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V.C., a.c.B., B.EJ: 









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His distinguished merit and gallant conduct added to itt 
fame ; his high character maintained its reputation ; hit 
warmest wish viae ever far its welfare ; atid his proudest 
moment when he became one of Us Colonels Commandant. 

E. H. V. 


In an admirable article in the ' CJornhill Magazine ' 
some years ago Mr Sidney Lee divided biography into 
two classes — the National and the Individual. The 
one, a collection of memoirs of a nation's notable men 
and women, written with the utmost conciseness for 
record and reference ; the other, a detailed history of 
any one person. 

The first may be compared to a historical picture 
into which numerous portraits are crowded, the prin- 
cipal figm-es being distinguished in the foreground by 
size and prominence, but all bearing their part in the 
incident, and recognisable in a greater or less degree ; 
the second to a finished portrait in which, according 
to the skill of the painter, besides the likeness of form 
and feature, the soul also stands revealed. 

While it would be too much to say that every one 
sufficiently notable to be included in the first class is 
also sufficiently interesting to be included in the 
second, yet undoubtedly a large number are ; but as 
regards a great many the want of material is an in- 
superable barrier to an individual biography. How 

many there are who have come upon the stage, played 
their part with skill and effect, drawn down upon them 
the plaudits of the audience, and made their exit, of 
whom the short scene reveals nearly all that is known 
about them. How gladly sometimes would we know 
more, but there is nothing more to be found — an 
individual biography is impossible. 

Even wlien abundant material is available, a biog^ 
rapher of any experience knows the difficulties of tl 
task. He remembers that what the wise man 
ages ago of making many books may to-day be 
of biographies, and he hesitates before adding to thft 

That there is a growing eagerness to know more of. 
the prominent persons in the nation's history is patenl 
to eveiy one. It may be due to a more general 
quiescence in the dictum of the poet that " the proper 
study of mankind is man," or to a legitimate desire for 
further acquaintance with those who have charmed us 
by their writings or inspired us by their actions, or it 
may originate mei'ely in that " Paul Pry " curiosity 
and love of gossip which have begotten the baneful 
interviewer. Whatever the cause, the fact remains. 

And it is indeed very natural that when the names 
of prominent people are familiar to us — either by their 
works or from frequent montiou of them in newspapers 
and magazines — as the doers of great deeds or us dis- 
tingulshed in literature, science, art, or pliilauthropy, 
&c., we should want to know more about tliem. 
are not content with their works. We want to kn< 
what manner of men they were tliat did such dt 

3 of 


ir produced such works. An interest is excited as 
to their persons. We think that if we knew their 
appearance, their surroundings, their unofficial life so 
to epeak, we should get nearer their inner selves, be 
better able to understand the spring of their action, 
the secret principle or motive power that originated 
the work which has made its author famous and has 
perhaps touched our hearts. 

The aim of the biographer of the individual is to 
gratify this legitimate desire by producing in the 
mind of the reader an accurate impression of the in- 
dividual whose life he writes. But to succeed in this 
is given to few, and the really good biographies may 
almost be counted on the fingers. 

Nevertheless a sketch bearing a fair resemblance to 
the original should be possible when sufficient material 
is available, and more particularly when that material 
takes the form of unreserved correspondence and of 

But here another and a greater difficulty has to be 
met. The limitations in the use of such letters and 
'diaries are many. While accuracy demands that the 
truth be told, discrimination and judgment must pre- 
vent the needless importation of anything that can 
.wound the feelings of people still living ; due regard 
ir proportion must restrain the possessor of abundant 
terial from overwhelming the reader with details 
ivoid of either general or especial interest, and from 
:ng him in three volumes what would be better 
mdensed into one. Above all must be avoided any 
■ttempt to search skeleton cupboards of which the 

key may be supposed to be found la correspondence 
or diaries ; to attribute motives because some depth. 
of character has not been fathomed ; to draw conclu- 
sioas from accidental, fragmentary, or passing expres- 
sions which are not in keeping with the general tenor* 
of the hfe ; or to magnify Bmall incidents or traits of 
disposition into a prominence which is not justified 
and tends to detract from the general effect produced, 
if not to convey an absolutely erroneous impression. 

It is, therefore, with a full sense of the difficulty 
and responsibility of the work that this ' Life of 
Lieut. - General Sir Gerald Graham ' is presented 
to the reader, and if some of the canons laid down 
have been contravened, ignorance clearly cannot be 
pleaded as an excuse, but rather that it has not 
always been possible to attain the height of these 
counsels of perfection. 

An article on Sir Gerald Graham will appear in 
due course in the Supplement of the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography,' and his right to be numbered 
amongst the country's distinguished sons will thus 
be duly acknowledged. But at best a dictionary 
notice is a case of dry bones ; the anatomy of the 
skeleton may be perfect, but it lacks fiesh and 
blood : it does not live. Here, then, the individual 
biography comes in. No one will say he was not 
sufficiently distinguished, but some may say, " What 
more is there to tell?" The material exists in the 
letters which he wrote and the diaries which he 
kept. With these I first became acquainted through 
the kindness of Sir Gerald's family, when, shortly 

after the General's death, I was requested to write 
a short memoir of him for the ' Royal Engineers' 
Journal,' and I have since willingly undertaken the 
larger work, believing that the material was suf- 
ficient to make a lifelike portrait of him, and that 
the biogiapher alone would be to blame if he failed 
in the sympathetic and discriminating use of his 
material to produce, at anyrate, a fair resemblance 
of the original. 

A serious difficulty presented itself. In that 
for some twenty years hardly any of Sir Gerald's 
letters or diaries are available. Fortunately those 
years form a quiescent period of his life when he 
was engaged in no great doings, but it is also a 
period when mature judgments are formed and 
youthful effervescence is replaced by solid opinions ; 
so that the absence of record is a distinct loss, 
and to some extent spoils the proportion of the 

Although but a part of the available material has 
been used, and many excisions have been made, it 
may still seem that much which is trivial might have 
been omitted, both in the correspondence and the 
diaries ; but, on the other hand, it is in many of these 
trivial details that character is revealed — even in the 
telling of them, — while the scenes of active warfare in 
which they were written clothe many of them with 
an interest which they would not otherwise possess. 
Gifted with considerable faculty of imagination, 
Graham depicts incidents very graphically, and has 
a pleasant genial way of describing his suiToundlngs. 
Some of the opinions expressed in his early letters are 

crude and over-confident, but they have all the charm 
of youthful absolutism. 

My endeavour has been to let Sir Gerald speak for 
himself, where it is possible, by his letters and diaries, 
and to confine my share in the narrative to the provi- 
sion of connecting-links where necessary, of explana- 
tions of the general position of affairs in the various 
phases of his service, and of such selection throughout 
of the contributions of himself and of his family as 
would best convey to the reader the truest represen- 
tation of the man and of the atmosphere which sur- 
rounded him. 

To his sons, Mr Frank Gordon Graham, and the 
Rev. Walter Burns Graham, of Birkenshaw, York- 
shire ; to his daughter, Miss Olive Graham, and his 
step - daughter. Miss Emma Blacker ; to his niece, 
Mrs Shenstone of Clifton, and her brothers, Mr 
Reginald Graham Durrant of Marlborough College, 
and the Rev. Bernard C. Durrant of Dalston, Cum- 
berland, my warm acknowledgments are due for their 
valuable help. 

My thanks are also due to General Sir Richard 
Harrison, K.C.B., C.M.G., Inspector-General of Forti- 
fications ; Major-General W, Salmond, C.B., Deputy 
Adjutant-General, Royal Engineers ; Major-General 
Sir John Ardagh, K.C.I.E., C.B., Director of MQitary 
Intelligence ; and Captain E. H. Hills, R.E., Deputy 
Assistant Adjutant-General, Intelligence Division, for 
some kind assistance. 

RoBT. H. Vetch. 




















the white rabbit— political news — french soldiers and a tele- 
scope—death of the czar nicholas and accession of alexander 
— a russian 80btie — captain montagu taken prisoner — major j. w. 
Gordon's gallantry — the second bombardment — the advanced 
battery opens fire — graham wounded — sir harry jones — captain 









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CHISA CAJiPAIGN — Continued. 


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M 'skill's action at TOntlK — TRAKBPORT ABRAKGEHEKTS — WATER- 

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A5D Advance on Pbkin in 1860. By Lieut-Colonel Gother Maniii 
CommAoding Royal Engineers ..... 865 

iL Report of a Portable Bridge made op Scalino-Ladders. By 
CapUin and Brevet Major 0. Qraham, Commanding 23rd Company, 
Royal Engineers ....... 367 

m. Action of Kassassin, Aug^t 28, 1882. Despatch from Major- General 

Q. Graham to General Sir Garnet Wolseley .... 869 

IV. Battle of El Tee, February 29, 1884. Despatch from Major-General 
Sir G. Graham, Commanding Tokar Expeditionary Force, to the 
Secretary of State for War ...... 875 

V. OocuPATiON of Tokar, March 1, 1884. Despatch from Major-General 

Sir G. Graham, Commanding Tokar Expeditionary Force . . 888 

VL Operations at Suakin. Despatch from Major - General Sir G. 

Graham, Commanding Expeditionary Force . 887 

viL Battle of Tamai, March 13, 1884. Despatch from Major-Gteneral 

Sir G. Graham, Commanding Expeditionary Force . . . 890 

▼m. Final Despatch, 1884, from Major-General Sir G. Graham, Command- 
ing Expeditionary Force ...... 897 

IX. Action at Hashin, March 20, 1885. Despatch from Lieut. -General 

Sir G. Graham to the Marquis of Hartington . . 414 

X. Action at Tofrik or M'Neill's Zeriba, March 22, 1885. Despatch 

from Lieut. -General Sir G. Graham to the Marquis of Hartington . 420 

XL Capture of Tamai, April 3, 1885. Despatch from Lieut. -General Sir 

G. Graham to the Marquis of Hartington .... 425 

xiL Raid on Thakxtl, May 6, 1885. Despatch from Lieut -General Sir 

G. Graham to General Lord Wolseley .... 485 

xm. Farewell General Order, May 16, 1885, by Lieut -General Sir 

G. Graham ........ 448 

XIV. Final Despatch, Campaign of 1885. From Lieut. -General Sir G. 

Graham to General Lord Wolseley ..... 447 

Index ......... 467 



PoBTRAiT OF Lieut.-General Sir Qerald Qraham . Frontispiece 
(After a print which appeared in the ' Sapper ' in 1896.) 

PoBTRATP OP Lieutenant Qerald Graham, V.C, Royal 

Engineers ...... To face 136 

(From a photograph taken at Chatham on his return from 
the Crimea.) 

Diagram of Attack Formation, 1884 .... 266 
Diagram of Defensive Formation, 1885 .... 287 
Diagram of Zsriba Formation at Tesela, 1885 . 428 

Plate I. Plan of Country around Suakin . . \ 

II II. Plan of Trinkitat and Battle of El Teb, 
Feb. 29, 1884 

III. Plan of Battle of Tamai, March 13, 1884 . } At end 

IV. Plan of Action at Hashin, March 20, 1885 . 
V. Plan showing Attack on McNeill's Zeriba 

AT ToFBiK, March 22, 1885 . / 









Few figures were more striking than that of the gallant 
soldier whose letters and diaries, with a connecting 
sketch of his life, we present to our readers. Of tower- 
ing height (six feet four inches in his stockings) and 
massive proportions, his appearance at once impressed 
one with a sense of physical grandeur and power. A 
handsome face, broad brow, dark hair, and those 
strongly marked eyebrows contrasting with the frank, 
steel-blue eyes, attracted as much attention as did his 
remarkable height and build, while a thoughtftd, true, 
and kindly expression told of a fine spirit within. 

It would seem extraordinary were there not similar 
cases that such a personality, strong in every sense 
of the word, who had displayed his powers in the 
early ye^rs of manhood and won fame, should have 
been relegated for twenty years of the best part of 



his life to the routine duties of his profession ; for 
it was not until after he was fifty years old that 
opportunities were afforded him to add to the laurels 
won in his youth, and to show that his ability to 
serve his country in the field was in no wise dimin- 
ished by lapse of time. 

But his was by no means a solitary case. An even 
more conspicuous instance of neglect is not far to 
seek in his own corps in the person of his friend and 
comrade Charlie Giordon, who, in spite of the display 
of remarkable military abilities early in life, had met 
with the same want of recognition on the part of the 
military authorities, and, it may be said, had to be re- 
discovered by foreigners, in whose service he became 
known to the world as one of the greatest Englishmen 
of his time. 

It was an old comrade' of Crimean days, himself 
risen to eminence, who, remembering the fearless 
young giant of the trenches before Sebastopol sally- 
ing out to bring in wounded officers and men. In- 
vited Gerald Graham to fulfil his early promise by 
placing him in the forefront of the Egyptian campaign 
of 1882. 

How that early promise was fulfilled — then and 
afterwards — and yet the successful General remained 
the same modest, kindly man he had been as a sub- 
altern ; how as a keen soldier he delighted in his 
profession, and yet had a much wider circle of interest ; 
and how, like the plucky, strong man that he was, in 
the midst of heavy trouble he possessed his soul in 
patience and bore a brave front to the world, it is the 
business of these pages to tell. 

On his father's side Sir Gerald Graliam belonged to 
' LieuL-Qener»l Sir Oarnet (now Field -Mai'shaJ Viscount) WoUeley. 

« Cumberland Border family, the Grahams of Rose- 
tree, a distinct branch from the Grahams of Netherby, 
though both had a common origin and lived in the 
north part of Cumberland. Sir Gerald's great-grand- 
father was a Cumberland "statesman" {landowner 
or yeoman) who begat a family of stalwart sons all 
over six feet in height, one of the younger of whom, 
Joseph, bom in 1756, became a doctor and a successful 
man of the world. He settled at St Albans and 
married Joanna Lomax {born 17G5, died 1830), a 
woman of a very sweet nature, pious, forbearing, and 

Joseph Graham, who died in 1820, had two sons, 
'he elder, William, born in 1787, when he reached 
the age of sixteen years entered the military service 
of the East India Company, and attained the rank of 
major. He was rather eccentric, and became oriental 
both in his tastes and pursuits. He died in 1848. 
The younger son, Robert Hay (the father of Sir 
Gerald), born in December 1789, was educated for 
the medical profession but never practised. He was 

man of considerable intellectual ability, and in his 

mng days handsome both in face and figure. An 
jgerated notion of his own importance gave him 
a pompous manner, and he seems to have lacked those 
sympathetic qualities of heart which go far to make a 
happy home. 

Sir Gerald's mother was Frances, daughter of Rich- 
ard Oakley (born 1763, died 1833) of Oswald Kirk, 
Yorkshire, and afterwards of Pen Park, Bristol, an 
upright, good man, the elder of two brothers, and 
possessed ol uiir means. When he was twenty- 
seven he married a beautifiil girl of eighteen, Miss 
Fanny Swayne of London (born 1772, died 1807), 
whom he had three daughters and a son, whoee 


birth cost his mother her life. Of these children, 
Frances, the eldest, was born in 1797 — the other 
daughters died young. She was gifted with a 
musical ear and a great love of nature, sang well, 
and was fond of drawing. By her marriage with 
Dr Robert Graham, afterwards of Eden Brows, Cum- 
berland, she had two children — Joanna, born at 
Brighton, Sussex, on 12th February 1830, and Gerald, 
born at Acton, Middlesex, on 27th June 1831. 

Besides their parents these children had no near 
relatives living except their father's brother In India, 
and their mother's brother whom they seldom saw. 
They were consequently thrown completely upon one 
another, and grew up in a bond of sympathy and 
devoted attachment. 

Of their early childhood there are no records, but 
there is a daguerreotype of Gerald when about four- 
teen years old, in which he appears as a gentle, 
thoughtful, rather delicate-looking boy, seated, with 
a book in his hand. He must quickly have outgrown 
any delicacy, for he grew up a splendid specimen 
of healthy physique, six feet four inches high, broad 
shouldered, and well built. There is a story told 
of him when at home for the holidays, which shows 
that he was by no means merely a dreamy, book- 
reading boy. He is said to have gone into a field 
at Eden Brows, caught and bestrid a colt, and stuck 
to its back, while the animal tore over the field 
into the farmyard, and narrowly missed breaking its 
rider's leg against the gate - post, the Cumberland 
farm-hands gaping with open-mouthed astonishment 
at his fearless audacity. 

But ho was much more thoughtful than the 
generality of boys of his age, and both he and his 
sister read with avidity whatever came in their 


Bray. His sister, who was a year and a half the 
was also the more vehement and impulsive 
■ the two. Rather delicate in health, she possessed 
of those spirituel countenances which often 
iccompanies a precocious and sensitive mind. From 
\ child she was desperately devoted to the problems 
pf humanity. 

Some idea may be formed of her precocity from a 
btter she wrote in after-life to help one of her own 
rchildren. In it she mentions having suffered, at the 
age of eleven years, deep depression from conscious- 
ness of suffering in the world ; having experienced, 
at the age of fourteen, grave doubts and difficulties 
which she expected to solve by the help of a book 
on pi-ophecy ; till when, at sixteen years old, Voltaire's 
works were put Into her hands, she found nothing 
new either to shock or enlighten her, although up 
to that time she had read no infidel books but only 
arguments against them — which, perhaps, had much 
the same effect. 

"So," she wrote, "the work of destruction was 
over early with me, and the eager search for ti-uth 
began early. I cannot tell you now where it led me, 
how the deep joy of a new faith came to me, but, 
because it rested on no solid foundation, did not abide 
with me ; and I tried to submit to authority and 
conform to established belief. With affliction that 
frail hold was torn entirely away, and I knew what 
It was to lie utterly desolate with but one fibre of 
strength to hold by — a belief in the reality of God 
such aa Job had ; no comfort then but the foundation 
of all comfort to come." 

Together this brother and sister shared in their 
search for light, while their bright imaginations 
were early Bred by stories of adventure. Those 


were oot the days of endless children's books, but 
together they read Humboldt and Don Quixote and 
many other great works ; together they dipped into 
the political and social questions of the day, he — 
the story goes — sometimes sitting in the middle of 
a favourite railway bridge and she on the bank of 
a deep cutting so that he might exercise his voice 
in shouting across. 

"They inherited from their mother," writes Sir 
Gerald's niece, Mrs Shenstone, "that great love of 
beautiftil scenery which was always a solace and 
cause for uplifting of the heart throughout their 
lives. This same love of nature made them exceed- 
ingly sincere ; they detested all shams and affecta- 
tions, loving proportionately all that was frank, free, 
and true. There is something in this picture of two 
young eager souls, leaniug upon each other, and 
listening so eagerly for the happier echoes above the 
world that was not for them all sunshine, infinitely 
beautiful and pathetic. ' Yet there are green spots 
even in the desert waste,' my uncle wrote out of 
the fulness of his heart years afterwards ; and 
two found not only the inextinguishable laughter of 
the world amid the shadows but the earnest purpose 

Gerald went first to a school at Wimbledon and 
then to one at Dresden, where he acquired among 
other learning a good knowledge of German, He 
looked back upon his Dresden schooldays with affec- 
tion, and when he visited his old haunts after uearly 
fifty years, he was quite sorry to find no one old 
enough to tell him about the people he knew as 
a boy. Both the school and the house he lived 
in had been reconstnicted, and the occupants knew 
nothing of those old days. The favourite tuck-shop 


able kii 
wich tl 
John C 

had become an apothecary's, "so that the present 
■generation do penance in drugs," he writes with a 
sense of retributive justice, "for their fathers' excesses 
in sweets." 

From Dresden school young Gerald entered the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich in May 1847. There 
his great height and somewhat reserved and taciturn 
manner made him the subject of much of the rough 
bullying common in those days ; but when he himself 
old cadet," he was known for his invari- 
able kindness to his juniors. He passed out of Wool- 
wich third of his batch, the late Major-General Sir 
John Clayton Cowell, K.C.B., Master of Queen Vic- 
toria's Household, being the head, and he received 
a commission as second lieutenant in the Royal 
Engineers on 19th June 1850. 

In the autumn he joined the Royal Engineer 
Bstablishment {as it was then called, now the School 
of Military Engineering) at Chatham, and went 
through the usual courses of professional instruction, 
sometimes amusing himself in his spare time by boating 
on the Medway. On one occasion he and a brother 
officer of his own standing in the Bombay Engineers, 
George Munro Duncan (who died in India in 1859), 
went down to Sheeraess in an open boat. Returning 
kfter dark, they were upset in Sea Reach. Duncan 

luld not swim a stroke, the weather was cold, and 
they were both wrapped in overcoats. Graham, how- 
ever, managed to support his friend and to swim with 
him to one of the man-of-war hulks fortunately lying 
near. There he caught hold of a rope hanging from 
the projecting boat-boom and held on until rescued 
by the crew of the hulk. Considering the encumbered 
atate of the two young men, and the strong tides that 

in in the reach, this feat was a remarkable one. 


On completmg his professional studies at Chatham 
Graham was sent to do duty in the Southern Mihtary 
District, of which Portsmouth is the headquarters, and 
was for some time employed at Hurst Castle on the 
Solent. At this time both he and his sister had been 
reading the works of Charles Kingsley, Frederick 
Maurice, and Thomas Carlyle, and had conceived a 
great admiration for these authors, esjjecially Kings- 
ley. The sister, who was anxious to help in the 
social movement, corresponded with Kmgslev on that 
subject, while Gerald kept up a constant correspond- 
ence with her on this and on every subject which 
interested them both. 

To the habit of writing letters and pouring out hie 
thoughts in them — a practice which has, we fear, now 
almost died out, to be replaced by hasty scrawls and 
telegrams — may, perhaps, be attributed some of the 
reserve frequently ascribed to him, and which no doubt 
he felt with all but his most Intimate friends, if not 
with them also sometimes. Yet with a sympathetic 
spirit at the other end of his pen, the writing of a 
letter meant to him the opening of his warm heart, 
and to his sister he had always written when away 
from her as a part of his existence. It Is to her, until 
she married, that the greater part of his correspondence 
is addressed. 



wOv the causes which led to the Crimean war it is 
unnecessaiy to speak here. They have been frequently 
set forth, and in no work with such wealth of imagina- 
tion and brilliancy of composition as in Kinglake's 
'Invasion of the Crimea.' Lord Clarendon's pithy 
observation, that we " drifted " into it, accurately 
describes the situation, and accounts for the anomaly 
of our sending ships of war and soldiers to the help of 
Turkey while we were at peace with Russia. As the 
drifting became more rapid and a crisis was approached, 
troops were hurried out to Malta in readiness to move 
forwai-d when required. 

Early in February young Graham received his 
ordere to join the llth Company of the Royal Sappers 
and Miners at Woolwich and hold himself in readiness 
for embarkation. The company was commanded by 
Captain Fairfax Charles Hassard,^ and the subalterns 
besides himself were George Reid Lempriere (who 
retired as a captain in 1866, and died in March 1901) 
nd Charles Nassau Martin (now a retired major- 

'he prospect of active service gave vise to an 
Itburst of boyish delight. The fiist intimation his 

> Afterwaitli Major- ti«nei-ul and C.R, who died in October 1900. 


sister had of the receipt of good news was to see 
him careering round the room, vaulting over the 
chairs in the exuberance of his spirits. 

The only letter preserved of this time is one of 
the 13th February 1854 to his father, written in the 
hurry and excitement of a youngster's first departure 
for active service, and occupied with the question of 
outfit — holsters and saddle-bags, ''revolving" pistol, 
jack - boots, and mosquito - bag. Graham embarked 
with his company on the 24th February at South- 
ampton for Malta in the steamship Himalaya, which 
carried also some of the Rifle Brigade and a supply 
of intrenching tools, &c., for field operations. Malta 
was reached on the 8th March, and the Engineers 
were temporarily quartered at Floriana, where they 
were joined on the 27th March by the 7th Company 
of Royal Sappers and Miners, under the command 
of Captain Charles John Gibb,^ R.E., with a fiirther 
supply of engineering materiel. 

On the 30th March the two companies of Sappers 
and Miners and a battalion of the Rifle Brigade, to- 
gether with Sir George Brown, the general command- 
ing the 1st Division, and his stafi*, embarked on board 
the ss. Golden Fleece, and on the following morning 
steamed away for Gallipoli. Soon after his arrival at 
Gallipoli Graham wrote the following letter to his 
sister; the letter which he mentions having written 
to her from Malta cannot be found : — 

" British Camp, Gallifou, AprU 20, 1854. 

"My dear Sister, — The last letter I sent you 
was written just before leaving Malta in the Golden 
Fleece. This one is written in my tent, squatted on 
the ground d la turque, my portmanteau serving me 

^ He became a colonel, and died in 1865. 




for a table for want of a better. As I gave you an 
account of Malta in my last, T need not tell you 
anything more about that place ; besides, I know you 
are longing to hear about Turkey and my journey 
hither. I will copy from my diary, though I have 
not kept it very well lately. 

I "March 30, Thursday. — Having provided myself 
■nth a horse and servant, embarked (together with 
the 7th Company, just then arrived from Woolwich) 
in the Golden Fleece bound for Gallipoli in the 

"March 31. — Weighed anchor at 5 A.M. with a 
light N.E. wind. Forgot to mention that the Rifle 
Brigade came with us and among them many of our 
old shipmates on the Himalaya. Heavy showers of 
rain during the day. 

"April \. — N.-easter continuing, threatening to 
■n into a regular gvegale. Found that we had got 
le ' Times ' coiTespondent on board, a short, fat, hairy- 
looking individual, but, on further acquaintance, he 
proved a very intelligent and agreeable companion, 
be took down all our names, and afterwards sent 
a letter to the ' Times ' in a flaming, red-printed 
ilope, I suppose we shall all figure in print in 
le columns of that redoubtable journal. 
"April 2, Sunday. — Passed Cape Matapan this 
trning about 8 o'clock. By this time blowing a 
regular gre'gale. Passed between Cape Malia and 
Cerigo just after divine semce. To give some further 
account of the 'Times' correspondent : I find he is a 
good-humoured, merry little fellow (rather conceited 
though), has a decided Irish accent, and answera to 
le name of Bussell.^ 

'* April 3. — Gale blowing stronger than ever. 
1 Sir William Howard Bouell. 


About 12 o'clock the captain determined to run back 
to Vatika Bay, in the lee of Cape MaHa, having been 
already driven thirty miles to leeward of our course. 
This we accordingly did, and lay-to about two miles 
from shore, exchanging cheers with two French troop- 
ships lying there for the same reason as ourselves. 
The scenery of this part of the south coast of the 
Morea is very beautiful. Our view was bounded by 
high - peaked, snow - capped mountains of volcanic 
formation, the sides of which are studded with 
little villages, built in apparently almost inaccessible 
positions. We could, however, see but little vegeta- 
tion, and excepting a few olive groves near the 
villages, the coast looked barren enough. We would 
have given much to have been allowed to land there 
and to run up to the top of one of those high hills. 
However, as the captain was afraid of quarantine 
law, we remained on board, and consoled ourselves 
by making the hest use of our telescopes, which 
appeared to invest the most commonplace objects 
with unusual interest. The houses that we could 
see were of white or brown colour, with gable roofs 
quite unlike those of Malta. 

"April 4. — Weighed anchor at 5 a.m. Wind quite 
gone down; sea like a mill-pond; calm throughout 
the day. Saw the remains of the Temple of Minerva 
at Cape Sunium through the telescope, and witnessed 
a golden sunset over the Grecian isles. Zodiacal 
light visible some time after sunset. 

"April 5. — Found that the capricious weather had 
changed again, and that we have another strong 
gre'gale to contend with. Passed by Cape Sigri, 
Mitylene, about 1 p.m. Mitylene, like all the other 
islands of the Archipelago that I have seen, shows 
merely barren hills on its coast-line. Came off Baba 

"the sick man. 13 

.lesi in Asia Minor at 3 p.m., and saw the snowy 

lights of the Ida Mountains. 

" Here ends my journal, and a very dry reproduc- 
tion of my experiences it is, I fear. The only times 
I have kept it regularly have been on board ship, 
when I could always find the time if I had the 

" Apnl 21. — I must endeavour to finish my narra- 
tive from memory, though, indeed, I have nothing more 
to relate to you. ... I am much obliged to you for 
Carlyle's pamphlet. He has certainly altered bis 
style considerably, though I must say I prefer his 
old manner, as it served to mark hie individuality 
more strongly. . . , There is a great deal of sound 
sense and thought in his pamphlet, which afforded 
me great gratification. It seems to me that the 
whole morale of the question may be stated, ac- 
ig to similes of Carlyle and the Empei-or of 
iiissia, as defending the Sick Man's house and 
property against all thieves and robbers until it 
shall have been determined what shall further be 
done with them. As for the Turks, I quite agree 
with a French Engineer officer, that they are mere 
imbeciles. We fight for principles and not for 

All this time, however, you are longing to know 

tmething about my experience of Turks and Turkey. 

I am afraid my description will disappoint you as 

much as the reality disappointed me. Our entrance 

into the Dardanelles was by night, so that we could 

but little of the famous passage. We kept close 

the European side, and could sometimes distinguish 

fort, or the white line of a minaret, or hear the 
distant challenge of a Turkish sentinel. 

"The nest morning we awoke to find ourselves at 

^_ whole 





the entrance of the Sea of Marmora, and the town 
of Gallipoli before us. The high, thickly wooded hills 
of Asia Minor lay on our right, looking down on the 
comparatively small barren hills of the Earopean side. 
The town of Gallipoli presented nothing very peculiar 
in its appearance, except the rickety look of the 
wooden houses and broad sloping eaves of their red- 
tiled roofs. We were two days before we got all 
our stores on shore, having no other means of trans- 
port than the Turkish caiques or boats, which are 
very clumsy concerns. It was amusing to see, amidst 
all the bustle of hoisting stores on board, the Turkish 
sailors seated cross-legged in the stern, smoking their 
long pipes, 

" Some French officers soon came on board to pay 
us a visit, and paid some tremendous compliments to 
the English nation in general and to us In particular. 
We, I am afraid, cut — all of us — a very poor figure 
in the complimentary line. 

" Went ashore in the evening ; wretched, dirty 
town, swarming with French soldiers and Greeks, and 
hardly any Turks to be found. Went to a coffee- 
house, where I had a long pipe and a cup of coffee. 
The streets are in some parts covered over with a sort 
of osier-work, making them nearly dark in the day- 
time. This is the only stroll I have had in Gallipoli, 
as we were immediately sent off to encamp about six 
miles from it. 

"Here we experience all the variations of this ex- 
traordinary climate, which, so far as our experience 
goes, is the most variable in the world. One day, with 
a light sou'-westerly wind, it is so hot and the sun's 
rays so scorching that we are glad to throw off our 
coats and perhaps bathe in the sea, the Gulf of Saros 
being only half-a-mile from us. The next day it 


blows an icy N.E. gale from the cold mountains of 
Roumelia, and the water is frozen in our tents. The 
country is perfectly barren about here, no trees and 
hardly any vegetables, and in aspect like the Downs 
of Sussex. We live off bread and meat, onions and 
rice. Our health is, however, very good. I have 
abundance of work, first digging for water, and now 
throwing up lines of fortification with the assistance 
of the French Engineer officers. 

" We are making a continuous line of fortification 
between the Gulf of Saros and the Sea of Marmora. 
This will be a great depot, and form one of our bases 
of operations. I can say nothing of what we are 
likely to do, as we ourselves know nothing. We 
expect soon to hear of the Russians at Shumla. If 
they have any generals they have all the game in 
their bands, as we have no artillery at present. We 
Engineers look forward to fortifying Constantinople. 
Give my love to our father and mother, and believe 
me, your very affect, brother, G. Graham." 

Graham's chief employment at Gallipoli was super- 
intending well-sinking at the camp of Bonlair, some 
six miles from the town, and the construction of the 
defences between the Gulf of Saros and the Sea of 
Mannora, called " The Lines of Bonlair." A little 
incident which occurred during his stay at Gallipoli 
is narrated by his brother subaltern and friend, 
Major-Geueral C. N. Martin, as au example of his 
great physical strength : — 

" He was always a man of splendid courage and 
enormous strength, which he used with the gentle- 
ness due to his manly character. I think I can 
remember that at Gallipoli one evening Graham's 
horse, a notorious fighter, got loose. We found 


him in the middle of a ring of Maltese grooms and 
others, who could do nothing. But seeing how 
matters stood, Graham rushed in, caught the horse 
by nose and forelock, and threw him." 

On the 26th May Graham sailed with his company 
for Varna, and Hved under canvas at the camp two 
miles outside the town. Varna was the base of 
operations, and being also the depot for Engineer 
stores for the front, the Engineers had a busy time. 
After the Russians had raised the siege of Silistria, 
and had been badly beaten on the 7th July at the 
battle of Giurgevo, they evacuated WaUachla and 
Moldavia, and the Allies decided upon the invasion of 
the Crimea. Large working parties, under the super- 
intendence of the Engineers, were engaged in pre- 
paring gabions and fascines and gun -platforms for 
the expedition whose destination it was endeavoured 
to keep a profound secret. 

The following letters describe the life at Varna, 
the embarkation for the Crimea, and the landing 
near Old Fort, Kamishlu, Kalamita Bay : — 

" VASffA, Sunday, 17(A Jitly 1854. 
" Mr DEAR Sister, — . . , You want to know ex- 
actly how I pass my time ; well, you shall pass a 
day with me. At half-past fom* o'clock my trusty 
servant Jean, of whom more anon, enters my tent 
with a pail of water, which he poure into my india- 
rubber bath, one of the most useful things I have. 
Jean, like all Frenchmen, considers it advisable to 
begin the day with a cup of coffee, which he accord- 
ingly sets about preparing whilst I am sponging 
myself in my tndiarubber tub. Of course, until I 
am quite dressed I could not think of admitting a 
lady into my tent. Now, however, you may enter 


and look about you. You need not be afraid of 
Boiling my carpet — it is of nature's own making, 
excepting where I have laid down a little bit of 
oilskin tablecloth under the table. I can offer you 
a very good seat on my pack-saddle put on the top 
of my portmanteau. 

" You cast your eyes curiously around you and 
form a mental inventory of effects — viz., (l) Large 
black bundle (contents unknown) ; (2) suspicious- 
looking black bottles (do. do.); (3) basket and large 
ham ; (4) boots, saddle, and divers smaller bundles. 
On inquiry you find that item (l) consists of my bed, 
which in the daytime I wrap up m the gutta-percha 
rug so as to leave a clear space in my tent. Jean 
does not much admire my bed. ' Quel triste lit ! ' 
he generally exclaims on making it in the evening. 
He is having what he calls a cantine made for me, 
whicli consists of two boxes, which are to hold every- 
thing when packed on a horse, and also make up into 
a bedstead. This he is getting made for me by some 
French Sapeurs—old comrades of his in Algeria, for 
Jean has made an African campaign as an officer's 
servant. To continue our list : the black bottles 
contain some French wine, as I do not like the 
wine of the country much. I have great faith in 
part of item (3), consisting of a large Westphalian 
ham, which I got on board ship. I have kept it 
most carefiiUy during the last six weeks for a time 
of need. . . . You have now gone the round of my 
tent, beginning at the black bundle and finishing 
there. You are probably surprised at the quantity 
of flies that buzz about you. I cannot get them 
out of my tent, but am obliged to sleep under a 
mosquito-net, which I bought at Malta. 

"Jvly 18. — The description of my tent has taken me 


60 long that my time yesterday passed in making it. 
But in order to complete your survey of my establish- 
ment you must step outside and see my horses. I 
have three of them. The first I show you is my best 
bay charger, which I bought of a French officer. He 
is a half-bred Arab, and has, you see, the Arabian 
head and crest. Here is ray second charger, which 
I bought at Malta^ — an unlucky purchase, as it turned 
out. He too is a handsome fellow, a mettlesome 
barb, but unfortunately so vicious that I must sell 
him. My thutl is my pack-horse, a large, strong, 
grey Hungarian. . . . 

" I have not yet described to you the present posi- 
tion of our camp, for I am no longer alone but have 
rejoined my Company, We are a little way outside 
the town on the Shumla side, our camp being on 
the brow of a hill that overlooks the lake. The 
opposite coast of the lake is very beautiful, hilly 
and wooded down to the water's edge. 

"At 5 o'clock I go down to my work either on foot 
or on horseback, though generally the latter. My 
work lies in the town about two miles from this, 
and, as usuaJ, consists in superintending working 
parties of the Line. When I have seen the men are 
all at work I generally take a ride into the town, 
which, even at that early hour, is swarming with 
soldiers of the three nations, and with Greeks, Turks, 
and Albanians in their different picturesque dresses. 
The Turks I am always obliged to push out of the 
way of my horse, as they never think of moving of 
their own accord. Fresh shops are now springing 
up every day. They demand extortionate prices for 
everything, but at least things are to be had. The 
shopkeepers are all either Greek, French, or Maltese. 
They are all very cunning and grasping, but do 


not make half so much as they would if they were 
satisfied with smaller profits. There is at present, 
in spite of the number of shops, no competition, 
and the prices of the same articles vary most ab- 
surdly. Thus tea is at some places 56. and at 
others 2s, 6d. a pound. I got a pair of leathern 
water-bottles the other day for 168., the price they 
were asking for one only at a shop close by, and 
that the only English shop of any size. At many 
places they are selling at 300 or 400 per cent profit, 
and at the more moderate at 200. 

*' July 19. — . . . Sometimes I take my breakfast 
in a French coffee-house, but generally I leturn to 
camp about 8 o'clock and breakfast there. After 
breakfast I either return to my work or else read 
or write when not regularly required — as In this 
instance. In any case I am there again at 2 P.M., 
and stop till the working houi-s are over at half-past 
five, when I return to dinner. I genei'ally feel very 
sleepy about 9 o'clock, when I go to bed. I read 
very little, only in ray leisure hours. My pocket 
edition of Shakespeare is then my companion. My 
choicest reading consists, of course, in the letters 
you write to me. . . . 

" I was very much pleased with F. Tennyson's 
beautiful song of ' The Blackbird.' ^ The verse de- 
scribing the passing cloud was especially beautifiil. 
But of all the composition that you have sent me, 
besides your own, I have most to thank you for 
that thoughtful, powerful essay of Froude on the 
Book of Job. It is indeed a glorious piece of 
writing, enunciating the highest and purest creed 
hX man's soul can conceive. . . . 

■' I have to close this quickly, as the post will close 
I In 'DilJb and Houri,' bj' Frederick Tennjaon. London, 1804. 



for five days. I will send you another letter if any 
change should take place in my situation. We be- 
lieve we are going to Sebastopol. . . . — Believe 
me, &c., G. Graham." 

" VAaSA, sort AiigiitC 1854. 

" My dear Sister, — . . . This is but a dull place 
after all, and our homeward looks are our gladdest. 
No man In his senses could write to the ' Times ' and 
call this a glorious country. It is an uncivilised and 
barbarous country, an inhospitable and treacherous 
people. To judge of the first, a man has but to take 
a morning's ride. He will probably, if he go a little out 
of the beaten track, come near the dead body of some 
native, probably killed In a quarrel or perhaps dead 
of cholera ; no one cares much to inquire which it 
was, but leaves it as he found it. If, however, he 
take the high-road to Varna, as I did this morning, 
he will find it still worse from a sanitary point of 
view. There are several slaughter-houses in the way, 
and the exposed offal, which is not buried, causes a 
most noxious effluvia. In the midst of the thorough- 
fare, now generally crowded, I observed the dead 
carcass of a bullock, which from its appearance must 
have lain there at least two months ! Excuse me for 
giving you all these details, but does it not reflect 
disgrace on our apathetic authorities that they should 
allow the high-road between the principal camp and 
Varna to be in such a disgraceful state ? I am speak- 
ing of ourselves merely, as there are no Turks over 
here. We are said to have lost about 400 men by 
cholera, and a great number are still on the sick-list. 
The French are said to have lost 6000, an incredible 
number, even allowing for the numbers they lost in 
their unfortunate Kustendjie expedition. 


" We also are preparing for an expedition, as I told 
you in my last, and all our preparations seem to 
point to Sebastopol. We know little of the place 
ourselves, but I have sufficient confidence in the 
prudence of our authorities, and feel convinced that 
their secret information is such as to make success 
probable. Of course this is a combined expedition of 
the Allies, Turkey contributing perhaps 20,000 men, 
besides her disposable fleet. 

" I, as well as all the rest of us, shall be delighted 
with this expedition, if it is really to be a decisive 
stroke towards finishing the war. However, what- 
ever happens, I hope we shall not stop much longer 
in this detestable country, among a sulky, hostile 
population, who can hardly be induced to supply our 
wants. On the other side of the Danube they say 
the towns are far superior, with European shops and 
hotels. There is something in the atmosphere here 
which, combined with the burning sun, produces great 
Ia.ssitude. . . . 

" No doubt before this you have heard of the fire 
of Varna. I was not there at the time, but saw it 
well from this side. It was a magnificent sight ; 
the flames at one time must have had a front of 
nearly a quarter of a mile. The fire was distinctly 
seen by troops 28 miles from It. I only saw the 
effects of it this morning, about a week after it had 
happened. The town, on entering, looked like a heap 
of rubbish. The whole of the business part of the 
town, the main street of shops, and the bazaar are 
seen no longer, — in their place heaps of smoking 

'* I am very sorry to say that Jean, the French ser- 
vant I wrote to you about, and had at one time so 
high an opinion of, ran away from me yesterday with 


the intention of embarking for France. He took with 
him property to a considerable amount, most of which 
I have, however, succeeded in recovering. I do not 
know whether he got a passage or not, but if in 
Varna he will soon be arrested, as I have set the 
French gendarmerie on him. It is, however, mortify- 
ing to be so often deceived, and servants have been 
my greatest plague diiring the campaign. 

"Yesterday the air was darkened by immense 
flights of locusts. These animals are from two and a 
half to three inches long, with a green body, ugly 
&cej and legs not unlike a grasshopper's. They have 
four wings, on the outer of which are the marks said 
to resemble hieroglyphics. I send two of the outer 
and one inner wing. As an admirer of Southey you 
may perhaps like to see the mystic characters wherein 
Thalaba, the Destroyer, read his future destiny. . . . 
— Believe me, Ac, G. Graham.'' 

^ VAR5A, ind SepL 18S4, 
""On hoard tAs WiUiam JTmm^. 

"My dear Sister, — We are now fairly embarked 
for the expedition, wherever it may be to, which is 
to conclude our hitherto bloodless, though not quite 
harmless, Elastem campaign. Even here on the spot 
it is difficult to judge where may be our destination. 
The magnitude of our preparations would seem to 
indicate Sebastopol as the scene of our intended opera- 
tions, but then the late time of year and consequent 
short period permitted us, not only for the reduction 
of a place of reputed great strength but also for the 
defeat of an army of occupation, seem to render the 
supposition improbable^ and appear to suggest that 
our large preparations are only a feint to deceive the 
Russians, and that our real object is Anapa or Odessa. 
Yet it cannot be denied that the opinion prevailing 


lamong the majority is that we are now bound for 
Iflebaatopol, to wind up gloriously our campaign with 
BKie decisive blow. You must not depend much on 
Ftrhat ' our own correspondeuts ' tell you at home. 
r Excepting Russell, the ' Times ' correspondent, none 
I are with the army, and he has been stopping always 
l,with the Light Division, about 18 miles from Varna, 
l'8o that he cannot know much about what is going on 
Kat Headquarters. The corre.spondent of the ' Morning 

■ Chronicle ' writes the greatest nonsense in the world 

■ from Constantinople. He gravely assures you that 
lone-half of the Allied armies is about to embark for 
iS^bastopol, and that the other half is already on its 
l"way across the Danube. This was in the 'Chronicle' 
l<)f the 10th August. . . . 

I "I am now going to have some real action, but I 

■ suppose my Imagination is slow, for I really do not 
■.tbink much about it. The whole fleet of transports 
■as lying in the bay with the troops on board. The 

English transports are all on the south side of the 

bay. The water certainly seems to be our proper 

element. Directly we are on it our Allies look small 

us. Our large transports and splendid steamers 

Jquite cut out the wretched little traders the French 

I'jbave got to carry their troops. The way our troops 

nbarked, too, was far superior to theirs. We have 

ought up some of the Austrian Company's steamers, 

irhich come close alongside our piere and take a whole 

regiment on board at once, while the French go off 

ty small boatloads, I did not read Nasmyth's ' letter 

in the ' Times,' but I know him, and a very nice 

intelligent fellow he is. Of course you heard of poor 

, £urke ^ of ours who was killed near Giurgevo. 

t CftpUin C. Naffluyth, one of the defenders of Silistrin. 

■ LUat. J&mea Thomas Burke, B.E., killed in the battle of Giurgevo. 


" We are on board a sailing transport with a lot of 
horees and powder. We shall, no doubt, be towed by 
a steamer. . . . — Believe me, &c., G. Graham." 

" Kahisblc, Ckimba, 
"30m^«»from SebfuCopol, \7th Sept. 1854. 

"My dear Sister, — I have got a great deal to tell 
you about since I last wrote to you. I am not going 
to give you any statistical details, or account of the 
proceedings of the army in general, but I will give 
you some little description of our lauding and present 
occupation of the Crimea as far as my own personal 
experience goes. For any enlarged account I refer 
you to the lettei-s of my worthy friend, Mr Russell, 
the 'Times' correspondent. 

" We got off Koslov on the afternoon of the 13th 
instant. On inspection through the telescope it ap- 
peared a perfect Turkish town with the usual domes 
and minarets. We saw about three people standing 
about, whom we immediately concluded to be Russian 
sentries. However, we afterwards heard that the 
garrison consisted of about three Cossacks only, and 
that it capitulated Immediately on being summoned. 
We noticed a quantity of corn lying cut in the fields, 
as well as bullocks. At three o'clock the next morn- 
ing we weighed anchor and steamed off for the land- 
ing-place. It was a fine morning with a slight mist 
as we steamed along the coast about two miles distant. 
The hills of the southern part of the Crimea were seen 
faintly rising one above the other towards the south, 
the high ground of Sebastopol behind. We knew 
that we were about to land shortly, and we expected 
not without I'eslstance. Indeed we had always looked 
upon the landing as a most difficult enterprise, and 
that it was only by a serious cost of life that we 
should gain oui' foothold in the Crimea. You may 



therefore imagine us, after weighing anchor — know- 
' that troops were landing-, but unable to see the 
nd — anxiously listening for the first shots anuounc- 
■ the expected engagement. To our astonishment 
, shot was fired, and not a Russian was to be 
sen when the mist had cleared away, only some 
latives were seen peaceably engaged getting in their 
Indeed, as one of us acutely remarked, there 
leing probably no newspapers in the Crimea, the 
Inhabitants were most likely to know nothing what- 
ever about us, and therefore did not manifest any 
alarm. Our Company landed about 5 o'clock in the 
afternoon, when we found the beach crowded with 
troops. Patrols of cavalry were reconnoitring on the 
adjacent hill. Our men were greatly amused to find 
that the ' Rooshians,' as they indiscriminately termed 
I the inhabitants, instead of peppering them, had 
•ought them down bullock-waggons for the convey- 
ince of their tools and baggage. We had five of them, 
ind I was immediately despatched back to the ship to 
•fit more intrenching tools. It was a grand sight to see 
fais great fleet all assembled, and to see the increasing 
etivity of the boats and steamers landing the troops. 
Ve got a lift in going back to the ship, and were 
: by one of the tug steamers at the tail of a 
Irmg. On coming back it was quite dark, and the 
lOps already landed, who were all without tents, had 
lit large watchfires. We all bivouacked in the open 
air that night — officei's and men. Uzifortunately, it 
rained heavily during the night, and we got very 
wet. I had a waterprotif coat under me, which I 
found rather worse than nothing, as it collected all 
the water, and I soon found myself lying in a perfect 
pool. So much for our first night's bivouac, and may 
we never have another like it. Slugulai-ly enough, 


rver, though I had a cold at the time, I was not 
a bit the worse for it afterwards. 

" The next morning we marched about five miles into 
tJbe ooimtry to join our Division. The country is not 
particularly pretty, being in large undulating steppes, 
something like that of Boulair, and without any trees. 
There was plenty of corn about and water-melons. 
The latter are delicious when you are thirsty. We 
found the site of our intended encampment on a hill at 
the bead of a lake, and about two miles from a village 
from which we had already met some jiarties of French 
soldiers coming laden with plunder. We despatched 
a party to fetch wood and water, and then made some 
tea, with which, and our rations of pork, beef, and 
biscuit, we managed to make a very fair breakfast. 

" After breakfast two of my brother-officers started 
off to forage for food in the village, and were tolerably 
successful, having bought two sheep and five turkeys 
for 4s. One sheep, unfortunately, ran away ; but the 
other was duly killed, and his liver fried with some 
pork made a capital dinner for the tirst day. In the 
afternoon I went out with a few men to see if any- 
thing was left in the village. I, however, found that 
the market was in a very different condition from 
what it had been in the morning. The French soldiers 
had been there plundering right and left, frightening 
the friendly and peacefully disposed inhabitants, so 
that they had shut up their houses and were either 
entirely cleared out or would at least no longer sell 
anj'thing. The French are said to be better soldiers 
than ours, and may be so, but, allowing them their 
superior soldiership, ours are better men. I had at 
last the pleasure of seeing every Frenchman (soldiers, 
that is to say — there were no officers there) turned out 
of the village though it required all the moderation of 


our officers and men to prevent a scrimmage. Under 
the cii'cumstances I could only get a lamb, five fowls, 
and about fifteen water-melons, which I tasted for the 
first time. 

" I told you bow badly we spent the first night on 
shore ; the generals of divisions were not much better 
off. Sir George Brown, commanding the Light 
Division, slept under a bullock - waggon containing 
some Sappers' intrenching tools, and in the morning 
on awakening knocked his head against a pick- 

"Last night we had an alarm about 11 o'clock. I 
was half asleep, but was awakened by hearing a loud 
shouting. It seemed to me like a strange sort of 
shouting, a fierce defiant roar, running from the 
outlying pickets and advanced posts towards our 
lines. Our alarms were sounded, and we were soon 
standing under arms all ready. We remained under 
arms for about an hour, when the Duke of Cambridge 
visited us on his way round the Division, and after 
ordering the men to keep their arms In readiness, 
dismissed us. They had been expecting an attack at 
the outposts, as the Cossacks had been setting fire 
to the corn-stacks of the neighbouring village in the 
early pai-t of the evening. However, this alarm 
turned out to have been caused by an aide-de-camp 
having lost his way in the dark and ridden right into 
a French picket, who immediately raised the shout 
of ' Cosaque 1 ' which our men translated ' Russians,' 
ausing all the row. 

18. — Last night we had another alarm, 
ut 9 o'clock I heard a musket-shot, and shortly 

«rwards a faint repetition of the shouts of the 
preceding night. This time, however, it was quickly 
followed by the reassuring cry of ' All's well ' coming 


from the distant outposts, and passed from sentry to 
sentry through the Hnes. 

" I have received your letter dated the 23rd August. 
Your account of your convei-sation with Mr Cooper ^ is 
very interesting. What au unexpected picture you 
give me of Mr Kingsley ! I should certainly never 
have imagined him smoking a short pipe and putting 
it in his pocket with old-fashioned gallantry at the 
approach of a lady, unless, Indeed, he wanted to show 
Mr Cooper that even with short pipes a man may 
presei've his gentility. 1 shall be glad to hear 
Kingsley's opinion on the war, 

" I did not tell you that I had the misfortune to lose 
another horse just before starting, and that the only 
charger now left me is that vicious Maltese horse. 
However, I hope to catch one soon. Yesterday a few 
horses were driven into our lines, and I started after 
them with an extempore lasso, but they got the start 
of me and I lost them. 

'• This is likely to prove a glorious expedition. There 
seems little doubt but that we shall drive all before us, 
and that Sebastopol itself must soon yield before the 
well-directed assaults of such men as ours. We have 
calculated that the Russian prodigy Sebastopol shall 
be ours before the fiist week of October is out. 

" I trust that you too, my dear sister, will be happy 
this winter. Your natm-al condition is to be happy as 
your desire is only to do good. . . . — Believe me, &c., 
" G. Graham." 

" KAMisRLt', Crimea, 
"31 mOufrom Sebastopol, I8(A Sept. 1854. 
" My dear Father, — At last behold us actually 
landed in the Crimea with an army of nearly 60,000 
men about to advance upon the seat of the Russian 
Thomas Cooper, the Cliartist. 

^H landed in t\ 
^H men about 1 


^_ info: 

lower in the Black Sea, which is within three days' 
Oaarch of us ! 

'• After cruising about since the 4th, with many 
delays as yet unexplained, we arrived off Koslov 
Eupatoria on the afternoon of the 13th instant. 
Ve hear that the town immediately capitulated on 
our BummouB, but none of our troops were left there, 
two of our steamers remaining behind in possession. 
On the 14th we arrived off this place at 8 A.M, On 
the map I find our landing-place called Kamishlu or 
' fetid lake.' I am, however, happy to be able to 
. inform you that the lake is not fetid, or at least 
nasal organs have not detected it. Our troops 
legan landing immediately with amazing celerity. 
The Light Division is said to have been all landed 
in half an hour ! This amazing despatch was owing 
to the number of small tugs and boats that we are 

tovided with. The French were not all up with us, 
it one division landed about four miles farther on. 
ot the slightest opposition was offered to our laud- 
g. The landing-place was well chosen — a pebbly 
ach where the boats could get close in, with a 
lake behind, so that no large body of ti-oops could 
be concentrated at any one point to oppose us. 
There was certainly a cliff on the right, or south 
side, which flanked the beach, but which was again 
outflanked by the ships. Our Company of sappera 
did not land till 5 p.m. Most of our troops had 
landed by the time we got on shore. The tug 
steamers (those we bought of Lloyd's Austrian Com- 
ny) and Scutari steamers were amazingly useful, 
one, the Brenda, disembark more than two 
^ments at a time, one on board and the other in 
Part of oin- cavalry, together with some 
?ench Spahis, or Algerian Horse, were sent out 


to reconnoitre on the high ground. There were a 
few Cossacks about, but they quickly disappeared. 
It is said that Sir Greorge Brown, the general com- 
manding the Light Division, having separated himself 
a little fix>m his Staff, was nearly cut off by some 
Cossacks and had to gallop for it. 

" So far one great feat had been easily accomplished, 
and our landing in the Crimea was effected. The 
first step taken, the rest seemed comparatively easy, 
for we could not suppose the enemy to be in any 
great strength as he could not oppose our landing. 
But the old proverb, * C'est le premier pas que 
coAte,' was not to be so easily cheated of its sig- 
nificancy on this occasion. During the night it 
rained heavily, and as we had landed no tents we 
all got most unpleasantly wet. The next morning 
we joined our Division, which is about 5 miles in 
the country. To-morrow we expect to march to 
attack some Russian camps on the Alma river, about 
18 miles from this, on the way to Sebastopol. We 
have doomed Sebastopol to fall in the beginning of 
next month. . . . — Believe me, &c., 

" G. Graham." 




Graham's letters to his sister or to his father are 
very regular. In this chapter they describe the 
battles of Alma and Inkerman, and the siege oper- 
ations until he was shifted from the Left Attack 
to the Right, and in the next chapter carry us 
down to the end of the year 1855. 

" Crimea, Alma river, 2l8t Sept. 1854. 

" My dear Sister, — Before you receive this you 
will, I dare say, have received intelligence that we 
have fought and gained a battle. Although the 
'Times' correspondent is writing at my side, yet 
I have no doubt his letter, for which he has been 
obliged to borrow pen, ink, and paper, will be printed 
before this comes to hand. To begin, I can tell 
you that I am unhurt, not having been under fire 
at all. However, I saw the whole action perfectly 
well, and will endeavour to give you a general idea 
of it, leaving our friend at my elbow (who is asking 
a lot of questions while writing his electric despatch) 
to give all statistical information. We left Kamishlu 
on the 19th, our position being in the centre. It 
was a splendid sight to see the army in movement, 
the flashing of the bayonets, the tramp of the 


which we and the French are terribly 
feficient. As soon as the cannonading on both sides 
had fairly commenced it was difficult to see what was 
going on, a dense smoke hanging between us and 
the enemy. The Russians moved down a column, 
menacing our left flank, supported by their artillery. 
However, now the French made a counter-movement 
on their left flank, and commenced storming the 
heights in gallant style. We could see their fire as 
they advanced up the hill, each trying to be fore- 
most. At the same time our Light Division advanced 
to cany a battery, but was checked until the 
Guards advanced to their support. By this time the 
French had carried the heights and turned the 
Kussian position. The bloodiest part of the work, 
however, was reser\'ed for the British — the storming 
of the heavy Kussian batteries which had first 
opened fire on us. 

" By this time the Russians were in fill] retreat, 
but their object being to save their guns, they 
covered their retreat by a heavy fire of musketry 
from the battery. Our Light Division (I am not 
sure what regiments, so I won't guess) advanced 
bravely to the assault, but was checked by the 
tremendous tire of the Russians, who, to do them 
justice, on this occasion fought well. They retired, 
but only for a short distance, hardly out of pistol- 

«ge, and then formed as steadily as if on parade, 
■ nearly ten minutes they remained fully exposed 
this fearful fire, and here it was that so many 
our gallant fellows fell. Other troops advancing 
tn their support, the battery was carried, the 
Rq aaiape retreating in tolerable order, leaving one 
in the battery. In the mean time the enemy 
tlirowu Irnck their left wing so as to face the 



French on the heights, holding them in check until 
the French Artillery came up. We could see the 
Russian columns drawn up in dense black lines. 
A hattery of ours was playing on them, and we 
oould see, when a shot plunged amongst them, the 
sudden rush aside and the wide gap immediately 
filled up again. The French Artillery now came up, 
and the Russians relinquished the combat on the 
left wing. Had the French been strong enough, 
and had we possessed sulficient cavalry, it is the 
opinion of many that we might have pursued and 
utterly routed the Russian army. However, thev 
have now retreated behind the Katscha river, and 
to-morrow or the day after (for I do not think we 
shall move to-day) we shall probably have such 
another battle to fight. I have not the slightest 
doubt as to the results : the Russians are all very- 
well at long ranges, but they can never stand the 
charge of our troops or of the French. For our 
own part, I do not think we have much to boast of. 
Although within range In the centre, and a clear 
space between us and the enemy, we were never 
under tire. I was all the time busy with my tele- 
scope trying to make out all that was going on. 
A spent shot came near us, which we felt rather 
proud o£ A few bullets, too, whizzed harmlessly 
past us. I went up rather inquisitively to examine 
what I thought a large round-shot, but found it to be 
an unexploded shell, upon which I prudently retired. 

" After the Russians had been driven from their 
position we (llth Company) crossed the river and 
repaired a bridge which they had endeavoured to 

" I will not attempt to describe to you the fearful 
Bight I witnessed on going over the field of battle. 


•^The ground about that fatal battery was literally 
covered %vitli the bodies of our men and of the 
enemy lying side by side. But the sight of the 
dead, fearful as it was, was not so horrible as the 
groans of the wounded. I am willing to believe that 
our surgeons did their best, but still some poor 
fellows, unseen or unsought, passed their night m 
sleepless groans on the field of battle. . . . 

" By the way, the fleet assisted us by shelling 
the Russian left, but they were too far off" to do 
much. — Believe me, &c., G. Graham." 

H " Before Sbbastopol, I9(A Octoher 1864. 

r " My dear Father, — I must still date this from 
bejb^'e Sebastopol, for I am sorry to say that we ai'e 
not yet in it. I have just seen a ' Times ' of Oct. 2, 
containing a telegiaphic despatch announcing the 
battle of Alma and a column headed ' Fall of Sebas- 
topol,' in large print. How disappointed you all must 
be when mail after mail comes In and you find that 
our splendid victory has had no equivalent result, and 
that the fall of Sebastopol, which you fixed at five 
days after the battle, has not been accomplished in 
thirty. What the ' Times' says is true, that we have 
to contend with an enemy with whom the most daring 
measures would be the most successful. If, instead of 
lying at Balaklava and slowly landing our siege-train 
ad allowing the Russians to throw up powerful bat- 
iries for defence on this side of the town, we had 
Howed up the defeated and panic-stricken enemy, 
here is little doubt but that the sanguine announce- 
lent in your papers would have been fulfilled. As it 
is, we have with infinite labour opened our batteries 
within a mile of the place, and are now playing at 
long-bowls with the Russians without much apparent 


jzrrirr :r ^zrrT Side. We opened fire the day before 
-rrs^Trr^j, zzj^ Yt^tj:\i shutting up after a few rounds, 
:^¥-jL^ v.- 4:: uzlucky explosion of one of their maga- 
zLif^^. ^<ervards toUowed by an explosion of some 

"" Yirr r-eet assisted in cannonading the torts the first 

CAT. 'zsn Ticstrrdav we had to sustain the whole of 

• • • 

•Jiejr £r»r :^l^5eIve5. and that with a very short supply 
:c v—-^"'— r.*-. owing to the detective arrangements of 
•iitr ArnZ-rrr. The Russ^ian defences on this side consist 
i-Tjif?: -riLTir^Iy of earthworks, thrown up for the most 
-&r: iz-'i-rr -I'ur eyes, and which might have been 
rzr^^i &• once by bringing up a few heavy guns or 
r-rkris. We take the right of the attack and the 
Fr^-*:! t'-e len, our own attack being again sub- 
'ilrrtir^i into right and left, I being in the left- The ::. us Engineers is, of course, very heavy. Some 
:c ::5 ar»e up in the trenches two or even three nights 

" I have not had time to see the French works, but 
■zr own consist of one long line of trench- work in 

*':: attack, the batteries being in the trench. We 
i-i~rr 35 guns on our side in four batteries, and in the 
wl.:> English attack there are, at present, 66 guns, 
-li,?Iudir.g some naval onesw It was entirely our (R-BL) 
work laying out the batteries, as well as building them. 
All our object is to silence the Ru;ssian guns prepara- 
torv to stormincr the place, no breachinsr batteries 
'orini: required against meiv earth -works ; and be- 
s:d«e* these the enemv has a mere wall lined with sand- 
lai: loopholes for musketry- tiiv, 1 have had always 
tr.r same lx\tterv to work whenever on dutv — No. 2, 
-.vvicri I theivfoiv call my Uittory. It is for ten guns, 
w::h ••blique embrasuivs, and ixninterlvittei's a Russian 
i-Kfcittery of equiU foive, which is placed just in front 



of a large barrack, so that all our shot that are 
too high go into the barrack, which looks rather 
dilapidated hy this time. 

" I was in the trenches all yesterday under the 
heaviest fire. Two men were killed at my battery 
by the cross-fire from a heavy Russian battery, which 
we had depended on the French to silence, as they can 
enfilade it from their side. However, yesterday the 
Fi-ench did not fire a shot, and, as I have said be- 
fore, could fire very little, being so badly supplied with 
ammunition. My battery is manned by sailors, who 
work capitally, whether fighting their guns or throw- 
ing up intrenchments. I have tried both soldiers 
and sailors, and I consider 100 sailors as a working 
party worth at least 150 soldiers of the Line. The 
reason of this is not only the willing spirit of the men 
but the fact that their officers exert themselves and 
direct their men, which is more than I can say for the 
officers of the Line, who do not appear to be at all 
kware of the importance of speedily completing the 
irk, and instead of energetically encouraging their 
len, generally (particularly if at night) retire to some 
Itered place and go to sleep. As the whole of 
working parties — field officers and all — are under 
direction of the Engineer officer, I always make a 
tint of turning out these sleepy gentlemen (when I 
find them) with a polite request that they will 
ke their men work a little better. They are obliged 
attend to this, knowing that a report from me would 
ng down on them severe censure from the^ com- 

'The night work in the trenches is very hard and 

.rassing. From six in the evening till four in the 

moniing the Engineer officer in the trenches must be 

conatautly on his feet, directing and encouraging the 


men to work. He must, if possible, act up to his 
motto of Uhique, aud be everywhere at once. Not 
only that, but when working under fire he must always 
expose himself at leasf as much as any of the men, so 
as to stimulate them to work in spite of the fire, I 
was on duty the night before opening our fire with 
orders to have my battery completed before 5 o'clock 
in the morning. My battery was somewhat behind 
the others on account of unusual difficulties that I met 
with, and I had to use every effort to get it finished 
in time. However, by dint of running from one part 
of the battery to another, working myself when the 
men would not— which, by the way, I found an un- 
failing expedient — I got the work done, and at 5 a.m. 
on the I7th instant I had the pleasure of reporting the 
battery finished, with all its embrasuies revetted and 
masked by empty gabions, behind which the guns 
stood looking menacingly towards the Russian battery. 
It was now broad daylight, and I was glad enough to 
leave the battery before the cannonading commenced, 
particularly as the road leading to it is unprotected 
from the Russian fire. 

" It soon became evident that the Russiajis had per- 
ceived that our batteries were armed, as they opened a 
much heavier fire on us than usual, we not replying 
with a single shot, our orders being to wait for the 
signal from the French. In the meantime I reached 
our camp, which is a mUe and a half from the works. 
I was, of course, very tired and hungry, but this was 
no time for sleeping. Our batteries were now armed 
and ready, and that bullying Russian fire, to which 
we had been exposed through so many weary days 
and nights, was about to be replied to with a roar as 
loud as its own. 

" One part of my wants, however, I was obliged to 


attend to. I could not resist breakfast. You will 
smile to know that I am considered to have the best 
appetite of all the mess. I certainly never remember 
eating so much at any other period of my ILfe, and I 
believe it is entirely owing to my good living that I 
keep up my health and strength so well. Out of the 
ten of us here who do duty in the trenches two are 
laid up by the fatigue and one by the jaundice, so that 
the duty faBs rather heavily on the efficient officers. 
I missed seeing the opening of our fire. It began 
without the French, who said they must wait till the 
sun got up. 

" When I arrived on the ground commanding a view 
of the action, I found our guns working away at a 
tremendous rate, the sailors' batteries especially dis- 
tinguishing themselves by the energy of their fire. 
It was a beautiful bright sunny morning, but little 
could be seen, except at intervals, for the dense smoke 
that lay before the town. Amid the crash of the 
artillery and whizzing roar of the enemy's balls, as 
they came rushing through the air, was distinctly 
heard the repeated sharp bang of the Lancaster guns, 
whose balls made a noise like a railway whistle. 
After about an hour's firing we appeared to have 
silenced the tower on the enemy's left, but his power- 
ful earth -batteries appeared very little injured. The 
French now openexl, firing slowly, very differently 
from our own rattling cannonading, 

" Suddenly a column of dense black smoke rose high 
up in the French lines, followed by a deep, crashing 
report, heard distinctly above all our fierce cannon- 
ading. A sickening feeling came over us. The 
French had evidently had a magazine — and that 
one of the larger size — blown up. This heavy mis- 
fortune paralysed the efforts of our allies for the 



remainder of that day. It is said that 47 men and 
a whole battery were put hors de conibat by that 
terrible explosion. It was caused by a shell falling 
on the top of their magazine, which was not suffici- 
ently protected. A shell fell on one of ours yesterday 
without any injury, as we make our magazines bomb- 
proof. In the course of the day we partially revenged 
our allies' misfortune by blowing up one of the 
enemy's magazines, the sight of which we welcomed 
with a loud cheer, 

"October 20, Evening. — Last night I was on duty 
in the trenches, to-night I sleep in my bed. Our 
duty now is to repair at night the damages inflicted 
in the daytime. All last night we did not fire a shot, 
nor did the Russians. On both sides, I suppose, prep- 
arations were being made for the morrow. This 
morning the Russian batteries looked rather ruinous, 
whereas ours were as fresh as on the first day. It 
is, however, evident that our enemy, if not very 
enterprising, is one of great resources and dogged 
determination. They - have erected a new battery. 
To me this business appears much too long; after 
four days' firing we have accomplished very little. 
The bayonet should have decided it at first, and 
must decide it at last. 

" A storming party with ladders has been ready 
every day since the firing commenced, and two 
Engineer officers {appointed in daily rotation) are 
always ready to lead the 1st and 3rd Divisions to 
the attack. We have lost our Colonel by an attack 
of apoplexy. That makes the fourth field officer 
of Engineers who has been knocked up — - Colonel 
Vicars ^ on his way out ; Colonel Victor - as soon 

' Uajor-General Edward Vicars, died in 1864. 

* Uajor-Genenil Jamea Conway Victor, died in 1864. 


as at Gallipoli ; General Tylden ^ died from cholera ; 
and this last, Colouel Alexander.^ The fact is, they 
are all too old to sustain the activity required from 
a Commanding Engineer in the field. . . . — Believe 
me, kc, G. Graham." 


^'Before Sebastopol, B3rd Oct. 1854. 

"Mv DEAR Sister. — . . . Your letters both arrived 
by the same mail, and I got them late in the evening. 
When I read them over a second time I was in a very 
different scene from the peaceful ones you described 
80 well. I was in one of our batteries, in full action, 
amid the deafening crash of our own guns and the 
more dangerous but less startling rushing roar of the 
enemy's shot, which passed over us thick and furious. 
'There is no doubt about it, excitement apart, war 
the moat disagreeable employment in the world. 
Disagreeable is, however, no term for the thing 
itself, but merely for the duties required from us 
and others. I should rather characterise war as a 
hideous and unnatural absurdity, an immense 
mistake. This you may think stating a mere truism, 
but you must also allow it, in my case, to be a 
tolerably pi'actical conclusion, being drawn from 
personal observation. This is, after all, a pretty 
loeral opinion, and though, no doubt, forty years 

lence old fogies will talk of the glorious campaign 
the Crimea as the pleasantest period of tbeir 
life, yet, I think, if you canvassed opinion now you 

'ould find few, if any, who would wish the war to 
continue, could it be concluded at ouce with credit 
to ourselves. 

' Brigadier-Geoeral Sir William Burton IVIdeii, K.Cr.B., seized with 
olem after the battle of the Alma and died the uinie day. 
' Lient.-Colonel Charles Cat-son Alexaiidei'. 


" Of all war operations perhaps a siege is the most 
tedious, and this has as yet proved no exception, 
contrary to your newspaper repwrts, which annoyed 
and amused us at once with the ludicrous details 
of the fall of SebastopoL Although in many respects, 
which I wiU not enumerate, a striking exception to 
most former sieges, this one aUbrds no varied interest 
to the Engineer. There has been a great deal of the 
pedantry of the old school in our operations. How- 
ever, I shall not criticise our proceedings to you, so 
let them be judged of by the event. 

" Our work since the opening of our batteries is 
chiefly repairing the damages done in the daytime. 
The enemy does the same thing, as we have some 
foolish orders not to fire after dark. The Russians 
are glad enough to rest too, though we generally 
manage to set a part of the town on fire before 
leaving off. To-night there is rather a larger fire 
than usual, a strong sirocco blowing, and the French 
are shelling the unfortunate inhabitants. Oh I war 
is a horrible thing, and that I have often thought 
when out in one of those beautiful starlight nights. 
To see those countless worlds shining above us in 
supreme iudiffereuce to our wretched little conten- 
tions and ludicrously horrible way of settling them, 
seemed, if the idea could be impressed strongly 
enough, to settle the whole war at once by reducing 
it to an absolute nonentity. If by some means 
intelligence were to reach us that a war had broken 
out between a very minute fraction of the inhabit- 
ants of one of the stars in the Milky Way, I doubt 
if, as citizens of the universe, we should consider 
the matter of any iiniversal importance. My reflec- 
tions on this subject would, however, be suddenly 
interrupted. A bright flash would be seen like 


distant summei- sheet -lightning. 'A shot T calls 
the man on the look - out. The working party 
crouches down, and all is silent for three or four 
seconds, when the report is heard simultaneously 
with the rushing, roaring sound of the shot or shell 
as it flies over our heads, or knocks one of them 
off, dashing on with indifference in either case. A 
shell thrown from a mortar is a beautiful sight at 
night as it rises high in the air, its fuse glowing 
brightly like a star ; then, describing a beautiful curve, 
it falls and fulfils its murderous errand by exploding, 
if correct, a few feet above the ground. A live shell 
is not a pleasant thing to be near. One of them 
burst within 20 feet of me yesterday but without 
hurting any one. 

" Oct. 27. — . . . The siege is progressing slowly 
and unsatisfactorily. That we shall ultimately take 
the town I have not the slightest doubt, but it is 
the u-ay of taking it that I am alluding to, 

" Oct. 28. — I must finish this letter, as usual, in a 
burry, as a messenger is about to take it to Bala- 
klava. This time I must therefore leave all the 
public news to be furnished to you by the papers — 
that rash and fatal cavalry charge, which, however, 
was avenged though not repaired by the repulse of 
the Russians the day following. It is said that we 
shall hut here. . . . — Believe me, &c., 

»" G. Graham." 
'^Do/ore SEBASToroL, 1»( Nov. 1854, 

*' My DEAR Sister, — . . . You will be glad to hear 
that M. still keeps up his health. One reason for 
that is he eats so much, though it is doubted by some 
whether I do not eat as much as he does. He is very 
cheerful, and sings ' Partant pour la Syrie ' every 




morning on awaking, which I hear very distinctly, 
being in the same tent with him. My servant Pierre 
has turned out very well. He is rather lazy and 
negligent, but is, on the whole, a good honest fellow. 
He is, indeed, rather a character in his way, and 
seems persistently happy when under fire. A round- 
shot passing near Pierre's head one morning sent him 
into fits of laughter. He really seemed to regard it 
as a most excellent joke, a. pi-actical joke. I also took 
another servant the day we left Varna, an English 
lad, but such a stupid helpless lout that he is 
not presentable, so we will dismiss him without 
further notice. After all, my Maltese horse turned 
out the best. He is rather weaker than formerly, 
but apparently pretty well cured of his viciousness. 
He was of great use to me during the march. My 
last letter to you may have seemed rather desponding, 
but that would be giving you a false impression, 
I was rather annoyed and grieved at that time by 
two circumstances which I did not mention. One 
reason was, that I did not exactly see which way we 
were going, beiug without much confidence in our 
leaders ; and another reason was, that an acquaint- 
ance of mine (a very slight one — an Artillery officer) 
had had his head knocked off by a cannon-ball when 
looking over the parapet to observe the effects of 
his fire on the enemy's battery. Not that I, by any 
means, retract my expressed opinion on war and its 
horrors, Even M., who was most discontented with 
his pacific position of spectator at the battle of Alma, 
chafing like a chained hound at the sight of a hare, 
or, to use his own simile, feeling as if in bed at a 
ball — even he declares he considers war a disgusting 
and unnatural employment. Yet, to me personally, 
the excitement and hardships are not disagreeable, 


I and I can bear the fatigue better than the average. 
I Besides, you must know there has been a change in 
ithe admtnistratiou lately. Our late Colonel, a well- 
meaning, active man, but somewhat incoinpetant for 
general comniand, has shared the fate of his pre- 
decessors. He was carried off" suddenly by a fit of 
apoplexy, probably somewhat induced by over- 
excitement. His place is now filled by my old com- 
mander. Captain J. W. Goi-don.^ By this time my 
L brother-officers here have begun to recognise Gordon's 
■ merits, his high sense of justice, firmness, and prac- 
tical good sense. Indeed, many of them now go 
further than I do, and wish to ascribe to him the 
possession of great talents and natural abilities. 
This I deny, at least to any extent, and thus may 
now appear to be rather among the detractors than 
the eulogisers of Gordon's character. In Gordon I 
»ii8ider we have just such a commander as we now 
Irant. I only wish the French Engineers had such 
nother instead of their pedantic old chef Biz6t, who 
1 determined to enter Sebastopol according to the 
jles of Vauban, and on no other conditions. . . . 
-Believe me, &c., G. Graham." 

* Mt dear Sister, — Since I last wrote to you we 
lave been engaged in another battle, and one as fatal 
as the battle of Alma. We need now no longer be 
told to remember the 5th November, for it is a day 

■to be marked red in our annals. As I was not an 
rye-witness of any but a small part of the engage- 

' JUjor-Oeneral Sir John William Gordon, K.C.B., Inspector-General 
of FortificatioDB, who died in 1870. In the CriniBii lie was oicknaiued by 
th« men "Old Fireworks," on account of his cooliieBS under fire, and the 
atMoncemed manner in which he exposed himtelf to it. 


ment, you must not expect any entire account of it 
from me. 

"At 6 o'clock in the morning of the 5th, I, on awak- 
ing from a sound sleep (having been the greater part 
of the night previous in the trenches), thought I could 
distinguish a distant fii'e of musketry amid the noise 
of the usual cannonading. I awoke M. , and we agreed 
to ride out together to see what was going on. We 
found that our right had again been attacked, and 
the enemy, in large force, were in possession of a hill 
(Inkerman), an important position, which our com- 
manders, with culpable negligence, have neglected to 
fortify. We had evidently been suiprised ; indeed, 
one or two of our outlying pickets were killed to a 
man, and our outposts driven in. However, now the 
battle was raging along nearly a mile of our right 
front ; the nearest available troops had been hurried 
out, and were bravely holding ground against the 
overwhelming force of the enemy, at that time nearly 
ten to one, who were advancing In dense columns 
with wild, wolfish yells. At the same time a loud 
cannonading on the south side announced another 
attack on Balaklava, so that we appeared to be men- 
aced on all sides, and to be called upon to defend 
ourselves with our utmost strength. A couple of 
9-pr8, whizzing near us warned us to enter no closer 
into that atmosphere of destruction, and accordingly 
we cantered over to the Balaklava side. Here we 
found that the demonstration of the enemy was a 
mere feint to draw off our troops from the real point of 
attack. However, I cannot now give you any further 
account of the battle ; I may perhaps in my next. 
As usual, everything was carried by the valour of 
our troops, who, though disorganised, lacking orders, 
and frequently in want of ammunition, yet fought 


against superior numbers as Britons only can fight. 
This battle was especially fatal to our general officers. 
Eight out of thirteen were struck. Sir George Cath- 
cart was killed, a loss not easily to be replaced. 

" The Russians have earned our respect by the cour- 
age they displayed that day. Their artillery have 
astonished us by the way in which they carried their 
heavy guns over apparently impossible ground. In 
the retreat they actually lifted an 18-pr. gun off its 
disabled carriage, though under a heavy fire, and 
carried it off the field, a daring and wonderful feat 
in the face of a victorious enemy. Our loss was 
great, nearly as great as at Alma; theirs, I think, 
much greater ; yet they retired in good order, covered 
by their guns. Three times their guns faced us in 
their retreat and replied to our deadly volleys. Our 
troops were fighting from 6 a.m. until 3.30 p.m. The 
French joined us at 10 a. m. . . . — Believe me, &c., 

"G. Graham." 




" Before Sebastopol, IQth Nov, 1864. 

"My dear Sister, — Since my last letter of the 
7th I have shifted my quarters from the Left 
Attack to the Right. I was sorry to have to 
change, as, considering the circumstances, I was 
very comfortable in my last quarters with M. for 
my tent-fellow. We had also a comfortable mess, 
five of us together, and (as I was not caterer) I 
was relieved from all the trouble attendant on pro- 
viding dinner. Now, however, as I have come 
amongst a set of fellows who have already formed 
their little messes, provided with stores, &c., none of 
whom I know particularly well, of course I have to 
set up a little establishment of my own and dine 
in solitary grandeur in my tent. By the way, we 
have all got tents now. We got them shortly after 
our arrival at Balaklava. I am now in a bell-tent, 
my little one being abandoned to my servants. 

"I believe it is now nearly certain that we shall 
pass the winter here. At least I know that one of 
my brother-officers has been to examine the timber 
about the coast of Circassia, no doubt with a view 
to use it for hutting. Now, whatever you at home 
may imagine of the country, I can assure you it is 


the very last place any of us would wish to pass 
the winter in. It was all very well passing through 
it on the march, admiring the scenery and the fruit, 
with all the excitement of the thing ; but now it is 
very different. The excitement has vanished and 
the fruit too, and the scenery no one thinks about : 
besides, it looks very different in wet weather to 
what it does in dry sunny weather such as we have 
generally had till within the last two days. For 
the last two days it has been pouring in frequent 
and heavy showers of rain day and night, which is 
very trying to the troops, whose turn of duty 
obliges them to He out in the open air. Indeed, 
we are afraid the wet season has set in, as in this 
part of the Crimea there is generally more rain than 
enow in the winter. Tents are very poor protection 
'jSgainst rain. Everything gets wet, and I am awak- 
ened in the night by finding the rain sprinkling over 
ly face. I believe, however, the heavy rains do 
it commence before the month of January, by which 
le I hope we shall all be in huts. But the prin- 
ipal privation which we all feel is the want of any 
ler society than our own, and the impossibility of 
ling up our leisure hours with any agreeable 
upation. It was for this reason that we all 
ked forward with longing when in Turkey to 
le civilised winter - quartet's, a hope which will 
te disappointed by wintering in the Crimea. With 
regard to the productiveness of the country, you 
must know that we do not in the least benefit 
it, surrounded as we are by a Russian army, 
we depend on the ships for bringing us supplies 
of provisions. 

"November 11. — Last night I was out on duty and 
had fully my share of the wet and discomfort. The 



soil, being clay, is very unpleasant for walking in 
wet weather. It was quite hard work yesterday 
evening to get to tbe place where we are throwing 
up a redoubt. About three miles of slippery, sticky 
mud, nearly as deep as, or deeper than, the height 
of my instep. I had a party of 200 Turks to work, 
and an armed party of 250 men of the Line, as 
this was a very advanced post.^indeed it was on 
the field of the Inkerman battle of the 5th, about 
which I suppose your newspapers are now full. It 
was a dark wet night, and blowing a strong cold 
wind. An enterprising enemy would probably have 
sent out a force to endeavour to cut us off, as we 
had no support, and it was just the night for an 
attack. We could see the Russian camp-fires on the 
other side of the Inkerman valley and opposite 
Balaklava. But the Russians had had a severe 
lesson on the 5th, so they left us in peace, not 
even shelling us, as we had expected. I should 
think they must suffer in this weather, having no 
tents. I am afraid our poor fellows will soon. 

" Our men in this weather have not sufficient 
energy. I saw them last night lying down in their 
soaking blankets on the wet mud instead of walking 
about. I kept myself warm by walking about con- 
tinually, with an osier basket over my head by way 
of an umbrella, poking up the lazy Turks, who never 
miss an opportunity of being idle. I made their 
officers do the same thing whenever I could make 
them out, for it is very difficult to distinguish a Turk- 
ish officer from his men. Indeed, on one occasion 
I was pommelling a Turk, who seemed incorrigibly 
lazy, for some time before I found out that he was 
a yiiz-hashi, or captain. The Turks on all these oc- 
casions ai-e very good-natured, and inclined to take 



liings in good part. Still, one can hardly bring 
oneself to regard them as rational beings, but rather 
as a sort of beast of burden whom it is necessaiy 
to drive to work. This, of course, in a great part 
arises from our ignorance of their language, for I 
confess I have not learnt (and hardly wish to learn) 
any Turkish. In an attempt at a conversation with 
one of their officers he explained to me that he 
was afraid some of his men would be ill after the 
night's work on my complaining of their laziness. 
The bulk of our conversation, however, was that 
we agreed the weather was ' no bono,' a phrase 
■which appears to have been bond fide adopted in 
the language since our arrival. 

" As I have before mentioned, this ground was one 
of the points of attack on the 5th. I am now merely 
doing what should have been done at first in fortifying 
it. There were still many sad traces of the battle 
near the site of our work. Some bodies of the Russian 
soldiers yet unburied were passed on our march, and 
several wounded horses that had been abandoned 
were limping about. Some that had been very 
valuable and were now trying to feed themselves on 
the scanty herbage, and some In almost the last 
stages of weakness and starvation, A pitiable sight ! 
Poor creatures, they should be shot, but unfortunately 
their present position is too much exposed to the 
enemy's fire for any one to go out for the purpose of 
putting an end to their miseries. I have heard some 
.one remark (and I partly agree) that it is more 
mching to see a horse wounded than a man, though 
you this must seem absurd. 
However, to resume, I got in this morning very 
1 and with hardly a dry stitch on me. Everything 
f tent, too, was damp except my bed, thanks to 


my waterproof cover. As I had nothing to do to-day 
I lay in bed till about half-past one P.M. Rain nearly 
all day. It is now evening, and I shall go to bed 
again directly, as I feel damp and chilly. 

" In looking over your old letters, I met with that 
sermon of Kingsley's on Pestilence and its Causes, 
which I read over again. You know I admire it very 
much, and liked it even better the second reading. 
Still I think that if all the theological part of it were 
left out it would then read not unlike Combe's ' Con- 
stitution of Man, Moral and Physical,' &c., &c., only 
in more energetic and quainter style. 

" I rather miss now those long and choice extracts 
you used to send me, but in your last letter (of the 
19th) you mention that you are going to send me some 
poetry in your next. Reading has always been my 
resource, and I begin to feel sadly the want of books. 
Shakespeare was my consoler at Varna, but was un- 
fortunately left there. I can safely trust you to 
choose me something to my taste, and if you do not 
pay the carriage, I think it will be pretty sure to 
arrive safely. Beyond reading over your letters and 
talking with any chance visitor, I have very little to 
do in this weather. Writing to any extent is not 
agreeable, as it Involves sitting at a table and with 
my feet on a muddy floor. 

" I have formed a friendship with a little dog that 
my man Pierre has atlopted. He was found after the 
battle of Alma lying disconsolately in the cloak of a 
dead Russian officer. He has, however, now got over 
his grief, and begs very nicely and answers to the name 
of 'Alma.' ^ . . . — Believe me, &c., G.Graham." 

I " Alma " vaa given by Graham U> the 1 llli Company of Koyal Engin- 
s to which lie belonged, niid wi»a for some years a familinr sight on the 
pai^e-ground at Brompton Barracks, Chatham. 



"Before Sebastopol, 2\st A'ov. 1854. 

'My dear Father, — 

'^ Nov. 22. — I am sorry I have so few items of news 
to tell you, and that few of so little brilliancy. The 
most important fact is that we are to winter here. 
Another, that most of us have long known, and that 
you in England must now be beginning to become 
aware of, despite enthusiastic ' correspondents,' is 
that Lord Raglan is not the man you took him for, 
— neither a great tactician nor a good general. St 
Arnaud adroitly presented his only good point when 
he praised Lord Raglan's personal indifference to 
danger. However, whether or not he has shown 
the ' courage of an ancient hero,' he has certainly 
not displayed the resources of a modern general. 
Indeed, I am afraid it is the fact of his being so 
ancient that stands in his way ; at least, until we 
Nliave a more vigorous and resolute general I am 
Bafraid we shall not take Sebastopol. 

■' We have committed a gi'eat eiTor in attempting to 

ssiege Sebastopol in form on this side. We should 

iiave taken it on this side hy assault, or, if resolved 

I it in form, have attacked it on the other 

On this side we have to attack a large extent 

front, which puts us in a veiy disadvantageous 

•sition relatively to ordinary sieges. Our fire is no 

;er convergent, but rather divergent, and we can 

very little. Besides, the nature of the 

and the enemy's position are such that we 

; advance our works except on the left, where 

[(he French are. There is another curious feature in 

his siege, that it is an attack on earth-works — in fact, 

'fc battle between earth batteries, in which each side 

tries to silence the other, for there is no such thing 

as hreaching an earth-work, nor indeed is there any 



occasion for it. Now, as the besieged have all the 
resources of a large arsenal and of their ships to arm 
their batteries, and far greater facility in the way 
of communication than we have, you may conceive 
that this siege (conducted as it has hitherto been) will 
not be finished in a hurry. We have been so long 
about it that we have now another array on us which 
would perhaps not have recognised the victors of 
Alma in the hesitating dawdlers before Sebastopol, 
had it not been for the bloody battle of Inkerman. 
. , . You have heard of that terrible gale we had, 
as fatal to us as a battle. We shall have a rough 
time of it. — Believe me, Sec, G. Graham." 

"BefoTt Sebastopoi., 23ni Nov. 1854. 

" My dear Sister,— I have received your two 
letters of the 28th Oct. and 1st Nov, . . . Your 
account of Mr Maurice's lecture on the College for 
Working Men is very interesting. The Ragged 
School enterprise is certainly rather a bold one for 
you, in your present state of health. Indeed, I 
should think teaching, particularly such elementary 
instruction, the most trying and exhausting of all 
occupations. Unless, therefore, you really feel some 
sustaining enthusiasm for the work, I would earnestly 
recommend you not to attempt it. . . . 

" I am afraid this will be a very rough dull winter. 
You have had the account of that terrible gale we 
had the othei' day. Among the many losses on that 
tempestuous day was one we felt more deeply than 
others, as being nearer to us, the loss of a brother 
officer, Captain William Mason Inglis, R.E., who was 
drowned when the steamer Prince went down. As 
yet our loss has been four— a general, colonel, captain, 
and subaltern. My own experience of the gale was 






the common one of nearly all who had tents. Some 
of the tents were blown off the ground and the in- 
mates scattered about, with their property in admir- 
able confusion. My tent was not blown away, as I had 
taken the precaution of having my tent pickets driven 
well into the ground as soon as the gale commenced. 
However, it did not save me, for ray tent-pole broke 
And brought the tent down on me whilst I was in bed. 
H scrambled into my clothes and ran out, and found 
that my fate was common to all. Finding it impos- 
sible to set up my tent again, and that it was rather 
unpleasant outside in the biting cold wind and driving 
low and hail, I returned to my fallen tent and 
lanaged to creep under my bedstead, which, being 
composed of pickets driven in the ground, could not 
be blown away. Here I made a plain bieakfast off 
biscuit and ham. In the afternoon I discovered a 
!nt of a brother officer, which, being in a more 
eltered position, had not been blown down. He 
,ve me a bit of salt pork, off which I dined. I was 
,e only officer on duty that night in the trenches. 
A'or. 26, — Since I last wrote, an unfortunate 
accident has occurred, which I feel very deeply, 
though I trust it will not turn out to be so serious 
as I at tirst feared. The day before yesterday (while 
peeting some work in front of the trenches) poor M. 
'as shot by one of the Russian outlying riflemen. 
le ball entered his stomach and lodged somewhere 
his groin. The same liall passed through another 
icer's clothes without hurting him. I went over 
iterday (a terribly wet day) to see M., or at least 
lar how he was. On arriving there, however, I found 
lat it was thought better I should not see bini, as It 
would only excite and disturb him. Whilst there the 
doctorH came to search for, and if possible extract, the 



liaD, wfakfa tbey bad not been able to find tbe nigfat 
before. This time they found, bat could not succeed 
in extracting, tbe balL I am told be bears tbe pain 
like a true soldier. Indeed, in every respect, M. is of 
a very high, chivalrous spirit. He is, in &ct, unoon- 
scioosly, quite a beau ideal of chivalry, at once the 
brareet and the gentlest. Yoa will, of course, think 
that my sorrow at his misfortune makes me overrate 
bis virtuea, but I will give you a few instances. He 
would court danger for the glory of it. On the day 
of tbe battle of Inkerman I lost sight of bim, and 
afterwards found that be bad gone farther than I had 
into tbe field, and bad bis horse shot under him. He 
also was the officer of ours who sketched the chief 
part of our position, and, disguised as a rifleman, went 
oat with tbe advanced skirmishers in order to see 
as much of the ground in front as possible, being a 
first-rate sketcber. For his extreme courtesy and 
gentleness ask his e*iuals, or better still his inferiors, 
to whom I never yet beard him address a harsh, 
unkind word. However, I hope and believe that I 
am not writing his epitaph. The news to-day is that 
he is getting on very well. It is, however, a sad 
and awfiil thing to see one's friends struck down so 
suddenly. There is no previous warning, no sickness 
and slow decay ; but tbe man you speak with in the 
morning may in the evening be a corpse or a writh- 
ing cripple, a mere mutilated remnant of what be was 
a few hours before. No natural calamities can be 
more fearful than these of human creation. 

" When I returned yesterday fi-om my visit to poor 
M. it was raining a deluge. The clay soil here does 
not absorb much rain, so that it runs oif the surface 
and pours down the ravines intersecting our position, 
in each of which I found a roaring torrent. I was 


on foot, having sent James to Balaklava with my 
pony, and you may imagine my condition on getting 
here. I found no dinner beyond cold pork, but 
Pierre, eeemg me so wet, inquired, ' Voulez-vous que 
je vouB fasse un punch ? ' To my surprise he shoi-tly 
afterwards brought me a brimmer of hot rum punch, 
manufactured with sugar and lemons, &c., which I 
found very acceptable. My former pretentious 
servant, Jean, had always but one reply when I 
asked him for anything he was not acquainted with, 
' Que voulez - vous que je fasse ? je ne suis pas 
cuisinier moi ! ' which he would repeat with an air 
of indignant surprise, 

" The reason that I hurried back through the rain 
yesterday was that I expected to be on duty that 
night, but fortunately my invaluable Turks did not 
oome, the weather being so bad, and my turn of 
duty has been passed over. Oh I those Turks. 
Imagine having 300 Turks, whom you are to make 
work on some regular system. But you cannot 
imagine it, not knowing what Turks are. The best 
definition I have seen of a ' regular Turk ' is that 
ven by the ' Roving Englishman * in Dickens's 
Household Words ' : 'A strange, weary, broken- 
cranky, rickety, crotchety old person, whose 
sginning, end, and whole history may be summed 
in two words — pipes and peace ! ' 
Now then, if you can, imagine having 300 of 
lese same strange, weary, broken -do^vn, Ac, &c., 
creatures to set to work on a dark night, they 
the while longing for ' pipes and peace.' Suppose 
;at I want them to be extended on a straight line 
3 feet apart, and explain this to their bin-bashi, 
colonel, through the medium of an interpreter (who 
,vea me as soon as they are started). My 300 have 



dwindled down to 260, 30 being missed on the road 
(for they straggle most terribly), and 10 or more 
being ill, lying on their stomacbs groaning. Besides 
this, as often as they have the opportunity (which in 
a pitch-dark night is not infrequently), some of them 
will skulk away from work and lie down among the 
bushes. But to return to setting them to work. 

" To !>egin, they must be placed in couples, as a 
Turk cannot work with a pickaxe and shovel like 
our men, but carries either a shovel or a pickaxe ; 
and as both cannot work together, half of them are 
necessarily always idle, though generally the whole 
are. However, suppose them at last all placed in 
a straight line, at the proper distances apart : I 
leave them for a few minutes to look at another part 
of the work ; on my return I find, to my horror, that, 
with an utter indifference for my straight line, they 
have collected themselves into different clrculai- 
groups, or rather herds, I should say, and on my ap- 
proach make a show of picking up the earth. My 
intei'preter is probably gone away. I rally together 
the few Sappers I have, and drive each of these 
strange, weary old people into his place again, to find 
them all wrong again shortly afterwards. You may 
imagine how wearisome and unsatisfactory this is. 
They are not even picturesque-looking, as you may 
perhaps suppose ; in short, there is nothing inter- 
esting about them. In their long ugly cloaks with 
cowls they look to me more like helpless old women 
than soldiers. Twice a-week or ten days the working 
parties are allowed pay. If they work to the satis- 
faction of the Engineer officer. I cannot In conscience 
recommend these Turks for pay, though I generally 
allow the poor devils a fraction of it, but stop the pay 
of all the officei-s and non-commissioned officers entirely. 



About 9 p.m. — A heavy firing is going on now, 
probably a soi-tie, as 1 hear amid the roar of the 
cannonading the sharp cracks of the musketry. It 
is either on our Left Attack or on the Frencli side. 
I rather dread a sortie on us. It takes about ten 
minutes to turn our poor tired fellows out of their 
blankets, and by that time the Russians might be in 
on them. The cannonading and musketry have 
ceased, having lasted only about five minutes, evi- 
dently nothing of importance. 

" Noveviher 27.- — To-day I have been shifted back 
again to the Left Attack, and am on duty to-night. 
I have seen poor M. His wound is considered to be 
progressing favourably, but he seems very weak, poor 
fellow. That, however, is principally owing to the 
treatment he is now undergoing, having been bled, 
^^^ and taking very little food, to keep down the fever. 
^^L " I received yours of the 9th this morning. Do not 
^^Klet anything I have written discourage you in your 
^^^ project of instructing the Ragged School. I shall 
take a great interest in it. I admire the poetry you 
sent me very much, but must read it again. ... — 

I Believe me, &c., G. Graham." 

" Dgfon Skbaotopol, IWA flee 1864. 
"My dear Sister, — You must think me very 
beglectful not to have written to you by the last 
jtwo mails. The last I missed by an unforeseen 
IKcident. I lost my way in a dense fog on the 
very evening that I intended to have wi-itten. This 
IB a very easy country to lose one's way in, all the 
features being so very similar. I was going over 
-BOme ground that I was imperfectly acquainted with, 
nowing only my direction, which I lost by turning 
to show some one else the way. I found my 


way over to the Right Attack, where I slept on 
the ground in my cloak, and very cold It was. 

"I have received yours of the 12th and 18th. I 
am sorry to hear that our mother suffers from weak- 
ness and headaches. I will write to her again soon. 
So your school business is not to come off so soon 
as you had expected. I am rather glad of it, as I 
think that in your present state of health the 
exertion would be too much for you. Teaching is a 
very noble occupation, particularly when the pupils are 
the children of the very poor, who would otherwise 
grow up in ignorance. To instruct such children, or 
indeed any, must require a great deal of self-sacrifice. 

"Dec. 11. — I like the idea of the 'Patriotic Band' 
very much. A corps of gentleman volunteers would, 
indeed, be irresistible. Knglish ' blood ' would carry 
all before it, and, despite your republican opinions 
and large sympathies, you must acknowledge that 
there is virtue in ' blood ' {or, perhaps better ex- 
pressed, in 'breeding') which is not to be found 
in the mass. I may say this as a spectator, not 
having been personally engaged. Our men are the 
best fighting troops in the world, will follow their 
officers through the heaviest fire, to certain destruc- 
tion if necessary ; but supposing the officers do not 
lead or direct, then the men are belplesa As on 
the officere lies all the responsibility, so they requii-e 
not only physical but moral courage and presence 
of mind, whereas for the men the possession of mere 
animal courage is sufficient. 

" I am glad to be able to inform you that M.'s 
wound is getting on very well. Still, poor fellow, 
he suffei-s, but chiefly fi-om the ennui and pain of 
constantly lying in one position, which is especially 
trying to one of his active habits. 


" Since I have seen wounded men it has often struck 
me as wonderful to see their composed countenances 
(though quite conscious) when suffering from wounds 
the most fearful that can be imagined. The first 
wounded man I saw was at the action on the day 
before the Alma. It was a dragoon whose foot had 
been cut off at the ankle by a round-shot. The bare 
bleeding stump and the mutilated member, contracted 
and bloodless, just hanging on, a horrible sight, but 
I do not believe the man felt more pain than from a 
severe bruise. Since that I have seen many fearful 
wounds — too many. At Inkerman, Lieutenant W. G. 
Dashwood of the 50th had his arm, leg, and ribs 
crushed by a round-shot. He was carried to the 
rear perfectly conscious, talking rationally and feeling 
Kttle pain. Three arteries had been severed, and the 
case was hopeless. However, some junior surgeon, 
actuated by what I consider to have been the mis- 
taken kindness of wishing to prolong his life, tied 
up the arteries, after which the poor fellow suffered 
great pain, and died within an hour. 

"Dec. 13. — Twelve days only to Christmas day. As 
my messmate (who is a capital cook) says, we must 
begin to think of making our mince-pies. I have 
no fault to find with my living at present. With 
salt pork we make pea-soup, and then we have 

it raisins and flour for plum -puddings. The only 
difficulty is to find fat, as everything is so dreadfully 
lean about here. However, with the help of salt 
butter and a little spice and lemon-peel we make 
capital puddings. An ingenious sapper, too, contrives 
BCHne pancakes with flour and butter. Then potatoes 

id onions form our standard vegetables, which are 

.pable of an immense variety of preparation. As 
clothing, some time ago I cut ott' a small piece 


of ray blanket and had it made into a pair of warm 
gloves. Then I have bought some flannel on board 
ship and a sailor's shirt and greatcoat, so that I 
have got plenty to keep myself warm with. . . . 

" I have not yet told you how much I admire the 
' Working Men's College.' It seems to be a wise, 
solid commencement, and to have been gravely and 
deliberately undertaken by grave, thoughtful men. . . . 

" I am glad that at home you are beginning to be 
aware that we require more reinforcements. The 
men here are worked off their legs, and are badly 
fed owing to the want of transport—the 4th Division 
especially are half-starved. I have had a working 
party at night who have assured me that they have 
had nothing but a quarter of a pound of biscuit all 
day I In our way, too, we have sometimes a great 
deal of work to do. The other night I was the 
only Engineer officer on duty, and as the field 
officer did not know the ground, I had to place the 
sentries all round our advanced works, besides break- 
ing ground in two difterent places with the working 
party. Placing sentries in advance is by no means 
pleasant work, when besides the enemy's fire you 
are fired at by your own men, as on this occasion. 
We had sent a sergeant to pass the word along the 
line that we were posting sentries in front, so that 
they might not mistake us for the enemy. However, 
at one part of the trenches they had not understood 
it, and seeing a party advancing towards them, whom 
they supposed to be the enemy, fired a volley at them 
as in duty bound Fortunately no one was touched. 
There were eight of us at 80 yards from the trenches. 
This was no child's play, for the bullets whistled 
pretty close to us, and we knew the deadly effect 
of the Minie bullet ; so we shouted, ' Friends ; 



English ; cease tiring,' replied to by ' All right.' 
We complimented them on their watchiulnesa, and 
recommended them to make better shots next time. 
" The other day when I was in the trenches the 
Russians sent out a flag of truce to the Right Attack 
(which the papers call ' Gordon's Battery '). An 
officer on a wliite horse rode out, followed by two 
riding on black horses, the foremost of whom bore 
a large white flag. On our side one of the men, 
probably an Irishman, got up on the top of the 
parapet waving a dirty blanket, and two officers of 
the Rifles went out to meet the flag of truce. After 
a short conference, of which we do not yet know 
the purport, the parties on both sides retired, and 
the Bring was resumed on the Right Attack. On 
the Left it had not been interrupted. At present, 
however, we are hardly firing at all. In about ten 
.ys we hope, simultaneously with the French, to 
immence our fire with heavier guns, which will 
the second epoch of the siege. . . . 
The night before last we had an alarm. The 
Russians made a sortie on us and on the French 
ilmultaneously. On our side they did nothing, but 
ley took three mortars (small ones, called Coehorn's) 
from the French and made an officer prisoner. We 
all turned out, and were under arms for about 
half an hour. The Russians generally have a row 
with the French every night. It is a beautiful 
;ht to see the fierce cannonading that sometimes 
ikes place between them. The other night, when 
iwn there, I saw the Russians open a tremendous 
irtical fire on the French lines. It was a fine, 
Btarry, moonless night, and I was just admiring the 
quiet repose of everything (my working party among 
the rest, who were half or whole asleep), when flash 



on fiash was seen from the Russian batteries, and 
the burning shells, rising high in the air, described 
their greater or lesser curves, according to their in- 
tended ranges. We could not perhaps hear the re- 
port till the shell had described more than half its 
journey. Besides these — and at one time I counted 
four Russian shells in the air at once — there were the 
howitzer shells skimming swiftly along the ground, 
and the round-shot, which we could not see. This 
heavy fire the Russians generally keep up i'or about 
ten minutes. The French are slow in replying, and 
then they only answer with a few mortar-shells, not 
wishing to let the Russians know where their guns 
are placed. On this occasion I saw two shells nearly 
meet in the air. They had been fired, as if by mutusil 
consent, at the same time, so that each proceeded 
towards the other's starting-point, describing almost 
exactly the same curve. I watched them both in 
their upward path, moving slower as they neared 
the summit, as if they had made an appointment to 
fight a duel in the upper regions of the air, to be 
secure from distiu-bance, and were both rather re- 
luctant to keep it. At the apex of the curve the 
hostile shells seemed to pause an instant, and if it 
be true that the air is peopled with genii, I think 
the spirit between the two must have had no pleasant 
time of it, so close were they together. I could not 
help wishing, for the sake of both parties concerned, 
that they would just burst where they were and have 
done with it. It is a pity that the relative merits 
of our gunnery cannot be determined by some such 
arrangement, and a contest among the projectiles in 
mid-air would form a very interesting and exciting 
•me for ' our own correspondent ' to dilate upon, 
'1 casualties, the number of shells hi-okeu, 


rround-shot damaged, &c. But all this time we have 
left the two shells high up in the air, facing one 
another like Don Quixote and the Biscayan at the 
end of the first volume. These two formidable bel- 
ligerents unfortunately did not seem at all disposed 
to ' waste theU" sweetness on the desert air,' though 
if I were to anthropomorphise them, I should not put 
auy such poetical sentiment in their mouths. I 
should not conceive them as anything benevolent or 
poetical, but rather as cool, calculating demons, who 
could keep their temper until wanted, when they 
would burst out in fire and fury. Accordingly I 
could fancy each hissing to himself with his flaming 
breath, ' Now, if I stop any longer up here I shall 
be too late to kill some of those fellows down below, 
which I devoutly hope to accomplish with my last 
breath and dying effort.' So each passed on his 
downward path, and two flashes and reports told that 
each had done his terrible duty, though with what 
iult I do not know, . . . 
Dec. 15. — My messmate is keeping me waiting for 
ly breakfast, and I am very hungry, as I was up 
all last night in the trenches. Unfortunately, last 
night the raining recommenced, and it is now pour- 
down on my miserable tent and dripping heavily 
lide, on the windward side. A night and a day 
:e this will cost us a great many men, poor fellows ! 
.est of them are not fit for this work, even in fine 
reather. That you may not imagine I suffer the 
le amount of hardship as they do, I will point 
it to you the difference between my condition and 
■t of a private of the Line. To begin, I am much 
itter fed, being of course able to purchase luxuries 
'bich a private could not afford to do. Next, even 
len equally exposed to the wet and cold, I can 


1 put oil dry clothes on returning to my tent, 
where I have a dry bed, raised off the ground, my 
bedding being kept dry by a wateiproof sheet, where- 
as the poor soldier has nothing but his greatcoat and 
blanket, which he carries with him. What I have 
said of myself applies pretty well to all the officers, 
now that they have got their baggage. 

" My last sheet contained a long and perhaps not 
very interesting story of two shells, so that probably 
you have heard enough about shells : however, I 
cannot help telling you the last famous exploit of 
a shell, which took place whilst I was in the trenches. 
A gun, a large 68-pr., was loaded and run up ready 
for action. In comes a Russian shell, right into the 
very muzzle of the 68-pr., explodes there, firing the 
charge and bursting the muzzle of the gun without 
injuring any one, though several sailors were close by. 
There is certainly no denying that the Russians are 
excellent gunners. 

"Dec. 17. — This letter must go off in a quarter of 
an hour. I am now hourly expecting a letter from 
you, as a mail has just arrived. Last night I was 
again in the trenches. It did not rain, but the ground 
was very wet and slippery, so much so that I tumbled 
down once and got covered with mud. The night 
before when I was there the field - officer tumbled 
down four times when visiting his guai'ds. Certainly 
it is very nasty, unpleasant work. However, they 
only fired two shells and a few round -shot at us 
during the whole night. I have been so near to the 
Russian works that on still calm nights I have heard 
voices and coughing in the Russian Hues. I am sorry 
to say that there is too much coughing in our lines, 
though, to my own surprise, I have hitherto escaped 
without a cold or sore throat. The Russians must 


have wonderful constitutions. I have myself seen 
some of their wounded of Inkermau that had only 
been found and brought in twelve days after the 
battle, having been without shelter during the whole 
of that fearful gale, living on a small store of bread- 
crumbs soaked in oil. However, we understand the 
enemy suffer a great deal. Often we catch the deep 
tone of their cathedral bell tolling for the burial of 
their dead. They are, as you know, a very musical 
nation. I think I never told you that on the night of 
their first sortie {a long time ago) we had previously 
heard them in the distance singing the beautiful tune 
of ' God Save the Emperor.' 

" I expect we shall reopen our fire sometime about 
Christmas day. We have discovered that our first 
armament was not heavy enough, which I believe 
was Lord Raglan's fault. Lord Raglan never shows 
himself to the men, never attempts to cheer and en- 
com^ge them in their present hardships and miseries. 
He is consequently unpopular; the men have no con- 
fidence in him, in fact know nothing of him beyoud 
that bis name is Raglau, and Lord Raglan is com- 
mander-in-chief . . . — Believe me, &c., 

"G. Graham." 

^K "Be/ore Sebastdpol, 22it(j Dk. 1664. 

^p "My deah Father, — I received yours dated the 
22nd Nov. by last mail. I am glad to be able in 
part to relieve your kind anxiety on my behalf, for I 
keep my health and strength unimpaired, although 
the siege still continues with its attendant daily 
and nightly labours. Indeed I think you need not 
fear much for me in that respect, as hard work and 
exposure have never disagreed with me — witness my 
boating at Chatham and Portsmouth. 



K-hich I believe that I am tolerably 
accHmatised^at least, it is certain that our recruits, 
our reinforcements, suffer in a far larger proportion 
than the old campaigners. Indeed the percentage 
we lose of our reinforcements is something fearful, 
being in many cases above a third. The French say 
the same of their new troops. The cause of our 
great loss, however, is the shameful treatment our 
last-joined men are generally subjected to. They are 
usually after landing kept waiting at Balaklava with- 
out orders or rations, and marched off about evening 
to pitch their tents and settle down in the dark 
as well as they may. One regiment passed the 
first night, after leaving their hot ship, without any 
tents at all, exposed to the rain. They are then 
actually hurried down to the trenches, and some- 
times kept there an undue length of time, possibly 
on the supposition that they have brought out a 
ready stock of health, which may be largely drawn 
on for the public benefit. Well, but you may ask, 
What is the cause of all this mismanagement ? Why, 
this is not a solitary case, but appears to be general 
in all the departments. The above instance is in 
the Quartermaster-General's Department. Then there 
is the Commissariat Department. The men have 
sometimes nothing to eat for four-aud-twenty hours, 
and then, perhaps, merely some biscuit. That is cer- 
tainly an extreme case, but I know it to have hap- 
pened. Then there is the Siege -Train Department. 
Our guns are not supplied with ammunition, our 
powder is often bad, our fuses for shells scandalously 
bad. Then, to take in the highest case, there is 
the General himself He lives in a comfortable 
house, never showing himself to the ti-oops, never 
visiting the siege-works — in fact, for aught we know. 


not interesting himself about the siege in any way 

" Now, whatever other reasons there may be for 
the inefficiency of the various departments of the 
army (including the Medical Department and the 
staff), here, at least, we have, or seem to have, the 
general solution of the question, and it is my 
humble opinion that it is Lord Eaglan himself who 
is the great incubus, the impersonation of vis inertia 
of the British army. It has been remarked before 
that our generals are now about double the age they 
were in the Peninsular war. With every possible 
veneration for age, one cannot help concluding that 
to place a man with little or no experience (for the 
feeble recollections of forty years ago under different 
circumstances cannot be of much avail), at a time 
of life when the inventive faculties are seldom bright, 
in the immensely responsible position Lord Eaglan 
now holds, was a great and fatal mistake. Even 
in the Peninsula, as Military Secretary, Lord Raglan 
had no experience befitting tht present emergencies. 

" It was strange that Admiral Dundas should com- 
mand the fleet while Lord Raglan commanded the 
army. What an unhappy combination that two such 
mild and phlegmatic old gentlemen should meet 
together in such a tremendous position. However, 
fortunately for the service, Admiral Dundas is super- 
seded. That his former colleague may soon share his 
fate is the fervent wish of the army generally. We 
are now trying to repair our errors, and are getting 
up heavier guns. The French, too, have, or say 
they have, 13G guns in position aU masked. The 
Russians in the mean time have not been idle, and 
their works are now truly formidable. It will be a 
tremendous contest, but take Sebastopol we mtist. 


"^ Christmas Day. — My letter was too late for the 
post, so that I will add a little more to it. ... I 
have some potted roast-beef and plum-pudding for 
dinner, and with a couple of other fellows shall, no 
doubt, be tolerably merry. But this can hardly be 
called a merry Christmas for the poor fellows out 
here. The mortality ia something fearful to think 
of. The number put hors de combat every day by 
wounds, sickness, or death is nearly 200. Suppose 
a battle of Alma fought every ten days, and {with- 
out sickness) we Bhould lose no more than we do 
now. I have been informed on authority that 200 
is also the average number of men lost daily since 
our landing in the Crimea, including of course the 
battles of Alma, Balaklava, and Inkerman, and now 
we are by sickness alone brought up to that average. 
Our reinforcements, therefore, do not keep up even 
our original strength. How we shall winter it here 
I hardly know, as we have, as yet, had little or no 
frost. I am surprised that the press does not yet 
appear to have lost confidence in Lord Raglan, 
notwithstanding the pointed remarks made in the 
excellent lettera of the ' Times ' correspondent. — 
Believe me, &c., G. Graham." 



Jantiary 1855 Graham heard from his sister of 
her engagement to the Kev. Reginald Durrant, son 
of George Durrant of South Elmham Hall in Suffolk.. 

The Durrants were an East Country family. George 
Durrant married Esther Payne, daughter of John 
Norman of Suffold, another old Suffolk family, and 
had a family of five children. Of these Reginald 
and Jane were the two youngest. Jane was married 
to the Rev, Valentine Samuel Barry Blacker, rector 
of East and West Rudham in Norfolk, and Reginald, 
who at the time oShis engagement was about twenty- 
seven years of age, was Mr Blacker'a curate. 

The news was quite unexpected, which Graham at- 
tributes to his obtuseuesB, and tells his sister that he 
was nearly as much surprised as if she had wi'itten 
that some young lady intended to marry him. But 
there is no sign of grudging, and although hence- 
forth the undivided affection of his sister must cease 
and another take his place, he writes his most hearty 
congratulations, glad that she has found a man worthy 
of her esteem, ready to receive him into his own heart 
at her valuation, being convinced of his fine nature 
by his appreciation of the much-loved sister, to whom 
he writes, " Your happiness is mine." His father 



Opposed the match without apparently any stronger 
reason than that, in his opinion, his daughter might 
have done better, and Gerald very strongly supported 
his sister's wishes. Omitting private references to 
this matter, the letter Graham wrote to his sister 
is given lielow : — 

•' t'uiiip be/ore Sebastopol, 2Uc Jan. 1855. 

" My dear Sister, — ... To turn from your happy 
prospects to the dismal ones of the army out here. 
Those attacks In the ' Times ' on Lord Raglan are 
very welcome out here. They have a marked in- 
fluence on the Field-Marshal, who rides about much 
more frequently ever since the first article appeared 
in the 'Times' of Dec. 23. All sorts of absurd 
anecdotes are told in the camp alxiut Lord Raglan, 
Among others he is said to have asked a soldier 
■what sort of a dinner he made on Christmas day. 
' Not a very good one, your honour,' replied the 
man ; ' I had a charcoal pudding and a cheer in 
the trenches at night ! ' Rather a good story is 
told serving to show how Lord Raglan's invisibility 
is thought of in the army. Somebody is said to 
have asked one of his Staff how Malta had agreed 
with his lordship. ' Malta ? Lord Raglan has not 
been at Malta.' 'Well, then, Scutari?' 'Scutari? 
Why, his lordship has not left this at all.' ' Indeed I 
Why, we all thought his lordship had been away 
for the last six weeks.' 

" You know my distrust of Lord Raglan's general- 
ship is of old date, ever since the battle of Alma, 
when he displayed none of the qualities of a good 
general beyond a phlegmatic indifference to danger. 
After the affair of Balaklava again he lost caste in the 
eyes of many by his want of decision. At first, the 
day after the action, he gave orders for immediately 



evacuating Balaklava and then counter-ordered them. 
At lukerman, too, he did nothing. But his faults of 
commission are as nothing compared with his faults 
of omission. However, I need not enumerate them, 
for they will be soon, or are perhaps ah-eady, laid 
bai'C by the pen of an able and unsparing; critic. 
^Hliord Raglan's sunshine of popularity will soon pass 
^Baway, if it has not already, and he may hear the 
coming storm in the distant thunder - peals of the 
' Times.' The Jove of the press as yet hurls his 
thunderbolts rather wildly. It is ridiculous to state 
that the Commissariat is the only department that 
has not broken down, and then mention in another 
part of the paper that the men are on half rations 
or are starved. I think, and I am not alone, that 
it is the Commissariat which causes all our miseries. 
Had that department been properly provided with 
means of transport, our horses and men would not 
be killing themselves in bringing up theii- own rations. 

I "We Engineers foresee that we shall not escape the 
Jash. But we do not wince. We rather invite in- 
i|uiry. The notoriously slow and apathetic Ordnance 
Authorities at home have done nothing for ua. They 
%ave sent out Sir John Burgoyne, a nice, mild, 
quiet old gentleman, who was intended to be a sort 
of professional adviser to Lord Raglan. I suppose 
they have quiet chats about the Peninsular war 
together. But we have had no man of rank sent 
out to replace General Tylden and Colonel Alexander 
who could take a place in Lord Raglan's councils, 
sd thus give some material weight and Importance 
I the opinions of the Engineers. Nor have we been 
■operly supplied with Engineer stores, owing to the 
ificiency in transport. . . . — Believe me, &c. 

" G. Graham." 



" Be/ore Sbhabtopol, Jan. 39, 1855. 

" My dear Sister, — I am glad to be able to say 
that matters are beginning to mend here. Though 
none of those plum-puddings and other nice things 
that make our mouths water when reading the papers 
have arrived, yet we have received warm clothing, 
boots, regimentals, &c. There are lots of things at 
Balaklava if we could only get them up. 

" The cause of the disorganisation of the army is 
correctly stated as being simply that Lord Baglan 
has undertaken more work than he can perform. 
This, however, is but a secondary cause, resulting 
from the primary one, which is either ignored by 
or unknown to the public press, that our commander- 
in-chief has been entirely outwitted by our shrewd 
allies the French. 

" On the march we had the exposed flank with all 
its active duties and heavy responsibilities, but then 
it was the post of honour, and we were proud of it. 
But here it was very different. Lord Raglan again 
gave up the sea side to the French, taking for us an 
equal extent of frontage, with more difticult ground 
and an unprotected right flank. This lasted until 
the 5th November, on which day our eyes began to 
be opened. Lord Raglan has been blamed for not hav- 
ing occupied the heights of Inkermau before that day. 
But we had not the men to do it and carry on the 
duties in the trenches. Only a picket could be spared 
where a division should have been placed. Lord 
Raglan is to be blamed for not having insisted that 
the French should aid us on our right flank. For all 
this while the French army had more than doubled 
itself (our transports had brought many of their 
troops), whilst we had diminished more than a third. 
It was only in our direst need at Inkerman that the 



French sent a division over to assist us, which was 
afterwards left there, and since that time we have 
occupied the Inkerman heights. This tardy assist- 
ance was welcome, but we want more of it. We 
are too weak now to work our trenches, and have 
still two divisions, the first and second, out at Inker- 
man. The French have promised to reheve these 
two divisions, but continue to defer doing so. This 
much may he gathered from Lord Raglan himself, 
who was heard to say when visiting one of the 
camps the other day, ' The men will not be worked 
so much when the French have taken over Inker- 
man from us,' and then in a lower tone to one of 
bis Staff, ' It is very difficult to have any control 
over troops one does not command.' By the way, 
his lordship comes round the camps much more fre- 
quently since those stinging articles in the ' Times.' 
Three days ago he actually paid a visit to the 
trenches for the first time. I was there on duty 
at the time. He came accompanied by Sir John 
Burgoyne, who had been down before. I have seen 
Lord Raglan before. He is a kind-looking old man. 
He asked several of the private soldiers how they 
did, played with one of their dogs, and told anecdotes 
of the Peninsula, evidently d^irous to please. Several 
shaves have been got up about the Russian riflemen 
having tried to shoot his lordship when he went to 
the front, but none of them are true. I was with 
bim all the time and not a shot was fired at us, 
though I thought Lord Raglan exposed himself rather 
imprudently. . . . 

" I do not think much of those lines by Tennyson 
you last sent me, — indeed I am surprised he could 
write anything as badly as that ' Charge of the 
Light Brigade.' I think his 'Amphion' proves that 


he has no talent for the humorous, and I hope for 
the sake of his reputation that 'Amphion' will re- 
main the only one of that description by Tennyson. 
I admire his ' Two Voices ' very much. — Believe 
me, Ac, G. Graham." 


"Before Sbbastopol, 5(A Ffb. 1855. 
" My DEAR SiSTBB, — Yesterday I walked into Bala- 
klava, my nding horse, the Maltese barb, being dead. 
It was a fine frosty morning, and I reached Balaklava 
sooner than my servant James, whom I had sent with 
my pack-horse to carry back whatever I might pur- 
chase. Arrived there, I went to see M., whom I found 
in a nice Httle white cottage. He was, of course, 
in bed, in a large clean room with a fire, I am glad 
to say that he was infinitely better than when I saw 
him last out here. His fever has now left him, he has 
recovered his spirits ; indeed he sings now occasionally, 
being essentially a suiging bird. Of course, like all 
men after a fever, he eats for two, and is getting so 
much stronger that he can move slightly in his bed 
without assistance — an immense relief to one who 
has been lying motionless on his back for two months. 
However, it will be a long time before he will be able 
to get up, and yet longer before he will be as he was, 
poor fellow. As soon as he can bear it, they will send 
him to England, or rather Paris, where his mother is. 

"After my visit to M., I went to our Quarter- 
master's office and found the two long-expected paicels 
had at last arrived, both together. I put them both 
on my pony, then went on board ship, had luncheon, 
and bought a ham, whilst my companion bought a 
cheese. We put all this on the pony {a sturdy little 
Cossack) together with some potatoes, and finally 
walked back to camp. . . . 

"You may imagine how eagerly I opened your boxes. 
Books first, of course. What a mine of mental wealth ! 
I had just been reading some trumpery novels bought 
on board ship, so I wa.s fully disposed to appreciate 
your judicious selection. The book I read first was 
' Phaeton,' by Kingsley. I nearly finished it that 
evening, all but a page or two, which I read this 
morning. I like it extremely. Kingsley must be a 
terrible fellow to argue with. I am now getting into 
the ' History of the Jews,' being disposed for something 
solid. 1 had previously read ' Night and Morning,' 
which I thought very wearisome indeed. It is just 
like ' Ernest Maltravers,' but not equal to it. There is 
the misanthropical Byronic hero, putting himself into 
dramatic attitudes and uttering tragical remarks. 
Then there is Bulwer's wearisome metaphysics, strained 
allegories, and peculiar ethics constantly appearing at 
the beginning, middle, and end of the chapters, which 
made me yawn terribly. Of all things, though, he 
fails most deplorably in his attempts at the humorous, 
when he generally sinks into coarse vulgarity. I tried 
* Paul Clifford,' which I have never read before, but I 
stopped short at the second chapter. It is really too 
wretched. . . . —Your afifect. brother, 

" G. Graham." 

'^ Cam}) he/ore Sbbastopol, 17ch Feb. Ift65. 

" My dear Sister, — . . . You will have heard that 
Ck)well ' has arrived as Aide-de-camp to General Jones, 
a lucky fellow to be on the Staff. He called on me in 
his usual hearty way, was delighted to see me and to 
be here himself I am going to dine with him at 
headquarters some day, as he has promised me a 
good dinner, which is rather an inducement in these 
> Major-Oeneral Sir Jolin Cowell, K.C.B., died in 1804. 




times. To-day when I was on duty in the trenched 
he came down, and I showed him the advanced trench, 
He did not much reHsh the rifle-bullets that were* 
whistling about, but Cowell does not profess to be> 
a fire-eater — that is to say (to give a general detini' 
tion, according to Kingsley's dialectics), he does noW 
like danger for the sake of its excitement. i 

" Thinking of Kingsley leads me to make a review, 
of the books you have sent me. Altogether I thinki 
your choice does great credit to your judgment and' 
knowledge of the kind of reading I like, and, as 
unprofessional works, I could not have chosen them 
better myself, if so well. Of Ruskin's I have read 
all you sent me — viz., the lectures, ' Stones of Venice,' 
and 'Fraser's' two articles on him and on the latter 
work. I think his writings extremely interesting and 
striking, and, as ' Fraser' says, 'very suggestive,' His 
task appears to me, however, a hopeless one — to 
call up the ghost of a dead spirit ; to re\-ive Gothic 
architecture and the childlike faith of the middle 
ages. For there remains one notable fact promi- 
nently mentioned by Ruskin — the almost entire loss 
of artistic feeling and perception among the mass 
of the people. How this is to be I'estored remains 
a problem for us moderns. However that may be 
solved, Ruskin may claim a high position as a 
reformer in art, and his poetic eloquence will make 
his works read eagerly wherever beautiful thoughts 
and feelings clothed in beautiful language are admired. 
I remember that Victor Hugo in his beautiful romance 
of ' Notre Dame ' devotes a long chapter to the causes 
of the decline of architecture. His theory is that 
ai'chitecture, as it existed among the ancients and 
in the middle ages, was a form or vehicle of expres- 
sion of the people's thoughts, bo that architecture 


was a sort of writing on the soil. Printing super- 
seded architecture, affording greater faciHty for the 
permanent communication of Ideas. Of course after 
reading Ruskin this theory seems superficial and 
shallow, though Victor Hugo works it out with con- 
siderable ingenuity and learning. 

"Now on Mr Maurice I can hardly yet give an 
opinion, I have read his essays and his letter to 
Dr Jelf, as well as the article in ' Fraser ' you 
recommended to me ; but I will wait before I tell 
you what I think of him. . . . 

" The railway is actually commenced and going on 
very well. I do not think it will be finished before 
the end of March, but we believe that our hard- 
ships are over. The men have got their warm 
clothing, and the weather is now dry and mild, so 
that the roads are good. I continue to live in a 
tent, not being able to bring up timber for a hut ; 
but my horses are hutted, and so are most of the 
men of the two companies here. I do not mean to 
trouble myself about a hut now, as I believe the 
severest part of the winter to be past. You will 
scarcely believe that none of the much - talked - of 
' Ci'imean Fund ' ships have arrived. A ship has 
arrived with some stores for officers, of which I get 
a small share, and a ship, chartered by Lord Blantyre, 
has also come. . . . — Believe me, &c., G. Graham," 

k '^ Before Sbbastopol, l« Marv/i 1855. 

W " My dear Father, — . . . You will have heard of 
the unexpected check the French have received in 
their Inkerman attack by the erection of a new Russian 
battery. We are making energetic preparations for 
our attack, and are going to emulate the Russian 
feat by constructing a battery in two nights in our 


advanced parallel. The rumour now is that we are to 
reopen fire in ten days. 

" Possibly Lord Raglan fears his recall, and wishes 
to soften popular resentment at home by some display 
of energy, though late and probably unavailing. For 
the conviction gains ground among us that we can do 
nothing decisive until we occupy the heights on the 
northern side. This, we have understood, was to be 
done in the spring by the army at Eupatoria, with the 
aid of our reinforced besieging annies. , . . — Believe 
me, &c., G. Graham." 

"Before Sebastopol, 9(A March 1856. 

" My dear Sister, — . . . Our father has taken 
quite an erroneous view of my state of mind when he 
imagines that I take a despondent view of the state 
of aiFairs about me. I do not know how he got hold 
of that idea, for one may see the evils of our position 
without despairing of the remedy. I think the best 
speech I have read was Mr Layard's,' and he was quite 
right when he said that what we want is a man and 
not a commission. I have very little hopes of the 
efficacy of the measures of this Ministry. I think, 
as Mr Layard threatened, that the country will have 
to take the business In its own hand, as it soon will 
become disgusted with the factious and unpatriotic 
conduct of Parliament. One thing Layard was mis- 
taken In is that our troops are, as he supposes, at all 
indebted to the French for food and clothing. He is 
right when he warns the Ministers against allowing 
the jealous pride of the nation to be aroused by 
weakness to the eyes of the world, and, 
9 French, who, as he boldly says, 
g;uise may be enemies in heart. . . . 
AuBt«n Henry Layard, G.C.B. 


" You complain that I have not been more communi- 
cative about the benefits I have experienced from that 
nice warm clothing you sent me. However, though I 
have not mentioned much about it, yet I can assure 
you I have found the use of your kind present. For 
instance, shortly after its arrival I had to turn out at 
half-past four a.m. to go to the trenches with a raw 
north-easterly wind blowing, drifting the enow in a 
fine dust, which was so ' insinuating ' (as Mr Bird 
would have called it) that it had collected in a small 
heap inside the door of my tent. Accordingly I put 
on several of your flannels, the suit of leathers, the 
leggings, and then, with the wrapper tied round my 
face (for it was too cold to face it otherwise), I sallied 
forth, not caring a jot for the weather, which merely 
inconvenienced me by freezing my eyelashes to my 
face whenever I shut my eyes, so as to make it difficult 
to open them again. You may imagine the comfort I 
experienced from the fur cap and gloves. When I 
got down to the trenches I was as white as a Polar 
bear, but my inner man was as warm as if sitting in a 
warm room. The watch, too, is of great service to 

), as I now know when to begin and when to leave 
off work. As for the brandy, it was capital, I have 
drunk one bottle and am keeping the other as a treat. 
JEn attendant, I have got some bottles of wine and 
brandy from the Sir George Pollock. We have been 
very liberally provided with clothing by Government. 
I have received a rabbit-skin coat (rather a flimsy but 
I Btill convenient article), two pairs of long boots, a fur 
cap (not so good as the one R. D. sent me), a pair of 
• gloves (too small for me), and flannels, very inferior to 
those you sent me. Besides these, a set of very good 
waterproofs. The men have received the excellent 
sheepskin coats of the country, tar superior in wear 


and warmth to the light cat-skin and rabbit-skin 
jackets that we have got, but not so pleasant to walk 
in. I chose (as you will consider characteristically) a 
white rabbit-skin jacket. In warm weather (and we 
have had some ve7'y warm days lately) I turn the fiir 
outwards and make a summer coat out of my rabbit- 
akin. In the trenches, however, I find this incon- 
venient, the sun shining on my white coat making 
me too prominent a mark for the Russian riflemen, one 
of whom evidently aimed at bringing down the white 
rabbit. Accordingly I thought it the best policy to 
turn my coat, as others have done before me. My 
friend the Russ, not seeing me any more, will probably 
have boasted that he had succeeded in shooting one of 
the largest rabbits yet seen in the country. Several 
suspicious individuals consider it a significant fact that 
so many cat-skins should come out simultaneously with 
the potted meats. 

"March 10. — You would be tenibly behind hand 
in news if you depended on me. That General 
Forey ^ is accused of treason, and that the Emperor 
of Russia is dead, will be as old and uninteresting 
to you as, by this time, it has become to us. Never- 
theless, if the latter news be really true and not a 
mere stock -jobbing speculation, like the report of 
the taking of Sebastopol, we do not see how it 
can fail to have a most powerful influence on the 
prospects of peace. The opinion in the camp may 
be stated thus ; Of the two sons of Nicholas, the 
elder and heir - apparent, Alexander, is of a par- 
ticularly peaceful disposition ; the second son, Con- 
stantine, of a particularly warlike disposition. If 
the first ascend the throne peacefully, It is con- 
sidered that he will make peace on easy terms, or 
' Elie Fr6dgric Forej, aftei^arde Manhal of Frauce, who died in 1812. 


any terms. If, on the other hand, Constantine 
should dispute his brother's accession to the throne, 
then a civil war would ensue, which would equally 
necessitate making peace with us. If again, how- 
ever, Alexander should, like his uncle Constantine, 
peacefully resign his title to the throne, then his 
warlike brother might continue the war ad Ubifum 
until he gets well licked, when he wlU think it 
time to give in. I, for one, think that Russia's 
position in the war is now at its best, and that 
she will lose ground tremendously in the next 

" If the Czar really be dead, he wdl have died just 
in time to save his reputation among his adherents 
of being a great and wise monarch. 

" I doubt very much whether Louis Napoleon will 
make peace now, before he has dazzled his people 
with some more brilliant exploits than we have as 
yet performed. Before I had written as far as this 
I went out on the report that we were about to 
open fire on a new battery that the Russians were 
throwing up. Since that last failure to carry the 
new Russian battery the French have made no 
further attempt, and the Russians have thus been 
allowed to extend their front and to intrench 
themselves principally on their left flank. We only 
fired with one gun and mortar from our Right 
Attack, without any effect. Whilst on a height 
overlooking the firing, with my telescope at my 
eye, I had an amusing scene with some French 
soldiers who had never seen a telescope, or at least 
never looked through one before. They came up to 
me with the easy way of French soldiere, and one 
of them asked me to let him have a look. I handed 
the glass to him, and after he bad looked through 


it in silence for some time he handed it to a comrade, 
who, however, soon said that he could see nothing 
at all, which statement the first corroborated with 
his experience. Seeing that my glass was beginning 
to be looked upon as an imposition, I took it, and, 
after adjusting its focus, handed it back again. 
After a time, ' Sacr-r-r^ ! ' exclaimed the delighted 
Frenchman ; ' why, I see the batteries only a 
stone' s-throw from me,' and threw a stone to in- 
dicate the spot. The next accordingly directed the 
glass on that particular spot, and was very much 
disappointed at seeing nothing ! From one of the 
French soldiers I learnt privately that it was ex- 
pressly prohibited to talk about General Forey, 
who, he said, was still in command of the 5th 
Division. General Pelissier, he said, had already 
arrived, but was not to supersede Canrobeit. . . , 

" Sir J. Burgoyne ^ has just been here and has taken 
all doubts off our minds about the death of the 
Czar, and of Alexander's peaceable accession. Sir 
John hopes, however, that we shall have taken 
Sebastopol before we have peace, and so do we. 
Sir John thinks the French will disgrace them- 
selves if they allow the Russians to continue in 
possession of their new works. He is going to 
England himself. Sir John Is a good old gentle- 
man, and a good Engineer, but it is a pity he was 
sent out here. . . . —Believe me, G. Graham." 

"Before Sebabtopol, 20c/t March 1855. 

" My dear Sister, — ... I got up very late this 
morning — at noon, having returned to camp at six after 

1 Field-Marah&l Sir John Fox Burgoyne, Bart., G.C.B., Colonel Coni- 
muidaiit of the Boyal Eogineen, Constable of the Tower of Loodon, who 
died in 1871. 


a very fatiguing night's work in the advanced trench. 

I suppose you will have heard, or read, that we are 

now building batteries farther in advance, so as to be 

able to open fire with more successful effect. The men 

are very sick of work, and do very little. Besides, in 

the advanced trench, where we are not 200 yards 

from the Russian sentries, there are continual alarms, 

and the men are always rushing to their arms instead 

of continuing their work. These alarms always turn 

out to be groundless, and the Russians leave us very 

quiet, not even firing on us now, though from the 

Right Attack we still fire on one of their working 

parties who are erecting a new work on the Mamelon, 

near the Malakhoff tower. The French yesterday 

. evening opened a heavy fire on the Russian lines. 

[ The Russians made a sortie, but replied with very few 

I shells. The shave is that Osten-Sacken ^ is waiting 

I the issue of the peace conference before he continues 

I his fire. I think it more probable that he is short of 

' ammunition. It will be an astonishing figure when we 

come to know the number of rounds that have been 

expended in this siege. The Russians have quite 

J paved the ground about our trenches. They have 

[ established themselves on the Inkerman side in spite 

[ of the French. There are constant skirmishes between 

I them and the French about some rifle-pits in front of 

I the French lines, and the French, I am sorry to say, 

I always seem to be beaten. They are losing their 

I reputation amongst us as fighting troops, ... — 

tBelieve me, &c., G. Graham." 

"Bt/ore SsBAxnoBQL, 23rd March ISSS. 

" My dear Sister, — Last night the Russians made 
I formidable sortie on our lines, both on our Right and 
) The BiiHian General Dimitri, Count Oeten-Sacken, who died in 1B64. 


Left Attacks. This, I think, tends to confirm my 
opinion that it was not from any pacific intentions 
that the Russians have fired so little on us of late. I 
was not on duty myself last night, so that I can 
only give you the account as I have it from those 
who were. 

" Of the two officers of the Engineers who were on 
duty, the one who returned (for the other, I am soiry 
to say, is missing) says that the first thiug he knew of 
the assault was hearing a most diabolical yell, im- 
mediately after which the Russians appeared on the 
parapet. It is most extraordinary that the sentries 
in front gave no alarm. It certainly waa remarkable 
that no one should have seen the Russians approach, 
but then the night is said to have been black as a 
wolfs mouth. When the Russians entered, the scene 
is described as being one of most admirable confusion. 
The attack was so sudden that the working parties had 
hardly time to seize their arms before the enemy were 
on them. They entered at an uncompleted battery, 
the traverses of which puzzled them cousideiably. 
Our men fought behind the traverses, each man, I 
believe, firing at every one in front of him. They 
could only aim at the flashes. As soon, however, as 
our men could be got together in a body, they charged 
the Russians with the bayonet and cleared them out. 
Captain Montagu^ of ours was missing after the 
skirmish was over. He had been last seen leading on 
his working party to the attack, waving his cap, for 
he was unarmed. As his body has not been found it 
was presumed that he had been taken prisoner. It is, 
however, now rumoured that he is lying wounded in 
one of the caves in front of our lines, which cannot be 

' General Horace W. Mootagu, O.B., Colonel Commandant of the B«yal 

approached in the daytime. It will therefore not be 
ascertained before this evening, by which time this 
letter will have been posted. 

" On the Right Attack the sortie was made in 
greater force. I must first tell you our advanced 
trench has lately been extended to the right to meet 
a parallel made by the French, whose left flank thus 
meets our right. When we first made this trench 
the cover was so bad that in the daytime we could 
not keep any men in it. This was the cause that in 
the dusk of the evening, before we had got our night 
guards in, the Russians came and can-ied away 80 of 
our gabions, a feat they were very proud of, as they 
seldom get anything pleasant out of us. Ever 
since that, Major J. W. Gordon has been uneasy, and 
has been in the trenches nearly every night, moving 
about with a body of men on the point that he 
thought menaced. Last night when the attack was 
made the Engineer oflicers were the only ones who 
were found available. The field-ofiicer, Colonel Kelly,^ 
appears to have been made prisoner, but how or where 
no one seems as yet to know. The Engineer officers 
are allowed by all to have saved the trenches. 
Lieut. -Colonel Tyldeii- of ours gathered together his 
working party and saved the field-guns and mortars 
from being carried off, but got a tremendous lick 
on the head with a stone, as the Russians appear to 
have been short of ammunition. As for Gordon, he 
led his men most gallantly. He was unarmed, but, 
not caring for that, set to work throwing stones most 
vigorously. It was in the act of throwing a stone 

' OeneraJ Sir Richard Deuia KeWj, K.CR, Colonel of the RotbI Irish 

^ Colonel Richard Tylden, C.B., B.E., died of wound* received at the 
■tonning of the Redan on th« 18th Jnne 1656. 

that a musket-ball struck his right arm in the wrist 
and on the shoulder. He tried to throw more stones, 
but found that he could not. However, he observed 
it was only a scratch. Nevertheless, he is reported 
as severely wounded, though we are all glad to learn 
no bones are broken. Lord Raglan has been to him 
to thank him personally for his gallant conduct. I 
forgot to tell you that the attack on Gordon's battery 
was on the right flank, the Russians having forced 
the French lines on our right. Our gallant allies were 
driven back on us in confusion, and it is said that we 
fired on them and they on us. In consequence of 
Major Gordon's wound Major Chapman ^ takes com- 
mand of the Sappers and Major Bent ^ of the Left 
Attack. . . . — Beheve me, &c., G. Graham." 

" Befart Sbbastopol, 9(A April 1865. 

" Mv DEAR Sister, — This, as you will have already 
learnt, will be called one of the memorable days in 
the history of the siege. Yes, strange as it seems to 
me to have to write it, we to-day again opened fire, 
as on the 17th October last year. The orders were 
kept very secret, so that it was only about 1 2 o'clock 
yesterday, while in the trenches, that I was told of it. 
It rained heavily all night and prevented us from 
taking the guns to one of our two advanced batteries, 
neither of which is armed. I could hardly sleep 
for thinking of the tremendous action that was to 
take place on the morrow. 

" No one could tell the exact number of pieces that 
would come into action on both sides, probably not 
less than 1500, a number unparalleled in the history 
of any siege. I had ordered my servant to call me 

' General Sir Frederick ChapmBU, G.C.B., Colonel Comnmudant of the 
Royal Engineers, who died in 1S93. 
= Lieut -General George Bent, C.B., R.E., who dietl in 1897. 


early, and I got up about half- past 6ve o'clock, 
though it was pom-ing heavily, and rode out by 
myself, as nobody else cared to go out in such weather. 
We had already opened fire about half an hour 
before I arrived in view of the trenchea The morn- 
ing was by no means clear, with a pelting, di'enching 
min ; luckily the men had all got waterproofs. One 
thing I was pleased to notice, that it was perfectly 
painful to face the wind, as the rain fell so heavily — 
indeed, my horse hardly would face it, I say I was 
pleased to notice this, as the wind was blowing right 
in the faces of the Russians, who must have found it 
very difficult to point their guns, or to see the effect 
of their shots. Besides, their coats are not water- 

" I believe from what I hear that we quite succeeded 
in taking them by surprise this morning, and for the 
first quarter of an hour they scarcely returned a shot. 
Indeed when I came out they were firing very little, 
perhaps for the reasons I have mentioned. We, too, 
I was glad to observe, were firing very deliberately, 
not in the wild manner we did on the 17tli October. 
The French were firing much more briskly, though I 
could not tell with what efiect. I made a bet that 
they would have at least three magazines blown up, 
though I hope I may lose. 

"Evening, — 1 sat in my tent all day, the rain pour- 
ing in toiTonts. About half-past five p.m. I went out 
during a lull. I saw General Jones ^ and Cowell, his 
Aide-de-camp, outside. I learnt that the casualties in 
our attack were three killed and ten wounded, and five 
guns hors de ciymbat, three or four of which will, 
however, be ready again to-morrow. The Flagstaff 

' Lieut.-Genernl Sir Harry David Jones, G.C.B., Colonel Commandniit 
of tbu Roytil Eii^niwra, and Governor tif the Rojal Military College at 
Sandliunt, died in 1866. 


Battery was said to be shut up, indeed knocked down 
on the French side, or, as a French aide-de-camp ex- 
pressed it to Lord Raglan, ' La batterie du mftt 
n'existe plus.' I went out to the top of the Quarry- 
hill to see what was going on. The Russians were 
firing very slackly — the Redan from about three 
guns, the Flagataif not at all ; the rest of their 
batteries kept up their fire. I do not know what 
orders there are for night firing. At present {9 
o'clock P.M.) there is very little firing going on, I 
do not think we fire half enough at night. We ought 
to take the Russian rifle-pits to-night. 

"April 12. — I did not write yesterday, as I was very 
tired with my night's work in the trenches. Neither 
we nor the French fired much that night. All day 
yesterday the firing continued, slacker on the part of 
the French. For a variety of reasons I believe that 
the cause of the very little firing from the Russians 
arises from the want of powder more than from the 
want of gunners, and that they are reserving their 
ammunition for the assault. I am afraid our delay 
will enable them to supply this want, as to - day 
several thousand caissons were seen being carried 
into the town from the north side. An Engineer 
officer on the Right Attack had his leg broken to-day 
by a round-shot. The French are firing very little 
to-day. Our fii-ing goes on as well as ever, but our 
Gunners are terribly tired. The Russians keep up a 
well -directed fire from the Redan and Boulevards 
Batteries. The French appear to be again shirking 
the heavy work, which all falls on us. Our Gunners 
have now 10 hours on and 6 off. Yet if there were 
any foresight at headquarters they might get excellent 
gunners from the Marines, or even from the Line. 
Why the French do not take the Flagstaff Battery 
I cannot conceive, after they say that it no longer 


exists. After all, the most important news that I 
can give you to-day is that the scaling-ladders are 
already laid out ready for the storming- parties. 

" Ap-ril 13.— I have been on duty in the trenches 
all day. The Advanced Battery (No. 7) opened to- 
day, and the Russians directed a crushing fire on it 
from the Boulevards, Flagstaff, and Town Batteries, 
I was there the principal part of my time doing what 
I could to assist our fire by giving the range and by 
getting some guns in the main batteries to take off 
some of the heavy fire from the Boulevards, All was 
in vain, however, and about 12 o'clock our poor little 
Advanced Battery had to shut up, having only one gun 
fit for action, and several men killed and wounded. 

" I did not get off scot-free myself. Whilst standing 
talking to the two Artillery officers^ I was suddenly 
hurled backwards against a bank. I regained my feet 
with difficulty, and, imagining that I had been struck 
by a round-shot, I exclaimed, ' Well I I am done for.' 
' Oh no, you are not,' said one of the Artillery 
officers, by way of cheering me up ; but he evidently 
thought I was, for he began shouting lustily for a 
stretcher to carry me off. However, though stiU 
under the delusion that I was nearly cut in two, I 
began to find myself recovering rapidly. In fact. I 
had been merely stunned, having been struck on my 
right side by the debris caused by a round-shot. The 
earth and small stones had come against me with such 
force as to cut the skin on the right side of my face, 
which was streaming with blood. My greatcoat was 
perforated in half-a-dozen places, and I have a slight 
bruise in my side ; but (worst of all) my watch was 
damaged. This I only found out some time after- 
wards, for about three minutes after the accident I 

' OiptAiii Chnrles Edward Olilersliavr, nfterworda Major- Gen era! and 
CB., Hnd Lieutenant W. U. K. .^impsoL, afterwards Major-Oeiieral. 


was walking quietly back to the main batteries with 
the intention of getting my face washed. However, 
quiet as I was, an unlucky Gunner got before me and 
spread the report that the tall Engineer officer was 
seriously wounded. This was taken on to our camp, 
where they immediately made every preparation, and 
the doctor got ready hot water, chloroform, and instru- 
ments. Old General Jones ^ rode over to inquire about 
me, but by the time he came the report of my being 
seriously wounded was contradicted. I am now re- 
ported as ' slightly contused,' and shall perhaps 
appear under that heading in the papers. At present 
I present the absurd appearance of having an immense 
number of pimples on the right side of my face and a 
clear complexion on the other. ... As for the siege, 
I think it is going on wretchedly. The French hardly 
fire at all. I do not know what the old men fancy 
will be the result of it all, but I think that we shall 
never take Sebastopol ixi this way. . . . — Believe 
me, &c., G. Graham." 

"Before SsBAaTOPOL, 13(A April IBS."). 
" My dear Father, — You must not be alarmed if 
you should see my name reported amongst the 
wounded. T have had nothing but the shock from 
the dehns of a shot, et voila tout. The principal 
nuisance is that my watch is damaged ; however, I 
hope to get it repaii'ed. I have received your hama, 
which are excellent. — Yours, &c., G. Graham." 

No. 7 Battery was formed in the third "parallel" 
of attack, not more than 700 yards from the enemy's 
nearest work. Until it opened fire our nearest bat- 
teries to the enemy were those in the first "parallel" 

' Sir Etrry Jones had succeeded Sir John Burgojne on Lord RAglnn'i 
St&fT ti month before. 



Jof attack, between 1300 and 1400 yards away, and 

|Sone had then been constructed in the second " par- 

lel." No. 7 and No. 8 Batteries, which adjoined 

another, were thus without any near support 

■om guns, and No. 8 was not armed when No. 7 

■opened fire on the 13th April. No. 7 consequently 

Ifought alone for the advanced position. Mr Klnglake, 

|Ui his ' Invasion of the Crimea,' vol. vii., observes : — 

" The effort about to be made was regarded by the 

icientific conductors of the siege as a bold, if useful, 

xperiment ; and therefore it was that an able young 

Beer of our Engineer force (now a far-famed, vic- 

Jiwrious commander) went down to the third parallel 

»(m the morning of the 13th, and there — first from 

, part of the trench close adjacent to Oldershaw's 

attery, and afterwards, until wounded, from within 

! battery itself— observed the course of the fight." 

Graham himself supplied Mr Kinglake with the 

rfollowing information, writing from Cairo in August 

pl883 :— 

" On the 13th of April I was the Engineer officer on 

puty in the Left Attack, and I took a strong interest 

, the artillery conflict about to commence. It was 

f first attempt at taking up an advanced position 

our Artillery, and I knew well that we were 

latly overmatched by the enemy's guns in number, 

it, and position. Before us we had the Barrack 

'. Creek Batteries, to our right the great Iledau, 

to our left the Flagstaff and Garden Batteries. 

'he latter were perhaps the most formidable, being 

luined with guns equal to our 68-prs., and having a 

loonsiderable command over our advanced battery, of 

■ which, as events showed, they — the enemy — knew 

pi&e range very accurately. 

" To the best of my recollection, owing to difficulties 
I In transporting the guns across the trenches by night, 


only four guns were ready to open fire in No. VIL 
Battery on that morning under Oldershaw and Simp- 
son of the Royal Artillery. I placed myself on the 
right of the battery in the advanced trench so as 
to note the effects of our fire, and, if possible, to 
assist the Artillery officers in getting their range." 

Mr Kinglake continues : — 

" We saw Graham place himself in the 3rd Parallel, 
near to Oldershaw's battery, with the double object 
of watching a hazardous experiment deeply Interesting 
to our Engineers and, if possible, helping our Gunners 
to 'get their range.' In that last object, however, 
he constantly found himself baffled by the keenness, 
the skill, the alacrity with which the Russians ex- 
erted their vast artillery - power ; for they did not 
BO much as allow him to find out what points had 
been I'eached by shot already discharged. Whenever 
a gun of ours fired, the gaiTison instantly answered 
it with three or four guns fix)m their side, and by 
thus piling up banks of smoke put it out of the power 
of Graham to see where the English shot struck. 

"And, so far as concerned the 'experiment' of 
operating against the great fortress with Older- 
shaw's four advanced guns, Graham seems to have 
found himself driven to an early and decisive con- 
clusion. ' The battle,' he writes, * was from the 
beginning a hopeless one for us. . . . No. VIL 
made a gallant fight, but in a short time three out 
of the fom- guns were disabled, and half the gun 
detachments killed or wounded.' 

" Then Graham goes on to say simply, and as 
though it were merely a law of any man's natui'e 
to go where conditions are desperate ; ' About this 
time, seeing how our fire had slackened, I visited 
the battery.' 

" It would have been interesting to hear an account 
of any conference passing at such a moment, and 
between two such men as Captain Oldershaw and 
Lieutenant Graham, but the enemy granted no time. 
By the blow of a round-shot, or rather by blows from 
the substances and the mass of stone which the round- 
shot — after striking a sandbag — sent driving against 
his breast, Graham was struck down, and it seemed 
for a while that he had received his death." 

After alluding to the fact that besides Oldershaw 
and his officers and men Graham was the only witness 
of the splendid fight made by No. VII. Battery on the 
12tb of April, which, owing to a series of mischances, 
was never " recorded in either a public despatch, or 
any less formal document," Kinglake goes on to 
say : — 

" But the chasm thus left in our records has now 
been substantially filled. We saw an Engineer officer 
keenly watching the fight ; but he was only a young 
lieutenant, well able indeed to give testimony of the 
highest value, yet not to speak with authority. Time, 
however, has changed the conditions ; for the then 
young lieutenant was destined to attain to high fame 
in the profession of arms ; and it is with the mature 
judgment of a general officer well versed in the busi- 
ness of war that now he reviews what he witnessed 
on the 15th April 1855 — the fight maintained under 
Oldershaw in the 'advanced No. VII.' 

" Speaking thoughtfully of a branch of the service 
which was not, remember, his own. Sir Gerald 
Graham says : ' ' The Royal Artillery never hesitated 
to engage at any odds, and they never had a hotter 
morning's work than in No. VII, on that I3th of 

■ Letter from Cairo, 18th November 1863. 



^"■Before Skbastopol, 19(A JpWi 1855. 

" My dear Sister,^ ... As for the siege, all I 
have to say about it is that nothing has been effected 
by our firing. I beheve that we are now losing 
another of the rare opportunities of taking the place 
through the indecision and probable division in our 
councils. There have been many long councils of 
war held during the ten days that have elapsed 
since the opening of our fire. No decision appears 
to have been made. As in the last bombardment, 
we have reduced our fire, thereby acknowledging our 
attempt to have been a fadure. 

"To-day we made a reconnaissance in force seven 
miles beyond Balaklava, I believe that if we were 
to attack the place on the north and south sides 
simultaneously, with a bombardment by sea, we 
should take it. At all events, we should make a fair 
trial of its strength. If it is really impregnable, 
then it is mere fatuity to be sitting idly before it. 
You will have seen that in the last month the 
Engineer officers have suffered rather severely, so 
much so as, perhaps, to satisfy Mr Russell — 3 killed, 
6 wounded, and I taken prisoner. Some of the 
wounded, however, were very slightly hurt. Nine, 




for instance, were reported wounded without ever even 
going on the sick list for it. You wQl be giad to hear 
that Captain Montagu of ours, who was taken prisoner 
on the 22nd of last month, wrote to us telling us 
that he was very well treated. He slept the first 
night in General Osten-Sacken's house, one of the 
General's Aides-de-camp giving up his bed to him. 
He requested that his baggage might be sent to him, 
as he was going to be sent to some place 100 miles 
beyond Moscow ! General Osten-Sacken is mentioned 
in the narrative of the Ist lieutenant of the Tiger as 
being a very kind and religious man. The French 
Engineers have suffered in proportion as heavily as 
we have. Their chief. General Bizot, died a few 
days ago in consequence of a wound received in the 
trenches. All of us not on duty attended at his 
funeral, I among the number. It was well worth 
■going to, if merely to see the number of general 
•officers of the Allied armies. There were Lord 
Eaglau, General Jones, some Staff officers of high 
rank, and the Engineer officers, all in full dress on our 
aide. Nearly all the French celebrities were there : 
Canrobert, Bosquet, Pelissler, Niel, together with a 
host of Engineer officers, a very intelligent-looking 
body of men. The greatest novelty to most of us was 
I Omar Pasha and his Staif. Without taking to myself 
j.tnuch credit for discrimination, I think I could have 
'immediately selected Omar Pasha from his Staff, 
I even had he not carried his brilliant row of orders 
■fcnd medals on his breast. The great distinction 
between him and them was that he was one of the 
most intelligent-looking men present, whereas they 
i looked a set of helpless louts. Omar Pasha stands 
'about the middle height, has a broad forehead and 
LTery quick, expressive eyes. His manner, at leaat 


on this occasion, was one of smiling, easy courtesy. 
This struck me particularly when I saw him convers- 
ing with Canrobert, who Is a very different style of 
man — a little fat man with a red face and very coarse 
features, — a decidedly sensual cast of countenance. 
His manners, gait, and voice are boastful and bluster- 
ing, as if he were constantly endeavouring to awe 
those around him with a due sense of his dignity. 
However, to describe the ceremonies. The bodies of 
General Bizot and of Commandant MSxjon (another 
Engineer officer to be buried with him) were lying in 
a wooden hut which served as a chapel. Accordingly 
a grand procession, headed by Lord Raglan, Can- 
robert, and Omar Pasha, was made into the chapel. 
It was worth while seeing together the representa- 
tives of the three Allied Powers. I must say I 
thought Turkey, ' the Sick Man,' had the best of it. 
Lord Raglan looked what he is— an amiable, good- 
natured English gentleman. Canrobert strutted and 
scowled like a stage hero at a fair. Omar Pasha was 
evidently the man of intellect of the three. Accord- 
ing to custom, speeches were made over the grave. 
The first was by General Niel. I was near enough to 
hear what he said ; hut he was evidently very much 
affected, as were several of those around him. Greneral 
Niel is a tall, intelligent-looking man. He holds in 
the French army a similar position to the one Sir J. 
Burgoyne held in ours. A speech was also made by 
General Pelissitjr. I was lather disappointed by the 
appearance of this celebrated officer. He is a short 
stout man, with short white hair all over his head. 
His features were as unimpressive as those of a bon 
bourgeois. He, too, was affected while reading his 
speech, so as often to be scarcely able to utter the 
words. When he came to the words, 'Adieu, Bizot .' 



^H WG 

Adieu, vie^lx caniarade ! ' I saw many ol' the French 
Engineers in tears. Then Canrobert stepped forwai-d 
and made a ranting, roaring speech, flourished his 
walking-stick, beat himself on the breast ; in short, 
iminitted every possible oratorical extravagance 
ithin a short space of time, and then retired to a 
prominent position, whence he scowled majestically on 
all around him. I quite pity the mild, gentlemanly 
Lord Raglan. To think that he should have to be 
closeted for hours together with that ranting, per- 
spiring braggadocio ! 

, "April 21. — All day yesterday I was in the trenches. 

le night before last we gave the French a lesson. 

e took a rifle-pit from the Russians and held it, but 

A a heavy loss — 2 officers of the Line killed, 2 of the 

igineers wounded, and 50 men killed and wounded. 

Yours, &c., G. Graham." 

" Befure Serastopol, '2nd ifay 1865, 

' My dear Father, — Since I last wrote to you that 

lUrried note on the occasion of being struck with the 

ybris of a round-shot, several things have occurred, 

ihough, I am sorry to say, our position does not 

ftppear to have improved, and we have leas confidence 

"an ever in our leaders. First, there was the failure 

the long-talked-of, much-vaunted bombardment. 

more lamentable display of weakness was never 

made than on that occasion. After a winter's slow 

and sluggish preparation Lord Raglan allowed himself 

to be bullied into opening fire by Canrobert before we 

B ready, and then, in a council of war the next 

lay, the French determined to slacken their fire and 

Jiot to give the assault. Now there is this expedition 

Kertch. I believe it is the intention to take that 

I and hold It so as to throw open the Straits of 



Yenikale to our fleet. As the Sea of Azov is, how- 
ever, very shallow, oiJy our gunboats could navigate 
it. These, however, could stop supplies coming that 
way, and, with an army at Perekop, might complete 
the investment of the Crimea. But it seems rather 
late to begin investing the Crimea when there are 
already more Russians in It than we seem to know 
how to deal witli, and it would seem bad policy to 
weaken our besieging ai-my, which is not a bit too 
strong. The other and more plausible conjecture is 
that it is merely intended to destroy the fortifications 
and magazines of Kertch, and then return. In the 
mean time the destination of the expedition is kept 
very secret, every one believing that It Is for Eupa- 
toria. I believe there will be from ten to twelve 
thousand men — English and French. Four Engineer 
Officers and 25 Sappers from the Right Attack ac- 
company the expedition. I wish I were one of them. 
"The French had a smart afiair with the Russians 
last night, took several rifle-pits and eight mortars, 
and held them. They are so unaccustomed to be 
victorious in these skirmishes that they were all 
highly elated with their success, A French oflScer 
told me that the Russians were quite demoralised 
by it. If they were, they appear to have recovered 
themselves again pretty quickly, for they had the 
audacity to make a sortie on the French In broad 
daylight, at 2,30 this afternoon, I have not yet 
heard tlie result of their sally, for such a tremendous 
carmona<ling was opened on both sides that the smoke 
hung over the ground for hours. The Russians are 
a bold, daring enemy, but they never try those 
pranks with us. We answer their yells with a 
British cheer, give them a close volley, and then 
charge home with the bayonet. . . . 


May 3, — Last night a brother officer of mine was 
killed in the trenches. He was a very nice young 
fellow, and we all feel his loss very much. You will 
be sorry to hear that at the time I got my contusion 
my watch suffered from a blow with a stone. The 
watchmaker at Kamiesch can do nothing to it. as 
the balance-wheel is completely broken. The watch- 
maker recommends rae to keep it as a souvenir, but 
I think it would be a better souvenir when mended. 
" May 5. — I was in the trenches all day yesterday. 
One poor fellow had his arm dreadfully shattered 
with a shell below the elbow. The doctor and a 
stretcher were immediately sent for. However, as 
this happened in the advanced trenches and the 
doctor was in the first parallel, more than half a 
mile to the rear, the poor fellow might bleed to 
death before he arrived. Accordingly I pulled out 
my pocket-handkerchief, and with my walking-stick 
made a tourniquet round his arm. When the doctor 
at last arrived he said that no doubt that measure 
had saved his life. I did not use a stone to put 
over the artery, as I might have missed the right 
—Yours, &c., G. Graham." 

^^1 V 

"Before Sebastupol, 6(A Juix 1860. 

"My dear Sister, — The bombardment of Sebasto- 

il was recommenced at 3 o'clock this afternoon. 

This time again it was carefully kept secret, and the 

oi'ders for opening fire were only issued at 1 p.m. The 

Russians, however, evidently had some idea of what 

iwe were about, partly from the deserters (a 93rd man 

ent over to them the other day), but principally from 

own immediate operations of unmasking our em- 

'asure^ and manning our guns. The French, on the 

;ht, were very punctual, and exactly at 3 o'clock 



opened a heavy fire on the Batteries d'Avril and the 
Mamelon. The Russians, however, appeared quite 
prepared on these points, and answered immediately, 
the two detached Batteries d'Avril being remarkably 
prompt. Our Right Attack now opened, and began 
firing fiercely into the Maraelon, Malakhoff, and the 
Redan, receiving hardly a shot in return for the first 
quarter of an hour or 20 minutes. About three 
minutes later our heavy sea-service mortar on this 
attack, thundering, sent forth its large shell far into 
the town, and at this signal all our guns except those 
ill our two advanced batteries roared out in concert, 
and joined in the already tremendous chorus. 

" The Russians, on their side, did not refuse this 
terrible challenge. Rapidly manning their guns, they 
returned our fire with both shot and shell with a 
readiness and rapidity that reminded many of us of 
that ten'ible first bombardment on the 17th October. 
The Russians stood to their guns with their usual 
stubborn courage. We used a great deal of vertical 
fire against them by mortars, of which they seem to 
have very few, and which are far more destructive to 
life than the shells of horizontal flight. I think 1 saw 
as many as four shells burst together in the Mamelon ; 
indeed it was astonishing how they could keep a man 
alive in that place, and yet they continued to fire 
from it by intervals in volleys at a time, I remarked 
that they used shells much more abundantly than last 
time, and it is said that the day before yesterday they 
received a large convoy of stores of all kinds. It has 
been remarked by some — -Cowell, for instance — that 
the enemy's gunnery has lately become worse, and 
more uncertain than before. It is certain that we 
have had fewer casualties to - day than we have 
usually experienced in the same number of hours' 


ring. It is possible that their best gunners are 
used up. 

" This evening about half-past seven o'clock I went 
' up the hill again to see how we were getting on. 
The whole atmosphere before us was one cloud of 
smoke, which the light wind drifted towards us, and 
through which the yellow rays of the setting sun 
could hardly penetrate, but became dispersed, and 
threw over the whole a yellow glow of light, so that 
the air looked as if filled with a brightened London 
fog. The bright, quick flashes of our guns alone could 
pierce through this heavy curtain, and it was im- 
possible to tell what reply the Russians were making 
to our fii-e, as there was almost one continuous roar of 
the guns and their projectiles echoing through the 
ravines. To judge of the path of the shot by their 
sound, as they went roaring and rushing through the 
I should say that the Russians were making a 
sry feeble reply. On the French left, before the 
Central and Quarantine Bastions, there was not much 
firing, their efforts being wisely concentrated on the 
Flagstaft' and Garden Batteries and those to the right. 
Farther to the left, in the harbour of Kamiesch, all 
was smiling and peaceful, the ships lying at anchor on 
the almost unruffled sea. The sky was clear there, 
excepting a light thunder - cloud in the far west, 
through which might be seen faintly the distant 
flashes of summer lightning, feebly resembling in 
appearance, though less in efiect, the great tableau 
before us. 

" Eleven o'clock at Night. — The fire is being fiercely 
kept up. Half the guns are worked while the em- 
brasures of the other half are being repaired. Usually 
we have only used our mortars for night-firing. 

"June 7. — The eflect of our heavy night-firing was 


very satisfactoiy. This morning the only batteries 
that returned our fire were the Malakhoff, the flanks 
of the Redan, the Barrack and Garden BatterieB. The 
Mamelon and Batteries d'Avril were entirely silenced. 
The Redan itself fired from only two guns of its 
twenty. This ia an exciting time, and we are all 
expectation, as this time we are really to make an 
assault. The men know this, and exult at the 
prospect of putting an end to this weary struggle. 
Yesterday as Pelissier rode through our camps he 
was loudly cheered, as the French generals were in 
the early days of the campaign. The men are all in 
the highest spirits, elated with the good news from 
the Sea of Azov, and ready for anything. You will, 
of course, have received a detailed account of that 
fortunate expedition, of which we only know the 
results — viz,, the capture of 100 guns, 4 war-steamers, 
246 ships, and enormous stores of provisions. It 
remains for history to recount by what series of 
blundei-s, feebleness, or other cause it has happened 
that the Russians left their base of operations so 
utterly undefended. This blow must have seriously 
crippled their resources, and from letters found at 
Kertch it is surmised that their army is by no means 
in an effective condition. There is an elaborate plan 
of assault drawn up, of which 1 only know part. The 
French, I believe, will attack the Mamelon at 3 o'clock 
this afternoon, and, if possible, carry the Malakhoff 
Tower at the same time, which I doubt them doing. 
Should they be successful, we are to take the Redan. 
" Ten o'clock in the Evening. — Well, I have seen the 
assault made, and it has turned out pretty well as I 
imagined it would. Tired as I now feel, and having 
to go down to the trenches at 2 o'clock to-morrow 
morning, I am unable to give you a very cleai' or full 


account. The upshot is that the French have taken 
the Maraelon, and we the Quarry rifle-pits. — Ever 
yours, &c., G. Graham." 

The next event in which Graham took a dis- 
tinguished part was the unsuccessful attack on the 
Redan on the 18th June 1855. The following short 
letter to his father, written just before the assault, 
shows that he fully appreciated the danger of the 
duty to which he was called, and the possibility that 
the words he was then writing might be his last : — 

■ "-BifoTe Sebastofol, \%tk June 165Q. 

" " My dear Father, — You must excuse the extreme 
brevity of this hurried note when I tell you that in 
little more than two hours I have to leave this to join 
the assaulting columns on the Redan. It is now past 
10 o'clock, and we have to be at the trenches in readi- 
ness about 1 A.M. Should these be my last tines to 
you, let them remind you that when I am gone Joanna 
is your only remaining child. Cherish her, then- — not 
only for my sake but for her own, for she is better 
worthy of your love than I am. Sanction her union 
with Durrant, for by making her happiness you will 

(ensure your own. — Ever, &c., G. Graham. 

I "P.S. June 19, Evening. — Sad work we have had 
to-day. The attack on the Redan failed, as did the 
attack on the Malakhotf, I was through it all, but not 
hurt, only very exhausted and depressed by our failure. 
To-morrow at 5 a.m. I am again for duty in the 
trenches. I am too tired to write any more now, so 
Hftdieu for the present. G. G." 

At such a moment his one thought is for the hap- 



piness of his Ijeloved sister ; he seizes the opportunity, 
which his probable death may make by the rush of 
tender feelings and memories, to press for his father's 
consent to her marriage with the man of her choice ; 
and then, when he returns safe from that memor- 
able night's work he does not destroy the letter 
but adds a postscript. The eftbrt on behalf of his 
sister must not be lost — the letter must therefore go 
as it is. Who shall say whether gratitude for his 
preservation may not !» as effective as sorrow for his 
death, and win the favour he had hoped to gain by it ? 
So the tired young hero, who has indeed won his 
laurels, says nothing of what he has done, but, 
exhausted by fatigue and depressed by the failure of 
the assault, merely scrawls a postscript to announce 
his safety and excuse himself for not writing more. 

To his sister he had also written a farewell letter on 
the night of the 18th, but this he destroyed, and 
instead he writes to tell her that he is not hurt, but 
the Redan is not taken :— 

"Before Sebastopoi, lUh Junr. 1655. 

" Mv DEAR Sister, — Yesterday evening I was writ- 
ing you a farewell letter, for I thought it might be the 
last I should ever write to you, as I was to lead the 
assaulting columns on the Redan. But it has turned 
out diflerently to what I anticipated. I am not hurt, 
but the Redan is not taken. Our loss has been very 
great — I think not less than 75 ofticei-s alone ; but 
the greatest loss has been in morale. The Russians 
will no longer consider our troops invincible. Of the 
Engineei-s 3 ofticers were killed and 2 wounded, the 
General ^ himself being one of them. I am dreadfully 
tired in mind and body ; indeed, as some one observed 
' Sir H&rry Dftrid Jones. 



to me, ' All you fellows who have been in action to- 
day look about ten years older.' As I am also for 
duty in the trenches to-morrow at 5 a.m., you must 
excuse the shortness of this note. . . . — Yours, &c., 
" G. Graham." 

But if there is no account fi-om Graham himself 
of that night's doings, they were none the less 
memorable in the history of the siege. The attack 
failed but was the occasion of many deeds of hero- 
ism, and in all narratives Graham's gallant bearing 
» figures prominently. 
The attack on the Redan was made by several 
columns, to one of which, the Left or No. 1 column, 
commanded by Major-General Sir John Campbell, 
Graham was attached to lead the ladder party. 

I The column was composed and ordered to move as 
follows : — 
I Royal Sappers and Miners (10). 
I Covering party of skirmishers, " Rifles " ( 1 00). 
Ladder and woolbag parties (120) and (50). 
I Storming party, 57th Regiment (400). 
Reserves, 17th and 2l8t Regiments (800), with 
working party (400). 
Iiieutenaiit James Murray, R.E., was with the Royal 
Sappers and Miners guiding the column with the 
ilklrmishers. Graham commanded and led the wool- 
bag party and the ladder party, composed oi' an 
equal number of sailors and soldiers. Major Bent, 
R.E., was with the storming party, and Lieutenant 
C^Obarles G. Gordon, R.K., was with the reserve. 
fB The column assembled before the break of day 
under the parapet on the western side of the 
" QuaiTies," and when the concerted signal was given, 
the skirmishers and Sappers under Lieutenant MuiTay 


moved out, followed by the woolbag and ladder 
parties. A storm of grape and musketry fire burst 
fi^m the western face of the Redan, and the Rifles, 
after advancing about fifty yards, took advantage of 
some natural cover, behind which they plied the 
Redan with fire. This temporary halt brought the 
ladder party also to a standstill, and men began 
to fall rapidly. Lieutenant Murray was mortally 
wounded, and Graham's ladder party lost several 
men, although Graham himself seemed to bear a. 
charmed life. " The vast stature," says Kinglake, 
" of the young Engineer who directed their energiea 
made him strangely conspicuous in the field, and it 
was on Gerald Graham and the sailors that the 
praise of observers converged." 

At this moment up came Lieut. -Colonel Tylden, 
the Commanding Royal Engineer, fretting at the 
delayj waving his swoixl, and shouting to them to 
go on, Graham ran to meet him to obtain his 
approval to storm the Salient instead of the right 
flank of the Redan, which appeared to be imprac- 
ticable. " Anywhere, so long as you get on," said 
the gallant colonel, and was almost immediately struck 
down. Throwing down his swoixl, Graham, with the 
help of Sergeant Coppin and Sapper Ewen of the 
8th Company, Royal Sappers and Miners, raised the 
wounded Colonel from the ground, and carried him 
to a more sheltered spot fifty yards away. " Giaham'a 
cool courage," says Sir Evelyn Wood in ' The Crimea 
in 1854 and 1894/ "in these trying moments was 
evident from his being able to walk straight back 
to where he had thrown down his swoitl." 

Having picked up his sword again and rejoined 
his men, the skirmishers moved towaids the Salient 
followed by the woolbag and ladder pai'ties, whici 

Graham's gallant conduct. 109 

Graham halted in front of the advanced trench in 
order that the skirmishers might cover them before 
they moved on farther. The skirmishers were unable 
to advance mider the formidable fire of grape and 
musketry from the Redan, and most of them moved 
to the west, whither some of the storming party 
had already gone. After remaining for some time 
in advance of the trenches exposed to fire, Graham 
ordered the escalading party to retire into the sheltor 
of the advanced trench, which thev did. 

Some ten minutes later. Lord West, who had suc- 
ceeded to the command of the column, Sir John 
CSampbell having been killed near the Salient, came 
up and, telling Graham that he was about to lead 
out another skirmishing party, requested him to take 
out the ladders. Lord West intended to form another 
storming party out of the reserve, lying in disorder 
along the line of parapet and seeking cover from 
the furious fire of the enemv. Of the ladder partv 
many of the soldiers were missing, but the sailors 
were eager for another try. Although some additional 
men were obtained from the reserve, Graham could 
only muster four bearers for each ladder instead of 
six, but with these he moved out under a murderous 

With their ladders beside them, Graham's party lay 
on the grass exposed to this tremendous fire while 
they awaited the skirmishers ; but when ten minutes 
passed and neither skirmishers nor storming party 
appeared, Graham withdrew his party into the ad- 
vanced trench. 

Mr Kinglake says on this head : " When after a 
while it was seen that the ' covering party ' of skir- 
mishers had not begun to advance, the sailors eagerly 
wished — making only an exception for Graham — to 



dispense with the aid of all soldiei-s. They had lost 
their uaval commanders (Lieutenant Kidd killed, and 
Lieutenant Cane gravely wounded), but Mr Kennedy, 
mate, stjll remained to them ; and delighted with 
their pilot, Gerald Graham— a giant intent on his 
work as though proof against grape-shot and fear — 
they wanted, if he would but lead them, to go and 
attack the Redan without asking any one other lands- 
man to share in the bliss of the enterprise. Their 
' pilot ' of course could not humour them in this wild 
desire ; and, on the contrary, he soon brought them 
back to find shelter under the parapet." 

Graham in his official report calls attention to 
" the remarkable steadiness and gallantry of the 
officers and men of the Naval Brigade who formed 
part of the ladder party, and who suffered most 
severely on this occasion," and also to " the steady 
conduct of the party of Sappers." 

Lord West wrote to Lieut. -General Bentinck : " I 
wish I could do justice to the daring and intrepid con- 
duct of the party of sailors. . . . Lieutenant Graham 
of the Engineers, who led the ladder party, evinced 
a coolness and a readiness to expose himself to any 
personal risk which does him the greatest credit." 

The enterprise was abandoned, but, while waiting 
for instructions, an incident occurred which is re- 
corded by Kinglake and others, of Charlie Gordon 
(afterwards Major-General Gordon of Khartoum), who 
was attached to the reserve. Assuming that yet 
another effort would lae made, he eagerly inquired of 
Graham what part in it would be assigned to him, 
now that Lieutenant Murray was Jiors da combat. 
Graham intimated that he supposed the affair was 
over, and there was nothing, therefore, for him to 
do. Gordon was so angry and disappointed that 


hot words ensued, which caused, for a short time, 
a. little estrangement between the two friends. 

On the night of the 8th to the 9th of July 1855 
Graham and Captain G. J. Wolseley of the 90th 
Regiment (now Lord Wolseley), acting as an assistant 
Engineer, on account of the paucity of Engineer 
officers at the siege, were on Engineer duty in the 
trenches. Early on the morning of the 9th Graham 
was wounded in much the same way as before, only 
more seriously. The official ' Journal of the Siege 
of Sebastopol ' shows how dangerous the work in 
the trenches was at this time, the enemy keeping 
up a continuous lii'e of shell, grape, and light-balls, 
which greatly interfered with the work. So hot was 
the tire that the entry in the 'Journal' on this night 
runs : " Nineteen gabions were pushed on in the Kight 
advance, fifth parallel ; but Lieutenant Graham hav- 
ing been unfortunately struck in the face with some 
stones from a round-shot, and consequently forced 
to leave his party on the Left advanced sap ' f,' 
the officer of the 62nd Regiment who commanded 
the party withdrew his men, telling the sapper then 
in charge that he considered it too dangerous for 
Line-men." Graham's wound was a severe one, but 
mhe made light of it to his mother : — 

r '■9t/tJuJi/l855. 

" My DEAE Mother, — A friend of mine has kindly 
undertaken to write this from ray dictation, as you 
will see fi-om the paper. I was slightly wounded this 
morning in the trenches. The same thing happened 
to me then as on the former occasion — a caunon-ball 
struck the parapet just above my head and sent the 
earth into my face : my face is somewhat swollen 



and cut, and I am unable to open my eyes on ac- 
count of the dirt driven into them, but the doctor 
assures me that the sight is not in the least degree 
injured, and that I shall be all right again in a day 
or two. The principal reason that I cannot o[)en my 
eyes is that my cheeks are so much swollen. This letter 
must go off to-mon-ow morning. By the next mail I 
will write vou a letter myself; in the mean time this 
will reassure you all.— Ever, Stc. G. Graham," 

He was, however, incapacitated for duty for nearly 
two months, and had to go to Therapia, where 
he wrote the following letter to his father, who was 
anxious that he should return home : — 

"Hdm. 1/AKai.KTBitRK, Tre&apia, 6tA Augitit 1855. 
"Mt dear Father, — Before you receive this you 
will perceive that you have overestimated the severity 
of my wound, and that there is no necessity for me to 
return home ; and as L am determined not to return 
home without a necessity, I hope you will perceive 
the worse than uselessness of urging me to such a 
step. . . . You must disabuse yourself of the idea 
that there is such extreme pei-il in my remaining at 
the seat of war. I have now had my fair share of the 
blows, and accoi-ding to an ordinary calculation of the 
chances of w-ar, T should be pretty safe for some time 
to come. Besides that, I am pretty well acclimatised, 
having never been ill when in the Crimea. Altogether 
you may consider that I go back a seasoned veteran, 
with a much better chance of escape from danger or 
disease than the raw recruits. At present, my dear 
father, you see everything «» noii: whereas I would 
much prefer you seeing things en cmdeitr de rose, as 
you did last year. After all, the Russians must suffer 


next winter infinitely more than we shall. A lew 
days' rain, such as we are having just now, is for 
them a vh-tual investment of the place. . . . — Ever, 
Ac, G. Graham." 

The next letter — to his sister — shows that his 
endeavours to overcome liis father's reluctance to 
her marriage had been successful, and that the 
wedding had taken place : — 

"HCtkl d'Asoleterre, Tiierapia, 2btk Ai/gitic 1866. 
"My dear Sister, — By the last mail I received 
your wedding-cards, giving me to understand that 
the great event had come off. Since then I have 
received an account of the wedding both from you 
and Richard. It certainly appears to have been 
a delightful wedding-party. Richard was greatly 
pleased with it, he says, and thought you looked 
very well and happy, as I have no doubt you felt. 
I suppose you have pitched your tent in the most 
picturesque part of the Pyrenees you could find, and 
lead a very romantic life together. I am now about 
I to return to the Crimea, my health being fully re- 
established. I have lately received a very long- 
winded and rather facetious letter from Mr Packman, 
' who has written at my father's request to advocate 
his notion that I should go home on sick leave. Mr 
I Packman does this rather ingeniously by urging it 
I as a generous measure for me to adopt, in order to 
I allow some of my brother-otficers to come out here 
I and dis^ — ? ex — tinguish themselves in my place. . . . 
" Here the Turks are holding the feast of Bairam, 
r and every Turk puts on his best clothes, so that 
I one sees a great many bright-coloured jackets and 
k waistcoats with gold embroidery, &o. I have not 




seen many of the sights at CouBtantinople yet. 
Yesterday I went to the mosque of S. Sophia, 
which is very splendid (vide ' Murray '). Another 
place we went to was the Bin-bir-derek or Thousaud- 
and-one Columns. This Is an underground vault, 
an old Roman cistern, the roof of which is supported 
by a great many columns. The inhabitants of this 
place, silk -spinners, set up a tremendous howl when 
they saw us for backsheesh, but, not getting any, 
they pelted us as we were going out. There Is a 
remarkable photograph iu the Exhibition of an 
Egyptian ol)elisk, which I have sent to our father. 
In the same box I sent some things for you : a 
photograph of myself, a few views of the Crimea, 
and a few Turkish things, including a pipe and 
dervish's cap for Reginald. The latter I thought 
appropriate on account of its sacerdotal character. 
. . . — Ever, kc, G. Graham." 

Graham resumed duty in the Crimea on the 4th 
September, the day before the final bombardment, and 
took part in the operations of the 8th September, 
which resulted in another failure to take the Redan, 
but hi the capture of the Malakhoft' by the French and 
the immediate evacuation by the Russiaiis of the south 
side of Sebastopol. On the 10th he writes to his 
mother, to assure her of his safety : — 

r« Skbastopoi., lOlA Sept. 1865. 

" My dear Mother, — I can only write you a few 
lines to assure you of my being in very good health, 
iyed here on the 4th, the day before the bombard- 
iced. On the 8th the French took the 
't> de main. We failed in the Redan. 
ver, evacuated it during the night. 



They blew up their magazines and set the town on 
fire. It is still burning. Although we have no more 
trenches, yet we have still plenty of work, so I must 
now conclude. — Ever, &c., G. Graham." 

Friends at home were eagerly watching young 
Graham's career. Warm had been the coneratula- 
tion, among them on his safety amid "the'ianger 
and slaughter of the Redan," and many anxious in- 
quiries were made when the great news of the fall 
of Sebastopol reached England. One relative in Nor- 
folk incidentally mentions that *' there was a great 
to-do at Norwich " on receipt of the joyful intelligence, 
" and all the butchers and bakers burnt their baskets, 
and the old market-women set fire to their own stalls, 
by way of illumination, the bells ringing merrily, and 
the people shouting themselves hoarse." 




DrRENG the ten months he remained in the Crimea 
after the fall of the south side he was verv busv until 
after the winter was over, and hLs letters are much 
fewer. The marriage of his sister had cut off his 
confidante, and it is easv to see that he felt the loss, 
and threw himself all the more into the work he had 
in hand, 

''My deab Sister, — I appear again before you in 
writing, like a schoolboy, who has long played the 
truant, would before his master. There has been a 
lon^ gap in my correspondence, during which very 
little has occurred that I could write to vou about, 


though I have been myself incessantly occupied. I 
am now harder at work than ever, and indeed may be 
said to work night and day. For the last month I 
have been living here, in Sebastopol, occupied with 
the construction of a batterv and the demolition of 
the d«x!ks. The former is quite finished, but we are 
mining against time and the French for the destruction 
of the docks. The French have one-half to destrov, 
and we the other half. Thev have an immense ad- 
vantage over us, their portion being higher, so that 
they have very little water, which is the chief obstacle 


we have to encounter. The work is very hard for the 
men— harder, I should say, than ever the trenches 
were ; for here they have to work in water, sometimes 
all night long, and the nights are now very cold. 

"The Russians, too, keep up a series of protests and 
remonstrances against our proceedings by shot and 
shell. To-day we had two men wounded. The house 
I live in is the same that figured in the ' Illustrated 
London News.' It was formerly occupied by the 
officers of the commission for estimating the value of 
stores found in Sebastopol, It Is a pretty -looking 
little house with a verandah in front, and is a special 
object of attention to the Russians, who appear to 
have kindly laid about one gun and two mortars on 
it, so that we are constantly under fire. However, 
they have not hit us yet, though they have the houses 
on either side of us. We have so far escaped un- 
scathed. This house also was very fortunate during 
the siege, as only one shot hit it, passing through the 
roof, which we have since had repaired. 

" I have heard tliat you are very desirous to get some 
relics of Sebastopol. I am rather puzzled what to 
send you. For want of anything better I enclose a 
piece of the piles on which the docks are built (pray 
do not mistake it for a piece of lucifer match), and a 
few rhododendron leaves out of our garden. . . , 

" In England, we hear, there is talk of a monstrous 
siege-train next year for the siege of Nicolaief — that 
would, indeed, he a gigantic undertaking. I told you 
that I was under orders for Kertch, but did not go 
there. . . . — Ever, &c., G. Graham." 

"Sbdaetofol, UlAJati. 1866. 
" My dear Sister, — I have just received your very 
kind, sisterly letter of Christmas day. I must appear 



very neglectful anJ forgetful of you not to write more 
frequently, and certainly I hardly expected or deserved 
to receive such a pleasant letter as the one you have 
sent me. Both my father and mother complain of my 
long silence. But the fact is I am not naturally a good 
correspondent, and besides, you at home do not at all 
understand what my work here is. During the siege 
I had a good many leisure hours between my turns of 
duty. Here, however, I have none. Even now I 
have not got one, and were I not writing for the post 
I should be on the works. Under these circumstances 
you really must not blame me if I do not write regu- 
larly. . , . 

" We are still busily demolishing the docks. We 
have not as yet, however, done half our work, having 
enormous difficulties in the way of water to contend 
with, which the French have been fortunate enough 
to avoid. I must finish this at once, as we are pre- 
paring for another demolition. — Ever, &c,, 

" G. Graham." 

"Sebastopol, £4(A Jan. 18.16. 

" My dear Mother, — . . . The day before yester- 
day we were told that news of a proclamation of peace 
might arrive the next day, and we got orders to try 
and blow up as much as possible before that intel- 
ligence could reach us. With that charitable intention 
we laboured all that night. I had been running about 
so much during the day, descending deep shafts by 
rope ladders and wandering about long wet galleries, 
sometimes nearly knee - deep in water, that I was 
fairly tired out by midnight. I did not get any 
dinner till 10 o'clock. I was, however, up again next 
morning by seven o'clock, and we just managed to get 
ready in time to blow up with the French. We could 

not blow up as much as they did, but altogether we 
did a great deal of mischief yesterday. 

" The French demolition was very pretty to look at, 
but their work has been incomparably easier than 
ours, as they have had no water to contend with. I 
shall be very glad when this work is finished, though 
I take a great deal of interest in it, and should like 
very well to have to demolish the large storehouses 
and wharf wall. I think the Russians will be very 
much disgusted with the appearance of their docks 
when they return. Yesterday they expressed their 
annoyance by firing rather heavily directly after the 
explosion. The French have left nothing but shapeless 
mounds of earth, where they found beautifully built 
walls with granite curbs. On our side the ground 
behind the walls is of solid rock, so that the effect is 
not so striking to the eye. . . . 

" I saw one of the theatrical exhibitions of the 4th 
Division, which I thought very good. I saw nothing 
of the beef and pudding that you mention, though I 
made a pretty good dinner on Christmas day on 
Crimean beef and pudding. We have now got a 
regular mess up at camp, with really excellent dinners, 
but here at Sebastopol, where there are only four of 
us, we make a little mess of our own. . . . — Yours, &c., 
^^ " G. Graham." 

^K^ " Sebabtui-ijl, 3rd -March 1B66. 

" My dear Father, — You appear confident in your 
last that there will be peace, and every one else says 
the same thing, so I suppose we really shall have it. 
You must not, however, suppose that the army will 
return to England as soon as peace is concluded. It 
will take at least three months to ship away the 
army and stores from the Crimea. The greater part 


cf i£fe umT win then probably be sent to the 
ll£idn*e!m£keai]Lp besideB gairisms in the Bosphcvns 
aycjd •C'CL Tht T^mrkish shores of the Kack Sea. 

^ Fxi-c VK Engineers there will^ as usoal, be pl^itr of 
wv^rk. ujd I shoold not think of aj^ying for leave to 
go iipocx»e if I can get a good post out here. How- 
eriEr. ^jteace is not yet cv^iduded. and of coarse I 
hnpc pino»l&ssaonally that it wiD not be ocmdoded. or 
tlfia::. if h is. it mar be of short duration. Had I 
htt32i a cfiptaisj at the commencement of this war I 
££i»:>«:ij^i :»w ppc'hably be a lieutenant -colonel, but 
becL^: r3>e7ieihr a subaJt^m, bv the la^'s and ne^giula- 
tioct^ ^•f zktv' British service I can get no piomotion. 
Thi& nl-r- k |:«eculiarly unjust to us Engineers, where 
tberr are siiteltems of ten years' standing, as in the 
liEje •ber^ ame captains of only IS months' service 
wfai*:- uLiy gie: l-revet rank. In the French army 
the prooL^yzyyci of the Engineers is given principally 
am'>fi;^ rh«r ol£cers out here, instead of being, as 
with iss- i;:iveii ro the whole Corps by seoicnrity. 
Thrzs wirh as rtey ought to form the Engineers out 
ber^ ':jlzo a war battalioo. It seems a great pity 
tb^z sn?£i a s^ec/did army as we have out hi»e 
sfci'fild he waste*!. I attended the grand review the 
ocber d&hV as a spectator : our men looked splendid. 
Tt*e Grenadi^er Oxnpany of the -12nd Highlanders was 
the dn^esr sE^t I ever saw of the kind. The Guards 
ajDfi RLfi-es. too. were verv fine. The French would 
Diot show oearfv so welL Thev are said to have above 
20.*»? men in h-T6p:taL No wonder they are so anxious 
for pea<>r. Howiever. I suppose the peace will not last 
lon:^. Tr.-r Russians will pnobably only wait tor the next 
Frencli Revi^iTitrc-n to recommence their a^tin^essions on 
Turkrv. -juLji uhen we shall have to dv* the whole rhinij 

■selvirs. . . . — Ever. Ac. G. Gkahah." 


"Sebastopol, 7W April lese. 
" My dear Sister, — My last letter ^ to you, I think, 
described the death of poor Ranken^ on the 28th 
February last. Since that time I have been em- 
ployed in making a detailed report and drawings of 
the demolition for the Inspector -General, Sir John 
Burgoyne. Having to collect Eanken's notes, and 
owing to a variety of delays, I have been pretty well 
occupied up to the present time, and I think have 
hardly written a single letter, so that my hand for 
writing is quite out. As soon as Peace was declared 
we expected to be immediately ordered up to camp,- 
but General Codrington^ considers it probable that 
we may be allowed to use the harbour of Sebastopol 
for embarkation, and will not consent to our being 
removed yet awhile. We are not sorry to remain 
here, as it is a most beautiful place in the fine weather 
which is coming on. If we should embark from here, 
it will he delightful to pull about the harbour and 
examine the sunken vessels. We have seen a great 
many Russians lately, though I have not had the 
opportunity of conversing with any of their officers. 
How astonished they must be at our camp, with 
our comfortable huts and canteens containing every 
I luxury from England. But the sight that surprises 
■khem most of all is the railroad, and the first place 
pi Russian officer turns the head of his shaggy little 
pony towards is Balaklava. Here, indeed, the change 
is wonderful, and were it not for its unmistakable 
characteristic features it would be impossible to rec- 

' This letter cannot be found. 

* Captsin George Ranken, R.E,, killed by the explosion of a mine on 
e E8th February 1856. 

» General Sir William John Codrington, G.C.B., Colonel o( the Cold- 
a Guardi, waa Commander-in-chief of the army in the Crimea from 
korember 185fi. He died in 1884. 



ogriise it as the little Tatar (or rather Greek) 
villag;e we entered in September 1854. I will not 
attempt to describe it to you, but should like very 
much to go over it with an intelligent Russian, who 
saw it for the first time, and who was not in the 
habit of reading the ' Times.' Our soldiers are 
fraternising with the Russians now, somewhat as 
they did with the French at GallipoH. I saw yester- 
day a great numlier of their new but dirty-looking 
acquaintances, staggering or lying about in various 
stages of drunkenness. One of tliera appeared to have 
exchanged caps with a man of the 17th- Yesterday, 
to our great pleasure, we read in General Orders 
that passes were to be issued permitting a certain 
number of each division to enter the Russian linea 
This will be a great treat, especially to us Engineers, 
and we are all eagerly looking forward to a ride over 
the Russian works, and especially the plateau of 
Mackenzie's Farm, which we are very curious to ex- 
amine, as it is a most remarkable defensive position. 
" You will now like to know, perhaps, what is to be- 
come of me. Well, I really cannot tell you, but I do j 
not wish for a liome station, though I should like to , 
get leave for a short time to see you all. The shaves J 
or stories about what is going to be done with us arerl 
of course, innumerable, but nobody knows anythin, 
about it. ... I do not think we out here are quite a 
much pleased with the news of peace as we should \ 
By a spirit of contradiction apparently every ooe ll 
become excessively warlike, though dming the^ 
I know there were a gi-eat many wishing i 
. . . —Ever, &c, G. \ 


To his Brother-in-law. 

" Skbastopol, 18tA Jpril 1866. 

'My dear Reginald, — I have received Joanna's 

letter of the 20th March, together with your pleasant 

supplement to it. You may both rely upon it that 

if I return to England, my first visit shall be to 

All SaintsV where I expect to find Joanna duly 

invested with the matronly duties of housekeeping. 

"As I think I mentioned in my last, we are still 

living in Sebastopol in expectation of this harbour 

being used for embarkation of a portion of the troops. 

We like our quarters very much, as we can now go 

out into the harbour, and, if we like, cross over to 

the north side and fraternise with the Ruskies. A 

week ago several of us made an expedition over to 

the north side. There was nothing very remarkable 

to see there, as we were not allowed to enter the 

forts. I was struck at observing the small force of 

men there, certainly not more than 10,000. They 

were either quartered in their forts or in camps of 

^mud huts. The greater part appeared to be militia, 

^^Uio are known by the cross on their caps and their 

^Hpierally very dirty appearance, the militiamen being 

^^mowed to wear the usual Russian peasants' beard, 

while the regulars shave off everything except the 

iiioustache. As we were among the first coiners, the 

lesiun Koldiers saluted us, as they do their own 

:ers, by taking 1 1 1 
Jieaded. Sin'' 
le French i-' 
to my 1 1* 

off and walking past 
irii tliey have lost this habit, 
l•^ ;i]su, and rarely salute us. 
(inil-iiatured, good-humoured 
ilv <Iisposition8 towards us. 
iHil obtained the livint; of All Sainta', 


Every evening tdey turn out and sing in their camps. 
We witnessed one of these performances, after which 
a buffoon appeared with a mask and long beard, who 
^^ executed a grotesque dance in time to the music, 
^K which seemed to amuse the Russians immensely. On 
^B the way back from our expedition we saw a camp 
with some gabions and platform timber, which we 
concluded to be the Russian Engineer camp, and 
accordingly went in and requested to see the OoloneL 
One of us, who, having been a prisoner some time, 
understood a little Russian, heard the Colonel call 

■ immediately for a pair of clean boots and trousers. 
Having obtained these articles, the Colonel made his 
appearance and invited us all in. As, by the assist- 
ance of some Artillery officers, our party was aug- 
mented to 15 in number, we rather crowded the 
Colonel's hut. The Colonel was a short, stout man 

■ of about fifty, shaved in the Russian manner, so as 
to leave nothing but a very heavy moustache. He 
spoke neither French nor German, in fact only 
Russian. The duties of interpreter were performed 
by a lively little Italian doctor, who was an excellent 
linguist. We commenced by asking the Colonel and 
six Engineer officers, including the doctor, to dinner, 
which, aft«r debating on the means of getting to our 
camp, and our agreeing to furnish a boat and horses, 
was accepted- The Colonel then insisted on our 
taking some wine, and made each of us drink some 
claret and a tumblerful of champagne, after which 
we parted on the best of terms. I have forgotten 

I to mention that several of the junior Russian Engineer 
officers came in and entei-ed into conversation with us. 
They were pleasant, agreeable young fellows, and 
were neafly all of them able to talk either French 
or German. 


■' On Saturday last, the day appointetl, they came 

to Sebastopol in one of their own boats, I and a 

brother officer being there to receive them. We 

brought them to my house, which they told us had 

been the house of General Chrolov, Commandant of 

the Karabelnaia, during the siege. I gave them 

Bome draught English ale, which was much admired, 

particularly by the doctor, who drank so much of it 

that by the time we started for camp he was uncom- 

I monly merry. On arriving at camp old J. W. Gordon 

F and Lloyd ^ came out to receive the Ruskis, and an 

amicable chat began in a marquee that we had erected 

for a reception-room, and we sliowed them 'Punch' 

and the ' Illustrated London News,' &c. At dinner 

, a band that we had borrowed for the occasion struck 

I up ' God save the Emperor,' followed by ' God save 

I the Queen.' We gave them a capital dinner with 

[ jienty of champagne, and everything went off very 

[■ ■well. I was seated next the doctor, who continually 

I shook my hands and told me that he loved the 

English from the bottom of bis heart. He also 

I persisted in drinking beer as well as champagne, 

' claret, sherry, &c. The doctor (an Italian) was 

' evidently the privileged buffoon and factotum of 

I the stem, reserved old Russian colonel. He made 

LbU the toasts, and returned thanks in French rhymes, 

^ which were not remarkable lor their cleverness, but 

created a great deal of amusement. I talked a good 

deal with some of the younger Russian Engineers, but 

found them uncommonly reserved with respect to 

1 the siege operations. They were evidently very 

h proud of their defence and of Todleben, though they 

l^admitted some faults. ... On their departure they 

• Lieut, -tViloDel, afterwiLrda Major-General, EdwwJ T. Lloyd, BoyaJ 
ineen, who died in June 1892. 


very civilly invited us for the following Monday, as 
on Tuesday they were going oft' into the interior. 
Accordingly we went, and were shown all over the 
forts. Fort Coustantine did not appear to have 
suffered much by the bombardment of the 17th 
October 1854. On our return from the forts about 
2 P.M. we found dinner prepared for ua Our dinner, 
thev told us, was strictly Russian. We began by 
caviare and Russian brandy, then soup and foroe- 
roeat in one, then ham and greens, then a rice- 
plum-pudding, followed by beef-steaks in grease (!) 
and sweatmeats al) well moistened by champagne 
and claiut. We thought them uncommonly ci\'il. 
They had borrowed the music of ' God save the 
Queen" from us and played it three times — the 
first time, they said, it had been played by them in 
the Crimea- Altogether we wei-e very much pleased 
with one another, and parted with mutual expres- 
sions of friendship. . . . — Yours, 4c, G. Graham." 

** Ssa^sraroL, SVJ J^H 1856^ 
" My DEAR Father, — . . . The other day. when 
^oing through the Russian camp in the pass of 
Aitodor. about 16 miles from this. I was asked in 
by some Russian officers, who treated me in a most 
ho^itable style. Two of them spoke German, which, 
indeed, I find s]^)oken amongst them much more com- 
monly than French. They made me drink a quantity 
of champagne to the health of the Emperor, Queen 
Victwa, Ac-, and hrougbt out the soldiers to sing and 
dance in their national style. In &ct, they were 
almost o\-erpoweriQgly hospitable, as I was, I believe, 
tbe first Eliu;l)sh o^oer they had entertained. It was 
so late when I led them that, coming hock, I lost my 
««y. and was obliged to accept the hoepttality of 


some Cossack officers. They put up me and my horse 
much better than I had expected — indeed, to my 
surprise, gave me a clean sheet to sleep on. They, 
however, spoke nothing but Russian. The only 
thing I objected to was their schnapps, which is a 
bad sort of potato-brandy, and which appears to lie 
with them an indispensable luxury^ — the first thing in 
the morning, and before every meal. I parted with 
my friends on capital terms, and made them a present 
of a penknife, all that I had about me. They gave 
me for a guide a regular Don Cossack, witli a 
long lance, mounted on a remarkably ugly little 
' pony. 

"Yesterday I went with a party of some brother 
' officers and paid a visit to the scene of the battle of 
I Alma. I was the only one of the party who had been 
[ present at the battle. We went over the old ground 
I where the Light Division and the Guards had crossed 
[the river and had stormed the fatal battery. The 
Iparapet and graves inside are untouched. A wooden 
fiBlab over a grave to the memory of Montagu of the 
|'33rd still remains, and we were glad to observe these 
lagns of the respect the Russians have for our dead. 
fOver one of the mounds marking a grave the Russians 
P'had put a cross with Russian writing on it. Few 
I other vestiges of tlie Wttle remained, and, singularly 
Lenough, not a bullet was to be found. Lead was said 
tto become scarce among the Russians during the siege. 
I, — Ever, &c., G. Graham." 

3L, m May 18.^fl. 
■' My dear Sister, — . . . The weather is remark- 
^*bly fine now, and the few ships that are in the 
irbour enliven the prospect very much. The 
SHadiator, a splendid steam -frigate, lies at anchor 


there, and the French are busilT embarkins: their 
field artillery on their side of the creek. We are 
the only inhabitants among the ruined houses here, 
and the birds prefer building their nests under the 
eaves of our house to those of the deserted ones. 
Sparrows, starlings, and swallows tbrm their little 
Cf^lonies undisturbed ab«iut us; indeed the swallows 
aT^t so tame that thev frequentlv flv throu^fh the 
open window into m\r room, make a rapid circuit, 
and dash <3ut again. The Russians have a curious 
custom of having a little box like a pigeon-house on 
the top of a high pole with grain for the birds. This, 
the origin of which I must have explained to me, may 
be seen in all their batteries, at least on the north 
side. I have not remarked it in their Sebastopol 
batteries. Perhaps they thought it would be cruel 
to expose the poor little birds to such a murderous 
fire as that we poured down on them. This reminds 
me of a very pretty custom that I remember the 
Swedes have of putting com out in the fields for the 
birds on Christmas da v. 

" The British officer may now be found in every part 
of the Crimea, at least the southern part of it. 
Nmnbers of trips have been made, and I suppose 
bv this time vou have o^ot Russell's account of his 
excursion. I have not made any distant one yet, as 
the country will look so much prettier when the leaves 
are fully out. As it is. the country is getting more 
and more beautiful everv dav. The dav before vester- 
day I made one of a party for Mangoup Kaleh — I 
don't know whether you possess a map o( the Crimea 
showinix the isn^ound. If vou do, vou will be able to 
perceive the remarkable position and extent of the 
plateau on which Mackenzie's Farm stands. It is 
bounded by a clilF which, starting from the head of 


the harbour, forms the eastern bouiulary of the valley 
of Inkerman, after which it trends away to the north 
as far as Mackenzie's Farm, and then resumes its 
south-easterly direction to the pass of Altodor. The 
line of cliff then takes a north-easterly direction to 
Baktchiserai and Sinipheropol. These cliffs form the 
most perfect military obstacle that can be iraaa;ined. 
For the greatest part of their length they are in- 
accessible even to those on foot, their crest being 
surmounted by a perpendicular wall of rock from 40 
to 50 feet high, and the remainder forming a steep 
slope of white chalk covered with scanty vegetation. 
This line of cliff forma the leading characteristic 
feature of the country we passed. All the rest is 
wild and irregular, like an immense plain that had 
been boiled up into gigantic bubbles and consolidated. 
The scenery was very beautiful , though the sky 
looked dark and thre-atening, lending a purple tinge 
to the distant mountains, and giving the green of the 
hills and fields around us a deeper tint. The wild 
flowers were all coming out in bloom^ — irises, orchid^ 
anemones, violets, poppies, peonies, and a variety of 
others whose names I do not know. There were also 
sweet-smelling herbs, wild mint and thyme, and fruit- 
trees in full blossom. 

"May 11. — The summer has been a long time 
approaching this year. I think I told Reginald in 
my last that on the 28th April we actually bad 
snow early in the morning. To-day was the warmest 
day we have yet had. Still, it has so changed 
towards evening that I am now sitting with a fire 
in my room. Well, to continue the account of my 
trip to Mangoup. We passed through a great deal 
of ground that had evidently been highly cultivated 
before the wai", but neglected since. We had a good 



view of the green valley of Schula, with its Uttlel 
stream and pretty Tatar villages. These villages ai-e^ 
I believe, half deserted. The Tatars are being very I 
badly treated by the Russians in all tliose villages I 
that we occupied and have since relinquished. The \ 
poor frightened Tatars, who are a most harmless, 
offensive race, crowd into Balaklava for our protection, J 
bringing with them their wives and families in their I 
quaint carts drawn by bullocks. We ship them oft' to I 
Constantinople, where they will form a colony. I had [ 
a Tatar servant for a month, and a very nice boy he I 
was, most willing and industrious. He left me a few I 
days ago to go to his mother, who was at Eupatoria, I 
and whom he was going to bring back hei'e and then j 
proceed to Constantinople, together with his brother | 
and five-and-twenty Tatar friends, I wish them every J 

" Mangoup Kaleh, or the fortress of Mangoup, is an. I 
isolated table -mountain standing in a wide chasm, i 
bounded on one side by Mount Aitodor and on the | 
other by Elle Barsun, the Cape of Tempests. Ma: 
goup is upwards of 1000 feet high and nearly perpeu- I 
dicular on all sides. It is called the key of the gates ] 
of the steppes. It forms, with the great line of cliffs, 
two passes, tlie pass of Korales and the pass of Aitodor, 
both of which are strongly defended. At the latter I i 
was hospitably entertained, as I mentioned in my last. I 
Each time the Cape of Tempests proved worthy of itsl 
name. On this last occasion we boldly commenced I 
the ascent of Mangoup in spite of the iieavy rain. Itl 
was very slippery, and we had to lead our horses upl 
the whole way. On arriving at the summit we pufc: 
our horses into one of the Tauro-Scythian crypts aad( 
then started off on foot to examine the position. Iii 
the &ont of it, or towards the south, we found tha 


ade of the ancient palace of Mangoup. Four 
windows remain with sculptured ornaments, most of 
which, however, have been destroyed or carried away. 
They appeai'ed to me to be Saracenic, though my 
companions considered them Hebrew. We traced the 
remains of an old wall with towers, I was perfectly 
puzzled as to the architecture, particularly of the 
palace. There were Gothic pointed arches and Nor- 
man arches and Greek lintels all jumbled together. 

; We explored several of the crypts in the face of the 

' rock at the north end of Mangoup, which were very 
curious. Steps cut into the solid rock led down into 
a large chamber hewn out of the rock, with square 
pillars left standing to support the roof, which was 
about 2 feet thick. This chamber opened, like in a 
cloister, into several smaller caves all round it, which 
were used as sleeping apartments, each having a raised 

I dais of rock. The view from this point would have 
been magnificent had it not been for the rain. How- 

I ever, we made out Old Fort and the lake of Ram- 
ishlu, where we landed on the 14th September 1854. 
' We have as yet had no orders relative to our em- 
barkation, nor do we (the Engineers) know where we 
are going to. Our transports are now taking away 

^ the Sardinians. . . . — Yours, &c., G. Graham." 

" Sebabtopoi, Iblh June 1868. 

' My dear Sister, — . . . My principal occupation 
has been riding, fishing, boating, and occasionally 
shooting ; my companion is the commandant of the 
place, Colonel T. Of the artillery officers down here 
I see very little. ... T. is a fine active fellow, 

' thorough soldier, and thorough sportsman. He has 
seen an immense deal of service, been all through the 

I Punjab, China, Ceylon rebellion, and in everything out 


^H is oul' 

■ beofl' 


here except Alma. He was a great liunter in Ceylon 
and India, a destroyer of elephants, tigers, panthers, 
bears, &c. — very different sport to mere partridge- 
shooting or fox-hunting. He has put me through 
a course of ' hunting literature,' and I have read 
' The Old Forest Eanger,' ' The Hunter's Feast,' 
' The Solitary Hunter,' &c., till I am quite enthusiastic 
for the ' sport,' and have determined to become a 
' hunter ' too. I mean to commence by shooting a 
rascally Russian dog that comes howling under my 
window every night. 

" About half-past six every morning we get up and 
bathe. The water is delightful just now — not too cold 
nor too hot. After breakfast I look after my men, 
whom I have had hitherto making a monument for the 
battle of Balaklava. Now, however, I have got them 
no longer, but am on the survey. After noon we go 
out for a sail, walk, or ride, as the case may be. 
The other day I had a surprising visit. The original 
proprietor of the house I live in presented himself to 
me, and, to my surprise, I beheld a very respectable 
old English farmer ! His name was Newman. On the 
Crimean steppes he fed his flocks and herds — a frugal 
swain. I gave him some porter, and he asked me to 
go and see him at his estate, fifteen miles from Old 
Fort, where we landed. He was a quiet, cautious old 
gentleman, probably afraid of seeing his name in the 
papers. He said he w^as the only English settler 
about here, and that the Russian authorities had 
watched him very suspiciously during the war, that 
all his cattle and horses had been bought (at rather a 
low valuation though) by them. He did not seem so 
delighted with his house as he ought to have been, as it 
is only one of three that is standing at all. I expect to 
be ofl'in a month. . , . — Yours, &c., G. Graham." 


Peace was declared in April 1856, but it was not 
until the 9th of the following July that Graham said 
good-bye to the Crimea. He came home hi command 
of troops and in charge of horses of various units on 
board the s.s. Clarendon. The following letter con- 
cludes the Crimean series :— 

I " Of thi GoLDES HoRS, \Zlh July 18B6. 

" My dear Sister, — I am now on my way to Eng- 
land, though this letter will probably precede me by 
a week or a fortnight. I left Sebastopol for Bala- 
klava on Tuesday morning (8th July), after taking 
my last bath in the harbour and my last look at it. 
It never, I thought, had looked more desolate. Be- 
yond the spectral-looking masts, the remains of the 
Black Sea Fleet, all that was to be seen above water 
was a Russian merchantman from Odessa, and in the 
South Creek the Gladiator and a small Kussian Gov- 
ernment steamer, the Taman, disembarking furnitm-e 
for some Russian dignitaries. The French had given 
over Sebastopol proper and the Malakhoff suburb the 
Saturday before I left, and I had a Russian guard 
near my house. The only part of the town we held 
were the wharf buildings, where the Gladiator kept 
a guard of Marines. The Russians were allowed to 
take all the black bread out of these buildings, and 
used to send over gangs of men and women for that 
purpose, the women seeming to work quite as hard 
as the men, looking prematurely old in consequence. 
When I came to Balaklava, I found myself, to my 
surprise, under orders to embark the next day, in 
charge of all the horses. The next day, therefore, 
at 10 o'clock in the evening, we were off. I was 
in company with several detachments from different 
regiments, in charge of horses and a large detach- 



meut of the Laud Transport Corps, altogether about 
150 men, 13 officers, and 112 horses. . . . We 
arrived here on Friday evening after a 42 hours' 
run, 6 hours longer than usual ; but the Clarendon 
is a slow ship, I am sorry to say. . . . We expect 
to arrive in England about the 7th or 8th, but the 
time may vary from the 5th to the 10th. . . . You 
will be glad to hear that I have got the goat and kid 
safely on board, and hope to bring them to All Saints' 
House. . . . — Ever. &c., G. Graham." 

In the Mediterranean the Clarendon encountered 
a heavy gale and sprang a leak. The water ex- 
tinguished the fires, and when off Cadiz the troops 
were transferred in open boats, fortunately without 
casualty, to the French merchant ship Constance. 
Several horses were lost during the storm. The 
Clarendon, after running ashore six miles to the 
west of Cadiz, was got off and towed into Cadiz 
harbour with nine feet of water in her hold. The 
troops had to remain about a week in the Constance, 
and were then transferred to H.M.S. Centaur and 
landed at Portsmouth on 12th August 1856, 



'-After a delightful leave of absence sjjent amongst his 
relatives, and particularly with his lately married 
sister at All Saints' in Suffolk, where we have glimpses 
of him with his honours fresh upon him, playing games 
with children, listening to fairy tales, singing duets 
with young ladies, and generally enjoying himself, he 
was sent to do duty in Scotland, and was quartered 
for a time at Glasgow. The following letter relates 
a meeting with Sir E. L. Bulwer-Lytton : — 

'• 318 Bath Crescent, Glasoow, I8I/1 Jan. 1857. 
" My dear Sister, — ... I am going to Edin- 
burgh at the end of the month, when I have three 
invitations which fall due on successive nights. 
One of my engagements is to dine with Sir John 
M'Neill. I shall be very glad to make his ac- 
quaintance. The great event of the week here has 
been the installation of Bulwer as Lord Rector of 
the University. I was not present at that cere- 
mony, where he made a splendid speech, or at the 
dinner given by the civic powers on Friday. I 
have, however, seen the lion more closely than I 
should have done on those public occasions. Whilst 
here he stopped at Fossil House, the residence of 


Sir Archibald Alison,^ and on the day of the dinner 
(Friday) I was asked to dine at Possil House. 
Of course the host and his guest were at the civic 
dinner, so that I found quite a ladies' party. 
Another officer, and a son of Sir Archibald (who 
has been in the Crimea), and myself were the only 
representatives of the lords of the creation. . . . 
Young Alison ^ is a remarkably nice, intelligent young 
fellow. He served in the Highland Brigade in the 
Crimea, and we had many notes to compare together. 
In the evening a literary lady and I talked about 
German literature. She produced a collection of 
autographs, containing among others a letter from 
Carlyle. The subject of his letter is tobacco, and 
he confines himself strictly to it, requesting his friend 
to send him some ' shag.' Indeed, except for a 
few characteristic Germanisms, it is about as un- 
interesting as those of Dr Johnson when he writes ■ 
for a box of pills and a dose of salts. Of the different 
cliques of society here. Lady Alison's is considered 
about the first, and the literary lady is the only one 
to be found in it who also mixes in the town society. 
Thus I found my friend B. knew her, though he knew 
no one else of the party. He was not there, you 
know. As a married man he is chained to the bottom 
of his well, and cannot go climbing up the pole for 
sweetmeats as I and otliers (bears, bores, or beaux) 
do. May he at least find truth and happiness 
■e as others similarly situated ! But how about 
u are impatiently asking. Wait a little, 
you will read. About half-past ten 
?o gentlemen. One of them I 

Hid Alison, G.C.B., colonel of the Seaiorth 


recognised at once, by his shaking hands with me, 
as Sir Archibald Alison. He is a man of striking 
appearance, massive nose, high forehead, and dignified, 
kind expression. He speaks with a broad Scotch 
accent which I like. His companion was a big, red- 
faced man. No Bulwer here it seems. Presently, 
however, enters by a back - door a taU thin man, 
whom I recognised for the great novelist (the author 
of the ' Caxtons '), and made way for accordingly. 
His eyes scarcely seemed to see me as he made his 
way towards the sofa. His appearance is certainly 
remarkable. You will remember how David Copper- 
field, after a very convivial party with his friend 
Steerforth, looks at himself in the glass and thinks 
that he is all right but that his hair is drunk. 
Well, Sir Edward's hair had precisely the same 
appearance. For the rest he has a high forehead, 
aquiline nose, and wears a moustache and imperial 
He seemed to me terribly tired, fairly done up, 
having very bad health. The literary lady rather 
bored him by reading Carlyle's letter to him (which 
is rather long for the subject). He is somewhat 
deaf, and she had to bawl it into his ear. He made 
no comment, but tried feebly to laugh. In answer 
to an inquiry fi-om Lady Alison he replied, in a very 
melancholy tone, that he always burnt his letters and 
would have burnt that one. I heard nothing more 
from him, and as it was getting late we took our 
leave. I will do so with you too. . . . — Ever, &c., 

" G. Graham/' 

From Scotland he was ordered in April 1857 to 
Aldei-shot, where he was for a time acting-adjutant. 
He used fi'equently to ride over from Aldershot on 
Sundays to attend divine service at Eversley church. 


for Charles Kingsley, the rector, gave a warm wel- 
come to military ofEcere from the camp. Kingsley, 
already a favourite author with Graham, and a friend 
of Mrs DuiTant, had been allowed to read one of 
hia Crimean letters to her, and had expressed a 
high opinion of his descriptive power. So the two 
men soon became friends. 

For his services in the Crimea Graham had been 
twice mentioned in despatches (see ' London Gazette,' 
21st December 1855 and 15tb February 1856), and 
had received the war medal with three clasps (Alma, 
Inkerman, and Sebastopol), the Turkish medal, the 
fifth class of the Turkish order of the Medjidie, and 
the fifth class of the French Legion of Honour. He 
was now to receive the most coveted of all distinctions 
— the Victoria Cross. 

During the Crimean war a want had been felt 
by the Queen and Prince Albert of some reward for 
conspicuous bravery on the part of junior officers 
and of all ranks below them in the army and in the 
navy. For senior officers of both services the mili- 
tary division of the Oi'der of the Bath was available, 
but the statutes of the order limited its distribution 
to them only. The Queen therefore instituted, for 
junior officers of the army and navy and for all 
ranks below them, a new distinction — the Victoria 
Cross — by Royal Warrant of the 29th January 1856. 
The Cross, in the words of the Royal Warrant, 
was to be " highly prized and eagerly sought 
after," and to be awarded for some signal act of 
valour, or of devotion to country, performed in the 
presence of the enemy. The Prince Consort, who 
took the greatest interest in the decoration, designed 
the insignia, and the inauguration took place in Hyde 
Park on Friday, the 26th June 1857. Lieutenant 


I Graham — for lie quitted the Crimea still a subaltern 
' — had been awarded the Victoria Cross on the 24th 
February 1857, a few weeks after Its institution, for 
" Determined gallantry at the head of a ladder party 
at the assault of the Redan on the 18th June 1855, 
and for devoted beroisiii in sallying out of the 
trenches on numerous occasions and bringing in 
wounded officers and men." 
The ceremony of inauguration in the presence of 
representative forces of the army and navy, assembled 
in Hyde Park, was a magnificent spectacle. The 
Queen, mounted and in a scarlet jacket, accom- 
panied by Prince Albert, Prince Frederick William 
of Prussia {afterwards German Emperor), with the 

I prince of Wales and Prince Alfred, afterwards Duke 
of Edinburgh and of Saxe- Coburg-Gotha, and at- 
tended by a brilliant suite, personally decorated sixty- 
two officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officei'S, 
Mid men with the cross, with her own hand pinning 
it on the breast of each recipient. The band of heroes 
then formed line facing her Majesty and her suite, and 
^^ the headquarters staff and the troops marched past 
^H^tween them. Graham wrote the following letter to 
^^BhiB father after it was over : — 

^^^H "Camp Aldbrbhot, 30th Jvnt I8S7. 

^^P " Mv DEAR Father, — . . . We were formed in line 
and then advanced singly to the Queen, who remained 
on horseback. She pinned on the medal (cross) with 
her own hand to our coats. She stuck the pin fairly 
"nto me, BO that I keenly realised my momentary 
nterview with Royalty ! . . . — Ever, &c., 

"G. Graham." 

There is little to relate of Graham's life at Aldershot. 


s fiome jottings iu a note-book in the spring 
Mid MMHser of 1858, which tell of military duties and 
ftdd-^^v, inepectioDS by the General and by the Com- 
■HMder-in-Chief, interspersed with Sunday visits to 
JS »€Ml c y «nd week-day visits to London, with notes 
'Of hookt be was reading. He mentious H. Wallis's 
^Mtore in the Royal Academy Exhibition of that 
y«ar, the subject of which was a quotation firom 
Carljrle's ' Sai'tor Resartus,' refeiTing to " the toil- 
wom craftaman," whom he apostrophises — " Thou 
WMt oor CotiKcript on whom the lot fell, and fighting 
'jdr hftttle wert bo marred," &c. Graham notes it as 
•' wonderful — a dead workman with a blue lake iu the 
iMdtfftmnd " ; he sees " Faust " at the Princess's, but 
Ujiukw tlw performance very poor ; he is present at the 
'jfMwing of Iier Majesty's Theatre, hears Tietjens in 
" Fi((nrf>," and Mees Taglione dance ; at the Turner 
V^itUiiMtum he is struck with " The Parting of Hero 
mmI IjuiiuUir," which lie calls a glorious picture ; 
Alfnert Ktiiith he regards as an impertinent mounte- 
ijtuik ' Hn rttiuls MacDougall ou Tactics, Ludlow's 
' HihOM-y of Indiii,' 'The Virginians,' 'The Bible in 
Himiii,' tu:, \ and lie goes to balls and dances, and 
g»rt*» up H jMirty at the Star and Garter at Richmond 
)4J I'wturn for hoHpi tali ties received. 

'fiii* round of duty and pleasure is suddenly broken 
in ujMin by ordera to hold himself iu I'eadiness for 
Bel-vice in Iiidia, and he has to bethink him of varicose 
veinjs that have troubled him, and to undergo at 
St Gttorge's HoHpital a troublesome operation before 
\v6 gtma abn>ad, which cutitiiies him for a time to his 
ro<Mn. Then " goixl-bye " to Aldershot ; a Sunday in 
London, wlien he guuH to hear Frederick Maurice at 
Lincoln's Inn (>hapel ; a hurried visit to his sister 
and uiothei' in SuH'olk, and to Kden Brows to see 



his father, whom he finds failing fast (he died soon 
after) ; then, amid loud cheering and farewells, on 
the morning of the 7th August 1858, he marclies 
off a draft from Chatham aud embarks at Gravesend 
in a sailing transport for Calcutta, 

The voyage round the Cape was a very tedious, 
and, owing to contrary winds, a very long one : during 
the latter part of it provisions and water ran short, 
and all on board were placed upon half rations. Cal- 
cutta was reached just before Christmas day, and in 
January 1859 Graham went up to Lucknow and took 
over the comroand of the 23rd Company of Royal 
Engineers. He had been promoted to be captain on 
the 28th October 1858. 

The war of the Indian Mutiny was practically 
over, and there was nothing to be done but the 
ordinary routine work of an Indian station. When 
the Indian Mutiny began in May 1857, British re- 
lations with China were in a strained condition, and 
the troops destined for an expedition against that 
country were stopped at Singapore on their way out 
and hurried to Calcutta. Since then much had 
happened, and Canton was now occupied by British 
troops. The 23rd Company of Royal Engineers had 
done good service in the Mutiny war, and, being 
no longer required In India, was ordered in the 
autumn of 1859 to Canton, On the 2oth October 
1859 Graham left India with his Company and ar- 
rived at Canton in November. On the 22nd of 
that month he was promoted to a brevet majority 
for his Crimean sei-vices. 


tll>A -AJIFAIGN> iJlJiJO. 

-^ox^ vcvu^t. .tttHL 3tecb$tt n:tiup^ wtH!e LEI gaurison 
w^vu. riuu ^Uiii: %t«it^ :tM otiu»^o£tih6 w&r with 
^.1^ % N>u. u %iuca Gnwum tXMik part. 

,^ ^*v ^ Njo^ vuiiieultttji^. whidi had occurred 

,^**4 •,iv /^iati«*j o%»i ^v*>mitn«ti at Canton came 

V »v»^ *''^"-^ ^^ \Hviw Juctvw inctdent, and the 

t(«.«.f^ %%^ut*xei* A^^ idiou idwbC teii to our second 

•-^ v^^i^i .>^^.«jk Obait>u w«» Mpctured by an Anglo- 

r\^»s^ ^vv u lV^*ttlHir t:J;jr. tjhie Ta-ku forts at 

,:^. *#N>#>t^ X iKJk t^^<K> ttv^ w«e taken in May 

v<.>v ^^^vi. 'W v.'hitKi^ v^WvtwmiiiiHit K>rced by Lord 

vv,,: vv^^ tt^k^i^^i vJivi^ >^ vvttoiuiifo the treaty of 

H... ^'^ *N »K^ -^^^^^ ^^ *^ fcttowing month. This 

xvx*.^^ ;^v^^.vK\i ^\H Ij^^^teiit ;utol Fwftch Residents at 

^,v^- "^^^ ^^^ ''^' xtt^^HH^ wpwwntations of the 

H.,.s^*»^ v%Vv>^MW%H«;tx Hi v>«rvi«r U> *void embarrassing 

s\xN. - ^V ^v vK ^in^ l^JU-pii^ rebellion, it was 

xvs \x ^^ ^^^'^ ^ ^*^ ytvvt^SiivHt v^f the treaty to re- 

:. * V^HVivV v<a$^t tN^ fi^xchaixjT^ of the ratifi- 

v^^Vn^ ^^ ^v^ ^v tA\^ J^AvV in Pekin in the 

,, vv,^ K^ ^Us^ ^^wK^Vk l^KV. Wther of Lord 
\X^^ '^^^^ ^^vVvv> iHv^H^^^^^^e^vtiArv to China, on his 


way by water to Pekin to exchange the ratifications 
of the treaty, found his progress barred by obstruc- 
tions at the mouth of the Pei-ho, and the guns of the 
Ta-ku forts loaded and run out to prevent him entering 
the river. Admiral Sir James Hope endeavoured to 
force a passage, but was unsuccessful, and lost three 
gun-boats and over 300 men. Thereupon Mr Bruce 
withdrew to await instructions. 

England and France decided upon a joint expedition 
to support their special representatives, Lord Elgin 
and Baron Gros, who were again sent to China in 1860 
with an ultimatum demanding the ratification of the 
treaty of Tien-tsin and an indemnity for the insult to 
the envoys in the previous year. These demands were 
categorically refused. It was then decided to land 
the British and French military forces under the 
conamanu respectively of Generals Sir Hope Grant 
and de Montauban at the mouth of the Pei-ho 
river, and, after capturing the Ta-ku forts, to march 
on Pekin, 

The British army was assembled at Kow-loon, op- 
posite Hong-Kong island, and Major Gei-ald Graham, 
V.C., in command of the 23rd Company R.E., joined 
it there from Canton in the spring of 1860. Early in 
June he sailed with the Company for Talien-wan Bay, 
near the Gulf of Pe-chi-li, a place we have heard a 
great deal about lately as forming with Port Arthur 
part of the Russian leasehold estate in China. This 
bay had been selected as an advanced base for the 
British army and fleet to work from, while the French 
chose Chi-fu. On arrival at Talien-wan the ships were 
dispersed in four different smaller bays : Graham's 
Company was landed with the rest of the troops, and 
was kept busily employed in the construction of in- 
trenchments, reservoirs, and other engineering works. 


Graham's diaiy, or such of it as has heen found 
commences on the 7th July at Odin Bay, one of the 
smaller bays of Talien-wan Bay. His Company ' 
in the 2nd Division of the army, commanded b? 
Major -General Sir Rtibert Napier (afterwards Field- 
Mai'slial Lord Napier of Magdala). 

"July 7, Saturday, 1860, Odin Bay. — At 5 A.JC 
rode over to Bustard Bay. The working party ha< 
been reduced from 100 to 50. This I immediately 
got altered, and organised the carrying party in gangs 
like navvies. Saw the Admiral (Jones),' who wishes 
me to look out for a site for a pier, &c. He evidently 
considers the reservoir of immense importance, an^ 
has set his Flag-captain at work finding levels and 
distances for troughing, &c. I got back to cam] 
about 2 P.M., leaving Hoile^ to follow with a pack 
pony. I found our little Colonel ^ busy laying oui 
intienchments for a depot. He seems to hav( 
choseu the ground very well, but it is rathei 
tended for 600 men, who are to constitute th* 
garrison. However, the enemy will not b 
formidable. Whilst going round with the colone 
1 suddenly became sick. . . . 

"July 8, Sunday. — I was unable to attend tl 
Colonel, who took Hinie * with him to lay out the* 
intrenchmeuts. He (Manu) seems to think the reser 
voir only a naval business, though I believe it is < 
much greater public — and certainly of more immediate 

■ Admin*! Sir Lowia T. Jones, K.C.B., then Rear-Admiral, Second 
(Jommanil of tfa« SqoAdivn. 
' Aasintant-Surgcon Edmutiil Uoit«, atUi'liml to the Ituyiil Euginecn 

* Li«ut.-ColoDel Ootbei' Frederick Mann, Coiumuiding RoysA EnginME 
»(terw»rda Mftjor-Goneral uid C.B.. wbo died In 1881. 

* Li»ut«iiuil Frederick Hime, RoyvX Engineera, now n Rctiivi) Mi«j< 


— importance than these lines. But every one to his 

" July 9, Monday. — Set the men to work, the 
sailors pumpincf the water into a tank - ship. At 
7.30 I started in an Odin boat under a very small 
naval cadet, who had been bitten by our monkey, 
and was ambitious to become a Guardsman ! Ar- 
rived at Odin Bay, I did a deal of intrenching 
with little Mann, and returned to Bustard Bay at 
6 P.M. Chatted about the trenches, &c., with old 
MacMahon,^ Lord Elgin arrived to-day. No salute 
was fired 1 

" July 10, Tuesday. — Saw Corbett,^ who wishes 
the dam originally proposed to be made across the 
reservoir, as my tank does not supply above 20 
tons a-day. I did some levelling, but find it im- 
possible to run the water down except into the 
tank, which is now 10 feet deep. I am afraid that 
with the high spring-tides the salt water may get 
In. I will make that dam if I can get enough 
casks. Went on board the Scout to see Corbett 
about the casks, but he could not promise me any. 
Saw Harrison ^ there, who seems well taken care of, 
but does not look very well. Went on board the 
flagship, and the Admiral promised me some casks. I 
then proceeded to Odin Bay, looked round the works 
on horseback, and returned to Bustard Bay about 6.30 
P.M., having collected about 40 casks. Heard that the 
commander and mate of the Leven gunboat had been 
shot by a Marine. 

' Coloue) Patrick William MacMahon, C.B., Commanding the 44th 

* Captain John Corbett, R.N., Commanding H.M.S. Scout, afterwards 
Vice- Admiral and C,B. 

^ Lieutenant Richard Harrison, Royal Engineen, now Qeneral, K.CB., 
iUid C.U.Q., loapector-General of Fortification*. 



"July 11, Wednesday, — Got 200 men of the 44th at 
5 o'clock this morning, and set them to work at this 
dam. I perceive, however, that the water is growing 
foul and full of weed, no doubt from the cattle being 
allowed to run about it. Went to Odin Bay and rode 
round the intrenchments : 150 Europeans and 150 
coolies are employed, not half enough. Saw Brabazon,^ 
who is making an extensive survey. He asserts that 
he saw Kin-chow, a large fortified town in the Gulf of 
Pe-chi-li ; and that he made a charge on some ' braves.' 
who bravely ran away, leaving a spear of some sort as 
a trophy. Since this thti whole town is said to have 
been evacuated. 

"July 12, Tlmrsday. — A heavy swell on, rolling the 
ships about in a way that must discompose Harrison 
ou board the Scout. Showed Clements ^ the works. 
The dara is getting ou capitally. I shall only want 50 
men for it this afternoon ; the remaining 150 may be 
employed at the pier. Rode over the works at Odin 
Bay, looking for water, &c. ; called ou the Brigadier 
and complained of the slaughter -ground being too 
near my camp. I hear a report that two i'ellows have 
been drowned, one of them Gordon ^ of the Madi"as 

"July 1-3, Fridai/. — It appeai-s true that Gordon is 
drowned. The other fellow was Luiusden,* Deputy 
Assistant Quartermaster- General to the 2nd Division, 
but he saved himself by swimming six hours (from 
8 P.M. to 2 AM.), getting ashore on the opposite side 
of the bay, and theu paddling himself over in a 
sampan. Hard work for one's life ! This was told 

< CnptAin Ltike Ki'ab&zoii. Iloyjil Arlillury, IMputjr AxaiaUnt QoarWr- 
mutcrOeueml. treaeberoiuly CApturrd luid miinlered by the China*. 
* Lientenont (now Colonel) Fr«derick W. R Clvmente, R.E. (retlnd), 
' LbuMuant Henry J. G. (lordon, Madnw Engiueen. 
' Now li«a«nl Sir Pit«r 8t«rk Lnroaden, O.C.R, as.t 


me bj Brigadier Pattle ^ whilst waiting for Lord 
Elgin, who wae coming with Sir Hope Grant and the 
French General to see our Cavalry and Armstrong 
guns. They were expected at 1 1 a.m., but arrived 
about 1 P.M. Lord Elgin, a little fat man with white 
hair and smooth face. I went round with the Staff, 
saw practice with Armstrong guns, afterwards tent- 
pegging, tilting, &c. . . . 

"July 14, Saturday. — Rode over to Bustard Bay. 
Found the dam finished and acting capitally, the 
water having risen about a foot inside it ; that on 
the other side, where the cattle water, is very bad — 
quite offensive. 1 took steps to have it purified and 
returned. I am reading daily a little of ' Frederick 
the Great.' 

''July 15, Sunday. — Service at 6 a.m. Rode to 
Hand Bay with Hime. Saw Stewart, Filgate, Foord, 
Trail, Dakeyne, and Swanston of the Madras En- 
gineers and Sappers and Miners. Harrison and Cle- 
ments also there, having walked over, although the 
former is scarcely recovered. Returned by way of 
Bustai-d Bay. Very bad road. Here I found Captains 
Corbett and M'Guire,^ who told me that my pier was 
not wanted, because the wind had been blowing south- 
west for the last two days. I accordingly ordered the 
whole detachment to be brought iu to-morrow. 

"July 16, Monday. — Last night we had a tre- 
mendous storm of rain with lightning, wetting every- 
thing in our tent. The detachment came in at 1 P.M., 
having waited to dry their tents, one of which was 
blown down by the storm last night. Heard that 
poor Gordon of Madras Engineers had had foul play, 
being forced to leave the boat by sailors. 

' Colonel Thomiw Pattle, f '.B., lut King's Dragoon Giurds, 

' Cftptain Kochfort M'Guire,- R.N., ComuiHnding H.U.S. Cbeaapeska. 


"July 17, Tuesday. — Harrison went over to Hand 
Bay to attetul Gordon's sale and see athletic ganiee. 
A number of Madras Sappers and Sikhs eotered for 
the foot-races, but not one came in before the Eng- 
lish soldiers. I remember a race in the Orimefl 
with PiodniontoSb soldiers, who, like these natives, 
were all far behind our men. The General came 
over to Bee our Hues. . . . Sir Hope Grant cer- 
tainly seemed to take much more interest in the 
Cavalry and Artillery horses than in our litie£, and 
no wotidor I . . . 

" Jidy 20, Fnday. — Yesterday our stores were 
shirtoil to the Imperatrice, and to-daj' I found the 
latter had fjono when I wanted to get on board and 
a«cert:ain about transport for our horses. The Chinese 
briii]^ in to our market lots of bullocks, sheep, some 
poultry and e^'gs, also apricots and fish. This afternoon 
I rode out over the hills to the north side, and came 
into a pretty fertile valley, with villages running uvtKy 
to the Bea-coast. Tried t») bargain for a mule, which 
the proprietor, an old bearded Chinaman, wanted 
60 dollars for. A crowd collected around us and took 
a great interest in my apj>earance. 

" Some days ago Prnbyn,' with a lot of his Sikhs, 
paid a visit to an old mandarin, about 10 or 12 
miles off. This old fellow, imagining him to be 
the General, returned the visit in a pony-carriage. 
I did not see h'mi, but am told that he was anxious 
to know when we were going, in order that he may 
report to the Emperor that he has driven away the 
barbarians I 

"July 21, Saturday.— 'RodiO over to Hand Bay and 
saw Napier. He could give me no definite informa- 

> Now Goneral the Right Hon. Sir DlghtoD Mkonaghton Probjn, V.C, 
aaV.O., K.Ca, K.C.8.I., Keeper of the Kina"* Privy Puwi', 



tion of our embarking, but Lumsden (the hero of 
the drowning adventure) told me that we should be 
30 officers (accommodation is for 12!), 280 of 44th, 
&c. I lunched with the Madras Engineers, after 
which I rode off into the country with Foord,^ who 
was mounted on a Chinese pony. Trail ^ intended to 
have accompanied us on a mule with a Tatar saddle, 
but, unfortunately, was kicked off at starting. After 
riding about 4 miles through various villages, we got 
hold of an old fellow, who pulled out a paper, to which 
he seemed to attach great importance, being probably 
his diploma as mayor of the village. After long bar- 
gaining I bought a mare for $47. 

" July 23, Moiulay. — Cavalry and Artillery, the 
latter first, were all to embark to-day. Saw Ross^ 
and Mackenzie * about my horses, but they can give 
me no definite information. The other day a General 
Order appeared sanctioning our purchasing baggage 
animals, and of course all who could bought some. 
Now the Admiral declares he can't find transport 
for them, ... I saw the Commander of the Hesper, 
who will take us on board at 10 a.m. to-morrow and 
convey us to the Imperatriee. 

"July 24, Tuesday. — Commenced sending off Park 
at 9.30 A.M., finally embarked at noon. Harrison went 
off with the horses and donkeys at 6 A.M. When we 
got to the Imperatriee I found there very little room 
for the horses and no accommodation at all. Actually 
the Captain (Sharp) told me that the Flag-captain 

' Lieutenant M, Foord, Madra» IiifAntry, attached to E Compauj 
Madras Sap])era. 

' Lieutenant (afterwarda Colonel) David Henry Trail, Royal (late 
Madras) Engineers, who died in 1B92. 

' Colonel Robert Locbhait Boss, C.B., AsHistAnt Quarts rmAst«r-General. 

' Colonel Kenneth Douglas Mackenzie, C.B., Deputy Quartenuoster' 



(Willes) ^ had told him to take iio horses. Such are 
our naval arrangements. They put Divisional and 
Brigade Staft' and Royal Engineers in a ship which is 
to take no horses. Howe'ver, Sharp took them to the 
number of 22 on his own responsibility, as he states. 
Then it was found that more troops were sent than 
the ship would hold, if they were to take the coolies 
as before. Accordingly the latter were sent away, 
after a long discussion with Captain John Borlase, 
R.N,, of H.M.S. Pearl. Splendid saloon; capital 
dinner, and very fair cabin accommodation. 

■' July 25, Wednesday. — Bathed over the side. 
Read a little about batteries to refresh my memory. 
Played a little at chess. Reading ' Adam Bede.' 

"July 26, Thursday, (jhdf of Pe-cM-li, s.s. Impera,- 
Irice. — Steamed ofl' this morning about 6.30 A.M. with 
the Miles Barton in tow. The wind being fair, we cast 
off our tow-rope as soon as clear of the Bay of Talien- 
wan. We are sailing in six lines, and the number 
of ships under sail makes a splendid sight, sufficiently 
terrifying for the Celestials. I have had a talk with 
the General, who says that we are all to land on the 
north of the Peh-tang, so that there will be two 
rivers to pass and probably under lire ! Got our 
scaling-ladders out and tested them by jumping on 
the rounds. &c. Found them all sound. Part of 
the French fleet seen hull down on our left, all in 
tow of steamers, so that they will probably get to 
the rendezvous first. General Napier gave me his 
report on the siege of Lucknow to reaxl. I was 
struck by the fact that in all that great siege not 
a single officer or man of the Royal or Bengal 

> Admirnl Sir GMrge Otaamaaey WUIm. O.CR, Uien Ftag-esptalD to ' 
Sir JtuDM Hop«, and Comuumdicig the Imperienae (rigtte. U« died on | 
th« ISth Psbniurj' 1801. 




Eugineei-s was killed, except those blowu up by 
accident; 13 men of the 24th Native Pioneers were 
killed — ' looting,' Harrison says. 

" July 27, Friday.— V^e were very near a collision 
with the Athlete this morning. About 5 a.m. we 
got orders to proceed at full speed to the rendezvous. 
At this time there was a light fair breeze, and about 
70 ships in sight under full sail. The French had 
run by us in the night, and only two of them, towed 
by a steamer, to be seen. A beautiful day, and 
towards one o'clock we had passed every ship when 
a junk came quietly towards us, passing quite close. 
This seems cool, and shows considerable confidence 
on their part. The wind fell towards sundown, and 
at 10 o'clock there was a calm, so that we felt 
afraid our ships might not get to the rendezvous 
for some time. 

"July 28. — Awoke at 6 o'clock to find ourselves at 
the rendezvous and a fair breeze blowing, promising 
to bi'ing on the other ships speedily, and indeed the 
masts of some of them were already to be seen on 
the horizon. Towai-ds 1 1 o'clock they came in thickly 
— a beautiful sight ; the French are away to the 
south of us. Wirginan, the artist for the 'Illustrated 
London News,' is on board, but I never see him at 
work. This afternoon about o o'clock a gunboat 
came alongside with General Michel,^ who hailed 
us and called for Sir Robert Napier to proceed on 
board the Grenada. This is, we suppose, for a council 
of war. Lumsden accompanied the general. 

"July 29, Sunday.— Thm morning Lumsden told 
me that the Ist Division land on Tuesday, 2nd on 
Wednesday, on the south side of the Peh-tang forts. 

I Field-Marshal the Right Hon. Sir John Michel, O.C.B., Colonel of the 
RofAl IrUb Kidea. Died in I88G. 


A brt^de will laad and take the forts on the 
north side. As the :3hip(» can't ccmie much within 
13 mile6 of the coast, it wiH be a long bomiess. 
. . . I hear that Fisher " has examined the rear 
uf tlie Pei^io &)rts^ the Americans having ginoi him 
tlie prt>tectiuu of their tlag * It appears that we are 
waiting ti>r the gunboacs which were left to tow the 
^0 juuk$ -a curtoos arrangement, as. of coarse, the 
^)ftuilK>at^ wv>ald be drst wanted, and there woe all 
tho Hlt^ainer^ tvnvtng nothing. However, they arrived 
t iuH HlU>nKvu» aavi immediately the 1st Dtvi^on was 

'*%/mv vHO. Jtfi>m£ifiir* — ^The 1st Div^suxi did not 
iiu>\t> \t)^t\>i\ta\\ the wind being strong and the 

** 11 V M» Hte whole of us ace moving sIowIt on 
U^j^vtluu lu v%i>ac may be meant i£?r a tine, bat 

'*\VImI a v^omtorfel kav^wledge of cfaaracttf is 
hUowm U> tho v^u^lK^r of ' Aviam Be^ie* — real genius. 
VNmHHU*«\MiH mi^hl Iv uiufcvie becwyea Hetty and Mrs 
VIuhKoUh K\ill^ l»»v* tv^ally vUdSxent characters, but 

^..f, il, f\ivviK^^<g. TW l^!^ Divkkm not going 
io vlrioh^ts^^k iovfc\\ Tt^ AvUii;ral^ is said to op- 

I .,/ L »Lm.\vvmA^/i. l^iJ wuny morning, and 
u|i ivi u v^v^vs'K ^^^ x>^f^^vat^^>e 'i^f anything being 
mU^u.U'^t uvxKx iN ^U^ nn^> howewr. guuKvus 

vu ^^^y-K^^^v^ vx^ U^ )ivu^^A)L ^^^^txvim: little despatch 
.^.^M...^,* v^uU U^\>v^^*M\ >VxXViUs ^v^^kUe^vx Ixvats are 

.V. \ 

\\s\\\\\ \ \> v^v* >vv>v<^ \^ Iv. K.!-' , tW^\ II l>^|4AitK n^ died 



got out, and by nine o'clock it is certain that to-day 
will see the first event of the campaign, the dis- 
embarkation of the 1st Division at the Peb-tang. 
We watch the men getting into the boats in their 
greatcoats, for it rains ; then gunboats pass with a 
lot of boats in tow. It is quite fine about 1 1 o'clock, 
and now we see the French gunboats and small 
steamers with an astonishing number of boats and 
junks in tow. They make their navy do much more 
work than we do, for our gunboats did not tow any- 
thing like the French. There were all the French 
ofiicers in full dress, looking very smart, guns, 
Shang-hai ponies, mules with pack-saddles on, liltc. — 
everything complete. I doubt if our arrangements 
are so good. . . . 

" About noon I went up with some others to 
the mast-head, whence we could see the land very 
well — a low coast with a few trees and houses. The 
forts were very distinct ; those of the Pei-ho look like 
five detached mounds or bastions. All the afternoon 
we watched the fleet of boats groM'ing smaller and 
smaller till the Admiral's boat, the Goromandel, was 
hull down (about 9 miles off), and, we conjectured, 
close to the forts. Still not a shot liad been fired, 
nor was there, that we could see, the whole day. 
About 6 o'clock a very heavy shower came on which 
must have wetted the 1st Division, and at 7 o'clock 
we sat down to a capital dinner, with a selfish feeling 
of congratulation and a sense of being revenged on 
our friends for going before us. Greathed,^ who went 
with the Commander-in-Chief, has not yet returned 
to report. 

' Mftjor-General William Wilberfoice Harris Oreathed, C.B., Royal 
(Iste Bengal) £Dgineei-8, then a Captain an<l Aii]e-de-CAmp to Sir Robert 
Napier. He died in 1878. 


"Auy. 2, Tiiursday. — Hot day, varied with thunder- 
showers. Heard that the troops only landed this 
morning about two o'clock at high water, owing 
to the delay in getting away yesterday. After all, 
we have only landed the 2nd Brigade and about 
3 guns, when I am sure we might have landed the 
whole 1st Division. . . . Heard that our gunboats 
fired four or five guns at the forts but got no reply, 
and when we landed the Chinese retired. I also 
bear that the instructions to the gunboats were 
'not to fire unless fired at.' The 1st Brigade is to 
land to-night. 

"Aug, 3, Friday.— Yvom 5 to 8.30 this morning a 
noise was heard like the slow, steady fii-ing of distant 
artillery. Dillon ' went aloft about 8 o'clock but saw 
and heard nothing, and came down with a theory that 
the noise came from the coal-bunkers. This hypothesis 
was upset by a gunboat coming alongside us about 
noon with Williams,^ Deputy Assistant Quartermaster- 
General, bringing orders to prepare for disembarkation 
immediately after the Cavalry. Lumsden, our Deputy 
Assistant Quartermaster-General, went on board and 
saw Williams, who told him that early this morning 
we had tlirown out a strong reconnoitring party of 
about 2000 (French and English), who were attacked 
by a mass of Tatar Horse, with whom the whole 
force had been engaged ever since. Tlie French 
guns (Napoleon ones) were pop-guns. Greathed is 

"Aug. 4, Saturday. — The General and his Staff went 
away in a gunboat this morning. Greathed came in to 
breakfast, slightly lame, having been struck by a spent 

' General Sir Martin Dillon, K.C.B., C.8.I., Colonel of the West York- 
■hire Regiment. 

" Colonel Hichard Llewellyn Williwui, 1st Royftla. 


gingal-buUet. It appears that we drove the enemy 
out of their first position within 1100 yards of their 
second, whicli we did not attempt to force. Pritchard,^ 
who came on board in the afternoon, tells us that the 
road to the Pei-ho is a raised one about 12 feet wide, 
with deep mud on either side, and the Tatars hold an 
intrenched position on the road, about 5 miles from 
Peh-tang. The town he describes as disgustingly 
dirty, and the French are behaving infamously to the 
inhabitants. I do not think we lose much by being on 
board ship instead of ashore, as we should be idle in 
either place, and here we are at least comfortable. I 
believe nothing will be done until the 2nd Division 
lands, when we shall all advance on that intrenched 
camp — an ugly place to take if only approached by 
this 12-foot road I 

" Aug. 5, Sunday again .' — Very wet morning. 
Those ashore can now collect rain water, as the rest 
they get is brackish. Mail arrived to-day, but I got 
no letters. I hear the Admiral (Sir James Hope) 
is a terribly hard-working man, writes everything 
himself. . . . 

" Reading an account of the war of 1840 and 1841. 
The Chinese appear to have improved amazingly since 
then, at least in gunnery. 

"Aug. 6, Monday. — Govan's^ Battery and the 67th 
Regiment appear to be disembarking, so, I suppose, 
our turn will come soon. Very hot day. About 
8.30 P.M. a gunboat dropped anchor near us with- 
out speaking to us. Poor old Reeves ' {99th, and 
Brigadier) tumbled down a hatchway to - day and 
dislocated his arm. 

' Lieut, -General Gordon Douglas Pritchard, CR, RE, 

' Major-Geueral Charles Maitlaud Govan, Royal Artillery (retired). 

* Major-0«neral Mum&duke Reeves, C.B. 


" Aug. 7, Tuesday. — Our orders Iiave come at last 
in the shape of some Quartermaster-General's memo- 
randa brought by the Flamer gunboat at 7 o'clock this 
morning to land the Royal Kngineers, &c., fVora the 
Imperatrice. The ' et cetera ' was supposed to include 
the 44th and the two Brigadier-Generals, but poor old 
Reeves was not able to land, and Jepheon^ refused to 
acknowledge himself an ' et cetera,' so both were left 
behind. We did not get off till about 2 p.m., and took 
nearly four hours getting into Peh-tang. We saw 
nothing in approaching but the low line of mud bank, 
stretching fix)m the Peh-tang to the south, where it 
terminated with the five high cavaliers of the PeJ-ho. 
Coming nearer, we saw the north bank of the Peh-tang 
and above it, strewn with the carcasses of dead bullocks, 
horses, &c., that had been flung overboard and washed 
ashore : the odour borne on the breeze was but a 
slight foretaste of Peh-tang itself. The scene on land- 
ing defies description. The banks of the river are one 
mass of filth and offal, behind which are mud cottages 
and narrow streets in which a sanitary commissioner 
might find plenty of work. Now the narrow street 
alongside the banks of filth is crowded with a strug- 
gling mass of soldiers, coolies, guns, horses, kicking 
mules, stores of all descriptions, &c., &c., forming a 
babel of confusion, which, with the accompanying 
smells, far surpasses all I remember of Balaklava. 
But, after all, it is a healthy confusion, an energetic 
struggle with circumstances to get things right, which 
must ultimately succeed, and I was quite satisfied 
about 8 P.M., when I was shown two courtyards full of 
dirt, litter, broken furniture, &c., and quarters for my- 
self and Company. We soon cleared the place out, the 
men lit a fire and made tea whilst we took our grub 
' M»jor-O«ner&l Stanhope WillUm Jepbson, C.B. 




over to the other R.E.'s quarters, made a fair dinner, 
played Van Jahn, and went to bed. 

" Avg. 8, Wednesday. — Was awakened from a 
pretty sound sleep by flies attacking me at daylight. 
Found that Hime and I had been sleeping very near 
a dead cat, a bit of putrid meat, and other hoiTors 
without being disturbed. Got up, saw about stores, 
water, &c., then walked through the French quarters 
to the fort. The General lives in on« cavalier, some 
French Spahis in another, Fane's Horse below. The 
Chinese build capital forts. Mud, covered with a sort 
of dung plaster, seems to stand at any slope, and they 
are capitally drained witb brick laid in cement. I could 
make out nothing of the country — all a dead level. 
Breakfasted and found Deane had got a capital room 
for me and made everything very neat and comfortable 
with Chinese arm-chairs, tables, mats, washing-stands, 
&c, I believe our quarter is one of the best in the 
town. It was given up by the commissariat for us. 
Got orders in the afternoon for our advance on the 
Tatars on Friday. Cavalry, Armstrong guns, Royals, 
and 3 1st. We are to be in reserve, 

"Aug. 9, Tfiursday. — Making arrangements, such as 
drawing ration.s, filling powder-bags, (fee, for our move 
to-morrow. Pritchard went out with a reconnaissance 
this morning when they turned the Tatai-s' camp at 
1000 yards, and his report as to ground, water, &c., is 
favourable. At 11 a. m. I beai^d we are not to go to- 
moiTow, a report afterwards confirmed, they say because 
the French are not prepared. Very heavy rain in the 
aftrernoon, converting the streets into filthy sewers 
knee-deep in stnuk. Mann gave me orders this evening 
for a working party to-morrow to mend the roads, &c, 

"Aug. 10, Friday. — Raining again. The working 
party parades at 9 a.m. I rode out about 10 o'clock 


along the filthy raam street that divides us from the 
French, past the picket at the gate on the raised road 
to Tien-tsin. About a mile beyond the gate we are 
making a little ramp with fascines taken off the houses, 
so that the Artillery, &c., may at this point move off 
the crowded road and spread over the mud which is 
quite firm enough to bear. Indeed, I see now that 
this is a capital country for cavah-y, and that we shall 
have very little difficulty in taking the intrenched 
position of the Tatars, if it really be intrenched. 
Grant says we shall take the whole of the Tatar 
cavalry prisoners If we can occupy the one bridge 
across the Pei-ho before them. We don't start to- 

"Aug. 11, Saturday. — Started off again on my little 
mare with the Colonel early, to see what more could be 
done. Sent out working party again. Hime's horse 
broke loose and made a bobbery last night, but curi- 
ously enough did not touch my mare. Rode out again 
to see the road, which will do well enough if it does 
not rain heavily. Grot oi-ders in the afternoon for the 
march. We follow the Buffs and make a flank march. 
Parade at 4 a.m. to-morrow." 


"Aug. 12, Sunday. Attack of Sin-ho. — Awoke 3.30 
A.M. No coolies arrived, did not get them till 4 — time 
of parade. Got off at 5 after great struggling and 
confusion of coolies. Our column (2nd Division) 
moved slowly on, along Stewart's road, over the 
causeway on to the mud. Here the guns began to 
stick, and limbers and guns were taken away separ- 
ately, while the Infantry struggled on up to their 
ankles in thick mud, my men carrying tools {heavy 
work). Occasional halts for the guns, and one long halt 
on coming uear the enemy at 9 a.m. We were then 
on a fine green plain rising slightly to the front, and 
on the ridge enemy's Cavalry, waggons, Ac, were seen 
moving to our left and towards a large fort with long, 
turreted, mud walls. Against this the 1st Division 
were advancing in a long column along the causeway. 
Again we advanced about a mile and a half, when we 
appeared about 800 yards from the Tatar Cavalry. 
Here the Armstrong guns {Milward's ^ Battery) opened 
fire, making excellent practice among the Tatar cava- 
liers, who scampered away as the shell fell among them, 
giving a very weak fire in return, only one gingal- 

' Colonel Thomaa Waller Milward, C.B., A.D.C., Roy&l Artillery. 
[ Died iu 1874. 

ball (that I saw) falling near the batteiy. The 2Dd 
Division Artillery were now engaged with the fort — 
tar away on our left. Now the Tatars seemed to 
threaten our left flank, and I saw Probyn scampering 
after them. Soon a lot of them appeared in our rear, 
and about this time, I suppose, they made their charge 
on Stirling's^ guns, when M'Gregor, of Probyn's Horse, 
charged them with 30 men, and got wounded in three 
places. I saw the 2nd Brigade {2nd Division) forming 
squares, and the Tatars standing stock-still looking at 
them under a heavy 6re. I am told they carried off 
all their wounded. Our Brigade was now threatened 
on the left — that is, about 200 Tatars came in skir- 
mishing order and looked at us, while we deployed 
and blazed away at them for alx)ut ten minutes (my 
company on the left of the Buffs), after which they 
appeared to have satisfied their curiosity. I am glad 
we did not kill many. The first corpse I saw was of a 
fine young man armed with a bow and arrows. Bows 
and arrows against Enfield rifles and Armstrong guns 1 
I know nothing more of the fighting, as we then 
advanced into the Tatar camp without opposition. 
Heavy work for our men. I slept in the open air ; the 
dew was very heavy, and I found myself this {Aug, 13, 
Monday) morning with a slight cold and sore throat. 
. . . Rode over to the village with some men to build 
a bridge. Harrison is sent to Peh-tang for stores. 
Moved our camp in the afternoon to the banks of the 
Pei-ho, a muddy, red-coloured, rapid stream. . . . Felt 
very seedy and tired with colrl and fever. However, 
I had scarcely turned in when Mann awoke me to 
go with a party of 100 of the Royals to support an 
attack by French and Englisli Ixwts on some junks, 
tying about a mile and a half farther down {i.e., 
> Lieut,-Oeuentl Sir WilliMi mirling, K.C.B., RA, 


nearer the forts) on the opposite banks of the river. 
Well, I led the party out with considerable pre- 
caution, throwing out skirmishers and halting to 
reconnoitre occasionally, till after wading through a 
ditch we got to the place, having taken one prisoner 
(a poor boatman) on the road. About 1 a.m. a boat 
passed us and went silently away again. An hour 
afterwards it came again, followed by some others. 
These we found to be the French boats (four Chinese 
pattern, manned by 20 men, and commanded by 
Lieutenant Brown). After an hour (about 3 A.M.), 
our boats not arriving, the French went away. I 
■went to find Mann and know what to do. However, 
I lost my way on the wide plain and spent a dis- 
agreeable hour or more wandering, sometimes knee- 
deep in mud, and pursued by imaginary Tatars. Got 
back to camp about 4.30 a.m. 

"Aug. 14, Ttiesday. Capture of Tang-ha Fort. — I 
never felt seedier than on the morning of this day 
of deeds (?). Half dead with fatigue, suffering from 
severe cold and lever, I was, nevertheless, in the 
saddle by six o'clock on the plain before our camp, 
where the Sapper storming party was mustering 
' under Fisher, with ladders, pontoons, powder-bags, 
&c. On our left, and in advance of us, the Artillery 
and our columns of Infantry were drawn up ; beyond 
them the French — a splendid sight. The Rifles 
(60th) were potting at a small earthwork on the 
other side which fired an occasional shot. The south 
forts fired occasionally, now pitching half-way into 
the river, and next shot going over our heads. The 
Chinese firing seems quite chance — the only good shot 
I saw was among the Rifles, though it wounded none. 
• At last the 60th ran across the open in skirmishing 
' order, occupied the small trench made by Mann (at 


500 yards) last night, and opened a fire on the fort. 
Now the Artillery, who had advanced in line within 
about 1000 yards of the fort, opened fire. It was a 
beautiful eight, but not much of a fight, the poor 
Chinese firinj^ away with great pluck and persever- 
ance, but very irregularly, and without the slightest 
effect. They only answered us with about sbc guns, 
as far as I could see. Every embrasure or gun of 
theirs was picked out and made a mark of concen- 
trated and unerring artillery. I watched one Chinese 
gun where there was a perfect breach of the parapet 
from the heavy fire on it, and noticed a Tatar coolie 
loading, and then running to the rear till another 
fired ; this until he totally disappeared, and the gun 
was silenced. All their fire was soon silenced, and, 
as our guns continued advancing up to 400 yards, 
our Rifles crept round their left flank by the riverside 
to find the fort deserted. We got in about half an 
hour before the French, who had to make a bridge, 
by which they certainly got in their guns first, and then 
immediately ' boned' all the Chinese guns. This fort 
is of great extent, nearly a mile in diameter, and after 
passing through it, our troops (who kept pouring In 
rapidly from the rear) found anotlier larger and stronger 
fort before them, before which the Tatar Cavalry were 
drawn up in skirmishing order. So having no artillery 
up we did not advance. I got into a house and fell 
fast asleep in spite of the biting flies. General Napier 
gave me some orders about works (a ditch for cavalry 
to lie in under cover — ? under mud). ... I had a 
bowl of soup and went to bed. 

"Aug. 15, iVt-dJiesdaif. — Felt much better this 
morning, though verj' boarse. Kode over with Lums- 
den, Mann, and Fisher to see all the works the General 
wants. Kidtug about all day making roatls, bridges. 



&c. Two derrick boats broke loose, which Clements 
brought back agaiu under cover of two 9-pounder 
guns. The Tatars here sent out two flags of truce 
with letters for Lord Elgin and Baron de Gros. The 
Navy are going to interfere with our bridge across the 
Pei-ho — a great nuisance. 

"Aug. 16, Thursday. — Beautiful morning. I took 
the breadth of the river, found it 200 yards. Lumsden 
Bays our General is a raan of wonderful tenacity in his 
opinions — right or wrong, he sticks to them. Well, 
that is better than indecision, and, I think, is recom- 
mended by his namesake — the great Napier. The 
Tatars are very busy at their works on this side. 
Fired off all our loaded pieces at noon to-day by order. 
The Chinese must have thought the barbarians gone 
mad and fighting among themselves. I have lots of 
work, and am so hoarse with my cold I can scarcely 
speak. Bathed in the evening. 

"Aug. 17, Friday. — This morning after working 
hours (i.e., 7.30) I went out with a reconnoitring party 
towards the fort in front of us. To my great surprise 
we were allowed to go right up to the ditch without 
ftny further molestation than a couple of shells from a 
distant fort, which, by the way, burst very well (about 
20 feet above the ground), though not near enough to 
hurt anybody. We merely found a turreted mud wall 
with a ditch in front, but all open on the right flank. 
A network of ditches runs between this work and our 
position, the principle of Chinese fortification seeming 
to be not to allow you to move anywhere except in 
front of their works without crossing a lot of ditches. 
We did see some Tatai-s. who were all collected in a 
little inner fort on their right flank, and although we 
stood for some time about 100 yards from them, they 
did not attempt to molest us. At 3 P.M. I began to 



bridge to be taken out with the General in 
at 4 P.M. I used two scaline-Iadders 

(each in two lengths of 14 feet), to be set on end with 
planking across. The ladders answered capitally, but 
the planks were rotten, and I was terribly afraid lest 
the Commander-in-Chief or some other notable should 
tumble through. However, all went oif well, and I 
was complimented on the bridge (see Appendix No. 
II.) I did not see much of the forts, as very few 
were permitted to go on in advance. They appeared, 
however, to be full of men. The nearest is said to have 
seventeen guns, seven of which bear on us. Rigaud ^ 
called while I was very busy, and I am afraid I ap- 
peared very neglectful of him, but I must make up 
another time. The Madras Engineers are nice fellowa 
, . . Sergeant Hanson worked capitally at the bridge. 
"Aug. 18, Saturdaif. — We have got orders to pre- 
pare six bridges for passing heavy artillery to be ready 
to-night. Seven boats for the large bridge across the 
Pei-ho were taken up the river to the French junks 
last night, and ten more left at noon to-day. Stewart ^ 
is preparing the six trestle bridges for the attack on 
the North Forts. This afternoon about 150 French 
went over to the south side for a reconnaissance de 
g<!nie. These were attacked by Tatars and walked 
into by gingals, so they sent over a couple of regiments 
to support them, and now they hold the village as a 
sort of tete-de-pont. We supported them with a couple 
of Armstrong guns, and I saw the whole affair very 
well from the top of our house : the firing, the ad- 
vance of Tatars, their irresolute halt, decided into a 
retreat by a shell bursting over them. I rode over to 

> M&jor-Oeoer&l Gibbea Rigsad, SOth Biflefi. 

' M&jor-Gitneral John Heron Maxwell Shaw . Stewart, Royal (late 
MadnuJ Eogineen. 


the place intended for the bridge with Fisher, meeting 
Napier, who is greatly annoyed with our dilatori- 
nesa in letting the French get over before us. About 
7 P.M. a tremendous explosion ou the south side, and 
several places seen on fire. Are they preparing to 
desert ? They have sent In all their prisoners, in- 
cluding coolies (!). 

"Aug. 19, Sunday, is our day of work, so in the 
afternoon about half the Royal Engineers, the 67th, 
and Armstrong guns moved out by the new sallyport 
about a mile and a half, taking up a position about 
2000 yards from the North Ta-ku Fort (the nearest, 
that is). Now began our night-work, reminding me of 
trenches of yore. We had to make bridges and roads 
over the innumerable canals that intersect the country, 
making it like a Chinese puzzle, only easy to lose one's 
way in, as I did two or three times in the night. 
Fires seen bm-ning in the town on the south side, and 
near us a Tatar encampment was in flames. I got a 
few hours' sleep on a waterproof sheet and a blanket. 

"Aug. 20, MoTiday. — Got up at 5 o'clock, sent home 
the working parties, remaining myself with Sir Robert 
Napier, who wished to give me instructions about next 
night's batteries. Till near 10 o'clock I was riding over 
the ground with him and the Commander-in-Chief, &c. 
One of the things I did on this busy day was to take 
a flag of truce (my towel tied on to a bit of bamboo) to 
the nearest of the Ta-ku Forts, accompanied by Mr 
Parkes,^ for the ostensible purpose of calling on them 
to surrender, but really to find out if any men were 
in the fort, and to take notice of their defences. This 
seems to me scarcely fair, but as every one else con- 
sidered it all right, I determined to use all my powers 
• Sir H«n7 Smith Parkw, K.C.B., at the Diplomatic Service, who died 


of observation. On approaching within fifty yards, by 
a narrow causeway, with water on either side, we were 
shouted at veiy energetically by a gentleman in blue 
cotton, who evidently wished us to stop or go by some 
other road. Parkes, however, continued advancing 
while answering and remonstrating, followed by me 
with the towel. He had a long argument, whilst I 
perceived there were two ditches, took mental notes 
of their width, of stakes, &c., and observed that every 
loophole was crowded with curious faces, the guns were 
masked, drawbridge up, ifcc. At last we retired, they 
using the tsing-tsing-ah (good-bye), varied with cfialo 
(go away). This we did at last, and I made a sketch 
of what I saw for the information of Sir Robert Napier. 
Parkes had merely been told (in reply to his exordiums 
on the horrors of war) that they had no authority to 
treat with us. About 10 a.m. I felt awfully done, and 
(to my horror) Napier requested a sketch of the ground 
from memory, putting paper and pencil in my hand. 
Well, I ran off some lines for the canals ; he seemed 
quite satisfied, and put in all his batteries on the 
sketch. We had an artillery duel with the North Fort. 
Six AnnstronffS shut it up. The French made a re- 
connaissance on the south side. At last I got back, 
detailed working parties for the evening, got an hour's 
sleep, and went out again at 4 p.m. Hard work again 
all night, losing working parties, gone astray in the 
dark ; old Mann losing himself and a whole party of 
sixty for some time ; then, when placed, the men were 
lazy and did very little work. Altogether it is a 
fagging, tedious, anxious business Engineers' night 
work. I got nearly two hours' sleep, while Stewart 
relieved rae. 

" Aiig. 21, Tuesday. — Assault of the North Ta-hu 
Forts. — Last night made five batteries and three 

bridges, under occasional stray shots from the south 
side, and illuminated by beautiful bouquets of Romao 
candles, or some such fireworks, from the North Forts. 
At 4 this morning we were all on parade, and soon 

tpioving to the front, while the Tatar batteries opened 
on us before ours began to play. We soon replied, 
however, and now the battle became more general, the 
fiouth joining in, and gunboats seen with steam up 
threateningly near them (though I think they never 
fired). I looked on at our beautiful practice against 
the wild meaningless shots of the poor enemy, who 
continued to blaze away with great pluck, when there 

I was an immense explosion in the North Fort, which, I 
thought, had blown the whole thing up. It certainly 
must have dismounted nearly every gun and killed 
numbers, but before the cloud cleared away these 
Tatar devils were Bring their gingals harder than ever. 
Shortly afterwards a still greater explosion took place 
in the farthest North Fort — a gigantic black cloud 
rising up an immense height with a stunning report. 
At last we advanced to the assault — skirmishers to 
the front, bridges, ladders. Now came our turn. The 
pontoons in two bridges of 5 and 8, led by Pritchard, 
and carried by Marines, moved painfully slowly when 
not under fire, and when they came in among the 
whizzing gingal-balls soon came to a dead halt. . . . 
At last with immense trouble and encouragement the 
bridge of 5 is got on to the causeway, about 40 yards 
from the fort. Here we stick. I go to the General 
(who stood the whole time under heavy fire). He 
says, ' Go on and make the bridge.' ' All right. 
General. Now, come on, my lads I ' Again the best 
men rise and lift (Pritchard and I and the three 
Marine officers all lay hold). We struggle on a few 
yards. The shot rattle among the pontoons ; men fall 


away hit, skulking or slipping in the mud ; the few 
remaining cannot pass the entire load, and the whole 
comes to a halt. About this time I got shot in my leg 
(right thigh), the ball burying itself in the flesh 
without cutting the thick serge trousers ! I limped 
to my horse and mounted. He, too, had been struck, 
poor animal, on the right flank. Shortly afterwards, 
while standing near the General, a shot hit my horse 
juat over the eye ; he reared right on end, and I 
thought would go 0%'er. At that instant Brooke ^ 
(48th), Aide-de-Camp to Sir Robert Napier, got shot 
in the thigh, and he had previously had a bullet 
pass through his hat. Now the French Infantry 
had crossed at a place I had noticed when with the 
flag of truce (between the broad moat and river's 
bank). They had crossed the ditches by ladders, 
were collected in the berm, and had, indeed, a lot of 
scaling-ladders placed against the parapet ; but the 
Tatars fought as fiercely as ever, threw out round- 
shot and fired gingals. A Frenchman has the Tri- 
color ready in his hand and is half-way up ; a Tatar 
belabours him on the head with a long stick from 
above, so he subsides. At last one of them gets up 
and waves his hat. Immediately after (some say 
sooner) an English soldier or officer shows himself on 
the ramparts, where the Union is planted before the 
Tricolor. Chaplin^ and Burslem^ of 67th were, I 
believe, the first up. The former will probably get the 
V.C. Both were wounded. I now returned to camp 
slowly on my horse. When I dismounted at the 
Park I found my leg so stifi* and painful as to be quite 
useless, so I lay down, and shortly afterwards was 

' Major Henry FrUK^ia Brooke, Afterwards o( the 94th Foot. 
' Colonel .Tohn Wortliy Chaplin, V.C, C.B. 
' Lieutenant Nathniiiel BurBleni. 


carried into Tang-ku on a stretcher. I was taken to 
General Napier's Headquarters, now made a temporary 
hospital. Here I wrote a report of my proceedings. 
In the evening I moved again iuto my old quarters, 
where, to my surprise, I found all the other fellows. 
They told me that the Tatars had made no resistance 
to our taking the other North Fort, and that we were 
even occupying one of the South Forts. So all is over, 
and the rain has corae again." 

I Mr C. R. Low, in the ' Army and Navy Gazette ' of 
2nd September 1882, relates the following anecdote 
about Graham at the storm of the Ta-ku Forts, told 
him, he says, by Lord Wolseley, who was a Lieutenant- 
Colonel and Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General 
on Sir Hope Grant's Staft' in the China expedition : — 
"At the storm of the Ta-ku Forts on August 21 
Graham led the Sappers, whose duty it was to lay the 
pontoon bridge across the wet ditch surrounding the 
great northern fort. While superintending this opera- 
tion he was on horseback, and being almost the only 
mounted officer present, afforded an easy mark to the 
Chinese raatchlockmeu, who had already picked off 
fifteen of his Sappers. During the height of the up- 
roar caused by the fire of the great guns and small- 
arms, Lieut. -Colonel Wolseley, who was standing by 
Major Graham, having some remai'k to make, placed 
his hand on that officer's thigh to draw his attention. 
' Don't put your hand there 1 ' exclaimed Graham, 
wincing under the pain. ' There's a gingal-ball lodged 
in my leg.' It was the first notice he had taken of the 

It does not appear that Lord Wolseley was aware 
I that Graham had mounted his horse after being 
I wounded, so that he might continue to direct his men, 


in spite of the greater risk he ran of being hit ; this is, 
however, clear from the official report (see Appendix 
I.) of the commaudiDg Royal Engineer, Colonel Gother 
Mann, as well as from his own account. 

"Aug. 22, Wednesday. — Slept very well. My leg 
is not painful unless I move, but it is tedious lying 
always on my back. The Rev. Mr Jacobs called and 
told us that the viceroy had surrendered all the South 
Forts with guns, &c. So this pigeon is over. In the 
afternoon I was carried on boaitl the Cooper (Broad), 
expecting to be taken out at once to the hospital 
ship, Mauritius. I was, however, put into the saloon 
on a very short sofa bed, and soon the saloon was filled 
with wounded men, so that I regret the privacy and 
comfort of the room I left, near my own comrades. 

"Aug. 23, Thursday. — Slept middling. Spoke to 
Dr Morgan about getting me on board the Mauritius 
or else back again on shore. Gunboats pass by my 
window. How tedious being on one's back when all 
about is stirring activity and so much to be seen ! 
Yesterday my dear old horse had a bullet extracted 
from over his eye, flattened against the bone. Half 
an inch lower and it would have gone through his eye 
into his brain. Was moved this morning in a gunboat 
to the Mauritius, where I had a comfortable cabin 
made over to me. 

"Aug. 24, Friday. — Moved on deck with the help of 
a pair of crutches. Burslem, Chaplin, and Miller ^ of 
the G7th came on board, though I did not see the two 
latter. Talked of the capital behaviour of the coolies 
bringing up ammunition under fire. French ladders, 
Ac. The coolies actually made bridges with the 
latter by standing in the ditches and holding them 
1 Captain Dugald Stewart Miller. 

^L latter by stai 



Up. Burslem told me of a man (now adjutant of the 
18th) who got the V.C. for carrying in a man on his 
back who was riddled with shot by the time he got 
into the trench. 

"Aug. 25, Sa(u7'c?ay.— Beautiful day — on deck — 
writing to Joanna — reading 'Monarchs retired from 
BuBiiiesa ' and ' Kaikes's Journal,' both gossipy but 
interesting works. 

"Aug. 27, Monday. — This morning got a memoran- 
dum from Courtney ^ desiring me, by order of Major- 
General Napier, to report on the cause of the pontoons 
not advancing farther, as a question had arisen, 
whether the men could not advance, or that they 
were ordered to halt. I thought it rather strange 
and unfriendly that not a line of private information 
accompanied this oflicial note from Courtney, as I 
should have liked to know the account of the Marines 
and of Pritchard. However, I reported immediately to 
Mann that the final halt of the pontoons was without 
my orders, though I did not enter into particulars, as 
I should have had to condemn the conduct of the 
men. I am afraid this will always be a disagreeable 
afi'air, and that I shall get little credit for my share 
in the assault. Those confounded pontoons ! Mail- 
bag made up at noon. Assistant-Surgeon Edmond 
fioile, attached to the Royal Engineers, who was on 
board yesterday, told me we march to Tien-tsin to- 
day. Wrote to Barker," now on the Sir W. Peel ; 
he was with the 2nd pontoons, and says the men 
could not get on with them, having to carry packs 
and arms. 

"Aug. 28, Tuesday. — Beautiful day again. There is 

' M»jor-Oenerftl Edward Henry Conrtnej, R.E. 

' Lieutenant Waiter JuliuH Barker, Ro;hI Marine Light Iiifanir;', Re- 
tired u a Uajtii' in 1879. 



a parrot on board which, when excited, does nothing 
but imitate the steward's consumptive cough — an 
accomplishment (!) Poll is very proud of. 

" Aug, 29, Wednesday. — The spring-tidee are now 
set in, and with the ebb an immense amount of soil 
is carried from the interior to the sea and deposits 
near the mouth of the large rivers. In this way 
the Gulf of Pe-chi-li is gradually filling up. To-day 
the water is of a thick, red-mud colour up to about 
four miles from the coast, where it meets abniptly 
with the green sea-water, marking a strong line. It 
strikes me forcibly and pleasantly, on reading of the 
enormous armament and expenditure proposed for the 
national defences, that we shall all be ordered home 
and employed on them. 

" Aug. 30, Thursday. — I amuse myself by thinking 
of a new style of fortification, founded on Choumara's 
principles. Got my letters at last enclosed in one 
firom Harrison, who tells me that Pritchard and I 
are mentioned in despatches. . . . 

"Aug. 31, Fnday. — I bear a Division is to be left 
here to winter, but I don't Ijelieve more than a regi- 
ment and some Artillery will be left in the South Fort. 
News of disturbances at Shang-bai arrived. , . , 

"Sept. I, Saturday. — Read ' The Monk,' by Lewis, a 
tale of the Reynolds style — but famous iu its day — 
hence Monk Lewis. Another mail in yesterday, but 
I suppose we shan't get our lett^ers until they have 
been sorted at Tien-tsln. Saw the ' Mail ' of July 10. 
A splendid thing that volunteer review and rifie 
match. These things make one proud of England. 
I see Ernest Jones, the Chartist, who sacrificed a 
fortune to his principles, the writer of poetry that 
was favourably mentioned by the ' Saturday Review,' 



is coming out with great success at the bar, I re- 
member the time when Ernest Jones was to Joanna 
and me the type of a vulgar demagogue. 

"Sept. 3, Monday. — Leg very much better. Able to 
walk about with a stick. 

"Sept. 4, Tuesday. — Heavy rain in the morning. 
The Cooper (Broad) left for Tien-tsin this morning, 
taking Drake ^ and Minney.^ I would have goue too, 
but I am anxious to see the forts first and to get 
Choumara out of my baggage now in South Fort. I 
find there is a boat starts to-morrow morning at 3 
o'clock, which I shall go by. 

" Sept. 5, Wednesday. — Got up at 2.45, and started 
at 3.30 A.M. Arrived at South Fort at 6 a.m. Passed 
the remains of the boom, one raft of four which lay 
across the river connected by chains. This raft was 
of heavy timber, and had three large floating drums, 
between which came long heavy trees with iron points 
for ships to run on. I cannot imagine a more formid- 
able boom. The fort Itself was interesting. I was 
astonished at the size of the magnificent brass guns, 
which are now equally shared by us and the French. 
There are three high bastions mounting 3 guns each 
and connected by long ' curtains ' with guns in case- 
mates {not bomb-proof). These casemates extend all 
ftlong the curtain, and make very good bairacks, the 
flat roof forming a terreplein and banquette. We 
noticed baskets of stones at intervals along the para- 
pets, ready to be hurled on the assailants. Lime was 
also there for blinding them, but the barbarians {we, 
I mean) have used this for sanatory purposes. The 
fforge has no guns, but is protected by a parados. 

> Captain John C. T. Drake, Snd Queen's. 
I Senior Purveyor Ctiarlea John Miniiey. 



There were a number of sham guus (wooden) all in 
piles I The South Fort could easily have been taken 
from the land Bide, but it was Ttmdness attacking them 
from the front aa we did last year. We saw some 
field artillery, very rough carriages with two little 
iron guns on each. The Chinese use no tangent 
sights, and have only a lot of rough wedges to elevate 
and depress their guns, which fully accounts for their 
bad practice against our field guns when the range 
was unknown. I saw Colonel Sargent,^ who expects 
to conmiand there during the winter. He lives in Sang- 
ko-lin-sin's hut, a very good one in the same pattern 
as the rest, one worthy of our imitation. In this hut 
was found a placard giving a description of an in- 
vention to destroy the barbarians by sending bulls 
amongst them with infernal machines. . . . The 
Madras Engineers are all in the adjacent fort. Got 
back to the ship by 10 p.m., after a tedious journey 
of 3^- hours. If a civil Frenchman had not given us a 
lift at starting we should not have got in till morning, 
for the crew were too sulky to puil well and the wind 
\ against us. 

''Sept. 9, Sunday. — Fisher came on board looking 
very ill ; his liver is affected, poor fellow. He tells me 
that the Chinese Prime Minister has refused to sign the 
treaty, so that Lord Elgin takes up two batteries of 
Ai-tiUery, and a force is to follow on Wednesday next, 
I hope to march with this force. 

"Sept. 10, Monday. — Went ashore with Captain 
Roderick Dew,^ R.N. . . , I noticed to-day that the 
Chinese have a capstan on each side of the rear of 

' Lieut.-Oeueral Jobu Neptune Sargent, C.B., Cuiane) of the fioyal 

InnUkilling Fusiliers. 

< Commandiiig H.M.S. Encounter. 


their heavy guns, so they can draw in the muzzles and 
load under cover. They are mounted on slide carriages 
which pivot on a wooden pin, which also takes all the 
recoil, and I suppose soon gets broken. The merlons 
are built nearly perpendicular with a combination of 
timber, mud, and hemp." 



CHINA CAMPAIGN — Continued. 

^^ Sept. 11, Tuesday. — I came ashore yesterday, mean- 
ing to get some things out of my baggage and to 
get into the Cooper as she passed here this morning. 
The Admiral refuses, however, to stop the Cooper 
for me, although I have twice been to him, last 
time with a request from Sargent (Colonel Command- 
ing 3rd Buffs). Determined not to be done, I took 
possession of a Chinese sanpan, got myself and 
baggage floated up to the Chusan, opposite the fort 
we took, and asked as a favour to be put on board 
the Cooper, which would pass about 2 p.m. This was 
readily promised and easily executed. So me voild in 
the Cooper steaming up the Pei-ho with a flood-tide 
in defiance of all wooden-headed admirals. A very 
winding river and muddy ; pretty, fertile country, 
quite flat, full of orchards ; along the bank millet 
growing 10 and 12 feet high, and sometimes fields 
of barley and rye ; plenty of populous viUages ; 
maize drying on the roofs of the mud cottages ; 
inhabitants stare at us and grin as the waves dash 
on the banks behind the steamer ; cold night. 

''Sept. 12, Wednesday. — Beautiful fresh morning. 
Tide running down till noon, when we weighed. 
Passed some batteries no gunboat could have silenced. 



Got to our moorings between two forts, the French 
occupying the north side. I walked up to camp 
and saw General Napier. The let Division marched 
at 2 P.M. We march on Friday. Got up my baggage 
and felt very tired. Night very cold. 

"Sept. 13, 'Thursday. — Heard that the wall round 
Tien-tsin is 15 miles long and cost fifteen-pence a 
foot. Gibson, the Interpreter, 2nd Division, says 
there are no troops between this and Pekin ; that 
Sang- ko - lin - sin passed rapidly on horseback and 
alone through a village on the Tien-tsin road, about 
20 mUes from South Fort on 2l8t inst., and passed 
through Tien-tsin on the 22nd on the road to Pekin. 
He is said to be very popular, and to have the 
character of an able, energetic man ; he restrains his 
troops from pillage, and Gibson says that nearly all 
the men in the North Ta-ku Fort that we took were 
Chinese and not Tatars. The horsemen we met the 
first day's march were Tatars. Rode with Stewart into 
the town. Streets broader than Canton, but houses 
»nd shops very inferior — the best of the latter were 
«ertainly shut up. We can't march to-morrow for 
want of transport. Why don't we seize all the 
Chinese carts, wheelbarrows, mules, &c. ? I met a 
Chinaman today driving tandem with two mules. 

" Sept. 14, Friday. — Lumsden says we have to give 
'all our transport, even hospital, to the let Division. 
Our ponies are all carrying forage for the King's 
Dragoon Guards. We can get water tiansport, 
however, and Napier is anxious to get on bub must 
wait oitlers. This morning we saw a sedan-chair 
come in surrounded by our redcoats, a few Sikh 
Cavalry leading the way ; behind came a couple 
more sedan-chairs. This was the prefect, the chief 
officer of the province now that the Viceroy Hung 


has gone away. Yesterday he had been invited to I 
visit the Genera], who is not satisfied with the way 
the supplies come in. As he did not accept the 
invitation, he had to be brought by force this morn- 
ing. He is very angry and obstinate, and refiiscB 
to send for his servants or bed ; says that he will 
lie on his back, wants nothing but a bottle of 
samchow and a pipe ; that, according to all rules 
of China, he should have cut his throat long ago, 
and will now feel much obliged to any one who 
will do it for him. Rode into town, bought a 
mattress and basin. A great many shops were shut 
up — no valuables left. Crowds of people collected about 
the jjrefect's house and the gates. Still they looked 
quiet and respectable, and turned their stolid round 
&ces towards me without any expression of dislike. 

^' Sept. 15, Saturday. — Very cold night. General 
Napier told me that a Tatar prince met Lord Elgin 
with 3000 cavalry. When asked by Parkes, ' Why 
so many ? ' be replied, ' I was just going to ask you 
the same question.' ' Ob, we find it necessary.' 
' So do I.' The French wanted the ambassadors 
to take only 100 men, as 1000 men were too few 
to fight and too many to be compromised. He 
supposes the French to wish to get rid of both 
ambassadors to leave the road open to the military. 
The prefect is coming round ; he accepted blankets 
yesterday and took cocoa this morning. I inquired 
of Dillon if I am commanding Engineer here. He 
says ' Yes ' ; however, Stewart objects, so it is 
referred to the General, 

" This morning, while the buying and selling, with 
' How much ? ' was going on with great vigour, a 
Chinaman, dressed in white (perhaps he was in 
mourning), appeared in the market-place, held up 

■'how much?" 


his hand to command attention, and then spoke a 
few words, on which all the natives cut away with 
their goods, not even waiting to be paid. Very 
shortly afterwards, however, a Chinese official came 
to the General, assured him that he had no connection 
with the man in white, whom he would endeavour to 
secure, and that he had already sent the people back 
to the market, which was true. It is a pity the 
Provost's orderly, who was there, did not arrest the 
man in white. * How much ? ' is all the English 
the natives about here have acquired, and they 
make a universal use of it, as the 'Bono Johnny' 
in Turkey. As you walk through the market, every 
native having anything to sell shouts out ' How 
much?' Meu coming about the camp hawk their 
goods in the same way, and 'How much?' here is 
as common as ' Ole clo' ' in some parts of London. 
A boy shouted ' How much ?' at me as a sort of 
nickname when I rode through the town yesterday. 

" Sejif. 16, Sunday. — Service at 7 A.M. Stewart had 
got permission to go to Pekin. Now he has got 
orders to accompany the siege-train with 25 Sappers. 
I have written to Mann about getting to the front. 
Amused myself with drawing a front of fortifications. 

"Sept. 17, Monday. — Nothing to do. I am reading 
Merkes ' On Redoubts,' but cannot take much interest 
in it. The days are very hot and the nights very cold. 
It is extraordinary to see the quantity of ice we can 
get here. Coolies carry huge lumps of it about in the 
blazing sun, and one of them just now passed me 
eatinf/ a large slice^Iike bread and butter. They use 
it for cooking their samchow, &c. . . . 

" Sept. 1 8, Tuesday. — Stewart left us this morning in 
a cart with 4 Sappers. FUgate ' is to accompany the 
' Colonel AJex&uder J. Filgate, Royal (late Bengal) Bngiueera. 


siege-train. Got an ' invite ' to dine with Napier 

"Sept. 19, Wednesday. — Cloudy day; took a long 
walk in the morning to the forts. Rode out in the 
afternoon, crossing the river to the north side, where 
I saw the French camp. It is in beautiful garden 
country and among trees. Dined with the General. 
Got the news of ' peace ' through the Chinese. This 
was politely circulated by General Napier. 

"Sept. 20, T/iursdai/.— Gibson's 'Tien-tsin Gazette' 
announces that the villagers of Chang-chia-wan fired 
upon a foraging party of ours ; that we brought up 
gunB(?), upon which Sang-ko-lin-sin, the invincible, 
advanced to the rescue, got licked and retreated, we 
taking 18 guns {!). This happened 1 ^i (over three 
miles) from Tang-chow. Dull life this in camp. Napier 
and Buckle dined with me. 

"Sept. 21, Fnday. — Smart, a Commissariat oflicer, 
had his tent cleaned out last night and lost §200. 
About 4 P.M. I was sent for by the General, and on 
reaching headquarters I heard there had been an action 
in the front, that we had killed 700 and lost 20 (!). 
Here was news ! I got orders to take up all the 
necessary stores and proceed with half my company 
to Ho-si-wu by water. Ten minutes afterwards I 
was galloping towards the fort with a letter to Young 
for stores. I got nearly all my stores to the fort, and 
was to have loaded the boats to-night, but finding 
that impossible, I returned and reported so. 

" Sept. 22, Saturday. — Up about 4.30 and packed. 
I send my horses with Headquarters, who are to march 
20 miles to-day. The 31st and 67th march at 6 a.m. 
Owing to the naval arrangements we did not get 
up until 1 o'clock, although my party was quite 
ready at 9 a.m. I This system of mixing us up 




with naval people is very annoying, and works 

" Old Colonel Day,^ who accompanied us {but not on 
duty), told me that the affair in the front M'as thus ; 
Mr Parkes, a Frenchman, Colonel Walker,^ and some 
Sikh Horse (with them, I suppose, were Brabazon and 
the ' Times ' coiTespondent, Mr Bowlby) rode on to 
Tang-chow to inform the Commissioners that Lord 
Elgin would be there next day. Then returning, they 
found their road interrupted by an immense body of 
cavalry, who told them they must be detained. The 
French officer here said or did something which made 
the Tatars immediately knock him down and kill 
him (!}. Walker and the rest (?) then cut their way 
through and escaped, Parkes had previously ridden 
back to see the Commissioners. In the meantime, 
wondering at their absence. Sir Hope Grant sent out 
Anderson ^ with 16 Horse to find them, and he has not 
since been heard of, nor his party (!). The General 
then sent to say that if any prisoner was hurt he would 
sack and burn Pekin. This flag of truce was fired on, 
so the disposable force (?) was moved on and an action 
was the result, when the Tatars (or Chinese) were tre- 
mendously pounded, and we took 80 (? 18) guns.* 

'^Sepf. 23, Sunday. — Cold morning, so I got out and 
walked. The 67th passed us. I got some Sikhs out 
to tow the boats. The villages seem nearly deserted. 
Got half my men to march, and half the Sikhs with 

"Sept. 24, Monday. — Halted on the north bank at 
8 A.M. before a large village, Yang-tsun (?). On the 

' Lieut. 'Colon el Henry Jam«fB Day, Commanding 99th Foot 
* Lieut. -General Sir Charles P. Beauchamp Walker, K.C.B., Colonel of 
tbe Snij Dragoon Guards. 
^ Lieutenant Andenson died of ill-treatment by the Chinese. 
' Action of Olituig-chia-wan on IStli September I860. 


farther side of this place we came to the camp of the 
31st and 67th. Two companies of the Slst remain 
here, the rest marched this morning ; the 67th are so 
tired with their long march of yesterday (18 miles) 
that they do not move before 2 P.M., and then march 
only 8 miles. We shall thus get to Ho-ai-wu about 
the same time they do. A detachment of Fane's 
Horse is left here under Pakenham, who undertook to 
send M'Gregor on, so the latter left me. This is a 
pleasant way of travelling, — we get out and walk 
when we like. The only object we passed worth look- 
ing at to-day was a very handsome marble tombstone, 
curiously carved and surrounded by a granite rampart 

" Sept. 25, Tuesday. — The Chinese toil along, but 
make slow progress in towing us against the strong 
ebb. . . . After breakfast I made the whole of the 
men march, leaving only one in each boat. 

" This afternoon about 5 o'clock we arrived at 
Ho-si-wu, a small village 45 miles from Tien-tsin. 
The 31st and half Stirling's Battery under Talbot^ 
are here ; 67th move on to-moiTow. I called on 
Colonel Spence,^ who conunands the troops here, 
and he told me we could go on to Tang-chow by 
water. There appears to have been another fight 
on the 2 1 St. 

"Sept. 26, Wednesday. — Oldham's servant has been 
missing all day. Passed the siege-train at 8 P.M. 
Filgate appears very fatigued and says be has to 
work night and day, cutting channels, &c. I gave 
him 10 shovels and a bottle of brandy. 

' Lieutenant (afterwards Major -Oeneral) Fitzroy Somenet Talbot, 
Royal Artillery. 

' Major-Oeneral Frederick Spence, C.B., then Lie at. -Colonel Commaud- 
ing the 31flt Begioient. 


"Memo. — At last halt (6 P.M.) there was an alarm of 
Tatars. I went out with some yikhs but could see 
none. Kept half the men under arms and had a 
guard at night. Sentry fired at something. 

"Sept. 27, Thursday. — A Sikh reported missing. 
Oldham went with 12 men into a village near which 
he was last Been, but found it deserted. 

" 12 110071. — Another man (Punjabi) is now reported 
missing, and Oldham's servant has not returned ! I 
have given the strictest orders against straggling, and 
keep a guard in rear to pick up stray men. Yet 
Drake saw a store-cart on the road without escort, 
and sailors run over the country untouched. For the 
last few days the country has been more undulating, 
and to-day we see blue hills and jagged tops to 

"Sept. 28, Friday. — Undulating country with the 
mountains in the distance, sandy soil. About 9 
o'clock we saw a large tower or pagoda, which was 
either Tang-chow or Pekin — opinions seem divided. 
Halted at 10 a.m. Sergeant Foster came in with 
his party from marching and told me that in making 
a detour to cross a canal he had to go three miles into 
the country, when he came upon an old intrenched 
camp and saw a number of dead Chinese, gun- 
platforms, &c., then came on a walled town (Chang- 
chia-wan), which he walked through as it was quite 
deserted ! This must be the scene of the action of 
the 18th, when the Tatars received a punishment 
for their meditated treachery. They had 76 guns 
in position with which to sweep the place they had 
pointed out for our camping - ground. They have 
played a deep game. The day after this, or pi-obably 
the same day, news was circulated in Tien-tsin by 
the Chinese that peace was declared and the treaty 


signed, giving fiill particulars. Probably, too, they 
have something to do with our sending the 44th to 
Shang-hai. But we are still too strong for them, aa 
they shall find. About 4 p.m. we came into Tang- 
chow. The Royal Marines are here and showed 
themselves very hospitable and obliging. We only 
took the gates of Tang-chow this morning, the guai'd 
offering no resistance but looking very sleepy. 

" Sept. 29, Saturday, Tang-choiv. — -Rained all last 
night and nearly all day. I rode over to camp, getting 
wet through. Saw Mann, Courtney, &c. Papillon ^ 
has dysentery and goes off home to-day. I join them 
on Monday, the day we march. Pretty country with 
nice little groves and country houses. Lord John 
Hay ^ tells me that Lord Elgin has threatened the 
head mandarin (the brother of the Emperor) to turn 
out his brother. 

" Sept. 30, Sunday. — Reported to Dillon on the loss 
of the men of the 8th Punjab Native Infantry. 
Walked round the walls with Shaw ^ and Filgate. 
The houses are very poor and seem mostly deserted. 
Have got a cold and feel seedy. . . . 

" Oct. 1, Monday. — Twenty carts arrived under 
Captain D., who had orders to report himself to me, 
I accordingly put my park stores into them and 
proceeded to camp, ordering the men to follow. I 
found we had to go to the depot along the stone road 
— a villainously bad road, and yet Mr Ward, the 
Yankee ambassador, reports the existence of a fine 
paved road from Tien-tsin to Pekin. I passed a white- 
buttoned mandarin with a flag of truce. It rained 

' Lieutenant John Ashtoa Papillon, R.E., afterw&rdH Colonel, died in 

* Captain Lord John Haj, C.6., R.N., Commajidiug the Odin frigate, 
afterwards Admiral of the Fleet and G.C.B. 

' lieutenant tieorge Kennedy Shaw, 60th Kiflea. 



heavily last night ; this, I suppose, indicates the break 
up of the warm weather. I pitched the camp and 
park inside a walled enclosure under trees (the 
next enclosure contains some very handsome marble 

"Oct. 2, Tuesday. — Rode over to camp and saw 
Mann. The 60th Rifles, siege-guns (which came with 
my park), and another battery are here, also Filgate 
with 25 Madras Sappers. Terribly cold north wind 
all last night and this morning, but went down in the 
afternoon. Rode over to Tang-chow. Old Gascoine ' 
does not seem to care about my assistance in making 
defences. . . . The General came here in the evening, 
shook hands with me, but said I must take my tents 
outside the enclosure. 

" Oct. 3, Wednesday. — Every one seems moving. 
The 1st Division got here by 8 o'clock. Rifles and 
Queens shift their camp ; so, I suppose, we shall too. 
There has been a letter received written by Parkes in 
Chinese, and signed by Loch,^ asking for warm cloth- 
ing, and recommending us to make peace. Over this, 
written in Hindustani in English characters by Loch, 
is, ' This is by order of the Government.' North 
wind blowing again. The 2nd Division came here in 
the afternoon, and I shifted my camp to the outside. 
We don't march to-morrow, as the French are not 
ready. Charlie Gordon ^ an-ived with Hime and 
the remainder of the Madras Engineers. He is stUl 
brimful of energy, but has sobered down into a more 

' General John Hawkins Gascoine, C.B., tbeu Uoiuniandiug a Battalion 
of the Boyal Marine Light Infantry, now deceased. 

' Henry Brougham, Ist Baron" Lix;h, P.O., O.C.B., O.C.M.G., then 
Secretary to Ijord Elgin's Mission. He wai treacherously seized and ill- 
treated by the Chinese. 

* Captain Charles George Gordon, afterwards Major-Genei-al and C.B., 
Uie Hero of Khartoum. 


reflective character. He is really a remarkably fine 
fellow. At 12 last night two companies of the 8th 
Punjab Native Infantry were ordered out to burn 
Ma-tow, a village about 18 miles off, whence two 
sowars reported themselves to have been fired on. 
This is a bad deed. 

" Oct. 4, TJmrsday. — Very busy all day making 
field-works for a large enclosure to hold all baggage 
animals, &c., as pointed out by Sir Robert Napier. 
I got an order firom Napier to take all my ladders 

" Oct. 5, Friday.' — Got off by 6 o'clock. Marched 
over stiff sharp stubble {like that which lamed my pony 
yesterday). Halted at noon at the Lime -kilns, a 
distance of about 4 miles ; an amazingly strong 
position if intrenched. From the top of one of the 
kilns I saw the pagodas of Pekin, marking, I suppose, 
the gates. They look much larger than those of 
Canton. The French make a depot here. We were 
put up in an enclosure pretty comfoi-tably, all my men 
being under cover. 

" Oct. 6, Saturday. — Started again about 6 a.m., 
defiling down a narrow road ; very slow work. Halted 
opposite the Tatar intrenched camp about 9 a.m., after 
about 3 (?) miles' march. From here we see dimly the 
Great Wall winding over the hills behind Pekin. 
Broiling hot sun. We move on again slowly about 
10.30. I followed General Napier up to the top of 
the so-called intrenched camp, which is an old earth 
rampart extending many miles on the north side of 
Pekin. It is about 40 feet high, narrow at top, with 
little bastionots here and there, said by Gibson to have 
been made in the twelfth century. We learnt from a 
peasant that Sang-ko-Iin-sin had been here last night, 
and had moved his headquarter to a temple six li 


{2 miles) farther on the road we were marching. The 
8th Punjabis constantly falling out and looting fowls, 
Brownlow once chased them back with his whip. We 
halted at a village in rear of the great ramparts on the 
road to the North Gate, and 1^ to 2 miles from it. 
Country prettily wooded, fertile, and studded with 
villages. These were mostly deserted, but in one 
village a great number of people collected and gazed 
quite fearlessly on us marching through. The women 
are generally in great alarm, but here they don't kill 
themselves as at Peh - tang, Tang -chow, &c. ; the 
old ones march out boldly, and the younger ones 
in some case^ blacken their faces to disfigure them- 

" We have lost our cavalry, and we have lost the 
French also. Orders have been given to fire a royal 
salute to-morrow to inform them where we are. Bon- 
fires are blazing along the heights, and all the bands 
are out playing different tunes ; an infernal din — 
picturesque sight, though. The Sikhs have got a 
tremendous bonfire. 

" Oct. 7, Sunday again ! Went out with Charlie 
Gordon within a few hundred yards of the walls, 
which seem just like those of Canton. The suburbs 
seem to run close up to the foot of them and are full 
of people, but no troops nor guns can be seen. Our 
Cavalry are by the Summer Palace, and the French 
are in it getting no end of loot 1 

" Oct. 8, Monday. — Went out for a reconnaissance. 
Napier, Royal Artillery, and Royal Engineers. We 
were accompanied by two companies of Sikhs, and 
went close to the wall at the north-east gate. The 
defences of Pekin are nothing — high walls with little 
square bastions. I proposed to mine them, but I sup- 
pose they will be breached, if indeed we have to take 


Pekin. Coming back, we saw a great Buddhist 
temple. Lama very civil. After breakfast I went 
to see the Buddhist monastery at headquarters and 
brought away a couple of little carved gods. 

" In the course of the day I fode over to the 
Summer Palace, meeting on the road an immense 
quantity of loot, chiefly silks brought in carts, trains 
of coolies, Pekin mob, &c. A troop of Probyn's Horse 
passed us, each man having a pile of plunder before 
him. At the palace the scene was one of wonderful 
confusion — silks strewn about, broken furniture, clocks, 
vases, &c., all thrown in heaps and trampled down. 
Beautiful carved ebony in the throne -room. The 
French found a treasure and were allowed to fill their 
pockets, while not even an English officer was allowed 
inside ! Colonel Foley ' was standing by, too. Parkes, 
Loch, and a few sowars were sent in this evening. 
They have been very badly treated; a Frenchman, 
who was with them, had been kept bound the whole 
time. Brabazou, Bowlby," and the rest, numbering 
thirty, are not in Pekin, but have been either killetl 
or taken into Tartary. I had never believed they 
would dare to treat them badly. 

" Oct. 9, Tuesday. — The order is for the loot to be 
given into Headquarters and sold publicly. This 
creates a great deal of grumbling amongst those who 
have got loot. What guarantee is there that every 
one will do so ? Should not the French and the Sikh 
Horse do so too ? 

" This afternoon an order appeared by the Com- 
mander - in - Chief, putting it on honour for every 

' Colonel the Hon. St Geor^^e Gemld Foley, British Commiuioiier &t 
the French Headqunrters, afterwards General ajid K.C.B., and Colonel of 
the 8nd Battalion South Staffoidshire EegimenU 

* Ur Bowlb; woa the ' Times ' correapoDdent. 



officer to give back his property, so everything of 
ours was given up. I walked over to the French 
camp, but bought nothing. 

" Oct. 10, Wednesday. — Made a reconnaissance with 
all the swells — French and English. After a great 
deal of humbugging and arguing, the spot was fixed 
on that Napier had already chosen for a breaching 
battery — viz., the enclosure of the Temple of the 
Earth. Got in just in time for dinner and then 
marched everything down to the temple. Got pretty 
good quarters in a joss-house amid dusty silks and 
bronze vases. . . . 

" Oct. 11, Thursday. — Making battery for siege- 
guns. Sale of prize things to - day. I could not 
attend, but sent Hime. The Chinese allow us to go 
outside and pick up vegetables ; but they have put 
up two little brass guns just opposite us. 

" Oct. 12, Friday. — As we do not open fire to-day, 
I went over to see the sale. Things are going at a 
tremendous price, so I rode over to the French coolie 
camp and bought some things there. . . . Unmasked 
the battery by night. 

" Oct. 13, Saturday. — The French have been work- 
ing day and night about ] 00 yards from the 
wall on our left. They are said to have made a 
mine under the wall last night — what Goi-don and 
I wanted to do. Mann wants 9th and 10th Com- 
panies to have the assaulting party. As it is a 2nd 
Division affair, I think my Company ought to assist, 
and will speak to Napier about it. I can count three 
small brass guns immediately opposite to us, but none 
in the gate. I hear some prisoners came in this 
morning, who state that Anderson and De Norman ' 
died in prison, suffering and bound. About 12 (the 
< Mr De Normftn was uu Lord Elgiu'a St&ff. 


time we were to open fire) Colonel Stephenson ' gal- 
loped up to General Napier with orders to send 500 
men immediately to occupy the gate the Chinese had 
given up. The Punjabis were immediately ordered in, 
and I doubled in with 20 Sappers I took off from work- 
ing on the advanced trench. On entering the outer 
gate we found ourselves in a large enclosed space 
eimilar to, but larger than, those of Canton, and on 
passing through the inner gate we were in a street 
about 25 yards wide, filled with a staring, grinning 
Chinese mob, who were kept back by officials rushing 
about with long whips. We ascended the long ramp 
leading up to the terrepleln, whence we got a 
better view of the wide street, filled with a mass of 
Chinese, equal in number, perhaps, to our whole 
army. Parkes was very busy talking with red- 
buttoned mandarins, who were particularly civil in 
their gesticulations, repeatedly bowing and pressing 
their knuckles together. The French Commandant 
was very angry at our getting in before him and 
putting our flag up first, but after a time the 
* Crinoms ' came in with band playing and cheering 
to the great edification of the Chinese mob. The 
houses of Pekin appear very inferior to those of 
Canton, and I believe the wide streets are only those 
from the gates. I returned to my quarters about 

3 P.M. 

"Oct. 14, Sunday.- — Service at 8 A.M. Rode over 
to the French camp. They have very few things left, 
and those they charge for ! Rigaud paid me a visit 
this morning, and I showed him the works. 

" Oct. 15, Monday. — Walked over to the gate ; we 

' General Sir Frederick C. A. Stephenaon, G.C.B., Colonel of the Cold- 
streatD Gu&rds and Couslable of the Tower of London, who was Depu^ 
Adjiitant-Geuerftl U) the Force in China. 




1 still working at that traverse or battery acrosB 
the terrepleio. Dull, cold day. My men are washing 
their clothes— not before needed. Took a walk on 
the ramparts beyond our advanced sentries. No 
Chinese soldiers to be seen. Returning, I saw some 
Gunners amusing themselves by dropping pieces of 
newspaper in the crowd beneath, who scrambled 
eagerly for them, and after curious investigation, 
guarded them as carefully as bank-notes. 

"Some dead bodies have been sent in to-day. 
Bowlby's has been identified. Why do we not go 
in and sack the palace ? 

"Oct. 16, Tuesday. — It snowed last night on the 
hills, but with us it rained heavily. Moved the Com- 
pany to Divisional Headquarters, leaving Sergeant 
Hanson and 20 men with Stewart for works at the 
gate. Got into some quarters vacated by the 8th 
Punjabis — very dirty, but wlien cleaned out very 
superior to our old ones. Mann came to me in the 
evening to consult about carrying and lowering the 
coffins of the four dead men — De Norman, Anderson, 
and two others — who are to be buried to-mori-ow. 

"Oct. 17, Wediiesday. — At 7 a.m. I rode off with 
Stephenson and Mann to see the Russian cemetery, 
measure the doorways, &c., for the coffins to pass 
through. Very cold raw day ; snow seen on the 
hille, I went to the cemetery about 12 o'clock, 
before the procession, which started from the Great 
Lama temple. ... I ran back again against the 
biting N.E. wind and joined the procession. The 
slow step made it a bitterly cold march to us, who 
were in regimentals without greatcoats. Lord Elgin 
had prudently put on a thick peacoat and long boots ; 
besides, he got under the lee of a wall during the 
service, and, except having his bald round head ex- 



poaed, looked very comfortable. The Rev. Robert 
M'Gee, Chaplain to the Forces, tried to edge in behind 
the wall, but did not succeed. Some French officers 
and Russian Attaches were present ; the Ruski priest 
held up an elaborate cross during the whole service f 
This would not do at St George's- in- the-East. 

" Went into the city gate and bought some fowls 
and eggs. Napier is having some absui-dly per- 
manent works constructed— I.e. , stone steps down the 
wall, permanent magazine, &.C., which will be finished 
by the time we go. 

"Oct. 18, Thursday. — Fine day. and warm com- 
pared to yesterday. The 1st Division marched off 
this morning to burn the Summer Palace, the scene of 
the sufferings of our prisoners, I hear that we have 
imposed a fine of £10,000 for each officer or gentleman 
and £1000 for each soldier, dead or undelivered, and 
have given them only three days to pay it in. This 
is right, if three days is time enough to allow of some 
more being given up. 

" Ocf. 19, Fi-idny. — Started off to the Summer 
Palace about 10.30 a.m. with Kempson,' &c., after 
some delays. We were guided by the smoke. On 
arriving at the nearest entrance, the east gate, I went 
in, followed by Lamprey.- We were an hour too late 
for loot ; the Sikhs had been before us, and all the 
palaces were in fiames — a fine eight. The bright sun 
gleamed through the smoke like a moon. Went off I 
to au island In a boat with Lamprey, who was very 
fidgety and anxious to join the main body, I bought 
some enamelled bi-onzes fi-om the Sikhs and returned. 

" Oct. 20, Saturday. — Last night at 12 o'clock I was 
aroused by Mann bringing the orders for the assatilt 

' Cuptnin Wiilinra John Kompwin, SBth Font 

' AfiUtknt-SurgMia Jonet lAiDpray, M.Bl, GTtb t'oot. 


of the palace, Harrison, Stewart, and Dakeyne^ were 
to have been with the leading columns, but all was 
countermanded at 9 A.M. They say that Prince 
Kung professes himself willing to pay the fine for 
the prisoners, and that the French agreement was 
to give them to the 23rd, so that everything is de- 
ferred to that day. Lumsden tells me that we have 
heard this morning of the fate of Brabazon. It 
appears that on the 18th he was taken before the 
Tatar second in command, who had just been mortally 
wounded in the action with us. By his orders Bra- 
bazon and the French abb^ were immediately put to 
death. . . . 

"Oct. 21, Sunday. — A very raw cold morning, I 
did not attend church. . . . The siege-guns leave 
this to-morrow. 

" Oct. 22, Moiiday. — Very cold morning ; last night 

it froze hard. 1 joined a party to go out to the 

Summer Palace, but the escort was countermanded 

on account of Sang-ko-lin-sin, who is said to be in the 

neighbourhood. 200 King's Dragoon Guaids were 

sent out to look for him. I hear that one Company 

of the Royal Engineers is to go home at once. 

Stephenson says the 10th, because it has been out 

the longest. But he has been misinformed ; . . - 

the 10th left home in October 1837, whereas the 

23rd left home in March 1857, and is therefore clearly 

first for home service. I will take care Stephenson 

understands this. Reading ' Adam Bede ' again. This 

a charming book; one seems to live in it while 

■ leading. How intensely English — rural English — 

lin its character. Now Miss Bronte's novels are sorae- 

Kirhat tinged with French melodrama. . . . 

• Cnptaiu Dakeyoe of the Madras Infantry, Commandtng " A " Company 
if the Madras Sappers. 

Ki Mm. —» m .rf -mA tmi^ 

m Urn, mtl ttklum m f^ ^Ai^ 
IWtUi MiMiM fii.Ml ■ w»raf J.1 

iMMf tfMW dMf A» n*d. A few ■■iiJMiM «rth 
mUmw&mpU^ al Movatad as vem^ panics; ^ad^ 
to MMrt Lflfd E%m at the gate, and Napier ■' 
tmtwmm wA ta Un them gD out of fak i '_' ~ 
wtfmtM rnvK IfiMd with a dirty mob, amon^ ^ 
tfw mmmI fiStf^ C3iinc«e officul with the long whip 
WM *»ry hvwjr, 8ome, more re^iecUbly dreeeed, bad 
inmm if* llwir carta. There were lots of ogly old 
vrnfu, nrt'l ocseamufintly, oo the akirts of the crowd, 
rinifht \m mmn n njund-faced Cfaineee beauty ' 
Nil «H wrinkloil dti'Jinia, rewJy to hurry her awa« 
\t \t)itVm\ ut. 'niv BtrtJet we weut along was wJd 
t/fit tfirrUtly duity ; tho Iioumm arc small aod mei 
(forKmli/iinlly n liiitidaomely carved attd gilded i* 

sroxmo the treaty. 195 

front is seen, and through a cross street to our right 
we catch a glimpse of the high wall enclosing the 
palace. We pass two or three lai'ge dilapidated 
entrances to nice shady-looking courtyards, said to 
be Government buildings. At last we arrive at the 
place where the treaty is being signed. Here Napier 
goes in with his Aides-de-Camp, and, as I can't enter, 
I retire with Pritchard and discuss bread and hard 
^gs, watched by a small mob with great interest. 
We were afterwards allowed to enter the hall of audi- 
ence. It was nothing very grand. A Chinese mob on 
one side in embroidered gowns, a red-coated mob on 
the other, with busy civilians iu court dresses going 
between and handing papers from Lord Elgin to 
Prince Kung, who eat in chairs some distance from 
one another. The Punjabis thought it a miserable 
durbar, and that the Chinamen looked like a parcel 
of old women with no hair on their faces. I believe 
the Chinamen had purposely omitted to get up them- 
selves or the room very magnificently. I wonder what 
the Chinamen thought of Siguor Beato's ' curtained 
camera when first brought to bear on them ! At 
the end a photograph was taken of the whole group, 
Crealock ^ with great assurance sticking himself in the 
centre. Prince Kung's long, sallow, sour, hairless 
face was in a strong light, and he sat immovably. 
Then he got up and chin-chin'd with his knuckles 
slightly without moving a muscle of his sad, sour- 
looking countenance, advanced a few paces, chin-chin'd 
again to the public, and that was the last I saw of the 
Emperor's brother. Then came the march home — 

' Signor Beato, who took photographs in the Criinea, was especially 
allowed to accompan; the expedilion aa photographer. 

' LJeiit. -Colonel Jl. Hojie Crealock, Military Secretary to H-B.M.'a 
Special EmbaaEy to China, afterwards a Lieut. -General, C.B., and CU.O,, 
who died ID Uay IS&l. 



three miles in the dusk of the evening through 
the streets, still crowded by the Chinese, and in a 
thick cloud of choking dust. I dined with General 

"Oct. 25, Thursday. — The photograph has turned 
out a failure, and I am afraid Prince Rung won't 
sit for another. 

" Oct. 26, Friday. — Rode out to the Summer Palace 
with General Michel, »Stc., and escort. We went on 
to the White Pagoda, two or three miles l^eyond the 
palace the French looted. Had a magnificent view 
from the top of the pagoda, which is about 150 feet 
high. On one side the bare black hills, on which we 
could see the buildings of the State Prisons and the 
wall enclosing the Emperor's deer-park (the same we 
mistook for the Great Wall on the march) ; on the 
other side, immediately at our feet, was a great lake 
with two palace-islands and strange ' willow-pattern ' 
Chinese bridges ; beyond, the wooded country around 
Pekin, which was dimly seen through the haze. It 
rained as we were returning. Our extra park, stores, 
baggage, and ammunition went off this morning to 
Tang-chow, and Pritchard's Company escorts the boat 
convoy to Tien-tsin. Gordon stops here with 20 men. 

" Oct. 27, Saturday. — Rode into Pekin. Charlie 
was to have come, but would not, and with his usual 
candour told Hime the reason, that he did not like 
one of the party. We rode right through the Tatar 
and Chinese quarter and saw two large temples (one 
with blue -tiled roof), had some chow-chow at an 
eating-shop (grease, garlic, and no bread), and have 
unanimously come to the couclusion that Pekin is 
a wretched town, inferior to Tien-tsin. From the 
large uninhabited spaces in the interior I should think 
the population has been greatly over-estimated. In 



one of the streets of the Tatar city we saw some Tatar 
tents with stands of spears (said to be merely those 
of the city police). The inhabitants were tolerably 
civil, but the juvenile population in the Chinese 
quarter would run after us shouting, and once pelting 
dry mud at us. 

" Oct. 28, Sunday. — Breakfasted with Gordon. 
Read divine service regimentally at 11 A.M. The 
French funeral of deceased prisoners took place to- 
day. They were buried in the Jesuits' Cathedral in 
Pekin, which I have not seen. I rode into Pekin 
with Charlie on my pony and bought a small enamel. 

. Did not feel very well. 

'Oct. 29, Monday. — Eaw, wet day. I kept my 
room, being laid up with one of my fever -colds. 
Heading ' Adam Bede ' and ' Coast Defences,' and 
writuag out monthly reports. 

' Oct 30, Tiiesday. — Rained heavily all last night, 

I and the ducks came knocking at my door with their 
bills to get shelter. Fine, sunshiny, cold day, snow 
seen on the hills. Rigaud paid me a visit. I rode 
out with him and Charlie Gordon to the West angle, 
and it appears to me that my plan of Pekin is right 
and the Russian one wrong. Rigaud told me that 
ponies had been bought at Japan and taken to Shang- 
hai at a cost of £54,000. The Admiral refused to give 
them transport here, so they have been sold for 
nothing at Shang-hal. Balaklava again I . , . 

" Oct. 31, Wedjiesday. — Rode into Pekin and bought 
a fur coat for 89. I had a fireplace begun this morn- 
ing about 9.30 A.M., and found a bright wood-fire 
burning on my return at 5 P.M. (muster parade). 
But, alas ! this evening a memorandum came to 
warn us to be in readiness to move to An-ting 
gate to-mori-ow. 


"Nov. 1, Thtirsday. — Moved to quarters in the 
suburb outside the An-ting gate at 2 p.m. 

" Nov. 2, Friday. — Mann goes off to-morrow, leaving 
me Commanding Royal Engineer. He goes to Hong- 
kong to build barracks at Kow-loon. 

" Nov. 4, Sunday. — Service in the Temple of the 
Earth at 10 a.m. Rode into the city with Charlie. 
We went on the wall of the south side of the Chinese 
city, which is not more than 26 feet high and 16 thick. 
On returning found orders to march to-morrow with 
the 67th. 

" Nov. 5, Monday. — Very cold morning. Therm. 26° 
Fahr. at 8 A.M. Marched at 9 with the 67th. Charlie 
came to see us off. Beautiful day for marching, bright 
sky, and keen, bracing air. We got to the stone 
bridge, our first halt, at about 3 p.m., 13^ miles. Put 
up in a room next to Colonels Knox ' and Thomas.^ 
We found a stove and some little balls of coal, which 
we lit, shutting the doors before we went to bed. . . . 

" Nov. 6, Tuesday. — . . . Passed near Chang-chia- 
■wan, a little walled town, which was thoroughly looted 
after the affair of the 18th September. Beyond this 
we passed where the Chinese guns {76 of them) had 
been placed by the bank of a stream or canal, also 
remnants of stockades, &c. We reached Ma-tow about 
2.30 P.M. I was quartered in some houses outside the 
town, and quite destitute of doors and windows. One 
wing of the 67th was left at a village three milea 
behind, but the other and Headquarters found pretty 
good shelter at the farther end of the town, which is 
otherwise all In ruins, having been burnt by order on 

' Colonel Thomaa Edmond Koos, C.B., Commanding GTth Foot, after- 
wards a Lieut.-Oeuetul. 

* Lieut-Colonel John Welleeley Thomaa, C.B., 67th Foot, atterwardB a 




the 3rd ult. Two of" the 67th were lost here on their 
way up. We slept very well, using our waterproof 
sheets for shutters. 

" Noi>. 7, Wednesday. — Ram-Sami (my boy) suffers 
from the cold. No wonder, for he has sent the fur 
coat I bought him on to Tien-tsin with the heavy 
baggage. We got to Ho-si-wu by 1 P.M. {12 miles). 
Colonel Spence, Commanding 31st Regiment, told us 
off to capital quarters. There is also a very good 
market here, and K. was sent to lay in supplies. 

"Nov. 8, Thursday. — Marched at 8.30 a.m. — a very 
long march, about 19 miles — to a town called Yang-tse, 
where two companies of the 31st are stationed. We 
did not get in until near 4 o'clock. 

"Mem. — I think Tyler's^ counterscarp theory is 
borrowed from Choumara's interior glacis, though 
unacknowledged. Jervois ^ has admittedly taken from 
Choumara the principle of the independence of the 
parapet and escarp. I have, therefore (since reading 
the Royal Engineers Professional Papers last night), 
no motive for introducing Choumara's system in any 
new form. 

"Nov. d,F)-iday. — Marched at 9 a.m. Corporal Hollis 
and some men are footsore with yesterday's march. 
Mild, cloudy day. The climate or weather is milder 
as we get farther from the hills. Halted at a village 
about 10 miles from Tien-tsin, after a twelve-mile 
march. Half the Company put under canvas, including 
officers, and all the 67th except two companies. 

" Nov. 10, Saturday. — This morning I found my cap 
frozen to the table in the tent. Marched into Tien-tsin 
through crowded suburbs and narrow, dirty streets. 

I Captain Sir Henry W. Tyler, Rojal Engineerfi. 

* Liout.-General Sir William F. Dnmiraond Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., 
Bojal En^Deers, who died in 18U7. 


The streets show much more life than those in Pekin, 
and the shops seem better. The selling of old clothes 
is conducted with remarkable vigour. One mau throws 
each article from a large heap over to another man, 
spreading them out in the air with great dexteriiy, 
each of them all the time shouting with remarkable 
energy, sometimes in the form of a song, and again in 
a series of interjections delivered alternately, which 
seem like a running fire of jokes. I called on Colonel 
Mackenzie, Deputy Quartermaster-General, who says 
we are to go in the Adventure with the Marines, and 
may expect to leave this about the 15th or 16th. 

"Nov. 11, Suiulay.—Vn\xh&vd showed me his stables 
which he made contracts for. They are lean-to sheds 
for 400 horses at $16 for 20 feet. The Chinese work 
capitally. How superior they are to the Indians ! 

"Nov. 12, Monday. — The Royals went oft' this 
morning. Madras Sappers arrived, and leave early 
to-morrow, so I dismissed my faithful Itam-Sami, 

" Nov. 13, Tuesday. — Madras Sappers went off early. 
I got orders at 5 p.m. to start to-morrow. This is very 
sudden, but not altogether unexpected. 

"Nov. 14, Wednesday. — I was told yesterday by 
Mackenzie and Willes to embark in the Dove at 10 A.M. 
This I accordingly did, and was congratulating myself 
on getting settled down and having a pleasant com- 
mander, when Wolseley ^ and Willes told me to take 
everything out and put it in the Flaraer, This I did 
with some remonstratlon. We got no farther than 
the flats oft' Tien-tsin Forts that evening. 

"The next morning {Nov. 15, Thursday) we joined 
the 19th Punjab Native Infantry fellows, who were in 
comparative comfort in a shed on the junk, sheltered 

' Field-Marshal Viscount Wolaeley , K.P., &c., then a Lieut -Colonel and 
Deputy AsaiBtADt Quartennaater-Geueral. 


from the cutting wind and able to get any amount of 
cooking done at the sailors' fire. It came on to blow 
very hard from the north during the night ; terribly 
cold for our poor fellows outside. 

''Nov. 16, Friday. — We got off the Ta-ku Forts early 
this morning, but owing to the wind and sea outside 
we did not cross the bar but lay inside I drew an 
extra ration of rum for the men, and got an awning 
put up in the evening. We put off Pritchard to the 
forts at an early hour this morning to bring in the 

''Nov. 17, Saturday. — Fine morning. We got out 
to the fleet, put the Punjabis on the Edith Moore, and 
came on to the Adventure. Had a good breakfast, and 
a wash with a limited amount of water. The Marines 
arrived just before us. Pritchard came with the 
baggage aU right. He and I are in the same cabin. 
All are very much crowded. Came on to blow again 
in the afternoon, but the wind is much milder than on 

"Nov. 19, Monday. — Captain Lacy says he is wait- 
ing for half of the 8th Company. I suppose they could 
not come out to-day on account of the strong wind and 
sea. and are now lying inside the bar. 

"Nov. 22, Thursday. — Han*ison arrived with half 
the 8th Company, and we started about 5 p.m." 




Graham with his Company reached Hong-kong on 
the 2iid December, and disembarked and encamped at 
Kow-loon on the following day. About a fortnight 
later intelligence came that the 23rd Company with 
Graham in command was to return to England. It 
was more than a month later, however, before he em- 
barked, and in the meantime he amused himself when 
off duty by taking long walks and exploring the 
island. One day he climbed to the top of Victoria 
Peak to see the beautiful view of the harbour and 
islands, and found a very well-informed signalman 
who lived all alone in a little look-out house, but 
had all the latest papers, and was quite happy. 
Another day he went to Pok-shun to bathe in some 
glorious big pools of fresh water. Then he visited a 
French wreck, Les Deux Jumeaux, where he met an 
amusing Franco-Chinese comprador, who spoke three 
words of French, and told him that "Englishman no 
savay Flancyman, Chinaman he savay Flancyman and 

He read some novels, and, as usual, commented on 
them in his diary, from which the following extracts 
are made, beginning with the New Year, and narrat- 
ing hUi departure and voyage to the Cape. 



"Jan. 1, 1861, Tuesday. — The non-commissioned 
officers had a convivial meeting in the evening ; 
Harrison and I attended, he singing ' Billy Barlow.' 
We had our healths drunk with great enthusiasm. 

"Jan. 6, Sunday. — ... I am reading 'Wearing 
the Willows,' by the author of 'The Nut - Brown 
Maid/ a quaint and rather sad book, but beautifully 
written, and with great apparent fidelity of descrip- 
tion. It is clearly by a woman's hand, and all the 
sorrows are woman's sorrows. 

"Jan. 8, Tuesday. — . . . Read an old-fashioned 
story, 'The Depraved,' one of 'Two Old Men's Tales.' 
How unlike what we write nowadays. I suppose it 
is because we are so much more practical now that we 
could not stand the dramatic improbabilities of these 

"Jan. 10, II, and 12, — Heading Choumara, Zastrov, 
and Montalembert. Rained heavily. 

"Jan. 17, Tliursday. — ^Our orders are out to embark 
on Saturtlay. On the same day the promontory of 
Kow-loon is to be formally given over to us by the 

"Jan. 19, Saturday.~Got into some Commissariat 
boats at 7 a.m., and so on board the good ship 
Adelaide. Capital cabin accommodation. 'There will 
be only 24 officers to 20 cabins and splendid saloon 
Bud poop. Went over to Kow-loon and saw the 
troops march past — the 44th, 2 1st Madras Native 
Infantry, and some detachments that were brought 
by the White Star. This was the ceremony of 
taking over Kow-loon. Lots of ladles present, and 
a great many salutes were fired. 

" Jan. 20, Sunday. — Went to church on shore. The 
Imperieuse has come in with 130 cases of smallpox. 
She lies near us under the yellow flag. . . . 


"Jan. 22, Tuesday. — . . . We got under weigh 
about 1.30 P.M., and were greatly cheered by a neigh- 
bouriug ship. Aa we passed the Imperieuse the men 
crowded the bulwarks, and we interchanged saJutes 
with old Jones [the Rear-Admiral] and the officers on 
the poop, while their band played ' Home, Sweet 
Home ! ' They, poor fellows 1 have to go to the Bogue 
Forts and remain iu quarantine until they can be pro- 
nounced healthy. We went out by the Lye-moon 
Pass. ... A man tumbled overboard, but was picked 
up again. . . . 

" Jan. 29, Tuesday.—Yor the last two mornings I 
have got up about 6.30 A.M., gone under a canvas 
shower-bath, and then walked the wet decks in my 
pyjamas and practised club-exercise, in which I am 
improving. Saw two or three islands this morning, 
one of them a remarkably sharp-pointed mountain. 
A school of porpoises seen in the distance looking 
strangely vivacious in the Bat desert of water. Oh ! 
happy living things merrily dancing. I wonder if 
they were ever mistaken for mermaids by some 
ancient mariner ? . . . Got to our anchorage, about 
three miles off Singapore, between 8 and 9 p.m. 

"Jan. 30, Wednesday, Singapore. — The Adventure 
got here on Saturday morning, thus making the 
journey in a day less than we have. She left again 
this morning. The captain went away early for 
orders. A number of Malay, Chinese, and Hindustani 
boats came oft" to us with monkeys, shells, fruit, &c. 
One of the monkeys, from some cause unknown to us, 
repeatedly endeavoured to commit suicide by jumping 
overboard, but was always hauled back by hia rope 
and punished by his proprietor. At last he untied 
his rope or got loose somehow, jumped overboard, 
and swam away with his head under water I 




The boat was, however, put in pursuit and picked 
him up. Went ashore. Had a drive of about four 
miles to the town. Much amused by the little 
Malay boys, who ran by the side of the carriage, 
keeping up an extraordinary rapping noise by striking 
their arras and hands against their bodies. They all 
seemed in capital hard condition. The country is 
beautifully green here, with hedges, reminding one 
of England. The palm-trees don't. Dined on shore 
&t the H6tel de I'Esp^rance, played bowls and re- 
turned. Hot night. 

"Jan. 31, Thursday. — Went ashore again and saw 
a great Chinese sing-song pigeon. They say this 
place is healthy in spite of the stinking drains and 
swamps, constant rain, and thermometer averaging 
82° (I should have thought more). It is certainly 
a better place than Hong-kong. 

" Feb. 1, Friday. — A great nuisance our not 
Starting to-day. Still lying in this narrow creek, 
excluded from sea-breezes. I remained on board 
and the day passed very dully. Hot muggy day 
with occasional heavy showers of rain. Reading ' A 
Life for a Life ' — a remarkable book, though written 
I very quietly and in the undramatic form of letters and 
diary. The author must be a very good man with 
a high idea of love and duty. That scene where 
Theodora with brave humility declares she will never 
leave him affected me strangely. 

"Feb. 2, Saturday. — Started about 9,30 a.m. Passed 
through thickly wooded islands where Malay rajabs 
hold their court — at least so Mr Mansel said, who 
comes about thirty miles with us to a place called 
Eio, a Dutch settlement. We put him Jn his boat 
after dinner and he left us cheering. Some of these 
islands are mere rocks about 20 yards broad, but 


even these have trees on them. Continual heavy 

" Feb. 4, Holiday. — We lay at anchor all last night 
in the Straits of Banka about ten miles ofl' Sumatra 
— low shore covered with trees. We noticed an 
extraordinary difl'erence in the colour of the water 
from greeu to mud colour, the boundaiy clearly de- 
fined by a thin line of foara. Our wake in the dirty 
water is shown by the light green water, which, I 
suppose, is brought up by the screw, the dirt being 
only on the surface. •. . . 

" Feh. 6, Wedfieaday. — Got in sight of Java about 
2 P.M., after passing a number of little islands covered 
with trees like fairy kingdoms. The Java coast is 
high and very beautiful, green fields and trees sloping 
down to the sea. We lay a few miles off Anger, a 
small Dutch settlement, of which we could see the 
white houses with red-tUed roofs among the gi'een 
trees. A small earth battery could also be seen. 
Boats came off with fruit, monkeys, Java sparrows 
(pretty birds with white cheeks and red bills), parrots, 
turtles, &c. The Dutch harbour-master came off to 
see us. At 4 p.m. we steamed on again and soon 
found ourselves in the swell of the Indian Ocean. 

••Feb. 8. Friday.— Read 'The Head of a Family.' ! 
I like it even better than ' A Life for a Life ' : there is 
more plot and character and an equally high, perhaps 
higher, staudai-d of love and duty. We ought to get 
the trades to-moiTow, being in 10° S. lat. . . . 

"Feb, 15, Friday. — The weather must be getting I 
cooler, as I could sit in my cabin to-day without ' 
getting faint. I devoted myself to fortification, and 
am well pleased with my little system. I wonder i 
any one else will be. ' Our little systems have their I 
day,' &c. Will mine? To-day we got the first of the 1 

long-expected trade wind from E,N.E., instead of S.E. 
We knocked oft' steaming and disconnected our screw, 
and I bet the captain a bottle of champagne that 
he would not 'make' 1000 miles by sailing in the 
week. . . . 

"Feb. 19, Tuesday. — All day yesterday we were 
repairing the air-pump of the steam-engine, which 
was not ready before 2 A.M. to-day. We then got 
under steam, wind being too much ahead, and we 
may have to run to Mauritius. Did five pages of 
Italian this morning. Beautiful weather. This 
afternoon we passed the trail of a whale (so 'tis 
said), a broad, oily - looking track, like the newly 
made wake of a ship, stretching far away at right 
angles to our course, fringed by the light ripple on 
the calm surface of the sea. 

"Feb. 20, Weibiesday. — ... I now read four or 
five pages of ' I promessi Spost ' every morning before 
breakfast. With this and my fortification I em- 
ploy myself pretty agreeably. I am reading G. H. 
Lewes's ' Studies of Animal Life ' out of the ' Cornhill.' 
How remarkably clear and interesting. 

"Feb. 26, Tuesday. — Got to Port Louis, Mauritius, 
about 5 P.M., lying off Fort George. Crozier' and 
Paterson ^ came off to see us. 

"Feb. 27, Wednesday. — I went ashore at 6 A.M. 
Walked over the fort with Lloyd.' Fortifications on 
Caponie*- principle. Called on Colonel Burgmann,* and 
on the Browns. Dined with 5th Regiment. 

' Major-Gene lal Henry Darley Croaer, then ft aabaltern of Boyal 

' Lieutenant John Brand PftterHOU, Royal Engineers, who died at 
Mauritius the same year. 

^ Major-General Edward F.S.Lloyd, then a HQbalt«m of Koyal Engineers. 

* Major-Oeneral George U. Burgmann, Commanding Royal Engineer, 
who died in 1867. 


" Feh. 28, Thursday. — Took a drive into the country I 
in Paterson's dogcart in the rain. Pretty scenery 
— Pieter Both and Ponce Hills. Very verdant land- 
scape. Visited a sugar-planter. Dined with Colonel 
Burgmann. . . . 

"March 2, Saturday. — Dined last night with Mar- 
indin.' Started about noon, blowing great guns. . . . 

" March 1 G, Saturday. — ... I am deeply interested 
in the * Life of Charlotte Bronte.' It is a wonderful 
tale. She is a heroine for every Englishman to be 
proud of ; a character, I should say, singulai'ly un- 
Irish, although she had an Irish father. The night ts 
dark, and the phosphorescence of the water has an 
extraoi'dinary appearance all around us. Waves 
breaking in sheets of white light, a most weird, 
spectral scene. 

" March 18, Monday. — Came into Simon's Bay this 
morning about 8.30 ; blowing a south-easter. A high ' 
rock-bound coast. Went ashore and took a cart to 
Cape Town, a barren, sandy tract of country to Rath- 
felders, where I left a note for Mr van Rees Hoets 
(a friend of Reginald, who had sent an invitation to 
me). After leaving Rathfeldera the country is woody 
and pretty up to the base of the great Table Mountain, 
a continuation of the range of hills from Simon's Bay. 
Here the road becomes bare again and uninteresting, 
but for the number of criuolinea we met. We entered ! 
the dusty straggling Cape Town with its Uttle white 
houses and put up at the Masonic. Took a walk on 
the promenade, &c. ... I 

"March 19, Tuesday. — Pritchard and I were awak- 1 
ened a little after 5 A.M., as agreed, to go up the I 

* Major Sir FrancU Arthur Uunuilui, K.C.M.G,, Rojol Engui*«n^ I 
Cht«( IiupeuUir of Bailwit>^ Board of Ttxde, then k sabftltero. He died 1 
111 1900. I 


I Table Mountain. We were joined by Galbralth 
I of the Queen, and after waiting till half- past six 
[ for a guide we started, taking a coolie, who pro- 
fessed to know the road well, to carry our grub. 
We scrambled along over big stones and burnt 
bush up to the shoulder of the hill, when we found 
it impossible to proceed, and our ' guide ' told us 
with great candour that he had never been up before. 
It was tremendously hot under a blazing suu. 
Galbraith and I climbed about 300 feet up the 
rocks, and then we all descended, losing our guide 
on the way, so that we got to our hotel very tired 
and hungry about noon. . . . Took a stroll in the 
Botanical Gardens in the afternoon. 

'"March 20, Wednesday. — Called on Colonels White' 
and Gordon,^ R.E. I took leave of Smith^ (Lt, R.E.), 
who seems to be, as reported, an excellent officer. I 
got to Rathfelders (per mail-cart) about 3.30 p.m. 
Mr Hoets was at his farm, busy in the vintage, so I 
did not see him until 6.30. He is a very keen-looking 
and keen-sighted man, and possesses a vast deal of 
general information— altogether a most agreeable com- 
panion, as I might have expected from a Cambridge 
friend of Reginald. At dinner we had a Mr Gotobed, 
another friend of Reginald (a small - faced, short- 
sighted, but intelligent man), a Mr Holding (who 
manages Mr Hoets's farm and is a great naturalist), 
and a young man in the mixed commission, formerly 
secretary to Sir E. L. Bulwer-Lytton. 

"March 21, llnirsday. — Mr Hoets took me over 

' Major- General Heni-y A. White, Boyal Engineera, then a Lieut.- 
Colonel. He died in 1686. 

* Major-General Aleiander Qordon, then a Colonel, and Commanding 
Royal Engineer. He died in 1863. 

' Major-General Percy G. L, Smith, Director of Works at the Admir- 
alty, who died in 1693. 



his ferm ; he has about 40 acres of vineyard besi< 
graziog-gronnd, house, and two other farms, 
mats to seU up, as n-ine-growmg is now unprofit- 
able, owing to the bltgbt and the alteration of tariff 
Thi» hiight, it appearSf conimenc«i in a bothoose 
near Hampstead in 1847, whence it has spread over 
France and Germany, and last year showed itself at 
the Cape ! Was it brought by the wind, or, as seema 
more likely, in the clothes of some German vine- 
trainers lately come over ? The only known remedy 
is flowers of sulphur. We went on to the famed 
Constantia vineyards. Here the soil is higher than 
Mr Hoets's land and a mixture of clay and quartz. 
Old Mr Cloetii told me that his vines begin to ripen 
some weeks earlier than the others, and thus get 
much sweeter. The dry wines are allowed to fer- 
ment longer than the sweet, whose fermentation is 
stopped by the fumes of burning sulphur. I tasted 
the wines. The dry Pontac is particularly nice ; but 
there is in all this wine {like the Crimean) a sickly 

rfume {of muscatel ?) which 1 find monotonous. 
jITe then went to Mr van Reenan's farm, where we 
I luncheon. He is a fine old fellow, and gave me 
a kei-ri or Kaffir lite- preserver. Rode back fast 
llathfelders to catch the mail-cart at 3.30. Every 
one of our party nearly were in it, so I took leave; 
of Mr Hoets, who will perhaps pay me a visit oi 
Monday. As we approached the coast the S.E,j 
wind blow strongly and very cold, and on gettio] 
to Simon's Bay we found that we could not get oi 
to our ship, so we all slept at the hotel. 

" March 22, Friday. — Got on board this morning.* 

Here the book ends, and no more diary can 
found fur many years. He arrived in England 



the 24th of May. For his services in China he was 
mentioned in despatches (see 'Lond6n Gazette,' 4th 
November 1860), received the war medal with two 
clasps and a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy, to which he 
was gazetted on the 15th of February 1861, while 
on his voyage home. 



With his return from China, the first phase of 
Graham's service was over. He was indeed only a 
captain of Royal Engineers of seven years' servicej 
but he was a lieutenant-colonel in the army, had been 
thrice wounded, had no small experience in war, and 
his breast was covered with medals and decorated 
with the Victoria Cross. He might well have ex- 
pected active employment on the first occasion that 
offered. But the authorities thought otherwise. No 
opportunity was given to him, and for the next twenty 
years of his life he was doing very useful, if prosaic, 
work, in looking after the engineering and barrack 
services of military districts. For a few years he was 
quartered at ShornclifiTe and Brighton in charge of ' 
Engineer Sub-districts of the South-Eastem Military 
District, the Headquarters of which are at Dover. At 
Brighton he was Commanding Royal Engineer until 
1865, when he was appointed Commanding Royal 
Engineer at Aldershot. 

In the meantime an important event in his private 
life had occurred. On the 29th April 1862, he 
married in Jliondon, at St Peter's Church, Eaton 
Iquare, Jane Dinah, widow of the Rev, Valentine 
Samuel Barry Blacker, who died in 1858, rector of 



EaBt and West Rudham, Norfolk. She was the 
daughter of George Durrant, who died in January 
1877, aged 83 years, of South Ehnham Hall in Suffolk, 
and of his wife Esther Payne, who died in 1873, aged 
76 years, daughter of John Norman of Suffold, Suffolk. 
It will be remembered that Graham's sister, Joanna, 
married the Rev. Reginald Durrant, a son of George 
Durrant, so that the families were doubly allied. Mrs 
Graham had already two children (twins) by Mr 
Blacker, a daughter, Emma, and a son, Edwin, a 
confirmed Invalid from childhood, who died in 1875 
at the age of twenty-two years. 

At the end of May 1866, Graham and his wife em- 
barked for Canada, where for over three years he was 
Commanding Royal Engineer at Moutieal. During 
his first Canadian winter he wrote to his brother-in- 
law, the Rev. Reginald Durrant : — 

" We like the winter here better than the summer, 
though we have not yet had many of those glorious, 
bright, windless, frosty days when the thermometer is 
about minus 30° Fahr. and yet you don't feel it cold — 
days which people at home are led to suppose to be 
the staple winter weather in Canada. We find many 
windy days, snowy days, dull foggy days, when the 
frost hangs on the hair in long icicles, or powders it 
with rime. However, there Is a good deal of enjoy- 
able weather too — rarely warm enough for sleigh- 
driving with comfort ; pleasant, however, for snow- 
shoeing, which Jane [his wife] took to with ease, or 
for tobogganing, which Gerald [his eldest son, born 
in 1863] deliglits in — though in the most primitive 
manner. We go also to the skating-rink occasionally, 
and I have conceived a great liking for the 'noble 
game of curling, which I think you would like too, as 
it resembles quoits in requiring a combination of eye 



and hand with a vast deal more play. ... I think 
this is the most expensive country for outfit 
inhabited globe, and living ia quite as dear as in Eng- 
land. I never told you how much we liked ' Ecce 
Homo'; it lasted us for many Sunday readings. We 
are all well now, but have had great anxiety about 
the children," 

While he thus pleasantly describes his recreations 
his official life in Canada was very uneventful, being 
the ordinary routine work of a Commanding Royal 
Engineer in a large District ; but there were several 
Fenian scares, which, although they added greatly 
to the worry and the work — camps for troops hav- 
ing to be formed at out-of-the-way places — ^never 
came to anything serious. On the 30th March 1867 
he was made a Companion of the Bath, Military Divi- 
sion, for his wai' services, and on the 15th February 
1869 was promoted to be brevet-colonel. 

Returning home from Canada at the end of October 
1869, he was stationed for a year at Chatham, and 
for another year at Manchester, at that time the 
Headquarters of the then undivided and unwieldy 
Northern Military District. In October 1871 he was 
sent to York, where he remained for six years in 
Engineer chaige of a very laige and important Sab- 

A letter from York, to his brother-in-law, in Aaguat 
1874, gives us a glimpse of him away for a holiday 
with his children, and also of his work at home : — 

"Just returiioil from Saltbum, a lovely little 
watering-placid near Rtxlear, which combines the 
sea and splendid Hands with delightful walks — a 
Tety unosoal oombinatioQ on this bleak, northern 
eoast. Every morning I would take G«rald and 
FVmnky (ages eleven and dgfat req>ective]y) a wbDc 

,hink ^1 
i the V 



in the sauds, which are firm enough to allow of 
our doing a little Euclid and arithmetic on them 
on the way. Then choosing a secluded spot, we 
would bathe. Gerald, though not yet taught to 
swim, will face the biggest wave, holding my hand 
and enjoying it immensely. In the meantime Jany 
(age nine) would be bathing with her nurse, and the 
others digging, or in the gardens. 

" Gerald and Franky go to school within about 
200 yards of our house, and Jany takes lessons in 
French and music. Emmy [his step-daughter] is now 
on a visit to the Akers * at Weymouth. The baby, 
when you saw us at Llanddulas, is now a sturdy 
little fellow of four and a half, and replaced by another 

" My inspections of classes under the Science and 
Art Department at South Kensington are all over. 
Have you none near you? Clergymen, and sometimes 
lawyers and doctors, are generally the most active 
members of Science and Art Committees, notwith- 
standing their having so much else to do. My in- 
spections of these classes are voluntary and do not 
form part of my usual work. Another voluntary 
piece of work I have undertaken is that of Examiner 
in Fortification at the periodical examinations of cadets 
at Woolwich. Otherwise my regular work is the 
charge of the York Royal Engineer Division, including 
all the War Department works and property, and 
the defences of the Humber. 

" Cai-dwell's Brigade Centres, of which you have 
of course heard, give me plenty of work, seven of 
them falling to my share. This involves selecting and 

' The family of Lieut. -Colonel (afterwaifJs Mftjor-General) Charl«i 
Style Akem, then Commiuidiiig Roynl Engineer at Weymouth, k very 
intimate friend of Grabun. He died in 18B7. 


reporting on land for sites (no end of correspondence), 
preparing designs for barracks with gas, water, and 
drainage, and when approved, carrying them into 
execution. Beside my office work I have a great 
deal of travelling about in my Division, sometimes 
more than Jane and I like." 

The experience he had gained during many years 
in the construction and maintenance of barracks 
marked him out as a suitable officer for the post 
of A distant- Director of Works for Barracks at the 
War Office, and on a vacancy occurring he was ap- 
point^l to fill it on the 18th December 1877, having 
beoTi promoted to a regimental lieutenant-colonelcy 
on the 27th of September 1876. 

fjfifore. however, he quitted York and the Northern 
IVfilitflry I)iMtrict he was selected with officers of other 
arnrm to ncc<)in[)any General Lord Airey ^ to the 
Ht^rwnu Hriny numwuvres in the autumn of 1877. 

Arriving nl DUftW^ldorf on the 1st of September, he 
ntU^iuUMl on the lln\ the inspection of the Seventh 
Arrny (!orpM by the German Emperor, when the Crown 
fVif»//*«« (now the Kmpress Frederick) was present 
ir» KiMtMMr Hr^NN. I((^ notes that ''the men marched 
jrn«if «j»l#wirlirlly luid l<H>ked thoroughly efficient, 
^fftfrt/l^ HUy]9 ulmtird, horses good. There were 
h'JMily AM lifiMalionN of about 500 men marched 
^fn«tf in o|>^n fut\\uuu in thirty-three minutes, and in 
^offh^ninun liHllulion cohnni) of double companies in 
t^r f/ fih t^n iriiniiloM. The cavalry were 2000 strong, 
Ml' Mfhllcry liMfl foiirtiM'ii field batteries and three 
iro'fifH nf hoiMM nrlillory of four gxms each. Five 
ff,t ft ffh\y n/lM in lioM hvtteries and six march." 
Hf "MM \,nnn\iiiM\ with an invitation to dine at a 
^/r//»i lrrth/(fM'l i\\ Honrnth, where he was pre- 

* !• itni ntifl nnly Huron Airt»y, died in 1881. 



sented to the Emperor and to the Crown Prince 
and Princess. 

On the 4th he notes ; " Manoeuvres with skeleton 
enemy. Tactics queer. Volley-firing without any 
enemy in sight. Guns of defence retained in position 
until enemy's infantry were within 50 yards. Cavalry 
massed under fire of both infantry and artillery. We 
were told to reserve our opinion until we had seen 
real manceuvres on Friday." After a long journey by 
train, he was present in the rain at the "real" man- 
ceuvres on the 7th, and observes "much to criticise." 
He dined again with the Emperor at Benrath, where 
he got into an argument about shelter trenches with 
a German general, who became quite angry. " I 
shouldn't argue with these people," he -says. He 
made the acquaintance of von Moltke, and was pre- 
sented to the Red Prince and Prince Wied. 

On the 8th, in going and returning fi'om the man- 
osuvres, the attentions of the ladies were almost 
embarrassing. " In Walfrath three pretty girls threw 
us some flowers, and on our return from the oper- 
ations we got pelted with a vengeance. At Homburg 
I had a bouquet thrown hard in my face, and another 
cut my lips, and W. got one in his eye. Not very 
pleasant these rough salutations of the white-robed 
maidens. At dinner much trinquant of glasses, &c. 
jjord Airey proposed the Emperor's health very neatly 
in French." 

On the 9th, Sunday, "Went to Church with C. ; 
small attendance. Sermon on 'Take no thought for 
to-morrow.' Collection for Madras famine, Ofi" to 
Cologne by train. Paid visits of ceremony ; then 
dinner, a tremendously long business, 5 to 8.30 p.m.! 

"Sept. 10th. — Review of the 8th Army Corps by 
the Emperor — fine sight. Lord Airey got a kick on 



the shin from a piebald horse. Dinner with the 
Emperor) when I heard a telegram read of the Kussiau 
success at Plevna. The Crown Princess told me she 
sympathised with the Turks and with the poor 
sufferers from the Madras famine. She said, ' It is 
sad to think how human life is sacrificed.' The Kaiserin 
also expressed great commiseration, and thought 
every feeling heart should wish the war to be stopped. 
Kind-hearted woman, she was very sorry for Lord 
Airey. The Crown Prince asked me about my V.C, 
wondered how old I was, and when I told him forty- 
six years, ' Kxactly my age,' said the Prince. 

*' Sept. lull. — Lord Airey is better and going to the 
manceuvres to-day. I got him to let me off, and went 
to see about leave to visit fortifications. All very 
polite, but said I must get permission from the War 
Minister. Went to see the Cathedral — a splendid 
pile — and in the evening with W. to the opera 

After some more days of manceuvres in the same 
neighbourhood with very little variety, and imperial 
dinners in the evening, Graham went on the I6th 
September to Carlsruhe, which he found en Jcte ; the 
next day he attended a review of the troops. He was 
much struck with the appearance of the bodyguard of 
Grenadiers. "The Emperor," he remarks, " rode past 
at the head of a dragoon regiment, and the Grand 
Duke, a fine-looking man, rode well." He dined at 
the palace, and was presented to the Grand Duehees, 
the daughter of the Emperor, *'a fine, stately, most 
agreeable woman — talked to every one." He eat next 
D., who told hira of his presentation as a little hoy of' 
three yeara old to Bernadotte ; he had just been read- 
ing the fable of the frog and the ox, and when Ber- 
nadotte asked him what he would like to be, bsi 



answered, "An ox"; he remembered the displeasure 
of his father, who would have liked him to say " A 
soldier," or "A general"; but Bemadotte laughed 
heartily. Graham having made an awkward remark 
on the profusion of medals given for nothing, D. told 
him that during a visit to England he danced on one 
occasion with a daughter of Sir James Graham ; she 
inquired in what battles he had got his medals ; he 
had to reply that he had never been in a battle, that 
the King of Holland had given him some, and so on ; 
but he felt so ashamed that he did not dance again 
with her, although a very agreeable young lady. 
Graham attended a gala performance of " Undine " at 
the theatre, where the Grand Duchess looked very 
well in her jewels. 

On the 18th of September he notes with delight, 
for the weather had been generally wet : " Lovely 
day, with fine fresh air fix)m the hills ; capital field- 
day with intrenchments. My horse went well, but 
D. came to grief" 

Next day he visited Baden, and on his return at- 
tended a State concert at the palace, where " Bianchi 
was delightful in her first song with sweet modulated 
head-notes like a sparkling stream." 

On the 20th, General von Kameke, German war 
minister, told him it would be all right about seeing 
the fortifications, and at dinner that day, after the 
manoeuvres. Lord Airey entertained him with an 
account of the battle of the Alma, which so greatly 
resembled Kinglake's that Graham was astonished 
to find that Lord Airey had not read the book. 

As the 21st was too wet for manoeuvres, Graham 
went out to see the barracks of the 21st Regiment. 
The oflBcers' mess, he says, looked "a barren place," 
as the oflBcers all live in lodgings. The men were 



crowded together in unvectUated rooms, and the 
stables were very rough. 

On the 22nd, the raanceuvres took place near Ras- ] 
tadt, and the Emperor and the Crown Prince said ; 
good-bye. In the evening Graham was informed 1 
that he would be allowed to see all the defences and 
barracks, on the understanding that nothing should ' 
be published. Graham had made a very favourable 
impression on the German Staff, and as he spoke 
German well, was a general favourite. They used to , 
joke him about his wasser-proofe, which he never i 
went without. | 

On the 23rd he said his good-byes and went off to I 
Strassburg. He jots down : " Quaint old town — bad I 
smells. Went up to the top of the tower. My Alsa- J 
tian orderly volunteered, so as not to go to SUesia ; I 
he returns to France after completing his three years* I 
service. Great alterations to fortifications." On the I 
following day he called at the Fortification Bureau, I 
where he found a " Captain D., very civil : showed me I 
all the plans, &c., of the siege, but not of fortifications I 
now in progress. Regret I did not get permission to J 
see Strassburg. Went -with D. to see Lunette No. I 
44, where the French held out so gallantly. Saw the I 
' Casino ' for all the officers of the garrison, a good I 
arrangement." I 

At Metz on the 25th, after making calls of cere- I 
mony, an orderly conducted him to the Fortificatiou I 
Bureau, where Captain R., "a very nice fellow," gavel 
him every information. Old General von Schwerinl 
sent for Graham, and was "very civil, but evi-I 
dently sueplcious." Next day the weather was J 
splendid, and in company with General von ScbweriaJ 
and others, Graham drove to the battlefields. " Thai 
General," be notes, " is determined that I shaJI Keel 



as little as possible. ' Mustn't draw or take dimen- 
sions,' he says. A good old fellow though, and very 
popular. He exercises quite a parental authority 
over his subordinates ; called his driver ' Junge ' 
and ' Mein Sohn,' pitching into him though occa- 
sionally. He asked some French boys from Gmve- 
lotte what they were doing. ' Getting butter,' they 
answered. ' What ! have you no butter at Gorze, 
and don't you learn German ? ' &c. He told me 
a great deal about the fights in which he com- 
manded a brigade of the 5th Division — the battles 
of VionviUe and Rezonville, Ac, and how the Em- 
peror shook his hand and said he would never for- 
get it. The whole country is like a vast cemetery. 
Bazaiue made a great blunder in not using the 
Guards to resist the attack of the Saxons on 

On the 27th he again drove with the Governor, 
visiting St Quentin and Plappeville. There was, how- 
ever, " no taking notes or anything with the Governor 
present." Graham was " amused at his familiar way 
with the soldiers — ' Why, my lad, that must be your 
Sunday coat' (a particularly dirty one), putting his 
hand on the man's shoulder and then sti-oking his 
face. He likes them to answer him loud, sharp, and 
quick, and they all evidently like him. Got away 
after luncheon to Fort Kameke, where I met a nice 
fellow and got lots of information." 

After visiting Forts St Julien, Les Bordes, and 
Queleu with another " very nice fellow," who let 
him see everything he wanted in spite of a dis- 
agreeable "sub," who at St Julien's would inspect 
his drawing, he said good-bye to the hospitable 
Governor and went to Mainz. There on the 30th 
September he found a very pleasant and com- 



municative Major A., a friend and correspondent of 
Colonel Wilbraham Lennox,^ and drove with him round 
the defences. Nest day he sailed down the Rhine to 
Coblentz. He looked over Ehrenbreitstein on the let 
October, visited Forts Alexander and Constantine, 
and then returned to England, where he reported 
himself to the Inspector - General of Fortifications, 
General {now Field-Marshal) Sir Lintoru Simmons. 
That distinguished officer took a lively interest in 
his doings, catechised him on the German manceuvres 
and the fortifications he had seen, and seemed much 
pleased with the information he had collected. 

He writes to his bi-other-in-law, the Rev. Reginald 
Durrant, shortly after his return to York : — 

"I have only lately returned from Germany, where 
I had a most interesting and instructive tour. I 
witnessed the manceuvres of three army corps and 
then proceeded to inspect the chief frontier fortresses, 
having previously obtained special pei-mission from the 
Minister of War, General von Kameke — a remarkably 
nice fellow, by the way, I saw a good deal of the 
Crown Prince and Princess and of the Emperor ; the 
Court generally included the great von Moltke. I am 
much impressed with the completeness of the German 
organisation, the great forethought shown in every 
detail : but this is a great subject. 

" I must tell you that we are about to move south- 
wards, as I have just accepted an appointment in the 
War Office. I have unfortunately got a house on my 
hands here which I must try and get rid of before 
taking Jane and family to London." , . . 

His wife also wi-ites to her brother on the 8th 
December 1877, from the house they were leaving — 
34 Bootham, York : — 



" We are delighted with the selection Gerald has 
made for us in the way of a house and the situation 
of it. It is a semi-detached house at Barnes, near 
Richmond — only 5^ miles from Hyde Park Corner, 
yet nicely out of London. The fare by railway is 
a trifle only into Town, and we shall have charminf>; 
country about us. A private road within a quarter 
of a mile of our house — Worlabye House (a pleasantly 
odd name) — will take us into Richmond Park, which 
Gerald tells rae is beautiful. He had never seen it 
before, and is amazed at so much real country beauty 
so near London. . . . We hope to be ready to go 
on Wednesday week, taking Frank with us from 
Scarborough, where we have placed him for the 
benefit of sea-air at a nice school kept by a clergy- 
man. Gerald will come to us from Cheltenham on 
the 2l8t, if all be well. Both dear boys have been 
going on very satisfactorily, and our dear little ones 
are all well, also dear Emmy. 

" Gerald is busy, now that the house-hunt is over, 
with the Woolwich examinations ; but we hope to see 
him back on Monday night, though he will have some 
papers to get through after he comes home. He 
works immensely hard. Lately he was occupied in 
a confidential report, with plans, of the Rhine forti- 
fications, in which I did amanuensis for him. We 
retired for ten days to Scarborough in order to secure 
the time to get through a portion of it. When com- 
plete with all the plans it made a grand packet I 

" We have recently seen Holman Hunt's great 
picture of the Shadow of the Cross. It is wonderfully 
painted, but I do not like the grand figure quite as 
I should like to do. The attitude of the mother is 
beautiful and full of expression — startled out of her 
tender wistful gaze into the treasures presented by 
the Magi by the terrible shadow and its awful aug- 


geations. The eyes aloue please me in the Saviour, 
and even they do not satisfy me." . . . 

So they went to London and settled down in the 
bouse with the "pleasantly odd name" in the Upper 
Richmond Road, Graham going up daily to the War 
OflBce. In the autumn of 1879 he was again selected 
to attend Continental army manoeuvres, and this time 
he went to see the work of the Swiss army, and had a 
very enjoyable tour. Besides the official report which 
he wrote on his return, he contributed to vol, iv. of the 
' Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal Engineers,' 
for 1880, a valuable article entitled, "Remarks on 
the Military Institutions of Switzerland, and Observa- 
tions on the Different Arms." In the summer of 1880 
he was one of the two chief umpires at the very im- 
portant experiments with submarine mines carried out 
at Portsmouth. 

He and his wife went this summer to see Lady 
Butler's and M. de Neuvllle's pictures of the defence 
of Rorke's Drift. They thought de NeuvQle's a very 
spirited composition with great merits besides, but 
that Lady Butler's was the more beautiful. " She 
never sacrifices any liigher quality to that of mere 
dash, which French artists not unfrequently do — even 
good ones." 

Graham was not able to complete the usual term of 
five years in his appointment at the War Office, for 
his early brevet promotions had given him ai'my pre- 
cedence over no less than fifty officers to whom he was 
junior in the corps of Royal Engineers, and aa promo- 
tion to the rank of major-general is by army rank, his 
promotion to that rank on the 19th October 1881 
placed him over their heads, and at the same time 
removed him to the unemployed list. 




Early in 1882 the state of affairs in Egypt, where 
Arabi Pasha, a colonel of the Egyptian army, had 
been forced upon the Khedive as Minister of War, and 
was practically governor of the country, led the British 
Government to prepare for intervention. Every effort 
to induce the French Government to join them in up- 
holding the Khedive by force of arms having failed, 
owing to an adverse vote of the French Assembly, 
arrangements were made for a British naval and mili- 
tary coup in Egypt. The land forces of the expedi- 
tion were to be furnished fi'om home and from India. 
In July events had so far developed that an advanced 
force from the Mediterranean garrisons was ordered 
to Egypt. It did not arrive until the 17th of that 
month, and in the meantime the refusal of Arabi 
Pasha to discontinue the work of strengthening and 
arming the sea -defences of Alexandria had been 
followed by the bombardment of those fortifications on 
the 11th by the British fleet, the subsequent retreat 
of Arabi and his army to Kafr-ed-Dowar, sixteen miles 
away, and the biu-ning and plunder of the city by the 
rifiraff of the population. 

On the 21st July it was decided to send two 
Divisions from England and a Contingent from India, 




Sir Garnet {now Viscount) Wolseley, Commanding- 

Sir Garnet bethought himself of his old comrade 
of Crimeau and China days, and gave him his oppor- 
tunity. He selected Graliam for the command of the 
2nd Infantry Brigade of the 1st Division commanded 
by Lieut. - General G. H. S. Willis, C.B.' Graham 
lost no time in preparatious, and, accompanied by his 
Aide-de-Camp, Brevet-Major R. C. Hart,^ V.C, RE., 
proceeded overland and by Peninsular and Oriental 
steamship Sui-at to Alexandria, where Sir Archibald 
Alison, Commander of the Ist Brigade of the 2nd 
Division, was in command of the advanced force. 
Graham's diary contains the following notes :^ 

"Aug. 3, 1882, Thursday. Ahxandria.^DisQm- 
barked at 6 a.m. Dressed at the Peninsular and Ori- 
ental Company's office, and breakfasted at the hotel 
with Principal Veterinary-Surgeon J. J. Meyrick and 
Captain G. S. Clarke,« RE. Sir Archibald Alison 
received me very kindly, but had had no notice of 
my coming and no letter by the mail which brought 
me, so he telegraphed liome for instructions. He 
expects I am to take on the 71st Regiment and 
the battalion of Marines to Ismailia : great chance I 
Major - General Sir Frederick Goldsmid next — fine, 
courteous old gentleman, head of the Intelligence De- 
partment — promised an intei-preter, and gave us one, 
Joseph, at once, who seems a capital fellow. We then 
went'to the Khedive's palace, where we found among 
lazy Court officials Zohrab Bey,* Aide-de-Camp, an 
Armenian, who looks like an Austrian cavalry officer ; 

< AlterwarJa G«uerttl fuiil U.C.B. He died id November 1000. 

, * Now Brig»dicr-Oeu«ittt Oomtu&ii<ling the Quetta DUtrict in IiuUa, 
[ uid K.CB. 

< Now Colonel Hiid K.C.M.G., Superintendent of the Rof »! Ouriage 

I Oepftrtmrnt, Wnolwivli Aneiuil. I 

I • Now MAJor-GeuemI RirE. H. Kohi«bFMha,E.C.M.G., C:&, tTndtr- J 
I UecTetai7 of StaU for War fu Eg/pt | 


^" *^ Ornstein from Buda-Pesth, private secretary, who 
ta-llts English very well — indeed, so does Zohrab; an 
t?yptian Cavalry officer ; the Colonel, grave and 
^l^mting, who brought in the Khedive : all were 
courteous and let us choose five horses. We went 
oacW to lunch off fruit and bread and then returned 
^^ the Khedive, who had appointed to see me at 4 p.m. 
'•^ "Were introduced at once, for he has not many 
"Visitors, and an English general is somebody ! A 
good-looking man Is the Khedive, in the prime of life, 
"With aquiline nose, and eyes dark and good-humoured. 
■He seemed always striving to make light of his posi- 
tion, and joked about Arabl a.s ' the destroyer before 
the prophet propliesied.' I said, ' Goi-don should be 
here.' Khedive. ' If he were here he would talk a great 
deal about the Soudan.' /. ' But he knows the country 
8o well." Khedive. 'There are Colonel Zohrab and 
M. d'Ornstein — they know Kgypt, but Colonel Gordon 
knows very little of it ; he only knows the Soudan.' 
Evidently he doesn't like him. The Khedive was very 
polite, and before quitting his presence the audacious 
Hart pressed d'Ornstein about a big horse for me, and 
actually got his Highness to promise one of his own 
stud ! We left our interpreter to look for grooms and 
got off to Ramleh to see the reconnaissance Sir Archi- 
bald Alison had told us about. We went up to the 
intrenchments and saw the reconnoitring party on the 
dry bed of the lake away on our left. We also saw 
the Egyptian position in a clump of trees by the rail- 
way. Arabi's line of communications might be threat- 
ened so as to make him withdraw. We then got back 
and dined at the hotel with Floyer.^ . . . 

"Aug. 4, Friday. — After breakfast we met Prin- 
cipal Veterinary -Surgeon Meyrick and took him with 
MB to Ras-el-Tin, where we tried horses. Havelock 

Mr E. A. Floyer, DirecUir-Ueneral of Tetegrnpha in Egypt. 

228 JBGTPT — CAMPAIGN Or 1882. 

[Bii' HeiiT}' Havelock- Allan] appeared and galloped 
wildly. He seems a capital rider. . . . We selected 
two of the Khedives bodyguard horses besides the 
five ali-eady chosen. While waiting for horses I was 
introduced to the Khedive's brother, Hassan Pasha, a 
ratijer weak -looking but pleasant fellow, who told me 
he was in the Infantrv and educated at Cairo, * in mv 
jxioi- military school.' He did not think much of the 
Egyptian Koldiei-s, and when I observed that they had 
foujrlit well here, rej>lied, ' Yes, the Artillery is good.' 
He liad seen Woolwich and spoke of his brother 
Ibl^lhim, who had been through the Royal Military 
Academy, and of two more in the Cavalry. I remarked 
tliat thev were quite a military family, at which he 
seemer] pleased. I left Hart still trying horses and 
went to the General's to luncheon. Then came a 
tele^iani I'rom England in ciphei* to employ me for a 
niontlj to the Ijest advantage. Sir Archibald offered 
me Alexandria or Ramleh, and I chose the latter of 
COUl•M^ . . . 

"'' Any. 5, Saturdwy. — I sent Hart off* with three 
hot>>«-s and ietui*ned to Ras-el-Tin. I showed the 
Geiieiu] a telegram, * Ptetum at once,' signed A. S. A. 
It ib not understood. I can't make out who sent it. 
How dear Jane would rejoice were I to return at once ! 
'J'he General told me to be in no hurry about taking 
up c|uai*tei*s at Kamleh, so I sent Hart on to arrange 
alx)Ul it and took luncheon with Sii* Auckland Colvin, 
Flovi-r, and Walton.^ On my way to call on the 
Admii-al (Jomuianding-in-Chief - 1 met Havelock, who 
told ni«; there was to be a reconnaissance that afternoon 
an<J that J was to command the left. As I had heard 

' liiHvifi Lieut. -(Joloiiel W. M. JB. Walton, Koyal Artillery, afterwards 
MHj<ir -< ;«fii«Mul and C'.B., who died in 1888. 
* rtir h . tieaudiaiup Seymour, G.G.B., afterwards first Baron AJceater. 

nothing of it from General Alison I did not believe it, 
and finding the Admiral had gone to Pharos I drove 
there and met him with Hotham ^ and another. . . . He 
asked me to reconnoitre Fort Aboukir on Monday and 
dine with him to-morrow. I went over Pharos and 
found great damage done in casemates of 8 - inch 
smooth-bore guns, the masonry being about nine feet 
thick. On the ramparts the 10-inch guns had been 
destroyed by gun-cotton, the guns being tamped at 
the muzzles. The guns fired through embrasures with 
flaring cheeks. At Fort Adda the crater of the maga- 
zine was fifty feet in diameter and twenty feet deep, 
On my return I heard of an action at Ramleh at which 
an officer had been killed. Dined with Gibson of the 
Intelligence Department, specials coming in later with 
great accounts of the battle of Ramleh ! As I walked 
to the hotel I heard a piano playing operatic airs — yet 
murder and hate seem to be in the air ! Went to 
bed and about midnight in came Hart and Havelock. 
. . . Hart told me of the engagement, which seems to 
have resulted in nothing. First advancing, then re- 
tiring with some loss on our side. . , . The enemy 
behaved well, and there was no skulking. . . . 

" Aug, 6, Sunday. — Ofi" to Ramleh on horseback 
with Hart, Went round outposts with Thackwell,'' 
which took about three hours in the heat of the sun. 
I thought the positions too extensive. . . . On our 
way back we stopped at the cemetery for the funeral 
of the officer and men killed yesterday— poor Wise of 
the Mounted Infantry. Sir Archibald seems quite 
satisfied with the reconnaissance, and says he found 
out all he wanted — viz., that Arabi isn't going to 

I Admiral Sir Charlea F. Hutham, K.C.B., Naval Commander iD-Chief 
at Portsmouth. 

' Lieut-Colonel W. do W. R. Thackwell, Commanding 1st South 8t«f- 
fordihire liegiment, a(t«rward« Mijor-Qeneral and C.B. 



retire. . . . He told me I may yet be ordered out to 
Ismailia with the 7l8t. I hope so. I dined with 
Sir Beaucharap Seymour, who had a pleasant party 
on board the Helicon. He wants me to report on 
the feasihihty of a combined attack on the Aboukir 
Forts. . . . 

" Aug. 7, Motiday. — I was In the gunboat Cygnet , 
all day tossing about in a rough sea examining the 
Aboukir Forts. . . . We made out that there were 
rifled guns in embrasures faced with masonry. The 
forts could be silenced in detail. On my return I saw 
Seymour and then went on to the General, who was at 
Ramleh, and wrote report. 

"Aug. 8, Tuesday. — Saw the General, and then 
sent my report to the Admiral and got out to Kamleh, 
where I inspected the new post on the right — -200 
Infantry, 70 Royal Artillery and guns, which ought to 
be an outpost of Alexandria. Dined with the 38th 

" Aug. 9, Wednesday. — Breakfasted with the 
Mounted Infantry and then visited the 46th Regiment. 
Richardson * advanced left in the morning, and in the 
afternoon established a new post in support on the 
right. ... I wrote to Alison proposing a reconnais- 
sance and the capture of the new work ! He tele- 
phoned that Sir John Adye will arrive to-night and 
that my reconnaissance must be postponed. 

"Aug. 10, Thursday. — Inspected the let South 
Staffordshire at 6 a.m.. a fine regiment, and aiWr 
breakfast rode out with Thackwell to the extreme 
front on the left and discussed a reconnaissance in 
that direction. ... In the afternoon i-ode out to the 
right front and withdrew a picket. J 

" Aug. II, Friday. — Inspected the 2nd battalion of ] 

1 U>jor~Ueti«r»l W. S. RicbftrdBan, CD., than Commanding the Snd J 
L Dak* <4 Cornwall's Light Infantry. I 


the Duke' of Cornwall's Light Infantry (46th). Made 
them a speech. ... Sir John Adye ^ and Staff arrived 
at 4 P.M., and I took them on the Water Tower and 
Red House, from which there are good views of Arabi's 
encampment. . . . 

"Aug. \2, Saturday. — Inspected the 60th, King's 
Royal Rifle Corps (Ashbumham),^ a very nice battalion, 
everytliing ship-shape and soldierlike. Then went to 
Alexandria with Parr,* who wants Sir John to let him 
reconnoitre the Lybian Desert. I saw Alison, who 
says he is still commanding the troops in front at Sir 
John's wish. 

" The Guards are coming out to Randeh, and the 
Duke of Connaught is to hold an independent com- 
mand. Alison thinks that his reconnaissance has 
drawn Arabi and that we shall now lick him easily, 
... I returned to Ramleh and saw the Guards arrive. 
They all went to the wrong station, so Staff-officers 
did not meet them. Had a good view of Arabi's 
camp, which he is intrenching strongly, Met the 
Duke of Connaught with the Guards. He was very 
cheery and greeted me as an old acquaintance. 

"Aug. 13, Si/nAiy.^Bathed in the sea. Church 
parade was at 11.30, and I had the Chaplain, the 
Rev. Mr O'Neill, and Dr Clarke to luncheon, after 
which I rode out to the Brigade of Guards and saw 
Philip Smith,* who commands the Grenadiers, a fine- 
looking man, tall and active, with guardsman's cool 
indifference. Saw the Duke and went round out- 
posts ; he is very keen for duty. 

' Oeneral Sir John Miller Adj'e,, Uolonel Comniandant of the 
UoytX Artillery, who died in 1900. He wu Chief of the Staff to the 

'' Major-General Sir Cromer AshburiiLaiu, K.C.B. 

• CapUin II. H. Parr, 13th Foot, now Major-General, Commanding at 
ShorHolilTe. C.fl. luid C.M.(}. 

* Afterwarda Major-General and C.B., now deceased. 

I . 

.'' 'I ll nlii 
^ »l;il|;lin. 

In [lilt V VJiulan? 


" Is Sir Garnet humbugging Alison?" After a sleep- 
less night he got on board the Caledonia on the 18th, 
and steamed off at noon on the 19th, He then notes 
in his diary, " Supposed bombardment and landing at 
Aboukir is humbug." The fleet of eight ironclads and 
seventeen transports anchored in Aboukir Bay at 4 P.M., 
to feign an attack on the Aboukir Forts. At nightfall 
small craft were sent close in-shore and opened tire 
while the rest of the fleet steamed off" to Port Said, 
which was reached soon after sunrise on the 20th. It 
was not possible at once to enter the canal, because 
three English steamei-s stopped the way. Graham, 
with 600 men, was therefore transhipped into a 
torpedo-boat, which was able to pass these steamers, 
and as soon as they were passed he and his men were 
transhipped into the gunboat Falcon, and landed at 
Ismailia at 10 p.m. Arab! had been completely sur- 
prised, and the next day saw not only the whole canal in 
our hands, but all our transports from Alexandria in it. 

Sir Garnet Wolseley's plans had been settled before 
he left England. He had arranged to seize the canal 
and to advance from Ismailia on Cairo. He expected 
Arabi to make a stand in the neighbourhood of Tel- 
el-Kebir, and he hoped to crush him there. On his 
arrival he at once discussed all the details of his plan 
with the Admiral, Sir Beauchamp Seymour, and re- 
ceiving hearty co-operation from the navy, lost no time 
in putting them into execution. 

Sir Archibald Alison and the advanced troops, who 
had arrived at Alexandria on the 1 7th July, had made 
the place secure against any attack likely to be at- 
tempted, had provided against internal disorder by 
eflicient military police arrangements, and had seized 
and intrenched the forward position of the ridge at 
Ramleh which included the waterworks. Sir Garnet 


234 EGYPT — CAMPAIGN OF 1882. 

Wolseley's plan was to induce Arabi to believe tbat 
the expedition fi-om England was to reinforce the 
garrison of Alexandria and Eamleh, and that his 
scheme of operations contemplated a direct attack on 
Arabi's position at Kafr-ed-Dowar. Alison was there- 
fore instructed to keep Arabi constantly alarmed. M. 
de Leaseps gave nnintentional assistance by assuring 
Arabi, when he heard of his proposal to destroy the 
canal, that if it were left intact neither France nor 
Italy would intervene, and tbat England would not 
dare to invade neutral territory. After Sir Garnet's 
arrival orders were issued to prepare for the bombard- 
ment and attack of Aboukir, to be supported by a 
movement of troops from Alexandria, Thus when the 
troops embarked on the 18th, it was under the suppo- 
sition that they were going to the attack of Aboukir, 
and not even Sir Edward Hamley,^ who was to com- 
mand the troops left in Alexandria, knew to the 
contrary, until on the morning of the 20th, on opening 
a sealed packet left with him by Sir Garnet, he found 
the real destination of the fleet and of the military 
forces to be the canal. Hamley was instructed to tell 
. no one, and to occupy Arabi with as much ahell-fire as 
possible. The ruse proved absolutely successful. 

On arrival at Port Said Sir Garnet selected Graham 
to lead the advance. He had to push to the front as 
rapidly as possible without encumbrances, and to seize 
first the railway and telegraph - station at Nelich^, 
and then the dam at El-Magfar on the Sweet-water 
Canal, constructed by the enemy to stop the water- 

The desert between Ismailia and El-Magfar is soft 

' Liuut-Cieneral Sir £dward Bruce Haraley, K.C.M.O., ComnuuidiDg 
the Snd Division, afterwards General, Colouei CommandaDt of the Boytl 
Artilleiy, and K.U.6. He died in 1883. 




anti bad marching ground, and banks of very heavy 
sand have to be crossed. No time was given for 
proper arrangements for supplies, and with two days' 
rations in their haversacks Graham's small force 
trudged along, cheating the burning sun by early 
morning and by evening marches; but there was no 
escape throughout the day, for they had no tents, and 
no cover was to be had. 

El - Magfar having been occupied, the low-lying 
country was in our hands ; but the reported construc- 
tion of another dam at Tel-el-Mahuta, and the neces- 
sity of seizing it as well as the important locks and 
bridge at Kassassin, made a still further rapid advance 
imperative ; and as the vanguard advanced farther 
from its base, where troops and stores were being 
landed unintermittently from transports and pushed 
forward as fast as could be managed, the difficulty 
at first experienced of supplying it with provisions 
and ammunition was great. 

The troops started from Ismailia with a few days' 
rations, partly carried in their haversacks and partly 
by the regimental transport which accompanied them, 
but the gi'ound was so difficult for draught that the 
wheeled transport could not be depended upon. To 
enable the regimental transport to reach the troops at 
all before the bivouac, provisions of all sorts and am- 
munition had to be thrown out, and lay strewn with 
the wrecks of broken-down carts upon the line of 
march. Steam-launches and towing-cutters had to be 
boiTowed from the navy to send supplies along the 
canal. Two hundred yards of railway bad been broken 
in front of Magfar, and up to that point loads of stores 
had to \ie dragged in trucks by mules along the rail- 
way until the engines could be brought up from the 
base. So that although the commissariat supplies 


landed at the base were actually in excess of the im- 
mediate requii-emeuts of the troops, the vanguard was 
short of food because the transport was insufiicient for 
the rapid advance. 

Every endeavour was made to cope with the diffi- 
culty, but in view of the circumstances it was perhaps 
unavoidable. So we find Graham nibbling a biscuit 
after a hard day's work on the 25th, and on the 27tb 
complaining that his men were without food, while on 
the 28th the battle of Kassassin had to be fought on 
empty stomachs. It was in such dark straits that 
Graham shone. When holding the post of honour in 
advance of the array on the Sweet-water Canal, he 
sat down among the men, much to their delight, 
and shared their biscuit, and bully-beef if there were 

At the action of El-Magfar Lieut. -General Willis 
was in command and Sir Garnet Wolseley was also 
present, but at the first battle of Kassassin on the 
28th August they had both returned to the base and 
Graham was in independent command. On that day, 
with about 1900 himgry men, and two guns (after- 
wards increased to four) short of ammunition, with 
a Krupp gun taken from the enemy at Masamah, 
Graham held his own all day against a force of 9000 
men with twelve guns well supplied with ammuni- 
tion, and then taking the offensive, during which 
he was reinforced by the Marines, he drove the 
enemy steadily back, and the Cavalry joining in 
completed a great victory. Graham's patient firm- 
ness and cautious pluck were evident to all, and it 
is no small testimony to his merits that the officers 
serving under him considered that it was due to 
the qualities of their commander that their small 
force was not smashed up. 




The following are extracts froiu Graham's notebook 
from the 20th to the 28th August : — 

" Aug. 20, Su?iday.— Off Port Said. Torpedo-boat 
sent for me to go on to Ismailia with 600 men of 
the 46th and 84th. Saw Rear- Admiral Hosklns,' 
who gave us luncheon, and Sir Beauchamp Seymour. 
Wolseley told me to push on to Neiichd as soon as 
possible. Got a gunboat — the Falcon. Got to 
Ismailia about 10 p.m. Found Captain Fitzroy,^ 
R.N., H.M.S. Orion, in command. . . . Met Fraser,' 
who lent me a pony surrendered by the Egyptian 
Chief of the Staff, who had come over to us. As 
my back is still troubling me this pony is a godsend. 
Slept on the sand under the sky. 

"A^tg. 21, Monday. — Advanced on Nefichd ; delayed 
till 8 A.M. by the York and Lancastei-s' breakfasts, 
&c. Deployed in order of attack, right refused. Gat- 
lings on left by canal. Heat intense. Many men fell 
out. Received at Nefich^ by an old woman with a 
white flag, who described shelling by the fleet very 
forcibly ; how Egyptians all ran away. Found a re- 
freshment-room at station intact ; old man m charge. 
Heat, dust, and crowd very oppressive. Wolsele}' 
came, also Adye. 

" Aug. 23, Wednesday. — Marched out from Nefich6 
yesterday on the road to Suez, and to-day recon- 
noitred four miles on to El-Magfar ; exchanged shots 
with pickets, taking two arms. Arranged for le- 
connaissance to-morrow with the Cavalry. Injection 
of morphia in back. Sleepless night. 

" Aug. 24, Thursday. Action of Tel-el -Mahuta. — 
Marched out at 5 A.M. Wolseley and Willis both 

* Now Admiral Sir Authon}' Hiley HoHkins, Q.C'.B, 

* Vice-Admiral Sir Robert O'Brien Fitzroy, K.C.B., now deceased. 

» Now Mtijor-OenenU Sir Tbomaa Fraaer, KCR, CiLG., Eoy»l 
Engineera, Commanding the Tfaamea Military District. 



coming. I had 1000 infantry — York and Lancaster, 
Royal Marine Artillery, Royal Marine Light Infantry, 
and two Royal Horse Artillery guns. The Cavalry 
were under Drury-Lowe.' Saw cavalry working rapidly 
on horizon, then about 9 A.M. heaid firing in front. 
Message for guns and infantry to move up. Cavalry 
and Mounted Infantry stopped. Found Wolseley and 
Willis behind a mound with two guns in position. 
Enemy dropped a shell, killing a horse of the battery 
just in rear. I got troops iti position. York and Lan- 
caster on left front, advanced on dam and between 
battery and canal, Royal Marine Artillery and Royal 
Marine Light Infantry on right. The York and Lan- 
caster were under musketry-fire, and bullets passed 
close between Wilson^ and me ; so were the mounted 
infantry, who had Parr and Melgund ^ hit. Wolseley 
made light of it at first, and then sent for the Guards, 
46th and 60th, and a lot of guns. They will have to 
march through the heat of the day. . . . Before sun- 
down a strong attack was made on our left. ... I 
sent off Gillespie* for 46th, which had come up. Put 
Royal Marine Artillery into gap left by York and 
Lancaster, and ordered up the Guards in support. . . . 
Suddenly enemy's attack collapsed, and all became 
quiet. ... I felt dead tired, and fell asleep on the 
sandbank after a bit of biscuit and chocolate. About 
I A.M. awoke with cold ; servants then came up, and I 
got a rug. 

* Lieut. -Colonel F. E. E. Wilaoti, Commanding York And Lancuter 
Begiment, afterwiinls Msjor-General and C.B. 

' Captsin ViscouDt Melgund, attached to tliit Mounted Infantry, now 
fourth Earl of Miiito and Govern or-Oeneml of Canada. 

' Colonel Robert Hollo GUleapie, ABaintunl Adjutant- Gene ml, Ist 
Division, afterwards Major-Genei-al and C.B. 



" Aug. 25, Pridaij. Affair of Masatnali. — Advanced 
on Mahuta in order of attack, but found it evacuated. 
. . . Heard of cavalry action at Masamah, and was 
ordered out to support Lowe. Saw Shaw-Hellier' come 
in with his weary, worn-out horses, and gave him and 
those about him tea and water. Tliwe were wounded 
ofBcers in the tent he had to pass round. Marched off 
to Masamah at 5 p.m. A delightful and romantic 
march by moonhght. Saw a jerboa. Arrived at 
Masamah and found Drury-Lowe glad to see me, for 
he had been getting anxious. Brought 830 Royal 
Marine Light Infantry and 350 Royal Marine Ar- 
tillery. Slept in a first-class carriage. . . . 

'^ Aug. 26, Saturday. — Beastly place Masamah. A 
lot of dead bodies about. Ordered to occupy Kassassin, 
so 1 moved out at 5 p.m. Getting there at 6.30, I 
took possession of a nice little villa with verandah. 
Found locks and bridge in good order. 

"Aug. 27, Sunday. — Very hard-up for food. Sent 
into Ouady to try and buy something. Made ar- 
rangements in case of attack. Ought to have the 
Cavalry nearer, 

" Aug. 28, Monday. First action at Kassassin. — 
Heliograplied ' Troops suffering from want of food.' 
At 9.30 A.M. strong body of cavalry seen coming over 
the hill. Heliographed to Lowe for the Cavalry. 
Got troops in position. Enemy showed infantry and 
brought out artillery, but at long range, I had 
only two guns, R.H.A., with 30 rounds, under 
Lieutenant F. E. A. Hunter, R.A., who fired thi-ee 
rounds off at cavalry skirmishers before I could stop 
him. ... I found Lowe had stopped the provision 
train on account of my telegiara, as if his Brigade 
' Colonel T, B. Sbaw-Hellier, Commanding 4th Rojal Irish Dragoon 




were not sufficieut escort for the traiu. At 4.30 p.m. 
the enemy came on in earnest before the men had 
time to get their dinners. Got all out in position, 
and stood his pounding for some time, then advanced 
line, led on Marines." 

On the 29th August Lord Wolseley telegraphed 
home a short account of Graham's victory, in which 
he observed : — 

"General Graham's dispositions were all that they 
should have been, and his operations were earned out 
with that coolness for which he has always been well 

The success of the action was of great importance. 
In spite of his previous defeats and the capture of 
hie camp at Masamah, Arabi was still acting on the 
offensive, was himself in the field during the action, 
and had managed to carry off his guns during the 
night. Although Graham had beaten back a foe 
five times his own strength, that foe was by no 
means demoralised, and was likely to exert himself 
to recover the ground he had lost. It served, 
therefore, as an encouragement to the General Com- 
manding by showing him of what efforts his generals 
and troo[»s were capable, and as a warning against 
thinking too lightly of his enemy. 

Graham's diaries seldom contain many details of 
events in which he himself played an important part, 
and i-especting this battle of Kassassin on the 28th 
August they contain only what liaa been quoted 
above. His despatch, however, supplies particulars. 
It was published in the ' London Gazette ' of the 
19th September 1882, and forms Appendix III. of this 

Sir Garnet Wolseley forwarded Graham's despatch 
to the Secretary of State for War under cover of a 


despatch dated from Ismailia, 4th September, from 
which the following extracts are made : — 

"The operations of the Cavah-y were so distinct 
from those of the Infantry that I venture to forward 
also a copy of the report from Major-General Drury- 
Lowe, C.B., although that officer is junior to Major- 
General Giaham, and acted under his orders during 
the day. . . . 

" The disiK>sitions made by Major-General Graham, 
V.C., C.B., during the action at Kassassin were all 
that they should have been ; and his steady advance 
upon the enemy, when he showed a disposition to 
drive his attack home, was well conceived and well 

It was not until the despatches, published in the 
'London Gazette' of the 19th September, were re- 
ceived in Egypt, that Graham was aware of the con- 
tents of Major-General Drury-Lowe's despatch. This 
officer had addressed his report to Lieut. -General 
Willis, commanding the 1st Division, and not to the 
officer under whose orders he was acting during the 
day, and to Graham's astonishment he found it stated 
in the report that he had sent a message to Dnu-y- 
Lowe " that he was only Just able to hold his own 
and wished hira to attack the left of the Infantry 
skirmishers." As he bad never sent such a message, 
and had never been in such a position, but, on the 
contrary, having held the enemy in check all day, 
was able to assume the offensive in the evening, 
when be wanted the co-operation of the Cavalry, he 
was naturally very indignant. It appeared that the 
galloper who carried the message {unfortunately a 
verbal one) was a young and inexperienced Cavalry 
officer, who delivered, in addition to the actual 
message sent, consisting of the words, " To take the 




Cavalry round by our right under cover of the hill, 
and attack the left flank of the enemy's sklrmishei-s," 
his owu views of the situation. The matter was put 
right by a further despatch from Sir Garnet Wolseley, 
dated Cairo, 3rd October, and published in the 
'London Gazette' of the 6th November 1882, from 
which the following extracts are taken :— 

" General Graham states, in the most emphatic 
manner, that no message was sent by him about 
being 'only just able to hold his own,' an expression 
for which Lieutenant Pirie ^ is solely responsible. 
That officer, it would seem, mixed up his own views 
on the position with the real message he was sent 
to deliver. . . . 

" General Graham, far from being in the position 
that Lieutenant Pirie represented to General Lowe, 
assumed the offensive towards the evening, and ad- 
vanced along the railway, driving the enemy before 
him for some two or three miles before the Cavalry 
had charged at all. 

" The charge made by General Lowe was skilfully 
conducted and most gallantly carried out, but, in 
justice to General Graham, it is essential you should 
know that the enemy were retreating at the time 
when the charge took place, a tact which General 
Lowe is well aware of, and reported to me the next 

The action at Kassassin on the 28th August was 
succeeded by a lull in active operations, during which 
the main body of the army and supplies of all kinds 
had to be brought up to Kassassin camp, and the 
supply service hospitals and lines of communication 
organised on an efficient basis. 

' Lieutenant D. V, Pirie, 4th BoyaJ Irish Dragoon Gnarde, now a CnpUiiu 
Mid M.P. for Abeitleeii, was Bxtra Aide-dr-Cunp to General Orftbun. 


The following notes are all that are given in the 
diary to the end of the campaign : — 

" Aicg. 29, Tuesday. — Sir Garnet, Willis, Sir 
John Adye — all the world, in fact — at my quarters; 
house filled with sick and wounded. Returned 
from early ride over battlefield in search of Lowers 
guns ^ to find all the hubbub. Sir Garnet very 
civil. . . . 

'^ Aug. 30, Wednesday, to Sept. 8, Friday. — Camp 
growing. General Willis arrived on 6th, but leaves 
me in command of the camp. A very nice, quiet old 
fellow. I can look back thirty years and see him at 
that picnic at Hurst Castle." 

Arabi Pasha now began to realise that if he in- 
tended another attack he had better make it before 
the British foi-ce at Kassassin was increased any 

" Sept. 9, Saturday. Second action at Kassassin. 
— Beginning to arrange my kit as on the 28th, when 
the Philistines are on us ! Are they mad ? In five 
minutes my dispositions are made, and in twenty 
minutes the troops are out in line of battle. Heavy 
artillery-fire from enemy as before, but our guns 
advance with the Infantry, and before 9 a.m. the 
enemy are in full retreat. Egyptian officer tried to 
run away, was pursued by several, tried to draw a 
revolver on Morice Bey, who fired on him, but missed. 
He was caught, and his revolver fell to me. Got 
just up to extreme range of Tel-el-Kebir guns — 5000 
to 6000 yards. Retired 1.30 p.m. Posting pickets 
in evening. Sent telegram to dear J. [his wife], 
'AH right.^" 

* The Cavalry charge by moonlight on the previous evening swept 
through a battery of seven or nine guns belonging to the enemy, but 
the guns could not afterwards be found. 



Sir Garnet's despatch of the 10th September stated 
that the enemy made a combined attack on the 
Kassassiu position on the morning of the 9th, one 
column advancing from the north from the Salahieh 
direction, the other from Tel-el-Keblr. Arabi was 
on the ground, but the troops were commanded by 
AH Fehmi Pasha. The enemy's force was about 
thirty guns {of which four were captured), seventeen 
battalions of infantry, several squadrons of cavalry, 
and a few thousand Bedouins. The British troops, 
under the command of Lieut. -General Willis, Com- 
manding the 1st Division, drove back the enemy, 
who retired with loss within the lines of Tei-el-Kebir. 
Major - General Graham especially brought to Sir 
Garnet's notice the dashing manner in which two 
Krupp guns were taken by the Royal Marine Light 

A Staff-officer who was with Graham from day- 
break, watching the enemy's advance as it gi-adually 
developed and message after message came from the 
outposts to announce more and more Egyptian regi- 
ments in sight, says, " It was channing to see his 
grim delight as he exclaimed, ' Got them within reach 
at last.'" 

The last entry in Graham's diary in this campaign 

"Sept. 10, Sundaij.—Fog in morning. Hottest 
day we've had^96° Fahr. in the shade. Busy with 
my despatch. Hart was up till past one o'clock this 
morning writing notes for it. . . . Twenty-seven years 
ago the last assault on Sehastopol, September 9. 
Wolseley tells rae that he doesn't mean to let Arabi 
escape him next time, that he means to smash him 
altogether, and relies on me to do it. He doesn't 
mean him to escape into the Delta, where he can't 


get at him. I expect to have to hoM him to his 
works by assaulting in front." 

On the 12th September he wrote to his sister from 
Kassassin : " Thanks for your card. The Cavalry 
action of the 28th August was perhaps more showy, 
hut our men deserved most credit for their long 
endurance when actually suffering from want of food ! 
The 46th actually got nothing to eat till supper that 
night, yet they responded gallantly when called on 
to advance. We have our most serious work be- 
fore us now. I trust to get through with life and 

The whole army was only assembled at Kassassin 
by the 12th September, the 1st Royal Irish Fusiliers 
being the last to arrive, and the same evening the 
force prepared for a night march on Tel-el-Keblr lines. 
Graham's Brigade then consisted of the 2nd Royal 
Irish, 1st Royal Irish Fusiliers, a battalion of Royal 
Marine Light Infantry, and the 2nd York and Lan- 
caster, the 1st West Kent having been left to guard 
the camp, and the battalion of Marines substituted. 

At half- past one in the morning of the 13th 
September the march began. The Ist and 2nd 
Divisions, with the Artillery between them, advanced 
simultaneously. The 1st Division was on the right of 
the line, with the 2nd Brigade (Graham's) in front, 
the 1st Brigade (Guards) acting as a reserve for the 
Division. Between 3 and 4 a.m. General Willis 
directed the 2nd Brigade to be deployed into line, 
as he considered it might at any minute be under 
fire. It advanced in line, however, with so much 
diflficulty and so many delays, that after a time, at 
Graham's suggestion, the advance was continued by 
fours from the right of companies. 

For several reasons the advanced Brigade of the 



2nd Division — i.e., the Highland Brigade — was the 
first to reach the lines — about 5 a.m. Shots from 
the sentries close upon the works gave the alarm, 
and a blaze of fire burst from the whole line of 
parapet. Graham's Brigade, which was some ten 
minutes later in reaching the lines, had therefore 
a deeirer zone of fire to cross than the Highland 
Brigade, and made the assault in attack formation. 
Sir Garnet Wolseley's despatch of 16th September 
says : " Major-Genei-al Graham reports, ' The steadi- 
ness of the advance of the 2nd Brigade under what 
appeared to be an overwhelming fire of musketry and 
artillery will remain a proud remembrance.' " " About 
the time," says the official account, " that the High- 
landers were l>eginning to push on to the interior 
retrenchments the 2nd Brigade, belonging to General 
Willis's Division, carried, almost in a rush, the line of 
works opposed to them, General Graham, with his 
accustomed gallantry, personally leading the men 
over the ditch." The enemy, unbroken, fell back, 
stubbornly resisting, but the Cavalry had by this 
time passed the line of intreuchmeuts, and swung 
round on the left lear of the enemy. By half-past 
five Graham's Brigade had pushed forward on the 
formed masses of the enemy beyond, which soon 
became a stream of fugitives. Graham then re- 
formed his Brigade, and advanced in close order over 
the higher ground towards the bridge, 

" I have seldom been so much affected by anything," 
writes an officer, "as I was when galloping through 
the lines we saw Graham's reception by his already 
re-formed Brigade. The enthusiasm of the men was 
unbounded. The hearty cheers with which they 
greeted him as he went from regiment to regiment 
were glorious to hear. They were the outcome of 


the respect and We which all who fought under hira 
felt for one who, while stern as to discipline, was, they 
knew, ever mindful of their comfort and watchful for 

! their safety, and was, they believed, always certain to 

I lead them to victory." 

I The enemy's rout was complete. The Cavalry were 

, ordered to continue their pursuit, and advance on 
Cairo, sixty-five miles off, with all haste. Captain 
{now Colonel) C. M. Watson, R.E., accompanied them, 
and to him, with 200 troopera, fell the honour of 
capturing the citadel of Cairo, with a garrison of 
5000 men, on the night of the 14th September; 
10,000 men at the Abbasseyeh Barracks surrendered 
to Major-General Urury-Lowe ; Arabi Pasha came in, 
and the rebellion was at an end. Graham's Brigade 
remained at Tel-el-Kebir for a time, and then moved 
to Cairo, into which the Khedive made a triumphant 
entry on the 25th, the British troops lining the 
streets, and on the 30th a grand parade of the British 
army was held before him. 

In Sir Garnet Wolseley's despatch of the 24th 
September 1882, he wrote : " The brunt of the fight- 
ing throughout the campaign fell to the lot of Major- 
General G. Graham, V.C., C.B., Commanding the 2nd 
Brigade, and it could not have been in better hands. 
To that coolness and gallantry in action for which he 
has always been well known he adds the power of 
leading and commanding others." 

For his services in this short campaign he was no 
less tlian five times mentioned in despatches (see 
'London Gazette,' 8th, 19th, and 26th September, 
6th October, and 2nd November 1882), was thanked 
by both Houses of Parliament, received the medal and 
clasp, the bronze star, the second class of the Medjidie, 
and was made a K.C.B. on the 18th November 1882. 


On the 22nd Septembei- the officers of R.E., 
musterinf^ some forty- five, or rather more than half 
the total number employed in the campaign, dined 
together at Shepherd's Hotel, Cairo, Graham presid- 
ing. He was supported by Brigadier-General (after- 
wards Sir) Charles H. Nugent, C.R.E., and Colonel 
(afterwards Sir) James Browne, C.R.E., of the Indian 
Contingent, both since gone to their rest. 

Sir Garnet Wolseley left Egypt on the 21st October, 
and the expeditionary army having been broken up, it 
was decided to retain in Egypt a force of 10,000 men 
under Sir Archibald Alison as an army of occupation ; 
and Graham remained at Cairo tn command of an 
infantry brigade. 

At a banquet of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
on the 4th December 1882, Lord Wolseley said, "The 
Brigade to which fell the brunt of all the fighting — 
' the fighting brigade,' I might call it — was commanded 
by an Engineer, General Graham, a very old friend of 
mine, a man with the heart of a lion and the modesty 
of a young girl." 

Graham, l)eing in Egypt, was unable to be present 
at the dinner given on the 15th December at the 
mess of the Royal Engineers at Chatham to the 
officers of the Corps who had served in the cam- 
paign ; but he was not forgotten. Sir Lintorn 
Simmons,^ in an interesting speech detailing Graham's 
services in the campaign, speaking of Tel-el-Kebir, 
said, " I heard a Marine officer of rank who was 
present say that Graham ' led in a manner which 
entirely gained the confidence of all the officers and 
men in his Brigade, who would have followed him 
anywhere.' " 

■ ri«lcI-Manhal Sir John Lintorn Anibin SimmonH, G.C.B., G.C.M.ti., 
(.V)lDDel Cnmmandaiit of the Boynl Engineen. 


The 1st Newcastle-on-Tyne and Durham Engineer 
Volunteers also, to whom Graham had been well 
known for many years as their inspecting officer in 
the Northern Military District, remembered him at 
their annual dinner on the 1st February 1883, and 
telegraphed to Egypt, " We drink your health and 
safe return." 



At Cairo the climate was pleasant, the season more than 
usually bright and gay after the war, and the society 
included many distinguished visitors. Graham's time 
seems to have been divided between routine duties of 
drills and inspections, &c., studying Arabic with a 
Copt, and the claims of society. On the 21st Feb- 
ruary 1883 he presented medals to the Cameron 
Highlanders, Sir Archibald Alison I)eing ill. At the 
parade Lord and Lady Dufferin, Field-Marshal Lord 

I Napier of Magdala, and the elite of Cairo society 
were present, and in spite of some nervous antici- 
pation of failure, Graham's address on the occasion 
was considered a success. 
He frequently went to Abbasseyeh to see parades 
of the Egyptian troops at the request of their com- 
manding officere, and took gi-eat interest in the work 
of training them carried on by British ofticei'S and 
non-commissioned officers under Sir Evelyn Wood, 
—how successfully has Ijeen shown in the recent 
Soudan campaigns under Lord Kitchener, when they 
proved themselves worthy to fight alongside our 
own men. 
Oq the 2nd March Graham records that Lord 
Napier of Magdala presented a man with a Victoria 



Cross at a parade, and spoke very nicely. How true, 
he says, was his remark that the soldier lived, as it 
were, under a microscope. 

So the days passed, and early in June he managed 
with aome difficulty to get two months' leave, and 
lost no time in coming to England. While at home 
he went to Windsor, attended a State ball at Buck- 
ingham Palace and other vanities, and was enter- 
tained by his brother officers at Chatham at the dinner 
given on the 26th July to Lord Napier of Magdala on 
his promotion to be a field-marshal, when H.R.H. the 
Duke of Cambridge, as Colonel of the Corps of Royal 
Engineers, presided. Lord Napier of Magdala, after 
returning thanks for the honour done to himself, 
in a short felicitous speech projiosed the toast of 
Sir Gerald Graham, and in the course of the even- 
ing both the Field-Marshal and Graham received the 
perilous honour of being triumphantly carried aloft 
on the shoulders of the younger officers round the 
anteroom. Before leaving England again for Egypt, 
Graham had the honour of dining with Queen Victoria 
at Osborne on the 31st July- He left on the 3rd 
August, and on arriving at Port Said received orders 
to go on to Suez, where there had been a good deal 
of cholera. He spent some three weeks in selecting 
new sites for camps and in seeing that the men 
were located in the most sanitary places available, 
and then went to Cairo. 

In the autumn of 1883 a political cloud, which bad 
arisen two years back in the Soudan, became dark 
and threatening. All eyes were directed to the 
coming stonn. 

As early as August 1881 the fanatic Muhammad 
Ahmed had declared himself in the Soudan to be the 
expected Mahdi of Moslem prophecy. He had since 

' S62 


that time rapidly developed into a considerable power, 
and the successes he had met with in subjugating 
Egyptian territory and the Arab tribes of the Soudan 
culminated in the defeat and annihilation of the army 
of Hicks Pasha, sent against him by the Khedive. 
This took place at Kasghil, in Kordofan, in October 
1883, and at once placed the whole country south of 
Khartoum at the mercy of the Mahdi. 

The only army which Egypt had possessed had 
been destroyed, and the reconquest of the fallen 
provinces meant military operations on a large scale, 
for which Egypt was altogether unequal, and which 
the British Government declined to undertake. A 
policy of withdrawal was therefore decided upon. 
Weak counsels always entail a thousandfold more 
difficulties of every kind than strong, and so it proved 
in this case. But the Government selected a strong 
man to carry out their weak policy, and Major- 
General Charles George Gordon, accompanied by 
Lieut.-ColoneI Donald Stewart, left London for Khar- 
toum on 18th January 1884. 

Little more than four years had elapsed since 
Giordon left Cairo after a stormy interview with 
Egyptian officials, at which he emphatically warned 
them that the return to the old system of oppression 
would result in a revolt in the Soudan. He had then 
resolved never again to set foot in Cairo or enter into 
relations with Egyptian officials. He therefore now 
contemplated going to Khartoum ind Suakln and 

Graham and Gordon were old friends, had been 
together in their young days at the Royal Military 
Academy and at Chatham, had been comrades in 
the Crimea and in China, and had since those days 
corresponded and met from time to time. It was 


now, however, some four years since they had seen 
one another ; and hearing of Gordon's intention to 
avoid Egypt and go to Khartoum via Suakin, 
Graham wrote the following letter to persuade 
him to change his mind and go to Khartoum via 
Cairo and the Nile : — 

" Shepherd's Hotel, Cairo, 2Zrd Januarj/ 1884. 

" My DEAR Charlie, — Do come to Cairo. Wood ^ 
will tell you, much better than I, why. Throw 
over all personal feeling, if you have any, and act 
like yourself with straightforward directness. You 
have no personal aims in this matter, and therefore 
no personal feelings must be allowed to interfere. 

"Your object, I assume, is to get to Khartoum, 
and if so, Cairo is the route, not Suakin. By coming 
here you will see Baring ^ and Nubar,^ and make all 
arrangements to facilitate your great enterprise, in 
which we all so earnestly wish you success. I shall 
be delighted to see you again, if only for a few 
minutes. — Sincerely yours, Gerald Graham." 

Sir Evelyn Wood personally delivered this letter 
to Gordon at Port Said. It had the desired effect, 
and Sir Evelyn carried Gordon off to be his guest 
at Cairo, where they arrived late on the 24th 
January 1884. 

The following quotations from Graham's diary at 
this time are of especial interest : — 

^^ Jan. 24, 1884, Thursday. Charlie Gordoiis 
arrival. — I had my R-E. dinner-party. There were 

I General Sir H. Evelyn Wood, V.C., G.C.B., G.C.M.G., Adjutant- 
General to the Forces, then a Major-General and in command of the 
Egyptian army. 

' Lord Cromer. ' Nubar Paaha, the Egyptian statesman. 

Scott-Moiicrieff,' Ardagh,- Todd,^ Green,* &c. Dur- 
ing dinner two telegrams from Fioyer came, giving 
progi-ess of Charlie's train, and about pudding-time 
he (Floyer) appeared himself and carried off me 
and Ardagh, We arrived just in time. Charlie 
looked greyer, but strong and well ; seemed really 
glad to see me ; wanted to walk home, but Wood 
was hungry, so I drove with him as he told me all 
his story. I got back to my R.E.'8, drank his health, 
and we passed a pleasant evening together. . . . 

"Jan. 25, Friday. — Before I was out of bed 
Charlie's voice was calling me, so I hurried up, and 
he talked for an hour — the Soudan question, policy 
of evacuation, anarchy and slave-trade, his interview 
with Wolseley and Minister, his acceptance of the 
mission, his views of the rebellion, no religious 
element In it, Mahdi not able to advance beyond 
the frontier of the tribes under him, Abyssinians no 
use as allies, won't tight in plain, &c. Two of bis 
old Soudan officers who bad joined Arab! and were 
in exile from Cairo he hopes to take with him. 
Hopes to attack slavery from the Congo, I don't 
like his programme, and wrote a letter to give him 
had be to go to-night. Want to ask bim to take 
me to Assouan. 

"Jan. 26, Saturday. — Visit to Charlie about 8 a.m. 
, . , Says he is delighted I am going with him. T 
only take my Aide-de-Camp and another fellow. . , . 

' Colonel Sir Colin Cwiipbell Scott- Moncrieff, K:.C.M.G., C.S.I., Royal 
Engineern, Under-Secretary of State for ScntUnd, then in tlie Egyptian 
Civil Service. 

* Mftjor'Ueneral Sir J. C. Ardagh, K.O.I. E., C.B., Royal Engineers, 
Director of Military Intelligeuce, then a Lieut. -C-olonel, and Deputy 
AasietAnt Adjutant-Uem^ral. 

' Major (ftfterwards Colonel) K. R. Todd, Royal Engineers. 

* Captain (aft«rwardH Colonel} A. O. Green, Royal Engineers. 


Decided to go on to Korosko. Got off by half-past nine 
in the evening. Nubar Pasha, Wood, the Khedive's 
chamberlain, &c., were at the station. The Sultan 
of Darfour and his ugly wives caused some delay. I 
had a long talk with Charlie, who insisted on there 
being no alternative between the assumption of the 
government of the Soudan by England and the 
evacuation of the country. I said, * Put in capable 
Englishmen as governors under Egyptian Govern- 
ment.' He replied, ' You could not get them,' that 
Baker Pasha had reused, &c. I asked him to read 
his own opinion as to evacuation in the ' Pall Mall 
Gazette ' ; but he said he wouldn't, so we said ' Good 
night.' It was bitterly cold, and I found out after- 
wards he had no wraps. Why did not I or some one 
find this out before ? 

" Jan. 27 y Sunday. — Arrived at Assiout about nine. 
Conference on * tarbush ' versus ' hat.' Colonel Stewart 
was strongly for * hat,' and said that Wood and Watson 
had both recommended it. I was for the tarbush, 
and so was Ibrahim Bey Fawzi, and it was settled to 
wear it. At Assiout his Majesty of Darfour came 
out in a gorgeous uniform with the grand cordon of 
the Medjidie, which kept slipping off*. The poor 
negro looked ridiculous in his finery. His brother 
in a turban had a far more dignified appearance. 
His Majesty took no notice of Gordon, but fussed 
about his wives and baggage. He wanted to be 
provided with food, but Gordon said he had £2000 
and should provide himself This sultan was a pen- 
sioner of the Egyptian Government on £2000 a-year, 
and Gordon had insisted he should be sent to Darfour. 
His father was killed by Zebehr. Gordon's instruc- 
tions from Baring are — (l) To protect the lives and 
properties of the Europeans and native Christians; 


(2) to withdraw the troops from the Soudan ; (3) to 
form a federation of native potentates. A credit of 
£100,000 has been opened for the purpose, and more 
will be given if required. Discretionary powers are 
given to Grordon, and a reasonable time will be 
allowed before withdrawal. After breakfast Gordon 
sent for the Sultan and his brothers, treating them 
with civility, but as inferiors and with no ceremony, 
telling them to sit down, and dismissing them when 
done with. He talked Arabic utterly regardless of 
grammar, as he does French, but he rarely seems at 
a loss for a word — when he is he lefera to his inter- 
preter — and he always seems to make himself under- 
stood. He told the Sultan not to go about in his 
uniform and finery until he had got his throne ; that 
he must leave his family at Dongola, get some chiefs 
to join him, and attach himself to Slatin Bey, ifec. 

" Gordon's telegram to Khartoum yesterday was, 
' Don't be panic-stricken ; you are men, not women ; 
I am coming.' He promised me to get a good escort 
from Korosko, a point I feel anxious about, and not 
to take the specie on with him. He did not like my 
hinting that he would be responsible for any disaster 
in the Soudan consequent on the withdrawal. 

"Jan. 28, Monday. — Steamed until midnight. 
Found Gordon ready for me in the morning with 
maps of Palestine, and had a long dissertation. He 
coughed badly during the night, but declares he is 
quite well this morning. Near dinner-time he got up 
and said he must write to Baring to give Stewart a 
commission in anything happened to him. He 
gave me a full description of the Coco-de-Mer and 
of the Seychelle Islands. Talked a great deal about 
the holy places at Jerusalem. We got to Keueh 
about half-past six p.m. 

^B irril 




' Jan. 29, Tiiesdai/. — A lovely cold morning, but 
ulear and bright ; the usual scenery, with high cliffs 

Pmore or less distant, and strips of cultivated delta, 
pahn-trees, i&c, in the foreground. Gordon drew out 
a plan of camjiaign, beginning by smashing the 
Hadendowas who are blocking Suakin. He also 

I wants five officers from England. I suggested B, 

[ as one, but tried to dissuade him from sending his 
plan of operations to Cairo. Stewart unluckily 
agreed with me, saying, ' Speech is silver ; silence is 
golden,' This annoyed Gordon, whose nerves are 
irritable, and he said he would write it out himself. 
After the plan of campaign discussion he was 

t &11 of the importance of relieving Slatin Bey. . . . 

lAt luncheon he reappeared in much better temper, 
laying he had written a letter to the Mahdi. Then 
he proposed I should go to Wady Haifa and report 
to him as to financial reductions that might be made. 
I agreed if he got General Stephenson's ^ permission. 
He left table immediately, wrote me a letter of 
instructions and a telegram to Baring. Afterwards 
engaged on a new plan. . . . Very impulsive. M. 
Marquet, a French merchant from Khartoum, came 
on board. He had left Khartoum about the middle 

tof December, and had crossed the desert from Abu 
Hamed with two servants and four camels in six 
days, meeting no one. There was a great panic at 
Khartoum when he left. He reported that grain and 
bread could be got at Berber. ... He said that 
when Gordon left the Soudan there would be civil 

I war and the wolves would eat the sheep. Gordon 
said they were all wolves, and went ofi". . . . 
"Jan. 30, Wednesday. — The day was cold with a 

' Lieut -General F. C, A. Stephenaou had succeeded Sir Archibald 
L AUflon in command of the Brittah armj of occupation in May 18B3. 




BtroDg west wind and dust-storms, Gordon was more 
amiable, and told me all about the Congo. He felt 
very much the want of a flag and of well-defined 
frontiers, and were it not that he was pledged to the 
King of the Belgians, he would be inclined to quit the 
expedition. He said he would appoint Walad Kerim 
as first man or Prime Vizier. We arrived at Assouan 
about 6 P.M. — a pretty place with granite rocks in the 
stream, green islets, and rugged sandhills crowned 
with old ruins. Gordon got a warm reception from 
the population, who want him to let them keep their 
mudir or headman. The mudir seemed to be a 
superior sort of fellow. Walked with Gordon to the 
railway station. Nubar telegraphs to Gordon that 
Stephenson doesn't want me to go to Wady Haifa. 
Gordon gave an account of how he thought Hicks 
Pasha should have advanced on Obeid — viz., in five 
marches from the north-east, making an intrenched 
camp with zeriba at each stage, always reconnoitring 
carefully and making good his new position before 
moving his baggage out of the old. 

"Jan. 31, Jliursday. — Left Assouan about 8.30 by 
rail to Philse. Met Mr James O'Kelly the Home- 
ruler. The Bishop of Philas had no desire to become 
a martyr to Bisharyeh Arabs. Fine scenery, ruins, 
rocks, and palms, with flowing river. 

"Gordon gave us an account of work in Gondokoro, 
Last night he had a telegram from Hassein Halifa, 
Mudir of Berber, very hopeful. A good-looking sturdy 
young black, one of his sons, goes with Gordon, 
who means to try and construct a government of 
Soudanese with Fawzi to look after the soldiers (the 
Egyptians) and Mahmoud Said after the Soudanese. 
His last letter to Baring is extremely hopeful. 
Gordon talked of his Congo scheme, and told us he 


[ means to take the Bahr-el-Gazelle and Equatorial 
I Proviuces, now under Emin Bey and Lupton Bey, 
and that he would write to the King of the Belgians 
I to-morrow. 

"Feb. 1, Friday. — By 8.30 a.m. Charlie had written 
his letter to the King of the Belgians proposing to 
take over the Bahr-el-Gazelle and Equatorial Provinces, 
and appended to it a neat plan. I talked with Gordon 
about my son Frank, and he strongly recommended 
me to make a doctor of him, and send him to St 
George's Hospital, and wrote a letter to his brother. 
Sir Henry Gordon, about him. He told me to tell 
Mrs A. that he was sorry not to have seen her 
children, and to tell Baring that his greatest pleasure 
in Cairo had been his introduction to his little boys. 
He also spoke of his great pleasure in my company, 
and gave me a letter to enclose to my wife. We 
reached Korosko about 7 p.m. Mr Bavia, manager of 
railways at Wady Haifa, came on board with his 
wife. He had been eight years there. Last year 
there were only eight trips on the Wady Haifa rail- 
road, and the dead loss financially was large. . . . 

"Feb. 2, Saturday. — Breakfast at 7 A.M. Gordon 
cheerful, and rallying Scott [the aide-de-camp] about 
his report. After breakfast talked with me alone ou 
the deck. He spoke of the misery of the natives, 
which had sometimes moved him to tears. He told 
me to tell Baring that he meant first to dismiss the 
Egyptian divan and then the minor Egyptian officials, 
replacing them by natives. He would then form a 
Soudanese army. In due course the time would come 
for sending back the Egyptian troops, when he would 
produce the Khedive's firman of severance and give 
the troops their choice of going back to Egypt or 
staying in the Soudan, but no longer under Egyptian 




rule. He means at once to write to the King of the 
Belgians to propose that the Soudan be incorporated 
with the proposed Congo State, his Majesty paying 
£100,000, to be administered by Gordon as ruler of 
the Soudan and Congo under the King of the 
Belgians. The question is : If the King of the 
Belgians agrees, will the British Grovernment raise 
any objection ? The arrangement would give some 
permanency and cohesion to the federation of sultans 
Gtordon intends to form, as when he is there as 
supreme dictator they may be kept in order." 

Graham much appreciated this week of companion- 
ship with Gordon. There were on board the steamer 
besides themselves only two other Englishmen — Lieut.- 
Colonel Donald Stewart, who was accompanying 
Gordon to Khartoum, and Lieutenant W. A. Scott 
of the Cameron Highlanders, who was Graham's Aide- 
de-Camp, so that there was plenty of opportunity 
for confidential talk. Gordon's birthday, the 28tJi 
January, occurred during the voyage, and Graham 
writes, " This is Gordon's birthday, and we drank 
his health, wishing him many happy returns." Alas 1 

The following is Graham's description of his parting 
with his friend : — 

" About eight o'clock he mounted his camel and 
said 'Good-bye,' but I walked beside him, and he 
shortly after got down and walked with me. At last 
I left him, saying 'Good-bye' and 'God bless you.' 
Then he mounted again, and a handsome young Arab, 
Ahmed, son of the Sheikh of Berber, rode beside him 
on a beautiful white camel. At the head of the 
caravan rode Ahmed's brother, both armed with the 
great cross-hilted swoi-ds and shields of rhinoceros 
hide which Soudan warfare has made so familiar. 
These swords, together with a couple of very old 




double-barrelled pistols with flintlocks, made up the 
Arab armament. Gordon carried no arms, but 
Stewart had a revolver. Before Gordon left he gave 
me a long, heavy, silver- mounted kourbash, or Soudan 
riding-whip, of rhinoceros hide, and told me to say 
that was a token that the reign of the kourbash in 
the Soudan was over. In exchange he took my white 
umbrella, having lost his own. 

" The place where I last saw Gordon is wild and 
desolate. The desert there is covered with a series of 
volcanic hills, ' looking,' Scott said, ' like a miniature 
Switzerland.' But here were no fertile valleys, no 
bright snow - clad peaks, no thriving population — 
nothing between the hills but black basins, or ravines, 
dry, dark, and destitute of all vegetation, looking like 
separate entrances to the pit where those who entered 
might leave hope behind. I thought of Hicks with 
his doomed army coming into such a ravine after forty 
days in the wilderness, utterly spent and worn out, 
then finding the dark crests of the surrounding 
heights lined with a fierce, exultant enemy, and of 
the sickening feeling he must have had that all was 
lost for him and those he had led there. I climbed up 
the highest of these hills with Scott, and through a 
glass watched Gordon and the small caravan as his 
camels threaded their way along a sandy valley, 
hoping that he would turn round that I might give 
him one more sign ; but he rode on until he turned 
the dark side of one of the hills, and I saw him no 
more. Sadly we returned to our steamer, and I felt 
a gloomy foreboding that I should never see Gordon 

An account of this all too brief glimpse of Gordon 
on his way to Khartoum, from which the above 
description is taken, was contributed by Graham some 




years later to a Review, and afterwards reprinted in 
book-form. I know of no more simple and touching 
narrative than is contained in that little work, ' Last 
Words with Gordon.' In drawing with such loving 
hand this picture of his friend, Graham unconsciously 
discloses those qualities of heart and head for which 
we admire him and cherish his memory. 

Having taken leave of Gordon, Graham started at 
once on his return journey, stopping to see the 
interesting ruins at Kalabsheh and at Philse. The 
latter he thought over - estimated, and that the 
builders of the time of Cffisar Augustus had made 
a bad mixture of Egyptian, Greek, and bastard 
Egyptian styles. " The real Egyptian," he observes, 
" alone is true and beautiful." He called on the head 
of the Roman Catholic Mission, Monsignore Franjoia 
Sogaro, and gives the following account of his visit : — ■ 

" Feb. 3, Sunday. — - Monsignore Francois Sogaro 
showed me some letters from Obeld, wxitten, some 
on linen and some on thin paper, in pale ink in 
Italian. These letters told of dreadful suft'erings on 
the part of the eleven survivors — five are dead — of 
the mission. The men suffered death, the women 
slavery, if they refused to turn Muhamadan. They 
had been tortured by exposure to the sun for three 
days at a time and by deprivation of food. They 
begged for aid and money. A brave native woman 
aged thirty, a pupil {SUve) of this mission, had brought 
these letters, and had set off on a return journey 
carrying £250 in dollars ! It seems incredible, but 
monsignore assured me that the brave woman had 
all and more than the strength and courage of a 
man. He intends to communicate with the Mahdi, 
now in Dongola, proposing to ransom the prisoners. 
He told me there were some Frenchmen in Govern- 


ment employment — clerks and telegraph men — who 

' were renegades with the Mahdi. Hassein, the present 
Governor-General, had actually imprisoned their brave 
and faithful emissary on her return journey, but the 
Austrian consul had procured her release. Mon- 
signore's manner did not inspire me with confidence. 
He has a shifty evasive eye and timid outlook. He 
said that Hicks Pasha was kept purposely in the 
dark by the Soudan Governor, and had often to 
come to him for information. He fears the Bisharyeh 
Arabs, and says that the Hadendowa are a branch. 
He thinks, however, that Hassein Halifa is a trust- 
worthy and powerful sheikh, and takes credit for 

I assisting in his appointment to the governorship of 

I Berber, 

"The Sultan of Darfour at Philfe is preparing to 
move oft'. He seemed much smarter, but I don't 
think him friendly to us," 

At Edfu he was delighted with the ruins, and con- 
sidered the temple the finest in Egypt. He saw also 
the half- buried temple at Esneh, and admired the 

' massive columns with leaiy capitals springing from 
reeds cut in the shaft. While here on the 8th 
February a boat came in with the news of the de- 
feat of Baker Pasha and Morice Bey near Suakin, 
and at Assiout on the 14th he received telegrams 
informing him of his appointment to command an 
expedition t« Suakin and of Gordon's safe arrival 
at Berber. 



As recently as the 19th January 1900 there was 
surrounded and captured at Jebel Warriba in the 
hills beyond Tokar, and brought a prisoner to Suakin, 
the notorious Osman Digna. This man belonged to 
the Hadendowa tribe of the Eastern Soudan, and at 
one time carried on a thriving business as a dealer 
in European merchandise, ostrich feathers, and slaves. 
He had his headquarters at Suakin, where his brother 
managed the business, while he travelled far and wide 
over the Soudan. Serious losses befell the firm ; their 
slave cargoes were captured by a British cruiser, and 
the Anglo - Egyptian Slave Convention threatened 
their ruin. Osman Digna visited the Mahdi in 1882, 
threw in his lot with him, and became one of his 
most influential followers. In the spring of 1883 he 
was appointed " Emir," or deputy of the Mahdi, in 
the Eastern Soudan. Eventually all the tribes in 
the Eastern Soudan gave in their allegiance to 

Towards the end of the year 1883, Osman Digna 
having met with several important successes in the 
neighbourhood of Sinkat and Suakin, Lieut. -General 
Valentine Baker Pasha was sent from Cairo on 19th 
December to cnish him. Baker arrived at Suakin on 


[the 23rd December, and was invested with supreme 
civil and military command in the Eastern Soudan. 
Leaving a force to garrison Suakin, Baker, with some 
4000 men, disembarked on the 2nd February 1884 at 
Trinkitat for the relief of Tokar. Two days later his 
force was cut to pieces near El Teb, his Egyptians 
being completely demoralised. 

The news of this disaster, following so closely on 

the annihilation of the army of Hicks Pasha, and 

I succeeded by the fall of Sinkat, produced a painful 

f- impression in England, and induced the British 

Government to undertake the defence of Suakin 

and the relief of Tokar. Orders were telegraphed to 

Lieut. - General Stephenson, commanding in Egypt, 

to organise an expedition, and to select his three 

best battalions for the purpose. He was informed 

that Sir Gerald Graham would command it, and that 

r Colonels Herbert Stewart and Sir Redvers BuUer 

had been selected to command respectively a cavalry 

and an infantry brigade, and Captain (afterwards 

I Major ■ General) A. G. Wauchope, lately killed at 

I Majeafontein, in South Africa, was to be Deputy- 

1 Assistant Adjutant- General. All other Staff officers 

I were to be selected as required in Egypt. The force 

L was to be augmented by a battalion of Marines and by 

I the troops on the way home from India in the Jumna. 

As we have already seen, Graham received the 

news of Baker's catastrophe on the Sth February on 

his way down the Nile, and on reaching Assiout on 

the 14th he heard of his own appointment to com- 

Imand the expedition to Suakin. He reached Cairo 
the next day, and was at once busy arranging with 
Lieut. -General Stephenson about Staff appointments 
and other urgent mattei's, and the following day 
many of his troops embarked for Suakin. 



Graham himself left Cairo on the 17th February, 
and, arriving at Suakin on the 22nd, proceeded the 
following day to Trinkitat. By the 25th he had 
landed there the greater part of his force, which 
consisted of a Naval Brigade, 10th Hussars, 19th 
Hussars, 6th and M Batteries, lat Brigade, Royal 
Artillery, 26th Company, Royal Engineers, Mounted 
Infantry, and two Infantry Brigades ; the 1st Brigade, 
commanded by Sir Redvers Buller,^ comprised the 2nd 
Royal Irish Fusiliers, 1st Gordon Highlanders, and 
3rd King's Royal Rifles (1700 men); the 2nd, com- 
manded by Major-General Davis,^ was composed of the 
Ist Black Watch, the Ist York and Lancaster, and the 
Royal Marines (1480 men). The total force num- 
bered about 4000 men, eight 7-pr. guns, and six 

While on boai'd ship Graham thought out his forma- 
tion for attack, and on the 2lBt February the follo\ving 

diagram appears In his diary, with the words, " The 

' General the Eight Hon. Sir RedterB H. Buller, V.C., G.C.B., K.C.M.G., 
Colonel ComnjMMlant King's Royal RiSeH, now Comuanding the Alder- 
■hot Division. 

^ Oenenil Sir John D&vii, K.C.B. 


above gives my fighting formatioD," written under- 

News had arrived of the fall of Tokar before the 
troops disembarked at Trinkitat. On the 26th Feb- 
ruary Graham was instructed that, in the event of 
Tokar having fallen, the main object would be to 
protect Suakin. He considered that Suakin would 
be best protected by attacking the Arabs, and de- 
cided to push on to Tokar. On the 28th he marched 
his force to Fort Baker, the redoubt built on the 
land side of the morass which separates Trinkitat 
Harbour from the mainland. 

Battle of El Teh.— On the following day (29th Feb- 
ruary) Graham advanced from Fort Baker on El Teb in 
a rectangular formation ; ii> front were the 1st Goi-don 
Highlanders, in rear the 1st Royal Highlanders, on 
the right the 2nd Royal Irish Fusiliers (supported by 
four companies of the 3rd King's Royal Rifles), on the 
left the 1st York and Lancaster, supported by 380 
Royal Marines. On the march the front and rear 
faces moved in company columns of fours at company 
intervals, and the flank battalions in open columns of 
companies. Intervals were left at the angles for the 
guns and Catlings, the Naval Brigade occupying the 
front and the Royal Artillery the rear angles. The 
front and left of the square were covered by a squadron 
of the 10th Hussars, the right by a troop of the 19th 
Hussars, the main body of the Cavalry being in rear 
under Brigadier-General H. Stewart. The base was 
secured by a company of the 3rd King's Royal Rifles, I 

all sick and weakly men and all departmental details 
armed, and three companies of the 3rd King's Royal 
Rifles at Fort Baker, with a Knipp gun and two ■ 

bronze guns manned by the Royal Marine Artillery. I 

The enemy were found to be intrenched on the left J 



fix)nt, where they had mounted the Krupp guns cap- 
tured from Baker Pasha. At 11.30 a.m., having ap- 
proached the left of the enemy's position, Graham 
moved well to his right front, crossing the enemy's 
left front under fire at about 1000 yards' distance, 
and then, after the Artillery had silenced their guns, 
changed front to his left, stormed the enemy's flank, 
and carried their intrenchments after desperate hand- 
to-hand fighting. About 12.30 p.m. the battery of 
two Krupp guns and a brass howitzer were taken, and 
the Cavalry, moving round the right flank of the 
attack, charged in three lines across the plain to ita 
right, where the enemy were in large numbers. The 
enemy fought with fanaticism. They were still in 
possession of the village and wells of El Teb, but by 
the capture of the battery on their left flank Graham 
had got in rear of their position, and the captured 
guns were turned on another two-gun Krupp battery, 
which was taken in reverse and soon silenced. The 
enemy's Infantry still clung with desperate tenacity to 
numerous rifle-pits and Intrenchments they had con- 
structed, and occupied buildings in the village, which 
were afterwards found filled with dead bodies. They 
asked for no quarter, and gave none. About 2 p.m. 
the whole position was taken. Out of an estimated 
strength of about 6000 the enemy lost over 2000 
killed. The British loss was 34 killed and 155 
wounded. The troops bivouacked on the plain. 

Graham's despatch relating the operations at the 
battle of El Teb was published in the ' London 
Gazette' of 27th March 1884, and is given in full 
in Appendix IV. of this volume. (See also Plate II.) 

On the Ist March Graham advanced on Tokar, 
arriving about 4 p.m. The inhabitants, so far from 
opposing him, received him with open arms. The 



next day he sent his cavalry to the encampment of 
the enemy at a place called Dubba, three miles 
distant. They found a zeriba with 1500 Remingtons 
and knapsacks, large quantities of intrenching tools, 
ammunition, a 7 -pounder gun, a Gathng, and the 
European loot from the killed of Baker's force. On 
the 3rd Graham received a message of congratulation 
from the Queen, and on the 4th he returned with his 
force to Trinkitat, bringing with him 700 of the 
inhabitants of Tokar. The following day the force 
commenced to re-embark for Suakin. Graham sent 
the Tokar flag to the Queen, who placed it in the 
Royal Armoury at Windsor. His despatch on the 
occupation of Tokar was published in the ' London 
Gazette' of 27th March 1884, and forms Appendix 
V. of this volume. 

The same day (1st March) Graham issued a General 
Order, In which he pointed out that the object of 
the expedition — the relief of Tokar — had been 
achieved, and the rebels defeated and thoroughly 
humbled. He remarked on the gallantry and disci- 
pline displayed by all arms, and the general steadi- 
ness displayed in moving to a flank under fire. " The 
result of the action," he said, " has shown the British 
soldier that as long as he is steady, keeps his forma- 
tion, and is cool in firing, the desperate rushes of 
brave blacks only ensure their destruction. The Arab 
has now felt the terrible fire of the British infantry, 
a lesBon not easily forgotten." 

On the 4th March Gordon sent Graham a con- 
gratulatory telegram in Arabic on the action of El 
Teb, which ran as follows : — 

" Pleased to hear captured Tokar and defeated 
rebels. Stewart Pasha, Power, British Consul, my- 
self, and the inhabitants and Soudanese of Khartoum 




congratulate you on your success. I also send my 
regards to all the British troops, and hope very soon 
the entire Soudan may be pacified and contentment 
reign among the people as formerly." 

Graham was now in hopes that he might soon be 
able to stretch out a hand to Gordon by a movement 
towards Berber, and telegraphed to him to that effect, 
and Gordon replied by the following telegram, dated 
6th March : — 

" Stewart and self delighted with your opinion. 
Tell your men I am deeply obliged and helped by 
their gallant conduct. Hope Scott is all right with 
bis minor tactics." 

The last sentence was a playful allusion to the 
studies of Graham's Aide-de-Camp when they were 
voyaging up the Nile together. 

By the 8th March the change of base from Trinkltat 
to Suakin had been completed, and Graham wrote a 
despatch that was published in the ' London Gazette ' 
of 27th March 1884, and will be found in Appendix 
VI. of this volume. The following notings are from 
Graham's diary ; — 

"March 9, Sunday. — Accompanied reconnoitring 
party to zeriba, nine miles in advance. Ground fairly 
open, with clumps of prickly mimosa and dry grass, 
which the horses like. Zeriba well constructed. Brush- 
wood partly burnt. . . . Decided on sending out Black 
Watch. After service made them a speech. 

"March 10, Moiulay. — Saw Black Watch off this 
morning. . . . Dined with the Admiral.' Said good- 
bye to Baker- and Burnaby.^ 

' Vice-Admiral Sir Williftm N. W. Hewelt, K.C.B., K.C.S.L, then 
Rear- Admiral C'oniinaDdiug. He died in 1888. 
' Lieut. -General Valentine Baker Pasha. 
' Colonel F, G, Bumaby of the Bluee, 



March 11, Tuesday. — Advanced force at 6 P.M. 
Started Headquarters about 8, arriving at zeriba a 
little after ten o'clock. Night quiet ; all troops inside ; 
Cavalry to come on to-morrow, 

"March 12, Wednesday. ~^eat Ardagh with 
Mounted Infantry to reconnoitre ground towards hills. 
He brought back word that enemy were not more than 
six miles in our front. Had dinners about 11.30 a.m. 
Advanced 12.30 p.m. About 4 p.m. came to a black 
rocky hill. Sent for convoy. One and a half miles 
beyond this Cavalry reported enemy advancing in 
force. Then 5 o'clock, so determined to halt for night 
and formed zeriba. Sent Cavalry back to water and 
bivouac at Baker's zeriba. Convoy of water and 
provisions with ammunition came in about 6.30 p.m." 

The battle of Taraai was fought on the 13th March, 
the enemy having opened on the zeriba at 1 a.m. 
« distant dropping fire, which continued throughout 
the night, causing few casualties, but disturbing the 
men's rest. About 7 a.m. the Cavalry arrived, and 
soon after the Mounted Infantry went out to feel 
the enemy. The advance of the Infantry began 
about 8.30 A.M. in direct echelon of Brigade squares 
from the left. The 2nd Brigade, under Brigadier- 
General Davis, which Graham accompanied, first 
came in contact with the enemy, who emerged from 
the edge of a ravine in the immediate front of the 
Brigade about 9 a.m. As this attack was being 
repelled by a charge of the Black Watch, a more 
formidable attack was made from the right flank 
by a great mass of Arabs, who with reckless deter- 
mination, and regardless of loss, threw themselves on 
the right-hand corner of the square and broke it. 
The Brigade fell back in disorder, and the enemy cap- 
tured the machine-guns, which, however, were locked 



before they were taken. Major Holley's ^ Battery of 
four guns had been ordered outside the square on the 
right flank before the action commenced, and although 
for a time unprotected by infantry, and exposed to the 
assault of the enemy coming on in crowds, the gunners 
stood firm to their guns, mowing down the advancing 
foe with inverted shrapnel. The Ist Brigade, under 
Brigadier-General Sir Redvers BuUer, which was at- 
tacked about the same time, stood perfectly steady 
and did great execution, and the Cavalry moved up 
to protect the left flank of the 2nd Brigade, which 
was soon rallied, and retook the machine-guns. The 
zeriba had also been threatened, but the little gar- 
rison stood to its arms and drove the enemy back. 
After this there was no more serious fighting, and 
the enemy retreated sullenly, passing through the 
camp and village of Tamai, which were occupied by 
the 1st Brigade about 11.40 a.m. The 2nd Brigade 
held the heights above the springs, where the Cavalry 
watered. The night was undisturbed by any fire. 
The next day the vUlage was burnt, and a quantity of 
ammunition found was destroyed. The force then re- 
turned to Suakin. The strength of the enemy at 
Tamai was reckoned about 12,000, and their killed 
at 2000. The British loss was 109 killed and 112 

Graham's despatch narrating the battle of Tamai 
was published in the 'London Gazette' of the 3rd 
April 1884, and will be found in full in Appendix VII. 
of this volume. (See also Plate III.) 

On the 16th March Graham issued the following 
General Order dealing with the battle : — 

" The second task of the expedition has now been 

accomplished ; the rebel army that threatened Suakin 

' Alajor-GeDeral Edward Hunt HoUej, Boyal Artillerj. 




is dispersed, and Its leader, Osman Digiia, is a fugitive 
in the hills with a price upon his head. 

"This result you, the officers and men of this small 
army, have brought about by the discipline and steadi- 
ness which you have shown in the performance of the 
several duties assigned to you. 

The men who cheerfully worked on the wharf all 
night, who bore the thirst and heat of the march, who 
quietly endured the dropping fire of the enemy all that 
night before the battle — those men showed themselves 
to be true stuff of which British soldiers are made. 

" There was only one critical moment when discipline 
was forgotten ; hut remember, you men of the 2nd 
Brigade, how, when you rallied and stood shoulder to 
shoulder, all danger was over, and the enemy no longer 
faced you. Remember also those brave comrades who 
stood to the last : who cared more for your honour 
than for their own safety, and who died nobly in 
that spot where the dead bodies of over 600 enemies 
showed how dearly they had purchased that temporary 

" The thanks of the army ai"e due to the 1st Brigade 
for the steadiness with which it received and repulsed 
the enemy's attack. 

"The Naval Brigade for a brief moment lost their 
guns, but through no fault of their own. Three of 
their officers and seven men were killed in trying to 
defend them, and each gun was locked before it fell 
into the enemy's hands, so that it could not be used 
against us. 

" The Cavalry co-operated well with the Infantry as 
Bkirmishers and scouts, and at the most critical moment 
protected the flank of the 2nd Brigade. 

" The Commissariat and Transport Department were 
indefatigable, and showed the admirable energy of 


"Tlie MtJUftuuurt a mwle bj the Axmx Mo&al 
Dcptftaeat fcr tbe comftrt and tnuqurt of the 
voimded and aiek veie aH tiiAt eoold fae d—inwi. 
Hanj izHtaoees of self-derodoQ on tike part of tKs 
medkal officers occarred whk^ will not be SargOtkeB. 

" Tbe Staff, too, bare erinced great seal and tMfmo- 
itj, a proof of which is shown in the soMiothiieaB wttb 
which all in atithoritjr have worked together for the 
general good. 

"The Naval Brigade have shown tbe same fine 
qualities of coarage and endorance that carried them 
Uiroogb tbe Tokar expedition, and tbeir share in our 
work will always be remembered with admiration by 
their comrada* in the army. 

" I have already had the honour to convey the 
thanks and congratulations of her most Gracious Ma- 
jesty the Queen, who never forgets ber soldiers, and 
of his Royal Highness the Field-Marshal Commanding- 
in-Chief. The country will also thank you for main- 
taining the honour of the English name, and your 
General will always be proud to be associated with 

As early as the 5th March Graham had foreseen 
that if he were successful the road from Suakin to 
Berber would thereby become opeu and safe, for on 
that day he telegraphed to Lieut. -General Stephenson 
suggesting that Gordon should be asked if he would 
recommend an advance on the Berber road, and if so, 
how far he would be prepared to co-operate. In reply 
to this question Gordon telegraphed on the 7th March: 
"Tbe Mahdi has attempted to raise the people of 
Shendi by means of an emissary. Should be succeed 
we may be cut off. I think it therefore most im- 




portant to follow up the success near Suakin by send- 
ing a small force up to Berber." Aud on the 10th : 
" Should the telegraph line be cut, I have told Hasseiu 
Pasha Khalifa^ to send scouts out, and himself to meet 
at 0-Bak the forces that might be advancing from 
Suakin. I shall detail those steamers which can pass 
the cataracts to remain at Berber." 

In forwarding Graham's telegram mentioned above 
to the Secretary of State for War, Lieut. - General 
Stephenson telegraphed, " I am uot prepared to re- 
commend Graham's force marching to Berber, owing 
to scarcity of water on road." 

Graham's proposal was negatived from home, and 
he was directed to get the road to Berber opened 
through sheikhs ! and to report more fully. This was 
on the 16th, and the next day he telegraphed the 
following summary of the state of affairs and what he 
proposed under the circumstances : — 

" Present position of affairs is that two heavy blows 
have been dealt at rebels and followers of the Mahdi, 
who are profoundly discouraged. They say, however, 
that the English troops can do no more, must re- 
embark, and leave the country to them. To follow 
up these victories, and bring waverers to our side, we 
should not proclaim our intention of leaving, but rather 
make a demonstration of an advance towards Berber, 
and induce a belief that we can march anywhere we 
please. I propose, therefore, making as great a show 
as possible without harassing troops. A strong bat- 
talion, with regiment of cavalry, advances to-morrow 
to Handoub, and thence a reconnaissance will be made 
along the Berber road." 

It must be remembered that Gordon had tele- 
graphed as far back as the 20th February recom- 
' The Mudir of Berber. 




BwmHing the opening up of the Suakin- Berber road ; 
<m the 2nd March, that he was sure the revolt would 
eoUapee ii' he oould say he had English troops at his 
back ; on the 9th, " We shall before long be blocked " ; 
aud on the 11th, " In the event of sending an expedi- 
tion to Berber, the greatest importance is speed. A 
small advanced guard at Berber would keep the 
riparian tribes between this and Berber quiet, and 
would be an assurance to the populations of the 
towns. " On this same day Lord Granville telegraphed 
that " Her Majesty's Government are not prepared to 
eeud troops to Berber." On the 16th March even Sir 
Evelyn Baring telegraphed home that it had now 
bwcome of the utmost importance not only to open 
the road between Suakin and Berber, but to come to 
teruui with the tril»eH between Berber and Khartoum. 

To thin repr-esentation also the Government turned 
a deaf ear and declined to allow British troops to go to 
Berber. Graliam did not, however, abandon hope that 
the Government miglit yet be moved to approve, and 
BrigafiiHr-tiononil Herliert Stewart prepared a scheme 
{or the advanai of th« mounted troops to Berber. In 
a ruconiiiiitwanctf c:;Lrr)e<l out by Stewart as far as 
Tamlxjulc on the 2Und March no armed Arabs were 
seen, the flocks and women were down at the wells, 
iind the country jirosiMited the appearance of being 
{M>rf«otly petvcuAil. On the same day a caravan of 
pilgrimn from (-'ontrnl Africa arrived at Handoub, 
having Iwen foiirt^ion clayH on the mareh from Berber. 

Hir Kvelyti Huririg, oncn rouHtn) to the imjrortance 
ul(iM-ll4irI>(ir route, seems to have 

leon onurgntii 

trying tu gf 

t it done by hook or 

by (iroiik, tinil wu lind ttin fnlluwlug entry in Graham's 
diary :— 

" Aloroh 'i'i, tiritwilt*y,—Admiiti\ sent me a copy of 


telegram from Bai'ing, leaving it to our discretion 
whether to treat with Osman Digna, putting him in 
position of governor and sheikh on the Berber road 
(Consul Baker's idea), or to send an expedition 
against him, I at once decided on latter course. 
Sent out to find a site for zeriba. Ordered Gordon 
Highlanders to hold themselves in readiness to move 
from Handoub ; then went to see Admiral, who 
thoroughly concurs. Set Cherraside ^ to work to get 
assistance from friendly tribes, both men and camels." 

On the 24th March, having got a reply from 
Graham and the Admiral, Baring returned to the 
charge and telegraplied home that he thought under 
present circumstances an effort should be made to 
help Gordon from Suakin, if it were at all a possible 
military operation, adding that General Stepheiison 
and Sir Evelyn Wood, whdst admitting the very 
great risk to the health of the troops, besides the 
extraordinary military risks, were of opinion that 
the undertaking was possible. It was of no avail. 

After his victory at TamaJ Graham could easily 
have opened up communications with Berber, and 
he was most anxious to do so. The Government, 
which had hitherto rejected every proposal put for- 
ward by Gordon, refused to allow any such attempt 
to he made, and were inflexible in their resolution 
to do nothing. 

Graham wrote after Gordon's death : " On that 
same day [i.e., 13th March 1884, the day on which 
the Government had by telegram peremptorily for- 
bidden Gordon to go to the Bahr-el-Gazelle and Equa- 
torial Provinces] the battle of Tamal was fought, 
after which, at the price of much bloodshed, the 

' Major-General Sir Herbert C. Chermside, G.C.M.G., C.B., Eoyil 
Engineers, now eotninaiiiliDg the Cumgh district. 

I d 


md from Suakin to Berber was open for British 
«r IndlaD troops, and the opportunity for rescuing 
Gordon and for saving Berber and Khartoum was 
aetaally within England's grasp. 

" Though uot allowed the honour of being Gordon's 
deliverer, though sorrowing with all England, with 
the added grief of one who has lost a dear friend, it 
is yet some small consolation to me to know that 
Gordon, in the midst of his bitter reflections when 
alone at Khartoum, acquitted me and the gallant 
little force I had the honour to command of all un- 
readiness or disinclination to advance to his rescue." 

Graham always regretted that instead of telegraph- 
ing for permission to send troops to Berber, he had 
not taken upon himself the responsibility of sending 
them, reporting his action for approval. 

On the 25th of March the force moved out to hunt 
up Osman Digna, and, if possible, to crush him finally 
at Tamanieb, the alternative naturally preferred by 
the Admiral and General to that of treating with him 
with the object of placing him in a position of authority 
on the Suakin-Berber road. After visiting the Admiral 
on board his ship, where he was received with all the 
honours, Graham marched early in the afternoon. (See 
Plate I.) The entries in his diary for the next two 
days and two telegrams to the Secretary of State 
for War from Tamanieb are given below : — 

" March 2G, M'ednejfday. — We slept in the middle 
of the Cavalry Brigade, and were constantly disturbed 
by fighting and screaming of stallions. Better than 
being fired at though. Started Cavalry and Mounted 
Infantry otF at 9 a.m. At 11 a.m. I followed with 
Gordon Highlanders and 89th, with 9 - pr. battery. 
At noon a large convoy started after us with Royal 
Marines. Day hot, but cooler than yesterday. About 


r4 P.M. came to entrance of mountains. A broad stony 
valley, intersected with sandy nullahs, Got on a hill, 
and opened communications with another hill like a 
truncated cone, where Stewart had established a 
heliograph. He reported himself as engaged with 
the enemy, whose strength he could not ascertain. I 
inquu-ed, 'Have you found water?' halting troops 
for reply. ' No.' Then came heliogram that the 
enemy had opened on him from a mile of front. So 
I at once heliographed for 42nd and 60th, retiring 
a little way to form zeriba No. 5. Stewart came up, 
and declared that if I meant fighting to-morrow his 
horses could do without water till 12 noon. 

" March 27, Thursday. Affair at Tamanieb. — 
60th and 42nd arrived last night about 8 p.m. quite 
cheerily. This morning reveille sounded at 3.30 a.m. 
Marched off at 5. Lovely morning. Quite cool. 
Road difficult^ — first part led along the sandy bottom 
of a watercourse, then over rocky ridges. Arrived at 
length within range, and fired two shells from a 
9 - pr. — much over the mark. Still it frightened 
them and silenced their fire. Took possession of the 
watering-place, then marched up the valley, burnt 
the village, and returned to zeriba." 

Graham's telegrams reporting the engagement of 
the 27th March at Tamanieb are as follows : — 

"Valley of Tamanieb, March 27, 10 a.m. — Have 
occupied enemy's position and springs without serious 
opposition ; enemy firing a few shots and retiring on 
approach of infantry. No casualties. Ground very 
rocky ; unfit for cavalry, very difficult for artillery. 
Cavalry and Mounted Infantry had no water since 
yesterday morning, and have worked splendidly. I, 
after watering, shall reconnoitre up valley, and retire 
on zeriba occupied last night. Troops in excellent 

, tssi. 

condition. As yet see no signs of friendly tribes, 
and consider this position un6t for occupation. 

"Tamanieb, March 27, 1884, 1.30 p.m. — Force 
returning to zeriba occupied last night, after burn- 
ing Osman Digna's villages, having met with no 
opposition worth mentioning. Two horses killed, 
Mounted Infantry." 

On the 28th March the force was back at Suakin. 
In accordance with instructions from home, the cam- 
paign was considered closed, and the 3rd King's Royal 
Rifles and a battalion of Royal Marines were left to 
garrison Suakin. 

Graham's final despatch, dated Slst March 1884, 
mentioning the officers, nou - commissioned officers, 
and men who had distinguished themselves during 
the campaign, was published in the ' London Gazette ' 
of the 6th May 1884, and is given in full in Appendix 
VIII. of this volume. 

After seeing the last of the troops embark, Graham 
quitted Suakin with his Staff on the 3rd April in the 
Orontes for Suez, the Admiral having left the day 
before in the Euryalus with signal flying " May all 
honours await you." 

He arrived at Cairo on the 7th April, and was met 
at the railway station by Lieut. -General Stephenson 
and his Staff", who gave him a very cordial welcome. 
He left Egypt on the 22nd April on two months' 
leave of absence, and was in London on the 29th. 
Before leaving he met Baring at Alexandria, and 
notes that he has more liberal ideas about Gordon 
than he expected to find, and thinks Zebehr ought 
to have been sent — " as the only man for a chief" 

Graham was, of course, much feted ; dined with the 
Queen at Windsor on the 13tb May; with many 
public bodies, and with various Ministers ; with his 



brother officers at Aldershot on the 16th; with the 
Junior United Service Club on the 21st ; and with his 
own corps at Chatham on the 30th, when he was the 
guest of Colonel, now Major-General, E. C Gordon, the 
commandant of the School of Military Engineering. 
On this occasion the non-commissioned officei's and 
sappers unhorsed his carriage and dragged it to the 
Commandant's house, and after the dinner the younger 
officers again carried him aloft round the mess-room, 

■ the band playing " See the Conquering Hero comes." 
At the annual general meeting of the officere of the 
Corps of Royal Engineers, held at the Levee Room at 
theHorse Guards on the 5th June 1884, Major-General, 
now Lieut. - General, Sir Andrew Clarke, K.C.M.G., 
C.B., CLE., Inspector - General of Fortifications, in 
the chau', it was unanimously resolved tliat Graham 
should be asked to sit for his portrait to be hung in 
the Officers' Mess of the Royal Engineers at Chatham. 
This he readily consented to do. The portrait was 
painted by Sir E. J. Poynter, now President of the 
Royal Academy, was shown in the Royal Academy 
Exhibition at Burlington House in the season of 
1886, and now hangs in the Chatham Mess. 

On the 19th July, accompanied by Lady Graham, 

the went to Jarrow-on-Tyne, where he received an 
address from the corporation of that ancient town, 
and was presented by Colonel Palmer^, and the 1st 
Newcastle-on-Tyne and Durham Volunteer Engineers 
with an address and a handsome sword of honour in 
an oak case made from the piles of the Roman bridge 
thrown across the Tyne at Newcastle by the Emperor 
Hadrian. A description and a drawing of this beauti- 
^_ ful gift were given in the ' Royal Engineers Journal ' 
^L for September 1884. 
^^B ' Sir Charlea Mark Palmer, lat b&ronet, Hod, Colouel. 



Graham's despatches on the campaign in the Eastern 
Soodan in 1884, published in the ^ London Grazette ' of 
27th March, 3rd April, and 6th May 1884, are given 
in the Appendicea For his services he was thanked 
by both Houses of Parliament, received two clasps to 
his Egyptian medal, the 1st Class of the Turkish 
Medjidie, and was promoted to be a Lieutenant-Greneral 
for distinguished service. He was offered the choice of 
a baronetcy or promotion, and, after some considera- 
tion, and on the advice of Lord Wolseley, he chose 
the latter, although he well knew how little prospect 
of employment there was likely to be for a lieutenant- 
general. He was promoted from the 21st May 1884. 



When Graham reached England in April 1884 atfairs 
at Khartoum had already become less hopeful. Early 
in May the investment of Berber, followed by its 
surrender to the Mahdi's forces on the 26th of that 
month, greatly increased the difficulty, and Khartoum 
was cut off. 

The question of an expedition to assist Gordon in 
his mission had some time i^reviously been forced 
on the attention of Government, and on the 8th 
April Lord Wolseley had submitted to the Secretary 
of State for War his view of the plan of operations to 
be pursued, " if the Government find it necessary to 
send a military force to Khartoum this autumn for 
the purpose of relieving that place, and carrying off 
the Egyptian garrison and servants of the Khedive's 
Government, now there under the orders of General C. 
Gordon, C.B." Lord Wolseley's plan was to repeat 
the Red River expedition on a larger scale up the 
Nile. Lieut. -General Sir Frederick Stephenson, Com- 
manding the British forces in Egypt, who was con- 
sulted, strongly advised the Suakin-Berber route, but 
stated that Sir Evelyn Wood, then employed with the 
Egyptian army, preferred the Nile route. The Nile 
route was eventually adopted by the Government. 



During the early summer of 1884, however, the I 
Government were a long way behind public opinion, | 
and either did not adequately realise the serious state I 
of affairs in the Soudan, or were not prepared to fece I 
it. When it was announced in the House of Com- 
mons, on the 8th July, that it was not the intention I 
of the Government to despatch an expedition for the I 
relief of Gordon, unless it were clearly shown that | 
such was the only means by which the General and I 
those dependent on him could be relieved, the country I 
became exasperated, and the outcry grew so loud j 
and so strong that the Government were reluctantly J 
compelled to hasten their preparations, and on the 5th | 
August a vote of credit was proposed in the House of I 
Commons to enable operations to be undertaken for f 
the relief of Khartoum. 

Having at length obtained from Parliament the I 
necessary funds, and from the Government a declBion 1 
as to the route to be followed, the War Office did ita I 
best to make up for lost time. Unfortunately, time I 
was the essence of the problem, and the time lost I 
could never be made up. In September 1884 Lord ] 
Wolseley arrived in Cairo in command of the expedi- 
tion up the Nile. 

But what had Graham to do with all this? He J 
had, indeed, neither to do with the preparations for, 
nor with the operations of, the Nile campaign ; but 
having already himself been prevented from helping 
Gordon, he was a very interested spectator of events, i 
As fai* back as the 18th May he had applied fori 
employment in the autumn expedition to Khartoum, I 
but h is h igh rank , and perhaps h is too ferven t J 
advocacy of the Suakiu- Berber route, told against I 
him, and his applications were not favourably I 
resjionded to. Nevertheless he was soon to return to| 


^the Eastern Soudan to assist in the endeavour to 
attain the object of the Nile expedition. It is im- 
portant, therefore, to bear in mind what was being 
done on the Nile, in order to understand the object of 

I the Suakin expedition. 

' This second expedition to the Eastern Soudan was 
first thought of when, on the 18th November 1884, the 
Government received from Lord Wolseley, who was 
then at Wady Haifa, a telegraphic summary of 
Gordon's letter of the 4th of that month, saying 
he could not hold out for more than forty days 
without difficulty. The receipt on the 30th of 
December of Gordon's further letter of the 14th 
December, in which he warned Lord Wolseley not 
to leave Berber untaken in his rear, and described the 
pitiful condition of Khartoum, emphasised the im- 
portance of action from Suakin in the direction of 
Berber, not so much for the relief of Khartoum as to 
overthrow the power of Osman Digna, and thus 
secure the flank of the Nile column. It was not, 
however, until after the receipt, in February 1885, of 
the news of the fall of Khartoum and of the death of 
Gordon, that the Government definitely decided upon 
the Suakin expedition. 

When the year 1885 opened the tension on the 
public mind was severe. The progress of the Nile 
column under Lord Wolseley was watched from day 
to day with the keenest interest, every one hoping 
almost against hope that there might yet be time to 
save Gordon ; but this was not to be. 

Graham's diary for this year was very irregularly 
kept. A cutting from a newspaper has been pasted on 
the inside of the cover, containing extracts from 
Wordsworth's " Character of the Happy Warrior " 
as an appropriate description of Gordon, and the 



following entries will be read with a melancholy 
interest : — 

"Jan, 26, Monday, — ^Public getting very anxious 
about Stewait's ^ safety. I went to the club aud had 
a talk with D., and wrote a letter to 'Times' and 
'Standard' suggesting that he might have marched 
on to the catai-act forty miles above Metemmeh, being 
more likely there to meet Gordon's steamers. 

"Jan. 28, Wednesday. — Gordon's birthday; and 
we fii-st heard of Stewai-t's march after Abu-Klea, hia 
wound, his arrival at Gubat, and meeting of Gordon's 
steamers. BaiTing Stewart's wound and our loss the 
news seemed good, and we drank dear Charlie's health, 
trusting that at last he was to be relieved now that 
steamers with Wilson ^ and party had gone forward. 

" Feb. 5, Thursday. — To-day, I believe (written on 
23rd February), came to us the awful news that 
Khartoum had fallen, and that Gordon was reported 

At the opening of Parliament on the 10th February 
1885, the Government announced their policy of going 
to Khartoum to break the power of the MahdL The 
idea was that Lord Wolseley would hold the Nile fixjm 
Merawi to Dongola and Hamieck Cataract during the 
summer and prepare for an autumn campaign, and that 
in the meanwhile Osman Digna's power in the Suakin 
district should be crushed, and a railway commenced 
from Suakin to Berber. 

On this same day Graham had entered in his diary 
"I fear there is no hope of my getting the commaud, 
nevertheless I think a good deal over the tactics I 

■ Brigadier-General Sir Herbert Stewart, E.C.B., ilied on the l«t]k 
Fi^bruary ISSC, of wouiicU received Lii the actiua btuu- Uetemmeli on ti» 
Idth JnnuKrjr ISSS. 

> Major-General Sii- Charles Wmkin Wilaoti, K.C.B.. K.CJI.O, 
Rujnil Kngiiieera. 


' -would adopt when on defensive. In an open country 
a loose and yet strong formation as below. For attctck 
we should keep our adopted system, reinforcing skir- 
mishers to meet counter-attacks." 

On the following 

day (11th February | | 

1885) Graham was ,.\ ■^„ 

sent for by the Mill- ^ ^^ 

tary Secretary, and I cam.ii »e | 

going to the Wai' 

Office, had an inter- ' i i ' 

view with the Com- 
mander - in - Chief, 

H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, who informed him 
of his appointment to the command of the Suakin 
expedition, and congratulated him on his good luck. 

On the same day he had an interview with the 
Secretaiy of State for War, at which his opinion was 
aeked as to whether the railway, which it was pro- 
posed to make between Suakin and Berber, should 
be constructed by military labour or by contract. 
Graham was in favour of military labour ; but Sir 
Arthur Haliburton (now Lord Haliburton), Director 
of Supplies and Transport at the War Office, strongly 
advocated contract, 

Graham was busy enough until his departure, daily 
attending meetings of committees of the Cabinet and 
conferences at the War Office about the expedition, 
and especially the railway. Major - General Sir 
Andrew Clarke, then Inspector - General of Fortifi- 
cations, was in favour of the metre gauge for the 
railway, as used in India, and the supply of workmen 
and organisation by the Indian Public Works Depart- 
ment; but Graham says this was opposed by the India 
Office, as weakening Indian works. 



On the 17th February a contract was made with 
Lucas & Alrd to construct a railway of 
4-Aot 6}-inch gauge from Suakin to Berber. The 
control, works, and direction of the line were to be 
under the General Commanding the expedition, the 
oontractorB being responsible for labour, materials, 
and construction, the Government reserving to 
themselves the power of stopping the construction 
at any section. 

On returning home late in the evening of that day 
Graham hurt his ankle very severely, and as he did 
not take tiuSicient care of himself, he paid the penalty 
later on. 

On the I9th the Queen sent for him, and he went 
to Windsor in the afternoon. He had a most gracious 
and kind reception, her Majesty expressing her indig- 
nation at the abandonment of Gordon, and her regret 
that (iraham should have to go to Suakin again to 
do what lie could so easily have done in the previous 
epiing. The Queen desired him to telegraph to her, 
and not to expose himself too much. 

Graham writes to bis sister from the Horse-Guards 
next day : " I can only find a spare moment to write 
to you and thank you for your kind letter. It is a 
serious task and heavy responsibility that has been 
intrusted to me, and I trust I may succeed in carry- 
ing ray duties out to the satisfaction of the country. 
The Queen expressed herself very kindly to me, and 
showed great feeling atwut Gordon. I am so sorry to 
see poor Stewart's death announced." 

On the '20th February, accompanied by bis Chief 

of the Staff, Major - General Sir George Greaves,^ 

K.C.M.G., C.B., and his Aides-de-Carap, Lieutenants 

Hon. J. M. Stopford, Gi-enadier GuaixJs, and W. C. 

t NowUwivmlftodO.Ca 


Anderson, R.A., now a Major, and other officers, 
Graham left Charing Cross by the evening boat 

I train amidst the cheers of a great crowd assembled 
to see him off, including many officers of his own 
corps. At the station he had a parting inter- 
view with the Secretary of State for War, Lord 
Hartingtou, now Duke of Devonshire, who told him 
that the Prime Minister was very anxious that he 
should capture Osman Digna, and authorised him to 

j bribe natives, if necessary, to effect his capture. At 

\ Dover, also, the party met with a cordial send-off 
from the General Commanding and his Staff, and a 

' gi'eat many officers and friends. 

On board the Mongolia, on passage to Egypt, 
Graham suffered a great deal of pain from his ankle, 
and by the time he got to Cairo, on the 26th February, 
it was so much worse that he had to remain in his 
room at Sir Frederick Stephenson's for ten days. It 
was found necessary to cut the wound open and insert 
a seton. At a meeting in his room on the 27th, at 
which Sir Frederick Stephenson and all Staff and 
Heads of Departments were present, various matters 
were settled as to water-supply, camping-grounds, 
&.C., and Graham arranged to send Sir Geoi'ge Greaves 
and the rest of his Staff on the 29th to Suakin to be 
on the spot while the troops were arriving. On the 
2nd March Graham received a telegram from the 
Queen, through Sir John Cowell, making kind in- 
quiries. He found himself sufficiently recovered to 
leave Cairo on the 9th March, and arrived at Suakin, 
still rather lame, on the 12th, where more than half 
the force was already assembled. 

kThe force consisted of a Naval Brigade, under Com- 
mander Domville,^ R.N. ; Cavalry, under Colonel H. 
' Captain Sir William CecU H. Domsille, C.B., RN., fourth baronet. 
I ■ 

290 EASTERN SOUDAN, 1885. 

P. Ewart ' — two squadrons 5th Lancers, detachment 
19th Hussars, two squadrons 20th Hussars, and four 
companies of Mounted Infantry ; Artillery, under 
Lieut. -Colonel Stuart J. Nicholson,^ R.A. — one horse 
battery, one field battery, and one mountain batt«ry; 
Engineers, under Colonel J. Bevan Edwards,^ R.E. — 
two field companies, one railway company, two tele- 
frraph sections, and a balloon detachment. Infantry 
in two brigades : Guards Brigade under Major-General 
A, J. Lyon-Fremantle * — 3rd Grenadiers, Ist Cold- 
streams and 2nd Scots ; Second Brigade, under Major- 
General Sir John C. M'NeiU, V.C, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 

2nd East Surrey, 1st Shropshire, Ist Berkshire, and 

ft battalion of Marines. There was also an Indian 
Contingent under Brigadier-General John Hudson,^ 
C.B., composed of 15th Sikhs, 9th Bengal Cavalry, 
oue company of Madras Sappers, 17th Bengal, and 
38th Bombay Native Infantiy ; and an Australian 
(New South Wales) Contingent, consisting of two 
batteries of Field- Artillery , under Lieut. -Colonel W. W, 
Spalding, and a battalion of Infantry, under Lieut.- 
Colonel Wells, which anived at Suakin at the end of 
the month of March. Including Army Medical Staff, 
Ordnance Store, Commissariat, and Transport, the 
total force was about 13,000 (of which some 2500 were 
previously in garrison at Suakin), and 11,000 followers 
(labourers, camel-drivers, muleteers, &c.) 

Never before had au army in the field been 
assembled that included not only the flower of the 

> Now Major-Genenl, K.OB., K.aV.O., and Crown Equerrj to tttvl 
King. ■ 

» Now Ma]or-G«neral (retired) and C'.B. 

* Now LieuL-General (retired) and K.C.U.Q. 

* Now OeneraJ, a.C.M.Q., and C.B. 

* Afterwftrda Lieut-GenenU uid E.C.^ He died iu India wbea in I 
oomiDADd of tfa« Bombay array. 




regular army, and representatives of the native armies 
of Bengal, Madras, Bombay, and the Punjab, but also 
a contingent from far-distant Australia. For the first 
time in British history the Artillery and Infantry of an 
Australian colony (New South Wales) fought side by 
side with the Guardsman and the Sikh. 

Seven years earlier indeed, when the relations of 
this country with Russia were strained at the end 
of the Russo-Turkish war, General Sir Patrick Mac- 
Dougall, Commanding the Forces in North America, 
undertook, with the approval of the Dominion Govern- 
ment, to place 10,000 trained and disciplined Canadian 
volunteers at the disposal of the Home Government, 
for service wherever required. Although the offer 
was accepted there was no occasion for their services, 
as the crisis passed away. 

Now, however. Sir Gerald Graham found himself in 
command of troops which had for the first time come 
from the Antipodes to show their devotion to the 
Mother Country, and to set an example that has 
lately been so worthily followed in South Africa by 
all the great colonies to the advantage and consolida- 
tion of the empire. 

Graham's instructions, dated the 20th February, 
were briefly — to facilitate the operations of the rail- 
way contractors ; to make the best arrangements, 
which the shortness of time before the hot weather 
commenced would permit, to organise a field force for 
the destruction of Osman Digna's power ; to attack 
all the positions which he occupied and disperse the 
troops defending them ; then to arrange for the mili- 
tary occupation of the Hadendowa territory lying 
near the Suakin- Berber road, &c. ; and finally, to 
consider himself under Lord Wolseley's orders, re- 
porting to him, and transmitting copies by post and 



telegraph to the Secretary of State for War. Withiu 
the limits of these instructions he was given perfect 
discretionary powers to conduct operations in any 
manner he might deem best. 

The railway was commenced the day after Graham's 
arrival ; but it is not proposed to dwell upon the 
many interesting engineering works carried on under 
his command by the zeal and energy of his Engineera 
in the heat and glare of the Red Sea littoral. While 
Graham, as an Engineer, took great interest in the 
railway and other works, he left them in the bands 
of the veiy competent officers under his orders, and 
bestowed his main attention on the plan of campaign. 

Osman Digna was i-eported to be at Tamai with 
some 7000 men; a force of 3000 of the enemy was at 
Hashin, of Suakiu ; and Tokar was held by a 
small force. As the occupation of Hashin threatened 
the right of any advance on Tamai, and was also 
convenient to the enemy for night raids, with which 
they harassed Graham's camp, he decided first of all 
to break up the enemy's force at Hashin, and hold 
both it and Handoub. Accordingly on the 19th of 
March Graham made a reconnaissance in force. He 
found the enemy in some hills near Hashin, about 
seven miles from Suakin, but they retired after slight 
resistance. Having made arrangements to attack on 
the following day and to form a zeriba, he returned 
with his force to camp. 

Leaving the Shropshire and details to guard the 
camp, Graham advanced at 6.30 a.m. on the 20th 
March with 10,000 men on Hashin. The Infantry 
reached the foot of the hills about 8.30 a.m., and the 
Royal Engineers, Madras Sappers, and the East Surrey 
Regiment occupied some hills and constructed defen- 
sive posts on them, the enemy falling back on Dihili- 



bat Hill, a steep hill which was splendidly stormed 
by M'Neill and his Brigade, supported by the Indian 
contingent and the battery of Horse -Artillery ; the 
Guards Brigade moved in support of the whole, and 
the Cavalry covered the flanks. On the right the 5th 
Lancers and two squadrons of the 9th Bengal Cavalry 
charged with great effect, and completely checked a 
body of the enemy advancing down the Hashin valley 
to turn Graham's right flank. By about half-past 
two o'clock four strong posts were completed and a 
Eeriba commenced. About 4.30 p.m. the force re- 
turned to camp, leaving the East Surrey Regiment 
to guard the position. Graham's loss was 9 killed 
and 39 wounded, while that of the enemy was es- 
timated at 250 killed at least. 

The telegraphic despatch sent from Hashin the 
same day, and the full despatch of the following day 
from Suakin, were published in Parliamentary Papers, 
Egypt, Nos. 9 and 13 (1885), C 4345 and 4392, and 
will be found in Appendix IX. of this volume. {See 
also Plate IV.) 

Having broken up the enemy's concentration at 
Hashin and established a post there, Graham next 
operated against Osman Digna at Tamai. For reasons 
of supply it was necessary to establish intermediate 
posts, and on the 22nd March he sent M'Neitl's brigade 
and a squadron of the 5th Lancers, a field company 
and telegraph section, R.E,, four Gardner guns manned 
by the Naval Brigade, with the Indian Brigade to con- 
voy the camel transport animals back to Suakin, to form 
a zeriba some miles from Suakin on the way to Tamai. 

Graham himself accompanied the force for two miles 
and a half, and then returned to camp. At 2.45 p.m. 
he heard heavy firing in the direction which the force 
had taken, and immediately ordered out the Guards 


294 EASTERN SOUDAN, 1885, 

Brigade and the Horse -Artillery battery ; but he had 
not proceeded more than three miles, following the 
field telegraph line laid by the R.E., when he re<;eived 
a telegram from M'Neill that he was in no need of 
assistance, and returned to camp. 

What had happened was briefly that M'Neill was 
attacked by the enemy while making his zeribas at 
Tofrik, the halting-place. One zeriba was nearly com- 
pleted, and the other was in progress ; one-half the 
Berkshire Regiment was at dinner, and the other half 
cutting brushwood ; the camels were unloaded, and 
filing out to be formed up for their return march to 
Suakin under the escort of the Indian Brigade ; about 
two-thirds of the force remained by their arms. Sud- 
denly the enemy attacked from the thick scrub — bo 
suddenly and so impetuously that the warning of the 
Cavalry scouts was insufficient for preparation, the 
enemy charging close upon their heels. A most gal- 
lant defence was made, and the enemy, about 2000 
strong, were eventually repulsed, with the loss of 
about half their number. M'NeiU's loss was severe 
— 150 killed and 298 wounded and missing, including 
followers, while no less than 500 camels were lost. 

As the Royal Engineers were out working when 
the attack was made, they suffered heavily. Captain 
F. J. Romilly, Lieutenant E. M. B. Newman, and 13 
men were killed, and Captain C. B. Wilkieson and 3 
men were wounded. 

On the following day {23rd) Graham rode out to the 
zeriba with the Brigade of Guards and a convoy of 
1200 camels. After receiving M'Nelll's report be 
complimented the Berkshire Regiment and the Sikhs, 
who had especially distinguished themselves, on their 
gallant behaviour, and sen t off the following telegraphic 
despatch : — 


'Advanced Zeriha, 12 noon, March 23, 1885. — 
Arrived here with Guards and large convoy. Am 
sending in wounded and baggage animals, with Indian 
Brigade and Grenadier Guai-ds, under Lyon- Freman tie, 
leaving two battalions of Guards here with M'Neill's 
Brigade. A strong zeriha has been constructed, and 
I consider position secure against any number of 
enemy. The attack yesterday was very sudden and 
determined, and came, unfortunately, on our weakest 
point. The Sikhs charged the enemy with bayonet. 
The Berkshire behaved splendidly, clearing out the 
zeriba where entered and capturing three standards. 
Marines also behaved well. Naval Brigade was much 
exposed, and suffered severely. Engineers also suffered 
heavily, being out working when attacked. The 
enemy suffered very severely, more than a thousand 
bodies being counted. Many chiefs of note are be- 
lieved to have fallen. I deeply regret our serious 
losses, but am of opinion that M'NeiU did everything 
possible under the circxmistances. The Cavalry, 5th 
Lancei-s, did their best to give information, but, the 
ground being covered with bush, it was impossible to 
see any distance. The troops behaved extremely well. 
All the Staff and Regimental officers did their utmost. 
Enemy charged with reckless courage, leaping over 
the low zeriba to certain death ; and although they 
gained a temporary success by surprise, they have 
received a severe lesson, and up to the present time 
have not again attempted to molest the zeriba." 

The despatch giving full particulars of this affair ie 
dated from Suakin, 28th March, and was published in 
Parliamentary Papers, Egypt, No. 13 (1885), C 4392. 
It will be found in Appendix X, of this volume, (See 
also Plate V.) 

On the 24th March another convoy of 425 camels. 



818 carts, and 8000 gallons of water proceeded to 
M'Neill's zeriba, as it was called, escorted by the 
Indian Brigade. Three miles from the zeriba they 
were met by the Coldstream Guards and Royal 
Marines, who relieved the Indian Brigade ; and while 
escorting the convoy to the zeriba were attacked by 
the enemy in some force, and on closing up the 
square 1 1 7 camels were left outside, and either killed 
or lost, the escort losing 1 man killed and 3 officers 
and 25 men wounded. 

On the following day a convoy of 500 camels with 
3480 gallons of water, escorted by over 2000 men, 
arrived safely at the zeriha, and returned without 
seeing any trace of the enemy. They had with 
them a captive balloon, which was successfully used. 
On this day also the East Surrey Eegiment was brought 
in from Hashin, and the post dismantled. 

On the 26th March Graham himself marched out 
at 6 A.M. with his whole available force, and escorted 
a large convoy of 600 camels and 300 mules, caiTy- 
ing 9000 gallons of water, to M'Neill's zeriba. The 
Infantry advanced in square, the Grenadier Guards 
and Shropshire Light Infantry forming respectively 
the front and rear faces, each with a front of two 
companies, and the Surrey Regiment and 28th Bombay 
Native Infantry the sides. After two hours' march 
the enemy were seen, and a few shots exchanged 
between them and the Cavalry; but by 9.15 they 
were swarming in the dense bush. After half an 
hour of desultory firing a rush was made at the 
right front corner of the square, which was at once 
repulsed. Al'ter clearing the scrub in front, Graham 
continued his march to the zeriha, unloaded the 
baggage animals, and returned with them to Suakin, 
taking away with him also the Scots Guards, 



The next day the troops rested, and Graham had 
a meeting of the Heads of Departments to arrange 
about transport. On the 28th another large convoy 
went out under Major-General Lyon-Fremantle, and 
Graham was busy inspecting the hospital ships, &c. 
On the 29th the New South Wales Infantry arrived, 
and were inspected and addressed. Graham's diary 
may here be quoted : — 

"March 30, Monday. — Large convoy, 20,000 gal- 
lons, under Hudson. Fell out Marines, inspected and 
addressed them, and sent them home. Rode over to 
Australians. Many gentlemen and some retired officers 
in their ranks. Rode into Suakin and saw Chermside. 
Mahmoud AH very anxious to cut off Osman Digna, 
who is reported to have only 20 men, rest having 
gone with women, grain, 4c., into mountains. I gave 
him leave to send out, and promised him his reward 
if successful. In evening Grover ^ brought news that 
the men wouldn't go. Australian Battery in Suakin ; 
will disembark to-morrow. Saw Spalding — a smart 
Commanding Officer. The men are mostly garrison 
gunners, and horses are untrained, Spalding said 
he couldn't be ready for a week. 

"March 31, Tuesday. — Spies report Tamai evacu- 
ated ; all women, grain, withdrawn. Spy drank of 
water and found it bitter. Sent out Mounted Infantry 
to zeriba with orders to push on to Tamai to-morrow 
if possible. Inspected Australians in khaki, and saw 
them drill. . . . 

" Ajyril 1, Wednesday. — Started railway beyond 
West Redoubt, but getting message that Mounted 

' Major (nftervardfl Colonel) George E. Grover, Royal Eugineere, 
Deputy Asiiatant Adjutant-General, Intelligence Department. He died 
at Chicago in 1693, when BHtish CommiBatoner at tbe International 
Exhibition there. 



2tS BAfiFBAN BOUDAH, 1886. 

Iii&ntry had found enemy in force near Tamai, ordered 
a geDeral advance to-morrow. 

"April 3, Thursday. — Up by 3 A.M., but owing to 
delays didn't start till 4.30 a.m. Progress slow, with 
targe convoy of camels, mules, doolie-bearers, &c. Got 
to zeriba about 8.30 a.m., when we halted. Inflated 
Ifftlloon, which got torn in bush, and soon ignominiously 

Graham had moved from Suakin with 7000 men 
4ff all annft, and his force was further augmented at 
M'NeiU'ii zeriba by a battalion of Guards and of the 
liii;rl(»hire Regiment, the 24th Company, R.E., the 
M'.niiitM Infantry, and a troop of the 9th Bengal 
fjftVttlry, making a total of over 8000 men. The 
2f»th iiimbay Native Infantry and two Gardner-guns, 
(ristiJied by the Iloyal Marine Ai-tillery, were left to gar- 
ri*>n M'NeiU'tt zeriba. To continue Graham's notes : — 

"Atwut 2 P.M. wo were three miles from Tesela 
Hill, and I fwnt on Grant ' with Mounted Infantry 
to occupy it. I went on it about 4.30 p.m., and the 
whole force arrived about 5 p.m. Set them at once 
to c/mfitruct zeriba nnd occupy the surrounding hills. 
Sikhs very smart. The Surrey, under Ralston,^ capi- 
tal workmen. I occupied Tesela Hill as my head- 
quarters. ... At I A.M. hre opened again pi-e- 
clsely as last time, but outlying picket of Grenadiers 
at once replied, and a shell from a 13 -pr. on 
Tesela Hill completely shut them up, after which 
we had a (juiet night. In that short time one 
man was killed and two wounded. The day has 
been pleasantly cool and night quite fresh." 

' Hnjor - (lenflral lltmry Fane Oraut, C.B., Insjiector - General of 
OivKlry, then Liiiiil..<^l(mel 4tli UuMiira, I'ummamling the Mouiited 

' Colonvl W. H. lUiHton, f.B., tlii'U Couiniinidiiig the 2nd East Surrey 



On leaving M'Neill'B zeriba the advance was slow, 
with frequent halts, owing to the density of the bush. 
By 12.15 P.M. they had only advanced about three 
miles, and the Cavalry reported the presence of the 
enemy in the bush, who gradually fell back before 
their advance. At 1.30 p.m. the enemy were retiring 
on Tesela Hill and Tamai, and half an hour later the 
force halted for dinner, and the Mounted Infantry and 
a squadron of the 9th Bengal Cavalry reconnoitred 
the position on the hilJa. At first the enemy seemed 
inclined to defend the position, but their flanks being 
threatened, they fell back on Tamai. Tesela, a group 
of bare rocky hills about 100 feet high, but practicable 
for guns, was occupied by the Mounted Infantry and 
cavalry, and heliographic communication was opened 
with Suakin. An excellent view was obtained of the 
scattered villages of New Tamai, lying between the 
ridges of low hills beyond Tesela and the deep ravine, 
Khor Ghoub, beyond which the country becomes ex- 
ceedingly mountainous, and intersected by ravines with 
precipitous sides. (See Plate I.) 

The Mounted Infantry were ordered to push on to 
the village, ascertain if it were occupied, and, if 
practicable, move on to the water, and water the 
horses. Fire was opened upon them after advancing 
a mile south of one village, and they fell back. The 
main body of the force arrived at Tesela about 5 P.M. 
and formed a zeriba in the valley, occupying in force 
the hills on both sides, while the Mounted Infantry 
and Cavalry returned to M'Neill's zeriba for the night, 

Graham's first object was to gain possession of the 
cluster of villages at New Tamai, which had long been 
Oaman Digna's Headquarters, and to secure the wells 
in the Khor. The ground between Tesela and the 
Khor was broken and rough, intersected with deep 



gullies, and covered with jutting rocks and boulders, 
but free from bush. 

On the momiug of the 3rd April the zeriba at 
Tesela was left in charge of M'Neill with the East 
Surrey and Shropshire, and the Gardner - guns. 
Having sent forward the Cavalry and Mounted In- 
fantry to cover the advance, Graham marched with 
about 6000 men. By 9.30 a.m. the square reached 
the edge of the Khor, firing continuing all the time 
between the Mounted Infantry and the enemy's scouts 
on the right flank. The 2nd Brigade then moved 
across the Khor, supported by artillery - fire ; and 
ascending the hill on the other side, the Berkshire 
and Marines opened fire from the highest point in the 
centre of the hill. The Guards Brigade and New 
South Wales Contingent were in support crowning the 
ridges on the north side of the Khor, the Horse- 
Artillery and mountain -guns coming into action on 
their left flank. During these operations the enemy 
kept up a continuous but distant fire, and gradually 
withdrew into the mountains to the south-west. The 
British loss was 1 killed and I G wounded. 

On descending the Khor to the place where Graham 
had found a running stream in the previous spring 
campaign, no water was found. Graham's force had 
brought with it only three days' supply, and the 
absence of water at Tamai made it risky to advance 
to Tamanieb, for the wells there might also be found 
waterless, and the difficulty of supplying so large a 
force with water was enormous. Considering it use- 
less under these circumstances to follow the enemy, 
who was either unable or indisposed to fight, into 
the hills, Graham burnt the villages, destroyed large 
quantities of ammunition found in them, and retired. 
A small party of the enemy, moving on the hills to 



the i-ight parallel to the line of march, kept up a 
running fire, with the result that one man was killed 
and six wounded. Tesela zeriba was reached about 2 
P.M. Part of the Artillery and Cavalry were sent back 
to Suakin ; the remainder of the force moved to 
M'Neill's zeriba, and the following day also returned 
to camp. 

The efficiency of the transport arrangements was 
marked. Out of nearly 2000 transport animals all 
but six returned, and two of these six were killed 
in action. 

Graham's brief notes on this day are as follows : — 
"April 3, Friday. — Got ofl' about 8 A.M. with 
reserve ammunition. Cavalry came up from No. 1 
(M'Neill's) zeriba at 7. We soon came into a large 
deserted village, and enemy kept up a weak fire from 
opposite side of Khor. 2nd Brigade crowned lieights, 
and opposition was confined to distant fire from rifles. 
We found, however, no water sufficient for the 
animals. Some could be got by sinking 7 feet, and 
there was a filthy pool. Accordingly I decided to 
return. Got troops back, burning village, and with- 
drew with scientific precision about 2 p.m. I re- 
turned with Cavalry and Horse- Artillery to Suakin, 
Conway [his servant] with mule bringing all my 

" April 4, SaMirday. — Men came in about noon in 
excellent condition. Rode out to meet them, and 
then on to West Redoubt. Looked at camping- 
gi'ound, and rode round camps." 

Graham's despatch, dated 8th April, reporting the 
operations of the 2nd and 3rd April, was published 
in Parliamentai-y Paper, Egypt. No. 13 (1885), C 
4392, and will be found in Appendix XI. of this 



The enemy having been driven out of their posi- 
tions at Hashin and Tamal, Graham proceeded to open 
up the route for the railway, but first cleared out 
M'Neill's zeriba, as it was no longer required. He 
then occupied Handoub on the 8th April without 

On the 9th April Graham telegraphed home for 
permission to employ military working-parties on the 
railways, which was approved on the 14th. On the 
12th April he telegraphed to the Secretary of State 
for War that the tribes would not come in unless 
assured of British protection, and asked the em- 
barrassing question — how far he could offer it. 

But just at this time the whole position of affairs 
was suddenly changed, for on the 13th April the Secre- 
tary of State for War telegraphed to Lord Wolseley 
that the expedition to Khartoum might have to 
be abandoned under the then condition of imperial 
affairs (alluding to the Penjdeh incident, which 
appeared likely to Involve the country with Russia), 
and that he must consider what measures should 
be taken for the safe withdrawal of the troops, 
observing that this would Involve stopping the 
advance from Suakln, but not hurried withdrawal. 
After interchange of communications the Secretary 
of State for War informed Lord Wolseley on the 
20th that the Government had decided not to 
make provision for ftirther offensive operations in 
the Soudan. Having made the necessary arrange- 
ments for the withdrawal of the Nile column, 
Lord Wolseley visited Suakin, where he arrived 
on 2nd May. 

In the mean time, on the 16th April, Otao, four 
and a half miles beyond Handoub, was occupied with- 
out oppasition, and the railway carried to within a 


I mile of Handoub. On the Bame day orders were 
issued for the formation of a Camel Corps, to consist 
of 400 British amd 100 native soldiers, with about 200 
native drivers. The camels carried two men each, 
three camels caiTying five fighting men and one 
native driver. Men were di'awn from all corps to 
form the five companies. 

Since the break-up of Osman Digna's Headquarters 
at Tamai the enemy caused little annoyance beyond 
desultory firing at night and injuries to the telegraph 
line. Nevertheless, every precaution was taken to 
ensure the safe progress of the railway, and Graham 
made several successful reconnaissances in force in 
advance and into the neighbouring valleys to clear 
them of Arabs. On the 18th April he made a re- 
connaissance to Abent ; on the 19th he occupied 
Tambouk, five miles beyond Otao ; and on the 24th 
he was able to take train to three miles beyond 
Handoub, and, riding on to Tambouk, to accom- 
pany Lyon-Fremantle's force in a reconnaissance to 
Es Sibil. 

On the 2Gth April Graham received a telegram 
from Lord Wolseley informing him as to the with- 
drawal. The Marines embarked on the 29th. On 
the 1st May Graham went by armoured train with 
Major (now Colonel) W. H. Rathbome and several 
other officers of Royal Engineers to Handoub, and 
then rode on to the Waratab Mountains to see if 
any site could be found there for a hospital. The 
height was about 1600 feet, the climbing very 
rough, and although the view was splendid, no 
plateau for building could be found. On the 2nd 
May Lord Wolseley arrived. 

On the 5th May a telegram was received from 
Captain G. S. Clai'ke, R.E., attached to the In- 




telligence Department, that Muhammad Adam Sar- 
doun, a sheUch of the Amarar tribe, a trusted 
lieutenant of Osman Digna, had collected a force and 
established himself at Takul in the Abent valley to 
harass our line of communication. Graham deter- 
mined to attack him. (See Plate I.) His notes on 
this little expedition are as follows : — 

"Mai/ 5, Tuesday. — Got telegram from Clarke that 
Muhammad Adam Sardoun was established at Thakul 
with flocks and herds. Oi'dered 15th Sikhs to Otao 
by rait, whence they move at 2 a.m. with Mounted 
Infantry. I go with Camel Corps, Mounted Infantry, 
and 9th Bengal Cavalry at midnight. Saw Wolseley, 
who is better, but has got no orders as yet for ovi 

" May 6, Wednesday. — Got off a little piist mid- 
night, but couldn't march till nearly one o'clock owing 
to delay packing camels with water. A very close 
night. No freshness, and dark till about two o'clock, 
when moon unveiled. Very sleepy. A weird scene 
that procession by moonlight ! Got to Thakul by day- 
break. Mounted infantry came quickly into action, 
followed by Camel Corps, who scaled hills, drove 
Arabs otf, capturing flocks of goats, camels, &c. The 
force from Suakin with the ' Friendlies ' amved on the 
scene. Latter very cowai-dly, but useful. Katurned 
by Otao, and then took train to Suakin." 

Lord Wolseley's telegraphic despatch on the opera- 
tion, published in Parliamentary Paper, Egypt, No. 
13 (1885), C 4392, is given; below while Graham's 
despatch of the 13th May, containing a detailed 
account of this enterprising attack, which was 
published in Parliamentary Paper, Egypt, No. 18 
(1885), C 4598, will be found in Appendix XII. 
of this volume. (See also Plate I.) 


"General Lord Wolseley to the Marquis of Hartington 
(Received May 7). 

[Telegraphic.'] <• scakin. May 6, lees. 

"Graham executed a very successful and well- 
planned raid last night on Thakul, a village 10 miles 
south of Otao and 20 miles west of Suakin, which was 
occupied by Muhammad Adam Sardoun, one of Osmaii 
Digna's most important followers. 

"Sardoun had at Thakul the only organised force 
remaining in the field, which was reported to be 700 
strong. Graham started at 1 a.m. from Suakin with 
9th Bengal Lancers, the Mounted Infantry of the 
Engineers and Guards, and the Camel Corps ; and, 
in combination with him, a column left Otao, con- 
sisting of Mounted Infantry, the 15th Sikhs, and 200 

" Both columns marched on Thakul, which they 
reached shortly after daybreak, Graham's force arriv- 
ing slightly before the other. They drove the enemy 
out of Thakul, captured between 1300 and 2000 sheep 
and goats, and returned to their respective camps 
after having burnt Thakul. 

" Enemy's loss is estimated at 50 killed. Our casu- 
alties are : Lieutenant A. R. Austen, Shropshire Regi- 
ment and Camel Corps, severely wounded ; No. 7922, 
Corporal H. Lock, Grenadier Guards and Mounted 
Infantry, severely wounded ; Sergeant Smith, Scots 
Guards and Mounted Infantry, slightly wounded. 
Graham reports all troops as having behaved well," 

I For the next week Graham waa occupied with 
various inspections of his force, outposts, &c., by 
Lord Wolseley, and by the end of that time the 
expected orders had arrived for the withdrawal of 
1 ■ 


the field force, with the exception of the garrison to 
be left at Suakin. On the 15th May he received a 
letter from Lord Wolseley directing him to embark 
with the Guards on the following day. 

Before leaving Suakin Graham issued a Special 
General Order to the force that he had commanded, 
which was published in the ' London Gazette' of the 
29th May 1885, and will be found in Appendix XIIL 
of this volume. 

He sailed for Alexandria early on the l7th May, 
and after a week at Alexandria, and a visit to Sir 
Lintorn Simmons at Malta, where he was at that time 
Governor, Graham arrived in England on the 14th 
June 1885. 

During his stay at Alexandria Graham wrote his 
final despatch, dated the 30th May 1885, reviewing the 
campaign, and mentioning officers, non-commissioned 
officers, and men who had distinguished themselves, 
It was forwarded to the Secretary of State for War 
under cover of Lord Wolseley a despatch of the 16th 
June, and was published in the ' London Gazette ' of 
the 25th August 1885. It forms Appendix XIV. of 
this volume. 

For his services in command of the Suakin expe- 
dition Graham received the thanks of both Houses of 
Parliament, was made a Grand Cross of St Michael 
and St George, and had another clasp added to his 
Egyptian medal. His despatches are to be found in 
the Egypt Series of the Parliamentary "Command" 
Papers of 1885, and in the ' London Gazette' of the 
25th August 1885, and the most important of them 
are reprinted in the Appendices to this volume. 




During Graham's absences jfrom his family between 
1882 and 1885, no matter how actively engaged in 
campaigning, he constantly corresponded with his 
wife and children, writing long chatty letters, as he 
used to do to his sister in Crimean days. Only a 
few letters to his youngest son have been found, one 
written en route to Egypt in 1882, and the others 
from Egypt in that and the following year. In these 
the sympathetic facility with which he places himself 
on the child's level are strikingly shown : — 

" I know you would like to have a letter from me, 
and will write me a nice letter in return. When I 
went away you were very sorrowful, my dear little 
boy, and told me that I must not go to Egypt. You 
don't understand what a soldier's idea of duty and 
honour is, but dear mama will tell you. In the mean 
time your idea of duty and honour should be to obey 
dear mama, and to be good to dear little baby. 

"You would have been amused, had you been 
travelling with me, at the way the people came and 
stared at us in Italy. At one station there was an 
old priest who came up to the carriage with his 
mouth wide open — I suppose to enable him to open 
his eyes wider and indulge his curiosity. I longed, 


as you certainly would have doue, to put some- 
thing into his mouth, and was nearly trying an 
orange, but it was too large. I must now say good 
night, my dear little boy, for it is half-past ten ; the 
punkah has stopped, and I must go on deck to get 
ft-esh air. So good night, and try and be a good little 
boy and a comfort to dear mama." 

Another from Ramleh, dated the 14th August 1882, 
refers to the boy's sorrow for his father's departure 
from home, and his dislike that he should go to 
Egypt, and continues : — 

" I suppose you imagine Egypt to be a very dreadful 
place, full of horrible nightmares, and that the plagues 
of Moses inflicted on the naughty Pharaoh are always 
being inflicted on the bad people who live here. I 
daresay you wonder what it Is papa has done so 
naughty as to get him sent out here. You don't 
know yet, my dear boy, that the first duty of a 
soldier — and papa is only a soldier — is obedience, so 
that whatever the duty might have been, or wherever 
it might have taken me, I should have had to obey 
the commands of the Queen. 

" After all, Egypt does not appear to me such a 
bad place, and I really think that if Eamleh were 
near enough to London, it would be a very nice place 
for mama to bring you to in the holidays. I wish you 
could all be transported here by magic for one day, ' 
and that I were quite free to devote myself to showing 
you everything. You would, perhaps, find the sun a 
little hot, but there is always a pleasant sea-breeze, 
so that you would like the sands, but would wonder 
why the tide didn't come in and go out as it does at 

"Then I would take you into the gardens of this 
pretty watering-place and show you the trees covered 

THE Khedive's banquet. 309 

with sweet- smelling oleander blossoms, the shady 
tamarisks and date-palms, and the bright flowers. 
Then you might come into the country and see the 
fields of tomatoes, cucumbers, and melons, and the 
gi'oves of fig-trees, where you can pick the luscious 
fruit and eat them as much as you like, for they are 
perfectly wholesome. Then you would be immensely 
interested in the life around you, Lizards, large and 
lively but quite harmless, are always darting about in 
the hot sun. 

"There are plenty of insects, and I have seen a few 
enormous cockroaches, but not in my bedi-oom, where 
I have only flies and mosquitoes. Fish abound in the 
canals and lakes. To-day when out riding I saw a 
beautiful kingfisher, also a grey bird like a small gull 
that dived into the water and brought out a fish. I 
hope you are a dear, good little boy, a comfort to 
dear mama, and a good brother to sweet little Olive, 
to whom give my best love and many kisses." 

Another from Cairo on the 8th October 1882 : — 

" I suppose dear mama has told you and Olive that 
I can't come home yet, and you must therefore both 
try and keep very good, and make everything as 
pleasant to dear mama as possible in papa's absence. 
Now I will tell you about some of the things I have 
been doing and seeing lately in this strange, distant 

" You know we have restored the Khedive by 
putting down his rebellious subject Arabi, and accord- 
ingly there have been great rejoicings all over the 
country, and especially in Cairo, where there have 
been all sorts of demonstrations. One evening the 
Khedive gave a great banquet in one of his palaces, 
to which I was invited. This palace has a large, 
beautiful garden on the banks of the Nile, and this 

garden was lit up witb innumerable gay-colom-ed 
paper lanterns and lamps, and very pretty fireworks 
were sent up — rockets breaking into clouds of gold 
light, Roman candles, Catbarlne wheels, such as you 
used to see at the York Gala. But here you had the 
grand old Nile flowing swiftly past, with the silver 
moon for his illumination, though the Khedive had 
also provided ships hung with lanterns, which looked 
very pretty. The Khedive appears, or wishes to 
appear, fond of your papa, takes an interest in 
bifi health, &c. Perhaps he had to appear to be 
fund of Arabi at one time. What does baby say 
to that? 

" Well, yesterday I had an expedition you would 
have enjoyed very much. We went up the Nile in a 
oteauier to see the ruins and tombs of Memphis, a city 
tliat was famous when Abraham was a boy. When 
we landed we had all to get on donkeys and ride six 
miles into the countrj-. Fancy papa on a donkey I 
But I got a very superior donkey to what you rode 
at Broadistah-B, and went away at a great pace. We 
all enjoy«Mi it immensely, and then went into some 
wonderful underground places where sacred hulls and 
ancient Pharaohs had been buried. 

" Hut I must tell you about the procession of the 
sacred camL-l and the carpet. This was a religious 
oeremonial uf the Mussulman religion. All the troops 
were turned out In honour of the ceremonial, and the 
Khedive with his highest officers of State, his high- 
priest*, and the higher officers of the expeditionary 
forc*^, i»apa among them, were there to receive the 
proce«*iioii. At last it came with great beating of 
tom-tonw (drums) and with all kinds of music. The 
sacred camel ap[)eared covered with a gorgeous 
canopy Hkt! a little summer-house. Then came a 


strange figure on another camel — a fat man with a 
long beard, naked to the waiet, who rolled from side to 
side, wagged his head, and kept up a constant mum- 
bling with his eyes shut. This was a great Mussul- 
man saint, and I am told he never wears any more 
clothing, though he must find it cold before he gets 
to Mecca. This wonderful procession, which I cannot 
fully describe, was going to Mecca, where Muhammad 
lies buried, and this carpet is to be laid over his tomb, 
when it becomes sacred, and is distributed among the 

" But it is getting dark, and I must leave ofl". 
Write again, my dear, dear little boy, and let me 
know if you are trying to grow up a good son and a 
good brother." 

The last is from Caii'O, dated the 14th April 
1883, when he was about to return home on two 
months' leave of absence : — 

"Thank you very much for the pretty map you 
have sent me. It is very nicely drawn, and as far as 
I can judge the outhnes are accurate. Had you gone 
a little farther south you might have shown where I 
am; as it is, you have shown the position of Alexandria, 
though you have not named it. , . . Now, if I were 
coming home by your map, I should embark where 
longitude 30" cuts the north coast of Africa, steam 
across the Mediterranean, up the Adriatic to Venice, 
then pass the pleasant Italian lakes and over the pass 
of St Gothard into Switzerland, on through France, 
past Paris to Calais, then across to Dover, and once 
more I stand in dear England. Then a few more 
hours take me back to you all. 

" How well I remember, my dear little boy, that 
afternoon of the 28th July when you said tearfully to 
me that I ' mustn't go to Egypt ' ! You didn't think 


papa would have to go to school again, did you ? 
But he had to go to the school of war, and was kept 
at his lessons after school-time, which seemed rather 
hard on poor papa, but was intended for his good. 
Now he hopes to get a little holiday, and hopes (with 
the help of your map) to be able to find his way home, 
and how delighted he will be to see dear mama and 
all of you again ! I am so glad to hear that you have 
been a good little boy and have done well with Miss T, 
When am I to see your mark-book? Good-bye, my 
dear Wattie, for the present." 

On his return home from the command of the 
Suakin expedition Graham reverted to the unem- 
ployed list, and continued to reside at Worlabye 
House, Roehampton, He had arrived in the height 
of the London season, and was overwhelmed with 
invitations and much ffited. But his was not a 
disposition to be spoiled by such demonstrations of 
appreciation, and bis modest acceptance of the atten- 
tions lavished upon him as a tribute to the troops 
he had commanded was, in fact, his real view. It 
did not occur to him that they were in any way 
personal to himself, but that they were paid to him 
as the official head and representative of the force 
he had commanded. 

He was fond of the theatre, and made a note of 
anything interesting he saw. Thus before going off 
to Scotland in 1885 be notes: "We were taken by 
some literary fiiends to see ' Hoodman Blind ' yester- 
day, and liked it very much. We particularly ad- 
mired the acting of Wilson Bairett and Miss Kastlake. 
After the perfoimance we were taken behind the 
scenes and introduced to them. We also stood on 
the stage before the empty house 1 " 

With Lady Graham he attended the Lord Mayor's 


banquet to Sir Frederick Roberts ^ in November, and 
the function is pleasantly described by her in a letter 
to her sister-in-law : — 

" This banquet was, indeed, a most wonderful aflair. 
The great number of guests would have made it very 
difficult to arrange for coupling, if the simple ex- 
pedient of placing every lady with the gentleman who 
accompanied her had not been followed, and you 
would have been amused to see me, in my turn, 
pledging Gerald in the great two-handled loving cup ! 

" We sat at the principal table on the opposite side 
to that at which H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge and 
Sir Frederick Roberts were seated. This great table 
occupied three sides of the grand dining-hall, and 
running up within these three sides were seven other 
long tables. Under the electric lights, well regulated 
and not too bright, the flowers and fruit looked very 
beautiful, and the band of the Coldstream Guards 
played pleasantly all through the dinner, H.R.H. 
had Lady Roberts on his left and Lady George 
Hamilton on his right. The Lord Mayor was on the 
other side of Lady Roberts, then came the little Lady 
Mayoress (daughter of Sir R. Fowler), and on her left 
sat the guest of the evening. Sir Frederick Roberts. 

" He is a small, wiry - looking man, with a keen 
earnest face and very grey hair. His whole mind 
seems taken up with the military idea — not only with 
regard to principles, but to every detail also. His 
speech was very long — more like a dissertation than a 
mere speech, and most of the guests thought it far too 
technical. However, he was so much in earnest that 
he could not fail to interest all who were really in- 
terested in his subject, and no doubt he had good 
reasons for taking advantage of a rare opportunity to 
■ Field-Marahal £arl BoberU, £.0., K.P., &&, See. 


utter his views on such points as he had at heart for 
the good of the army. 

" The Lord Mayor spoke well, but we considered 
the speech of H.R.H. was perhaps in the best taste of 
any that were made. He looked better than usual, 
and was full of spirit and animation. While he most 
gracefully uttered his feeling of pleasure and satis- 
faction in the appointment of Sir Frederick Roberta 
to the great pest of supreme military command in 
India, he did not forget to acknowledge what had 
been done by great soldiers In the Soudan, and as 
he named Lord Wolseley and our dear General he 
bowed towards each with kindliest emphasis. I 
tell you this because I don't think any of the papers 
reported it. 

" There is a curious custom at these banquets, which 
I have not mentioned, of calling out the names of 
most, if not all, of the distinguished guests — gentle- 
men only, of course. The toastmaster does this im- 
mediately after dinner, and as each name is called 
different measures of applause greet it, or, If little 
known, it is received in silence. I need not tell you 
that dear Gerald's was most warmly cheered. . . . The 
ladies sat all through the speeches, and when they 
were over all the guests lose together and mingled in 
the corridor and ante-chamber, where tea and coffee 
were sen'ed. Here we met many known to us, and 
altogether spent a very pleasant and memorable 
evening. On the other side of Gerald was an alder- 
man and former Lord Mayor, who, by the way, made 
an excellent speech, as did also dear old Lord Napier 
of Magdala. On my right was another alderman — a 
nice, pleasant old man, who told me much about the 
ancient customs at these feasts." 

On the occasion of the Queen's Jubilee in 1887, Sir 

P THE queen's jubilee SERVICE. 315 

Geraid and Lady Graham had seats in the Abbey to 
I wituess the thanksgiving service, and Lady Graham 
sent her sister-in-law a description also of this 
ceremony : — 

" Nothing could have been more beautiful in its 
special kind than the Jubilee service in the dear grand 
Abbey, only I thought more music might have vivified 
the intervals between the arrivals of the three great 
processions. Still there was music, suitable and 
touching, from time to time, and one seemed to listen 
in between to a sort of natural heart pulsation, eager 
and joyous to express itself in a true thanksgiving 
for all the blessings and benefits conferred by our 
heavenly Ruler, under whom our dear Sovereign has 
governed us for so long a time. Surely never before 
have we had one who has so evidently kept His laws 
within the soul ! She looked calm, dignified, and 
serious, reverently attending to the service as with 
her whole heart, and afterwards, when the princes 
and princesses each came to offer or receive the kiss 
of felicitation, the joy on each side seemed entirely 

" I had a beautiful place, from which I could see 
all that took place, in a gallery over the Peers, 
just opposite the Commons — the Queen, princes, and 
princesses occupying the space between. ... A 
beam of sunlight shot athwart the dais, and in its 
track lighted up the stone effigy of a dead queen 
lying peacefully under her stone canopy just behind 
the row of living kings, all in their bright-hued 
clothing, who were placed in front of that carved 
repose. They were the kings of Saxony, Denmark, 
and Greece, the Prince of Portugal, &c., &c., their 
queens and princesses facing them on the other side, 
which I could not see from my seat, but I saw them 



pass in. The jewels and oruameuts incmsted with 
gems firom throat to waist of the Indian princes and 
princesses were a marvel to see ! With the exception 
of the German Crown Prince in his fair white uniform, 
I thought our own princes looked much nicer than 
the foreign kings and princes, though the King of 
Denmark looked well, having a fine presence. In the 
midst of the beautifully dressed queens and princesses, 
our Queen had a fine air of womanly distinction in 
the simple but rich raiment of black silk, relieved 
only with white lace and a comparatively few fine 
gems about the head and breast. She looked as if, 
even at this great ceremonial, she would testify to the' 
rare virtue of moderation. i 

" Dear Gerald had to sit in the nave with the army 
and navy, where certainly he could see each proces- 
sion admirably as it passed, but he could not see the 
actual ceremonial of the service as I could, and I 
wished him in my place, kindly procured for me by 
the good offices of the Cowells, for only the heads 
of departments actually in office could take their 
wives. We drove to the Abbey together, however, 
leaving dear Babesie at Buckingham Palace to behold 
the Queen and her procession from a window there 
with two of the Cowell children. . . . We started 
at half-past eight o'clock in the morning and were 
home about half-past three. Dear Gerald and the 
boys went again in the evening to see the illumin- 
ations. ... 1 had an opportunity of seeing the 
illuminations the next night (when they were said 
to be almost, if not quite, as good), when we went 
to a great entertainment given by Lady Salisbury 
at the Foreign Office. There we saw all the royalties 
— home, foreign, and native — in their evening garb. 
Among the Indian officers also present there was 


one who had served with Gerald in China, and whom 
I he introduced to me — a fine swarthy man of a grand 
Indian type. It was a beautiful sight that the great 
suite of rooms and the staircases and corridors pre- 
' sented, with the ever-moving guests in every variety 
of colour in their gay attire — -the Pope's nuncio and 
his two attendants in violet silk. 

"The dear Queen herself we saw quite near at 
her garden-party at Buckingham Palace, to which 
we were bidden, and received from her two distinct 
and very gracious bows of recognition. She looked 
wonderfully well, we thought, and full of a motherly 
grace of expression besides her natural queenliness. 
The gardens are beautiful, and much larger than we 
had supposed ; and a lovely lake with boats on it, 
and boatmen in quaint-looking scarlet costumes, ready 
to take any of the guests who might wish to be 
rowed upon it, added to the gaiety and variety of 
the pleasant entertainment. 

" Here are Jubilee doings indeed, you will say, dear 
Joanna, and truly we hai-dly expected invitations 
either to the Foreign Office or the garden-party — 
and certainly did not make any effort to obtain them, 
80 perhaps enjoyed them the more." 

In the summer of the following year, 1888, 
Graham was offered the government of Bermuda in 
succession to Lieut, -General Sir Thomas Gallwey, 
K.C.M.G., but after much consideration he felt him- 
self obliged for private reasons to decline it. Soon 
after family afflictions led him to break up his home, 
and for some years he became more or less of a 
wanderer. He left London in 1890, when, in ac- 
cordance with the regulations of the Service, having 
been unemployed for five years, he was placed upon 
the Retired List on the 14th June. 



The end of Graham's military career in honourable 
retirement, and the close of his long residence in the 
neighbourhood of London, brings us to the last stage 
of his life's journey. Before, however, entering on 
this we devote a short chapter to the reminiscences of 
his favourite niece, Mrs Shenstone,' the eldest daughter 
of his beloved sister, who became during the last 
decade of his life his most constant correspondent, and 
to whom from early years he had been a kind of hero. 
She draws a vivid picture of the happy home at 
Roehampton, and writes of her uncle as of one gi-eatly 
beloved and admired in the family circle. 

" My earliest recollections are — myself, a tiny child 
lifted shoulder-high; he 'so tall he almost touched 
the sky '- — the ceiling came near ; and I recollect to 
this day the pattern of my aunt's shawl — doubtless a 
very l]eautifiil one. I think he always delighted to 
give happiness, and even in a baby mind was the 
consciousness of his delight in swinging the baby up, 
as if he knew just how the baby ought to feel. 

"Afterwards there were my own children, as tiny 

' Mildred, eldest daughter of the late Itev. Reginald N. Durnnt, wife 
of WilliBm Ashwell SbeustoDe, F.I.C., F.K.S., Senior Science Muter &t 
ClUton CoUege. 


things, looking up in the same awe and wonder. It is 
easy to imagine an early hero - worship under such 
circumstances. My mother used to read to us Kings- 
ley's ' Heroes ' at a very early age, and Jason, seeking 
the golden fleece, and Theseus, who slew the dreadful 
monster, were absolutely associated in my mind with 
the wonderful ' Uncle Gerald,' whom, after those 
baby days, we did not see for many years. 

" I recollect a portrait coming home from Canada, 
With what admiiing eyes we looked upon the furred 
and braided coat ! Even more admiringly on the 
coarse woodcut in an old ' Illustrated London News ' 
of a hero, who was not drawn as such to our critical 
eyes of to-day, stooping to lift a wounded man from 
the ground. 

"I remember this picture recurred to me when my 
(then) small daughter had some sand in her eyes at 
Bournemouth. After tears and ineffectual bathings 
she had fallen asleep, but awoke in agony, powerless 
to open her eyes. Some grains of sand must have 
remained under the eyelids and caused inflammation, 
so that the eyelids were literally stuck together. The 
mother was, of course, panic-stricken ; then a picture 
of the battlefield came before my eyes. I shall never 
forget the firm easy way in which my uncle lifted her 
from her little bed with his arms, and whilst we 
hovered about the screaming little one, he gently and 
skilfully opened the eyelids, which we dared not 
touch, and which could then be bathed, while the 
sobs died away upon his firm shoulder. 

"The next vivid recollection I have is of my grand- 
mother's pride in ' my son.' She used to pay us 
certain state visits, and, if we children had not dis- 
turbed her afternoon nap in the drawing-room, she 
would graciously relate things to us. We were 



greatly impressed by all she related of him, this 
majestic ' Uncle Gerald,' whom we imagined about. 
He was, or had been, the youngest colonel in the 
English army, I thifik a ' full colonel ' she called it : 
his bravery, courage, and devotion, his great affection 
for our mother, the strange and wonderful things 
he brought back from abroad, were endless themes ; 
and I, sitting with some horrid German stocking to 
knit — we had a German governess — forgot its terrors 
and dropped the stitches blissfully in my devotion. I 
certainly was never tired ! The story of the Victoria 
Cross and how the pin stuck straight into that broad 
and manly breast I afterwards also heard from 

" After my baby remembrance, which is very vivid 
and distinct, and the Canada portrait, there is a long 
lapse. We only heard of him in these years, and I 
had scarcely emerged from the schoolroom when my 
father took me — early in the year, I think — to visit 
my uncle and aunt at Roehampton, where they had 
lately settled. I was staying at the house of my 
godfather, Mr Hoets, and I well remember the 
anxiety with which I awaited my father's arrival, 
as the time passed and he did not come. He was 
eventually very late indeed. My dear Mr Hoets 
did not reassure me much by repeating at intervals, 
' My child, you will be late.' We arrived an hour 
and a half after the time at which we had been 
expected, and dinner was then (nine o'clock) in full 
progress. I recollect the sense of almost painiul 
interest with which I ventured — feeling a very 
innocent culprit — to look at the hero of my early 
days. ... I do not remember that he showed any ! 
signs of vexation at our extraordinary lateness, but 
I recollect he made the remark more than ouce, 


' I had no reason to suppose, Reginald, that you 
would consider this as supper.' His eyes behed the 
satire of his words, and I was consoled by this first 
sign of fun and by my aunt's merry laugh. ' I think 
aunt Jane is charming,' I wrote in my diary -like 
letters kept at this time. 

"My next remembrance is of a visit to Roehampton 
in October 1880. ' I like Uncle Gerald very much. He 
is so jolly with Walter,' I wrote. He was always very 
affectionate and tender to children — ' darling children,' 
he called them ; and how often I have heard him say 
with such a look of real delight, ' What a dear little 
thing ! ' ' Jolly little thing ! ' In the evening he 
introduced me to the game of ' curling ' as played on 
the ice in Canada, while my aunt, who sang very 
beautifully, rejoiced us at the piano. The room looked 
80 cheerful and happy. There was always a nice cat 
asleep before the fire, and sometimes kittens. The 
children came down and danced about when my uncle 
and aunt were not dining out, and all was cosey and 
well : how delightful that home was— to think about I 
' Uncle is very amusing, but rather alarming,' I 
wrote, which shows that my old hero-worship had not 
diminished, although the distance had ! 

" In connection with the words ' rather alarming,' I 
remember that my uncle took me for a walk in Rich- 
mond Park — always delightful, and of which he and 
my aunt were very fond. It was late autumn, and as 
we trod on leaves and among bracken, I, anxious to be 
companionable, entered into the arena of political con- 
troversy. My father was at this time an ardent 
Gladstonian, and I felt it my painful duty to uphold 
the traditions of my home. I remember my uncle's tone 
growing more emphatic — to my ears alarming — as he 
remonstrated from a great height. ' But, my dear 


Mllly ! ' . . . It waa with a gi-eat sense of relief, Dot 
unmixed with a notion that I could not much longer 
have upheld my colours, that we reached the house. 

" When I think of & few years afterwards, of 
Gordon's fate, my uncle's grief, so deep that one can 
only guess at it, those deep remonstrant tones above 
me in Richmond Park come back to me. 

" This visit was to be remembered by me also for my 
first o'peTB.—the Italian Opera I called it. . . . It was 
a lovely night ; we had a very frisky, jovial horse, 
very jolly seats, and, oh I I did so enjoy it. The 
opera was ' Faust,' Marguerite had a very sweet, 
rich voice, looked very young and simple, and I was 
dreadfully sorry for her. Fauat looked most weird 
and attractive, but when he became rejuvenated he 
was sleek and not half bo interesting. We reached 
home about 12.30 A.M., to find hot soup awaiting us. 

" He used to tell delightful stories of his adventures, 
and of the behaviour of some of the animals in the 
wreck of the transport in which he was homeward 
bound from the Crimea in 1856 : one of them, I think, 
distinguished itself by swimming ashore. As to his 
own deeds I don't remember his mentioning one. . . . 
He was very interested in books, and he and my 
aunt read much together. He always read aloud 
capitally, and enlisted the interest of his hearers. . . . 
He was genial, loving, happy ; it was fascinating to 
see him carry his five-year-old daughter, a tangle of 
curls and lace, high up on his shoulder, and delightful 
to see him with the stately ' Duchess," the beautiftd 
dog who accompanied him in his walks. When at 
home he seemed always agreeably occupied, and vet 
was always ready for a pleasant game or a froHo with 
the little ones. He often spoke of his children at 
school, to whom he frequently wrote. He was nttvi 


fussy or Irritable. Altogether, of these happy years 
at home, with his large mind and manly, cheerful, 
loving heart, I do not think too bright a record could 
be written. Trouble had not touched him beyond 
that which is inevitable to every man, and it seemed 
to me that his naturally serene, happy nature was an 
amulet that kept the ordinary fussy cares of dreary 
business and worldly men away. 

" Once more my memory carries me back to the visit 
before he went out to Egypt. How kind they all 
were to me 1 I shall never forget it, — the last visit 
of any length when all were together. The Persian 
cat and her bewitching kittens, the pleasant walks, 
the happy life, the charming home-society that made 
this home just the best place in the world — these 
are tiny incidents, yet they fill the dearest space of 
memory. Then comes a well - remembered night in 
July 1882, when my father and I went down from 
our Kentish home to meet the London train for the 
Dover boat. . . . Uncle Gerald seemed so delighted 
to see us, to feel a sort of ' ease ' in speaking with 
cheerfulness of the parting that had taken place in 
London and of the dear ones he had just left. There 
was to me a thrilling romance about it all : before 
him lay a thousand unknown dangers, difficulties, 
untried capabilities, where honour and life would 
both be tried, and there he sat, talking so simply 
and affectionately, as if he were a boy just going off 
to school ! . . . 

"The moon shone on the decks when the little 
steamer tossed ; he was full of energy and happiness. 
I remember his loving parting ; he shouted from the 
deck to us waving from the shore. . . . His letters 
— alas ! it seems though so tenderly cherished then, 
BO many have disappeared — were great dehghts. I 



remember one containing a flower from the Khedive's 
garden ; one in German, in which he was very fond 
of writing to me, about the water-fairies — an imagin- 
ary episode at a salt-water lake. Amidst the great 
things expected of him, and which he was carrying 
out, his mind, untouched in its simplicity and charm, 
found time to remember us all, to share with us the 
freshness and the bright imagination he took with 
him wherever he went. 

"In the early part of 1883 I was once more at Roe- 
hampton, but the house seemed empty without its 
master ; the mail from Egypt was the first of all 
things. In June I returned from Germany, where I 
had spent three months. To my delight I heard 
from my mother that my uncle was arriving (19th) 
almost at the same time. My father met my steamer 
on a glorious June morning at the docks. To my 
joy and delight I was told we were to go to Roe- 
hampton to dine and sleep before returning to Kent, 
and to greet the ' Conquering Hero.' The hot sun 
and the wind had greatly damaged my complexion. 
I remember that my father looked sympathetically 
at me, and with a white pugaree streaming from his 
clerical hat, he carried me ofl' to a Bond Street per- 
fumery, — so it seemed to me, for all the odours of 
Araby were wafted out to the pavement. The elder- 
flower water ultimately proved a great success, but I 
remember some pangs of real anguish when we first 
encountered my beloved uncle ; It would have been 
so nice to greet him looking my best 1 However, he, 
as always, showed his accustomed gallantry, present- 
ing me with a rose at dinner — as a compliment, he 
implied, to the colour from the sea - wind which so 
distressed me ! He told me that I had not writtea, 
to him often enough from Germany. I replied thi 




he had not been absent from my thoughts, as my 
home letters testified ; and I was highly indignant 
over the conduct of a certain ' Herr Eckhardt,' who 
took one of the Egyptian serpents my uncle had sent 
me and insisted upon wearing it on his own wrist. I 
remember my uncle's delightful laugh. He was al- 
ways very interested in stories about Germany : it 
amused him greatly to hear that one, Hermann, con- 
tinually affirmed that the streets of London were full 
of drunken people ! He wanted to know if the Ger- 
man Mddchen were as beautiful as he had always 
remembered them ; in fact, all the Schwiirmerei, as he 
called it, of Germany was enchanting to him. What 
a delightful evening we spent 1 Next morning I re- 
member seeing him, my aunt, the children, and I 
believe dear Duchess, all out on the lawn among 
flowers and sunshine. 

" Later in the summer he came down to our house in 
Kent. How proud we all were of him ! He took me 
for a walk I shall never forget. After his dinner — 
at Chatham I think it was — we begged to see his de- 
corations. He quickly took them all off and placed 
them on me, and then only pretended pride in them. 

" My brother describes the painful anxiety through- 
out the house at Roehampton in 1884 at the time of 
the battle of Tamai. 'Then came the news of uncle's 
victory of March 13. Aunt drove straight off to the 
War Office to get particulars, having received a tele- 
gram from Lord Wolseley, " Your husband is safe and 
has won a splendid victory." Congratulatory letters 
and telegrams poured in during the evening.' It 
seems hard to think now how that victory — cause 
with my uncle for a double rejoicing, since it opened 
a way for the rescue of Gordon and for the safety 
of the towns — should be for him ever memorable as 



of Urn tatt^ dHi|]pointzD£ai£ sad 
afl Eftgisnrd wafi soi: 



ibr the 

" lu LS88 li« tame to see n at C&ftan. I Ind faes 

31, and be cwne into a^ rooai ior tea, aindi «v had 
bjrtbeaofiL He vm <Migfat«9d witli his aadl gxaaa- 
OMseh aod Mipbeir, tuned tbem op, called titan * joDy 
little thio^' and thtj atood and looked iqi at ' 
with woodenag eyea: tbey locdced so anall faeade 

" That aatanm I rinted tbem at Boebampton. 
onck^ xfiowed ntc a great number of Egyptian pi 
Ipraplu), arid my auot sang to tie as of old. She 
loe tlje burt Irtter of Gordon to 'My dear G: 
ffsined carefully, and he told me of the wild, 
place where tlie last parting had taken place. 

" But the Hliadow of sorrow hmig over the 
and, AH 1 thiuk is umietimes the case, was felt mt 
eveti as it fimt approached than when met and realii 
face to face afterwards, 

" After 1888 his letters ai-e many, and the story 
his life for the last eleven years tells itself. Tba 
Btranj,'*!8t thing about him to ua all was, and always- 
will lje, that he never &uemed to grow old. Meeting j 
trouble ill a noble itpirit, be retained with his years 
the clifirin and the freshness of feeling that many a 
young man nuglit envy. His loving heart remained 
unspoilt, his love of books and joy in romance and in 
lieuuty of every sort remained true to him. He read 
u gcKid deal of German, sharing many books with 
Uioso ho cared for. 1 remember well his sending ma! 
' The Lady with the Sea-green Eyes ' (Jokai), aui 
his iiitiTest ill Maurus Jokai's novel ' Timar's Tw< 
Worlds.' Ho used to sing 'O Tannenbaum ' froi 
the Volkhlieder. He never stood aloof from anytbiuj 
whereiri he found chiu'm and sincerity ; his real sei 



of tiiu was a delightful bond and never left him, any 
more than the salt can leave the sea. 

" One of his sons wrote to me only the other day, 
' I think my intense love for the woods and greeu 
grass, bright flowers and blue sky, and darling 
childien, was inherited from father — I am sure of 
it.' He was a greatly loved personality in our 
family, joining in all our joys, even our slightest 
merry-makings, and making our sorrows his own. 
He welcomed us to each of the houses he took with 
genial hospitality ; he called himself a ' Wanderer,' 
but he was one who never journeyed to the cold 
sphere of Browning's ' Wanderer. ' He was very 
fond of poetry, and knew much of Heine by heart. 
He loved old ballads, and repeated ' Young Lochinvar ' 
with intense delight in the dash and gallantry of it. 
He liked current stories in the magazines, never 
despising literary efibrts if they had but M'hat a 
distinguished man of letters called ' go and glow ' 
in them. These stories were an expression of the 
link that held him to youth and to-day. He kept 
a delightfully mellow flavour of his own youth — not 
too often met with now 1 Yet at times I think he 
was tired. The German poet says, ' The day has 
made me tired,' and he told me once that he longed 
for rest. Yet Tennyson says, ' 'Tis life and fuller 
that we want,' and I think of him now in the fuller 
life for which he too longed." 



Much of the record of the last years of Graham's life 
may be gathered, as Mrs Shenstone says, from his 
letters, and mostly from his letters to her. The 
following extracts are given from a few of them — some 
as graphic descriptions of persons and places, others 
as thoughtful criticisms on books and plays, and all of 
them as illustrating the character and many-sidedness 
of their author : — 

"March 14, 1889. — Yesterday I went to the Temple 
Church. Have you ever been there ? It is a beautiful 
church, and the singing of the choir, too, is beautiful. 
The sermon by Dr Vaughan was very good, and 
touched on that most beautiful of all texts, which I 
once heard Stanley preach on — charity. 

" I am not often at home in the evenings unless I 
have something to do, or have some one to dinner. 
Once I went by myself to hear ' Macbeth ' at the 
Lyceum. I never felt the real significance of the 
play so strongly as in that magnificent rendering — 
the abiding horror of crime and the agony of remorse 
The night scene is terribly impressive — the guilty 
pair alone in the courtyard of the castle, the horrid 
deed done, the storm without, the thunder pealing 
like the anger of a god, then the loud knocking at 


the gate scaring away the cotiscience-strickeu pair. 
Then the discovery, the cries of rage and horror, the 
great courtyard and distant stairways crowded with 
wild 6gTjre8, brandishing torches and naked swords, 
and denouncing vengeance on the murderers. Behind 
we see the white, horror-stricken face of the guilty 
lady — she, who has done all this for love of him, she 
has to bear the heaviest load of suffering. The man 
suffers too, but he can still defy the world ; he can 
if necessary die, but it will be fighting sword in 
hand, but she — she suffers the anguish that tortures 
and kiUs a delicate nature. She dies mad, vainly 
endeavouring to wash the stain from her hands and 
guilty soul. Yet Macbeth with all his guilt remains 
true to her. He is a man, though a guilty man — a 
traitor to his higher nature, to his king, and to his 
friend ; but, bad as he is, not so bad as ever to despise 
or upbraid her whom he once called ' dearest partner 
of my greatness.' A guilty man, but not a mean one. 
It is a grand but terrible play, and I could not help 
thinking of it yesterday when the angel voices of the 
choir seemed to go up to heaven asking pardon for 
poor erring mortals' sins. 

" I am reading ' Esmond ' again with great pleasure. 
There is a tender mellowness about Thackeray like 
the perfume of a pine-apple, at once refined, sweet, 
and wholesome. I think few men can read ' Esmond ' 
without feeling themselves raised into a higher at- 
mosphere of truth and honour. How one is made to 
feel the baseness of Lord Mohun. Here is a man 
undoubtedly brave, with what many felt to be a 
charm of social grace and martial bearing, yet a 
villain plotting against his friend's honour for his 
selfish pleasure. Yet there is an attraction about 
him that even the high-minded Harry Esmond can- 


not altogether I'eslst. He is at least a bold frauk 
villain, and (before men) does not disguise himself, 
nor represent himself as a lofty hero, soaring above 
the conventional laws and breathing pure virtue whilst 
practising foul vice. . . . 

" Talk of Victoria Ci-osses 1 I think a woman's 
devotion, who gives away her life and strength in 
trying to i-elieve the suffering of some one she loves, 
is vastly more heroic than something done in the ex- 
citement of battle — something probably which the 
man would not have dared to do in cool blood." 

It was about this time that Sir Gerald Graham em- 
barked in a speculation in a white-lead (sulphate) 
company which was started under circumstances which 
to many people would appear most favourable — a 
simple process, a permanent substance, and involving 
no danger to the lives of those employed in its manu- 
facture. He became a co-director of this company, 
and thus playfully alludes to it in May 1889 : 
"Like Bassanio, I have chosen the lead casket in 
preference to the gold one, and hope to find good 
fortune." Alas ! this adventure gave him many an 
anxious moment, and the concern recently went Into 
liquidation. White others got out he stuck to the 
ship and died a poor man. 

In July he writes that he has been house- hunting, 
" putting up at Forest Row, very near old Brambletye 
House, the scene of a dear old novel about Cavaliers 
and Roundheads, dear to me in my young days," and 
had taken lodgings at Hartfield, Sussex ; that he had 
been at big dinners and a big ball at Buckingham 
Palace to meet the Shah of Persia, of whom he had 
a very good view, and says — 

" I don't like his face : it has something unpleasant 
in the expression— a cold dreary look about it, a want 


of Theilnahme. He looks through his own spectacles 
on the world, and one would like to know how the 
marvellous sights of this great city appear to him, 
and what he really thinks of us. I saw him leading 
in the Princess of Wales, but I never saw him talk 
to any one, and am told that he can hardly speak 
a word of French or of any language but his own. 
On the whole, I certainly enjoyed om* pleasant day 
at Kew and Hampton Court better than that crowded 
ball, and I hope I may have no more big dinners, as I 
infinitely prefer a quiet picnic. 

" I was interrupted in my letter to you by being 
asked to go down the river in the Duke of Edinburgh 
(the same steamer that brought the Shah) to visit the 
Warspite, a training-ship for poor boys, who were to 
be inspected by Lord Chai'les Beresford. I went, and 
it was a most interesting sight to see these boys — 
cheery, manly-looking, little fellows, going through 
their drill with a i-eady alacrity that showed them 
to have the true stuff of which British tars are made. 
I think your most anti-military friends would have 
been delighted with this brave show of embryo 
English seamen ! I am not purely military ; there 
is something in the sailor, tlie old sort that Marryat 
loved, that stirs the blood of every Englishman. As 
a boy, you know, I led sailors, and shall never forget 
the 18th June 1855." 

Besides his white-lead business Graham was also a 
director of the Maxim-Nordenfeldt Company, and in 
that capacity he arranged with Sir Drummond Wolff 
at the State ball to show the Shah a Maxim-gun. 
" Accordingly," he writes, " about eleven o'clock 
yesterday morning [5th July] a procession of three 
cabs ari'ived before Buckingham Palace. One, a 
four - wheeler, contained a queer - looking machine, 




some boxes of ammunition, and two mechanics ; two 
hansoms contained Mr Maxim and me, and two other 
directors. We were admitted, personally conducted 
by the inspector of police, a stout sort of ' Buckett,' 
very polite to us, and decisive and sharp to his sub- 
ordinates. AiTived in the beautiful gardens, my 
friend Cowell met us, and we posted the gun on 
the lawn under some trees, not far from the pond 
and fountain, also within sight of the palace. Mr 
Maxim was very anxious to be allowed to fire blank 
cartridges, hut such a thing had never been done 
in the Palace gardens. However, Cowell thought it 
wouldn't matter, as the Queen wasn't there, and sent 
for the officer of the guard, so that he might not think 
there was an attack being made on the Palace. 
Cowell then took me in by the di-awing-room window, 
where a lot of costly jewellery and other articles fi'om 
London shops were laid out for the Shah's inspection. 
I was kept waiting a long time, but, thanks to CoweU, 
it passed pleasantly. I had an interview with Prince 
Malcom, the Persian Ambassador, a very amiable- 
looking man of slight build, who told me that he 
thought no foreigner could understand England with 
our mixed institutions, our Court, aristocracy, Parlia- 
ment, and democracy. Our openness was the greatest 
puzzle of all. 'Then,' he said, 'you Englishmen are 
always in a hurry — you look upon your time as 
limited by this life, but we Persians look forward 
to eternity 1' 

" After about a quarter of an hour spent very 
quietly, as he had previously told me he hadn't been 
well, Malcom Khan retired, politely thanking me for 
the only quiet time he was likely to have that day, 
and I was invited to breakfast — it was about half- 
past twelve o'clock — with the Persian Minister and 


Persian staff. I sat next to Amir Sultan, the Grand 
Vizier, who is a young man of about twenty-eight 
years of age, with none of that weary, blear-eyed, 
oriental look which Malcom and all the other Persians 
have. He has a dark handsome face with bright eyes, 
looking ' all there.' Cowell told me he was a clever 
fellow, and had been raised from obscurity by the 
Shah-im-Shah. He also pointed out to me another 
sharp-looking fellow, a tall dark Armenian, the Col- 
lector of Customs. . . . At breakfast Amir Sultau 
drank champagne and was lively, making several 
Persian jokes, which were of course duly appreciated 
by the minor courtiers. He spoke a little French, and 
I asked him which the Shah and he enjoyed most — 
the 'Empire' or the Opera. Amir Sultan replied 
that the ' Empire ' was the finer sight, but the Opera 
the better music. We talked about the races the 
Shah was going to see, and I was informed that m 
Persia races were run of ten miles and horses often 
killed. At the announcement that the Shah was 
about to move we ' held ourselves in readiness,' and 
in going into the drawing-room I had a talk with 
Sir Henry Rawlinson, and shortly afterwards went 
with him through the glass doors into the garden, 
where under a tree stood the Shah and the little 

The rest of this letter is missing. 

In August 1889 his dog, the beloved " Duke," was 
lost from his temporary abode at Hartfield, and he 
writes to his niece : " I have also a piece of news for 
you which I know will please you. The only dog you 
ever really loved — lucky dog — is found. Yes, the 
dear dog has been taken charge of by an honest 
waterman at Redhill, whose wife, seeing my hand- 
bill, at once wrote to me in terms of enthusiastic 


admiration of ' Duke.' I telegraphed to the man to 
meet me at Redhill Junction, and there sure enough 
was the dear dog, none the worse for his adventures. 
He enjoys this place immensely, and is looked on with 
respect by the other village dogs." 

After a visit from his niece at Hartfield and his 
return to Worlabye House, he writes to her : " We 
are glad to find ourselves home again, and all regret 
that we didn't leave Hartfield when you did, or at all 
events the next day, for the flavour of Hartfield seemed 
gone out of it when you left, and nothing went right 
with us. Fii'st ' Polly ' went lame and the weather 
got bad, next ' Duke ' trod on some broken glass left 
by careless picnic people among the heather, and has 
gone lame ever since. Then we took a new pony, as 
B. told you ; but, alas 1 as the dear little girl was 
driving me home on Wednesday, coming down a 
gentle slope, this charming pony came suddenly down 
on its head, pitching me out and my darling on the 
top of me. This was an unpleasant termination to 
our pleasant drives, and resulted in my dear little 
girl having a sprained wrist — fortunately nothing 
worse. I got off with a bruised shoulder and hip, 
as the road was rather hard. ... I am thinking of 
taking a small house on the Hampshire coast if I can 
find one to suit." 

At the end of the year 1889 he was much worried 
with business matters connected with one of the com- 
panies of which he was chairman or director, and 
mentions having to go into the City in a dense black 
fog and harangue a mob of excited shareholders for 
nearly two hours, and, after the meeting, hurrying 
down to Falmouth to join some of his family passing 
the Christmas holidays there. His own pleasure there 
was a good deal spoilt by tiresome correspondence 


about company business and by bad weather. So 
stormy was the weather that he was only twice able 
to go out for a Rail, and then got caught in squalle, 
and the boat made so much water that he was obliged 
to put back. The place, too, was so out of the way 
that it was impossible for him to manage to attend the 
State funeral of his old friend and chief, Lord Napier 
of Magdala, at St Paul's Cathedral. This particularly 
discomposed him, and caused him to look back on his 
Falmouth outing with anything but pleasure. 

Early in 1890 he made a new temporary home — 
Sandford Lodge — at Southbourne-on-Sea, which had 
the advantage of being near Bournemouth, where his 
youngest daughter was at school and could pay him 
"week-end" visits. 

As a member of a committee of officers of his own 
corps for carrying out the Royal Engineers' memorials 
of General Gordon, Sir Gerald took a prominent part 
at the ceremony of unveiling Mr E. Onslow Ford's 
beautiful bronze statue of Gordon on a camel, which 
was performed by the Prince of Wales at Brompton 
Barracks, Chatham, on the 19th May 1890. He 
attended a State ball at Buckingham Palace on the 
following evening, and at the annual Navy Club 
dinner on the 21st was "the guest" — the custom 
being only to Invite one. 

After this little round of gaiety he returned to 
Southbourne and amused himself with cruising in his 
little boat about the Isle of Wight and other i^laces in 
the neighbourhood. The following incident, recorded 
by his nephew, shows how full of life Sir Gerald was 
at this time : — 

" Uncle Gerald, his two sons, and I had been 
cruising round ' Old HaiTy ' in his little boat the 
Hilda. On returning, the centre-board jammed, so 


the boat eoald not run in shore. The yoimger genera- 
tion tugged at the centre-board, but with no result. 
The general considered the question, stripped, took a 
'header' from the port side, and disappeared. The 
omtre-board was seen to move. Shortly afterwards 
he reappeared on the starboard side, puffing but 
radiant : he had n^otiated the difficulty." 

In September Graham moved for a short time to an 
old-fashioned house called South End, at Ringwood in 
the New Forest, — " a charming old place, with a beau- 
tiful garden, fruit trees, fine old trees, bowers, and a 

The sununer and autumn of 1891 were spent in 
Switzerland, and he wrote from the Blauensee, 
Kanderthal : — 

" This is the most fairy-like place you can imagine. 
We are on the banks of a tiny lake of the deepest 
blue, the water of which is so clear that at a depth 
of twenty metres you can see the smallest object at 
the bottom, and a piece of chalk sinks slowly down, 
becoming blue at the bottom, where the fish are seen 
among the branches of ancient fir-trees, now spectral 
with strange water growths. Around the enchanted 
lake are pine-woods growing among and upon im- 
mense rocks, the debris of the great mountains that 
look down upon it. In the distance, and yet ap- 
parently close at hand, is a great snow-covered peak, 
the mighty Doldenhorn." 

A little later he wrote fixtm St Gingolf : — 

" I am writing to you from a most delightful little 
village on the south side of the Lake of Geneva, 
opposite Montreux, which certainly in summer is very 
much the best side. Here we haven't that horrid 
glare off the lakes, and in place of the ugly shade- 
less vineyai-ds, the slopes behind us are covered with 


beautiful ■woods, rising through wahiut, oak, and 
chestnut to the pine forests that last even to the 
creats of the jagged ridges. Altogether I like this 
better than any other place I have seen in Switzer- 
land. I have just been out to look on the lake at 
night. It is lovely. The lake Is seen through some 
sweet-scented walnut-trees, and beyond are the bright 
lights of Montreux, with the mountains rising behind 
into the deep blue staiTy sky." 

The winter was spent in London, and a description 
was sent to his niece of a visit to the Lyceum to see 
"Henry VIIL," and a comparison drawn. He had 
seen it once before at the Princess's before Irving 
arose, when Charles Kean was considered the most 
magnificent of stage-managers : — 

" Kean's ball scene was not nearly so gorgeous as 
Irving's, but I remember a stately minuet de la cour 
danced to quaint old music, where Irving has a very 
brilliant but complicated flower-dance, which looks too 
elaborate to have been ever practised by any other 
than professionals, followed by a dangerous -looking 
torch dance of the mummers. But the procession of 
the coronation through a street of old London was 
splendidly realistic. I wish, however, that Ii-ving had 
not introduced that tableau vivant business at the 
end of each act. It spoils all illusions to see the 
curtain let down and rolled up again two or three 
times, showing the actors in some favourite posture- 
But the acting of almost all the parts was very good. 
Buckingham's farewell speech on the Thames Stairs 
was very affecting, and the violent, impulsive, but 
naturally generous character of Bluff Harry is capitally 
rendered by Terry, who looks like the picture in the 
' Illustrated Shakespeare.' Irving's acting was of a 
far more subtle character than Kean's, not so acceo- 


tuated, but fiiU of feeling in that last sceue with 
Cromwell. Ellen Terry was perhaps too vivacious, 
too young and charming-looking, in the trial scene. 
Had she looked like that. King Hal would have bid 
his conscience go hang before he would have parted 
with her for the red-haired Anne Bullen. But in that 
last scene with Griffith, when she listens and replies 
so beautifully to his eloquent defence of her fallen 
enemy, Ellen Terry is at her best, and I think the 
play should have closed with her vision at the end of 
Act iv. Nothing, I think. In Shakespeare is nobler 
than his characterisation of Wolsey and of Catherine 
of Aragon, both enemies of Anne Bullen, the mother 
of his queen." 

Writing to his niece of some novels, he says : — 
"I shall certainly read 'Beatrice' if I cau get 
hold of it, and feel sure I shall like it, as our tastes 
generally coincide. I, too, Hked ' Jess ' immensely, 
and think it the best of Rider Haggard's works. 
I am glad you appreciated ' Fantasy.' It la a fearful 
picture of the intense selfishness of such love as that 
of Lucia and Andrea ; how they sacrificed those who 
truly loved them in the most treacherous and heart- 
less way. The fruit of true love is self-devotion, self- 
sacrifice, not the sacrifice of others — especially when 
those sacrificed are loving and good. I am sure you, 
with your little darling just restored to you, must feel 
this very strongly. Some lunatic has dedicated a 
march to me, and I dedicate it to you — at least I 
Bent you a copy yesterday, and you must tell me what 
you think of it. What an interesting debate that 
was on Woman Suflrage. In spite of Sir A. EoUitt 
and Balfour I am dead against it, though to 'politicians' 
it might be great fun canvassing the fair voters I" 
But although he playfully calls the man who had 


dedicated his march to him a lunatic, he takes some 
trouble to enable him to sell his composition, and 
writes to several friends on the subject. To his 
nephew, Mr R. G. Durrant of Marlborough College, 
he writes : " I am sending you a copy of a piece of 
music which some old bandsman says I gave him per- 
mission to dedicate to me ! I have no recollection of 
having done so ; but as the poor man has been at the 
cost and trouble of publishing it, I should be glad to 
help him to sell it, if there is any merit in it. As you 
are a musical man and a member of a musical society, 
perhaps you can do something in the way of making it 
known in the musical world. The unfortunate com- 
poser is rather out of date with his ' warrior,' who has 
subsided into a very poor ' golfer.' I sent a copy of the 
march to D., and have just heard that it is pretty." 

A visit to his sister and her family at Penally, 
near Tenby, led to a further acquaintance with golf, 
a game which quite fascinated him and gave an 
object to his travels in the way of golf-links to 
play on. He got a club two inches longer than the 
usual measurement and found that it suited him 
capitally ! 

In the autumn of 1892 Sir Gerald paid a visit to 
Marlborough College, and on his return to town writes 
to his nephew : " It seemed difficult to believe in that 
glorious walk on Sunday, when back again in damp 
muggy London yesterday. I certainly don't wonder 
at your liking to stick to Marlborough after having 
seen it, and I feel inclined to call myself a brother 
Malburian, or to regard all Malburians as brothers." 

About this time he thought of retiring from com- 
pany business, which he detested, and taking a 
house in the West Country, and accordingly in 
January 1893 we find him established at " Strand- 



field," Instow, in North Devon, where he was able 
to combine boating with golf. He writes of it to 
his niece as a charming place, its only defect being 
its solitude, although that too had its charms. 
Golf could be played on the sands just at the foot 
of the garden, or, for the more ambitious, on the 
links at Westward Ho ! There was capital bass- 
fishing in the harbour and a boat close by ; a nice 
garden facing the sea, with a broad sloping lawn and 
a little sheltered tennis-court, and he hopes that in 
the spring his niece will come and see. " At high 
water it is delightful to look over the broad Torridge 
opening its arms to embrace the Taw, but at low 
water one has to walk half a mile to get to a boat, 
and must be careful not to get engulfed in a quick- 
sand. Don't be afraid, I will take care of you. The 
news," he adds, "from Egypt looks warlike again. 
How I wish I were employed instead of vegetating 
here ! But I've had my day. . . , Your thoughts in 
the cathedral remind me of Victor Hugo's famous 
chapter in ' Notre Dame ' on the book and the 
building. In those days the poet and dreamer put 
his thoughts and dreams into stone, now on paper. 
The book has destroyed the building. ... I do hope 

Miss will be happy with her East-End curate 

and he with her. Work in sympathy with others is 
perhaps the most lasting happiness." 

In the summer of 1893 Sir Gerald spent a few 
weeks ^vith his sister and her family at Courmayeur 
in North Italy, entering with zest into all their little 
amusements, playing golf with them on the mountain 
meadows, and climbing the neighbouring heights. 
Then from Courmayeur in September he walked with 
two nephews round the base of Mont Blanc to 
Chamounix, climbing to the snow region, and losing 


the way in a mountain mist, until a sudden lifting 
of a cloud revealed a precipice in front of them having 
a sheer drop of 1000 feet, and the road they should 
have taken winding peacefully at the bottom. Sir 
Gerald was greatly afi'ected by the rarity of the air, 
and declared he could go no farther. Then one of the 
party produced a biscuit, and the General, scooping up 
some snow with It, devoured the combination, and 
feeling wonderfully revived, the walk was continued 
amid torrents of rain to the highest and loneliest inn 
on the Contamines side of the Col du Bon Homme. 
Sitting round a tiny stove in the bare hayloft of a 
salon, they ate omelette au naturelle with the greatest 
relish, and discussed their morning's walk while their 
clothes were drying. The same afternoon they con- 
tinued their journey down the beautiful valley of 
Contamines, clothed in pines and larches, and the 
hanks of the streams thickly covered with ferns. At 
Contamines there were two hotels, one called the 
"Bon Homme"; but the General declared he had 
had enough of the "Bon Homme" for one day. The 
other hotel, however, was found to be closed, so to the 
"Bon Homme" they had to go. Their clothes were 
so wet that they had to dine wrapped in blankets, but 
never enjoyed any meal more. Then the waiter, whom 
they had addressed as gar^on, turned out to be " mine 
host." So the memory of that famous feast at the 
"Bon Homme" lingered long. One of his nephews 
who accompanied him In this expedition was staying 
with his uncle at the time of his fatal illness in 
December 1899, and remembers having asked him, 
knowing what the answer would be, where It was 
that he had the best potatoes he ever tasted. " At 
the ' H6tel Bon Homme,' " was the reply. The 
journey on that occasion waa continued the following 


day, and Chamounix reached by a long walk, wh 
the party went on to Geneva. 

The same autumn Sir Gerald, describing another 
joomey to Chamounix, mentions Annecy, "a charm- 
ing old place and picturesque town, with a lonely 
lake and banks rising through beautiful woods 
and slopes of dazzling snow, capped with serrated 
gleaming ridges." He says : " I felt the impulse of 
mountain - worship in me as I gazed this morning 
on these ridges rising above a layer of white clouds. 
They seemed to say, ' We are of the higher world, 
serene and grand ; we keep ourselves pure and 
undefiled, unspotted by your world.'" 

In the summer of 1894, on visiting the Antwerp 
Exhibition, he tells his experience of Flemish golf- 
links, where he had two Flemish caddies, one to 
carry the clubs, the other to run on in front and 
mark the holes with little red flags. " I found," 
he says, "my boy much sharper in marking and 
finding the balls than most of my Devonshire caddies. 
He would sing out 'Farther on' or 'Come on,' and 
sometimes ' Good drive ' by way of encouragement ! " 
Sir Gerald found the exhibition "hot, crowded, and 
tiresome, like most exhibitions," and moved on to 
Dresden, which he had not visited since his school- 
days. "My fellow-travellers," he writes, "were an 
English lady with a little boy and a very boisterous 
English-speaking German, who got up romps with the 
little boy in which I had to join, until the boy was 
quite exhausted, and by his mama's request was at 
length laid out on my bench, where he slept in spite 
of the shaking, occasionaDy, however, kicking me while 
stretching himself. The boy, although only seven 
yeara old, the mother told me, composes like Mozart 
and plays on various instruments ! At Leipzig I saw 


them off by train to Chemnitz." What a kind-heavted 
old general I 

Sir Gerald's youngest daughter, Olive, was now at 
school near Lausanne, and during the summer holi- 
daya his sister and her family were staying at Aeschi, 
where they all met. An expedition was made up the 
Ehone valley and over the Simplon to Lake Maggiore 
by Sir Gerald, his daughter, and a nephew, who 
narrates how, on one occasion, the general's powers 
of physical endurance were put to a somewhat 
severe test ; — 

"Starting from Fiesch at 4 a.m., we walked up to 
the Jungfrau Hotel in time for breakfast ; thence, 
with Olive on horseback, we reached the summit of 
the Eggishorn. Olive returned with the guide to 
the Jungfrau, while Uncle Gerald decided to pro- 
ceed by unbeaten tracks down to the Aletsch Glacier. 
The descent was steep, and, when half-way down, the 
mountain -sheep behaved in a remarkable manner — 
they took us for shepherds. Apparently desiring to 
attract attention to their friendly feelings, they 
advanced in companies witli their heads lowered 
and charged. Uncle was taken off his legs, and 
fell down a steep arete, where he lay for some 
minutes, his ankle being hurt. However, he was 
able to proceed, and reached the glacier accompanied 
by the sheep. I was similarly accompanied, and 
together we made our way across several crevasses, 
and finally down a somewhat hazardous descent 
over broken ice to the bed of the dried-up Marjelen 
See. Here the sheep, finding no pasture, forsook 
their fancied shepherds, and we walked back by a 
circuitous route to the Jungfrau, and thence, ac- 
companied by Olive, to Fiesch, arriving at 8 P.M. 

" Uncle had been walking for about fourteen 




boors, and had ascended more th&a 6000 feet ; he 
oeither showed signs of &tigue at the time nor 

From Biarritz later in the year he writes : — 
" I only got yoiir delightful letter this morning at St 
Jean-de-Luz. It bears the post-marks of Samaden, 
Bellaggio, Lugano, Milan, and Genoa. What dis- 
tances I have travelled since last writing to you, and 
yet I have seen nothing so lovely as you descrihe to 
me. Your letter, which you so wrongly describe as 
' fffosy,' brings before my mind that beautiful Cornish 
coast with its fairy castles and giant keeps that ever 
' offer battle to the surge.' I, too, am now again on 
the Atlantic ... I have taken to golf here now ; for 
the last few days it has been too cold to bathe. Be- 
fore that I used to delight in the great rollers that 
came sweeping in about twenty feet apart. To feel 
them dashing over me in foam, or to lie on my back 
floating like a buoy, was very delightful. I generally 
found myself recalled by a shrill whistle from the 
shore, and looking back would see a man energetically 
waving to me to come back. The sea here in rough 
weather is magnificent, the huge rollera dashing them- 
selves into foam and spray over the great rocks that 
form a feature of this coast. My favourite point of 
observation is the ' Roche de la Vierge,' which is con- 
nected with the mainland by a bridge. 

"You say you are getting 'terribly prosaic,' but 
that cannot be. Your letters are full of poetry, and 
wherever you go you see the flowei-s and sweetness 
of life. I wander like a poor outcast, and sometimes 
wonder at myself for wandering. 1 left R., or rather 
he left me, at Lugano, and since then I have been on 
* ' *ramp. At Milan I found there was an exhibition 
on, and went there, although I had resolved 


never to go to another after that stupid Antwerp one. 
But there was an Italian charm and grace about the 
Milanese exhibition that pleased me. I liked many 
of the modern pictures, and one that particularly 
impressed me was that of a nun in her cell. A fine, 
handsome, young woman in the prime and fulness of 
life, her attitude expresses all the energy of despair- 
ing love. One hand has hold of the bar of her cell 
window, and the other crushes a letter which appears 
to have been thrown in together with a rose which 
lies at her feet. One pictures the sad fate of this 
poor girl, If she has to repress all these strong nat- 
ural feelings. What will she grow into ? — a vicious 
hypocrite or an unnatural ascetic 1 However, I did 
not confine myself to the picture-gallery. I got my- 
self photographed by an automatic machine, and was 
so disappoined at the result that I tore it up ! I then 
tried the strength of my lungs on the spirometer, for 
which I gained a medal marked ' 3000 Stravidinaria,' 
" After that I went to witness a match at the Italian 
national game of pallone, which is something between 
fives and lawn-tennis, but rather inferior to both. I 
found my way by degrees to Monte Carlo, determined 
to see that famous paradise, or hell, according as you 
■ take it. Well, I went, I saw, and I hated it. Before 
I was allowed to enter the gambling -saloon in the 
gaudy casino, called Cercle des Etrangers, I had to 
give my name, and am sorry I didn't take the name 
of ' Brown ' for the occasion. Although it was early 
in the day all the gaming-tables were fuU, and at one 
nothbig but gold was staked. I watched one female, 
who had probably been sitting a long time, as her 
countenance had that pale haggard look that comes 
of long anxious watching and disappointed hopes, as 
she staked her last napoleon, then rose with a sub- 


duetl sigh and went. A man next me staked a dozen 
napoleons every now and then, and seemed to lose 
them all with indifference. An aged, grey - haired 
woman played steadily on the red, but I ceased to take 
any interest in the game — there seemed to me such a 
disgusting mechanical ruthlessness about it. Gold was 
swept up though hearts might break, gold that might 
involve the honour or ruin of lives. I should have 
been sorry to have won a penny at that devilish game. 
" What shall I say of the Riviera ? the land of the 
fig-tree, the olive, and vine, where the date-palms 
flourish, so that one might almost fancy oneself in 
Egypt ; but it is also the land of eternal tasteless 
villas, hotels, and casinos, those French abominations. 
The French and Italians of the modern type are, I 
believe, really the least poetical of all people, and 
vulgarise everything they touch. How different to 
think of you and your love of the breezy heather 1 
But Aries is pleasant, a quaint old town with such 
narrow, dirty, winding streets, in the land of old 
Provence. There, too, are the wonderful Roman re- 
mains. I was sorry I could not stay longer there, or 
even go on to Nimes, The kindly French landlady 
told me I ought to be there on Sunday, as they had 
bull-fights in the arena. Fancy a modern bull-tight 
where of old the Christian martyrs were brought out 
to be devoured by wild beasts ! Have we advanced 
much since then ? Occasionally a man is killed by 
the bulls — so much the better sport for the populace. 
But at Aries, I was told, they don't kill their bulls, 
they only goad them with darts. Why ? Because 
it is too expensive. At Nimes they do business on 
a larger scale and kill their bulls. ' But isn't it 
against the law ? ' I inquired. ' Yes, it is, strictly 
speaking ; mais on ne fait pas cUtentimi.' At the 


museum I made great friends with an old soldier who 
had lost a foot in 1870, and seemed to have a great 
love for the Kepublican Government. 

" What delightful energy you have ! I do hope 
your novel wiJl be a success, but I am afi-aid I should 
be of no use as a collaborator, and can't help you 
with the plot. If I were to suggest anything, it 
would be the introduction of a villain (you may make 
him like me if you like) who has a diabolical plot for 
running off with the heroine. I am just now reading 
' The Yellow Aster,' but don't like it. The heroine 
seems to me another sort of Dodo, and I don't like 
the breed at all. I like a woman to be natural and 
loving, and hope you will make your heroine a real 
woman, and not a beautiful insolent creature with 
a heart of stone. 

" Since writing to you last I have been making 
a short trip into Spain to San Sebastian, which I 
found very hot and shadeless. I entered a tram-car, 
went as far as I could, and returning met a carriage 
with a mounted escort. Our tram-car stopped, and 
all uncovered as the carriage passed. A pleasant- 
looking, middle-aged lady in black sat at the back, 
and in front of her a stout man in a black coat with a 
star. ' Who Is that ? ' I asked my neighbour. ' Why, 
the Queen, of course.' My landlady, a nice little 
woman, told me the Queen had been there since Jane, 
and was very popular. I asked her about bull-fights. 
She said there had been some in August ; there were 
none now. ' Did the Queen like them ? ' ' No, not 
at all — nor do I,' the little woman added, ' they are 
cruel.' I liked the look of the Spanish soldiers, and 
was struck by the number of little boys I saw in 
uniform — a smart dress, — bright red trousers and a 
loosely-fitting blue jacket with smart cap. 


"On my way back to England I mean to stop a 
few days at Dmard, in Brittany, which is, I am told, 
a dehghtful place, ivith capital golf-links. ... I am 
sending you a German book, which I think you will 
like if you have time to read it. It is a very pretty 
love-story, with a good deal of incident and adventure, 
such as I like to read about. Did you ever read ' The 
Man with the Broken Ear ' ? The Princess Frederica 
is staying here. I found her a most agreeable woman 
to talk to, and her husband is a golfer. She under- 
took to drive me out to see a battlefield, but the drive 
has not come oft' yet. 

" I am much interested in your account of Sarah 
[an old and faithful sei-vant recently married]. What 
a devoted, loving soul she is 1 Never a thought for 
herself — she is always thinking and planning for the 
happiness of othei-s, and now she is full of her darling 
baby. She told me that only you and I had thought 
of sending her baby a kiss, and that she would so like 
UB to visit her together on my return from abroad. 
But how my pen runs on. I had no notion I had 
written so much. To some people I can't write at all, 
but writing to you I seem to have so much to say, 
and you are so good you don't find my letters tedious, 
— at least you are kind enough to say you don't." 

And again a little later : — 

"You have written me a most charming letter, 
although you say you have nothing to write about. 
I am glad you have read 'Lourdes.' It is indeed a 
wonderful book, and made a great impression on me. 
I understand Zola's next is to be on Rome, and that 
he is there studying his ground, also that the Pope 
prudently declined to he interviewed by him. I seem 
to like all the books that you like. 'A Gentleman of 
France ' is a great favourite of mine, and I like every- 


thing I have read by Stanley Weyman. I have just 
fiiaished reading ' A Girl in the Carpathians,' and 
enjoyed it immensely. Indeed I don't remember 
enjoying any book of travels so much since ' Eothen ' ; 
but of course this is quite different, and has no pre- 
tension to be a finished work of art like that book, 
which took the world by storm five-and-forty years 
ago. But the girl, Miss Dowie, is delightful, full of 
daring originality, keenly observant, and very humor- 
ous. One almost wishes she could have fallen in love 
with that quaint Polish painter who found her great- 
grandmother's watch for her. I don't altogether trust 
her accuracy, and think that some of her adventures 
must have been invented, as when she went howling 
round her hut at night with a lighted pine torch to 
frighten off an imaginary bear. But, true or not, they 
are most amusingly told ; and her descriptions of the 
queer characters she meets, and the frankness with 
which she discusses the unpleasant incidents of travel 
in Poland, are delightful," 

From Biarritz also Sir Gerald wrote the following 
letter about his golfing: — 

" I think ttie course here is a very good one. 
Though inferior to Westward Ho, it has more 
hazards, and is more of a sporting coui-se. There 
is no hole without some kind of hazard. The green 
of the second hole is close to the edge of a steep cliff, 
BO that the approach is very delicate. To the third or 
chasm hole you drive across a gulf of the sea, with a 
cliff to the right and a road to the left. Inland there 
are some very deep pits with sloping sides, called 
punch - bowls, besides plenty of artificial bunkers, 
hollow sandy roads, gardens, &c. Altogether it re- 
quires careful steering to get a ball well round. A 
Scotsman here, a good steady player, considers it a 



first-rate link, bat he thinks the links at Dinard in 
Brittany even better. He tells me it is a very nice 
place, with very pleasant society and lovely coast 
scenery, so I mean to pay a visit there on my way 
back, and will tell you what I think of it. This 
[H6tel Beau S^jour] is a very pleasant pension, 
entirely English, and I can always get up a match 
with some one or other. . , . To-day I have had two 
rounds, one on the gentlemen's and one on the ladies' 
links. . . . The weather is lovely, still very warm, 
and mosquito-curtains to one's bed are advisable. It 
is a very different climate to yours, isn't it ? " 

And from Dinard, in December, he writes : " Yester- 
day I played two rounds on the golf-links at St Briac, 
about five miles from here. They are certainly first- 
rate links, with soil and herbage like Westward 
Ho, barring the rushes. I think them easier than 
Westward Ho, and that you would easily go round 
in eighty. I went round yesterday under one hun- 
dred, but was playing better than usual. I had no 
one to play with, so went i-ound with the professional's 
brother morning and afternoon. This afternoon I have 
a match, and hope to catch the boat for St Malo, and 
then the steamer for Southampton, which starts about 
7 P.M. ... 1 don't care to stay here longer now, there 
being nothing to do beyond golf, and that is too far 
off ; but if you could come over at Easter with me we 
might put up at a lovely place, St Lunaire, very near 
the links. The coast is beautiful, and you would find 
plenty of subjects for sketches there and at the pictur- 
esque old towns of St Malo and St Servan. If H. 
would come on too he would find capital boating here 
in addition to other attractions." 

In March 1895 Sir Gerald >vrote from Westward 
I Ho : " I have had my turn of ' Flue,' as H. calls it, 


Since this day week, when I got wet and chilled on 
the top of another cold. Dr Reid tells me I ought to 
keep in bed, but I find myself getting slowly better, 
though 8o weak that I can just crawl about the room. 
. . , Have you read that article in the ' St James's ' 
of the 14th on the ' King of Games,' called, ' Is golf 
worth playing ? By one who doubts it.' I quite 
agree with this writer and with one in ' Blackwood,' 
that golf ought not to be allowed to supplant cricket 
and football in schools. Don't you ? But what do 
you say to the golfer being described as 'mooning, 
self-absorbed over his dank links, attended by his 
silent and servile retainer * ; and to golf as a ' loafing, 
selfish amusement ' ? It will be amusing to read the 
great Horace's indignant reply." 

Nearly a year later we find Graham much inter- 
ested in two young relatives In South Africa, and 
he mentions a letter from one of them, then resident in 
Boer territory, which, as it was written at the time 
of the Jameson Raid, is of sufficient general interest 
to make an extract permissible : — 

" I fully believe that there will be fighting again in 
South Africa either this month or before the year is 
out. I say this month possibly, because the Johannes- 
burgers have not yet given up their arms, and the 
Boers may try a house-to-house search, in which 
case even a worm, or a Johannesburger, might be 
expected to turn. On the whole, however, I don't 
expect to see much active disturbance for at least 
six months. ... In the meantime, if the golden 
city is made a door-mat of by the Boer farmers, 
she will only get her just reward for the cowardly, 
treacherous, and stupid desertion of Jameson, the 
only man able to lead them and probably secure 
them their just rights without bloodshed. If the 

f S3 THE Uimt DWCAim — irj 

nwmbera of the Befixm CoBmnttee had acted Eke 
men, Jameaaii's finca iRnlii have beoi met at Kmgefs- 
dorp br a &ieoi2T eiuwd finn ^le town with Maxims, 
Ac, and the Boeia wDoid in aU paJbahiBtj have heen 
well »uxi^ will ill not to fireaafaoC, is they would 
hafo bton^it a cnMS firs on tn^nseiTcs wfaidi would 
have been hiehlv mmleaaent. 

" Poor Jameson \ Wbcm we heazd of his wild and 
t^eperate rule ot«- the Transvaal harder, tmxy one 
said whac a wicked, iiii— uwti— I actkn, but every 
Eogltshmaa added, noAr iim kaafch. ' Vtmj God he 
may oury saMv tliwi wg f i «tt Ik.' Ton see, the 
Euglish people oat hsv han* a vcij leal grievance, 
and somehow no good aad r— iritwfinnal measure that 
they can think of tB Efcrir to iuAm b it. Tbeu- griev- 
aaoe is that th<» Boecs everrvbere oMoage to absorb 
all the voting power. In tlie Transvaal, of course, the 
UittwodecVt as they eaO tiioB. am simplr not allowed 
a vote by law. Bat in tbe Orange Free State, and 
9T«n in the C^>* Cbkny, tlui^ are abnost as bad. 
Tbn BlMt9t WMMar Uwn work, go away on the desert 
hyad %bA ma3t» a (mfeMwe at 6knni[^. The English 
Kve in or round about the small townships. The small 
(?lwU»i-»l distrtot tvHiud the town will be able to place 
Ihtt Kik^Utih momU^r of its dioioe in Parliament, and 
ho will ivpix'*<f\t say 4000 Toters. But, on the other 
h«iul. tlioiv will bp ten distttotB near by without towns 
tu tbt>tn whioh will return ten Dutch members, each 
UlMltWv n>|XM*>witJ«ii abt>ut 500 voters. On the top 
iif all (bin %w K»w now to fitce the fact that every 
WVtfli WintfB owt a matter of seven or eight hundred 
IVwK K«*ili»Knwn. and the question is simply how long 

MtVV W(U HtMlwt it." 

'iw»|d bad |«id n visit to Mrs Shenstone early 
wbw> iJn» wa« staying near the Lizard id 


THE REV. T. E. BBOWN. 353 

Cornwall, and on her return there in 1898, just 
after Lord Kitchener's achievements in the Soudan, 
she records an amusing story of the waiter of the 
hotel — a native of the place — who looked upon her 
uncle with respectful awe. William, the waiter, 
asked after Sir Gerald, and they then spoke of Lord 
Kitchener. "Ah! ma'am," said William in a sudden 
glow of confidence, "but I shall never forget, what- 
ever others say, tJmt I saw Sir Gerald — him that 
undertook and prepared the path for them that came 
after him." 

At Clifton, where he often stayed with the Shen- 
stones, Sir Gerald met and admired the Rev, Thomas 
Edward Brown,^ a master at Clifton College and a 
Manx poet. The liking was mutual, for they had 
much in common. When Mr Brown died in 1898, 
Mrs Shenstone sent her uncle 'The Doctor' to read, 
and on returning the book he writes to her : — 

"It is a very painful story, and I think the doctor 
deserved a better fate than to be tied to such a wife 
and only to meet the woman he loved on her death- 
bed. But it is very powerfully told, and although I 
don't admire the Manx dialect, it lends itself in such a 
master's hand to imparting a startling i-eality to the 
sad story. Every one can feel this ; but a Manx man 
or woman must feel it intensely. Thank you for ' The 
Cliftonian.* I hope the ringing words of that post- 
humous poem by Mr Brown will be set to music 
worthy of it and sung by the Clifton boys." 

' Author of 'The Fo'c'a'le Yarns.' A complete edition of his poema 
was published last year by Macmillan & Co., and hts letters, edited by 
Sidney T. Irwin, were published in two volumes by Archibald Con- 
Btable & Co. 



During 1895 and 1896 Graham remained generally 
in the west of England, and chiefly in the neighbour- 
hood of Bideford, for he had become a member of the 
Royal North Devon Golf Club,^ whose links are at 
Northam close by. His sister, Mrs Durrant, now 
a widow, had returned to England in 1895, after 
spending two years in Italy and Switzerland, and 
he managed to see her very frequently in her different 
places of abode, for like him she inherited from their 
mother a love of changing scene. 

In the spring of 1897 he took a house — The Warren 
— at Torrington, and, as Mrs Durrant came to Bide- 
ford the same year, the brother and sister were 
within half- an - hour's journey of one another. At 
Torrington during the following winter Sir Gerald 
had a severe attack of whooping-cough, which pulled 
him down a good deal. He described with animation 
his struggle with "the fiend" that tried to suffocate 
him, and he regarded his recovery as a victory ; but 
he thought it wise to leave the bleak hill - top of 

' The uiembere of thie famous golf club, to which to many distia- 
guiahed inilitlry men belong, h«ve recorded their ailmirstion of Sir 
Ger&lil Graham by htrnging his portrait in their large luacheou-room 
—at pre«enl the only portrait there. 


Tomngton, and in March 1898 he took a house, 
called Springfield, near Bideford, which he after- 
wards bought, and where he lived for the short 
remainder of his life. 

In making a new home at Springfield with his 
daughter Olive and her half-sister Emma Blacker, 
Graham's object was to be nearer his sister, Mrs 
Durrant, who, with her daughter Dorothea, lived 
at Orchard Hill, within five minutes' walk, and the 
brother and sister looked forward to some happy 
years and the renewal of the close intercourse of 
their young days. 

But it was not to be. Barely a month after Sir 
Gerald got into his new house his sister passed away, 
on the 9th April (Easter Even) 1898. During those 
sad days when the loss pressed heavily on them, Sir 
Gerald was " a strong support to his nephews and 
nieces," says one of them, "and Springfield, where we 
stayed together during that month, seemed rightly 
named — -a green lawn stretched beyond the gravel 
sweep, the spring flowers blossomed, the trees burst 
into leaf. Spring brought its message of hope in the 
midst of sorrow, telling of life ever renewed and the 
deathlessness of all that is noble and beautiful." 

A few months later, when his nephews and nieces 
were arranging for the memorial stone over their 
mother's grave, they proposed that the text from the 
Revised Version, " Now abideth faith, hope, and love, 
and the greatest of these is love," should be inscribed 
on it, and Sir Gerald writes : — 

" I must confess I don't like the Revised Version so 
well as the old. I have heard Dean Stanley at West- 
minster Abbey give a grand sermon on that glorious 
epistle on ' Charity,' which, he rightly said, ought to 
be inscribed in letters of gold. ' Chai'ity ' may not be 



in itself a sufficiently expressive word, but it becomes 
so by association with that epistle. ' Love ' doesn't 
express the same thing. But why put it on your 
mother's tombstone at all ? You might quote another 
portion — ' For now we see through a glass darkly, but 
then face to face.' However, if all of you prefer your 
quotation, don't let my objection stand in the way." 
Both texts were inscribed on the tombstone. 

He continued to correspond in his pleasant way with 
the various members of his family and others ; but 
sufficient extracts from his correspondence have been 
given to illustrate his power of observation and 
description, his imaginative and poetical temperament, 
his kind and true heart, and the many lovable qualities 
which he possessed. 

On the 20th May 1896 Sir Gerald had received 
the honour of promotion in the Order of the Bath, 
and had been decorated with the Grand Cross on 
the occasion of the Queen's birthday. On the 10th 
March 1899 he succeeded to the regimental rank of 
Colonel-Commandant of the Corps of Royal Engineers. 
He was greatly pleased at returning to his own Corps 
in this distinguished position, and went especially to 
London to be presented on his appointment at a 
Queen's levee, and to dine with his brother officers at 
the annual Corps dinner — alas ! for the last time. 

The Rev. Bernard Durrant tells of a visit he paid to 
Spriogfield in the summer of 1898, when the verandah 
was covered with rose-blooms, and his uncle sat on 
a wicker sofa-chair under the shade of the trees on 
the lawn, reading Lord Roberts's ' Forty-one Years in 
India.' " His ' Standard,' " he says, " was always 
eagerly read, and he liked the 'Spectator' at the end 
of the week. Two letters in this signed ' A Soldier' 
were written by him shortly before the war broke out, 

DEATH. 357 

in which he prophesied that genuine good feeling be- 
tween the Boers and the British would be the result 
of the conflict." 

Sir Gerald naturally followed the progress of the 
war in Soutti Africa with the deepest interest, and on 
the 3rd November 1899 he wrote in reference to Sir 
George White being shut up in Ladysmith : — 

" Although his communication is temporarily cut off, 
I feel not the slightest doubt of his being able to hold 
out until lie is relieved. I think we may all feel proud 
not only of the conduct of our troops in the field, but 
of the country in the face of this disaster — an object- 
lesson to our French friends." 

With his sister, Mr Bernard Durrant again visited 
Springfield in the summer of 1899, and mentions how 
they seemed to regard it as a haven of peace, of rest 
and gladness, to which, leaving behind the cares and 
anxieties of Hfe, they might from time to time repair 
for many years to come ; and how his uncle gave to 
the home an atmosphere of cheeriness and of nobility 
which was indeed a sacred influence. 

" We did not know," he says, " when we said 'good- 
bye' on that August morning, that we should never 
see him again. The glow of health was in his face, he 
was full of energy, his mind strong and vigorous with 
bright interests. 

"But on the 18th of the following December a 
letter from my brother, written from Springfield, told 
us that uncle had passed away. 

" This brother, Edmund, the youngest of my uncle's 
five nephews, had returned from South Africa In Nov- 
ember, after five yeai-s' absence from England. Be- 
tween him and his uncle there had always been a 
great bond of sympathy. He came to Springfield at 
the end of November, finding Uncle Gerald in strong 



health and spirits. It was a happy meeting, but it 
was only just in time — a few last days of the joy of 
life and then the last short illness, and the passing 
into the unseen. 

" On an old piano with long upright strings, which 
stood in a large empty room designed for billiards, at 
Springfield, I often used to play an air from Handel's 
' Samson.' The words were — 

' Joys that are pure, sincerely good, 
fiboU then o'ertake you as a flood, 
"Wliere truth and peace do ever shine 
With love that's perfectly divine.' 

" This seemed to me at times, when thoughts would 
try to follow another into the unseen world, better 
than any funeral march." 

In December 1899, going out on a cold wet evening 
to get the latest war news from South Africa, Sir 
Gerald caught a chill, which rapidly developed into 
pneumonia, and after only a few days' illness, he died 
at his Btdeford house on Sunday the 1 7th of that 
month. One of those with him during his brief illness 
speaks of him as "such a splendid patient." He died, 
as he had lived, patiently and bravely — and what 
more can be said ? 

He was buried with every demonstration of respect 
and affection in the parish churchyard of Bideford on 
the afternoon of Friday, the 22nd December. Be- 
sides his own family, relatives, and friends, his funeral 
was attended by the mayor and corporation of Bide- 
ford and the officers of the local volunteer corps ; 
by Lieut. - Colonel F. S. Leslie, Commanding Royal 
Engineer of the Devon Military Sub-district, who 
presented a wreath from the Corps of Eoyal Engineers, 
which he represented on the occasion ; by Major D, 
Mills, R.K., who represented the General Officer Com- 

manding the Western Military District and the District 
Headquarters Staff, and brought a wreath fi-om them ; 
by Admiral Sir William Dowel], G.C.B., representing 
the Royal Navy; and by Major-General Boyes, C,B., 
late of the Giordon Highlanders, and Surgeon-General 
Reid, representing the army ; several officers of the 
Royal Engineers also attended. Two warrant officers 
and two sergeants of Royal Engineers, with two other 
non-commissioned officers, attended as bearers — one of 
the warrant officers, Sergeant-Major Brown, R.E., 
having served under Sir Gerald at Suakin. The 
service was conducted by the Rev. T. Newton Leeke, 
H. M. Drake, and Johnson. All the flags in the 
town were at half-mast, and a general sense of 
loss was manifested, for Sir Gerald was loved and 
esteemed in the neighbourhood. A plain white 
marble cross marks his resting - place. On it is 
inscribed the text — " Death is swallowed up in 

Sir Gerald left six children : (1) Gerald Oakley, 
born in 1863, for a short time in the Norfolk Regi- 
ment, afterwards in Canada, and lately serving in 
South Africa with the Canadian Contingent ; (2) Jane 
Gertrude, born in 1864; (3) Francis Gordon, bom 
in 1866, godson of Major-General Charles George 
Gordon, consulting mining engineer, married Nina, 
daughter of John Turnley, Esq. of Drumnasole ; (4) 
Maxwell Henry, bom in 1870, settled on a farm 
in Ontario, Canada, married Elizabeth Wilson ; (5) 
Walter Bums, born in 1872, in holy orders, curate 
of Birkenshaw, Bradford, Yorkshire ; and (6) Olive 
Mary, born in 1875, 

Had he wished it Sir Gerald might have written 
to charm and delight the public, but he had a very 
modest opinion of his abilities. His only work of 

general interest is the little book entitled ' lAst 
Words with Gordon,' already referred to. It first 
appeared as an article in the ' Fortnightly Review ' 
of January 1887, and was published separately the 
same year with additions and appendices. His trans- 
lation from the German of the official account by 
Captain Adolph Goetze, of the Prussian Engineers, 
of the " Operations of the German Engineers and 
' Technical Troops ' during the Franco-German War 
of 1870-71," with six maps, was published by H. S. 
Ring & Co. in 1875. He delivered a lecture at the 
Royal United Service Institution in Whitehall, 
London, In 1886, on "Infantry Fire Tactics: Attack 
Formations and Squares," which was published in 
vol. XXX. of the Journal of the Institution. 

Sir Gerald also contributed to the " Professional 
Papers of the Corps of Royal Engineers " the follow- 
ing ai-ticles : New Series, vol, vi. — "Demolition of 
White Buildings at Sebastopol"; vol. vii.— "Notes 
on Russian Works on the North Side of Sebasto- 
pol " ; vol, xi, — " Suggestions for adapting Fortifica- 
tion to present Means of Attack " ; vol. xiv.— " Ex- 
periments on Limes and Cements"; vol, xix. — " On the 
Transverse Strength of Railway Iron when used for 
Purposes of Construction," Occasional Papers Series, 
vol. iv.^" Remarks on the Military Institutions of 
Switzerland, and Observations on the different Arms." 

Sir Gerald was a good mathematician, a man of 
varied reading, playe<l chess well, and took a hand 
at whist. In addition to his favourite game of golf, a 
recreation of his later yeara, he had always been a 
great walker, and fond of boating. 

His striking figure has been referred to in our 
opening chapter ; his character may be briefly pre- 
sented in this final one. Retiring and reserved in 


disposition, he was somewhat slow in assimilating 
both facts and theories ; but his opinions once 
formed, were generally well founded and expressed 
with precision. With a critical tendency of mind 
he united reverence and admiration for all that 
was noble and good. He looked up to good and 
cultured women as superior beings before whom the 
best men must bow their heads. To a great love 
of nature and a keen sense of humour was added 
a fund of sympathy, too often concealed by his 
habitual reserve. Kind hearted — with a great love 
of children and animals — he was straightforward 
and true, possessing a moral fearlessness which was 
not surpassed by his physical courage, as to which 
it was said by Lord Wolseley that be was one of 
those men who did not know what fear meant. 

A very old friend of Sir Gerald and of his sister, 
and a very aged lady, Mrs Southwood Hill, whose 
daughter, Miss Octavia Hill, is well known alike to 
rich and poor, writing after the General's death to 
bis nephew and executor, mentions two predominant 
qualities which she regarded as his great character- 
istics- — magnificent courage and entire self-effacement, 
and next to these his tenderness in domestic life. 
" In early youth," she says, " a charming, bright, 
and happy playfulness was what one noticed in him 
and loved him for." 

General Sir Richard Harrison, K.C.B., C.M.G., the 
present Inspector-General of Fortifications, who first 
met Graham in the Crimea, and served with him in 
India, in China, and in Egypt, writes of him : — 

"I have known Gerald Graham more or less all my 
life, but on looking back my memory recalls four 
occasions on which our paths crossed. 

" The first time we met was when I, a boy of nine- 



teen summers, went up from Scutari to the Crimea. 
He was one of the famous R.E. subalterns wboee 
thoroughly reliable and gallant work in the trenches 
brought a credit to the Corps that will never be for- 
gotten. Perhaps he was one of the bravest, as he 
was the tallest, of those subalterns, and from what 
had "heard I was quite ready to woi-ship him as 
hero. I found him employed under Captain (aftei 
wards General Sir) Lothian Nicholson in blowing up] 
the docks in Sebastopol. He was very quiet, said'l 
nothing whatever about himself, but showed me one 
or two relics that he had picked up in the town. I 
am under the impression that I was rather disap- 
pointed. I don't know what sort of a man my fancy 
had painted. Anyhow, I saw nothing but a some- 
what novel exterior. I was too young and too inex- 
perienced to be able to extract any of the sterlings 
qualities that lay within. 

" The next occasion on which I was associated with' 
him was in the China war of 1859-60. He had come; 
out to India to take command of the 23rd Company, 
Royal Engineers, from Lennox [afterwards Lieuten- 
ant -General Sii' Wilbraham Lennox] at the end of the 
' Mutinies,' and it fell to his lot to take that com- 
pany first to Canton and afterwards to the 
Forts and Pekin. It was at the taking of the Ti 
Forts that 1 first realised. I think, of what stufi' 
was made. I shall never forget in a hiUTy one ni^ 
after we had taken a village on the land side of thi 
forts, when he asked me to accompany hira on whal 
he called a * reconnaissance.' I thought, perhaps, 
that we were going to the picket lines. But thiafl 
was notliing to it. We soon passed the pickets ani 
the very advanced line of sentries, and the nighl 
being dark, nothing would satisfy him but to continui 

be J 




our journey through unknown mud and water and 
all sorts of possibilities, until, lying down at the edge 
of the wet ditch, we saw the Tatar sentry walk- 
ing up and down on the parapet of the fort, and 
heard the Chinamen talking within the gun case- 

" The third occasion, that I can remember as If it 
were yesterday, was when he was appointed by Sir 
Garnet Wolseley to the command of a brigade in 
Egypt in 1882, and was with his men holding the 
post of honour on the Sweet- water Canal at the head 
of the British army. The advance had been very 
rapid, and, thinking solely of the work he had to 
do, he had made no arrangements for his own com- 
fort, and the result was that when, as a Staff-officer, 
I rode out to see how he was getting on, I found 
that he had absolutely nothing to eat in his tent, 
but had just gone out and sat down among the men, 
to their great delight, and shared with them their 
bit of biscuit and bully -beef Soon afterwards a 
strong attack was made on his small force by a 
large portion of the Egyptian army, when his cool- 
ness and quiet courage had a great effect on the 
soldiers, and played no small part in gaining the 

" The fourth occasion was when, by chance, I met 
him about two years ago at a seaside place in the 
west of England. He had retired from active service 
and had taken to golf, in which game he was as 
earnest and persevering as he had been while in 
the army. 

" Somewhat retiring and modest, he was a 
thorough Royal Engineer, absolutely trustworthy 
in all he undertook, and quite the bravest man I 
ever met." 


It has been observed that Sir Gerald had a wonder- 
Ail youthftilness about him to the last, and certainly 
his enjoyment of life, as years passed over his head, 
did not seem to decrease. With the exception of 
some deafness, which had begun a few years back 
and increased a little as he grew older, he was 
exceedingly active for his age, both mentally and 

This enjoyment of life was not confined to the 
present, but he lived over again joys which had 
passed. His thoughts flew back to scenes of days 
gone by upon which he delighted to dwell. " Those 
happy days," he calls them. 

"Is it not wisest," he once wrote, "to cherish 
every little bit of sunshine in the life that is left 
to us, and the greatest folly to prepaxe for oneself 
a cold, sunless, old age ? and yet that is what befalls 
so many." 

It did not befall him. To the end his happy 
disposition kept the sunshine around him, in spite 
of the heavy clouds of sorrow which made him 
once write of himself as " Der Fichtenbaum auf 
kahler Hoh'" (the fir-tree upon the desolate height). 



Extracts from the Report on the Taking of the Peiho 
Forts and Advance on Pekin in 1860, by Lieut - 
Colonel Gother Mann, Commanding Eoyal Engineer 

Tano-ku, 25th August 1860. 

• •••••••« 

All our efforts were therefore to be confined to our right 
attack, where it was determined to place five batteries. . . . 
At dusk, Battery No. 2, for three 8-inch mortars, was traced 
by Major Graham, RR ; this was 200 yards nearer the fort 
than the other batteries, and was over a canal which was 
unbridged before that evening. The battery in this position 
was sheltered by the canal from the danger of a sortie. . . . 
Major Graham was the executive Engineer oflBcer for the 1st 
Eelief. . . . 

By 4 A.M. the guns, &c., were placed in the different batteries, 
and everything got ready for the attack. 

The Eoyal Engineers, 43 men in number, who had worked 
during the 1st Relief of the last night, were told off for the 
assaulting party in the following manner, viz. : — 

Two non-commissioned ofScers and ten sappers, under Lieu- 
tenant Pritchard, R.E., with two infantry pontoon bridges, one 
of five pontoons, the second of eight, to be carried by three com- 
panies of Eoyal Marines, one of which was to be in reserve. 

One non-commissioned officer, with six 24-feet ladders, under 
Lieutenant Hime, E.E., to be carried by a company of Eoyal 

Three non-commissioned officers and sappers with powder- 
bags, &c., under Lieutenant Clements, RR 

Eleven sappers with carpenters' tools, and sixteen with 


miners' tools, under Lieutenant Trail, Madras Engineers. All 
these parties were placed under the charge of Major Oraham, 
jL»r<« • • • 

At 5 A.1L of the 2lBt the enemy opened fire, which was soon 
returned and vigorously kept up from the guns on both sides. 
At 6 A.1L the magazine in the Upper North Fort blew up, and 
half an hour later a magazine in the Lower North Fort also 
caught fire from a shell thrown into it from one of the gun- 
boats. The enemy, however, was not at all disconcerted, but 
continued his fire without interruption. Our field guns were 
gradually moved up to within 400 yards, with the 44th and 
67tli Eegiments in skirmishing order. At 8 A.M., before the 
fire was silenced, it was observed that the French were bringing 
up their ladders to the angle of the fort on our right. The 
English assaulting parties were immediately ordered up, and 
advanced towards the causeway opposite the middle of the 
work. The first pontoon bridge, however, was met by a tre- 
mendous shower of bullets and gingal-balls, which battered in 
the head of one pontoon, killed one man, and wounded four- 
teen others, Lieut.-Colonel Travcrs, Iloyal Marines, and Major 
Graham, KJEL, being also wounded close by; also at the rear 
pontoon bridge, one ofiicer and three men, and of the ladder 
party (there and sulmequently), one officer and six men. 

The causeway was now clicked up, and it being found im- 
possible to move the pontoons farther, an order was given for 
the ladder party to move to the right, to second the movements 
of the French. Tlie ladders vfiin\ then used as bridges, and so 
great was the crowd of iiinu over them that it was found im- 
poBsible to remov<' Umm \H*y uuA thc^ inner ditch ; but as three 
French ladders vfarit )ilfuu*d, Ncmie of onr men got over the walls 
by tiiem, and otljers by an (*nibraAun^ but. not until after a long 
hand-to-hand cxiUiMl, . . . 

Major ^frahiiiu f'i)n(liir,tf*d tin* assHuIting jmrty on the 21st 
instant, and wUfU Wdundcd l]w bridge party, and obliged 
to mount on hor»M',lMirk, iUrtH\\vi\ Ui<* nntvcuHMits of the ladder 
party until, bin liorw- ulNfi \h\\u\i woimdod, ho was obliged to 
fall t(; till- rrur 



Tano-ku, 2eth Augutt 1860. 

Sib, — I have the honour to forward a description of a 
portable bridge, which was prepared by Major Graham, RK, 
from four scaling-ladders and some boards, to enable the 
Commander-in-Chief to reconnoitre the inner North Fort on 
the Peiho on the morning of the 17th instant, as I believe it is 
the first time that the ladders have been employed in this 

It took precisely fifteen minutes to put together from the 
time of the materials reaching the spot. It formed a very good 
bridge, as well fgr heavy horses as for infantry. — I have, &c., 

G. F. Mann, Lieut.-Colonel, 

Commg. Bl. Engr. 
To the Deputt Adjutant-Odhbal, 
Royal Engineen. 

Beport of a Portable Bridge made of Scaling-Ladders. 

This bridge was required at almost immediate notice for 
a reconnaissance of the North Peiho Forts, to enable the 
Commander-in-Chief and cavalry escort to cross the canals 
that intersect the country about Tang-Ku. 

The width to span being about 23 feet, I had two lengths of 
scaling-ladders firmly lashed, breaking joint by lashing a piece 
of wood about 3 feet long by 4 inches by 2 inches on either 
side. Two lengths of ladder (24 feet) thus prepared were first 
passed over the ditch by means of a rope ; this two or three 
men crossed and placed on edge, so that the rounds lay vertical. 
The other double length of ladder, similarly secured, was then 

368 APPENDIX n. 

passed over, forming the other side of the bridge. Planks 4 
feet long were then laid across, the outer edges being cleated 
below to prevent them from slipping laterally. To keep the 
ladders from falling over, earth was banked up and rammed at 
the sides of the ditch. 

The bridge was laid and crossed by the General and Staff in 
a quarter of an hour, the only danger being from the rottenness 
of the planks, which consisted of old doors and shutters, collected 
and prepared within an hour of the time required. With good 
1^-inch planking, and a couple of side-pieces to rack down, 
I believe the above to be a very good bridge for cavalry or 
infantry over ditches. On this occasion it was crossed by half 
a company of infantry marching in step, two deep, with files 
well locked up, without suffering the slightest injury. The 
weight of 24 feet of bridge is 750 lb. 

G. Graham, Capt. and Brevet Major, 
Commanding 23rd Company, Royal Engineers. 


Action of Kassassin, August 28, 1882. 

The ' London Gazette ' of September 19, 1882. 

From Major 'General 0. Oraham to General Sir Garnet Woheley, 

Kassassin, 29th August 1882. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report that an important engage- 
ment with the enemy took place here yesterday, the 28th instant, 
in which, though attacked by a vastly superior force numerically, 
tried seriously by exposure to the sun and previous privations, 
the troops I have the honour to command finally drove back 
the enemy at all points ; and, with the aid of the Cavalry 
under Major-General Drury-Lowe,' C.B., inflicted severe chas- 

The position the Advanced Brigade occupies at Kassassin is 
not the best for defence. We are astride the canal (which runs 
nearly east and west), and hold the bridge and locks. Taking 
the west as our proper front, on our right the desert rises to a ridge 
with an elevation of from 100 to 160 feet ; at a distance of from 
2000 to 3000 yards there is the millet and palm-covered plain 
of the Ouady, intersected by a disused branch of the canal. This 
ridge on our right is obviously a source of danger to a force too 
weak to occupy it, as I have already observed in a previous 

About 9.30 A.M., on the 28th instant, the enemy's cavalry 
appeared in force on our left front, on the north side of the 
Fresh -water Canal, and I at once heliographed to Major- 
General Drury-Lowe at Masamah. The force under my com- 
mand, consisting of 57 Cavalry, 70 Mounted Infantry, 1728 

2 A 


hkbnzrj. and 40 AixSlexj with two 13-prs., as detailed in 
marzin,' were at once posted by me uoder cover, fronting co the 
north and west, the Cayalij and Mounted Infantrr (30) being 
thrown oct on the flanks to observe the oiemv's movements, 
while I awaited the development of his attack. Aboat II xjl 
it wait reported that a kurge force of cavalry, infantrv, and 
artillery were being moved ro'ind towards oar right, behind the 
ridge. At 12 the enemy opened fire from two heavy guns on 
our left front, at least 4000 yards of^ the shot from which fell 

The enemy's attack seemed to languish, and about 3 P.M. the 
Officer Commanding the Mounted In&ntry reported the enemy 


ITte men had been suffering very much from their long 
ezpoiiure to the heat of the sun without food, so I ordered them 
back to their camps. Major -General Drury-Lowe brought a 
Brigade of Cavalry within two or three miles of the camp, and 
about 3 ?^. withdrew them to Masamah, as I had previously 
requested him not to engage them unnecessarily. 

At 4.30 P.M. the enemy advanced his infantry in great force, 
displaying a line of skirmishers at least a mile in length, with 
which he sou^t to overlap my front on the left, supported by a 
heavy and well-directed fire of artillery, with which he searched 
the camp, wounding a sick* officer in the hou;3e where I had 
established my headquarters, but which, as the best building, 
was now given up as a hospitaL My dispositions to meet this 
attack were as follows : On the left, the Marine Artillery were 
directed to take up a position on the south bank of the canal, 
where (secure from being turned themselves, the canal being 
5 feet to 6 feet deep) they could check the enemy's advance by 
a flank fire. (The Boyal Marine Artillery, therefore, gave fire 
to W. and N.W.) 

In the centre, the 2nd Battalion Duke of Cornwall's Light 
Infantry extended a fighting line of three companies, facing W. 
by N., about 800 yards to the right rear (EN.E) of the Royal 
Marine Artillery. The supports and reserves of the Duke of 

' R/iyftl Hf-me Artillery, 40, and 2 guiu ; 4th Drmgoon GiLutU, 15 : 7th Dragui^ii 
OomyU, 42 ; Doke of Cornwall's Light Infantrr, 611 ; York and Lancaster. 690 ; 
Ifount^rl Infantry, 70 ; Royal Marine Artillery-, 427— officers, non-comnii:»io!ieii 
cnHcen, and men. 



Cornwall's Light Infantry were under cover of the railway 
embankment, facing N. 

The 2nd Battalion York and Lancaster extended the fighting 
line of the Duke of ComwaH's Light Infantry with two and a 
half companies, keeping the remainder in support and reserve. 

The position of the Infantry, therefore, was an irregular 
echelon, right thrown back. The troop of the 7th Dragoon 
Guards was kept on this flank, and the two IS-prs., now rein- 
forced by two others, took up a position on the ridge. Unfor- 
tunately these guns had only got their ammunition in their 
limbers, and had soon to cease firing for want of a further 
supply, though they did good service while it lasted. The 
Mounted Infantry and Detachment of the 4th Dragoon Guards 
occupied a portion of the gap between the Royal Marine 
Artillery and Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, and all the 
persistent efforts of the enemy to break through at this point 
were unavailing, owing to the steady fire of the Royal Marine 
Artillery and the gallant resistance of the little band of Mounted 
Infantry and Detachment of the 4th Dragoon Guards dismounted 
and employed as infantry. The enemy made great efforts to 
overcome this resistance, putting a number of men across the 
canal ; and three times his guns were kept from advancing by 
their horses and men being shot when trying to press past. In 
order to support the left, the companies on the left of the 
Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry facing N. were spread out 
along the line of railway embankment, and a fresh company 
from the right half-battalion was moved to the left to prolong 
the line. 

Feeling secure on my left, I turned my attention to the right 
flank. On the first notice of the attack (4.30 p.m.) I had sent a 
message to Major-General Drury-Lowe by heliograph and by a 
mounted officer to Masamah, three or four miles distant, re- 
questing him to move up the Cavalry Brigade to cover my right 
flank and to send forward the Koyal Marine Light Infantry. 

At 5 P.M., thinking I saw cavalry advancing, I sent an order 
to Major-General Drury-Lowe to bring round his cavalry under 
cover of the hill, fall upon the left flank of the enemy's skir- 
mishers, and roll up his line. This order was received and 
gallantly executed. For an account of this part of the action I 
beg to refer to Major-General Drury-Lowe'a own report. 



At 5 P.M. I observed reinforcements coming to the enemy by 
train, and fearing a charge oE cavalry on our exposed right, 
directed the officer commanding the Reserve Company of York 
and Lancaster to prepare to receive them in line. Near the 
right of our position, on the line of railway, a Krupp gun, taken 
from the enemy at Masamah, had been mounted on a railway 
truck and was being worked by a gun detachment of the Eoyal 
Marine Artillery, under Captain Tucker. This gun was admir- 
ably served, and did great execution among the enemy. As 
the other guns had to cease tiring for want of ammunition, 
Captain Tucker's gun became the target for the enemy's artil- 
lery, and I counted salvoes of four guns opening on him at once 
with shell and shrapnel ; but although everything around or in 
line was hit, sot a man uf the guu detachment was touched, and ' 
this gun continued to fire to the end, expending ninety-three 

At 6.45 P.M. I ordered an advance, with the object of closing 
on the enemy's Infantry, about the time of the expected Cavalry 
charge. The advance was made very steadily by the fighting 
line in echelon from the left, about 600 yards to our W. front, 
when the line fired volleys by companies, the reserves following 
in rear of the railway embankment. 

On arriving at the point held by the Mounted Infantry a 
message reached me that the Boyal Marine Light Infantry 
had come on to the ground on our right ; and, galloping back, 
I at once directed them to advance in order of attack. This 
advance was continued for about two or three miles, sup- 
ported by the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry on the 
lett, the York and Lancaster being left behind in reserve, 
the enemy falling back, only one attempt being made at a 
aland on our left, which broke at the first volley of the 
Royal Marines. 

About 8.15 P.M. I first heard of the cavalry charge from an 
otHcer of the Ist Life Guards, who had lost his way. 

We had now been advancing for an hour and a half in the 
moonlight, and my two aides-de-camp had had narrow escapes 
in mistaking detad""* ""Mies of the enemy for our own troops. 
Fearing some mi it be made, and seeing no further 

chance of co-oije he Cavalry, I ordved the Marines 

and Duke of Ck Infantry to retire at 8.45 p.m. 


On approaching the camp I called in the other troops. The 
accompanying rough sketch shows approximately the position 
held by the infantry during the action. [Not reproduced.] 

During the night the enemy made no sign, and this morning 
at daybreak I rode out over the battlefield, and have had all 
wounded that were found brought in. 

I append a detailed list of killed and wounded, an abstract 
of which is given in the margin.^ The corps which suffered 
most heavily was the Itoyal Marine Artillery under Lieut.- 
Colonel H. B. Tuson, whom I would beg to bring especially to 
your notice. Lieut. -Colonel Tuson speaks in high terms of the 
conduct of Major F. A, Ogle, Captain G. A. L. Kawatome, 
Lieutenants H. E. L. Pym and H. L. Talbot, and of Captain 
and A<ljiitaut E. J. W. Noble, whose horse was killed under 
him. ■ The Mounted Infantry also suffered heavily, and, early 
in the action, were deprived of the services of their gallant 
leader, Lieutenant C. B. Pigott, an officer who deserves especial 
mention. Another valuable officer of this corps, Lieutenant 
C. M, Edwards, was also wounded. The services of the 
Monnted Infantry have been invaluable to me, in the absence 
of a sufficient force of cavalry. I have also to bring to your 
notice the admirable steadiness of the 2nd Battalion Duke of 
Cornwall's Light Infantry under fire, and during their advance 
under Colonel W. S. Richardson. This officer mentions Lieut. - 
Colonel T. John, Major F. Grieve, Lieutenant and Adjutant 
G. A. Ashby, and Lieutenant J. A. W. Falls, as being indefatig- 
able in their exertions, The 2nd Duke of Cornwall's Light 
Infantry were effectively supported by the 2nd York and 
Lancaster, under Colonel F. E. E. Wilson, to whose careful 
persona! leading, ably supported by the ofBcei-a under him, 
much credit is due. The Eoyal Marine Light Infantry, 
although they arrived too late to take any decisive share in 
the action, showed by the promptitude of tlieir march to the 
field, and the steadiness of their advance, under Colonel H. 

' Cnvalry, killed ur ilangerously wounded 1 (eicliuive uf force umlor Majnr- 
Oenemt Lowe'a comm&nd) ; Royal Unrine Artillery, killed or daageroualy 
wuunded 7, wounded 25 ; Mounted Infantry, wounded 7 ; Duke of ConiwuU'ii 
Light Infantry, killed or dangerouvly wounded 1, wounded 24; York and 
Liuiciwter Regimeat, killed or dangeroUBly wounded 1, wounded 11; Army 
Hediisl Department, killed or d«ngen>ua1y woundol I. ToUl killed or 
dangerouelj wounded 11, wounded 68. 

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Battle of El Tkb, February 29, 1884. 

Supplement to the * London Gazette * of Tuesday, 25th March 1884. 

Thursday, 27th March 1884. 

Fro7n Major-General Sir G, Graham, Commanding Tokar Ex- 
peditionary Force, to the Sea'etary of State for War. 

Camp Tokab, March 2, 1884. 

My Lord, — I have the honour to submit the following 
report on the operations of the Tokar Expeditionary Force 
since the 28th ulto. 

In the despatch then sent I informed the Chief of the Staff in 
Egypt that on the evening of that day I sent an officer to the 
front of Fort Baker, carrying a white flag on a staff, to which a 
letter was attached, calling upon the sheikhs of the tribes to 
disperse their forces now in arms before Suakin, informing them 
that the English were not at war with the Arabs, and recom- 
mending them to send delegates to Khartoum to meet General 

Captain Harvey, who is on General Baker's Stafif, and now 
attached to my Intelligence Department, advanced about two 
miles, the latter part of which was under an ill-directed fire of 
musketry, and after planting his stafif he retired according to 
my instructions. The following morning at daybreak the same 
officer went out to see if any answer had arrived, but the stafiT 
with all attached had been t^J^en away. 

At about 8 o'clock A.M. I gave the order to advance in the 
formation of a rectangle, having an interior space of about 
200x150 yards. 

In front were the 1st Gordon Highlanders, in rear the 1st 

Royal Highlanders, ou the right the 2nd Royal Irish Fusiliers 
(supported by four Companies of the 3rd King's Royal Rifles), 
on the left the let York and Lancaster, supported by 380 of 
the Royal Marine Artillery and Light Infantry, 

On the march the front and rear faces moved in company 
columns of fours at company intervals, and the flank battalions 
in open column of companies. 

Intervals were left at the angles for the guns and Gatlings, 
the Naval Brigade occupying the front, and the Royal Artillery 
the rear, angles. 

The men marched off with their water-hottlos fiUed, and one 
day's ratione. 

The only transport animals were those carrying ammunition 
and surgical appliances, all being kept together in the centi-e of 
the square. 

To secure my base I had left a company of the 3rd King's 
Royal Rifles, all sick and wcnkly men, and all departmental 
details armed, under Lieut.-Co]onel W. L. K. Ogilvy, and three 
companies of the same corps at Fort Baker, with a ICrupp gun 
and two bronze guns at each place, manned by the l^yal 
Marine Artillery. 

About an hour before daybreak, on the 29th of February, 
there was a short but heavy fall of rain, which caused the 
ground for the first two miles of the march to be very 
heavy ; the Naval Brigade and Royal Artillery dragged 
their guns by hand, so that frequent halts liad to be made 
to rest the men. 

The front and lull of the sqiuiru was covered by a squadron 
of the 10th Hussars, the right by a troop of the 19lh Ilussara, 
the Cavalry being in rear under Brigudier-General H. Stewart, 
About 10 A.M. reports ainie in from the front that the enemy 
were intrenched on our left, on which I inclined the square to 
the right, but about 11.20 a.m. I found that wc were immediately 
opposite to R work armed with two Krupp guns, whose position 
had not been reported to me by the reconuoitring party, so I 
moved the column still more to the right, ou which the guns 
of the enemy opened fire » ' " ■« and shell. Fortunately aim 
was bad, so that few c ourred. and I succeeded in 

getting on the left flank which was on the proper 

left rear of the enemy's 

The square was- now halted, men ordered to lie down, and 
four guus ot the liwyal Artillery and machine-guns were 
brought into action at a range of about 90O yards. The 
practice from the guns was carried on with remarkable ac- 
curacy and great delibemtion, and with the help of the machine- 
guu3 of the Naval ISrigade, which poured in a stream of 
bullets, the two Krupp guns were completely silenced, as they 
were taken slightly in reverse, and the gunners were driven 
from the guns. 

The Infantry now advanced, the square moving by its left 
face, which, by the flank movement, was opposite to the work 
attacked. The fighting line was therefore composed of the 1st 
York and Lancaster, supported by the Itoyal Marines, the Ist 
Gordon Highlanders and 1st Itoyal Highlanders moving in 
column of fours on either flank, the rear of the square being 
formed of the 3rd King's Koyal liilles and the 2nd Itoyal Irish 
Fusiliera. The York and Lancaster advanced steadily till 
within a short distance of the works, when, witli a cheer, a 
rush was made to the front, and, assisted by the bluejackets on 
the right, who managed to bring their guns into the lighting 
line, the work was carried and the guns captured ; the enemy 
made several desperate counter-attacks, sometimes singly and 
sonmtimes tn groujts, on the advancing line, many iiand-to-hand 
fights taking place witli the York and Lancaster and men of the 
Naval Brigade. 

About 12.20 P.M. the battery, which is marked "A" on the 
accompanying plan, was taken, with two Krnpp guns and a brass 
howitzer. [See Plate 11., in which this battery is marked " K."] 

At this period the Cavalry, under Ilrigadier-General Stewart, 
moved round the present riglit flank of the square and charged 
in three lines across the plain to its right front, where the 
enemy were in large numbers, who attacked the flanks of the 
lines, so that they hud to change front in order to shake them 
ofl'. Colonel Darrow, of the 19th Hussars, was severely wounded 
in executing one of these charges, when, I regret to say, many 
other casualties occurred. 

The enemy, as reported by Brigadier- General Stewart, fought 
simply with fanaticism, and spared no wounded or dismounted 
men, although in most cases instantly paying their penalty with 
their own lives ; and it is to the desperate character of the 

struggle that the large proportion of deaths in the Cavalry 
Brigade is to be attributed. 

The enemy were still in possession of the village and wells of 
Teb, but by the capture of the work on his left flank, my 
Infantry had got in rear ot his position, and the captured guna 
were turned on another work also armed with two Krupp guns, 
which they took in reverse. These captured guns were admir- 
ably worked by Major Tucker of the Koyal Marine Artillery, 
and, with the aid of the guna of the lloyal Artillery, the 
enemy's remaining battery waa soon silenced. The enemy's 
Infantry, however, still clung with desperate tenacity to the 
numerous rifle-pits and intrenchnients they had constructed, 
and large numbers occupied some buildings in the village, 
which were afterwards found filled with dead bodies ; they 
seemed not to dream ot asking for quarter, and when they 
found their retreat cut off, would charge out singly or in 
scattered groups to hurl their spears in defiance at the 
advancing lines of infantry, falling dead, fairly riddled with 

About 2 P.M. the battery marked "G" on plan, now abandoned, 
was occupied, and the whole position taken. [See I'late II., in 
which this battery is marked "KV] 

The enemy had now given up all ideas of further fighting, 
and the lost work on the right of their line, shown as a mound 
on plan, was occupied by tlie Gordon Highlanders without 
opposition, as they streamed away in the direction of Tokar and 

Nothing could be better than the dash with whicli the charges 
of cavalry were executed in the midst of a horde of desperate 
fanatics, who displayed extraordinary activity and courage; 
nor could anything exceed the cool deliberation and efficiency 
with which the lloyal Artillery served their guns under Are, 
or the skill and gallauiry displayed by t)ie Naval Brigade in 
keeping up with the front line of infantry, and protecting their 
own guns by hand-to-hand encounters with the enemy, when at 
least one deed of gallantry was executed, of which I shall make 
u special report. 

The first time the square came under fire was ii very tiying 
one for young troops, as we were then moving to a Hank — an 
operation at all times diOicult, and especially so when in such 
a cramped formation. A slight disorder occurred, which was. 

BATTLE OF EL TEB, 1884. 379 

however, speedily rectified, and nothing could have been better 
tlian the steady advance on the first battery. 

In advancing on the scattered in trench m en ts and hoiisee the 
formation became somewhat disordered, owing to the desire of 
ihe men on the flank faces of the square to fire to their front. 

The Gordon Higlilanders speedily rectified this, moving one 
halt-battalion into the fighting line, the other half being thrown 
back to guard against flank attacks. 

The Royal Ilighlanders were somewhat out of hand. I 
would, however, be^ to nbserve that the gronnd was a moat 
difficult one to move over, and that the desperate tenacity with 
which the enemy held a house on the right of the Royal 
Highlanders caused the men to form in an irregular manner so 
as to pour a converging fire on it. 

The other Battalions, especially the York and Lancaster, 
which had several hand-to-hand encounters with the enemy, 
and the Royal Marinas, behaved with great steadiness and 

The Ist Gordon Hiyhlanders, 3rd King's Royal Rifles, and let 
York and Lancaster,^ also showed steadiness and good discipline 
under fire; the latter formed the left flank of the fighting line 
in the attack on the second position, when they advanced with 
great gallantry. 

I append a list of killed and wounded, and deeply regret the 
numerous fatal casualties in the Cavalry Brigade, of which I 
have already made mention [in telegraphic despatches]. 

The force of the eneiuy was difficult to estimate, and in my 
first telegram I put it at 10,000. Subsequent native testimony 
obtained makes me estimate it at 6000 fighting men, and I am 
informed that they admit a loss of 1500 killed. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Teh 825 dead bodies 
were counted, and I am informed that it is the custom of these 
people to carry off their dead when practicabla I am also 
informed that the women of the tribes were present with 
hatchets to despatch our wounded. 

I must now beg to express my sense of the services of the 
officers holding responsible positions in the force I had the 

' Id tlic ' Luntlua OnzelUi' of Stilh April 1834 the fullawing correcliuti iiy Sir 
GoraliJ Qnhftin wu poblialiHd ; Pur " lut Ynrk aod Lancaatm- " ttad " 2nd Rojal 
Iriih Kuultera." 



honour to comtnaDd on this occasion, without whose loyal 
co-operation and self-devotion the expedition could not have 
been carried out successfally. 

Brigadier-General Sir Redvei^ Biiller. V.C, K.C.M.G.. C.B., 
who was specially appointed second in command, showed hitii> 
self worthy of his high reputation as a thorough soldier and 
most valuable officer. 

Major-General J. Davis was most indefatigable in his exer- 
tions, and afforded me all possible assistance in preserving 
formation and discipline during the action, as he has done 
in expediting the disembarkation of troops since liis arrival 
at TriukitaL 

Brigadier-General H. Stewart. C.R. showed himself, as he is 
known to be, a most able and daring leader of cavalry. My 
instructions to him were to avoid enqas^ng the enemy until 
their formation was broken, and until tliey were in full 
retreat. The time of making the charge I left entirely to 
Brigadier -General Stewart, an I wished him to keep well 
away from my square, not knowing on which side it might 
be attacked. 

We did not anticipate having to attack the enemy in an 
intrenched position, but thought he would come out and attack 
my square in large numbeis, be repulsed, and then be cut up 
by the Cavalry. 

The charges actually made were upon masses of the enemy 
not yet engaged with my Infantry, and although most gallantly 
and skilfully executed, the loss of officers and men is deeply to 
be regretted. As I have already had the honour to observe, 
the scouting and reconnoitring duties of the Cavalry Brigade 
were admirably performed, and I cannot too highly praise 
the ready efficiency of tlic Mounted Infantry under Captaan 

Among the many valuable Staff-officers attached to this force, 
I would specially bring to your notice LieuL-CoIonel C, F. 
Clcry, my Assistant Adjutiiiit-Cienoml,who is an invaluable StafT- 
officer, ready in resource, indefiiltgable in work, combined with 
coolness, excellent in temiwr, and a thorough knowledge of bis 
duties. I beg also to observe that Lient.-Colouel Clery is 
mentioned by lioth ttie Officers Commanding Infantry Brigades 
for bia distinguinhed gallantry in the action of the 29tb 

BATTLE OP EL TEB, 1884. 381 

February, when I also observed his extreme coolness and 
presence of mind. 

My thanks are also due to Deputy Surgeon-General R G. 
McDowell, who has conducted the duties of the Medical 
Department to my entire satisfaction, and has shown great 
judgment and forethought in providing for the wants of the 
wounded, who have been well and promptly attended to. 

Assistant Commissary-General R A. Nugent has been in- 
defatigable in arranging for getting up supplies. Although 
water transport is a most difficult thing to arrange for a force 
of this size, including so many horses and transport animals, 
the supply has never failed, although sometimes unavoidably 

The supply of ordnance stores, under Assistant Commissary- 
General H. J. Mills, was also satisfactorily conducted. 

Lieut-Colonel J. C. Ardagh, Commanding Royal Engineer, 
was chief of the Intelligence Department. In both of 
these important positions he has given me great satisfaction, 
and I beg to recommend this and the above-named officers' 
valuable services for your Lordship's favourable consideration. 

I propose forwarding the names of other officers who have 
distinguished themselves in a supplementary despatch, and to 
recommend them for favourable consideration. 

I cannot, however, close this despatch without recording my 
sense of the great services rendered to the expeditionary force 
by Rear-Admiral Sir William Hewett. I cannot sufficiently 
express my admiration of the high sense of duty displayed by 
this officer under most trying circumstances. 

Had Admiral Hewett himself been in command of the 
expedition for the relief of Tokar, he could not have done 
more to further its success. 

Suakin was threatened with attack by an overpowering force, 
and a portion of the garrison was in a state of mutiny; notwith- 
standing which. Admiral Hewett insisted on almost denuding 
his ships of sailors in order to give me the magnificent Naval 
Brigade, whose services I have in a previous part of this 
despatch endeavoured to depict. 

Not satisfied with this. Admiral Hewett also gave me nearly 
400 of the Marines and Marine Artiliery — troops of the first 
quality. He also gave me the 1st Battalion of the York 

and Lanca8t;er from Aden, allihonfrb empowered to emploj 
tbem for the defence of Soakin. Consideruig aQ these im- 
portant 6er\'ioeE, and hie constant readinew tio give ereiy 
aeaustauce in furthering diBemharkatdans, water -snpplr, &c., 
I think I am justified in statin^: that it is impossible to 
oi'er ' estimate the serrices rendered ^bj Bear - Admiral Sir 
William Hewett towards the Tokar expedition. — ^I have, &cl, 

Gerald Gkafaut, Majar-General, 
Commandvng Tdizar E.rpcd'Vt'ivnaTy Force 

P.H. — My thanks are also due to Lieut. - Genial Baker 
Pasha for the valuable information and aasistanoe rendered bj 
him throughout the operations. General Baker was, I regret to 
say, fcjeverely wounded in the early pan of the action on the 
29th February. His wound was in the faoe, and must have 
been ver}' painful : notwithstanding which, after getting it 
dressed, lie returned to the field, and only at the end of the 
action could I persuade him to retire to the base. 



Occupation of Tokar, March 1, 1884. 

* London Gazette,' March 27, 1884. 

ToKAB, March 3, 1884. 

My Lord, — I have the honour to report on the operations 
subsequent to the action of the 29th February, which has been 
made the subject of a separate despatch. 

At the conclusion of that action Brigadier-General Stewart 
reported to me that his horses were too much exhausted to 
pursue the enemy, and I accordingly made all necessary arrange- 
ments for the troops, taking up a defensive position for bivouac 
near the wells ; and sending out search-parties to bring in the 
dead and wounded. 

Having established communication by heliograph with Fort 
Baker, orders were given for all supplies, including tents and 
surgical appliances for the wounded, to be sent up immediately ; 
all of which were received before nightfall. 

The same day I addressed a letter to the rebel chiefs, who, 
from information I received from some prisoners we had taken, 
were said to be still in Tokar ; one of the prisoners volunteered 
to take this letter, and went oflF with it about 7 p.m. 

A copy of this letter, by inadvertence, accompanied my de- 
spatch of the 2nd instant. On the following morning, the 1st 
March, I made all necessary arrangements for the security of 
the wounded, having an intrenchment constructed which was 
armed with two of the captured Krupp guns and brass howitzers. 
The post was left in charge of Colonel Green and 400 of the 1st 
Boyal Highlanders, with instructions to send out a burial party 
and escort to the field of General Baker's battle, with two of his 



European orderlies, who had been present, so that the bodies of 
the Europeans killed might be properly interred. 

Tlie bodies of the Arabs killed in the action of the 29th 
were also to be buried, and all necessary sanitary precautions- 

The force inarched o£f in the direction of Tokar a little before 
10 A.M. in the following formation : — 

The front line was composed of the 2nd Eoyal Irish Fusiliers, 
the Ist York and Lancaster, and the Royal Marines ; the rear 
line was formed by the 1st Gordon Highlanders; the flanks by 
the 3rd King's Royal Hides and the remainder of the Ist Black 

The battalions moved in the same formation as on the previous 
day, but having learnt by experience that the desperate charges 
ot the Arab rebels were futile against steady fire f1 infantry, I 
gave much greater freedom of action by leaving 30 paces inter- 
vals between the battalions of the front line and between half- 
battalions of the rear line, which was kept farther back as a 
reserve, thereby giving plenty of space for the transport animals, 
which, as on the previous day, were limited to those required 
for ammunition and surgical appliances. I was informed by 
prisoners and spies that the rebels were stiU in force al Tokar, 
and took every precaution against an attack, cavalry scouts 
being sent out on ray front and flanks, the main body being 
kept in rear. 

The day became hot, and frequent halts were necessary to 
rest the men, the toil of the Naval Brigade being very heavy. 

About 1.30 P.M. a report came in from the Officer Commanding 
cavalry picket in front that Tokar was in view about four miles 
ahead. Finding the men very tired and thirsty, I sent back a 
troop of the 19th Hussars to bring up camels with water, and 
about 2.15 P.M. I got the following report from Major Gough, 
10th Hussars, the officer in command at the front : — 

" Shots have bean fired from Tokar on my scouts ; the walls 
are loopholed ; I fancy the pi " " " ■" strongly held." 

1 order to Teb to bring up 

Eter for the whole force, 
Tokar, which Majoi 

On receipt of this I def 
all reserve ammunition, I 
and moved slowly on to 
Wood, KK. whom I had i 
Cavalry, reported as the m 

aissance duty with the 
x>int for an e 


It was 4.15 P.M. before this point was reached, and I then 
rode forward with the Cavalry towards Tokar, and was met by 
a detachment brinj^ing in some of the garrison, whom I found 
streaming out of the town with strong demonstrations of delight 
at our arrival, the men firing off their rifies into the air, and 
the women keeping up the peculiar shrill Arab substitute for a 

I was told that many of the beaten rebels had passed through 
the town the previous night, acknowledging to a severe defeat, 
and loss of at least 1500 men. 

Lieut. -Colon el Ardagh then, by my direction, proceeded to 
collect information from the principal inhabitants, which he 
has embodied in a report which I append. It appears that the 
garrison of the place and the civil population amount altogether 
to about 700, and that all were anxious to escape from Bedouin 
oppression. I therefore telegraphed to you for instructions, 
suggesting that these people should be sent to Suakin under 
Admiral Hewett. 

The troops were put in bivouac outside the town, no men 
being allowed to enter unless on special duty. 

Four wells were found outside sufficient for present wants, 
and the convoy ordered up arrived about 10 p.m. 

Early on the following day, the 2nd March, I proceeded with 
a squadron of Cavalry and the Mounted Infantry to examine 
some villages said to contain more Egyptian soldiers and some 
arms left by the rebels. 

In one of them there were found 1250 Remington rifles, be- 
sides a brass gun, a Gatling, and a quantity of ammunition. 
The rifles I ordered to be destroyed and the ammunition buried. 
This was done, as stated in accompanying report. It being thus 
evident that the rebels in this part have no further intention of 
fighting, I gave orders for the remainder of the 1st Battalion 
Black Watch and 3rd Battalion King's Royal Rifles to march 
off to Teb and Fort Baker respectively. 

During the day I received a letter from Admiral Hewett, 
informing me that it was the intention of her Majesty's Govern- 
ment to withdraw the Tokar garrison, and I accordingly gave 
instructions that preparations should be made for commencing 
the withdrawal the following morning. Admiral Hewett also 
mentioned his wish to have the Royal Marines and Naval 

386 APPENDIX y. 

Brigade as soon as possible ; accordingly this morning both 
were marched ofif, and the withdrawal of the Tokar garrison 
was commenced, a train of 208 camels being famished firom the 
transport branch for that purpose. 

All arrangements have been made for withdrawing the whole 
of the remaining force to-morrow, and I hope to concentrate 
at Trinkitat on the 5th instant, as I telegraphed to you this 
morning. — I have, &c., 

Gerald Graham, Major-General, 
Commanding Tokar Expeditionary Force, 



Operations at Suakin. 

* London Gazette/ March 27, 1884. 

Suakin, March 8, 1884. 

My Lord, — In continuation of my despatch sent you on 5th 
instant, I have the honour to report that on that day I pro- 
ceeded, with Admiral Hewett, to Suakin, having previously 
informed you of my movements by telegram. Before leaving 
Tiinkitat, orders were given by the Admiral and myself to 
proceed with the re-embarkation as rapidly as possible, sending 
ships to Suakin, where further instructions would be given. 
After conferring with Admiral Hewett I telegraphed to you, 
informing you that we had issued a joint-proclamation calling 
on rebel chiefs to come in, and recommending that troops be 
disembarked at Suakin and marched to rebel camp. 

During night your approval to this course arrived, and on 
following day, the 6th instant, I laid out the ground for camp 
with Major-General Davis, and arranged for water-supply with 
Admiral Hewett. By night the following troops, &c., had been 
landed, and were under canvas : 1st Battalion Eoyal High- 
landers ; 1st Battalion York and Lancaster ; 10th Hussars with 
horses ; 2nd Battalion Eoyal Irish Fusiliers ; half Eoyal En- 
gineer Company with materials ; 80 camels. The sailors, under 
Captain Eolfe, E.N., worked with their usual spirit and eflS- 
ciency, and a good storage of water commenced. A pier was 
constructed by a native working party, under Major Haggard 
of the Egyptian army, between daybreak and noon, which was 
of great service. On the 7th instant I returned to Trinkitat 
with Admiral Hewett, and made final arrangements for com- 

***^ *&>- - 

, "W- ass ,a_^, „ 



embarkation, I have decided to give the troops a rest to-morrow, 
and to advance at 3 AM. on Wednesday, 12th instant. 

March 11. — The cases of sunstroke among the Royal High- 
landers turned out to be exceedingly slight. I have directed a 
mounted reconnaissance to be made to-morrow from the zeriba 
towards Osman Digna's camp. Another reconnaissance will be 
made to Suakin along the Berber road this day. — I have, &a, 

Gerald Graham, Major-General, 

Commanding Expeditionary Force, 



pleting the clearance of all troops and stores under Brigadier- 
General Sir Eedvers Buller and Captain Audoe, R.N. 

During the day the sheikh of the friendly tribes, Mahmoiid 
Ali Bey, with 100 of his followers, entered the town, and thia 
afternoon the sheikh was brought before the Admiral and me, 
in the presence of the Sheikh Morganeh, and questioned as to 
hia proceedings, Mr Brewster acting as interpreter. He ob- 
jected to issuing the proclamation to the rebels, as he thinka 
it would look as if the Government were afraid of them, 
and appears to think that they should be killed first and 
pardoned afterwards. 

We, however, directed him to issue the proclamation of 
pardon to the rebels, telling him that it was perfectly indif- 
ferent to the British Government whether it was thought to be 
afraid or not, adding that if the guns, of which five, including 
one Krupp, are said to be in Oaman Digna's camp, were nob 
delivered, I should march out the whole force to the camp, 
aeize them, shooting down any men who might oppose us. The 
disembarkation of the 19th Hussars and transport animals was 
carried out during the night under a bright moon. 

March 10, — On the evening of the 8th instant, in consequence 
of a despatch from Sir E. Baring, it was thought advisable by 
Admiral Hewett and myself to issue another proclamation to 
the rebel chiefs iu arras at Tamanieb, of which a copy is attached,* 
This was for the purpose of giving them full warning of my 
intention of marching to the rebel camp, and of treating all 
found in arms as rebels. A defiant reply to both these pro- 
clamations was received last night, of which a translation by 
Mr Brewster is annexed.^ In the meantime all preparations 
for the advance have been pushed on, the work of disembarka- 
tion proceeding all night in the bright moonlight. Yesterday 
I inspected a zeriba made by General Baker Pasha, about 9 
miles in advance, being half-way to Osman Digna's camp. This 
morning I have sent out the lat Battalion Royal Highlanders 
to occupy it. and to furnish necessary fatigue-parties for im- 
proving defences and unloading convoys. 

I regret to have to report that, owing lo the unexpected heat, 

five coses of sunstroke occurred on the road. As fatigue-parties 

will be required again to-night for the completion of the dis- 

' Not reprinted. 


embarkation, I have decided to give the troops a rest to-morrow, 
and to advance at 3 AM. on Wednesday, 12th instant. 

March 11. — The cases of sunstroke among the Eoyal High- 
landers turned out to be exceedingly slight. I have directed a 
mounted reconnaissance to be made to-morrow from the zeriba 
towards Osman Digna's camp. Another reconnaissance will be 
made to Suakin along the Berber road this day. — I have, &a, 

Gerald Graham, Major-General, 

Commanding Eocpeditionary Force. 


Battle of Tamai, March 13, 1884. 

Supplement to the ' London Gazette ' of Tuesday, 1st April 1884. 

Thursday, April 8, 1884. 

Camp, Suakin, March 15, 1884. 


My Lord, — By my last despatch, posted on 11th March, the 
operations of this army were related np to the morning of 
that day. 

At 6 P.M. on the 11th instant the artillery and infantry 
advanced to Baker's zeriba, about 8^ miles, reaching it about 
10.30 P.M. There was a bright moon, and the night air soft and 
pleasant, so that the march did not distress the men, although 
it was hard work for the Naval Brigade. 
The strength of the force was as follows : — 
Boyal Artillery — 

6th Batt. 1st Brig. Scottish Division, 7-pr. Camel Battery 
under Major F. T. Lloyd — 8 guns, 7 officers, 100 non- 
commissioned officers and men, with 66 camels, carrying 
90 rounds per gun. 
M Batt 1st Brig., 9-pr. Battery under Major R H. 
Holley — 4 guns, 3 officers, 66 non-commissioned 
officers and men, with 52 mules, carrying 86 rounda 
per gun. 
Ist Infantry Brigade under Brigadier-General Sir Eedvers 
Buller, V.C, K.C.M.G., C.B.:— 

Royal Engineers under Major K. B. Todd, E.R — 5 officers, 

57 non-commissioned officers and men. 
3rd King's Royal Rifles — 19 officers, 546 non-commissioned 
officers and men. 

BATTLE OF TAKAI, 1884. 391 

1st Gordon Highlanders — 23 officers, 689 non-commis- 
sioned officers and men. 
2nd Royal Irish Fusiliers — 17 officers, 326 non-commis- 
sioned officers and men. 
2nd Infantry Brigade, under Major-General J. Davie : — 
Ist Koyal Highlanders (already in zeriba) — 19 ofGcers, 604 

nou-coramisaioned officers and men. 
Ist York and Lancaster — 14 officers, 421 non-commissioned 

officers and men. 
Royal Marine Artillery and Light Infantry — 14 officers, 
464 nou -commissioned officers and men. 
General total of force of Artillery and lufantry — 116 officers 
and 3216 non-commissioned officers and men. 

The troops left in camp and garrison at Suakin consisted of 
the Cavalry Brigade and Mounted Infantry under Brigadier- 
General H. Stewart, with orders to join Infantry early next 
morning, and of the following details left to protect camp and 
town : — 

100 Royal Marines in the fort guarding the town, with 5 guns 
in position. 

Sick and weakly men left in charge of the camp, the tents 
being left standing. 

I appointed Lieut. -Colonel E, W. T. Gordon, Argyll and 
Sutherland Highlanders, Commandant of the Base, under the 
orders of Admiral Hewett. 

At daybreak the Cavalry and Mounted Infantry watered at 
Suakin, and joined the force at Baker's zeriba about 7 A,M. 
Their strength was as follows ; — 

10th Hussars — 16 officers, 235 non-commissioned officers 
and men. 

19th Hussars — 19 officers, 343 non-commissioned officers 
and men. 

Mounted Infantry — 6 officers, 118 non-commissioned officers 
and men. 

Total mounted troops — 41 officers, 696 uon-commissioned 
officers and men. 

On arrival I at once sent the Mounted Infantry to the front, 
accompanied by Colonel Ardagh as Intelligence officer. 

About 10 A.M. it was reported to me that the enemy was in 
force some six miles distant. Accordingly I ordered the force 



to adv&nce as aoon as the men had had their dinners, and got in 
movement about 1 p.m. The afternoon was hot, and frequent 
halts were necessary. About 5 p.m. tlie Cavalry scouts came in, 
and I received a report in writing from the officer that the 
enemy were advancing to attack in force. Accordingly I at once 
formed up the troops in a defensive position, on a favourable 
piece of ground having a clear space in front ; and as there was 
now barely an hour of daylight left, I directed the Engineers 
and pioneers of Battalions to form a zeriba around the camp by 
catting down the prickly mimosa bushes which grew plentifully 

About 6 P.M. the Cavalry with Mounted Infantry were sent 
back to Baker's zeriba with instructions to bring in the coavoy 
that had been previously signalled for. 

About 6.30 P.M, this convoy arrived safely, consisting of 245 
camels carrying two days' supplies of water for men, 4400 
rations, for^e for 1'200 horses, and reserve ammunition. 

Before this the enemy had lired a few rifle-shots at ub and 
bad shown in some numbers on a ridge about 1000 to 1200 
yards distant. By way of checking this, and to show the power 
of our guns, I ordered out two of the 9-prs, under Major 
Holley, RA,, and fired four rounds of shrapnel, two of which 
burst with great accuracy. Captain Rolfe. RN.,,abo opened 
with a Gardner gun and the enemy disappeared. 

About 10 KM. Captain Kolfe informed me that he bad just 
returned from an expedition to the front, where be had been to 
Bee the effect of our tire. He had found one or two dead bodies, 
and had come across some of the enemy's sentries fast asleep. 
Farther back the natives were shouting and dancing around 

About a quarter to one A.H. there was an alarm and the 
enemy opened a distant dropping fire, which continued through- 
out the night, causing but few casualties, but disturbing the 
men's rest. 

I had two of the Naval Brigade's machine-guns run out, but 
as the range was (by interval between flash and sound) esti- 
mated at 1400 to 1500 yards, and no men showetl themselves, 
it seemed to me buUer to treat the «nemy'» lire with silence, is 
preference to making an inefficient reply. 

Our casualties were one mau killed (York and Lancaster), one 

BATTLE OP TAMAI, 1884. 393 

officer and four men wounded, besides two camel-drivers and 
some horses struck. 

About 7 A.M. the Cavalry arrived, and at 7.30 Brigadier- 
General Stewart ordered out the Mounted Infantry to feel the 

There was a native with us who had lately been a prisoner in 
Osman Digna'a camp, and who informed me that the bulk of 
their force would be in a deep khor, or dry water-course, ihe 
sides of which would serve aa an intrenchment. 1 therefore 
directed the advance to be made to the left of this position, 
where the ground rose a little, and from whence I hoped to be 
able to sweep the ravine with artillery fire before attacking. 

The advance was made by the two brigades in direct echelon 
of brigade squares from the left. 

The 2Dd Brigade was in the following formation; On the left 
flank, tour Companies of 1st Koyal Highlanders, in open column 
of compauies ; on front face, three Companies of Ist Eoyal High- 
landers, and, at an interval of 30 yards, three Compauies of Ist 
York and Lancaster ; on right flank, three Companies of Ist 
York and Lancaster ; the Royal Marines forming the rear face 
of the square. Inside the square were the guns of the Naval 
Brigade, ready to run out where required. The 9 - pr. Bat- 
tery, with transport animals, moved in rear of the right front 
of the square. 

The 2nd Brigade advanced from the place of formation about 
half-past eight A.M., and, owing to some delay in getting the let 
Brigade forward, were somewhat farther in advance than I had 
intended when they first came in contact with the enemy. 

This occurred about 9 A.M., when a large number suddenly 
appeared from the edge of a ravine in the immediate front of 
the Brigade. Tiiese were soon cleared — the Koyal Highlanders 
distinguishing themselves by the gallant manner in which they 
cheered and charged up to the edge of the ravine; but at this 
moment a more formidable attack came from another direction, 
and a large body of natives, coming in one continuous stream, 
charged with reckless determination, utterly regardless of all 
loss, on the right-hand corner of the square formed by the 1st 
York and Lancaster. The Brigade fell back in disorder, and the 
enemy captured the guns of the Naval Brigade, which, however, 
were locked by officers and men, who stood by ihem to the last. 



When first comiDg into action, the 9 - pr. Battery of four 
gluts, nnder Major HoUey, R.A., had been ordered outside the 
flfuxe on the right flank, and when the disordered retirement 
took place in the 2nd Brigade, this battery was for a time unpro- 
tected by infantry, and exposed to the assault of the enemy, now 
coming on in crowda Yet officers and men stood firmly to their 
gnns, rakiog the advancing enemy with case, which told with 
deadly effect. 

The 1st Brigade was attacked about the same time, but stood 
firm, and the Cavalry moved up to protect the flank of the 2nd 
Brigade, which was soon rallied, and advanced to retake the guns 
of the Naval Brigade. 

The zeriba was also threatened, but the little garrison stood 
to it« arms and drove the enemy back. 

After this there was no more serious fighting, and the enemy 
retreated sullenly, making an occasional stand, towards the 
camp aod village of Tamai, which was occupied by the IsE 
Brigade about 11.40 A.M., when I despatched a telegram to 
Admiral Hewett announcing the victory. 

The 2nd Brigade held the heij^hts above the springs where 
the Cavalry watered. Ambulances and mule cacolets were sent 
for to bring away the dead and wounded, all being brought into 
the zeriba occupied the previous night, where tents and all 
necessary int'dicat requirements had already been brought up. 
The Cavalry returned to Baker's zeriba. 

The niglit was undisturbed by any fire from the enemy, but 
voices were heard shouting aud wailing from the battlefield. 

On the morning of the 14th I sent the Cavalry on at once to 
the watering-place, where pickets of Mounted Infantry were 
posted on the heights. The enemy offered no opposition beyond 
sending a few dropping shots, which were replied to by selected 

The whole force was moved out except the Naval Brigade, 
and the Ist Infantry Brigade crowned the heights above Osraan's 
camp and village, whilst a fatigue party were employed collect- 
ing the ammunition preparatory to firing the huts. An escaped 
Egyptian soldier, one of the garrison of Tokar, informed me of a 
gun being there, but only the carriage cotild be found, which 
waa destroyed, together with largo ciunntities of ammunition. 

After the men'a dinners the rettremsnt commenced, the 

BATTLE OF TAMAI, 1884. 396 

cavalry going straight to Suakin, leaving only a squadron to 
cover the infantry, who marched to Baker's zeriba. 

The advanced zeriba had been cleared, 200 sailors of the 
fleet, who had been promptly sent by Admiral Hewett, and two 
companies of the 1st Boyal Highlanders, together with the 
ambulance and mule cacolets, being employed to carry the 

On the 15th the whole force was again concentrated at 

In reviewing the operations of the force since landing at 
Suakin, I beg to record my opinion that the troops of all arms 
have behaved admirably. 

There has been no crime and no grumbling, even all through 
the severe toil of the disembarkation, and of the march in the 
waterless desert. The absence of scares or panic among the 
troops during the nights, and especially their silence during the 
trying ordeal of a dropping fire on the night preceding the battle, 
all showed a sense of discipline and confidence worthy of the 
best troops. There was but a temporary check in one portion 
of the force during the action of Tamai, and for that many 
reasons can be given. At the moment of receiving the attack 
the front face of the square of the 2nd Brigade was slightly dis- 
ordered, owing to the gallant rush of the Royal Highlanders in 
charging the enemy to the top of the ravine. 

For this disorder I am to some extent personally responsible, 
as the charge took place under my eyes, and with my approval. 
My own observations of the attack were made from the right 
front angle, formed by the two half-battalions of the 1st York 
and Lancaster, where I posted myself as soon as I saw the 
enemy's attack, and it was here the first rush came. 

It is the habit of these Arabs to attack the angles of squares, 
as they know the least fire can be brought to bear on them 
from these points. 

As the 9-pr. Battery was on the right, the sailors' guns were 
on the left, but I at once sent for them to meet this attack from 
the right. The Arabs, however, gave no time for further 
arrangements, but, throwing themselves with desperate de- 
termination upon tlie angle of the square, broke it, carrying 
all before them. There were many attempted rallies among 
the York and Lancaster, and at one time I was almost sur- 



rounded by llie enemy, one of whom got over my horse's 

In rear of the square were the Royal Marines, than whom 
there can be no finer troops, and on whom I had calculated as a 
reserve in the last emergency. Such, however, was the sudden 
nature of the disorder, and the impetuosity o! the rush, that 
the Itoyal Marines were for a few minutes swept back, and 
mixed up in the i^eneral confusion. 

Yet, I submit, there was no panic among the men ; they 
had been surprised, attacked suddenly, and driven back bj 
a fanatical and determined enemy, who came on utterly re- 
gardless of loss, and who were, as I have since learned, led 
by their bravest chiefs. As soon as the men had had time to 
think they rallied and re-formed. This check alt'eeted only 
the 2nd lirigade. The remainder of the force — tlie Cavalry, 
the Itoyal Artillery, and lat Brigade — were firm and perfectly 
in hand ; repulsing all attacks, and co-operating to assist the 
2nd Brigade in driving back the enemy, who auflTered tremen- 
dously for his temporary success, and never charged home again 
that day. 

Our loss was very grievous, many brave men of the Koyal H^h- 
landera and York and Lancaster devoting themselves to certain 
death in noble efforts to maintain the honour of their regiments. 

The Naval Brigade, too, fought desperately for their guns, 
three oSicers and seven men being killed beside them; bub 
they did not abandon them till they were locked, so that the 
enemy could not turn them against us. 

Many acts of the highest personal courage have come to my 
notice, and I propose bringing forward at a later period the 
names of officers and men who distinguished themselves on 
this occasion, and during the operations subsequent to the 
landing at Suakin. — I have, &c., 

Gerald Graham. Major-General, 

Commanding Ei^editionary Force. 


Final Despatch, 1884 

Supplement to the ' London Qazette ' of Tuesday the 6th May. 

Tuesday, May 6, 1884. 

War Office, May 6, 1884. 

Despatches, of which the following are copies, have been re- 
ceived by the Secretary of State for War : — 

From the General Officer Commanding in Egypt to the 
Under-Secretary of State for War, 

Headquarters, Army of Occupation, 
Cairo, April 14, 1884. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward herewith by Captain 
Baynes, let Battalion Cameron Highlanders, who acted as 
Assistant Military Secretary to Major - General Sir Gerald 
Graham, Y.C., K.C.B., during the late expedition, a despatch 
mentioning officers, non-commissioned officers, and men who 
have distinguished themselves during the late campaign in the 
Soudan. — I have, &c., 

Fbedk. Stephenson, lieutenant-General, 
ComTnanding in Egypt 


Froin Major-General Sir G. Graham, V.C, K,C.B,, Commanding 
Expeditionary Forces to Lieut-Genial Stephenson, C.B,, Com- 
manding Troops in Egypt 

SUAKIN, March 81, 1884. 

Sir, — The military operations being now completed, I have 



he honour Lo briug to your nolicu the names of officers, n 
com missioned ofticers, and meu of the force uuder my command 
who have distinguished themselves during or in connection 
with these operations. 

ij". — I must record my thanks tor the services rendered by 
the Staff, who are all good officers, carefully selected, and who 
all worked loyally and well. 

The share of work that fell to the General Staff was heavy, 
and after Captain A.G. Wauchope was wounded at El Teb, Lieut- 
Colonel R. W. T, Gordon was the only officer available for the 
duties of embarkation and disembarkation. When the base 
was changed from Trinkitat to Suakin, this work was proceeding 
at two ports at the same time, and ou three occasions we ad- 
vanced over 16 miles from our base — once over 20 — and were 
dependent on large convoys tor our supplies. 

My Personal Staff consisted of Captain K. S. Baynes, Cameroo 

Highlanders, Assistant Military Secretary ; Lieutenant F, W. 

Eomilly, Scots Guards ; Lieutenant W. A. Scott, Cameron Higb- 

" )TB ; and Lieutenant C. G. Lindsay, E.N., H.M,S, Euryalaa, 


Where all worked so well it appears invidious to make dis- 
tinctions ; but I cannot help recording my sense of the zeal 
displayed by Captain Eaynes, my Assistant Military Secretary, 
and of the ever-ready, intelligent activity shown by Lieutenant 
Lindsay, H.N., my Naval Aide-de-Camp, whose services were 
kindly placed at my disposal by Admiral Sir W. Hewett. 

In my despatch of 3rd March I recorded my opinion of the 
value of Lieut.-Colauel C. F. Clery's services as Assistant Ad- 
jutantGeneral. and further experience has only served to confirm 
and deepen my sense of his worth. Conspicuous by a red coat, 
force where officers and men usually wore khaki, Lieut- 
Colonel Cleiy could always be recognised from a distance, and 
when at any critical period I saw his red coat, I knew that 
tthere matters would be going well, or, if wrong, would soon be 
ictiSed, and turned my attention to another part of the field. 

lirevet Lieut. - Colonel R. W. T. Gordon, Argyll and 
iutherland Highlanders, D.A.A.G., has eliown throughout his 
ell-known devotion to duty, and his services as Staff Officer 
n disembarking and embarking troops at Trinkitat and Stu 
ffere very valuable. 



At El Teb Lieut-Colonel Gordon waa present on ray Staff. 
During the advance on Tamai I required a thoronghly trust- 
worthy officer at tlie base, and selected Lieiit.-ColoneI Gordon 
for that duty. 

Captain A. G. Wauchope, C.M.G,. Eoyal Highlanders, waa 
severely wounded at El Teb. Both before and durin;^ the 
action — even after receiving his wound — he did good service, 
and would not go on the sick-list until compelled to do sa 

Captain G. C. P. Williama-Freeman, Sussex Regiment, did 
service as Provost-Marshal to my satisfaction. 

Lieutenant F. M. Beaumont, 3rd King's Eoyal Kifies, waa 
in charge of Signallers, who proved most useful — I may say 
indispensable — in sending messages along the line of com- 
munications, and (in one instance) to the front. 

In my previous despatch I brought to your notice the 
valuable services rendered by Brevet Lieut. - Colonel J. C. 
Ardagh, as head of the Intelligence Staff aud as Commanding 
£oyal Engineer. The following officers served in the Intelli- 
gence Department under LieuL-Colonel Ardagh, C.B., RR: 
Major E. Wood, R.E. ; Captain A. 0. Green, H.E. (wounded at 
El Teb); Captain F. G. Slade. R-A.; Lieut.-Colonel H. E. 
Colville, Grenadier Guards. All these officers have rendered 
moat valuable services during the operations, having shown 
great zeal, energy, and capacity for work, combined with 
thorough technical knowledge in carrying out the important 
duties of collecting information, surveying, making recon- 
Dsissances, &c. 

In my previous despatch of 3rd March I mentioned the 
services rendered by General Baker, and I must beg to bring to 
notice the coolness and gallantry of Colonel Bnrnaby, Eoyal 
Horse Guards, who waa attached to the Intelligence Department 
during the tirst part of the operations, and wlio, although 
severely wounded at El Teb, continued to do duty until the 
end of the action. 

Tlie oificers under Lieut. - Colonel Ardagh were frequently 
employed on General Stall duties in addition to their special 
work in the Intelligence Department. Major Wood rendered 
good service in charge of water-supply; Captain Slade in 
scouting aud leading troopa, ike, also did duty as Deputy 
Assistant Adjutant-General at the action of Tamal 




Sergeant - Major Burke, Military Police, displayed great 
steadiness and coolness when under tire. He carried the 
headquarters flag, which he made as conspicuous as possible, 
and also rendered good service throughout the operations in 
camp duties. Sei^eant Sherwood, of the Signalling Depart- 
ment, is also favourably mentioned for zeal and efficiency. 

Cavalry Brigndc. — The Cavalry Brigade was commanded by 
Brigadier-General H. Stewart, C.B.. A.U.C.. who has shown all 
the qualifications of a good leader of cavalry, being cool and 
daring, or cautious, as required in action, also skilful and 
careful in reconnaissance and outpost duties. 

Briftadier - General Stewart speaks highly of the servicea 
rendered by Lieut. ■ Colonel A. M. Taylor, 19th Hussars, 
Brigade Major, and by Lieutenant F. W. Bhodes, of the Ist 
Royal Dragoons, Aide-de-Camp. 

10/A Hussars. — Brevet- Colonel E. A. Wood, who commanded 
the 10th Hussars, is an excellent cavalry officer, as evinced 
by the energy and ability with which he equipped his splendid 
regiment from local sources, so as to make it fit to take tha 
field, and by the manner he handled it in action. Brigadier- 
General Stewart reports Colonel Wood as having rendered him 
invaluable assistance. Lieut. - Colonel It. S, Liddell and 
Major H, S. Gough have also done good service. 

I regret to have had as yet no report from Colonel Wood of 
the non-commissioned officers and men of the 10th Hussars 
who distinguished themselves. 

19/A Hmtsara. — Lieut. -Colonel A, G. Webster commanded 
the 19th Hussars, and gave every assistance in bis power to 
secure the success of the Brigade, 

Lieut-Colonel P. H. S. Barrow, C.M.G., 19th Iluasars, is a 
most valuable officer, and his leading of the second line at £1 
Teb, until he was wounded, is reported by Brigadier-General 
Stewart as beyond praise. 

Captain C. B. H. Jenkins took command of the left wing 
after Colonel Barrow was wonuded. He led the first squadron 
in the charge, and was personally engaged with three of the 
enemy at one time, and iita horse was wounded in three places 
with assegais. ^ llantry and conduct this officer set a 

good example tt ''is command. 

Begimental S " Lima and Quartermaster-Sei^eant 



Marshall, 19th Hussars, set a good example of coolness and 
courage. The latter is mentioned for hia devotion shown in 
saving the life of Colonel Barrow when that officer was 
wounded, and I beg to enclose evidence ' respecting thia non- 
commissioned officer's conduct on thia occasion, which, I submit, 
should place him among the candidates for the Victoria Cross. 

Sergeant Phipps, who was twice badly wounded, refused to 
leave the field, and remained with his troop till he fainted from 
loss of blood. 

Troop Sergeant-Major Taylor, Sergeant Fenton, and Private 
Eosely, 19th Hussars, are also favourably mentioned for 

Mounted Infantry. — The Mounted Infantry was moat effici- 
ently handled on all occasions by Lieutenant and local Captain 
H. Humphreys, the Welsh Eegiment. Brigadier - General 
Stewart reports of this officer that he cannot speak of him too 
highly. He was ably assisted by Lieutenant C, H, Payne of the 
1st Gordon Highlanders. 

All ranks of the Mounted Infantry displayed great coolness 
and readiness under fire. 

In a letter marked " B " attached,' Brigadier- General Stewart 
mentions the gallant conduct of Lieutenant P. S. Marling, 3rd 
King's Koyal Eifles, of the Mounted Infantry, whom be recom- 
mends for the distinction of the Victoria Cross. 

Privates George Hunter, 3rd King's Royal Kifles, and Joseph 
Clift, Sussex Regiment, are mentioned for gallantry and devo- 
tion at Tamai on 13th March 1884. 

Boyal ArtilleTy. — The Royal Artillery at El Teb consisted of 
eight 7-pr. naval guns with camel transport, and were com- 
manded by Major F. T. Lloyd, an officer whose professional 
knowledge, energy, and judgment have been most valuable. 

On return to Suakin four 9-pr. guns were equipped as a 
mule battery by M Battery, 1st Brigade, Royal Artillery, com- 
manded by Major E. H. Holley, li.A. Major Lloyd specially 
mentions Major Holley for the ability and energy with which 
he equipped this 9-pr. battery, entirely from naval sources, for 
the field, under exceptionally difficult circumstances. These 
guns were of great service, and Major Holley has proved himself 
an excellent artillery officer in the field. 

' Not reprinted. 




Captain J. H. Wodeliouse, RA., of the Egyptian army, who 
was attached to the Camel Battery, made himself conspicuous 
by his energy and ability. 

Surgeon T. R. Lucaa, A.M.D., and Veterinary-Surgeon Beech 
are also favourably mentioned. 

Major Lloyd brings specially to my notice the conduct of 
Gunner W, Hanson, of M Battery, Ist Brigade, Royal Artillery, 
at the action of Tatnai, who, when the enemy made a rush upon 
his gun, knocked down one of them with his rammer, thereby 
saving the life of a comrade. 

In my despatch of the 3rd March I have referred to the cool 
deliberation and remarkable efficiency with which the 7-pr. 
naval guns were worked at El Teb by the 6th Battery, Ist 
Brigade, Scottish Royal Artillery, when opposed to the heavier 
Erupp guns of tJie enemy. These guns advanced with the 
Infantry, and sustained several of the enemy's desperate charges. 
On one occasion those brave blacks succeeded, in apile of a 
storm of fire from artillery and infantry, in charging up to the 
guns and penetrating among the gun detachments. 

One was knocked down by Guuner Isaac Phipps with a 
rammer, another by Gunner James Adam with a blow on the 
face from a round of case which he was carrying in his hand, 
and a third was shot by Bombardier Treadwell with a revolver. 
At Tamai, on 13th March, the 7-pr. Camel Battery was attached 
to the lat Brigade, and did good service at close range with case 
on the enemy. In this action M Battery, Ist Brigade, of four 
9-prs., distinguished itself by the steady way in which it stood 
and plied the enemy with case during the attack on the 2nd 
Brigade, although during the retirement there was no infantry 
to protect it. 

Boyal Engineers. — The Royal Engineers have worked to my 
entire satisfaction throughout the expedition. 

On them devolved the arduous duties connected with the 
disembarkation and water-supply. They had also to provide 
for intrenching the depots at Fort Baker and El Teb. This 
work had to be undertaken with a very insufficient engineer 
force and equipment, a portion of the latter having been lost in 
the Neera. 

The 26th Company numbered in all on disembarkation, 5 
officers and 86 non-commissioned officers and men, of whom 26 


were drivers, leaving only about 50 artificers available for works 
and camp duties. 

The officers and men worked with the greatest zeal. 

Major K. E. Todd made excellent arrangements for supplying 
the deficiencies io materials, and Captain J. F. Dor ward showed 
great practical ability in the construction of jetties, &c., and the 
other officers all had hard work and did good service. 

Major Todii brings specially Co my notice the following non- 
commissioned officers and men of 26th Company, liE., for zeal 
and efficiency in their work, paniciilarly in the construction of 
piers, whicli exposed them to great fatigue and to blistering by 
the sun while working naked in the water— viz., Second Cor- 
porals Bruce and Martin, Lance-Corporal Jones, Sappers Brown 
and Kirwan. 

1st In/aiiiry Brigade. — The 1st Infantry Brigade was com- 
manded by Brigadier-General Sir Red vers Buller, V.C., K,C,M.G., 
C.B., A.D.C., who, by his coolness in action, his knowledge of 
soldiers, and experience in the field, combined with his great 
personal ascendancy over officers and men, has been most 

Besides the ordinary command of bis brigade, Brigadier- 
General Buller was in charge, as senior military officer, of the 
re-embarkation at Trinkitat, a laborious and responsible duty, 
which he performed' to my entire satisfaction. 

Brigadier-General Buller reports that he has received every 
assistance from his Staff: Captain W. F. Kelly, Sussex Regi- 
ment, Brigade Major ; and Lieutenant J. T. St Aubyn, Grenadier 
Guards, Aide-de-Camp. Captain Kelly was severely contused 
by a spent case-shot at El Teb, but remained at his duties. 

KiTig's Royal Jiijks. — The 3rd Battalion of the King's Royal 
Rifles was commanded by Colonel Sir Cromer Ashburnham, 
K.C.B., A.D.C., an officer of well-tried capacity for leading 
troops in the field. 

At El Teb the 3rd King's Royal EiHes were in reserve, but at 
Tamai they assisted in repulsing the attack ot the enemy on the 
1st Brigade, and delivered their fire with great coolness and 

The names of the following officers are submitted for favour- 
able notice : Lieut, -Colon el W. L. K. Ogilvy and Major E. L. 


APPEXDix vnr. 

Sir Cromer Ashburnham has alao Bubmitted to me that No. 
2213, Sergeant William Nix, is deserving of notice for hia con- 
duct in action. 

lat Gordon HigJUatiders. — The let Gordon Highlanders were 
commanded by Lieut. - Colonel D. Hammllt, C.E., and showed 
great steadiness on all occasions. 

Colonel Hammill mentions Major A. E. Cross and Captain J. 
J. B. Menzies as having specially distinguished themselves. 

Private Daniel M'Pherson received a spear wound in the face 
at EI Teb, and after being taken to hospital was, at his own 
urgent request, allowed to march with his battalion next morn- 
ing to Tokar. 

2nd Roijal Lisk Fasilurs. — The 2nd Royal Irish Fusiliera 
were commanded by Lieut. - Colonel B. S. Eobinson, and 
were conspicuous for steadiness in formation during action, and 
for good discipline on the march. 

Captain J. Gordon performed duty as major at the action of 
Tamai, and commanded the Battalion during the advance on 
Tamanieb, when the senior officers of the Battalion were on the 
sick-list ; and I beg to recommend this officer to your notice for 
the zeal and ability displayed by him. 

Captain and Adjutant C. R Rogers is also favourably men- 
tioned; and Surgeon J. Pedlow, A.M.D., showed great devotion 
to duty. 

2»Mf Infantry Brigade. — The 2nd Infantry Brigade was com- 
manded by Major-General J. Davis, who has done his utmost to 
preserve steadiness and good discipline on all occasions. 

Major-General Davis, as senior military officer, superintended 
the disembarkations at Trinkitat and at Suakin, both which 
operations were very successfully carried out. 

2nd B)<gade Staf. — Major-General Davis wishes to bring to 
notice his Staif — Captain T. B. Hitchcock, Shropshire Light 
Infantry, Brigade Major ; and Lieutenant C. C. Douglas, Scottish 
RiSes, Aide-de-Camp, 

\at Royal Sigklanders. — The let Royal Highlanders were 
commanded by Lieut. - Colonel W, Green, whom I noticed 
exerting himself to keep order and discipline at both the actions 
of El Teb and Tamal 

In my despatch of the 2nd March I referred to the let Boyal 
Highlanders ae having been somewhat out of hand at £1 Teb hy 


their over-eagerness to fire on the enemy. I have now, however, 
the satisfaction of reporting that since that action this fine bat- 
talion has shown an excellent spirit, and a determination to 
prove itself worthy of the high reputation earned by a century 
and a half of splendid service in all parts of the world. 

At Tamai the Black Watch chained most gallantly, only fell 
back when forced to do ao, losing more men in close fighting 
than any other battalion, and rallying to a man when the 
opportunity offered. 

The following officers have been specially brought to my 
notice for coolness and gallantry in action : Major C J. Eden, 
Captain N. W. Brophy, and Lieutenant Norman MacLeod. 

Surgeon F. H. Treheme is specially mentioned for attention to 
the wounded in action. 

The following non-com missioned officers and men have been 
specially noticed — viz., Sergeant J. Sutherland, Private Henry 
Shires, and Drummer Henry Mumford, for distinguished cool- 
ness, and for encouraging their comrades at Tamai. 

Hospital Sergeant W, Davidson is mentioned for his devotion 
in attending to the wounded in action. 

Private Thomas Edwards especially distinguished himself in 
defence of one of the naval guns at Tamai. 

Commander Eolfe, in a letter marked " C " annexed,' states 
that he saw Private Edwards beside the gun, with Lieutenant 
Almack, R.N., and a bluejacket. " Both the latter were killed, 
and Edwards, after bayoneting two Arabs, receiving a cut on 
the knuckles from a spear, rejoined the ranks." I beg to concur 
in Colonel Green's recommendation of l*rivate Edwards for the 
Victoria Cross. 

Isi York and Lancaster. — The 1st York and Lancaster were 
commanded by Lieut-Colonel W. Byam. This fine battalion 
of seasoned soldiers only landed on the evening of our march 
to Fort Baker on the 28th February. During the action on the 
29th February, in which they took a prominent share, being 
in the fighting line, the York and Lancaster gave me great sat- 
isfaction by their steadiness, and by the firmness with which 
they met and repulsed the charges of the enemy. When ad- 
vancing on the first battery captured, Captain H. C. T. Little- 
dale rushed in front of his company and had a hand-to-hand 
' Not reprinted. 



encounter with several of the enemy. He was knocked down, 
receiving a severe spear wound in the left shoulder, but was 
rescued by his men coming up. He then rose, and although 
bleeding profusely, continued to lead his company throughout 
the engagement. Major R. W. Dalgety, although injured by the 
fragments of a shell at Kl Teb, continued to lead his men, and 
at Tamai displayed the utmost gallantry in rallying his men 
until severely wounded. 

Several other officers distinguished themselves at El Teb, and 
especially at Tamai. Among them was Quartermaster F, H. 
Mahony, who also attended to the supply of ammunition, and 
proved himself a very efficient officer. 

Of the non-commissioned officers and rank and file the follow- 
ing are mentioned by their Commanding Officer as distinguished 
for gallantly at El Teb : Colour-Sei^eant Wake (badly wounded), 
Colour - Sergeant Hay ward. Sergeant Doyle, Sergeant Webb, 
Lance -Sergeants Haycock and James, Corporals Baxter and 
Dossett; also Privates Edwards and Callanan, who were both 

Sergeant Howell and Private P. Foy are also mentioned for 
their coolness and gallantry at XamaL 

It is on occasions of repulse and retreat, such as that which 
temporarily befell the 2nd Brigade at Tamai, that the individual 
efforts of officers and men show most clearly and are of greatest 
value, aud it is on this account that I have so many names to 
mention in the two leading battalions of the 2nd Brigade, the 
1st Royal Highlanders and 1st York and Lancaster. The men 
who died, nobly doing their duty to the last, I submit, also 
deserve the tribute of having their names recorded. 

The Ist Koyal Highlanders lost a good officer in Major W. 
Aitken, who had beeu previously mentioned for his gallantry 
at El Teb, and who fell fighting bravely at Tamai. With 
him fell Sergeant Ronald Fraser and Lance -Corporal Percy 
Fiulay, who nobly went back to assist their oQicer. Colour- 
Sergeant Michael Johnston and SergL'ant William Campbell, 
and many others, all of the Royal Highlanders, were seen 
bravely lighting to the last. 

One officer aud 15 men of the Ist York and Lancaster were 
killed at th out corner of the square, where the storm 

first burst . These men, as Lieut. -Colonel Byam 

(who waa himself in the thick of it) reports, " stood their ground 
and would not be forced back." Their bodies were afterwards 
picked up on the margin of the ravine where they fell. 

Their names are: Captain C. W. Ford, Corporal W. Maynard, 
Lance-Corporal R, Mayors, Privates W. Webb, J. Richards, J. 
Roy, S. Le Blancq, G. Higginson. W. West, J. Brophy, E. Cripps, 
I. Hope, P. MoUoy, J. PUbeam, C. Read, C. Rookyard. 

Moyal Marines. — The Royal Mariues, under Colonel H. B. 
TuBon, C.B., A.D.C., Royal Marine Artillery, were in the fighting 
lice at El Teb, and by their steadiness and gallantry contrib- 
uted largely to the success of that day's operations. At Tamai 
they were in the square of the 2nd Brigade, and assisted in 
forming the rallying line. 

Brevet-Major W. G. Tucker, Royal Marine Artillery, showed 
great readiness and intelligence in at once turning the captured 
Krupp guns, taken in the tirat position at El Teb, on the 
enemy's remaining battery, thereby facilitating the advance of 
the infantry. 

Staff- Surgeon Martin, E.N., is favourably mentioned for 
attention to wounded in the held. 

The following officers, non-commissioned officers, and men 
have been specially brought to my notice : Major G. H. T, 
Colwell, RM.L.L ; Surgeon Cross ; Sergeaut-Major J. Hurst, 
and Privates Biratwhistle and Yerbury, RM.L.I., H.M.S. 
Tenieraire; Privates F. Patterson, J. Davis, D. Brady, and 
Gunners Rolf and A, Bretwell, R.M.A, 

A-miy Medical Department. — The Army Medical Department, 
under Deputy Sui^eou-General E, G. M'Dowell, waa most ably 
adminiptered, and the wants of the wounded carefully provided 
for and promptly attended to. ^ 

As soon as we were in possession of the position at El Teb on 
the 29th February, about 4.25 P.M., I signalled to Fort Baker, at 
the iuatauce of Deputy Sui^eon- General M'Dowell, for tents, 
medical comforts, &c,, to be sent ou immediately. 

As mules had been kept ready laden, the convoy, under 
Surgeon J. Prendergast, arrived at 6 P.M., and the serious cases 
were at once placed under cover for the night. 

Additional blanketa were provided for the slighter cases, 
which were kept in the opeu. 

Immediately after the action Surgeon-Major B. B. Connolly, 


who was Principal &f edical Officer of the Cavalry Brigade, by my 
orders took out eight mule cacolets with a cavalry escort, and 
proceeded over the ground where the cavalry had charged, to 
make sure tliat no wounded were left, and, as far as possible, to 
bring in tlie dead. 

After the action of Tamai the wounded were at once brought 
into the zeriba and promptly attended to. As the Surgeon- 
General remarks in his report, " Though many of the wounded 
had injuries ut the severest form, still we had no deaths from 
hiemorrhage, a fact which exhibits in the strongest light the 
skill and attention of the Medical Officers working under the 
most trying circumstances," 

The following Medical Officers are especially brought to yoor 
notice for their care and attention to their important duties in 
the field on the occasion of the actions at El Teh and Tamai : 
Surgeon-Major W. D. Wilson, Principal Medical Officer of the 
Infantry Brigade; Surgeon - Major B. B. Connolly, Principal 
Medical Officer of the Cavalry Brigade ; Surgeon J. Prendergast, 
who was badly wounded while attending a wounded man at 
Tamai ; Surgeon-Major W. A. Catherwood, Principal Medical 
Officer at the Base ; and Surgeon-Major J. J, Greene, at El Teb. 
Surgeon-Major W. Venour had charge of the sick on hospital 
ship at the base (H.M.S. Jumna), and, assisted by a Detachment 
of the Army Hospital Corps, made every possible provision for 
the care of the wounded on their passage to Suez. 

I also beg to bring to your notice the services rendered by 
the Army Hospital Corps. Quartermaster Enright, Army 
Hospital Corps, is reported as having carried out his duties 
with indefatigable energy and devotion. 

« Staff- Sergeants Clarke and Genese, also Sergeant A. G. Chalk 
(whose leg was broken by a tall from a mule), are favourably 

The names given are of officers whose conduct came most 
prominently to notice, but all the Medical Officers attached to 
the force have contributed to the excellent results attained. 

Cmnmiasariat and Transport Corps. — The Commissariat and 
Transport Department, under Assistant Commissary-General B. 
A, Nugent, have given me very great satisfaction by the in- 
defatigable ze»' ' intelligence with which they have worked 
to bring up I the front. The task before thia depart- 


ment was a very difficult one. The supply of food, water, and 
ammumtion, in a waterless country with no roads, required a 
good organisation, abundant means of transport, and great 
energy in working it. The water transport alone required 
incessant watching, as many of the skins supplied from stores 
were found to leak so much as to be worthless. Fortunately 
Egyptian camel-tanks had been brought, and the navy furnished 
some breakers. The greatest vigilance had to be exerci-sed to 
prevent the native camel-drivers and soldiers from drinking and 
wasting the water on the road. The storage of the water at the 
base, and at the advanced depot or zeribas, was of vital import- 
ance. Here again the navy came to our assistance with empty 
barrels and large canvas tanks, which latter proved invaluable. 

I must, in connection with this subject, acknowledge my 
sense of the great service rendered to the expedition by Mr 
Crook, Chief Engineer of H,M.S. Euryalus, and those under him. 

Nothing could exceed the ability and devotion with which 
Assistant Commissary- General Nugent threw himself into his 
work, and he was ably supported by those under him, who 
literally worked night and day when the service required it, I 
must especially mention Deputy Assistant Commissary -Generals 
M, K R. Rainsford and G. V. Hamilton, who proved themselves 
most valuable officers. 

Major J. F. Forster, Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry; 
Lieutenant C. C. Turner, Shropshire Light Infantry ; and Lieu- 
tenant E. L. Bower, 3rd King's Royal Ritles, employed in 
transport duties, and Conductor Hiekie, also deserve mention 
for their zeal and energy. 

Ordnance Store Department. — The Ordnance Store Depart- 
ment, under Assistant Commissary-General of Ordnance H. J. 
Mills, has worked most satisfactorily. The supplies of reserve 
ammunition have come up without any delay. The organisa- 
tion for storage and transport was good, while officers and men 
worked hard to meet all requirements. I have especially to 
bring to notice Deputy Assistant Commissary - General of 
Ordnance K Houghton, for his zeal and intelligence. 

Army Chaplains. — I have to record my sense of the services 
of the Army Chaplains attached to the force. 

The following Chaplains, the Kevs. G. Smith, Church of 
England ; J. M'Taggart, Presbyterian ; and R. Brindle, Roman 



Catholic, were preseut in tbe field, and assiduous in their 
attention to the wounded. 

The Rev. J. Webster, Wealeyan, also accompanied the 

Arviy VeteHnarti DepartrtifM. — The duties of tlie Veterinary 
Department were satisfactorily carried on by Principal Veter- 
inary-Surgeon C. Clayton and those under him. 

Ai-my Pat/ Departvient. — The Army Pay Department waa 
well administered by Major It. B. Farwell. 

I have also to eicprese my thanks to Mr Wyld (now at the 
head of the police of Suakin) for the services rendered by him 
to the expedition when giving information as to the locality, 
and when in charge of the Abyssiuian Scouts on the 12th and 
13th of March. 

Naval Brigade. — In ray previous despatch I have already 
mentioned the splendid services of the Naval Brigade. 

At EI Teb they fought under the eyes of tlieir Admiral, who 
accompanied the force into the field, and cheerfully bore bis 
share of danger when the square came under tire. 

With Admiral Hewett was Captaiu Wilson, commanding 
H.M.S. Hecia, who was not content with the position of a 
spectator, but took such an active share in the defence of the 
Bailors' guns in a hand-to-IianJ combat, that 1 have in my report 
to the Admiral recommended this officer for the distinction of 
the Victoria Cross, 

The Naval Brigade suffered severely in the actions of El Teb 
and TaniaL Lieutenant Koyds (a most promising officer, since 
dead) was dangerously wounded at El Teb, and, by the direction 
of the Admiral, Surgeon Grinlette, R.N., and twelve men were 
told off to carry Lieutenant Koyds back to the fleet. 

Those men, who had been previously dragging their guns over 
heavy ground and then through the three hours' tight, arrived 
with tlieir wounded officer about eleven o'clock that night at 
Trinkitat. So anxious were they not to miss the advance on 
Tokar tliat they started off again at about 4 o'clock the next 
morning, arriving at El Teb in good time to take their share in 
the severe toils of that day. 

This is merely an illustration of the gallant spirit that ani- 
mated the whole Naval Brigade from its commander to the last 



I b^ to be allowed to express my high admiration, and that 
of the force I have had the honour to command, at the thoroughly 
cordial co-operation of the lioyal Navy throughout the expe- 
dition. Nothing could exceed the courtesy and readiness of 
Admiral Sir W, Hewett to meet all our requirements, and the 
work of loading and unloading the ships under Captain Andoe, 
E.N., proceeded smoothly and swiftly, the ofBcers and men of 
both services working cordially together. 

I beg to attach to this despatch a letter received from Admiral 
Sir W. Hewett (see enclosure marked D), in reply to one of mine 
thanking him for the great services rendered by the Royal Navy 
to the expedition. 

In concluding this despatch, I wish to express ray deep sense 
of t)ie admirable spirit in which the duties that have fallen to 
the ofBcers and men have been carried out during this short but 
arduous campaign. 

Tbe shifting of the base from Trinkitat to Suakin entailed 
severe fatigues and labours, as, owing to the dangerous char- 
acter of the coast, ships could only move by day ; and the time 
at my disposal being short, it was necessary to hurry on the 
operation of embarking and disembarking men, horses, camels, 
stores, &c, so that the work had to be carried on day and night. 
Officers and men understood this, and worked cheerfully. Tbey 
also bore the toils and privations of long marches in the 
desert, under a burning sun, with a necessarily short supply 
of water. 

On the night preceding the action at Tamai there was little 
sleep, as the enemy were firing on us continuously from past 
midnight to dawn. This, too, was borne silently and without 

As regards strength and endurance, I beg to point to the 
remarkably low sick-rate (less than 2 per cent), and to the fact 
that not one man was lost by sickness. 

The distances marched under a burning sun were also credit- 
able. On the return from Tokar to Trinkitat the distance 
marched was about 16 miles, and the two return marches to Sua- 
kin from the front were about the same distance. On all these 
occasions the troops marched in easily, with scarcely a man 
falling out, though there were many cases of blistered feet from 
the burning sand. 

412 APFK5DIX Vm. 

lb ia true zhaz manj mtxt were prvxcnfied br the inceise heftt 
duiinq the niarch out on che fine daj of the last adYance, yet 
the same mezL, wixh tew excepcions, adTanced cfaeofoIlT the 
next dar towards Tanumiea 

Lace that afternoon I had to oJI up the Boyal Highlanders 
and tUjjiL Bifles in expectation of resistance, and the men 
marched cheehlT to the sound of song and pipe, not a man 
fallJTij oct when the next moTe was to bring them, in presoioe 
of the enemr. 

Thi3 coald not hare been accomplished without a thoroogfalj 
floond system of interior economj in the regiments, battalions* 
and cijrps compoeing the force : and the greatest credit is dne 
to the regimental officers who kept their men in such a high 
state of efficiencT. Considering the waj in which the hardships 
were borne and the obstacles overcome, also that the foe was 
far from being a despicable one. it is in no spirit of boasting I 
Tentnre to sabmit that, although containing manr yonng soldiers 
in the ranks, and althouh hnrriedlT got together, partly com- 
posed of troops on passage home fr^m In*iii, who had to be 
equipped from local soorces. the force sent on this expedition 
has shown itself worthr of the British armv. — I have. iSlc, 

G. Graham, Major-General, 
Commandimj £rp!diiwru2ry Force. 


From Bear-Admiral Sir Wiiliam ff^wett. to J/jhr-General 
Sir G. Graham^ Command in4j £jcp^iitit>fMri/ F^>rce. 

H¥a EnvALrsL SrAScr. IIM M^rtk 1S$4. 

Sir, — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of 
ye«!tf:rday'3 date, and in reply thereto I need hardly tell you 
what deep gratification it has afforded me to hear of the high 
praU^ which you accord to the officers and men of the Eoyal 
Xavy ; and although we have suffered the loss of some gallant 
officers and men, I rest satisfied that the example of their devo- 
tion can never be lost to our service, accompanied by such a 
tribute aa ^'*" have deemed fit to pay theiu. 


Allow me, sir, to express to you how I have esteemed the 
value of your cordial co-operation with me at all times ; and 
from my experience of, I may now say, many campaigns, it is 
only another instance which shows what thorough cordiality 
exists between army and navy, and so long as that continues we 
may look for similar success to that your forces have obtained 
here. — I have, &c., 

W. Hewett, Eear- Admiral. 



Acnoy AT Hashdt. March 2»X 1S35. 

Printed la P»riiam«ntar7 P«pcrL ^jpt, Xi 9 1555^, C 4S45, Xx 57. 

LioU^-Kntmral Sir G. G-rakam to the JfirpiU of ffartingtOH. 

(Eecei¥ed March 20.) 

MoTEB out from camp 6.15, learing Shropshire and details as 
guards. Beached first hill 8.20. Enemj retired and occapied 
other hill one mile and a quarter distant. After short halt» 
Ofrder^i Berkshire and Marines to clear hi^h isolated hill: 
Indian Contingent and Gaards in support. This was done 
Terr effectually. Enemy, being driven off rid^, streamed 
away south rowaris Tamai, and were charged by two squad- 
rons Indian Lancers in bush. Cavalry retired on Guards. 
Many of enemy passed Guards at foot of hill and made for 
hill west of Hashin valley, and were shelled by Royal Horse 
Artillery. <I>ther parties moving round our riirht were engaged 
in bush by 5wh Lancers Meanwhile zeriba, with four intrenched 
poets on hill commanding it, is being formed. 

Advanced trx)p8 have all returned to this position, and will 
return to camp, leaving East Surrey and two Erupp guns» 
four Gardners, water-tanks, and signal appliances at intrenched 

Killed. — Sco:s Guards: Captain M. P. D. Dalison, Private 
Ashley. 5th Lancers : Troop Sergeant-Major Xicholls, Private 
Edwaris. 9th Bengal Lancers : 1 non-commissioned officer 
4 sowars. 

ACTION AT HASHIN, 1885. 415 

Wounded. — Surgeon-Major Lane, Army Medical Staff, severely; 
Scots Guards, 6 men ; Coldstream, 8 men ; Grenadiers, 8 men ; 
Berkshire, 2 men; 5th Lancers, Major A. B, Harvey severely, 
2 men slightly; 9th Bengal Cavalry, Major Robertson severely. 
7 sowars ; 15th Sikhs, 1 man ; TOth Sikhs, 2 men. 

Infantry behaved with great steadiness. Strength of enemy 
estimated 4000. Loss unknown, but considerable. 

Printed in FvlUiaentAr; Papers, Egypt, Mo. 13 (18SG), C 4392, No. 27, ka. 

Lieui.-Generul Sir G. Graham to the Marquis of HartingloTi. 
(Received April 14.) 

ScAKiN, Marck2\, 1B85. 

My Lord, — In amplification of my telegrams, I have the 
honour to report that on the 19th instant I executed a recon- 
naissance on Hashin (distant about 7i miles from Suakin) 
with the Cavalry Brigade, G Battery, B Brigade, Royal Horse 
Artillery, and the Mounted Infantry. The Indian Contingent 
moved out in support. 

Having previously inspected the whole force drawn up in 
line to the south of the West Redoubt, I advanced with the 
Cavalry Brigade, the Indian Contingent following. 

My orders to the force were to reconnoitre as far as the 
village of Hashin, examine the wells there, and avoid an 
engagement, if possible. 

The enemy, in small force, were seen occupying the first 
hills A, B, c, D [See plnu] [See plate IV,], but fell back before 
us. Their scouts on these hills and on both flanks appeared to 
fall back on the main body at Hashin, and the whole force then 
retreated westwards up the Hashin valley, one party, however, 
appearing to move round the west side of Dihilibat Hill. 

Hashin village was reached about 9.4U a.m., and found to 
consist of about thirty mat-huta The latter had been recently 
occupied, but were clearetl out. Three Remington rifles and a 
few cartridges only were found. 

There appeared to be two wells in which the water-level is 
about 10 feet below the ground, and the depth 7 feet. The 



water is reported to be good. The Hashiu wella appear to ' 
have been comparatively recently sunk to meet the requirft- I 
ments of the enemy's occupation of this position. 

During the cavalry advance the enemy showed in small 
groups of about ten men each, mounted on camels, and evi- 
dently acting as vedettes to a larger force. 

The enemy occupied the top of Dihilibat Hill, and fired 
occasionally upon my cavalry, and a small party charged down 
the hill upon a patrol of the 20th Hussars. One private of tbia 
regiment was killed and a sergeant wounded. 

Lieutenant Birch of the Mounted Infantry behaved with great 
courage. Having mounted one of the spurs of the Dihilibat 
Hill in order to obtain a better view, he found himself suddenly 
attacked by five or six of the enemy and forced to defend him- 
self alone, in doing which he was wounded. 

At 10,15 A.M. I ordered a retirement, the Horse Artillery 
taking up a position on the low hill A to cover the movement, 
and the force returned to camp about 12.30 P.M. On my retire- 
ment the enemy reoccupied the hills a, b, c, d. 

The Indian Brigade, which had advanced about 3 miles towards 
Hashin in support of the Cavalry, returned to camp previously. 
The whole country is covered with dense mimosa scrub from 
6 feet to 8 feet in height. Beyond the first hills A, a, c, d, and 
up the Hashin valley, this scrub is even more thick. This 
scrub renders it impossible to follow the movements of an 
enemy on foot, who can conceal himself perfectly within a short 
distance of our vedettes. 

I have selected a position on the hills B, c, D, F, which I shall 
occupy l«-morrow night with the East Surrey Kcgiment, two 
Erupp field-guna, and some Garduer niachiue-guns. 

On the 'iOtb instant I moved out to Hashin with the whole 
force, except the Shropshire Kegiment and details left as camp 
guard, my object being to occupy the hills b, c, d, f, with de- 
fensive posts, and to establish a zeriba at K. The position pro- 
posed for occupation was required in order to protect my right 
flank in the impending advance on Tamai, to obtain a post of 
observatif^" *•■« to the mountains, and to assist in overawing 

the trit 

I'ed ofif at abtiut 6.10 A.M., the Infantry follow- 
the following order : The Guards, in column 

ACTION AT HA8H1N, 1885. 


of companies, on the right ; the 2nd Brigade (East Surrey Regi- 
ment and Marines), in line of company columns of fours ; the 
Indian Brigade, in column of companies, on the left ; the Horse 
Artillery Battery on the right of the line. The water-camels 
and transport animals followed in rear of the 2nd Brigade. 

The advance was made in a direction nearly due west, and 
the first halt took place from 7.45 A.M. to 8.5 AM. The Infantry 
reached the foot of the hills a, b, f, at about 8.25 am. The 
17th and 24th Companies Eoyal Engineers, the Madras Sappers, 
and the 70th East Surrey Regiment were ordered to commence 
work at once. 

The enemy had fallen back on Dihilibat and the Beehive Hill, 
exchanging shots with my advanced guard at about 8 am. 

I now determined to clear these hills, and gave orders to the 
Infantry to advance in the following order i — 

2nd Brigade in first line, Indian Contingent in support. Guards 
in reserve ; the Horse Artillery to take up a position on Beehive 
Hill— H. 

At about 9 A.M. the force had reached the foot of Dihilibat 

The Berkshire Regiment advanced up the steep slopes of the 
Dihilibat Hill in attack formation, with one half-battalion Royal 
Marine Light Infantry on the right rear, and the other half-bat- 
talion in rear of the centre of the Berkshire Regiment as supports. 

The ascent was very steep and difficult, but the first spur J 
was occupied without opposition. This spur is separated from 
the main ridge by a deep ravine. The enemy now, however, 
opened a heavy fire from the summit k and from a position 
farther to the right. The Berkshire Regiment replied by volleys, 
and the half- battalion of Marines, on the right, was advanced to 
dank the enemy's position. The enemy then abandoned their 
position, and the Berkshire Regiment advanced to the summit K, 
and detached one company to a spur on the left, from which an 
effective fire was opened upon the retiring enemy. 

Meanwhile the Indian Brigade had taken up a position 
between the foot of Dihilibat and the Beehive Hill, H— as shown 
on plan attached. The Guards also were formed up near the 
foot of the north-east spur of Dihilibat Hill. 

The Horse Artillery, which moved out with the Guards 
Brigade as far as the first hill, received orders to follow the 


APPBurorx IX. 


Indian Brigade in its farther advance, and to take up a position 
on Beehive Hill. Wliile passing under the hill Dihilibat they 
were heavily fired upon, losing two horses. The slopes of Bee- 
hive Hill proving impracticable for the guns, the hattery. after 
firing a few rounds of shrapnel into the hush, detached three 
guns to a position on a low spur to the west of Beehive Hill, 
where they remained in action for some time shelling parties ot 
the enemy, who were visible across the valley on the spurs of 
the Waratab range. 

The battery subsequently retired with the Guards' Square 
and took up a position on tiie hill A. Here several rounds 
were fired, subsequent to the retirement of the infantry, at 
parties of the enemy which appeared on the low spur i. 

At about 9.40 A.M, two squadrons of the 9th Bejigal Cavalry 
were detached by Colonel Ewart, Commanding Cavalry Brigade, 
to pursue the enemy, who, driven from the hill Dihilibat by the 
Berkshire R^ment, were retiring south in the direction <rf 

Colonel Ewart' ordered two squadrons to dismount and fire 
volleys. These squadrons were chai^:ed by the enemy in con- 
siderable strength, and retired with loss on the square formed 
by the Guards at the foot of the Dihilibat HilL 

During the morning the 5th Lancers were employed in 
securing the right front. At about 10.45 a considerable force 
of the enemy endeavoured to ad\'auce down the Hasbin valley 
from the north-west, apparently attempting to turn my right 
flank. Both the 5th Lancers and a portion of the 9th Bengal 
Cavalry were engaged with the small advanced parties of this 
force, and succeeded in checking the movement 

During this time work was carried on by the Royal Engineen 
end Madras Sappers, assisted by parties of the East Surrey 
Begiment. and by about 2.30 P.M. four strong posts, b, c, d, f, 
faiid been formed and a zeriba commenced at K. 

At 12.25 I recalled the Indian Brigade, the Berkshire Begi- 
ment and the Marines covering the movement The Utter 

' On l"**- "'¥■ Sir Oenl^l Onhiuu rtijuwwd th»t Uiii pusgnph m^ii tn 

maHitf M t.illoir*; "t'olooel Gwvt onleml put of ou of thaa* 

^l-iMi ■« ukI fire ToUcji Thote «qu»lroui ira™,, in turn, 

yy :b de»l>l0 stnui^tli. aaA retimt. nul viUiout tome Iok 

-C-^' liard* M the fo»( ol IHhaiVwt HOL" (Sw Pwi 

ACTION AT HA8HIN, 1885. 419 

then joined the Indian Brigade, and, forming a single square, 
retired to the more open ground south of the hill a. The 
Guards' Square and the Artillery remained at the foot of the 
Dihilibat TTiH till I P.M., and then retired, taking a direction 
somewhat to the south of that followed by the 2nd and Indian 

During the retirement of the Guards the right face of the 
square received a hot (ire from parties of the enemy concealed 
among the bushes, and suH'ered some loss. By firing steady 
volleys into the hush the enemy's fire was effectually silenced, 
and the brigade halted close to the south foot of the hill A. 

The general retirement of the whole fOrce began about 
4.30 P.M., and the camp was reached at 6.lo. 

The conduct of the force was satisfactory in all respects. 
The Dihilibat Hill was carried by the Berkshire Regiment 
with the greatest spirit, and the behaviour of the Guards' 
square under a heavy fire from an unseen enemy was marked 
by extreme steadiness. 

During the formation of the fortified posts the presence of 
the enemy in rear rendered it necessary several times to order 
the East Surrey Regiment to stand to their arms. This 
was done without any confusion, and the Royal Engineers 
and Madras Sappers quietly continued their work on the 

It is impossible in such a country to estimate the numbers 
of an eueray who is able to remain completely concealed until 
he chooses to attack ; but it is probable that on this occasion 
the number of Arabs present was about 3000, of whom at least 
250 were killed, much of this loss beinj; caused by the fire of 
the Berkshire Regiment from the commanding position they 
had taken up on Dihilibat Hill. 

The scouting was very efficiently performed by the cavalry, 
considering the great difficulties of the country with which 
they had to contend. 

I enclose sketches made by officers of my Intelligence De- 
partment (marked X and Y), which will serve to explain the 
operations above described. [See Plate IV.] 

The detail of casualties baa been already reported by tele- 
graph. — I have, &c., 

Gerald Graham. 


Action at Tofrik oh M'Neill's Zebiba, March 22, 18S5. 

From Egypt, No. 13 (1885), C 4392. So. 2S. 

Lieut. -Qtii^ral Sir G. GraJiam to the Marquis of Hart iny ton. 
(Eeceived April 14.) 

HKiDqUARTERs, SciKiN, March 2S, 1885. 

My Lord, — In continuation of nay despatch of the 2l8t 
instant, I have the honour to report that on the 22nd instant I 
ordered the force, as per margin,' under Major-General Sir J, 
M'Neill, V.C, K.C.B., Ac, to marcli from Suakin, taking a line 
leading directly to Tamai. 

My intention was to form a zeriba about eight miles from 
Suakin. to act as an intermediate depot for the supplies vaA, 
water required for an advance in force on Tamai. I further 
intended that the Indian Brigade on returning should leave 
one battalion in an intermediate zeriba, about four miles 
trom camp. 

The force advanced in echelon of brigade squares, the 2nd 
Brigade leading ; the Indian Brigade, under Brigadier Hudson, 
following on the right rear. I myself proceeded with the force 
for about 2J miles, then returning to camp. 

At about 2.45 P.M. heavy firing was heard in the direction takea 
hy Sir J. M'NeiU'a force, aud I immediately ordered out the 
Guards Brigade 'he Horse Artillery Battery and proceeded 

■ Ooe Miuwlrn' Kanl Grigiide vritli four Goniner-guiu, Detach- 

lucDl Rnfftt £u| >« Krgiiueiit, Huyml Marines, Compfto; Hailraa 

&tppen, IGtli Sil Nuive Infsolry, 'J8th fiomba}' NitiTS Inffta^, 

Ung rtmt betwMti (otxe knd Suakin. 

ACTION AT TOFRIK, 1885. 421 

about three miles, following the line to Tamai. Receiving a 
message from Sir J. M'Neill that he was in no need of assistance, 

I returned to camp with the Guards, 

Sir J. M'Neill's convoy, on its inarch through the dense 
scrub which lies between Suakin and the hills, experienced 
much difficulty. The great mass of camels enclosed in the 
Indian Brigade Square was continually getting into disorder, 
owing to the high prickly bushes through which it was obliged 
to force its way. 

Thus frequent halts were necessary in order to get the camels 
back into position, and restore the chain of defence with which 
it is necessary in such a country to surround the transport 
animals and non-combatants. 

It was aoon apparent that the original plan could not be 
carried out in its entirety ; since, if the force advanced eight 
miles, there would not remain sufficient daylight to allow a 
zeriba to be formed, and then for the Indian Brigade to return 
and form an intermediate zeriba. 

Sir J. M'Neill, therefore, determined to halt and form his 
zeriha at about 6 miles only from the camp at Suakin. 

Tlie force was formed up as follows : the Indian Brigade took 
up three sides of a square fronting nearly east, south, and west ; 
the transport animals were in the centre. The Berkshire Regi- 
ment, Marines, and the Royal Engineers and Madras Sappers 
began at once to cut brushwood. 

Tlic zeriba was traced out as shown in the sketch plan 

The work proceeded steadily, and the south zeriba A, b, c, d, 
was told off to the Berkshire Regiment, with two naval 
Gardners ; the north zeriba, e, f, g, h, to the Marines, also with 
two naval Gardners. The central zeriba, P, c, F, 0, was intended 
to contain the stores. 

At about 2.30 P.M. the disposition of the force appears to have 
been as follows : — 

(See sketch plan attached.) [See Plate V.] 

Half the Berkshire Regiment were south of the zeriba a, b, c, d, 
cutting brushwood ; their arms were piled inside. The line A, L, 
was held by six companies, 17th Native Infantry, their left 
being somewhat en fair ; the line D, K, by the 15th Sikhs ; k, k, 
by the 28th Bombay Native Infantry; K, a, by two companies 


of the I7zh Xative Infancrr. Oncpcets a. a. . . . consstizig of 
groape of foor men eacL were thrown out from SO to 120 yaids 
Co tbe front of the three Iniiian regiments. These three regi- 
ments thenrselves were formed in two-deep line The other 
hjlf - battalion of the Berkshire Reciment were having their 
dinners at aboat the point E. 250 jards to the east of the zeriba. 
The Uarines were inside the north zeriba, E. i, g, h, having just 
finished cutting brushwood. The camels had been imloadeii in 
the central zerib^a. and had beson to £Ie oa: in order to be 
form<=d up outside ready for the return march. The Squadron 
5th Lancers form^ a chain of Co^asack posts leach four men), at 
a distance of about 1000 yards fp:m the force, the rest of the 
squadron being held in support on some open ground about 500 
yards to the s«juth-west of the zerica. A squadron of the 20th 
Hussars was patrolling the ground between the zeriba and 

Shortly after 2.30 pjl three messages were sent in from the 
5:h Lanc-ers' ou:p-:s:s- anLouncing drsc :he presence of the 
enemv on their front, and immediately afterwards his advance. 
Very 5«>:n after :his the cavalry galloped in. closely followed by 
the Arars. 

The l-Tth Sikhs and 2Sth Bc-mbav Xative Inrannrv stood firm 
and mainiainei an intact line, receiving and repulsing succes* 
sive attii'jks w::L a heaw fire. 

The a::aok was delivered mainly in the direcdon shown by 
the arr ws. A large number of the enemy entered the south 
zeri'^a at the salient B. where there was no bmshwood and 
merely an un£nished saudbag parapet. The Gardner guns were 
beina place! in p«:)sition at the ume. and could not be got into 
action, s*: that their detachments, who stood their irround i!al- 
lantlvt suffered severely. 

Other rarties of the enemv. following: the retreat of the 17th 
Native iL^iiutry. dashed iuto the central zeriba. P. c, o, F, and 
causeil a stanif^de among the animals and panic among the 
native drivers. A general rush of tr.e latter tOijk place b«jth to 
the open side P. F. and also through the north zeriba. where 
a port::- of the Marines were for the moment carried away 
by iL 

In a aJ the whole of the Aral>s in the south zeriba 

were kill out bv the half-battalion of the Berkshire 

ACnON AT TOPRIK, 1886. 423 

Kegiinent, who captured a flag which the enemy had planted on 
the sandbag parapet at B. 

The Marines cleared the north zeriba, and, assisted by the 
Berkshire, the central zeriba also. 

Meanwhile the half - battalion of the Berkshire Eegiment, 
which was dininj; near R when the alarm was given, Eormed 
a rallying square, and succeeded in repelling two successive 
attacks without loss, afterwards fighting their way back to the 

Other small bodies of men, who were outside the zeriba at the 
moment of the attack, were similarly collected by the exertions 
of their officers, and succeeded in making their way back to the 

A large number of camels which were outside of the zeriba 
before the attack took place, or had stampeded on its occurrence, 
were unavoidably shot, as the enemy rushed in among them, 
cutting and hamstringing them in all directions. 

The whole affair appears to have lasted about twenty minutes, 
and the attack seems to have been delivered in two main rushes. 
The enemy's force was not less than 200O strong, but under the 
circumstances it was impossible to form an accurate estimate. 
The attack was deUvered with extreme determination, the 
Arabs charging at full speed, and in some cases even leaping 
over the low bushes forming the unfinished zeriba. 

The great loss of transport animals was due to the rush of 
the enemy through the south and central zeriba. The animals 
stampeded, became mixed up with those already formed up 
outside the zeriba, and the enemy being amongst them in all 
directions, they were shot in large numbers by our own men. 

The detachment of the Naval Brigade in the south zeriba 
gallantly stood to their guna and suHered very severely. The 
Marines also behaved very well, and though their zeriba was 
broken through by the rush of transport animals, they re- 
formed at once and contributed effectively to the repulse of 
the enemy. 

The 15th Sikhs had to sustain several rushes of the enemy, 
and together with the 28th Bombay Regiment maintained an 
unbroken front. 

The loss in officers was severe, and was due to the fact that 
in the confusion arising from the sudden attack, individual 


attempts were gallantly made to collect isolated bodies of men, 
to stem the determined rush of the enemy. 

I may mention Major von Beverhondt of the 17th Native 
Infantry, Captain Bomilly and Lieutenant Newman of the 
Eoyal Engineers, as instances of oflScers who lost their lives 
in the brave efforts to check the enemy's fierce onslaught; 
while Lieutenant Seymour, RN., with his gun detachment, also 
met death at the post of duty. 

Although our sacrifice has been severe, I am convinced that 
the complete repulse and heavy loss which the enemy has sus- 
tained, involving (as it has done) the destruction of more than 
1000 fighting men, will prove to have produced an impression 
which will definitely facilitate my future operations. 

The zeriba has since been strengthened considerably, and no 
attempt has been made to attack it. I am now storing water 
and provisions there, with a view to a further advance as soon 
as possible. — I have, &c., 

Gerald Graham. 



Capture of Tamai, April 3, 1885. 

From Egypt, No. 18 (1885), C 4392, No. 41. 

Lieut.-Oeneral Sir G. Oraham to the Marquis of Hartington, 

(Received April 21.) 

SUAKIN, April 8, 1885. 

My Lord, — 1. As I have already reported to your Lordship, 
having received information from a reconnaissance made on the 
1st April that bodies of the enemy were still occupying Tamai, 
I decided to advance on that place on the 2nd instant and 
attack Osman Digna in his chosen position, although it had 
been ascertained that there was some doubt whether he 
would accept battle, notwithstanding his proclamation and his 
endeavours to impose upon his followers by asserting the power 
of his arms. 

2. The troops as per margin ^ paraded at 3 a.m. on the 2nd 
April near the left water-fort, and were drawn up in a rect- 
angular formation, which for the sake of brevity will be referred 
to as the " Square," although it was actually an oblong, with 
sides about 500 by 200 yards. 

3. In the front face were three Companies of the Coldstream 
Guards, the remaining Companies being on the left face ; on the 
right face were the Scots Guards, the East Surrey Regiment, 
and the 28th Bombay Native Infantry. On the left face were 
five Companies of the Coldstreams, the Marines, and the Shrop- 
shire Regiment, the 15th Sikhs taking the rear face. The four 
Companies of the New South Wales Battalion (Guards Brigade) 

> Not reprinted, but the number amounted to some 7000 strong. 



were at first placed in reserve ou either face of the Square, but 
were afterwards brought into line. The two (screw) 7-pr. 
mountain guns on mules, and the two 7 ■ pr. {20O lb.) 
mountain guns in draught, with the Kocket Troop and four 
Gardner guns, were in rear inside the Squara The Madras 
Sappers were in rear of the 28th Bombay, and the 17th 
Company Royal Engineers in rear of the left face. The 
ambulance waggons, litters, and dandies, with the two field 
hospitals, were in the front portion of the interior space. 

4. The formation of the convoy, strength as per margin,* 
and posting it in its proper position in column in the Square, 
necessarily occupied some time, aud the difficulties were in- 
creased by the darkness, the moon being obscured by clouds. 

5. One day's ration of provisions and forage was carried by 
men and horses, and two days' supplies and one of forage were 
carried by the Brigade Transport. 

6. The Square moved off at 4 o'clock, and was joined by the 
Cavalry and Battery. B Brigade, R,H,A„ which had paraded 
at daybreak, The Battery was placed iuside the Square, in rear 
of the front face, and the Cavalry were sent out well in advance, 
two Squadrons of the 9th Bengal Cavalry covering the front 
aud purl of both flanks of the force with scouts and advanced 
parties, llie right Hank and right rear being protected by the 
two Squadrons 5th Lancers, and the left flank and rear by the 
two Squadrons l^Oth Hussars. 

7. The Square advanced steadily through the bush, although 
frequent hulls were nocesaary to readjust or shift the loads of 
the transport animals. A proportion of spare camels was 
ordered tu ri-mnin in rear, and the Senior Transport Officer was 
directed to station himself there, under the orders of Brigadier- 
Qeneral Hudson, who was in comnjnnd of the rear. 

8. Zcril)a No. l.six miles from the left water-fort, was reached 
at 9 A.U., and the force halted until 10.15 a.h. to rest the men 
and enable them to take food. During this time arrangements 
had to be made for the occupation and defence of the zeriba, at 
which were left the 28th Bombay Native Infantry and two 
Gardner guns mnntied by the l^^yal Marine Artillery. The 
balloon was filled and made ready for use for reconnaissaiice 

> 1S30 »iiiel>. witli gimvinunu ui<l water (ll,r>00 gnlWa) ; B30 mulM, with 
MPin u aiUon, luMpIul •quipmaal, iatranching loola, Ac ; *ad 1773 roUowen. 


purposes. The force was joined by the Grenadier Guards, the 
Berkshire Regiment, the 24lh Company Royal Engineers, aud 
two Gardner guns, Royal Navy; and by the Mounted Infantry 
and one Troop 9th Bengal Cavalry, which had reconnoitred 
towards Tamai on the previous day. 

9. At 10.15 A.M. the march was r^ftumed with the force as per 
margin.' the Square being re-formed — three Companies of the 
Grenadier Guards being placed in the front line. 

10. The direction of the Square was guided by an officer of 
the Intelligence Department, who had reconnoitred the road on 
the previous day, and was at first south -south- west in order to 
avoid the thickest scrub, but was gradually changed until it was 
direct on Tamai. The Cavalry, now joined by the Mounted 
Infantry, were scouting well in front, preserving the disposition 
detailed in paragraph 6. Endeavours were made to recon- 
noitre from the balloon at the head of the column, and it 
was reported that parties of the enemy were descried some 
miles in front. The wind, however, increased so much as to 
render the balloon unserviceable, and at 11 o'clock it had to 
be packed up, 

11. The Square advanced slowly with frequent halts, owing 
to the density of the bush in the neighbourhood of the zeriba. 

12. At 12.15 P.M., about three miles from zeriba No. 1, the 
Cavalry and Mounted Infantry reported the presence of the 
enemy in the bush in scattered groups, a few being on camels 
and the main portion on foot. These appeared to be at first 
advancing through the bush, but gradually fell back before the 
advance of the Cavalry. 

13. At 12.45 P.M. the force baited for a short time, and at 
1.30 P.M. the enemy were reported as retiring towards the 
Tesela Hills and Tamai. At 2 p.m., about three miles from 
the Tesela Hills the force halted for water and food, and the 
Mounted Infantry and a Squadron of the 9th Bengal Cavalry 
were ordered to reconnoitre the position on these hills, reported 
to be lined with the enemy. The reconnaissance was well 
executed by the Squadron Bengal Cavalry, which sent out 
flanking parties to feel for the enemy, the Mounted Infantry 
acting in support and moving up in echelon of companies. 

14. At first the enemy seemed inclined to defend the position, 

' Not printed, but the number ■mounted to over 6000 atrong. 


bar their ll&nka being chreatened, xbej fell b«ck on TaznaL 
TeseU, a group of bore rockr hiTb, abont 100 feet high bat 
ptacticable for gana, was occupied b j the Moonted InfauLOr and 
Bengal Cavalrr at 3 o'clock, and hehographic commnnication 
was opened with Soaldn. From these bills an excellent view 
was obtained of the scattered Tillages of New Tamai, Ijing be- 
tween the ridges of low hills beyond Tesela and the deep ravine 
of Khor Ghoab. beyond which the country becomes exceedin^j 
mountainous and intersected by ravines with precipitous sides. 

15, The Ifoonteii Infantry were ordered to push on to the 
village, find out if it was occupied, and then, if practicable, 
move on to the water and water the horses. One Company 
advanced about a mile south throcgh a village, when fire was 
opened on them from another village &rther south : while the 
Company moving towards the water in the Khor Ghoub were 
fired upon by the enemy on the ridges near. The fire was 
retamed. and the Mounted Infantrv fell back to the Tesela 
Hill, where they were ordered to join the Cavalry and return to 
Xo. 1 zeriba for the night. 

16. The main body of the force arrived at the Teaela 
HiUs at about 5 pjl, and the following dispositions were 
ordered : — 

A zeriba, about 300 yards square, with the troops occupying 
it as shown below, was at once formed in the valley (running 
east and west; between the hilU. Four Companies of the 
Grenadier Guards occupied a hill on the S.W., and three Com- 
panies of the Scots Guards and one Company New South Wales 
Infantry a hill on the X., where two Horse Artillery 13-pr. 

CoMitream Gcanl*. 

Graudi^r GoanU. 

s 5 

i I- 

■ a 

i a 

X = ? 
z £ 

15th Sikhs. 



guns were posted, the horses being placed in the zeriba below. 
The south hilt on the left flank was occupied by the Shropshire 
Regiment and two Horse Artillery 13-pr. guns, while the East 
Surrey Regiment occupied a hill to the N.E. ou the right flank. 

17. N6t withstanding the tedious and exhausting marcli 
through deep eand under a hot sun, the troops set promptly to 
work to cut down bualies and form the zeriba, while those on the 
hills collected stones and fornaed parapets for the defence of 
their positions. The 17th Company Eoyal Engineers assisted at 
the left face, the Madras Sappers working at the south and east 
faces, and the 24th Company Royal Engineers at the remainder 
of the east and on the north face. 

18. The position was a very strong one, and the rapid way 
in which the defences were constructed reflects great credit on 
the troops. 

19. Everything was complete before dark, and rations and 
water were served out. The troops bivouacked in the order 
shown above {par. 16). 

20. 37-rf Ajrril. — About 1 A.M. shots were fired into camp from 
about 800 to 1000 yards. The moon shone brightly ; the men 
stood to their arms, and the fire was answered by a volley from 
the Grenadier Guards ou the S.-W. hill. This, and a shrapnel 
shell from one of the 13-pr, Horse Artillery guns on the S. 
hill, silenced the enemy in about ten minutes ; but our loss was, 
I regret to say, one killed and two wounded. The loss of the 
enemy could not be ascertained, as they were able to remove any 
killed or wounded under cover of the night, 

21. The rouse was sounded at 4.30 A.M., and the following dia- 
positiona were ordered : The East Surrey and Shropshire Regi- 
ments, with the Gardner guns, occupying the defensible posts 
on the right and left hills, to remain in the zeriba under 
Major-General Sir J. M'Neill for the protection of the trans- 
port. The transport animals were subsequently moved by 
Sir J. M'N'eill to the front line of the zeriba, and a small 
work was constructed in one of the rear comers of the 
zeriba and occupied by two Gardner guns and two Companies 
of Infantry. 

22. The main body to form up in front of the zeriba towards 
Tamai in the following order :— 

The 2nd Brigade (Berkshire, Marines, aud 15th Sikhs), under 



Brigadier- General Hudson, in front; the Marines, in coliimn of 
companies, on the right ; the Berkshire Regiment, deployed in 
line, in the centre; and the 15th Silths, in column of companies, 
on the left. 

The Guards Brigade to form in line of column in rear of the 
2nd Brigade. 

The guns, G Battery. B Brigade, Koyal Horse Artillery, were 
to tuke post on the riglit tlauk ; the Mountain Guns to take post 
in rear of the Bight Company of the Berkshire; the Bocket 
Pattery and Ammunition Column in rear of that regiment ; the 
Madras Sappers and Bearer Company in rear of the left. 

23. Tiie troops formed up in this order and advanced upon 
Tamai at 8 A.M. The Cavalry and Mounted Infantry, which had 
arrived from No. 1 zeriha at 7.20 a.m., were directed to leconnoitre 
for the enemy and cover the advance. The 5th Lancera covered 
the right flank, a Squadron of the 9tli Bengal Cavalry supported 
by the Mounted Infantry on the right or south-west and front, 
the remainder of the 9th Bengal Cavalry being on the left rear 
of the Infantry; the 20th Hussars were employed in covering 
the force to the left and left rear. 

24. My object was to gain possession of tlie cluster of villages 
At New Tamai, which have so long been the headquarters of 
Osnan Digna, and to occupy tlie water-supply, by attacking the 
position of tho enemy, or by drawing them into an eng^ement 
on the more open gronnd near the villages. 

25. The ground between the Tesela zeriha and the Khor 
Ohouh id formed by three successive ridges, between which the 
clusters of huts and enclosures ot New Tamai are placed. 

26. It was soon evident that the enemy were unable to oppose 
any serious resistance to the advance of the force. 

27. Fire was opened on the Mounted Infantry and 9th Bengal 
Cavalry about 8.45 A.M. from the east side of the ravine, and 
soon afterwards from the gullies to the south. 

28. The advance of the force was continued through the vil- 
lages, which were found to havo been recently deserted, the lines 
of the leading brigade occasionally forming fours deep, or ad- 
vttuoing by tours from a flank to pass through bushes and huts, 
until at 9.30 a.m. the crest of the north side of the Khor Ghoub 
voB gained. 

29. The Mounted Infantry and 9th Bengal Cavalry were at 

CAPTURE OF TAMA I, 1885. 431 

this time engaged with the enemy on the right flank, but were 
unable to draw them from their positions. 

30. I now ordered the leading (2nd) Brigade, under General 
Hudson, to descend the khor, inclining to the right, so as to 
avoid a steep hill immediately in front, which was occupied by 
a Company of the 15th Sikhs. 

31. The Brigade moved to its right, advanced across the khor, 
which was at this point about 100 feet deep and 400 yards 
wide, and ascended the hill on the opposite bank. The Berk- 
shire Kegiment was posted on the highest point in the centre, 
the Marines on the right, with their right thrown back, while 
the 15th Sikhs crowned the heights on detached hills to the left 
front and left. 

32. The Berkshire Eegiment opened fire on the enemy, marks- 
men were thrown out about 30 yards in front of the Marines, 
and the Scots Guards, who had advanced into the khor in 
reserve, threw out a company to fire up the khor on their right. 
The Guards Brigade and New South Wales Battalion moved 
forward in support of the 2nd Brigade, crowning the ridges on 
the north side of the khor. 

33. The G Battery, B Brigade, Eoyal Horse Artillery, came 
into action on the left flank of the Ist Brigade, and opened fire 
on some parties of the enemy. 

34. During those operations the enemy were keeping up a dis- 
tant fire which resulted in the casualties I have already reported 
by telegraph — viz., one man killed, one officer and 15 men 
wounded. The enemy's numbers and loss it is impossible to 
estimate with any accuracy, but a steady, well-aimed fire was 
kept up on sucli bodies as showed themselves, and the effect of 
the fire was to overcome any opposition they may have intended 
to make. 

35. On descending to the bed of the khor, I found that at the 
spot where last year we had found running water there was no 
sign of water beyond a little moisture and well -holes partly 
filled in. By digging about 4 feet down, a small supply of 
brackish water could have been obtained, and at a short dis- 
tance there was a shallow pool of water on a bed of black fetid 

36. In view, therefore, of the retirement of the enemy, and 
their evident inability or indisposition to meet the force under 



uiy comiuBiid, it appeared to me w be best to withdraw, as it 
would have been fruitless to attempt to follow Osnmn Dtgnt 
iiilo tlie inoiiiitaiDOus country with no water for mj transpon 

37. At 10.20 A.M. I therefore ordered the withdrawal of the 
forte, by iilternate l)rjgades, from the position which had been 
taken up. By 10.40 a.m. the troops had recrossed the khor, the 
movement being covered by two Horse Artillery guns on the 
ridge to the north, which fired a few rounds of shrapnel at 
detached parties of the enemy. 

38. I ordered New Tamai to be destroyed, and it was fired 
as the troo[)s retired through it. Considerable quantities of 
ammunition were destroyed, and Osman Uigna's residence is 
believed ttt have been among the number of the huts burnt. 

39. At 12 noon the force reached No. 2 zeriba on Teaela 

40. An order had been despatched to Sir John M'Neill to load 
np the transport, so that on arrival I found everything was 
ready, and having allowed time for food and water, the march 
back to .Simkiii was commenced. The Infantry and Transport, 
under command of Major-General Lyon-Fremanlle, covered by 
the 5th Lancers and 20th Hussars, with a Squadron of the 9th 
Bengal Cavalry, were directed on No. 1 zeriba. The remainder 
of the Cavalry and the Horse Artillery returned to Suakin. The 
Infantry marched in from No. 1 zeriba on the following day. 

41. In a country like this, where either water is not to be 
found at all, or where it is impossible to rely absolutely upon 
the scanty natural supply to be got as sufficient for the wants 
of a large force, the question of transport becomes of even 
greater importance than in ordinary campaigns; and with the 
excessive strain upon men and animals in the marching of the 
2nd and 3rd instant, it might have been expected that many 
casualties would have taken place. 

42. The force was under arms and on the march for sixteen 
hours on the 2nd, and for thirteen and a half hours on the 3rd; 
marching about 13 miles on the first day, at a slow pace, through 
buflh and in deep sand, and 12 or 13 miles on the 3rd. The 
camels could not be supplied with water on these days, and the 
mules received a very limited quantity. Notwithstanding this, 
there were only six casualties altogether (three mules aud three 


camels), and two of these were from the enemy's fire. Of 1257 
horses, 740 mules, and 1673 camels (cavalry, artillery, and trans- 
port together), only 42 horses, 7 mules, and 60 camels are on the 
sick-list, and this fact reflects much credit on the officers of 
Cavalry, Artillery, and Transport who had the care of these 

43. Ample arrangements were made for the care of the sick 
and wounded. There were two Bearer Companies. No. 1, with 
six ambulance waggons, eight Maltese carts with equipment, 
eight stretcher detachments, and fifteen dandies. No. 2, with 
cacolets and litters capable of carrying fifty-six men, and fif- 
teen dandies. Two Field Hospitals accompanied the force, with 
accommodation for 200 men. 

44. On tlie 3rd the wounded were carried by dandies back to 
No. 2 zeriba at Tesela, and were transported in the ambulance 
waggons and dandies to No. 1 zeriba. The sick and wounded 
were amply supplied with medical comforts and ice. A medical 
reserve depot of medicines and surgical appliances accompanied 
the force. The ambulance waggons got over the rough ground 
very well, and the transport allotted to the Bearer Companies 
and Field Hospitals has been very favourably reported on. 

45. I have already informed your Lordship of the remarkable 
steadiness and energy with which the troops marched and worked 
under great stress. Throughout these operations officers and men 
displayed the utmost cheerfulness, and their perfect steadiness 
on the march and under fire, which, though distant, caused some 
loss, was everything that could be desired. The number of men 
who fell out on the march was only 11, which fact bears witness 
to the spirit and physical capabilities of the troops, while the 
number (33) on the sick-list at the end of the operations is very 
small, considering the largeness of the force and the great fatigue 
and privations which had to be undergone by all. 

46. As I have already reported, the New South Wales Con- 
tiugent bore themselves admirably on the march and under fire ; 
and, both by the report of the General Officer Commanding the 
Guards Brigade and from my own observation, I can testify to 
the soldierlike spirit and endurance shown by her Majesty's 
Colonial forces. 

47. In conclusion, I desire to express my opinion that these 
operations will have had a salutary effect on Osman Digna and 



his following. He was unable to meet the British forces with 
any serious resistance, or to prevent the destruction of his head- 
quarters at New TamaL 

48. In this kind of warfare it is impossible to state with per- 
fect certainty that operations of this nature will have a lasting 
effect, but all those that have taken place up to the present date 
have inflicted great loss on the enemy, and the occupation of 
Osman's position must have contributed to detach wavering 
followers from his side, and show them that his boasted power 
did not exist. 

49. It is not possible to prevent desultory attacks being made 
in a campaign such as the present, and with an enemy whose 
mode of warfare is, as a rule, essentially of a guerilla kind ; but 
the reverses which Osman Digna has met with at the hands of 
her Majesty's troops will, at least, greatly contribute to the 
further prosecution of the campaign. 

50. I attach report of ammunition expended,^ and plans [see 
Plate I.] to illustrate the march of the 2nd instant, the bivouac 
on that night, and the position occupied by the troops during 
the operations of the 3rd instant — I have, &c., 

Gerald Graham. 

^ Not reprintecL 


Raid on Thakul, May 6, 1885. 

From Egypt, No. 18 (1885), C 4598, No. 10. 

General Lord Wolsdey to the Marquis of Hartington, 

(Received May 26.) 

SuAKiN, \Zth May 1885. 

My Lord, — I have the honour to forward the accompanying 
despatch from Lieut. -General Sir G. Graham, giving an account 
of the raid on Thakul on the 6th May. — I have, &c, 


LietU.'Geiural Sir G. Chaham to General Lord WoUeley, 

SuAKiN, 18t^ May 1885. 

My Lord, — 1. 1 have the honour to report that on the morning 
of the 6th instant a combined attack from Suakin and Otao was 
made under my command on the position held by Muhammad 
Adam Sardoun at Thakul, in the valley of the Abent 

2. This chieftain is sheikh of the Abderrahmanab clan of the 
Amarars. He has always been the trusted lieutenant of Osman 
Digna, and a devoted adherent to his cause, and up to the date 
of the attack, commanded the only organised body at present 
remaining in this part of the country. 

3. On the arrival of the force under my command at Suakin, 
Sardoun was at Hashin with Ibrahim Dhow, at the head of 
2000 men. These took but little part in the action of the 20th 

March at that place, and none in the attack of the 32itd idom 
oe xeriba "So. 1, bot tbejr were active in their attacks oci ( 
eoBTOfs oa the 34th and 26tfa Ifarch. His men wen thus not 
so much disheartened as the nujoritjr of the tribes, hanng 
soflered little loss. Sinee the operations at Tsmai. Sardoun has 
lenuned chiefly near Tberobit, at the west end of the Khor 
Abent, whither his followers carried off sach of the fiocks aa 
escaped when the Moanted Infantry captared 500 aheep on die 
15th April 

4. Sardooit was joined by Onoor, frooi the north, at tbe 
beginning of this uoath. and on the 3rd instant moved to the 
Tlmkool position. From this podtioo he was able to send de- 
tachments to fire by ni^ht upon Otao and Tambonk, to molest 
Che railway, and generally to attempt to harass our line of com- 
munications by night. 

5. At the date of the operations, Satdoun's force, consisdng, 
aocrading to the report of the prisoners, of about 1000 men, 
vaa holding Thaknl, a valley of the Abent, about IS miles 
as the crow flies west of Suakin, and 10 miles south of Otao, 
althongh farther by the routes which had to be followed. Hen 
he had established himself at the site of a large and deep well, 
with flocks and herds from which he was furnishing Oaman 
Digna with supplies, and what was even more important, he 
was able from this position to bring his influence to bear on 
the adjacent Amaiar tribes, endeavouriDg, by appeals to their 
religious prejudices, and by threatening them with the cruel 
vengeance of Osman Digna, to compel them into taking up a 
position of active hostility against u& 

6. It appeared, therefore, to be an object of paramount im- 
portance to break up the nucleus of a possible combination of 
some power, to disperse the collection of desperadoes from 
various tribes who bad enlisted under his banner, and to deprive 
Osnian Digna of a strong offensive position. It was necessary 
to act quickly, before he moved to a mure inaccessible position, 
and also because it appeared to me desirable to strike a blow at 
him while the moon remained to assist night operations. The 
project having received your sanctiou, I therefore decided to 
put it into effect at ( 


7. From Suakip *" 'Hiakul the 

bush, and near 

est by 

route to be taken is throu^ 
Hashin, and then enters the 

RAID ON THAKUL, 1885. 437 

valley of the Abent by Deberet, along a broad shallow khor, or 
dry watercourse, on either side of which there is a good deal of 
bush, which is, however, not so thick as that in which the 
troops have had so often to operate. The country between 
Otao and Thakul is difficult for the movements of troops, for 
between these places is a range of high granite mountains, 
intersected by ancient river-beds, or khora, of deep sand and 
loose rock. 

8. The Column from Suakin waa under my personal command, 
and was composed of the 9th Bengal Cavalry, the Mounted 
Infantry of the Boyal Engineers and Guards, and the Camel 

The Column from Otao was under the command of Major 
Inglis, 15th Sikhs, and comprised one Company Mounted In- 
fantry and the 15th Sikhs, with about 200 Native Scouts. The 
15th Sikhs had been brought to Otao from Suakin on the 
previous day by train. 

9. The Suakin column paraded at midnight at West Eedoubt, 
and marched at 12.50 A.M. on the 6th. The night was dark, 
the moon being obscured by clouds, and movement was conse- 
quently slow. The following waa the order of march : Native 
guides, 9th Bengal Cavalry in column of troops, Mounted In- 
fantry iu column, and Camel Corps in column of troops. Tiie 
advance waa covered by the 9th Bengal Cavalry, with the 
usual advanced party, scouts, and Bankers, the rear being pro- 
tected by a Troop of the same Itegiment. 

10. Hashin was reached at 2,40 a.m., and by this lime the 
clouds had somewhat cleared away. After a short halt the 
force entered the valleys of Hashiu and Deberet, and arrived 
at a point two miles from Thakul at daybreak. As it waa 
possible the enemy might escape ua if the rate of march were 
not quickened, I pushed on with the 9th Bengal Cavalry and 
Mounted Infantry, directing the Camel Corps to follow iu sup- 
port as fast as possible. 

11. The valley of Thakul is at right angles to the valley we 
had been following, and slopes from north to south to the Abent. 
It is about 1^ miles wide and 3 miles long, and is bounded on 
the east and west side by mountains, through which, on the 
west aide, lateral valleys run whose general direction is south- 
east and north-west. 



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RAID ON THAKUL, 1885. 439 

hills, and firing on the advance, while other parties were trying 
to drive off their flocka. 

17. Meantime the Otao column had gained the north end of 
the Thakul valley at about 5.30 a.m., and had effectually closed 
it in that direction. A force of the enemy with camels had 
been seen moving up towards this column, unaware at the time 
of the advance of the column from Suakin. They 6rst retired, 
but subsequently advanced, and were at once engaged by the 
Mounted Infantry from Otao, whose fire threw them into con- 
fusion. They now inclined to the west, up a valley trending 
from west to east, and situated to the north of that attacked by 
the Suakin force. 

18. The two columns were by this time iu communication, 
the Officer Commanding the Mounted Infantry having sent a 
message to me stating that his party and the Friendly Natives 
were following the enemy up the valley above mentioned. This 
information was accordingly communicated to the force under 
my command, so as to prevent any possibility of fire being 
opened on our allies, a mistake which might easily have been 
made in the mountains over which th^ enemy were being 

19. The Mounted Infantry and Camel Corps drove the enemy 
from all the spurs and knolls of the more southern valley, until 
they reached a point where it divided. At this fork a portion 
of the enemy took the northerly route, but were met and 
turned back by the Slounted Infantry of tlie Otao column. 

20. The 9th Bengal Cavalry were at this period of the action 
actively pursuing the enemy along the lateral valley, while they 
also swept the main valley, capturing the flocks of sheep and 
goats which the Arabs were endeavouring to drive off. The 
Sikh Company of the Camel Corps advanced at the " double " 
down the lateral valley, and contributed materially to the 
capture of the sheep by the Bengal Lancers. The enemy did 
not make any determined resistance, but kept firing from the 
tops of the hills until the whole of the valley was in our 
possession. I ordered the troops to halt at the place where the 
valley forked, sending forward to the left a Squadron of the 9th 
Bengal Cavalry to try and capture some more of the enemy's 

21. Aa mentioned in paragraph 19, the Company of Mounted 



Infantry of the Otao column had pushed on with the Native 
Scouts and Friendly Arabs aliead of the 15th Sikhs. The latter 
came into position on and in rear of a high ridge on the north 
side overlooking the valley along which the Suakin column was 
operating, and were thus ready lo support the right or left line 
of attack. 

The Mounted Infantry, with the Native Scouts and 
" Friendlies," had moved forward some miles on the right 
flank, and at the time the halt was made were considerably 
in advance, having crossed the mountains and descended into 
a wide valley, which appeared to be a continuation of the 
Abent. They inflicted severe loss upon the enemy, and 
captured about 1100 sheep and goats and some camels. 

22. By about 7 a.m. ail firing had ceased, and the troops 
returned to the rendezvous at Thakul, where the men break- 
fasted and the horses were watered and fed. 

23. At 9 A.M. the Column from Otao returned to that place, 
and at 10 a.m. the Column from Suakin marched for camp, 
under the command of Colonel Palmer, 9th Bengal Cavalry, 
I accompanied the former column. 

24. On the march back, parties of the enemy coming from 
the direction of Tamai, since ascertained to have been sent by 
Osman Digna to reinforce Sardoun, showed themselves in the 
bush on the flank of the column, but their desultory fire was 
soon silenced by the steady and accurate volleys of the Mounted 
Infantry and Camel Corps. 

25. During the action parties of the enemy were seen from 
the signal station on Dihililiat Hill, which was protected by a 
Company of the 28th Bombay Native Infantry. These recon- 
noitred the station, and advanced towards it up to 300 yards, 
when they were met by steady volleys from the 28th, and 
retired, carrying oil' their dead and wounded. 

26. The immediate results of the operation will be considered, 
I venture to think, highly satisfactory. The enemy were com- 
pletely surprised, abandoned their encampment, and were then 
driven from their position, suffering the loss of altogether about 
100 men, 10 prisoners, 3 standards, 3 war-drums, to which they 
attach great value, and about 2000 sheep and goats, besides 
camels and donkeys. 

That this success was effected with so few casualties to the 

RAID ON THAKUL, 1885. 441 

troops under my command was due in a great measure, in my 
opinion, to the suddenness of the surprise, and to the judgment 
shown by the officers in command of the various corps in their 
advance over the mountains. 

27. The further result of the attack and surprise of Sardouu's 
position is already shown by the o£fer which a body of the 
tribes have made to submit to the British flag, A severe blow 
has also been struck at the influence and prestige of Osman 
Digna. It must be remembered that this man is not the leader 
of a collected and organised body, nor has he himself ever 
appeared on the scene when fighting is contemplated, or taking 
place. Guarded by a cordon of trusted followers, whose perfect 
scouting enables them to warn him of the approach of any hostile 
force, he moves from place to place, and is content to work by 
means of such men as Muhammad Adam Sardoun. The suc- 
cessful surprise of this leader is therefore as much a direct 
blow to Osman Digna as if it had been possible to deliver it 
against himself. 

28. The lesson taught the enemy, that British columns can 
operate quickly over long distances, and are ready to punish 
attempts to harass the line of communications, cannot be with- 
out its value ; large supplies have been prevented from reaching 
Osman Digna, and he has been deprived of a base of operations 
for any offensive movements, from whence detachments could 
proceed to harass the line of communications. 

29. The conduct of all the troops was admirable, whether as 
regards their gallantry and steadiness in action, or their good 
discipline and endurance on the long march of over 40 miles 
made by the monnted column from Suakin. 

30. The 9th Bengal Cavalry were invaluable in scouting and 
in their pursuit of tlie enemy. Tire Mounted Infantry showed 
much steadiness in their fire, and were conspicuous for the 
quickness with which they scaled the heights occupied by the 
enemy. The Camel Corps, only recently organised, proved of 
the greatest service, and vied with the Mounted Infantry in 
their forwardness to drive the enemy from their positions. The 
15th Sikhs made a long march of over 20 miles in their usual 
admirable manner, and had the resistance of the enemy been 
more prolonged, they would have reinforced the front line of 
attack with great advantage. Some of the Native Scouts acted 

aft gnides to tLe two eofaimiia, while the gresler bodr, dboal 
204, under Capcain G. & Chrfae. BLK, and Mr Brewster, oi the 
IntellxOTice Depaztznent, itcted with the Moontcd Tntrntrr froai 
CKao^ and are repoitai as haTing been o{ eoosidenble aerriee la 
aeoQang and in pamiing the esemT. 

3L I attach^ a field staie^ Ibts of casnaltiesL and of the 
ammnnitioa expoided, alao a Aecch to ilhtstiate the BBarcfa 
MDid opefadons cf the two columns. — I ba^v. &c^ 


Farewell General Order. 

From the 'London GaMtte/ May 29, 1885. 

War Office, 2Sth May 1885. 

A DESPATCH and its enclosure, of which the following are 
copies, have been received by the Secretary of State for War 
from Lieut.-6eneral Sir Gerald Graham, K.C.B. : — 

P, ds 0. SUamship Deccan, Idth May 1885. 

My Lord, — I have the honour to forward for your Lordship's 
information copy of a Special General Order issued by me on 
relinquishing the command of the Suakin Field Force. — I 
have, &c., 

Gerald Graham, Lieut-General 

Special General Order. 

Suakin, leth May 1885. 

1. Orders have been received to break up the Suakin Field 
Force, and General Lord Wolseley, Commanding-in-Chief in 
Egypt and the Soudan, in his Special General Order of this 
-date, addressed to the army, of which this force is a portion, 
has expressed his approbation in terms which will always be 
remembered with gratification. 

2. I desire, before relinquishing the command which I have 
had the honour to hold, to convey to all ranks my high appreci- 
ation of the soldier-like spirit, gallantry in action, and cheerful 
endurance of hardship which they have uniformly shown. 


o. During the early days of the campai^ the work thrown 
upon officers and men, in every rank and in every department, 
was severe and unceasing. It was necessary to prepare for the 
active c»perations required to overcame the power of a brave 
and fanatical foe, bo as to clear the country for the special 
objects dt the expedition. This work was performed under the 
harassing conditions of incessant night attacks by a cunning 
and resolute adversary, entailing constant vigilance and readi- 
ness on the part of the whole force. 

4. WheiLer engaged with the enemy, or labouring under a 
burning sun in the deep sand of the desert, often with but a 
scanty supply of water, the Suakin Field Force has displayed 
the true qualities of good soldiers. 

r>. In the action at Hashin the enemy was dislodged from 
his position ou tlie flank of the line of advance, and in the 
subsequent tight at the zeriba his sudden and desperate 
onslaught, made with fanatical determination, was repulsed 
with heavy loss, by the c^K:»lness and discipline of British and 
Indian troops. IW the march and operations at Tamai, the 
main ]x»sition of Osman Digna was c»eeupied and destroyed, 
and it was shown to him and to the tribes that he 
was unable to offer any further serious resistance to our 

G. Tliroughctut these operations nothing could have been 
more admirable than the courage and endurance of the 

7. .Since then the energies of the force have been employed 
in the advance to Handoub, Otao, and Tambouk, and in preparing 
the way for the railway. The bush has been cleared, roads and 
defences made, and permanent posts formed, while large working- 
parties have been given to the railway, which reached Otao in a 
little over three weeks after the operations at Tamai had allowed 
it V) Ije pushed on. 

8. Frequent and successful reconnaissances have been made 
into the enemy's country, and on the 6th instant, in the attack 
on Thakul, Muhammad Adam Sardiiun, Osman Digna's chief 
leader, was surprised and driven from the position he and his 
followers had taken up. 

9. Throufihout the campaign the work of the British and 
Nati y has been incessant, and whether in action, in 


scouting and reconnaissances, or in the protection of convoys, 
their important duties have been performed in the most 
admirable manner. 

10. The Eoyal Artillery have added to the reputation of their 
distinguished regiment, and have adapted themselves quickly 
and well to the special organisation and work required in this 

11. The Eoyal Engineers and Queen's Own Madras Sappers 
and Miners have executed most useful and laborious work in 
all the many engineering operations required in a land which 
offers no resources, while they have again shown their value as 
soldiers in the field. 

12. The Infantry, whether British or Native, has been fore- 
most in fighting and in hard work ; and the presence of her 
Majesty's Guards has brought out a spirit of generous emulation 
which is always conducive to efficiency. 

13. The Brigade of Guards has taken its full share of the 
hard work and fighting. During the period of the railway con- 
struction, two Battalions of the Guards, with the New South 
Wales Contingent, were always in the front, and to them fell 
the heavy duties of cutting through the bush by day and 
warding off attacks by night. 

14. The Guards, Infantry, and Royal Marines have also fur- 
nished men to the Mounted Infantry and Camel Corps, both of 
which have attained remarkable efficiency in a short time, and 
have proved of the greatest value. 

15. The Royal Marines and Royal Marine Artillery, who for 
so long a time have manfully elhdured the enervating climate 
of the Soudan, showed by their conduct in action in the recent 
operations that they had preserved the characteristics which 
have always so greatly distinguished these fine corps. 

16. The New South Wales Contingent has furnished a bright 
example of the martial qualities of the Anglo-Saxon race, and 
has shown to all the latent military strength of the empire. 
The soldier- like spirit which has pervaded all ranks of the 
Contingent is the theme of universal admiration, and it will be 
a valued remembrance to all who served in the Suakin Field 
Force to recall this, the first time when their fellow-countrymen 
from the colonies served and shared with them the fortunes of 
a campaign. 

17. The Indian OoiitiDgent came to the Soud&n adminbly 
equipped and organised, and has fully juatified all that was 
expected of auch a. force, and whether in fightiny, in marching, 
or in camp, it could not be surpassed in conduct and appearance, 
or in discipline and efficiency. 

18. My best thanks are due to the Staff-officers of the force 
for their able assistance, and for the self-devotion with which 
they have worked in ihis trying climate. 

19. The administrative departments of the army, the Commia- 
eariat, Transport, and Ordnance, upon which the mobility and 
eflective condition of an army so greatly depend, have been 
everything that could be desired. The sick and wounded have 
been well attended to at all times by the Medica,! Department, 
and have been supplied with every comfort. The Corps of Army 
Signallers have proved of the highest value. The Chaplains 
have been unremitting in attention to their duties. The Pay 
and Veterinary Departments have been well managed and have 
given satisfaction. 

20. To the Uoyal Navy we owe a debt of gratitude for heavy 
and unceasing labour in aid of the land operations, and their 
gallantry was ever conspicuous. 

21. In the force which I have had the honour to command 
the highest discipline has been maintained, crime has been 
practically unknown, and the labour of command has been 
thereby greatly ligiitened. Amidst the regrets I feel at laying 
down the command of this splendid force, there is the feeling 
that I shall ever recollect with pride my association with auch 
a body of troops. 

In now bidding it farewell, I thank every officer, non-com- 
missioned officer, and man for loyal help, and I wish to one and I 
all success and fortune in following the path of duty to our | 
Queen and country. 

Geralii Gkaham, Lieut.-General. 


Final Despatch, Campaign of 1885. 

Supplement to the * London Qazette/ 25th August 1885. 

From General Lord WoUdey to the Secretary of State for War. 

Cairo, \^ih June 1885. 

My Lord, — I have the honour to forward for your Lordship's 
consideration the accompanying despatch from lieut-General 
Sir 6. Graham, in which he describes the operations near Suakin 
that were carried out this spring under his immediate orders. — 
I have, &c., 

WoLSELEY, General. 

The Rt. Hon. the Marquis of ELartinoton. 

From Lieut-General Sir G. Graham to General Lord Wokeley, 

Alexandria, ZOth May 1885. 

My Lord, — Her Majesty's Government having decided to 
withdraw the greater portion of the Suakin Field Force from 
the Eastern Soudan, I have the honour to submit my final 
report on the operations of the ccmipaign which has now been 
brought to a close. 

2. I was appointed on the 20th February to the command of 
the troops to be collected at Suakin, and my instructions of the 
same date, from the Secretary of State for War, directed me to 
organise a field force, and to make such transport arrangements 
as were possible, so as to secure the first and most pressing 
object of the campaign — viz., the destruction of the power of 
Osman Digna. 


3. I was directed to arrange next for the military occupaCion 
of the Hadeudowa territory, lying near to the Suakiu-Berber 
route. 80 as to enable the contractors to proceed with the 
railway which it was proposed to conalmct from Suakiii to 
Berber. In the Secretary of State's letter of the 27lh February 
1885 my attention was again drawn to the necessity for rapidly 
constructing this railway. The direction of the works was to 
be entirely under my orders, their details and execution being 
in the hands of the contractors. 

4. It will be thus seen that there were two distinct phases of 
the campaign contemplated, after organising the force and its 
transport — viz. ; 

1st, The destruction of the power of Osman Digna, and the 
clearance of the country for the construction of the railway. 

2nd. The construction of the railway and the location of the 
troops for its protection at points where the summer heats could 
be best endured. 

5. In the first days of March the troops began to arrive iu 
quick succession, and on the 12th of that month, when I landed 
at Suakin. a force of 10,482 officers, non-commissioned officers, 
and men had been collected. 

The work of disembarkation of men. animals, supplies, and 
stores, the formation of camps, the completion of the defences, 
the arrangements tor the water-supply, the general organisation 
of the force in every branch and department, was heavy and 
unceaning. A week before the above date there were only two 
or three officers oE the Commissariat and Transport Staff, very 
little tran<)port. but an accumulation of supplies. Officers and 
men soon, however, began to arrive from home, also camels 
from Egypt, Berbera, and Aden. The Government of India 
furnished large numlters of camels with drivers, organised in 
divisions, under transport officers, and thoroughly equipped. 
Th9 organisation and allotment of 10,000 animals and 7000 
transport men, collected from various sources, and of the supply 
establishments for a largo force, was necessarily a work of 
magnitude ; but, by the 18lh March, both supply and transport 
arrangements wore fairly efficient, 

6. From the sea-coast of Suakin a sandy plain rises gently ia 
a westerly direction to an elevation of a tew hundred feet above 
the sea-level in a distonce of ton to twelve miles, where it meets 


the foot of the mountains which bound it on the west. These 
mountains are of volcanic or metamorphic formation, and in 
many of the passes there stand up huge water-worn boulders 
of granite. In the immediate vicinity of Suakin, towards the 
north and west, the country is fairly open for a mile or two, but 
beyond this radius, and south-west towards Tamai, the bush is 

The scrub is chiefly composed of the prickly mimosa-bush, 
growing sometimes to a height of six or eight feet, and of a 
growth of small shrubs in belts, following the shallow beds of 
the numerous watercourses or " khors," which carry off (in a 
north-easterly direction) the wat'iBr flowing to the sea from the 
mountains during periodical summer and autumnal rains. 

The slope of the plain being so very gradual, these water- 
courses or khors are rarely deep or abrupt, except at special 
points, as, for example, the " Khor Ghoub," near which Tama- 
nieb and Tamai are situated. This great khor is 50 yards 
to 200 yards wide at the bottom, and from 20 feet to 60 feet 
below the general surface of the ground. 

7. To appreciate properly the operations and the work of the 
troops in this campaign, it is necessary to bear in mind not only 
the nature of the country, but also the style of warfare practised 
by the enemy, which consists in long-range firing from cover, 
combined with desperate hand-to-hand assaults from the bush, 
through and under which they can steal unobserved. 

8. The main difficulty in this campaign has been want of 
water. Here and there a well of brackish water might be 
found, and with labour the supply could be developed. But 
such an operation requires time, and for a force moving quickly 
it would be impracticable. Thus it became a principle that 
water to drink must be carried for the men, and this entailed 
the employment of a large number of transport animals, who all 
required to drink, whether that water were carried for them or 
derived from the scanty local supply obtainable at the place of 

9. The line to be taken by the railway was in a north-westerly 
direction from Suakin. This, the caravan route, passes through 
a country, part of which is inhabited by friendly or neutral 
tribes, and is the easiest line for the railway. The military 
operations would have been simplified had Osman Digna's 



a and headquarters Iain on this line. As it was, it was 
advance on Tamai, which is in a soath- westerly 
direction from Suakin. and having aocompliahed the task of 
overcoming him, and of clearing the eountn* for the oonstme' 
tion of the railway, to make a. fresh advance in a north-westerly 

10. Early in March the enemy occupied the line Tamai, 
Hashin, Handouh, south to north, but the main strength of 
their force was at Tuinai, where about TOOO men were reported 
to be concentrated. Handoub was subsequently evacuated by 
the enemy, and Hashin became a position of some importance 
as it threatened the right (Tank of my advance on Tamai. 
Screened by the bush and mountains, the enemy were able to 
reinforce this point from Tamai, and it was from here that they 
sent parties to creep up through the bush and harass our camps. 
During the first period, up to the advance on Hashin on 
the 20th March, the troops were subjected to continual night 
alarms. I'he enemy ah owed great audacity at this period, 
creeping through the advanced posts, unseen, in small parties, 
and attacking isolated sentries, stragglers. &c. 

1 1. The first operation necessary, therefore, was to break op 
the concentration at Hashin. Having ascertained by a cavalry 
reconnaissance on the 19th March that the enemy were in force, 
T attacked them on the following day, the 20th, and established 
a post for a short time to discourage them from reoccupying the 
position. I have already reported in detail on this reconnais- 
sance and action in my despatch of the 21st March. Although 
the troops behaved admirably, the action at Hashin was not 
decisive, as the enemy would not ctiarge our squares at cloae 
quarters as they did on the next occasion. 

12. On the 22nd March the action under Sir John M'NeiU 
[Despatch 2Sth Marcli] was fought at the zeriba, six miles oq 
the mad to Tamai. The position of this fort was selected 
with a viow to making it a depot for operations against either 
Tamanieb or Tamai according to circumstances. The attack J 
of the 22nd March was the only serious attempt of the enemy I 
to stop our advance. They were driven back with great \ 
•laughter, though not without severe loss on our side. 

13. Tlie next week was occupied in storing the zeriba with 
■applies and water, and in preparing for the advance on Tamai. 


On the 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 28th, and 30th strong convoys 
proceeded to the zeriba. Those of the 24th and 26th were 
attacked in the bush, the enemy being repulsed on each occasion 
with great loss. 

As the enemy were reported to have withdrawn from Tamai, 
a reconnaissance was made on the 1st April, which proved that 
they were still in some force, and I determined to advance and 
endeavour to compel them to fight. 

14. And here I may be permitted to remove a somewhat 
confusing idea that Osman Digna is a great and warlike leader. 
The facts as ascertained are that he himself never appears on or 
near the scene of conflict, but is content to urge on his men 
from some safe position or inaccessible fastness. 

15. On the 2nd April the force advanced to the zeriba, and 
thence to the Tesela Hills, near Tamai, and on the 3rd occupied 
and destroyed Tamai itself [Despatch 8th April], the absence of 
any formidable opposition proving that Osman Digna, notwith- 
standing his boasted intention of driving the British forces into 
the sea, had not forgotten his defeat at the battle of Tamai last 
year ; and that the actions at Hashin and the zeriba, and the 
repulse of the attacks on the convoys, had rendered him quite 
unable to collect any body of men to meet us in the field 

16. I did not advance to Tamanieb because there seemed 
little or no probability of the enemy making any stand, and 
much labour would have been required to make the water at 
Tamai sufficient for the horses and transport animals of the 
force preparatory to a further move. 

17. The enemy had now been driven from the positions they 
had taken up at Hashin and Tamai, and their forces were 
destroyed or dispersed. I therefore determined to endeavour 
to fulfil the second part of my instructions, and to proceed to 
open up the route for the railway. This work could not have 
been commenced earlier with advantage. In.deed, had time 
permitted, it would have been better to have delayed the com- 
mencement of the railway until more rolling stock and plant 
had been disembarked. 

18. The troops returned on the 4th April, and as there was 
no reason to continue to occupy the zeriba, the garrison was 
withdrawn on the 6th April. On that date an advance was 
made towards Handoub, which was occupied on the 8th, Otao 



OQ the 16th, and Tarabouk ou the 19th. The railway reached 
Otao on the 30th April, in a little over three weeks from 
the date on which the dispersion of the enemy's force was 

19. Looking upon all these operations merely as trying the 
qualities of the troops, it cannot be denied that they were severe 
tests, and that no troops could have stood them better. The 
harassing night alarms with enemies having all the stealthy 
cunning and ferocity of wild beasts, prowling about in their 
midst, only served to increase the vigilance of the men on out- 
post duties, and, while teaching caution, made them more eager 
to meet their enemy in fair fight. The long marches and toil- 
some convoy duties under a tropical sun ; the repulse of the 
enemy's sudden charges in the bush ; the toilsome ten nights* 
watch in the zeriba amid the carnage of a battlefield, are 
achievements of which any troops may be proud. As an 
instance of the high spirit that animated the whole force, I 
may mention that the 1st Battalion Berkshire Regiment, who 
bore so glorious a share in defeating the enemy's sudden and 
desperate onslaught of the 22nd March, continued to form part 
of the garrison of the zeriba until the final advance, and, though 
Buflering great hardship, declined to be relieved. 

20. During the progress of the railway the troops were not 
annoyed by the enemy beyond desultory firing at night, and 
some attempts to injure the telegraph and railway. They had, 
however, heavy duties to perform in clearing the bush, and the 
heat continued to increase. Although the enemy was now 
cowed, full preparation had to be made to meet any attempt to 
interrupt the progress of the railway, and successful reconnaia- 
sauces' were directed in advance, and also into the neighbour- 
ing valleys, to clear them of Arabs, who, according to the infor- 
mation received, were collecting for the purpose of harassing 
our line of communications. The troops who took part in the 
reconnaissances showed great spirit and powers of endurance. , 
On one occasion the 2nd Battaliou Scots Guards marched a 
distance of nearly twenty miles over rough mountain passea , 
without a man falling out. The 15th Sikhs, on several occa- 

' RecDiiniiiiwiuiceB : To Ouo, 13th April; Kbor and Ab«nt, 15th; TsmbMik, 
17tli; KluT Hiirl Abciil, IBth i townrdi Bi SJInl, £4th ; Khar »nd Adil, 39th ; 
■arpriM HUil KlUck at Thkkul, Otb Ht^, 


sions, displayed their splendid marching powers, and at the 
surprise of and attack on Muhammad Adam Sardoun, in the 
Thaiiiil valley, the Camel Corps and Mounted Infantry 
marched all night, dismounted at daybreak, came fresh into 
action, and then, after climbing steep hills in pursuit of the 
enemy, they returned to camp, having made a march of over 
forty miles, half of which had been under a hot sun. This was 
done without any loss from over-fatigue. 

21. Not only did the troops cheerfully undergo the strain 
put upon them by their heavy duties in such a climate, but 
they readily responded to any call upon them for extra duty, 
especially for any service involving some chance of adventure. 
Volunteers were easily obtained for night ambuscades on tlie 
railway, or for service in the armoured train ; and the Camel 
Corps was to a great extent manned by volunteers. Before the 
great heat came on men also volunteered for work on the 

22. It was found here, as elsewhere, that a certain amount of 
work, even during the hot season, tended to keep the troops in 
condition, and enabled them better to resist the enervating 
effects of the climate. The troops in the front, at Tambouk 
and Otao, suffered less than those nearer the base, and the 
medical statistics of the campaign tend to show that had the 
operations been prolonged into the summer months the best 
chance of keeping the troops in health would have been by 
moving into the hills and by not keeping the men too long in 
the same spot. 

23. It was unfortunate that the campaign should have been 
closed just when I had obtained the means of organising flying 
columns so as to move across the country as I did on the 6th 
May. The Camel Corps was most successful, but, owing to the 
lateness of the arrival of the camels, its organisation could not 
be commenced before the 18th April, Five liundred riding 
camels had been asked for by me before leaving England, 
and that number was ordered from India : out of these only 
about 300 were used for service with the Camel Corps, as no 
more men could be spared from the Infantry. These riding 
camels were very fine animals, and were equipped with saddles 
for two men each, so that 300 camels would carry about 500 
fighting men, besides one native to every third camel. The 



mmaitiitig camels were employed to cany iufantiy od the 
" ride-and-tie " system. The New South Wales Battalion aud 
the 3rd Battalion Grenadier Guards were specially trained in 
this mode of camel riding, and as the Camel Corps conld also 
apply the " ride-and-tie " system to any untrained infantnr, 
I had the mean^ of moving for an emergency about 1800 
Infantry, one-half being always mounted. With the Camel 
Corps, Mounted Infantry, and Cavalry I conld form a formid- 
able flying column, and was preparing to make a simultaneous 
advance on Sinkat and Taraameb when the announcement of 
the intended recall of the troops rendered further movements 
on an extensive scale inadvisabla 

24. At the same time that the Camel Corps furnished me 
with the means of rapid movement notwithstanding the great 
heat, the arrival of pipes and pumps under the contract of 
Messrs Edwards & Tweddle promised to solve the greatest 
diSiculty of the campaign — the want of water. The supply of 
water to troops in the front before the railway was made, and 
in advance of the line, was a most difficult service involving 
great labour and responsibility. The weight of water for each 
man's daily ration was at least 12 lbs,, his ordinary rations 
weighing less than 4 lbs. The work of cleaning and filling the 
water-tius preparatory to a march had to be done at night. 
They had to be packed on camels, every camel carrying two tins 
of 12 J gallons each, and were then started off before daybreak to 
join the convoy. On arrival at their destination the tins 
were either emptied into storage-tanks or piled and guarded 
preparatory to issue to the troops. Much water was, of course, 
lost in transit, from leakage and other causes. Incessant vigil- 
ance was required to guard the water amongst soldiers and 
camp- followers, many of whom suflered from intense thirst, 
and the fact that bo little was stolen is another proof of tlie 
high sense of duty and discipline that pervaded the force. 

26. From the date of my arrival at Suakin I endeavoured to 
establish confidence on the port of the Amarnr tribes, hoping to 
be able to induce them to form a leagus which would incladfl 
all tribvB hostilu to Osman Bigna, or wearied of his cruel 
despotism. Little progress in this direction could be made, 
however, until the preliminary operations were concluded, and 
the advance along the Berber road began. On the 20th April 


I appointed Major-General Lyon-Fremantle as Political Officer 
at the front, furuishing him with detailed instructions for his 
guidance. The main difficulty with which it was necessary to 
contend was the impossibility of giving any formal guarantee of 
protection to the tribes. 

26. The capture on the 15th April of a large number of 
cattle intended for Osraan Digna acted as a strong discourage- 
ment to those of the Amarar tribes who were still supplying 
him with provisions, while the break-up of the force under 
Muhammad Adam Sardoun on the 6th 'May produced a deep 
impression throughout the country. As a result, many chiefs 
at once opened direct communication, and large numbers of 
tribesmen gathered at and in the neighbourhood of Otao. Had 
the force remained in occupation of this advanced post, the 
whole of the Amarar tribes lying north of the Berber road 
would have been at our disposal, and I have no hesitation in 
saying that large numbers of the nominal adherents of Oaman 
Digna would have followed suit. 

27. At the period at which the evacuation of the advanced 
posts commenced the political question was practically solved. 
A large number of the Amarars had placed tliemaelves uncon- 
ditionally at my disposal, and a movement in our favour, which 
even embraced some of the Hadendowa clans, was on foot. It 
will be a matter of regret if the evacuation of the advanced 
posts prevents any advantage being derived from this move- 
ment, and the more so since the dissolution of the Amarar 
league in its infancy may serve to restore Osman Dtgna's 
prestige, and to throw increased power into his hands. 

28. This campaign will be at least memorable as the first 
in which her Majesty's Colonial Forces have taken a part 
with British and Indian troops. 

The New South Wales Contingent took its share in all 
hardships and dangers. The New South Wales Infantry had 
three men wounded at Tamai, and during subsequent opera- 
tions they were always in tlie front. Had the contemplated 
advance on Sinkat and Tamanieb taken place, they would have 
formed a portion of the troops enfjaged. The officers and men 
were, as I have stated previously, trained to camel-riding. In 
which they soon acquired sufficient proficiency. The New 
South Wales Battery moved to Handoub, and by constant 


drilling became fairlj efBdent, considering the nuuiT difficnl- 
ties thej had to contend witk The spirit of good fellowship 
between the men of the Anstialian Contingent and the British 
troops was verr noticeable The highest credit is dne to Colcmel 
Bichardsi^n, and to the offioeis onder him, for the excellent 
discipline and cheery readiness shown on all occasions. 

29. In bringing to special notice the admirable conduct of 
the troops I had the bonoor to command, I wish to record 
mr sense of the lovaltr and dcTotion shown hr the Staff and 
Begimental Officers, who never spared themselves, and set the 
troops a bright example of courage and endurance: The De- 
partmental Officers also worked with the utmost zeal and 
intelligence I wish spedallj to express my high apprecia- 
tion of the value of the services rendered to the force by 
Major-General Sir G. Greaves, K C.M.G., as Chief of the Staff 
That officer combines rare qualities, being a thorough soldier 
in the field and very hard wooing in office. Having a perfect 
knowledge of every detail of duty, and being himself full of 
zeal and energy. Sir G. Greaves was invaluable in assisting me 
to organise the force and in carrying on the ardaous work of 
Chief of the Staff durii^ the campaign. He has brought to 
notice the following officers among those who have done good 
service under him : Brevet lieuL-Colonel IL H. Murray, Sea- 
forth Highlanders : Major K. S. Baynes, Cameron Highlanders^ 
who acted as his Assistants: and his Aide-de-Camp, Major 
A. N. Bochfort, B^ Colonel W. Arbuthnot acted as Deputy 
Adjutant-General, and is a most able Staff Officer. He carried 
on the duties of the Adjutant-General's Department to my 
entire satisfaction. I would also notice the services rendered 
by Major W. B. Cooke-Collis. Boyal Irish Bifl«, DA A. and 
QJLG. : Major C. W. H. Douglas, Gordon Highlanders, DA A 
and Q.M.G. ; and LieuL-Colonel R W. T. Gordon. Argyll and 
Sutherland Highlanders, Provost- Marshal In the Intelligence 
Department Major G. K Grover, RE. the head of tha: depart- 
ment and Captain G. S. Clarke, RR, perfonurd very excellent 
service- The latter officer also acted as As$is:an: Political 
Officer under Major-General Lyon-Fremantle, and displayed 
great ability and discretion. 

30. Brigadier - General H. P. Ewart, C.R, commanded the 
Cavalrv F ud did his best to secure its efficiencv. The 


duties o£ the Cavalry were, owing to the nature of the country, 
very difficult — the thick hush in many places obstructing the 
view, while the rocky khora often hampered movemeuts on 
horseback. Cavalry duty wa3 well performed by the 5th 
Laucers and 20th Hussars, and I would mention Captain L. 
H. Jones, 5th Lancers, Lieut,-Colonel C. Mangles, and Major 
F. J. Graves, 20th Hussars. 

The Mounted Infantry was ably commanded by Lieut.- 
Colone! H. F. Grant, 4th Hussars, and did excellent service. 
It was brought into a state of high efficiency in a very short 
time, and this result was due to the exertions of the officers, 
non-commissioned officers, and men, who took great interest in 
their work, and displayed much gallantry in action. 

I would specially mention Captain F. B. Briggs, Prince of 
Wales's Own Yorkshire Eegiment, and Captain A. St L. Burrowes, 
Eoyal Marine Light Infantry ; Company Sergeants-Major Birch, 
Coldstream Guards, and Scudamore, Boyal Marine Light 

31. The Camel Corps was formed under novel conditions, and 
the success attained was in great measure due to the energy 
and ability displayed by the commandant. Major W. C. James, 
of the Scots Greys, well assisted by the other officers of the 
corps, among whom I would notice Lieutenant Watson, Central 
Indiati Horse, and Lieutenant Sparrow, New Soutli Wales In- 
fantry; also the following non-commissioned officers: Sergeants 
Wilmot, Indian Transport Corps, Redstone, Berkshire Kegiment ; 
and Corporal Eeddie, New South Wales Infantry. 

32. The Koyal Artillery had peculiar difficulties to contend 
with, due to the nature of the operations and of the country in 
which these took place. 

The Battery of Royal Horse ■ Artillery, under Major J, F, 
Meiklejohn, was maintained in a high state of efficiency. 

The organisation of tlie Mountain Battery, the Ammunition 
Column, the liocket Detachment, and the Gardner Battery had 
to be undertaken ab initio ; the transport and drivers had to be 
trained, and the equipments got ready. All was quickly organ- 
ised, and great credit is due to Lieut.-Colonel Stuart Nicholson, 
and the officers and men under him, among whom I would 
mention Major J. J. Coiigdon, R.A., Captain E. R M. Crooke. 
E.M,A. ; and Lieut.-CoIoDel Spalding, Major Airey, and Lieu- 



tenant Nathan, New South Wales Artillery. The Eoyal Marine 
Artillery also did good service. 

The Navtil Detachment, under Commander Domville, RN^ 
with the Gardners, displayed in action the usual gallantry of 
the Royal Navy. 

33. Colonel J. B. Edwards. C.B., commanded the Soyal 
Engineers in an exceptionally able manner. His military 
knowledge and soldierly qualities render him a most valuable 
officer, and I am greatly indebted to him for his unfailing 
assistance in carrying out the many engineering operations 
which had to be undertaken in the campaign. He was moat 
efficiently assisted by Major H. Whistler-Smith, R.E., aa Brigade- 
Major. Lieut.-Co]onel E. Wood, R.E., Captain and Brevet Col- 
onel E. P. I^ch, V.C. R.E., with Lieutenants F. G. Heath and 
A G. Thompson, R,E., also rendered very important services 
throughout the campaign. Major H. F, Turner, R.E, was 
Director of Telegraphs. Lieut.-Colonel F. A. Le Mesurier, 
R.E., carried on the arduous duties at the base to my satis- 
faction. The following non-commissioned officers should be 
mentioned aa having done good service: Sergeant-Major M. 
Dalton, Sergeants Donaldson and D. Lowry. 

34. The work done by the Royal Engineers was of a very 
extensive and varied character. In the construction of zeribas, 
and in forming defensive posts at Suakin, Hashin, Handoub, 
Otao, and Tamhouk ; in the clearance of dense bush, and in 
the formation of ground for the railway ; in the develop- 
ment of the water-supply, and in generally supplying the 
numerous engineering requirements of an army in the field, 
the energies of the officers and men were heavily taxed, and I 
cannot apeak too highly of the way in wliich all this work was 
performed. The officers on all occasions proved their readi- 
ness and resource, while the men worked cheerfully under the 
most trying circumstances. The telegraph service was admir- 
ably carried on, and proved of the utmost use to the force. 
During the action of the 22nd March communication was main- 
tained by telegraph with the zeriba. The railway owes much 
to the Royal Engineer officers employed in connection with it, 
while the 10th Company worked and maintained the narrow- 
gauge line and *-"'< charge of the Water-supply at the base. 
This Compar 'nly lauded on the 7tii April, had 39 men 


from the Engineer Volunteers, who had enlisted for the cam- 
paign. Of these 30 came from Newcastle-on-Tyne and Dur- 
ham, and the remainder from the 1st Lancashire Engineer 
Volunteers. These men were all of trades suitable for railway 
work, and their services would have been of great value had 
the campaign lasted longer. As it was, the Volunteers worked 
well with their comrades of the Eoyal Engineers, and the 
Officer Commanding the Company reports most satisfactorily 
on the admirable spirit and discipline shown by them. It is 
interesting to note this fact, as it may be considered the first 
experiment in associating the Volunteer Eorce with a combat- 
ant branch of the regular army on active service. 

The Balloon Detachment under Major J. L. B. Templer, 7th 
Battalion King's Eoyal Bifles, was attached to the Boyal En- 
gineers, and proved useful in reconnaissances on several occa- 
sions. On the 25th March a balloon accompanied the convoy 
to the zeriba, and probably frightened the natives, as no attack 
was made. Unfortunately the prevalent high winds generally 
made it impossible to employ the balloon. 

The services of the Engineers were not, however, confined 
to the execution of works. The 17th Company, a portion of the 
24th Company, and the Madras Sappers were present in the 
action of the 22nd March, and suffered severely while con- 
tributing materially to the heavy defeat there inflicted on the 

As this despatch treats only of the military operations, I 
have not specially dealt with the railway construction, which 
forms the subject of a separate report. 

35. Major-General A. J. Lyon-Fremantle, Commanding the 
Brigade of Guards, showed himself on every occasion an able 
and devoted officer. Having held command at Suakin during 
the summer of 1884, he had acquired a knowledge of the 
natives, and I therefore appointed him an Acting Political 
Officer when in command at Tambouk. In that capacity he 
rendered good service, showing great consideration, discretion, 
and tact in dealing with the friendly natives. 

Major - General Lyon - Fremantle specially mentions the 
services rendered by Captain the Hon. F. W. Stopford, Gren- 
adier Guards, who did duty as Brigade-Major after Captain 
the Hon. North Dalrymple, Scots Guards, was wounded. I 


would mention Colonel K. T, Thynne, Grenadier Guards, Col- 
onel A. Lambton, Coldstream Guards, aud Colouel the Hon. 
W. E. Trefusia, Scots Guarda, as thoroughly efficient Command- 
■ ing Officers of Battalions. The following have also distinguished 
themselves: Captain H. P. St J. Mildmay, Captain and Adjut- 
ant A. F. Luttrell, Grenadier Guards; LieuL-Colonel J. B. Ster- 
ling, and Captain and Adjutant the Hon. H. C. Legge, Cold- 
stream Guards ; Colonel H. H, D. Stracey, and Lieutenant H. 
D. H. Baruett, Scots Guards ; Sei^eanb-Major Hall, Colour- 
Sergeant Garstin, Private Tiiompson, Grenadier Guards ; 
Sergeant-Major Dickenson and Privates Cliinner and Sheldon, 
Coldstream Guards ; and Colour-Sergeant Livesay, Sergei 
Gray, and Private T. Hammond, Scots Guards. 

The Brigade of Guards had their full share both of fightioj 
and of hard work throughout the campaign, and have well 
maintained the high character of her Majesty's Guards. Dur- 
ing the latter part of the operations two battalions of the 
Guards and the New South Wales Infantry were always in t 
front, and had to clear the bush and perform the many ardu-^ 
OUB duties incidental to an advanced position in the field. 

36. The Battalion of New South Wales Infantry was 
attached to the Brigade of Guards, and is highly praised by 
Major - General Lyon-Fremantle for its good discipline. It 
was commanded by Lieut,-Colonel Wells, and I would also 
mention the following officers, non-commissioned officers, and 
men of this fine battalion : Majors Mackenzie and Morris, 
Lieut. - Colonel Paul, Captain and Adjutant Bartlett, and 
Lieutenant Burnside, Sergeant-Major Tuite, Colour-Sergeantl 
Liggins, Shipway, and J. Burns. I have ventured to subi 
so many names for favourable notice, con.'iideriug the caae ofl 
the New South Wales Infantry as quite exceptional, 

37. The 2ud Brigade was commanded by Major-General SiB 
John C. M'Neill, V.C, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. This officer led 1 
troops who crowned the Dihilibat Hill at Hashin on the 20tlH 
March [Despatch 21st Marcli], and on the 22nd had comn 
at the action of the zeriba [Despatch 28th March], which t 
held until the final advance on Tamai. 

Sir John M'Neill afterwards commanded the force oovt 
the advance of the railway to my entiri; satisfaction. He i 
ably assisted by Brevet Lieut.-Colonel W. F. Kelly, Royi 

eldon, ^J 

: well I 

the I 

d. ^ 

WAS ■ 


Sussex Eegiment, Brigade-Major. Colonel W. H. Balston, 2nd 
Battalion East Surrey Regiment ; Lieut-Colonel A. G. Huyshe, 
1st Battalion Berkshire Regiment ; Lieut.-Colonel R. H. Truell, 
1st Battalion Shropshire Light Infantry ; and Lieut.-Colonel N. 
F. Way, R.M.L.I., commanded their respective battalions with 
energy and eflSciency. 

The 2nd Brigade was composed of three remarkably fine 
Battalions and of the Royal Marines. Throughout the campaign 
this Brigade displayed all the qualities of the best troops. 

The Battalion of Royal Marines did excellent service, and 
bore their share in gallantly repulsing the formidable attack on 
the zeriba on the 22nd March, and in the subsequent hard work. 
This Battalion did arduous duty during the summer of 1884, 
when it held Suakin against the attacks of the Arabs, and had 
to bear up against thfi trying climate. 

The following officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of 
the 2nd Brigade are specially noticed : — 

2nd Battalion East Surrey Regiment: Lieut-Colonel J. R 
Collins, Major L. Hornby, Orderly -Room Quartermaster- 
Sergeant R. H. Curson, Quartermaster-Sergeant J. Cranitch. 

1st Battalion Berkshire Regiment: Lieut-Colonel W. J. 
Gillespie, Major C. B. Bogue, Captain St G. J. Rathborne, 
Sergeant-Major W. Mathieson, Colour-Sergeant Cloke. 

1st Shropshire Light Infantry: Major H. D. Rooke, Lieu- 
tenant and Adjutant G. C. Vesey. 

Royal Marines : Major S. V. Alston, Captain T. Bridge, 
Sergeants Joseph Gibbons and C. W. Martin, Lance-Sergeant 
Thomas Reed, Privates John Anderson, Charles Clarke, and 
William Bailey. 

38. The Indian Contingent was most efficient. The 9th 
Bengal Cavalry, 15th Sikhs, and 28th Bombay Infantry were 
conspicuous for their gallantry in the field and smartness on 
parade, while the 17th Bengal Infantry did good service in 
garrison at Suakin. The Queen's Own Madras Sappers and 
Miners again proved themselves first-rate troops, whether for 
fighting or for work. Brigadier-General J. Hudson commanded 
the Indian Contingent. He is a thorough soldier, with great 
coolness and marked capacity for command, and from his long 
experience is thoroughly well qualified for the command of 
Indian troops. 



Brigadier-General Hudaou received able assistance from his 
Statf and Departmental Otfieere, among whom he mentions 
Major R M-G. Stewart, R.A.. A.A.G. and A.Q.M.G. ; Major J. 
Cook, Bengal Staff Corps, BriRade-Major ; Colonei Walcoct. 
Chief Commissariat Officer ; Major Shakespear, Chief Transport 
Officer ; llrifjade-Surneons Thornton and Morice, Bengal Medical 
Service. Colonel A. P. Palmer commanded the 9th Bengal 
Cavalry with great dash and energy, and the services of this 
fine corps were very valuable. I would also bring forward tie 
following as able and efficient officers: Colonel George Hennessy, 
Commandant 15th Sikhs, and Colonel H. Singleton, Oomniandaub 
28th Bombay Infantry; Captain C. B. Wilkieson, R.E., Com- 
manding the Company of the Queen's Own Madras Sappers and 
Miners, who was wounded at the zeriba on the "2nd March. 
The following officers deserve mention: Major D. Robertson, 
Sessaldar Hakin Singh, 9th Bengal Cavalry ; Major D. W. 
Inglis, Stibadar Goordit Singh, loth Sikhs j Captain and 
Adjutant F. M. Drury, 17th Bengal Infantry ; LieuL-CQlonel E. 
Westraacott, Subadar Bama Kiirrilkur, 28th Bombay Infantry. 

39. The Base and Line of Communications were commanded 
by Major-Geueral C. B. Ewart, RK, a moat able, zealous, and 
hard-working officer, who carried out the difficult duties of hit 
position with great judgment and discretion. He was ably 
assisted by Brevet Lieut. -Colonel H. G. M'Gr^or and Migor 

40. The Signalling Department was most useful, and was booo 
well organised under the direction of Major E. T. Browell, K.A. 
Officers, non-commissioned officers, and men all worked well, 
and the following are specially mentioned : Captain E, Rhodes, 
Berkshire Regiment ; Lieutenant A. H. 0. Lloyd, Grenadier 
Guards ; Corporal Graham, 5th Lancers ; Lance-Corporal Taylor* 
Berkshire Ilegiment; and Colour-Sergeant Sibbald, Grenadier 

41. The Chaplains attached to the Field Force, whether Churct 
of England, Koman Catholic, Presbyterian, or Wesleyan, wer« 
zealous and active in their duties ; and I desire to acknowledge 

s of the Senior Chaplain, the Ilev. W. H. Bullock, and. 
of the Rev. B. CoUins, Uoman Catholic chaplain, who displayed, 
great coolness and presence of mind when at the tight of ttwi 
seriba on the 32nd March. 


42. It may be fairly said that in few operations of war has 
such a large and efficient Commissariat and Transport been 
organised in so short a time. Lieut.-Colonel J. A. Kobertson, 
Assistant Commissary-General, is an especially good officer and a 
most capable organiser, deserving great praise for his energy and 
resource. Lieut.-Colonel C. E. Walton, Assistant Commissary- 
General, the Director of Transport, organised a large transport 
under great pressure, and has kept it in a most efficient con- 
dition. Notwithstanding the marches and constant convoy 
duties, the casualties other than in action among transport 
animals have been very few; and I attribute this successful 
result to the exertions of the officers, non-commissioned officers, 
and men of the Department. I beg to bring the following 
especially to notice : Major J. A. Clarke, Assistant Commissary- 
General ; Captain E. W. D. Ward, D. A.C.G. ; Captain K A. de 
Cosson, acting D.A.C.G. ; Captain E. F. Law, acting D. A.C.G. ; 
Quartermasters F. L. Cassell, J. Howland, and W. Johnson; 
and Conductor H. E. Champion. 

43. Besides the Commissariat and Transport of the Indian 
Contingent, which departments were excellently managed and 
satisfactory in every way, a large amount of transport for the 
British force came from India organised and equipped, and 
with its own officers, which proved of the greatest value. 
Lieut-Colonel S. Beckett of the Bengal StafiF Corps was in 
charge of the transport from India, and did good service, 
showing himself to be a capable officer. He was ably assisted 
by the officers and non-commissioned officers of the Indian 
Transport Department, among whom I would specially notice 
Brevet-Major G. H. E. Elliott. 

44. The Medical organisation was most complete, and its 
working thoroughly efficient, and the same may be said of the 
medical arrangements of the Indian Contingent. My acknow- 
ledgments are due to Deputy Surgeon-General 0. Barnett, C.I.K, 
P.M.O., Deputy Surgeon-General G. L. Hinde, Brigade-Surgeons 
J. Warren and W. Tanner, and to Surgeon-Majors J. A. Shaw, 
J. Fleming, and G. J. H. Evatt. The Nursing Sisters, among 
whom may be mentioned Sisters Ireland, Norman, King, and 
Burleigh, rendered excellent service, and were unremitting in 
their care and attention to the sick and wounded. 

The army of Suakin is indebted to the National Aid Society 



and to its Commissioners, Sir Allen Young and Mr Kennett 
Barrington, for many comforts, and its Medical OEBcers gave 
valuable aid. 

45. The Ordnance Store Department was severely tried durii^ 
the operations, for not only had it to deal with a vast amount 
of stores and munitions of war, but also with a large number of 
special articles of equipment. Qreat credit is due to all con- 
oemed, especially to Major E. G. Skinner, Assistant Commissary- 
General, a very energetic and capable officer, who, with tha 
assistance of the departmental officers, non - commissioned - 
officers, and men, was able to overcome all difficulties in a 
most satisfactory manner. I would mention Major H. St 
George, A.C.G., in charge of the Ordnance Depot, and Quarter- 
master C. Hunter. 

46. Lieut-Colonel R. G. Craig, the Chief Paymaster, per- 
formed his duties to my satisfaction, and his officers worked 

Principal Veterinary Surgeon W. B. Walters administered his 
department with ability, and his officers satisfactorily attended 
to the sick horses and tmnsport animals. 

The Array Postal duties were carried out under Major 
Sturgeon, A.P.O.C. 

47. From Commodore More-Molyoeux and the squadron of 
the Royal Navy under his command I received the most 
cordial assistance. In the small and intricate harbour at 
Suakin much depended upon the way the large transports 
were handled ; and that no accident happened, and that the 
heavy work of disembarking troops, animals, and stores was 
successfully carried on. was due to the zealous and energetic 
superintendence of Captain Fellowes, R.N., Naval Transport 
Officer, and his assistants. 

Until the special ships arrived from England, the water- 
condensing work was done by extemporised plant prepared by 
the artificers of the squadron. In this work Coumiander 
Wilmot, H.M.S. Dolphin, and Messrs Spalding and Ford, Chief 
Engineers, did good service. 

48. I have to acknowledge my obligation to Colonel H. 
Chermside, R.E., the Governor-General of the Red Sea Littoral, 
for the service rendered by him to the expedition. Colonel 
Chermside was appointed Egyptian Military Commissioner, and 


was always most anxious to give me every infonnation and 
assistance in his power. 

Mr A. R Brewster, Director of Customs at Suakin, acted as 
Chief Interpreter and Secretary to the Intelligence Department. 
His services have been of much value to that department. 

49. Before concluding this despatch I wish to record my 
appreciation of the aid afforded to me by ray Personal Staff. 

Major E. H. H. CoUen, Bengal Staff Corps, is an officer of 
exceptional ability and experience. He is an excellent Staff 
officer, and has given me most valuable assistance as Military 
Secretary. My Aides-de-Camp — Lieutenants the Hon. J. M. 
Stopford, Grenadier Guards, W. C. Anderson, R.A., and C. G. 
Lindsay, E.N. (Naval Aide-de-Camp) — also performed very 
efficient service. 

50. My warmest thanks are due to all ranks of the Suakin 
Field Force for the loyal help they have given me. That force 
was composed of the British troops of her Majesty, and of the 
Native soldiers of Her Empire in India, and with them were 
united her Majesty's Colonial Forces and Detachments of English 
Volunteers. But though the troops were drawn from so many 
different sources, all were animated and bound together by a 
firm determination to preserve untarnished the reputation of 
the British army. 

By their efforts the power of Osman Digna was so broken 
that for all practical purposes the country was completely 
cleared ; the railway was being pushed on as fast as the plant 
could be landed; the tribes were rapidly submitting to us; 
so that, had circumstances permitted the continuance of the 
great enterprise on which the force was engaged, it would, I am 
convinced, have been successfully carried out. — I have, &c., 

Gerald Graham, Lieut-General. 

2 G 

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Abbaesyeh, 247, 250. 

Abderrahmanab, 435. 

Abent, 303, 304, 436-440, 452. 

Aberdeen, 242. 

Abookir, 229^230, 232-234. 

Abu Hamed, 257, 260. 

ti Klea, 286. 
Abyssinians, 254, 410. 
Academy, the Royal, 140, 281. 

.1 the Royal Military, 7, 228, 

Acton (Middlesex), 4. 
* Adam Bede,' 150, 152, 193, 197. 
Adam, Gunner Jamee, 402. 
Adda, Fort, 229. 
Adelaide, 8.8., 203-210. 
Aden, 382, 448. 
Adit, 452. 

Adventure, 8.8., 200, 201, 204. 
Adye, General Sir J. M., 230-232, 

237, 243. 
Ae8chi, 343. 
Africa, Central, 276. 

.. South, 265, 291, 351, 352, 

357, 359. 
Ahmed, 260. 
Airey, General Lord, 216-219. 

It Major, 457. 
Aitken, Major W., 406. 
Aitodor, 126, 129, 130. 
Akers, Major-General C. S., 215. 
Alarms in the Crimea, 27. 
Albanians, 18. 
Albert, Prince, 138, 139. 
Alcester, Lord, 228. 
Aldershot, 137-140, 212, 281. 
Aletsch Glacier, 343. 

Alexander, Lieut. -Colonel C. C, 41, 
II the Emperor, 82-84. 

Alexandria, 225-228, 230-234, 280, 

306, 311, 447. 
Alfred, Prince, 139. 
Algeria, 17. 
Algerian Horse, 29. 
Ali Fehmi Pasha, 244. 
Alison, General Sir Archibald, 136, 
226-234, 248, 250, 257. 

ft Sir Archibald (the historian), 

136, 137. 
All Saints, Suffolk, 123, 134, 185. 
Alma, a Russian dog, 52. 
Alma, battle of the, 31-35, 44, 45, 

47, 54, 61, 70, 72, 127, 132, 219. 
Almack, Lieut. (R.N.), 405. 
Alston, Major S. V., 461. 
Amarar Arabs, 304, 435, 436, 464, 

Amir Sultan, Persian Grand Vizier, 

Ammunition column, 430, 457. 
"Amphion,"75, 76. 
Anapa, 22. 

Anderson, Lieut., 181, 189, 191. 
If Major W. C, 289, 465. 

fi Private J., 461. 

Andoe, Captain (R.N.), 388, 411. 
Anger (Java), 206. 
Annecy, 342. 
An-ting Gate of Pekin, 194, 197, 

Antwerp Exhibition, 342, 345. 
Arabi Pasha, 225, 227, 229, 231-234, 

240, 243, 244, 247, 254, 309, 310. 
Arabic, 250, 256, 269. 
Arbuthnot, Colonel W., 456. 

Ardftgh, M»ior-(ieneral Sic J. C, 

2M, 271, 3S1, 385, 301, 399. 
Argyll and Satherluid Highlanders, 

391, 398,456. 
Ariel, 346. 
AnnitroDg guna, 147, 157, 159, ISO, 

164-166, 194. 
' Army fttid Nnvy Gazette,' the, 169. 
Arrow, lorcha, incident, 142. 
Artillery, BgyptUn, 228. 

M Eoyal, 36, 44, 91, 93-95, 

124, 131, 14H, 158, 161, 
162, 174, 187, 230-234, 
33S, 239, 243, 245, 266- 
26B, 290, 293, 294, 300, 
301, 370. 374-378, 390- 
396, 401, 402, 414-417. 
419, 428-433, 445, 446, 
4S6, 457. 
•I Royal Marine. See Marines. 
I, RuB«ian, at Inkennui, 47. 
Ashbnmliam, Alajor-Oeneral Sir Cro- 
mer, 231, 403, 404. 
Aahby, Lieut. G. A., 373. 
AabUy, Private, 414. 
Awaalt of the Bedan (Crimea), 105- 

111, 139. 
Atwnlt of the Takn Forts (China), 

166-170, 365, 366. 
Araiout, 255, 263, 263. 
Aawuan, 2S4, 26S. 
Athlete transport, 151. 
Attacks (Right and Left), Sebastopol, 
31, 36. 48, 59. 60, 83, 8B-88, 90, 
93. 102. 
Aiuten, Lieot A. R., 305. 
Auitralian Contingent, 290, 291, 297, 
426, 428, 431, 433, 445, 454-45S, 
4B0, 466. 
Aostrian Lloyd's Shipping Company, 

Aior' So^of, 100, 104. 

BabaKaleai, 12, 13. 
B«den, 219. 

I, Onuid Duke and Duoheaa of, 

218, 219. 
Bahr-el'GazeUe, 259, 277. 
Bailey, Private W., 461. 
Bairam, feait of, 113. 
Baker, Consnl, 277. 

„ Port, 287, 375, 376. 383, 386, 

402, 405, 407, 
.1 Fuha, Lieot. -General, 2S6, 

263-265, 268, 270, 375, 382, 383, 

388, 399. 
Baker's zeriba, 271, 388-395. 
BaktcbiRerai, 129. 
Balaklava, 35, 43, 46, 48. 50, 68, TO, 

72-74, 76, 98, 121. 130, 132. 133. 

I, '58, 197. 
Balfour, the Right Hon. Arttiur, 33S. 
Balloon, captive. 296, 29H, 427, 459. 
B&nkfc, Stnuta of, 206. 
Banquet to Sir P. Roberts, 313, 314. 
Baring, Sir E. (Lord Cromer), 253, 

266-2B9, 278. 277, 280, 388. 
Barker, Lieut. W. T., 171, 
Barnea, 323. 

Barnatt, Deputy Snrgeoo -General 0,, 
Lieut. H. D. H.. 460. 
Baronetcy declined by Graham, 282. 
Barrack Battery, Sebaitopol, 93, 104. 
Barrett, WiUon, 312. 
Barrington, Mr Keouetl. 464. 
Barrow, Lieut. -Colonel P. U. S., 377. 

400, 401. 
Bartlett, Captain, 460. 
Base and tine of communicatiotui, 

Baasaaio, 330. 

Bath, Order of the, 214, 247, 356. 
Bathing at Biarritz, 344. 
Botteries d'Avril. Sebagtopol, 102. 
at Pekln, 189-191. 
Noa. VU. and Vm., Seba«- 
topol, 91-95. 
ri Rusaian, Sebaitopol, 32, 
33, 35-40, 64, 79. 
Battery No. n.. Sebantopol, 36-38. 
Bavia, Mr, 259. 
Baxter, Corporal, 406. 
Baynea, Major K. 8., 39T, 398, 456. 
Ba/aino, 221. 

Bearer Companiei, 430, 433. 
Beato, Signor, 195. 
• Beatrice,' 338. 
Beaumont, Lieut. F. M., 399. 
Beckett, Lieut -Colonel S., 463. 
Bedouiiw, 244, 335. 
Beeuh, Yeterioory -Surgeon, 402. 
Beehive HUl, Haihin, 417, 418. 
Belgians, King of the, 258-260. 
Bellaggio, 344. 
Benrath, 216, 217. 
Bent, LieuC-General G., 88, 107. 
Berber, 262, 257, 268, 260, 363, 270, 

274-278, 283, 285, 389, 454. 

INDEX. 469 

Berber, Modir of, 258, 260, 263. Brambletye Houae, 330. 

Berbera, 448. Brenda, the, 29. 

Beresford, Lord Charles, 331. Bretwell, Gunner A., 407. 

Berkshire Regiment, 1st Batt. (49th), Brevet promotions of Graham, 141» 

290, 294, 295, 298, 300, 414-434, 211, 214. 

462, 457, 461, 462. Brewster, Mr A. R, 38$, 442, 465. 

Bermuda, 317. Bridge, Captain T., 461. 

Bemadotte, 218, 219. u portable, ia vented by Graham, 

Beverhondt, Major von, 424. 163, 164, 367, 368. 

Bianchi, 219. Brigade centres, 215, 216. 

Biarritz, 344, 349. Briggs, CapUin F. B., 457. 

'Bible in Spain,' the, 140. Brighton (Sussex), 4, 213. 

Bideford, 354-359. Brindle, Rev. R, 409, 4ia 

Birch, Company Sergeant-Major, 457* Brittany, 348, 350. 

tt Lieut., 416. Broadstairs, 308, 310. 

Birkenshaw (Yorks.), 359. Brompton Barracks, Chatham, 335. 

Birstwhistle, Private, 407. Bronte, Charlotte, 193, 208. 

Birthplaces of Sir Gerald and his Bronze Star (Egypt, 1882), 247. 

sister, 4. Brooke, Major H. F., 168. 

Bisharyeh Arabs, 258, 263. Brophy, Captain N. W., 405. 

Bishop of Philae, 258. n Private J., 407. 

Bizot, General, 45, 97-99. Browell, Major E. T., 462. 

Black Sea, 29, 120. Brown, Lieut., 161. 

II Sea deet, 133. n Rev. T. E., 353. 

II Watch. See Royal High- n Sapper, 403. 

landers. n Sergeant-Major, 359. 

* Blackbird, The,' 19. n Sir George, 10, 27, 30. 

Blacker, Edwin, 213. Browne, Major-General Sir J., 248. 

II Emma, 213, 215, 223, 355. Bruce, Second Corporal, 403. 

II Jane, 212, 228, 243. n the Hon. Frederick, 142, 143. 

II Rev. Valentine S. B., 71, Buckingham Palace, 251, 316, S17» 

212, 213. 330-333, 335. 

'Blackwood's Magazine/ 351. Buda-Pesth, 227. 

Blantyre, Lord, 79. Buddhist temples, Pekin, 188, 191. 

Blauensee, Kanderthal, 336. Buffs, the, 158, 160, 176, 245. 

Boating, 7, 67, 335, 336. Bulganak, af&ir of (Crimea), 32. 

Boers, 351, 352, 357. Bull-fights, 346, 347. 

Bogue Forts, 204. Buller, General the Right Hon. Sir 

II Major C. B., 461. Redvers, 265, 266, 272, 380, 388, 

Bombardments of Sebastopol, 38, 39, 390, 403. 

88, 89, 101-103. Bullock, Rev. W. H., 462. 

" Bon Homme," 341. Bulwer-Lytton, Sir R L,, 77, 135- 

Borlase, Captain John (EL'S.), 150. 137, 209. 

Boeeley, Trooper, 401. Burgmann, Major-Gencral G. H., 

Boephorus, 120. 207, 208. 

Bosquet, General, 97. Burgoyne, Field-Marshal Sir J. F., 

Boulair, Lines of, 15, 26. 73, 75, 84, 92, 98, 121. 

Boulevards Battery, Sebastopol, 90,91. Burke, Lieut. J. T., 23. 

Bournemouth, 319, 335. n Sergeant-Major, 400. 

Bower, Lieut. R L., 409. Burleigh, Nursing Sister, 463. 

Bowlby, Mr, 181, 188, 191. Bumaby, Colonel F. G., 270, 399. 

Bows and arrows, 160. Bums, Colour-Sergeant J., 460. 

Boyes, Major-General, 359. Bumside, Lieut., 460. 

Brabazon, Captain Luke, 146, 181, Burrowes, Captain A. St L., 457. 

188, 193. Burslem, Lieut N., 168, 170, 171. 

Brady, Private D., 407. Bustard Bay (China), 144, 145, 147. 

BntlBT, Lady, picture of Borke's 

^_ Drift. 224. 


^K Byam, Lieut. -Colonel W.. 405, 406. 

301, 369-372, 376, 380. 


., Indian. See Native. 


•Caxtona, The,' 137. 

^m Cadiz, 134. 

Cemetery. RuaBian. at Pekin, 191. 

^m Cairo. 93. 228. 233, 242, 247, 248, 

Centaur. H.M.3.. 134. 

^H 260-254. 357, 259, 264-206, 260, 

Central BMtion, Sebaitopol, 103. 

^r 284, 289, 309, 31 1, 397. 447. 

Cerigo, 11. 

Cklaii, 311. 

Ceylon, 131. 

Calcutta. Ul. 

Chalk, Sergeant A. G., 408. 

Cftledonm. «.a., 233. 

Chamonnii, 340, 342. 

Callaoan, Private, 406. 

Champion. Conductor H. E., 463. 

C«nbri<lge. the Duke of, 27, 251, 

Chang-chia-wan, 180. 181. 183. 198. 

887. 813. 314. 

Carnal Battery. 402. 


.. Corp., 303-305. 437-441. 44E, 

Chaplin, ColonelJ. W., 168, 170. 

453, 454. 457. 

Chapman. General Sir F. E.. 88. 

M statne of Gordon, 335. 

"Cliaraoter of the Happy Warrior." 

„ the Sacred, 310. 311. 


Char^cUr of Sir Gerald Graham, 360, 

{2Qth). 250. 260, 397, 398. 404. 



"Charge of the Light Brigade," 75. 

Qwopaign. China (1860). 142-201. 

Charity, 328. 356. 356. 

Crimean (1864-56), 9-134. 

Chatham, 7, 8, 87, 141, 214, 218, 

„ Ea»t«rn Soadan (1884). 


264-282, U885) 283. 

Cheltenham, 223. 


Chemnitr, 343. 

Egypt (1882). 225-24B. 

Campbell, Major-General Sir John, 

277, 297, 464. 

107, 109. 

Chesapeake, H.M.S., 147. 

Sergeant William, 406. 

Chicago, 297. 

Cawkta. 213, 214, 238. 320, 321, 

Chifn, 143. 


Children, Qraham'a, 369. 

China, 131, 141-201. 212, 22Q. 253, 

ri Volunteers, 291. 

317, 361, 362. 

CmwI, Saex, 233. 234. 

„ Campaigniisao), 142-201.362. 

., FreBh- or .Sweet-water, 234. 

Chinese gune, 181, 162. 173-175. 

236. 363, 389. 


Cane, Lieut. (R.N.). 110. 

„ markets, 148, 178, 170. 

Chinner, Private, 460. 

Caurobert, General, 84, 97-99. 

Cholera. 20, 41. 

CanlOD. 141-143, 177, 186. 187, 190, 


199, 203. 

Cape Colony, 141. 202, 362. 

Chriatmaa, 01, 67, 70, 117. 119, 141, 

„ farming, 210. 


,. Town. 208. 209. 

Chrolov, General, 125. 

Cardwell'a Brigade Centres. 215, 216 

Chusan, 176. 

CarUrttbe, 218. 

Circauia, 48. 

CarlylB, Tlioniaa. 8. 13, 136, 137 

Civil Enginoeri. Inatitution of, 248. 


Clarendon, Lord, 9. 

Carpet, the Mecca, 310, 311. 

«.»,. 134. 

Carriage npaet, 334. 

Clarke. Colonel Sir C. S., 226, 303. 

CaaMll, Quartemiaater F. I>, 463. 

304, 442, 466. 

CathcBrt, Sir George, 47. 

„ Dr, 231. 


CUrke, Lienl.-Gfinecal Sir Andrew, 

Conway, a servant. 301. 

281, 287. 

Cook, Major J., 462. 

„ Major J. A., 463, 

Cooke-CoUia, Major W. R., 456. 

IF Private C. 461. 

Coolies, hehaviourof, 170, 179. 

■1 SUff Sergeant, 40S. 

Cooper, the, 170, 173, 176. 

Clay ton, Prinoipal Veterinary- Sur- 

Cooper. Thonuui. the Chartist, 28. 

geon C, 410. 

Coppin. Sergeant, 108. 

ClementB, Colonel F. W. R., 146, 

Copt, 250. 

147. 163, 365. 

Corbatt. Uptain J. (R.N.). 145. 147. 

Cler7, Lieut.-Coli>iiel C. P.. 380,398. 

Clift, Private Jouph, 401. 

Cornwall's Light Infantry, Duke of. 

GiftOQ, 318, 326, 353. 

2nd Batt (46th). 230. 231, 237, 

' Cliftonian, The,' 353. 

238, 245, 370-374, 409. 

CJoete, Mr, 210. 

Coromandel. the, 153. 

Cloka, Colour-Sergeant, 481. 

Corporation of Bideford. 358. 

Clotting, winter (Crimea), 61, 62, 79, 

Com'spondant of the 'Times,' 11, 23. 


24. 31, 70, 181. 188. 

CoBsacks. 24. 2T. 30, 76. 127. 

Coblenti, 222. 

CosBon, Captain E. A. do, 463. 

Cooo-de-Mur, 258. 

Courmajeur, N. Italy. 340, 341. 

Codrington, General, 121, 

Courtney, Major-General E. H.. 171, 

Coehoni mortarB, 63. 


Col da Bon Homme, 341. 

Cowell, Major-General Sir J. C, 7. 

College for Working-Men, 54, 62. 

77, 78, 89, 102, 289, 316, 332, 

CoUen, Lient-Colou«l E. H. H., 465. 


Collina. Lient. -Colonel J. K,, 461. 

Craig, Lieut. -Colonel R. G., 484. 

„ Rev. B., 462. 

Cranitch, Quartermaster- Sergeant T., 

Cologne, 217. 


Creatoek, Lient. -General H. H., 195. 

Colonial force at Suakiu, 290, 297, 

42i>, 428, 431, 433, 445. 454, 45G, 

Crimea, 16, 24-133, 148, 252, 322. 

468, 460, 465. 

361, 362. 

ColvUle, Lieut. -Colonel H. E., 399. 

Crimea,' Kinglako's ' Invasion of the. 

Coivin, Sir Auckland, 2-28. 


Colwell, Major Q. H, T., 407. 

Crimean Fund, 79. 

Combe'a 'Constitution of Man,' 52. 

M Medal, 138. 

Comforts from home (Crimea), 81. 

war, 9-133, 226, 307. 

Command japerB, 293, 295, 301, 304, 

Cripps, Private R., 407. 

306. 414-442. 

CritioUms on the operations ill the 

Crimea, 53. 

273, 290, 381, 408, 409, 446, 448, 

Cromer, Lord, 253. 


Crook, Chief Engineer (R.N.), 409. 

Crooke, CapUin E. R. M., 457. 

214, 224, 282. 

Cross, Major A. E.. 404. 

Committea. Gordon MeniorialB, 335. 

Fi Surgeon, 407. 

Congdon, MajorJ. J.. 467. 

Crown Prince and Princess of Prussia, 

Congo. 254, 258, 26(J. 

216-218,222, 316. 

Crozier, Msjor-General H. D., 207. 

Connolly, Surgeon-Major B. B., 407. 

Cumberland, 3, 4. 


Catling, 213, 321. 

Conatanca, Frenoh merchanUhip, 134 

Corragh District, 277. 

Conrtantia vineyards, 210. 

Curson. Quftrtennaster. Sergeant R. 

Conitantine, Archduke, 82, 83. 

H., 461. 

.. Fort, 126. 

Customs, Collector of Persian, 333. 

F. Egypt, Director of, 465. 

Cygnet, U.M.S., 230. 



Doaks at Scbastopol. demolition of, 

D,, 21S, 219. 


D.. C«plain, 184, 220. 

• Doctor, The.' 353. 

Daguerreotype of (iraham ae a boy, 4. 

Dag, a Russian, 52, 

Dakeyne, Capt^n, 147. 133. 

Dalgotty, Major R. W., 406. 

Dolphin, H.M.S.,464. 

Dalison. Captain M. D. D.. 4M. 

Itomville. Captain .Sir W. C, H., 289. 

Dalrymple, Captain the Hon. North, 



' Don Qaiiote,' 6, 66, 

Daiton, Sergeaol^Maior M., 458. 

Donaldson, i^e^geant, 468. 

Danube, river, 21. 23. 

Dongola, 256, 262, 286. 

Dardanelles, 11, 13. 

Dormer, Major-Genentl the Hon. J. 

Dftrfour, Sultan of. -255, 236, 263. 


Dashwood, Lieut. W. G., 61. 

DOmatein. M., 227. 

David Copperfiald, 137. 

Dorward, Captain J. F.. 403. 

Davidson, Hospital Sergeant W., 405. 

Dossett. Corporal, 406. 

DaviB, (ieneml Sir John, 2a6, -271, 

Douglas, Lieut. C. C. 404. 

3S0. 3S7. 3fll, 404. 

Major C. VV. H., 456. 

.1 Private J., 407. 

Dove, the. 200. 

Day. Lieut-Colonel H. .1., 181. 

Dover, 212,289, 311, 323. 

De COMon. Captain E. A., 463. 

Dowell, AdrainJ .Sir W., 359. 

De Le«sep«, 234. 

De Norman, Mr, 189, 191. 


Deane, a servant, 1G7. 

Doyle, Sergeant, 406. 

Deberet, 437. 

Dragoon Guftrds, 239, 242, 870, 371, 

Deccan, fl.s., 443. 


Denmark, King of, 316. 

Dragoons, 1st Royal, 400. 

^_ 'Depraved, The.' 203. 

Drake, Captain J. C. T., 173, 183. 

„ Rev. H. M,. 359. 

^H 247. 2H8-270, 272, 279, 280. 2S2, 

Dresden school, 6. 7. 342. 

^V 293, 2B5, 301. 304-306, 369, 37S, 

^" 383, 387, 390, .397, 414, 416, 420, 

Drury, Captain F. M.. 402. 

425, 435, 443, 447-485. 

Drury-Lowe, Lieut -(ieneral SirD. C, 

238, 239, 241-243. 247. 369-371. 

Dew, Captain Ik>.)eri.:k (R.N.), 174. 

373, 374. 

Dhow. Ibrahim, 436, 

Dubba, 269. 

^M Dickens, Charles, 97. 

Duchess, a dog, 322, 325. 

^H Dickenson, Sergeant- Major, 4SD. 

Dufferin, Lord and Lady, 260. 

^M Dihilibat Hill, 293, 294. 416-419, 

Duke, a Jog, 333, 334. 

^H 440, 460. 

Duncan, Lieot. G. M.. 7. 

^H DUlon.Gen. Sir Martin, 154, 178, 184. 

Dundaa, Admiral Sir J. W. D., SB. 

^H Dinard, 348, 360. 

^^1 Dinner, annual R.B. Corps, In Lon- 

„ 'family, 7L ' 

^M don, 366. 

„ George, 71, 213. 

^H Inititntion of Civil Engineers, 

Miss Dorothea, 36B, 357. 


Miss Jane, 71. 

^H to RuMian Engineere, Sebas- 

Mr* R,, 113, 116, 117. 121. 

^H topol, 125. 

123, 127, 131, 133, 13S, 

^H Dinnen at Cairo, 248. 263, 254. 

138. 171, 173, 213, 313, 

^H R.E., at Chiitham, 248. 251, 

317. 319, 354, 355. 

^H 281. 

^H Director of Works, AasUtant-, 216. 

Rev. Reginald, 7L 81, 114, 

^H DiMrganiaation of the army, Sebaa- 

123-126, 129, 209. 213- 

^H topol, 74. 

216,222, 318, 320, 321. 

^H Distrait of Lord Rftglui, 72. 

R, Graham, 339. 

^H Dividon, tbe 4th, 62, 

Dtiiseldorf, 216. 


^ INDEX. 473 V 


209, 212, 213, 215, 222, *>8, 

237, 247, 248, 251, 253, 254, 

Barth-batteriei, 53. 

266, 277, 281, 286, 290, 292-295, 

ButUbe, Mi«, 312. 

297, 298, 303, 305, 366, 368, 

'Ecce Homo,' 211. 

359, 362. 383, 365-368, 374, 381, 

EckhBrdt, Herr, 3SG. 

387, 390, 392, 3B9. 402, 403, 

Eden Brow«, CumberUnd, 4, 140. 

418-421. 424, 426. 427, 429, 437, 

Eden, Major C. J., 405. 

445, 456, 458. 462. 

Kdfu. 263. 

Edinburgh, Dako of. b.b., 139, 331. 

Enright, Quartermaster, 408. 

Edith Moore, the, 201. 


Bdwudi, Ueut. C. M., 373. 

' Ernest Maltravers.' 77. 

•1 Lieut. -General Sir J. B., 

Ex Sibil, 303. 452. 

290. 45S. 

' Esmond.' 32U, 330. 

1, Private ThomaH (BUck 

Eaneh, 263. 

Wdtch). 405. 

Edsex Regitneot, 1st Batt. (44th), 

PI Private (York and Lan- 

158, 184, 203, 366. 

caatar), 406. 

Eupatoria. 29. 80. 100. 130. 

., Troaper(5th Lancera), 414. 

EuryaluB, H.M.S., 280. 398, 409, 

Bdvarda ft Tweddle, Messrs, 464. 


Eggishom, 343. 

Evatt, Surgeon - Major G. J. H., 

^yp'. 225-266, 283, 28B, 295, 301. 


304. 323, 340, 346, 361. 

Kversley Church. 137, 140. 

363. 375, 397. 414. 415. 

l*wart, Major-General, C.B„ 482. 

418. 420, 425, 435. 443. 

„ Major-General Sir U. P., 289, 

,. letter! from. 30T-3I2. 

290, 418, 456. 

Egyptian Army and soldiers. 225- 

Ewen, Sapper, 108. 

265, 283. 363. 385, 387, 

Examinations, Science and Art, 215. 

394, 402. 

Examiner in Fortification, Woolwich. 

Campaign (1882), 225-249. 

215, 223. 

Ehrenbreitstein. 222. 

Expedition to Kertch, 99, 100, 104. 

Elgin, Lord, 142, 143, 145. 147, 163, 

174, 178, ISl, 184, igi, 194, 195. 


Elle Barsun. 130. 

Bliott, Major G. H. E., 463. 

Falcon. H.M.S., 233. 237. 

El-Magfar, 234-238. 

Fall of Sebaetopol, 115. 

El-Teb. Hee Teb. 

Falls, Lient. J. A. W., 373. 

Emin Bey, 259. 

Falmonth. 334. 335. 

Emperor and Bmprew Frederick, 139, 

Fane's Hone, 157, 132. 


■ Fantasy,' 338. 

„ of Russia, 13, 82. 

Farmer {English), in Crimea, 132. 

of the French, 126. 

Farwell, Major B. B.. 410. 

■Faoat,' 140,322. 

Fawzi. Ibrahim Bey. 265, 258. 

Fellowes, Captain (R.N.), 464. 

469, 466. 

FenUn Boares in Canada, 214. 

Engineering, School of Military, 7, 28 1 . 

Fenton, Sergeant, 401. 

Engineers, Institution of Civil, 248. 

Fieach, 343. 

^M_ Madras. 146, 147, 149, 

'Figaro,' 140. 

^B 164. 174, 185, 193, 

Filgate, Colonel A. J.. 147, 179, 182, 

^H 200, 366. 

184, 185. 

^V Eoyal 7, 10. 15. 16, 34. 

Finky, Lance-Corporal Percy, 406. 

36-41,58. 73. 86. 87, 90-97. 120. 

Fire at Varna, 21. 

122, 141, 143, 150, 156, 166, 

Fired at by your men, 62, 63. 

166, 170, 171, 178, 187, 189, 

Fisher, Colooel A. a Court, 152, 161, 

1S3, 198. 199, 201, 202, 208, 

162, 165. 174. 


^1 Fitaroy, Vice-Admir»l Sir E. O'E., 
^H Flag of truoe. Crimea, 63. 


Galbraith of the Qaeen, 209. 

^H ,. Tricolor, China, 16S. 

Gale, the great (Crimea), 54. 55. 

^H „ Union, China. 16S. 

Gallipoli, 10, il, 14, 15, 41, 122. 

^H FlBgatofT Battery, Sebutopol, 69-91, 

GsJIwey, Lie nt. -General Sir T. L., 



^H FUmer. H.M.S., 150, 200. 

^^M Flsmiiig, Surgeon-Major J., 463- 


Floriana {Malta), 10. 


Floyer, Mr E. A., 227, 228, 264. 

Gardner guns, 293. 298, 300. 392, 4U, 

■FoVbIb Yarns.' 363. 

416, 420-422, 426, 427, 429, 437, 

Foley, Colonel the Hon- St G. G., 1S8. 


Foord, Lieut. .M., 147, 149. 

Garstin, Sergeant, 460. 

Fonging for food (Crimea), 28. 76. 

GaakeU'a'Ruth." 152. 

Ford, Captuu C. W., 407- 

Gatling gone, 237. 267, 269, 3S5. 

,. Chief Engineer (R,N.), 484. 

'Gosette, the London,' 138, 211,240- 

„ E. Onslow (R.A.), 336. 

242, 247, 268 270, 272. 280, 282, 

306, 389. 375. 379, 383, 387. 390, 

Foreit Row, 330. 

397, 414, 415, 420, 42S, 435, 443, 

Forey, General E. F., 82. 84. 


Foratar, Major J. F.. 409. 

General Orders. Special, 269, 272-274, 

Fortification, 172. 179, 206. 207. 21S- 

306. 443. 


Genaae, Staff- Sergeant, 408. 

' Fortnightly Review.' 360. 

Geneva, 342. 

Porta. See Aboukir. Adda, Baker. 

.1 Lake of. 336. 

Genoa, 344. 

eke. Lea Bordaa, Plappeville, Qno- 

German, 0. 126. 324, 342. 

leo, St Jolien. St Qnentin. Taku. 

barracks. 219-223. 

'Forty-one Year, in India,' 350. 

Crown Prinoe and Princea^ 

Foster. Sergeant, 183. 


Fourth Diriiion half starved (Crimea), 

t. Emperor. 216-218, 220, 223, 


Fowler. Sir R., 313. 

mano-uvree, 216-222. 

Foy. Private P., 406. 

Germany, 210, 324, 325. 

France, 210, 234. 

Gibh, Colonel C. J., 10- 

Kraaer. Major E. L., 403. 

.. Major-General Sir T. . 237. 

Oibson. interpreUr, 177, 186, 229. 

.. Sergeant Ronald, 406. 

Gibeon'e ■ Tientsin Guette,' 180. 

■ Fraeer'j Magazine.' 78, 79. 

Gillespie, Colonel R. R.. 238. 

FratemiHing with the RtUMana 

Lieut.-Colonel W. J., 461. 

(Crimea), 122-126. 

' Girl in the Carpathians, A,' 349. 

Frederlca, Princen, 348. 

Giurgevo, 16, 23. 

'Frederick the Great,' 147- 

Gladiator. H.M.S., 127, IS8. 

Fremantle. See l.yon-Fremantle. 

Glasgow. 135. 

Frenoh Legion of Honour. 138. 

Goetze, Captain A., 360. 

Golden Fleece, the. 10, II. 

Fretb-water Canal. 369. 

Goldsmid, Major-General Sir F., 926. 

' Friendlies,' 304, 305, 439, 440. 

Golf, 339, 340, 342, 348-361. 363. 

Froude, James Anthony, 19. 

„ Club, Royal North Devon, 354. 

^^ Funeral of murdered British and 

Gordon. Captain J.. 404. 

^^L French prisoner! at Pekin, 

Gordon Highlanders. 1st Batt.|75th}, 


286, 287. 277, 278. 350, 375-37», 

^H of Sir G. Graham, 36X, 3SS. 

384, 391. 401, 404, 456. 

m, Lient-Colonel B. W. T.,3gi, 
398, 3S9, 466. 

Lieat. H. J. G., 146-148. 

M»]or-Gener«l A., 209. 

Major-General U. G., 2, 107, 
no, 111, 185, 187, 189, 
194. 196-198, 227, 252- 
283, 269. 270, 274-278, 
280, 283-286, 288, 322, 
325, 328. 335, 359, 376. 

Major-GeneraJ E. C, 281. 

Major-General Sir J. W., 45, 

87. 1 

, 125. 

Sir Henry. 259. 
«latue at Chatham, 335. 
Oordon'i Battery, Sebastopoi, 83. 


, 2-21. 

Gothicarcbitecture, TS, 131. 
Gotobed, Mr, 20B. 
Gough, Major H. S., 384. 400. 
Govon, MajorGanBral C. M., 155. 
GoverDineat oF Bermuda declined, 317. 
Graham, Corporal, 402. 
n Dr Joseph, 3. 
1. Dr Robert Hay, 3, 4, 28. 
33. 53, 67, 79. 92, 99. 
105. 112. 119. 126. 139. 
I. Mn Robert Hay, 3, 4, HI, 

118, 354. 
I. Fnuik Gordon. 214, 215, 

223, 259, 359. 
ir Gerald Oakley, 213-215, 223, 
Orabah, Liect.-Genkb*! Sir Ger- 
ald. — Personal Bppearanoe, 1. De- 
■csat, 3. Birth and boyhood, 4. 
Clow rektiona between him aod 
hii aiiter, 3, 6. Schools, 6. Roy- 
al Military Academy at Woolwich 
— commiuioned in the Boyol En- 
gineers — Chatham — uvea the life of 
Lient. Duncan, 7. Hurat Caatle — 
letter- writing, 8, 

Joins the 1 1th Company Royal 
Sappers and Miners — ordered on 
active service, 9. Goea to Malta, 
10. Voyage to Gallipoli, 11-13. 
Gallipoli and the Linea ot Boiilair, 
14, 16. Feat of strength, 15. 16. 
Camp at Varna. 16-22. New 
hooka, 19. Fire at Varaa, 21. 
Bmbarka for the Crimea, 22, 23. 
landing in the Crimea, 24, 25. 
Forage for food, 26. False alnrnu, 
27- Description of tlio disembark- 
ation, 28-30. 

Advance from Kamiiblu, 31. 32. 
Battle of the Alma. 33-35. Before 
Seha«topol, 35. In the Left Attack, 
30. The trenches— No. U. Battery 
—working parties. 30 - 38. The 
first bombardment, .19, 40. The 
horrors of war, 41, 42. In the 
trenches, 43. His servant Pierre, 
44. Captain J. W. Gordon. 45. 
Battle of Inkerman, 46, 47. 

Transferred to the Right Attack, 
48. Diacomforta of winter, 49, 50. 
Wounded horaea, 51. Want of 
books, 52. Criticisms on the oper- 
ations. 53. Great galo. 54, 55. A 
wounded friend, 56, 58. Turkish 
working parties, 67. 58. Returns 
to the Left Attack, 59. The 
"Patriotic Band," 60. Wounded 
men — Christmas coming, 61. The 
"Working Men's College" — 4th 
Diviaion half starved, 62. Fired 
at by hia own men, 62, 63. A flag 
ot truce, 03. Vertical fire, 63-65. 
Siifferinga of the soldiers, 65, 66. 
Story ot a shell, 66. Russian 
Bufleringa, 67. General misman- 
Bgetiient, 88, 69. Christmas Day 
—dreadful mortality, 70. 

His sister's engagement ^ the 
Durront family, 71. Loi'd Raglan, 

72. Breakdown of the transport, 

73. Cauaes of the disorganisation 
— Lord Baglan, 74, 75. Graham's 
wounded friend, 70. A hox of 
hooka, 77. Kingsley, Roskin, and 
Victor Hugo, 78. Hardships over, 
79. Sir A. H. Layard, 80. Com- 
forts from home, 81. The white 
rabbit, 82. Political speculations, 
82, S3. Death of the Emperor 
Nicholas. 84. Russian sortie, 85, 
86. Major J. W. Gonion's gal- 
lantry, 87, 88. The second bom- 
bardment, 88-90. Advanced Bat- 
tery No. VII. opens fire — Graham 
ia wounded, Bl, 92. No. YIL Bat- 
tery, 93-95. 

Reconnaissance in force. 90. 
Funeral of General Bizot, 97-99. 
Capture of a ride-pit, 99. Expe- 
dition to Kertoh, 99, 100. Impro- 
vises a toumiiguet and saves a man's 
life, 101. Bombardment recom- 
menced — great artillery duel, 101- 
103, Good news from Kertch, 104. 

AMBOlt of the Redan on 13th June, 
105 tl «ni. Faren-eU letters, 105. 
Not hurt, but the RedAn not taken, 
106. Leads the Udder-p&rty, 107. 
Curies bi> woanded colonel out of 
action, 103. Gallant conduct with 
the ladder-party, 109. Graham and 
the aailon, 110. Hot words with 
Charlie Gordon,l 10. Graham is again 
woanded, 111. Incapacitated for 
duty, 112. Tberapia — bis sister's 
wedding — Coutan^ople, 112-114. 
Returns to dnty at Sebaatopol, 114. 
Final bomburdment and fall of 
Sabastopol, 114. 115. 

Inside Sebaatopol, 116. Con- 
stantly under fire, 117. Demoli- 
tion of the docks, 118, 119. Un- 
fairness of excluding inbaltema 
from brevet promotion. 120. Peace 
declared — transformation of Bak- 
klava, 121. Fraternising with the 
Rnsaians, 122, 123. Interchange 
of civilities between British and 
Buiiian engineers, 124-126. Tiait 
to Ait«doT, 126, 127. Revisiting 
the Alma, 127. Trip to Mangoup, 
1:28-131. Ancient remains — amuse. 
menta, 131. On the snrvsy— an 
English Crimean fanner, 132. De- 
parture from the (}rimea, 133. 
Misliap in the Mediterranean- — 
lands at Portsmouth, 134. 

Atl ^Dta, Suffolk — Glasgow, 

135. I'oi 

il Uou 

, 136. Sir E. 

L. Bolwer-Ljtton, 137. Aldershot 
— E*er»ley, 137, 138. The Vic- 
toria Cross, 138. 139. Aldershot 
and London. 140, Hurried fare- 
wells and embarkation for India. 
140, 141. Promoted tobe captain 
— takes command of the 23rd Com- 
pany Royal Engineers at Lucbnow 
— moves with his company to Can- 
ton — breret majority, 141. 

China war and its canses, 14'2, 
143. Graham with his company 
joins Sir Hope Grant's force at 
Kow-loon— sails to Talion-wan, 143. 
Water-supply and intrenchments 
at Talien-wan, 144-146. Lieut. 
Gordon drowned. 148. Lord Elgin 
— Madras Engineers, 147. Foot- 
races — the market — an old man- 
darin, 148. Embarkation for Peh- 
tang, 149. On board the Impera- 

150-156. At tlw 
rendeivona, 151. 'Adam Bede* 
and 'Rnth,'152. The Itt Division 
lands — distant view of the Pci-ho, 
153. Capture of Pefa-tang, 154. 
Disembarks at Peh-tang with the 
2Dd Division, 156. Mad and Qlth — 
preparing for the advance, 157. 168. 

Attack at Sin-ho, 159, ISO. 
Attack and capture of Tang- b a 
Fort, 161. 162. A reconnaisaonoe, 
163. Improvises a portable bridge 
— a French reconnaissance, 164. 
Accompanies Parkes to call tb« 
Ta-kn Porta to snrrender, 165, 188. 
A plan from memory, 166. Asaanlt 
of the North Ta-ku Forts, 166, 167. 
Graham and his horae both wonnded 
—obliged to quit the field, 168. 
WoUeley's account of his gallant 
behavionr, 169, Onboard the hoa- 
pital ship, 170-175. Report on 
the pontoon party, 171. Convales- 
cence, 173, 173. Visit to tbe South 
Pei-ho forts, 173, 174. Cbtneae 
forts and guns, 174, 175. 

Rejoins the army, 176. Tien- 
tsin, 177. A Chinese prefect 
brongbt Id, 178. The market- 
place— "How much?" 179. Re- 
port of action of Chan g-chia- wan — 
ordered to advance by water, 180. 
Treacherous seiiure of Parke*, 
Loch, and others, and action of 
Chang-cbia-wan, 181. Yang-tson 
— Ho-si-wu, 181. 182. Tang, 
chow, Ifii. Charlie Gordon arrivei, 
ISS. Advance on Pekin, 166, 
The French occupy the Summer 
Palace, 187. Quantity of loot, 
1S8. Before Pekin. 189. Occnpa- ] 
tion of the An-ting Gate. 190. 
Walk on the ramparts of Pekin — I 
funeral of the murdered Britisk 1 
prisoners, 181. Burning of the ] 
Summer Palace, 192. Fate of 
Brabazon, 193. Formal entry to 
Pekin, 194. Signing the treaty, 
195. Visits to the Summer Palaoa J 
and to Pekin, 196, 197. Marchea I 
with his company from Pekin, 19S, I 
Arrives at Eo-si-wu, Yang-tae, and 1 
Tientsin, 199. Embarks in tba 
Flamer, 200. Reaches the road- 
stead and embarks in the Advea- ] 
ture for Hongkong. 201. 

Arrival at Hoogkong and stay 
at Kow-looD, 202. C'eremoDj □! 
taking posMuion of Kow-Idod, 203. 
Skib io the Adelaide for England, 
204. Skigapore, 205. Sumtttra 
and Java, 2i.'6. ManritEiu, 20T. 
Simon'e Bay, 20S. Cape Town and 
Table Mountain, 209, South 
African farmiDg and vine aulture, 
209, 210. Arrival in England— 
Kwarda for servioeB, 211. 

Shorn clilTe, Brighton, Alder«hot, 

212. Marriage to Mre Blacker 
(n^ Durrant), :212, 213. Canada, 

213, 2U. Brevet colonelcy and 
O.B., 214. Chatham, Mancheater, 
and York, 214. Saltbum — work at 
Tork, 214, 215. Appointed AuU- 
tant Director of Worta for Bar- 
racka at the War Office, 216. 
GennanmoniouiTea, 216-222. Ger- 
man Emperor and Crown PrinoeBs 
at Beniatb, 216. B,ed Prince, Yon 
Moltke, and Prince Wied — Cologne, 
217- Dinner with the Emperor, 
KaiBerin, Crowu Prince, and Prin. 
ae« — Carlaruhc — Grand Duko and 
Dnchest of Baden^ — anecdote of D. 
and Bemadotte, 218, 219. Baden 
— Bianohi — Von Kameke — Lord 
Airey, 219. German barrftcka and 
fortifications, 21B, 220. General 
von Scbwerin and Metz, 220, 221. 
The Rhine and home again, 222. 
Move to London, 223. Smta man- 
ceuvree — promoted to be Major- 
Oeoerol, 224. 

Appointed to command a brigade 
in the 18S2 Expedition to Egypt, 
226. Alexandria — interview with 
Khedive, 227. Command at Ram. 
leh, 228. Inspection of forts, 229. 
Inspection of regiments, 230. 
Arrival of Goarde and Duke of 
Connaught, 231. Suffers from lum- 
bago, 232. Embarkation — feigned 
attack on Aboukir — aeizure of t>uez 
Canal, 233, 234. Selected to lead 
the advance, 234. Failure of trans- 
port, 235. Shortneas of food, 230. 
Nefioh^ and Magfar, 237. Tol-el- 
Mahata,237,238. Commands in fi rat 
action of Kassassin, 239. Commen- 
dation of Sir Garnet Wolseley, 240. 
A misapprehension corrected, 241, 
242. Second action of KuMMin, 

243. 244, Ki^ht march to Tel-ol- 
Kebir, 245. Assault oC Tel-el- 
Kebir, 246. Commendation of Sir 
Garnet Wolseley and honours, 24"- 
Remains in Egypt in command of 
a brigade — Compliments, 24S, 249. 

Life at Cairo, 250. Short visit 
to England — warm reception — re' 
turn to Egypt, 2.^11. Presses Major- 
General C- G, Gordon to come to 
Cairo, 252, 253. Graham accom- 
panies him to Koroako — discuieion 
en roufe, 254-259. Farewell to 
Gordon, 260, 261, Down the 
Nile, 262. Moniignore Sogaro, 
262, 263. News of defeat of Baker 
Paaha^ — appointment to command 
an expedition to Suakiu, 263. 

Arrival at Snakin and Trinkitat 
— composition of force, 266. Battle 
of El-Teb, 267, 268. Occupation 
of Tokor, 269. Transfers force to 
Soakin, 270. Battle of Tunal, 
271, 272. General Order after 
Tamai, 273. 274. Proposed ad- 
vance to Berber negatived, 275. 
Again presses it on the Government, 
276, Forbidden to move on Ber- 
ber, 277. Graham's regret, 37S. 
Aflair at Tamanieb, 279. Burning 
Osman Digna's villages and return 
to Suakin — leaves for Cairo and 
thence returns to England, 280. 
Much f6ted — portrait painted by 
Sir E. J. Poynter — sword of hon- 
our, 2S1. Despatobea and rewards, 

His diary at the l>cgianing of 
1885 — public anxiety — expedition 
to Saakin, 266, 2S6. Appointed 
to command, 287. Injury to his 
ankle — audience of Queen Victoria, 

288. Cairo— arrival at Suakin, 

289. Composition of force, 290. 
Employment of Colonial troops, 
291. Instructions, 291,292. Be- 
counaissanue, 292. Action at 
Hoshin, 293. Action at Tofrik. 
294, 296. Affair of 26th March, 
296. Australian troops, 207. Ad- 
vance to TeseU, 298, 299. To 
Tamai, 300. Tamai burned— re- 
turn to Soakin, 301. Sudden 
change of policy — Wobeley arrives 
at Suakin, 302. Order for with- 
drawal. 303. lUid on Thaknl, 

80J. Wolielej's deipatch on Tha- 
kal, .tOS. Gnhsm le^vei for Alei:- 
andrU »iid England — honoura bc- 
atowed on him, 306. 

Letters to his little boy from 
Egypt, 307-312. The Khediva'a 
buiqnet, SOS. The Mecca cSirpet, 

311. On the unemployed list, 

312, Banquet to Sir Frederick 
Eoberta, St.t, 314. The Queen's 
Jubilee service, 315, 316. Garden 
party at Bnckingham Palace — de- 
cliiiea otTer of Government of Ber- 
muda. 31T. 

Remioiaeences of hU niece, Mrs 
SheDBtons, 318-327. Earliest re- 
culIectioD, 318. Canada portrait, 
319. His mother's pride in him, 

319, 320. ViiilA to Roehampton, 

320, 321. The opera— his happy 
home, 322. Hii departure for 
Egypt in 1882, 323. Meeting at 
Roehampton on his return in 
1883, 324, 326. HU decorations, 
325. His visit to Clifton in 1S8S 
— Roehampton again — sorrow, 336. 
His peraonality, 327- 

Letters and wanderings, 328-353. 
"Macbeth" at the Lyceum, 328, 
329. -Esmond,' 329, 330. A 
■peculation, 330. Visit bo the 
Warspite — Director of Maxim- 
Nordenfeldt Co., 331. The Shah 
of Persia and his Grand Vixier, 
332,333. Graham's dog Duke, 333, 
334. A carriage npset, 334. Fal- 
mouth and Southboarne-OD-Sea— 
the Gordon's statue Committee, 
33fi. Negotiftting a difficulty, 335, 
336. Ring wood — Eanderthal. 330. 
St GingoK, 336, 337. "Henry 
VUI." at the Lyceum, 337, 338. 
Novell — Woman's Snffivge, 338. 
A march dedicated to him, 338, 
339. Golf at Penally— a visit to 
Marlborough College, 339. Inston- 
aud Westward Ho, 340. Cour- 
mayeur — an expedition toChamou- 
nix, 340, 341. Annccy — Antwerp 
Exhibition— Flemish golf^Jonmcy 
to Dresden, 342. Expedition from 
Fiesch, 343. Letters from Biarritz, 
311-360. OoIF— bathingatltiarntz, 
344. Milan Exhibition, 344, 345. 
Monte Carlo, 345, 340, The Rivi- 
era- Aries, 346. 'The Yellow 

Aster ' ~ Sao Sebastian, 317. An 
old and faithfal servant, 348. 
Opinions on some books, 348, 349. 
The BiarriU golf-course, 349, 350. 
Dinard and St Briao golf-links, 350. 
Attack of infiueoza, 350, 351. Golf 
in the magazines, 351. The Jame- 
son raid, 351, 352. The wfcitar 
near the Limn), 352, 353. CILfloa 
and the Rev. T. E. Brown, 353. 

Royal North Devon Golf Ciub at 
Northam — Tarringlon, 354. Spring- 
lield, Bideford — death of hia sister — 
the Revised Version— charity, 356. 
G.C.B, and Colonel Commandant 
of the Royal Engineers, 356. 
SpriDg6eld, 356 358. Death, 358. 
Funeral, 358, 359. Children, 369. 
Writings, 360. Character. 361. 
Recollections by Sir R. Harrison in 
the Crimea, India, China, and 
Egypt, 361-363. .Sunshine to t^ 
end, 364. 
Graham, Udy,2l2-2ia. 222-2i4, 312, 

Major William, 3. 
Maxwell Henry, 350. 
Mist Jane Gertrude, 


4-6, 10, 16.30, 
54, 59, 71, 72.74,76,77, 
80, 84, 85, 88, 96, 101, 
105, 106, 113, 123, 213. 
ti Miss Olive Mary, 309, 334, 
343, 355, 359. 
Rev. Walter. 307-312, 321, 
It Sir James, 219. 
Grahams of Netherby, 3. 
ir of Rosetrec, 3. 
Grant, General Sir Hope, 143. 147, 
148, 15H, 169, 181, IM. 
.. Major-General H. F., 298, I 
Granville, Earl, 278. 
Gravelotte, 221. 
Graves, Major F. J.. 457- 
Grsveseod, 111. 
Gray, Sergeant, 460. 
Great Lama Temple, Febin, 191. 

„ WaU of China, 186, 199. 
Greathed, Major-Oeneral W. W. K,^% 

153, 154. 

Greaves, General Sir G., 26S. t»»,i 


'■ Greece, King of, 315. 

Greak uIuidB, 12. 

Oreeki, 14, 18, 2G2. 

Green, Colooel A. 0., 2S4, 399, 
„ Lieat. -Colonel W., 383, 404. 

Greene, Surgeon- Major J. J., 408. 

Grenada, the, 151. 

Grieve, Major F., 373. 

Grinlette, Surgeon (R.N.), 410. 

Groi, Baron, 142, 143, 163. 

Grower, Colonel G. E., 297, 466. 

OoardB, 33, 130, 127, 231, 232, 238, 
245, 290-306, 398, 3B9, 403, 414- 
434. 437. 4.18, 445, 462, 454. 457, 
459. 460, 40-2, 466. 

Gnbat, 286. 


Hadendowa Arabs. 257, 263, 264, 


, 455. 

Hadrian's Bridge (Newcaatle-OD- 

Tyne), 281. 
Haggard, Major, 387. 
Rider, 338. 
Baliburton, Lord, 2S7. 
Hall, Sergeant-Major, 460. 
Hamilton, Deputy Assistant Com- 
misaary -General G. V., 
II Lady George, 313. 

Hamtey, Lieut. -General Sir G. B., 

Eatnmill. Lient, -Colonel D., 404. 
Hammond, Private T., 460. 
Hampahire, Sod Batt. (67th), 155, 

165, 168, 170, 182, 198, 199, 366. 
Bampstead, 210. 
Hampton Court, 331. 
Hand Bay, China, 147, 148. 
Handel's " Samson," 36S. 
Handonb, 275-277, 292, 302, 303, 

444, 450, 451, 456, 458. 
Hanneck Cataraot, 886. 
Hanson, Gunner W., 402. 

.1 Sergeant, 164, 191. 
Hardghips in the Crimea, 66, 66. 
Hare, Major, 374, 462. 
Harrison. General Sir B., 145-149, 

181, 160. 172, 193, 201, 203. 361- 

Hart, Brigadier-General Sir K, 0., 

226-229, 232. 374. 
Hartfield, Snssex, 330, 333, 334. 
Hartington, Marquis of, 289, 305, 

414, 415, 420, 425, 436, 447. 
Harvey, Major A. B,, 375, 415. 

Hashin, 292, 293, 296, 302, 414-419, 
436-437. 444, 450, 461, 468, 460. 

Hassan Pasba, 228. 

Hassard, Major-General F. C, 9, 32. 

Haasein Halifa, 268, 263, 276. 

Ha velock -Allan, Major-General Sir 
Henry, 228, 229. 

Hay, Lord John, 184. 

Hay cook, Laoce-Sergeant, 406. 

Hayward, Colour-Sergeant, 406. 

' Head of a Family, The,' 206. 

Heath, Lieut. F. C, 468. 

Hecia, H.M.S., 410. 

Helicon, H.M.S.,230. 

Hctlier, Colonel'T. B. Shaw-, 239. 

Henneasy, Colonel G., 462. 

"Henry VUL" at the Lyceum, .137, 

Hesper, the, 149. 

Hewotl, Yice-Admiral Sir W. N. W., 

270, 381, 382, 386, 387. 388, 391, 

394, 395, 398, 410-413. 
Hickie, Conductor, 409. 
Hicka Pasha. 252. 258. 261. !63. 

Higginson, Private G„ 407. 
Highland Brigade. 136, 246. 

II Light Infantry, 1st Batt. 

(71at), 226, 230. 
Highlanders, Royal, 42nd (Black 

Watch), 120. 266. 267, 270, 271, 

279, 376. 377, 379, 383-385, 387- 

389, 391, 393-396, 399, 404-406, 

Hilda, the, 335. 330. 
Hill, MissOctavia, 361. 

II Mrs Southwoo(1.361. 
Himalaya, the, 10, 11. 
Bime, Major- General F., 144, 147. 

157, 168, IBS, 189, 106, 365. 
Hinde, Deputy Surgeon -General G. 

■ History of the Jews,' 77. 
Hitchcock, Captain T. B., 404. 
Hoeta. Mr van Reea, 208-210. 320. 
Hoile, Asiiatant- Surgeon B,, 144, 

Holding, Mr, 209. 
Holland, the King of, 219. 
Holley, Major-General E. H.. 272, 

390, 392, .194, 401. 
Hollia, Corporal, 199. 
Holman Bunt, 223, 224. 
Hombnrg, 217. 

Hong-kong, 143. 198. 202, 205. 
Hononra, 136, 282, 306. 


- Iteo.!— Btod," 312. 

^_ R«p», AdminI Sir, 1*3, IH. 

^H IM, 170. 

bdM. 132. 1«(K HI, 9H. 217. Ml, 

^H PriTBte L, 407. 


^H flornbr. M*iorL., 481. 

1-diH Briffid. «r riM.V..i t» 

^B HoTTOnof WBT. 41, 42. 

Kopt. MS. 278. 2».2», , 

^B HoTM Otuirdi. Rqj*1. SM. 

414-431. 444. 44«,U1, Ml. 

^B NoTMi. (IrahMi'*. IS, IS, 18. 28, 44. 

.. c**mb7. SmKmIt.. 


.. M<Ui>T, 141. 3CSL . 

iDbntrr fire toctki, 3<a 

^^ Ho^ini. 180, 182. IM. 

Inglii, CM>» ^- M.. 54. 

HmMiIm, Adpiinl fSir A. U., 237. 
HmdIUI Corp^ Army, 408, 433. 

~ MkjorD. W.. 437. 462. 

HMhMi, Arfmlml Sir C. F.. 229. 

87, 70, 73-75. 79. 8S. 

Rofml Cnitad SeiTiei^ 


In.»w, S, De»wi, 340. 

SIN, 320. 321,324-326. 

Iiit«iUg»<» D(i»rtd>ait, XSS. 2SSt 

254. 303, 304, 37&. 361. 391. 3M, 

„ or CoaimoDi, 284. 

419. 42T, 442, 458, 465. 

' lltniMholiI VVoTiU,' ST. 

9. 93-95. 

"Him moahr" ITS, ITS. 

IreUDd. Naning SiaUr. 463. 

Iri>fa PiuUier>, Boftl. lit BMt.. 24S ; 

|(M.lMl.M.ul.43ener»l Sir John. 290. 

and B»tt, 206. 2*7. 37fl-37«, 

UlrT. 4'JU. 42a, 430, 431, 461, 46->. 

3»4. 387. 391, 404. 

Hug-. Vlrtor, 78, 79. 340. 

>. HiQu, Roy>l, 4o«. 

tf»ir>1*r<Ie(eliDM, 215. 

IrviDg, Sir Uenir. 3ST. 

IIii'iiIhiKII, e. 

Irwin, a T.. 353. 

Hrtmiilioft, C»pt4iii H., 3S0. 401. 

Ule of Wight. 33S. 

llMfif. VliMTOy. 177. 

I«n»ilit, 226. 230. 233-235. 437, 

MmuU*. LUut. P. E. A., 239. 


,< I'rinte Gcorg*. 401. 

IUIUd, 207, 262. 

luly. 234. 307, 340, 34S, 354. 

llHfit Culle. 8, 243. 

Hurrt, H.r)(NtivM.jor J., 407. 


llMMn. 4th, 2UK. 457. 

Uith, S88, 2«7. 378, 384, 

Jacob*, Rev. Mr, 170. 

387, 391. 400. 

.1 19th, 266, 267, 290, 376, 

Jamu, lADce-Sereeant, 406. 

377, 384. 388, 391, 400. 

., Major W. C. 457. 


JameKTi raid, tLp. 351, 352. 

„ »Mh, 290. 416, 426, 430, 

Japan, 197. 

432, 487. 

Jarrow-on-TyDB, 281. 

tUU, 4N, 70. 

Java. 206. 

Uurib., 14.Ht,.Col<.Ml A, 0., 481. 

Jean, a wrvant, 16. 17. 21. 22, 57. 

UyiU I'Mk, 188, 189, 323. 

Jobel Warriba, 264. 

Jelf. Dr. 79. 

J.nkij«. Captain C. R H., 400. 

Jephaon. Major-G«neral Sl W., 188. 

■ I p«u»Ml »(N»l,' »7. 

Jerbon, a. 239. 

itMhiHt ivha, ew. 

Jenuklem. 256. 

(oh M««iil*la«. 11. 


lAI. Bin 

Joiuit*' CathednO. Pekiu, 197. 

INDEX. 481 

Johannesburgera, 351. Khedive, the, 225-228, 247, 252, 255, 

John, Lieut. -Colonel T., 373. 259, 283, 309, 310, 324. 

Johnson, Dr Samuel, 136. Khor Abent, 436, 438, 452. 

M Quartermaster W., 463. n Adit, 452. 

11 Rev. Mr, 359. n Ghoub, 299-301, 428, 430, 449. 

Johnston, Colour-Sergeant Michael, Kidd, Lieut. (R.N.), 110. 

406. Kin-chow, China, 146. 

Jokai, Maurus, 326. King, Nursing Sister, 463. 

Jones, Admiral Sir L. T., 144, 204. Kinglake, A. W., 9, 93-95, 108-111, 

ti Captain L. H., 457. 219. 

tt Colonel H. S., 373, 374. King's Dragoon Guards, 147, 177, 

It Ernest, 172, 173. 193. 

11 General Sir Harry D., 77, 89, tt Royal Rifles (60th). See 

92, 97. Rifles. 

It Lance-Corporal, 403. Kingsley, Rev. C, 8, 28, 52, 77, 78, 

Joseph, an interpreter, 226. 138, 319. 

Journal of the Siege of Sebastopol, Kirwan, Sapper, 403. 

111. Kitchener, General Lord, 250, 353. 

Jubilee service, Queen Victoria's, 314- Knox, Colonel T. E., 198. 

316. Korales Pass, 130. 

Jumna, H.M.S., 265, 408. Kordofan, 252. 

Jungfrau Hotel, 343. Korosko, 255, 256, 259. 

Koslov, 24, 29. 

^ Kow-loon, 143, 198, 202, 203. 

Krugersdorp, 352. 

Kaffir kerriy 210. Krupp guns, 236, 244, 267, 268, 372, 

Kafr-ed-Dowar, 225, 234. 376-378, 383, 388, 402, 407, 414, 

Kalabsheh, 262. 416. 

Kalamita Bay, 16. Kung, Prince, 193, 195, 196. 

Kameke Fort, Metz, 221. Kurrilkur, Subadar Rama, 462. 

Kameke, General von, 219, 222. Kustendjie, 20. 
Kamiesch, 101, 103. 

Kamishlu, 16, 24, 28, 29, 31, 131. L. 
Kanderthal, 336. 

Karabelnaia, 125. Lacy, Captain, 201. 

Kasghil, 252. Ladder-party, No. 1 Column^ Redan, 

Kassassin, first action of, 236, 239- Crimea, 107-110, 139. 

• 242, 369-374. Lady Mayoress, 313. 

M locks, 235, 239, 243, 245, Ladysmith, 357. 

369. Lake Aboukir, 232. 

II second action of, 243, 244. n Maggiore, 343. 

Katscha river, 34. n of Geneva^ 336. 

Kean, Charles, 337. Lama, 188, 191. 

Kelly, General Sir R. D., 87. Lambton, Colonel A., 460. 

n Lieut. -Colonel W. F., 403, Lamprey, Assistant - Surgeon Jones, 

460, 461. 192. 

Kempson, Captain W. J., 192. Lancashire 1st Engineer Volunteers, 

Keneh, 256. 459. 

Kennedy, Mr (R.N.), 110. Lancaster guns, 39. 

Kent,We8t, Regiment, 1st Batt. (3rd). Lancers (5th), 290, 293, 295, 414, 

See Bufls. 415, 418, 420, 422, 426, 

Kertch, expedition to, 99, 100, 104, 430, 432, 457, 462. 

117. M (17th), 238. 

Kew, 331. Land transport, 73, 234. 

Khartoum, 252, 253, 256, 257, 261, m Transport Corps, 134. 

269, 276, 278, 283-286, 302, 375. Landing at Peh-Ung, 155, 156. 

2 H 

^ 482 INDEX. H 

^V Landing in the Crimea, -25. 

Lloyd, Lieut. A. H. 0., 462. 

Lttne, Surgeon- Major, 41S. 

,. Major F. T., 390, 401, 402, 

' Uuit WonU with Gordon.' 362, 360. 

,- Major-General E. F. S., 207. 

IjiuauiDe, M3. 

M M«jor-GenatalE.T.. 125. 

L»w, Captain E. F., 463. 

Lloyd'» Austrian Shipping Company, 

Uyard, Sir A. H., 80. 

23, 29. 

Leach, Colonel K P., 458. 

Loch, Lord, 185, 188. 

Le BUncii, Private S., 407. 

Look. Corporal H., 306. 

Le Meeurier. Lieut.-Coknel P. A., 

LoouBta, 22, 

^ 458. 

Lomax, Joanna, 3. 

^1 Leake, R«v. T. N., 359. 

London, 3, 103, 140, 179, 212,222- 

^H Ucture on Infantry Fire Tactics, 360, 

224, 2S0. 308, .112. 317, 318, 323. 

^H L<:ggc. Captain tlie Hon. H. C, 460. 

325, 332, 337, 356. 

^■^ Legion of Honour, 138. 

' London Gazette.' See Gazette. 

Leipzig, 342. 

Lord Mayor'a bai»|Qet h. Sir Freder- 

Lempriere, Captain G. R,. fl. 

ick Roberta, 313, 314. 

Lannoi, GeneriJ Sir W. 0., 222, 362. 

Loss of men in Criniett by slckneM. 68. 

LwBorde. Fort. Met*, 221, 

<. of officers in Crimea, 40. 

^H Lealie, Lieut -Colonel F. S., 358. 

Louia Napoleon, 83. 

^^H Letter-writing, 8. 

Low. Mr C. R., 16d. 

^H Latt«rs from I^dy Gnbun, 222-224, 

Lowe. See UruryLowa. 

^B 313-317. 

Lowry, Sergeant D., 468. 

^H ., to hia brother-in-law, 123. 

Lucas k Aird, 288. 

^m 213-216, 222. 

Lucas, Surgeon T. B., 402. 

^H to hii father, 28, 36, 63, 67, 

Lucknow, 141, 160. 

^H 79, 82, 99, 105, 112, 119, 

Ludlow's • History of India,' 110. 

^H 126, 139. 

Lngano, 344. 

Luro.den, General Sir P. 8., 146, 1*B, 

^M „ to his sUler, 10, IS, 20, 22, 

161, 164, 182. 177, 193. 

^M 24, 31, 41, 43. 46, 48, 64, 

Lupton Bey, 250. 

^M fi», 72, 74, 76. 77, 80, 84, 

Lnttrell, Captain A. F., 460. 

^H 86, 88, 96, 101, 106, 113, 

Lybian Desert, 231. 

^H 116, 117. 121, 127, 131. 

Lycenm Theatre. 328, 329, 337, 338. 


Lyemun Paas, 204. 

^^M i> to his yoDogeet son, 307-312. 

Lyon-Freroantle. General Sir A. J., 

^H LoTBn, H.M.S., 146. 

290, 295. 297, 303. 432, 465, 45«, 

^H Letves. G. H.. 207. 

459, 460. 

^H Lewii^ Monk, 172, 


^H Liddell, Lieut. -Colonel R. S., 400. 

^B ' Ufe for a Life, A,' 205, 206. 

M.,a friend, 43, 44, 46, 48, 55, 5fl, 

^H Life Guarda. lat, 372. 

SB, 60, 76. 

^H ' life of Charlotte Bronte,' 208. 

" Macbeth " at the Lyoeam. 328, 329. 

^H Ligginn, Colour- Sergeant, 460. 

MocDougall, General Sir P„ 291. 

^H Light Diriaion, tti« (CrimM). 23, 27, 

ri on tactics, 140. 

^M 29, 30, 33. 127. 

M'Dowell. Deputy Surgeon- General 

^M Uma, Regimental Sergeant -Major. 

E. G., 381, 407. 

■ 400. ' 

M'Gee, Bev. R., 192. 

^H Lincoln's Inn Chapel, 140. 

M'Gregor, Lieut. -Colonel H. G., 462. 

^H LindM,y, Lieut, C. G. (B.N.), 398, 

" of Pn>byn'i Horae, 180. 


Mtiuire, Captain Roohfort (RJi.). 

^H Lines of Boulair, 15. 


^M Littledale, Captain H. C. T.. 406, 

Mackcnsie, Colonel K. D., 149, 200. 


Itlajor, 460. 

^^M Liveuy, Colour^ Sergeant, 460. 

Miickenzie's farm, 122, 128. 129. 

^H Lizard, the iComwkll], 352, 353. 

Macleod, Lieut. Norman. 405. 

^M Uuiddalu, 216, 

MaoMahon, Colonel P. W.. US. 



M<NeiU, MajorGeneral Sir J., 290, 
293-296, 300, 420, 421, 
429, 432, 450, 460. 
II Sir John (Senior), 135. 
McNeill's zeriba, 296, 298, 299, 301, 

302, 460. 
MTherson, Private Daniel, 404. 
M*Taggart, Rev. J.. 409. 
MAcon, Commandant, 98. 
Madras Engineers. See Engineers. 
II famine, 217, 218. 
It Sappers and Miners. See 

Magazine blown up, 39, 40. 
Magfar, E1-, 234-237. 
Maggiore, Lake, 343. 
Mahdi, the, 251, 254, 257, 262-264, 

274, 275, 283, 286. 
Mahmoud AH, 297. 

.. Ali Bey, 388. 

M Said, 258. 

Mahony, Quartermaster F. H., 406. 
Mahuta, Tel-el-, 235, 237, 239. 
Mainz, 221. 
Majesfontein, 265. 
Malakhoff, Sebastopol, 85, 102, 104, 

105, 114, 133. 
Malays, 204, 205. 
Malcom Khan, Persian Minister, 332, 

Malia, Cape, 11, 12. 
Malta, 9-12, 17, 18, 72, 306. 
Mamelon, Sebastopol, 85, 102, 104, 

Manchester, 214. 
Mangles, Lieut. -Colonel C, 457. 
Mangoup Kaleh, 128-131. 
Mann, Major-General G. F., 144, 145, 

157, 160-162, 166, 170, 171, 179, 

184, 185, 189, 191, 192, 198, 365, 

Manoeuvres, German, 216-222. 

M Swiss, 224. 

Mansel, Mr, 205. 
Manx poet, a, 353. 
Map, his boy*s, 311. 
March dedicated to Graham, 338, 

March to Tien-tsin, 198, 199. 
Marguerite, 322. 
Marindin, Major Sir F. A., 208. 
Marines, Royal, 90, 133, 145, 167, 

171, 184, 200, 201, 226, 236, 238- 

240, 244, 245, 248, 266, 267, 278, 

280, 290, 295-298, 303, 365, 366, 

370, 373, 376-379, 381, 384, 385, 

391, 393, 396, 407, 414, 417, 418, 

420-423, 426, 428-431, 445, 458, 

46 L 
M^jelen See, 343. 
Market, Chinese, 148, 178, 179. 
Marlborough College, 339. 
Marling, Lieut. P. S., 401. 
Marmora, Sea of, 14, 15. 
Marquet, M., 257. 
Marriage of Joanna Graham, 113, 

Marryat, Captain, 331. 
Marshall Quartermaster - Sergeant, 

400, 401. 
Martin, Major-General C. N., 9, 15. 
II 2nd Corporal, 403. 
It Sergeant C. W., 461. 
II Staff Surgeon (R.N. ), 407. 
Masamah, 236, 239, 240, 369-371. 
Matapan, Cape, 11. 
Mathieson, Sergeant W., 461. 
Ma-tow, 186, 198. 

Maurice, Rev. F. D., 8, 64, 79, 140. 
Mauritius, 207. 

Mauritius hospital ship, 170, 175. 
Maxim, Sir Hiram, 332. 
Maxim-Nordenfeldt Company, 331. 
Maynard, Corporal W., 407. 
Mayor's, Lord, banquet, 313, 314. 
Mayors, Lance-Corporal R., 407. 
Mecca carpet, the, 310, 311. 
Medal, China, 211. 

II Egypt, with clasps, 247, 282, 

Medals, Crimean and Turkish, 138. 
Medical Department, Army, 274, 290, 

373, 381, 402, 407, 408, 433, 446, 

462, 463. 
Mediterranean, 120, 134, 225, 311. 
Medjidie, Order of the, 138, 247, 255, 

Medway river, 7. 
Meiklejohn, Major J. F., 457. 
Melgund, Viscount, 238. 
Memphis, 310. 

Menzies, Captain J. J. B., 404. 
Merawi, 286. 

Merkes on fortification, 179. 
Metemmeh, 286. 
Metz, 220. 

Meyrick, Principal Veterinary Sur- 
geon J. J., 226, 227. 
Michel, Field-Marshal Sir J., 151, 

Milan, 344, 345. 
MUdmay, Captain H. P. St J., 460. 

4S4 INDEX. 1 

Mnrrty, Lient Jame., 107. 108. 110. 1 

^H MUiUry Academy, Bojkl. 7. 

LieuL-Colonel E. H., 456. B 

^K ., Engiaeering, School of, 7. 

Mutiny, Indian, 141. B 

^H Police, 100. 


^H MiUer, Captain D. S., 170. 


a. g 

^H H. J., 361, 409. 

^H 1. Major D., 358. 

Lord, 144. 148. 150, 151, 162, 163, 

^H Uilwora, Colonel T. W., 139. 

165, 166-169, 171. 177, 178. 180, 

^M^ Minerva, Temple of, 12. 

186, 167. 1S9, 190. 192, 194-196, 

Minney, .Senior Purveyor C. J., 173. 

250, 251, 314. 335. 

Minto, Earl of. 23S. 

Na»raylh. Captain C, 23. 

Miwppreheasion corrected (Egypt), 

Nathan, Lieut., 457, 458. 


National Aid Society, 463. 464. 

Native cavalry, Indian, 148, 160, 177, 

^B Mitylene, 12. 

181. 183. 187. 188. 192, 

^M Moldavia, IQ. 

290-294, 295, 299, 304, 305, 

^m MoUoy. Private P.. 407. 

414-434. 437*41, 444, 457, 

^H Moltke, Marahal von, 217. 222. 

461. 462. 

t. friendUet, 439, 440. 


., guides. 437. 

^B Mongolia, h.i.. 289. 

1. infantry, 184, 186, 190, 200. 

^M Monk Lewis, 172. 

290-296. 298. 303, 420-434, 

^H Mont Blanc. 340. 

438, 440, 445, 461, 462. 

^M Montagn, General H. W., 86, 97. 

.1 Bcouta, 437. 440, 441. 

^H of the 33rd Regiment, 127. 

Naval Brigades, 110, 266-280, 289- 

295. 376-413, 420-424, 458. 

^H Montauban, General de, 143. 

Navy Club. 335. 

^M Monte Carlo. 345, 346. 

Navy, Boyal, 110. 144-200. 225-287, 

^M Montreal, 213. 

286-280. 289-295, 359, 376-413, 

420-424. 446. 458. 464. 

Morea, 12. 

Neera, the, 402. 

Nefich^. 234. 237. 

Morgan, Dr. 170. 

Netherby. Orahanu of, 3. 

Morganeh, Sheikh. 388. 

Neuville. M. de. 224. 

^m Morice Bey, S43, 2Q3. 

New Fore«t. 336, 

^H ' Morning Chronicle,' the, 23. 

291. 297. 300, 425, 428. 431, 433, 

^H MoTTii, Major. 460. 

445, 454-458. 460. 465, 

^M Mortality in Crimea. 70. 

New Tamai, 299, 4.10. 432, 434. 

^H Hortar Bre, 43. 

Newcastle- on -Tyne and llurham 

^H Mortars, Coehom, 63. 

^H Moicow, 97. 


^H Mountain gun*. 300, 426. 430, 457, 

Newman, an Rogliih farmer Jn the 

^M Mounted infantry. 229, 230. 238, 

Crimea, 132. 

^M 266. 278. 279, 290, 297-300, 304. 

„ LiBDt. K M. B.. 294, 424. 

^M 305, 369-373, 391-394, 401, 415, 

Nichola.. Emperor, 82. 83. 

^H 416, 427-430, 436-442, 445, 453, 

Nicholla, Troop Sergeant-Major, 414. 


Nicholson, General Sir Lothian, 362. 

^B Mozart, 342. 

Major-Genena a J., 290, 

^H Mudir of Berber. 268, 275. 


^H Muhammad, 262, 311. 

NiooUief, proposed siege of, 117. 

^^1 Adam Sardoun. See 

Kiel, General. 97, 98. 

^^1 Sardoun. 

'Night and Morning.' 77- 

^B Ahmed, the Mahdi. 251. 

Night work in the trenohot, Bebaoto- 

^K Momlord, Dramtaer Henry, 405. 

pol, 37, 38, 40. 

INDEX. 485 

Kile Expedition, 283-285, 302. Orontes, 8.8., 280. 

II riyer, 253, 263, 265, 270, 283, Osborne, visit to, 251. 

309, 310. Osman Digna, 264, 273, 277, 278, 
Nlmes, 346. 280, 285, 286, 289, 291, 293, 297, 

Nix, Sergeant William, 404. 299, 303-305, 388, 389, 393, 394, 

Noble, Captain £. J. W., 373. 425, 430, 432-436, 440, 441, 444, 

Norfolk Regiment, the, 359. 447-449, 451, 454, 455, 465. 

Norman, John, 71, 213. Osten-Saeken, General von der, 85, 

ti Nursing Sister, 463. 97. 

North Forts, Taku, 164-167, 172, Oswald Kirk, 3. 

177, 365-368. Otao, 302-305, 435-437, 439, 440, 
Northan, 354. 442, 444, 451-453, 455, 458. 

Northumberland Fusiliers (5th), 207. Ouady, 239, 369. 
Norwich rejoicings at fall of Sebasto- 

pol, 115. p 

* Notre Dame,' Hugo's, 78, 340. 

Nubar Pasha, 253, 255, 258. Packman, Mr, 113. 

Nugent, Assistant Commissary Qen- Pagoda, white, 196. 

eral R. A., 381, 408, 409. Palestine, 256. 

Nugent, Colonel Sir C. B. P. N. H., <Pall Mall Gazette,' 255. 

248. Pallone, game of, 345. 

O Palmer, Colonel A. P., 440, 462. 

II Colonel Sir C. M., 281. 

Oakley, Frances, 3, 4. Papillon, Colonel J. A., 184. 

II Richard, 3. Paris, 76. 

0-Bak, 275. Parkes, Sir Harry Smith, 165, 166, 
Obeid, 258, 262. 178, 181, 185, 188, 190. 

Odessa, 22, 133. Parliament, 80, 247, 282, 284, 286, 
Odin, H.M.S., 184. 306, 332, 352. 

II Bay, 144-146. Parliamentary Papers, 293, 295, 301, 
Ogilvy, Lieut. -Colonel W. L. K., 304, 414, 415, 418, 420, 425, 435. 

376, 403. Parr, Major-General H. H., 231, 238. 

Ogle, Major F. A., 373. ** Parting of Hero and Leander," pio- 
O'Kelly, Mr J., 258. ture of, 140. 

Old Fort, Kamishlu, 16, 131. Paterson, Lieut. J. B., 207, 208. 

Oldershaw, Major-General C. K, 91, Patriotic band, the, 60. 

93, 94, 95. Patterson, Private F., 407. 

Omar Pasha, 97, 98. Pattle, Colonel T., 147. 

O'NeiU, Rev. Mr, 231. « Paul Clifford,' 77. 

Onoor, 436. Paul, Lieut. -Colonel, 460. 

Ontario, Canada, 359. Pay Department, Army, 410, 446, 
'Operations of German Engineers,* 464. 

360. Payne, Esther, 71, 213. 
Orange Free State, 252. n Lieut. C. H., 401. 

Orchard Hill, Bideford, 355. Pearl, H.M.S., 150. 

Order of St Michael and St George, Pe-chi-li, 143, 146, 150, 172. 

306. Pedlow, Surgeon J., 404. 

.. of the Bath, 138, 214, 247, Peel, the Sir William, 171. 

. 356. Peh-tang, 150, 151, 153, 155, 156, 

II of the Legion of Honour, 138. 160, 187. 

II of the Medjidie, 138, 247, 282. Pei-ho, 142, 143, 152, 153, 155, 156, 
Ordnance Office, 73. 158, 160, 163, 164, 176, 365, 367. 

II Store Department, 290, Pekin, 142, 143, 177, 179, 181, 183, 

409, 446, 464. 184, 186-188, 190, 194-198, 200, 

Orion, H.M.S., 237. 362, 365. 

Omstein, M. d', 227. Pelissier, General, 84, 97, 98, 104. 


Pen Pftrk, Bristol, 3. 

Penalij, nmr Tenby, S39. 

Fen jd^ 302. 

Penixmilir uid Oriaitel Stesmfant 

Ca, 236. 
Perekop, 100. 
Penm, Shah of, 331-3S3. 
Perau Gfmad Vizier, 33S. 

tf Minuter, 332, 333. 

t' noes, 333. 
PenKmal stafi; 374, 398, 465. 
•Phaeton,' 77. 
Pharoa, 229. 
PhilK, 258, 262, 263. 
Pfaippa, Gaxmer Isaac, 402. 

ti Sergeant, 401. 
Hedmooteae soldien, 148. 
Pierre, a servant, 44, 52, 57. 
Pieter Both, Manritina, 208. 
Pigott, lient. C. B., 873. 
Pilbeam, Private J., 407. 
Pine, Captain D. V., 242, S74. 
Plapperille, 221. 
Plevna, 218. 

Pokshnn, Hong-kong, 202. 
Pollock, the Sir George, a.a., 8L 
Pontac, Cape wine, 210. 
Pontoons, 167-169, 171, 365, 366. 
Port Arthur, 143. 

Lonis, ManritinB, 207. 
Said, 233. 234, 237, 251, 253. 
Portable bridge, 163, 164, 367, 368. 
Portrait of Graham, 281, 320. 
Portsmouth, 8, 67, 134, 224, 229. 
Portogal, Prince of, 315. 
Poesil House, 135, 136. 
Postal Deparbnent, Army, 464. 
Posting sentries, 62. 
Pouoe Hflls, Manritina, 208. 
Power, Consul, 269. 
Poynter, Sir E. J., 281. 
Preudergast, Surgeon J., 407, 408. 
Preventation of medals, Gbiro, 250. 
Priuuess'c Theatre, 337. 
Pritchard, Lient. •XjreneFsl G. D., 155, 

107, 167, 171, 172, 195, 196, 200, 

SiOJ, 208, 365. 
Prubyn, General Sir Di^tcm, 148, 

Probyu « Horse, 160, 188. 
Pivl^Mioual papers, R.K, 199, 224, 

Pn/virtjwr, 346. 

PruiMia. Crows Prince and Princess of. 



JSmek, tn, 57. 

Pimjab, 131. 291. 

Pimjabis, 183. 184, 186, 187, 190, 

191, 195, 200, 201. 
Pym, Lient. H. &. L., 373. 

Qnaraotise Bastion, Sebastopol, 103. 
Qnany rifle-pits, Sebastofiol, 105, 107. 
Qneen Victoria. See Victoria. 
Qneen's Jnbilee, 314^17. 

lev^ 356. 

(2nd regiment), the, 185. 
Qoelen Foit, 221. 



Babbit, the white, 81, 82. 

Bagged schools, 54, 59. 

Baglan, Lord, 53, 67, 69, 70, 72-75, 

80, 88, 90, 97-99. 
«Baikes'6 Jonmal,* 17L 
Bailwmy in the Cximsa, 79, 121. 
Railway, Snakin - Berber, 286-288, 

291, 292, 302, 303, 448-453, 458, 

Bainsford, D^mty Assistant Cammia> 

sary-General M. £. B., 409. 
Bakton, Colonel W. H., 298, 461. 
Bamleh, 227-234, 308. 
Bam-Sami, 199, 20a 
Banken, Osptain Geoi^ 121. 
Baa-el Tin, 228. 
Bastadt, 220. 
Baihbonie, Captain St G. J., 461. 

fi Cokmel W. H., 303. 

Bathf elders. Cape Cokmy, 208-21 a 
Bawlinson, Sir Heniy, 333. 
Bawstome, Captain G. A. L., 373. 
Bead, Private C, 407. 
BeooDnaissanoea, China, 163-166, 362. 
Becmits shamefnlly ti aatsd in CHmea, 

Bed Honse, 231. 

ft Prince, 217. 

River Expedition, 283. 
Sea littoral, 292, 464. 
Bedaa, Crimea, 90, 93, 102, 104, 

105-111, 114, 115, 139. 
Redoar (Yorks.), 214. 
Reddie, Corporal, 457. 
BadhiU, 333. 
Redstone, Sergeant, 457. 
Reed, Laaoe-te|[sant T., 461. 



INDEX, 487 

Reenan, Mr van, 210. Rorke's Drift, 224. 

Reevee, Major-General M., 155, 156. Rosetree, Grahams of, 3. 

Reid, Surgeon-General, 351, 359. Ro88, Colonel R. L., 149. ■ 

Remington rifles, 269, 385, 415. Roumelia, 15. 

Reminiscences, Mrs Shenstone's, 318- ' Roving Englishman,' the, 57. 

327. Roy, Private J., 407. 

Rendezvous, the, China, 151. Royal Highlanders. See Highlanders. 

Report, assault of Pei-ho Forts, 365, Royals, Ist, 157, 160, 200. 

366. Royds, Lieut., 410. 

Retirement, 317. Rudham, East and West, 71, 213. 

Revised Version, 355, 356. Ruskin, John, 78, 79. 

Rewards for services, 138, 211, 214, RusseU, Sir W. H., 11, 23, 24, 96, 

247, 282, 306, 356. 128. 

Rezonville, 221. Russia, 9, 13, 82, 291, 302. 

Rhine, the, 222, 223. Russian sufferings in Crimea, 66, 67. 

Rhodes, Captain £., 462. *Ruth,' 152. 

II Lieut F. W., 400. g 

Rhone valley, 343. 

Richards, Private J., 407. Sacred carpet, the, 310, 311. 

Richardson, Colonel, 456. Said, Port, 233, 234, 237, 251, 253. 

1 1 Major - General W. S. , Sailors at the Redan, Crimea, 109, 1 10. 

230, 373. Salahieh, 244. 

Richmond, 223, 321, 322. Salisbury, Lady, 316. 

Rifle Brigade, 10, 11. Saltbum (Yorks.), 214, 215. 

Rifles, King's Royal (60th), 120, 161, Samaden, 344. 

162, 184, 185, 231, 266, Sami, Ram-, a servant, 199, 200. 

267, 279, 280, 376, 377, " Samson," HandePs, 358. 

379, 384, 385, 390, 399, San Sebastian, 347. 

401, 403, 404, 409, 412, Sandford Lodge, 335. 

459. Sang-ko-lin-sin, General, 174, 177, 

11 Scottish. See Cameron. 180, 186, 193. 

Rigaud, Major-G«neral Gibbes, 164, Sappers and Miners, Madras, 103, 

190, 197. 147, 148, 185, 193, 200, 

Ringwood, 336. 290, 292, 414-434, 445, 

Rio (Singapore), 205. 459, 461, 462. 

Riviera, 345, 346. n and Miners, Royal, 9-11, 

Roberts, Field - Marshal Earl, 313, 26, 27, 29, 34, 88, 107, 108, 110, 
314, 356. 161, 169, 179, 190, 365. 

II Lady, 313. Sarah, an old servant, 348. 

Robertson, Lieut. -Colonel J. A., 463. Sardinians, 131. 

II Major D., 415, 462. Sardoun, Muhammad Adam, 304, 

Robinson, Lieut. -Colonel B. S., 404. 305, 435-441, 444, 453, 455. 

'Roche de la Vierge,' 344. Sargent, Lieut. -General J. N., 174, 
Rochfort, Major A. N., 456. 176. 

Rocket detachment, 426, 430, 457. Saros, Gulf of, 14, 15. 

Roehampton, 312, 318, 320, 321, <Sartor Resartus,' 140. 

324-326. 'Saturday Review,' 172. 

Rogers, Captain C. R., 404. Saxe-Coburg Gotha, Duke of, 189. 

Rolf, Gunner, 407. Saxony, King of, 315. 

Rolfe, Captain, 387, 392, 405. Scarborough, 223. 

Rollit, Sir A., 338. Science and Art examinations, 215. 

Romilly, Captain F. J., 294, 424. School of Military Engineering, 7, 

II Lieut F. W., 398. 281. 

Roncourt, 221. Schula, 130. 

Rooke, Major H. D., 461. Schwerin, General von, 220, 221. 

Rookyard, Private C, 407. Soots Greys, 457. 


^F SooK. Ueat W. A.. 259. 280, 281. 

Sintpko. 343. 

^ 270. 398. 

ScotC-Mo&cruS. Colonel Sir Oolia, 



S«rat, H.M.S.. U5. 144. 

.. Snbadar Goordit. 482. 


Sicgletoo, Colonel H.. 462. 

Soittari, 29, 72, 362. 

Sing-«)og pigeon, 205. 

8m B«Mta. U«a.>j. 7. 

Sin- ho. 150. 

gMfarth Highlutdera, 456. 

Sinkat. 264. 265. 454, 455- 

8cibul<^>ol. 20-24, 28, 30. 35-133, 

Skinner. Major E. G., 464. 


Slade, Captain F. G., 399. 

Slatin Bey, 256, 257. 

^m 228. 230, 233, 237. 


^K Lieat.(R.N.|. 424. 

^H Sh^ ol Penim, 330-333. 

Smith, Albert, 140. 

., Major-Genena P. G. U, 209. 

^H Shakupcare, WiUiun, 19, 52, 323, 

„ Major-General Philip, 231. 

^H 329. 337. 33S. 

„ Bev. G.. 409. 

^M Sluuigbki, 153, 173, 184. 197. 

'> Serveant. 305. 

^m Sharp, OpUiD. 149, 150. 

^ Shaw. Lient G. K.. 184. 

Solent. 3. 

., (jargHHi- Major J. A.. 463. 

Shaw-HeUier, Cobnel T. B., 239. 

63, 85-87. 

Soadan, 227. 250-252. 254-284. 270, 

Sheldon. Private, 4B0. 

283. 2S1, .102, 314. 353, 

^a SheU fire at night, Crimea, 63-65. 

397, 443. 445. 446. 

^m Shendi. 274. 

-, Ea»te™, 264. 306. 375-485. 

Sooth Africa, 265, .151, 357, 359. 

^H 328, 352. 353. 

., Elmharo Hall. 71,213. 

„ End. Ringwood, 336. 

^H Sherwood. Sergeant. 400. 

., SUITordiihire Regiment OSth), 

^H Shipway. Colonr-I^ergeaDt, 460. 

Ut Batt, 188. 229, 230. 

^M Shires. PrivaM Henry. 405. 

^M 8honieUffe, -212, 231. 

SoDthem Military Diitrict, 6. 

^H 200, 202. 296, 300. 305, 404, 409, 

Soulhey. 22. 

^V 414, 416, 425, 428, 429, 438, 461. 

Spain, the Qaeen of, 347. 

^™ Shumla, 15. 18. 

Spalding. Chief Engineer (R.N.). 46*. 

Sibbald. Colour-Sergeant. 462. 

., Lleut.-ColoDBl W. W., 290. 

29T. 457. 


Sparrow, Lieat.. 457. 

Signalling Depu-tment. 399, 400, 446. 

Special General Order. See OeDonl 

^B 462. 


^B SigniDg the Treatj, Pekin. 194. 196. 

•Spectator.' the, 356. 

H Sign, Cape, 12. 

Speoulationa. 330, 

^m SIkht, 148, 177, 181, 183, 187, 192, 

Spenoo, Major-General F., 182, 199. 

^H 290, 294, 295, 298, 304. 305, 415- 

Springfield, Bideford. 355.358. 

^M 431, 437-441, 4S2, 4S1. 462. 

St Albant, 3. 

^H Sileala. 220. 

St Amaud, Marshal, 63. 

^H BDUtria, 16. 23. 

St Aubyn. Lieut. J. T.. 403. 

St Briac, 350. 

^B 222. 248, 306. 

St George, Jilajor H., 464. 

^H Simon'a Bay, 208, 210. 

St George'a HospiUl. 140. 259. 

St George'i-iQ-the-East, 192. 



St Gingolf, 336, 337. 
StGothard, 311. 

* St James's Gazette,* 351. 
St Jean de Luz, 344. 

St Julien, Fort, 221. 

St Lunaire, 350. 

St Malo, 350. 

St Paul's Cathedral, 335. 

St Peter's, Eaton Square, 212. 

St Quentin, Fort, 221. 

St Servan, 350. 

St Sophia, Constantinople, 114. 

Staff, 147, 231, 265, 274, 280, 288, 

289, 295, 359, 398, 399, 403, 404, 

446, 456, 462, 465. 
< Standard,' the, 286, 356. 
Stanley, Dean, 328, 355. 
Star and Garter, Richmond, 140. 
Statue of Gordon, 335. 
Steerforth, 137. 
Stephenson, General Sir Fred. C. A., 

190-194, 257, 258, 265, 274, 276, 

277, 280, 283, 289, 397. 
Sterling, Lieut Colonel J. 6., 460. 
Stewart, Colonel Donald, 252, 255- 
257, 260, 261, 269. 
It Major R. M'G., 462. 
It Major-General J. H. M. 
Shaw-, 147, 159, 164, 166, 
177-179, 191, 193. 
ri Major-General Sir Herbert, 

265, 267, 276, 279, 286, 288, 376, 

377, 380, 383, 391, 393, 400, 401. 
Stirling, Lieut -General Sir W., 160, 


* Stones of Venice,' 78. 

Stopford, Captain the Hon. F. W., 

II Lieut the Hon. J. M., 

288, 465. 
Stories about Lord Raglan, 72. 

II of shells, 63-66. 
Storming parties, 40, 107, 167. 
Stracey, Colonel H. H. D., 460. 
Straits of Banka, 206. 
Strandfield (Instow), 339, 340. 
Strassburg, 220. 

* Studies of Animal Life,' 207. 
Sturgeon, Major, 464. 

Suakin, 252, 253, 257, 263, 264-306, 
359, 375, 378, 381, 382, 
385, 387-391, 395-398, 
401, 404, 410-412, 415, 
420-422, 425, 428, 432, 
435-437, 439-441, 447-450, 
454, 458, 461, 463-465. 

Suakin-Berber railway, 286-288, 291, 
292, 302, 303, 448, 453, 
458, 459. 
II -Berber route, 270, 274-278, 
283-286, 291, 389, 448, 
454, 455. 
II Field Force, 414-465. 
Suez and Suez Canal, 233, 234, 237, 

251, 280, 363, 408. 
Sufferings of the soldiers (Crimea), 65, 

66, 68. 
Suffold, Normans of, 71, 213. 
Sultan of Darfour, 255, 256. 
Sumatra, 206. 
Summer Palace, Pekin, 187, 188, 

192, 193, 196. 
Sunium, Cape, 12. 
Surat, P. and O. s.8., 226. 
Surrey Regiment, East, 1st Batt 
(31st), 157, 182, 199. 
II Regiment, East, 2nd Batt 
(70th), 290, 292, 293, 296, 298, 
300, 414-419, 425, 429, 461. 
Sussex Regiment, 399, 401, 403, 461. 
Sutherland, Sergeant J., 405. 
Swanston, Captain, 147. 
Swayne, Fanny, 3. 
Sweet-water Canal, 234, 236, 363. 
Swiss manoeuvres, 224. 
Switzerland, 224, 261, 311, 336, 337, 

341-343, 354, 360. 
Sword of honour, 281. 
System of fortification, 206. 


T., Colonel, 131. 

Table Mountain, 208, 209. 

Taglione, 140. 

Tai-ping rebellion, 142. 

Taku Forts, 142, 143, 164-175, 177, 

201, 362, 363, 366-368. 
Talbot, Lieut H. L., 373. 

II Major-General F. S., 182. 
Talien-wan Bay, 143, 144, 150. 
Tamai, 271, 272, 277, 292, 293, 297- 

303, 325, 390-396, 399-411, 414- 

434, 436, 440, 444, 449-451, 455, 

Taman, the, 133. 
Tamanieb, 278-280, 300, 388, 404, 

412, 449, 451, 454, 455. 
Tambouk, 276, 303, 436, 444, 452, 

453, 458, 459. 
Tang-chow, 180, 184, 187, 196. 
Tang-ku, 161, 169, 367. 

^■^490 INDEX. ^^^^^^^B 

^^1 Tanner, Brtgade-SurgeoD W., 463. 

Town Battery, Sebaatopol, 91. 

^H " Tsrbath " ver„Hs " hat," 35Q. 

Trail, Colonel D. H.. 147. 149. 366. 

^H TarUiy. 188. 

Traniport, 23, 73, 235. 290. 426, 432. 

^H TktMt in China, 1G4. 155, 157169, 

433, 446. 448, 457. 482-464. 

^H 177, 181-183, 186, 193, 19e, 

Transvaal, the. 352. 

^H 197, 363. 

Travere. Lieut. -Colonel, 368. 

^H „ in tbe Crimea, 122, 130. 

Treadwell, Itombardier, 402. 

^^H Tauro, Scythian ciypta at, 130. 

Treaty, Chinese, signing the, 194, 

^H Taw river, 340. 


^H Taylor. Lance-Corporal, 46S, 

Trafusis, Colonel the Hon. W. B.. 

^H .. Lienl. -Colonel A. iM.. 400. 


Treheme. Surgeon F. K. 406. 

^M Teb, Kl., 265-289, 375-382, 385, 388, 

Trenuh-worb in the Crimea, 37. 38. 

^H 399-408, 410. 

40, 42, 49, 50. 63, 66, 85, 88, 101. 

^H Teck, Dulto of, 232. 


^m Tol-el-Kebir, 233, 243-248, 

Tricolor Bag, 168. 

■ Tel-el-Mshota, 236, 237. 

Trinkitat, 266-267, 269. 270, 380. 

V Temeraire, H.M.S.. 407. 

386, 387, 398. 403. 404, 410. 411. 

^™ Temple Charoh, 328. 

Tniell, Lient. -Colonel R. H.. 461. 

„ of the Earth, China, 18B, 198. 

Tucker, Major W. G.. 372, 378, 

Templer. Major J. L. B., 459. 


Tennyaon, Alfred, 75, 78, 327. 

Tuite, Sergeant-Major. 460. 

Frederick. 19. 

Turkey. 9, 11. 13, 20. 49. 98, 120. 

Terry, Ellen, 337, 338. 


Tniela HiU, 298-301, 427-433, 451. 

Turkish Crimean medal, 133. 

Thackeray. W. M., 329, 330. 

1. Order of tbe Medjidie. 138. 

Thackwell, Major General W. de W. 

., working parties, 50. 51, &7. 

^H FL, 229, 230. 


^B Thaknl, 304, 305, 43S-442, 444, 452, 

Turks, 13, 14, 18, 20. 60. 58. 118. 


Turner Exhibition. 140. 

1. Lieut C. C, 40S. 

^H TtuuneB diitrict, 237. 

„ Major H. P.. 458. 

^M Therapia, 112, 113. 

Tumley, John. 359. 

^H Therobit, 436, 43S. 

Tuson. Colonel H. B., 373. 407. 

^H Thomu, Lieut. -Colooel VV. T., 198. 

' Two Old Men's Tales,' 203. 

^H Thompson, Lieut. A. U., 458. 

■Two Voices,' 78. 

^H Private. 460. 

Tylden. Colonel Hiobard, S7. 108. 

^^1 Thornton, Brigade-.'>urgeon. 462. 

„ Major-General Sir W. B., 41, 

^V Thynne, Colonel R. T., 460. 


^™ Tian-tain, 142, 143, 158, 171-173, 

Tyler, Captain Sir aw., 199. 

177, 182. 184, 196. 189, 200. 

'Tien-tain Gazette,' 180. 


Tietjeni, 140. 

Tiger, H.M.S., 97. 

Uitlanders, 352. 

^B 'Timea,' the, 11, 20, 23, 35, 72. 73, 

Union flag. 168. 

^m 75, 122, 286. 

United Servioe InstitutioD. Royal. 


^H 31, 70, 181. 188. 


^H Todd, Colonel K. K„ 254, 3B0, 403. 

^m Todleben, General, 125. 

Varicose veins. 140. 

^H Totrik, 294. 295, 420-424. 

Varna, 16-23, 32, 44. 62. 

^B Tokar, 264, 205. 267-209, 274. 292, 

Vatika Bay, 12. 

^H 375, 378, 381 386, 394, 404, 410, 

Vauban. 46. 


Vauglmn, Dean. 328. 

^H Torridge rivor, 340. 

Venour. Surgoon-Major W.. 408. 

^K Toirington, 354, 355. 

Vertical are, 63-66, 102. 



Vesey, Lieut. 6. C, 461. 
Veterinary Department, Army, 410, 

446, 464. 
Vicars, Major-General £., 40. 
Viceroy Hong, 177. 
Victor Hugo, 78, 79, 340. 
Victor, Major-General J. C, 40. 
Victoria Cross, 138, 139, 168, 171, 
212, 218, 250, 251, 320, 
330, 401, 405, 410. 
II Peak, Hong-kong, 202. 
M Queen, 7, 126, 138, 139, 
251, 269, 274, 280, 288, 289, 314- 
317, 332, 356, 446. 
Vine culture at the Cape, 210. 
Vionville, 221. 
* Virginians, The,' 140. 
Voltaire, 5. 

Volunteer Engineers, 249, 281, 458, 
459, 465. 
II Review, 1860, 172. 
Volunteers, Canadian, 291. 
Voyage to Gallipoli, 10-14. 


Wady Haifa, 257-259, 285. 

Wake, Colour-Sergeant, 406. 

Walad Kerim, 258. 

Walcott, Colonel, 462. 

Wales, Prince and Princess of, 139, 
331, 335. 

Walfrath, 217. 

Walker, Lieut. -General Sir C. P. 
Beauchamp, 181. 

Wall of China, Great, 186, 196. 

Wallachia, 16. 

Wallis, H., 140. 

Walters, Principal Veterinary-Sur- 
geon W. B., 464. 

Walton, Lieut. -Colonel C. E., 463. 
II Major-General W. M. B., 

"Wanderer," Browning's, 327. 

War, horrors of, 41. 

War Office, 216, 222, 224, 284, 287, 
325, 397, 443. 

Waratab Mountains, 303. 

Ward, Captain E. W. D., 463. 
M Mr, American Minister, 184. 

Warm clothing in Crimea, 79. 

Warren, Brigade-Surgeon J., 463. 

Warren, The, 354. 

Warspite, visit to the, 331. 

Water-supply, Talien-wan, 145-147. 

Water-tower, Ramleh, 231. 

Watson, Colonel C. M., 247, 255. 

II Lieut. 457. 
Wauchope, Major-General A. G., 

265, 398, 399. 
Way, Lieut. -Colonel N. F., 461. 

• Wearing the Willows,' 203. 
Webb, Private W., 407. 

II Sergeant, 406. 
Webster, Lieut. -Colonel A. G., 400. 

II Rev. J., 410. 
Wells, Lieut. -Colonel, 290, 460. 
Welsh Regiment, 401. 
West Kent Regiment, 1st Batt, 245. 
West, Lord, 109. 

II Private W., 407. 
West Redoubt, Suakin, 297, 301, 

415, 437. 
Western Military District, 359. 
Westmacott, Lieut. -Colonel R., 462. 
Westminster Abbey, 315, 316, 355. 
Westward Ho, N. Devon, 340, 349, 

Weyman, Stanley, 348, 349. 
Weymouth, 215. 
Whistler-Smith, Major H., 458. 
White, General Sir George, 357. 

II Major-General H. A., 209. 
White Lead (Sulphate) Company, 330. 
White pagoda, Pekin, 196. 

II Star, the, 203. 
Wied, Prince, 217. 
Wight, Isle of, 335. 
Wilkieson, Captain C. B., 294, 462. 
Willes, Admiral Sir G. O., 150, 200. 

* William Kennedy,' the, 22-24. 
Williams, Colonel R. L., 154. 
Williams-Freeman, Captain G. C. P., 

WiUis, General Sir G. H. S., 226, 

236-238, 241, 243-246. 
Wilmot, Commander, 464. 

II Sergeant, 457. 
Wilson, Captain (R.N.), 410. 
II Elizabeth, 359. 
If Major-General F. E. E., 238, 

II Major-Greneral Sir C. W., 

II Surgeon-Major W. D., 408. 
Wimbledon School, 6. 
Windsor, 251, 269, 280. 
Winter in the Crimea, 48, 49. 
Wirgman, Mr, artist, 151. 
Wise of the mounted infantry, 229. 
Wodehouse, Captain J. H., 402. 
Wolff, Sir Drummond, 331. 



Wolseley, Field-Marshal ViBcount, 2, 
111, 169, 200, 226, 232-234, 236- 
238, 240, 242-244, 246-248, 254, 
282-286, 291, 302-306, 314, 325, 
361, 363, 369, 435, 443, 447. 

Woman Bufifrage, 338. 

Wood, Colonel £. A., 400. 

It General Sir H. Evelyn, 108, 

250, 253-255, 277, 283. 
It Lieut. -Colonel E., 384, 399, 

Wool-bag and ladder-party, Redan, 
Crimea, 107-110. 

Woolwich, 7, 9, 11, 215, 223, 228. 

Wordsworth, William, 285. 

Working Men's College, 54, 62. 

It parties in the Crimea, 37, 
50, 51, 57, 58. 

Works, siege, Crimea, 36-38, 42, 43. 

Worlabye House, Roehampton, 223, 
224, 312, 334. 

Wounded horses (Crimea), 51. 
II men (Crimea), 61, 67. 

Wyld, Mr, 410. 


Yang-tse, 199. 

Yang-tsun, 181. 

< Yellow Aster, The,' 347. 

Yenikale, Straits of, 100. 

Yerbury, Private, 407. 

York, 214-216, 222, 310. 

York and LAncaster, 1st Batt., 237, 

238, 245, 266, 267, 376- 

382, 384, 387, 391-396, 405, 

It and Lancaster, 2nd Batt., 369- 

Yorkshire, West, Regiment, 457. 
Young, Sir Allen, 464. 


Zastrov on fortification, 203. 
Zebehr, 255, 280. 
Zohrab Bey, 226, 227. 
Zola's novels, 348. 



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