship. Long may the memory of Mary Woodbridge 
be cherished by every worker for God and home and native 
land. (Rev.) George H. Vibbert. 

TRIBUTE OP A WEU-KNOWN BAPTIST MINISTER. 

That Mary Woodbridge should just pass out of the door 
of life so quickly, silently, and in all the rugged massive- 
ness of her hale and genuine self was very characteristic. 

I had heard my father tell of her, for some years, before 
I knew her personally. They had often met at temperance 
and prohibition meetings. The eyes of their understanding 
being opened, they saw what must shortly be done, and 
knew that He whom they loved and served had ' ' sounded 
forth the trumpet that should never call retreat." 

Father lived near Ravenna, and had frequent opportu- 
nity to compare views and counsel with her as to the 
mighty exodus that the Master would some day accomplish 
for the little beleaguered band of Prohibitionists to which 
both belonged. 

When the church edifice where my father was last pas- 
tor was blown to pieces by the gunpowder plot of the 
saloonists, none was more kind and thoughtful than she to 
the stricken pastor. The shock was too much for him and 
he was never quite himself after. Health steadily declined, 
and some mouths later he struggled out to hear once more 
the woman whose eloquence had so often fired his soul. He 
heard and trembled with the emotions excited by her mas- 
terly and cogent argument. 

At the close, the old veteran was invited to dismiss the 
convention with the benediction. This he did, and, as he 
stood upon the platform at the close of that cloudy after- 
noon, I am told that a blaze of sunshine, breaking through 
a side window, bathed him with its golden light and made 
a halo about his "good gray head." 

Stepping to her side he said : " Mary, I guess the king- 
dom's coming. I feel that the day of triumph is at hand." 

So it was for him. The next morning, the stroke of par- 
alysis, which immediately ended his life on earth, came. 

And now, her going, this similar going of my father's 



TRIBL I I'.S FROM FRth \ 

friend and mine, friend of everybody, believe] tint, 
mother, wife, orator and statesman; Miss Willard's veri 
table i i<;lit arm, the Gladstone ol your new empire to i ome, 
her going revives the memories <>t In r faithful, hi i 
s< > vividly. 

It was like liti to leave us thus. She worked until the 
sunset. She gleaned in the field until evening none more 
faithfully, practically, joyfully, How few so unselfishly. 
I, personally, knew a day, when the bee of the old friend- 

ships, culture ami love she had known in the Kast was (old 

to her, because, alas, she had enrolled herself with those 
everywhere spoken against in that terrible campaign. But 

all the more tinder, loving, patient was she. She knew 
when to speak, and the right word was always at hand. 

Great, gentle, yet august and always persuasive Mary 

Woodbridge, we shall not soon see thy like again. 

The day ol" Miss Willard's Bvanston reception, last 
summer, found a large number of us on the porch «>f the 

residence where the speaking was. The kodak man v 
fixing for his coveted shot at the queen and her galaxy of 
stars. Coming to my side, saying a quiet, gentle word 
about father, Mrs. Woodbridge said, " Let us stand up here- 
together, like the old times when he was around.'' T". 
was the last she ever said to me. 

I love to think, then, to-night, "of the friends over 
there," the workers, the toilers, the hrave ones who aie 
done with it all and stand together upon the sea <>f glass. 
If she takes any word to him, I am glad it is this messa 
" He is yet true to tin- fight we waged, and to him the prin 

ciple of true prohibition outweighs all party, selfish or social 

emolument, a thousand times." 

Great heart, good-night; and a thousand blessings tor 
thy dear ones at home and abroad in dear old Ohio. 

The I. oid bless thee, Mary, "the Lord lift up the light 

of his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace." 

We shall remain but a little time ; soon, almost immedi- 
ately, will come where thou art, and in the goodly com- 
pany of the martyrs, the prophets, and apostles will join 
thee, in the praises of Him who hath redeemed us and 
washed us in His blood. 

II i:nkv A. Dm i. a no. 
Evanslon, III. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

TRIBUTES OF THE PRESS, RESOLUTIONS, LETTERS AND 

POEMS. 

Her Life was a sheaf at its ripeness, 

Of goldenest grain ; 
Its wealth had the glory of sunlight, 

And sobbing of rain. 
Ah! who shall dispute with the Master, 

For whom it was grown. 
That now in its day of completeness 

He gathers His own — 
Or who to earth's duty and sadness 
Call back the great soul from the gladness 

That heaven makes known. 

—Mary T. Lathrap. 

Mr. Woodbridge found the following in one of his wife's 
books of devotion. He said to the author, ' ' When my heart 
gets too full of sorrow to endure, I read this for comfort." 

" For I know 
That she who is not lost, but gone before, 
Is only waiting till I come ; for death 
Has only parted us a little while, 
And has not severed e'en the finest strand 
In the eternal cable of our love. 
The very strain has twined it closer still, 
And added strength. The music of her life 
Is nowise stilled, but blended so with songs 
Around the throne of God, that our poor ears 
No longer hear it." 

THE size of a stone that is dropped into the deep may be 
judged from the agitation of the water that follows — 
the size and strength of the circling waves. It is so with a 
life passing into the unknown. It is doubtful if in many 

(364) 



TRIBUTES OF THE PRl 

years one has died in this country whose departure has 
o isioned more public meetings, memorial servii olu- 

tions of sympathy, telegrams and letters of sorrow than 

that c>! Mis. Wbodbridge. [n many cities and towns all 
over the country memorial services ware held simultane- 
ously with the funeral, and for months after her death. A 
Christmas present came for her from South Africa, after she 
had been already two months in glory. The author spent 
three days in December simply reading resolutions of vari- 
ous organizations, tele-rams and letters of condolen 

From all over the world beautiful letters about our dear 
one were received by Mr. Woodbridge. 

The following is from the \V. C. T. P.. of Cairo, Egypt: 

God in His Omniscient Providence has called one of our 
most loved workers to rest from her labors. It is witli sor- 
row that we learn of this loss which our World's YV. C. T. 
U. sustains. We would hear testimony to her faithfulness 
as exhibited weekly in "The Corresponding Secretary's 
Corner" of The Union Signal. 

The beautiful spiritual sentiments which she expressed 
in her writings, lead us to believe that she not only set the 
example during self-denial week, but that her whole life 
was one of self-denial " For God ami Home and Fverv 
Land." 

Iu recognition of the divine will in removing our dear sifter, 
Resolved, \. That we humbly aabmit to Him who doeth all things 
well. 

2. That we express our sympathy to the officers of our National 
union who will so sorely mi-s her wise counsel .md efficient hi 

3. That we pledge ourselves to greater faithfulness to the cause 
in which our beloved sister so zealously labored .1:. 1 to which she 
gave her life. 

Mrs. Anna Philips Whitb, Chairman Com, 
Miss Anna V. THOMPSON, PftS. W. C. T. U. 
Mrs. A. Watson, See. 
Cairo, Egypt. 

i-ROM Till-: w. c. T. U. OP Q.UBBNSLAND. 

January 14, 1895. 
Mv DBAS FRTKN'D : — Beinc: unusually busy. I had not 
opened my Signal, so that your letter concerning the death 



366 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

of dear Mrs. Woodbridge came "like a bolt from the 
blue." I always anticipated with great pleasure the re- 
ceipt of her letters, so full of inspiration and sympathy. 
She was a true Christian sister, with a large heart, and you 
felt that she not only tried to grasp the needs of all, but 
she held us all close to her inmost soul, and strove to help 
us all on and knit us together. 

The loss to our dear " Chief" will be very great as well 
as incalculable to the World's and National unions. I 
cannot but feel that she killed herself with work. It is 
better to "rub out than rust " certainly, but such a life is 
too valuable to be shortened by overcrowding. Hers was 
a glorious translation — from work to perfect rest and glori- 
ous bliss. May God bless, sustain and comfort all who 
mourn her all too early removal from such a wide sphere 
of usefulness ! " God buries His workmen and carries on 
His work." I trust many will be led to consecrate them- 
selves to this high service through hearing of her noble, 
consecrated life. The call comes to each of us. " Be ye 
also ready." "Oh, that each in the day of His coming 
may say, I have finished the work Thou didst give me to 
do." 

With loving sympathy from us all in this great bereave- 
ment, Believe me yours in this blessed work, 

Elizabeth Brentnall, President. 

Coorparoo, Brisbane. 

FROM THE W. C. T. U. OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Dear Friend : — The following resolution was unani- 
mously carried at our executive meeting this morning. 
We all deeply sympathize with you in this sudden bereave- 
ment, and pray that it may be a call to others to take up 
the work laid down by Mrs. Woodbridge. 

I am yours in the work, 

Mary J. George, Cor. Sec. 

R^SOIvUTION. 

Resolved, That this executive is deeply grieved to hear of the 
sudden death on October 25, of Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, secretary 
of the World's, and corresponding secretary of the National union 
of America. We feel her removal as a personal loss, and express our 
most loving sympathy with our World's president and her colleagues 
in this sorely trying bereavement, and earnestly promise to work 
with even more than former earnestness to promote the great cause 
of temperance she so loved. 



TRIBUTES OF THE PRESS. v: 

PROM Tin'. \v. C. T. i . OP AUSTRALASIA. 

Bblovbd President: Your Soutfa Australia com- 
rades mingle their tears with yours over the grave where 
the body of our dear sister, Mrs. Mary A.. Woodbrid 

awaits the resurrection morning. Her bright, brave let- 
ters have inspired and helped white ribbon workers the 
wide world over, and the story of her useful life so sud- 
denly ended in the midst of its busiest day, is a ringing 
call to more faithful, earnest endeavor to which we will 
with all our hearts respond. May God comfort and sus- 
tain yOU, our dear president. 
With tender sympathy, 

Yours lovingly and loyally, 

K. \V. Nicholls, President. 
Prospect, S. Australia. 

PROM MRS. I.. A. BURKHALTBR, CBDAB RAPIDS, IA. 

My DEAR Miss Wiu.akd : I don't know just what 

it is that I am moved to offer you as we of the white rib- 
bon stand gazing after Mary Woodbridge. I think it would 
be just to clasp hands and say : "The chariot lei, 

and the horseman thereof. " What a blessed life! Her 
powers of mind and body were only equaled by her beauty 
of spirit. She reflected God's image upon a dark world 
and her faith is "as the shining light." Thinking of her, 
I feel like bursting into hallelujah of song ; but at the 
same time comes a choking in my throat, it is that we 
should be left by such a spirit. Yet we are not 1< ' 
and so are we bound fast and join hands with the ad- 
vanced triumphant end of Christ's army. It was but a 
few weeks ago that I was in Chicago for the purpose ol 

taking my daughter Mary to enter the University of Chi- 
cago. We railed on Mrs. Woodbridge at the Temple. 
She remembered "little May," having seen her at our 
home, and wasn't it just like her to take down Mary's 
address and say she was going to visit her while she was 
away from home? She meant it, too. Well, the purpose 
will be carried out, for I know that always the example 
of that kind and beautiful Spirit will linger in my Mary's 
mind. I can think of no greater testimony than this, that 
every soul she met was the better for meeting our dear 



368 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Mrs. Woodbridge, and I am deeply thankful to God for 
the privilege of having known and loved her. 

FROM A EETTER TO MISS FRANCES E. WIIXARD. 

My Beloved Chieftain : — With a dazed spirit and 
bleeding heart, I write you these few lines. Can it be pos- 
sible that the brief notice I saw in this morning's paper 
concerning the death of our Mary Woodbridge is correct ? 
It is hard to realize ; and then my next thought is of you 
and the shock to you, and the grief and loneliness — for 
you will miss her. But if it be true that our Great-heart 
has gone "over yonder" and her heart ceased to beat for 
you, it is true that there are thousands of faithful hearts 
left who love you devotedly. Some day, it will not be 
long, we will all be over there to sit down together. 

Anna M. Hammer, 
President Pennsylvania W. C. T. U. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

FRIEND AND COMRADE. 
ELLA BEECHER GITTINGS. 
" Died yesterday ! " Grief entering the heart's door 
Jarred open by the shock — an instant stays 
To let a memory pass in before 

Of comrades on a mountain path, with gaze 
Fixed on the summit, gilt by sunset rays. 
One speeds ahead — impatient of delays — 
Stands on the crest, transfigured in a blaze 
Of light — looks back and beckoning calls, " Come o'er." 

Then vanishes adowu the hither slope. 
O sweet, strong friend ! Through mist of tears 
We lift our soul's eyes to the hills of God — 
So late by thy advancing footsteps trod ; 
So near they seem, measured by fleeting years 
That sombre sorrow sweetly blends with hope. 
Monument, Col. 

MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

SARA LOUISA OBERHOI/TZER. 

Gone in the fullness of labor 

Gone with thy banner in hand, 
Friend of the world and of ours 

We mourn thee in every land. 



TRIBUTES OF THE PRESS. 369 

Gone, and •. el m-\ ei gone wholly, 

\ re Uvea that pulse for the ri^ht ; 
Although the souls be translated, 

We bask la rsyi of their li^'it. 

[mpresslons they leave are immortal, 

A soul's immortality won 
Never closes the best book ol promise 

Where worthiest deeds have been done. 

I w* me in the fullness of labor, 

Dear friend, \\ith banner in band, 
Gone, while we mourn thee in sorrow 
Thy mantle envelops the land. 
Berlin, Germany, 



FROM THK SUPBRINTBNDBNT OF TBMPBRANC8 AND BVAN- 

'■KUCAI. WORK AMONG HAWAIIAN'S. 

To the Home Circle of the Dear Departed: 

When I learned through The Union Signal of the 
"exit" of Mrs. Mary Woodbridge I was completely over- 
come; tears so blinded my eyes that I was obliged to lay 
down the paper awhile, taking it again only to weep more 
intensely. You may ask why? It took me by surprise. 
Captain Brayton was the father of Mary Woodbridge. 
My father learned to love him. It was at our house that 
Captain Brayton found his Saviour precious. While on a 
visit to the United States father and I had the great happi- 
ness of meeting him and his dear daughter Mary. I was 

impressed by her manner and earnest talk concerning her 
work. I have ever since loved her dearly. 

Makv K. GRBBN. 
Honolulu. 

MARY A. WOODBRIDGE 

11V H \NV\ \. I'OsTKK. 

She left lior footprints in the morning dew; 
Ughthearted, Bped along the charmed u 
ingathering all the sweetness of the Me. 

And fashioning, with many a fadeless hue. 
Her soul's equipment beautiful and true. 



37° LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

To hear the Master's call was to obey — 
Or what, or where, no question, no delay — 
Because the need was great, the laborers few. 
Brave, tireless toiler ! She hath won unsought 
Most blessed rest, while we who loved her so, 
Bewildered by our grief and loss, forget 
To what completeness was her life work wrought ! 
We thought her gathering sheaves ! How could we know 
That all were garnered ere the sun was set ? 
Berea, Ohio. — Western Christian Advocate. 

RESOLUTIONS OF A GREAT BODY. 

To the Natiofial Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 

Dear SISTERS:— At the Thirteenth Annual Convention of the 
Woman's Home Missionary Society of the M. E. Church, held in 
Williamsport, Pa., from October 24 to 31, 1S94, the sad intelligence 
of the death of Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge fell as a pall over our 
meeting, and the following, presented by Mrs. H. C. McCabe, was 
unanimous^ adopted : 

Whereas, With profound sorrow we have learned of the depart- 
ure from time to eternity of our valued and distinguished friend and 
co-worker, the Corresponding Secretary of the National Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge. Therefore 

Resolved, That we recognize in her death the loss of a leader, 
whose remarkable and varied attainments were consecrated to the 
cause of humanity; whose love for the Lord Christ and faithfulness 
in His service have long endeared her name to thousands in like fel- 
lowship of our own and other lands. And while we bow in submis- 
sion under this heavy stroke as from a Father's hand, we rejoice in 
her noble record of service, and the blessed fruition upon which she 
has entered. Also 

Resolved, That we desire to express to our sister organization, the 
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, which has been so 
severely bereaved, our deepest sympathy, trusting that the Hand 
which has wounded will also heal, and fill this sad vacancy with a 
successor who shall possess the virtues and efficiency of our lamented 
sister, who was your devoted secretary. In behalf of the society, 

Sincerely yours, 

Mrs. Ceinton B. Fisk, Pres. 
Harriet C. McCabe, Com. 



TRIBUTES OF THE PRESS. 37' 

The above resolutions were passed by the National W 
man's Home Missionary Society of the great M. K. churi h 
of America. The death of few women in America outside 
of the M. E. church, would have< ill< 1 out such resolutions 
from that body, and it onlyshows in what universal est 
she was held by all workers for Christ and friends of hu- 
manity. 

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE OPPICERS AND DELEGATES 
OP Pi 1 1 : TWBNTY-PIRST ANNUA!, O PION OP Till- 

NATIONAL W< 'MAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPER \  
ONION, CLEVELAND, OHIO, NOV., I 
Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord. 
Whereas, Our beloved sister, the late corresponding secretary of 
the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Bin. Mary A. 
Woodbridge, has recently been called to the higher life,we,offi 

and delegates of the twenty-first annual convention of the National 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union, de re to pnt on record our 

appreciation of the heart and character of one who, for twent 

was a standard-bearer in the sacred cause that binds <>ur hearts in 
one. 

Devoted in spirit, gracious in presence and kindly in speech, she 
was for many years a help and inspiration in our annual gatherings. 
In the forward march of the past twenty years in paths so rough, 

trod it Unfalteringly— UO call of duty vent Ul . for hers v, 

spirit and a life that rejoiced to do the Master's will She hasj 

from among us, but the eye of faith pierces the unseen and U-holds 
her radiant in the mansions of the King. 

The memory other life, BO fragrant with good deeds, and tree and 

devoted in service, will always rich heritage to us. Wegi 

with those who in the home are desol tt« over th : I 

beloved, but to our souls come the words of < ' 1 am the resur- 

rection and the life, he that helieveth OH me, though he were d< 
yet shall he live," and with triumph over death, whi, ':. thrOUgfa 

the blood of the I. unh, we say, "O death, v. thy sting? grave, 

where is thy victory ? " 

I have given but these few of the great number of n 
rations passed by the \V. C. T. Unions, state and local, and 
numerous organizations of this and other lands, all breath- 



372 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

ing the same spirit of love and appreciation of her labors. 
From the many hundreds of beautiful tributes to her mem- 
ory, I can only copy the following, leaving the many to be 
recorded in the hearts of the loving family. Mr. Wood- 
bridge has sacredly treasured every comforting letter and 
every tribute to his companion as inexpressibly dear to him 
and his family. 

Mrs. J. T. Ellis, corresponding secretary of the W. C. T. 
U. of New Jersey, writes : " We mourn for a sister tenderly 
beloved : we mourn for a wise counsellor and guide ; we 
mourn for one whose place cannot be filled. No state in the 
Union appreciated and loved her more than New Jersey, and 
I convey to you from thousands of sad hearts in our state 
to-day, the most profound sympathy in this your time of 
great personal bereavement. Mary A. Woodbridge was no 
ordinary woman I She has left her impress upon this age, 
and her name will go down as a shining mark in the record 
of glorious women of the nineteenth century." 

An intimate friend of Mrs. Woodbridge, who resides in 
Ravenna, writes : 

Dear Mr. Woodbridge : — " My aching heart is with 
you, my prayer is for you," these are the words she sent to 
me nearly three years ago, when the light went out of my 
life. Now when you sit in the shadow of death, whose 
quick touch has stilled the loving heart, the helpful hand, 
their echo comes back to you from me, from thousands of 
others whom she has helped. On the altar of temperance 
lies your offering complete, and only one can truly estimate 
its greatness and value to that cause. What it cost you 
through years of loneliness, bravely enduring the lack of her 
cheering presence, living on written words sent from over 
the great country up and down which she traveled, seeking 
to rid it of its greatest curse ; that price so tremendous ; 
given day by day, with rare intervals of happy reunion, 
followed by keener sense of loss as each parting came ; we 
imagine, but you know. My eyes fill as I think of the 
emptiness now; but ought we not rather to rejoice as we 
trust she rejoices that her memory remains so sweet, un- 



TRIBUTES OF THE PRESS. 

marred by thought of the feebleness of old age, which 
might have followed s<> active and wearing a life. I think 
of the pleasant faces which sat opposite me at meal times 

only tWO weeks ago, and remcmbei how " our gracious 

lady" smilingly showed the dainty sweet-peas which loy- 
ally waited till October to bloom for her welcome home; 

hut sweeter still was the loyal devotion of that long-time 
lover who brought them to his Mary. 

" To-da] 

< Miiv a little veil between 

A slight, tli in veil : if vou could see 
Past its K r;iv folds, then- she would be. 
Smiling ana sweet, and she would lean 
Ami Btretcb her hands oul joyfully." 

Letters of loving sympathy were written to Mr. Wood 

bridge ami family by Mrs. Matilda B. Carse. The follow- 
ing tribute we take from "Temperance Temple Items " in 
The Union Signal: 

Willard Hall is rapidly becoming the Westminster 
Abbey of the temperance reform. Another bright ami 
shining name must be engraved upon its panels. Mary A. 
Woodbridge, so honored and beloved throughout the land, 
has suddenly been translated from our earthly Tempi'-. 
where she daily wrought so unselfishly with heart and hand 
and brain, to the glorious Temple not made with hands. 
To those of us who assembled in Willard Hall on Monday 
last to take part in the memorial service to her memory it 
was hard to believe that she who was with us less than a 
week ago, full of life and work, had slipped from us into the 
unseen, and that that wondrous voice, rich and powerful as 
the tones of a great, sweet organ, should no longer thrill 

the Inart as she raised it in defense of temperance, purity 

and righteousness. Vet who would not wish to go as she 
went — from loving labor to loving reward? We are com- 
forted as we hear that voice from heaven saying : ' Blessed 
are the dead who die in the Lord, from henceforth : J 

saith the spirit, that they may rest from their labors, and 
their works do follow them." 

SPICBLAND, IND., Nov. 8, 1S04. 

Mr. F. W. WOODBRIDGB :— I have not been unmindful 
of you during these days, but there seems so little to be 



374 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

said under such a stroke as has come to you. As I think 
of the personal loss to myself, the sundering of the friend- 
ship of so many years, I appreciate a little what this great 
sorrow is to you, but it was for such hours that our Christ, 
the "Man of Sorrows," came, for such hours that He 
promised the Comforter, and His last legacy was that 
precious name, the Comforter. May He now so reveal 
Himself to you and to the stricken ones of your household. 

Esther Pugh. 

Mr. Woodbridge has in his possession more than one 
thousand press notices of Mrs. Woodbridge sent him from 
all over the land by the loving admirers of his wife. We 
give the public a few of these as evidence of the esteem of 
the people, and the deep impress she made upon her time. 

The following exquisite tribute was written by Rev. 
Simeon Gilbert, D. D., in the Chicago Advance of Novem- 
ber i, 1894: 

One of the noble women of her generation, the death of 
Mrs. Woodbridge is a profound loss to the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union. She was one of the originators 
of that unique and powerful organization, as she had been 
one of the original "Crusaders" in Ravenna, O., which had 
always been from childhood her home. Like other women 
in that wonderful and so signally providential movement, 
"obedient to the heavenly vision " she threw her whole 
soul into it. A woman of most refined breeding and cul- 
ture, and blest with one of the happiest of homes, made 
happier yet by the mingled sweetness, power and beauty 
of her sublime self-giving to the cause unto which the 
Master had so unmistakably called her, she at once began 
to seem a necessity to the new movement, as it passed from 
its stage of sporadic inspiration and unorganized crusade 
into the organized, and now world-embracing, campaign 
' for God and Home and Native Land," and every land. 
She was the corresponding secretary of the union, in both 
the national and the international scope of its work. 

And amid all the publicity of her engagements, Mrs. 
Woodbridge never lost anything of the exquisite charm of 
her womanly refinement and spirit. Intellectually she was 



TRIBl II 01 111! PRESS. 

a person of a very high order. Hei religious convictions 
were do mere impulses. She was wonl to reason <>i r i > • 1 1 1 
eousuess, temperance and a judgment to come with a con 
vincingness and power that could not be gainsaid. Hei 
speech was no Less logical because it was apt to 1"- touched 
with flame. And then, with all the depth of her convic- 
tions, the nobility of her aims and the sustained enthusi- 
asm of her purpose, she was so self-free in all her manner 
and utterances, that she was even w>lv a singularly whole 
some and helpful power for good, [nthe ind world 

wide beneficence ofthemovement she aided in starting and 
the organization she helped to inaugurate, and to which 
she gave her life, she made her own place. No one else 
will quite till the same. 

It is the glory of this Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union that it has served, so naturally, to call forth into act 
uality and gracious usefulness so many variously gifted 
women, and that it has also offered freest scope and fittest 
opportunity tor each one, along lines of work for which 

they were severally, by nature, culture, experience and 
training, best adapted. Miss Fran< es Willard and Lady 
Henry Somerset and all the good women associated with 
them, both in America ami Great Britain, whose SOUls can 

not test while the appalling drink curse is ruining so many 
millions of otherwise happy homes, can but feel deeply the 
loss of that hand which now is still, and (if the persuasive 
voice that is silenced on earth. 

lint they and all who kmw her will find, from every re 

membrance of her, inspiration to all bravery, humility and 
sweetness of devotion in work for good homes in e\ • 
land. For Mrs. Woodbridge, who never ran 1>< fore she 

Was Sent, COUld never he tempted to t in n aside or loit< r by 

the way when hearing the "bitt> of those that sr. 

or that Stumble and fall: the cry that was to her as the 
voice of the Master himself. Nor was she by any means 
alone in all this : she was only one with the divine sunlight 
in her heart and on her brow, one among the many whom 
no one would dare presume to number. 

OBITUARY, 

Disciplined, cultured, tried and true, great, noble, w 
strong, self- forgetful, country-loving, humanity-loving and 



376 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Christ-loving Mary A. Woodbridge is translated. As the 
swift lightning carried the sad tidings, it sent a thrill of 
pain to loving hearts that mourned, as for a sister fallen, in 
every state and territory of the Union, and in England, 
India and Japan, and everywhere that Christian civilization 
and the Christian missionary have gone. Along with the 
story of her I^ord and the story of the other Mary, shall the 
story of this Mary be told for a memorial of her. The 
world has needed her. Oberlin, Wellesley, Holyoke, and 
the rest, give us more such as she, to tone up our faith and 
save the world. — The Co?istitutio?i, New York, Dec., 1894.. 

The death of Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, of Ohio, is a 
national loss. She was the daughter of the late Judge 
Isaac Brayton, and sister of Colonel George M. Brayton, 
who, since his retirement from his long service in the 
United States army, has done Nantucket honor by again 
making it his home. Mrs. Woodbridge was born in Nan- 
tucket, and her early child life gave promise of an earnest 
future. She gracefully yielded the pleasures and ease of 
her beautiful home life, which she was so qualified to adorn 
and brought her wealth of genius, philanthropy, and in- 
domitable courage, sanctified with the purest of American 
culture, and laid it all upon the altar of the white-ribbon 
cause — the cause of all mankind. There is no nobler fame 
in history. And as long as there are chords in the living 
human heart which beat in unison with the efforts of her 
heroic life, so long will there be found pilgrims journeying 
to her tomb bedecking it with white flowers and bedewing 
it with their tears. — From the Enquirer and Mirror, Nan- 
tucket, Mass. 

Allow me to add another tribute in our home paper to 
the memory of Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge. Already gra- 
cious words and true have been said of her in these columns, 
while over the whole land and in other countries her name 
has been written again and again ; her name been spoken 
with the tender inflection of mourning. It has seemed 
almost wonderful to me, this universal and sincere lauda- 
tion of one woman. Nor, if you have noticed, has it been in 
any case praise without meaning, or empty phrasing ; rather 
the triumphant song it is sometimes given to mourners to 
sing in the first exultation which occasionally follows a sud- 



TRIBUTES OF THE PRESS, 377 

den grief. The word exultation is used advisedly, since 
tins woman of whom we speak had been so strong that Bhe 
seemed to have left strength behind her. Think how that 
one hand manipulated the numberless threads which make 
up the warp and woof of th< I W. C.'/l\ r. work. 

Think how her brain superintended the ever busy looms. 
And then think that she knew it would all suddenly 

the thread of her own life to Snap, the silver COrd to break. 

Ah, well' there are those w'im are captivated by a great 

work, and the whole world does them homage. 

Nantucket is indeed b have given birth to 

such a soul, to such an intellect, is something to glory in, to 
exult over. Mrs. SusanS. Fessenden (also a 1 idant ol 

this island, and a rare and beautiful character of Ml 

Woodbridge, "She was a typical Nantucket woman." She 

w - not a scribe, merely, although I have heard it said she 
wrote sixteen hours a day. She was executive, administra- 
tive, a fine speaker of great dignity and pi . ical, 
winning, and conclusive in argument. She was a genius ; 
one who believed in hard work, and did not hold it an essen- 
tial to be odd or in any wa She was genial, 
courteous, kindly and COnsidei her co-workers. 

This brief and sincere tribute has not even the fragrance 
of a wild-flower to lay upon her memory : let it be simply 
like the perfume of the bayberry leaves on our plains, as 
another offering from one to whom she was very kind, aud 
also given from the place of her birth. 

I . . S . Baker. 

Nantucket, Nov. 1 -•. / ^94. 

PRESS NO . BS DURING BBR I.I! 
OIK OF MEETING 

Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, recording secretary of the 

National Woman's Christian Tempo Union, came t< 

our city January 23, according to appointment, and com- 
menced her labors which were continued one week. The 
first meeting was held in the Presbyterian church, with 
afternoon and evening services, the next in the Second Re- 
formed church, and so on until the Congregational, Baptist, 
Second M. E. church and Second Reformed church had 
each opened their doors for her reception, and welcomed 



378 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODB RIDGE. 

her to their sanctuaries as a woman of God, and a co-worker 
with the Master. Every evening the pastor of the church 
in which the meeting was held conducted the services, 
while Mrs. Woodbridge addressed the people. She spoke 
to the young ladies and the children, and all classes and 
conditions of men. Vassar College opened its doors to her, 
and also Eastman College, thus young women and young 
men from all parts of the world were privileged to listen to 
the earnest words, and to take in the rich thoughts and 
principles coming to them as by inspiration, clothed in the 
most beautiful and heavenly language. There were also 
three drawing-room meetings conducted by her. During 
the seven days of her stay in our city she addressed twenty 
different meetings ! Never has there come to us a person 
who had such power and influence. None could hear her 
or mingle with her socially, without the feeling that bless- 
ing had come to them ; like the Master, there issued out 
from her light, truth, wisdom, grace and beautiful thoughts, 
words of comfort, cheer and encouragement, also burning 
words of warning, sad but truthful words of our national 
condition, because of the curse, giving guidance and direc- 
tion to effort in every department of the great work, to rid 
the country of the great tyrant that now rules and reigns 
throughout its borders. None can estimate the widereach- 
ing influence of the work of this one week. And the grand 
secret of this power is her complete submission and obedi- 
ence to God. True, she is educated, cultivated and refined, 
but others are all that, and yet they have never moved a 
soul, while she moves and sways her audience at will, and 
wins many souls to Jesus. To sum up the whole matter, 
Mrs. Woodbridge'is a woman of rare gifts and native talent, 
which have been cultivated and directed wisely by early 
training and discipline of life. In power of language, pleas- 
ing delivery, choice of words, graceful presence, to which is 
added clearness of thought and force of argument, which is 
at once convincing, because founded in truth, in presenta- 
tion of facts, she is superior to any lady speaker we ever 
met. 

The most beautiful of all, and that which brings out all 
these rich gifts, and gives them lustre, force, beauty, fitness 
and power, is that they are all consecrated to God, and He 
is using them to His glory. — Poughkeepsie Journal. 



TRIBUTES OF THE PRl 

It has been our privilege to have Mrs, Mary A. Wood- 
bridge in the state a few days on her way from Main- to 
Ohio. She lectured to large audiences in Jamaica Plain, 
Pall River, Gloucester and Northampton. On Sunday she 
spoke with greal ptance in People's Church, Boston, 

and in Tremont Temple. The next day Rev. Joseph Cook 
kindly gave her a portion <>f the time usually occupied by 
his prelude, and her presentation of our work before the 
large audience was persuasive and powerful. -OurM 
Bos/on, M 

Mrs. Woodbridge is one of the clearest thinkers and 
ablest speakers in the temperance ranks, and those who tail 

to hear her will miss a rare treat. Eastern ArgUS, / 
land, Me. 

Mrs. Woodbridge "pleads with cultured intellect and 
loving heart," like an anointed proph the holiest 

interests of humanity in home and state. — Press, Manches- 
ter, ( onn. 

The visit of Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge will long he 
remembered by the people of Findlay. All were highly 
pleased with the manner and grace of the speaker and de- 
lighted with the eloquence and force of her utteran 
The great question of temperam v. handled in a mas 
terly way. The vast audience was held in rapt attention 
for more than an hour. Mrs. Woodbridge is (haste in 
style, modest in manner, with elegance of speech that is 
sure to charm the most critical he. air. /V - Findlay, 0. 

I had the rare pleasure of listening t" Mrs. Woodbridge 

at your convention at Huron. It was a fine intellectual 
treat. Her address V9 - 01 of the most masterly ex] 
tions of the temperance position of to day which I have 
ever heard. She is a very interesting speaker, mist- 
the choicest and most sinewy English, with a voice and 
manner which charm, while her facts and logic, marshaled 
in invincible columns, overwhelm you with conviction. 
Mrs. Woodbridge will be greeted by one of those crov. 
and cultured audiences for which Yankton is famous. — 
Judge Hugh /. Campbell, Yankton, Dak. 

Mrs. Woodbridge, the secretary of the National W. C. 
T. U., in an address of over an hour, held the close atten- 
tion of the entire audience. Appeals, burning with zeal 



380 LIFE OF MARY A. WOOD BRIDGE. 

and enthusiasm, were presented with impassioned succes- 
sion. — The Daily Huronite, Huron, Dak. 

Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, of Ravenna, Ohio, addressed 
the convention and visitors, last evening. She spoke elo- 
quently, with great force and acceptability, and if ever the 
presence of a magnificent audience gave inspiration to the 
speaker, it was last night. The effort was certainly a pow- 
erful one, and one that no speaker who ever graced a plat- 
form need be ashamed of. — Daily Leader, Bloomingion, III. 

A crowded house greeted Mrs. Woodbridge last Mon- 
day evening, at Watertown, to listen to that lady's elo- 
quent, logical and practical lecture upon the subject of pro- 
hibition. The effort was without doubt the best ever heard 
upon a Watertown platform. 

Mrs. Woodbridge addressed the people in the Opera 
House, Sabbath evening, and was listened to with rapt at- 
tention by an audience which in point of number and 
refinement is seldom equaled in this city. Mrs. Wood- 
bridge is queen of the rostrum, possessing a dignity of 
presence, a clear, well modulated voice, a distinctness of 
enunciation, graceful gestures, fluent diction, and above all 
an earnestness of purpose and conviction which keeps her 
hearers in full sympathy with her. — Dakota Standard. 

State Convention of W. C. T. U. — Mrs. Mary A. 
Woodbridge, secretary National and World's W. C. T. U., 
made the speech of the evening. It is impossible to give 
an idea of the speaker's powers. — Passaic, N. J., Echo. 

The addresses of Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, of Ohio, 
secretary of the National W. C. T. U., at the Methodist 
church, Sabbath evening, and at the Congregational church 
in South Bridgeton, Sunday forenoon, were without doubt 
the ablest as well as the most entertaining ever given before 
Bridgeton audiences. A lady of mature years, of fine cul- 
ture and of the highest Christian character, her powerful 
arraignment of the liquor traffic produced a profound im- 
pression upon the large audiences who listened for an hour 
and a half with the closest attention. Thoroughly absorbed 
in her work, and with a remarkably distinct articulation and 
a calm and logical method of statement, her efforts reached 
the very acme of eloquence and enchained the attention of 
her audience as by magic. No mere synopsis can give any 



TELEGRAMS. i 

adequate conception of the address. The Bridge ton K Maine, 

Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge lectured in the afternoon and 
evening on \V. C. T. U. day and held the undivided atten- 
tion of large audiences. She may well be called the qu 
of the platform ; her arguments are so logical and com 
ing, her style so pleasing and natural, no sane- man will 

Contend that women are not entitled to the ballot after he 

has listened to one of her speeches. — The Genesee I 'alley 
Post, X. V. 

A FEW OF Till', many TELEGRAMS RECEIVED AFTER 
MRS. WOODBRIDGE'S DEATH. 

B( iSTON, Mass., « >< ;. 25, I 
Bewildered by your message, will not believe the worst, tenderest 

sympathy. Mary Woodbridge, the right hand of cur society, so- 
iu ten thousand homes. FRANC : s K. Willard, 

Is\: l-.T, 

Anna A. Gordon. 

Boston, Mass., Oct 26, 1 
Our teudercst sympathy is with you, our loss immeasurable, none 
could be more widely missed or more deeply mourned. 

Francis E. Willard, 
Isabel s< imersrt, 
Anna A. Gordon. 

Montrkai., Oct. 27, 1 
The white ribbon women of Canada mourn with you the death 
of Mrs. Woodbridge. I'.li.a F. M. Williams, 

President Dominion W. (.'. T. U. 

PHILADELPHIA, Oct. 29, I 

Let us 'nave no dirges over this grave, but some triumphant hymn 
and a cheer witli a prayer iu it ; for Mary Woodbridge W " lier 

in lift- and death, and the rest is rapture. 

John G. WOOLLBY. 

East Hampton, Conn., Oct. 29, 1S94. 
My deepest sympathy for your irreparable loss. 

Caroline B. Bubll. 

Boston, Mass., Oct. 27 
Massachusetts mourns the loss of a stalwart woman. Swee: 

Susan P. 1 i-:n. 



382 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 26, 1S94. 
Indiana white-ribboners personally bereaved by death of IVIary 
Woodbridge. Read II Samuel, first chapter, last three verses. 

Lena M. Beck, President. 
Lodie E. Reed, Secretary. 

Alliance, O., Oct. 26, 1894. 
Countless thousands mourn. The heroine died at her post. Life 
for duty and love. The loss strikes the cause of God, home and 
native land. Ohio Prohibitionists tender heartfelt sympathy. 

L. B. Logan. 

West Grove, Pa., Oct. 27, 1S94. 
My heart bleeds. Mrs. Woodbridge was my inspiration all the 
years. Rebecca B. Chambers. 

Mrs. Hall, a near neighbor of Mrs. Woodbridge in 
Ravenna, sent us the following : 

It matters not though unaware, 

Death's angel came at close of day; 

The wings of faith already plumed, 
Had but to poise and soar away. 

We chant no dirges while we weep, 
For full and sweet her life has been ; 

So near she dwelt to heaven's gate, 
'Twas but a step to enter in. 

If we but glean where she has sown, 
And hoard our handfuls one by one ; 

Rejoicing, from the field we'll bring 
Some golden sheaves at set of sun. 

GOD WATCHES O'ER HIS OWN. 

BY MARY T. LATHRAP. 

The W. C. T. U. has won a name, which has gone to 
the ends of the earth a synonym for whatsoever is pure, and 
has translated its high principles into the languages of the 
world. The W. C. T. U. has developed a rounded, earnest 
womanhood, and brought to worthy fame some of the best 
known women of to-day, while its leader easily stands pre- 
eminent in the place she holds and the work she has done 
for her country and her time. 




MRS MARY T. I VTHRAP. 



/'/ LEGRAMS, 

All this being true, we should look 
ultimate victory. But th \r. The truths ad- 

mitted by the brain and conscience oi the nation do not 
into its laws nor direct its statesmanship. The blood of 
souls yet stains the gold of her revenues. The actual re 
volt of low. i Republicanism from the law and principle oi 
prohibition outlines the future policy of th it division 

of citizens; and the fact that bishops and brewers both re- 
joice in the triumph of that party which thus throws off 
obligation to this greatest of questions is but a token of the 
moral obstinacy abroad. But 

That cry ring! on and it will DOl I 

( )n <>ur borders will n< 

The voice of warning hi come abroad, 

The tin rijic for the hour of G 

What then, says Prophecy, at the gateways swinging 
across the path ^t twenty years? This— righteous princi- 
ples can never he defeated or Overthrown. 

It takes courage and faith to stand for principles where 
they seem to make no progress hut wait silent as the 
"Sphinx in Egypt sands." Workers long to -how results, 

to say to the world : See what has been achieved ! They 
are often unwilling to wait the triumph of conviction 
wrought by the spirit of God. Here lies the danger. We 
need a return to more spiritual weapons, anew consecra- 
tion to principles which alone are eternal and triumphant. 

The curse is yet upon us ; conscience sleeps, evil is abroad, 
and the God of nations at the door. We must get right or 
be punished. 

Set the trumpet to thy lips, W8t< h< I 

Who heard the voice divine . 
Blow one clear Btrain to rouse the souls that slumber, 

This is an evil time. 

Set the trumpet to thy lip, O watch) I 
Cry out across the night : 

Stay by the truth, wherever it may lead thee. 
At last 'tis crowned in light 

Set the trumpet to thy lip, <> watcho 

Speak all thy BOUl hath known ; 
Fear not, for in tic of any hat' 

('ri"l watches o'er His own. 

Jackson, Mich. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE AUTHOR'S ESTIMATE OF MRS. WOODBRIDGE — JOHN 
G. WOOLEEY'S TRIBUTE — CONCLUSION. 

Those who have passed into the world beyond the grave are, in 
God's sight, and before our own hearts, still one with us. Whoso- 
ever it be that we have so lost, they still call upon us by what we 
cherish and know of them, to remember that their wishes and their 
hopes for us are not buried in their graves, but will continue as long 
as our own immortal souls. . . The good thoughts, the good deeds, 
in good memories of those who have been the salt and the light of 
the earth do not perish with their departure — they live on still ; and 
those who have wrought them live in them. — Dea?i Sta?iley. 

God calls our loved ones, but we lose not wholly 

"What He hath given ; 

They live on earth in thought and deed as truly 

As in heaven. 

— /. G. Whit tier. 

A BRILLIANT writer has said : " A radiant and spark- 
ling woman, full of wit, reason and fancy, is a whole 
crown of jewels. A poor, opaque copy of her is the most 
that one can render in a biographical sketch." 

I feel painfully conscious of having given but a poor, 
opaque copy of the jeweled womanhood of my beloved 
friend, even in this volume. When Michael Angelo made 
his matchless statue of Moses, he looked upon his finished 
work, and was so lost in rapturous admiration that he 
struck it with the chisel on the limb and said: "Moses, 
why don't you speak ? " The mark of the blow is there 
still; but "there was no voice that answered." It was, 
after all, only an image in stone of the great soul that lived 

(384) 



and breathed, wi • and spoke, ruled and walked with 
God. 

I look upon the greal pile of manuscript lying on the 
table before me, and think of the coming volume which is 
so precious to me for her Bake, and sigh that I cannot m 
it speak-that I cannot make the reader of these dull ; 
know the great soul as I knew her in 1 

[ say life ; for she was the most | t expression 

embodiment of lite nt its best as we mortals know it phys- 
ical life, intellectual lite and spiritual life, I have ever met. 
She was rare simply as a physical being, lithe, quick, 
graceful, vigorous, powerful, majestic, beautiful, with a 
reserve force of stored up vitality that •■ iar- 

velous. All this was hut tin- home of an intellect I 
a Damascus blade, quick as a flash of light, pei ting 
and pervasive as the subtle force oft' dm 

and sell poised and reposeful .is Nature on :( June morning. 
Her mind was judicial, broad and comprehensive, with the 

grasp of great affairs of national and importa: 

while she noted tlie smallest details of pi d achieve- 

ment with all the skill of the most adept politician. 'Phis 
rare combination of the extreme powers of intellect m 
her one of the most consummate organizers ami ex 
forces the YV. C. T. I". h is ever produced ; and it is doubt- 
ful if the politics of the century has produced greater 
among men. 

And while I am making a word picture of this great 
character, I do not wish to detract from the honor and 
glory of any of her companions. The ; incut ly great 

women developed by this wonderful reform movement 1: 
each their own place and name and fame, which are 
They recognized the excellence ol other, ind v. 

too great to he jealous of a comrade's feint 

Miss Frances K. Willard. in a public speech, called Mrs 
W Ibridge the statesman of the W. C. T. U. Another 



3S6 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

woman of national reputation said to me: "Had Mrs. 
Woodbridge lived in a later age, she might have been a 
Secretary of State, for she had all the requisite ability for 
the greatest achievements of statesmanship." 

But perhaps nothing was more remarkable than the 
diversity of her gifts. Be it remembered that she had no 
schooling after an age when most girls are plodding through 
the high school, that she had three children before she 
was twenty-one, and never had a thought of serving the 
public until she was a grandmother of several grandchil- 
dren, one of them seven years old. It is the wonder of the 
world that Oliver Cromwell with limited education emerged 
from obscurity after reaching middle life and cut such a 
figure as a general and statesman, carving his name so 
deeply and inerasably on the tablets of history. Is not the 
wonder fully paralleled in the career of Mrs. Woodbridge ? 
What woman can be named in the Christian centuries who 
began so late in life, and then performed such prodigies of 
effective labor for humanity and gained such worldwide 
influence and fame as a reformer, orator, editor and writer, 
making herself known and loved in all lands by the savor 
of her holy life and its power for good ? For the closing 
fifteen years of her life she was in constant demand as an 
orator to stand before the great national assemblies of all 
kinds, to address legislatures, colleges, learned bodies, and 
to fill the most prominent pulpits of the land, north, east, 
south and west, while by her newspaper work in the field 
of reform she reached the most distant portions of the 
globe. Always her influence was a benediction. 

There were some peculiarities about her oratory deserv- 
ing of mention. She had a remarkable talent for wit and 
humor and mimicry, and was as adept at narrating droll 
stories as the immortal Lincoln. She could have convulsed 
her audience with merriment at will and called out per- 
petual peals of laughter. Had she done so she would prob- 



V. 

ably have been esteems I by I 

and brilliant orator. But 

dren, she almost never gave expression to thi 

in her i In all the speeches in thii 

there is not one p that I] a^- 

^c^t a smile. In this respect, 1 L 

whose speeches w< ie aiw . 

must have l" tne moral consid a in ti. 

each that produced this similar result. Bad 
nest nature, struj 

sin that burdened their inmost soul. When I 

before an audien k the solemn issues of the fa 

made mirth se< m out of pla 

Mrs. \V< I to 1 be writer : I 

gift or faculty for which I find □ ind I do not under* 

stand why ( '. 1 1 gave it to i vein of sarcasm keen 

rapier, that would be c- le if I I let it 

have play. Love and grace enable me 1 

and I never use it, but the tempt ition to do it Qtly 

with me." On one occasion this faculty and hei 

provoke mirth had ample expression. A 

had been ar: in New York for a public 

Cooper Institute on the wisdom of a lie 

Howard Crosby was v take the af: and 

Mrs. Mary T. Lathrap the I ve. The night arrived 

the debate, and : a, I belie 1 . ICCOUnt 

sickness. Mrs. Lathrap failed to be present. [| 
that Mrs. Wbodbridge was ; through the city on  

lecturin ir, and reached Mr. I' mansion just 

before the meetii She had not yet had time to chat 

her apparel or have a mouthful I when her p- 

became known, and ac n t was sent in all ha ' 
to go to Cooper Institute, listen to Dr. Crosl pre] 
speech, and answer it impromptu. She reluctantly c 
plied. Probably her moral indignation was aiOU the 



388 LIFE OF MARY A. WOO DB RIDGE. 

arguments of the learned doctor of divinity in favor of an 
infamous license law; and, without having taken any notes, 
she let loose all the untrammeled powers of her intellectual 
being, picking up and answering one by one the points of 
his argument. With the dexterity and deftness of an ex- 
perienced fencer, she put in thrust after thrust and rained 
blow after blow, her blade edged with the keenest sarcasm, 
and cutting to the marrow at every stroke. The doctor sat 
amazed and mute with astonishment and helplessness. The 
audience enjoyed his discomfiture, and greeted the fair de- 
bater with cheer after cheer. The excitement rose to the 
highest pitch. Her massive arguments, supported by facts 
and enlivened by the raciest sallies of wit provoked storm 
after storm of laughter and applause, and when she closed 
a gentleman sitting on the platform turned to her and 
laughingly said : " We are going to have you arrested for 
cruelty to animals." " What ? " said she, " did I say any- 
thing unbecoming a Christian lady? " " Xot a thing," he 
replied; " it was beyond criticism, and therefore all the 
more terrible." 

It is doubtful if the noble women of the W. C. T. U. 
with all their intimate acquaintance with Mrs. Woodbridge 
will ever know what certainly unsurpassed, if not un- 
equaled talent for debate and forensic eloquence Mrs. 
Woodbridge possessed. She had onlj r been speaking be- 
fore the public four years when she was made National 
recording secretary. For fifteen years thereafter she filled 
the secretary's chair, her heavy labors of from fifteen to 
eighteen hours a day precluding all participation in the off- 
hand discussions. She once said to me, "I almost never 
even listen to the long speeches and debates ; I take the 
time they give me to write up the minutes. And even if I 
do listen to a discussion I am too weary to speak." The 
National conventions were thus deprived of a rare forensic 
ability, for Mrs. Woodbridge possessed instantaneous com- 



- 

mand of .til her faculties am 

ment o( the weak poinl enl 

fluent utteran oglish, th< 

wit. a relent] >us mei ta and 

tistics of which her tireJ j had made hei a In 

lopaedia, a cal immanding mien 

and a voi •. "•.'  

think i 
mind needed Ice one pn she 

did m highest dej 

Hei • addresses 

thought with ti: ;i the facta and 

princi] n in th heights of tl 

and I rgument with nev< U, never an a1 

at | iy <>f heat : with n< 

i <>r st: 5C. I can think of nothing 

liken i 1 I 

that h but 01 tor t\\ un- 

dred miles. It simply fl n with no dels 

hurry, wide and deep and full and strong. It can afford 

to be calm, for it 

S  much I have :. and in tual 

in. It was all only a beautiful 
temple in which dwelt her richer, gr piritual 

all was  d by the indwelling spirit of the living r.od. 

What a w •: • indwellii rist, this 

heaven, th inning, t; rit mad 

Wh ' I.' ■'.'.' II " Th- 

elusive evidence of B man's rity is that he give 

him r a prit money, all thin, 

compara i\ v.iy ; but when a man mal 

a gift of his daily life and practice, it tin that the 

truth, whatever it b taken ; D of him. F: 

• sincerity, his words gain the force and pcrtineno 
deeds. What ire the image and superscription 



39© LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

of Caesar seems now to bear the image and superscription 
of God." 

So genuine was Mrs. Woodbridge that her very words 
had the potency of deeds, and her whole life was stamped 
with the image of God. 

In her later years, so rich and rare was her soul life, so 
sanctified did she become under the rich baptisms of the 
Holy Spirit that came upon her, that it was her meat and 
drink to do her Heavenly Father's will. Her life was hid 
with Christ in God. " Holiness to the Lord " was written 
upon every faculty and possession, and as the handmaiden 
of Christ, her whole being was set apart as sacred to her 
Lord. 

When I wrote her during the last summer of her life 
that we had given her name to our infant daughter, she 
wrote in reply : ' ' One more for me to love and pray for, 
and carry on my heart before God." And again, " I thank 
you for the picture of that beautiful child. . . . May the 
dear one spared of God, receive the highest honor, to carry 
His gospel as an ' elect lady ' to the ends of the earth. I 
am already honored, and have no fear for the future! " 

Mrs. Woodbridge herself was an "elect lady " of God, 
and her reverent, holy heart could think of nothing else to 
pray for in behalf of my precious baby girl. 

Her life, so devoutly consecrated, was characterized by 
what unremitting toil! Each moment was improved relig- 
iously as a golden opportunity for serving Jesus. To toil 
for her Beloved became a blessed privilege, even the passion 
of her being. 

And what serene dignity and holy calm! She was 
lifted above worry and flurry into the serene azure of the 
peace of God. She once wrote to comfort my heart, quot- 
ing what was doubtless the solace of her own : 

" Thou art as much His care as if beside, 
Nor mau, nor angel lived in heaven or earth." 



. U/S/OA 
" Build  little fen 

Ar.-u: 

Pill the space with l<>\ ing woi 

Ami therein itay. 
Look not through the 

i ;■ ■■: to morrow ; 

■•I u ill help thee bear what • 

• '\- i>r sorrow ." 

Doubtless tongues ol envy and hate wagged i 
her : for m> valiant a servant of Christ could not i 
But in her Thomas a Kempis she marked this passage : 
' Blessed are the tars that gladly receive the pulses of the 
Divine whisper, and give no heed to the many whisperings 
of the world.*' When the archers shot at her, her bow 
abode in strength; for she betook herself to "the secret 
place of the M.^t High," and abode "under the shadow 

of the Almighty." 

What strength was hers joined to what sweetness and 
gentleness. She was strong in her conscious integrity, 
strong in the possession of truth, strong in her cause, and 
in the strength of the Omnipotent God. Like a 
tower she "stood four-square to all the winds that blew," 
and had the maj >se of conscious power; hut her 

heart was as sweet and gentle as an affectionate child. 

Lowell said of Longfellow: — "whose sweetest verse is 

harsher-toned than he." Her years were filled with loving 
deeds and tender, gentle ministries, but to those who knew 
her real life, her sweetest word, her gentlest deed "was 
harsher-toned than she." 

Lincoln, after granting a pardon, said to a friend, " Say 
of me that I always plucked a thistle and planted a flower 
where I thought a flower would thrive." Mrs. Woodbri 
hated the thistles of vice and hate and sin, and had a! 
lute faith in the flowers of righteousness, and she dev< 
her life to the work of pluckiug the thistles and planting 



39 2 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

the flowers of virtue and hope and love, and around the 
wide world to-day " they bloom a fragrant blossoming." 

What a friend ! loyal, true, constant, abiding, — strength 
for every weak hour, and always an inspiration to every- 
thing good. Mrs. Eva Munson Smith, of Illinois, writes : 
"It seems inexpressibly sad to give her up, because she was 
one of the very 'few who could take time to be friendly,' 
though none were busier than she." Mrs. Elizabeth W. 
Andrew, of Chicago, once wrote her: "Your exceedingly 
kind expressions of encouragement to me are beyond price. 
We so often faint and almost fall in the thick of the 
battle for the want of it. I think of you always with a 
thrill of heart, remembering your unfailing, beautiful 
Christian courtesy. It has been such a lesson and incite- 
ment to me to see you in the hurried proceedings of the 
National Convention, preserving that sweet, unvarying 
kindness of demeanor toward all. It is one of the best 
things I have gained in that great body." 

Another wrote from Copley Square Hotel, Boston : 

My Dear Mrs. Woodbridge : — There have come to me 

so many lessons of patience and forbearance in seeing you 

from day to day, as I have during the convention, that I 

have come to admire you very much, and I wish to ask 

you to accept, as a token of love, this Hawaiian fan, made 

by a Hawaiian woman, and given to me out of gratitude for 

what my husband had done for her husband, who to-day is 

a most earnest temperance worker in Honolulu. She will 

be glad to have you possess it. 

Cornelia H. Jones. 
Honolulu. 

Her tender grace, Christian courtesy and kindness, born 
of her intimacy of communion with Jesus, won hearts to 
her ; and once gained, she held them by the strong cords of 
an abiding, unselfish love. 



rV 

Ami accomp a nying all this Imposing greatness ol p< 
and influence and usefulness, what mo and hidinj 

self; she repeatedly refused to let her life be written while 
she was living. She refused lucrative positions of honor 

and power. She once said to B friend, " I am not Working 

for Mary A Woodbrid] Alter her death, her secretary 

said : "She Used BO often to say to nn ' N> vcruse my name 
when it is not absolutely Qi Shi I tO self 

and dead tO sin, that she might know Christ and DC found 

in Him ; self-free because her life was bid with Christ in 
God. 

And what a daughter and sister and mother and wife ! 
Through the long years the light and joy and comfort and 

.vning glory of her beautiful home, filling the whole 

le of womanly duties with conspicuous ability and 
fidelity- ! She was a model for her daughters, the idol ol 
her son, and the pride of her devoted husband ! From 
Colorado she once wrote: " If all is well, in ten days at 
the very farthest, I will l>e in the dear old home with the 
most precious husband the world has ever known. So 
says the most affectionate, longing wife, Ma: 

body, mind, spirit , time, talents, si. ,11. influeti'. I 

everything for her Lord, and her Christ was her all in 

Oh, that I could make my friend live and breathe before 
the reader as I was privileged to know her through twenty 
years, during which her Hie was to me a perpetual benedic- 
tion. But my poverty-stricken langnaj Is. I cannot 

make the statue speak ! The prim • • shall be 

heard with his matchless tribute in these closing ; It 

auy think I have overstated, let them listen to 

DBAS Mr. WOODBRIDOB : — Iu presence of a grief and 

loss like yours. I can scarcely bring myself to say a word. 
For it seems to me that to meddle with your Lonelil 



394 LIFE OF MARY A. WOODBRIDGE. 

heart is a kind of vandalism, and to speak of our quiet 
love while gazing at the shock and temporary wreck of 
yours, a kind of sacrilege. 

If I could leave you out of mind it would be easy to 
speak of her who went away in the midst of her splendid 
years in so characteristic a fashion, so promptly, quickly, 
magnificently. 

In death as in life, she walked the winding ways of the 
world's garden of death when it began to dawn, looking 
for her I,ord in the debris of the night and the storm, and 
the wide-eyed cynicism of a doubting race, and when she 
heard Him say, " Mary," her whole soul opened like a lily 
to the light of midsummer daybreaks flashing along the 
surface of still pools, and bloomed straightway out of the 
ooze and fret of time into eternity. 

I know many women and love many, but have as yet 
seen no such grace, repose, and symmetry of character as 
had this angel wife of yours. 

Nearly all of us who gain some little coign of vantage 
in the struggle of existence, forthwith take on in some de- 
gree the ugliness of self-importance and lightness of regard 
of others whom we complacently consider beneath or at any 
rate behind us, for whom we send sometimes and smile and 
say, " My dear, what do they say of us ?" " How goes the 
world?" — meaning our little personal sphere of clay, and 
then wave off and heed no further nor ever think of asking, 
" How fares it with you? " until we need or are perplexed 
again. 

Your Mary had the rare and godlike quality of holding 
herself at a modest but fixed value of earning power for 
Jesus, and also at a fair, decent and honorable estimate, the 
other woman. This is her greatest contribution to that 
jeweled crown of woman's effort — The Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union. 

She never failed to stimulate the germ of god-likeness 
in those she met in the way, nor ever by any personal van- 
ity or light look or " put on " grandeur, murdered a timid 
hope or purpose in another life. 

Her life was very noble. I shall never cease to thank 
God that during this last year she was almost my closest 
friend, except my own sweet wife. 

Her death was inexpressibly grand, engrossed as she 



\ 7 I 'Sf( >\. 

was in her most arduous toil «>f which 00 car ever heard 
1k-i complain 01 ask fox gi 

sistanoe; enthralled as ine was by the inspiration ol hex 
mighty, bat Bcarcely conaciona service ol the world. 

Like lightning when she heard her name in the morn- 
ing twilight shecried out, "Rabboni ' ay< like 
some simple, faithful sailor b the mast, Infatuated Ir- 
itis Admiral and went away among the shrouds, while he 
who laid the lines of her ship and launched her hum the 

ways at the beginning, took her ont I 

( me night her husband brought from the Li in arm* 

ful of volumes found in her room in Chicago, precious k< 
sakes given her by various friends. Among them was a 
volume having the following written on the fly-leaf: 

I give this book to my beloved Mary A- Woodbridge, by my M e ss e d 
mother's reqnc I FBAHCS9 I. Wii.i.akd. 

/'hi- Den, Rest 

It was an illustrated copy of BUzabeth Barrett Brown* 
lug's poem, " HeGiveth His Beloved Sleep," three stanzas 
of which are as follows : 

Of all the thought 1 that U 

Borne inward unto soul 
ng the Psalmist's ma 

Now tell me if that any is, 

I Ming this — 

" He giveth His beloved »lee] 
"Slee] 

Hut have DO t' 

• brougb the eyelida 
Hut never doleful dream again 
Shall break the happy slnmber when 
I !•■ givetb I 

Ami, friends, dear frienda, when it shall be 
Tli.it tins low breatb is gone from me, 
And round my i ome to weep, 

Let one, moal loving  ill 

Si'. '. 1 

• He giveth His I 



396 LIFE OF MAR Y A. WOODBRIDGE. 

Yes, Mary A. Woodbridge, weary, toiling, waiting one, 
brave, earnest, consecrated, Christ-like soul, after your long 
day of fruitful toil, Jesus hath permitted you to fall asleep 
in Him. 

Sleep on, beloved, sleep and take thy rest ; 

Lay down thy head upon thy Saviour's breast. 

We love thee well, but Jesus loves thee best — 

Good-night ! good-night ! good-night ! 

Calm is thy slumber as an infant's sleep 
But thou shalt wake no more to toil and weep ; 
Thine is a perfect rest, secure and deep — 
Good-night ! good-night ! good-night ! 

Only "good-night," beloved, not "farewell ! " 
A little while and all His saints shall dwell 
In hallowed union indivisible — 
Good-night ! good-night ! good-night ! 

The earth is lonely without thee now thou art gone. 
We dwell amidst shadows a little longer, waiting with long- 
ing hearts to clasp the " vanished hand," and say " good- 
morning ! " in that " day without a night," where the Sun 
of Righteousness never sets. 



APPENDIX. 



GENEALOGV OP THB BRAYTON and MITCH- 

I'AA. FAMILIES 

I. 

BRAYTON l \Mii.v 

ORIGI N 09 Til HA ■! i:. 

Hrktons arc <>t Prench origin of Norman extraction. The Bre- 
ton families came mt< > Bngland with William the Conqueror, i 
.is I find in an i of the Bretons in 1197. This is the 

tirst date therein, and there sre four generations it the beginning 
of the pedigree prerioni to the date i 197. 

The name Breton ii derived from  province in Prance called 
Bretagne. The "Armorial Bearings "are the aame in Pran 
Bngland, and the name in Prance, LeBretou. 

Prom A (tor's Library in New York City: 

iiki'.tun ob rum 

"Baker's History of Northamptonshire," Vol. I., page 23^. lias 
a lonj; pedigree of the Breton familiea running back foui 
l>efore the first date 1197. The pedij ems to have been pre 

pared from papers in the family of William i.c Breton in 1 
This pedigree brings the family down to the ma, 

lll'KKl If 11RIAI. lUCARINC.S 

Iias the coat nf arms 1 which I have) with the name Bray ton, which 
is the only English work I have found with the nunc spelled Bray- 
ton, but in the same book under Breton is pre the same 

of arms and a ton, This 1 consider the Best proof that 

can be had of the origin of the family name that Brayton  
ton, and that the family is of Prench origin, Norman extraction. 
There an- at the present day many persons In Prance who are 

descendants of the old stock " Be Breton," and who by "The Her- 
aldry " of Prance have the same arms. 



398 APPENDIX. 

I find in "The Parliamentary Gazetteer " of 1839, P a g e 2 59 : 
Brayton — name of a parish in the lower division of Barkstone, 
Ash union of Selby, West Riding of Yorkshire, one-half mile west 
southwest of Selby, intersected by the Leeds and Selby railroad and 
the Selby canal which connects the " Ouse " and "Aire." It com- 
prises the Township and Chaplery of Barlow, and the Townships 
of Brayton, Burn, Gateforth, Hamilton and Thorpe and Willoughby 
living. Patrons in 1835. The Honorable E. Petre and the Prebend- 
ary of Wistow, the great and small tithes of Brayton, Thorpe, Wil- 
loughby, Burton and Gateforth with land township. There are daily 
four schools, two of which are endowed. The charities connected 
with Brayton yield ^"43 16s 6d per annum. Population in 1831, 1 - 
612. Houses, 300. Acres of land, 10,690. 

The first of the name in this country was Francis Brayton, born 
1612, died 1692 ; was a member of the Colonial Assembly of Rhode 
Island in 1662 and a member of the Grand Jury in Court of General 
Quarter Sessions in Newport, R. I., on June 12, 1688. 

EXTRACTS FROM COLONIAE RECORDS. 

1643. — " ffrancis Brayton is received an inhabitant and has given en- 
gagement unto the government." 
" ffrancis Brayton has propounded for a lot." 
1655. — Freeman. (From Genealogical Dictionary of R. I.) 
1667. — Aug. 10 he enlisted in a Troop of horse. 

1668. — '70, '71, '79, '84. Deputy. (Member of General Assembly.) 
1688. — Member of Grand Jury. 

1692. — Sept. 5. Will proved. Executrix, wife, Mary ; overseers, 
friends ; George Brownell, John Borden and John Anthony. 
To wife, use and profit of all land I bought of Stephen Burton and 
housing thereon in Portsmouth, and she to have use of all movables 
and real estate, goods, cattle, chattels, &c, and if needful she may 
dispose of any part for comfortable maintenance. To eldest son, 
Francis, all wearing apparel and confirmation of lands already given. 
To 2d son, Stephen, confirmation of lands already given, and 5s. 

At death of wife the land bought of Stephen Burton, — about 4 
acres — to go to eldest son, Francis, he paying legacies. 

To eldest daughter, Marth Pearce, 5s. To daughter, Elizabeth 
Bourne, £2. To daughter Sarah Gatchell, £2. To grandson Fran- 
cis, son of Francis, £2. To grandson Preserved, son of Stephen, £2. 
To grandson, Francis Pearce, £2. To granddaughter Mary, wife of 
James Tallmau, £2. At death of wife movables (with some excep- 
tions) to be divided to children and grandchildren. 



.//•. \ 



Will-':, n. inn . M n j 



Stephen Bra) ton, . Imitti d 

man R. I, April Bd< • ind Jury, I »< c< 

i'. 

Married, Man b ,s. 1678, Ann Tallman. 

Residence, iv. i •: ton, R I md Dro 

i. mi. M 

Mary, Elisabeth, Ann. Pi I, Btephen, Israel, 

[ai Stephen and Ann. 

Newport Pal ::ier. 

Iphael . v whom he had two chil< 

Married ad wil tbeth Lawton. 

enii.:>i- 
I 'antel, Robert. John. 

 Mi, married Sarah Hti 
R< fantucket, M in, Merchant 

CHILD! 

Win. II, : middle name dropped early in life), 

Thoi 

I raytou (mj father) married Juui Mitchell, 

danghtei of Peleg and I. irtwrighL Residen intncket, 

Ravenna, Newburgh and Ravenna, 
don, M 
died from Nantucket to Brazil Bank jpi.nn of the ship 

•■ Planter" (of which he had previously been first mate) and returned 
Jnh . with ninety nun- I .•■ rm and seventeen bum 

and tiled from Nantucket, June 

captain of ship " Ann," returned April .' with two thousand 

eight hundred and twenty four barrels of sperm oil,— next to the 

Nan t iK '► 

Sailed from Nantucket, November 1 sin >>f the- ship 

"Independ< Led and totall) lost on Starbu< 

[aland (a sunken island then not on chart), Bad on eighteen hun- 
dred ha: : Mil. 

CHTXDS 

Mary Ann, < •• Mitchell, Lydia Mitchell, John, Henrj Swift. 

KIXAI'ITri.ATl' 

1. Prancifl Brayton married Mary 

2. Stephen Brayton, second son of Francis and Mary, married 
Ann Tallman. 



400 APPENDIX. 

3. Israel Brayton, third son of Stephen and Ann, married, first, 
Eliphael Sanford, second, Elizabeth Lawton. 

4. Isaac Brayton, fourth son of Israel and Elizabeth, married 
Sarah Hussey. 

5. Isaac Brayton, second son of Isaac and Sarah, married Love 
Mitchell. 

6. Mary A. Brayton, daughter of Isaac and Love, married F. 
W. Woodbridge. 

II. 

MITCHELL FAMILY. 

Richard Mitchell married Mary Wood. 
Residence, Isle of Wight. 
Occupation, 

CHILDREN. 

Richard, born 1686, died July 24, 1722. 

Richard Mitchell, born 1686, at Brixton, Isle of Wight, was edu- 
cated in the doctrine of the Church of England — spent some time in 
the Royal Navy. In 1708 he came to America and settled in Rhode 
Island. He became a member of the Society of Friends. In 1708 
he married Elizabeth Tripp, daughter of James, of Rhode Island. 

Residence, , Rhode Island. 

Occupation, Tailor. 

CHILDREN. 

Elizabeth, Richard, Mercy, James, Joseph, 

Richard Mitchell, son of Richard and Elizabeth, came to Nan- 
tucket, Mass., — a lad — and learned the tailor's trade with Anthony 
Oder. He was a man of superior ability and acquired a large estate. 
He married Dec. 1, 1731, Mary Starbuck, daughter of Jethn and Dor- 
cas, of Nantucket. 

Residence, Nantucket. 

Occupation, Tailor. 

CHILDREN. 

Elizabeth, Richard, Jethn, Joseph, Mary, William, Eunice, Ben- 
jamin, James and Peleg. 

Peleg Mitchell married at Nantucket, Dec. 30, 1779, Lydia Cart- 
wright, daughter of James and Love. 

Residence, originally Newport, R. L, later Nantucket, Mass. 

Occupation, Oil and Candle manufacturer. 



A Pi :x 

Jo ih, Wil 

mei ' I ! 

I 

\!!n, 11, John, I leni 

rricd 

P. \V. Woodbi i 

RECAPITULATE I 

i. Richard Mitchell married Mar} Wood. 

ird Mitchell, Richard and Mary, married i 

lu't!; 

ban! Mitchell, 
.ck. 
I I m >>i Richard and Ma 1 Lydia 

ht. 

5. Love M daughti 
ton. 

6. Mi: ton, dau and I. 1 I". 
\V. Woodbrid 

WHO -. 

P<  11. 

2. D01 bter, married Joaepb Pi 

tt, theii might 

wn. 

' IV. 

I.Y.I- 1 Cartwri bter, marrii d P 

■. Mil hell, tin . married I tou. 

dbridge. 



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