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Full text of "Life and letters of Thomas Cromwell"



II 



El libris W. P. M. KENNEDY 






* 



LIFE AND LETTERS OF 
THOMAS CROMWELL 

BY 

ROGER BIGELOW MERRIMAN 

A.M. H.VKV. . B.LiTT. Oxo.v. 
WITH A PORTRAIT AND FACSIMILE 



VOL. II 
LETTERS FROM 1536, NOTES, INDEX 



OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1902 




DEC 2 1941 



HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

rOUSHER TO THE CXIVERSTTY OP OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH 

NSW YORK 



CONTENTS 

VOLUME I 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. THE ANCESTRY AND EARLY LIFE OF THOMAS 

CROMWELL . i 

APPENDIX. PASSAGES FROM CHAPUYS, POLE, 
BANDELLO, AND FOXE . . . . 17 

II. THE PARLIAMENT OF 1523 .... 27 

III. WOLSEY'S SERVANT 47 

APPENDIX. THE WILL OF THOMAS CROM- 
WELL 56 

IV. THE FALL OF THE CARDINAL ... 64 

V. THE CHARACTER AND OPPORTUNITY OF 

THOMAS CROMWELL 77 

VI. IN THE KING'S SERVICE . . 89 

APPENDIX. .THE SUPPLICATION OF THE 
COMMONS AGAINST THE ORDINARIES . . 104 

VII. . INTERNAL POLICY . . . . . .112 

VIII. IRELAND, WALES, SCOTLAND, CALAIS . .147 

IX. THE MONASTERIES 165 

X. THE PILGRIMAGE OF GRACE, 1536 . . .180 

XI. CARDINAL POLE 202 

XII. THE FOREIGN POLICY 213 

XIII. THE CATHOLIC REACTION AND THE AL- 
LIANCE WITH CLEVES 242 

APPENDIX. REPORTS OF THE LUTHERAN 
AMBASSADORS TO ENGLAND IN 1539 AND 
1540 272 



iv CONTKNTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

XIV. THE FALL OF THOMAS CROMWELL . .281 

APPENDIX. PASSAGES FROM FOXE: CROM- 
WELL'S SPEECH AND PRAYER ON THE 
SCAFFOLD 303 

XV. THE WORK OF THOMAS CROMWELL . . 305 

PREFATORY NOTE TO CROMWELL'S LETTERS 
CROMWELL'S LETTERS : 15*3-3 

1531 

1532 

1533 

1534 







1535 



VOLUME II 

CROMWELL'S LETTERS : 1536 ..... i 

J537 .... 50 



1539 166 

1540 . 244 

AN ITINERARY OF THOMAS CROMWELL, 1523-40 . 279 

A LIST OF THE MINOR PREFERMENTS OF THOMAS 
CROMWELL, AND A DESCRIPTION OF HIS ARMS 

AND CREST ........ 283 

NOTES TO LETTERS ....... 285 

LIST OF AUTHORITIES ...... 313 

INDEX .......... 319 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

PORTRAIT OF THOMAS CROMWELL . Frontispiece to vol. i 

FACSIMILE OF A LETTER FROM THOMAS CROMWELL 

TO LORD LISLE, AUG. 30, 1538 . Frontispiece to vol. ii 



LETTERS 
135. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 118 ; Cal. x. 16. Jan. 3 (1536). 

The bearer will give him the King's answer to his letter of Dec. 25. 
Requests him to labour for the delivery of the ships at Bordeaux. 
Promises to pay Peter Lark. 

Aftre my moost harty co;/;mendac/bns by this berer 
Mr. Walloppes seruaunt your lordshippe shall receyvc the 
kingrj highnes answer to your \ettcrzs writen to me the xxv th 
of the last moneth, the contents wherof I doubt not but 
youe wil w/t// suche dexteritie setfurth as ye may obteyne 
present delyuerance of the shippes deteyned at burdeulx 
whiche his grace moche desireth, and hath in that matier 
more relented thenne he was determyned, as by the said 
\etteres ye shal p^rceyve. To morowe I shall not fayle to paye 
your scruaunt peter lark money to be conveyed vnto youc, 
according to your request and desire. And thus for this 
tyme moost hartely fare youe well. From Eltham the third 
of January 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray good lorde My lord of Winchestre 
the k'mges Ambassadowr in fraunce. 

Endd. From Eltham thridde of Janua[ry]. Mr. Secret- 
[ary]. 

136. CROMWELL TO GARDINER AND WALLOP. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 126 ; Cal. x. 54. Jan. 8 (1536). 

Requests them to use caution in communicating the news of Katherine's 
death to Francis. In the postscript, written at the King's command, 
they are further urged to be less cordial to the French King in view 
of the probability of a reconciliation of England and Spain. 

Aftre my moost harty cowmendac/ons to your Lordship 
and in like maner to youe Maister Wallop, being here nowe 
at london, and having receyved k/teres of the departure 
yesterdaye of the princesse douagier whose soule god pardon, 

MERKIMAN. II B 

DA 



2 LETTERS OF [1536 

to thintcnt ye may aswell declare the same to the frenche 
king if ye haue occasion to speake vtit/t him befor ye shall 
receyve any other 1/7/fcrcs. As knowing the state here vse 
yourself theraftre in your preceding*-* I thought I could no 
lesse doo, thennc iwmediatly adu/rtise youc of the same, 
whiche vppon this myn adurrtisement ye maye be bold, being 
the same certainly true, to speake as ye shall hauc cause and 
thinkc convenient for the advauncement of the kingr s highnes 
affares temp/ring yowr doings there in suche matiers as ye haue 
nowe in treatie, by the same, as by your wiscdomes ye shall 
thinke may best srrue for the kinge highnes pwrpose in that 
behaulf. And thus in hast moost hartely fare you well from 
the Roulles the viii" 1 of January at night. 

Yo//r lordshippis and yor 
assuryd frend 
THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Post scripta The binges highnes hauing seen this letttre 
willed me for your more ample instruction to wryte vnto you 
somwhat at more length. Albeit his highnes doubtcth not your 
wisedom to be suche as w/t^out long \etteres can facyllic con- 
ceyue what may best conduce to thadu<?nccmcnt of his 
affayrees yet his highnes thought good somwhat to adiurtise 
you of his gracious pleasure in this parte which is that con- 
sidering vppon the Deth now of the saide lady Douagier where- 
by themp^rottr hauing none other cause or querele to the kings; 
highnes will of grete lightlywod by all weyes and meancs seke 
for the kings; highnes amytie being the onelie maticr of the 
vnkyndenes betwixt them now abolisshed by the Deth of the 
saide lady, Ye therefore in your conference and procedyngs; 
wfW the frensh kyng and his counsaile shall not onelie kepe 
yowrselffV; the more aloof and be the more Froyt and colde 
in rclentyng to any their ousrtures or requests, but also by 
suche polycies as by yowr discrete wisedomes shall seme most 
expedient to set fourth this matier. So as it may apperc vnto 
them what Fruyte the kinge highnes may now haue at 
themp<-rors hand if he woll, who now ye may sey will offer 
aswell ^ret pleasures and benefits to the kings; highnes to 
atteyn amytie as he did vnto them domynyons or possessions 
Sayeng vnto thadmyrall it shalbe good for them if they wil 
com to any conformytie in this treatie to accelerate the same 
before the kyngs; highnes be ousrmoche sought or pressed by 
themperour. Which maticr being handeled and proponed by 
you after such sorte and wit// such other reasons and argu- 
ments as the kyngrr highnes doubteth not ye right wisely 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 3 

can shalbe a meane to cause them the more facilly to com to 
such poynt as shalbe agreable to the kingrj highnes expecta- 
cion and the better conducing of his grac[i]ous affairees. 

Add. To myn assured Freend^ My lord of Winchestre 
and sir John Wallop knight the kingcs highnes Ambassadors 
in fraunce. 

Etidd. From the Roulles the viii th of Januarye. Mr. Secre- 
tarye. 

137. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 137; Cal. x. 255. Feb. 4 (1536). 

Sends by the bearer the King's answer to his last letter. Requests him 
to report his action on it. Proffers of service, and private com- 
munications. 

Aftre my moost harty co;;/mendaabns to your lordship ye 
shal by this berer receyve the kinges highnes letferes answer- 
ing to yours sent by Maister Brian And \\ith the same certain 
copies conteyning aswel my lorde of Herfordrj procedingcs 
in Germany as thaffections of the princes there towards the 
kinges highnes the frenche king, the bisshop of Rome, the 
Counsail and otherwise, whiche as his maiestie thought con- 
venient to coMHMMMCStC vnto youe, vtith desire and request to 
haue the same vsed and setfurthe in suche a temperature, as 
by your wisedome ye shall thinke may conduce to thadvaunce- 
ment of his affayres there. Soo his pleasure is ye shall in 
yo;/r next k//rres signifie what ye shall doo therm, and what 
your opinion is touching eMry parte of the same. Other 
rehersal I omytt to make any vnto youe, his highnes \efteres 
conteyning in al things right ample matier, in eflfecte neurr- 
theles tending to the wynnyng of tyme without cuwmyng yet 
to any pt'rfite conclusion. And therfor signifieng for the rest 
only vnto youe that his Maiestie is mery and in perftte health 
our Lorde be thanked and that for my parte I shal be gladde 
to doo youe here no lesse pleasure thenne I canne deuise may 
be for your co/wmoditie, and the good acceptac/on of your 
s^ruice whiche is aswel taken, as it is indede worthie I pray 
god to sende youe no worse to Fare thenne I wold wishe 
myself. From the Roulles the iiii" 1 of Februarye 

Concernyng your private \cttcrts directed vnto me touchyng 
wood myll, and the pulling vpp of certain poster etc. I doubt 
not but your lordshipp knowing what good is like to ensue to 
the comunewealth by the pulling vp of the said myll, wilbe 
as gladde therof as I haue been for that only respecte to 
further the doing of it, and as touching the saide postes I shal 



4 LETTERS OF [1536 

further enquire of them, and take suche ordre touching the 
same, as shalbe I trust to your good satisfaction in that behaulf 

"Your lordshippis louyng assuryd Frcnd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray good lorde my lord of Winchestre the 
.> highncs Ambassado/sr in the Courte of Fraunce. 

Endd. From the Roulles the iiii lh of February Mr. Secre- 
tary 

138. CROMWELL TO THAMWORTH AND MARKEBY, PRIESTS. 

R. O. Cal. x. 334. Feb. 21 < 1 536). 

Summons them to London to make answer to an accusation of forgery 
made against them by Richard Gooding. 

Forasmoche as it is in complaynte afore me that ye have 
hcynously transgressed the lawe offendid the commen wcalc 
and greatlie hindrcd the compleynaunte whose name is 
Richard Goodyng by forgyng of a will the immanytie of the 
whiche offence so aggrifithe the goodnes of god and the 
conscience of all honeste men that be ye sure if ye be with 
this faute Lawfully charged ye cannot scape inpunysshed, and 
if ye be not then I wolde youre honcstie were defended for 
this cause I will I saye that vpon the sighte of this my L YA-rc 
yc haste hcther to London to make suchc aunswere in this 
cause as truythe and honestie biddith you. At London the 
xxi" 1 daye of February. 

Yowr Freend THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To Thamworth and Markeby Prestis and to either 
of theym At Bostone 



>. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 249; not in Cal. Feb. 25-26 (1536). 

i irJiner is to return to England after forwarding certain letters to Pate, 
the ambassador with the Emperor. Description of an interview 
between the King and the French ambassador. 

My veray good lorde aftre my moost harty cowmendac/ons 
wit// like thankrj for yowr sundry gentle aduertisemcnt^j, ye 
shall herw/tA aswel rcceyve the king highnes answer to your 
last \ettsres vppon the declaration of the contentes wherof 
(whiche his Maiestic doubtcth not but ye wil wit// suche 
dexteritie setfurth, as ye shal neither omytt anything thcrin 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 5 

comprised, ne yet soo moche irritate the frenche king as shuld 
interrupte their amyties) ye be appointed at your libertie and 
ease to retume, As also a paquet of W/rres nowe addressed 
from his grace to Maister pate his Ambassador \vtt/t them- 
perour whiche as his Maiestie thought more expedient for 
diuerse respecter to haue conveyed by your handes, thenne 
directly from hens by a spec/al messanger, soo his pleasure 
and desire is ye shal aswel saufly and spedilyc cause them by 
some sure post to be conveyed to Rome, soo as they maye be 
there immediately vppon themprrowrs cuwmyng though ye 
shuld rather thenne to fayle of sure conveyaunce dispechc 
a special post thither only for that purpose, by this berer we 
haue dispeched all things necessary, that is to saye, ordre is 
taken that this daye peter lark shall receyve C H towards your 
post money defrayd and your costes in your returne and 
doubt youe not but at your cuw/myng home suche accompt 
shalbe made \\iih youe as ye shall haue cause to be contented. 
Nowe I shall commence a priuate sute vnto you wherin if ye 
wil of your goodnes graunte graunte l my desire as my trust 
is ye will, ye shall not only doo therin I thinke veraylie a veray 
good turne but likewise to me in the same administre suche 
grate and thankfull pleasure as I shal be glad to recompense 
to your lordshippe if occasion may therunto srriie. the 
matier is no more but that it wil like youe for my sake to 
accept this berer Salisbury again into your sluice whom 
I haue dispeched only for that purpose, he may yet prove 
liable to s^rue you And thus most hartely fare ye wel from 
the Rollrj the xxv th of february. 

"Your lordshippis assuryd freend 
THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

In cipher. 

I wold your lordship had this day hard the kings grace 
handle the ambassador of fraunce he made suche repetycion 
of hys graces most frendly overtures and procedynges towardes 
them and of their unfr(e)ndely facyons towardes him that he 
had no worde to speake in whiche treaty e he forgat not to 
rcmembre how both when pomeray was here and when 
thadmyral was her(e) he offred them to joyne in leage bothe 
offensyve and defensyve whyche they then refused and therfor 
seyng they be nowe entred as we be instructed into the warre 
and seke only uppon hym for theyr ouun commodytyc as they 
have ever don in al thcyr doyngs they must he sayd be 

1 sic. 



<; LETTERS OF fi ;,/> 

contcntc to suflrc him to refuse that which when he myght and 
offred they wold not and now they wold wyth his honor 
he cannot the ambassador wold faync as (i)t appercd by his 
comunycacyon have had his hyghnes graunte to some con- 
trybucyon but beyng as is sayd answered by ad otnnia qnarc 
he departed wyth as lytle hope as he had reason to allcagc for 
his party which was nothyng at alle and in cace the French 
king shuldc seme to take your departure dyspleasauntly re 
pcnitns infccta that yc cam for the kings grace trustcth ye 
wyl bothe by the allegacion of the sayd refusals by pomeray 
and thadmyral and with suche other reasons as ye shal by 
your wysdom devise so paynt them before theyr eyes hou 
abusyng frendship and seaking for theyr oune comodityes they 
have enforced the kings grace t(o) refuse to condescend hcrin 
to theyr desyre as they may perceyve and see theyr ounc foly 
and be by reason overcom and be compelled to grauntc in 
theyr stomachcs that they hauc but theyr oune deserving 
qualificng neverthcles this and al other thinges as ye shal by 
your wysedome thinke expedyent the twenty and syxte day 
of februaryy. 

Add. [To my loving] lord my lord of Winchestre the 
king^j Ambassador in Fraunce 

Endd. From the Roulles the xxv of February Mr. Secre- 
tary 



140. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. x. 405. Mar. 3 < 1 536). 
Desiring him to sign a letter of protection for a merchant. 

After my right harty co;/imendacion vnto yor good lord- 
ship, thiese be to desire you to send vnto me a bill signed 
\\7t4yowr hand fora protecc ion for a pore marchaunt straunger. 
according as I haue caused it to be writen and sent vnto your 
lordship herin closed, the whiche I pray you to remyt and 
send agayne vnder yowr signe and scale in your accustumed 
maner. Wherby I assure you, ye shall do a meritorious and 
very good dede, as god knowitA who presrrue yowr lordship. 
At my house in london the third day of Marche. 

"Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWF.I 

Add. To my very good lord the Vicount lisley the 
deputie in Calays. 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 
141. (CROMWELL) TO 



R. O. Cal. x. 61 7 (i). Apr. 3 < 1 536). 

The King approves of his conduct in inquiring into the guilt of ' my ladye 
Katherynes preest.' Requests him to bring up with him everything 
that is worth the carriage. 

I commend me vnto yow and haue Resayuyd your \ettert 
datyd at Carew the xxvi th daye of marche by the which I 
haue well p^rsayuyd your dylygens and good polycye vsyd 
in the Inserching the vntrewthe of my ladye Katherynes preest 
which as I p^rsayue hadde Conveyed suche plate evydens and 
other things Conteynyd in your Ictteres which \ettero. I 
shewed vnto the kyng^j highnes who for your dylygens good 
polycye and good acquytall in that behalf yeuythe yow right 
gret prayse and also allowyth your dedes and his gracyous 
pleasure ys that ye callyng to you soche dyscret and woor- 
shypffull (persons) as ye shall thinke most mete for that 
purpose shall Cause the sayd prest to be Straytlye examenyd 
of such other things as he hath consaylyd and Causyd to 
be Inbeselyd and after examinacyon to put hym to Sewrtye 
to appere before the kinges Cownsayle (to) answer to suche 
things as shalbe Ferther on the kynges behalf layde unto his 
charge and as to all suche Stuffe as ye shall thinke in any wyse 
mete to be Caryed leue hit not in no wyse behynd yow but 
Cause hit to be browght vpp yf ye Suppose yt may be worthe 
the Caryage and yf not then to make the most therof ye Can. 
I also hersay that ye do lake of the nombre of your Shepe. 
I praye yow make Dylygent Inquyrye for them and of all 
other things that ye shall Supposse to Be Inbesyled or Con- 
syled 1 and know who hathe bene the doers or maynteners 
therof, and in Any wyse deuyse ye that the things may be 
browght hether Surlye and so trussyd as they do take non 
moystoyr nor other harme and specyallye haue ye good ^ye 
to the evydens plate and pryncypall Howsholde Stuffe and I 
trust at your Retorne ye shalnot Repent your lorneye. and 
for your paynes and trewth takyn in this lorney I hertelye 
thankc yow on my parte and thus as shortlye as ye Co- 
venyentlye may hauyng Resspect allway that all thing may be 
Substancyallye done and fynysshyd I trust ye wyll repayre 
homeward, wherof I woolde be gladde but in any wyse pray 
yow examen* well the pr^ste, and thus Fare well at London 
the thyrd daye of Aprell 

1 c. 0. in any manir of wyse 



8 11 'IT MRS OF [i 

142. (CROMXVI 1 1 > TO MR. CRANK. 
R. O. Cal. x. 61 7 (ii). Apr. 3 < 1 536). 

Explains that the report that Cromwell has let to farm the Port tythe is 
untrue. 

Maistcr Crane I hcrtclye Commend me vnto you and whcras 
I persayue by Mr. RatclyfT & Mr. Gage that ye haue aledgyd 
that I hauc Ictten to Fcrme the port tythe Syr I assure (you) 
that ys not So but undowtydlye before this tyme hcnryc 
lodge offeryd to paye the half yeres Rent dew at our ladye 
dayc which last for the sayd porte tythe my man Wyll/Vm- 
Rcsayuyd I being at the Courte and when I Cam whomc 
shcwyd me therof, and delywred me acquytance which I Sub- 
scrybyd but to Saye that I haue made any man^r primes 
thcrin to henry lodge or any other I assure yow l I hauc 
not ne wyll not doo, and this hcrtclye fare ye well at London 
the iii rt daye of Apryll 

143. CROMWELL TO (SiR PIERS BUTTON, SHERIFF OF 
CHESHIRE). 

R. O. Cal. x. 618. Apr. 3, 1536. 

Requires him to arrest or attach the goods of John Ofleley, who has 
wrongly withheld .104 from Cromwell's friend Edmund Rous. 

In my right harty maner I cow/mend me vnto you, and 
where I am Crediblye enformed the ooiv John Offeley Aboutc 
the space of ayerc paste reccyued at Calais of oon^ Humfrey 
Lightfote thenne factor vnto A frende of myne named 
Edmond Rous ciiii It to be delyuered over vnto the said 
Edmondc here in London whiche Som of ciiii li the said 
Offeleye contrary to the truste and confidence that he was 
put in as yete hath not made Dclir/rry of but imploiethe & 
cotfuertcth the same vnto his owne vse to the greate hurte & 
hindertfimce of my said frende. Beynge nowe adurrtysed 
that the said Ofley hathc nvrch<wndyes wares & good^j at 
this present tyme w/t//in the Town of Westechest/r and other 
places adyoynynge w/t//in the lymtte of yowr office and that 
the same Ofeley hathe also prrsonall recorse thether I requyrc 
you and in the kyng^j name will and commaundc you that 
for redresse to be had of the said detestable wronge & 
due rcsty tut/on to be made unto the said Edmond Rous of 
his said mony dishonestly and vntrewly kepte from hym by 
the said Ofleley accordynge to Justice and equite you do im- 
mediately c after the sight of these my \tt feres attache & 
arreste the psrsonc of the sayd Offclcy and oonlcs the same 
Offeley shall iwcontinentc thcrvpon without delay restore 

1 f o. yt ys vntrew 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 9 

vnto the said Edmod his said mony w/t// his resonablc 
damages & cxpcnccs sustayned by his vntrewe delynge or 
othenvyse cowpownde wythe the said Edmond to kepe the 
same Offeley in yo//r salve custodye and to convay hym 
hyther to london so shortly as you shall cowvenyentlye may 
personally to answerc before me & others of the Icings honor- 
able Covnsayll wherfore he ought not so to do. And if you 
shall not can apprehend the prrsone of the said Offeley than 
to arreste his said Good^j and to put the same vndre your 
salve custody vntyll the said Offeley shall outhcr fully restore 
vnto my said frend his said Mony or otherwise gyue suffi- 
cyente cavtion to answere hym in the same accordynge to 
the due ordre of the lawc Shewynge sutche erneste harty 
diligence herein as my said frende may by yo//r polycye & 
frendeshipp for my sake to be extended vnto hym be co- 
veycd to his said debt without farther Svtes or delayes if by 
any honcste meane you shall so can compase the same. And 
I shall thflunkefully remewbre your doynge herein at my 
desyre in case you shall make requeste vnto me at any tyme 
hereafter. And thus fare you well. From my howse at the 
Rolles the iii de day of Aprill 1.536. 
Endd. Copy from Mr. Crumwcll. 

144. CROMWELL TO JOHN WH ALLEY. 

R. O. Cal. x. 649. Apr. II, 1536. 

The King desires him to admit Thomas Wingfield to the post of comp- 
troller of the works at Dover with suitable wages. 

'Copye of suche another sent by Mr. Secretary the u th of 
Aprill 1536.' 

I comend me vnto you. thisc shalbe to advertise you that 
the kingfj pleasure and co;maundement is that Thomas 
Wyngfeld shalbe Comptroller of his highnes workvj at Dovorr 
wit// suche wag^j and Fees as shalbe convenyent for the same. 
Wherfore I requyre you furthewit// vppon the sight herof so 
to admyt and accept hym. Yeldyng and paiyng vnto hym 
by the day for his wages, to be paid wekely at his pleasure 
not doubtyng but he will vse and behaue hymsclf in the 
execucyon of that rome accordyng to the trust and expec- 
tac/on that the kynge s highnes hath in hym. This Fare ye 
well at the Roller the xi th day of Aprell. 

Yowr Freend THOMAS 

CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my frynd John Whalley be this yoven 
Endd. Copye of a Ictiere from Mr. Secretary 
Mr. Wyngfeld 



10 ITERS OF [i 

145. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 260; not in Cal. Apr. 24 (1536). 

The King desires more explicit information on the topic spoken of in 
Gardiner's last letters before he makes a definite answer. Has paid 
Peter Lark /zoo. Requests Gardiner to consider the overtures 
made to the King by Chapuys. Gardiner may detain the bearer, who 
is carrying letters to the King's ambassador in Spain, if he desires to 
send any word to the King. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendacions yowr lordship shall 
herwith reccyvc the kingly highnes \ettcres answering only to 
the post scripta of yours by Thadeus lately addressed vnto 
him. the matier wherof for the sodayncs of it and the in- 
certaintie of the conditions hath perplexed his Maiestie that 
before he wil make any other answer to thcffccte of yo//r said 
lr//rres his grace wil knowe the veraye certaintic whither any 
suchc thing be dctermyncd or noo. And therfor it shalbc wcl 
doon that ye accelerate yowr answer thcrin asmoche as yc 
maye wit// suche other occurrant/'j as shal chaunce in the 
meane tyme. I haue delyurred vnto yowr seruaunt peter 
Larke cd l l and shal I trust see you from tymc to tyme suffi- 
ciently furnished during yowr abode and contynuancc there. 
I haue in another priuate U*//rrc made a request vnto youe 
the accomplishement wherof I haue cuen as moche to hartc 
as a thyng of that cstimacion cannc be worthc. I require 
your lordship that by the next post I may prrccyve yowr 
rcsoluc/on thcrin according to my desire. Ye shal also in the 
kingfj highnes 1/V/rrcs prrccyve certain Overtures lately made 
vnto his grace by themp<*rowrs Ambassadowr here resident, 
on Themprrowrs bchaulf, theffecte wherof wit// the kingrj 
pleasure touching the same I doubt not but yowr wisedom 
wil considre accordinglye And Thus Fare youc most hartcly 
well From Stepnaye the xxiiii 01 of April 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd frccnd 

THOMAS CRI'MWKLL. 

Post scripta yowr lordship shal vndrestande that this bcrer 
is nowe dispechcd w/'t// \etttres to the King Ambassadowr 
witA themprrowr concernyng the said Overtures, and his 
Majesties answers to the same, w/W his pleasure howe he 
shal vsc himself in the advauncement of them, if yowr lord- 
ship vppon the reading of the King^j \etteres nowe addressed 
vnto youc, shall gather any special matier worthic, his aduer- 
tiscmcnt or haue ellrj decreed to write for any other pwrpose 

'i.e. 200 pounds. 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 11 

vnto hym, ye maye deteyne the currowr tyl ye haue written 
your letteres albeit bicause his Message requirethe some hast 
I require you in that cace to dispeche him as spedely as ye 
canne. And thus eftsones most hartely Fare youe wel. From 
Stepnaye etc. 

Add. To my veray good lorde my lorde of Winchestre the 
K'mges Ambassador in Fraunce 

Endd. From Stepnaye the xxiiii th of April Mr Secretary. 

\ 
146. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 350; Cal. x. 761. Apr. 30 (1536). 

Informs him that the King's answer to the overtures of France are sent 
at the same time. Reports the arrival of Gardiner's servant. Sends 
cramp rings for Gardiner's friends in France. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendac/ons to your lordship 
The same shall herwz't// receyve the Icings highncs L^//^res 
conteyning certain overtures made here By the frenche Am- 
bassador w/tA his graces answers to the same, and his further 
pleasure howe ye shal precede there, whiche I doubt not but 
ye wil accomplishe as shal appertayn. on Fridaye arryved 
here your seruaunt Massye w*t^ your 'Letteres in Ciphre 
wherunto if anything shalbe answered ye shal haue it by the 
next post. I sende your lordship certain certain l Crampe 
ringer to be bestowed there amongr^ your Freendes. And 
thus moost hartely Fare youe well From Stepnaye the last 
of April 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray good lord my lord of Winchestre the 
Kingcs Ambassador in Fraunce. 

Endd. From Stepnaye the last of April Mr Secretary 
147. CROMWELL TO GARDINER AND WALLOP. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 160; Cal. x. 873. May 14 (1536). 

Informs them of the arrest of Anne Boleyn, and of the conspiracy against 
the King's life which has been disclosed. Gardiner will receive 200 
and Wallop will not be forgotten. Cf. Letters 149, 153, and 156. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendacj'ons, Albeit ye shall at this 
tyme receyve non answer to your let feres sent by Salisbury 

1 su. 



12 1 1 TTERS OF [1536 

being the same diflerred tyl thanyval of the baylie of Troys, 
Yet the kingtt highnes thought convenient that I shuld adu^r- 
you of a chaunce, as most detestably and abhomynably 
deuised contryved ymagined doon and contynucd, soo most 
happely and graciously by thordenawncc of god reueled mani- 
fested and notoriously knowcn to all men. Wherof though 
ye haue harde I doubt not the rumowr, yet I shal expressc 
vnto youe some pane of the cuwmyng out, and of the kin_,v.f 
preceding in the same. The qucnes abhomynaobn both in 
incontyncnt lyving, and other offcncts towards the kingrr 
highnes was so rank and cowmen, that her ladyes of her privy 
chambrc. and her chambcrers could not conteyne it w/tAin 
their brestes, But detesting the same had soo often cotnniuni- 
cations and conference of it that at the last it cam soo plainly 
to the cares of some of his gracrj counsail that w/t// their 
dicutye to his Maicstie they could not concele it from him, 
but \\i\.h greate fcarc, as the cacc enforced declared what they 
harde vnto his highnes Wherupon in most secret sorte certain 
rvrsonncs of the privye chambrc and others of her side were 
cxamyncd, in whiche examynac/bns the maticr appered soo 
evident, that beside that cryme, w/t// the accidents, there 
brake out a certain conspiracye of the kingrj deathe. whiche 
extended soo farre that all we that had thexamynac/on of 
it quaked at the daunger his grace was in, and on our knees 
gave him laude and prayse that he had p/rscrucd him soo 
long from it, and nowe manifested the most wretched and 
detestable determynac/bn of the same, thus were certain 
men ow/myttcd to the towre for this cause, that is Markrj & 
Norres, and her brother thenne was she apprehended, and 
conveyed to the same place, aftre her was sent thither for 
the crymes specefied, S/'r Frauncrj Weston and Will/Vim 
Brereton. And Norres Weston Brereton and Mark^j be 
already cowdcmpncd to deathe, vppon arrayncmcnt in West- 
mtMS/fr hal on Friday last. She and her brother shalbe 
arayncd tomorowe, and wil vndoubtcdlie goo the same wayc. 
I write noo particularities, the things be soo abhomynable, 
that I thinke the like was neuer harde, and therfor I doubt 
not but this shalbe sufficient for your Instruction to declare 
the truth if ye haue occasion soo to doo. Yowr lordship shall 
get in cc 11 of the Ill cl that were out amongfs thise men, not- 
withstanding grcatc sutc hath been made for the hole, whiche 
though the king^f highnes might give in this cace yet his 
maiestie doth not forget yowr s/vuicc. And the third c 1 ' is 
bestowed of the vicar of hell, vppon (whom) though it be 

1 i.e. 300. 



THOMAS CROMWELL 13 

some charge vnto youe his highnes trusteth ye wil think it 
wel bestowed. And thus Fare you most hartely well From 
the Roullr.r in hast this xiiii^ of Maye 

Yowr louyng assuryd freen[d] 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

And youe Maister Wallop shall not at this tyme be for- 
gotten, but the certaintie of that ye shall haue I cannot tel 
but in the next \etterts ye shall knowe it, and I assure youe 
the kingcs highnes taketh bothe your s^ruices in as thankfull 
parte as your selfcr could wishe or deuise 

Add. To myn Assured Loving freendes my lord of Win- 
chestre and S*> John Wallop knight the King^r Ambassadors 
in Fraunce in hast 
hast post 

Endd. From the Roulles in haste the xiiij th of Maye Mr 
Secretary 

148. CROMWELL TO THE MAGISTRATES OF 
CANTERBURY. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 32,638, f. 83 ; not in Cal. May 18 (1536). 

The King is informed that they have chosen others than those whom he 
desired, to be burgesses from Canterbury. Requires them to dis- 
regard the first election, to hold another, and choose the King's 
nominees. 

The coppy of the kyng^j letters. 

In my herty wyse I recomende me vnto you these shalbe 
forasmoche as the kyngrj plesur and comaundemewt ys that 
Robert Derknall and John Bryges schulbe electe and chosyn 
Citezin or burgesses for that Cite by reson wherof my lorde 
Chaunceler and I by owyr \etterts writen vnto you aduertysyd 
you therof and ye the same litle or nothynge regardynge but 
rather cowtemnywg haue closen 1 othyr at your owne wylles 
and myndes cowtrarie to the kyng^j plesure and comande- 
me>/t in that behalfe Wherat the kynges highnes dothe not 
a lytell marvell Wherefore in advoydyng of ferther dysplesur, 
that myjte therby ensue I require you on the kyng^j behalfe 
that notwythstondynge the seyd elecc/on ye precede to a new 
and electe thosse other, acordynge to the tenure of the former 
letteres to you dyrectyd for that purpose w/t^out faylyng so 
to do as the kyng^j truste and expectacion is in you and as 
ye entende to avoide hys highnes displesur at your parell 
And yf any p^rsone wyll obstynatly gaynsay the same I 

1 sic for ' chosen.' 



14 LETTERS OF [1536 

require you to aduertise me therof that I maye ordre hym as 
the kyngrf plesur shalbc in that case to cowmande Thus fare 
yc well at the rollcs the xviii day of May 

\our louyngc frcndc 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my ry?th louyngc frcndrj the Mayr SheryflVvr and 
comiwaltie of the Cite of Caunterbury and to eu^ry of them 

149. CROMWELL TO GARDINER AND WALLOP. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 162; Cal. x. 1084. June 8 (1536). 

Informs them of the King's answers to the Bailly of Tmyes first that if 
a General Council is held, it ought to be convoked in a safe place and 
in a fair way ; and, second, that he cannot grant the desired contribu- 
tion, as it would render him unfit to mediate between France and 
Spain. Cf. Letters 147, 153, and 158. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendac/bns Thise shalbe taduer- 
tise youe that Forasmoche as the frenche king hathc Lately 
directed hither to the kingrr highnes the baylie of Troys, who 
hathc entreated only twoo sper/all pointes, Thone concern- 
yng his gracw opinion and sentence touching thindiction of 
a generall Counsail, Thother tattayne knowleage of his gracfs 
resoluc/'on concernyng their desired ayde and contribuc/bn to 
be given by his Maiestie towards the supportac/bn and mayn- 
tcn/w/nce of his good brother the frenche kingry warres against 
Themprrowr Like as his highnes deliberating vppon the 
same hath made suche answer as all partcs considered was 
thought convenient, Soo to thintent having knowleage of the 
same, ye shuld the better prepare and arme yowrsclf not only 
to mayntain the wisedom and equitie of them but also to 
advaunce the same in suche wise as maye be for his graco 
honnowr and the general quiet and repose of all Christendom 
his highnes hathe cowmaundcd me in suche ordrc wordc for 
worde to signifie the said answers vnto youe as the same were 
conceyved and translated into frenche be nowe delyucred to 
the said baylie. First concernyng the general Counsail, like 
as his Maiestie cannot otherwise thinke, but that a free chr/j/ien 
general counsail shuld be bothe expedient and necessary, 
bothc for thencreace of thonowr of god, and thextirpacibn 
abolicion and extinguishment of suche abuses errowrs and 
cnormyties, as haue been long violently maynteyncd to the 
obfustac/on of goddrj holy and indeficible trouth, and to the 
derogac/on of the powre and auctorities of kingrj and princes 
due vnto them by the same, Soo his highnes thinkcth it shalbc 
more thenne necessary for all prince spcr/ally, not only to 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL U 

forsee that noo counsail shal be indicted but in suche place 
as maye be tute indifferent and suche as wherin all men that 
shall reasorte thither may frankely and frelye speake and 
pronounce their opinions and sentence in matiers to be en- 
treated, in the same, and therupon to haue suche direction 
taken, as may be consonant to godd^ worde and bni^ficial 
to the hole vnytie state and bodye of Chrij/mdom, But also 
that there maye be an ordre taken among^j Chrw/ien princes 
befor aswel for thappointement of suche a place as is specefied 
as for the maner and forme of the indiction and who shalbe 
the Ministre in the same, For his highnes hath soo well and 
p^rfitely desciphred the vsurpaczbns of the bisshop of Rome 
chiefly atteyned by a pretended supremytie in suche coun- 
sailes, that his grace hath certainly resolued neyther to con- 
descende to any counsail to be by him indicted, ne by any 
other potentate, onles the same shalbe befor agreed on befor 
in maner and forme befor expressed. As his Maiestie veraily 
trusteth his good brother the said frenche king whose wise- 
dome his highnes knoweth to prrpende and waye right wisely 
and prudently the premisses, will for his parte do the sem- 
blable. 

Concernyng the Contribuczon Albeit the said frenche king 
shall at all tymes fynde his Maiestie a most sure and faithfull 
freende vnto him, yet forasmoche as his highnes at this tyme 
p^rceyvethe a certain inclynaaon bothe in Themperour and 
in his said good brother to compromytt all suche matiers as 
depende in controuerse betwene them into his highnes handes. 
to be by him compounded and determyned, his grace thinking 
and certainly knowing and considering that thappointement 
of any suche contribuabn at this present shuld make him an 
vnmete Arbiter and Judge betwene them, whiche might be 
hindrance let staye and empechement to many good purposes 
and successes, not only to his said good brother but likewise 
to all Christendom hath thought it requisite and necessary to 
put ouer the certain determynaobn of the said ayde and con- 
tribuabn vntil suche tyme, as he shall see an Actuel Invasion 
of themp^owr in the domynions of his good brother, or that 
ihempefonr shal refuse vppon his mediaczbn to com to suche 
conformytie as shal appertain trusting to receyve spedily 
suche articles from his said good brother touching his offres 
already made and Thempero#rs demaundrj as wherupon he 
maye entreate w*t// the said Emprrowr and thoroughly feale 
his inclynaczbn and resolucrbn in the same. And like as his 
highnes trusteth veraily that his good brother sending to him 
suche articles will in the same not only for the bcttre conducing 
of his desires to effecte but also for that his Assured freende 



16 LETTERS OF [1536 

shall haue thentreatie of them, being oon that will travail to 
make his bargain as good as he canne deuisc and compasse, 
declare and offre suchc things as may be honorable and 
reasonable, and rather commytt more to his graces- fidelitie 
and frcendeship in the conclusion thcrof thenne he hath 
already offreed and cowmytted to the bisshop of Rome or 
any other potentate or Arnbassadowr. Soo in cace his highnes 
shal not therupon induce Themp^rowr by any meanes to 
harken to reason, his grace will not faile, thenne to make 
suche answer to his saide good brother touching the said 
contribuc/on as it shal appere to all the world that his grace 
is his moost fwrfite and entier Freende. 

Thus haue I writen vnto youe the klnges answer to the 
said two Articles proponed by the said baily of Troys, whiche 
his grace doubtethe not but ye wil as wel thinke reasonable, 
as mayntain w/t// suche reasons as shalbe for his grac^r 
honowr thentertaynement of thamytie, and thavauncement 
of the purpose conteyned in the same, that is to haue the 
king the mediatowr betwene thise two princes, whiche his 
grace will neyther by ! moche scke ne yet refuse if it be put 
vnto him, & as Themp^rowrs Ambassadowr here resident 
hathe good hope that his maistcr shall by his meane con- 
descende therunto, soo as the frenche king wil doo the 
emblable, even soo hathe the bay lie of Troys and Mons/V//;- 
de Tarbez also, that their master wil not faile gladly to com 
to the same purpose. Whiche towardnes on bothe sides 
caused and compelled his Maiestie to staye in the graunting 
of any contribuc/on for the respecter expressed tyl he shall 
knowe further certaintie in this bchaulf. Finally his grace 
desirethe you also Maister Wallop to travail of yoi/rself in the 
furtherance of this matier vtith themprrowrs Ambassadowr, 
and likewise wrt// all other whom ye shall thinke may ad- 
vauncc the same. Whiche commission is to both of youe 
indifferent. And youe shal my lord of Winchestre vndrc- 
standc that the kingr s highnes was moche offended wi'tA your 
ernest sute for the pencibn appointed to Maister brian taking 
it half vnkindly that thoughe his grace had no pretence of 
right in it, ye shuld laboi/r soo ernestly to defeatc his ernest 
promyse. And therfor I shall frccndely aduise youe by your 
next \ftttrcs soo frankly and simplic to grauntc the satisfaction 
of his pleasure therm, as yc may rcdubbe that is passed and 
contynuc your cstimacion wit// him, whiche maye be asmochc 
worth to youe as that amounteth to. And this I assure youe 
I write more frecndely, to youe a greate dealc, thenne ye 

1 . . o. any meanes 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 17 

hauc held your peace \vitA me in a matier of a greate deale 
lesse weight. And thus Fare you hartely well From the 
Roulls the viii th of June. 

Your lordshyppis assuryd 
j THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To myn Assured Loving Frcendes my lord of Win- 
chestre and sir John Wallop knight, the kings Ambassadowrs 
in fraunce. 

Endd. From the Roulles the viij 01 of June. Mr. Secretary 

150. (CROMWELL) TO (THE PRINCESS MARY). 

B. M. Otho C. x, f. 280; Cal. x. mo. (J une > 1536). 

Upbraids her for her obstinacy in resisting the King. Sends her a book 
of articles to subscribe, and advises her to comply. Threatens to 
abandon her if she does not yield. 

.... I haue receyved your k*//rres wh ... ye be in greate 

discomfor .... that I shuld fynde the w/'t// youe For 

answer ndrestande that ho we gr . . . . your discomfort 

is, it canne be n .... henne myn who hath vppon .... ken so 

moche of your repentance full obstinacy against the 

.... and of your humble sub things w/'t//out excep- 
tion .... to obey to his pleasure knowing howe diu*vslye 

a .... oceded at the late being aiesties counsail w . . . . 

yo moche ashamed of that and likewise 

afrayed doon . . . somoche that uel therof shalbe 

god s w/'t// your foly ye v that hathe wis 

I will pitie ye shuld not punishment if 

self an exemple in your natural fathe 

oune only fantaz l Judgements and .... of all men 

that ye knowe and love god .... except ye will 

sh prrsuwmption wherf w/'t^ youe as god is 

I thinke youe to mos ndurate woman all that 

euer was and wel desrrueth the re extremytie 

of M ot open my lippes may haue suche a 

it may appere the least that for that 

ye be bounde vnto by yo of allcagcancc, if nature 

wcr from youe 2 and in a lik planted in 

the same as it .... eurry other co;en subgiet 

I haue sent vnto you a certa f Articles wherunto 3 

.... yf ye 4 yo//r h . . . . ribe yo//r name * e 

vndoubtedly please same conformable to hi .... as ye 

\\ ill in scmbla yve it in your harte w/V/owt dis . . . . pt 

1 c. 0. opinions * f. o. pouer of god set 

* c. o. in * c . o. I b 8 c . o. whe 



MEKRIMAN. II 



18 LETTERS OF [1536 

whcrof again from re declaring that ye that 

ye haue l subs de, I shall eftsoncs speke for your 

reconsilia s And w/'tA spede leave les 

whichc and desire youe 

neucr to write meane vnto me heraftre, for I 

think youe other thcnne the vnnatural and most 

obstinate lyving bothe to god & your most dere & ... 

And I 3 ad to nothing but I beseche god 

hclpe me if I knowe certainly to be your bounde 

godoVj lawe and m I must ncdes iudge t 

shall refuse it, n in a chrwtien congreg 

wherof I take Christ I refuse if I write that I haue 

not pr^fe and knowe to be true 

151. CROMWELL TO GARDINER AND WALLOP. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 166; Cal. x. 1123. June 12 (1536). 

Sends a duplicate in French of the answer given to the Bailly of Troyes, 
which has been slightly altered since Cromwell's last letters. Cf. 
Letter 149. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendaabns, Albeit by my Last 
"Letterts I signified vnto youe the kingfj highnes answer thenne 
detcrmyned and delyuered to the baylie of Troys vppon 
theflecte of his message yet forasmoche as sithens the said 
baylie hathe instantly sued to haue certain worths in the 
same answer altered, as rather gathered of his general com- 
w////rcation thanne by him soo precisely ment as he wold 
haue it in the same sorte it was expressed conveyed to his 
Maisters eares, and that his grace hath been contented to 
satisfie his request in that behaulf, for avoyding of all 
errowrs ye shal herw/tA receyve the very duble in frenche of 
that \vhiche is delyurred vnto him, wherin ye shall fynde the 
worde of Invasion supposed to be spoken by them left out, 
and the certain inclynacion in the frenche king to com- 
promytt into the kingrj highnes handes, thoughe indede their 
vtordfs before in effecte conteyned as moche as is expressed 
in myn other Letleres And thus Fare youe hartcly well From 
the Roulk-j the xii* of June. 

Your lordshippis assuryd freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my Loving Freendes My lorde of Wynchester and 
Sir John Wallop knight the kings; highnes ambassadors in 
Fraunce. 

Eudd. From the Roullcs the xii th of June Mr. Sc<c)rctary 
1 f. 0. or shall * c.o tes blessing * f. 0. write 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 19 

152. < CROMWELL) TO SIR BRIAN TUKE. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 6069, f. 99; Cal. x. 1124. June 12, 1536. 

Orders him to pay Clarencieux jlo, due to him for his diets beyond what 
has already been paid. 

Mr. Tuke whereas ye by the k'mgcs coma//ndment certy- 
fyed yow by me the xxij th daye of Januarye last past before 
the date hereof payd vnto norray nowe clarencieulx kinge at 
Armes sent then into Scotland to Attende vpon the lorde 
Will/Vim Howarde and the bushoppe then elect of Assaph 
nowe elect of Saynt Davys being then also sent in ambassade 
into Scotland aforsayd vppon a Reckewynge of his dyettar 
aftre the Rate of vi s. viii d. by the daye for iiii monethes 
beforehande accoumptynge xxviii daies to eurry moneth 
the same dyettcs to be accoumpted & to begyn the sayd 
xxii th daye of Januarye the Som of xxxvii li. vi s. viii d. for 
Asmoche as the same norray nowe Clarencieulx contynued 
his Abode in the sayd voyage from the xxi th daye of Januarye 
last paste before the date hereof vntyll the xii th daye of June 
then next followinge exclusyve videlicet by the space of 
cxlii daies so that theire ys due to him for hys dyettey for 
the sayd tyme the Som of xlvii li. vi s. viii d. w//*ch he hathe 
in the sayde moneth of Januarye last past, wherof receiud of 
yow the Som of xxxvii li. vi s. viii d. as before & so vesteth 
due to him for hys sayd dyettar the Som of tenne pounds, 
I sygnyfye vnto yow that the k[ing]^ pleasure ys that ye 
incontyenent of his graces money beinge in your Custodye 
paye vnto the sayd clarencieulx the sayd Some of x li. in Full 
supplyment & payment of his sayd dyttes for the tyme 
Aforsayd. And thus hartely fare fare ' ye well. At my howsse 
at the Rolles the xii th daye of June in the xxviii th yere of the 
Reigne of our said sourraigne lorde kinge Henrye theight 1536. 

153. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 175 ; Cal. xi. 29. July 5 (1536). 

Reproaches Gardiner for his unfriendly behaviour. Upbraids him for his 
conduct in connexion with the annuity granted to Brian, and for his 
obstinacy in resisting the will of the King. Announces the King's 
marriage to Jane Seymour. Cf. Letters 147, 149, and 156. 

Aftre my right harty co;mendac/bns to your Lordshippe 
I haue receyvcd your sundry k//rres, for the whiche I doo 
right hartely thank youe, and amongts others those of the 
xxi th of the last moneth, writen for your answer to a fewe 
wordrj inserted in thende of my k/fcres a litle bcfor addressed 
vnto youe, touching your contenc/on for the awnuitie by the 

1 sic. 

c a 



20 LETTERS OF [i 



highncs graunted to Maister brian vppon thattaindrr 
of Norres, the cause of whiche your stayc or I mayc still call 
it contcnc/on thcrin, appercthe in yonr said lr//rrcs not soo 
frecndely conceyved, as I thinke my merities towards youe 
haue dcvrucd being only yo//r fantazie that I shuld rather 
of my self thennc otherwise promote that matier vnto youe. 
For soo ye write, whenne his Maicstie shall give me an ex- 
prcssc cowmaundcment, and saye my pleas///r is thowc shalt 
paye oon hundreth pounds to suche an vse etc. Truly my 
lord though my talent be not soo precious as yot/rs, yet I trust 
w/t// his helpe that gave me it, to vse it soo as it shall doo his 
office w/t//out gathering suche suspitions vppon freendeship. 
I rcpetc that worde again bicausc I mcnt frcendely in the 
writing of it, or the adhering soo fast to the ymaginac/bn 
thcrof, that I shuld doo nothing w/t//out expresse cowmaunde- 
mentrj at his request whose only inclynac/on shuld of con- 
gruence bowe thaffections of suche men as we be. who hathe 
rcceyvcd all that we haue at his hande, and cause vs rather 
kindely to give place, thenne soo crncstly to contende as 
might prrcace neythcr prevayl ne suffre the thing to haue 
that grace it might haue had at the bcgynning And yet wold 
I as oon that toke myself in your oune estimac/on for yo//r 
frcende, desire youe to thinke that I will not wade in any 

fr/uate matier in the king my Souurraign lordrj name vnles 
haue his cowmaundement soo to doo, as in my first L-//rrcs 
writen for the said Annuite I declared vnto youe I had, whiche 
of his greate goodncs it pleasithe his highnes to avouche at 
this tyme vnto youe. But nowe to your L7/rres. Your giftes 
rcceyved of God be greate, and somoche the more cause ye 
haue to thanke him for them. yo//r other giftes receyved of 
the king be not small, and therfor your s^ruice to his Maiestie 
for the same is loyall and diligent, and soo bothe for yonr 
discharge and the saufgardc of yo//r cstimac/bn it ought to be. 
yo//r wisedom his grace knowethe in thordre of your things, 
and therfor desired you not to doo him pleasure, if ye wil 
exclude vtterly right, for that ye could not vse it pleasantly 
yowrsclf, but for that he thought yours and his had not been 
yet soo dcuidcd but he might w/t// a peace of prayer haue 
doon as moche w/t// youe in such a matier as w/t// a straicte 
cowmaundcment. What your debt/j be his grace knowethe 
not, Ne I for my p^rte haue fully somoche leysowr that I canne 
eyther take a iust accompt of youe, of all that ye owe, and 
haue rcceyved and paied sithens ye were bisshop of Win- 
chcstre. I aduised youe not to entre giftes w/tA your prince 
wherby your Crcditow/s shuld thinke yc went aboute to give 
away that wherwithe ye shuld content and paye them their 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 21 

dieuties, but I signified as a ministre thoughc not worthie of 
credence, his graces mynde only in the bestowing of oon parte 
of thre partrs of that whiche ye neuer had befor, And ther- 
unto ye made a reciproque Argument that if the king had an 
Interest in the bestowing of it ye trusted in consideration of 
your nede and srruice, he wold bestowe it vppon youe, And 
if the lawe wold allott it vnto you ye said ye trusted his grace 
wold prrmytt vnto youe the vse of your oune, whiche whenne 
I prrceyved that his Maiestie toke not in veiy good parte, ne 
determyned vppon that gentle dilemma to leave his determy- 
nac/on imp<vfite, I wrote vnto youe freendely aduising youe 
rather frankly and w*'t// an apparance of a good will to satisfie 
his grace thenne soo to contende in it, as he might take it vn- 
kindely. And nowe for that aduise whiche I toke to be freendly 
ye take greate payne to make me beleve that I haue neyther 
freendcship in me nor honestie, wherin howe freendely ye pro- 
cede w/t/j me But that ye be moche given to your oune Judge- 
ment, I durst make yourself the Judge. And nowe that I haue 
again vttrcd all my colour towards youe, I remytt your oune 
matier to your oune ordre, and shall only wishe ye maye take 
that waye that I wold take and wold haue taken or this in a 
semblable cace. Touching your greate desire of newes In 
good faithe I wrote asmoche and as plainly of the matiers 
that chaunced here as I culd deuise vnles I shuld haue sent 
youe the very confessions, whiche were soo abhomynable that 
a greate parte of them were neuer given in Evidence but clcrely 
kept secrete, that the king is maried again I doubt not but ye 
knowe, And for your further satisfaction like as all his nobles 
and counsail vppon their knees moved him soo to doo, soo 
hath his grace I thinke chosen the vetuost lady and the veriest 
gentlewoman that lyveth and oon that variethe asmoche from 
the conditions of thother as the daye variethe from the night 
My lady Mary is also a most obedient child to the kingcs 
highnes, and as conformable as any living faithfull subgiet 
canne be, the late princesse the lady Elizabethe is by parlia- 
ment pronounced also Illegitimate, I trowe I shall nowe please 
youe, for more ye cannot require of me thenne I canne signifie, 
I haue delyurred your scruant Peter Larke money according 
to your desire that is to saye ccxxxiii 11 vi viii d . I require 
yowr lordship by the next post to sende vnto me the copie 
of the treatie w/'t// the Frenche king made last whenne pormrey 
was here. And thus moost hartely Fare youe well From the 
Roulkr the V th of July 

Your lordshippis louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 



22 LETTERS OF 

Add. To my Veray good Lorde my lord of Winchcstre the 
Ambassadowr in Fraunce 

Johannes Kyngston 

Endd. From the Roullcs the v u of July Mr. Secretary 
154. CROMWELL TO JOHN HARDING, PRIEST. 

R. O. CaL xi. 44. July 8 < 1 536). 
Informs him that the King's command is that he repair to Cromwell at once. 



I Cowmendc me vnto youe Lating you wit the 
pleasure and cowmaundement is that all excuses and delaycs 
set aparte ye shall incowtynently vppon the right herof rea- 
paire vnto me Wheresoeuer I shall chaunce to be, the spcr/alties 
wherof ye shall knowe at your cuwmyng w;t//out failling 
thus to doo as ye will answer at your prrill. From the 
Koullfj the viii th daye of July 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Resayd the morow aftrr St. Mary Mawdlcn day 

Add. To Sir John Harding parishe prest of Harding 
Endd. My Lord is \rtttrt to Sir John Harding parish 
prcst of Harding 

155. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 55. July 10(1536). 

Protests that his last letters to Lisle have been written in a spirit of perfect 
friendship. Promises to let him know when he can come over to 
meet the King at Dover. 

After my right harty recowmendac/bn vnto your good 
lordship thiese shalbe to adurrtise the same that I haue res- 
ccyved your \ctteres and prrsayve aswell by thesame as by 
other reaport that ye shuld take unkyndly my l/7/<res lately 
sent vnto you, takyng therby occasion to iuge me to be dis- 
pleased \\i\Jt you. I assure yowr lordship howe so ever I wrote 
I ment no ill, but for asmoche as yowr former lr//^res and 
myne were so writen that ncyther of vs undcrstode thcsamc 
well, as yowr lordshippis lovyng frynd I wrote the more 
playnly for the tyme to geve you occasion to set forward 
that weighty bcsynes as the necessite therof dyd then require, 
mcnyng no thing elles touching any displeasure then your 
very prrfait frynd myght do. I haue byn ones in hand w/tA 
the king<-j highnes to opteyne licence that yowr lordship 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 23 

myght come over to mete \vitA his sayd highnes at Dovoir 
when he shuld come thither, but as yet I haue no determynate 
answer thcrin but when I shall resceyve the same I shall more 
largely adu^rtise your lordship therof by huse your struaunt 
who attendithe here (as he saithe) for that purpose. Thus the 
blessed Trenyte p^rserue your good lordship. At the rolles 
the X th day of Julye. 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To the right honourable and my veray good lord 
the Vicount lisle the Kynges Depute at Calays. 

Endd. my lorde pmrisaillis. 



156. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 191 ; Cal. xi. 152. July 23 (1536). 

Has perceived that Gardiner is hurt by what Cromwell wrote about Brian. 
Thinks the matter had better drop now, and assures Gardiner of his 
friendship. Cf. Letters 147, 149, and 153. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendac/ons to your Lordshippe, 
By this currowr ye shall receyve the king^r highnes answer 
to suche If //ires as ye haue lately dispeched vnto him, thefifecte 
wherof I doubt not but ye will considre and accomplishe if 
ye maye as shall appertayn. And forasmoche as by your 
last \c //rres of the xij th of this moneth writen to me, I pe rceyve 
that vppon myn writen befor touching the cause of Maister 
Brian ye were suwwhat moved, gathering what ye could, and 
applieng the same if not colerikly I must nedes thinke melan- 
coulily, to your purpose vritA chauwge of some of my \vor6es 
and sentence to make your matier the more apparant being 
yet freendely disputed, to thintent the matier therof might 
haue no further mention, being nowe come to a good ende 
bothe for the k'inges highnes satisfaction, and the remoc/on 
of that hote matier from bothe our stomakes who be nowe, 
as for myn oune parte I dare avouchc, soo I think for yours 
clerely purged, like as I commenced the same freendely w/tA 
youe, that is to saye that parte wherin at the lest appered 
a contencion Soo, now I require youe, for your parte to 
finishe freendely that ye haue promysed as I doubte not but 
ye will, and to wrappe vppe the rest in the patent to be made 
of the same. For I am for my parte even the same man 
I was befor, that is your assured Freende, thoughe in this mater 
thinking myself a litle touched I wrote suwwhat quykly, and 



24 LETTERS OF [1536 

double not in you to fynde the semblable inclynac/on towards 
me And thus moost hartcly Fare youe well from Dover the 
xxiii" 1 of July 

I require your Lordship to make myn harty cowmenda- 
c/ons to Maister Walloppe. 

* Yowr lordshippis assuryd frcnd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray good lord my lord of Winchestre the 
Ambassadowr in fraunce. 



Etidd. From Dover the xxiii* 11 of July the lorde Pr/vay 
Seel 



157. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE AND THE COUNCIL 
OF CALAIS. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 307. Aug. I (1536). 

Begs to be informed of the reasons that Edward Thwaites can bring 
forward for his statement that the office of the Lantern belongs to 
him by inheritance. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendac/bns Forasmoche as my 
struaunt Edwarde Thwaytes hathe declared vnto me that he 
canne prove sufficiently that the office of the Lantern be- 
longith vnto him by the cours of his Enheritance, in whiche 
cace the Interest of Cornwales is determyned, like as I 
thought convenient to desire and pray youe fauorably and 
indifferently w/t//out respecte to here, see and considre what 
he shall in that behaulf alledge shewe and declare for him- 
self Soo I doubt not but fynding him to be rightfully entiteled 
vnto it, ye will according to Justice restore him to the 
possession therof in suche sorte as he or his Auncestowrs 
befor him haue had and enioyed the same. And what ye 
shall Fynde in this matier vppon suche examynacion I 
require youe to signifie also vnto me accordingly. And thus 
Fare you hartely well From Oxford the first of August. 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my very good lord the viscounte lisle dcputie of 
Calayes and to all other of the kingi; Counsail there 

Endd. my lord pr/uy scale 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 25 

158. (CROMWELL) TO (CHAPUYS) l . 

Vienna Archives ; Cal. xi. 306. Aug. 15 (1536). 

Has been informed that the Emperor's subjects in the Netherlands rob 
and maltreat the English, especially by sea. Begs him to write for 
redress in order that the friendship of the King and the Emperor 
may not cool. 

Monseigncur. Par ce present porteur, que j'ay faict des- 
pecher au plus tost quil ma este possible sans longuement le 
retarder, je vous ay bien voulu aduertir que les subiectz de 
lempereur vre. maistre en ses pays dembas maltraictent et 
journellement molestent et pyllent et desroubent les subiectz 
du roy mon maistre, comme speciallement ilz ont faict puis 
nagueres par la mer, de quoy je vous prie rescripre de par 
dcla et faire tant que sera possible, non seullement que telz 
oultraiges cessent pour le temps aduenir, mais aussi que 
redresse en soit faicte, et que lesd. subiectz puissent som- 
mairement estre recompcnsez entierement accordant droict et 
raison ; a quoy monseigneur, je vous prie daultant, que par 
les moyens les choses se porroient exasperer, et led. sei- 
gneur roy non sans cause estre desplaisant, si rcmcde nyestoit 
mys ainsi qu'il appartient, et par ce les bons propoz au tant 
vous que moy auons tant la bonte ct pris de paine estre 
interruptez ou refroydyz, vous vueillez vous y employer et 
y tenir la main en tant que vous sera possible, de sorte que 
le roy mond. maistre puisse par effect congnoistre que lesd. 
exces sont faict sans le sceu et adueu de lempereur et de 
madame, et que par tollerance ilz ne semb'e quilz les vueillent 
ratifier, ains plus tost reprouuer punissant les malfacteurs 
a lexemple des aultres: et jespoire que ce faisant et veu la 
bonne inclination que Ion rescript estre de par dela, que noz 
affaires sortiront et auront bon succes, honnorable a tous 
princes ct prouffitable au bien vniuersel de la chrestiente. 
A tant mons r apres mestre recommande tres affectueusement 
a vre. bonne grace je prie a nre. createur vous auoir en sa tres 
saincte et digne garde. 

Escript a Oking le xv 6 daoust. 

159. CROMWELL'S INJUNCTIONS TO THE CLERGY. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 377. August, 1536. 

Directions to the clergy how to preach, and what to insist upon. They 
are to teach all children and servants the Lord's Prayer, the Articles 
of Faith and the Ten Commandments in English. They are not to 
haunt ale-houses or play cards. All those benericed above ^20 yearly, 
are to give away one-fortieth of their revenue. Cf. Letter 273. 

1 From the official Record Office transcript. 



26 LETTERS OF [1536 

In the name of god Amen in the ycrc of our Lorde god 
a thousandc five hundrcth syxt and thritty, and of the moste 
noble reignc of our soueraigne Lordc Henry the VIII th king 
of England & of fraunce, defcnsowr of the faith Lorde of 
Ireland, and in crthe supreme hedde of the churche of Eng- 
land the xxviii" 1 ycrc and the daic of August Thoiruzs 
Crunuvcll knyght Lorde Crumwell kcper of the privcy Scale 
of our said soueraigne Lordc the king and vitzgcrcnt to the 
same for and cowcernyng all his Jurisdiction ecclesiastical 1 
within this Kealme. Visiting by the kingw highcncs supreme 
auctoritic ccclrjiasticall the people and clergie of this deanrie 
of N by onr trustie Cow/missarie Mr. N. N. doctowr of lawc, 
Lawfully constitute and deputed for this partc hauc to the 
glorye of allmightic god, to the kingrj highcnes honour the 
publiquc weale of this his rcalme, and cncrcasc of vcrtuc in 
the same, appoyntcd and assigned thies Injunctions cnsuyng 
to be kept and obserucd of the deane, persons, vicarcs curates 
and stipendiaries resiante or having cure of soulc or any other 
sp/viall adm///istracion within this deanrie vnder the paynes 
hereafter limited & appoyntcd. 

The Firste is that the deane persons, vicars and other 
hauyng cure of soulle anywhere within this deanrye shall 
faithfully kepc and obserue, and as farre as in thcym mayc be, 
shall cause to be kept and obserued of other all and singular 
Lawcs & statute ot this Rcalme made for thabolisshing and 
extirpacion of the busshop of Romes prr/rnsed power and 
Jurisdiction within this Rcalme. And for thcstablishmcwt 
and cowfirmacion of the king Authoritie and Jurisdiction 
within the same, as of the supreme hcdd of the churche of 
Englande ; and shall declare at the Leaste wise ones eucry 
quarter of a yere in their sermons howc this busshop of Romcs 
vsurpcd power and Jurisdiction hauing no establishment nor 
grounde by the Lawe of god was of moste iustc causes taken 
awcye and abolisshed. And that thcrforc they owe vnto hym 
no mancr of obedience or subjection. And that the kingrj power 
is within his dominion the highest potentate or power vndcr 
god, to whom all men within the same do////nion by goddrj 
cowmaundcment owe moste Loyaltie and obedience, afore and 
abouc all other powers and potentates in crthc. 

Also in the same their sermons the persons, vicarcs and 
other curates aforesaid shall diligently admonishe, the parents 
Maisters and gouernowrs of youthe being within their cure to 
tcachc or cause to be taught their children evyn from their 
infancie their pater nostcr, tharticlcs of our faithc, and the 
x commaundcmcntrj in their mothers toong, and the same 
so taught shall cause the said youthe ofte to repctc and vn- 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 27 

drcstande. And to thintent this maye be the more easely 
doom* the said Curates shall in their sermoncs deliberately and 
planely recite one clause of the said pater noster, articles or 
cow/maundementer one daye and a nother a nother daie till 
the hole be taught and lerned by Litle & Litle. And shall 
deliuer the same in writing or shewe where printed bookcs 
cowtcynyng the same be to be solde, to theym that can reade 
and woll desire the same. And therto that the said parents 
Maisters and gouernowrs do bestowe their children evyn fro; 
their childehod other to Lernyng or to some other honest exer- 
cise occupac/on or husbandrie. Leaste at any tymc afterwarde, 
they be driven for lacke of some misterie or occupacrbn to live 
by, to fall to begging stealing or some other vnthriftynes. 
Sithe we may see dayli through slouth and ydlenes diuers 
valiaunte men fall some to begging and some to thefte and 
murder, whiche after brought to calamitie and miscrie im- 
puteth a greate parte therof to their frendrj & gouernowrs, 
which suffred theym to be brought up so ydelly in their 
youthes. Where yf they had bcne well educated and brought 
up in some good IrVrrature occupacion or misterie they shulde 
being rulers of their owne familie haue profited aswell theym- 
self as diuers other prrsons to the greate co;moditie and 
ornamewt of the common weale. 

Also that the said persons vicares and other curates shall 
diligently prouide that the sacrame;/t and sacramewtall^ be 
duely and reuerently miwwtred in their parishes. And if at 
any tyme it happen theym other by the cases expressed in 
the statute of this realme or of sprnall licence geuen by the 
kingrj maiestie to be absent frow their benefices they shall 
leave their cure not to a rude and vnlerned person but to a 
good, lerned & experte curate, that maye teache the rude and 
vnlerned of their cure, holsome doctrine and reduce theym to 
the right weye that doo erre, And allwaye lett theym soe 
that nother they nor their vicares doo seke more their owne 
pr^uffit than the pr0uffit of the Soulles that they haue vnder 
their cure or the glorie of god. 

And to thintent that lerned men maye hereafter spring the 
more for thexecution of the premisses, euery person vicar 
clerk or beneficed man within this deanrie hauyng yerely to 
dispende in benefices or other promotions of the churche a 
hundreth pounds shall geue competent exhibition to one 
scholar And for as many hundreth pounds more as he maye 
dispende to so many scholars more shall geve like exhibicion 
in the vniurrsite of oxforde or cambrige or some gramer 
schole. Which after that they haue pnmffitted in good Lern- 
yng may be parteners of their patrones cure and charge, aswell 



28 LETTERS OF [1536 

in preaching as otherwise in thcxccution of their offices. Or 
maye whan ncde shalbe, otherwise prtmffit the common wcalc 
with their counsaill and wisdomc. 

Beside this to thintcnt that all supwrsticion and ypochrisie 
crept into diuers mens hartes mayc vanyshe aweye, they shall 
not sett forthe or extolle any images reliqucs or miracles fur 
any superstition or Lucre. Nor allure the people by any 
entisemcntrj to the pilgrcmage of any sainct (otherwise than 
is j>crmitted in tharticles Lately condescended vpon by the 
clcrgie of this realme in conuocation) as though it were proper 
or peculiar to that sainct to geve this cowmoditie or that. 
Sithrnj all goodnes, helthe and grace, ought to be bothe asked 
and loked for onely of god, as of the very authowr of the 
same, for without hym it can not be given. But they shall 
exhortc aswcll their parishioners as other pilgremes, that they 
doo rather applie theymself to the kcping of goddrj co/n- 
maundementAr and fullfilling of his workrj of charitie. And 
persuade theym, that it dothe conduce more towarde their 
soulrj helthe yf they doo geve that to the poore and nedy, 
that they thought to bcstowe vpon the said images or 
reliqucs. 

Also the said clerkes shall in no wise at any vnlaw- 
full tyme nor for any other cause than their honest neces- 
sitie haunte or reasorte to any tavernes or alehouses. And 
after their dyner and souper they shall not geve theymself 
to drinking and ryote sitting all daye at Tables or cardes 
playng and any other vnlawfull game and sprrially with vn- 
honest and vnthryftye persons. But whan they haue suche 
Leasure, they shall reade or here somewhat of holyscripture, 
or shall occupie theymself with some other like honest exer- 
cise. And lett theym allweys doo those things which maye 
apperteigne to good congruence & honestie wit// prtniffit of 
the co/nmunc wcale, Having allweys in mynde howe they 
ought to excclle all other in puritie of Jif, and shuld be example 
to all other to live well and christianely. 

To this bicause the goodrj of the churche are called the 
goodfs of the poore, and at thies daies nothing is lesse seen 
than the poore to be susteyned with the same. We woll that 
all persones and vicares and other beneficed men and pension- 
aries within this dcanry not being resident vpon their benefices, 
which maye dispcnde yerely xx" or aboue, other within this 
dcanrie or elswhere, doo distribute hereafter yerely amonges 
their poore parishioners, or other inhabitauntrj there in the 
presence of the churche wardens or some other honest men 
of the parishe the fourtieth parte of the frutfj and revenues 
of their said benefices Leaste they be not vnworthely noted 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 29 

of ingratitude, which reseruyng so many partes to thcymsclf, 
can not vouchesauf to imparte the fourtieth portion therof 
cmongcs the poore people of that parish that is so frutefull 
and pn?uffitable vnto theym. 

Also that all persons Vicares and Clerks hauyng churches 
chappels or mansions within this deanrie shall bestowe yerely 
hereafter vpon the same mansions or chauncels of their churches 
being in dccaye, the fifte parte of that their beneficies, till they 
be fully repared, And the same so rcpared shall allweys kepe 
and mayntene in good state. 

Item where as certain articles were lately deuysed and putt 
foorth by the Kinges Authentic and condescended vpon by 
the Prelate and clergie of this his Realme in cowuocation, 
Wherof parte are necessarie to be holden and biloued for c>ur 
saluacion, And thother parte doo cowcerne and touche certain 
laudable ceremonies, rites and vsages of the churche mete and 
co;/uenie;/t to be kept and vsed for a decent and a politique 
ordre in the same, The said deane parsons, vicares and other 
curates shall so open and declare the said articles vnto theym 
that be vnder their cure, that they maye playnly knowe and 
discerne, which of the said articles be necessarie for their 
saluacion, and which of the same doo but cowcerne the decent 
and politique order of the said churche. And the firste dili- 
gently to plante and inculcate into the mynd^j of their parish- 
ioners : and to she we thother to be laudable & expedient & 
not to be co;/tc;//pned albeit that no man may reken hymself 
to be saued by thobseruyng of theym. 

Moreouer, that they shall declare vnto all suche as be vnder 
their cure tharticles likewise deuysed, putt foorth and Autho- 
rized of late for and cowcernyng the abrogacion of certain 
superfluous holydaies according to theffect and purportc of the 
same articles. And prrsuade their parishioners to kepe and 
obserue the same iwuiolately as things holesomely pr^uided 
decreyd and establisshed by commune consent and publique 
Authoritie, for the weale cowmoditie and pnmffit of all this 
Realme. 

All which and singular Injunctions we woll shalbe i;/uio- 
lately obserued of the said deane, persons, vicares curate, 
stipendiaries and other clerk^j and beneficed men vnder the 
peync of suspension and sequcstracion of the frutrj of their 
beneficies, vntill they haue dooru? their duetie according to 
thies Injunctions. 

Endd. Injunctions for the Clergie publysshed by the Lord 
Crumwell vicegerent to the kinge etc a//;/o 28 H 8. 

And again To Mr wricthesley. Iniunctions for the Clergie. 



30 LETTERS OF [1536 

160. (CROMWELL) TO JOHN WHALLEY AND OTHER 
OFFICERS AT DOVER. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 379. Aug. < 1 536). 

Has admitted John Gold to be head clerk for the King at his works at 
Dover. He is to be paid ife/. a day and the arrears due to him. 



John Whallcy and other of the kyngtt officers thcr, I cow- 
mend me vnto you. Ye shall vnderstand I hauc not only 
admyttyd for the kyng this berar John Golde tobc in his 
gracrj workrj at Dowr hcde Clarke for his highnes ther. But 
also to hauc the recepte of all that (is) met for his graa\r 
workes. And to kepe his booke as accostomablye he hathc 
vsid hertofore. Therfore for suchc payens and good s/'ruicrj 
that is informyd me he hathc done and intcndythc to doo for 
the kyngrr profyght and advauntage, ye shall vpon the syght 
herof paye vnto hym his wadgrj of xiid for eurry daye 
contynually. And aswell the areragrj of the same due vnto 
hym before this daye as vnto this daye all redye due. 
And in this yo//r so doyng ye shall desrrue of me harty 
thankes, as knowyth god. At the daye of August. 

Endd. Aug. John Whalley. 

161. CROMWELL TO SIR GILBERT TALBOT AND JOHN 

RUSSELL. 

Library of William Berington, Esq., of Little Malvern Court ; not in Cal. 

Sept. 7 <I536>. 

Requests them to examine the vicar of Crowle in Worcestershire, and 
to report what they learn from him. Torture may be used if necessary. 

After my right harty cowmendac/ons I haue receyved yo//r 
Isf/t-rcs touching the lewd c0wwication of the vicar of 
crowley and haue declared the contents of the same to the 
kingr^ highnes Who taketh yo//r faithful! diligenses thcrin in 
very good parte and for answer hath co/wmaunded me to 
signific vnto youc that his pleasure is yc shall cftsoncs examyn 
the prest himself vppon what groundc he vttcred that com- 
/;///// ication Vsing all the waycs ye canne possibly deuisc to 
tishc out of him whither he hathe had any owww////ication 
thereof \\i\Ji any other prrsonne or whither he knowc any man 
mynded or disposed if he might get suche oportunytie to 
suche pwrpose not sparing for the knowlcage hereof to pynche 
him w/'t/i paynes to the declarac/bn of it in case good adu*v- 
tiscmcnt will not scrue to the same. And what ye shall fynde 
herin tadurrtise keping him in the meanc season in sucr and 
sauf Custodye your paynes wherin his grace woll consider 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 31 

accordingly and thus Fare youe hartely well. From Grafton 
the vii tb of September. 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

I sende you again for your better instruction the examyna- 
cion taken of this matier. 

Add. To my loving Freendes sir Gilbert Talbot knight and 
John Russell esquier and to eyther of them. 



162. CROMWELL TO SIR JOHN CLARK, JOHN WILLIAMS, 
AND GEORGE GIFFORD. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 446. Sept. 12 (1536). 

Desires them to inquire on the King's behalf if the report be true that 
Sir John Browne has a mill in Oxfordshire, which annoys others by 
causing their lands to be flooded. 

In my right harty maner I co;mende me vnto youe Lating 
youe wit that forasmoche as complaint is made to the kinges 
highnes that Sir John Browne hath a certain Milne in the 
countie of Oxford whiche doth annoye the king^j other 
Subgiette s adioyning to the same. Spe'ally in the surunding 
and overflowing of their grounds. His graces pleasure is 
that youe thre or at the least two of you shall view the said 
Mylne and examyn indifferently thinhabitauntej aboute of the 
damage it doth vnto them and what ye shal fynde therin to 
signifie in writing to me with Diligence And thus Fare you 
hartely well From Grafton the xii th of Septembre. 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my loving FreenoVj Sir John Clerk knight John 
WillzVzms and George Gififord esquiers and to eurry of them 

Endd. My lorde privye scale is letfcres sent to Sir John 
clerk knight John Willwms and George gifforde esquiers 

163. CROMWELL TO THE PRIOR OF ST. FAITH'S. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 484. Sept. 23 (1536). 

Informs him that his house, though on the list of those which the King 
has decided to suppress, has been saved by Cromwell's diligence. 
Begs him to consider the trouble to which Cromwell has been put, 
and hints that a reward would be acceptable. Cf. Letter 180. 

Right wclbclouyd In god I Recowmend me to yow etc. the 
cawys off my wrytyng at thys tyme ys thys For as myche as 



32 LETTERS OF [1536 



ytt ple^sfj the king off his Rcgall power to take Rcfformac/on 
of all and singular howsr.r off Rclygyon w/V/in the dyocw off 
Norwychc lyke as hys Grace hawys done In other p\acfs and 
For the abwsyon off Relygyon and excess^ off lyffyng (some) 
schalbe deposyd off the wyche yowcr howsc was byllyd and 
namyd to be on that nott w/t//standyng by the labor off 
yower Fryndfs mayd to me w/t^ my dyllygcns yower howse 
ys takyn owt off the kyngrr bokys and w/t// owt dangirr and 
so schall Remane tyll the Retorne off thys my chaplaine off 
woys Report hangrr yower Infformac/on to the cowwscll wome 
I wyll that yow schall Rcceue as my trusty chaplaine and 
thes pleswrr cowsedrryd as I haue dysseruyd to loke to my 
pants and to the berer here off as yow wold haue Ferther 
pleswrr scoyd off me In lyke ma.\.tieres For the mayntcnans off 
yower howse I am the more boldrr to wrytt by cawse that Itt 
hawys benc suwtws to me off layt as the berer here off caw 
expres more planely to you. VVryttyn att london the xxiii 1 
day of September 

By me 

THOMAS CRUMWEI.L 

Add. To the Reu^rentt Father in God prior off saint 
Fathys be thys d.d. 



164. CROMWELL TO JOHN RUSSELL. 

Library of William Berington, Esq., of Little Malvcrn Court ; not in Cal. 

Oct. 8 (1536). 

Requests him to keep the person of whom he has written in custody, 
until Cromwell can get leisure to examine the matter. Cf. Letter 161. 

In my right hertie marvr I comende me vnto you Adurr- 
tesing the same that I haue receyucd yo//r l<7/< - res w/'t// also 
thinformacibns ayenst the person that ye wrote to me of 
wherein being at this tyme enbusied aboutrj other affaires 
of greater importance I haue none oportunytc to answer you 
conucnyently, but rather gyuyng you tliankcs for yowr payncs 
taken in that behalf do rcquyre and pray you for the tyme to 
comyttc the saide person to wardc and sauf custodic till this 
troubclous season be a little quyeted that I may haue leyso///- 
to order the maticr accordyngly not doubtyng but or this yc 
haue reccyued the kingrjlr/A-rcs thcffectc and teano///- whereof 
I doubt not yc will ensue according to suchc trust as the 
binges highncs hathc cowmyttcd vnto you in that behalf 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 33 

And so Fare ye well at Wyndesor the viij 11 * daye of 
October 

Yor louyng Freende 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 
In your monasterye I wyll do my best 

Add. To my louyng frende Mr. John Russel oon* of the 
counsaile in the marches of Wales. 



165. CROMWELL TO THE EARL OF SHREWSBURY. 

Heralds' College of Arms ; Shrewsb. MSS. A. f. 61 ; Cal. xi. 612. 
Oct. 9, 1536. 

Thanks him profusely for his letters, and praises his loyal service to 
the King. Informs him that all the munitions he wrote for are 
on the way. 

My singuler good lord after my most hertye Recowmen- 
dacyons this shalbe to adu^rtyse the same of the Recept of 
your honorable \e tares the sight wherof -with the demonstra- 
cyon of your Nobyll courage and trowthe hath so cowflfortyd 
me that whylys I lyue and yf I myght after my deth I wooll 
& woolde honour yow & your posteryte as the man and most 
woorthye Erll that euer seruyd a prynce and suche a chefFtayn 
as ys worthye eternal I glorye my lorde I assure [you] I wrytt 
thys vfit/i my veray hart and I pray god to gyue me sum 
occasyon to doo yow pleasure whyll ye lyue and to your 
posteryte yf I ouer lyue yow. I woold ye knew as well as 
I how the kinges highnes reputyth your most acceptable 
& Loyall seruyce which ye shall right well rvrsayue by the 
Tenowr of his gracyous letteres to yow dyrectyd at thys tyme 
my lord all suche habylymentt^j & munyscyons For the 
warrys which yow wrott For w*t^ money plentye ys alredye 
vppon the way towardes yow & shall god willing be witA yow 
shortlye and thus our lorde send your lordshyp as long lyf 
and aswell to Fare as I woold myself, and then ye sholde be 
in goodd helth and but xxx yeres of age. Wrytten at 
Wyndsor the ix th daye of October anno R. R. 1 H. viii. xxviii" 1 
w/t/r the hastye and layserles hande of hym that ys yours 
in hert 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray good Lorde my lord of Shrewisbury 
lord Stewarde of the kinges houshold. 

1 i, e. Regni Regis. 

MEKK1MAN. II D 



34 LETTERS OF [1536 

166. CROMWELL TO MR. GOSTWICK AND MR. STOMPE. 

R. O. CaL xi 875. Oct. 26 (1536). 

Requests them to suffer Lord Powis to occupy the monastery of Strad- 
marsell in Montgomeryshire, as it was sold to him before the making 
of the Act for the dissolution of religious houses. 

I commend me hartely vnto you. And for asmochc as the 
Monastery of Stradmarsell in Powes land was bargayncd and 
sold vnto my lord Powes and he in possession therof before 
the makyng of the act. I require you to suffer my sayd lorde 
powes to occupie and enioye the same accordyngly, till suche 
tyme that you shall come hither that I may more largely de- 
clare and shcwe vnto you the kinges pleasure in that behalfe, 
hauyng regard that ye leve suche goodes and [chat]allys as be- 
longed to the sayd monastery w/t^ my sayd lord or his depute 
by bill indented betwixt my lord or his depute and you, men- 
cionyng eurry thing particulerly, and thesayd lord powes shall 
not only make answer therfore, but also for the rentes and 
profits therof, if the case shall so require. Thus fare ye well. 
From Wyndesore the xxvi* day of October. 

Yor louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add* To my lovyng fryndts Maister Gostwike and Maister 
Stompe the Kmges Cowmyssioners in North Wales and to 
cu*ry of them 

Endd. my lorde pr/vye scale is k//nres Resayued the xx* 
daie of Marche 

167. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS BUTLER. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 919. Oct 30 (1536). 

The King thanks him for his diligence, and Cromwell rejoices to hear 
that the Earl of Derby and others are so loyal. Desires him to be 
vigilant. 

Maister Butler aftre my right harty commcndac/ons having 
receyued your Lttteres sent vnto me by your seruaunt w/t/r 
other instructions sent also by the same. I hauc not only 
declared your diligence and approved trouth therin expressed 
to the kingss highnes Who giveth vnto you for the same his 
right harty thankrj. But do myself moche rcioyse bothe to 
here of the towardnes of my Lorde of Derbye and to pmreyve 
the loyaltie of all youe the gentlemen and others the kingw 
good subgiccto in those parties. The sequel of whichc trouth 






J 53 6 1 THOMAS CROMWELL 35 

shall not be more acceptable to his Maiestie thenne bew^ficial 
to yourselfas as a thing p;rseruyng that pollicye w;t//out the 
whiche they that haue most gotten by their honest industry 
shuld be in worst cace. I haue procured suche L^/teres of 
thanks as you desired and the same send vnto you by this 
berer. And thus desiring you to be vigilant nowe in this 
queysie tyme I bid you aswel to fare as I wold my self From 
Wyndeso//r the penultime of Octobr. 

Your assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my lovyng Freend S*> Thomas Butler knight 
yeve this in hast 

168. CROMWELL TO (LORD HuNGERFORD) 1 . 

Longford Castle MSS. ; not in Cal. Nov. 4 (1536). 

Thanks him for transmitting the confessions and prophecies of certain 
persons. He has done well in committing Sole and Spicer to prison. 
They may remain there until he hears the King's pleasure concerning 
them. 

Thiese shalbe to advertise the same that I ha[ve] resceyved 
your lettres with the deposicions and confessions of certayne 
persones and a boke, wherin was writen amonges other thynges 
certain prophecies accordyng to your lettres. And for your 
good procedynges in that behalfe ye have assuredly deserved 
of the Kynges Highnes right harty & condigne thankes. And 
wher ye have commetted Richard Sole and Richard Spicer 
to prison ye have done very well therin requyryng you they 
may remayne ther in saff and sure custodie and kepyng untill 
suche tyme as ye shalbe further advertised of the kynges 
pleasure in that behalfe. 

Wyndesore 4 Nov. 
Signed 

169. CROMWELL TO SIR RALPH EVERS THE YOUNGER. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 1032. Nov. 10 (1536). 

The King will always remember his good service. If the rebellion con- 
tinues, it will be subdued in such a way that it will be a fearful 
example to all subjects. 

Maister Evers, aftrr my most hertie cowm[endation]s I as- 
sure you ther was neuer man of yor sorte & degree tha\. hadd 

1 From the official Record Office transcript, 
D 3 



M LETTERS OF [1536 

more cawsc to rcioyse [at the g]ood service doone to his 
maister then you have at ////'s tyme of your fidclitic and 
trouthe shewed to [his m]aiestye our most dradd sou/rayne 
lord, as this b[earer] cannc partly advertise yow. For you 

shall that god sending his 

grace liff, ye shall not in wo[ordes] oonely but in dead 
jvrsave howc thankf[ully] his grace dooith accept the same. 
And his highnes haith putt ewry thyng nowe in suche par- 
fitt order [that] if thes rebelky doo contynuc eny lengar in 
their rebellyon Doubt you not but ye shall see theym so sub- 
dued as their example shalbe fearfull to all subgiett/\r whill< \ 
the woorld dooith endure. And for my part I promyse yow 
thai I doo moche reioyse that you have prooved in this 
honest sorte. And you maye be assured tha\. if I maye at 
eny tyme doo vnto yow eny pleaswr ye shall have the same 
as redy[ly] as my dere freend And thus fare you hertely 
woll From Wcstmynster the x th dayc of Novembre. 

Yor Loving freend 

THOMAS CROOMWELL. 

Add. To my loving freend Sir Rauf Evers the youngar 
knyght 

170. CROMWELL TO GARDINER AND WALLOP. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 222 ; Cal. xi. 1091. Nov. 17 (1536). 

Informs him that the proposals of the French ambassadors for the 
marriage of Mary and Angouldme have been ' slenderly ' answered. 
Directs him to keep himself 'in indifferent tcrmes' in his conferences 
with Francis. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendacions, Thise shalbe taduer- 
tise youe that Monsieur Pomeray wit/t the Ambassador/- here 
resident haue sythens the dispechc of the king^r Last Lf/ttres 
vnto youc, entreated styll the matier of the mariage, but their 
commencement of the same in such slcndre and sleight sorte 
as Ponvrey did at his arryva[l] set it forwarde, hathe brought 
them furthc almost as slendre an answer, at the lest an answer 
soo general, that it doth neither refuse their alliance ne mochc 
cncorage them, to conceyve that they maye without difficultie 
obteyn their desire, as by the veray copie of the same answer 
whiche you shal rcceyve herwit// youe shall p^rceyve, being 
made by the hole counsail and not in sper/altie by the kingrr 
hi^hncs, Wherfor his grace desireth you in yor conference 
wit// the French king to kepe yowrself in suche indifferent 
termcs, as if he seme to note any slacknes on this side youe 
may rather turnc it to him, and yet to pryck him nothing 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 37 

more forwarde in the accelerac/bn of thende therof, thenne of 
himself he woll ned vse. Our matiers here be yet at a good 
steye and soo I trust they shall contynue having no inovac/bn 
sithens the writing of the king^j said last ]e Meres, and yet 
I doubt not but you here there many wonders. And thus 
Fare you most hartely wel From the Roulkr the xvii th of 
N'ouembr. 

"Your lordshippis and your assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray louing frende s my lorde of Winchester 
and Sir John Wallopp Knight : the King** s Ambassadors 
resident in the courte of Fraunce. 

Endd. 17 th November. The Lorde Prime Seal. 
171. (CROMWELL) TO (THE DUKE OF SUFFOLK). 

R. O. Cal. xi. 1177. Nov. 27 (1536). 

Has discharged John Brown and John Patison of Louth, who were com- 
mitted to the Fleet, as they have proved themselves upon examination 
to be honest men. 

After my right harty recowmendacion vnto your good 
grace thiese shalbe to adurrtise thesame that I have caused 
John Browne of lowthe and John Patison of thesame towne 
to be apprehended and cow/mytted theym vnto the Flete, till 
vpon the due examynacion of theym, they haue declared 
theymself in suche maner like honest men that I haue dis- 
charged theym, and geven theym licence to repayr vnto theyr 
houses, desiryng your grace to be good lord vnto theym as 
the cace shall require, thus the blessid Trenyte pres^rue your 
grace. From london the xxvii th day of November. 

172. (CROMWELL) TO THOMAS WINGFIELD. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 1259. Dec 6 (1536). 

Reproaches him for his inefficiency and wastefulness as comptroller of 
the King's works at Dover. Desires him to reduce the number 
of his servants, and in future to act with the consent of the master 
of the Maison Dieu. 

The copie of the \etteres sent to Thomas Wyngfeld Con- 
trollowr of the k'mges grac^j workv s at Dover. 

Mr. Wingfeld after my herty commendations I can not 
a litel mervaile to here and vnderstand how evill the King^j 
Ma/Vjtie hath ben served ther by a sorte of you whom his 
highnes hath put in trust whiche bothe in respecte of your 



38 LETTERS OF [1536 

dueties and for that his grace geveth you right honest wag 
ought to have vsed his highnes ferrc otherwise. For first to 
begyn wit/i you I have p/rfait knowlege that if ye had don/ 
your duetic specially among the rest for that you be the 
Controllewr of the work/* the King highnes myght almost 
have saved the one half of that whiche hath ben there rather 
spoyled from hym by naughty meanes then well spent either 
for his grac honour or the advancement of his purpose in 
that worke And howe you shuld answer therunto if ye were 
called to theaccompte of it I am in grete Doubte. For nowe 
I knowe howe ye have vsed your office, and howe others 
that were put in trust have deceyved myn opinion in them. 
Seconde it appereth right well howe litel ye regarde his graces 
charger and howe moche you sett by your owne profit (If 
spoyle may be called profitj and by the setting furth to the 
king charge of those that It liketh you wit^ the king purse 
to maynteyne when at the last order taken for discharge of 
somr part of the workemen ye have kept in a grete many 
men as clerk and suche other that be veray chargeable to 
the king maieste And reteyned onely in a grete nombre 
xxx laborers. This maner of dealing Mr. Wingfeld is suche 
as I am right sory to see passe you that shuld be a man of 
honestie and sonv suche other as I thought wold not have 
vsed themself as nowe I knowe they have done. You shuld 
for yor part have ben the king housewief and specially 
have loked to his graces profit. And you have devised vpon 
nothing more then how to kepe his grace in grete charge to 
a litel pwrpose. It is true that evill can he correct other that 
in thesame cryme is gyltye and Reprovable hymself Wher- 
fore first ye shal vndrstand the king pleas0*/r is ye shal there 
reteyne onely foure clerk ooas for the check the same to be 
Foxley, oons for the ligers oonr for the storehouse, the same 
to be Eduard dawes, and an other for the call. Seconde his 
grace hath appointed you for his comptroller there And 
therfore his highnes thinketh that if ye will do your duetie 
he shal neoV non other overseer. In the rest his grace woll 
have no greter nombre of any sorte then shalbe necessarye 
and those men mete to serve hym Thyrdely his grac plca- 
soi/r is you shal make no prouision neder any thing touching 
those work but with the advyse and consent of the Maister 
of the Mayson Dieu. Whiche ye must observe as ye woll an- 
swer. And his grace woll allowe no suche fat Fees of Iron and 
other thing as hath been there taken. Remember that his 
grac fees that he giveth to every of you is right honest and 
that his Favour is moche better If wit// a narrowe respect 
to your owne private lucer you lose worthely his graces favowr 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 39 

and so be brought onely to answer to the partes of your pre- 
ceding*^, you woll lose in the shire that you have gotten in 
the hundreth. Wherfore lett this be a warnyng for you and 
cause you to waye your duetie as his gracw work^j may go 
foreward wzt//out further charge then very necessite shal re- 
quyre And so fare ye well From the Roules the vi to day of 
December. 

The k'mges pleasowr is ye shal admitte onely for an overseer 
Robert Thomeson Brother to this berer. 

Endd. The Copie of my lordes \etteres To Mr. Wyngfeld 
cowtrollewr of the workes at Dover. 



173. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 236; Cal. xi. 1317. Dec. 16 (1536). 

The King requests him to endeavour to maintain the amity between 
England and France. Promises to send money as soon as possible. 
Encloses three copies of treaties. 

Aftre my moost harty cowmendaczbns to your lordshippe 
Touching the king^ affayres in thise private L^/teres I shal 
write nothing being the same sufficiently] treated in myn 
other k/teres nowe by his graces cowmaundement addressed 
vnto youe, whiche ye shal receyve herw/t^ theffect wherof his 
grace doubtethe not but ye wil setfurthe vritA such dexteritie 
as shal both nurishe and entretayn thamytie, and conduce 
thaffayres to his highnes desire. Concernyng your request for 
money albeit by the reason of the hasty dispeche of this post 
and other things I could not nowe satisfie you therin yet 
I shal vfit/t asmoch spede as I may take suche ordre in the 
same as ye shall haue cause to be contented, I sende you thre 
copies of treaties and confirmac/bns among^j the whiche 
I think ye shall haue that ye wrote for, And thus having non 
other matier at this tyme worthy writing but that our Maister 
our Mastras and all your freendes here be mery and in 
health, desiring youe to make myn harty cowmendacrons to 
Maister Wallop, I pray god sende youe wel to fare and 
as good an ende in your busines, as I wold wishe and desire if 
I were in your place. From Stepnaye the xvi* of Decembre 

\our lordshyppis assuryd frend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray good lord my Lord of Winchestre 
Endd. From Stepnaye t[he] xvi th of Decemb[er] Mr. 
Secretary] 



40 LETTERS OF [1536 

174. CROMWELL TO GARDINER 'AND WALLOP. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 237 ; Cal. xi. 1363. Dec 24, 1536. 

Gives an account of the suppression of the revolt in the North, as he 
hears that false rumours about it have been spread in France. Has 
paid Peter Lark 100. Sends two letters from the King for the 
reconciliation of the Earl of Angus with the Scottish King, and requests 
Gardiner to urge the matter further. 

Aftrc my right harty cowmenclac/ons to your Lordshippe 
and semblably to youe Maistcr Walloppc, forasmoche as in 
yor \fttfrcs of the xiii* 1 " of this moneth lately addressed to 
the Icings highnes, it appereth to his grace amongrr other 
things, that there be diurrse rumours spredde in those parties 
of the late rebellion attempted in the North parties of this 
realme, and specially oon that for mystrust whiche the nobles 
and gentlemen had in the cowmens they were enforced to 
appease the maticr wii/i certain conditions and articles. 
To thintcnt you maye knowe the certaintie therof and prepare 
yorself the bcttre both to setfurth the same, and to answer 
all men that wold say any thing to the contrary, his Maiestics 
pleasure was I shuld signifie the rvrfite truth of thappcasing 
of that trouble and commotion vnto youe, Whiche is, that first 
there is nothing more false thenne that the commens assembled 
for the kingrj partie were soo faynt and vnwilling, that they 
wold not haue doon their dieuties if it had comen to ex- 
tremytie, For you shal vndrestande the very same brute was 
here told to the kingts Maiestie, wherupon his grace adurrtised 
the Capitaines, and receyved answer that they had perused 
and tryed their men and founde no oon but they durst affirme 
wold doo his dieuty whenne the cace shuld require And I am 
assured both by adurrtisementer made to the king and other- 
wise, that the most partc of the kinges retynue in maner wept 
whenne they were cowmaundcd to retyre considering the 
rebelles were not more extremely punished, soo that you 
maye affirme it for certain trouth, that onles the greate wise- 
dom of the kings.; highnes forscing that the stroke of batail 
shuld haue but only diminished his force and strcnght, and 
been thoccasion of infinite mischieves, had given straictc 
cowmaundcmcnt/-j to his licutc'/au/rt/*; as in dede he did, that 
they shuld in no wise adventure his honour in batail, wherin 
he could haue gotten nothing but destroyed his oune mcmbres 
that be ready to scruc him, there had been suche extrcmytie 
administrcd by the partie of his grace vppon the rebellfs as it 
was to be feared the like was not seen in many yeres, And 
nowc those that be indifferent maye see both the greate 
wisedom and clemency of the king Maiestie whiche did 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 41 

rather deuise to prrserue his oune w*t// his honour, thenne 
ieoparde the losing of his oune wherin thoughe he could not 
haue lost honowr, in the cutting of, of those corrupt membres, 
yet he shuld haue wanted the vse of them, whiche being heled 
and recouped as they be, maye and wil euer stande him in 
good stede, Seconde wheras it is reaported that the matier 
shuld be taken vppe vtit/t conditions, and articles, it is truth 
that at the begyning the rebelles made peticzbn to haue 
obteyned certain articles, but in thende they went from all 
and remytted all to the kingej highnes pleasure only in moost 
humble and reuerent sorte desiring their pardon w*t^ the 
greatest repentance that could be deuised, in somoche as in 
their chief Article whiche next their pardon was for a parlia- 
ment for that they might haue their pardon therin confirmed, 
they remytted thappointement of the same holly to the kingej 
Maiestie w/t^out the namyng of tyme place or any other 
thing touching that matier, and this discours may you declare 
to all men for truth, for no man with truth canne impugne the 
same, And nowe my lord of NornW shall goo thither to lye 
there as the kinges lieutenawnt for the administraabn of Justice, 
and shall haue a counsail ioyned wzt^ him, as was appointed 
to the Duke of Richmonde at his lieng in those parties, 
Youe shall also receyve herwz't// two \etteres writen from the 
kinges highnes in the fauowr of Therle of Anguishe and his 
famylie, for their restituczbn and reconsiliaabn to the king of 
Scatter fauowr, and the recouerey of their state in his realme, 
Thone is directed to the Frenche king to desire him to ioyne 
whk the kinges Maiestie in this sute or desire for that the said 
Erie and his famylie haue been euer true and faithfull to the 
king of Scotter aforsaid, and that it shuld be therfor both his 
honour and surety to restore them, Thother to the kinges of 
Scotter himself vppon like grounds and persuasions, whiche 
\etteres the kinges highnes desireth youe to present to both 
kinges, and to prosecute the obteyning of the kinges Maiesties 
desire therin as ernestly and effectuelly as youe canne deuise, 
vsing all the meanes youe canne excogitate of yo//r wisedomes 
to conduce it to effecte, And his grace thinketh that no man 
can supplie this parte better thenne you my lord of Win- 
chestre, who hathe good experience of the honorable 
demeanowr of the said Erie and his famylie towards the said 
king of Scotter euer sithrwj their first cu;myng into Englande, 
and as it is thought of the cause of their departure also out of 
Scotlande, whiche his highnes trusteth you woll setfurth 
accordingly, And whereas you my lord of Winchestre write 
for money declaring yowr nede therof, I haue this daye caused 
c. u to be paid to your seruaunt Peter Larke, in whom I assure 



42 LETTERS OF [1536 

you there is no defaulte for calling vppon me, for I thinke him 
many tymes to importune, but the faulte that is if there 
be any must be imputed to the tyme and aftre christmas 
I shall cause him to reccyve a greater sowme, trusting you 
will be contented w/t/; this in the meanc season, You shall 
further vndrestande the king highncs is cnformed that 
Mr. poles ssruavnt of whom you wrote is deteyned at Muttrel 
whose delyuerance his grace wold you shuld in any wise in 
suchc sorte sollicitc that you maye obteyne the same, cngreving 
the maticr of his deteyndor as moche as your wisedom shal 
thinke convenient. And Finally forasmoche as there hathe been 
lately a fraye here betwene certain of thinhabitantrj of Flete 
strete and thambassadowr of Fraunce his srruantrj vppon an 
arrest wherin thambassado;/rs men were yvel handeled in cace 
there shalbe anything said vnto you therm, the kingrr pleasure 
is youe shall make answer that like as the madnes of men wil 
suwtymc vse suche folyes as shalbe displeasant to themself?j 
and also to others, Soo his grace hathe caused that matier to be 
examyned witA suche dexteritie, and hathe determyned to haue 
the same soo punished, as it shalbe an exemple to others 
howc to vse themselfrj in like caces heraftre And thus Fare you 
hartely well From the Roullrt the xxiiii th of Decembr^. 
Mr. poles sfruauntts name is Thrognvrton 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my vcray good Lorde my lorde of Winchestre, 
and to my loving freende Sir John Wallop knight the king 
Ambassadors in Fraunce. 

Endd. My lord pryvaye seal From the rowlrj the xxiiii 111 of 
Dccembre 1536 

175. (CROMWELL) TO , COMMISSIONER AT 
DONCASTER. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 604, f. 64 b; Cal. xi. 1399. (Dec., 1536.) 

Marvels that the gentlemen in the North have not kept the promise made 
at Doncaster about the delivery of the suppressed monasteries. 

Neuertheles in the reading of yowr l \et feres aswel 

writcn to his highnes as to me both I and all the rest of my 
lordfs of the counsail did not a litle mervayl to see that thing 
by you verefied whiche by reaporte'j made by others befor was 
signified vnto vs, that is, that the gentlemen had not performed 
their promyses lately made to you and other his Majesties Cow- 

1 c. 0. said 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 43 

missionrrs at Dancastre, spea'ally in that pointe concernyng 
the delyuerance of the possession of suche howses of religion 
as were suppressed to those p^rsonnes whom his highncs had 
appointed to be fermowrs to the same, And we all thought 
that seing they haue Broken promyse therin w/'t// his grace, his 
Maiestie shall not nede but at his pleasure to kepe promyse 
in other things \vi\.k them, For surely we did moche mervayl 
that considering they loke to haue a parliament at Yorke, they 
wold haue soo litle regarde to thobseruac/on of suche l promyse 
as they made whenne they required the same 

176. (CROMWELL) TO (THE BISHOP OF LINCOLN). 

R. O. Cal. x. 218. (1536). 

Requests him to permit the Prior of Spalding in Lincolnshire to remain 
undisturbed, and not to allow any ' busie falowes ' of the town to do 
him injury. If harm comes to the Prior, Cromwell is bound to aid 
him by his duty to the King. 

My lord in myne hertie wise I commende me to you. 
And where I visited lately by my depute the priorie of 
Spalding and substancially reformed suche things as were 
than to be reformed as I haue to shewe by the injunctions 
which were gyven, forasmuche as that house p^rteyneth to my 
cure and not to yours, being nouther founder nouther bene- 
factor of the same, as I wol shewe you more at large when it 
shal fortune me next to speke w*t^ your lordship. I desire 
and require the same to suffer and p^rmitte the priour and the 
cowuent there to lyve in quiet. And that certen busie falowes 
of the towne of Spalding, be not mainteyned by yonr lordship 
against the said priowr, bicause he wol not let the fermes of 
his house to the greate dammage of the same, for denyeng 
wherof the said priour hathr been put to muche treble and 
inquietnes (as I am credibly informed). In whiche caas I must 
and wol aide and succour the said priowr, as it appertayneth 
to myne office, and to suche trust as the king^ grace hath 
put in me cowornyng the religious persons and other of the 
clergy of his realme. 

177. (CROMWELL) TO STEPHEN VAUGHAN. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 283, f. 18 ; Cal. x. 376. (September, 1535 *.) 

Promises him reward for his expedition to Germany on the King's behalf, 
and thinks he has no cause to distrust the King's liberality or 
Cromwell's friendship. He is to take ^5,000 to Denmark, and 
bestow it as Bonner and Cavendish direct 

Stephen Vaughan in my right hertie wise I cowmende me 
vnto you Adu^rtesing the same that being absent from the 

1 f. o. pact/j * sic, see Notes 



44 LETTERS OF [1535 

Courte your \etttrcs addressed vnto me chaunced amongst 
others to com to the hand of the king highnes who in myn 
absence bothe opened and reddc them and at my repairee 
aycn to the courte delyurred them vnto me willing me to 
answer you in this wise foloxving. First his maicste p^rceyu- 
ing yowr obedience in herte to thaccomplisshment of all his 
iust cowmaundement^j and yowr willing mynde and towarde- 
nes to do him s^ruyce gyueth you therefore his hertie and 
condigne thank but his highnes thinkcth ye haue no cause 
to make any rcpeticion eyther of suche charges as ye haue 
susteyned by doing his grace scruice or of suche money as ye 
are bounde to pay him for the subsidie graunted by acte of 
parliament which being so graunted he is intiteled vnto by 
a lawfull meane and ncu^rtheles doubtyth not but ye will wi'bfc 
as good herte be contented to pay the same as any other of 
his louyng subicct And for your l service * considering s not 
onelie the anuell Fee of xx" but also the office which his 
highnes latclie gaue you of the Facultees 4 Not doubting but 
all such charg as ye haue susteyned aswell in yowr voyage 
into Germany as otherwise in doing his grace srruyce eyther 
be or shalbc condignelie requyted, his highnes thinketh that 
consideration] had thereunto ye nede not either to complayne 
or mistruste his munyfycence 6 liberalise and gentilnes who be 
you assured is of suche benignetie 6 as will not suffer any of 
his faithfull srru[a]nt by doing his grace smiyce to susteyn 
any losse charge or to be vnrequyted accordyng to his 
demeryt. And for yowr parte doubt ye not but in that ye 
haue don vnto his grace faithfull and trew s/ruyce and so to do 
I doubt not will contynew as ye 7 shall haue occasion, his 
highnes in thacquytall thereof will so remember you as y<- 
shall well p^rceyue and knowe that he is yowr gracious and 
benigne Sourrcigne lorde which he willed me expressely to 
8 adusrtisc you of. Signefieng vnto you fcrthcr that prrceyu- 
ing by yowr lr//rres how gret a suspicion ye haue conceyuid 
of my frendeship and old amytie toward you (whereof I can- 
not but mcruailc) I must ned playnelic say vnto you, that 
ye ar farre ourrshotte in that behalf, For if ye do well consider 
my dealing wit// you from the first to the last ye shall Fynde 
that I haue eu^r ben yowr grete Frende wi't//out curr making 
any semblaunce or gyuyng you 9 cause to thinkc the contrary 
And as I haue ben yowr frende so I am and assure you wilbe, 

1 c. 0. charges susteynid in doing * c. 0. Supposing 

bis grace s c. 0. and 

c. o. his highnes sayeth that ' c. a. towards his 

for thinketh you portclie requyted T c. 0. shalbc 

1 c. 0. suche * (. a. wryte * * c. 0. any 






1535] THOMAS CROMWELL 45 

your meryter & deserter (as therein I haue no man^r of 
diffidence or mistrust) requyring the same, as ye shall 
assuredlye Fyndc me l aswell redy to do you good now as 
I euer was Aduising you therefore to vse your frende accord- 
itfglye and not ou^rmoche to presse your frende for frendeship 
where ye may alwayes determyn yowrself to be assured of the 
same nor to conceyue any like suspicion in your Frende till 
you haue cause which I am sure ye haue not had nor shall 
haue at my hande. But now for thaccomplisshement of your 
voyage and for your better instruction what ye shall do in the 
same which I doubte not ye will execute according to the 
kingrj trust, ye shall vnderstonde that his highnes pleasure is 
that the V.M'li. 2 which ye haue receyved of Anthony Deny 
ye shall convey being packed as Body either hathe or will 
shew you in the parties of Denmarke by See and in suche 
a ship called the Swepestake as is appoynted to you and 
Crw/ofor Morys for that purpose keping alwayes the saide 
money -with you as closely as ye can so as no man know of it 
but yowrself and such as ye dare well trust And when ye shall 
arryve in the saide parties to repaire -with the saide money to 3 
the castel of Werberge where you shall fynde Doctour Bon^r 
and Rychard Cauendish being the Kingly Ambassadowrs 
there shewing them thereof and as they shall ferther aduise 
you so to do 4 . So as if they shall thinke it good and determyn 
to pay the saide money or parte of it vppon suche conuen- 
auntcs as they shal pacte condiscende and conclude that then 
ye shall delyurr and pay the same or as moche of it as they 
shal aduise you and by their consent, Orelkj to deteyne and 
kepe it wit/i you still and to bring it home wit A you agayn or 
cowmytte it to such sure custody and keping as ye may com 
by it at your pleasure to be repayed into the king^r coffres at 
your retorne. And in case the saide Doctor Bon^r and 
Cauendish shal conuenawnte and conclude to pay parte of the 
saide money and not all that then ye do semblablie bring 
home the residue, Folowing in all things? the dyrection of the 
saide Boner and Cauendish touchyng the imployment of the 
saide money as is aforsaide 6 . And because ye desire to be 
well Furnisshed in money, albeit ye shall now go by see where 

1 c. 0. in all redynes I shall myself speke w/tA 

* i.e. 5,000 pounds you orell I will not faile to sende 
' c. o. the king you yo;/r Instructions signed w/tA 
4 c. o. in all things accor- the kyng hande to induce you 

dinglie in all things; what ye shall do in 

* c. a. I doubte not but or yor yowr saide voyage. And because 
ship and all other things neces- you desire to be well 

sary for your dcpechce be in a 



46 LETTERS OF [153;, 

ye shal l be at no grete * charge 8 yet the kynges highnes is 
contente to allow you xiilr iiiu/ by the day so long as ye be 
fourth, and to let you haue in press monethes Dyettrj after 
that rate aforehande which ye shall receyue of Sir Bryan Tukc 
by this my \ftfsre hereinclosed whensoeurr ye shall repaire 4 to 
him a or to Alen Hawt for the same. And as touching your 
money for yowr last voyage into Flaundres amounting to the 
some of xlii u ' xvj. viijV. Resorte you to Willyamson my 
sfruauntc making him a sufficient acquittaunce for the same 
and he shall pay you indelayedlie as I haue now wrytten to 
him for that purpose. And so Fare ye well. 



178. (CROMWELL) TO (STEPHEN VAUGHAN). 

R. O. Cal. x. 377. (September, 1535 .) 

The King thanks him for his readiness to undertake the expedition to 
Denmark. He is to have 13*. $d. a day for his diets. He is not 
to deliver the money except with consent of Bonner and Mont. 

I cowmend me hartely vnto you. And havyng resceyved 
your \fttere I do perceyve that ye have resceyved the kinges 
highnes l///n-es and myne concernyng the kynges pleasure for 
your preparacion towards the parties of Denmark, ye shall 
understand that I beyng absent from the Cowrte the kingrr 
highnes resceyved yowr \fttere and had redde eu*ry word 
therof, and givethc you condigne thanki; for yor towardly 
preparacion and the good hart and will that ye have to do 
vnto hys highnes acceptable s^ruice. His pleasure is also 
that ye shall haue for your dieltes duryng this iowrncy 
thirtene shillyngw and fower pence a day. And I haue 
writen to Sir Brian Tuke to deliver vnto you before hand for 
yowr diettrj for thre monthes, whiche I doubte not ye shall 
resceyve at your pleasure. Ye shall passe by the See in a 
shippe that is prepared for that purpose called the Swepe- 
stake, wherein ye shall convey yowr money after the sccretest 
maner that ye canne. And doubte ye nothyng but yowr 
srruice shalbe right well considered at lengthe. The kinges 
pleasure is that ye shall not delyver the money out of yowr 
power but by the consent of Doctour Boner and Cristofer 
Mount. 

1 f. 0. haue no * c. 0. or yourself or sende 

* c. o. cause of c. o. for 

1 f. o. & expencu ' sic, see Notes 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 47 

179. CROMWELL TO THE DEPUTY AND COUNCIL OF 
IRELAND. 

R. O. Cal. x. 1051. (1536.) 

Requests him to delay the Act of Succession in the Irish Parliament if it 
has not yet been ' passed thoroughly.' The King sends William Body 
with instructions that a yearly revenue be secured, to pay for the 
repression of treasonable attempts in future. 

In my right harty maner I Cow/mende me vnto youe 
Lating youe wit that the kinges highnes having seen the 
L^/teres writen from youe Maister Brabazon vnto me con- 
teyning a recytal of suche Actes as haue been in this session 
of that parliament passed the nether and higher houses there 
and rest only vppon the royall assent doth accept in very 
good parte your Labours paynes and Travailes in the con- 
ducing of the same to their desired purpose and giveth 
therfor vnto youe all his moost harty thanks. Albeit his 
pleasure is that in cace thacte for the succession be not 
passed thoroughly ye shall staye the same tyl further know- 
leage of his grac^j pleasure whiche shalbe shortly signified 
vnto you in that behaulf. Vntil the signification wherof his 
pleasure also is ye shall contynue the parliament w/t/j suche 
other matiers as ye shall thinke mete to Betreated on and 
remembred in the meane tyme. And Forasmoche as his 
Maiestie hathe Lately writen vnto youe and to the Lordly 
and cowmens then assembled to deuise howe the chargies 
that his grace hath susteyned may be partely recompensed 
and the like born of the revenues there vppon the ministraczbn 
of semblable occasion as hathe lately chaunced by the rebel- 
lion of Thomas Fitzgarrat and his Complices, his highnes 
mynding to knowe certainly howe ye haue provided in that 
matier hath at this tyme destinated and sent vnto you this 
Berer my s^ruaunt Will/am Bodye wz't// whom like as his 
grac^j pleasure is ye shall communicate all that ye haue 
doom- therin \vitA the inclynaabns of all parties to the same, 
Soo ye shall give vnto him full and vndoubted credence in 
suche things as he shall declare touching that matier who 
hathe been sufficiently instructed and enformed for the declara- 
tion of his mynde touching that p/<rpose preceding wit// him 
soo spedily therin as he may again return w/t// diligence. Ye 
shal also vndrestande that forasmoche as the king Maiestie 
hathe given vnto tharchbisshop of Dublyn the hole revenue 
due of his Archbisshopriche sythens Michelmas last passed 
his pleaswr is that youe Maistr Brabazon shall eyther 
delyuer the same to the said bodye or dies in cace it be 



48 LETTERS OF [1536 

employed in the kingly affaires there signific the certain some 
therof to thintent it maye be deducted of suche moneys as 
shall shortly be sent thither. For ye shall vndcrstande that 
his chargies here hath been greate by reason wherof he is 

moche indebted and must discharge the same of 

whiche is appointed of the said Bisshop . . . vnto him. For 
whom in the meane tyme [I haue] vndertaken vritA all his 
Creditowrs [and do] therfor desire and praye youe to take such 
order as he maye eythcr from thens or [hence] by yor 
lymitacibn receyve his dieuty accordingly. 

Your lordshippis and other of the k'mges pryuey counsaill 
assuryd Freend THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Endd. A minute of a \e/ferc to my lord Lenard and other 
of the king counsaill in Ireland. 

A Remembrance to Will/Vzm Body concernyng his Jornaye 
into Ireland. 

First the said Will/Vim taking w/tA him suche L^//rres as 
be prepared for his dispcche shall witA convenient diligence 
addresse himself thither, and at his arryvall at Dublyn or suche 
other place as the deputie shalbe thenne in, shall to the same 
delyuer the said Lttttres wj'tA myn harty and effectual reco- 
mendac/bns to him and all others of the kinges highnes 
counsail there. 

And forasmoche as the kingw Maiestie vppon the remem- 
brance of the importable chargies which his grace hathe been 
at in the defence of his loving faithfull and obedient sub- 
giecttej there against the malices of the Thomas Fitzgarrad 
his Allyes and complices, amounting to xlm li ! sterling and 
above hath Lately considered that it shalbe expedient for him 
being a prince of honor and supreme hed and gourr nowr of 
that land and domynion to haue some direction taken for the 
cowtynual yerely payment of suche a revenue to his grace his 
heires and successoars as maye aswell defende and represse 
suche attemptatrj whenne they shal prrcace insurge, as in tymc 
of pcax bothc redubbe that which shalbe in warre expended 
and advauncc vnto his Maiestie suche a revenue, as maye 
encourage him to haue the more care and regarde to his sub- 
giectttt there, and therupon writen to the said deputy Coun- 
sail the lordfs and cowmcns then assembled in the parliament 
to dcuisc in suche wise uppon this matier as the desired 
purpose therof might take effect, whiche his grace doubteth 

1 i. c. 40,000 pounds. 



1536] THOMAS CROMWELL 49 

not but they will travail wit// suche dexteritie taccomplishe 
as may be to his highnes satisfaction wherof shall ensue their 
oune suretye. The said Will/am bodye shall require of the 
said Lord Deputie and counsail knowleage of their proced- 
inges in this behaulf, and what they haue deuised for the 
furtherance of the same, in what sorte and howe the nombre 
will by all lightlywood be appliable to the graunting therof 
Whiche pointes he shall note in writing aftre suche sorte as he 
may at his returne prrfitely and plainly declare and explicate 
eurry parte and circuwstance of the same. 

Endd. A remembraunce to William Body for the iowmey 
towardes Irelande. 



180. CROMWELL TO THE PRIOR OF COXFORD. 

R. O. Cal. xi. 485. (1536.) 

Informs him that his house, though on the list of those to be suppressed, 
has been saved by Cromwell's efforts. Asks him in return to lend 
him 40. Cf. Letter 163. 

Ryght Reurrent Father In god I Recommed me to yow 
etc & the cawys off my wrytyng att thys tyme ys thys For as 
myche as ytt pleasrj the kyng off hys Regall power to take 
Refformaa'on off all and syngulrr bowser off Relygyon w*'t// 
In thys hys Reme For the abbwcyon off ther lyfiyng and 
some schalbe deposyd off the wyche yower howse was namyd 
yett nott w/t/z stand yng by the Instans of yower Frynd^j, tyll 
the Retorne off thys my Chaplaine and kynysman I do kepe 
yo harmeles were Fore I wyll that yow Receiue (him) as ye 
wold me yff I were prrsent Furtherl wyll thys prrwess co- 
sedrryd wyche belongs (to) the welthe off yower howse that 
ye must do me some pleswr^ wyche ys to lend me xl 1. the 
wyche schalbe payd yow a gane, and For yower payment ye 
schall Ressawe a byll off my hand were In ys sett no su/ 
but loke how myche as ye delyurr so myche to wrytt In and 
thys doyn I schallbe Redy to kepe yow owtt off danger as 
the berer here off can scho yow more planely namore to yow 
buthat yow loke to the panys off thys berer Wryttyn att 
london 

By me THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To the Reurrent Father In god priowr off Cokeys- 
ford by thys d. d. 



MEKR1MAN. II 



50 LETTERS OF [1537 

181. CROMWELL TO JAMES BETTYS AND RICHARD PALSHID, 
OFFICERS OF THE CUSTOMS AT SOUTHAMPTON. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (i) 189 (i). Jan. 22 <i$37>- 

Requests them to permit 200 sacks of wool belonging to Anthony Guydot 
to pass the customs ; they are to take securities for the subsequent 
payment of all duties on them. 

I commend me hartely vnto you. And wher as my frend 
Anthony Guydot hath of longe tyme sued vnto the k'mges 
highnes for his licence to convey wolles out of this Realme 
and hathe for that intent and purpose provided (as he saythe) 
two hundreth sackvj. I shall therfore require you that ye pfr- 
myt and suffer the sayd Anthony or his assignes to passe 
and lade thesayd nombre of two hundreth sackrj in any 
shippe of this Realme or of any other parties beyng in liege 
and amytie \vt\A the kingrj highnes and to convey thesame 
into the parties of beyond the see at his or their liberty and 
pleasure, takyng of hym or of his sayd assignes good and 
sufficient suretie suche as ye will answer for, to pay the klnges 
custumes and other duties whiche shalbe due vnto his highnes 
for thesame, at yere and yere after the shippyng therof, and 
I shall see you haue sufficient discharge for thesame. thus 
fare ye hartely well. At the rolles the xxii* day of January. 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my loving fryndfs James Bettys and Richard 
Palshid Custumers of the towne of Southampton and to either 
of theym. 

Endd. my lord pr/vyseale To the Customers of Suth<?;;//>- 
\cn to let passe shippinge for wolles 

182. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 251 ; Cal. xii. (i) 626. Mar. II (1537). 

Sends by the bearer the King's answer to Gardiner's letter, and his 
decision about Gardiner's remaining abroad. Sends also letters 
from Suffolk about the latter 1 s affairs in France. 

Aftrc my moost harty cowmcndacibns to youre lordshippe 
ye shal by this bersr your ssruaunt receyve the King highnes 
W/^res of answer to yours sent by Fraunces the Curro//r w/'t// 
his graces further resoluc/on touching yowr Icngre abode, or 
spedy return as the cace shal require, like as by the contents 
of the same whiche I doubt not but your lordship wil in 






'537] THOMAS CROMWELL 51 

curry condition soo setfurth as shalbe both consonant and 
agreable to his pleasure nowe signified, and yet witSi the same 
soo entretayn the amytie as shal appertayn, ye shal more 
plainly p^rceyve I sende also vnto youe herw/'t// certain 
k7/rres from my lord of SufiW touching his matier I suppose 
there depending in controuersie, the setting furth of which 
matier also I Recow/mende to your lordship hartely requiring 
the same in suche wise to set it furthe and in suche effectuel sorte 
the rather for my sake to sollicite and followe it, as he maye 
therin obteyne fauorable iustice \vitA spede and convenient 
celeritie, your travayl wherin as he himself may p^rtely 
desrrue, soo for my parte I shal as thankfully accepte them 
as if the same were employed in myn oune cause, And thus 
most hartely Fare youe wel From the Roullrj the xj th of 
Marche at night 

Your lordshippis assuryd freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray good lord my lord of Winchestre. 
Endd. From the Roulles the xi th of Marche Mr. Secre- 
tary. 



183. CROMWELL TO THE OFFICERS OF DOVER AND 

CALAIS. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (i) 707. Mar. 23, 1537. 

Passport for John de Lissasson, who goes to France with one servant, one 
horse and 40 crowns of the sun in money. 

After herty cowmendaabn Thies shalbe to aduertise you 
that the Kingtt maiestie hath geven and graunted leave and 
licence vnto John de Lissasson seruaunt of The Bishop of 
Tarbe the Frenshe Kingrj ambassadewr here resident to 
departe oute of this his highnes Realme, towne and marches 
of Calais and to passe togeder w*t// his owne srruaunt and oone 
horse Also the some of Fortye crownes soleil or the value 
therof or vnder in redy money gold or syluer what soever 
coyne it be w*t/* his \ettcrzs baggrj bagagtt and necessaries at 
his liberte and w/t// the same to go in to the parties of 
Fraunce w*t//oute any maner your lett trouble vnlawfull serche 
interruption or Impcdimewt to the contrary. Wherefore I late 
you to wit his maieste s pleasur and cowmandement is ye and 
every of you shal prrmitte and suffer hym so to departe 
and passe wit A oone horse and thesaid xl crorrnes in maner 
and fowme aforesaid. Thus Fare ye well From the King^s 

E 2 



52 LETTERS OF [1537 

palace at Wcstmi/w/rr the xxiii* 11 day of Marche the xxviii 111 
ycre of the most prosperouse Reygne of our sourrayn Lord 
King Henry theight 

Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my loving FreendV^ the Mfaiers] bailiffXr Coustu- 
mfrs Controllers Serchers and other the Icings officers ministres 
and Subiect/*j Aswell at Dover and any other partrj of his 
gracAr Realme As also at his towne and marches of Calais. 
And to every of them. 



184. CROMWELL TO THE PRIOR AND CONVENT OF 
WENLOCK. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (i) 889. Apr. 10 (1537). 

Desires them to make out a lease of the farm of Clun in Shropshire to 
Adam Onley, as the persons to whom they had previously leased the 
reversion have forged a new lease and cancelled the old one. 

My good lorde in my hartye wyse I commend me vnto 
yowe And wher as ye of Late grauntyd and dyd let to Ferme 
vnto Thomas Crowther and Wylliom Horwode the reumryon 
of the personage of Clon and the Chapellrj and all the 
prcbendfs tythes and proffyto to the same parsonage belong- 
ing for terme of certen yerys to begyn ymmedyatly Aftur an 
olde lease therof made for terme of certen yerys to oonr John 
Harley gentylman endyd and determynyd And wher as 
the said Thomas Crowther and Willwm Horwod by craft 
pollycye and falshode vsid between them and a brother of 
youres nowe of Late haue stollen owt the Covent scale of 
your Howse unknowyng to yowe and your brethern and haue 
cownterfetyd and forged a newe lease of the prraiysses And 
haue cancelled the olde lease by meanys wherof the said ncwe 
Lease which they nowe haue forged ys clerly voyde by the 
lawe And the free dysposyc/on of the said parsonage ys nowe 
in yowe and your brothern, I thcrfor hartely requyer and 
instantly desyer yowe that ye at this my request and contem- 
plactbn make a Lease of the same benyfyce and other the 
p/rmysses vnto my frende Adam Onley brother unto the 
Kingrj Attorney of his Cowrt of the Augmetac/on of the 
revenues of His Crowne And in yor so doyng ye shall doo 
me synguler pleasur whych I will god willing gladly reaquyte 
in any your prrsut^j heraftur to be made And that ye certefye 
me by wrytyng by the bryngar herof what ye intend to do in 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 53 

the p/rmysses at this my contemplac/on. And thus hartely fare 
ye well Frome London the X th daye of Apryll. 

Yottr Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWF.LL. 

Add. To the Reuerend father in god, the lorde prior of 
Wenlok & Cowvent of the same. 

185. CROMWELL TO MARGARET QUEEN OF SCOTS. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (i) 1198. May 14, 1537. 

Has prevailed on the King to promote her quiet and ease, as the bearer 
will show. Promises to serve her in every way possible, and sends 
her a token of cramp-rings. 

My dueuty humbly remcmberd Pleasith yo//r grace to be 
aduertised that I haue receyved your sundry L^/fcres And 
Like as according to the contents of the same I haue travailed 
\vit/t the K'mgcs Maiestie my most dradde Sourraign lorde 
and Maister for the conducing of your graces desires to suche 
frame and pointe as might be to your good satisfaction, whiche 
his highncs like your most kinde and loving brother hathe of 
himself been gladde to advaunce and setforward for your 
graces quiet and cowmoditie as this bcrer canne more at 
Large declare vnto you Soo I shall in all things wherin I 
maye convenyewtly doo your grace any sted or srruice, as 
willingly and gladly applie myself therunto, as you canne 
desire it of me, beseching your grace as you maye w/t//out 
your incowmoditie that I may from tyme to tyme be adurr- 
tised of the occurranter of those parties, whiche I shall asferre 
as I maye desrrue again in the sollicitac/on of your honorable 
causes, I sende vnto your grace a poore token of Crampring^j 
whiche right humbly I beseche you taccept in good parte 
having more respecte to the good wil of the giver thenne to 
the valewe of the thing, And thus & thus ' as I beseche our lord 
to have yor grace in his blessed tuicion From Westminster 
the xiiii th of May 1537 

Endd. Copie of my lord P. S. \e tteres to the Quene doager 
of Scoter 

186. CROMWELL TO THE MAYOR, BAILIFFS, ALDERMEN 
AND BURGESSES OF CAMBRIDGE. 

Cooper's Annals, i. 388 ; Cal. xii. (i) 1205. May 15 (1537). 

Regrets their continued differences with the University. Advises them 
to desist from annoying the Vice-Chancellor, proctors, and scholars. 

Aftre my hartie Comendacons, Wheras it pleased the kings 
hieghnes to permitt me to receyve the Office of the Chaun- 

1 sic. 



54 LETTERS OF [1537 

celorship of that Universitic, I am right sory to pcrceyve that 
nowe in my tymc noo entrcatie or good meanc canne bring 
youe and the same to any maner of agreement or suche con- 
formitie as youc maye live together in such ordre as hath been 
appointed. I cannot otherwise conceyve but that eyther youe 
think the King's Maiestie maye not graunt them such liberties 
as theyc have, or ells you shcwe your selves yvill Subjiects 
that wooll presume to infringe that his grace hath lawfully 
graunted. It is not unknowen to his hieghncs what busincs 
youe made the last Sturberige fayre, ne have little youe estcme 
eyther his Charters or your owne composicon, For as it is 
affirmed youe wooll neyther take the viccchauncelor for a 
Judge in suche things as belong to his office, ne suffre such 
correction for offences the punishment whereof is appointed to 
the said vicechauncelor and the proctors of the saide Uni- 
vcrsitie, as for the same be prescribed, but in contempt doo 
many tymes put to libertie suche prisoners without their 
consent as they comit to ward, constrayning Scollers to paye 
tollage where their privileage dothe thereof discharge them, 
whiche things bicause I wold be glad to have by some good 
mcane redubbed betwene youe, I thought meate as well to 
advise youe to desist from such contentious foly, as to signifie 
that in cace youe shall not permitt the said Univcrsitie to 
cnioye their liberties, but continue suche contcncon as wher- 
uppon may ensue many inconveniencs trouble, and empechc- 
mcnt to the comen quiet of the realme ; I shall not iaill in 
suche wise to declare your procedings to the king's Maiestie, 
as I trust his grace shall well se your perverse inclinacons 
in that behaulf. Requiring youe to alleviat me of that payne, 
\\hcrin I thinke youe shall unto your sclfs no displeasure. Thus 
facre you hartily well. From the Roulles the XV th of Maye. 

Yo//r Frecnd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my loving freends the Mayre. Bailiffs, Aldermen, 
and Burgcsis of the Towne of Camebridge. 

187. CROMWELL TO GARDINER AND BRIAN. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,1 14, f. 265 ; Cal. xii. (i) 1235. May 18, 1537. 

The King is not desirous of advancing money for the apprehension of 
Pole, but he will be glad to recompense any one who is successful 
in arresting him. Brian is at liberty to return. Cromwell hopes 
Gardiner also will soon be recalled. 

After my right hcrty cowmendacions Thisc shalbe to aducr- 
tisc you that the kingr* highncs hath aswcll receyved yo//r 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 55 

le/fcres of the xiiij th of this moncth addressed vnto his 
maiestie by his seruaunt Hammes As seen and pervsed your 
other k/teres sent by Francisco the Currowr to me. And for 
answere to them bothe his grace hath cowmaunded me to 
make vnto you suche answer as ensueth Furst wheras in 
your said k/teres directed to his highnes amonges your other 
advertissementrj of the occurantrj there (For the which his 
grace geveth vnto you his right herty thanks) ye desire to 
knowe his pleasure touching your further preceding for 
thapprehension of his traytowr Pole and what money he 
shuld be content to defraye for the conducing of the same to 
his purpose ye shall vnderstand that his highnes perceyving 
by the rest of your \etteres that his intent therin is soo dis- 
closed or at the lest suspected that being the said Pole ther- 
upon aduertiscd as ye write he is, to take hyde to the preser- 
uaczbn of hymself there is no likelyhod that ye shuld be hable 
to conduce that mater to his desire his maieste myndeth not 
to avanture any money for his saide apprehension But if ye 
can of youself Induce the p^rsones w/tA whom ye have broken 
that mater to devise for their owne benefite to do it If ye shal 
promise them som honorable reward, in cace they shal bring 
it to passe his grace will not faile to discharge your feith 
therin For the matier is soo opened that wzt^oute the parfite 
achievement of his purpose he entendeth not to put anything 
in hazard for the compassing of it Nowe as to the retourn of 
you Maister Brian, his highnes is content as by my said 
letteres I did playnely adu^rtise you bifore, perceyving in what 
termes those two po'mctes in the said k7/rres specified doo 
consiste as by thies \etteres it appereth ye have asmoche 
knowlege as ye shal atteyne therof that ye shal retourn 
hether at your libertie accordingly. And you my lord of 
Wynchestre I trust that eere it be long ye shal heare likewise 
of yo//r desyred retourn. And Thus right hertely Fare ye well 
From Hamptoncowrt the xviij th day of Maye the xxix th yere 
of the prosperouse Regne of our souuerain lord King Henry 
theight. 

Yowr louyng freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 



And wheras in your letteres ye desire to knowe the 
pleasure whether ye Sir Frauncw Brian shuld reto//rn thorough 
Flaundres or not I adu^rtise you his graciouse pleaswr* is that 
ye shal take suche waye as ye shal thinke ye may most 
shortely and spedely Retorne hither to his maieste wiiA con- 
venient diligence. 

Add. To my veray lovinge Freendes My lord ofWynchester 



56 LETTERS OF [1537 

And Sir Francss Brian Knight The King Maiesties ambassa- 
dowrs in Fraunce. 

Endd. 1 8 Maij 29 My Lorde Pr/vie Seal. 

188. (CROMWELL) TO THE DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (i) 1257. May 22, 1537. 

General instructions from the King concerning the regulation of affairs 
in the North, especially the disposition of Bridlington priory and 
Jervaulx abbey in Yorkshire, and other property. 

Pleasith it your grace to be adurrtiscd, that the kingw highncs 
having received your \etfercs dated at Birlington the xviii th 
Day of this moneth, wherby his grace jvrcaiveth yowr order 
takyn, for the same Birlington, and the howse of Gervics, his 
highnes giving vnto you alwaies his most herty thanks, hath 
cowmaunded me to advertise you of his graciousc pleasoi/r, 
both touching the effecte of the same yowr l*7/rres, and also to 
the maters comprised in yor letteres to me, wit// certain 
remrw/brawo-j dcliurred vnto me by leon^rd Bekwit//. And 
as touching your said order surely the kingrj highnes liketh it 
veray well. And albeit that he doubteth not, but the persons 
whom ye haue appointed woll do eurry thing to the best, yet 
newrtheles forasmoch, as by Acte of ptfrliamewt all lanoV; 
attcynted must passe by thand^j of the kingrj generall Sur- 
veyors and certain things by the order of the lawe bothe 
in fynding off officer & other things is to be obsrrued, ye 
shall understonde that the K'mges highnes at this tyme dothe 
send doun certain of his Counsail to take order in that mater, 
aswell touching the Fynding off offisses as also to make 
certayn & perffect bokes of all things belongyng to the same; 
not for that they shall attempt to adnull or infringe eny thing 
that shalbe done by you ne by the persons appointed by your 
lordship, but that they all to gedrr may so cowferre that cutry 
thing may be perfitely and duely done to the king honowr 
& resonable proflfict, his grace thinking that afore the same 
shalbe directely & p^rfictely accomplished, considering the 
tyme of the yere nowe, and that fermrrs cowmenly entre not 
but about/-j michaelmas. It shuld not be for his graces pr^ffict, 
to make any graunt of any part of the said land<\f, vnto the 
said tyme and also that the same may be well surveyed at 
which tyme his highnes woll not onlyc haue suche a respect 
bothe vnto the pore men Inh&beting abowt Bridlyngton & 
Jervaux but also forse for sonv substa////ciall person, mete 
and necessary to staye the cutrey & kepe hospitalite l to 

1 c.a.aa shalbe most mete & convenient 



1.537] THOMAS CROMWELL 57 

dwell in the pryncypall parte of the monasterye (for) whom 
his highnes is mynded to folowe moch your lordships advice 
and counsail, and dothe require you to aduertise hym Fullye 
of yowr oppynyons touching the same. 

And as touching the deposicons takyn of certain women 
anempst the cutting doun & buryall of the traytowrs in West- 
morland & Cumberlande surely having regard & respect to 
the evill example & perverse myndes of the offendowrs, whiche 
is thought cam not only of womens heddcs but some men were 
the principal procurers, the kingej highnes thinketh veryly, 
that if the said deposicons had been ernestly takyn. theplaines 
of that mater might haue been easely known. And therfore 
considering, that suche a misbehavowr is not to be passed ouer 
without some convenyent punishment, his highnes requireth 
you, according to yonr high wysdom and his trust by all 
meanes possible, to trye and serche out the princypall doers 
and occasioners of the same, whiche oons done, and they 
apprehended, punishment shalbe devised for them according 
to the qualities of their offences 

And as to the ha von, wherof yowr lordship writith, the kingej 
highnes vpon suche cosiderac*bns as be mencioned in your 
said le//eres, is contented that if xx 1. according to fhe saying 
of Kekwz't^ woll amend it that ye shall cause the same to be 
don this sowmer in all hast possible, remytting neuertheles the 
Ferther expencej to your wysdom 

As for the Shryne, the kingej highnes, to thentent that his 
people, shuld not be seduced, in the offring of thair money his 
grace wold haue takyn doun, whiche and all other plate and 
Juellej apperteyning to his highnes, except suche as you desire 
to haue for your money, which his highnes is content w/t//, 
his pleasure is l shall be sent vp hider 2 w/'t// all spede being 
also contented that you acc^rdeng to your desire shalhaue 
such vestments and ornaments of the church, not being mete 
for his highnes vse, the same being praysed for yowr reasonable 
money as shall appertain. And also that the Corn and Catall 
specially suche as be mete to be sold be vttered his highnes 
thinker to be best nowe remytting the discrecyon and ordre 
therof vnto you and also the landej likewise at this tyme 
of the yere being bothe sown and of other nature his highnes 
doubteth not, but that ye will substawncially ordre the same, as 
shalbe most for his highnes pr^ffitt. And the pleasure of his 
highnes is that the due dettey of the said howses well prouyde 
w*t//out Covyn shalbe contented of the goodes of the same. 

1 c. o. and so it is thought * c . o. as yowr lordship thinketh 
best most convenient 



58 LETTERS OF [1537 

And as to the leadc, and all other things, wherein ye be 
willing to knowe the king pleaswr, your lordship shall 
vnd/rstond, that upon the vieu and survey therof no we at this 
tyme by yowr grace and his cowmissionrrs to be eftsones sent 
vnto his highnes in all things he wooll vppon the sight of the 
same determyn his Father pleasure 

The king highnes also desireth yo//r lordship that ye woll 
mak due serchc of suche Lander office, Fees, fermes and all 
other things as were in the hands; & possession of the lord 
darcy sir Rob/rt constable sir fraunces bigot sir John bulnvr, 
Sir Stevyn hanvrton l sir Thow/as Percy N;V//0/as Tempest 
& all the persons of (those parts) lately attcynted here and 
to certifye the same to his grace, to thentent the same may 
cowferre them to the persons worthy accordingly, and like- 
wise to cause a prrfite inventory of their good landrj and 
possessions to be made & sent vp wit// convenient spede as 
shall appertain. 

As touching newes, ther be non here, but that ther is lately 
comyn hider twoo ambassadors from thempnwr out of spayn 
the oon of them named being of a good howse, & nere vnto 
themprrowr. as yet I can not csrtifie your grace of their 
purpose bicause they haue not had accesse to the Kingrj 
highnes. when I shall know I woll make you participate therof, 
wher I 

Endd. Copy of my \ordes \fttfres to my lord of Norffolk 
xxii th maij. 

189. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WVATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 203 ; Cal. xii. (ii) 41. June 6, 1537. 

Reports the reception of the ambassador Mendoza, who has come to 
consult about the marriage between the Princess Mary and the 
Infant Dom Luiz of Portugal. Informs Wyatt of the subjugation of 
the rebellion in the North. 

After my right herty commendacibn Albeit ye have ben 
hitherto somwhat slak and negligent to write vnto me and 
aduertise me from tyme to tyme of yowr occurrence and 
successes yet nevertheles having oportunite to write vnto you 
by the bringer herof Monsjri/r du Vauldray who hath been 
herr w/t// the Kingrj Maieste from the Quene of Hungrye 
Regen in the lowe countrees to visite and salute his hieghncs 
and declare her excuses of . the conveyance made and gcvcn 
to the traytoi/r Pole to conducte hym from Cambray (whcr* 

1 f. o. of all the persons of those parties 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 59 

being cow/maunded by the frenshe king to avoyde all his 
dominions he was retyred) to the dominion of the bishop of 
liege whiche was thought to have ben more solewne, the;; the 
traytes Requyred. It notwithstanding . his grace hath taken 
their excuses in good part . Nowe at his departure from hens 
to Themp<?ro//rs Court I have thought to aduertise you, that 
Don Diego de mendoza is arrived here . at the Wodensday 
next after pentecost resorting to the kinge maieste then 
being at Hamptoncowrt . was veray honorably met receyved 
and entreteyned after the best sorte w/t// the which, and also 
the other ambassadewr here resident I and other of the kinge 
conseill . by his Maieste appoinctemewt have had at sundry 
tymes conference togeder vpon the causes of his cowmyng 
touching the mariage Wherunto although his grace bee of 
good inclination nevertheles as yet there is nothing concluded 
Aswell bicause the said Don Diego brought no newe commis- 
sion w/t/* hym but onely suche as thambassadcw bifore tyme 
here resident had receyved long bifore his cowmyng As also 
bicause they seme to make som difficulte in suche things as 
on our behalf be proposed and demaunded touching the bishop 
of Rome . that the said Emp^rowr for his behalf shal not sticke 
w/'t// his doings but rather departe from them and adhere to 
the kinge maieste, in suche wise that he shuld assent nor agree 
to no maner thing that the said bishop or his adherents wold 
attempt agenst his maieste Realme or subiecte or to any dis- 
pleastt/r of thesame but rather lett it and w/t//stand all suche 
purposes and enterprises to the vttermost of his power. And 
as yet have not agreed therunto. Wherupon the said ambas- 
sadors and also vpon other conference had wtUt them have 
writen at this tyme by the said Monsieur de Vauldray And 
vpon suche answer . as they shal have from thens agayn . the 
hole mater shalbe or concluded or broken of . as the cace shal 
Requyre Wherof . I thinke best and advise you to pretende 
ignorance . Yet nevertheles if ye see good oportunite and 
occasion offred . ye may shewe what disposition ye knewe the 
king*?.? highnes (vpon good causes) was at your departure Im- 
mutably agenst the said bishop and that ye double not but 
he shuld not repute hole entiere and p<:rfite allyance v/itA any 
person . that wold agree assent or assist hym to any thing that 
myght sounde to his grace person Royaulme or subiecte 
displeaswr*? sayeng and declaring the same as of yowr self 
w/'t/* the best circus/stance and as discretely as ye can . Taking 
hede evermore to the entretenemewt and norrishing of the 
good amytie bitwen<? them asmoche as ye shall convenyently 
may and in all thinge requisite keping yowrself as closse as 
shalbe expedient vsing in this yowr charge such good dexterite 



60 LETTERS OF [1537 

and circumspection as ye knewe our good opinion and cxpcc- 
tac/bn was and endureth yet ye shuld. 

As concerning of our newes and successes her* sithens your 
departure I assure you thanckrj be to our blessed Creatowr 
the kings; Maieste is in as good helth, and disposition as 
I saw hys grace of a long season And the more bicausc the 
Que'nes grace is qwick wit// childe god by his grace sende her 
good deiiuerawce of suche aprince long to lyve according to 
his Maiestrt graciouse desir and the common Joye and wclth 
of all his Realme and good feithfull subiecter \\ho for the 
same being the newes therof brought from Hamptoncowrt 
hcther to london on Trinitie sondaye at after none there was 
grete celebrite at Poules and thanckw geven to god, and in 
the evenyng solewine fyres made in sundry placrj as well 
of the Citie as of other townes. The hole cstat of the Realme 
from the highest to the lowest are in veray good rest and 
quicte wit// their herty obedience and good will (to) the king 
maieste all of oon vnion and concorde suche as have ben 
offendowrs veray sorye for their offences and full desyrouse to 
have occasion to ministre the kingrr maieste som acceptable 
srruice for to shewe their true hert to hym the more con- 
formed for his benign and graciouse pardon mercyfully 
extended vpon them which his maieste hath observed hitherto 
and woll for ever observe Inviolably. For although . the 
"Lordes Darcy and Husey . Sirs Robrrt Constable . Fraunc^r 
bigot, John bulmer . Stephen Hamerton, Knights The lord 
Lomleys son, Robert aske, Nicholas tempest Thabbott of 
Jervaulx the priowr of byrlington and som other, also 
Sir Thomas Percy . had their pardon . yet bicause they have 
ben openly convinced and attayntcd . of certaine cowspiracyes 
and highe treasons most Ingrately spitefully and haynously 
committed agenst his benigne and so graciouse mercy full 
maieste vnto them (as Right was and their Incurable 
Ingratitudes deserved) have ben condawned of highe treason, 
and som of them alredy executed Wherof if there is any co*- 
municacion moved vnto you ye maye . assuredly afferme that 
If they had not highely offended sithens the kings* pardon, 
his maieste had never rcmcwbrcd their precedent offenses nor 
imputed thesame to their charge, Being a prince most 
honorable observatour of his worde . But seing their cankred 
recidive hert he could no lesse doo then to suffre them to 
have his lawes . to thcxemple of suche Ingrateand Irremediable 
obstinate hcrte. Shortely of all other occurrence as shal 
succede & of other conference I shal adusrtise at large by 
the next that shal be sent Thither. Thus Fare ye Right 
hertely well From the Roller this vi* of Juny the XXIX th 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 61 

yere of owr most noble souu^rain lorde his prosprrouse 
Regne. 

Yowr louyng assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray loving Freend Sir Thomas Wyat 
Knight The Icings of England^ his maiestrj ambassador 
Resydent wzt^ Thempm>#r. 

Endd. From my lord prevy sele the first by Vauldray the 
xxvi of June. Also, My lord privy sele in Juyne at Valodd 
by Vauldry. 

190. CROMWELL TO THE LORD ADMIRAL. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 208. July 4 (1537). 

Reports the capture of certain Breton pirates about Tenby in South Wales. 
Requests him to inform the King and learn his pleasure concerning 
them. 

In my right harty wise I cowmende me vnto yowr lordship 
thiese shalbe to adu^rtise thesame, that this day I haue 
receyved let feres from John Wynter of Bristowe wherby I 
rvrsayve that about seynt Peters day last passed tidynges 
came thither of two Britons whiche lay on the cost of Wales, 
and entred on a ship of Bristowe that was freight for Biscay 
and it is doubted that they haue either taken the ship and 
goodes or atte lest spoyled the same . they haue also robbed 
and spoyled certayne botes that were repayring towards 
Bristowe w/t// marchaundise agaynst Seynt James fayr, and 
of likelihod entend to wayt for Shippes and botes co/wmyng 
to, and fro, that feyr. But in the meane season one Bowen of 
Bristowe hathe met vfiih xiiii or xv of the Britons about Tynby 
in wales whiche landed ther for the refresshyng of their 
vitaill, and he hathe caused theym to be co;#mytted to prison, 
and besides that wynter hathe manned a ship out of Bristowe 
for Rochell, -with fiftie Souldio//rs besides maryners, and if they 
come in his way I doubt not he will borde theym. I pray 
you adurrtise the Kingcs highnes herof, and knowe his pleasure 
therin, and what his highnes will haue to be done in this 
mater and socially w/t^ the prisoners, and whither his highnes 
will haue any other thyng to be executed in those parties, 
that I may write therof accordyngly . thus the blessed Trenyte 
preserve your good lordship. At the rolles the fourthe day of 
July. 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd 



Endd. a lettere to my lord Admyrall p^rticuler letters. 



62 LETTERS OF [1537 

191. CROMWELL TO (LORD HUNGERFORD)'. 

Longford Castle MSS. ; not in CaJ. July 6 ( 1 537). 

Requests him to examine the charge against Thomas Beese, vicar of 
South Stoke in Somerset and to liberate him from prison. 

And wher as before this tyme upon your advertisement of 
the mysdemeanour of Sir Thomas Beese Clcrke vicar of 
Southstoke in the County of Somerset I required you to 
commyt him to warde to the next gaole, And forasmoche as 
the said vicar hath sufficient sureties bounde for hym that he 
shalbe furthecommyng to answer to soche thyngcs as shalbe 
layd agaynst hym on the kynges behalfe I require you calling 
unto you somme other discrete persone beyng one of the 
Kynges Justices of the Peax to exammyne the truthe of the 
matier whiche is layde agaynst the sayd vicar with the cir- 
cumstaunccs therof by all the ways and meanes ye con- 
venyently may, And to advertise me thcrof when ye shall 
have oportunyte therto. Requiryng you farther upon the 
receipt herof to cause the sayd vicar to be put at his libertie 
and to be delivered out of prison. 

Stebenhithe, 6 July. 
Signed. 



192. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Lisle Papers, ii. 128; not in Cal. July 6 (1537). 

Requests him to give his support to Lady VVhethel in the controversy she 
has with her son. 

After my right herty Commendations to your Lordeshippe 
Forasmoche as in the Controuersyc depending bitwcnr the 
lady Whcthel and her sone the kingrr maiestc hath directed his 
commission thether. In consyderacibn that she is a wydowe 
sole and destitute of Confort I have thought for the preserua- 
c/on of her good right hertely to desyre and praye you that 
the rather at myn instance and Requisition ye will bc.irc her 
your lawfull favour and support in her good right and title 
according to the lawe equite and Justice. So that no part 
therof be oppressed but the veray truth appcre and have 
place accordingly. Whcrin ye shal doo avcray charitable 
dede meritoriouse towaroVj god and to me acceptable pleaswr. 

1 From the official Record Office transcript. 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 63 

Thus Fare ye right hertly well From Stibenheth this vi" 1 
day of July. 

Yor lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray good Lord The Visconte Lisle deputie 
of the Kinges towne and marches of Calays. 
Endd. for my lady Whetyll 

193. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 205 ; Cal. xii. (ii) 228. July 8, 1537. 

Thanks him for his letters. Sends him news of the execution of the 
Northern rebels, and of the taking of St. Pol and Montreuil by the 
' Joly armye ' of Burgundians. 

After my right herty cowmendac/on Bicause I wold not 
lett this bercr, George Pery, oon of the gentilmen of Monsieur 
Chappuys ihemperours ambassadowr here resident to departe 
w/V/oute my \etterts vnto you although I can not amplely 
aduertise you of all things yet for this present I aduertise that 
being here at Stepeney this mornyng arryved hither Rouge 
Croix the herald which ye sent w/t// your \etterzs dated the 
xxiij th daye of June last And soo I sent them Incowtinently to 
the Icings higlmes which is nowe at Oking Wherfore as to his 
pleaswr vpon the same I can not by this berer infowrme you of 
it. But for my letteres aswell writen at your furst arryvaill 
bifore ye had audience as for those I have nowe receyved I 
geve vnto you my herty thanks taking yor excuses for yowr 
so late writing in good parte. As touching the cowmunica- 
c/on \vit/t themp^rowrs ambassadors here, whcrof I wrote 
prtrtely vnto you by Monsieur de Vauldray . I hope there 
shall folowe good successe of it soo that there shalbe founde 
reasonable conformite and correspondence of that behalf. 
Concernyng the newes of this Royaulme Nothing is succeded 
sythens my last writing but from good quiete and peace dayly 
to better and better. The traytours have ben executed The 
lord darcy at towre hyll . the lord husey at Lincoln Aske 
hanged vpon the dongeon of the Castell of York And sir 
Robert owstable hanged at hull . the residue were executed at 
Thyfbourne So that as ferre as we can prrceyve all the 
cancred hertrj bee wyded awaye. The bourgoynons have 
a Joly armye of hardy men . the which at the furst brout 
toke Sainct Pol by assawte and there kylled at the assaulte 
viii : l Frenshmen and at the entre & furowr of the co;/;myng 
in M^ 02 and more. From thens they passed the Countrey 

1 i.e. Soo. a i.e. 1500. 



64 LETTERS OF [153? 

and came to Mowtereul where they abode two dayes so the 
towne was yelden by composition. Mons/ri/r de Canaplcs 
capitayn there and the men of werre wewt oute v/itA their 
baggr j & bagagrr afterward the towne was spoyled brent and 
rased. From thcns they went Incontinent to laye the siege 
at Therowewne where they be as yet in good hope to take it. 
they have as yet had in maivr never a skarmoch by the 
Frenshmen that we can here of Albeit they saye the Dolphyn 
and grete maistre are no we at Abbeville preparing and assem- 
bling their armye and puissaunce to reskue that town . and the 
frenshe king is at Fontayne bleaw. they cracke that they woll 
geve them bataille but what they shal do I can not lightly Juge 
Thise I have thought w/tA this present occasion by the bearer 
that taryeth for non other purpose to write vnto you although 
generally and in haste more amplely I shal write by the next 
Nevertheles for all the hast I wold not omitte to aduertise you 
that som yowr srruaunt^j here be called and named common 
stellers of the king hawkrj I wold ///<re shal (be) gevcn 
warnyng that they shal leave suche prankrj and that ye wolbe 
no mayntener of such vnlawfull felowes of light disposition, 
and write vnto them ernestly. I thinke no nede to write of 
the Kingrj and Quenes grac^j veray pr^sperouse disposition 
god cowtynue it as I trust for a grete many yeres. Thus Fare 
ye right hertely well From Stepeney this viij* of July 
xv^xxxvii 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray loving Freend Sir Thomas Wyat 
Knight the King Ambassador Resident in Themprrowrs 
[Cjourte 

Endd. My lord prrvi selc in Juli by George pery delivered 
at saragosse 

ii from my lord prnrisele by George pery at Saragosse 
received the ii d of August of the date of viii of July. 

194. CROMWELL TO (LORD LISLE AND THE COUNCIL 
OF CALAIS). 

B. M. Cleop. E. iv, f. 55 ; CaL xii. (ii) 267. July 17 (1537). 

The King desires that William Minstreley and William Richardson, two 
priests, be sent to England in custody. 
' papistical! facions ' to be maintained in 



priests, be sent to England in custody. Reproofs for permitting such 

Calais. 



Aftre my right harty cowmcndac/ons The King highnes 
Being enformed that there be two presto in that towne 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 63 

thonc called Sir William Minstreley whiche is nowe in 
warde thother called Sir W///mm Richardson otherwise good 
S/> Wit/tarn, hathe cowmaunded me to signifie vnto you, 
that like as his pleasure is that vppon the receipt herof you 
shall sende bothe the said prestes hither as prisoners in 
assured custodye, Soo his grace cannot a litle mrrvayl to 
here of the papisticall fac/on that is mayntained in that 
towne and by you chiefly that be of his gracrj counsail, 
Surely his Maiestie thinkethe that you haue litle respecte 
cither to him, to his lawes, or to the good ordre of that towne 
whiche soo litle regarde him, in a matier of soo greate weight, 
whiche also his highncs hathe somoche to harte, and willed 
me plainly to intymate vnto you all and cu^ry of you, that in 
cace he shall prrceyve from hensforthe any such abuses 
suffred or wynked at, as haue been hitherto in maner in 
contempt of his most Royall estate mayntained, His highnes 
woll put others in the best of your Romes that shall soo 
offende him, By whome he wilbe Better s^rued, It is thought 
against all reason that the prayers of women and there fonde 
flikeringfj shuld move any of you to doo that thing, that 
shuld in any wise displease the prince and sourraign lord or 
offende his iust lawes. And if you shal thinke any extremytie 
in this writing you must thanke yourselfes that haue soo 
procured it, for neither of yourselfcs haue you regarded thise 
matiers ne answered to many my "Lcttctzs writen for like 
pf/rposes and vppon like occasions, Wherin thoughe I haue 
not made any accusac/on, yet Being in the place for those 
things that I am I haue thought you did me therin tomoche 
Iniury and suche as I am assured his highnes knowing it wold 
not haue taken in good partc. But this mater nedeth noo 
aggravaabn, ne I haue doon any thing in it, more thenne 
hathe Been By his Ma/rjte thought mete pm:ace not so- 
moche And thus Fare you hartely well From Sutton the 
xvij th of July 

Yow lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 
195. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 328. July 24 <I537>- 

Thanks him for his news, and assures him of his friendship, in spite of 
his former sharp letters, which were intended only as a warning to 
the Council not to persist in their obstinate pertinacity and errors. 

After my most affectuousc commendaabn to your lord- 
ship w/t// like thankrj for your newes wri//cn vnto me in your 
of the xv th of this moneth which I have receyved this 

MERRIMAN. II F 



66 LETTERS OF [1537 

mornyng. And forasmoch as by the king^j maiestrj co;;/- 
maundcment I wrote vnto you and other of his grac^ 
counscill thcr for the sending vp of two sediciousc prestr.v 
somwhat sharpcly to thcntcnt that some of the said conseill 
which leanc moche to their suprrsticiouse oldc obscruac/ons 
and Rites myght be general warnyng to you all dy reeled. 
Beware howe to mochc to stande in their obstinat p/rtinacyc 
and errowr in somr things but be induced to bring their 
hertrj Inward to the cowformite of the truthe Whatsoever be 
wri//en in the same my lorde thinkc non otherwise but that 
I remayne styll your parfitc and synccr Frecnd, and that by 
such sharpncs ye ar non otherwise touched to therby (than) 
to take an occasion to be concurrent w/tA me to altcrc such 
evill instructed and enclyncd hertrj to (leave) their olde 
Ceremonyes and obsmiac/ons and exhortc them to knowc 
and folowc the truth declared vnto them and to sett all 
obstinacyc and hardncs of hcrt a partc not thinking them 
sclffs wyser in such things then the moost lerncd and best 
of the Royaulme. As I trust somoche in yo//r goodncs that 
ye will not faille to do your good office and as mochc as 
lycth in your power for the same And like as therein ye shal 
administer vnto the kingrj highnes veray acceptable plcas//r 
and thankcfull. So I shal soo moche cstemc yo//r good 
ernest preceding therto as to any other other l thing as whcrin 
ye could do me most pleas//r. And cowtynuyng my good 
affection towards you will no lessc ernestly employe me self 
to the furtheraunce of your resonablc desires and suifs when 
soever occasion shal serve me therto trusting to gett yo//r 
bill signed at the kingrj grace next being at Wyndsor Thus 
Fare ye right hcrtcly well. From Esthamsted this xxiiii lh 
of July 

Yo//r lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWEI i . 

Add. To my vcray good lordc the Viscont Lyslc the 
deputie of his maiestrj townc and marchcys of Calays 



196. CROMWELL TO THE SHERIFF OF WEXFORD. 

R. O. CaL xii. (ii) 375. July 31 (i$37>. 

Has obtained leave from the King that an Act shall pass in the Irish 
Parliament for the continuance of the liberties of Wcxford. 

Copye of the letter Sent vnto the Shyryf of the Countyc 
ofWexford. 

After my Right hartye co;//mendac/bns, I hauc Receyuid 
yowr "Lfttfrcs with your token of Remcmbrauncc addressed 

1 Hf. 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL C7 

vnto me by this Berer and Consydering your honestie and 
Reasonable petiabns conteyned in the same haue Been a 
Suter to the Kinges Ma/V^tie for your Satisfacc/on therm, at 
the Contemplac/bn wherof as his Highnes hathe appointeid 
an acte to passe in his parlyament therfor the contynuaunce 
of your Lyberties dureing his gracrj pleasowr. Soo his 
Ma/r^tie is determyned to appointie suche officers among^ 
you as youe shalle haue cause to be contented withall. his 
highnes not doughting youe wylle in all things vse your selffV.? 
soo lyke goode & faythfull Subiectar towards him as his 
grace shalle haue every daye more cause to shewe himselffe 
your good & gracyous lorde. And for my parte vseing your 
selfli'j towards his highnes as besemeyth youe doubt youe 
not but I shalbe a contynuall solysytowr for youe in all your 
Reasonable purposes and in suche Wyse from tyme to tyme 
aduaunce your smiices and faythfull demeanowrs as the 
same shalle not be w/t/*oute condigne thanks Requyring to 
aduertyse me by your L^/fcres as you shalle See any thing 
doon that shalle in any wise be againste the king house his 
Suretye or the wealle of that his Lande. Wherin youe shalle 
doo vnto me very acceptable pleasowr. And this fare ye 
hartyly well. From Sonnynghill the Last of Julye 

loueing Frende 
THOMAS CROMWELL, 



197. CROMWELL TO DR. SANDWICH, OF CANTERBURY 
COLLEGE, OXFORD. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 412. <July, 1537.) 

Has appointed him to preach at Paul's Cross on the twelfth Sunday after 
Trinity. 

In my right hartie mancr I cow/mende me vnto you And 
where as for the honest report of yowr lernyng in holly \cttcres, 
and incorrupte Jugement in the same I haue appointed yow 
emongrj other, to occupie the Rome of a preachour, one day 
at Paules crosse, these be aswell to signefie vnto yow that 
the said day so limited for yow is the xii 01 sonday after 
Trinitie sonday, beyng the xix th day of August, as also to 
reqwire you that ye faile not to be there at the same day, 
preparing in the meane tyme with suche pure syncerenes, 
trewly to open the worde of god, at the said day as I may 
therby take occasion, to thinke the reaport made of yow to be 
trewe. Wherby ye shall not only do a right good dede, but 
also mynistre vnto me thankefull pleasure which I shall not 

F a 



68 UTTERS OF [1537 

fayle to rcquytc as occasion may thcrvnto saruc And thus 
fare ye well 

Yowr Freend 



Add. To my Louing frcnd Doctowr Sandewiche of Canter- 
bury college in Oxforde. 

Endd. Mr. Crumwcll cowmaunding him to preache at 
Panics Crosse. 

198. CROMWELL TO <THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 414. Aug. I (1537). 

Desires them to make out a lease to old Colcy of the farm of Holm- 
pat rick, near Dublin. 

Aftrr my Right harty Comcndac/ons wher as by the king 
highnes apointcmcnt I dyd hertofore addres my letters to 
the vicetrcsorer ther for the preflferment of old Coley to the 
Ferme of Holmpatryk wherapon as I vndcrstande he is yet 
in possession of the same This schalbc to desire and pray you 
not only to make hym out his lease therof according to your 
Comission for Suche purposes but also in the doing of the 
same to vse bothe an honest diligcns & to exstcnde that 
Fauor for my sake that you Shall may Convenyently Shew 
vnto hym in the same wherin you Shall do vnto me very 
acceptable pleasure And thus fare you hertely well frome 
Sonnyng Hill the Furst day of August 

Yo//r loving frende 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 
/// the margiti : Coley for Holme patryke 

199. CROMWELL TO <THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. CaL xii. (ii) 457. Aug. 6, 1537. 

They are to permit Patrick Hawlde, Prior of Holyrood in Limerick, to 
enjoy the priory peaceably, as the King has allowed it to remain 
undissolved. 

After my hertyc comcndac/ons Forasmuche as the maio///- 
& burgeses of Limeryk haue made humble sute vnto the 
king magcstye for the pryory of holy Roode of Lymryk 
aforcsaidc that for soundcry consyderac/ons it maye please 
his grace that the same shulde Remayne unsuppressid but 
Contynue still after the fundacibn therof . his magestye hathe 






J 537] THOMAS CROMWELL 69 

willid me to sygnyfie vnto youe that his graciousc plcasur 
& cojwmaundyme;// is that not onely the saide pryory shalle 
not be for this tyme suppressed nor in no wyse dyssolued but 
rather Contynued & mayntayned shalbe according to the 
fundac/on of the same as it hathe byn accustomed heretofore. 
And that for the goode qualyties whiche his grace is enformed 
ar in his well-beloued subiect Patryk Hawlde Clerke nowe 
prior of the same youe shalle see him quyetly and peasbly 
Inyoie & holde the saide priory and allmaner fruytes profyifs 
Rente.? emolument and Rights therunto belonging and in 
anj- Wyse apperteynyng in asample forme and manour as he 
ought to do & his predecessors before hym haue enyoied the 
same, shewing vnto him in all things your lawfull and 
Reasonable favowr the Rather at my desyre and Intercession 
wherin ye shalle admynistre vnto me Acceptable pleaswr. And 
this fare you Right hartily well from windesor this vi" 1 of 
August the xxix th yere of his Mazejties most prosperouse 
Reygne. 

Your loveing frende 

THOMAS CROMWELL 
200. CROMWELL TO THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 456. Aug. 6 <I537>. 

Desires them to consider the enclosed letters, which James of Desmond 
sent to the King since their departure. 

To the Kingej Commissioners in Irlandc 
For an order for the tytle of therldom of Destmondc 

After my Right harte comendac/ons you Shall vnderstande 
that the kingej maieste hathe Sythens your dispeche Receyued 
serten letters frome Jamys of Desmonde the copy wherof you 
Shall Haue herin inclosed whiche his graces pleasur is you 
Shall duly consider And at your Aryvall in Irlande you Shall 
duely wayth Euery point in the same bothe touching the title 
the demeanors of the trahentej of bothe parties And the 
seruice that may be don be eyther p^rtie conducyng the hole 
mater to as gode Stay as you Shalbe abyll by your wyesdom 
and thervpon aduertcs his grace of the perfectness of Euery 
point in the same le//eres and herin also Expressyd vsing 
therin also thadvice of Suche of the Councell ther as you Shall 
thinke mete. And thus fare you hartely well from Wyndesor 
the vi day of August 

Yo//r loving frende 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 



70 LETTERS OF [1537 

Copy. James of Dcstmondrj Lr//<-re to the kingly highncs 
for his Submyc/on & Reformac/*?// of monster. 

To the king^j highnes maiestc. 

Most excellent & Gracious Prince in the most humblest 
maner that I can I Recomende me vnto your nobyll grace 
Please it your highnes to be adiurtesed how that I am as 
a poure sr/ouw/nt acording to my dute of Alegeauns pr^fering 
my srruice vnto yowr grace as I can or may better then any 
of my predecessors dyd sythens my grauntfader was heded at 
Drodagh Save only my fader, whiche was leader & Forman of 
the klngfs hoste in Irlande and specyally in Monster in all 
Fightrj & batellz that eiuv were gevyn in his tyme in yo//r 
name & in your fathers name But not w/t^standing I do take 
in greate marvyll whyll yowr nobyll grace dothe not Re- 
membre & consider in your hart the Extorcions treason 
& Rebelling of the bastarde called Jamys fitz moryce which 
yowr grace Receyuith aftrr that he & his fader and his graunt- 
fader was eurr contynuall Rebellys agenst the Croune Robbyng 
Cytes & borough townes kylling marchauntrj & other of your 
Subiectrj and geve the lanoVj & possessions w/t/i plate & other 
good^j of the Inglishe men into the handrj of Irishmen Con- 
sidering the same if it were your graces nobill will I wold Fayne 
that you Cause an inquesicj'on to be don in all yo//r Cytes 
& borough townes of monster wherby it might be knocn 
whether is better or more worthist to be worschiped then I or 
whiche of vs wold Rather complishe your highnes intent For by 
the help of God & yo//r gracrj Supportac/bn w*t^ the cost of 
ccc men I wold thinke that yowr nobylite wold take in greate 
marveyle the order & Rule that I would put thorough all 
monster w*t//in two yeres wherby you might consider what 
struatmt I am In the name of God who so your grace 
& highnes mainteyn & augment Frome the Towne of Kyll- 
mallock the eight day of this Instant July 

Yo//r nobyll grace is 

true & humble ssruaunt 

JAMYS OF DESMONDE. 

201. CROMWELL TO <THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. CaL xii. (ii) 468. Aug. 7 (1537). 

Requests that Francis Herbert be preferred to one of the garrisons, and 
that he may have the rental of a piece of land. 

Aftrr my right harty Comendac/on for asmoche as this 
bearer hathe don/ as it was Reported gode srruice to the kingrj 
ma/Vjtic in the tymc of the Rebel lyon in thoze partycs and 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 71 

was therupon Sworen of his graces Councell thcr And had also 
apointed vnto hym a Convenycnt entretaynment. Now vpon 
the dissoluc/on of the army ther his highnes pleasur is that 
you Shall not only preffer hym to one of the garnysons if he 
wyll accept the same but also that you Shall Lett vnto hym 
Some parte of his graces landes ther not before wryten for as 
ben comodyos and at Such Rent as he may haue a Convenyent 
Lyving of the same w/t//out fayling to haue a Specyall Respect 
to the Satysfacc/on of this man if Reson will content hym 
\w't//out the prejudice of others before wryten for And thus 
fare you hartcly well from wyndeso;/r the vii th of August 

Yo//r loving frend 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 
/// the margin : For fraunccs Herbart 

202. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 472. Aug. 8 (1537). 

Desires them to inform the King of the value of any estate that the bearer 
may make suit for. 

After my right harty Comendaczons albehit I haue before 
wryten vnto you largely in the fauour of this bearer Frauncrj 
Herbcrd yet the kinges hignes pleasur was I Shold Eftsones 
Recomend hym vnto you to this entent only that where he 
Shall Espy Any thing ther wherin he Shall determyne to 
be a Suter to his Ma*V\rte as prrcase for Some lenger Astate 
then you may graunt vnto hym you Shall vpon knolege of his 
mynde therin Aduertes his highnes of the Just and true value 
of the same Accordingly. And thus fare you hartely well 
from Donnestablc the viii of August 

Your loving frendc 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 
/;/ the margin: for fraunccs Herbart. 

203. CROMWELL TO THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 485. Aug. 9 <I537>- 

Desires them to tell Desmond that the King takes his proposals in good part. 
They are to inform themselves about him and cause him to deliver 
up James de la Hyde, Parson Walsh and the Earl of Kildare's son. 
Cf. Letter 200. 

To the K'mges Comissioners in Irlande 

After my Right harty Comendadbns this Shalbe to Adu^rtes 
you that the Kinges Mageste hathe Receyued Suche an other 



;.' LETTERS OF [ 

Letter fromc Jamys of Dcsmonde as the copy whcrof was sent 
to you enclosed in my l///rres yJdresscd by pattryk Harnwcll. 
And forasmoche as by his wryting thcr aperith not only 
a gret conformyte in hym but also an ourrture of the Reducyng 
of hole Monster wtt//in two yers to a perfect obediens Having 
therunto the Asistcns of 300 men for that tyme. His highnes 
dcsireth you to handell the sayd James in A gentyll Sorte 
declaring that his ma^te takyth his W/V*res in gode parte and 
to Enter wit/t hym vpon the points of the same that you may 
the better Fele hym & his purpose. And therapon devising 
w/t// others, way what srruice he schall be abyll to do. if his 
maieste Shold take Suche an order bytwene hym & the young 
man the said young mannes title notwithstanding whiche 
most men do preffer as he might contynew in his Extcnuac/on 
whiche I Suppose assuredly his grace wolle do what Rccompens 
so euer he Shall make to this man if the Said Jamys wyll 
contynew a Feythfull obedyent corespondent to the Lawcs 
ther. Andean therwzt^ accomplische that he wrytith touching 
Mounster if his grace Shold beare as moche w;t// hym for the 
same as he desireth. And what you Shall Fynde herin his 
graces pleasur is you Shall adurrtes acordingly. And thus 
fare you hartely well. From Ampthill the ix th day of August. 
Post Scripta the kingrx ma/Vjtie hathe sertein knowlege that 
the Same Jamys of Desmond hathe in his countrc Jamys de 
la Hyde on^ called parson Walsche two most detestable 
traytors & the Sonne of the late Erie off Kyldarc whiche he 
may delyuer at his wyll. Wherfor his gracys pleasur is that 
at your Furst conferense w/t// hym and in your practyse for 
the same if you Shall think it convenyent you Shall declare 
that it is come to your knolege that he hathe in his countre 
the said prrsons & lyke men that Semyd of yo//r Selfiys to 
Fauor hym & wold be glad to hauc hym do that thing that 
might for his owne beneffyt be acceptable to his Ma/Vvte 
You Shall bothe demande the said iii persons and advyse hym 
the best you Can for an doubted argument of his trouthe whiche 
in wordfs & wryting he Scwith to delyucr the same to the 
depute And if you Shall not Induce hym therunto you Shall 
yet assay by all meanes to you possible whow to gett in to 
your handtt the said prrsons eythcr w/t// his wyll or agenst 
his wyll for I Ensure you the kingrj highnes hathe the same 
moche to hart & woll accept your srruice to be don thcrin 
most thankfully thus Eftsonrj fare you well 

Yo//r loving Frende 

THOMAS CROMWEI i . 
In the margin : Copy. 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 73 

204. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 486. Aug. 9(1537). 

Desires them to inquire to whom the custom of Carlingford in Louth, 
appertaining to the castle there, belongs, and to satisfy Jerome Lynn 
and the bearer, Martin Skrine. Cf. Letter 211. 

After my Right harty Comcndac/ons where as this bearer 
Martyne Skryn had ons a byll Assigned by the late depute 
ther for the Custome of Carlingford whiche as I do understonde 
dothe aprrteyne to the Castell ther now in the keping of 
Jcramr lynne And Gevyn vnto hym w/t// all the comodytcs 
therof. Lyke as in case the said Jerome Lynne Shold haue 
the same by force of his patent I wold be lothe that he Sholdc 
lose hit, so yett I wold nat the kingrj magcste Shold not lose 
the beneffyt therof if his grace hauc not Gevyn hit away in 
forme aforesaid. And therfor I Require you to Examen the 
mater indyfferently and if you shall Fynde that Jerome Lynne 
ought to Enyoi* hit then I desire you hartely bothe in 
Recompens of this mans travayle and att the contemplac/on 
herof to make hym Som honest Rccompews \\ilh Som other 
fcrme to his contentaczon If hit be founde that Lynne hauc 
no Right to hyt by cause hit lyeth nowe most mete for hym 
I pray you make hym a Lease therof for Suche Rent as this 
man Shold haue paid and to content this man \viih some 
other thing as is before Specefyed you Shall in the honest 
handclyng of this mater desrrue my harty thankes And So 
fare you hartely well from Ampthill the ix th of August 

Yo//r loving frende 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 

In the margin : Copy, an order for the custome of 
Carlingford for Jeranv lynne at my lordrj desire 

205. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 500. Aug. II (1537). 
Desires their favour for the bearer, Edward Beck, in his suits. 

Aftrr my Right Harty Comendac/ons for asmoche as 
this bearer Edwarde Bek hathe vsed hym self in the tyme 
of the late Rebellyon ther and at all other tymes lyke 
the K'mgfs highnes most true and faithfful Subiect his ma/rjte 
hathe comanded me spccyally to Recomend hym vnto you 
And on his behalf to desire & pray you in all Suche Sutcs as 
he Shall make vnto you for any lyving or Comodyte of 



74 LETTERS OF [1537 

Fcrmc thcr you shall Exstende that Fauowr vnto hym that 
you may Whcrin also you Shall to me Admyncster very 
thankefful plcasur And thus fare you hartely well fromc 
Ampthill the XI th of August 

"Your loving frcndc 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 
/// the margin : Edward Bck for .... 

206. CROMWELL TO THE MAYOR, BAILIFFS, ALDERMEN, 
AND BURGESSES OF CAMBRIDGE. 

Cooper's Annals, i. 389 ; Cal. xiL (ii) 513. Aug. 14 (1537)- 

Upbraids them for their ill-treatment of the members of the University 
at the late Stourbridge Fair. The King's command is that the 
University have the oversight of the fairs, that the Vice-Chancellor 
try all cases in which a scholar is involved, that the mayor take his 
oath as the charter requires, and that the town observe the compact 
made with the University. 

After my hcrty comendacons, I am right sorye that by 
the occasion of your ungentil dealing with the universite at 
the last Sturbrigge feyre and continually sithcns, ye have 
not oncly shewed yo//r selfs men rather enclined and desirous 
to bring the Kings highnes' people together by the eares, then 
personages of that sorte, as (leaving apart their own fantasies 
and desires as reason and duetie enforceth) are rewled by the 
plcaswr and determinacon of their prince and soveraign lord : 
But also that in your perverse doings ye have shewed your- 
sclfs so unkind towards me, in your deds contempning all my 
letters written unto youe in the favor of the said universite, 
that I must nedes now eat lengthe write unto you in an other 
tune and (onlcs ye shall weye theis my lettres otherwise 
then ye have don all the rest before written) become a party 
agcnst you, with myn humble sute to the kings maicstie to 
see you ducly punyshed for your contemptuouse presumption, 
in the violation of his graces Charters to the said universite 
heretofore graunted. 

If I had not ben your freende as I have ben, and rather 
more than becam me than lesse, yet being (though unworthy) 
oon of his highnes privc conseill, Indifferent men will saye 
that it had bcseamed every of you to have hadd a grete deale 
more respect to my lettres then ye have had, At the lest in 
your doings not to have contcmpned them. Whosoever hath 
gcven you counseill so to use yourselfs as ye have don, 
eyther he wanted witt or clles he was your gretc enemy. 
Can any of you be so folishc to think that ye can in 
such a Royaulmc as this is, specially wher a Prince of so 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 75 

excellent qualities (as the kings maiestie our moste dradd 
soverain Lord is) governeth, eyther wynne the accomplishe- 
ment of your willes by violence, or will kepe that benefit of 
liberties that ye have of his highnes with your open and 
apparaunt contempt of suche graunts as his maiestie hath 
made to others. Doo ye not thinke that his highnes can no 
more of Justice suffre the liberties lawfully graunted to the 
universite to be taken from them without their offence 
deserving the same, then his grace can of equite permytt the 
Towne of Barnwell to usurpe upon you and yowr liberties. 
He that maketh you thus to stryve agenst the streame woll 
percace not onely helpe you forward to the losing of yo//r 
oune comodities, But to the entre in to your soverain Lords 
indignacon. For think thus to yowrselfs that ye cannot by 
.... the Universite to any hyndraunce, ye may doo them 
good in setting forth their wisedom and tolerance by your 
folye, and soo hurt yourself with your oun extremite. But 
nowe to com to the poincts for the which I do at this tyme 
write unto you, Bicaus there was like to have ben notable 
myschef in the tyme of the last Sturbrigge feyre, If the 
universite had not geven place in their right ; It hath pleased 
the kings maiestie to appointe me to write unto you. 

Furst, that ye shall suffre the said universite to have, use, 
and enjoye quietely, the oversight, view, gagyng and correction 
of victaille and victaillers, of weights and measures and of 
forstalers and regraters as well within the town of Cambridge 
as in the said fcyre of Sturbrigge whiche they have both by 
charter, in nowise exacting any tole of them against the 
purpose of the same, wherin alredy ye have don them grete 
Iniury, and shewed yorselfs men that seek rather cause of 
dissension then meanes of quiete with the love of your neigh- 
bours, without whom also, a veray fewe excepted, all the rest 
of you would live full thynnely. 

Seconde that all actions wherin a Scholer is the oon part 
shal be heard and decided before the vicechauncellor, as the 
charter in that pointe purporteth, and as before tyme hath ben 
accustomed. 

Thyrde, that the maior shal from hcnsefurth take his 
othe as hath ben used, and as the kinges highnes Charter 
requireth. 

Fourth, that ye shal observe the composition made bqtwen 
you and the said Universite. 

All which poincts his Maiesties pleasure is ye shal observe, 
fulfill, and accomplish tyll further direction shal be taken 
bitwen you by his highnes and his counsell for the certain 
and perfite redresse of all maters wherwith every partie thinketh 



76 UTTERS OF [1537 

it self aggrevcd, And if yc shal directclyor ir.dircctcly attempt 
any thing to the contrary, wherby any inconvenience shuld 
arryse to the intcrrupcon of the peace, the just prcservacon 
whcrof his Maicstic tcndcreth for the better quiet of his sub- 
icctts, Think assuredly that ye woll repent it, For this is 
sufficient warnyng to you to avoyde the occasion of the same. 
Finally, if ye shal use yourselfs from hcnsefurth as bcsemeth 
men of wisedom and honestie, I shall cotynue your Freende. 
Otherwise I must and will (as is aforesaid) be a party agcnst 
you for the obteyning of Justice. And therto you may trust 
accordingly. Thus fare you hcrtily well From Grafton the 
xiiij 1 * 1 of August. 

Yowr lovyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my loving Freends the maier, bailiffs, Aldermen, 
and Burgeses of the Town of Cambrige. 

207. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 575. Aug. 25, 1537. 

The King desires that Richard Aylmer be admitted to be his chief Serjeant 
in Kildare County, and that he be given a reasonable fee. 

I Comende me hartely vnto you. And where as vnto the 
Request and intercession hertofore made vnto me by thes 
letters of the kingrj lordc depute & Counsell of that his 
gracss landc of Irlande in the Fauor & comendac/on of 
Richarde Aylmer & of his gode qualytcs desiring me to be 
meane to the kingrj highnes that his mageste wold Alow & 
ordegne hym his graces cheff Sergemint in the countie of 
Kyldare I haue moved & humbly besought his mageste for 
the same his highnes therupon hathe wylled me to Signeffy 
vnto you that Fynding the said Richard Aylmer of Suche 
gude qualytes and disposic/bn you Shall not only Admytt 
hym to be his graces cheff Sergeaunt in that countye of 
Kyldare but also w/'t// advycc of the said lorde depute & 
counscyle for the said offyce of Sergeant to be by hym 
enyoidd duryng terme of his lyff you Shall apoint vnto hym 
a competent & a Resonable Fee yerly as by youer Advyces 
& assent of all to geder Shalbc thought expedient & ncccsary 
& thuz fare you well from Wyndesowr the xxv th day of 
August the xxix yerc of his highnes most prosperos & nobyll 
Rcigne. 

In //if margin: Copy for the king grmmt tobe made 
to Ric. Aylmer for the chef Scrgeuntship of Kyldare wit// 
a fee. 



J 537] THOMAS CROMWELL 77 

208. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 591. Aug. 28 (1537)- 

Requests them not to take further steps in the disposition of lands and 
castles, until the Lord Butler comes over with instructions from the 
King. 

After my harty Comendac/ons I adu^rtes you that foras- 
mochc as the lorde Buttler Shall Resorte thider Shortly and 
declare vnto you the kingrj graces mynde & intenc/on touch- 
ing the disposiobn of Suche castells and fortresses as he 
hathe in his Hand^y his mantes pleasur and Comandement 
is that ye Shall Surcesse all maner procedingrj to the dis- 
posic/bn of the same vntyll his comyng then Shall I Geve 
you ample knolege of his highnes purpose to be by you 
Foloyd accordingly. And thus fere you hartely well from 
wyndesow the xxviii of August 

Your loving frende 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 

In the margin : Copy to stay our preceding^ of all 
things in the lorde butler possessions tyll his comyng 

209. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 660. Sept. 7 (1537). 

Thanks him for his letters, and kindness shown to Master Leigh. 
Desires that all possible favours be shown to Wingfield. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendaabns to yo//r lordshippe 
I thanke you for your gentle L^//rres and spraally for your 
conformytie declared in the same touching the receyving again 
of the dromme whom I haue soo often recommended vnto you. 
Requiring yo;/r lordship to accomplishe effectually the pur- 
pose of my desire in that behaulf. I thanke yo;/r lordship 
also for yo//r greate gentlenes for my sake extended to my 
Freende Maister Leighe and seing that Maister Marshall is 
soo honestly mynded towards him for my sake, I require you 
to forget all vnkindnes Betwene the said Marshall and you, 
that Joyning togither in oonr prrfite vnytie you may be the 
more hable to doo vnto the Kingrj Ma/V^te that seruice that 
apperteynethe. I haue at lenght harde (from) s;> Thomas 
palmer, and touching the matier of Maister Wingfeld wherin 
I wrote vnto you I require you considering his auncientye 
and good seruice doom? hertofor as he may haue all that 
fauour that he canne desire w/t//out offence to the strenght 



LETTERS OF [1537 

of the towne or to greate an anwoyancc to the poorc men. 
Bothc whiche pointes as I doo cuer prrferrc, soo I trust yo//r 
wisedom woll worke in suche a meane betwene oonr and 
thother as neither haue their wilkr and yet bothe may be 
satisfied vfit/t an honest payment of that whiche may wel be 
had, and a convenient mitigac/on in that whiche without to 
greate dawmage to the poorc could not be susteyned. And 
thus most hartely Fare you wel From Mortlakc the vii th of 
September 

Yo//r lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my verey good lord the vicount lysle the kingrj 
deputie of the Toune of Calaice and the marches of the 
same 

Endd. My lorde pr/vie Seallis 

210. CROMWELL TO DR. DINGLEY. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) App. 41. Sept. 23 (1537). 
Orders him to appear at once before Cromwell and the Council. 

In myn harty maner I cowmende me vnto you Lating you 
wit the kingrj pleasure and cow/maundement is that all 
excuses and delayes set aparte you shall personally appcrc 
befor me and others of his highnes counsail attendant vppon 
his p^rsonne w/t// all convenient diligence vppon the receipt 
of this my L*7/rre, w/t//out failing as you tender his gracr* 
pleaswr And thus Fare you well From Stepney the xxiii lb of 
September. 

Yo//r Freend THOMAS CRUMWI 1 1.. 

Add. To my loving Frend Doctour Dingley 

Endd. S. xxiii. The lord pr/vey scale To Docto//r Dingley 

211. CROMWELL TO <THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O.Cal. xii. (ii) 734- Sept. 23 <I537>- 

In favour of Jerome Lynn, in case he make suit for any farm in the 
neighbourhood of Carlingford Castle in Louth. Cf. Letter 304. 

I comracnde me hertyly vnto you lykewisc desyring and 
praying youe that in case my loving srrummt Hieronym Lyn 
who is assigned to the Custodye and kepeing of the Castell of 
Carlingford in that the kingss Lande of Irlande shalle thinkc 
and sue at yo//r handc for any ferme or other thing nerc 
aboutc the same Castell mete and Cowmodyouse for him or 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 79 

his Retynue of the same l you wylle for my sake paying and 
yieldeing suche Reasonable yerely Rent to the k'mges highnes 
for the same as any other man wolde gyve and graunte vnto 
him your reasonable and Lawfull favors but also in all his 
other reasonable poursutes and Requystej Asswell bicause 
I thinke he is mete & apte to doo his Magestie goode and 
true seruice in those partyes as also bycause he is my 
srrudiint whose honeste (and) avauncement I tendre affec- 
tuouslye And doughte youe not but I shall remembre your so 
doyng and take it thankefully. This fare youe well From 
Murtlake this xxiii th of Septembre. 

Yo//r loueing Frende 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 

212. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 735. Sept. 23 (1537). 

Desires them to give a suitable farm to the bearer, James Sherlock, whom 
the King has appointed his Receiver in the County of Wexford. 

In my Right hartye maner I co;;/mende me vnto and 
Right so desyre youe to be goode & fauorable vnto my 
semaunt James Sherlok this berer whom I Esteme to be 
of honest fac/on and dysposiabn, And forasmuche as the 
kingrj highnes at my contemplac/bn is contented to make 
him his graces Receyvor in the Countye of Wexford. And 
that it shalbe therfor the more necessarye for him to haue 
some conuenyent ferme ther mete for him, at suche tymes as 
he shalle make his abode ther for his graces Recepte I shall e 
therfor moste hartyly desyre youe to prefer him to some 
convenyent ferme wzt//in the sajdc countye wherby ye shalle 
admynistre vnto me right thankefull pleasowr. And this 
hartyly fare you well From Stepney the xxiii th of September. 

Your loveing Frynde 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 

213. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 207 ; Cal. xii. (ii) 743. Sept. 24 (1537). 

In favour of John Birmingham of Ireland, who has been robbed of his 
ship and goods by certain Spaniards. 

After my moste hartie cowmendac/ons. Where as oon 
John brymedgham oon of the Kingrj subiectr^ of Irlande was 

1 c. c. as any other man wolde 



80 LKTTKRS OF [1537 

robbed of Late vpon the see of his shipp and also goodr* by 
certain espaynyardrj, For the restytucibn wherof vpon com- 
playnt made to the kingis highnes . Thempm>urs Ambas- 
sadours here hath ernestly written to the Justice of that 
cuntrcy. Leaste the same doo not take effecte there accord- 
ing to the due order of Justice and the said partic may 
fortune to be driven to seke further for remedie in that 
parties, this shalbe hartly to deasire you in that case Soo to 
purpose his cause and matier there wit// the empmwrs Coun- 
saile, as the said brymedgham may haue Justice administrcd 
vnto him in the p/rmisses accordingly. And further to doo 
therin, as my lorde Butler hath more at Large declared in his 
L7/rres to you at this tyme, who as fully instructed in that 
matier hath at leynght written vnto you for the same . vnto 
whome I pray you to give ferme and vndoubtid credence. 
And thus hartly fare ye well. From Stepenhith the xxiiij th 
day of Septembre. 

Yo//r louyng Frecnd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray loving and assured Frecnd sir Thomas 
Wyot knight the kingrj maicste of Englandrj ambassadowr 
In Thempmv/rs Court 

Endd. My lord pr/vi scle, of septewhxr . delivered long 
afftrr at barsolona for the Irysheman. 

2H. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 763. Sept. 28 (1537). 

Minute instructions concerning the discharge of their duties in Ireland, 
especially in the disposition of property and lands. 

In my Right lovcing manrr I cowmende me vnto your 
goodc lordshipes And Tyke as I haue heretofore writcn vnto 
you the kingfj Commission/vs to Surceasse in dysposing of 
any of the holdes or \andcs that nowe Resteith in the lordc 
Butlers Custody till his owne Repayre thider Soo shallc 
1 desyre youe that for the fassaghc bentre whiche Mr. Richard 
Butler brother to the saidc lorde Butler hathe by demise of 
the kingss vndertresorer ther ye make therof and of the newe 
Bawon and the dyppes aleasc to the saide Mr. Ry chard 
making Convenyent Annucll Res*vuacion to the kingrj highnes, 
and the rather ye dyspose the same accordingly for that 
the saide Richard Butler gardid & kept the same all the 
Rebellion tymc there. And where as I am Enformed that 
one Piers Freignc cowmenccid an assise againstc oonc 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 81 

Richard Wesslcy for Certen landes in the Countye of Kyldare 
whiche longtyme hathe dep>endeid and for lack of indyfferent 
Tryall it wolde be harde to passe in the saide countye. I de- 
syre you therfor that ye call the parties before youe and duely 
to Examyn ther Tytlles and to do therupon that to Justice and 
Equytie shalle appertayne w/t^oute longer delaye. Tharche- 
bysshop of Casshell compleyneth also that where as byforce 
of a decre signed by youe my lorde deputie and agreid by all 
the Icings hoole Counsaille there he peaceably enyoied the 
possession of the parsonage of Clomell that the vycar of the 
same dysturbeith him therin by indyrect meanes. I Adu^rtyse 
youe that I am remembred that the saide vycar made long 
Sute to me to be restored to the possession therof, and being 
enformed of the saide decre I thoughte it most expedyent to 
Remyt thordering therof to my saide Lorde Deputye and the 
kingrj saide counsaill whiche notw/thstandeing as the saide 
Archebysshop affermeith by some Indyrect Co wmaundyment 
attayned by the saide vycar dysturbeith him newly therin 
\vz't//oute any manrr examynaobn of ther Titlles. Wherfor 
the kingrj pleasor is that accordeing to that decre the saide 
Archebysshop contynue peasbly his saide possession vnto 
suche tyme as vppon Sufficient tittle if ther shalle happen 
any such to be shewid and admytteid, he by lawfull meanes 
be excluded from the same. And where as one NichWas 
Power being attacheid in Dublyn dyd Submyt him by deade 
indenteid Obligatorye to p^rforme thordre of the Bysshop of 
Watrrforde Mr Wise, Jamys White recorder of Watrrforde 
and of Waltyer Cowley in all stryffes & demaundes dependeing 
betwene him and the lady Katryn Butler Wydowe and piers 
power her Sonne, I am credeably Informed that they made an 
Ordre and awardeid Certen somes to the saide Lady Katherin 
and piers. Wherfor I desyre youe that examyning the same 
if the saide NidWas haue not sufficient goodes to Satisfye the 
somes awardeid that then {you) Extente or cause to Extentid 
ccrten convenient p^rcelles of the saide NiclWas landes, the 
parties being conformable therunto or otherwyse to do that to 
Justyce shalle appertayne for the levying of the saide somes, 
and therather that ye Extende your gude and Lawfull favors 
to the saide Lady Kateryn for that her husbond was slayne in 
the kinges sluice by his Iryshe dysobeysmmter, and that her 
Sonne is also in warde wyth the king. And ferthermore 
where as the Erlle of Ossery contynued the possession of the 
prysewynes of Kynsale I am Lykewise enformed that he hathe 
been dysturbed therin Lately contrary to theflfect of the kingw 
magestie L^/fcres heretofore for that pwrpose dyrecteid. 
Wherfor the kingrj pleaswr is that he shalle enyoie and Con- 

MERRIMAN. II G 



82 LETTERS OF [153? 

tynuc in his saide possfssion vnto suchetyme as vppon goode 
and Sufficient Tytlle if ther shalbc any suchc exhibyted and 
Admytteid he by Lawful 1 meanes be put and excludeid from 
the same. VVriten at Stepney the xxviii* daye of Scptembre. 

Yowr loueing Frinde 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 



215. CROMWELL TO THE < IRISH) COMMISSIONERS. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 19,865, f. 6b; Cal. xii. (ii) 782. Sept. 30 (1537). 

Desires them suitably to reward Edmund Sexton for keeping the castle 
of Deriknockanc, beside Limerick. 

The coppy of the Lor*/ Privie Seal's \etters to the King's 
Comissioners. 

After my right harty manner I comende me unto you. 
And forasmuch as the king's servant Edmonde Sexten had 
the custody & keepinge of the Castell of Deriknockane be- 
seeds Limrricke by apointmet of the Lord Deputy & as yet 
is not allowed for the costs & charges he hath ben at by 
reaso/i of the keepinge of the same. Therfor the king's plea- 
sure is yee shall see him allowed for all his reasonable charges 
and that by your means he be discharged therof or otherwise 
put in security of payment for the keepinge of the same soe 
as he be noe looser therebe, desiring you to extend your law- 
full favors unto him therm & in all other his reasonable suits, 
the rather at the contcmplacio;/ of these my letters wherbe yee 
shall minister unto me right acceptable pleasure as knowcth 
God whoe preserve you. fro/ Mortlake the last day of 
September. 



216. (CROMWELL) TO MICHAEL THROG< MORTON). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 619. Sept. (1537). 

Informs him that the King has consented to send Dr. Wilson to confer 
with Pole, in case he is assured that Pole will wait for him at 
Maestri cht. 

[In my har]tie mancr I cimmend me vnto youe And 
[whereas I haue relceyued your \etttrca of the xx th of August 
[djcclaringat lengnt the causes that moeved youe [so] long to 
dcmore and continue in [those] parties [with sun]dry other 
things in the same expressed] .... your \ettcrcs I receyued 
also a \ette\re] the Kingts Maiesties Ambas[sador] in 



THOMAS CROMWELL 83 

Flaunders conteyninge amonges other things certayn credence 
committed to a friowr whiche the same frier declared vnto him, 
growing in effect to this point, that if his maiestie wold put 
a stey to suche .... as ye write the Bisshop of Rome and [his 
accowjplisses be mynded to put furth agaynst his highnes, 
there were not so mete an Instrument for the purpose as 
doctowr Wylson. For aunswer wherunto ye shall vnd<?rstand 
that taking youe yet for a man that wold all were well, and 
conduced to the satisfaction of his Maitstie, I haue opened 
the hole discowrs of all the saide \etterzs to his highnes And 
travailed not only to continue [the go]od opinion that his 

grace hath conceyved of But also that his grace shuld 

condescende to the sending of [Doctowr Wyjlson vnto your 
Masfer, freendely and frankely to [com]mune vrttA him for 
his reconsiliaczbn. And albeit [the Icings] Maiestie estemyth 
al that the Bisshop of [Romes] malice canne doo \\i\Jt his 
craftie meanes as [less] then nothing, not douting but vftt/t 

the [help] of god, in whom his hieghnes hath reposed 

his princely puissance and great wysedom all tymes be 

hable to put him and all his that will in any wise shewe their 

malice grace to rebuke and displeasswr . yet suche 

Inclination I fynd in his Maiestie that to sav he hath 

from his Cradel norrished [and] brough[t up in] Lernyng and 

whose famyly be d an[d] vndr fote his 

goodnes hath aga[in] their honour and pos- 
sessions. In cace his Hi[ghnes] assured that he woll 

tarye at Mas[tricht] tyll .... may Repaire thider to entreate 
all maters at length [with] hym His Maieste woll send the 
said Mr. Wilson w/t// dilig^wce for that purpose. Whiche 
your Master woll not re[fuse] to do If he reteyn that mynd 

that owne word^ he hath in hym. Surely 

soever he hath forced his Maieste to declare agenst [him his] 
highnes wold more esteme the reconciliacion of hy[m that] 
he knoweth to be made an Instrument to his owne con [fusion 
in] the ende if he persist in it then he passeth of all [that the] 
bishop of Romes malice can work agenst his gracfe ]. Wher- 
fore if he woll in any parte answer to his hi[ghnes] clemencye 
and affection towards hym let h[im] ........ write the cer- 

taynte for his demore be as he may rather redubbe 

partely the any further Irritate his grace by any 

or sentences to be in his \etttres expressed 

see the \etteves conveyed hither and m the meane 

season tyll answer com<? And thus Fare ye woll. 

From M[ortlake] of Septewbre at night 

Add. To michel Throg[merton] 



84 LETTERS OF [1537 

217. CROMWELL TO DR. WILSON AND DR. HEATH. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 620. (Sept. 1537.) 

Instructions for their conference with Pole. They are to urge him to 
come back and become reconciled to the King, who has borne so 
patiently with his madness. 

A Rememberaunce to Mr. Doctowr Wilson and Mr. Hethe 
Chaplayns to the King^j Maiestie for the better Dircctyon 
of themselffj in theyr voyage in to Flaunders and thad- 
vauncement of the purpose of their Jorneye thither 

First whereas Michael Throgmerton serim/mt to Reynold 
whiche Pole against his dieutie of alleageaunce and in the playn 
open and manyfest contempt of the King Maiestye his 
natural and most benigne Soucreigne lorde that of his mere 
goodnes from his mothers pappe nurished him not w/tAout 
hys great expense and charge in vertuous discipline and 
good l*7/rres, hathe lately gevin himself into thanoVj of his 
Hieghnes mortal and sworn enemye the bisshopp of Rome 
and taken vppon him the most miserably and ingrately that 
hathe been seen or harde of to become bothe a Sicophanta in 
Writing and a most Vnkynde deuiser and Worker of things 
most detestable and traytorous against hys sayd Souereigne 
lorde that hathe doon* so muche for him and beside erected 
the famile Whereof he ys come being depressed and worthely 
for their treasons heretofore against their princes and cuntrcys 
cowmytted overwhelmed and cast downe and of lesse thenne 
nothing hathe gevin them investiture of honowr and ViitA the 
same possessyons accordingly . Dyd of late -witA a pretence 
of a certain loyaltye towards the king Hieghnes Wryte 
vnto me the lorde pryve Seal Hys 1/7/rres from liege Bering 
date the XX th of August last passed in the which among*-.* 
other things that the same Throgmerton dyd setfurthe con- 
cernyng the purposes of the bisshopp of Rome, He dyd also 
inscrte that the sayd Maister Wilson shuld in his opinion be 
a meate instrument to steye the sayd Pole Whom it appereth 
the sayd Throgmerton taketh to be of no suche Judgement as 
myght not wel be steyed in his folye by men of right meane 
lernyng and grauitie were yt not that his folishc wilfull Wyll 
being glory ous in itself and thereby gladde to ioyne to yt suche 
as woll Flatter him in his fantazyes to his owne distruccfcm if 
he repent not shortely must for His Recouereye if there be 
any recouereye in him haue suche personnes to settfurth his 
sayd folye afore his face, as he may be no lesse vnhable to 
defende the same by any coolowr of lernyng against them 



'537] THOMAS CROMWELL 85 

thenne ashamed if he be not more thenne past shame to send 1 
in argument against men of suche lernyng and grauitie as the 
sayd Wilson and Hethe be, having co/;/w/w//icated theffect of 
the sayd Thrognvrtons W#res to the kingrj sayd Maiestie 
and therew/t/* made most humble sute vnto his hieghnes to 
graunte licence vnto the sayd maister Wilson to repayre to 
the sayd pole being here at hande in the confynes of Flaun- 
ders, I founde a gratyous inclynaczon in him to condescende 
to my desyer which as I folowed vrt'tA humble petyc/on 
Soo the same brought me furthe the p^rfyt accomplishment 
of my sute, suche was the greate clemencye of his Maiestye 
that he could not but shewe himself willing to haue recouered 
that he hath himself made sumwhat of nothing, whenne he 
seeth it in suche Jeopardye of vtter distruccion. Howe muche 
yvel soeuer yt hathe deserued of hym for the greate benefytrj 
it receyved, soo as fynally his grace licenced me not onely to 
sende the sayd Wilson and Hethe to the sayd Pole, but also 
to instruct them for the better acchievement of that purpos 
wzt^ suche aduise of some others of his hieghnes Counsail as 
were thought mete for their lernyng^j and Judgements to 
consult vppon the same Whereuppon ioynyng to me the 
Reuerende fathers in god the Bisshopps of Duresme and 
london men of no lesse estimatyon for their vertues thenne for 
their excellent lernyng^r, Lyke as they have bothe in the de- 
claratyon of their Sentence in the points of lernyng to the 
sayd Wilson and Hethe and in their k//rres thereup[on] con- 
veyed and directed to the sayd Pole sufficiently doon^ their 
paries and aswel for their thinstructyon and for the full recon- 
siliatyon of the sayd Pole if he woll well prrpende and waye 
their wryting and confowrme himself to ensue and folowe the 
same. So for the rest yt pleased his Maiestye to appoynt me 
to instruct the sayd Mr. Wilson and Mr. Hethe in matur and 
Fowrme folowing. 

First that addressing themselfcj in Jorneye towards the 
place where the sayde Pole dothe lye which ys at they 

shall (take) wtt/t them this Remewberaunce w/tA the kV/rres 
wrytten from the sayd Bysshopps, a srrmon lately made by 
the bisshopp of Yorke, an oratyon settfurth by the bisshopp 
of Winchestre, a booke of certain thinges lately determyned 
here by the hole clergy And at their arryvall there 

they shall playnely and in a Franke sorte declare vnto the 
sayd Pole his miserable state and condytyon, and (on) thother 
syde the greate clemencye and benignyte that is in the Prince 
which hathe suffered them for his reconsiliatyon to reasorte 

1 riCjor stand 



Sfi LETTERS OF [1537 

vnto hym w/th the grcate app/ww/ncc they haue that his 
Maw-jte woll yet take him to mercye and besidrr put him in 
the state of an honest man if he woll return home from his 
Folye knowleage his faulte and desyer forgyvenes for yt, 
aduising him as moche as they maye to waye and consyder 
in what state he standeth What grace he may nowe fynd if 
he woll conforme himself to yt, and what thcnde ys lyke to be 
yf he prrsyst in his madnes. In the declaratyon of which 
p^rtes and the reasonyng of the poyntes of lernyng which 
they shall alledge for his conuersyon they shall in no wise 
call hym by any other name thenne by the tytle of Mr. Pole 
ne in their gesture gyve hym any pr^emynence but they shall 
Fatyon bothe their woord and gesture of suche sorte as he 
may pmreyve that they haue him in the lesse estimatyon for 
his vayn tytle and vnauised priced inges to the same, and 
if they shall prrceyve him repentaunt for his Folishe madnes 
and gladde to seke for Remyssyon of the same they shall 
thenne aduise him for a testymony thereof bothe to submyt 
himself to the kingrj Ma;>Jte by his l*7/rres and to send vnto 
the same contynently the mynute of his Frantique booke 
putting himself also in order to repayr hether witA diligence in 
his prrsonne to make lyke submyssyon as shalbe first signifyed 
in his W/rres and if he shall put any daunger in his cuwmyng 
hither w/t//out a Further assuraunce the said Mr. Wilson and 
Mr. Hethe shall in that case adurrtise me wtA diligence what 
he shall therein desyer. And I shalbe an humble suter to the 
king Ma&.rte to declare his Clemency in suche wise towards 
him as he shall not neade I trust to Feare any thing in that 
behalf. 

Endd. Mr. Wilson rcmewbrawce for Pole. 



218. (CROMWELL) TO MICHAEL (THROGMORTON). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 795. (Sept. 1537.) 

A scathing rebuke to Throgmorton for his loyalty to Pole. Expatiates on 
Pole's ingratitude and folly, and threatens both him and his servant 
with punishment by death, unless they return and submit to the King. 

I thowght that the singular goodnes of the kingfs hieghnes 
shewed vnto youe, and the great and singuler clemencie 
shcwid to that detestable trayto;/r yowr maistcr, in promysing 
hym not onely forgeuenes, but also forgettings of his most 
shamefull ingratitude, vnnaturalnes, conspiracic against his 
honowr, of whome he hathr receyued no more, but evyn 
asmuche and all that he hathr, I thowght I saye, that either 



J 537] THOMAS CROMWELL 87 

this princely goodnes, myght haue brought that desperat 
rebell from his so stourdy malice, blyndnes and p^rvicacie, 
orell^r haue encouraged youe to be his hieghnes true and 
feithfull subiect. But I now remember my self to late. I myght 
better haue Judged, that so dishonest a maister, cowlde haue 
but evyn suche seruantrj as youe ar. No, no, Loyaltie and 
treason dwell seldome togethers. There can no feithfull 
subiect so long abide the sight of so haynous a traytowr to 
his prince. Yow cowld not all this season haue byn a spie for 
the king, but at some tyme your cowntenance shuld haue 
declared yo//r harte to be loyall towards your prince, and 
vtterly bent against his trayterous dealings. No youe and 
your maister haue bothe well declared how letle feare of god 
restithe in youe, which ledd by vayne promyse of promocyon, 
thus against his lawes, worke treason toward*? your naturell 
prynce and contrey, to serue an enymye of god, an enemye 
of all honestie, an enemye of right religion, a defender of 
iniquytie, of pryde, a marchaunt and occupier of all deceyte, 
and of twentie things that no honeste mannes penn can well 
towche, muche lesse vtter and putt forthe. Yow thinke youe 
doo goode seruyce there to the king*? hieghnes ; for asmuche 
as yow now se things, that being absent, youe shulde not 
haue seen, suche verelye as might haue done greate damage ; 
if youe hadde not seen them. Yow haue bleared myn yee 
ones : Yowr credite shall neuermore serue youe so farr, to 
deceyue me the second tyme . I take youe as youe ar : And 
do thinke it muche light for youe to forge Wteres, whiche by 
woroVj, not long sowght for ; thus haue deceyued me. Yowr 
parte was, to do as the king your souuerayn lorde had com- 
maunded youe. Yowr praise was to be sowght in obeying 
his hieghnes pleasure ; and not in servyng your foolyshe 
fantasie, All though ye had thought this waye to haue 
[done] his grace better seruyce, But now to stick vnto a 
Kebe[l] to follow a traytowr, to serue a frende of his, which 
mortally hatithe your souuerayn lorde, to loue hym, whome 
god cannot but hate, What follye is it to excuse suche madd 
lewdnes. Yo*/r good maister lately entryd into the Religion 
that hathe been the ruyn of all Religion, cannot ye saye, but 
be the kingly hiegh frende. He woll (as ye write) declare vnto 
the worlde, why the king takithe hym for a traytowr. In 
this thing, he nedithe to travaile neuer a dele. All prince 
(almoste) knowe, how well he hathe deseruyd this name. 
Yee, the king^r hieghnes is muche beholding vnto some of 
them, of whome his grace hathe lerned the godly entreprises 
that this sely cardenall went aboute. Now if those that haue 
made hym thus madd, can also p^rswade hym to prynte his 



h8 LETTERS OF [1537 

detestable booke, where one lye lepfeth] in euery lyne in an 
others neck, he shalbe then asmuche oounde to them, for their 
good counsaill, as his famylie .... to hym, for his wyse 
dealings. God I doubt not will scnde hym as Ictle Joy therof 

as his frendes kynsfolke ar like to take proffit of it. 

Pi[ty it] is, that the follye of one braynesick Poole, or to say 
better, of one witles foole, shuld be the Ruyn of so gre[at] 
a famylie. Let hym regne, and follow ambioion a[s] faste as 
he can, these that letle haue offended (sauy[ng] that he is of 
theyr kynne) wer not the great marcie and benygnytie of the 
prynce shulde and might fele what it is to haue suche 
a trayto//r to their kynsman. Let his goodly booke, the 
frute of his whole studie, come abrode ; Is there any man, but 
he may well accuse our prince of to muche clemencie, and 
muche mervaile that no wayc is founde to take awayc 
thawctowr of suche trayterie. Surely, when axrswer shalbe 
made to his heddy malice, I thinke, there shalbe veray fewe, 
but they will thinke (as I do) he hathe as he deseruyth, if he 
be brought to most shamefull dethe. Let hym not thinke, 
but thoughe he can lye largely, there be some wit/r vs, that 
can say truthe of hym. His preise shalbe greate, when men 
shall se the king hieghnes benefits towards hym, thad- 
uancement of his famylie from nothing at all, to that they 
now be in, And then shall loke vpon his good harte, his grate- 
full mynde, his desyre to seme the kingss honour. Let his 
lewde worke go forthe, after that let princes iudge whether 
the king can take thauctowr of so famous a libell to be his 
true subiect. Let the k'mges hiegh benrfitcs, and (whiche is 
farr more to be extemed) his singuler benevolence shewed 
vnto hym of a childe, come, and make their plee, can he, or 
youe, thinke any grownde safe for hym to stande in. Hathe 
he not Just cause to feare leste euery honest man shuld offre 
hym self to revenge this so enorme vnkyndenes. Shall he not 
thinke, euery honest man to be his foo, to be mystrusted : 
Shall not his detestable Actes written in his conscience, euer 
more bryng hym to contynuel sorrow, vex hym, and so vex 
hym, that nowhere he shalbe quyet. And ye know that 
when so ever the kyng will, his hieghnes may bring it easilye 
to passe, that he shall thinke himself scasc sure of his lytc, 
althoughe he went tyde at his maisters girdell. There maye 
be founde wayes ynow in Italy, to rydd a trayterous subiect. 
Surely let hym not thinke, but where Justice can take no 
place by processe of Lawe at home, some tymes she may be 
enforced to seke new mcancs abrode . Kmongrj all your 
pratie ncwes, thes ar veray pleasant, that the wylie busshop 
of Rome, intendith to make a lamcntacion to the worldc, and 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 89 

to desire euery man to pray that his olde gaynes may returne 
home agayn Men will well thinke he hathe cause, or at the 
leaste good tyme to lament, not that the king of Englonde 
hathe pulled his Realme out of thraldome, but that a greate 
parte of the worlde, is like to do the same. Many a man 
wepithe for lesse. We blame hym not, if he lament. 
Howbeit, doubte ye not, he shall fynde some man wit/t 
vs, that shall bydd hym be a better man, though they 
byd hym not be of better chere. If your good Master 
take vpon hym to make this lamentac/bn (as in deade I 
thinke there is no man a lyve that hathe better cawse to 
waile, then he hathe) assure ye hym that he shall lacke no 
consolacion. Paul popith Jolyly, that woll desire the worlde 
to pray for the k'mges apeyrement This ypochrisye cow- 
myth evyn as it shuld do, and standith in place meyt for it. 
The worlde knovvith right well, what other wyles he hathe 
practised these iii yeres They shall lawgh well to se his 
holynes come to prayer, bycause he cannot bring to passe 
that he most dcsireth. He that the last day went aboutes to 
set all prince in his grac^j topp, writing k/teres almoste to 
all princes, for the bringing of this to passe, shall he not now 
be thought holye ; that thus sodenly castithe a way his weapen 
and fallithe to his bed^j. God hearith (as Peter saythe) the 
prayers of the Juste synners ; If they be harde at any tyme, 
it is when they praye for goode things. He shall not praye 
so faste that we maye returne to error ; to the defense of 
tyranny, vngodlynes vntruthes, as we shall praye vnto god 
that his grace long may contynue towards our most vertuous 
prince, vs subiecter and seruanter to bothe. We trust our 
prayers shalbe harde And that ypochritrj neuer (after this 
daye) shall regne ouer vs. 

Of the generall counsaill ; I nede saye nothing. Euery man 
well pkvceyuethe the difference betwyxt a franke, a holy, 
a godly, a generall cownsaill, and an assemblie of ambicious 
manciples, of men sworne to popis lustes and gaynes. The first, 
shall neuer be, as long as the Popes shall rather seke their 
owen glorie, then goddes honour. There may be (as there 
haue beyn to to ofte) a companye confederat against god, his 
lawcs his glorie. These may be gathered togethers, neuer 
better then now (the world being so occupied in euery corner 
of it, as it is) A generall counsaill, begynneth a day after the 
Grekes Kalends. Michael, if yow wer either naturall towards 
your contrey, or yo;/r famylie, you wolde not thus shame all 
your kynne. I pray god they byde but the shame of it. This 
am I sure of, thoughe they by and by suffre no losse of good*- s, 
yet the lest suspicion shalbe ynowghe to vndoo the greatist of 



90 LETTERS OF [1537 

them. Wherforc if yc will yet turne, to your cuntrcy, and 
shew yowrself sorye for that ye foolishly haue done, I dare 
assure youe ye shall fynde the kyng hieghncs muchc more 
redye to seke commendacion of clemencie, then of Justice at 
yo//r fawltrr. Turne be tyme, yc haue taryed almost to long. 
If youe come not now, ye maye perchaunce be as euyll delt 
Mfit/i in Rome itself, as ye haue dcserued to be in Englond. 
I can no more ; but desyre god that your Masffr, and yow may 
acknowlage yor detestable faltrj, and be good wytncsses of 
the kingrj hiegh mercie. Ye may turn, If ye so do, I doubt 
not, but the king hieghncs woll welt show the worldc, that he 
desireth nothing more then the savyng of his subject/^. I f ye 
contynue in yowr malice, and jvrucrse blyndnes ; doubt ye not, 
but yowr cndfs shalbe as of all traytours for the most parte is. 
I haue done what I may, to save youe. I must I thinke 
do what I can to se youe condigly punysshed. God send 
youe bothe to fare as ye deserue, that is either shortly to com 
to your allegiaunce orell^j to a shamefull deathe. 



219. (CROMWELL) TO (THE DUKE OF NORFOLK). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 392. (Jan.-Sept. 1537.) 

The King desires him to cause one or two of the Council to ride to 
Ilamborough Castle and report what repairs are needed to make it 
habitable. 

After my right harty cowmendac/ons to yowr lordship 
wheras the kingr s highnes hathe given the keping of his castle 
of Bamburghe vnto this berer Maistr Horseley forasmoche as 
his grace is cnformed that the said Castle is soo farre in decaye 
that w/t//out some reparation to be prrrrntly doon vppon it, it 
canne not be enhabited, his graces pleasure is that yo//r lord- 
ship shall cause some oonr or two of the consail there to ride 
to the said Castle and to vueu the state thcrof and what 
rcp0rac/bns must be necessarily doon out of hande vppon the 
same to make it habitable, and making theruppon an estimate 
of the charges to adurrtise his ma/>jte of their doinges therin 
accordingly forseing that they precede in this matier witA 
suche dcxteritie as in the reparac/bns to be doon for the 
dwelling of the keper, they haue only respecte to the neccssitie 
therof and not to any thing to be doon for pleasure or 
suchc cowmoditie as may be spared. And thus Fare you 
(well). 

Endd. copye of a lr//rre for Mr. Horseley. 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 91 

220. CROMWELL TO < WILLIAM BRABAZON). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 826. 001.4(1537). 

He is to allow to Lord Butler reasonable fees for his services, when he 
has accounted for the profits of certain castles of which he has had 
the keeping. 

In my Right harty Maner I comend me vnto you & wher 
as the lorde Butler hathe had the charge of keping of 
the Castells & holdes of Caterlaugh Thisteldormont Kylka 
Castellcurr Knokraffyn & Glaschare aswell in the tyme of the 
Rebellyon ther as Sythens whiche Castells be scytuatt in 
the Frountares & marches for the profytes & Reuenues wherof 
Receyued by the said lorde Butler or his offycers he most be 
accomptaunt to the kingcs highnes his magestes pleasur and 
comandmewt is that vpon the accompt of the said lorde 
Buttler in to the whiche as he aflfermyth he hathe Entred, 
having opteyned of you afurther Respett or day for makyng 
vp therof ye Shall alow to hym for the garding and defens of 
the said Castells & holdes Suche Somes of money as you w*t^ 
thadvyce of his grac^j Comissioners ther at this tyme schall 
think Resonable & indyfierent sowyng in the same vnto hym 
convenyewt Fauor and thus hartely Fare you well, from 
murtlake the iiii th of Octobre 

"Your loving frend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

In the margin : for my lorde butler allowance for castells 
keping. 

221. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 838. Oct. 6(1537). 

The King desires them to show favour to the inhabitants of Waterford, 
who have rendered good service to the royal cause. 

In my Right Loveing man^r I cowmende me vnto you and 
being in sundry wyse adu^rtyseid of the goode hartye 
demeanowr & laudable s/ruice of the maier bayllyues & Cyty- 
zens of the kingw Cytie of Watrrford aswell in the obsrrueing 
alwaye of ther allegeaunce to the kingw highnes and ResySte- 
ing of Rebelles at sundry tymes of Rebellion in that his graces 
Lande of Irlande as of the refressing and exburseing Bothe of 
the money & vyctayles for a long tyme to the greate Comfort 
succur & Relyef of the King^r Armye ther and in especyall of 
William Seintloo and his Retynue whiche I assure youe the 



OJ LETTERS OF 

kingrj magcstie acceptcth Right well & thankfully whois 
pleaswr & Cowmaundynv;// is that in all causcis & maters 
that shalle consowrne the said mayer Bayllyues & Cytyzens 
ye doo extende yowr goode & laufull fauowrs from tyme to 
tyme. And this fare youe hartyly well wrytenat Mortlake the 
vi lh day of Octobre 

Yowr Loueing frendc 

THOMAS CROMWELL. 
222. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 208 ; Cal. xii. (ii) 870. Oct. 10 < 1 537.) 

Directs him to sound the Emperor on the subject of the mediation 
proffered by Henry, and on other matters. News of the Court. 
Urges him to try to discover the Emperor's real inclinations. 

Maister Wiat aftre my right harty co;mendac/ons By this 
bererRougecroix you shall receyve the King^rhighnes Lr//rres 
conteyning his pleasure for an ouerture to be setfurth for 
a mediae/on of peax Betwene Themprrowr and the Frenche 
king wherin By the said \etteres you shall prrceyve that his 
grace like a good prince, and a very Freende to both parties, 
ofirethe himself to travayl, if they woll cow/mytt the mayning 
of the matier to him. Your parte shalbe nowe like a good 
Oratowr, bothe to setfurthe the princely nature and incly- 
nac/on of his highnes w/t/r all dextcritic, and soo to obserue 
Thempmw/rs answers to the said Ouerture and to the rest of 
the pointes in the same W/rres expressed, as you may therby 
fishe out the botom of his stomake, and aduertise his Ma/rjte 
howe he standethe disposed towards him, and to the con- 
tynuance of thamytie betwene them. It is Bruted that there 
shuld be a coww///ication of a peax to be mayned by others. 
vse all yowr wiscdom in thenscrche also therof that you may 
in that matier likewise signific suwme certaintie to his highnes 
and semblably what thempmv/r woll doo touching the bisshop 
of Romes counsail whiche the Germaynes vppon good groundes 
haue refused to consent vnto, and the King Ma/>.rtie vppon 
many of the respect/-.? declared by the Germaynes w/'t^ certain 
other greate and weightie considerations hathc made like 
refusel, You must in yowr conference w/t/r themp^rowr take 
occasion to spcake of all those matiers, and soo frankely to 
spcake of them as you may fcale the dcpcncs of his hartc. 
wherin you shall doo good smiice. It is mochc mrrvailed 
that you haue not yet delyuered my Lady Maries grace !<-//<-rcs. 
It was a parte of yowr Instruction and therfor very negligently 
thus p/rtermyttcd. I haue yet soo excused the matier that 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 93 

you may nowe delyuer them and write thanswer to the same, 
as doon befor according to your commission thoughe not at 
the first accesse, for want of oportunytie. The Kingw Maieste 
is your good and gratious lorde and taketh your conference 
both w/t// Monsieur de Grandevile and those vfit/t Themp^rowr 
himself in good parte. Contynue vigilant nowe in thenserching 
out of things mete to be knowen, and vse diligence in adu^-r- 
tisement whenne any suche thing shall occurre. And doubt 
you not but your srruice shalbe wel employed. And as for 
yowr diette and post money I shall see you shall haue them 
paid according to yowr warrant, and in the rest of yowr affaires 
I shall be suche a Freende vnto you if nede require as your 
enemyes if you haue any shall wynne litle at your hande in 
yowr absence. Your brother Anthony lee hathe been in the 
porters Lodge for consenting to the steling of certain the 
kinges hawkes and your suster suying for his delyumince 
hath ben here vritA me at Mortlake they be bothe mery, and 
the k'mges highnes is nowe again good lorde vnto him. 
Gentle Maister Wiat nowe vse all your wisedome rather to 
trye out howe themp^rowr is disposed towards the kinge 
highnes, thenne to presse him anything to agre to the ourrture 
of mediaabn if he woll not as gentilly embrace it as it is made 
freendly vnto him. For to be plain wttA you thother parte 
declare him in \vordes towards his Ma&rte to make only faire 
wether, and in his harte dede and worker, to doo all that he 
canne to his grace dishonowr, insomoche as they bost them- 
selfcr to haue refused some honest offres for themselfcr bicause 
they were knytt wit// vile and filthie conditions towards his 
Ma&rte. And if it be true It is pitye there shuld be suche 
dissimulac/bn in suche a prince, and specially towards him, 
whom he ought of congruence all thinge considered to obserue 
love and honour to his vttermost, if you thinke that the 
speaking of thise things vnto him may be any meane to 
disciphre his very meanyng bolte them out of yowrself as 
signified vnto you by some of the Agente of the Kinge 
highnes in Fraunce. And whenne you shal be in communica- 
tion of thise maticrs handle them v/itA suche a plain franknes 
as youe may drawe suwwhat out, that p^rcace restethe yet 
hidden vndre a colored cloke of Freendeship or at the least 
manifest and make open that like a prince of honowr he 
meaneth as he prrtendethe. I thanke you for your sundry 
\etttres, and require you to be diligent in writing of thoccur- 
rantrj there, as you may haue oportunytie of Messengers, 
putting the Kingrj Maieste to no further chardge thenne yowr 
wisedome shall thinke expedient. Yowr gentle suster being 
yet here desired me to have her cowmcnded vnto you in thise 



94 LETTERS OF [1537 

\ft feres. I sende you hcrw/t// a \ettere writen from Mr. pate 
to an Englishman in themprrowrs courte, whcnne you haue 
red it copie it, and soo scale and dclyurr it and sollicite 
thanswer w/'t/r al diligence For the Kittges Maitste moche 
desirethe to trye out that maticr of Dignely. Thus fare you 
hartely well. From Mortlake x mo Octobrw. 

Yowr assuryd louyng Freend 

THOMAS C RUM WELL. 

Fayle not to get the answer to the matier of Digneley \vitA 
suche spede as it may be sent vfitA the next post if it be 
possible 

Add. To my veray loving Freend Sir Thomas Wyat 
Knight the Kingw ambassadour Resident withe Themp^rowr. 

Endd. My lord pr*'vi sele in October by barthobmew at 
barbastra. 

223. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. an ; Cal. xii. (ii) 890. Oct. 12, 1537. 

Directs him to inform the Emperor of the birth of Prince Edward. 
After my right herty cowmendac/on This shalbe to aduer- 
tise you that sithens the Departure of Rouge croix whiche 
was despechcd to you in post on wesnesday last here be no 
newes occurrantrj but veray good newes which for surctie 
I have receyved this mornyng, that it hath pleased allmyghty 
god of his goodnes to scnde vnto the Quencs grace delyvr- 
aunce of a goodly prince to the grete confort Reioysse and 
consolac/bn of the K'mges Maieste and of all vs his most 
humble loving and obedient subiectry Wherof we have veray 
grete cause to thancke our most benigne and graciouse 
creato//r, who after so long expcctac/bn hath exalced o//r 
prayowrs and desyres I have writen this lettere having thop- 
portunitc of this present Curroi/r To thintent that ye shal 
adiu-rtisc Thempmw/r Therof. I thinkc that w/'t// convenient 
diligence the Kingrr hignes will write vnto hym and to other 
prince of thesame to make them participaunt of his grete 
Joye and confort Wherof I shal move hym tomorowe at my 
next being w/t/i his grace Thus Fare ye hertely well From 
Sainct James beside Westminster this xij lh of October the 
xxix lh ycu of his most pr^sperouse Rcgne. 

"Your louyng assuryd freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 
Add. A mon trcsbon et asseurc amy Monsieur Wyat 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 95 

conseillewr et ambassadewr du Roye Dangleterre [R]esidet 
en La Court Lemper^r. 

Endd. My lord p *vi sele in decemtvr delivered, long 
aflfter the date by the see of the news of the prince. 

And again, My lord pr/vi sele in October by see of a couryour 
late affur the date 

224. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYAT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 215 ; Cal. xii. (ii) 950. Oct. 20 (1537). 

Requests him to take such steps that the King may be informed of 
the Emperor's feeling towards him, at the return of the bearer, 
Mr. Dudley. 

Maister Wiat aftre my right harty cow/mendaa'ons bicause 
it hathe pleased the kingr; Ma/>jte to addresse this berer 
to Thempmwr to signifie vnto him the certain newes of the 
birthe of the prince, knowing that his instruction to you shalbe 
sufficient wit/iout further repeticibn of the same, I shall for- 
bere to molest you with long letteres and only require you 
to handle your last commission in suche discrete and temperate 
sorte, as at the returne of this said Berer Mr. Dudley yo#r 
good Freende, his highnes may p^rceyve that thing \vhiche 
his grace desirethe to knowe that is themp^rowrs good inclyna- 
cion towards his Ma/Vjte or the contrary if it shall otherwise 
appere vnto you. And thus Fare you hartely well From 
St. James beside Westminster the xx th of October. 

The kingfj- highnes desirethe you also to sende an answer 
by Maister Dudley of the matier touching Dignely. For his 
grace hath it spatially to harte. And I pray you reme;bre 
what was last writen to youe touching the \etteres addressed 
from my lady Mary. 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To myn Assured loving Freende sir Thomas Wiat 
knight the \tinges Ambassadowr w/'t// Thcmperour. 

Endd. My lord pri'vi sele in October by sir John duddely 
at barbastra 

225. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 991. Oct. 27 (1537). 

Desires them to assign a pension and a suitable retinue to Lord James 
Butler, whom the King has appointed Constable of two of his castles. 

In my right hartie maner I cowmende me vnto (you). 
And where as the kings; Highnes at my Contemplacibn hathe 



96 LETTERS OF [1537 

constitutcid my Lordc Butler to be his Magcstics Counstable 
and Captain in his gractt Castclls of Catherlaghc and Kylka, 
his highnes hathe wylled me to Sygnyfie vnto you that his 
plcasi/r & cowmaundyment is that ye shalle Lymyte and 
apointc suchc A//nuall cowucnycnt Fees to him for thexcersyc- 
ing of the same Romes as ye shalle thinke expedyent And that 
also ye appointe suche Nombre of the kingrj Soldyers and of 
his men in wage as for the Gardeing thcrof shalbe mete & 
necessary yf ye haue or shalle thinke those Caste) Is of the 
Nombre mete to be so manned and gardeid. And that therin 
and in eurry matticr that shalle consowrne Therlc of Ossery 
his Father or the said Lord Butler for my sake ye extcnde 
yonr goode and Lawfull fauoars from tyme to tyme. And 
this fare ye hartyly well From the Neate beside Westm/'/w/^r 
the xxvii of Octobre 

"Your Loueing Frinde 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

226. (CROMWELL) TO LORD WILLIAM (HOWARD) AND 
GARDINER. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 1004 (i). (October, 1537.) 

Desires them to announce to Francis the death of Queen Jane, and to 
make inquiries concerning certain ladies in France, who might be 
suitable for the Kinp to marry. Upbraids Gardiner for not trusting 
Cromwell's friendship. 

My very good lordes after most harty cowmendac/ons how- 
soeuer our affections wold Bere things that be aduerse [and] 
contrary to our desires. Yet Bicause .... knowe that yor 

wisedomes w preface reason and y that which 

curry man to whom god hathe g wil thankful[ly] 

embrace that is his will and pleasure I shall in fewe wordes 
comprehende that god hath sent vnto vs that is w/t/i our 
Joye, a notable displeasure and sorowe if it may be called 
sorowe or displeasure that he woll prrmytt and suffre. Our 
prince our lord be thanked is in good health and suckcth like 
a child of his puissance whiche you my lorde Will/am canne 
declare Our Mastrcs thoroughe the faultc of them that were 
about her which suffred her to take greate cold and to eat 
things that her fantazie in sykncs called for, is departed to 
god. The kingrr MarVrtes pleasure is that you shal [adujrr- 
tise the frenche king of this her gracrj departure. Whom 
we be all boundc to remembrr and pray for, having left vnto 
vs soo goodly a pledge, as is our Yong Maister. And foras- 
mochc as thoughe his Ma*te is not anything disposed to 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 97 

mary again Albeit his highnes god be thanked takethe this 
chaunce as a man that by reason wtt/t forte ouercometh his 
affection, may take such an extreme adventure. Yet 1 as 
sundry of his gracrj co[un]sail here have thought it mete for 
vs to be most humble suters to his Ma/r^te to consider the 
state of his realme and to enter eftsones in to an other Matry- 
monie in place for his highnes satisfaction convenient Soo 
his tendre zeale to Vs his subgiettar hathe already so 
moche ouercom^ his graces* disposition And framed his 
mynde bothe to be indifferent to the thing and to thelection 
of any person from any parte that w/t// deliberation shalbe 
thought mete for him, that as we lyve in hope that his grace 
woll again couple himself to our comforts, soo considering 
what parsonages in Christendom be mete for him Among 
the rest there be two in Fraunce that may be thought on, 
thone is the frenche king^ doughter whiche as it is said is not 
the metest, thother is Madame de Longevile, whom they say 
the king of Scotto dothe desire. Of whose conditions and 
qualities in curry pointe his Ma*V.rte desireth you bothe wz't^ 
all your dexterite and good meanes to enquire and likewise 
in what pointe and termes the said king of Scotter standeth 
towards either of them, whiche his highnes is soo desirous to 
knowe, his graces desire therin to be neuertheles in any wise 
kept secret to yowrselfay that his pleasure is that you my 
lorde Will/am shal not return tyl you may lerne both howe 
the king of Scotter standethe in his sute, and what the con- 
ditions and qualities of both prrsonnes be, whiche knowen 
as you may by any possible meanes attayn to the knowleag 
of it soo as at the return of you my lord Willmm you may wel 
declare it & his graces woll that you my lord William shall 
return according to yo;/r instructions In thenserching out 
of whiche matier his Ma/V^te dcsirethe you bothe to exhibite 
that circumspection and diligence that may answer to his 
graces expectaobn conceyvid of you. Nowe my lord of 
Wynchester yesternight arryved here your Lr/Ares sent to 
the binges Maieste by yo//r seruaunt Massye, and wii/t the 
same your "Lctteres also to me, Bothe whiche Letteres the 
kingcs Maieste hathe thoroughly perused. And first for your 
vigilancy declared in the same touching the investigaabn of 
thoccurrantey there and specially in what termes themper<?r 
and the frenche king standc towards the peax his grace 
giveth vnto you harty thanks, and the semblable for your 
gifte vnto him of Assher, albeit the same be given wit// nichil 

1 c. o. it shalbe mete for his Counsailowrs to be suters to him to prouide vs 
a c. o. said determynac/on 

MERR1MAN. II H 



98 LETTERS OF [153? 

agis dolor. For thassurancc wherof his highncs woll shortly 
scnde vnto you suche dcde or dcdcs to be signed w/tA yo//r 
hawd as by his Icrned Counsail shalbe deuised for that pur- 
pose. Neurrtheles my lorde in your letteres touching that 
matier of Assher, you doo bothe me and other wrong to be 
angry w/t// vs w/t//out cause and bothe to impute Lack 
of memory where there was in that thing no suche faulte, 
and to thinke that things haue been otherwise setfurthe 
towards you thcnne in dede they haue been. I am sory my 
lorde to see you soo contencious and to haue soo litle care of 
yo//r Freendes. Of what sorte I haue Been towards you, 
I do referre myself to the kingts Ma/Vjte and to sundry others 
of his counsail that hathe knowen the preceding^ here. And 
yet to be plain wit// you, whenne I wrote that the kinges Mai^rte 
toke pleasure in your house and wold make a chace aboute 
it whiche shuld make it no house for yo//r store me thought 
it required at least suche an answer as might have declared 
that you had been gladde of it, in whiche cace you should 
not haue neded to haue called to remembrance the lesson 
of Possidon Nichil Agis dolor. For that hathe place where 
there is a grief. As touching the promises you speke of thone 
wherof you saye was not absolute Bicause in the same dedes 
concurred not wit// the wordes, and thother is not performed 
for that your shamefastnes letted you to Aske an horse befor 
promised Wherupon you conclude that for an horse or any 
thing ellrj Wherin I may doo you pleasure you woll thancke 
me for the dede whenne it is doom, and not for the promise 
or good wil in the meane, whiche you doo of lightlywood 
esteme as you did myn aduise that is soo gently returned 
vnto me, to be kept for myn oune store. First I promised 
you no more thenne was in me that was all that I could doo 
in yowr sute for you wit// a declaration of the hope I had to 
haue obteynid, and yet I thinke this alone ought neither 
to be soo moche despised that you shuld soo ernestly refuse it 
herafter, ne to be wrested to that which is not in me, that 
is that I shuld be hable to doo what I wold. Whatsoeuer 
yowr opinion be of me I mcrvayl that you knowing the 
wisedom of our Maister canne thinke any man hablc to 
obteyne things soo at his hande. Seconde touching the 
horse if I promised you oonr I gave you oon/, and if I gave 
you ooaf as I did according to my promise, I mcrvayl your 
good memory woll forget it But to make an ende of this 
matier I woll not be soo contencious as to entre any newe 
matters wit// you howe soeuer you vse me or repute me. 
I shall be sory that you canne make no more of Freendship, 
And in all thing?; Doo towards you wit//out rcspecte as 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 99 

becometh me to doo towards that prrsonne whom my Maister 
putteth in trust As concernyng thabbot of Arbroth, being 
his Maister the kinges highnes Nephieu and in leage wiiA 
him his grace wold you shuld vse him indifferently like a 
Freende as reason requirethe. And asfor the instructions 
whiche you desire to haue sent you for answer to be made 
to the frenche king The kinges highnes thinketh that tyl 
his Ma*>jte may knowe the couvenawtar he cannot growe to 
any resolucion touching the same And therfor his pleasure 
is that in suche order as your wisedom shall thinke expedient 
you shall practise to knowe the certain Articles agreed on 
or to be agreed on if there be any suche, And to certifie his 
Ma*V.yte of the same, in the meane tyme stycking vppon the 
pointe of his promise and bonde to wyne his Ma*>.rte w/tfc 
him as a principall contrahent. Finally I shall wzt^ spede 
take ordre for money to be delyu^red to your seruaunt Peter 
Larke as in my former \ctteres I wrote I wold, and as for the 
rest of your sutes the kinges maicste woll make you answer 
by his next lettcres 



227. CROMWELL TO THE PRESIDENT AND THE COUNCIL 
OF THE NORTH. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 1016. Nov. 2, 1537. 

Informs them of the King's pleasure concerning certain details of the 
administration of the North. 

After my Right harty Commendac/ons to your lordshipp 
These shalbe taduertys the same that the kinges MaxVjte hav- 
ing aswel Receyved your lr/teres of the xv th of the last moneth 
addressed from youe and certayn others of his Counsail there 
to his hieghnes As seen and perused the letteres which w/'t// 
the same your lordshipp sent vnto me, His graces pleaswr ys 
that I shuld make suche aunswer vnto your said \etteres as 
ensueth. 

First his hieghnes taketh your procedingrj for this begyn- 
nyng in verey good parte And specyally geveth vnto you his 
Right harty thanks for your \etteres written to Sz'r Reynold 
Carnabye 

Seconde his Maiestie is wel content that youe shal vse the 
Signet being in the custody of youe Maister Vuedale the 
stampe whereof his grace lyketh veray wel for that it hath 
notable difference from all other his grac^j Signetrj and is also 
well graven, as it was Judged by the printe which with the 
caryage was neurrtheles sumwhat prrssed owte. 

H a 



100 LETTERS OF [i 

Thirde as concernyng the pledges of Tyndall and Ryddes- 
dale as his Maieste referreth the bestowing of them to your 
wisdomcs, Soo his grace thinketh the matyer thereof of no suche 
iwportauncc as shuld require his hieghnes Lr//rres to New- 
castel or to any other place or f*rsonne w/t//in the lymytrj of 
your Commyssion having his Ma/V^te geven vnto you suche 
ample cowmyssyon as he thinketh shall not neadc any supple- 
ment onles the matyer were of greater Diffkultic thenne the 
keping of those pledges is Whom it is thought youe may 
easly kepe in sundry places having order taken for your 
alowaunce for their charges without suche feare as shuld 
cause youe to putt them to suche straytnes as might be called 
an Imprysonment 

Fourth the names of Darcy Constable and others shalbe 
w*t//drawen owte of all Commyssions Fyft his grace ys 
content that Mr. Fairfax shall enioye a place in his Counsail 
there wit^ xx li Fee to conv and goo at his libertye for which 
purpose yor lordshipp shall Receyve a newe Commyssyon 
herewith wherein he ys inserted 

Sixt youe shall herew/t/* Receyve a Commission for the 
Levyeng of men in cace of neade which Cowmissyon his 
maiesties pleas//r is shall Remayn w/tA youe my lord of 
Duresme onely for a shoute Arcre if that extremyte shuld 
chaunce which his grace thinketh cannot happen if youe woll 
ernestly punysshe yvel disposed p^-rsonnes in tyme convenient 

Seventh as touching the children of Sir Thomas IVrcye 
remaynyng in the custodye of s/r Sir l Thomas Tempest if you 
thinke not that place sure for them, his Ma/V^tes pleasure is 
that you shal bestowe them in suche other place further wit/tin 
the harte of those parties as youe shal thinke expedient, the 
charges of whose diet shalbe defrayed accordingly 

Finally touching the bookes of Decrees you shal receyve it 
by the next messanger who shall also bring vnto you the 
warranter for yowr diettor and the Fees of the rest of the 
counsail wiW the penc/oncrs of the Marches whiche if o//r 
hcvy chaunce had not happened shuld haue been dispcchcd 
vnto you er this tyme. From Westminster ii" 1 Nouewbrtr 
A R. R. H. viii. xxix 

T. CRUMWELL. 

Endd. Copie of My lordcs letter*, to the prvsidifft and 
coK/rscill of the North. 

1 sit. 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 101 

228. CROMWELL TO (JOHN) BABINGTON. 

Belvoir Castle MSS ; Cal. xii. (ii) 1061. Nov. 12 (1537). 

Is informed that he has done great harm to the manor of Kingston in 
Nottinghamshire, belonging to his brother. Requires him to make 
good what damage may be found by four impartial gentlemen. 

After my hartie comendations Whereas your brother 
Thomas Babyngton sonne and heire of your late father S/> 
Anthonye Babyngton Knyght deceased was contented and 
agreed vpon an arbitrement taken and made by sir Anthonye 
Fitzherbert knyght and others that Dame Katherine your 
late mother nowe deseased shuld haue the manour place of 
Kynston in the Countie of Nottyngham wtt/t certein landcs 
therwith belongyng during her naturall liefe and For oon yere 
after her decease wzt/joute payinge any thynge therfor, where 
as your said Brother might have had For the same xl li Rent 
by the yere and For somoche as I am credably enfowrmid 
that you have not onelye pmreaved and takyn the Renter 
proufetttt- and Revenues of the said Manowr and landes For 
thole yere aftre your said late mothers decease, by reason 
that you were here executowr, but also that during the same 
tyme of the saied yere you haue in most vngentili and 
vnnaturall m&ner comitted and done soe greate spoyle wast 
and distruction dyvers and sondrye wayes vpon in and abowte 
the saied manour place that the some of a hundred pounds 
and more woll not sett all thynges in like state and Condicion 
as thei were in at your First entre, beside sondrye other 
Iniuries and wronges done vnto hym. These shalbe to 
require youe that takyng too honest and indefferent gentil- 
men For your parte and your Brother oother tow For his to 
see and view the said wast and spoyle you doo procede to 
som Frendlie and lovyng communication vpon the premisses 
takynge suche ordre in the same as shalbe Consonaunt to 
right and Justice soe as your Brother maye have noe Cause 
eftsones to Compleyn either vnto me or any other of the 
kynges hieghnes most honowrable counsaill For Further 
Remydie in that behalff wherevnto I trust you woll shewe 
your self confformable For thavoyding of Further suetes 
whiche your said Brother might make For Recompense of the 
said wast. And also to thentent men shall not thinke or note 
in you suche vnnaturall dealing against your Brother, Assur- 
yng you that if the said wast and spoyle be soe greate as 
apperithe by a boke of the particulers thereof whiche I haue 
seen and Redde you haue not vsed your selffe accordyng to 
thoffice and duetie of a Brother. And thus not doubtyng 



102 LETTERS OF [> 

but that you woll stande to suche ordre and detcrmynacion 
as shalbe thought mete to be kept and rx-rflbwrmed of yo//r 
partie, I bidd you hartelie to Farewell From london the xii tk 
of Nouembre. 

Yowr lovyng mastrr 

THOMAS CRUMWEM . 
229. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 219 ; Cal. xii. (ii) 1 143. Nov. 29 and 30 < 1 537). 

Assures him that he will be well furnished with money. Instructions for 
his dealings with the Emperor, especially in regard to the King's 
proffered mediation between Charles and Francis. 

Maister Wiat aftre my right harty cowmendac/ons Albeit 
I haue at this tyme no matier of importance to be writen 
vnto you, yet having thoportunytie of this messangcr being 
as I vndrestonde dispeched vnto you for yowr oune priuate 
affaires, I thought mete to signifie, that yowr last lr//<-res 
conteyning yowr conference wit// thempm>wr and w/t// 
Mons;Vwr de Grandevile, were taken and accepted in as 
thank-full parte, as I haue lightly seen the \etttres of any the 
kingrc Mantes Oratowrs, residyng in outwarde p^rtes. And 
wheras in yowr \ftteres wit// the same addressed to me, youe 
make instant request and sute for money for your Diettrj, 
As vppon tharryval of yowr said lr//<res I toke ordre for the 
payment of yowr diettrj for vi monethes beforhande, for the 
present payment of all suche money as you had layd out for 
postes, and for yowr further dictt for two monethes to be 
receyved in the lieu of a prest for the dispcchc of suche postes 
as you shuld addresse hither. Soo if yowr Agents here wold 
haue called for money befor the cuwmyng of your said 
lr//rres or if Rougecroix wold haue taken yowr billes of 
Exchaunge \\-itfi him, the same might long befor haue been 
dispeched. And oon thing I moche mervayled of that you 
wold put the kinges highnes to the charge of your Interests, 
the president were to yvel to be admytted. And for yowr 
p^rte I wold haue you in no wise to desire any suche matier, 
it wold be taken in yvel paric and yet you shall neuer therin 
obteyn yowr purpose. Mistrust not but you shall haue 
asmoche fauowr as I may extende vnto you, and indede you 
had nede of Freendeship, for I haue not seen a wise man 
leave his things soo rawlye, as yo//rs be left. Nowe to touchc 
summe of the pointes of your lr//rres addressed to the kingr s 
highnes. It was founde here mervelous straunge that it shuld 
be said there that themprrowrs Agcntrj here resident could 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 103 

haue non audience in vi monethes, the truthe is they neuer 
desired Audience but they had it, and soo themselfo haue 
cofessed sithens tharryval of the said k7/r res, sythens whiche 
tyme there hathe been co;#/ication again touching the 
mariage, but they be soo precise to haue our doughter whom 
I assure you the king^r MazVvrte estemeth as she is worthie, 
and to shewe no pointe of Freendeship for it, that I cannot 
tel what I shuld saye to their faoon of preceding, if it take 
not effecte the fault shall not be in his highnes but on that 
side. For we haue desired nothing but that whiche as 
tliemptrour may doo, w*t//out breache of his \eages v/it/t 
the bisshop of Rome. Soo if he shuld not doo it (in cace) 
w/t//out any bonde of treatie only vppon his office being 
a good chm/ien prince, he hathe not that synceritie in him 
that I iudge to be in his Matcste. But I trust all shal be wel. 
Vppon the deceass of the quene whom god pardon tham- 
bassadowrs made an Ouerture for the doughter of portingale. 
It was thankfully taken and wold haue been moche better 
taken if it had com of newe from Thempmwr as it appered 
they did it by an old commission, howe soo euer the matier 
shuld succede, the ouerture could not be taken but very kindly, 
and might worke many good effector in other things. The 
kingfj Maieste is moche desirous to here from you touching 
the matier of Digneley. And thus Fare you most hartely 
well From the Nete the xxix th of Nouemb^r 

Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Postscripta wheras in your said last \etferes addressed to 
the kingcs Ma/cjte, you doo signifie in the repetio'on of your 
conference \vitA "Thempcrour that the same shuld saye vnto 
you vppon your ouerture for the mediaczon of a peax betwen 
him and the Frenche king, I cannot tel howe my Freendes 
doo sollicite me alwaye to peax. For diuerse haue medled 
in the same, and whenne soeuer my matiers goo any thing 
darkely forwarde, I here no worde of mediaabn of peax. 
And nowe whenne it semeth my successes com suwme thing 
hansomly to passe I am sollicited to the peax bothe by the 
king your Maister and by others. The kingtt highnes 
pleasure is, that vppon the receipt herof taking yor occasion 
to entre a newe conference and communication vtttA thcmpcrour 
you shal declare vnto him, that for as moche as in your late 
discours w/t/* his Ma/V^te, whiche you wrote vnto the kingcs 
highnes, It appered by the wordes expressed, that he thought, 
he was solicited to the peax whenne his affaires went prosper- 



104 LITTERS OF [i 

ously fonvarde, and otherwise harde no mention of it. As 
the kingfj Ma/r-rtc having no respecte to the state of his 
affaires at that motion of it, but to the good of the thing, 
vppon the zeale he had to bothe princes, and to the general 
quiet and repose of all chrw/iendom, made that ousrture like 
a good prince and an assured Freende to themprrowr Soo 
being sithens tharrival of your said lr//rres adurrtised of 
thabassement of his affaires in Italy, and of the victories 
of the frenche king, bothe in the getting of the passage at 
Zuse, and in the reenforcing and revitailing of his holdes and 
Fortresses in those parties, to declare howe moche his grace 
tendred the bmrfite of peax, and howe litle he regarded any 
affection or cause that might move him to fauowr either thone 
or thother parte more thenne becam a prince indifferent, and 
soo indifferent that knowing them both to be princes of 
honowr and his Dere Freendes and Allyes, he could haue 
been content wit/i his travail charge and greate expenses 
to haue been the meane to conveye them to a quiet, wherby 
the effusion of chrwtien bloodde shuld haue been cxchucd 
Albeit his most noble vertuous and princely overture therin 
was not soo lovingly embraced as the dexteritie of the same 
required Yet neuertheles to expresse, that the same preceded 
vppon the mynde and zeale declared. His Ma/rjte hath 
cow/maunded you eftsones to renovel the said Ouerturc of 
mediae/on vnto him, and to desire him even nowe thoughe his 
things be not so prosperous altogither as they were to 
signifie his resoluc/bn vnto you, whither he canne be content 
to cowmytt the decision of his matiers to his grace Arbitre, 
if the Frenche king woll for his parte condescende to doo the 
semblable. And if he woll therunto conforme himself you 
may thenne require him for the declarac/on of his titles to 
addresse vnto the kingrj highnes suche a parsonage as shal be 
liable sufficiently to instructe his Ma/V^te in the same the same l 
to bring \\ /t// him suche commission as he may make suche 
ouertures for that purpose as may be reasonable, and scmcly 
for that prince to grounde himself vppon, whiche indifferently 
desirethe an honest ende betwene them. Whcrupon the 
frenche king doing the semblable if he woll agre to the like 
of this ouerture neither of them shal nedc to doubt, but his 
Ma/V^te woll so precede betwene them as neither partie shal 
haue cause iustly to be grcved. And w/'t// this maticr you 
may also declare vnto him, howe thinformac/on made that his 
Orato//rs here could not haue audience in vi monethcs was 
vntruly surmytted vnto him, as they haue themselfcr confessed, 
whiche I thinke thay haue also signified thither for the 

1 tit. 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 105 

manifestation of the truth in that behaulf Tempering your 
wordes soo as he may take thise adiuvtisemenk\r and overtures 
as freendely as they be made vnto him. And yet soo 
obsrruyng him, in the vttering of his answers therunto, as 
you may sumvhat desciphre the botom of his harte and 
affection towards the kingcs Ma/V^te, if by any wisedom it 
may be drawen out of the same. And thus Fare you again 
most hartely wel From the Nete the last of Nouemb^r 

The k'mgcs pleasure is that you shal sende a spedy aunswer 
herof, and therw/t/* signifie suche occurrantr^ as haue happened 
in those parties sithens the writing of your last k//rres 

your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my veray loving Freend sir Thomas Wyat 
knight The kingcs majesties ambassador resident wzt/* 
Themperour. 

Endd. My lord privy sele in December at barsolona by 
peter Rede 

230. CROMWELL TO JOHN DORAUNT, ESCHEATOR IN 
NORTHAMPTON AND RUTLAND. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 1167. Dec. 4, 1537. 

Directing John Doraunt to make regular inquiry into the tenements and 
hereditaments of Husey, lately attainted of high treason. 

After my herty cowmendaabns ye shal receyue herein 
enclosed the forme of thoffice of Husey whiche the king^ 
pleasur is that Immediately vpon the sight herof ye shal 
cause to be founde in a due ordre and course of the Lawe 
w*t//out alteraaon of any worde in thesame Of all the manoirs 
land*\r tcnemctitfs &c. whiche the said Husey lately attayntcd 
of highc treason hadd and was scased of in possession or 
reversion w/tX/in the 'Lymytes of your office at the tyme of his 
attayndow. Not fayling to fynyshe this mater w/t// all 
diligence and like circumspection and dexterite As ye tender 
his Matties pleasur. Thus Fare ye hertely well From the 
Nete this iv th of December the xxix th yerc of his gracrj most 
noble Rcgnc 

\our louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my loving Freend John doraunt off Ketismer 
the kingrj Eschetowr in his gracrj Counties of Norhampton 
and Rotlawd 

Endd my Lorde pr/vyscale 



106 LETTERS OF [1537 

231. CROMWELL TO THE BISHOP OF CHESTER. 

B. M. Titus B. i, f. 416 ; Cal. xii. (ii) 1173. Dec. 5, 1537. 

Requests him to compel a company of gypsies, who having a pardon for 
murder linger in the realm and commit felonies, to depart from the 
nearest seaport at the first fair wind or if they remain to see them 
executed. 

After my right hartie cowmendac/ons whereas the Kinges 
Maicstie aboutc a twelfmoneth past gave a pardonne to 
a company of lewde prrsonnes within this Realme calling 
themselves Gipcyans for a most Shamfull and detestable 
murder cowmytted amongrj them w/tA a special prouiso 
inserted by their owne consents that onles they shuld all 
avoyde this his graa\r Realme by a certeyn daye long 
sythens expired yt shuld be laufull to all his graces offycers 
to hang them in al places of his Realme where they might 
be app/rhended w/V/out any further examynacon or tryal 
after Forme of the lawe as in their \ettercs patents of the 
said pardon is expressed. His grace hering tell that they 
doo yet lynger here w*t//in his Realme not avoyding the 
same according to his co;mandement and their owne primes 
And that albeit his poorc subiectes be dayly spoyled Robbed 
and deceyued by them, yet his highnes officers and Ministres 
lytle regarding their dieuties towards his Maiestye do pvmyt 
them to lynger and loyter in all partys and to exercise all 
their falshooVj felonyes and treasons vnpuwnished hathe 
cowmaundcd me to sygnifyc vnto youe that his most drade 
cowmaundement is that ye shall laye diligent espiall thorough 
owte all the partfs thereaboutes youc and the Shires next 
adioynyng whether any of the sayd prrsonnes calling them- 
selfes egipcyans or that hathe heretofore called themselfes 
egipcyans shall fortune to enter or travayl in the same, And 
in cace youe shalle here or knowe of any suche be they men 
or women that ye shall compell them to repair to the next 
porte of the See to the place where they shalbc taken and 
eyther wythout delaye vppon the first wynde that may 
conveye them in to any rxxrte of beyond the Sees to take 
shipping and to passe in to outward partycs or if they shall 
in any wise breke that cowmaundeme/rt without any tract 
to see them executed according to the king hieghnes sayd 
1/7/rres patentrj Remaynyng of Recorde in his Chauncery 
which with these shalbc yor discharge in that behaulf Not 
fayling taccomplishc the tcnowr hereof with all effect and 
diligence wit//out sparing vppon any Cowmyssion licence or 
placardc that they may shewc or aledge for themselfes to the 
contrary as ye tender his graces pleaswr which also ys that 
youe shall gyve notyce to all the Justices of peax in that 



1537] THOMAS CROMWELL 107 

Countye where youe resyde and the Shires adioynant that 
they may accomplishe the tenour hereof accordingly Thus 
Fare ye hertelywel From the Neate the v th day of December 
the xxix th yen: of his Ma/V^ties mostnoble Regne. 

Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my verve goode Lorde my Lorde of Chestre 
president of the counsaile of the Marches of wales 

Endd. December v My lord hys L*7/rre to the consaill 
off wallys. 29 H. 8. 

232. CROMWELL TO (THE IRISH COMMISSIONERS). 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 1189. Dec. 10, 1537. 

Instructions for dealing with the traitor Bryan O'Conor, and with the 
claim of James Fitzjohn of Desmond. They are to inform the King 
of all matters requiring reform. 

After my Right herty commendac/ons ye Shalbe adurrtesed 
that I haue Receyued your letters datyd the xv th day of 
Novembre last passed the hole Effect & tenor wherof I haue 
Fully & entyerly declared vnto the kingly mageste whoze 
grace for aunsrr therunto Furst hathe & takyth your godc 
diligens & dexterite vsed aswell in the Surveying of his 
landes & setting furthe of his graces affayers in the p^rlement 
ther as also in other things construing your charge & 
Comission veray acceptably & to his greate Contentment 
& satisfacc/on of mynde geving vnto you for the same Right 
harty & condignc thankrj. And as touching the Rebellious 
attemptates of that traytor Bryan Oconor hys mageste moche 
mervelyth that he coude \vit/i his deceytflfull Submission & 
wyly wordrj so invcgulle & Blynde his graces Deputie & som 
other of the counsel ther as to geve any Credanes (to) or 
any wise trust Suche a traytowr or beloue that he wold be 
true to his maicste that So trayterously vsed hym self oftc 
tymes afore agenst his grace Brekyng & violating the Feythc 
& truthe of alege^uns he ought to his highncs our Soueraign 
& naturall prince. Albeit his grace Doubteth not but for 
Suche F0rce & pusans as you wryte his said depute by the 
advice of the counsel hathe levyd & Sett Furthe for Repress- 
ing & Exiling the said traytor bryan oconor (you) schal 
cassely ouercome & ourrthrowall his graces Rebellys & pouer 
contrary ther and Redube the attempt of his malyce. Yett 
neu<vtheles his magestes pleasur (is) that vising your 
tftortcs Ernestly aswell in this as in other pointer of your 
charche & comission (you) schalbe playne wii/i the said 



108 LETTERS OF [1537 

depute & declare vnto hym his inconsiderat & neclegent 
oikrsight to Suffer hym self to be thus begyled & traped by 
the deceptffull Submiss&w paynted wordrj & promyses of so 
arraunt a Rebell as after his person was in place Surely 
& Savely to be kept yet to suffer hym to be so orderyd that 
he might at his pleasur Evade Stert & stele away to do 
suche myschenVj. So that by the meane of yowr gode 
monyc/bn & warnyng on his magestes behalf the said depute 
& the Rest of his gracrj councell ther may be more circom- 
spect & in tymes Coming be better aduised how to deale 
& obserue wit// astraihgter order and keping personage of 
Suche disposicibn when the case Shall Require. Farther his 
gracyous pleasur is that for asmoche as it may be thought 
the said Brian Oconor without Som Suport of other that 
Encoraged hym wold not haue attempted Suche a trayterous 
invasion you Shall enploy your lyke diligens dexteryte & 
polecy to try out & enquyre all maner persons that in the 
same attemptat had any enteligens or Secret practyse witA 
hym or in any wyse gaue vnto hym any Succour help 
assistens or comfort or by ther playne & manyfest wynkyng 
at his preparac/bns & doings encoraged hym to be the 
bolder to take on hym Suche temeryte So that by yowr gode 
cncerchement & inquesicibn the truthe may be knoen & the 
disposic/ons of mens harto ther disclosed & openyd to 
thentent his mageste adurrtesed therof schall so provide for 
the same as other shall haue no Suche occasion gevyn nor do 
the lyke dyspleasur in tyme comyng. 

Consuming Jamys Fitz John clayming hymself Erie of Dcst- 
mond whose articles of Submissnw you haue haue ! in a Copye 
Sent to me inclosed w/t//in yowr Said lr//rres his highnes 
wyllith that (you) shall procede to intreate wit// hym vpon 
thoze articles & assay to gett his open assent & true Sub- 
mission to that & Suche other as you may chaunce therwit// 
to thinke most Expedient & necesery Ewr putting hym in 
gode hope of the kingrj benygne Fauor largely to be 
Extendyd vpon hym when his magestie schall prrceyue his 
gode disposic/on & fcythffull inclynacibn so to haue Submytted 
hym. And so procede wit// (him) vnto the very knott of 
the hole conclusion wherof in all diligens possible you Shall 
incontynently adurrtes his ma;<\rtc by whoze speciall advice 
and pleasur to be declared vnto you Acordingly the hole 
mater may be knytt vp & concluded as Shall by his highnes 
(be) thought most Resonable & convenyent And wher the 
said Jamys fitz John Alegyth bothe Bastardy & trayson 
agcnst agenst ' Jamys fitz morys the kingrj pleasur is you Shall 



xr<r. 



THOMAS CROMWELL 109 

precysely (declare) thartycles & poynt<\r of the said trayson 
& wryte what Evydens he can Geve bothe of the same & of 
the bastardy declaryng vnto hym that in (case) he Shall 
Frankly Remytt his maters to his graces arbytrement he may 
be assured his matcste schall take away no parte of hys Just 
Right & title from hym if he Shall Justeffy the same 
Anything as aprrteyned but Shall otherwise so order hym 
lyke his benigne & most gracious Sourraigne lorde as he 
& his posteryte schall haue gode cause to pray for hym 
& thinke them selfrj happy of ther Reconcyliac/on to ther 
true & bounden obedie//s and Subiecczbn of his mat'csic 
Fynally wher(as) you wryte that in your preceding^ you 
haue pmreyued diuers things worthy Reformaobn moche 
tedious to be wryten his highnes pleasur is that notwith- 
standing any prolixitie or tediousnes you shall afor yo//r 
comyng wj't// all possible celeryte adurrtes his grace ampley 
& largely of the same to thentent that if any Require your 
dexterite or the sending of any comissioners thider you may 
at your now being ther Reforme it afore your comyng & 
Retorne as muche as muche ' as schalbe necesary wherfor Fayle 
you not in gude diligens to sende Full adurrtesment therof 
in wryting. Praying you to adu^rtes me From tyme to tyme 
of allmaner occurrant^j ther & to vse celeryte in Adurrtesing 
his ma*V.rte of all the premisses and Fulffylling of the Rest 
of your Comission & charge ther & then Shall I gett his 
graces leue & pleasur for your Retorne nether accordingly 
Thus fare you hartely well from the Kingcs manor of Otlande 
this X th of decembre the xxix th yere of his graces most 
prosperous Reigne 

Your loving frende 

THOMAS CROMWELL 
In the margin: Copy 

233. CROMWELL TO LORD LEONARD GREY. 

R. O. Cal. xii. (ii) 1207. Dec. 13 (1537). 
He is to have Brian O'Conor hanged as an example to all traitors. 

To the lorde deputye. 

After my Right Hertye Cowmendao'ons to your Lordshyp. 
where as by this Berer your seruaunt I Receyued certen 
Lr//rres from youe the Contents wherof Requyreing none 
Aunswer to be at the Leaste spedely dyspaccheyd I wyllyd 
him to Remayne heere tyll a Ferther oportunytye of wryteing 
thyder occurre. And the same being nowe hapencd by the 

1 sic. 



110 LETTERS OF 

AdiuTtysement of Ochonnowr nowe enterpryscing, yt was 
thought nieate that a post shulde be dyspaccheyd w/t/* 
dylygence, whiche partc he shulde haue furnysheyd yf it hadde 
not byn his Chaunce to haue byn Absent Nowe being desyrous 
to Retorne vnto you I thought Convenyent aswell to wryte this 
for his Excuse in his long Abode, as to Aduyse you eftsones 
to handle that mattier of Ochonnors \v/t// suche a dexteryte as 
he may be haungeyd vpon the Terryble examplle of all suche 
Traytours. The Expulsyon of hym was taken very well but 
the px'rmyssyon of hym to haue suchc a Scope to worke mys- 
chyflfo at his pleaswr as no dought he must nedes be Re- 
mayneing in dyspayre of Restytuc/bn was neyther wysedom 
nor yett goode p/rsydent Redubbe yt my lord in the Just 
punyshmr/// of his Traytours Carkas. And Lette his Treason 
be A warneing to youe and to all that shalle haue to doo for 
the kingrj magestye ther neurr to trust Trayto//r after but to 
vse theym wit//oute tracte after theyr demerytes. And this 
fare you hartyly well From Otelandtt the xiii daye of Decembre. 

Yo;/r lordshyppes assureyd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

234. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 223 ; Cal. xii. (ii) 1264. Dec. 26 (1537). 

Urges him to use all his dexterity in treating with the princes. The King 
is more willing than ever to become fully reconciled to the Emperor. 

Maister Wiat aftrc my right harty co;mendac/ons By this 
berer you shall recey ve the kingfs highnes l<7/!f res witA a cow- 
mission whcrby you be auctorised to treate cowmen and 
conclude w/t/* those princes for his graces partc, as by the 
said li-/ feres is limited. Nowe vse yowr wisedom to set- 
furthe the contents of the said \effercs vritA suche a dextcritie 
as thcffecte desired may ensue of the same, there was neuer a 
better inclynac/on in the kingrj Ma/Vjtc both to forget all 
things passed, to entre a prrfite rcconsiliac/on, and to doo in 
all thingrj that may turne to Thempmwrs honowr or com- 
moditic, asmoche as canne be reasonably desired of him, 
thennc there is at this present, if Thcmprrowr woll nowe shcwe 
himself to esteme his highnes as he p/rtcndcth, and specially 
in folowing of his graces aduise in the maticr of the counsail 
all things I doubt not shall soo succede betwene them, as shal 
be to godckr glory, to both their honours and to the greate 
good and quiet of Christendom we shal desire moche to here 
from you, and therfor whenne you shalbe hable to write any 
ccrtaintie, either vppon Thempmw/rs assured promise or vppon 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 111 

any certain conclusion, scnde wit// diligence. And thus Fare 
you moost hartely wel From London the xxvi 111 of December 

"Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To myn Assured loving Freende Sir Thomas Wiat 
knight the kingrj Ambassador with Themperour. 

Endd. My lord pr/vi sele in January by mr. mason at 
barsolona. 

235. CROMWELL TO JOHN VACHELL AND SERGEANT 
CIIALCOTT l . 

B. M. Titus B. i, f. 183 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 7. Dec. 29 (1537). 

Informs them that the King's pleasure is that Thomas Hind, Boxworth, 
and other originators of certain false rumours be punished. 

This ys the Copy of the kyngcs pleasure declared by my 
lord p/-/uy scales letter to yowe & me delyverd at grene- 
wyche, w/t// the preamble left on wrytton 

Hie incipit And for aunswer his maiestie hath Com- 

maunded me to signefie vnto yowe that his pleasure is, yowe 
shall accordyng to the purporte & tenowr of his seyd letters 
dyrected vnto yowe touchyng that matter, cause suche other 
of the pryncipall Inventors and bruters of the same to be 
dulye ponnysshed, And specially Thomas Hynd, And Box- 
worthe the Almesse man of Donyngton And Further that 
yowe shall contynewe yowr vigylancie to Harken whether 
any moo of that sorte wyll spryng in those parties, and in 
Case any suche chaunce to insurge, to endevowr your selfes 
tapprehende them, And to see the same condignely ponnysshed 
after the same sorte that in this affeyre is prescribed vnto 
yowe, yo//r paynes wherin double yowe not, shalbe con- 
sjderyd Accordynglye, wrytton the xxix of december. 

236. CROMWELL TO (THE BISHOP OF >. 

B. M. Cleop. E. iv, f. 7, and Cleop. E. v, f. 302 ; Cal. x. 46, and Ca!. xiii. 
(1)40. Jan. 7 <I538> . 

Exhorts him on the King's behalf to take care that the people be taught 
the truth by the preachers, and that novelties and contradictions be 
avoided. 

After my rieght hartey commendations to your lordshipp, 
ye shall herwit// receive the kingrj hieghnes k/fcres addressed 

1 Quoted in a letter from Va- * This document is a circular 
chell to Chalcott of Jan. I, 1538. letter, of which two copies exist, 



112 LETTERS OF [1538 

vnto you to put you in remembraunce of his hicghnes 
travaellrj and yo//r dieuty tochinge ordre to be taken for 
preachinge, to thintente the people maie be taught the truthe, 
and yet not charged at the begynnynge wit// ouer manney 
Nouelties, the publication wherof onles the same be tempered 
and quallified w/t/i moche wisdome doo rather brede con- 
tention Deuision and contrarietey in opinion in the vnlerncd 
multitude, then either edifie, or remove from them and outc 
of their hartes suche abuses as by the corrupte and vnsauery 
teaching of the bishoppe of Rome, and his disciples haue 
crept in the same, theffecte of whiche IrM-res, albeit I double 
not but as well for the honestie of the matter as for yo//r 
oune discharge ye will so considre ande put in execution, as 
shalbe to his graceis satisfactione in that behaulf, yet Foras- 
moche as it hathe pleased his maiestie tappointe and constitute 
me in the Rome and place of his supreme and principal! 
mynistre in all matiers that maie toche aney thinge his 
clergie, or their doings, I thought it allso my parte for the 
exoneracion of my dieutey towards his hieghnes and the 
rather to aunswer to his graces expectac/on opinion and 
truste conceived in me, and in that amonges other committed 
to my fidellitie, to desire and praie you in suche substaunciall 
sorte and manner to travell in thexecution of the contentes of 
his graces saicd W/rres, nameli for advoidinge of contrarietic 
in preachinge of the pronunciation of Novellties withoute 
wise and discrite qualification, and the repression of the 
temeritey of those that eyther prively or apertly dyrectly or 
indirectli wold advaunce the pretendyd aucthoritie of the 
bishop of Rome. As I be nott for my discharge bothe en- 
forced to complaine further, and to declare what I haue now 
written vnto you for that purpose and soo to charge you w/'t// 
your oune faulte and to deuise suche remedy for the same 
as shall app^rteigne, desiringe yo//r Lordship taccepte my 
meanynge herin tcndingc onli to an honest frecndli and 
chr/j//en reformation for advoidi'/ge of further inconvenience, 
and to thinke non vnkindnes thoughe in this matier wherin it 
is all mooste moorc then tyme to speake, I write frankli com- 
pelled and enforced therunto bothe in respecte of my private 
dieutie, and otherwise for my discharge forasmuche as it 
pleasithe his maiestie to vse me in the lieu of A counsellor. 
Whose office is as an eye to the prince to forsee and in tymc 
to prouyde remedy for suche abuses enormyties and incon- 
venience as myeght elks wythe A litle sufferaunce cngcndrc 

and which is calendared twice (in bable that it belongs to the year 
vo!s. x and xiii). It seems pro- 1538 rather than to 1536. 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 113 

moore yvell in his publique weale, then could be after re- 
doubbcd vfit/i moche labor study diligence and travaill And 
thus most hartely fare youe well. From the Roulles the 
vii th of January. 

Your lordshippis Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
237. (CROMWELL) TO . 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 105. Jan. 19 (1538). 

Desires the recipient to obtain for John Point the mastership of the free 
school of Week St. Mary in Cornwall. 

Right welbelouyd I recommende me vnto you and whereas 
I am Inform yd that ye ar assigned patron and pryncypall 
ruler of the fre schole of saynct marye wyke In the edge of 
Cornewall by the foundres thereof my Ladye p^rcyvall 
deceasyd, I shall desyer you to vse your good mynde and 
will to the prefermewt of on Jhon poynt a graduat of the 
vnyversyte Lawfull as I am credebylly Informyd and 
sutfycyent for the rome also accustomyd to bryng up yowthe, 
that at the next vacatyon after Mr. Roo now there beyng, 
he may be put therein scholemaster at thys my request And 
at the sight of these my Letters so to vse hym herein that he 
may report to me agayne of your Jentyllnes towards hym 
In thys behalfe. Thys Jesus preserue you wrytten at the 
Rowles the 19 day of Januarye 

238. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, ff. 167 and 159; Cal. xiii. (i) 355. Feb. II (1538). 

The King is so desirous to show himself friendly to the Emperor, that he 
is willing to marry his three children in Spain and Portugal, and to 
aid Charles against the Turk. 

Master Wyat This shall be tad[u]ertyse yow that the kyng 
having sene and perused your Wteres of the eighteneth of 
th[e] last monethe addressed to me, dothe thankfully accept 
thempmwrs gratuyte, in the same declared . towa[rds] hym, 
and conseideryng how the matier of peax betwene themprf- 
[our] and the frenche kyng is not concluded for a declaration 
bothe of his zeale to the quiete in Christendom, and of 
a Juste Correspondence] of kyndness ageyne towards 
thempero//r if the same 1 cowlde be content to cowmitt the 
manying of the peace to his mageatye(s) wise and resonable 
ordre for the duchie of Mil Ian refusing the bishopp of romes 

1 f. o. amycall 



MERRIMAN. It 



114 LETTERS OF [1538 

meane therein who can be no meate arbiter for that purpos 
aswell for that he pretcndith for interest in parte of Millan 
as in parme and placcnce, as for that there is great lykelyod 
that in the doing of itt he will follow the steppis of his 
predecessor who in suche caces hath ever vsid to worcke 
theyre owne benefyte and establisshement whatsoever shuld 
succede of the rest, the kingfj Ma[ieste] wold I doubt not 
but go through out of hande w*t/x the mariage of my lady 
Marys grace and coople his only sonnc the prin[cc] w*t>i 
themrwro//rs doughter born or to be born of yeres mete for 
hi[m] -with bonde that he shall at the yeres of consent take 
her to mariage, and further allso ioyne our other doughter, the 
lady Elizabeth in mariage -with oon of kyng ferdinandos sons 
limitting such dotes as shuld be mete for his graces doughtcrs 
and over and above this I am assured that the kingr s Ma[ieste] 
woll gyve suche Ayde to thempmv/r in any expedicion to be 
made agaynst the greate turke as shal be greatly to his 
advantage so he will open his purpos therin, and reasonably 
demaunde towardes the same, this I thought convenient to 
write vntoyou thai you may of yourself declare to themprrowr 
what lykelyode ye haue from me and other your frendry here 
that there shall ensue a most firme knot betwene the king^r 
Ma[ieste] and him and advertise agayne how ye shall finde 
him disposed in that behaulf. Mr. Wiat I prrceyve yowr 
credence there is good kepe it, well, it may turne to yowr 
cowmoditie Thus Fare you hartely well From the Courte 
being at Westminster the xi th of February l 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To myn Assured loving Frecnde sir Thomas Wiat 
knight the binges highnes Ambassadowr w/'t/* Themprrowr 

Endd. My lord privi sele of the xi of february received by 
franscisco the xxiiij of the same in barsolona 

239. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. HarL MSS. 282, f. 163; Cal. xiil (i) 256. Feb. n 0538). 
Informs him that his doings are all approved of at Court 

Maistcr Wiat aftre my right harty cowmcndac/ons thise 
shalbc tadurrtise you that having thoportunytie of this 
Currowr Albeit I haue no matiers of importance to signifie 

1 Except for the signature, ad- tence, this letter is written in 
dress, endorsement, and last sen- cipher. 






1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 115 

vnto you more thenne touching yourself be conteyned in 
a scedule herin enclosed conteyning certain things to be dis- 
creately wayed for your oune fo-n^fete yet among^j those 
your oune matiers I thought convenient to intymate that Al 
your doings be taken in good parte and that the king- 
Maieste is soo good and gracious lorde vnto you, as I trust 
you shall by some effector shortly perceyve good arguments 
of the same. Thus fare you hartely well From Westminster 
the xi* of February 

Your louyng freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To myn Assured loving freende Sir Thomas Wiat 
Knight the kingcs Ambassador with Themprror 

240. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 286; Cal. xiii. (i) 280. Feb. 15, 1538. 

Assures him of the King's goodwill. The bearer is to go on to Wyatt, 
and will see Gardiner on his return. 

After my right hartye cowmendaczbns to your lordshipp 
Forasmoche as I knowe right well that ye wyll ernestly em- 
ploye your good dexteryte to set furthe the contents of the 
kinges hieghnes Le/fcres which ye shall Receyve at this tyme 
as yn the lyke ye haue ever accustumed, I haue thought by 
these presentcs onely to aduertys youe that Albeyt his hieghnes 
maketh in the same a Longer Rehersall and discourse of his 
matyers thenne pmrace (you) shall thinke to haue been 
necessary and rather wrytteth to note and ympute vnto youe 
some obliuion or forgetfulnes then for anny greate conse- 
quence that may folowe of the same, yet neuertheles ye may 
be assuered that his Maiestye berethe no suche displeaswr^ 
vnto youe nor entendeth to impute vnto you thereby suche 
slaknes as the discourse seanrethe to emplye knowing and 
waying your truthe, fydelyte and effectuell good wyll and 
deuoc/on to his Maiestye and his affaires, But rather his 
hieghnes thinkethe ye shall thereby vnderstande that he 
kepethe in memorye and Rememberaunce an accompte of his 
afifayres and the hole trayne thereof, by reason of the which 
his grace signifieth vnto youe that ye shal doo the lyke to 
thentcnt ye may be alwayes the more redy and the better 
prepared to make suche aunswere to every poynt thereof as 
may be to the Furtheraunce of his matyers of Importaunce 
Whenne the cace shall soo Require. Therefore I Pray you to 
take his grac^j meanyng non otherwyse thenne soo Nothing 

I 2 



116 LETTERS OF [1538 



doubting of the contynuauncc of his favour towardes you, 
no lesse Respect and consyderatyon to be had thereof to your 
comfort and consolac/on yn tyme cuwmyng thenne your good 
merytes doo des/rue This berer ys payed for his post bothe 
going and cuwmyng and ys directed thorough to Mr. Wyat 
and soo to Return by youe at his cummyng home, yf the 
Ifttftcs lately sent to Mr. Wyat by Barnaby shall not be 
gonne before his arryvall youe may dispeche them also by 
hym w/tAout Further chardge, And thus Fare ye hertely wel 
From Saynt James bcsydes Westm/'/w/rr the XV th day of 
February 

Your lordshippis assurydlye 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Maister Parys at his cuwmyng to your lordship shall bring 
him yo;/r horses ad also yowr sf mantes who be staye(d) 
by expresse cowadew^t for the more hasty spede to be 
made whiche the currowr canne bettre endure thenne any of 
that sorte 

Add. To my veray good Lord my Lorde of Winchestre 
the king Ambassador/r Resident in Fraunce 

Eiidd. Lorde Pr/vaye Seal From Saint James 15 Feb. 29. 
241. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 173 ; CaL xiii. (i) 330. Feb. 22 (1538). 

The King's letters will answer his and inform him of the news here. 
Begs him to continue diligent and watchful. Promises to attend to 
his allowance. 

After my right hartye cowmendac/ons Forasmoche as by 
the l*7/rres which the kinges Maiestie sendeth vnto you at 
this tyme ye shall bothe pmreyve the Receipt of suche your 
\etteres as be hetherto arryved here and his graces answere 
thereto, wyth the hole discourse of the newes and affaires here, 
Albeit I doubt not but ye woll vse suche good diligence in 
fulfylling his highnes pleasure in the same as ye haue accus- 
tumed yet I haue thought to desier and pray you at this tyme 
no lesse dylygently to employe your ernest dexteryte but 
rather asmoche as in you shall lye to sett furthe and so 
conduce thaffayres as thereby may folowe his MauMties good 
purpos Merking and noting in suche wise the dyscourses 
procedinges and coww//icatyons to be had there their coif- 
tynuaunce fasshyon and vehemence wi'tA the very woord^r 
and aunswers as by the same the certaintie of thinges to ensue 
may be conicctcd and knowen And as ye haue right well doon 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 117 

heretofore moche to his grac^r contentmet and satisfacczbn 
Soo ye shall according to his good Expectaczbn by your 
Ictteres wttA all possible celerytie aduertys his hieghnes entierly 
of your hoole preceding^ and conferences there and of the 
circumstaunces thereof togeder vrttA all occurrence Assuring 
youe that his Maieste taketh your good s^ruice in soo thank- 
full p#rte as I trust his grace woll shortely declare his thankfull 
acceptaczbn and p^rfyt Rememberaunce thereof to your no 
litle comfort And as concernyng thadvauncement of your 
dietter I shall travail for the newe Signature of your warraunt 
for the same as sone as any oportunyte shall occurre for the 
same. This berer ys payed bothe for his Jorneye hether and 
for his Returne agayn which I trust shal be wz't^ diligence 
And thus Fare ye hertelywell From St. James besydes 
Westmij/^r the xxij day of February. 

Your assured Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
I praye yow trewlye to answer my last \etteres 

Add. To myn assuered Loving frende S/> Thomas 
Wiat knight the kinges Ambassador resydent in the 
Emprrours cowrte 

Endd. My lord przvi sele the xxii of february re[ceived] 
by rede the iii d of Marche in barsolona. 

242. CROMWELL TO PETER MEWTAS. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 203. (February, 1538.) 

Instructs him to visit Madame de Longueville, to discover if she is willing 
to become the wife of the King, and if so to obtain her portrait. 

Instructions given to peter M. oon^ of the gent etc. 

First the said peter tak/g with him this Instruction shall 
with all convenient diligence addresse himself in to fraunce 
and soo to the place where it shal chaunce Madame de 1 L. to 
Lye at And at his Arryval there he shall make vnto the same 
most harty ad effectuel comwendaobns from me the lord 
privy scale -wi\h semblable thanks that it pleased her p^rtely 
at my contemplac/bn to entretayn the said peter at his Late 
being there in soo honorable a sorte as she did. And thenne 
he shal declare vnto her that he is nowe sent vnto her 
expressely from me the said lord privy scale to intymate ad 
signifie, that Albeit at his said Late being witA her it appered 

1 c. o. Long. 



118 LETTERS OF [1538 

vnto him by her wordrj and coww//ication that she was Free 
ad at libertic from all contracte or consent of manage, whiche 
at his cumwyng home he declared as nighe as he could w/'tA 
the same wordrj she spake vnto him, Wherupon I the said lord 
privy seale vppon the good affection whiche I here towards 
her for her vertues wisedome and noblesse purposed to haue 
setfurthc some ourrture of manage for her to the king 
Majrrte my maister ad most drad Soturaign lorde, yet 
forasmoche as it is nowe signified to his highnes that the king 
of Scottrj hathe sithens that tyme of the said peters being 
w/'tA her folowed his purpose ad desire therin very crnestly 
in somoche as her oune father shuld be com^ downe ' for the 
driving of a conclusion in the same, And further that the said 
king of Scotter 8 is determyned very shortly in secret maner to 
repair thither for the p^rfite finishing solemnizaobn and co- 
sim/mation of it ; being perplexed vppon thise newes what it 
shuld be best for me to doo, whither to desist from myn entent 
ajid pwrpose ; Or to kepe the same in a suspence tyl I might 
knowe in dede whither they be true, Or setfurth by some man 
that p^rcace having some ynkeling of it wold by some practise 
interupt the same awd w/tA a brute cause me to staye myn 
entrepr[yse] For the certain knowleage of the truth I desired 
the said M eftsones to make his repaire vnto her, and not only 
to declare the cause in forme expressed and howe I am ther- 
upon perplexed howe I might precede or staye wt t//out offence 
to the \ninges Majte or to her ; to his grace if I shuld breake 
of that thing that were befor passed wherin I might be noted 
of suwme lightnes, to her if I shuld either not move that thing 
whiche it might wel appere by the said peter I entended to 
advaunce asmochc as I could, the cace soo standing that 
I might doo it wzt/iout any masrnes Iniurye, Or if I shuld vppon 
her general wordss spoken to the said M. move that matier 
that being irremediable could turne her to non honour nor 
cowmoditic But also to desire her most hartely that it may 
please her in cace any suche thinges haue been entreated 
sithens the said M. departed from her as be befor specefied, 
to declare the same vnto him \v/t// her state condition and 
determynac/bn vppon the same, And the said peter shal saye 
that the certain reaporter whiche haue been made of her 
vertues noblesse a//d wisedom aswel by the same peter as by 
sundry others of good creditie iudgement and cstimac/on haue 
fully persuaded vnto me, that howesoeuer the matier doth 
stande she woll not be greved w/tA this my sute vnto her con- 
sidering it procedcthe of a faithful desire to thadvauncement 

1 c, o. in ptrsonne only ' c. o. well 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 119 

of her honour, and of the hono//r of her hole house and 
famylie. And if he shall pmreyve By her answer that the 
said reaportes made to the contrary notwithstanding she is 
Free and at libertie from al consent or pwrpose to any 
manage, shewing therw/t// any good inclynaabn hitherward^ ; 
As in that cace the said peter may assure her that in this 
matier and all others that may sounde to her furtherance and 
adva#//cemrt I wolbe her ernest Ministre, Soo he shall saye 
that in cace it might like her father or any of her Frend^j to 
setfurth any indifferent ou^rture to the k'mges MazVjte wherby 
his grace might prrceyve their good \vi\\es and inclynac/ons 
towardrj him It wold moche conferre and give vnto me 
a sufficient grounde soo to worke as I trust shuld be in thende 
to her honour and comfort. And in cace it shal fortune 
Mons r de Guise her father to be there or nere hande in cace 
she shall aduise the said peter though it be but in general 
wordrj to move him therin, the said peter taking some good 
occasion therunto shall of himself ad for the declaration of 
his oune affection towards his house and famylie move him 
therein accordingly vsing wz't// the said Mons r de Guise suche 
an attemperance as he seme not to seke moche more thenne 
himself woll seme to offer or easely agre vnto in that Behaulf. 
And wzt// suche answer as he shal receyve he shal retourne 
w/t// diligence. Finally if the said peter Meautys shall 
p^rceyve any good towardnes and inclynaczbn in the said 
M. de L. he shall if it be possible for him by any meanes to 
cow/passe it get her picture truly made, a;/d like vnto her Awd 
bn'wg the same hither with him 

Endd. 1538 Mr. Mewter Instrucabns. 
Endd. touching the k[in]gr maryage with the duke of 
Guyses 1 daughter 

243. CROMWELL'S INSTRUCTIONS TO PHILIP HOBY. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 5,498, ff. 1-2 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 380. (Feb. 1538.) 

Directs him to visit the Court of the young Duke of Longueville, and to 
take the portraits of the two daughters of the Duke of Guise in one 
picture ; also to visit the Duke of Lorraine and deliver a letter to him 
from Cromwell, and if possible to obtain a portrait of his daughter. 

I. 

A memoriall to my freend Philip Hoby touching such 
matters as he hath now committed to his Charge. 

First the same laboring to gete knowleage where the yong 
duke of Longouille lieth shall w*t// diligence by poste repaire 

1 c. o. Vendome 



120 LETTERS OF [1538 

thither where he shall finde, as it is said, the two daughters 
of monsi/wr de Guyse, whom at his comming he shall salute 
and so declare vnto them that hauinge certain buisenes in 
those parties he coulde not pretermit to visitc the one of 
them, of whom he hath by his late being there sowme 
acqueintance. And therwrt// he shall diligentlie view and 
consider well the yonger sister. And he shall require the 
Dutchesse her moother or such other as shall haue the 
goucrnment of them that he may also take the Phisionomie 
of her that he may ioine her sister and her in a fairc table. 
Which obteined, he shall addrcsse him self to the house and 
duelling place of the Duke of Loraigne. To whom at his 
accesse vnto him he shall deliuer my letter of Credence, and 
to the same saye, that I doubt not but he hath heard witA 
how and propence a good will I haue trauailed to auaunce 
sowme personage of his house and familie to the mariage 
of the kingrj maw-rtie my master. And albeit that the same 
my pourpose hath not taken that effect that I desired, Yet 
doth the same affection remaine still in me, which I wolde 
be glad to employe according to my commencement, if I mai 
gete therunto occasion. And forasmuch as latlie it was 
declared vnto me that his grace hath a daughter of Excellent 
qualitie, hauing the same Philip sowme other affaires in those 
parties, I haue thought meete to desire him to diuert to the 
said duke \\i\Ji my said letters to thentent he might at his 
pleasowr visite and see his daughter and also take her picture 
to be presented for her aduauncement as the time mai serue. 
Requiring him further that it may please him to open sow/me 
parte of his minde and inclination touching this matter. And 
to deuise that sowme such ouerture might be made on his 
behalf to the kingu Ma/otic as I may therupon haue sowme 
foundacion wherupon to setfoorth this thing, which should be 
so muche to his honor. In which case the said Philip mai 
assure him that I shall not faile to do that office that shall 
bccowme an honest freende and one that spvrially fauorcth 
that house and familie. And the said Philip shall also enter 
co;;/municac/on \\i\Jt the yong Ladie after the same foorme 
and maner as his Instruction runnethe to the person of her 
father. And assone as he shall haue gotten her Phisionomie 
and knowen the Duk/\r pleaser, he shall take his leaue and 
retourn w/'t// all possible diligence 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 121 

II. 

Hoby is to visit the Duchess of Milan, and request her to permit the King's 
servant Holbein to take her portrait. Hoby is to try to discover if 
she has any inclination to marry the King. 

Instructions giuen by the Lord Cromwell to Philip Hoby 
sent ouer by him to the dutchesse of Loreigne, then (to the) 
dutchesse of Millane. 

First to repaire to Mr. Hutton and to tarie at his lodging 
or where he shall think most meete for the more secrecie of 
the matter till he shall haue bine v/tt/t the Regent. 

Then vpon his aduertisement Mr. Philip shall make his 
accesse to the Dutchesse, and after my Lordes humble 
cowmendaczons made vnto her grace, he shall say that he 
doubteth not but both by the mouthe of the Ladie Regent 
and by the relac/on of the kingcs Maicstes Ambassado/^r there 
resident she knoweth the cause of his cow/minge and the 
ground wherupon it proceadeth with my L,ordes inclinaabn to 
thaduauncement of the same vpon the constant fame which 
he hath heard of her vertue, wisdome and most laudable 
qualities which he shall expresse vnto her as the same is 
conteined in the letter. And that he is therupon addressed 
to visite and salute her on my Lord^j behalf and to require 
her that for the ministring to my Lorde of a further occasion 
to satisfie Thambassadors, It may please her grace to take 
so much peine at his poore desire to sit so longe at some 
such time as her self shall appoint as a seruaunt of the k'mges 
highnes being come thither for that pourpose may take her 
Phisionomie. 

Then shall he desire to know her pleaser when Mr. Hanns 
shall co;me to her for the doing of his feat in the taking of 
his picture. And so hauinge the time appointed he shall go 
w/t// him or tarie behind as she shall appointe. And cmongst 
other co;/*municaabn the said Philip shall of him self wishe 
as it were vpon an affection entred into his oune breast, both 
vpon my Lordrj reaportrj of her vertues and good qualities 
noted to be in her and by his oune view and experience of 
the same, that it might please the king^j Ma*>.rtie being now 
w/t//out a wief taduaunce her to the honor of a Queene of Eng- 
land. And he shall well note her Aunsweres, her gesture and 
couwtenanc(e) w/'t/* her inclinaczon, that he may at his re- 
tourne declare the same to the k'mges Ma*>jtie. And beinge her 
picture once taken, he shall take his leaue of the said Dutchesse 
and retourn with Hanns in his co/wpanie accordingly. 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 



122 LETTERS OF [1538 

III. 

A speech written for Hoby to make to the Duchess on his arrival. 
The woordrj of the said Philip Hoby to the Dutchcsse. 

I doubt not but both by the mouth of the Ladic Regent and 
by the Relac/on of the kingfs Maitstfs Ambassadowr here 
resident, you know the cause of my cowminge and the grounde 
wherupon it proceadeth, with my "Lordes inclinac/on to the 
aduauncement of the same, vpon the constant fame which he 
hath heard of yowr graces vertue, wisdome and most laudable 
qualities. And with this good inclinac/on of the Lord my 
master, his pleaser is to addresse me hither to visite and to 
salute yowr grace in his behalf and to require of yowr grace 
that for the ministring to my Lorde of a further occasion and 
to satisfie Thambassadors, It may please you at my Lordu 
poore desire to sit so longe at sowme such time as shall please 
you to appoint, that a seruaunt of the king highnes being 
come hither for that pourpose may take yowr phisionomie. 
This is my Lord^r entent for aduancement of yowr noble 
honor. 

For the great good reaport/j of my Lord of yowr vertues 
and goodly qualities and by mine oune view and experience 
of the same, considering the kingtt Ma/Vrtic is widowar and 
w/'t//out a wief, wold to god it wolde please his ma/Vrtie to 
aduaunce yowr grace to the honowr of Queene of England, 
considering yowr vertuous qualities are a great dcale more 
in dccde then cucr was notified and for a great confirmac/on 
of amitie and loue to continew betwcne Themperors Ma/Vjtie 
and the kingrj highnes. 

244. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. HarL MSS. 282, f. I78 1 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 387. March I (1538). 

Informs him that the French have signified their willingness to submit 
to Henry's arbitration, in their dispute with the Emperor. Wyatt is 
to urge Charles, in every possible way, to do the same. 

Mr. Wiat after my hartie commendations this shalbe 
tadvertise you that this prcstnt day being the last of February 

1 ThisletterfB. M. HarLMSS.aSa, Thus Farfe] ye hartely wel From 

ff. 1 78-8 1) is the contemporary deci- Hamptoncowte the First day of 

pher of the cipher letter (B. M. Marc he 

Harl. MSS. ff. 175-7 and 182). At YoJ , r j Frecnd 
the bottom of the cipher letter, on 

folio 182, the following sentences THOMAS CRUMWELL 

are written : Add. To myn Assurid Loving 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 123 

arrived here at the court the bisshop of tarbez being addressed 
to the king Maiestie from the Frenche King who bringing 
wit/t him a cow/mission to entreate and conclude vppon a cow- 
firmaobn of al Amities betwene the;;/ wzt// an addic/on of all 
suche things as on eyther parte might be divised further 
to or eyther of their commodities made playne and 

certeyn overture that whither the k'mgcs Majesty wold enter 
any suche capitulaobn or no in cace it shuld be his pleaswr^ 
to take it vpon him he shuld for the French kingrj parte 
haue the hole and entier manyeng of the Peax betwen him 
and Themper0r and further he offerd on the French king^j 
behaulf that he shuld never take peax -with themp^-rowr 
but the king^j Majesty shuld therin be a principall contra- 
hent and also in the matier of counseil and a[ll] other 
things that, the king shuld finde the french king so assured 
and confowrmable towards him as he shuldhaue cause to 
accept him for his good brother and most entier frende, to 
this the king answer(ed) that there word^j were many tymes 
so qualified that it appered hard to him to give any grete 
credite w/t//out further prouf vnto them nevertheles for that 
that 1 p<zrte whiche shewed an effecc/on in the said french 
king the king gave vnto him his condigne thanks declaring 
how muche his hieghnes desired the succeding of suche 
vniversel peax as might redound to the quiet of all z christen- 
dome and how ernestly his grace hath travailed vpon that 
zele only to obteyne the mediaabn of it not doughting but in 
cace he wold stijce to that overture his good brother them- 
perour who hath shewed therin alredy good inclinaa'on wold 
right gladly do the semblable and as touching the ioyning of 
his grace as a principal contrahent to his Majesty told him 
that he was assured so to be by the saide Empmw/rs meanes 
though the french king wold say nay vnto it, albeit his over- 
ture therin and in the rest carieng \\ith it a frendly visage 
was suche as he wold not but take in good parte and give 
vnto him thankes also for it, as thanks be given for frendly 
v/ordes which kepe their place as Jong as they shalbe not 
denied by contrary effects. To this they replied that for the 
french kinges part they could affirme that as his overtures 
preceded from a most frendly harte so his dedes shuld 3 
moost certenly approve and confirme the same, but as for 
Themperour they sayde they could affirme also vpon their 

Freende Sir Thomas Wiat Knight the same by my lord off Winches- 

the King Ambassadoi/r in Spayn ters servant in barsolona 

Endd, My lord prr'vi sele of the * sic. * c. 0. the 

first off Marche rec[eived] the xi of ' c. 0. make 



124 LETTERS OF [1538 

certeyn knowlcage that what wordfs soever he had vttcrd or 
cny for him he never minded to ioyne the king as a primier 
contrahent ne wold in any wise agre that the king shuld haue 
in his hand the mainiengof the peax bctwcne them whcrunto 
I l assure you the king made frendly answer for thcmprrowrs 
honowr trouth and assurednes to the obsiruac/bn of his worde 
and in the debating of his most hartic love towards them- 
pfrour, so that our Ambassadours from the frenche king be 
retired to London w*t//out doing of any thing or thcr reccyving 
of any other answer, and forasmuch as I do pmreyve tJtat 
they woll offer wonders to stey the king from themp^rowr 
albeit I am in most assured hope that they shall therin faile 
in their purpos notwithstanding his grace wold I thinke labor 
to make some good ende betwen them and therfor the good 
of chrw/endom and the better chastesing of the cowmon 
enemye of the same, yet I thought good to advertise you 
therin thai you may at your oportunitie declare the same to 
themp[eror] and to his counseil for the good acceleraabn of his 
determinate answers to the thingrj put in overture betwen 
them and specially you must travail that seing the frenche 
king hath ofierde this mediae/on of peax to the king Them- 
prrowr semyng to haue lesse confidence in his grace thenne 
they show themselfor to have and likewise it shalbe wel done 
that you shal most ernestly induce thempm)//r to the writing 
of the \tfttres wherin he shal affirme his pranesses both 
touching the ioyning of the king as a primier contrahent and 
touching the consenting to nothing in the counsel though it 
shuld take effecte that to the 2 his grace or to his realme may 
be in any wise prejudicial trusting also that for the. steye of 
his consent to the place wherunto the saide counsel is indicted 
and concerning all the rest of the things whereof mencion is 
made in the \ftttres sent vnto you by Reede his majesty 
woll vse that loving conformitie that may bring al maticrs 
now well entred into a iust perfection if any lacke shuld be 
must 1 spring on that p^rte which I being a poore minister to 
my Master and bering an honest herte towards the coniouncion 
of him and themprrowr togeder wold be loth and sory to se 
it, and therfor Mr. Wiat now is the tyme for him to take 
his tyme and for you to play your partc of a good serurtwnt 
I mistruste ncythcr the loving mind and wisdome of thonc ne 
the honest zcle and desire of thother that all things may 
frame to the honowr of both prince and consequently to 
the benefitt of all christcndomc, hartely desiring you to 
vse your dexteritie and to accelerate suche certeyne and 

1 e. o. asked him * j&. 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 125 



resolute answer in all things as may be to the 
satisfacc/on. 

Mr. Wiat now handle this matier in suche ernest sorte \vttft 
themp^rowr as the king who by your faire wordes hath con- 
ceyved a certen to finde 1 assured frendeship ther be not 
deceyved the frenchemen affirme so, constantly and boldly 
that none thing spoken by themperour eyther touching the 
principall contrahent the counsel or further alliaunce hath in 
the same any maner of good faith but suche fraude and deceyte 
that the king had gathered a certayn confidence in them- 
perours hono//r and trust he 1 vpon your \etteres and the relac/bn 
of Mr. dudley I assure you on my faith it wold make any 
man to suspect his preceding they say and depcly swere that 
the peax resteth in their hand and arbitre and therfor If 
thempmDwr shuld in any wise conclude w*1A them before he 
shuld go through wtt/t his matters here ye though might haue l 
them to take peace -with suche condicions as he himself wold 
appoint vnto after he wold offer as moche or more to the 

king thenne he hath don or is now desired of him, I thinke 
certaynly it could not he : wz't// all that which wold now be en- 
gendred by suche agrement but I neyther feere his honowr in 
his promes ne his wisdom for his bargayne that may now be 
made if he woll now folow it and firmely ioyne himself wtt/t 
this manage partie, and if there shuld be any difficultie vpon 
the point of the mediac/on by reason of the shortnes of the 
tyme of the treux . you may declare how the frenche men 
show themselfc? so ernest to put al in the king^r hand that 
they offer vpon any significaobn that themp^rowr woll make 
thoughe it were but to his Ambassadowr there to condescende 
to the same, they woll straict resolue and agre vpon the pro- 
traction of the treux for so long a tyme as the king shall 
thinke mete and wol determyn. Wherfor if that point be 
desired vpon advertisement of themp^rowrs mynde therin 
eyther it shal be obteyned or e\\es the frenchemen shal starte 
from that whiche so absolutely they haue offered evin to the 
kinges owne prrsonne. 

Labo//r now Mr. Wiat to cause them pcrour if it be possible 
to write it the Frenche king that he is content to cowmitt 
this mediaoon to the king*-.? hande to offer therfor a longer 
treux for the frenchmen say they will make the king se them- 
perours craftie dealing and discifre him and by this meane 
their owne craft if it be falls that t/tei say as I thinke surely 
it is shalbe torned into their owne neck^j Thus fare ye hertely 
well At hamptoncourt the first of Marche 

1 sic. 



126 LETTERS OF [1538 

245. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Lisle Papers, ii. 127 ; not in Cal. Mar. 20 (1538). 

Requests him to let the bearer, George Rous, pass out of the realm, 
with one servant, two horses, and 420 in money. 

After my right harty commendation vnto your good lord- 
ship thiese be to adurrtise you that the kingrj pleasure ys 
that my s^rumint George Rows berer herof shall passe out 
of this Realme into the parties of beyond the See for his 
affayres and busynes ther to be done. Withe one s^rurtunt 
and two horses or geldyngrj twenty pounds in money and 
other his laufull cariage and utensiles. And w/t^out any 
vnlawfull serche let or ympedyment, Wherfore I require you 
to cause that he may so passe without any disturbaunce 
accordyng to the kyngrr pleasure in that behalf. Thus the 
blessed Trenyte presume yowr good lordship. At the Court 
the XX th day of Marche. 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray good lorde the Vicount lisle the 
Kingr-r depute at Calays 

246. CROMWELL TO SIR ROGER TOWNSEND AND 
SIR JOHN HEYDON. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 6oi. Mar. 26, 1538. 

They are to examine and settle the complaints of Robert Burbeck against 
Robert Townsend. Cf. Letter 267. 

After my right hartye cowmendac/ons Whereas complainte 
is made to the king and his most honorable counseil by 
Robert Burbek of greate Riboroughe in the Countye of 
Norffo/ that where the saide Robert Burbek had in Ferme 
by lease the terme thereof not expired a Certayne grounde 
called Sennowe oon* Robert Touneshend Esquire hathe not 
onely dispossed him of the same, But also wyth holdcthe 
from him the some of viii li. awarded by arbitrament 
indifferently elected and chosen, and Furthermore hathe 
procured one William Androwe of greate Riborough afore- 
said to send his two sonnes to lye in wayte for the same 
Burbek beside that the saide Touneshende hathe by thex- 
tremytie and rigowr of the lawe and calumpniac/bn molested 
the saide Burbek to his greate losse damage and vttcr 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 127 

vndoing, Oneles his Maiestie shuld prouyde him some gra- 
cyous remedy. And Forasmuche as there seamethe grete 
Simplicite and Feare in the saide complaintyve and muche 
force rigour and crafte in the saide Touneshend and Androwe 
The kingr.r hieghnes pleaswr and cowmaundemewt is that you 
shall Furthwzt// call all the saide p^rsonnes before you and 
so to examyn the hoole matyer groundely and substancyally 
and thereuppon gyue your fynall order and directyon ac- 
cording to right equite and Justice So that the same Burbek 
haue no cause eftsones to molest his hieghnes w*t// any suche 
Lyke sutes. But that he may haue Free accesse and recesse 
from tyme to tyme w/t^out any Lett p^rturbaunce or 
molestac/on of them or any of them Not Failing hereof as 
his grace trustethe you And thus fare ye hertely well. From 
St. James the xxvi th of Marche the xxix th yere of his Maiesties 
most noble Reigne. 

"Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my frendrj Sir Roger Towneshend & Sir Johon 
Heiydywg knyghtoy and to eu^ry of theme. 



247. (CROMWELL) TO THE PRIOR OR ABBOT <OF ). 

R. O. CaL xiii. (i) 638. Mar. (1538). 

Begs him to confirm the transfer of an annuity of 405. from Dr. Bonner to 
Thomas Shirley. 

My lorde in my hfrtie man^r I cowmend me vnto you. 
And wher(as) it is so that doctowr Boner my louyng frend 
hauyng an awnuyte of xl sh. by the yere of you during his 
1 iff is contented for my sake that Thomas Sherle late viith 
hym & now at this tyme in my s^ruice shall haue & enioye 
the same soo that ye & your brother will graunt therto. 
I shall desir & pray you hertelie to ferther the thing to the 
best of your power & induce your brother vnto the same, 
granteing therapon vnto my said seruaunt your couet 
scale during his liff, in as good & fauowrable manrr as ye 
can. And to certifie me by this beyrer of your coformitie 
& doyng herein to thetet I may giffe yow thanks accord- 
inglie as gladlie I shall doo. And thus fare ye well. From 
saynt James besides Westminster the day of Marche. 

Endd. The copy of a 



128 LETTERS OF [1538 

248. (CROMWELL) TO THE (BISHOP OF SALISBURY). 

B. M. Cleop. E. iv, f. 8 1 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 572. (Mar. 1538.) 

Rebukes the Bishop for his complaints and taunts. Denies that he has 
acted in an unfriendly or partial spirit. 

My lord after hartie cowmewdations, I cannot but both 
moch marueil that yow, whom I haue taken to be myn 
crnest frend, sholde Judge me, as I may jvrceyue by yowr 
letters yow do, and also be glad, that ye so frankely vtter 
yowr stomachc to me. I wold thanke yow for yowr plain 
wrytinge, and fre monitions, sauyng that, yow seme fuller of 
suspicion, then it becuwmith, as I thinke, a prelate of yowr 
sorte to be, and, to say, that maketh me more sorye, moch 
worse prrswaded of me, then I thowght, any of yowr lernyng 
and judgement cold haue ben. I toke a matter owte of your 
handrj into myne, yf vpon consyderacions, myn office bynde 
me to do so, what cause haue ye to complain ? If I had don 
thys, either vpon affection, or intendinge preiudice to yowr 
estimacion, yow myght haue expostulated \\-i\Jt me, and yet 
if ye then had don it, after a jentler sorte, I shold both soner 
haue amended, that I dyd amisse, and also haue had better 
cause to Judge yowr wrytinge to CUM of a frendly harte 
towards me. If ye be offended wit/* my sharpe letters, how 
caw yowr testie word^r, I had almost gyuen them another 
name, delite me? I required yow to vse no extremitie in 
yowr office, durus est sic sermo, ye tosse it, and when ye 
haue dowr, ye beginne agcin, euen as thowghe, all beinge 
sayd, all were still behinde. Yf yow haue vsed no extremitie 
I am, I insure yow, as glad of it as I owght to be. And 
thowghe yow do not, yet vpon a cowplaintc myn office 
bjv/deth me to succor hy/n, that saith he is ou^rmacched and 
is compelled to sustein wronge. I was thus informed, and 
by persons, to whom I gaue more credite then I intend to do 
hereafter, if they haue abused me, as yow wold make me 
belcuc they haue. They thus complaywing, cold I do any 
lesse, then grauwte vnto them, suche remedic as the king?* 
hyghenes and hys lawes gyue indifferently to all hys subiecter? 
Myght I not also sow what gather, that ye preceded the sorer 
ayenste The Reder, Roger London, when I had seen, how 
moch yow desired the preferment of yowr scruant to that 
Rowme ? My lord, yow had shewed yowrselfe, of moch more 
paciewcc. I woll not say of moch more prudencye, if ye had 
contented yowrselfe \\t\A their lauful appcale and my lauful 
injunctions, and rather haue sowght fully to instructe me in 
the maticr, then thus to desire to conquer me by shrowde 
wordrj, to vanquishe me by sharpe thrcprj of scripture, 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 129 

whyche as I knowe to be trewe, so I truste to God, as greate 
a clerke as ye be, ye allege them owt of their place. It 
becu/wmith me not, neyther yet I am wonte, to vante myselfe, 
of well doinge, I knowe who worketh all that is well wrowght 
by me, and wheras he is the hole doer, I intend not to offre 
hym thys wronge, he to labor, and I to take the thanks Yet 
as I do not cease to gyue thanks, that it hathe pleased hys 
goodnes to vse me, as an instrument and to worke sowwhat 
by me, so I truste, I am as ready to serue hy; in my calling 
to my litel power, as ye ar preste, to wryght worse of me 
then ye owght to thinke. My prayer is, that God gyue me 
no longer lyfe, then I shall be gladde to vse myn office in 
edificatione, and not in destructione, as ye beare me in hand 
I do. God, ye say, woll Judge such vsing of authorite, 
meanywg flattely, that I do abuse such power, as hath 
pleased God and the King hyghenes to setle me in. God, 
I say, woll Judge such Judges as ye ar, and charme also such 
thowghtfj as ye misvse. Ye do not so well as I wold yow 
shold do, if ye so thinke of me, as your letters make me 
thinke ye do. The crime that ye charge me witAall, is 
greater, then I may or owght to beare, vntrewer.I truste, 
then they that wold faynest, shalbe able to proue. It is 
a strange thinge yow say, that I neyther wold wryght, nor 
send yow word by mouthe, what ye shold do, w*t// the 
popisshe mowke of Abington, and that thabbot of Rcdinge 
cold gette strayghtway my letters to inhibite yo//r Juste 
doinge. I wisse, that was not my mynd whew I wrote. 
I dyd not intende to lette your iuste doinge, but rather to 
require yow to do iustely, neither I was swyfte in grautyng 
my letters to hym, albeit I am moch redier to helpe hym, 
that cowplaynith of wronge, then preste to fyrder on, that 
desireth punishemewt of a person whom I am not sure, hath 
offended. I made yow no awswer, a strange thinge. I wisse, 
my lord, I thowght ye had better knowen, my businesses, 
then for such a matier, to estime me not your frende. Yow 
myght haue better Judged, that I was to moch cumbred witA 
other affares that those whych sued for thabbot cold better 
espie ther tyme, then yours colde. Som ma woll thinke, 
ye rather vtter displeasur conceyued before, then that ye 
haue any vrgent occasion here to misiudge my mywd towards 
yow. As cowcernywg your mayer, yow muste vse your 
priuileges, as things lent vnto yow, so longe, as ye shall 
occupie them well, that is, accordinge to the myde and 
pleasur of them, that gaue yow them. 

I toke neyther the monkes cause, nor any other into my 
to be a bearer of any such, whom ther vpryght 

MERRIMAN. II K . 



130 LETTERS OF [1538 

dealinge is not able to beare. No, you knowc, I thinke, that 
I louc such readers of Scripture as litel as ye do. Wold God 
men of your sorte were as diligent to see, that in all their 
dioceses, good men were made, as I am glad to remoue ! 
theuyl when I knowe them. Yf yow had taken euen then but 
halfc the pain to send vp such things ayenste hyw, as yow 
now send, neither yow shold haue had cause, no nor occasion, 
thus rasshely to deuine of my good or euyl will toward yow. 
nor I haue be cuwbred w/'tA thys answer. My lord, I pray 
yow, whyle I am your frend, take me to be so, for if I were 
not, or if I knewe any cause, why I owght not, as I wold 
not be afrayd to showe yow, what had alienated my myd 
from yow, so yow shold well pmreyue, that my displeasur 
shold last no lenger, then ther were cause. I passe ourr, your 
Nemo leditur, nisi a seipso. I pray w/tA yow thys firste 
parte 2 , our Lord haue pitie vpon me. Thother parte is not 
in my prayers, that god shold torn my harte. For he is my 
Judge. I may erre in my doings for wante of knowlege, 
I willingly beare no misdoers. I willingly hurte none, whom 
honestie and the klnges lawes do not refuse. Vndo not yow 
yowrselfe, I entende nothinge lesse, the// to worke yow any 
displeasure. If hetherto, I haue showed yow any pleasure, 
I am glad of it, I showed it to your qualities and not to yow. 
Yf they tarry wit/t yow, my good will cawnot departe frow 
yow excepte yowr prayer be herd, that is my harte be torned. 
I assure yow I am ryght glad ye ar in the place ye ar in, 
and woll do, what shall lie in me to ayde yow in yowr office, 
to maintein your reputation, to gyue yow credite amongtt 
your flocke, and els wher, as longe as I shall see yow desircful 
to do your dewtie accordinge to yowr call. I woll not becuw 
your good Lord, as yowr good Lord, as yowr desire is, I am 
& haue be yowr frend and take yow to be myne. Cast owte 
vain suspition, Let rasshe Judgement rule men of lesse witte 
& discretion. Wilfulnes becuwmith all men better then 
a bisshop, whych shold alwayes teach vs to lacke gladly 
our own will. Bycause yow may not haue yowr own will 
here is, Dvtninus pauprrcw facit & ditat, & Dotninus dedit & 
Dominus abstulit. to what purpose ? Sit nomc// D<>;;/mi brni- 
dictuw ca neurr lacke hys place, it cuwmith alwayes in 
season ; or els as greate a diuine as ye ar, I wold say, it were 
not euy the best placed here, excepte yow me/it better yow 
had rather lose all, the// any parte of yowr will I pray yow 
teach pacicwcc better, in your deads*, or els spcke as litel of 
it as ye caw. My lord yow myght haue prouoked sow other 
in my place, that wold haue vsed lesse pacicwcc w/t// yow, 

1 f. a. disaprouc * . o. God haue 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 131 

finding so litel in yow. But I caw take your wrytinge, and 
thys heate of your stomache, euy as well as I caw, I truste 
beware of flaterers. As for thabbot of Readinge, & hys 
mowke, if I fynd them as ye say they ar, I woll ordre them 
as I shall thinke good. Ye shall do well to do your duetie, 
if yow so do, ye haue no cause to mistruste my frendshyp. 
Yf ye do not, I must tell it yow and that somwhat after the 
playnist sorte. To take a cowtrourrsie owt of yo//r hand 
into myne, I do but my office, yow medle farder then youres 
woll beare yow, thus ruffely to handle me for vsinge of myne. 
Yf ye do so no more, I let passe, all that is past, and offer 
yow such kywdnes, as ye shall lawfully desire at my hand^j. 
Thus fare ye woll. 

Endd. l The mynute of a \ettc\o. drawn by Mr. Moryson 
to thabbot of Glastonbury 



249. (CROMWELL) TO THE (ABBOT OF ). 

B. M. Cleop. E. iv, f. 86 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 573. (Mar. 1538.) 

Assures him that the King has no intention of suppressing any monastery 
unless the inmates desire it of their own accord, or else act contrary 
to their allegiance. 

After my hertie cowmendacions. Albeit I doubte not but 
hauyng not long sithens receyued the kinges highnes \ettcrcs 
wherein his maiestie signified vnto you, that vsing your selffes 
Like his good and faithefull Subiectes his grace wolde not in 
any wise interrupte you in your state and kinde of lyving. 
And that his pleasure therfore was in case any man shuld 
declare anything to the contrary, you shuld cause hym to be 
apprehended and kept in sure custodie, till further knolege 
of his graces pleasure, you wold so firmely repose yourselff 
in the tenour of the seid \etterts as no mans wordes ne any 
voluntary surrewder made by any governor and Company of 
any Religious house sithens that tyme shall put you in any 
dowte or feare of Suppression or change of your kinde of lyff 
and polycie, Yet the most excellent wisdom of his maiestie 
knoyng as well that of thone side feare mey entre apon 
a cowtrarye apparance, where the grounde and Originall is not 
knowen, As on thoder side, that in suche cases there cawnot 
wat some malicious and cancred hartes that vppon a volun- 
tarye and franke surrender wolde p^rswade and blowe abrode 

1 This endorsement is inaccurate. draft of a circular addressed to the 
It may possibly refer to the next heads of the Eastern monasteries, 
letter (Cal. no. 573), though it seems See Cal. xiii. (i) 211 n. 
more probable that the latter is the 

K 2 



132 LETTERS OF [1538 

a genrrall and a violent Suppression, to thintcwt you shuld 
savely adhere to the Sentence of the seid \ftteres by his 
highness alredy addressed vnto you, And like good SubiectAT 
insuc the pwrporte of the same in thapprehencion and 
detenc/on of all suche ptrsones as wold brute or instill the 
cowtrarye, Whereas crrteyn Govcrnours and Companies of 
a few Religious houses haue lately made fre and voluntary 
surrendres, into his gracrj hanckr, his graces highnes hathe 
commanded me for your reposes, quyetes, and for the causes 
specified on his graces behalff to aduertise you that onlesse 
there had ben ofertures made by the seid howses that haue 
resigned, his grace wolde neuer haue receyued the same And 
that his maiestie entendeth not in any wise to trouble you 
or to devise for the Suppression of any Religious howse that 
standeth Except thei shall either desire of themselffes wit/* 
one hoole consent to resiste and forsake the same ; Orelles 
mysuse themselffes cotrarye to their allegiance In wiche case 
Thei shall desrrue the losse of moche more then thei re howses 
and possessions, that is the lossc also of their lyves. Wher- 
fore in this you mey repose yourselff gyvyng yourselff to 
serue god devoutly, to lyve lyke true and faithfull Subjects 
to his maiestie, And to prmiide honestly for the sustentac/on 
of your houses, And the Releving of poore people wit/* the 
hospitalitie of the same \v/t/*out co//su;//pciow and wilful wast 
and spoyle of things that hathe ben Lately made in many 
abbeis as though the Govmiers of them mynded only their 
dissolucion, you mey be sure that you shall not be impechcd 
by his maiestie but that his grace wol be your Sheldc or 
defence ageinst all others that wold mynystre vnto you any 
Iniurie or displeasure. And if any ma of what degre socu<*r 
he be shall pronounce anything to the cowtrarye hereof, faile 
you not either to apprehend hym yf you shalbe able, or if 
he be suche a personage as you shall not dare medle w/'th 
to wrvtc to his maicstie(s) highnes their name or names. 
And Report that he or thei so lewdly Bchavyng themselffes 
mey be puwnysshed for the same as shall apperteyne. 

260. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 189; Cal. xiii. (i) 671. Apr. 4 (1538). 

Reports the conference of the Imperial ambassadors with the commis- 
sioners appointed to consult with them. There were never so many 
gay words to so little effect. 

Maister Wiat Aftre my right harty commendac/bns By 
this berer you shall receyvc the kinges highnes If/tfrcs by 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 133 

the contynue wherof you shall prrceyve soo largely what 
hathe been doon here that I shall not nede to make any 
repetiabn of the same, only I thought mete to signifie vnto 
you that if thise men here wold haue com to any pece of 
reason they might prrcace haue doon themselfcr more good 
thenne they haue doon There were appointed as commis- 
sioners to cowmen witA them, my lord of Canterbury, my 
lord Chauncelowr my lord of SufiW, meself, my lord Admyral 
the bisshops of hereforde and chichestre and Maister Russel 
nowe Comptroller, all thise prrsonnes had conference \vitA 
them at curry meating And in the cow/mission was also 
my lord of NornW and the bisshop of Duresme, but they 
were absent, by this you may see they were not slenderly 
estemed, and sure I am and dare boldly affirme it, I neuer 
harde soo many gaye wordes, and sawe soo litle effecte 
ensue of the same sithens I was borne befor this tyme, but 
by this I maye wel see that there is skant any good faithe 
in this world. The kinges Ma^jte dothe moche mrrvail 
that you sende your \etteres open to my lorde of Winchestre, 
for Albeit his grace dothe not mistrust him, yet he noteth 
some foly in you to doo it w/t^out his expresse cowmaunde- 
ment, and willed me taduertise youe that you shal in no 
wise vse it heraftre, if he woll breake them he may doo it 
at his prril, but nowe the faulte is in you. whiche neurrthe- 
less for that whiche is past is pardoned. By the next 
messangers Doctowr haynes deane of Excestre and docto//r 
Boner Archedeacon of leicestre you shall here of the signa- 
ture of your bill for Augmentaobn of dietter Thus in the 
meane season Fare you hartely well From St. James the 
iiij th of April. 

Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very loving Freende Maister Wiat the kingly 
Ambassadowr vtit/t Themp^rowr. 

Endd. My lord pr/vi sele of the v of Aprill by francisco 
the xij of the same at barsolona 

251. CROMWELL TO LORD COBHAM. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 283, f. 204; Cal. xiii. (i) 680. Apr. 5 (1538). 

The King has appointed him to sit upon the trial of Knell, accused of 
treason. 

After my right herty recowmendac/ons to yowr lordship, 
forasmoche as the kingrj maiestye hathe appointed you 



134 LETTERS OF [1538 

among other by his Commission of Oyer and determyn/r, to 
sit vpon the tryall of knell being accused of Treason, his 
pleasi/r was, that I shuld signifye his maiesties desire to be 
that herkynnyng to my lord of Wiltshire, who is the Chief 
Cowmissiorvr in the said Comission, you shall give yowr 
attendance for that pi/rpose, And to handle the mater for 
yowr p<?rte, with suche a dexterite as the offendowr may be 
punished according to Justice. Thus fare you hertcly well. 
From Saint James the V th day of Aprill. 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
Add. To my veray good lord, my lord Cobham. 

252. CROMWELL TO <LORD HUNGERFORD) ! . 

Longford Castle MSS. ; not in Cal. April 7 (1538). 

Desires him to examine William Irish and others, and to report to 
Cromwell. 

Thies shalbe to advertise you that havyng received your 
lettres of the 27* of Marche I declared the same unto the 
Kinges Highnes who takes the same very thankefully & in 
good parte. Willing and desiring you further to examyne 
as well the same William Yrishe as all others that were 
present att the spekyng of the wordes by you in yowr sayd 
lettres mencioned. Upon what grounde or occasion, to what 
intent and effect what moved hym thcrunto what tyme & 
place & under what maner and affect he spake those wordes, 
with as moche diligence and maturitie as ye maye. And 
that doon to ccrtific me of your said examinacion with spede 
whcrupon ye shalbe further adcertayned of the kinges High- 
nes pleasure howe the said person shalbe further ordered in 
that behalf, praying you in the mcanc tyme to see the same 
kept in sure warde accordingly. S 1 James beside Westminster 
7 April 

Signed. 

253. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. HarL MSS. 282, f. 193 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 710. Apr. 8 (1538). 

Has obtained an increase of his diets. His friends at Court have been 
very slack. Advises him to ' quycken them ' with his letters. 

Maister Wiat aftre myn harty cowmendac/bns bicause you 
shal psrceyve by thinstructions nowe made to thise bercrs 

1 From the official Record Office transcript. 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 135 

and by their relac/on the hole discours of all matier of Impor- 
tance touching the k'mges Ma/Vjte, I shall not be tedious 
herin wit/* any repetic/bn of the same, only by thise you shal 
knowe that according to my promise I haue obteyned yor 
warrant for thaugmentaabn of your dictifs a nvrke by the 
daye, soo that nowe you haue a daily allowance of liiijs. iiijd. 
whiche oodde shilling above foure mrrkes is also converted to 
Mr. Mason. \our Agents here if you haue any be very 
slack to call vppon any man for you. your brother hawte 
was not thries here sithens you went, and the rest I here 
nothing of onles it be whenne nothing is to be doon. I neuer 
sawe man that had soo many Freendes here, leave soo fewe 
p^rfite freend^r behinde him. Quycken them wit/* your 
letfcres and in the meane season as I haue been soo shall I be 
bothe your Freende and your sollicitowr Thus Fare you 
hartely well From St. James the viij" 1 of April 

Herwit/* you shal receyve a lettere from Maister pate to 
Brancetowr. I pray you delyuer it and sollicite thanswer to 
the same, if Brancetowr woll com home you may tel him 
I doubt not but he shal fynde the k'mges highnes his good 
and gracious lorde. And I shall not fayle to take suche 
ordre wit// his creditors as he shalbe in quiet and out of all 
daunger. 

"Your louyng assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To myw assured loving Frende Sir Thomas Wyatt 
knyght the king^j Ambassador resident with Themp^rowr. 

Endd. My lord pr*Vi sele of the v of Apryll by Mr. haines 
and Mr. bonar at nyce the x of may. 

254. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 810. Apr. 20 (1538). 

Has received his letters. Discusses the report of the priest. Has sent 
money to Calais. 

After my right herty and most aflectuouse Commedations 
to your Lordship, the same shal undrstand that I have 
receyved your k/teres of the xv of this present month and 
also perused the Report of a preste therin conteyned for the 
whiche I geve vnto your Lordship most herty thanks. The 
newes be good but oone doubte is in it whither they be true 
or no. If they be true then it is Like that prince who shuld 
so answer is an unfayned frynd to the kinges ma&rte. If they 



136 LETTERS OF [1538 

be vntruc or cllfs they be fayncd by the gentilma* that 
reported them at his bowrde or elk* by the preste self It is 
harde to Juge. I have caused money to be sent thither I 
think it be arryved then- by this. If not I woll not faile upon 
adurrtisemewt thereof by you to be geven to cause them that 
haue the conveyaunce thereof to make mor* celerite. ' Thus 
Fare ye right hertely well. From London this XX th of 
Aprill 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good Lord the Visconte Lisle Lord 
deputie of the icings Town and marches of Calais. 



255. CROMWELL TO GARDINER. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 291 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 832. Apr. 24, 1538. 
Desires that the matter in dispute between them be forgotten. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendacibns to yowr lordshippe 
Bicause the repeticibn of suche contencyous matier as ha the 
been writcn betwene vs shuld be but displeasant and noysome 
to bothe parties, I shall laye the same aparte, and for an 
entre to owr former fac/ons of writing, only adurrtise youe 
that howesoeuer you haue taken me, I haue shewed myself 
yor frecnde whenne the tyme and occasion ha the s/rued, and 
haue not writen more at any season vnto you in any matier 
thenne the kinges highnes hathe befor the sending of it furthe 
perused, And therfor I thought meself the more touched, that 
for my gentlenes I shuld receyve suche vnkinde answers. 
But as I haue nowe given place to yo//r courage, soo I shall 
put those maticrs in obliuion that haue thus passed bctwcne 
vs And soo Fare you hartely well From Stepncye the xxiiij iu 
of April at night. 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray good lord my lord of Winchestre the 
Vyngfs Ambassadowr in the Court of France 

Endd. From Stepney the xxiiij th of April 30 &*' Rsgis 
The lorde privie seal 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 137 

256. CROMWELL TO < ROLAND LEE, BISHOP OF 
COVENTRY AND LICHFIELD). 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 765. (Apr. 1538.) 

Desires Lee to send him an advowson for the assignment of a prebend in 
the church of Lichfield, for a friend of his nephew Richard Cromwell. 

After my right hertie commendac/ons vnto your Lordship 
Forasmoche as my nepvoye Richard Crumwell is moche 
desirous to haue the disposicion and assig;/me;/t of a pr^bende 
in your churche of Lichefeld to preferre a right honest man, 
and a nere frende of his thervnto And for thaccomplishcmcwt 
thereof hathe heretofore sent vnto you an advoyson all redye 
wryten to haue the prrsentac/bn and title of preferment of 
one of thre named in the said voyson whiche first shall chance 
to be com*' vacant there Thiese shalbe to desire and most 
hertelie praye your Lordshipp to tendre my said nepvoyes 
suet And to send vnto him by this bearer l the said advouson 
signed and sealed aswell vnder your scale as the chapiter 
scale of the said churche accordinglie. Wherein your so doyng 
ye shall administer vnto me suche thakfull pleasowr as I shall 
not faile to haue the same in remembrance when occasion shall 
occurr. Further desiring your Lordshipp to adurrtise me by 
your letteres of your good conformetie herein. Thus most 
hertelie Fare your lordship (well) 

Endd. Thabbot of Kyllingworthe 

257. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 200; Cal. xiii. (i) 916. May 4 (1538). 

He will receive by the bearer instructions how to proceed as regards the 
overture made by Francis. The King is displeased at his slowness in 
giving information. 

After my right hartie cowmendac/ons by this berer you 
shall Receyue the kinges hieghnes let feres signifying an ouer- 
ture made vnto his Maiestie by the Frenche King w/th an 
Instrucczbn howe you shall vse and behaue yourselfor in the 
same whiche I doubt not you woll duely waye and consider 
And so precede therein whether it be proponed according to 
the diuise or obiected vnto you, as his Majesties honowr may 
be preserued and his cow/moditie therewith wrought to his 
graces satisfactyon. Moche his Maiestie dothe m^rvil that 
you Maister Wiat is not more spedye in your aduertise- 
menies considering the tyme and thimportaunce of affaires 

1 In the margin : Aste 



138 LETTERS OF [1538 

no we in treatie amongtt chrir/ien prince, It shal be good 
that you rcdubbc that negligence Thus Fare ye hcrtely wel 
from St James beside Westminster the iiii th day of Maye 

Yor louyng assuryd freind 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To myn Assured loving Freendes sir Thomas Wiat 
knight Mr. doctowr Haynes and Mr. doctowr Boner the 
King Oratowrs v/itA Themprrowr 



258. CROMWELL TO GARDINER, BRIAN, AND THIRLEBY. 

B. M. Add. MSS. 25,114, f. 302 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 918. May 4, 1538. 

As the King distrusts the French ambassador, who has offered to take his 
letters to Gardiner, he sends them by Gardiner's servant. 

After my right herty commendations vnto you Thies shal 
be to aduertise you that wheras the Frenshe ambassado//r did 
very gentilly offre to have conveyed the king highnes \ftteres 
to you by his Currour, which he intendeth to despeche at 
this tyme, the saide offre being so gentilly and after suche 
a kyndc fashon made could not be refused w/'t//oute significa- 
c/on of som maner of diffidence or mistrust yet neverthcles 
the kinges Ma/Vjte connsydering it to be expedient for sundry 
causes that ye shuld have Indilayed knowlege of all things 
and that prrchaunce by the negligence of the ministrcs or 
otherwise the dcliurawce of his gracrj lettetcs myght be, If 
they shuld be conveyed by the said Ambassado//rs poste 
retarded. Thinking it expedient that ye may have them 
afore, hath appoincted the said Iftteres to be conveyed by 
Muryell srruaunt to you my lorde of Wynchestre, And for 
satisfaction and contentment of the said Ambassadowr and 
lest he shuld conceyve any part of mistrust or diffidence 
I have thought by his Currowr to despeche vnto you thies 
presentes as the kinges packet cowteynyng the pr/ncipall 
despeche, and sent it vnto hym after the departure of the 
said Muriell, to thentent he myght prevente thambassadoftrs 
poste and you have leasur* to consulte and advise vpon the 
same accordingly as shal apprrtcyne Thus Fare ye right 
hertely well From St. James besidrj Westminster this iiii lh 
daye of Maye. 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
Add. To my loving freendrj my Lorde of Wynchestre Sir 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 139 

Fraunc^ Brian and Mr. Thirleby the kinges Ambassadors in 
Fraunce 

Endd. From Saint James 4 W Maij 30 R. R. Lorde Pnvie 
seal In hast, hast, post hast 

259. CROMWELL TO SIR RICHARD RICHE. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 928. May 5 (1538). 
Has appointed an annual pension of ,100 to the late Abbot of Kenihvorth. 

After my right harty commendations thes bee to aduertise 
yow, thatt for suche reasonable causes as the commissionars 
haue more att large informyd me of, I haue appoyntyd the 
late Abbot of Kenellworth for his pension one hundred pownd 
yerly during his lif to bee payed vn/0 hym att lyke dayes 
and after lyke sorte as the same is accustomyd to bee payed 
to others in his case, praying you ondilayedly to cause his 
sayd pension to bee entryd in your book^r and his assurance 
to be sealyd vppon the same as spedyly as yow may. And 
Thus hartely fare yow well from saynt James the v lh of Maye 

Yowr louyng assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To myn assuryd loving Freend Sir Richard Riche 
Knight Chauncelowr of the courte of the Augmentations. 

Endd. My Lordes Letteres Syngnyfing to my Mr. he 
hath apoyncted the Abbot of Kenelworth for his yerlie 
penc/on c. li. 

260. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 936. May 6 (1538). 

Reproves him for not sending information about the Sacramentaries in 
the town of Calais. Desires him to look into the matter, and report 
the result of his inquiry at once. Cf. Letters, 263, 268. 

After my right hartie Cowmendac/ons to your Lordshipp 
Where I am aduertised that of late it hathe been Signifyed 
from thens to my lorde of Herforde, Maister Threasourer of 
the king?.r Maiesties Houshold Maister brown and others That 
the Towne of Calys shuld be in som misorder by certayn 
Sacramentaries alleaged to be in the same, I cannot a litle 
mervail that your Lordshipp having good knowleage and 
experience of my good wil and contynuel desire to the 
repression of errours and to thestablishmewt of oon perfyt 
unytie in opinion among^ vs al the kingrj Maiestcs people 
and Subjects wold not vouchsauf to gyve me some know- 
leage if there be any suche Lewde persons among^r you. 



140 LETTERS OF [i 

I doubt not but your Lordshipp knowcth bothc howe moche 
I doo cstcame that the kingrj hieghnes towne as my dueutie 
requyreth and howe wel I haue (I thank god) hitherto con- 
sidered what daunger might ensue vnto it, by Diuersitc of 
opinion specially in mattiers soo high and weightye doing 
ever myn office as I might to quiet al things w/th an honest 
charite that haue Lightly insurged among you. But leaving 
this parte I shal addresse my self to my purpose which is to 
Signefye vnto you that the king Maiestie being desirous to 
knowe the truthe of these mattiers hath willed and cowman nded 
me to write vnto you and to the rest of his Counseil there that 
you shal assemble yourselfes togithcr and make due and 
circumspect inquisic/on of this and al other suche matters as 
doo or may in anywise interupt the quiet and vnyte that 
shuld be there amonges you. And of the same to aduertis 
agayn witA convenient diligens by this Bcrer whom I haue 
sent thither for that purpose Having suche regarde to the 
serious and iuste examynation and handeling thereof as his 
Maiestie may see the p^rfyt truth dyuided from mennes corrupt 
affections of fauowr malyce or displcaswr. Which shal bothe 
moche advaunce the reformation of things if it soo require, 
and declare you which be put in trust there to be men of that 
sorte that shal beseame you towardes the mayntenaunce of 
trouth and honestie and the Repression of the contrary as 
apperteynith. Thus Fare you hertelywel. From St. James 
the vi of Maye 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray good Lorde the Viscounte Lisle deputie 
of the king towne and Marches of Calays 

261. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, ff. 191 *, 202 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 967. May 10 (1538). 

Informs him of the King's grief at finding the Emperor so cold to England, 
and so favourable towards the Pope. 

Mr. Wiat after my right hertie commendations by your 
lr//rres of the XXV th of the last moneth the Kinges Ma/>j/* 
is aduertiscd of your discourse had wit// thempmwr vppn 
tharrival of the dispeche by Francisco and to be playn witAt 
you the King Maifste and al we of his counsel finde suche a 
coldnes in it that we be muche sory to remcmbrc t/iat so many 
good word showld bring furthe "deadcs and be 1 and 

1 F. 191 is all in cipher except scribed from f. 202, a contemporary 
the signature. This copy is tran- decipher. * sit. 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 141 

besides his Maieste is aduertised from sundry parties how all 
this meting the counseil and al thyng^r don for the benefit 
and glory of romc be set furth and avanced by Themprrowr 
that he dothe but to dyvise to mocke al the world by practises 
\\ith faire wordes for his owne purpos I pray god those newes 
and aduertisementer may be by his good deoVj shewed fals 
it were grete ruthes that a prince of his honour shal entende 
so corruptly whereof I give you knowleage that you may 
eyther bring things a better steye or discifre thuntruth that 
the malice thereof may be better prevented, thus fare ye 
hertely well From Westminster the x th of May 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray loving Freende sir Thomas Wyat 
Knight the king^r Ambassadowr with Themperowr 

262. CROMWELL TO THE MAYOR OF ROCHESTER. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 980. May 12 (1538). 

Charges him to suffer no more corn to be conveyed out of the realm, and 
to appear before Cromwell to answer for his former transgressions of 
the laws of the land in that respect. 

After my hartye cowmendac/ons, Where as I am crediblye 
info//rmed that ye haue and dayli doo sufifre moche corne to 
be caried out of that countreye and cowueyed into the parties 
beyonde the see without any sprnall warant or Licence had of 
the king^j highnes therunto as well to the greate hynderaunce 
of the countrey about as to the evyll example of other. Thies 
shalbe aswell to aduertise and charge you in the kinges 
highnes behalf that frowhcnsforth ye suffre no more corne to 
be co/jueycd out of those paries, where ye haue Jurisdiction, 
as Also to be and appere here afore me immediately vpon the 
reccpt herof to answere for that ye haue hetherto doonr and 
permitted For the which yf ye can not the better declare 
yowrself I shal so Loke vpon you as it shalbe to heavy for you 
to beare. Not faillyng herof as ye will answere the king 
highnes for the cowtrarie at yo//r further perill. And thus 
Fare ye well. From Sainct James beside Westminster the 
xii 1 * 1 daye of Maie. 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my Loving freende Mr. Maio//r of Rochester. 
Endd. The lordc Crumwell, cowmaundinge that no corne be 
hereaftrr transported 



142 LETTERS OF 

263. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 996. May 14 (1538). 

Promises to obtain the King's order for the repairs necessary at Calais. 
Instructions for the treatment of the Sacramentarics, and quieting 
the disturbance caused by pulling down the image of Our Lady in 
the Wall Cf. Letters, 260, 268. 

After my right harty cowmendac/bns to your Lordshippe 
by your Lr//iTes of the viii" 1 of this Moneth which I haue 
Receyued w/'t// thother writinges sent wyth the same I doo 
perceyue bothe the Ruyne of certain partes of that towne 
meate to be repayred and the disscntyon amonges you vppon 
certayn lewde woordes and the pulling downc of the ymage of 
oure Ladye in the Wall. Touching the Reparations I shall 
move the Kinges Maiestic therein and obteyn I trust suchc 
order for the same as shalbe conveniewt for his honour and the 
suretic of his towne. Touching the woordtt pretended to be 
spoken in contempt of the sacrament if your Lordshippe 
ioynyng suwme others of the counsail wyth youe wyll take 
payne to examyne the very trouthe of them vppon your 
aduertisemcnt suche directyon shalbe taken for the reforma- 
tyon of suchc as shalbe foundc oflfcndours therein as shalbe 
consonant to Justice. And as concernyng the pulling downc 
of the Ymage thoughe it be thought that many abuses and 
Fonde supersticions were maynteyned by the same, yet if yt 
were taken downe after any suche sorte as implyed a contemptc 
of comen Auctoritie or might haue made any tumulte in the 
people vppon your significac/on thereof suche Lyke ordrc 
shalbe taken therein as shalbe thought most expedient. 
Thus Fare you hertely wel. From saynt James the xiiii daye 
of Maye. 

I thankc you very hertely for your \ctteres and aduertise- 
mentrj And where as ye wrytc vnto me that there is plenty of 
wyne I pray you prouide for me iii tonne of gascoigne Wyne 
and oone tonne of Frenche wyne of the best and send it vnto 
me by the next signifying the price thereof and ye shall haue 
your money repayed w/th condigne and right hartie thank/*; 
and the same pleaswr to be requited and Remembered accord- 
ingly. And thus Fare ye right hartely wel 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray good Lorde the Vicountc Lisle Lordc 
deputie of the towne of Calays and the Marches of the same 

Endd. my lorde pryveseallis 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 143 

264. CROMWELL TO <SiR RICHARD RICHE,) CHANCELLOR 
OF THE AUGMENTATIONS. 

R. O. Cal. xiiL (i) 1051. May 23 (1538). 

In favour of Thomas Lacock, priest. He is to have a pension of four 
marks, and a warrant for his 'capacity.' 

Mr. Chauncellowr after my right harty cowmendac/ons. 
Where as this berer Sir Thomas Lacoke preste was one of the 
Brethern of the Late Monasterie of Kingeswood and at the 
tyme of the dissolucion of the same was foorth of that house 
about the miwzstracion of the gospell, vpon his peticion made 
vnto me for a coueniet pension I thought good to awarde 
hym foure markes pension during his lif, with his Capacitie 
free. Thies shalbe therfor to desire you to make hym foorth 
aswell thassurance for the said pension as also a warant for 
his Capacitie to be had free taking of hym a renunciation & a 
surrender of all his title & interest in the said Late monasterie 
accordingly. And thus hartely Fare ye well. From Sainct 
James the xxiii th of Maie. 

Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very Louyng frende Mr. Chauncellowr of the 
"kinges highnes Cowrte of Augmentacions. 

Endd. My Lordes "Letters for A pencion for A Religiouse 
(of) Kyngeswood 

265. CROMWELL TO HAYNES AND BONNER. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 1146. June 8, 1538. 

Instructs them to inform the Emperor that the King takes Wyatt's 
message in good part, and will soon send back a satisfactory answer. 

After my right harty Cowmendacz'ons Where Maister Wiat 
who arryved here the thirde of this present amonges other 
thinges declared that Themperours Maiestie had gevin but 
xxv dayes for his Return vnto hym wyth aunswere to suche 
thinges as were co#*mytted to his declaracion Forasmuche as 
byreason of the being a parte of Themperours Ambassadowrs 
thone kcping at Ratclif thother at Mortlake they could not 
put themselfes in arcdynes to haue accessc to the kinges 
hieglmes presence before this the vi of this instant at after none. 
And that the matyers nowe entreated be of suche importaunce 
as his Maiestie must of necessyte haue some tyme to waye 
and consyder them that his aunswere may be the more certain 
and convenient for thcmperours satisfacczon, His Maiestie 
perceiving that Maister Wyat cannot possibly return wythin 



144 LETTERS OF [i 

the tyme Lymytcd, Albeit it is signifyed hither from the 
parties of beyond the Sees that the princrj there shuld be 
clcrcly broken from al further p^rlemcnt, Yet Least the 
Emperour shulde take any damage by the cotynuaunce of his 
expcctac/bn for Maistcr Wiat*\r Return w/t//in the space ap- 
poynted or by protracc/on of his tymc for iii or tiii dayes lengre 
Considering the said Maister Wyat cannot be then convenient 
skant wit//in vi or viii daycs after the tyme prescribed, His 
Maiestie having commaunded Maister Wyat to aduertisc 
Monsi/wr de Grandevela hereof willed me Likewise to signifye 
it vnto you to thintcnt that taking your oportune accesse to 
Themperour youe may aduertisc his Maiestie thereof, Like as 
his graces pleaswr is you shal doo accordingly ioynyng wyth 
you Maister Mason as his Maiesties Secretry to declare 
your purpose for that having the tongue he may doo soo it 
more fully thenne you could percace easly vtter the same. 
Making first his hieghnes most hartye Cowmendac/ons wit// 
declaratyon that his Maiestie taketh the chardge of the said 
Maister Wyat in very good and thankful p#rte, and wol w/tA 
as good diligence as may be conueniently dispeche wyth 
such aunswere and cow/mission as you may saye you trust 
certaynely by the discourse of your \fticres shalbe to his con- 
tentac/bn and to the good of hoole Christendom, And for your 
better instrucc/on you shal also Receyve a double of the \ettsre 
sent from the said 'Master Wyat to Monsuv/r Grandevela 
Which you may peruse and Consider as shall appertein. Thus 
Fare right hcrtely well From Cheleshith this viii 111 of Juny 
the xxx th yere of his graov most noble Regne 
Mr. Wyot shal sende you the copie of his Ir/teres. 

Yowr louyng Frcend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray loving Freend Maister Doctoi/r 
Haynes deane of Excetowr and Mr. Doctowr Boner archdeacon 
of Leycestre the kingrj ambassadowrs vtith Themprr^wr 

Etidd. Rec. at Villa Fra/rca & brought by Fra//c Satwr- 
daye, videlicet xv Junii : 

266. <CROMWELL) TO (THE BISHOP OF ). 

B. M. Cleop. E. iv, .9; Cal. xiii. (i) 1304. (June, 1538.) 

A circular, instructing the Bishop to cause the Bible in English to be laid 
forth openly in every church and house, in order that the truth of 
God's Word may be brought before the people. Cf. Letters, 159,273. 

After my Right harty commendations, Wheras the kingrj 
highnes mynding to sett forthe the glorye of god, and the 



THOMAS CROMWELL 145 

truthe of his worde hath as well in his own person, as by 
other his ministers travaylyd to bring the same playnly and 
sinccrly to the knowlege of his subiecter, and for thatt pur- 
pose nott only in the late visitation exercised by authorite of 
his maiestie, butt also att other tymes, and other wayes hath 
ordeynyd many godly ordinauncrj and Iniw/ctions, and giuen 
also sondry strayte commawndmentoj as well to yow as to all 
other persones ecclesiasticall of all sorter and degres wit/tin 
this his Realme Forasmoche as it is come to his graces know- 
lege thatt his sayd ordinauncrj commawndmentor and Iniuc- 
tions have byn very remysly hitherto observyd, kept and obeyd 
w/t//in your diocese, and his highnes people ther for want of 
the sincere and true teaching of the worde of God suffryd to 
lye and dwell contynually in theyr olde ignorance and blindnes, 
his gracr^ pleasure and expresse commawndment is thatt yow 
having a more vigilant eye, and better respecte to his highnes 
sayd commawndment and ordinaunces cause the same, and 
eurry of them to bee duly publissyd and obs^ruyd forseing as 
well in yowr own person as by your archdecons chaun- 
celars officials deanes Rurall and other ministers thatt all suche 
Curator and other persons eccl^jiasticall as after this many 
callings on shall be fownd negligent remisse or stoburn in 
the fulfylling of them or any of them receyue for ther 
transgression in thatt behaulf suche punisshment as in the 
sayd ordinaunc^j is conteyned and more as to yowr dis- 
cretion shall be seen mete and convenyent. And furthar his 
graces pleasure and high commawndment is thatt yow w*V* 
no lesse circumspection and diligence cause the bible in 
Englissc to be layd ferthe openly in your own howses and 
thatt the same be in lyke maner openly layd forth in curry 
parisshe churche att the charges and cosies of the parsones 
and vicars, that euery man hauing free accesse to it by 
reading of the same may bothe be the more apte to vnder- 
stande the declaration of it att the preachars mowthe, and 
also the more hable to teache and instructe his wif, chyldern 
and famylye att home, Commawnding neurrthelesse, all 
curator and other preachars w/t/rin thatt your diocese thatt 
they att all tymes, and specially now att the begynning 
exhorte and requyre the people to vse and reade the bible 
so left amongrj them according to the teno;/r of an instruc- 
tion whiche ye shall receyue herin inclosed to be send to 
eurry curate wit/t a certayn day by yow to be appoyntyd 
w/t//in the whiche the bible in englysshe bee as is aforsayd 
layed forthc in eurry churche. 



MERRIMAN. II 



146 LETTERS OF [1538 

B. M. Cleop. E. v, f. 344 ; CaL xUi. (i) 1304 (a). (June, 1538.) 

Royal Injunctions to curates, concerning the method and manner of 
expounding the Bible. The people are to be exhorted to conform to 
it, and not to argue about obscure passages. 

.WHERE it hathe pleased the kinges Maiestic oure most 
dradde souereigne lor[d] and Supreme Hed vndcr God of this 
Churche of England for A Declaratyon of the greate zeale he 
bereth to the setting furthe of GodoVj woorde and to the 
vertuouse mayntenawnce of his cowmenwealthe to prrmyt 
and cowmaunde the Bible being translated into our mother 
tongue to be syncerely taught and declared by vs the Curate, 
And to bee openly layed furthe in euery parrishe Churche, To 
thintent that all his good Subjects aswcl by reading thereof 
as by hering the true explanac/on of the same may First lerne 
their dieuties to allmightie God and his Ma/Vjte and euery of 
vs charitably to vse other And thenne applying themselfes to 
doo according to that they shall here and lerne, may bothe 
speke and doo Chrw/icnly and in al thinges as it bcseamethe 
Chrw/ien men, Because his hieghnes very muche desireth that 
this thing being by him most godly bcgonne and sett forward 
maye of all you be Receyued as is aforcsaide His Maiestie 
hathe willed and cowmaunded this to be declared vnto youe 
that his gracrj plcaswr and hicgh cowmaundement is that in 
the reading and hering thereof, first most humbly and Reuer- 
ently vsing and addressing yourselfes vnto it, You shall haue 
allwayes in yo//r Rcmemberaunce and memorycs that all 
things conteyned in this booke is the vndoubtcd wyll, lawe 
and cowmaundement of almightie god thonely and streight 
meane to knowe the goodnes and bcnefytrj of god towards 
vs and the true dicutye of euery chrw//en man to srrue him 
accordingly, And that therefore reading this booke w/t/r suche 
mynde and firme feythe as is aforesaid, you shall first 
endeuowr yourselfes to conforme your owne lyvinges and 
conucrsac/bn to the content/^ of the same And so by your 
good and veituouse cxemple to encourage yo//r wifes childcrn 
and sfruauntss to lyve wcl and chrw/ienly according to the 
rule thereof, And if at any tyme by reading any doubt shall 
come to any of you touching the sense and mcanyng of any 
partc thereof, That thenne not geving to moche to your owne 
myndtt fantazics and opinions nor having thereof any open 
reasonyng in yowr open Tauernes or Alchowses, ye shall haue 
recourse to suche lerned men as be or shal be auctoriscd to 
preache and declare the same, Soo that avoyding all con- 
tentions and disputac/ons in suche Alchowses and other places 
vnmetc for suche conference and submyttyng your opinions 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 147 

to the Judgements of suche lerned men as shal be appoynted 
in this behaulf, His grace may wel prrceyue that you vse this 
most hiegh benefyte quietly and charitably curry of you to 
the edefying of himself his wief and famylye in al thinges 
aunswering to his hieghnes good opinion conceyued of you 
in thadvauncemewt of virtue and suppressing of vice w/t^out 
failing to vse suche discrete quietnes and sober moderatyon in 
the premissies as is aforesaid as ye tender his graces pleaswr* 
and intend to avoyde his hiegh indignacion and the pmll 
and daunger that may ensue to you and eurry of youe for the 
contrary 

And god saue the King 

Endd. Towchinge the Reading of the Byble. 



267. CROMWELL TO SIR ROGER TOWNSEND AND 
MR. OLVERTON. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 1368. July 13 (1538). 

They are to examine the complaints of Robert Burbeck against Robert 
Townsend. Cf. Letter 246. 

Aftre my right hartye cow/mendaabns Where as complaint 
is made vnto the kings Highnes and his most honourable 
consell by Robert Burkbek of great riboroughe in the Countie 
of Norffo/, that where the said Robert Burbek hade in Ferme 
by Lease to terme therof not yet exp[i]red a certane grond 
called sennow oon Robert Touneshend esquier hath not onely 
dispossed hym of the same but allso wz't/;holdithe from hym 
the some of viii li awarde by arbitrears indiferently elect and 
chosen, lyke as it more planly dothe apere by the said bill 
whiche I haue sent vnto you herein closed. And Forasmoche 
as ther seamithe gret Simplicite and feare in the saide com- 
planant and mochc force and extremitie in the saide Touns- 
hend. The kings- highnes pleasowr and co;maundement 
is that you shall furthewith call the said parties before you 
and so to examyn the mater groundely and substancyally 
and that all favowr and effectzbn sett appart you endevowr 
yowr sellfs to sett a finall ende and direction according to 
equitie and Justice. So that the said complainant haue no 
cause eftsones to molest the kings Mazstie ne his ho;/0//rable 
cownscll in that behalfe. But that he may haue free accesse 
and recesse from tyme to tyme wzt^out any Lett prrturbancc 
or molestaczbn of the said tounshend or any of his. And if 
the mater shall so stand that ye can not take an ordre therin 
the kings plesow is that ye shall certefye hether vnto me 

L 3 



148 LETTERS OF [1538 

and other of his consell of yonr proceding not failing hereof 
as his grace trustcthe you. And thus fare you hartely well. 
From Chellsethe the xiii lh of Julie. 

Yoj/r Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
Townshewd & Hcyden knighto 

Add. To my Loving Frend^j Sir Roger Townsend knight 
Mr. Olverton of Rougham esquier 

Endd. The lorde Crumwell 

268. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. CaL xiii. (i) 1386. July 16 (1538). 

Instructs him to punish the Sacramentaries, if they maintain their 
erroneous beliefs. Cf. Letters, 260, 263. 

After my right herty cov/mcndac/ons to your lordeship 
I have receyved sundry your Ifftercs and right well p^rvsed 
and noted the contents thereof Wherby I perceyve that in 
the same the \tinges Towne of Calais there is some Infection 
of certain p^rsones denyeng the holy sacrament of Christ^ 
blessed body and blud of suche opinion as cowmonly they 
calle Sacramewtaries For remedy whereof the kingrr graciouse 
pleasur is that yc shal cause the said pirsones susp<vted to be 
thoroughly groundely and substancially examyncd aswcll 
vpon the formal as material poinctes thereof and well weyeng 
there sayengrj In case it shal appcre vnto you that they woll 
maynteyne any crrours agenst the true doctrine ye shal not 
only cause them to be punyshed to thexemple of all others 
but also provide that no suche errowrs purniciouse be spradd 
abrode there but vttcrly suppressed banished and extincted as 
it app^rteyneth. I perceyve also of the variaunce betwen 
the frere and a preachowr there I Require you likewise to 
cause them to be well and formally examyned and there 
allegac/ons heard on both parties And therupon [su]che 
Inquisition examinac/bn serche and tryall as shalbe ex[pedient] 
. . . inges thcrin tadurrtise me w/t// convenient diligence 
to thintent I may signefie the same to the king Ma/Vjtic 
and therupon knowe his further pleasur for a direction to be 
taken in the same. As for your desires and sutcs I trust to 
sende you shortely con fort able worde of his maiesties deter- 
minate pleasur suche as I hope shalbe to the satisfaction both 
of you and of my lady to whom I praye you to have me 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 149 

hertely cowmended. Thus Fare ye right hertely well From 
Cheleshith this xvi th of July 

Yo//r lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good lord The Visconte Lisle lord 
deputie of the king^j Town and marches of Calais. 

269. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (i) 1399. July 17 (1538). 

He is to provide the Surveyor with a sufficient number of men, as the 
King desires. 

After my right hartie cow/mendac/ons to your Lordshipp 
Where this berer myn^ assured Frende the Surveyour there 
dothe nowe Repayre thither for certain purposes appointed 
by the kinges Maiestie, Vnderstanding that he is not yet 
Furnisshed of his nomb^r of men which the kinges hieghnes 
hathe assigned and I haue sundry tymes Remembered and 
Recowmended vnto youe I haue thought mete most hertely 
to desire and pray you at the contemplaabn hereof to be his 
good Lord and nowe at his being there to take suche order as 
he may be no Lenger differred of that wherein your benivolence 
may appere vnto him. The kinges Maieste is his good and 
gracious Lord, And I being his frende could be gladd that he 
might pmreyve himself to fare the better at your Lordshipps 
hand for my sake. Thus most hertely Fare you wel from 
Chelsheth the xvii th daye of July. 

\our lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good lorde my Lorde Lisle Deputie of 
the kinges Towne and Marches of Calais 

Endd. tochyng the surveyers romys 

270. CROMWELL TO THE BAILIFFS OF THE CITY OF 
WORCESTER. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (ii) 4. Aug. I, 1538. 

They are to release Richard Rithe, the goldsmith, who was arrested on 
suspicion of coining false money, in order that he may appear before 
Cromwell and the Council. 

In myn harty maner I Cowmende me vnto youe Latingyou 
wit the kinges highnes pleasure is that iwmediatly vppon the 



150 LETTERS OF 

sight hcrof you shall delyucr and puttc (at) libcrtic the bodye 
of Richard Rithe Late of Evesham goldsmyth being attached 
vppon suspicion of making of false moncye, to thintcnt he maye 
appere befor me and others of the kingrj highnes counsail in 
the xv"* of St. Michael next cnsuyng. And further his gracrj 
pleasure is that you shall vppon the sight herof see that the 
said Rithe be restored to all suche gooddrr as at the tyme of 
his apprehenc/bn were taken from him, w;t/rout failing. Thus 
Fare you wel From Petworth the First of August the XXX th * 
yere of the Reign of our Sourraign lord King Henry the 
Eight. 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my loving frcendrj the Baylicfrj of the Citie of 
Worcester and to all others having any charge of the \t\nges 
gaole there. 

Endd. My lordrr L*7/rres of the first of August A xxx" 10 
to the bayliffrj of Worcestre for the delyveraunce of Richardc 
Rith. 

271. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Lisle Papers, ii. 126; not in Cal. Aug. 9 (1538). 

Concerning the release of a hoy laden with the King's timber, which was 
captured by certain Frenchmen. 

After my right harty recowmcndacions vnto yowr good 
lordship thiese shalbe to aduertise thesamc that I hauc 
resceyved your letteres of the vi th day of this present monthc 
wherin ye write concernyng the hoy that was taken by the 
Frenchemen laden w/t/i the kyngrj tymber. And before the 
receipt therof I have opteyned a Itttcre of the Ambassadour 
of Fraunce directed to the vicount of diepe for the restitucion 
of thesame whiche I send unto yowr lordship by the bercr 
herof to thentent ye may send furthe thesame w/M all spedc 
and cclerite, and that it may please your lordship to adurrtisc 
me what expedicon ye shall haue in that behalfe. thus the 
blessed Trenyte preserue you. At london the ix lb day of 
August. 

Yowr lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To the right honowrablc and my veray good lord 
the vicount lisle the kingrj deputie at Calays. 

Endd. My lord pr/vy sca\\fs 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 151 

272. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (ii) 227. Aug. 30 (1538). 

Desires him to bring with him to Dover, Thomas Delingcourt, smith of 
Calais, who is accused of bad behaviour. Cf. Frontispiece to this 
volume. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendaabns to your lordship the 
\dnges highnes pleasure is that at your cuw/myng to Dover 
you shall bring wit// you oone Thomas Delingcourte a Smyth 
dwelling in Calayes, who is accused of certain lewd behauor 
and shal there be put to his answer for the same. Thus most 
hartely Fare you well From Bedgebery the penultime of 
August. 

"Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good lorde the Vicount lisle Deputie of 
the k'mgcs Towne and Marches of Calais 

273. CROMWELL'S INJUNCTIONS TO THE CLERGY. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (ii) 281. Sept. 5, 1538. 

Commands them to set up in every church an English Bible, and to 
permit the people to read it freely. They are to recite publicly the 
Paternoster and Creed, to preach sermons once every quarter, and to 
keep registers of christenings, weddings, and burials. Cf. Letters, 159, 
236, 266. 

Exhibit quittto die mensw Septe;bnV anwo domim M le v 
xxxviij. 

IN THE NAME OF GOD AMEN By the authorite and com- 
mission of the most excellent prince Henry by the grace of god 
kynge of Englonde and of frauwce, defensor of the faithe Lorde 
of Irelonde and in erthe suprane hedd vndre Christ of the 
church of Englonde I Thomas lorde Crumwell, lorde privie scale 
Vice-gerent to the kyngfj said highnes for all his Jurisdiction 
ecckriasticall within this realme, do for the avauwcement of 
the trewe honor of almighty God, encrease of vertu and dis- 
charge of the kyngrj maiestie geve and exhibite vnto yow 
theise Injunctions folowing to be kept obsrrued 
and fulfilled vpon the paynes hereafter declared 

First that ye shall trewly obsrrue and kepe all and singwler 
the kynges highnes Injunctions geven vnto you heretofore in 
my name by his gracrj authorite not only vpon the paynes 
therein expressed but also in yor defaulte now after this 
seconde monition contynewed vpon further punyshment to be 
straitly extended towards yow by the kyng^r highnes arbi- 
trement or his vicegerent aforsaid 



152 LETTERS OF [1538 

Item that yc shall prmiidc on thissidc the feast of all 
saincttt ' next cuwmyng, one boke of the hole bible of the 
largest volume in english, and the same sett vpp in sum con- 
venient place witAin the said churche that ye haue cure of 
where as yowr parishonrrs may most cowmodiously resorte 
to the same and reade yt The charges of whiche boke shalbe 
ratably borne betwene yow the parson and the parishonrrs 
aforesaid, that is to say the one half by yow and thother half 
by them. 

Item that you shall discorage no man prively or apcrtely 
from the reading or heryng of the said bible but shall ex- 
pressely provoke stcre and exhorte curry person to reade the 
same as that which is the very lyvely wordc of god, that 
eurry christen person is bouwde to enbrace, bcleve and 
followe, if they loke to be saved, admonyshing them neurr- 
thelesse to avoide all contention and altercation therein, but 
to vse an honest sobrietie in thinquisition of the trewe sence 
of the same, and to refer thex plication of obscure placr* to 
men of higher iugement in scripture. 

Item that ye shall eurry sonday and holiday through the 
yere openly and playnly recite to yowr parishonrrs twise or 
thrise togither or oftener if nede require one particle or sen- 
tence of the pater noster or crede in englishe, to thintcnt they 
may lerne thesame by harte, and so from day to day geue them 
one like lesson or sentence of the same, till they haue lernyd 
the hole pater noster and crcdc in englishe by rote And as 
they be taught eurry sentence of the same by rote ye shall 
expouwde and declare the vnderstandyng of the same vnto 
them exhortyng all parents and householders to teche there 
children and struauntss thesame as they are bouwde in cow- 
science to do, And that done ye shall declare vnto them the 
ten comwauwdementrj one by one eurry sonday and holyday 
till they be likewise prrfite in the same. 

Item that ye shall in cowfcssions eurry lent examyn curry 
person that cuwmith to confession vnto you whither they can 
recite the articles of owr faithc and the pater noster in englishe 
and here them say the same particularly Wherein if they be 
not prrfite, ye shall declare to the same, that curry christen 
person ought to knowe thesame before they shuld receyve 
the blessid sacrament of the aulter, And monyshc them to lerne 
the same more prrfitely by the nexte yere folowing Or else 
like as they ought not to prrsume to cum to goddrj boorde 
w>t/cout prrfite knowlege of the same, and if they do yt is to 
the grete prrill of there sowles, so ye shall declare vnto them 

1 Altered from ' Christmas.' 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 153 

that ye loke for other injunctions from the kyngej highnes by 
that tyme to stay and repell all suche from goddes boorde as 
shalbe fouwde ignorant in the premisses Wherof ye do thus 
admonyshe them, to thintent they shuld bothe eschewe the 
perill of there sowles and also the wordely rebuke that they 
might incurre hereafter by the same 

Item that ye shall make or cause to be made in the saide 
churche and curry other cure ye haue one sermon every quarter 
of a yere at the least wherein ye shall purely and syncerely 
declare the very gospell of christ, and in the same exhorte 
yowr herers to the worker of charite marcy and faithe specially 
prescribed and comwauwded in scripture, and not to repose 
there trust or affiance in any other worker devised by mens 
phantasies besydej scripture, as in wanderyng to pilgremagej 
offeryng of money candellej or tapers to Images or reliques or 
kissing or lickyng the same, saying over a nombre of beades 
not vndrestanded ne mynded on or in suchelike superstition 
For the doyng wherof ye not only haue no premise of 
rewtfrde in scripture but contrarywise grete threaten & male- 
dictions of god, as things tendyng to Idolatry and superstition, 
which of all other offences god almighty doth most detest and 
abhorr for that the same diminisheth most his honowr and 
glorie 

Item that suche Images as ye knowe in any of your cures 
to be so abused with pilgremage.? or offr'mges of anything made 
therevnto, ye shall for avoiding of that most detestable offence 
of Idolatrie furthwith take down and deley And shall suffer from 
hensforth no candellej tapers or Images of waxe to be sett 
afore any Image or picture, But only the light that comenly 
goeth a crosse the churche by the roode lofte, the light afore the 
sacramewt of the altare and the light about the sepulchre 
which for thadowrnyng of the churche and divine seruice ye 
shall suffre to remayn still, admonyshing your parishoners that 
Images serve for no other purpose but as to be bookes of 
vnlerned men that can no letters, Wherby they might be other- 
wise admonished of the lives and conuersaa'on of them that 
the said Images do represent whiche Images if they abuse for 
any other intent, than for suche remembraunces they com;;/ytt 
Idolatry in the same to the grete dauwger of there sowles And 
therfor the kynges highnes graciously tenderyng the weale of 
his subiectej sowles hath in parte alredy and more will here- 
after travaill for the abolishing of suche Images as might be 
occasion of so greate an offence to god and so gret dauwger 
to the sowles of his loving subiectej 

Item that in all suche benefices or cures as ye haue where- 
vpon ye be not yourself resident ye shall appoint suche 



154 LETTERS OF [1538 

curat/j in your stedc, as bothc can by there habilitc and will 
also promptely execute these Injunctions And do there dutie 
otherwise that ye ar boude to do in every behalf accordyngly, 
and may pr^uffite there cure no lesse with good exemple of 
lyving than with declaration of the worde of god. Or els 
there lack and defaulter shalbe imputed vnto yow who shall 
straytcly answere for the same if they do otherwise 

Item that ye shall admytt no man to preache within any 
of your beneficrj or cures but suche as shall appere vnto 
yow to be sufficiently licencyd thervnto by the kyngrj highnes 
or his gracrj authorite, by tharchbisshop of Cantrr^wry or the 
bisshop of this dlocfsf. And suche as shalbe soe licenced yc 
shall gladly receave to declare the worde of god without any 
resistence or contradiction 

Item if ye have heretofore declared to yo//r parishonrrs 
anything to thextollyng or settyng furthe of pilgremagrr, 
rcliqucs or Images or any suche superstition ye shall now 
openly afore the same recante and reprove the same, shewing 
them (as the trewthe is) that ye did the same vpon no grouwde 
of scripture, but as one beyng ledd and seduced by a cow wen 
error and abuse crept into the church through the sufferaunce 
and avarice of suche as felt proffit by the same. 

Item if you do or shall knowe any man wit/tin your p^rishe 
or els where that is a letter of the worde of god to be redd 
in englishe, or syncerely preached, or of thexecution of theise 
iniuwctions, or a seruitor of the bisshop of Romes prr/rsed 
powre now by the lawes of this realme iustely reiected and 
extirped, ye shall detect and present the same to the kyngrr 
highnes or his honorable couwsaill or to his vicegerent afor- 
said or to the Justice of peax next adioynig 

Item that yow and eurry parson vicare or curate within 
this diocfsc shall for euery churche kepe one boke or registre 
wherin ye shall write the day and yere of every weddyng 
christcnyng and buryeng made w/tX/in yowr parishe for yowr 
tyme, and so eu/ry man succcdyng yow lykewise. And shall 
there inscrte eurry prrsons name that shalbe so weddid 
christened or buried, And for the sauff keping of the same 
bokc the parishe shalbe boude to praiide of there comwcn 
charge one sure coffer with twoo lock*r and keys wherof the 
one to rcmayn wt^ you, and thothcr with the saidc wardens, 
wherein the saidc boke shalbe laide vpp. Whiche boke yc 
shall every sonday take furthe and in the presence of the said 
wardens or one of them write and rccordc in the same all the 
weddings christenyngrj and buryengtt made the hole wcke 
before And that done to lay vpp the bokc in the said coffer as 
afore And for eurry tyme that the same shalbe omytted the 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 155 

partie that shalbe in the faulte therof shall forfett to the said 
churche iij s iiiij d to be emploied on the reparation of the 
same churche. 

Item that ye shall ones euery quarter of a yere rede these 
and the other former iniuwctions geven vnto you by authorite 
of the kyngrj highnes, openly and deliberatly before all your 
parishomrs to thintent that both yow by the same may be 
the better admonyshed of yowr dewtie and yowr said parish- 
oners the more incited to ensewe the same for there parte. 

All whiche and singwler injunctions I mynistre vnto you 
and your successors by the kyngrj highnes authorite to me 
committed in this parte whiche I charge and comwauwde yow 
by the same auct0r/te to obsrrue and kepe vpon peyne of 
deprivation, sequestration of yowr huctcs or suche oth^r 
cohertion as to the kyngcs highnes or his vicegerent for the 
tyme beyng shalbe seen convenient 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Endd. Injunctions devysed by the Lord Crumwell Vice- 
gerent to the Kinge for all his Jurisdiction ecclesiasticall 

274. CROMWELL TO (LORD HuNGERFORo) 1 . 

Longford Castle MSS. ; not in Cal. Sept. 21 (1538). 

He is to have Richard Henley indicted at the next assizes. The proctor 
of the ' Charthuse ' is to hold his office only during good be- 
haviour. Promises to mediate between Hungerford and the Earl of 
Huntingdon. Cf. Letter 279. 

By your lettres of the i6 th of this present delivered unto 
me by this berer your servant I perceyve the cancred malice 
of Richard Henly agenst the kings supreme auctorite for the 
usurped power of the grete ydole of Rome I commende moche 
your good diligence and vigilancy in your preceding used in 
that behalf Requiring you that at the next commyng in that 
countrey of the Justices of assise ye cause him to be indicted 
and further processe to be made agenst hym so that he may 
be to the terrible example of like presumptuouse & trayterouse 
persons punished according to his demerites as the lawe right 
and justice do require. As touching (the) procter of the 
Charthuse whereof ye be stuarde my mynde was never by 
my lettres nor otherwise expressed that he shuld contynewe 
there onles he be of such fidclite to the house in the .good 
administracon of his office and of such honest conversacon 
both towards them and other as apperteyneth. And in cas 
he be so or if he hath ben otherwise and woll ernestly emende 

1 From the official Record Office transcript. 



156 LETTERS OF [i 

T wold be glad he myght contynewe there according to myn 
intercession bifore made for hym. If he be not so honestly 
disposed I woll in nowise support hym but rather wold be 
sory that he shuld hynder the house or contynewe therein to 
the slaunder of the countrey. Concerning your mater betwene 
my lord of Huntingdon and you I shalbc content at all tymes 
to employe meself ernestly to bring you togeder and to be 
a meane that both your titles may be shewed and loked 
upon and so to assaye to my power that the right title maye 
prevaile and you to remayne good freendes at the last. At 
this next cummyng hither I woll be in hande with hym for 
the same in such wise that I trust ye shal have your right 
conserved as to right and conscience shal apparteyne and as 
ye shal have cause to be contented. 

Penshurst, 21 Sept. 
Signed. 

275. CROMWELL TO (CRANMER). 

Strype 1 , Ecd. Menu, i. I. 497; not in Cal. Sept. 30 (1538). 

Requests him to charge the clergy of his diocese to obey the King's late 
Injunctions. Cf. Letter 273. 

After my right hearty commendations unto your Lordship. 
Whereas the King's Highnes being informed as well of the 
negligent observation of the former injunctions, exhibited to 
the Clergy of that diocese, as also of the further continuance 
of superstition and idolatry in the same, and minding, like 
as to his office most appertaineth, the expurgation of untrue 
religion, and the abolishment of all abuses, crept into the 
same ; hath willed and commanded me to put forth by his 
Grace's authority, to all his Clergy and subjects within this 
realm, certain other injunctions to be kept and observed of 
the same upon their further peril. These shall be therefore 
as well to advertise your Lordship, as also of the King's 
Highness behalf, to charge and command the same, that 
calling before you or your commissaries, at days and places 
convenient, the whole Clergy of that diocese, ye do exhibit 
and put forth on the King's Highness behalf, and by his 
Graces authority, these injunctions, whereof ye shall receive 
a Copy herewith and may send whereas they be printed for 
as many more, as will serve to give every Curate within that 
dioce'se : straitly charging every of the same, inviolably to 

1 The reference given in the document from which it was tran- 

Ecclesiastical Memorials to the scribed, and 1 have made this copy 

original of this letter is incorrect, from Strype. 
1 have been unable to discover the 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 157 

observe the said injunctions, upon the pains therein expressed. 
In default whereof, they may look for no like indulgence, as 
they have had hitherto by violation of the other, but earnest 
coercion and severity to be extended towards them, for 
both contempts together : And that ye fail not this the 
King's Highness pleasure and commandment effectually to 
put forth, execute, and accomplish, without any dissimulation 
negligence or remiss handling, as ye intend to answer to the 
King's Majesty, for the contrary thereof at your peril. And 
thus most heartily fare you well. From London the last of 
September. 

Your Lordship's friend, 

THOMAS CRUMWEL 
276. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 213 ; Cal. xiii. (ii) 621. Oct. 16, 1538. 

Informs him that the King is desirous to conclude an alliance with the 
Emperor, and requests him to declare Henry's friendship to Charles. 

After my right herty cow/mendaczons After the receipte of 
your \ftteres by Mr. Masson vpon the significaobn made to 
the King^j Ma/V^te by the Quene Regente of the receipte 
of Themperours commission and of his good & singular 
affection to precede syncerely and conclude all things as 
their amytie Requireth. The K'mges highnes after the 
sending of Mr. Wrysley and Mr. Vaughan in to Flaundres 
wz't// commission and power to treatie and conclude wttJt the 
said Regente hath advised ernestly to Joyne w*t/* themp^owr. 
and therfor despqched this berer his trusty s^ruaunt Mr. Hobby 
oon of the gromes of his graorj pryve chambrf w*t/* \etteres 
and Instructions. His grace thanking you for your grete 
diligence and dexterite heretofore vsed Requireth you at this 
tyme ernestly to precede to the declaraa'on of his good 
affection and purpose whiche I assure you is as syncere and 
fervent ernest and effectuel as could be desired and also of 
the hole Instructions whiche do precede of the very botom^ 
of his good hert and pure stomacke Nowe is the tymc that 
by thesame ye may moch^ further the matiers and gett 
yowrself mochr prayse and estimaczbn the which I wold be 
gladd for the desire I have of yowr furtherawce no lesse 
then ever I hadd myght be accomplished and don bifore 
March for at that tyme I trust according to yo//r desire to 
gett you leave to com hither agayn and that the Kingrj 
Ma/Vjte shal sende som other to supplie your Rowme there 
wherfor assaye so ernestly to sett those things forcward . as. 
ye maye encreace your estimac/on therby The kingrc highnes 



158 LETTERS OF [1538 

had sent masson vnto you in stede of this said bcrer were it 
not the chaunce that he is cvill diseased of a fever like as by 
his owne \fttftcs ye shal prrceyve. All occurrence here the 
said Mr. Hobby maye declare vnto you at large and amplely 
I mistrust not your diligence Wherfor w/t/route longer ex- 
hortac/on 1 commend e you to our blessed crcatowr who sende 
you p/vsperite & long lift" From london this xvi* of October 
the XXX th yer* of his grace most noble Regne 

Yo//r l assuryd louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To myn assured loving Freend air Thomas Wyat 
Knight gentilman of the Kinge Chambre And his grace 
ambassadowr w/t// Themprrowr. 

Endd. from my lorde previe seal the xvi* 11 of October. 

'277. (CROMWELL) TO SIR WM. SULYARD, JUSTICE OF 
FLINT, AND ROGER BRERETON, SHERIFF OF THE SAME. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (ii) 645. Oct. 19 (1538). 

Desires them to send Hugh Whit ford and Mr. Harrison to the King, in 
order that their quarrel concerning the parsonage of Whitford may 
be settled. 

In my Ryght hartie manrr I cow/mende me vnto you And 
where it is not unknowen tkot the Kinge magestye hathe 
longe tyme in the ryght and tytle of his crowne bene in 
possessyon by his Royall prrrogatyve to gyue at his grace 
is pleasure, all manrr of be/wfyces beyng voyde of any bys- 
shops gyfte w/t//in this Realme, duryng the vacacyon of ye 
same bysshopriche, whercapon his highnes aboute this tyme 
iii ycres beyng enformyd that the pdrsonaige of Whytforde 
in the dyoce of Saynt assaphe was then voyde by resignac/on, 
the said bysshopriche allso beyng voyde pleasyd his grace 
to gyue the same parsonaige of Whytforde to A scoler of 
his awne A stewdent in oxforde callyd Heughe Whytforde 
vtAich by vertue & strenghe of the Kyng gyfte haue bene 
lawfully Instytutyd and in cowtynuall possessyon of the same 
///is iii yfres on Januarye next w///ch notw/t//stondyng ther* 
is one Mr. Henryson by tytle and cullor of an aduocat/bn 
by the bysshop of Saynt assaphe in his lyfe grauntyd dothe 
make tytle to the same bewrfice Intendyng not onely to 
abayte the said Royall prrrogatyve wherof the kingrr grace 
hathe bene in possession by tytle of his crowne tyme out of 
mynd but also to evynce and recoiur Me same be/rrfycc 

1 t. o. lordshippe* 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 159 

frome the kynges scoler aforenamyd, con/nm'e to ryght 
Justice & good cowscyence, And dothe therefor maynteyn an 
actyon of quare Impedit before you in flyntshire to the grete 
treble and vexation of the kynges scoler and let of his Icrnyng 
Wherefore the kinges pleasure is that Immedyately after the 
Syght hereof you do Surcese and cause the partie to surces 
frome any further sute in t/tat countye for t/iat benefice 
Seyng it dothe concrme the ryght tytle & interest of his 
crowne, and to remyt both the parties & their sayd matter 
w/t/i thappwrtenawc^j to his highenes there to taike suche fynall 
order & detrrmynaczbn as hit shall please his magestye in 
that behalfe or any othrr to whome it shall please hym to 
co;myt the same. And this not to fayle as ye tender his 
pleasure At london etc. the xix 111 daie of October 

Add. To my lovinge frend^j Mr. Sullyard Justice of the 
countie of flynt. & rog^r brereton sheryf of the same to 
either of thew. 

278. CROMWELL TO <DR. LEGH) AND WILLIAM 
CAVENDISH. 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (ii) 764. Nov. 6, 1538. 

They are to dissolve the monasteries of St. Osyth and Colchester in Essex, 
and put one in the hands of the Lord Chancellor, and the other in the 
hands of the Chancellor of the Augmentations. 

After my harty commendations, thiese shall be to aduertise 
you that the kinges grac^r pleasure is that with convenient 
spede ye repairing to the Monasteries of Saynct Oses and 
Colchistrr shall for certayn reformation and other considera- 
tions Which his grace intendith as well there as in other places, 
dissolue and take the same to his vse. And by your dis- 
cretions considering the age qualities cowditions and towardnes 
of the prrsones there shall assigne vnto theym their awnuall 
pensions, and all other thinges doo according to his graces 
cow/mission to you in this behalf directed. Not omitting to 
putt my Lorde Cha/mcellar or his depute in possession of one 
of the said monasteries, and Mr. Chawncellar of thaugmewta- 
tions or his depute in possession of the other to our said 
sou^raigne Lorde the Kinges vse accordingly. Thus Fare ye 
hertely well. From London the vi th of Nouembre the XXX th 
(yere of) his grao-j most noble Regne. 

Yor louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my Louing Frendrj Mr. [Doctoar Lee] and 
Will/am Cauendish and to eu^ry of theym 



160 LETTERS OF [1538 

279. (CROMWELL) TO (LORD HUNGERFORD) >. 

Longford Castle MSS.; not in Cal. Nov. n (1538). 

He is to detain the traitor priest Richard Henley in prison until the 
next assizes. Cf. Letter 274. 

Whcras by your lettres of the vi 1 * of this present sent unto 
me by this bercr your scrvaunt I do pcrceave that nowe lately 
you have committed to prison a prest called Sir Richard 
Henly for certain traiterouse and sediciouse wordes spoken by 
him as more at large appcarcth by a bill of articles sent unto 
me with your said lettres. Thiese shalbe to signifie unto you 
the kinges Highnes pleasour is that the sayd prest do still 
remayn in wardc until the comming downe of the Judges in 
Eyre who shall at the next Assise there to be holden by 
special! commission here and cxamync the said articles and 
so determync the same as Justice shall require in that bihalf. 
And as concerninge the matier in variauncc betwixt you and 
my lorde of Huntington you shal undrcstond that oone of the 
Arbitrators elected and chosen to be here and cxamyne the 
same is departed this worlde yet ncvertheles I doubte not but 
that I with the rest of the saidc Arbitratours shall at laysour 
and tyme convenient take such ordre and directions thcrin as 
shall be to your good satisfaction. 

London, n Nov. 

280. CROMWELL TO (SiR BRIAN TUKE). 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (ii) 903. Nov. 24, 1 538. 
He is to deliver .1,000 to Mr. Gostwick for the Bishop of Winchester. 

In my right hartie maner I commend me vnto youe, 
Aducrtising the same, the kinges hieghnes pleasowr and cow- 
maundc;//<v/l is, that of the two thowsand poundcs being in 
yowr hanoVj and custodye Whereof yow and I had comw////i- 
cac/on yesterdaye, yow do indilayedly delyver or cawse to be 
dclyvered oon* thowsand pounde vnto Mr. Gostwyke to be 
payed by him vnto my lordc of Winchestre. And these my 
\ftteres with a bill also of the sayd Mr. Gostwyk/j hand 
mencioniwg the receipte of the same, shalbe vnto you a dis- 
chardge in that bihalf Thus fare youe hertely well From 
London the xxiiij" 1 daye of Novembre in the XXX th yere of 
the kingrr hieghnes moost noble Reigne. 

Yowr louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

1 From the official Record Office transcript. 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 161 

281. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Hart. MSS. 282, f. 217 ; CaL xiii. (ii) 924. Nov. 28, 1538. 

Informs him of the arrests of Exeter and Montague. Describes the trial 
and burning of a Sacramentary (John Lambert). Requests aid for 
John Toles and Richard Fermour in their suits. 

Mr. Wyat after my very herty co;mendaa'ons I have 
receyved by this bearer Nicolas the Currowr your let feres 
directed to the kingrj highnes signed by you and my 
freende Hoby and also an other \cttcrz in Siphrc the 
whiche have ben both delyvred vnto his Ma/Vjte like as 
by thanswere his grace sendeth vnto you ye may amplely 
knowe. Doubteles I thinke no nede to Require you to vse 
your accoustumed dexterite in setting furth of the same after 
yo//r best sorte and to vtter euery point thereof in such termes 
ordre and place as vpon the disposition inclinac/on answcrcs 
occurrence and circus/stance there ye shal by your discre- 
tion knowe most conveniewt to bring his Maiesties purposes 
to passe and to the conclusion his highnes most desireth. 

I assure you yo;/r diligence and dexterite to be vsed therin 
shalbc mochc cowmendcd and praysed if as my hope is the 
things by yonr good setting furth maye take effect neu^r- 
theles thesame to be thanckfully taken howesoever the 
matieres shal succedc for it is well knowen ye wante no good 
hert and alacrite and that his Ma/ete counsydereth well and 
cowtynueth your graciouse and benigne Lorde. For my part 
ye may be certain that I beare vnto you no lesse good will 
and syncere affection that I was wount, theffect hath been 
and shalbe my witnes thereof. Concernyng the two hundred 
pounds which ye lent to Sir Fraunce Brian whosoever 
ought them I have desbowrsed them and paide to Mr. Bon- 
vixi. Other men make in maner of their debte myn owne 
for very oft where they have borowed I am fayned to paye, 
Ye have to myn opinion by the waye of Flaundres ben 
aduertised howe the lorde Marquis of Exceto//;- and the lorde 
Montagu \vit/i a sorte of their adherers of mean estat and no 
estimaabn gretely have ben cowmaunded to the Towre to 
prison there, For sundry grete crymes of lese maicste traytcr- 
ousely Imagined and vttred as fcrre as they durst agenst the 
kinge Royal person, his yssue his counseill and the hole 
Realme so that it abhorreth any man to heare of it and the 
same their offences bee not known by light suspic/on but by 
certain proves and confessions. I doubte not but whan their 
conspirations shalbe disclosed and their ingratitudes towards 
the king their souuerayn lorde to the which they (ought) to 
geve most humble thanke for all that they had and for that 

MEMIMAN. II M 



LITTERS OF [1538 

state they were in all honest hcrte shal have abhominacA>n 
at their miserable wrctchcdncs and trayterouse malice 

Other occurrence of importauncc we have non here. The 
king Ma/etc my lorde prince grace my ladyes his doughtcrs 
and the rest of his counseill be all mcry and in good pros- 
perite, The xvi th dayc of this present, the kinge Ma/etic for 
the Reverence of the holy sacramc//t of thai tar did sett 
openly in his hall and there presided at the disputacion pro- 
cesse and Jugemewt of a myscrable herctik sacramcwtary who 
was brent the xx th of the same moneth It was a woundcr to 
sec howe princely wj't/i howe excellent grauite and Inestiw/able 
maiestc his highnes exrrciscd there the very office of a 
suprrme hed of his church of Englandc Howe benignely his 
grace assayed to converte the miserable man howe strong and 
manifeste reasons his highnes alleged agcnst him I wished the 
prince and potentate of Chro/rndom to have have l a meate 
place for them there to have seen it vndoubtcdly they shuld 
have moch merveilled at his Maiestes most highe wisedom and 
Jugemet and reputed hym non otherwise after thcsame then 
in maner the Mirocr and light of all other kinge and prince 
in Chrw/cndom Thesame was openly don w/t// grete sole;//nitc 
wherby I doubt not but som of your frcende that have good 
leaswrr shal by their lr//rres adurrtise you of the hole dis- 
co//rs thereof. So w/t//oute further recit (Save to signifie vnto 
you that forasmochc as it is by sundry complaincte shewed 
vnto the kinge Ma/ete that his grace subiccte John Tolcs, 
Richard Fermowr and othir their consorte merchaunte of 
London and besidrj them sundry of his grace subiecte both 
of this Realme and other dominions be protracted there w/'t//- 
oute any expedy[ci]on of sundry proccs and sute they hauc 
touching many deprcdac/bns and Roberyes by thcmprrowrs 
subiecte committed agenst (them) as It is like they hauc had 
recowrs som of them vnto you ye shal at yo//r oportunc 
occasion after dispeche of his grace affaires take your tymc 
to sollicite Thempmv/r to ordcyne that they may have brefe 
Justice and Reason by his Juge mynystrcd vnto them there 
and that they may be no lenger traded and dilayed in their 
sute to the vttcr vndoing of som of them the kinge highnes 
hath graunted vnto them a let/ere to the said emptrour of the 
same tenowr requiring hym to cause Justice to be ministred 
vrit/t declarac/on that his Ma/etc hath appoinctcd you to 
sollicite their expedition, ye shal do well and charitably to 
helpe them of your Intercession both to thcmpmv/r and 
to his prive counseill tobtcync shortc jugcmcnt and final 



stc. 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 163 

cnde in their matiers, Also to desire you that ye shal call 
vpon thempmwr to sende Instructions full and ample in to 
Flaundres for expedition of the matiers and that the king^r 
highnes ambassadors shal not Remayne ther* w*t//oute busy- 
nes but evermore precede to thexpedition of there affaires. 
Not faylyng after your accoustumed fashon to vse diligence 
in geving aduertissemewt of all the answeres ye shall have 
there occurrence and other things whereof ye may atteync 
any knowlege being of any Importaunce) I cowmitte you to 
our blessed Lord^r custodye and keping who preserve you. 
From London this xxviij th daye of Noue;ber 1538. 

At the tyme of the cowdewmaabn of the Sacramewtary the 
kingly highnes caused som pnrclamaczbns to be made the copie 
whereof in prynte ye shal receyve hirewzt//. 

Your assuryd louyng freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very loving freend Sir Thomas Wyat Knight 
The Kinge Ambassadowr w/'t/: Thempm>ttr. 

Endd. From my lorde previe seal the xxviii of Nove/wbrr 
by NicrWas the Couriowr 

282. CROMWELL TO JOHN RUSSELL. 

Library of William Berington, Esq., of Little Malvern Court ; not in Cal. 
Dec. 7, 1538. 

Has been informed that the bearer has been discharged from the position 
he held in the Marches of Wales. Desires Russell to admit him again 
to the office, to hold it alone or jointly with Humphrey Calfield. 

Mr Russell after my hartie Recowmendacyons where as on 
the behalfe of a ryght towarde yonge man Edwarde Bashe (?) 
this Berer I am enfowrmed that heretofore he hath exercysed 
the Rowme and offyce of your deputy or clarke in the kynges 
Ulajestes signet in the Marches of Walys And that vppon 
certeyn contraversies attempted betwixt your son and the 
saide Edwarde yow discharged hym of any further Intcr- 
medlyng vnder yowe And for as moche as he is avauncyd to 
the parfect knowledge of the saide office and a parsone hable 
to do the kynges highnes acceptable s^rvyce in that office and 
therunto is well anymated I shall therfore hartely requyre and 
desire you at the Contemplacyon of thise my L^/teres and for 
my sake to admyt accept and allowe the saide Edwarde in to 
the saide offyce as your deputye wzt//owt further protracte 
of tyme or at the Leste to admyt the saide Edwarde Joyntly 
occupier therof w/t^ one humfrey Calfield now -your deputy 

M i 



164 LETTERS OF [i 

and that the saidc Edwardc receyvyng benefit at yowr hand<\r 
as the moment of my rcquysicion dothe importe (dowte yc 
not) I shall have your gratuytye theryn in Remembraunce not 
to be forgottyn yow may be sure whensoever the tyme and 
case shall so requyre And thus hartely fare ye well from 
London the vii" 1 of Decembre the thirty year of the kyng 
"M.ajfstfs moste noble reign 

Yowr lovyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my Lovyng frende John Russell Esquyer the 
Kyng Secretary of the Marches of Walys. 

283. (CROMWELL) TO . 

R. O. Cal. xiii. (ii) 1004. (Dec. 1538.) 

Concerning the payment of a debt owed to the husband of the recipient 
by the late Marquis of Exeter. Advice about the disposition of her 
property at her death. 

Aftre my right harty commendations Ye shall vnderstande 
that according vnto your desier I haue moved the kingrj 
highnes for the payment of suche somes of Money as the Late 
Marquis of Excestre owghte vnto my Loving Freend your 
Husbande whose soule god pardon and haue foundc his 
highnes veray good in that bchalfe. Like as my Loving 
srruaunt Will/am Button the bearer herof shall forther 
declare vnto you. And Forasmoche as at all tymes I haue 
borne my good mynde and will aswcll vnto you as to yo//r 
said Husbonde eucr being glade to see you do well, And now 
do consider that ye be sickelye and brokne with age, and also 
that ye haue possession and great substance of good & whiche 
like as ye haue honestlye and wiselye Vsed and ordered them 
in your Lyef tyme Yf the same shuld be smored or mys- 
ordered after your decease it were great pitye and displeasour 
to yo//r Freendes and to suche as Loue you, I can do no lessc 
then declare vnto you this mynr advyce and Counsaile, that 
now bifore the Fcrvcntnes and outerage of sicknes do moleste 
and vex your mynde, Ye quietly Despose and ordre aswell 
your goodes and Rychesse as your Landes and Heridita- 
metttfs Wherbye your Freendes may Fare the better, and 
your selfe more quiet in mynde to make you mete to god, 
whiche thinge avoyding worldely cures from you shall 
nothing shorten your dayes of Leving, But rather prolonge 
the same. And wheras my said Loving seruaunt this bearer 
is your Freend and allyauncc, and I know him to be a man 
whiche vndowtedly mochc tenderithe your honestye and good 



1538] THOMAS CROMWELL 165 

fame in defence wherof he hathe paste suche stormes as some 
man wolde not haue doom? to wynne therby great somes of 
money, the specialties wherof albeit I doubt nothing but ye 
know p^rfetly to be trew, Yet I shall require you to here 
him therin and to geue forther credence vnto him aswell in 
this matter as in other whiche he shall opynne to you more 
playnelye And for his trewithe I thinke ye can not Fynde 
suche a nother so mete to be oone of them that shuld haue 
the ordre and disposioon aswell of your goodes as of your 
Landes. Considering the good honesty and fydelitie that 
I know to be in the man and also that he is your alyauns and 
suche oon as your Husbonde dyd moche favor. Thiese shalbe 
to Desyer you that ye who haue shewed your selfe a wise 
woman hietherto do not forget and ouershote yourselfe now 
in your olde dayes but be ordered by my said advyce and 
Counsaile Havinge sent my said smirtunt your alyauns vnto 
you for the setting forwarde and p^rformaunce of the said 
purpose Whom I doubt not but ye shall fynde bothe Faithfull 
and trustye, and mete for the same And forther I shall 
require you taduertise me by him in writing of your good 
conformitie and agrement herunto Wherby I may haue cause 
to set forwarde aswell your said sute vnto the King^ Mai^rtie 
and to accompleshe the same, as to preferre and forther all 
your other sutar as occasion shall srrue. Thus Fare ye right 
Hartelye well From 

284. (CROMWELL) TO (THE COUNCIL OF THE NORTH). 

R. O. CaL xiii. (i) 2. ( 1 537 or 1538.' > 

Instructions concerning the valuation and disposition of the goods and 
chattels of persons attainted in the north, and concerning the 
appointment of an auditor. A fragment. 

Furth if any of the gooddes conteyned in the scedule be 
praised to a more value thenne they be worthe or alleaged 
soo to be, you shall cause the same to be indifferently 
praised again by iiii honest indifferent prrsonnes, soo as the 
said Acco;ptanter woll abide the like touching other things 
that be praised vnder the value whiche in cace they woll seke 
any relief by that meanes you shal also put in vre. 

Fifte as concernyng the gooddrj sold by the said late 
Sheriff under the iust value of the same onles you canne 
prove aperte fraude in the doing therof his maieste wold not 
therw/t// charge his accowptawtar further thenne witA the 
payment of the money receyved for them, whiche reason 
requireth. 

1 sic ; see Notes. 



166 ! I.TTKRS OF [i 

Sixt if you shall by examynac/on fynde that there cam to 
thandrt of the said late Sheriff* more goodes & catallrr thcnnc 
be cowteyned in the sccdule his pleasure is you shall make 
also a charge thcrof and annex it in a codicill to the sccdule 
Joyncd w/t/r the cow/mission, preceding in suchc wise thcrin 
as it may apperc that his highnes rcquireth rather Icssc tlienne 
more thcnne might iustly be Demaunded from him suchc 
respecte his Ma^-Jte hathc to the srruicc don by the said late 
Shircflf in the tyme of the late rebellion in those parties. 
And his grace wol that you shall take like ordre for the 
gooddrj of the said prrsonncs attainted rcmayning in Richc- 
mowdshirr and other liberties thoughe the names of the per- 
sonnes nor the particulers of the gooddrj be not contcyncd 
in the sccdule annexed to the commission In whiche pointe 
you be thoughe to be very scrupulous that being there coun- 
sailors wold suffre his highnes to lose his right whiche might 
be recouped by your industries for want of auctoritie by 
sper/all cow/mission to loke to that indifferently and honestly 
that might redounde to his gracrj iust benefits. 

Finally as touching the Audito//r his grace is content you 
shall (appoint) some Audito//r of those parties whom yc shal 
thinke mete ad if there be none such you be thought (to) 
be menne that canne make a iust plane accompte whiche in 
this case may srrue and shall be as well accepted being true 
and subscribed w/'tA yo//r handcs as thoughe it were paynted 
witJt the gaye forme of the best Auditowrj that might be 
appointed For that purpose And thus Fare 

285. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. HarL MSS. 282, f. 160; CaL xiv. (i) 93. Jan. 19, 1539. 

Informs him that his return to England is deferred till April. Advises 
him to be patient and more careful in the expenditure of money. 
Desires him to obtain the Emperor's answer to the King's letters as 
soon as possible. 

After my right hcrty cowmcndac/ons I have receyved 
yowr k//rres, by this bearer Nicolas and sett furth the matter 
of yo//r Rctournat Marche next and my sute notwithstanding 
it is differred tyll Aprill as yc shal prrceyve by the kingrr 
lr//rrcs who l mau'ste taketh yo//r diligence and active alacritc 
there in good part sending you answer of his graces pleas///r 
in all things as by his said \cttercs ye shal prrccyve I doubte 
not but yc shal duely discharge yowr duetie in the setting 
furth thereof as ye have don hitherto. I advise you to take 

1 sif, for ' whose.' 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 167 

patiently your abode there tyll Aprill and to sende me worde 
what money ye shal nede to have sent vnto you for I shal 
helpe you. Assurig you that I could not see you that 
went and hath abyden there honestly furnished to Retowrne 
home and at the later ende to retowne nedy and disfurnished 
I do better tender the kingcs honour, and esteme you better 
then so to suffre you to lacke. Advising you nevertheles, that 
I thinke your gentil franck hert doth moche empovrishe 
you whan ye have money ye are content to departe w/t/* 
it and lende it as ye did lately ii dz vl to Mr Hobby 
the which I thinke had no nede of them for he had large fur- 
nishemcwt of money at his departure hens and likewise at 
his Retowm We acoustume not to sende men disprovided so 
ferre. Take hede therfore howe ye departe of such portion 
as ye nede. And forsee, rather to be provided yo//rself. then 
for the prouision of other to leave yo//rself nacked, politike 
charite pr^ccdeth not that waye. If ye shal adu<?;-tise me 
what suwmes ye shal nede I shal take a waye that ye shal 
be furnished. I Require you to sollicite an answere of 
Thcmprro///- to tenow of the kingrj lef/eres and as shortely 
as ye can and as often as ye maye have oportunite to ad- 
uertise his Ma*V.rtie amplely of all occurrcwte? Thus Fare 
ye hertely well From London this xix th of January 1538. 

Your assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very loving freend sir Thomas Wyat Knight 
oonr of the gentil men of the king^r Chawber And his graces 
ambassador w/t// Themp^/-o?/r. 

286. CROMWELL TO EDMUND HARVELL. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (i) 104. Jan. 21, 1539. 

Instructions for negotiations for a league of England with the Duke of 
Urbino and other Italian States against the Pope. The marginal 
notes are in another hand. 

Instrucc/ons by the lord Crumwell lord pryvey Scale geven 
vnto his trusty and loving frende Edmond Haryvell And sent 
the xxi 111 of January the XXX th yerr of the kingtt most noble 
Rcgne. 

Whcr by sundry reaportrj and Informac/ons made vnto the 
said lordc Crumwell, aswell of the good lernyng, dexteritc, 
prudence, circumspection, vertues and other good qualities as 

1 i. e. 200 ducats. 



168 I.KTTKRS OF [1539 

also of the good zelc, affection and fidclite, the said Edmowd 
1 1 a r\ veil bcircth towards his sourrain lord and prince, And the 
wcalthc of his naturall Cuwtrcy, his lordship cstemyng hym 
worthy his highnes gracious favowr, & to be put in crcdict, 
hath thought at this tymc to give vnto hym the charge 
and Commission of certain suchc his maicstics affaires as 
folowe. 

First his lordship doubtcth not but the said Edmond Hary- 
vell knoweth amply, the greate reasonable and Importaunt 
Causes vpon the whiche his grace, by the advice and assent of 
his hole Realme, hath spoken of, and put awaye the hcyvy 
yoke of that vsurped Auctorite 1 , whiche the bishop of Rome 
vscd vpon his said Realme and to take vpon his maicstye the 
dignitye of supreme hede of the churche of the same belong- 
ing to the imprriall Corone therof, wherby his maiestye hathe 
hitherto avoyded a greate part of suche suprrsticion, Idolatry, 
and other execrable abvses crept and planted by litle and 
litle amongrr his grac^r subiectrj, by the crafty and deceytfull 
conveyaunce of the said bishop 2 of Rome and his adherents, 
who do regard nothing but to fulfyll their covetouse avarice 
and insaciable mynd for the whiche doings the said bishop 
(as his lordship is adurrtised) entending to recourr and mayn- 
teyn his tyranny aswell vpon his grace as other princes 
Realmes, hath conceyved an extreme furious malice against 
his maiestye, and contynually studyeth and maligneth, howc he 
might annoye or greve hym w/t^ anye meanes possible. And 
albeit his highnes dothc in no wise feare any of his Cen- 
sures attewptatrj or othrr malicious & dcvilishe machinac/ons, 
knowing that all the popishe power is not hable to hurt his 
grace, bothe for the strength of his Realme, and also because 
(whiche is the chief ground to stand & fix vpon) his highnes 
taketh the part of trueth, whiche is god, who delyurrrth itself 
ahvaies, yet neurrtheles his maiesty, being of that godly dis- 
posic/on that he wold not only the same tyranny of the see of 
Rome shuld be so repressed and the power so moderate that 
the syncere word of god and the gospell shuld be no further 
oppressed by their pardons suprrsticions tryfellrj and abuses, 
and that the princej of christendome might enioye the auctorite 
of them gevyn by god hym self but also his highnes wold be 
lothc to see any other king or prince Iniustly gorma//dcd, 
oppressed or oiurthrown by the popish tyranny spnially in 
their rightfull causes. Insomoche that his grace wold be glad 

1 In the margin : The king re- * In the margin : The Pope en- 

jecting the usurped Authentic of deavours to re-introduce his supcr- 

the Pope takes vpon him to be stitious Religion into England and 

supreme head of the Church other kingdomes 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 169 

to make supporte l subvention and confort vnto them to resist 
his malice, And by all meanesto his highnes possible Frendely 
employe hym self, that the said Tyranny shuld not pra-ayle, 
but the said princes escape and avoyde his perucrsc and 
extreme Rigorouse pj/rposes. Wherin his maiestye wold 
ncurrtheles non otherwise precede but as he shall first be well 
informed of the truthe and lawfulnes of the mater, and therwz'tA 
he requyred desyred and prayed in that behalf, For assuredly 
his highnes woll neuer medic to support any maner cause 
but only suche as shalbe knowen Just and lawfull, and that 
do tende to the hono//r and glory of god, the setting forthe 
of his truthe, And repression of thaduersaries of the same, 
for w/t//out any doubt his maiesty is not only vttrrly fixed 
never to helpe or maynteyne any Iniust querell, but also 
tendeth and regardeth so moch his high honour that yet in 
the supportacion of Justice he woll avoyde as mochc as may 
be wzt// the pleasure of almighty god, to be bruted suspected 
or noted as a perturbato//r of peax renowned to sett men at 
variance or otherwise to disquyete any part of Christendom, 
wher in dede his gracious Inclinacion is suche, that to the 
contrary he en tendeth peax, vnyon, amyte, and concord with- 
out any strive or warr onles his grace be moved and in maner 
cowstreyned therunto by the malice of thadurrsaries of god, of 
his Royall right or stirred for suche Just and evident lawfull 
causes as be aforesaid, In which cace what his Royall dexteritc, 
alacrite, and princely stomake can do It hathe heretofore by 
experience ben clearly known by prosperous Succes of all his 
enterprises (prayses be vnto owr Creator) This is his majesties 
most honourable disposition of the which his lordship hath 
for this purpose thought expedient to aduertise in genrrall the 
said for the better cowducing of his purpose in this and 
other things that shalbe hereafter committed to his charge 
and discrecion To thentent He maye so depely engrave and 
prynt in his memory theffect of the same as a lyne and Ruler 
whcnv/t/* he may be addressed to discharge hymself as apper- 
teyneth 

Second, wher his lordship is credibly informed that the 
said bishop 2 of Rome, of his Inique covetous and vengeable 
disposicion, dothe nowe enterprise and set forthe a grcatc 
armye against the duke of Vrbyn for the Cite and Domynion 
of Camcryn, Intending to put hym to extreme Rigor, wrong- 
fully and against all right, And that if he spede well in his 

1 In the margin: His Majwty sett forth against the D. of Urbin 
inclined to aid any who are op- for the Citty and Dominion of 
pressed by the Pope. Cameryn 

2 In the margin : The Popes 



i;<> LETTERS OF [i 

Jorney and w/t/r his popishc power shal ovcrthrowc the said 
duke 1 (suchc is the Ambicion of old Ipocrysy) he shall attempt 
the like or further against Fcrrare, Mantua, and other Estate 
of Italy, to thair vttcr vndoing, of the which and howe Fcrr 
furthc the cnterpr/ses be on bothe parties his lordship is 
desirous to be adurrtised. And therupon according to the 
premisses precede to informe and suadc the kingrj highnes as 
shall appertain. 

Third his lordship wold be informed as well of the 
Inclinacion of the Veneciaws towards the bishop of Rome, 
and his Cruel cnterpr/scs against Cameryn and howe they 
favo//r cither parte, as also of thair cntelligencrj, Successes, 

and occurantrj ther, as it can not be but the said for 

his cowtynuall abyding thus many yeres, and of his good 
acquaynta//ce w/'t// men of good credict ther dothe knowe 
alredy or may easely khowe as of hym self, and as having no 
comw/ission therof 

Fourth his lordship rcquireth that w/'t// all convenient dili- 
gence the said riding abrode yf nede be wherin for his 

Costo and expencrj his lordship sendeth vnto hym at this 
tymc the som of cc. marVu-s to be received by exchaunge ther, 
shall vndcr the colowr of his feate and trade of merchandise, 
keping this Commission secrete from all men endevowr his vt- 
tcrmost power not only to knowe howe the mater of Cameryn 
dothc stand in all poynter, and whither thempmwr hath 
com/wittcd som of his nobles to stey and pacyfye that mater, 
whither the mater be in any wise compounded, or like to be 
compounded, shortcly or no And that for the assurance of 
adurrtisment he shall alwaies assaye to atteyne true knowlaigc 
therof, of som sure, expert, and no light persons, as his dis- 
crccion can forcast & prudently forsee And for the atteynyng 
of the same to spare no riding ncr reasonable cost 2 , likewise 
of the affaires of Ferrare and Mantua particulerly howe they 
stond, also howe the nobles static and gentlemen of Italy ar 
bent and beare affection and therof to aduertise w/t// con- 
venient diligence surely and secrctely his lordship, And chifely 
of all the particularities of thestate of Cameryn in eurry 

poynt, And in cace the said shall perceive assurydly the 

contcncions thervpon to be pacyfyed, steyd or haue otherwise 
likelihod manifest & probable shortcly to quaylc and be ended 

1 In the margin : If the Popes veil for his expences, who is to 

Army prove victorious he intends to follow his trade, keeping his com- 

.utatque Fcrrara Mantua & other mission secret & to inform his 

Italian Princes with the same. Lordship of the state of affaires in 

1 In the margin : My Lord Crom- Italy front time to time, 
well sends 200 marks to Mr. Har- 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 171 

for ever, or for many monethes Then shall the said precede 

no further for this tyme, till vpon full adu^rtismewt geven of 
all those vnto his lordship, he shal haue further knowlaige of 
his lordships advice and cntent vpon the same. 

Fyft in cace the said shall fynd to the contrary those 

strives, wzV/out any suche likelihod of steye, although his 
maiestye as reason requireth shuld be bothe prayed by Vrbyn 
& other, and instantely besought for his graces favour & 
support For thair part as it becometh them, For as the cormwon 
pr^verbe is profred offre stinketh, or at the lest is suspecte, 
yet neu^rtheles considering thair ferr distance from hens and 
litle acquayntance and Intelligence bctwen them, wherby they 
may be discoraged to haue any subuention support or favour 
at his graces hand l and in respecte that the old duke^ of Vrbyn 
was an honourable and valiawt prince and oon^ of the noble 
order of the garter wherby his highnes hath yet som favour 
roted in his hert towards Vrbyn and his house, and shuld 
moch Reioyse to here of his good Successes, aswell for the 
same & other considerations in the first article herof, his 
lordship willeth that yf it may in any wise be possible the 

said as of hymself and as though he had no maner 

comw/ission shall by the meane of his acquayntance or 
otherwise to the Duke hymself, to som of his Counsail or 
to such other honest and assured person (wherby the Duke 
may haue knowlaige) set forth the declaraabn of his good 
will and affection towards the duke and his good successors 
and desier them moche to knowe howe his cace standeth wit/t 
that bishop which is also adurrsary to his naturall prince, and 
Cuntrey of England sayeng vnto them that he wisheth hym 
to be aswell acquaynted wit/i the klnges maiestye as the old 
duke his predecessor was, and that he might also obteyn 
the order of the garter 2 whiche shuld be notable and very 
honourable to hym, yf he could aswell succede in the said 
order as in other things, And also that it is like that he 
shuld eascly obteyne the same forasmoch as ther be yet (at) 
this tyme crrtain Rowmes of that order voyde, whiche as he 
vnd^rstandeth by his freendes his highnes is not hasty to 
conferre but vpon good deliberacion and to bestowe them 
vpon men of hono;/r and of the best sorte and specially as it 
(is) to be thought vpon the Successowrs of those that haue 
been his Auncient FrecnoVj and were of the same order, 

1 In the margin: His MajVjty Garter. 

desires to be sought by the tiute * In t/ie margin ; An offer of the 

of Vrbin to fauour him, retaining Garter secretly made to the young 

a respect for the old Duke of Urbins Duke there being certain places 

valour who he made Krtig/it of the void. 



172 LETTERS OF [I^Q 

whcrof the said shall prrtcndc to hauc been adurrtiscd 

by som of his ncrc frcndrj in England, taking vpon hym that 
if the Duke woll require his highncs, he is assured he shuld 
here honest answer, and that he trusteth the mater shalbc easy 

Inogh, and bcsyckr that the said shall say that he thinkcth 

vndoubtedly yf the kinger maiesty shuld be assured of the 
veray rightwisnes of his cause, and that if he might perceive 
that by no honest or reasonable mcanes he can pacyfye his 
enemye and agree \v/t/r hym reasonably w/V/out any warr or 
effusyon of blod but rather shalbe cowstreyned to defendc 
hymself w/'t// the sword, than l his maiestyc well knowing and 
having shakkyn of alredy the malice and onerous yoke of that 
bishop of Rome, shuld wishe hym as good Succcsse as to his 
speciall frend against the//emye (as he takyth hym) of princes, 
and that it he shall thinke taduertisc his highncs of the truth of 
the mater, and of his mynd and purpose therin he to his 
power & simple Jugcment thinketh that vpon the sug . . t 
. . . ow . . . ge of his Just right, his highnes woll tenderly 
studye to do hym som suchc good subuewtion and conforte 
as may stand with his graces hono//r, as the qualities of 
the amyte & favowr he beireth vnto that famyly shall require 

vsing the said in the pr<?posicbn therof & answers to be 

geven that sobernes and temperature as he may perceive is to 
be vsed by the first of these Instrucc/ons And if by this 
occasyon the said Duke shall shewe hymself dcsyrous to hauc 

the order of the garter the said shall answer that albeit 

he hath no 3 commission thereof yet he doubteth not forasmoch 

as ... Rowmes therof voyde his fauowrable vnto hym 

but if there shuld be made vnto hym overture of Ayde and 
helpe of som souldycwrs or money for his defence the said 

shall answer that albeit he is assured the kingej grace to be 
of fauowrablc disposicion towards hym as he hath vnderstood 
by som of his frcndej, yet neuertheles he knoweth no port his 
graces mynd therin, howe be it he may assure that he thinkcth 
yf the duke shall informe his maiestye of the Justice of his 
cause and require hym of support & ayde he shall fynd his 
maiestye as gracious and a noble prince, and suche as woll 
shewe his good affection wit// effect 

Seventhe . yf the said shall perceive that those maters 

of Cameryn (remayning in trouble) other prince, as of Ferrarc 
or Mantua wold take part in it, or nothing relent for the said 
bishop, then he shall first by his polycye as of hymself asscy 

1 /iV, for ' then.' he will send him succour. 

* In the margin : It is probable ' c. o. but a gen/rall commission 

that when his MaiVjty shall be and no word . . . thereof 
advertised of the cause of the warr 



THOMAS CROMWELL 173 

to atteyn the like w*t// them as is beffore expressed wit/i the 
Duke of Vrbyn, mutatw mutandis not forgetting alwaies 
sobernes, and temperate c/rcuwspection in all poyntes before 
expressed *. 

Eight that in all places, where the said shall perceive 

any notable and honest persons 2 apte to here and to lerne the 
truthe, and that be like to haue a sincere zeale to the truthe, or 

beire som hatred to the bishop of Rome soberly and 

w*t// no rayling wordes endevowr hym self c/Vcuwzspectly to 
fele thair veray mynd^y and disposition, and so employe 
his witt to powre in som smak of the pure lernyng of Cristrj 
doctrine among?* them and to open them the sight to 
prrceyve the abuses of pardones, reliques, and other super- 
sticions, of the bishop of Romes see, contrary to the gospell, 
not forgetting to declare his vsurped power vpon his neiburs 
& prince 3 to the detriment of thair supremacye graunted 
to them by the holy scripture, And like as he shal haue feled 
any of the nobles or notable persons disposed, So he shall 
at convenient occasion, knowing first thair inclinacion, precede 
from stepp to stepp, further and further. Qrelles yf they be 
not disposed to abyde, then he shall therafter vse temperate 

incurre any daungrr or be 

taking alwaies good hede to be ware of 

dyssymblers and hypocrite, As it is not to be doubted, 
but his discretion can haue provident regard therunto. 

Fynally the said Edmond Haryvell shal by all wayes and 
mcancs to hym possible diligewtly enserche Investigate and 
Inquire both of the bishop of Romes havio//r practises or any 
entreprises ag[ain]st the kinge ma*V.rte or his Royaulme, and 
the Intelligence and demean[our] vrtt/t the practises of the 
said pole \vit/i him and other and what they pwrpose to do 
what they go aboute to attempte And in cace the said Haryvell 
can get any mete spye aboute them or any of them, that he 
shal reteyn the same and send worde thereof to his Lordeship 
and of the stipewde requisite for his aspiall And his lordship 
shal cause him to be paid And generally that the said Haryvel 
shal w/t// expedition from tyme to tyme -with diligence geue 
advertisement to his lordship of almaiw his doings preceding^ 
occurrences and successes there his paynes and diligewce 
therein to be reme;;/bred and Requited accordingly. 

1 In the margin: Mr. Harvell ligion or averse to the Pope he shall 

to perform the same office with the soberly explaine to them the vanity 

\)uke of Mantoua and Ferrara as of the Romish Doctrine, 

he has w/t^ the Vutf of Urbin. s In the margin : . . . to declare 

* In the margin : If he shall find against the usurped authority of the 

any inclined to the Protestant re- Pope on the neighbour Princes. 



174 LETTERS OF [ i ;,jg 

287. CROMWELL TO CHRISTOPHER MONT. 

B. M. Vit. B. xxi, f. 174 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 103 (2). (Jan. 1539.) 

Instructions for preliminary negotiations for marriages between the 
Duke of Cleves and the Princess Mary, and between Henry and 
the Duchess Anne. 

A memoriall of Instruct! he lorde Crumwcll . lor 

. . frend Christofer Moun. . 



WHEREAS the Kmgcs Ma/Vjtic sendcth at this tymc 

pher Mount vnto the Duke of Saxon and Landgra for 

certaine his gracrj affaires vnto them, The said Mount 

shall at his being ther take occasion to common .... fcrre 

w/t// Franciscus Burgartus the said dukvj vicccha and 

late his oratowr here in Englande, And on the biha . . the said 

lorde Crumwell w/t// hartye and affectuous co dations 

by mouth bisides his lordshippr^ l<*//Vres to the said 

gartus directed, shall declare vnto him that wheras a 

conference bitwen his lordshipp and the said Burgartus suchc 
tyme as he was here orato//r, concerning an alliauncc of 
maryagc to be contracted bitwen the yongc duke of Clev . . . 
and his doughter the lady Maryc, The duke of Saxon his 
Maister, as he hath written by his lr//rres to his lordshipp, is 
desirous to sett forth the same at his next meting, and wissheth 
that the same maye succede, Wheruppon his lordshipp hath 
a ferre of broken and made overture of the same to the king<v 
hieghnes whom by his grao-j countemwnce and exterior 
Visage, he hath pcrceyved to be of good Inclinacion, and 
aunswered that for the duke of Saxon . . . sake he wold do very 
mooch, but yet ncvcrtheles he entcndeth to make non aunsu ere 
therunto, tyll after requisition therof shalbe made vnto his 
grace by the parties. In which cacc w/t// honorable and 
reasonable conditions, the said lorde Crumwell trusteth some 
good effect shall ensue therof. 

And if the said Burgartus shall desire the picture of her face 
and alledge that he wrote for it, he ought to remembrc that 
her degre is suche, being the kinges doughter that of noo 
tyme it hath ben sen, that the pictures of such shuld be sent 
abrodd, And specyally seen that the said Burgartus cannc tcs- 
tifie of her proportion, countenauncc and bcautic, Whoself hath 
seen her And although she be but his gracrj doughter naturall 
oonly, Yet nevertheles she is indcwed and adornate as all the 
world knoweth, aswell of suchc grace of bcautic and excellent 
propo . . tion of her personage as of moost excellent lerning, 
honorable bihauo//r and of all honest vcrtucs and good quali- 
ties, that it is not to be doubted, but whcnnc all the rest 
shuldc be agreed, no man wold styck nor stayc for any parte 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 175 

concerning her beautie and goodnes but rather haue more then 
contentemewt as he knoweth right well, who at his being here 
sawc her self visage. 

FURTHER the said Christopher Mount shall diligently but 
secretly Inquere of the beautie and qualities of the Lady 
eldest of booth the doughters to the duke of Cleves, Aswell 
whatshapp, stature, proportion and complexion she is of As of 
her lerning actyvitie, bihauo///- and honest qualities, And if 
the said Christopher Mount shall heare, that she is such as 
might be likened vnto his Ma/rjtie Then he shall saye vnto the 
said Burgartus That the lorde Crumwell muchc tendering the 
Kingrj alliaunce in Germany, If he could fynde any occasion 
wolbe gladd to employe himself ernestly to induce and per- 
suade the kingrj hieghnes his souerain lorde rather to Joyn 
\\'ii/t them then otherwise, specyally for the duke of Saxonycs 
sake, who is allyed ther, and to make a crosse maryage bitwen 
the yong duke of Cleves and my lady Mary as is aforesaide. 
And of the \t\ngcs hieghnes w/'t// the said elder doughtcr of 
Cleves. For as yet, he knoweth not, that ther is any conclusion 
in any of the overture ... of maryage made to his grace in 
Fraunce or in Flaundres. And thinketh that his grace is not 
of light procedyng in a matier of suche importaunce, but if 
they wold do anything thcrin, he thinketh that it shulde be 
moost expedyewt they shuld send her picture hither, to 
thentent his lordshipp might the better persuade his Ma*krtie 
therby : A .... requisite to the same, and allsoo that they 
shuld vs . . . in making offre or motion to his MazVjtie therof 
bifore .... elusion shuld be made vfit/i an other. And then 
seing .... good affection towards the duke, He trusteth that 
ey . . . . some good successe shuld succede therof, in the 
effect of .... alliaunce, Orellrj that the same shuld be a cause 
to e ... the love and amytie oon both parties. And soo the 
sa . . . Christofer Mount shall as of His further cons .... \\itfi 
the said Burgartus of all things possible at lardge But never- 
theles not as demaunding her, but as geving them a prick to 
stirr them to offre her, as the noblest, and hieghest honour 
that could come into that noble howse of Cleves, if they could 
bring it to passe, And as he thinketh the matier shuld not be 
taken for past ner desperate, but rather (having the lorde 
privie scale moche desirous therof) they ought to hope well* 
And that the said Christopher Mount thinketh the matier to 
be followed on thair bihalf, by overture vnto his Ma/Vjtie 
If they regard her hieghest collocation \vit/i such a moost 
mighty excellent and vcrtuous Prince, as the king our 
soueraigne Lorde. 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 



176 1 LITERS OF [i 

288. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

1'.. M. Titus B. i, f. 263 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 227. Feb. 5 (1539). 

Reports Castillon's request for an audience with the King and his desire 
to return to France. Has shown the ambassador that the King is 
well able to defend himself against invasion. 

My most bounden dutie w/t// all Reuerence, right humbly 
rcmcmbrcd to yo//r Ma/Vjtie. Please thesame to knowe that 
this present mornyng Mons* de Castillon hath bcne w/t// me, 
and declared that yesterdaye he receyvcd \tttercs from the 
king his Master conteynyng answere to suche matiers as yo//r 
highnes did geve hym charge to write of The whiche he wold 
be gladd he myght as soiu- as could be declare declare * vnto 
your graces self afore he shuld make any man participaunt 
thereof Requiring me therfore to be his meane that he myght 
have yo//r gracrj favorable audience assonr as could be possible 
and to knowe yo//r graciouse pleasure therupon In general he 
arfirmeth vnto me that his Master counsydering the manyfold 
kyndnes and good turncs often rcccyved of your highnes 
gevcth suche frendcly amyable and gentil answere as may be 
desired accordingly But as touching the declaration of the 
special poinctor he shewed hymself so loth to declare them 
to me afore he had exposed them to your maicste that I could 
not conveniently w/'t^ honeste presse hym of thesame yet 
nevertheles I have amongrj communications at large sucked 
of hym, that his Master woll he shuld shortely retowrne thither 
to hym and that bitwenr Themperowr and hym there is no 
conclusion as yet taken, nor shalbe afore his retowrne from 
hens to his saidc Master and after conference had w/t/r hym 
in the whiche the said Castillon promissethe so to employe 
hym self that there shall folowe of his going as he trusteth, 
many good effector, and moche to the cowmoditie both of 
yo//r highnes and his Master, Albeit I perccyve by his 
communication that he locketh not to reto//rne to be resident 
here but that somr other shalbe sent in his stede Further 
wading wt^ hym, he hath shewed vnto me that the bishop 
of Rome wold have established a Legat in Frauncc as it was 
wount to be but that his Master hath refused it and woll 
in no maner wise consente therto. I lyke well that begywnyng 
vpon occasion of the same we cowmoned of your grace howe 
litel ye regarded any the said bishops vniust censures, and 
that I trusted other princes wold regarde them the like, And 
yet further I casted in his wortto^ that if they wold regarde 
them your highnes was and shuld be hable both to dcfendc 
and kepe yowrself vpright and offende sore such as wold 
offende yo//r ma/V\rtie and that in thesame cacc they shuld 

1 c ' 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 177 

not fynde your grace unfowrnished of all things expedient 
Wherupon I toke occasion to bring hym vp to myn armary 
and have shewed vnto hym such store of harneys and wepens 
as I have the whiche he semed to esteme moche and I tolde 
hym that there were other particular armaryes of the lordVj 
and gentilmen of this Royaulme more then the nombre of 
Twenty aswell or better furnyshcd then myn was wherat he 
wound red and sayd that he thought your grace the prince 
best furnished thereof in Chrw/endom We cow/moned of the 
cafart Cornibus that slaunderose frere He said that your 
Maiesties Ambassador the bishop of Hereford hath sued 
and proposed certayn articles against hym, the copie whereof 
he hath promessed to sende vnto me : And further that the 
said bishop hath benr very playn and Rownde wtt/t Messieurs 
of the counseill there. I have promessed vnto hym that 
I shuld w/t/J all diligence sende to knowe your graciouse 
pleasure touching his audience and Incontinently to geve vnto 
hym knowlege thereof Therfore I beseche most humbly your 
Ma/V\rtie to take this my rude letteres and preceding^- in good 
{part} and to vouchesauf to aduertise me of your graciouse 
pleasure vpon thesame and all other things being assured 
that in thaccomplishement of the same and all other things 
committed to my charge I shall employe and endevoir meself 
most ernestly vfii/t all my power according to your most 
abundaunt benignite towards me your most humble arruaunt 
and as to my most bounden duetie it apparteyneth. The 
saide Castillon is moche desyrouse of spede and If it \vere 
possible to have your fauorable audience tomorowe he wold 
fayne see that your Maiestes most noble Joyell my lorde 
prince grace. Wherby my pover advice is vnder your 
graciouse correction . that (if your highnes could have con- 
veniet leasure) it shuld be best to appoincte it tomorowe. 
Nevertheles your high wisedonv can better Juge what is most 
expedient, requyring forgevenes for this my bold audacite 
I have sent vnto your Matestle myn other letteres \vtt/t a man 
that is lately arryved oute of Flaundres, By suche things 
as he shall declare vnto your mastic And also that my lord 
of Southampton your graces admyral sheweth to me that he 
knoweth by a ship lately arryved oute of Spayne that there 
be no shippes there prepared nor aboutrj to be prepared for 
werre, I thinke vnder your discretion your MazVjtie shal not 
nede to be hote nor hasty in concluding any thing w/'t/i the 
Frenshe ambassador;-, seen the said mans declaraobn and my 
said lorde admyrall^r declarac/on that there is no apprest 
of any ships in Spayne to any purpose to be Regarded, but 
your prudence passeth my capacite wherfor; I remitte me to 

MESRIUAN. N 



178 LETTERS OF [1539 

the same Yowr highnes srruaunt Nicolas Cratzcr Astronomrr 
hath brought vnto me this mornyng a boke herin enclosed 
of the solace and cowsolac/on of prince the whiche oon 
Georgius Spalatinus somtyme Scole maistcr to the Duk 
of Saxon/ and nowe oon of the chief prrchowrs desyred hym 
to deliver vnto yowr Maurfe, I mislike that thambassadowr 
sayeth he shal not retowrne. Thus I beseche allmyghty god 
to sende yowr grace vrii/i pr0sp*rite and encreace of honowr, 
mery and long lif. From london this V th of February. 

Your highnes most humble scruaimt & subiect 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 
Add. To the Icings most excellent and Noble maiestc. 

Endd. My Lorde Privie scale to the Kinges Maj/rtc of 
the v tk of februarj-. 

289. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 171 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 281. Feb. 13 (1539). 

Desires him to learn the Emperor's final decision concerning the King's 
last letter. 

After my right herty commendacj'ons Forasmoche as the 
Kinges highnes after tharryvall of Mr. Blagg whiche was 
a Saturdaye last writeth vnto you his graciouse pleasure mor; 
at Large I surceace at this present to declare you anything 
thereof but onely adurrtise you of the receipt of Two yowr 
\etteres sent to me at dyverse tymes by the waye of Fraunce 
I have caused Mr. Tucke to delyver lately vnto yo//r 
assignes here the suw/me of v*. li. and odd as I doubte not 
but they shal aduirtise you thereof Here we have no notable 
newes nor occurrence but doo loke dayly to have som of you 
and to be acertayned of Thempm>rs final resolution vpon 
the poinct/j cowteyned in his graces \ettercs sent to you by 
Nicolas If ye have had as yet at tharryvaill hereof no awswcre 
I praye you to sollicitc it Instauntly and to vse all spcdc 
in geving advertisement thereof and also of themp*ro//rs 
answer* to his highnes lettercs sent you by this bearer the 
whiche I Require you to despeche hethir again wit// som 
answer* assort/ as ye maye. Of yowr cuwmyng ye shal 
p/rceyve the kinges graciouse plaiswr* by his owne Iftteres. 
the parsonage that shal succede you is not yet appoincted 
wherfor I can geve you no knowlege thereof. The klnges 
Ma/me hath yowr diligence and procedinges right acceptable. 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 179 

and vsing good celerite at this tyme and like dexterite ye may 
be assured of encreace of more favour. I have reserved for 
you the house of the Freres of Ayllesford as ye desyred it 
And wolbe gladd in all other things to employe meself to 
further your reasonable desirs Thus Fare ye right hertely 
well From london the xiij th of February. 

Your louyng assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very loving Freend Mr. Wyat knight oon* 
of the gentilmen of the king^r cha;b^r and his 
ambassadowr in Spayne. 

Endd. By France at tolledo the XIX th of January. 



290. CROMWELL TO (JOHN AND HENRY RUSSELL). 

Library of William Berington, Esq., of Little Malvern Court ; not in Cal. 
Feb. 1 8 <i539>. 

Desires that the bearer, Richard Salway, be permitted to enjoy the office 
of Clerk of the Peace in the County of Worcester. 

I commende me vnto you. And whereas I am enfourmed 
that w;t//out iuste cause or grounde you do restrayn and kepe 
this berer Richarde Salwey my seruaunt from the possession 
and Vse of the rowme and office of clerk of peax in the 
Countie of Worcester notwithstanding that he hath compounded 
and agreed \vitk you for the same I require you that furthwzt/* 
vppon the receipte hereof you do permitte and suffre my 
saied seruaunt to occupie exercise and enioye the saied office 
w*t//all the commodities and profits therunto belonging by 
himself or his sufficient deputie according to the agrementer 
and covenauntes concluded betwixt you and him for the same 
making also vnto my saied seruaunt delyvdry of all suche 
records remewbraunc^j and other writings as do remayru? in 
your handes and custodie Wherby he maye the better knowe 
the scale of the saied office So as this berer be not enforced 
and compelled to seke further remedye for recowrye of his 
ryght in that behalf. Thus fare youe well, From London the 
xviij th of Februarie 

Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

N 2 



180 LETTERS OF [1539 

291. CROMWELL TO WRIOTHESLEY. 

R. O. CaL xiv. (i) 365. Feb. 25, 1539. 

The King marvels at Chapuys' recall, and desires Wriothesley to express 
his feelings to the Regent. If she persists in sending for Chapuys, 
Wriothesley and Came are to desire leave to depart, Stephen 
Vaughan remaining in their stead. 

Mr. Wryothesley after my right herty cowmendac/bns, After 
the adu/rtisment of the receipt of your Ittteres directed to me 
of the date of xix and xxi of this present, And of yowr k7/rres 
directed to the Kinge Maiestye of the xxij* of the same. Ye 
shall vnderstond that I haue shewed the hole tenowr and 
pwrport therof to his maiestye Who hathe seen and prrvsed 
the same. Assurydly it is not litle straunge to see and marke 
thair procedinge ther and the Ingrate fashon they vse in effecte 
(though the worde and Countenance be contrary) towards 
his majestye, And his maiestye moche mrrvailleth at it, And 
spmally at the Revooking of monsttur Chappuys thewprrowrs 
Ambassadowr from hens, Albeit they do the same vnder 
Colowr of furtheraunce of his grace affaires ther committed to 
yowr charge. Wherupon his highnes by thassent of his hole 
Counsail hathe willed me w/'t/r all celerite to send vnto you 
these pre^ntes signifying by the same his gracious pleas^wr 
and co;;/maundeme//t vnto you is, that w/'t// all diligence vpon 
the receipt hereof ye shall procure yowr Accesse to the said 
Regente and declare vnto her, that as for the calling of the 
said Chappuys thither, albeit his highnes myndcth not to 
deteyn hym, whan soeiur he shalbe revocked Yet forasmoch 
as at all tymes heretofore w/'t//out any iterrupc/bn it hath ben 
vsed and accustumed that ther hath ever ben Ambassadowrs 
mvtually resident bothe w/t/r and from his maiestye and them- 
prrowr, and that w/'t^out casualtye of death ther hath never 
the contrary be seen, but afore the departure of thone thother 
was sent. And lightly vpon the decesse of any of them 
an other was furjh\v/'t// committed to supplye thothers Rowme. 
And ther may chaunce many occasions, in the whiche in his 
absence he might be wanted aswell for thempm>rs cowmodite 
as for his graces, his maiesty desyreth & requireth her nowe to 
consider, that beside his presence, that is nothing necessary 
to the treating of that manage w/'t// the duchesse, the whiche 
mater hath been but litle cowferred, of here w/'tA hym, And 
the long absence he shuld be owt, if they vse no francklyer 
ner spedyer dcspcche of thaffaires then they haue commonly 
accustumed hitherto, what prnudice it might be to the common 
affaires of bothe his grace and themp^rowr, yf he w/'t//out the 
residence of an other in his sted shuld be absent, And what 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 181 

the world might thinke therupon and cowiecte, Assurydly it 
shuld not synk into many mes brayne, but his absence shuld 
be a token in maner evident of the dyminucion & decreace 
of that Ancien fraternall Amyte bitwen them, which opynyon 
shuld litle sound to their honours (having his highnes Am- 
bassado[rs] in spayne & ther also) shuld be thought in the same 
doing Inconstant in frendshipp, And by sundry persons shuld 
be Judged to love only wher advantage may be goten for the 
accomplishing of his py/rposes. And the more the king^r 
maiesty noteth the same knowing alredy thexperience therof 
vpon the departure of monsieur de Castillon late Ambassadowr 
here for the frenche king, AJthough ther be oon alredy ap- 
pointed to succede in his place, yet neu^rtheles many persons 
can skant and \vtt/t veray grete difficultye be persuaded, but 
that the Frenche king Intendeth not to be constant in honour- 
able Amyte and allyaunce as he ought Although his highnes 
mistrusteth not but he wolbe veray glad, and is moche desyrous 
to obs^rue the same Inviolate. And that her grace be con- 
tented he may Remayn here vntyll thaffaires be resolved vpon 
And furthwzt// w/t/*out tarying for his Accesse thither vnto 
her, whiche being he weake could not be but long, she 
vvoll frely & frankely precede to the resolucion of those Ally- 
aunc^r and maters opened and cowferred on ther wzt//out any 
further protract of delaye, As his maiestye thinketh by certain 
persons advice, that his presence is demaunded only for to 
delaye the mater tyll his cowmyng that shuld be long and 
for weakenes at his cowmyng like to be syk weake or wery 
that he could not be present at thexpediabn therof, whiche 
shuld be to adde delaye vpon delaye, And delayes agayn. Ye 
shall also say vnto her, that by a secrete frende of yours A man 
that may knowe suche things, ye have by a particuler Wtere 
besidrj and w*t//out his graces knowlaige ben adu^rtised, that 
when the kinges highnes opened the mater of your letteres 
touching his going thither oon or twoo of his highnes Counsail 
by likelihode more Inclyned to an other part, then that waye 
(As no nomberof Counsaillowrs can bewzt//out diu^rse affections 
and private) did asmoch as they could to haue brought his 
maiestye in some suspicion, that the same going of his, was 
but a practise to w/'t^drawe hym by craft and subtiltye, And 
so to kepe hym ther still, And pmrhaunce to vse you, and other 
his graces Ambassadowrs otherwise then right and honour 
shuld require, Whereunto neurrtheles his maiestye not light 
to conceve suspicion against his Ancien frende had no respect 
ner regard, but did byd them that they shuld conceve a better 
opynyon of prince and king^r, And specially of thempero/^r 
whom his grace knoweth to be of an other nature & better 



182 LETTERS OF [1539 

disposition and more to regarde his honowr and profit! then 
to Imagyn and consent to so an vnreasonable shamefull & dis- 
honoi/rable l pranque. Yc may adde therto the coldnes on 
that behalf & traynyng long of the matters might helpe to 
cowfcrmc the said Counsaillo//rj advises, against his maiestycs 
opynyon, For the which and other reasons suche as yc can 
devise by your good descrecion, ye shall exhorte her to for- 
beire the said Ambassadors sending fore, And neuertheles 
so to precede, as his maiestye may haue cause to cowfcrme his 
good opynyon of them, And to think no Ingratitude on their 
partfs. And in case ye shalhauc answer of her that she woll 
in no wise precede to thentreatye of thaffaire, but in the pres- 
ence of the said Ambassadowr, And that she shall persist stifly 
in the sending for hym, Then and in that case, his maicstics 
gracious pleaswre & cowmaundemewt is that w/t// the same her 
answer & dcclarac/on, ye shall desire to hauc Icaue, and take 
your congy of her ye and master Kerne, shewing vnto her that 
seing ye haue so long ben ther, And that his ma/Vjte thinketh 
the tyme long of yo//r reto//me, And that they Intewde further 
to delaye and pnrtracte the affaires as it may appere, his 
maiesty willing you twoo to retowme, hath appointed his trusty 
semaunt M* Vaughan to remayn and abyde ther resident vpon 
the gouernawnce of the Englishe nvrchauntej ther And neu^r- 
theles euer to be in a redynes and give care to suchc cow/- 
municac/ons as it shall pleas her to haue \v/t// hym, but in case 
the Regente woll precede wit// you wit/iout the Ambassadowr, 
and be content to omitt his co/wmyng, then ye shall further 
adu/rtise the k'mgts mafVvrte therof and cowtynue ther without 
your leave taking at the tyme prescribed vntyll such tyme as 
ye shall heare further from his maiestye, And so having takyn 
your leave, and that ye shall perceive yourself out of all thair 
daungers, his highnes shall give leave vnto the said Ambassa- 
dour, Wherfore keping neuertheles the same secrete to your- 
self^ assonc as ye shalbc in sure place cowmyng, ye shall give 
his grace aduertisment therof, to thentent the said Chappuys 
may be sufircd to depart. I pray you that for the furnishe- 
ment of M r Vaughan and M r Kerne, ye shall take ther vpon 
yowr Credict oon hu//dcrd pounder, and that ye deliuer the 
same vnto them, that is to say to echc of them L H therof vpon 
a reconnyng and in prest for their dicttes. M r Wryothesley 
nowe in this mater, & other notable occurrewtej that may 
cowme to your knowlaige vse no lesse dexterite then yc haue 
done^And more of it can be. The Ittttrc syphred from 
Mr. Wyat being discifred cowteyneth nothing in effect but 
coldenes in that behalf sithcns the date of the same, ther shuld 

1 f. 0. practik 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 183 

be twoo Curriowrs from hens arrived vnto hym, which were 
not yet arrived at that tyme. loke what money ye lak, your 
credict can not faile to be repayd here. I wrote on satursday 
vnto you of Joyes cuwmyng & submission, and howe he is 
nowe in sure keping. This berer my loving servaunt M r 
Knight hath brought Leyton. I wold adurrtise you afterward 
at length of his sayings and excuses. In the meane tyme 
doubt ye not but your preceding**.? be veray well taken and 
accepted, and the Icings highnes most favoz/rable vnto you. 
Thus fare ye right hertely well. From London the xxv th day 
of February. 

Endd. Anno xxx 25 February 1538. The mynute of 
a \etfere vnto M r Wryothesley 

292. (CROMWELL) TO <LORD LISLE). 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (i) 307. (Feb. 1539.) 

Desires him to do nothing to encourage the King's enemies or to frighten 
his subjects, though he is to take care to be prepared to resist attack. 

...... the king^r highnes hathe informacion that ye and 

... of his counsaile there do go about certen things where 
in I assure your Lordeship ye do not well in causing the 
people to bring in their goodcs and other things which 
nedeth not, Wherefore this my secret intymacion and 
aduyse shalbe to adurrtise you that hauyng assured and 
vigilant eye and awayte to the sure defence and fortificacion 
of the king^j towne and marcheis there ye do nothing to the 
enbolding [of] the kingw enemyes, or putting in Fere the 
subjects more [than] nedeth, prayeng your lordeship 



to loke substauncyally vnto it ... v]ndoubtedlie it is 
thought to the king^j highnes and his [cojunsaile here that 
your practises and doings in it be veray ill [an]d not well 
ne circumspectlie considered. 

Endd. Tuching the precept of bothe palles 

293. (CROMWELL) TO BONNER. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (i) 409. Mar. i, 1539. 

The King has ordered the arrest of all ships in English ports, in re- 
taliation for the detention of vessels at Antwerp. Desires him to 
request Francis to take it in good part if any French ships are 
among them. 

Copie of the \etterts to my lord of Hereford ^rimo Martii 
Anno l&cgni Regis Henrici viij, xxx 

My "Lord afar most herty and affectuouse co;medaabns 
I do at this tyme by the k'mgcs gracious commandment 



184 LETTERS OF [1539 

adurrtise you that bcsid the knowlege of suchc things as 
ye shal have by my l*//nres sent lately vnto you by yowr 
sfruaunt Gowgh we have aducrtiscmewt that not only there 
be sundry pyrattrj in the see cowmen out of the parifs of 
Holand and Zeland to thintcnt to robbe the \tings subiectrj 
but also th/rt on Ashcwenesday last all manrr ships of what 
nation socurr they be, noon excepted, were by pr0clamac/on. 
made on Thempm>rs behalf in Antwerp and elleswhere 
arrested tyll Blaster and further tyll they knowe Thempmwrs 
pleasure wherupon as yet our ambassidowr there can not 
knowe for any sute whether o//r ships be comprehended 
therin or noo But for all surities the kings ma/rtfe hath 
caused for the same and other consyderacibws all shippcs 
and crayers thorough this hole Real me to be arrested and 
of all nations whatsoeurr they be so that without his grao* 
special leave they shal have no licence to departe nor any 
passage shalbc suffred to go from hens to any part beyond 
the see w*V/oute his grac^r licence tyll we shall knowe further. 
In flaunders the cow/mon Rumowr is that they be confederat 
iij heddes togeder Thempmv/r the frenshe King and that 
bisru^ of Ronv to convirte their werres agenst vs we trust 
theffect shal prove otherwise But forasmoch as the liklyhode 

be the best it is good to tak hyde and provide in 

tyme we shal do sufficiently w/t// the grace of god 

Store is no sore Wherfor his gracious pleasure and cow- 
mand/nint is that forasmoch as we hope chiefly and 
sper/ally the Frensh King welbe of other disposition then so 
that asson/ as there shalbc any rumowr there yea or a litel 
before ye shal reporte vnto hym and desire him that he 
woll for the good love he beareth vnto the Vinges ma**rte 
his brother tak* in good part and not displeasantly If 
his highnes hath amongrj other arrested the ships of his 
Realm and dominions For to pnuide by thesame agenst 
such pyracies and other practises, that by raport his grace 
thinketh and is adurrtised be proposed agenst his highnes 
And that he may be assured that lik as they be good brethern 
and frcendfs so his subiectrj shal be honestly entreated there- 
after w/t// such good wordrr and pacificable as ye can vse in 
that behalf Being not ovcrhasty to declare any such thing 
afore ye be asked for it or the mater bruted of Ye shal 
p^rceyve by my last \ftftres that we lok to have sonv know- 
lege of the Inclinacibn of those paries by tharryvaill of 
MonstVwr de castillon whose departure hens (and if he be 
true) we do not mrrveille at. Yowr brefe and spedy adurrtise- 
mrwt therof shal be moch acceptable Wherfor I require you 
in his ma;>jties name to vse celcrite and well to mcrk thclTcct 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 185 

of my \cfferes vnto you therupon And also whither ye shal 
think the frensh king wold be our enemy If thempm>wr wold 
declare himself agenst vs Themperow hath both afon? the 
peace \vtt& frawce ben very warme and hot in offres After- 
ward good wordes coldnes after. Afterward I can not tel 
what I shuld saye the wordes be nor hot nor cold. And the 
dedes as ye pmreyve or nothing, or like to be evill as tharrest 
of the ships sheweth as is afore writen I doubt not but ye 
shal hear therof in France at the lest the Rumour woll Rune 
therupon. I praye you to spare no adu^rtisement as in dede 
ye do ew/ploye all diligence as his maieste pwrceyveth by 
your \ctteres of the xxiiij th of the last past whom his grace 
taketh in very good part. And the more if ye shal vse 
vttermost diligence in giving aducrtisement of thies and other 
writen vnto you by Gowgh your scruant Ye shal saye also 
to the Yrenc/i King that from tyme to tyme and by litel and 
litel his ships shal be deliurred and noe detriment nor 
daw/mage done vnto them. I doubt not but your discrec/on 
shal spye a good occasion tyme and oportunite to precede 
herein w/tA all discretion and sobrenes as the case requireth 
Thus Far ye right hertely well From London the first of 
marchc I praye you to addulce and mitigate the things and 
leste Irritat them t/iat ye can. 

Endd. To the bishop of Hereford? primo marcil 

294. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Karl. MSS. 282, f. 187 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 488. Mar. 10 (1539). 

News from the Netherlands. Wyatt is to seek to discover the Emperor's 
intentions, and his relations with Francis and the Pope. Cf. Letter 291. 

Mr. Wyat after my right afiecluouse commendations. I have 
receyved not onely your \ctterzs sent hither by Nicolas the 
Currour and by your seruaunt Rudston but also all other 
conteyned in your cataloge at the later ende of my Wteres 
sent by the said Nicolas. Ye may p^rceyve by the kinges 
\etteres to you addressed at this tyme, howe thankefully his 
grace accepteth your good diligence and doyngtt there And 
also thoccurrewc^j and bruyies which have ben spredd abrode 
merveillouse strange the suspic/bn and coniecturc of those 
shippes which be sent owt of flawdrrs to Spayne for what 
cause no man can well tell here And tharrest of ships in 
Flaundres Albeit sithens the kingrj \etteres signed I have 
receyved adu^rtisemewt from Mr. Wryothesley that as 
Wenesdaye last the Quene Regen and the counscill there 
sent hym iiij waraunter for the delyverey of the same shippes. 
but as yet they be not arryved. We can not satisfie our 



186 LETTERS OF [1539 

myndes whereof did precede all those vnkynd parifs and 
such strawgenes as sodewly and vpon no marur ground hath 
ben sithens lent vsed to the said Mr. Wryothesley. he had 
good chere and entretcnemewt a litel afor that ii curro//rs 
shuld arryve thither from Spayn whither Themrvrowr wrote 
any suche thinges to be doon \ve cannot tell but it is like he 
did. Therfor I require you well and diligently by all marwr 
meancs to you possible to seke and enserchc to knowe the 
botom of their hertrj ther* what they do Intende and practise 
what Intelligence they have w/t// the Frenshemen, and bishop 
of Rome. And if ye can prrceyve any notable knowlege 
to geve adurrtissew^T*/ thereof -wilA thanswerr that ye shal 
have to theffect of the kingly Ittttres nowe vnto you. I shal 
helpe to despeche Mr. Tate and to sende hym thitherward 
assonr and w/t// as good diligence as I can, to thintent ye 
may retowrne hither according to your desyre I trust to be 
so ernest to sett furth yowr good smiice that after your 
Retowme w/t//in a shorte space ye shal be no more nedy nor 
have cause to think your self hyndred. Thus Fare ye right 
hertely well From london this X th of March. 

Yowr assuryd louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very loving Freend Sir Thomas Wyat 
Knight ooiv of the gentilmen of the Kingtt Chambre and his 
grao-j Ambassadowr w/t// Themp/rowr 

Endd. From my lorde prevy seall by NidWas the couriowr 
to tolled o the x tb of Marche 

295. CROMWELL TO CHRISTOPHER MONT AND THOMAS 

PAYNELL. 

B. M.Vit. B. xxi,f. 145 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 490. Mar. 10 (1539). 

Instructions for the negotiations with Cleves. Mont and Paynell are to 
represent to the Duke the enmity of the Emperor. Desires them 
to discover whether munitions of war can be furnished to Henry at 
short notice. 

After my right herty cowmendac/ons, By .... the xviii and 

xix of February addressed vnto as yet yc haue no 

answer to the principal the charge and cow/mission 

given vnto you at y saving in orv poynt opened on 

my behalf vnto B vicechaunccler and late oratowr 

here for the Duke of S touching certain affinities that 

the said Duke, by the r of the said Burgartus, wol be 

glad therof, And employe .... self to thuttermost to bring 






1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 187 

them to good effecte, wherof .... and of all suche adwrtis- 
menter as ye give in your letteres, I h[ave] adu^rtised the 
k'mges Maiestye, who accepteth and taketh your diligence 
therin thankfully, As preceding of good a[nd] true hertrj, And 
for my part I give vnto you right affectuous thanks for the 
same purposing to remembre them accordingly, Albeit as for 
the cowmon Rumowrs of warr, we knewe no lesse then ye 
wrote, And at all chauncr^ be they sodeyn or slowe all things 
be pmiided here therafter, And perceiving by the preceding 
of thaffayres in Maunders after long protraction of tyme thair 
disposicion to wax euery day colder and colder, Insomoche, 
that wheras they wold make no playn refusall, yet they make 
suche answers as importe I;possybilite, as the Course of the 
world is or infinite delayes that is to say, in effecte, that for 
the duchesse part, the mater cannot be concluded w*t//out 
the Bishop of Romes despensacion for nerenes of blod, And 
that the despensacion to be had in this Realme as they 
shuld not be sufficient, And if we can evacuate that poynt, and 
woll fall to reasonable condicions, then they wolbe contented 
to coclude, The whiche answer, like as we take for Illusory, 
and as it were playn negative, So having no cause any further 
to trust in thair \vordes, but otherwise to pr0vyde ellmvher, 
the kinges maiestye therfore hathe at this tyme appointed his 
trusty and welbeloued counsaillo//rs Edward Kerne, And 
nicholas Owton doctour of lawe, and his trusty scruannt 

Richard byrd his grac^r chamber, to be his oratowrs, 

and furthw/t// sorte vnto the Duke of Cleves for 

the causes I did [gi]ve you instruction of at yonr departure, 
and sp*rially cowcernyng the mariage of his highnes, leaving 
thother to be conferred of and vpon overture or requisicion 
to be made on thair behalf, Wherfore his gracious pleasw^ is, 
that incontinent vpon the receipt hereof whither ye haue any 
answer of the said Duke therupon or noo, ye shall by yo//r 
discrecion i;mediatly by yourself, or by the meanes of 
Burgartus assey to haue answer and assurance of the Dukes 
own mouthe, yf ye can of his good disposicion therunto, And 
not only to signifye vnto hym howe his maiestye hath sent 
his said oratowr to the Duke of Cleves, but also to require 
hym of his good towardenes and affection wit/t exhortacions 
to the said Duke of Cleves for as moch as coHorneth the 
king^r own person And by your \ctteres from tyme to tyme to 
adu<?rtise his graces said oratowrs of the same, and helpe them 
wii/t your best counsail to the avauncemewt of thair pro- 
ceding^j, and 'that ye shall conferre mvtually oon w*t/* 
an other, by your \etterts surely to be conveyed of all the 
occurrawtrj coornyng the same, forseing alwaies that your 



LETTERS OF [1539 

on bothe sldfs be cowmitted to sure and true 
messengers to them from you, and from them to you, and 
as for \ettsres to his highnes, yf ye can fynd non other waye 
to haue them surely conveyed, then ye shall send them to 
hamburgh and so cause them to be sent by see, for whiche 
entent ther is also taken som order witA som of the 
hamburghes for conveyance of them, wherof ye shalbe 
shortely adwrtised, by Mr. Barnes sent into those Cuntreys, 
Furthermore ye shall declare vnto the Duke that the King 
Maiestye is desyrous and fervent to knowe theflect of thanswcr 
of yo//r Instructions, forsomoch as of late vpon the arrivall 

of that re Cardinall Pole into Spayne themrvr 

. . . self offended and of no good affection maiestye 

for thair sak*\r, as by the sequel you may bothe 

coniecte : for wheras Mr. Wyat the ki[nges] ambassad< wr ther 

hering tell of the cowmyng of the Pole Cardinal 

towards themperowr, at the kingw comm required 

hym, that he shuld in no wise admitt the sa[id] rebell into 
his dominions ner geve accesse or audien[ce] to hym, his 
answer was not only, that he being s[ent] vnto hym by the 
Bishop of Rome, although he shuld be his own traytowr, yet 
he could not refuse hym audience, but also being farder 
pressed by the said Mr. Wyat to do according to the treatyes 
the same notwzt//stading, he made a sharpe answer therunto, 
wit// a token of grete vehement grudge and indignacion, that 
seyng his highnes had given audience to sundry oratowrs sent 
vnto hym by the said Duke and Landisgravc, his Rebell^ 
vassales and ewnemyes of the Catholike Church of Christen- 
dom, And also received \efferes and oratowrs from the Duke 
of Holtz vsurpatowr of the kingdom of Dewmrrke by whose 
meanes his brother in lawe king christierne is kept tyrawnykly 
in prison, he could haue no lesse libertye to give to the 
said Rebell audience, then the king highnes had to receive 
his oratowrs sent vnto hym by those vsurpatoi/rs and Rebellrj 
aforenamed, to the whiche though the said Ambassadowr 
made a full, Just, and discrete answer, yet notwithstanding 
we may well perceive by his word howe depe inwarde 
grudge and hatred is hyd in his hert towards them the 
kingrj grace, and othn- that professe the gospcll The whiche 
the king? s highnes hath thought not to cowceyle from them : 

but to signifye, to thentent estye, and they may pr0- 

vyde and stand vpon gardrr, for thair defense, in 

cace his enterprises by any occasyon shuld be extended so 
farre as to attempt anything against vs praying them to 
adurrtise his maiestye wit// diligence, what they woll do for 
his grace, in cace he be invaded for cause of the faith or 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 189 

withdrawing from the bishop of Rome ; and what contry- 
bucion and ayde they wold for a reciprajue aske, wherupon 
after adurrtisme//t therof, yf it shall pleas them to send thair 
oratowrs hither to treate therupon they may be assurid his 
highnes shall shortely declare his certain resolucion vpon the 
same so grounded and wayed, as it may be to the cowmon 
wealth and suretye of his grace, the said duke and landis- 
grave, praying you, that of thair answers vpon all these, his 
highnes woll, ye give aducrtismentes and ye shall receive 
such answer wzt/: celerite as shalbe frendly, and to the 
hono#r of bothe parties or e\\cs yf they do send any 
ambassadowrs, that ye shall retowrne -with them, or ell^y 
though they woll not send, that ye shall neu^rtheles retowrne 
as ye shall thinke expedient vsing celerite of yo;/r retowrne 
as sone as your affaires shalbe sped or have awswer And 
further forasmoch as store is no sore, And that wisdom wold 
that we shuld be in a redines for to wzt^stand all chaunovr, 
ye shall deliurr my lr/teres to Sir Bernmie de Mella knight, 
the kmgcs trusty frend to pr<?vyde for the kingf s store ther 
the nomber of cc. bu;bardrj for grete gonnes and ordenawnce 
expert in the same, to be sent hither furthwzt^, And wz't// all 
diligence, and the nomber of M. or xv. c hackbushers excellent 
and expert in that feate, to be sent afterward as betwen^ this 
and receipt of yowr \etteres it shal be appointed at the kingt'j 

cost reasonable sold and wagrj, to be sent 

hider, and afterward reto#rned into those the whiche 

we shall cause for his sake, to be s[o] enterteyned 

here, as they shal haue good caus[e] .... s^rue vs well and 
to be contented, For thair conveyance] and transport hither 
his grace hath addressed . . . this tyme vnto the cite of 
Lubeck his \etfercs to ca[use] money to be avaunced vnto 
them, And the same to be transported hither at the king^r 
cost, the money therof to be deducted vpon the v. ml merkes, 
they be bounden to pay vnto his highnes, And in cace they 
shuld delaye so to do, then vpon adurrtisement therof to be 
geven they shalbe otherwise pr^vyded at Hamburgh or elkr- 
wher as shal be thought convenient. 

And chifely amongtt othrr things to be ernestly done his 
grace woll that ye shall inculcate and prrsuade vnto the said 
duke and landisgrave the moment & Iw/portawce of that 
grudge, which thewpmwr doth beire, for the bishop of 
Romes pleaswr*? against them and otlvr of the avangelik 
sorte, which they may nowe easely perceive, by that he 
worketh and goeth aboute, praying them further on his 
gracrj behalf that they do wisely forsee, that nowe at this 
diett and counsail they be not so blynded vrit/t faire wordes 



190 LETTERS OF [1539 

and subtiltye pranises made to them on that partye, as 
hereaft/T they may prrcace take hurt and displeasure 
therbye, Syns the L*//<re was wryten hitherto It hathe been 

thought notwithstanding anything wryten herebefore 

. . on shalbe made vnto the said barnrrd de mella, to knowe 

er he could \v/'t/i a shorte warnyng, furnishe to the 

kingtt [hi]ghnes twoo hundred Gonnrrs or Canonnyers 
shotrrs of grete peces and a thowsand or xv* hakebushes 
yf nede shuld require, that the kingrj highnes shuld occupye 
them, And vpon warnyng by his grace to hym geven, howe 
sone he shall thinke he might prouyde them, and yf he 
cannot furnishe the hole, howe many he thinketh he may 
pr0vyde, After adurrtismewt wherof, then yf it shalbe so 
thought convenient, to the k'mgcs maiestye, ther shalbe made 
provision, and order taken at hamburgh or elkrwher for 
thair sold and wagtt, and therwit// the payment for thair 
transport and conveyance hith/r, yf nede shall require, 
Thus heretely fare you well, From London the X th day of 
M^rche 

Your louyng freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Endd. To my louing freind Cristofer Mont and Thomas 
Paynell 

296. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M. Galba B. x, f. 38 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 504. Mar. u (1539). 

Reports the receipt of a letter from Wriothesley, in which the Queen 
Regent desires that the ambassador should remain in the Nether- 
lands till she heard from England. Wriothesley finally consented to 
tarry, as she was so urgent. 

My bounden duetie most humbly remembred to your right 
excellent M[aiestie]. Please yowr Highnes to be [adverjtised 
that this present mornyng I have r[eceived] lettercs from 
Mr. Wryothesley, your grac^r Ambassade//r in Flaundres 
dated [the] ix lb of this present conteyning a long discours 
of his accesse to the Quene, and asking of his leave to reto//rne 
to yo//r Ma/rjtie. The which \ettercs bicausc [they] be long 
and diffuse I have thought not to trouble yowr grace w/'t// the 
reading of them but in fewe \vordes to declare the substaunce 
thereof w[hich] is that the Quenc often tymes desyreth and 
prayed, Instanted, yea and herself and her counseill entreated 
yo//r Highnesses said Ambassador to [tarry] there tyll she 
shuld have answer from England wher she had alredy [sent] 
a poste and loked dayly for his commyng. Whercunto the 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 191 

said Mr. Wryoth[esley] answered that he was but your 
g[races servant a~|nd that he had co;//mademen[t] absolut 
from your maitstie to retourne [home which] no maner 
of their prayers [or] Instaunt desire could excuse him 
of. Instantly agayn desiring them th[at] he might ful- 
fylle the same. Wherto she said that his demore shuld 
p*r[case] do more good to thentretenement and encrease of 
thamytie bitwen your gr[ace] and themprrowr, then he 
thought and that he shold have no cause to repenft]. Crete 
Instaunce was made on both parties \vi\Jt discowrs of assur- 
aunce of thamytie and obs^ruacion of the treaties and allyances : 
but Mr. Wryothes[ley] in conclusion wold never agree to their 
petition but fulfille your cow/ma[dement] Onles they shuld 
stoppe hym or cowmaunde hym the contrary Wherunto the 
Quene after sundry \vordes of prayowr and requisition said 
Well q[uoth she] take my prayer for a cowmawdemewt And 
I woll write to the king your [Maister] that ye did so Agayn 
she said I praye you take this frendely and re[pute] it, as it 
were a freendely co;ma#demet Thempmwrs ambassadewr 
ojtoth she taryeth agenst my cowmaundemewt in England at 
your Maisfcrs Instance An[d I] am not Angry he so doth 
at his Instance to gratifie him. So vpon this[e] discourses 
and co/mademet he agreed to tarye She said it was for 
non* [other] but that on* frende myghtcowmaunde the srruaunt 
of another. Wherupon your said ambassade//r requireth your 
Ma*>.rte most humbly, to pardon [him]. 

Of newes and occurrence he hath writen in his said letteres. 
he hath hear[de] but onely of marchaunter that Themperour 
hath taken trewes w*'t// the Turk[e] for xiiij yeres. He hath 
\etterea from Venece that the Veneciens as it [is] thought woll 
shortely make an ende w*t// the Turke If it be not ma[de] 
secretly. He hath hearde that the king of Dewmarch hath 
stopped [his] porter and maketh priuision for defense And 
that of truth the landg[rave] of Hesse doth levye men for the 
werr. This is theffect of those [long] and diffuse k/teres 
I have receyved. Mr. Sydney hath ben with me [this] mornyng 
to whom I have declared your most graciouse favour and 
protection] and byden hym to reasorte vnto yowr mazrte to 
knowe your further [commands]. It shalbc good your high- 
nes pleaswr* be declared vnto hym whether he [shall] wayte 
vpon the same in Kent this voyage and jowrney or noo This 
be[rer my] nephiew shal supplye the rest of my letters by 
mouth. And so I befseche] yowr ma^-rtie to take thies my 
\cttcrcs in good partc and to cow/maunde vnto [me your] most 
humble smiflwnt and beddesman that shalbc yowr pleasure to 
be fulfilled] accordingly. Almyghty god sende your ma&rtie 



LETTERS OF [1539 

all your most noble hcrtrr [desires]. From London this xij tb 
of Marche. 

Yowr Highnes most humble Subiecte 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
297. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M.Titus B. i, f. 269; Cal. xiv. (i) 516. Mar. 14 (1539). 

Reports negotiations for the exchange of Wriothesley and Chapuys. 
Information concerning the discovery of a nest of traitors in the hold 
of a French ship blown ashore at South Shields. News from Cleves. 

My most bounden duetie to your most excellent maieste 
w/'t// all honowr and Reverence right humbly offred Please it 
thesame to be aduertised that I have receyved such \fttcrcs 
as were directed to me both from your graces oratowrs the 
bishop of Rome and Mr. Wryothesley the whiche I have 
diligently Readen and jvrvsed And not onely according to 
yo;/r graciouse pleas///r Directed my \etteres to the bishop 
of Hereforde, conteyning in effect the thre poinctr^ signified 
vnto me by Mr. Sadleyers \etteres on your gncfs behaulf. 
I thought better to despech^ them by my private \etteres. 
then to put your highnes to the payne to have writen and 
troubled yowr self w/t// thesame. To Mr. Wryothesley I had 
wr/ten afore that he shuld accelerate his retowrne wit/t all 
spedy diligence so that he myght be assone retourned at 
Calais as Chappuys shuld arryve thither or bifore, Bicause 
I have on yowr maiesties behalf cowtremaunded yowr Maw-jties 
deputie there that in cace the said Chappuys shuld arryve 
there bifore Mr. Wryothesley s cuwmyng the said deputie 
vnder colowr of honowrab[le] and kynd entretenemewt shuld 
honestly and as it were for to shewe hym gentilnes and make 
hym good chere to kepe hym and reteyn hym there vntyll 
he shuld be sure of Mr. Wryothesley arrivaill at Calais or 
w;t//in the marches of the same w;t//oute any daunger And 
in cace that the said Chappuys could not be that waye per- 
suaded to taryc but Instantely desire to departe that then the 
said depute shuld playnely saye vnto hym that forasmoch/r as he 
had a certain general rest rai net c bifore this and afore the date 
of his passeport he desireth him to tary tyll he shuld knowe 
your grac^ pleasure being vpon the very see syde and where 
he shuld have eu^ry tyde oportunite to sende and receyve 
answere, or vntyll the said Wryothesley shuld be arryved. 
But as I thinke my lr//rrcs to the said depute shal not nede 
to be put in vre for the said Chappuys is as yet here and 
hath desyred to borowe a lytter of me If I had had any as 
in dede I had noon he can nor ryde nor goo well whcrfore 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 193 

he is about to be furnyshed of a lytter to be caryed in, he 
hath Instanted me to have your graces \etteres of his departure 
to the Quene and to Themprro//r I have caused them to be 
writen in such<* a maigre sorte as I thought the cace required 
it I referre to your graces pleasure the correction and signa- 
ture of them. The said Chappuys desyreth moch^ that yet 
afore his departure oute of the Real me he myght have agayn 
accesse to and speke wzt/z your Ma/Vjtie I take it to be for 
declarawon of som^ pleasant wordrj of Themp^ro7/rs good 
mynde and affection your highnes may as cause shalbe to 
yo;/r discretion seen Resolve and adurrtise hym of your 
gracious pleasure in that behalf. My lady Kyngeston hath 
benr w/t/t my and other of yo//r Majesties counseill . very 
conformable she hath bene to your graces mynde and gladd 
to folowe the same, most humbly thancking your highnes wzt/* 
teares in her eyen and beseching yo;/r grace pardon If in any 
thing she had displeased the same, behaving herself very 
obedyently and of merveillouse good Inclination. W/t// like 
thanks Mr. Benton and my lady his wiflf have wyllyngly 
accepted the charge by your grace appoincted vnto them, very 
crnest to endevoire themself<r.y to the vttermost, to fulfyll your 
graciouse commandement in all pomctes There is ordre taken 
for my Lorde prince assayes aswell of all kynde meates and 
drink as of waters to be taken tyll your grace shal otherwise 
prouide. 

This day being my lord Chancelo/^- My lorde of Sussex and 
the bishop of Duresme \\i\Ji my I have receyved \etterzs from 
the president and conseilters of your graces counseill in the 
North . dated ix Marcij conteyning that a certain frenshe ship 
laden with Scotishe goodes wetherdryven at South schelis in 
the countie of Duresme whereof therle of Westmorland having 
adu^rtiscmewt And by certain persons from Scotland advice 
geven afore s^rched the ship. Found vnder the bagag&r in 
the botom thereof a nest of Traytowrs that is to saye oon 
Robert more preste of Chicester which was lately scappid from 
Hexams prison. And Two Irishe men a monke and a frere 
who had vrtt/t them sediciouse and Trayterouse \cttcres agenst 
yottr grace directed to the bishop of Rome and to the traytowr 
Pole Amongrj the which there was oon* from that yong 
rebell trayter Fitzgerald to the cardinal Pole cowteynyng the 
kyndnes he had founde in hym and in his and requiring him 
not to put him in obliuion. But beleve the said monke . his 
hand and seell be at the same. Also there be \etteres long 
from an arant trayto//r Rurik bishop of Derensw in your 
graces lande of Irland . his hand and grete scale at it to the 
bishop of Rome declaring the calamities of the papists in 



MERR1MAK. II 



194 LETTERS OF [1539 

Irland w/t// sundry trayterouse lyes agenst yo//r graovf officers 
there. An other \cttc\o. of Crcdewce to the said pole, and 
many other we have cxamyncd them . and doo fynde the 
same to be cause of Disclosing many things They lacke almost 
thenglishe and laten tong. Whcrfore I have put men vndrr- 
stawding the Irishe and laten tong to examyne them and 
write their depositions . And the same had, I shall by my 
next \ft/frcs adu/rtise yowr Maiestic of the hole effect more 
particularly . We thynke it as it were a myracle that god 
drawe them hither to be disclosed and punished And assuredly 
they thinke no lesse or greter then we doo : Their lr /Ares were 
hydden in corners. But other letteres there were from Scot- 
ishemen to marchauntrj of Dieppe and for certain bullcs 
and dispensations to be obteyned at Rome for Scotto which 
touched nothing your grac^j subicctrj nor affaires wherfore 
being the same opened and p^rvsed they have ben redeliured 
agayn and the frenshe ship suffred to depute. Amongw the 
Scotishe \etteres there was but oon thing notable that is 
Thabbot of Melrosr wrote to sorm* freend of his at Rome that 
noon Indulfcf or expeditions obteyned there shuld take mo 
effecte in Scotland w/t//oute the licence of their prince. The 
which pwrpose I like well trusting that the mercy of god woll 
cxtendc his brightnes vpon them to p^rceyve the truth of 
his word and gospell to the bishops confusion. I have 
despeched Michel according to yowr graavr cowmawdemewt. 
Assuredly I take hym to be suche as yo//r grace Jugcth hym, 
he desyretta yet to speake ones w/t// yowr grace but I remitte 
the same to yowr highe discretion. I p^rceyve by his rapport 
that yowr grace shewed vnto hym that the yong duck of 
Cleves was deceased. And that he answered to yowr highnes 
that then the duke of Saxony shuld be heyer having maryed 
theldest doughter And that he is adurrtised that by a grnrral 
assent of the hole countreys that in this cace the duk of 
Saxony shuld enioye all And further that the dukdoms of 
Cleves Julik Berghes and Gheldres have made an allyauncc 
and promessc to stycke all togeder and hold ooof w/t// an 
other and so he concluded that the Duck of Saxony shuld 
have the Joyssance of all them But whither it be true or noo 
I can not tell for themprrowrs awbassadowr about*-.? wcncsdayc 
byddyng me a diew for his departure . amongrj other purposes 
saide vnto me that the dukdomrs of Cleves Julik Berghes and 
Geldres If the duke shal dye owe to conv to his handes for 
they be Imprriall fees as he said . and that he doubted not the 
duke of Saxony woll not entremedle thcrw/t// . onles sonv of 
them shuld be Inheritable to the heyres general for then (he 
said) the duke of Saxony shuld have the same. We shal hcare 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 195 

more of it shortely. I spedd awaye yesterdaye Richard 
Harman towards the paries of Julik he hath promesed 
shortely to bring worde again and I thinke assuredly he woll 
not faile. I have sent for sir John Cornewallys who shalbe 
here a sondaye. A Thursdaye I receyved letters from 
Harvel your graces seruaimt and subiect now dwelling at 
Venece the oone directed to your Maieste cowteynyng oonly 
thanks and some other general purpose of his good affection 
I beseche your grace to regardehis goodwill and zele in good 
part and consydere that w/t^in a litel tyme he shalbe bette[r] 
hable to do srruice and gett experiewCe, of your gracw affaires. 
The other letters be directed vnto me, cowteynyng besides 
thankes certain occurrence there . your highnes shal receyve 
them herew/t//. The Irishe monke p//rposed to resorte vnto 
the traytowr Pole he was with hym in Fraunce and at camcrik 
the last tyme that the said pole was there. I trust in the 
meane tyme to be cowtinually occupied abouter thaccomplishe- 
mewt of the cow/missions and other your graces proposes and 
resolutions. For the which My lorde Admyral is alredy goon 
to employe hymself for his part and my lorde of Suffolk is 
likewise gon to Lincoln shire. I trust our duetie shalbe so 
well employed to your graces s^ruice that ye shal have cause 
of co//tetemet at the lest to take our doings in good part. 
I beseche your Ma^rtie taccept our pover good willrj- and 
smale power, who shalbe alwayes redy to obeye to thutter- 
most your graciouse cowmaundemewtrj 1 and speally yc may 
be assured for myn owne part being of most bounden duetie 
obliged therto Thus I beseche allmyghty god to sende your 
maieste acowplishemewt of all your graciouse desires Writen 
at london the xiiii lh of Marche 

Yowr Maiesteis most bownden subiect & seruaunt 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To the kinges most excellent and most noble Maiestie 
Endd. "Letterc to the kynges MazV.rte from my lorde pr^vye 
Scale 

298. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M. Titus B. i, f. 265 ; CaL xiv. (i) 538. Mar. 17 (1539). 

News concerning the preparations for war in France, the capture of the 
Irish monk, and the musters going on in England. Is busy with the 
Council arranging for Parliament. Advises the King to let Chapuys 
leave Calais, whether Wriothesley comes or not. Cf. Letter 297. 

After my most bounden duetie of honour and reverence 
most humbly remewbred Please it yo//r excellente Maiestie 

O a 



ID'*. LKTTKRS OF [1539 

to witte that according to your graciouse pleasure I and other 
of your grac/j honorable counscill are crnestly employed to 
fulfylle yowr highnes pleasw>v signified vnto vs and suchc 
charges as we have of yor Royall Ma/Vjtie in suclv wise that 
at yo//r return all thingcs shalbc in as good forcwardncs as 
may be. My lorde Admyrall hath adu/rtiscd me by his 
\(ttcres , that he is aboute and hath benr v>i\Jt most celerite 
for his part to fulfyll the same. He had adurrtisemc;/t 
that in all Normawdye nor in the ryver of Roan there were 
no ships of werre nor prrparac/ons of any but that their was 
an ydell bruyt nothing like to be true that sonv ships shuld 
assemblee and gather togither at Brest in Bretayiv . Albeit 
therr is no suche likelyhod at all yet . he woll sendc thither 
pnvely a barke to knowe assuredly the truth thereof. Many 
bruytrj Rumowrs and Rcportrj be made aswell in and from 
Flaundres as in and from sonv other parties . the grounds 
thereof being vnexpressed and all things well wayed not 
like to be suclv indede as is reported . men may somtyme 
vpon accumulac/on of suspicions and light conjectures take 
a phantazie indede that their suspicions be true Other 
trusting sonv false reporters which myght fortune hath 
shewed them sonv true things may prrchaunce by deceyved 
by them Other merking the woroVj of the Inconstant and 
fyckel people bablyng abrode thinke the same can not be 
so moche in the peoples mouth w/t//oute sonv ground as 
smoke is not w/t//oute iyre. But for all this sowrtyme suclv 
things do vanyshe awaye as the wynde . Yet nevertheles 
I can not But (like as yor grace . of a merveyllouse high 
wisedom for more assurance in all chaunc^r and occurrenfcr 
maketh pnmision in tyme for defense.) so to thinke that 
yowr grace woll not be further moved or pricked by suclv 
reports or \etteres vpon suclv vnknowen reportes suspicions 
and tales grounded than the things doo appere For assuredly 
to my Jugement the things be more and further otherwise 
bruted a brode then the meanyng or the Did is Assuredly 
like as it is good to be ware and circumspect, So no lesse 
is to be avoyded overmochr suspic/bn to the whiche if any 
man be ones geven he shal never be quiete in mynd. Thies 
I do not write as thinking yowr grace nedeth any warnyng 
thereof being of so highe and excellent witt prude/ice and 
long experience. But that I wold declare vnto yowr ma^-stie 
howe I doo for my part take the things; and as I thinke 
other men shuld tak then 1 . And that no more celerite or 
prccipitac/on of things shuld be vsed then of congruencye 

1 sic, for 'them.' 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 197 

For vndoubtedly I take god to be not onely your graces 
protecto//r but also a merveillouse favorer so that In my hert 
I hold me assured although all the rest shuld have conspired 
agenst your grace yet ye shal prevaile thorough his grace 
Assuredly seing that nowe I vndrestande from Irland that 
yo//r rebelle Desmond Byryn O nelh? and O donelle do moche 
combyne and practise togeder, I thinke a myracle of the 
arryvaill of the Irishe monke which was wether dryven hither . 
they were iiij shipps at their departure of Scotland a forte- 
nyght ere they could precede any thing foreward. And by 
te;peste iii of them drowned in thother sight wherin this 
monke was dryven to this your graces lande by the wynd 
wherto of all places in the world he was the most lothe to 
arryve. It shalbe a grete hyndrawce to the saide Irishe 
rebellfj purposes and practises whan they shal knowe them- 
selfcr so to be at this tyme by the Intercepc/on of this monke 
their missagrr so Interrupted We can not as yet gett the 
pyth of his Credence wherby I am advised tomorrowe ones 
to go the towre and see hym sett in the Brakes and by 
tof/rment compelled to confesse the truth. As for commis- 
sions concrmyng the bekyns they were sent more then iij 
veckes agone. 1 vnderstand that som sheriffs have doon their 
Duetie som p^rchaunce be as yet negligent so to doo. 

letteres for the muwsters be also sent, and no doubte they 
shal doo their duetie in the fulfilling your pleasure in that 
behalf I see good Inclination disposiabn and towardnes of 
good will in all your graces people , that by all that I can see 
and heare your Maiesiie hath moch cause to thancke god 
thereof , and to reioysse in yo//r owne mynde , all maner mis- 
trust sett apart. As for the return of the muwsters it is not 
appoincted tyll Easter by the which tyme all I trust shalbe 
done and certified Then vpon the certificate thereof shal other 
letteres by redy (for the spirial ayde, and nombre, eu^ry gentil- 
man woll certifie to have of hym self ever in a redynes), to be sent 
Incowtinewt at the arryvaill of the certificate.? of the general 
muwsters. So that I trust all thinges be in a good forewardnes. 
In the meane tyme I and other of your graces counseill 
her* doo studye and employe ourselies dayly vpon those 
affaires that concernen yo//r graces parlamewt and to prepense 
and prepare in the same and other all that we may thinke to 
your highnes satisfaction I thinke Chappuys woll resorte 
towards your grace to see whither it shalbe yo//r pleasure to 
geve vnto hym accesse or no wherupon I have thought to 
shewe you my mynde concernyng his departure and licence 
to go awaye Albeit it may appere yowr Ma/>jties ministres 
by the tenowr of their letteres be in very grete suspition yet 



LETTERS OF [1539 

I thinkc for as moche as I can not jvrceyve cxpresse and 
manifesto ground thereof and that as this daye there be iii 
or iiii hoyes arryved oute of Flaundres laden w/t^ marchan- 
dise and good numbre of money in the same, That the going 
awaye of the said ambassadowr shuld not be Ictten but his 
leave graunted. For it were to abhominable that they shuld 
steye Mr. Wryothesley or any other yowr ministres As 
I beleve for shame they will not do. Therfore wheras here- 
tofore I have writen vnto yowr Ma/rrtics depute at Calais 
vnder the colowr of good chere and entretenemewt to kepe 
the said Chappuy there or eUes if he wold not suffer to be so 
steyed by colowr of faire entretenemet tyll Mr. Wryothesley 
shuld rcto//rnc that then he shuld saye vnto him that for 
a spinal restraincte made afor the date of his passport , he 
dereth not suffre him to passe tyll Mr. Wryothesley be com* 
or tyll he shuld further knowe yowr highnes pleasure vpon 
that spinal point requiring hym to take paciewcc. I beseche 
yowr Ma.testic to declare yowr owne pleaswri and in cace the 
same shalbc that he may also departe from Calais that then 
it may please yowr highnes to scnde my \ttttres herewith to 
my lorde deputie theflfect whereof is to co//tremad the form/r 
Ir/ATcs and that in nowise he shal steye the said Chappuys . 
whether the said Wryothesley be arryved or no. Thesame 
I Remitte holly to yowr highnes most prudet disposition 
and ordre Evermore assuring you that my hert geveth me 
whatsoever be said or writen of suspicion yet neuirtheles 
I trust ccrtaincly it shalbc but a face sett furth and in a brout 
vanyshe awaye. It notwithstanding as yowr detirminac/on is 
so I most humbly beseche yowr grace to precede furth to 
yowr preparac/ons and to the good ordre is l begon/ alredy. 
I have caused the Two Raguseys to be steyed according to 
yowr graciouse mynde tyll yowr pleaswn be knowne And 
likewise the Venecian at Southampton The marchaunt/j 
straungirs which had their goodrj in Mr. Gonson ship to the 
valowr to my Jugement of L. M 1 * markrj sterling wold fayne 
lade thesami vpon other botoms and conveyc thesame to be 
vttred and sold as they pwrposed They sue to me to knowc 
yowr graciouse pleaswri. Yowr subiectu the marchauntu of 
this Towne wold ava/rture somi of them more of their good** 
into Flaundres but I have steyed them at the custome house 
Tyll yowr further pleaswri and resolucibn knowe The which 
in this and all other things as I shal knowe so shal I not 
faile to accomplish to the vttcrmost of my power. My myndc 
is ever to this purpose that I shal ever mistrust my witt , or 

1 sif, for ' as.' * L e. 50,000. 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 199 

dies we shal fynde that all thies stowrmes of Rumows have 
ben sett furth for a practise which I trust shal shortely come 
to light But for all that, the cost and paines your grace 
taketh nowe aboute the preparac/ons & fortifications of the 
hole Realmc shalbe thought well employed. Amongcs other 
for yor graces p^rliamewt I have appoincted yo//r Maiesties 
seruaunt Mr Morisson to be oone of then 1 no doubte he 
shalbe redy to answer and take vp such** as wold crake or 
face wttA literature of lernywg or by Indirecte wayes If any 
such* shalbe as I thinke there shalbe fewe or noon Foras- 
moche as I and other your dedicate conseillers be abouter to 
bring all things so to passe that your Maiestie had never 
more tractable parlement I have thought the said Morisson 
very mete to serve yo//r grace therin Wherefore I beseche the- 
same to have him in yo//r good favour as ye have had hitherto 
I knowe his hert so good that he is worthy favour in dede 
Thus most humbly beseching your Maze.rtie to pardon myn 
Ignorance and to take this my Rude le//eres in good part. 
I supplie our blessed creatowr to sende your highnes encreace 
of honowr & fortunat successes and cowtynuawce of long and 
Joyefull liffe. Writen at London this xvii th of Marche, in the 
evening. 

Your highnes most humble subiect and seruaunt 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
Add. To the kingej highnes most Royall Maieste 



299. (CROMWELL) TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M. Vit. B. xxi, f. 96; Cal. xiv. (i) 552. Mar. 18 (1539). 

News concerning the success of the negotiations in Cleves, and the 
attitude of the German princes. The Duke of Saxony promises to 
favour the King's marriage. 

My duetie most humbly remembred Please your most 

noble maiestie to be aduertised that this mornyng 

I hav your graces semauntes Christopher Mount and 

Thomas paynel Franckford the V th of this present 

moncth Thefiect whereof is that .... of Februar last the said 

Christopher had accesse to the Duk of Saxony (all 

other being a fcrrc of) he declared theffect of his Instructions 
th he could wherunto the Duck answered that he wold 

1 sic, for ' them.' 



200 LETTERS OF [1539 

wrt// good will .... him self to his power to do all thing** and 
nothing to prctcrmittcc or .... that myght conduce to the 
p/rfection of this honest affaire And that for thjVJ singular 
love and affection he bcarcth to the King Ma/tttic. He said 
also ... he knewc no part of thothcr prince myndc But he 

trusted they shuld m shortcly and be togcdcr and then 

shuld he endevoir himself to thaccompl of this maticr 

And that he had licver brckc and open this mater himself .... 
by any other person bicausc he trusteth to spedc better hym- 

self and the thi be kept mor* secretly. And whcras 

the said Christopher saidc that thaffair . . required spcdy 
expedition and dcsyrcd that Mr. Burgartus which had seen all 
and could rcportc my good mynd and hcrt shuld be sent 
thither for he could see and aficrme the same. The duk 
answered that Incotinc//t after the asscmblcc of Franckford 
he shall mete \v;t// thothcr duck and then he shal if it shal so 
please your highnes he shalbe mediater and Interccsscr bitwcn 
both parties. And that he wold be content to sent Burgart 
thider afore but forasmoche as he is not known nor knowcth 
the cowrt then* he thinked better the matier shuld be differed 
tyll they shuld mete. He said also that the Comes de Aquila 
moved sowtyme such a matier to your grace, And that he 
had thesaid Comes so moch at his co;;/ma//dcw<-t that he 
shuld cause him to doo all the service thcrin he could. The 
said Christopher Instawtcly sueth cucry day the accclerac/bn 
of the matier lest som other shal prcvcntc it And that in the 
meanc tyme the picture* may be sent Wherunto the duk 
answered that he shuld fyndc som occasion to scnde it but 
that his paynter Lucas was left sicke behynd hym at home. 
Every man prayseth the beawtie of the samr lady aswell for 
the face as for the hole body above all other ladys excellent. 
One among*-.? other prposes said vnto them of late that she 
excellcth as ferre the duchessc as the golden son exccllcth 
the sylveryn mone. Every man prayseth her good vertucs 
and honestc w/t// shamfastncs, which, appercth playncly in 
the grauite of her face. Thus saye they that have seen them 
both. 

The said Christopher thinkcth the diete shal not be finished 
biforr the last cnde of this moneth and that the mart and the 
dictc shal chauncc to be at oon tymc Thelectcrs paltzgrave 
and brand eburgh w;'t// the bishop of londcn thempsrot/rs am- 
bassadowr employe themsclfrj to make a pacification, and to 
confirmc the samr and hope to spedc. Therle of Nassau Thcrlc 
of Aquila Therle Will ... a Furstemburg wit/t many Frenshe 
capitaines to the nombre of xx arryved at Franckford Two 
days passed and dayly gc/rtilmen more: do resortc thither. 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 201 

There can as yet nothing by diffined of the conclusion 
of this diete and as eu^ry man hopeth well so be they 
ware that they be not deceyved or oppressed by the craft 
or puyssance of the papistrj or of the TLmperour The states 
protestantrj have geven their petition more then iiii day[s] 
passed but as yet Themperours co/wmissionrrs have geven 
no answer therto 

The said Christopher doth diligentely Instante and sue for 
the sending of an honorable ambassiate but he hath yet no 
answer But they feale themselfor agreved and do deteste the 
long dilations of our court. 

This day Therle Wilh'am a furstewburg was at dyner with 
the duk which asked of him what newes he awswered That 
there is labour made for trewes bitw[en] Thempmwr and the 
Turke. Then said the duk to what pwrpose shuld be all 
thies pr^paraabns themp*v-o7*r maketh Therle answered that 
other men shuld care for ... Then said the duk the bruyte is 
here it shuld be agenst the king of England Then said Therle 
The king of England shall nede to take hyde to him self 
The same Bernard de mela reported who was present at the 
dyner and desired the said Christophor to advertise your 
grace thereof and have hym recowmended most humbly. 
This is the hole effect of those letteres as your ma^tie may 
knowe by thoriginal thereof in latin which I sende herwtt/t. 
The duk of Cleves as I heare say is well recovred. If your 
grace woll have any thing writen to the said Christophor we 
have nowe good cowmodite of men to conveye \etteres Wher- 
fore I wold be glad to knowe your graciouse pleasure herein 
And also wheras my Stuard long afore this hath w*t/*dra\vcn 
his wiff From my lady mary your Matties doughter, and 
therupon her grace hath lately directed her \ettcres vnto her 
which ye shal also have herewzt//. I beseche your highnes to 
knowe your graciouse pleasure and mynd whyther she [sjhal 
retowme thither or noo For assuredly nor my saide Stuard 
nor she wold do nothing, to your highnes discontentac/on 
wittingly for all the world. 

Your maiestie may be assured that your highnes affaires in 
all poinctrj can be no more accelerate and more don to their 
expedic*on, then we all do to our powers which vndoubtedly 
be not ydell wherfore I besecru* your grace to pardon me and 
take thies in good part as I hope your maiestic of yowr 
accustumed benignite woll do. So I praye almyghty god 
ever to have yor highnes in his blessed tuition and sende 
your grace honour pr<?sp*vite and long liff. Writen at London 
this xviii 01 of Marche. 



202 LETTERS OF [1539 

300. CROMWELL TO CHRISTOPHER MONT AND 
THOMAS PAYNELL. 

B. M. Vit. B. xxi, .159; CaL xiv. (i) 580. Mar. 22 < 1 539). 

Directs them to signify to the Elector of Saxony and Landgrave of Hesse 
the desire of the King for a close alliance, and to represent to them 
the malice of the Pope and Emperor. They are to press for a speedy 
and satisfactory answer. 

After my right herty cowmendacj'ons I dated 

at Frankeford the V th of this mo afore, I wrote 

vnto you by Reyner W whom I thinke ye haue 

received alredy receive them. The kingrj 

Maiestye hath p^rvsed theffect and tenowr of your 

k/fcres, and hathe g charge to thanke you for 

yowr diligence and dextre pro and to signifye vnto 

you, that his grace not only mer moche, that ye 

haue no manrr answer, as yet to th principall part 

of the Instruction geven vnto you .... his maiestye con- 
cernyng the confederacion ayde and h against the per- 
secutors of the gospell, to be mvtuelly m and given 

in cace of nede and hostilite, and that the pr0ceding aboutrj 
thother mater of Allyance on my behalf moved to Burgratus, 
and afterward to the Duke, be so cold and slak, And that the 
Duke hathe put such long dilaye to be taken therin, but 
also thinketh it wound rous strange that so wise prince, as the 
prince evangelical 1 be, shuld as it is reaported take as it were 
a terme of trieux, vnder the colowr of pacificac/on set furthe 
by all likelihode, by the papists and adurrsaries of the word 
of God, to vndermyn them, And therbye to tary for the tyme, 
that they may haue an occasyon to shewe thair pmurse 
malice and execute thair crueltye bothe Against them, and the 
sincerite of the word of god And so by litle and litle assaye 
to pr^vyde for thair distruct/bn vnder the colowr of a veray 
peax, whiche is neurrtheles but a clokcd and furred peax, till 
they shall see thair avantage to execute thair pwrpose vpon 
them And therfore his maiesties pleaswrr is, that I shuld 
write vnto you And in his graces name to require and charge 
you, that vpon the receipt of thise \fttercs ye shall resortc 

e Duke & Landcsgrave agayn according to yor 

nstruct/bns & l/7teres sythins that tyme by you . . . . ed, 

And as for the poynt comrrrnyng the cowfederac/on 

liege, yc shall declare vnto them, that the kingr* highnes 
bcyng a prince that favowreth the preferment of the word of 
god, aboue all other things in the woi/rld perceiving sundry 
practises to be devised & p/rpcnsccl against all princes, that 
favoured the gospell, thinking in dedc that like as they haue 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 203 

ben the first that haue in those parties ernestly stikked 
vnto it, And whom first of all the Crueltye of thewemyes of 
the same wold invade and assaye (afore any other) to 
oppresse, sent you thither to knowe thair myndes and inten- 
c/ons whither they woll styk to the same, As his maiestye 
doubteth not but they woll do in dede And in that cace, they 
wold for thair defence make any cowfederaczons or lieges, that 
ye shuld shewe vnto them, that for the singuler zele, his 
maiestye hathc to the oppression of all abvses, his highnes 
wold be glad to be adu^rtised therof, and cowtent vpon 
reasonable and honest cowdic/ons to entre a liege for mutuel 
ayde on bothe syd^j in cace of nede to be given, as it shuld 
be reasonably advised bitwen^- them, Requiring them to cow- 
syder, that your sending thither by his highnes, after the 
respect of god was most for thair love pr^fyte and defence, 
For thawked be our lord, ye may affirme vnto them, his 
maiesty feleth his forces and strength to be such, that in so 
just a querrell as the mayntena/mce of the word of god is, 
his grace trusteth Christ hymself wol be so good a protectour 
and sheld to hym that he doubteth not, but to defende his 

oun from the Iniurye also to put them to suche an 

afterd cause to be warr at all tymes of any- 
thing against his maiestye, be And therfore you shall 

require them, that they v/it/t mvtuel correspondence of 

kindenes make . . . answer, as to your gentle sending thither, 

And to maiesties good will it apprrteyneth, Further 

declaring vnto them that veray lothe his highne[s] wold be to 

see any of them to be trapped, vnder or deceyved, or 

to take any harme or prejudice at t[he] papists h&ndes, who 
do studye nothing somoch as to disparple, devyde and dis- 
sever them, so as thair strengthes being divided, they might 
easely distroye oon after another, and sel^e thair occasion 
vtitA protract of tyme vnder colour of pacificacion, the opor- 
tunite, vtterly to destroye them ; but neu^rtheles, his highnes 
remitteth the cowclusyon of thair affaires vfitj any Ambas- 
sadowrs or pacificatowrs there to thair good discreabns, not 
doubting, but they woll forsee and forethinke such practises l 
As vnder colowr of symplicite and good faithe be wrought 
against them, not only to thair detriment , but also to the 
detryment of all others that pr^fesse the Evangelicall trueth, 
wherunto the kingw highnes hathe a speciall regard, seyng 
that after thair ou^rthrowe as begynn^rs of the abolicion of 
abvses the papists shuld afterward attempt against his grace, 
being of the kinges the first that hath bawnished out of his 

1 . o. against them 



204 LETTERS OF [1539 

Rcalmc, the vsurped power of the bishops of Rome and his 

sete, and abolished his suprrsticions Requyring and 

pressing them therfore that ny further protract or 

delayes they woll send inges highnes thair resolute 

mynd and Intcnc/on [alnd to shewe themselfcr no les grate- 
full and thankfull to take and accept his good will and zele 
towards them, then it hath preceded of his highnes, to haue 
sent you thither, And so plainly to shewe his graces mynd 
vnto them Inducing them to give you som resolute awswer 
without further protract, by all suche reasons as your dis- 
cation 1 (seing the c/rcuwstantrj therof) may better gether 
and allege for yowr pwrpose, and for inducing them to send 
ernestly som person or persons Instructed to conclude wit// his 
maiestyc, or e\\fs to give you full adurrtisment of thair 
purposes and pr0cedingr*. 

Also ye shall shewe vnto Burgratus, or to som of your 
honest trusty frendrj, by whom ye may think, that it may 
next come to the Duk^ and Landisgrave eare that of late the 
Kingfs highnes hath ben adurrtised howe the bishop of Rome 
and his adherenter haue entrcd ernest Counsail, and diviscd 
by what manrr practises they might first and the next 
waye precede to destroye and vttrrly abolishe the mayn- 
tenowrs of Christ^ worde, deprcssowrs and cowtempnrrs 
of thair Indult/-j suprrsticions and abvses, And that for sundry 
diversities of opynyons, they could not as yet resolve vpon the 
most facilitc to bring thair pwrposes to passe, som of that 
Counsail, and the most were of the opynyon, fyrst to stopp 
that well whens (as they say) the matrr is sprong against 

them, meanyng Cuwtrcy and other Evangelical 1 p 

whom they thought Quo Jure by the meanes of som of 

tharchbishop adherents to Ryd and dispeche out of 

th of them, And specially suche as were induced 

Traytowr Pole Cardinal!, were of the opynyon . . . forasmoch 
as the Kinges highnes of England bein[g] oon of the three 
most principall princes, and had most openly rcicctcd, the 
bishop of Romcs vsurped auctoritc, And abolished it in his 
Realm And by whose meanes other might take example as 
folowing his title of the defensowr of the faith, and beside 
that bicause they cstcme his maiestyc of such strength, that if 
they could fynd the waye to cow/passe to bring his grace (as 
god forbyd) to an overthrow then thinkc they the rest of the 
prince Evangelicall shuld haue no boldcncs to dcfcndc thcm- 
aclfcr, but shuld ycld at the bishop of Romes pleasure and 
that therfore the waycs shuld be compassed against them for 

1 sif, for ' discretion.' 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 205 

that purpose, Hitherto ther be grete likelyhodde that the 
papists intended first against the Prince of Almayn as 
thcffect of thair practises and intelligence hath declared, And 
to sett forth thair malice against the kinge maiestye they 
haue groundid a bull vpon the devorce, which is nowe of 
a long season out of question, The abolicion of his vsurped 
Auctorite, and the putting to execua'on Fysher, the Cardinall 

of S* Vitale, as they called hym Bishop of Rochester 

thair champyon conteynyng of fulmynac/ons and 

Censures that can be gined against his maiesty & 

subiecte, And so as s grace is aduertised they loke but 

only for thair oportunite to set as they shall see cause vpon 
thone part or ihoiher, as they may spye most to thair 
adutf/mtage And that so having the things in suspence, the 
bishop of Rome and his adherents do studye, nothing more 
then to haue the prince of thair alliance to be at a peace and 
trues not only bitwen themselfe, but also w/t/z the turke and 
other to thentent that they may extinguishe the veray sincere 
sorte of the Evangelicall prince, and thair assisters. What 
the[y] ment against the Princes of Almayn, the dede do 
shewe, What they haue entewded against the kinge highnes 
a grete Rumour hath ben spred abrode but as yet the prince 
worde p/*rporte rather to the contrary that they woll medle 
in no wise w/'t// his maiestye, but that they wold kepe thair 
treatyes and amite, For and if they did they shuld be veray 
like, to haue the worst ende of the staff, and the mischief at 
the last, to fall vpon thair hedde. 

Trueth it is that the brute hath been veray sore that 
themprronr wold convert his strength and power against the 
kinge maiestye, and also the frenchc king at the bishop of 
Romes intercession, For non other cause then for mespr/sing 
and avoyding of his abvses and mayntenyng of the word of 

god f thcr be non at all, ner for any questyon 

therof cessing, ner for then godde oun, and the fame 

and hath ben extended to the forthest part of Christ- 
endom And the hole assemble at frankeford hath .... and 

yet neurrtheles, they haue made at that as though it 

had ben nothing of iwportawce, A[nd] wynked at it, as it is 

manifest, And though a well wayed and considered 

the same is thair oun cause and mater forasmoch as the malice 
the papiste do pretend against the kinge maiestye is 
grounded vpon non other cause or foundament then thair 
envye at the Religion, which is common no les arrected to the 
princes of Almayn then to the kinge maiestye. Ye may as 
of yourself lament to som of your frende ther, by whom ye 
shall think it may come to the Duke eare and knowlaige, or 



MM LETTERS OF [1539 

elks yf yc shall see cause vpon som good occasion taken, 
shewe vnto the duke and lawdisgrave as of your self, that 
whcras the king highnes (affore his grace kncwe of any 
practise or iwdignacion against hym) hath sent you, for the 
zele his highnes beireth vnto the gospell, and sincere doctrine 
of christ to declar[e] vnto them, that vpon honest and reason- 
able cowdic/ons he wold not refuse to condescend to som 

mvtuel aide fence of the gospell, yet neu^rthelcs 

as the tyme did nothing touche them, but as c 

wynkyng thorugh thair fyngrrs, not only, they haue given no 
adurrtismewt or admonicion to the king maiestye of such 
Rumowrs and brutrj as they haue herd by the cowmon voyce, 
or by thair iwtellegeno'.y as correspondence of gratuite reqw/rcd 
ner offred his grace any manrr of ayde or helpe to the defence 
of the cowmon Army, which could not haue ben taken at his 
maiestyes hand, but veray thankefully and gently, but also 
they haue and do as yet reteyn you there w;t//out any resolute 
answer, And although his maiesty shall by the grace of god 
be both liable to defend his Realme, and to offend the is/vasors, 
yet they might have considered, that virtus vnita vincit, dis- 
prrsa decrescit and that ther shuld be nothing so terreble and 
fearfull to the papists, ner more to the encoragement of the 
Evangclicall company, then to see all the pr0fessors of the 
same ioyncd and vnited togeder in an indossoluble knott, 
affirmyng for certayn that if the king highnes had seen and 
known them to be so bruted, and by Rumowrs thretened his 
grace wold haue offred hymself to give vnto them adu/rtis- 
met monicion ayde and succours as to the cace apprrteyned, 

with such other good allegac/ons beside those as ye m 

conduce, to haue them somw[hat] .... ourrsight & slakencs, 

in shewing .... gratuite, And by that for to pryk th 

redubb the same, and give you more f . . . . answer, for the 
recompence of it, w/V* expedicio[n] As for the mater of the 
Alliance wherof I .... the charge vnto you touching Cleves 
sollicit . . . yc to haue an answer, and if ye shall prrc[eive] in 
them any vntowardcnes or long dclayes that then having 
your answer touching thothrr mater ye shall no further presse 
them for the maters of allyauncrj, but take yowr iorney hither 
thorugh the Duke of Cleves domynions, and therr, to mete 
vtith the Kingfs oratowrs ther, Doctowr Owton, and Mr. Berde, 
and so to communicate w/tA them thaffaires coo-rnyng thair 
commission, and so to reto;/rne hither w/t// diligence, as ye 
shall see cause accordingly. Thus fare ye hirtely well From 
London this xxij* of Marche. 

Your louyng freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 207 

Add. To my loving frenckr Christopher Mount And 
Thomas paynell the king**.? Agents in Alemayn. 

Endd. My LordV.? let/eres to to 1 C: Mont and Thomas 
paynell xxii do Marcij. 

301. (CROMWELL) TO WRIOTHESLEY. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (i) 405. (March, 1539.) 

Information concerning the attitude of the Emperor, which seems very 
threatening. Wriothesley and Came are to take leave and return to 
England, Stephen Vaughan remaining in their place. 

Mr Wrothesley after my most afifectuouse co;;/mendac/ons 
wit/I request that in all aduersities ye shalbe lik yourself 
euermore of good confort as I 2 trust to god that bydyng by, ye 
shall overcome all the knottrj of difficulte. We prrceyve the 
state of things by your last \etterzs of the XXV th of the last 
moneth and howe after faire wether there is succeded beyond 
all mens expectaczon 3 a wether very clowdy Good wordes 
good cowtenaunce be towrned as we pwceyve to a wounder- 
full strangenes 4 . But let that passe 5 , o We trust to god he is our 
hope, what shuld we fear he woll defende his owne cause, howe 
and after what fashon we leave it to his divine pr0uid^ce Be 
ye allwayes of good confort. We lack nor hert nor corage c . 
Your letteres yesterdaye I declared to the kingrj highnes 
whose maieste having the nyght afor* receyved letters from 
Mr. Wyat doth p^rceyve that in Spayne all things be waxen 
from colder to coldest 7 . Pole is lately arryved there In con- 
clusion Themperour sayeth to the treties alleged agenst his 
reception that If he were his owne traytowr cow/myng from 
that holy (scilicet) father of R(ome) he can not refuse him 
audience. For the matier of mariage wzt// the duches of 
Millan nowe all the steye is vpon the dispensation whiche 
they as it may be taken obiecte nowe for a delaye as the most 
dificulte wherof they never spak of afore. As for any treatie of 
streighter allyaunce they saye in dede that they shal not fayle 
to obs^rue the hole tenour of their treaties 8 I praye god they 

1 sic. not shall fall vpon their neckw and 

* c. o. doubt not but shalbe their owne Rod 

' c. o. and agenst all right and * c. o. and shal not be faced w;'tA 

reason a bragg 

4 c. o. and that so vnkyndely and 7 c. o. and from sowr to bytter 

so beyond any honest mens ex- 8 c. o. but they wold have aucto- 

pectac/on, that no wit is so dull but rite to glose them at their pleasur. 

he shuld nwveill at it We pmreyve they practise sormvh.it 

8 c. o. their Inordinat mynd and the botom of the pott. We knowe 

doings their extreme Ingratitude we not but we tak it for a bragge but 

trust at the last yea and we doubt nevertheles 



J<s LETTERS OF [1539 

doo so we mistrust som practises 1 , and thcrfor^ as good 
prudence reason and policy requireth we shal erncstly lok to 
o//r 2 ownc defense Whatsoeu/r happeneth lett them lok to 
have no a vantage. a If they 4 do vs displease///- whereof we 
wold be lothe but if they do constrayn vs we shal shewe 5 the 
best we can whiche shalbe Inough Wherefore his mzieste after 
long consyderac/bn ' ivrceyving nothing 7 but very 8 delayes 
and 9 litel effect lik to * succed therr hath willed me to signific 
vnto you, that declaring vnto the Queen Regent the coldnes n 
and long protracte of the maticrs w/t^out lyklyhod of any 
cxpcdic/on 12 his gnrciouse pleasure and co;//mandeme//t (is) 
that ye shal desire yowr leave and licence of her and wit/* all 
diligence gett yourself 13 (away) and retorne hither 14 into the 
kingrj dominions as I wrote vnto you by my last Ifttfres For 
howsoever ye shal (be) dismissed thens assuredly thambas- 
sadowr Chappuy being herr shall 15 have his leave to departe 
hens 16 wit/* favour and honorably if he shal prrsiste to require 
it. In asking of his leave he made no grete mension to go 
thider for expedition of thaffaires Where ye have charge, but 
in manrr as it were at the Quenes calling or for his puwticuler 
matiers " I can nott tell what I shuld saye. We have ben 
ther old unfeyned freendV^ and it semeth that for a Reward 
they wolbe 18 faine towards vs. God is above vs all Tak yowr 
leave as honestly and witA as ls> good pr0testac*bns to all M 
pxrsones ther<* as ye can according to yowr former lr//rres. 
And after yo//r departure appoincte M r Vaughan as the 
kingcs graciouse pleasure is tyll his further pleasure be known 
to attende vpon the governance therr in yo//r absence 21 And 
that Mr. Kerne retowme witA you wherein nevertheles ye 
shal vse such discreobn therein as If any evill malice wen* 
ment ** ye maye disapoincte it, the circuwstancrj and know- 
lege of the particularites therr, may instruct yowr prudent 



1 ftt the margin : they can do vs 10 c. o. spede or 

no harm but to their owne dctri- " c. o. ye fynde and the vnto- 
mcnt wardncs they shewe 

* c. o. self as though it were ' c. o. of the Matiers 

most crnest and emcst agayn so *' c. o. awaye thens and reporte 

that " c. o. you and M* Kerne 

c. o. at our handes ld c. o. never 

4 c. o. bcgyn ones M c. o. tyll we may knowe that ye 

6 c. o. that we be men and of be in surctic of yo.vr p<v sone 
suche sorte in hert as the shape " c. o. or at the Quenes calling 
shewcth owteward. u c. o. our newe enemys 

* c. o. of their practises can " c. o. honest 

7 c. o. that wayes * < . o. the nobles 

' c. o. fayntisc and dissimulac/on n c. o. and M r Kerne to 

c. o. no * c. o. by them to 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 209 

circumspection what ye have to doo l . I thinke that your 
retourne wolbe vttt/t all celerite yet nevertheles I doubt not 
but If the case shal require ye will aduertise vs of alle notable 
occurrences that in the meane tyme may chaunce and that 
shuld be provided for. 

302. CROMWELL TO (SIR RICHARD RICHE). 

R. O. CaL xiv. (i) 679. Apr. 3 (1539). 

Desires him to make out and deliver to the bearer letters patent, for a 
pension of ^80 to the late Abbot of Wigmore. 

In my right harty wise. I cowmend me vnto you. And 
forasmoche as the Icings maiesties pleasure ys that the late 
Abbot of Wigmore shall haue for his yerly pension the some 
of fourscore pounds sterling. I desire you w/t/* convenyent 
spede to cause the king \etfcres patents therof to be made 
and sealed in the accustumed maner, and delivered to the 
berer herof according to the kingrj highnes pleasure in that 
behalf, thus fare ye hartcly well. At my house in london the 
third day of Apriell. 

Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Endd. A letter from my lorde pryvy scall for the pensyon 
of the late abbott of Wygmore 

303. CROMWELL TO SIR EDMUND KNYVETT. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (i) 706. (Apr. 6, 1539). 

Advises him to agree to the election of Mr. Southwell and Mr. Wyndham 
for the next Parliament, as it is the King's pleasure that they be 
chosen. 

Aftre my right harty cowmendac/ons having receyved your 
"Letteres of the seconde of this present, I p^rceyve by the same 
your gentle affection towards me wtt/i your desire to knowe 
myn aduisc touching the knightly of the shire for Norffblk, 
thelection of whom shalbe the xiiii th of this monethe at 
Norwhich For answer wherunto like as for thone parie I doo 
right hartely thank you, and shalbe gladd to consider your 
good wil as occasion and convenient oportunyte woll strue me, 
Soo for thother parie touching the knighter of the shire 

1 c. o. At the dispeche of the not to have answer of thes nor of 

bring^r of yor last l*//*res my his but at your co/wmyng or a litel 

loving seniaunt knight was not before thinking 

arryved vnto you Wherfor I lok 



MKRRIMAN. II 



210 LETTERS OF [1539 

I hauc thought mctc to signific vnto you, that of trouth the 
king Ma/>jte is wcl inclyned to haue Mr Southwcl and 
Maistr Wyndam elected and chosen to supplic those Romcs 
at this parliament. Wherunto myn aduise shalbc that you 
shal conforme yowrself not for that I doo thinke either of 
them more hable for the office thcnne yowrself But bicausc 
they being also convenient for the same, and partcly myndcd 
by his highnes, I wold all my Freendcs in the nombr* whcrof 
I doo accept you shuld in al things applic thcmsclfcr to 
satisfic his grace as apperteynethe. Thus Fare you hartely 
wel. From london this Ester daye. 

Your assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my loving Freend Edmund Knevet of Buckenam 
castle csquier. 

Endd. my lorde & Master to Edmonde Knevett 
304. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, f. 195 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 775. Apr. 12 (1539). 

Requests him to permit his successor Tate to have as much plate and 
stuff as he can spare, at a reasonable price. 

Mr. Wyat after my right herty and most aficctuousc 
co#*medac/ons to you I adurrtissc you of the receipt of 
yo//r \fttercs of the xxix* 11 of Marchc last by yo//r postc 
Nicholas and also of yowr other \e Meres by the waye of 
FlaunoVrs of sundry dates as the xvi" 1 and xviii 111 of the same 
moneth the which and yowr good diligence and office therin 
ministrcd the kingtt Ma/tttie takcth very thankfully and 
pwrposeth to Remember the same accordingly. His highnes 
hath despechcd this berer M r Tate yo;/r successowr In poste 
for the causes whichc he shal declare vnto you. I praye you 
that for my sake ye will helpe him of such yowr plate and 
stuff for his furnishcmcwt as ye maye spars for reasonable 
price and to shewe vnto him yowr favour and gcwtilnes as 
I double not therof. He shal declare vnto you the diligence of 
yowr cuwmyng and why his grace woll have it accelerated 
I praye and advise you to ordre it so diligently as may be to 
his gracu satisfaction. And so bicause he can declare you all 
manrr newes by mouth wit^oute any further recitaill Fare ye 
hertely well From london this xij" 1 of Aprill. 

Yowr assuryd louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 211 

Add. To my veray loving freend Sir Thomas Wyat knight 
gentilman of the king^r Chamber and his graces ambassado/fr 
wr't// themperour 

Endd. From my lorde prevy seall by Mr. Tate the xij of 
Aprill to Tolledo 

305. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M. Titus B. i, f. 267 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 781. Apr. 16 (1539). 

News of the diet at Frankfort, and of the doings of the Emperor, who is 
too much occupied about other affairs to think of England now. 

Please it your most excellent highnes, My very bounden 
duetie remewbred to your most noble Royall maieste, to 
vnderstand That even nowe I have receyved newes from the 
man of Antwerp which your highnes wote of writen in broken 
English of the Date of xj of Aprill , present moneth. Theffect 
whereof is That in Germayn the Christen prince assembled 
have as yet no answere from Themperour . but they loke dayly 
for it and also for the conclusion of all the practike The said 
man writeth the said xj of Aprill he receyved \etterzs of the 
xxiiij th of Marche from Toledo in Spayne by the which he 
vnderstandeth , that thexchaunge of CLm 1 1 crones made by 
the Fowlkers and Welsers to be paid in Augstburg wit/tin 
ij monethes shal serve for to assemble fotemen to be conduced 
to Geanes for to go wtt/t Themperours shippes which he 
hatlv vndoubtedly prepared for Barbaria But forbicause 
Themperesse is veray sicke and -with chyld and her tymc 
to be brought to bedd wzt/nn ij or iij monethes vntyll suche 
tyme as she be well "Themptrour doth not thinke to departe 
oute of Spayn Wherfore he Jugeth that the Englishemen 
ought not to feare any thing the flete of Themperour For 
they be all ordeyned for Barbaria as he saieth he hath* ever 
writen. He thinketh that thadmyral of the lowe countreye is 
nowe vpon the see w*t/j all the flete for spayn and his person 
shal passe no further but retowrne agayn to the lowe contreyes 
by land Englishemen may assuredly make their rekenyng that 
Ihemperour hatlv cause to think elleswhere then vpon them. 
And for the verification and proue hereof as he allegeth to 
have writen heretofore. Themperour hath* not cowsewted to 
the popes desires nor that his Mandementer shuld be published 
neyther in Spayn neyther in any other his dominions. That 
englishemen shuld be destroyed both bodyes and goodes 
wheresoever they could be found As that pope wold they 

1 i.e. 150,000. 
P a 



212 1.1 TTI-RS OF [1539 

shuld be which desires although he calleth them Sanctissimo 
yet we ought to repute tyra/missimo and so the world ought 
to Juge seen that he procedeth w/t//out reason. But the 
worde of god shall lasse in etcrnu;// and the truth shal have 
place in spytt of the devill The newes in Antwerp from 
Themprrowrs cowrt be that aboute the later ende of Maye 
the said emprrowr shal take his waye towards the frenshe 
king And his Army surely go vpon Barbarya. The duchesse 
of Myllan is no more sicke and in Antwerp is hope that yet 
yowr highnes shall marye her. The xxiiij" 1 of Marche last the 
said man of Antwerp receyved letteres from Rome from 
a freende of His The tenowr of his \etterzs worde by worde 
by this as he wryteth Here at Rome we heare nothing of any 
maner busyncs but that the myndet and will of thise prrsoncs 
is well knowen as it may be better consydered then told. 
The practise that nowe goth aboute here bitweiv the Twayn 
is w/t//outc that the thyrd have any part in it and so clere as 
your freendes at Lyons and Antwerp may more never discover 
the truth. As for me I have thought tyll nowe that it had 
bcnr but a fayned thing and an opinion vulgarr wj't/routc any 
fondation. But syth/v/j that in diu^rse parties there is 
conformable talking of it I thinke therupon and it semeth 
vnto me to be of good lykelyhod That the oone of the felowes 
that is ever gladd to hold and kepe in hand is for to sett the 
other in som^ snare or tanglyng, and that he doth for the 
sarru? geve him faire wordrj to feade him witA Albeit he hath 
no mynde to conv to theflfect And that if he shuld comr to it 
p^radvewture he thinketh to leave him in the daunce and 
Revolve himself to sonv other place. By the which way 
the other shuld remayne quyte of such things as be 
demaunded of him or the felowe shuld lese sonv steye of 
freende if he have any with danger to make banke rota, 
which shuld be more pleaswr* to the other then to sec his 
cncreasse In this cacc (he writeth) if I were asked of conseill 
being I wx't//outc the Arte of divination, I could non other 
but holde my peace. Sithens this iij monethes it rayncthc 
here styll. Of the Turke is litel talking and here is not seen 
any apparat to ofiende him The xxiiij" 1 of March Petro 
Bembo hath ben published cardinal Hitherto is theffect of 
the \tttercs fro Rome, worde by worde which is somwhat 
darke but I take the Two to be Themprrowr and the Frenshe 
king and the third the bishop of Rome, and to my Jugemewt 
he meyncth them. I double not but your high wisedom may 
better Juge of all the samr than I. 

This daye I have writen your gracrj advises to your 
struauntts Christopher mount and Thomas paynell to be 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 218 

declared vnto the duke and Landsgrave as your highnes 
prescribed vnto me Other newes I have not to write vnto 
your highnes Wherefore Requiring your grace to take thies 
my rude \ettcrts in good part I beseche Almyghty god to 
cowtynue and encreace, your pn?sperite and honour with 
helth long to endure From London this xvi th of Aprill. 

Your magestes most humble subiect and seruaunt 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To the kingrj most excellent Royall Maieste. 

Endd. Letfere to the binges Ma/>jte from my lord pryvey 
Scale 

306. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS WYATT. 

B. M. Harl. MSS. 282, ff. 197-8 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 782*. Apr. 16 (1539). 

Desires his return, as the King wishes to know certain things which he 
can only impart orally. Urges him to discover the Emperor's inten- 
tions before his departure. 

Mr Wyat after my right herty commendations to you 
forasmuch as the kingcs maiestie hath muche hert to know 
what is the mater that ye can not write but declare by mouth, 
Therfore his grace willeth ye shall \vi\Ji all possible diligence 
returne, and in cace ye can not so sone com the king^j 
mantes will is that ye shal make the shortiest abode there 
ye can, and in the meane tyme because of your better 
accointaunce ye shall inquire what themp^rowr woll this 
yere or go out of spayne or where icaaenst 2 the turkye, or 
barbarowse and how all stondyth bytwene fraunce and 
thempmwr and news ther Thus bicause this berer can 
Infourme you of the newes . I shal w*t//oute longer Recitaill 
cowzmitte you to almyghty god. From london this xvi th 
of Aprill. 

Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my veray loving freend S/> Thomas Wyat Knight 
gentilman of the binges prive chambre and his graces ambassa- 
dowr wrt// Themp^rowr. 

Endd. From my lorde prevy sele by Nich^/as the xvi* of 
Aprill to tolledo 

1 This letter is. also calendared * For * where icaaenst ' the ca- 
by mistake as of the year 1538 lendar has 'wrrie agent,' i.e. 'war 
(vol. xiii. (i) 780). against' 



214 LETTERS OF [1539 

307. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

15. M. Titus B. i, f. 271 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 806. Apr. 19 (1539). 
News from Frankfort Arrival of an Italian with recommendations from 
Wittenberg. Examination of the Marchioness of Exeter. 

My most humble and bounden Duetie remembred to your 
excellent maiestic It may please the same to be aducrtiscd 
that as this present dayc I had not failed to sett foreward 
and prepared that as tomorrowc I myght have wayted and 
gcven my due and pr^missed attendaunce vpon yowr highncs , 
but that I fyndc vpon me some grutge of an ague and thinkc 
that w/t^standing the first bruwtes by the sparing of oon* or 
two dayes I shalbe the better hable to cowtynue my duetic 
of smiice towards yo//r grace many moncthes and yercs , and 
yet in the meane tyme I shal not be ydell but Intende to 
yowr maiestics srruicc as I have donr hitherto , and shall as 
long as god shal geve me breth and power to styrr. I have 
sithens my last Lr//rres Receyved adurrtisementrj from yo//r 
grac*j oratowr in Flaundres Stephan Vaughan a grete part 
wherof your highncs hath had alredy, part of them as 
thadvise of the bishop Lundcnsw Thcmpmwrs ambassado.vr 
in Frankford. We hard not afore but seen they advise to 
take such waye as his Jugemcwt is they shuld doo so I thinkc 
bicause it shal not be easy to them to compasse their purpose 
that at the last their entrcprises shal conv to nothing, and so 
in space shal appere goddrj grace. In yo//r k7/rres by the 
said Vaughan writen to your Ma/>jte the matiers may be 
seen more at large , and for that pwrposc I have Joyncd them 
hercw/t// Vpon the lr//rres sent vnto me by yo//r highnes 
most honorable counseill. The marquise hath ben^examyned , 
and In effect , albeit she pretendeth Ignorance and no know- 
lege of the prrson that shuld reporte the tale, yet newrtheles 
she confesseth in substance , the moche like word to have 
ben told her. I shall assayc to the vttermost of my power , 
and never cesse tyll the botom of her stomacke may be clercly 
opened and disclosed , and to that shal I not be slack , to 
th intent that If I may pycke oute the same and be as hclthy 
as I trust to make mcself , I shall on mondayc next by mouth 
declare the sanv vnto yowr highnes more then I could by any 
writing. I trust allmyghty god shall bringe all thingrr to 
lyght that any vngodly and vntrue prrsons have cowspired 
agenste your grace as hitherto (prayscd by god) it hath ben 
seen. The ernest and true examynation of Leynham shewcth 
that of a long season he hath bcnr a madd prophete assuredly 
as ferre as any man may Juge the man is but a pyvyshe foule 
and no partc of the sprite of true prophetic can be found in 
hym, many such foules have bcnr in tymcs and as I thinke 






1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 215 

the feld of the world woll never be w/t/ioute such noyefull 
wedd^r amongest the good corne, but hervest shal I trust 
make an ende of them. Here arryved yesterday oon^ hier- 
onymo an Italian of Senes , a man of moche outward simplicite 
and as weake lernyng as ferre as I can pmreyve he fledd the 
persecution of the papists in Italy and went, to witteberg 
where he hath benc but a litel season yet nevertheles he hath 
letteres of co;mendac*bn from Martin luther, philip melanchton 
Creutziger Oziander and other lerned men , and therew/t/* 
some \etterts to my lord tharchbishop of Canturbery and to 
your grao\y Chapleyn Mr. Thyxstyll . the simplicite of the 
man and his Rude appareill and behaviowr shewe the man 
not to be in my Jugemewt gretely suspected I have sent him 
to the said Archbishop as well for to Juge of his lernyng as 
also for to helpe him as he shal see cause. I have receyved 
letteres from my lord of NorfiW which I sende herwit/i to 
thentent that your highnes may knowe howe grevousely his 
lordship taketh the assignemewt I have made to Anthony 
Rouse of oone of Sir Edward Ichinghams doughters . who 
by all the very true aduertisementes that I can have is your 
Majesties warde and to your graces vse appoincted to the 
custodye of the said Rouse I am sory he taketh the mater 
so moche to hert. seen the said Antony Rouse hath ben and 
is reported an honest and Indifferent man. I remitte the 
resolution and disposition of the hole matier to your highnes . 
Not doubting but your most excellent wisedom can weyeng 
the matier, weye also therwit/i , My said Lorde the duke of 
NorfiV&\r good merits and determyne the best in that mater 
to be fulfylled and accomplished accordingly. I beseche your 
Mateste to take myn avsewce in good part and to excuse my 
default of promesse for this tyme Prayeng almyghty god to 
sende your grace full acco;plishement of all your most noble 
desires. From London this xix 111 of Aprill 

Your highnes most humble subiet & seruauntc 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
Add. To the Kinges most noble Maieste. 
Endd. Lettere to the kinges Ma/Vjte from the "Lord prevy 
scale 

308. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M. Royal ;C xvi, 143 ; Cal. xiv. (ii) App. 22. (Apr. 1539.) 

Recommendation for the bearer, who is a wise and loyal man, and can 
give a good account of affairs in Flanders. 

Pleaseth it your Royall Maiestie to be aduertised, that this 
berer is oon^ of them whiche I sent into Flaunders and alongist 



216 LETTERS OF [1539 

all the cost of the same, he cannc assuredly ccrtifie your 
hieghncs of all occurraunto, I bcsechc your hieghnes to here 
him, he is bothe a wise man and your true srruawnt and sub- 
iccte. The matiers in those parties be no thing as they hauc 
been reaported, as yowr Maieste shall well prrceaue by this 
bcrer Whom yowr hieghnes shall in all doings fmdc a pithie 
man, As knoweth almightic god who ever preserue yowr 
hieghnes in long licflf, good health, and ever to haue yowr 
hertrj desire. Written at london this present Wedensdaie 

Yowr hignes most humble subicct and s^ruawnt 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To the King Hieghnes. 

Endd. My Lorde P. S. to the Y^inges Maj>jte. 

309. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M. Nero B. vi, f. 5 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 834. (Apr. 23, 1539). 

Information concerning letters written to the English ambassadors on 
the Continent. News of the probable invasion of Christendom by 
the Turks, and of the relations of France and Spain. 

My most bounden duetie of reuerence and honowr to yowr 
maicstc right humbly remembred It may like the same to 
wite that to my grete regret sorowe and displeasowr by reason 
of certain accesse of a fever tertian that is com vpon me I am 
compelled to be nowe absent and to forbeare such myn atten- 
daunce vpon yowr Royall highnes as sundry wayes I am bounde 
vnto and as I pwrposed yesterdaye in the mornyng and made 
meself redy to have don whan my fytt of the ague casted me 
downe and held me in a grete hete aboute a x howres, the 
payne of the disease greveth me nothing so moch as that doth 
that I cannot be as I shuld there present and employe my 
power to yowr gracrj affaires and seruice as my hert desyreth 
to do but I trust so to w/t//standc myn c/mcmy the fever in 
the very begywning and eere ever it shal have more hold vpon 
me that I trust shortely to ouercomi it. In the meane tymc, 
I doubte not but yowr bontcousc and benigne grace of his 
accoustumed clemency woll hold me for excused, and thereof 
I besechc yowr Ma&rte most humbly. I have in this mcane 
space devised a fowrme of Instructions for Mr. Sadleyer the 
which I thought to have brought meself and have knowen 
yowr gratiouse pleasure therupon. Thesame shall yowr 
highnes receyve herew/t//. Prayeng yowr MaiXrte to take 
my pore devise in good port, and graciousely to supplie my 
dcfawto thcrin. I have also in the mean tyme writen in to 



1.539] THOMAS CROMWELL 217 

Flaundres to Mr. Vaughan your Oratowr to seke and knowe 
hovve after what fashon the hulkfj shalbe dismissed in holawd 
why they have ben discharged from their voyage and other 
like things and thereof tadurrtise. To M Wotton and 
Berde I have writen that If they can gett the picture of 
the Lady, that M r Berde shal retowrn hither w*t/* diligence 
therwitA and Mr. Wotton to tarye there tyll he shal have som*- 
more effectuall answer etc. To M Christopher and Paynell 
I have also writen that they shuld warn the prince not to 
moch to trust to faire wordes, and to consyder why and 
to what pwrpose the exchange of the CLM 1 . d * 1 shuld be 
made etc. ebchorting them to the Inculcation thereof etc. 
And diligently to so sollicite an answer. After the dispeche 
of M r Tate I have sent Nicolas yottr currcwr in to spayne 
to cause M r Wyat to prepare his Instructions and advises to 
Mr. Tate agenst his comyng and that he may as shortely as 
he can resorte in poste to your highnes for the satisfaction 
of your mynde concur nyng that mater which he could not 
write but onely shewe to your grace by mouth . By the said 
Curro/*r I addressed also my \ctteres to My lord of Hereford 
advising him of such occurrence as we hadd. And from him 
(to my grete merveille as yet I have receyved no maner 
\ctteres) nor from any other also, but I have evermore w*'t// dili- 
gence (as ever I shal) sent thesam^ to your MazVjtie. Newes 
oute of other partes we have non, but oute of Flaundres, that 
is howe the hulke were cowtremawded to retowrn back The 
sending of Andelo, in post to the bishop of Rome to Andreas 
de Auria, to the venicie[n]s and to reto?/rn w;t//in xlv days . 
That thempm>r pwrposeth to conv in to flandres, and that 
the Frenshe king wold have him to passe thorough his Realme 
but he entewdeth not so to do and therfore it is thought that 
Andelo is sent to make his excuses, And suche other poincies 
which your grace is alredy adurrtised of. By other \etteres 
and aduertisementrj the sam^ be confirmed to be true . And 
also It is writen that the prince in the Diete of Franckford 
are not agreed and that there Diete shalbe , proroged tyll 
mydsowmer and concluded at Colonia but of this I beleave 
nothing of certainte not doubting but yo?/r grace orato/*rs 
there shal geve diliget adurrtiseme/zt, If any such thing shuld 
be. Mons*Vwr de Marrillac the Frenshe kingly ambassadowr 
sent me worde that he had som^ newes not of grete importance 
to make me participant of, requiring to knowe whan I myght 
have leasure to heare him wherupon seing meself in myn 
accesse of fever I sent Solemont vnto hym desyriwg hym to 

1 sic. The Calendar has 'crs,' but in the MSS. it is clearly 'd**' 
('dollars' for ' thalers ' ?). 



218 LETTERS OF [1539 

have me excused, and no lessc to declare vnto hym than he 
wold to mesclf. His dcclarac/bn was that by the \cttfres 
of Mons;V//r dc Rangon and by other adurrtisementrj he had 
advise that assuredly the Turkc made merveillouse prrpara- 
cj'ons both by sec and by land to Invade Chrw/cndom, and 
that alrcdy he had sent a grete Armye towards Castro nouo 
which the Veneciews toke from him to recover it If he can. 
And that the Sophy King of Perse had an oratowr wi'tA the 
Turke. And Intrrroged by the said Soulemont whither the 
said Turke wold converte his forces he answered that he was 
extremely sett and bent agenst the Vencciens and that he 
was vtterly determyned to extincte them, and to put them 
to the worst aslong as he shal have any power .And that 
of peace or trewes he shuld never take noon* w/tA the said 
Veneciews. that Grittj of Venise was in Turky in dede but 
he pretended not to be as Oratowr of the Vencciews but as 
a sutowr to have certain goodrj which George Grittj his 
brother (who died in turkye) had left vnto him at the tyme 
of his decesse, but that nevertheles If he shuld have prrceyvcd 
opportunite the Venecies had geven him charge to move 
the Turke of som* argumewt but there was no suche oportunr 
occasion as the said Marrillac said . And that also the Vene- 
cie//s were never put in hope of. agremewt w/'t^ the Turk but 
onely by sonv of the Bassas , for coveytise of suche presents* 
as the Veneciews, and other be accoustumed to geve them 
whan they go in ambassade . And that for the said avariciouse 
coveytyse the said Bassas had often tymes prayed the said 
Marrillac, to byde the Venecies , to sendc som ambassadowrs, 
which he refused to do . But ones he shewed the same to the 
Turke himself who answered to him that if the Bassas shuld 
any more attempte such matiers they shuld dye for it and 
that he shuld never have peace w/tA the Veneciens affirmyng 
the same by the solemne othes of his Turkishe lawe He 
shewed also a letferc, which lately he had receyved of Fraunce 
not from Monsieur le conestable but from another his Freende 
in the conestables absence Theffect thereof was , that Christo- 
pher the said Conestables secretary who is wont to Ryde in 
poste, bitwen the Emprrowr and them was retourned owt of 
Spayn and like as he had brought at his retowrne afore, a cold 
answer from Themp*ro;/r, he brought it at this last tyme 
moch more colder, so that there is but litel hope of spede 
bitwen them. And (said Marrillac) Mons/V//r le Secretaire 
vous trouuerez vray ce que diz au Roy a mon arryvee vers sa 
mastic ct le dictcs a Mons;Vv/r du prive scale. Soulemont 
said to him, that in dede we heard saye that the Conestable 
was at Chantylly he answered that his poste cam that waye 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 219 

and wold have spoken \vztJi Monsww le conestable but that 
he was not there but was departed towards som other of his 
plac^j in Picardy he could not tell where. Other cowmuwica- 
tion of any Importance they had not. The cause why 
I thinke we heare nothing from my lorde of Hereford is that, 
by all lykelyhod he loketh and taryeth for his mens arryvaill 
From Avygnon, and other places where your pleasure was he 
shuld have a vigilant eye . Asferre as I am enfcwrmed by 
a certain person, that is arryved this mornyng and hath 
reported the same to me whan my Ictteres were writen hitherto 
your graces seruaimt Christopher mont shal arryve hither 
this Daye wit// Burgartus and another gewtilman from the 
duk wz't// hym. Assonr as I shal knowe the truth I shal not 
faile tadu^rtise your maieste thereof Thus beseching your 
highnes to have me excused I praye almyghty god to cowtynue 
your helth pr^spmte and long liff From London this S* 
George daye 

Your highnes most humble subiect & seruaunt 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To the Kinges most excellent Maiestie 
Endd. My Lorde P. S. to the \iinges Maiestc of St. George's 
daye. 

310. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M. Cleop. E. v, f. 185 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 844. Apr. 24 (1539). 

News of the diet at Frankfort and of the arrival of Burckhard and Baum- 
bach. The Landgrave is grieved at the part of the King's proclama- 
tion which concerns the marriage of priests. The Elector is in 
favour of the marriage with Anne of Cleves. Cf. Life, pp. 272-7. 

Please it your most noble maieste, after my very bounden 
duetie right huwbly remembred with most herty and 
affectuouse thanks for your graciouse benignite extended 
vpon me Infinite wayes and nowe in sprciall for your facil 
acceptaczbn of myn absence, and confortable graciouse 
wordes, to vnderstand that yesterdaye aboute none arryved 
vnto me hither your Maiestes seruauntes M r Christopher 
Mount and Mr. Paynell . And shewed vnto me that the 
Duke of Saxony hath sent hither to your highnes his 
vicechauncelowr Burgart and the Landisgrave, a gentilman 
of his, of good experience that can speke sundry langagw and 
hath ben often tymes sent to sundry prince? in missage as he 
is nowe to your grace At their departure from Frankford the 
assemble was not as yet dissolucd nor full conclusion taken 
therupon. Albeit som* thought that it wold com to the point 



LETTERS OF [1539 

of an abstinence of any molcstac/on on both parties for xviij 
monethcs or soo. The said Burgart and his collega w/t/r 
iiij other prrsoncs in their company arrived hither also 
yesterdaye and were brought by the said Christopher to 
Jcwnyns sergeant of yowr graces pasterye house there to 
rcmayne for such tyme, tyll they may be otherwise better 
provided of an other loging. I have not as yet for myn in- 
disposition spoken witA them. But by yowr grac Stvuaunt 
I can prrceyve that the Landisgravc and Duke also do 
contynue styll in their loving and frendely obscruac/on 
towards yowr maieste, very Joyouse of yowr graces allyance 
and confederacion If it shal please yowr highncs to entrc 
w/t/r them, and so concernyng thesame poinct their oratowrs 
be sent hither at this tyme But what their Instructions do 
beare yowr graces seruaunies be not made pryve of. Howe 
be it they thinke that they woll require concordie in doctrine, 
and mutuel helpc of defense in cace of Invasion w/t/r 
Indifferent condicions of Reciproke. And as for the first 
point the said Landgrave hath found that part of yowr graces 
proclamac/ons somwhat strange wherin it is spoken dc comugio 
sacerdotuw, sayeng that thcsamr was agcnst the true doctrine 
of the votes which they professed and herupon also Mclanchthon 
hath writcn vnto me that he hath seen that proclamac/on 
wherin certain cvill doctrines be forbcdcn, and also certain 
true doctrine whichc they pr^fessc in Alcmayn concernyng 
dc votis et coniugio, but that he hopeth forasmoch as in the 
said proclamac/ons yowr highncs pr^misscth to abolishc abuses 
that yowr grace shal consyderc thcsamc more exactely and 
at the last mitigate thesame. They have as Mr. Christopher 
sayeth, ben crnestly in hand w/t// him for thesame poinct, 
who answered that although he knewc not yowr graces 
consyderac/ons in that behalf, yet he might well affirme that 
yowr highncs is not to scrupulouse in the matier de votis and 
that sundry nonnes and rcligiouse women have ben discharged 
oute of their houses witA honest pensions during their lyvcs 
and not forbcdcn but suffrcd to marye. But as for presto he 
thinkcth the cause of the prohibition was bicausc they must 
preach the worde of god and that it is thought that the 
common people as yet weake in the knowlege of the wordc 
and of other things myght therby conccyve an opinion of 
concupiscence in them, and by reason thereof contcmpnc their 
preachings and the wordc of god But what yowr grace wold 
do after ward whan the people shall wcxc stronger and hablc 
to catc solide meatc, he answered he could not diffinc nor 
Jugc, but that he doubted not but yowr grace did nothing 
w/t/rout good cause and reason and w/tA grctc consydcrac/on, 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 221 

w/t// the which answer the said landgrave and other were 
merveillousely satisfied So that as it is to be thought they 
woll not moche sticke to that pointe Melanchton further 
writeth vnto me his opinion of your graces bishops, by thies 
\vordes, Multj vbiq//** hoc tempers astute cogitatis Interpre- 
tationibw^ excusant abusus aut leniunt, vt arte stabiliant eos 
sicut fit in libro Colonie edito cuj titulus est Enchiridion, hanc 
sophisticaw permciosaw ecclesie video Imitarj Mitratos apud 
vos Sed cavendum est ne hac sophistica rursus obruatw 
veritas Nam ad tranquilitatcm durabilem etiam simplex veritas 
vtilior est. This is theffect of Melanchthons \ettere to me. The 
Duke of Saxony concerning the mariage of your grao*.? 
person, hath exhorted the Duke of Cleves to go thorough 
wzt//oute any difficulte. But as yet his conseill is not 
retowrned from franckford and they trust shortcly to mete 
to geder at which tymc the matier shalbe resolved for their 
part. The Duke and Landsgrave do moch desire thexpedic/on 
of their oratowrs and that they may be not long deteyned 
here for they nede to employe them also aboutey other affaires 
Wherfore I wolde be glad to knowe your graces pleasure and 
determinac/on. concerning their audiewce or accesse to your 
highnes I vnderstand by your said seruantes that the leage 
eua#gelike is allways stedfast and constantly sett to byde in 
their opinion yea and rather to dye then relente. And that 
they loke, that shortely the oon* part must have the vpper 
hand of thother, for they thinke Antichrist and the Dyvell 
woll not slepe but ever practise to ouercom the evawgelike 
sorte which is nowe strong, and the things be so ferre gon, 
that eyther thevawgelik^j must destroye the papistry or elles 
the papists them, as we trust it shal no more be in thair 
power then it is in the dyve\\es power to overcome christ the 
veray protectowr of the gospell. I am assured thise oratows 
cuwmyng shalbe very formidable to the bishop of Rome 
and to other of his adherents also. For doubtles, If your 
Maiestic shal happen to Joyne w*t/* them the papists in my 
Jugemewt shalbe half indesperate Christophor hath confirmed 
the sam^ that he wrote afore that Themperonr above all 
things desired of them that they shuld receyve noon other 
p^rsones in that leage and that herupon hath ben in their 
diete the grete stycking at. As I am assured yo//r graces 
said seruauntes may declare vnto your highnes and also howe 
they have seen the flete retowrned to zeland and that all the 
ships shal be dismissed and thartillary discharged and layed 
a land. I am sory that I am not in the cace that I myght 
attende and do s^ruice to yo//r Marcrtie as my duetie and 
desire is. This night I have had evill rest, this is the daye 



LETTERS OF [1539 

of thacccssc of my fytt. If I cam * scape it I hope to be soiv 
recovr[ed]. If it shal contynue then yet will I do my best 
to overcome it the sonest I cam * For I thinlce the tymc very 
long, tyll I be better hable to serve your Maiestie whose 
honowr and pr^sperite to encreacc, I besech^ Allmygh[ty] 
god wi'tA cotynuace of helth and long liflf From london this 
xxiiij" 1 of Aprill 

Your Maiestes most humble & 
obedyent subiecte & seruatmte 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 



311. CROMWELL TO DR. WOTTON, DR. HUGHES, 
AND STEPHEN VAUGHAN. 

R. O. CaL xiv. (i) 852. Apr. 25 (1539). 

The King desires them to make out capacities with licence to take one 
benefice ' with cure ' for the friars whose names ensue. 

After my hartie commcndac/ons, hereafter ensue the names 
of the white freres in northampton for whom the king 
Mawvrtes pleasowr and comma/mdcmcwt is that ye shall make 
out capacities in due forme after thaccustomable marvr \v/t// 
lycence to take one benefice w/t// cure and that frely without 
requiring any thing for the same. Thus Fare you hertely 
well. From my house in london the xxv th of Aprile. 

John Howell priowr John Payvy 

John Pykerde Edwarde Jenyngw 

Richarde dcaken Henry Neyll. 

John Harreson 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my loving Frendes Doctowr Woutton, Docto//r 
Hewis, and Steven Vaughmi, and in their absence to their 
depute 

Endd. Capacytyes grauntedd to Freres dissolued etc 
312. CROMWELL TO THE COUNCIL AT CALAIS. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (i) 1029. May 27 (1539). 

Instructions concerning the treatment of the Sacramentaries. They are 
to use chanty and wisdom in suppressing this general slander. 

After my right hartie cowmcndac/bns, Thisc shalbc to 
Signifyc vnto you that I hauc Reccyucd your \etlercs of the 

1 V, for ' can.' 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL ~'-.'. > 

xviii th of this present \vttJi a booke of suche deposiabns as you 
hauc taken vppon myn^ aduertisemewt made vnto you the 
vi th of the same by the king^r Maiesties cowmaundement. 
And having thoroughly perused bothe your cow/mune \etttre 
vfit/t the pryuate "Lttteres of you my lorde deputie and my 
lorde Chambrelayn, and also the said deposiabns Forasmuche 
as the kinges marV^tie travayling most catholiquely, chrw/ienly 
and Charitably to sett a general quiet and vnyte in all those 
mattiers hathe not hitherto had tyme to rede or here your 
collectyons which as it appereth you haue with moche travail 
gathered And that I thinke it neu^rtheles to be most neccs- 
sarye that suche slaunders might be appeased, as gyve courage 
to his graces 1 enemyes to note morediuision among^r vs, thenne 
is or canne be vppon any good grounde thought amongrj vs, 
which may bolden them tadvaunce yvel practises against his 
Maiestie and enfeeble mennes spirites that be of true feyth and 
meanyng towardes god and his hieghnes, I haue thought 
convenient not onely to gyve you myn aduise for thordering 
and quieting of things till in those mattyers you shal knowe 
further of his Maiesties pleaswr. But also to declare suwme 
partc of myn opinion touching thefifectes of the said deposidbns. 
And concernyng the quieting of the Brutes and Rumours which 
haue risen and be spredd abrode by your aduertisement?^ and 
ernest preceding^ in those matiers and examynations. I thinke 
that like as the Kingly Ma*rte cannot better or more hieghly 
advaunce thonowr of god ne more prudently prouide for his 
owne suretie and the tranquilitie of his Realme domynyons 
and subgietar thenne in the discrete and charitable puwnish- 
mewt of suche as doo by any meane Labour and purpose to 
sowe sedic/on, diuision & contention, in opinion among^r his 
people contrary to the trouthe of goddes worde and his grac^f 
most chrw/ien orden^uncrj, Soo I thinke again on thother 
syde that he or they what soeuer they be that wold w/tAout 
greate and substancyall grounde be Auctowrs or settersforth 
of any suche Runiows maye appere rather desirous of sedition 
thenne of quiet and vnite, and may therein shew themselfes 
rather diuiscrs howe to putt men in trouble and dispair that 
be peaseblc, quiet, and faithful, thenne howe to reforme that is 
amyssc and wtt/i consideration of the mattier the tyme and 
other circumstaunc^r mete to be pondered to presrrue the 
nomber yn that courage towards trouthe to god and thcr 
pryncc that their bounden Dueuties at al tymes doo require. 
And therefore myne opinion is that you shal by all meanes 
diuise howe wit/i charyte and myld handcling of things to 
quenchc this slaunderous Bent as moche as you maye ever 
exhorting men discretely and without Rigour or extreamc 



224 LETTERS OF [1539 

dealing to knowe and srruc god trucly and their prince and 
Soucrcign Lorde wM all humilitc and obedyencc 

As touching the Substauncc of the Deposic/ons, It is sore to 
note any man for a Sacramcntary onles he that shalbc 
thauctowr of thinfamyc knowc well what a Sacramcntar) < 
And yet is it more sore to note a cowmune officer put in place 
to aduisc and rcfourmc others of soo hay nous a cryme ex- 
cept it might by duely and cuidently proved against him. 
I mcane this by the Co;//missarye the deposic/bns against 
whom be not most wcightic and substancial. Against thothcr 
fcwe accused of the same cryme thaccusac/ons seamc to waye 
sumwhat deper. And yet the final nombrr that be accused of 
that offence might haue been puanishcd without a genrral 
infamye to the hole towne. And as for the rest of the depo- 
sicions that be made socially touching the pr^cher though 
prrcace he and others might in their preceding^* haue dooru* 
more circumspectly in suw/me things yet they seame to helpc 
litle to fortifye that there shuld be suche a general diuision 
among^j you. 

Finally I shall aduise you to vse things wit/* Charite and 
\v/t/r suche wisdom to suppre.sse as moche as in you is this 
gcnrrall slaunder that there may be a towardnes of a quiet 
among you which the kingr.? Maiestie woll shortely I doubt 
not make prrfyt to the comfortes of al that be wcl disposed 
and the punishment of all suche as at this present apperc or 
shall vppon iuste and indifferent examynac/bn be founde here- 
after to maynteyn yvel and corrupt opinions or to be inclyned 
to scdic/on. And thus most hertcly fare you well From 
Saynt James the xxvii 111 daye of Maye. 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good lordcs and Frcndes and other the 
ncs Counseil at Calice 



313. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (i) 1060. June I (1539). 

Reassures Lisle of his friendship, and desires to be informed if the latter 
has any complaints to make. 

After my right hartie cowmcndacibns to your Lordshipp, 
wxt// your Lr//rrcs of the xxix th of the last Moneth addressed 
vnto me vppon the arryvall there of my scr//<?unt Thomas 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 225 

Palmer I haue Receyued the two Prisoners Raf Hare and the 
barbowr of Marke, Who shalbe duely here examyned vppon 
suche pointes as be deposed against them And remytted thither 
if they shalbe founde culpable to be pu/mished according to 
the qualities of their offences. And where as your Lordshipp 
Writeth that you be no man malicious, ne haue for malice 
heretofore written any thing but suche as hathe been brought 
vnto you and proved by honest persounes. My Lorde I assure 
you that I never tooke you to be a man of suche sorte. Butt 
haue euer thought you to be of a good and gentel natural 
disposition. Mary When I haue perceyved any thing in youe 
that I haue supposed could not tende in fyne to your com- 
moditie I haue sometyme Freendly written to youe my mynde 
as to him whose contynuel prosperitie I haue more desired 
thenne I shall neade nowe to recounte and expresse. And as 
for other mennes adu^rtisementes which as it appereth you 
coniecte shuld be made against you and your doings? Soo you 
write that if you canne fynde no remedye for the same at my 
hande rather thenne you wold be vsed as you haue been in 
tymes past you wold chuse to lye in p^rpetuel prisonne during 
lief adding that you woll soo write in that cace to the King^r 
Matcste. I shall aduise your Lordshipp to suspect no man 
further thenne neadeth, Which shuld trouble yowrself and 
brede some inconuenyence amongcs you. And as concernyng 
redresse of any thing that doth or shuld molest and inquiet 
you. Surely my lorde as I knowe not wherein I haue hitherto 
failed you or been remysse in any your pursutes causies and 
Requestes reasonable, Soo if it shall Lyke you playnely and 
sprdally to write vnto me your greves, I shall meself declare 
the same to the king^r Ma/V-rte and Joyne wz'tA you for the 
healing of them as the cace woll pmrcyt and shall require. 
Wherein if you doo mistrust me you may wzt//out any offence 
to me seke suche other remedyes as your Lordshipp shal 
thinke most conueniewt and propice for your purpose. And 
thus most hertely fare you wel. From Saint James the first 
day of June. 

I thanke your lordship hartely for your gentle present of 
the porpose. Your men be co;mytted to the gatehouse tyl 
they may be examyned 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good lorde the vicecount lisle Deputie of 
the Kingr.r Towne and Marches of Calais 



MERRIMAN. II 



226 LETTERS OF [1539 

814. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE AND THE COUNCIL OP 

CALAIS. 

R. O. CaL xiv. (i) 1086. June 8 (1539). 

Further instructions concerning the treatment of the Sacramentaries. 
Some of the depositions against them are very serious. The Council 
is to report to toe King in case any further trouble occurs. 

After my right hartye commendations. Thise shalbe to 
aduertyse the same that I haue Receyued your LT///TCS 
dated in this Moneth w/'t// a sccdule of certayne Articles 
preached by oonr Adam Damplipe (as it is alleaged) by the 
permission of the Cowmissarye. Which Damplipe you Judge 
to haue been an Auctowr of the erronyous opynyons which 
haue lately appered in Calays and those partyes. Which 
Articles I haue prrused and fynde them very pestilent, moche 
mervelling that the same were not presented heretofore against 
hym whenne he was accused of the mattyer of transubstancya- 
c/on. but if it be true that he taught them thenne taught he 
most detestable and cancered heresye. And if the Cowmis- 
sarye consented to that doctrynr I must neadtt bothe thinke 
hym vnmete for suche an office and judge him also Woorthye 
greate puwnishmcnt. And for his cxamynatyon therein and 
in thother matyers layde to his charge by the deposic/bns 
which you sent lately vnto me, The Kingrj Maiestcs pleas///- is 
that you shal delyuer both the sayde Commissary and parishe 
preste that hathe been the preacher vnto this berer who hathe 
charge to see them surely and yet honestlye conveyed hethcr. 
Nowe taunswere to the pointes of yowr saide lr///res, as 
I wrote before that I thought it necessarye that suche 
slaunders chaunsing to rise amongtt you, the same shuld be 
rather discreatly and charytably appeased and thoflendowrj 
quietly puwnished, thenne soo handled as shuld gyve courage 
to the Kingtt Mantes enemyes to note muche diuision 
amongtt vs and p/rcace cause them the rather tadvaunce 
suwmc yvcl practises. Euen soo must I aduise you again, 
being the same counsayll that I wold in lyke cace folowe 
mcself not seing but offcndours may aswel be puwnished 
without to greate a tumult as if the faultes of a fewe in respect 
of the multitude there were bruted thorough an hole world. And 
this gyveth no Judgement against the truthe of yowr aduer- 
tiscmo/tAT but sheweth a meane howe if they be good and 
iuste by honest cyrcumstaunce you may make them yet 
better. And as to the sccondc poynt of yowr Itt/sres touching 
thoccasioncrs of the brutes which haue been spredd of thise 
mattyers. I ment none other but to ascribe the same chicflyc 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 227 

to those which were the first settersfurthc of any erroneous 
opinions. And yet to be playn with you as wtt/t my frendes, 
many tymes many diseases that be of theyr owne nature 
disposed to very yvel effectes, if it chaunce them to be in tyme 
espyed by a good phisiczbn. His Lernyng wisedom know- 
leage and good disposytion maye in suche wise prouidc 
remedye, as the patient shal w/t/r lyttel payne attayn p^rfyt 
helthe, whereas if the same phisic/on shuld vppon respect 
wynk till thinfectyon were more depely settled p^rcace al his 
conyng to be practised vppon the syk man shuld not be hable 
to helpe him though he shuld dayly rack him w*t/* medycynes. 
And surely wee be no lesse but more in faulte whiche labowr 
not to avoyde yvel from onr Neighbours where we see the 
same y;;/mynent, thenne if wee shuld be of/rselfes the very 
Auctowrs and woorkers of the same yvel towardes them. 
I haue enfowrmed the kingly Maiestye of al your \efteres and 
of your book of deposiobns, Whose hieghnes hathe alredy 
taken order for the examynatyon of all those mattyers, the 
resolution whereof shalbe signifyed vnto you. The yvel (as 
you write therein truely) will labowr to p^ruert the good, And 
even soo those that be well disposed wyll both lament the foly 
of the yvel and doo what they canne to make them better. 
He that eyther feareth not god ne esteameth the kingly 
Maiesties Iniunctyons pra:eptes, ordenaunces, and cowmande- 
mentes, is no mete herbe to growe in his Maiesties most 
catholique and Vertuous garden. If you knowe therefore 
any moo of that sorte to be opened thenne you haue alredy 
reueled by suche examynations as you lately sent vnto me 
I doubt not but w*t//out respect you woll gyve the King 
Ma*V.rte aduertisement of them. And where I wrote the matter 
deposed against the Cow/missary not to be most haynous, nowe 
you aunswere that he is the maynteynowr and very supporter of 
all this yvel, bringing in the forsayd mattyers of damplipe for 
a Justifycatyon thereof. Surely if he shalbe found as greate an 
offendowr as tharticles note, and as you reaporte him to be, 
I woll not onely helpe to haue him from thens avoyded, but 
also doo for his further puwnishmewt that shal appertayn. As 
touching the vyntners and constables which haue been noted 
of the saddest sorte of men of that Towne, and almost in 
greatest trust vnder you of the counsayl, if they haue offended 
yt shalbe better that you shewe to the king Ma/^rte secretly 
your olde ordenawnce for theyr punishme;/t thenne thus to 
put all men generally and openly in feare of the losse of their 
lyvinges. It might turn to a mattyer of greate importaunce, 
and the consequent suche as I woll not nc canne alone diffyne. 
And to conclude Doubt you not but the wisedom of the 

Q2 



228 LETTERS OF [1539 



scing thexperyence of many Inconveniencies 
woll very shortely soo playe the parte of a most noble king 
and a godly Arbytre amongw vs as all partycs shalbe brought 
to a godly order w/'t// relief of thonest and the punishme//t of 
the malefactour accordingly. Thus most hertely fare you weL 
From Saynt James the viii of June. 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good lorde and Loving Frend/j The 
Visconte Lisle Lorde deputie of the King Town and marches 
of Calais And to the reste of his graces Counsell there 

315. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cat xiv. (i) 1298. July 23, 1539. 

Considers the quarrel between Mr. Palmer and Mr. Porter to be of less 
importance than is represented. Lisle should use his own discretion 
in such petty matters. 

After my right herty commendations to your Lordeshipp. 
Thies shalbe taduertise thesame that sithens the receipt of your 
l<-//Vres theffect and tenowr Whereof I have right well prrceyved 
and noted. I w/'t// an ernest and indifferent mynd have 
pithely weyed and poundred the deposicions and Relations 
made by Mr. Wallop and other credible prrsones there con- 
cerning the variaunce Bitwene Mr. Porter and Mr. Palmer, the 
Importaunce whereof I fynde nothing suche as at the first 
face and apprehension by other aduertisementej geven vn[to 
me] aswell by your lordship as by other I thought it had 
be[en]. Wherfore my Lorde I advise you to be not over 
free nor to credule in beleving any rapports made vnto you 
afore ye shall heare patiently and at lenght both parties 
Assuredly I can not Allowe Palmers fash/bn nor behavowr 
if he obiectcd to Mr. Porter As it were, that he was nothing so 
diligent to seke the kingtt avawtage as he was to fynd fawter 
vpon him and whither it be true or no, yet Like as palmer 
shuld be light in so uttering the Word*? So I can not allowe 
that Mr. Porter being ooni of the kingu counseill there and 
who shuld have shewed an exewple to other could not have the 
patience to suffre the punishmcwt thereof to be made by your 
Lordship and other of the co;///seill \v;'t//outc hote preceding 
in his fume to Revenge hym self And to gcve hym a blowe 
as it appereth by Witnesses he did. He ought to have had 
more discrccion and temperance then thother wherby I can 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 229 

not but thinke he did more then wisedonv required. For 
Doubtles he knoweth moche better howe moche daungier and 
pcrill may happen and what Inconvenience may fall in suche 
a Towne of werre vpon such light demeanour and sodeyn 
falling oute to geders. But all things consydred seing 
the Importance of the mater is no greter and that I trust 
thexemple thereof shall bring no evill consequent Being the 
thing doonr on both parties in a hete of colere and passion. 
Having well wayed the proclamations and statute made agenst 
suchr as geve or utter some evill word*'.? or uncomely langage 
agenst such** as be of the chief officers and counseillers there 
I doo Renvoye the said palmer thither agayn Requyryng 
your Lordship and other Indifferent prrsones of the counseill 
there to travaille to make frendeship and amytie bitwen^ them 
and ernestly to sett them at ones, and to Abolishe all striff and 
variaunce Bitwen^ them I esteme them bothe to be of good 
actiuitc and dexterite to do his MazVrte good seruice. Wher- 
fore I desire moche that they might be frendly Reconciled to 
gedr And If by your Indifferencies well weyeng the matiers 
ye shal fynd the said Palmer punyshable and that it be so 
expedient I woll not withstand it But remitte the same to 
yonr Indifferent circumspections Not doubting but ye woll not 
wandr in the bondes of extremite and Rigo/^r. But Rather 
sckc onely to Redubbe the same that is a mysse or oute of 
ordre and more studye howe to bring all men ther to the 
frame of vnion then howe to Revenge any quarcll or displeasur 
by overmoche Rigowr. My Lorde I praye and Require you 
to waye that the Kinges highnes to his grete cost and charge 
kepeth your lordeship and other of his counseill there, 
the whiche his grace hath chosen for men of Actiuite and 
Indifferente discretion for to kepe vnion and Concorde in that 
his grac^j towne and marches. Nowe what can his Maiestie 
saye and thinke whan ye go not aboute there to redresse such 
light matiers But evermore w/t/t the same do trouble his highnes 
and counseill, Where in dede If ye were ernestly mynded they 
myght be quieted and refowrmed there wz't/toute further trouble 
or busynes to any part. Wherfore I do advise you that like as 
ye shal referre all things of highe and weighty ifportece to 
his highnes and counseill, So ye shal vpon suche other matiers 
of smale Importace assemble your hedd^r to gether and 
Charitably w/tAoute any particular affection preceding rather 
to heale and cure the me/wbres deseased or corrupt then to 
cutt thew awaye w/t//out any necessite, to see suche a gentil 
and Indifferent ordre taken in things as maybe for thequiete 
of that towne Wherin I woll not dissalowe nor disprayse If 
ye shal somtyme by good discretion and as the cace shal 



230 LETTERS OF [1539 

require use the salbe of correction, and lawfull punyshement 
not passing the bounds of the statute and vses there accus- 
tomed. By this mcanr shal not onely his MatVvrtc conferme 
a good opinion of you and of all his other officers st-manntfs 
and subjects then- but also by that meane ye shal norrishe 
and bring a very vnion and concorde bitwen<* all them there 
& conduce them to suche a knott as there shalbc prrfite vnion, 
amongfj them witX/out striffe whiche is ooiv of the strongest 
forteresses that can be in any suche Towne of werr as the same 
is. As to the contrary If the people be bended to partialites 
their heddtt be never assured of them, and suche chaunce may 
thereof happen as I doubte not yo//r discrete lordship can 
right well weye and poundre. Wherfor* of a good zele 
and for the good will I do beare vnto you I have thought to 
geve vnto you this admonition the whiche I am assured like 
as it procedeth of a syncere loving hert and playne to his 
frend so ye will accept and take it in good part. And folowe 
the same Wherby doubtles ye shalbe brought to very moche 
quiete and transquillite and all thinges then shal succed the 
better for the same to your consolation and [desire]. Thus 
Fare ye right hertely well From Guldeford the xxiii 111 of 
July the xxxi yer* of his highnes most noble Regne. 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good Lorde my lord Lisle The Kinges 
Depute of his grao-j town and marches of Calays. 

Endd. My lord privey seal touching palm[er] 24 July 
316. CROMWELL TO BONNER. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (i) 1310. July 24, 1539. 

Information concerning the affair of the prizes taken by the ships of the 
Sieur de la Rochepot. The matter cannot be sent to France to be 
tried. Cf. Letters, 317, 328, 351. 

My lorde after my right hertie and most aficctuouse com- 
mendac/ons Yowr Lordshipp shal vndcrstandc that yesterday 
confereunt had vpon the matters of Monsir//r de la Rochipot 
betwene the frcnche ambassadowr and Monsirwr de Dampont 
on of the frenchc king gcntilmen on the on partie and 
ccrteyne of the Stylyard and their counsaill wt>i Doctowr 
Layton Oliuer Leight Hughs Ryvet and other one the other 
partie, wherby it appeared that without the wrounge of the 
Osterlingrj and great praudice of the kinges Jurisdic/bn and 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 231 

evill example and consequent in tymes camming his ma; 'e sic 
coulde not Renvoye the mater to be decided in Fraunce Nor 
admitt declinator/**;;/ feri quam gallus pr^ponebat. And al- 
thouight the said ambassadowr and Dampont haue heard the 
motives and reasons therof, yet neuertheles his highnes not 
trusting hollye to their declaraczon and Rapport hathe remitted 
the same to be declared aswell by you as by them, to the 
Frenche Kinge, as it appearethe by his grac^r Letteres, the 
copie wherof ye shall receyve henw't^. And for yowr better 
instnur rion in all poinntes how this matter hath be(en) handled 
favowrablie, and wi\.h diligence sethe their co;#minge. Furst 
ye shall vnderstande that after the recept of the Frenche 
kingr^ Lefteres Soulemount was sent to the ambassadors for 
to know their reasons and allegaobns wherby they entende 
to move the kinges highnes to revoke the sentence, at whiche 
tyme they, as vnprovided or not fully instructed gave him for 
that tyme a slander answer, whervpow the Sonday after which 
was the ix th of July ] , The stilliard^y wzt// ther counseill were 
sent thether to the Ambassadowr to shew vnto him their 
reasons and the Justice of the sentence. And to answer vnto 
suche reasons as the Frenchemen wold allege. So after long 
confirewce had before Solimon whiche was appoinnted to be there 
and make the report therof on bothe parties, it was agread 
that by way of instrucabn to be made by them to the kinges 
highnes and his moste honorable counsell they shuld put all 
theyr reasons and allegacions with their facteJ in writinge and 
delyuer them to the said Solymon So thiuones 2 parte writing 
shuld not be communicate to thother, and for to do the same 
they had dylaied till the fryday next after, at the which tyme 
the said amfyassadowr was vfit/i the klnges ma^tie at Oteland 
and thosterlingrj also wer ther deliu^red on bothe parties 
their writings at afternoon And so chardge was geven therof 
to the said Solemon w/to couenaunted to go to London and 
there to take tadvise and opinion of thindifferent doctowrs 
there so then sonday after which was the xv th of July 3 . The 
said writinges were by him delivered to the doctowrs who 
toke delay to make an answer till the friday after, at the which 
day the ambassador had warning to be the sonday next which 
was sonday laste at Guilford to haue an answer. He shall 
receyve herwft// the copies of the factiuns of bothe sydes and 
the report by Solemon made of thopinion of those doctowrs. 
The sonday laste the ambassado//r was occupied abowtej other 
matiers so that answer was defered till Monday, at the which 

1 This date is wrong. July 9 was Wednesday. Cal. xiv. (i) p. 572 . 
1 sic. * This date is wrong. July 15 was Tuesday. 



232 LETTERS OF [1539 

tyme bicause the Ambassador beganc to reason in the Lawc 
ciuil and wold iustific the matter to be clere, the doctowrs 
were sent for to London, they cam the Tuisdny and had the 
conference w/'t// the said ambassadour with the kingrr counsaill 
and susteyned the mater could not be Renvoyed wherunto 
thambassadottr could skant make any other answer Then ye 
shall see by his reasons before alleged Then was thexpedient 
and moyen propound by vs of the kinges counsseill and so that 
geven for answer as ye may se by the \t\nges \etferes vnto you 
dated this present day. Yesterday I caused the doctors to 
make an abbreuiat of the rcfutac/bn of the Ambassadowrs 
reasons and of ther motirfcr to consult as they did the copie 
wherof I send vnto you and also an abbreuiat of the con- 
cordawcics and discrepances of ther factor (and) caces wher- 
vpon ye may assure that my lord of NorfiWt never (gave) 
suche sentence as is by the frenchmew so alleged. And that 
Favour and Milketon never brought the Frenshmew to Whit- 
bye as is alleged. Item in all the treaties we fynde no suche 
thinge as the said ambassador allegethe in his seconde 
reason. We mrrveill also that they will demaunde the Ren- 
voye of that cause as thought the kinges Ma/Vjte being an 
Empcrowr in his Realme shuld lacke Jurisdiction And how 
could (they) then reason to prove the sentence in that be- 
half pronounced by you to be ipso iure nullam quia lata erat 
Intra tempus termini dati ad probandam dcclinatoria;;/ cum 
ipsa declinator/<7 a Regia Mates fails Jurisdicionc Imperatorw 
sit ipso Jure nulla. 

It is very incredible and the least vnlike that Nauis oneraria 
Hamburgensis were in ther were but ix or x men shuld 
Invade ij ships and a brigantin of warr in the oonr Wherof 
ther were 1 me and in the other xiiij. As I doubte not but 
yor wisdom shall perccve sondry other things to be alleged 
to shewe the kinges Majestic preceding*? and in the favowr in 
this Behalf shewed vnto them as apprrcth by thexpedient and 
mcane pwrpose. I am assured ye shall endcvowr yowrself to 
thuttrrmost to accomplish his Ma/<-.rties pleas//;r in that be- 
half writen vnto you by his \etteres of this present date I pray 
you tadurrtisc me asson as ye may of yowr procedinges and 
successes herin and in other things wherof I wrote vnto yo//r 
lordship on Mondaye last and adurrtise of that thing beside 
wherin ye woll have me to stande you in any stede and ye 
may be assured of my good and crnest will therto. Thus far 
ye right hertely well. From Ferneham this thursday St. James 
even xxiiij" 1 of July. 

I haue thought post script tadu/rtise you that the \iingcs 
maittte hath geven to the same gentilman Monsieur Dawpont 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 233 

the su;;/me of xl. li. sterling by way of his graces Reward for 
the king his brothers sake and honowr 

Your Lordships assured 

T. C. 

Endd. Mynute of my L. P. S. letteres to my \ord Hereford 
xxiiij. July 1539. 

317. CROMWELL TO MONTMORENCY. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (i) 1311. July 24, 1539. 

Regrets that the King is unable to do as he wishes in the affair of his 
brother, the Sieur de la Rochepot. The Bishop of Hereford will 
explain. Cf. Letters, 316, 328, 351. 

Monsieur Jay receu voz Lr //res que ce gentilhomme envoye 
par de ca parl a Maieste du Roy Treschrc/ien ma deliuereez 
touchant laffaire de Monsieur de la Rochepot v0/re frere, Au 
quel combien que la Maieste du Roy mon Mattre fust tres- 
desieux de gratifier au Roy son bon frere pour \honneur de 
vous si ay'je de mon petit pouuoir tenu La mayn a ce que 
sa mateste Luy monstrast effectuellemewt tout favenr possible, 
Ainsi quil estoyt tresaffectionne et si sa maieste ne la bonne- 
ment sceu faire en vng point, come je croy que Monsieur de 
Hereford son Ambassadeur vous fera entendre au plain con- 
tentemewt Touteffois tout bien considere II s'en acquite bien 
proposant 1 'expedient et moyen quil a faict Que je repute 
de telle sorte qui debuera estre a toute bonne satisfaction. 
Par quoy Monsieur je vous prie & requiers qiie faisant tousiowrs 
le bonne office que avez faict et acoustume pour 1'entretene- 
mewt & accroissance de la bonne et p^rpetuele amitie d'entre 
\eurs maiestes vous vueillez prendre le tout en aussy bonne 
parte et d'aussy bon coeur quil precede Et que le Roy votre 
Maitre le vueille ainsi prendre et accepter. Bien vous assurant 
que de ma part Jay tousio//rs tenu la main et tiendra durant 
ma vie a ce que Lady/e amitie* si long temps continuee 
puisse tousiowrs prrseuerer & durer & autant que possible 
moy sera de plus en plus accroistre & estre augmentee. Vous 
signifiant que sil y a chose en quoy Je vous puisse faire 
honer & pleasir me trouuerez prest de my employer de 
tresbon coeur Si cognoist le createwr qui vous ayt monsiewr 
en sa saincte & tresdigne garde. Escript a Farneh^m le 
xxiiii de Juillet L'an XV XXXIX. 

Endd. The mynute of My L.P.S. let/eres to the Conestablc 
of Fraunce. 



234 LETTERS OF [1539 

318. CROMWELL TO LORD HU-NGERFORD*. 

Longford Castle MSS.; Cal. xiv. (i) 1258. July (1539). 

Instructions for the imprisonment of a priest, until the coming of the 
Justices of Assize. Promises that Lord Hungerford shall have 
satisfaction in case Master Arundcll has done him injury. 

Havyng reccyvcd your letters wherin ye write of the mys- 
demcanor of one Sir Nicholas Balam prestc late monk of 
Henton wherin myne advise shalbe that ye shall commyt him 
to the gaole till the commyng of the Justices of assise into 
those parties and to declare the matier unto theym with the 
circumstaunces therof to thentent the[y] may order that 
[m]at[er] according to their discrecions and as n ... with 
the kin[ges] law[es] equite and justice I hafve per]used your 
bo ... deposicions taken agaynst [Henjry Champ[neys] 
[t]o be delivered to Mr. Chauncelfor] of the Aug[ment]a- 
cions bicause the mater apper[tei]neth to that [cour]t to 
thentent he may precede t^nerm] as the ca[se sh]a)l require 
furthermore I h[ave] writen u[nto MJaister Arundell if any 
injury hathe byn done unto you to see you satisfied for the 
same as [a] mite and conscience shall require [and] I doubt 

Bhe] will do therin accordyngly. [And to]uching your 
uest for purchas of the manor of Henfton] and other 
]es of the same I shalbe glad to fu[rther] you therin 
when the tyme shall serve. 

Oteland, July. 
Signed. Add. 

319. CROMWELL TO . 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (ii) 194. Sept. 19 (1539). 

Concerning provision made for the dispatch of John Winter to sea, and 
the King's pleasure for clearing the ocean of pirates. 

Aftre my moost harty cow/mcndac/ons Thise shalbe to 
adurrtise you that according to the Kings* highnes pleasure 
signified vnto me by your Lfttcres touching the dispeche of 
John VVynter to the Sees I haue not only delyuered vnto 
him money for two monethis wagies vitailling and al other 
things for that tyme necessary according to a proporc/bn 
therof drawen by me and Gonston, the copie wherof ye shal 
hercwit// receyve, amounting to the some of clvi li iiii sh viii d. 
but also haue delyuered vnto him a cowmyssion writen in 

1 From the official Record Office transcript. 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 235 

parchcment for that purpose which I pray youe get signed 
assone as ye maye for the soner he shalbe rid the more good 
he shal doo, Bothe in thexecuting of his cow/mandemewt and 
in transporting of some parte of tharmy wherby he shal 
partely also alleviate the kingrj chargies. I haue writen to 
the kingrj highnes to knowe his pleasure touching the sending 
furth of Edwarde Waters in the mary Guldeford. I pray 
youe that I may be aduertised wit// al spede and celeritie, for 
his only demore resteth vppon myn answer. I haue for the 
Better expedic/bn of Wynters commission put therunto the 
Signet to thintent that the same signed he shuld haue no 
cause of any tarieng there * and thus makyng an ende I pray 
god almyghtye Send you all as well to Fare as I woolde my 
self at london the xiv daye of Septembre 

Your assuryd louyng Frcende and Felowe 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 



320. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS POPE, TREASURER 
OF THE COURT OF AUGMENTATIONS. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (ii) 282. Oct. 5, 1539. 

Desires him to pay to Lord Lisle the sum of ^200, as an annuity granted 
him by the King. 

Mr. Pope after my right herty cowmendations ye shal 
vnderstand that wheras the King^ Ma/>jte hath geven and 
grauntid vnto my very good lord The visconte lisle depute of 
his grac*\f town and marches of Calayes an a;/nuite of Two 
hundred pounds sterlings by the yere to be paid by thandes 
of you and other Treasorers of that his court of Augmenta- 
tions of the tyme being lyke like 2 as by his graces letteres 
therupon made it doth app^re. His graciouse pleasur and 
cowmandmewt is that forasmoche as the said Visconte shal 
departe tomorrowe towards the said Towne of Calais ye 
shal wz't//oute delaye vpon the Receipt hereof delyver and paye 
or cause to be deliwred and payed vnto the said Visconte or 
to his assigne bringer hereof The su;me of Two hundred 
pounds biforc hanoVj the same some to be deducted vnto 

1 f. o. Ye shal also vnderstande , *?. 

the King highnes for the Better thone of cxx ton Bother of "" x * 

recours of Vitaillies vnto youe and tonne _ Wel Banned, ordena/mced 

for scouring of the sees from piratw an " ' ur 
hath sent vnto the see ii Barki; ttf * 

* i. e. 90. 



236 



LETTERS OF 



[539 



him vpon suchr payments as from tyme to tyme shuld be 
made to him for a hole yer* next ensuyeng. I praye you to 
dispeche his ... et this evcnyng w/t//oute any further pro- 
tracte. Thus Fare yc right hertcly well From london this 
V th of October The xxxi th yerr of his grac/j most noble 
Regne. 

Your assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my very loving freend Mr. Pope Treasorer of 
the \iingts co//rt of the Augmentations of his grao-j crowne. 



321. CROMWELL TO SIR WILLIAM FACET '. 

Public R. O. of Ireland, Irish Patent Roll, 29-30 H. VIII, m. 5 d. ; 
Cal. xiv. (ii) App. 40. Oct. 13 <IS39>- 

Concerning the appointment of officers and the regulation of wages in 
Ireland. 

Maister Pagett after my right hartie comendaabns by your 
lr//Vres of the viii th of this present I doe prrceyvc soche doubts 
as haue ensurged touching yo//r charge sethens yo//r arryvall 
at Chester wherof I have advised the kingrj maiestie whose 
goodnes hath resolved in manere and forme folowing Furst 
his highnes is content that youe shall allowc to curry man 
for his coste foure s. Item to eurry man for his conducte an 
half penye for cu*ry mile from the place of their dwelling to 
the see side and to the capitaines and petycapitaincs their 

allowance already appointed that is foure by the daie 

for the graund capitaynes conducte and two s. for the pety- 
capitaynes Item to Mr. Brereton and to Mr Griffith youe shall 
allowe wages for foure graund capitaines besides themselfs 
that is to eurry of them twayne and to euery of them thre 
peticapitaines Thomas Wyndeham and Edwarde Dudley be 
appointed to be graunde capitaines vndre Mr. Brereton and 
John Huberdyn and William Blechinden vndrc Mr Gryffith 
and of this ordre you must advise Mr. Brabazon Item youe 
shall allowe to Mr Brereton and Mr. Gryffith their chaplayncs 
and minstralles Item youe shall content and paye curry man 
a monethes wages beforhande at the taking ship or litle before 
the same For the Furniture wherof yf youe shall waunte 
money the king^r maiesties pleasure is that you shall defaulte 
so moche of the two thowsand poundes to be dealyurrrd to 

1 From the official Record Office transcript. 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 237 

Mr Brabazon as youe shall neade and endcnt \\i\Jt hym for 
the rest that shall remayne They shall haue sufficient furniture 
sent after Thus prayeing youe to vse all thacceleracyon youe 
canne possible in the transportac/on of tharmey which the 
king Ma/V-jtie moche deasireth Fare youe hertlie well From 
London the xili^ of Octobre 

Youre loving Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
Add. To myne assured loving frende Mr. Pagett Esquier 



322. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O, Cal. xiv. (ii) 347. Oct. 18 (1539). 

Directs him to have the house called the Exchequer repaired. The 
streets around it are to be examined with a view to paving them, and 
the whole town is to be kept clean and in order. 

After my righte hartie comwendacions to your Lordship 
Thise shalbe tadu^rtise you that for certain purposes the 
specialties wherof you shal further knowe herafter The king^r 
Mantes pleasure is that you shal vieu his graces howse there 
called Thexchequier that wtt/i all diligence all things therin 
necessarie to be amendyd may be indelayedly repayryd, For 
the whiche purpose I haue by his graces comw/aundement 
writen also to his highnes surveyo//r there, who by your 
advise shall sett in hande withe the same. Furthermore his 
Ma/rjte woolde that you shuld cause the stretes and Lanes 
there to be vieued for the pavements and where any defaulte 
is to give comw/aundement to those whiche shulde repayre 
the same to see it imwediatly amended, endevoring yonr- 
selfes to put all other things w*t/rin the said towne in the 
most honest and clenely ordre you canne devise Wherein you 
shall administre to his MazVjte very thankfull pleasure And 
thus Fare you hartely well From London the xviij th of 
October 

Your good lordshippis 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good lord The Visconte Lisle lord deputie 
of the king^r Towne and marches of Calais And to my loving 
freendtt the rest of his graa\r . . . ther 

Endd. Consmiyng the fornyture of the Kinges Exchequer 



238 LETTERS OF [1539 



323. CROMWELL TO DR. WOTTON. 

Townclcy MSS. (Hist. MSS. Comm. Report, iv. App. 412); Cal. xiv. 
(ii)394. Oct. 26 (1539). 

Directions for negotiations with the Duke of Cleves. Wotton is to 
endeavour in every way to increase the amity with England. 

Mr. Wotton. after my ryghtc hartie commcndacions, by this 
berer, you shall receyve the King's highnes Ifltres conteyning 
his graces most gentle and princely affection towards the 
Duke of Cleves withe his graces divise for thencrease of their 
amytie, whiche his highnes doubtcth not but you woll so dis- 
creatly handel and set furthe as the same shall take effect, 
wherein, I assure you, you shall do the thing that shalbc 
muche to his ma ua * contentacion, and consequently, not 
a lyttell to your owne cow/moditie, whiche shall be the 
ministre in so good and acceptable service. And in any wise 
handle the matter soo that you may have commission of the 
Duke at your first accesse after the receipt hereof, to write, 
at the least, yourself, thoughe he woll not, to the Kyng's mat', 
that he taketh his graces most kynde offer in most thankful! 
parte, and that his sute and desire is that it may please his 
highnes to precede according to his most lovyng and freendly 
dyvise, gyving advertisement therof withe all possible dili- 
gence, and yet tempering the compassing of this purpose, so 
as they gather none occasion to thinke that this off re im- 
plyeth any other purpose thenne is expressed, for that myghte 
cause them to take the same in lesse thankfull parte than it 
is worthie. I have directyd my Icttres of congratulacion to 
my ladie Anne's grace, whereby I do exhorte her to the 
nurrishment of the amytie bitweyn these princes to the greate 
honor, both of the King's mat*, his oune, and to the assurance 
of them and of their ysseu and posteritie. The particular 
declarations of suche things as she shulde employe hirsclf 
and hir mother, the duchesse, to, I doo rcferre your declarations 
to be temprcd by the king's instructions conteynyd in his 
graces Ifttres vnto you. I write myn other l///rcs to the 
Chauncelor Olesleger, tending to the furtherance of suchc 
things as you shall purpose. I praye you withe my righte 
hartie and due commcndacions to delyver my 1/7/res, and 
further to doo therin as your saide instructions and discrca- 
tion theruppon shall thinke most conveneynt. I doubte not 
but you wooll so set fourthe the King's ma** presents with 
goode and modest woords, as the same shalbc by your dis- 
crccion the more acceptable. I assure you they shalbe both 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 239 

riche and princeley. Thus moost hartcley fare you well. 
From London the xxvi th daye of October. 

Your assuryd Freende, 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my very lovyng and assuryd Friend Mr. Doctowr 
Wotten, the Kings Ambassador in the parties of Germany. 
Endd. Recrywd ultima. Octobr. 

324. CROMWELL TO DR. WOTTON. 

Towneley MSS. (Hist. MSS. Comm. Report, iv. App. 413); Cal. xiv. 

(ii) 480. Nov. 8 (1539). 
Desires him to obtain for the bearer an answer from the Duke of Cleves 

concerning the ratification of the marriage, and other matters of 

importance. 

Mr. Wotton after my right harty cowmendacions these 
shalbe to advertise you that the Kings Highnes and the lords 
of his Majesties counsail doo not a lytle muse and mervayl 
that his highnes sithens the departure of the orators of Cleves 
and Saxehath, neither from you nor from the Duke of Cleves, 
ne from any of the said, receyved any maner of lr//res or 
advertisement specially considering the greate charge sithens 
that tymc gevin vnto you to wryte, at the least, how they 
toke then the conclusion of the mariage, though you should 
have no maner other occurrents to signifie. And nowe the 
tyme of the ratification approchethe, and also certain other 
thyngs of importaunce daylly occurring, hath moved his 
highnes the more to mervayl at this your long protracted 
silence. For his satisfaction wherein his grace hath dispeched 
vnto you this berer, his servaunt, whom his pleasure is 
you shall present to the said Duke, whither you shall 
have written before his arryval or no, to thintent, in either 
case, making his ma tie * most hertye commendations to the 
forsaid Duke, he may to the same intimate the cause of 
his commyng, and so know what answere or service he will 
commaund hym, and so with all possible diligence rep[ortj 
his majestic accordingly. In the rest tuching the King's 
ma tie * good and prosperous health, and all other newes here, 
you shall geve firme credyt to this said berer, who canne at 
length explain and declare the same. Thus fare you herty 
well. From London, the viij of November. 

Your assuryd Friend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my assuryd loving Freende Maister Wotton. 
Endd. Recryzvd 19 November. 



240 LETTERS OF 

3-5. CROMWELL TO (THE FELLOWS OF BALLIOL 
COLLEGE) '. 

Archives of Balliol College. Not in Cal. Nov. 22 (1539). 

Ratification of the election of Dr. Cootes to the Mastership of Balliol 
College. Cf. Letter 326. 

After my hartye cowmedatyons Wheras by my last letters 
addressyd vnto youe I gave youe in cowmawndrment in ///e 
kyng maiestyes name that fonvyth apon ///e rccepte therof 
without anye further cytatyons delayes or ot/ur like solcmpny- 
tyes of ///e Lawe and not wythstondyng thabscncc of anye 
of yo//r cuwpanye so that ///e more part were present youe 
shold precede to thelectyon of a convenient Master of yowr 
Howse then vacant and tlutt of yor electyon so beyng made 
wythowt any parcyalyte or corruptyon youe shold inco- 
tyne/zt certyfye me to thend ///e same myght be ratyfyed 
& cowfyrmyd as shold apparteignr & forasmuch as accordyng 
to Me tenor & effecte of Me same youe haue assemblyd yo;/r 
selfrj togyther vppon good delyberatyon & advyse takyn 
theryn haue electyd & chosyn my frend Doctor Cotts to be 
Master of your howse lyke as bye yowr prwrntatyon sealyd 
wit// yowr cowmyn scale I am adcertaynyd These shalbe to 
sygnyfye vnto youe & every of youe that I haue prrvsyd 
& examynyd the same & everye circwmstance therof & do 
cow/mend & allowe yor good pr^cedinges therin & haue 
confirmyd ratyfyed & approvyd your sayd electyon by 
thauctoryte cowmytted vnto me bye ///e kyngw hyghnesse 
yn that Behalf wyllyng & cowmawndyng youe bye thys 
presences that youe & every of youe shal from hens forth 
repute accepte & take Me sayd doctor Coifs as Me verye 
ryghtfull & iuste master of yo//r howse vsyng your selfa 
towards hym yn everye condytyon wit// suche dewtye & 
obedyence as to Me same offyce doth appartayne as youe 
& every of youe tendre Me kyngrj hyghnes pleasure Thus 
fare youe hartylye well From London the XXII th day of 
November 

Yo//r Lovyng Frend 

THOMAS CRU^AVELL 



1 Quoted in a Latin document, confirming the admission of Dr. Cootes 
as Master of BallioL 



I539T THOMAS CROMWELL 241 

826. (CROMWELL) TO (THE BISHOP OF LINCOLN). 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (ii) 543 (ii). (Nov. 1539.) 

Asks him to absolve the parish priest of Horncastle, whose fault is due 
to ignorance rather than malice. Requests him to accept Dr. Cootes 
as Master of Balliol College. Cf. Letter 325. 

Aftre my herte cowmendaabns vnto your lordshipp wheras 
the late parishe prest of Hornecastell vppon preaching rashely 
and incenserely the worde of god otherwaies then did becom 
him to do certayn of the people gretely offended and dyd 
accuse hym before your Chauncelor and forasmoche as he 
being examined vppon- the same & chardget to make hys 
aunswer t/iervnto at a certeyn day vnto hym prescribed hathe 
departed without licence and for his continuaciow at th\s 
present for same dothe stand excommunicate I -with diligence 
examinyng ///e sayd mater & perceuyg the same more to 
haue preceded of simplicite and Ignorance than of any malice 
or arrogancie And that the man is repentant tkerol haue 
taken suche order therin as shuld apprrtein or be he suffic . . . 

your lordshipp at ///is my request to absolve or 

cause to be absolved parte from the same excowwwnicaczbn. 
Trusting eftsones that he wilbe well advised before he take 
any suche enterpr/ce so temprariously vppon hande. And 
further as consuming your letteres toching the mastership of 
bailif Collegge I shall also right hertelie desire and praye 
your lordshipp to accept doctour Cooties vnto the same 
trusting that he will order himself herafter as besemes any 
honest man to do. And in case he shall transgresse the 
Laudable ordinance? of the said house or otherwais order 
the same than doth app^rtein to his office & dewtie as 
I trust he will not thenne I shall not onelye desire your 
lordshipp for his disamenowr to expulse and eiecke the said 
Cootes out of the said house but also I shalbe redie and glade 
to assist your lordshipp at all times to the. same accordingly. 
Thus the hole gost haue you yn his custodie 

327. CROMWELL TO SIR ALEXANDER RATCLIFF, SHERIFF 
OF CHESHIRE. 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (ii) 626. Dec. 2 (1539). 

KatclitT is to examine the truth of the complaint of Elizabeth Blundell 
against John Glegg. If the woman has been wrongfully expelled 
from her house, she is to be restored. 

Aftre my harty commendations Forasmoch as a bill of 
complainte was Latlye exhibited vnto the kinges Majestic and 
his mooste honorable Counsaile on the behalf of Elizabethe 

MERRIMAN. II R 



242 LETTERS OF [1559 

Blundcll Wief of William Blundcll of that countic of Chcstre 
agcnst on John Glegge of the same Countie that the said 
Glegge hathe wroungefully expulscd the said Elizabeth From 
her house her said husbond being at this present in his grac/j 
s/ruice in Ireland, the discourse wherof ye shal more playnely 
perceive by the contents of the said bill Whiche ye shall 
receive herin closed. His highnes pleasor and co;//maunde- 
ment is that ye Immediatly vpon the sight herof, shall call 
the said parties before youc, and here and examyn the said 
matter w*tA the circuwstaunc^r thervnto belonging And find- 
ing the premisses treue shall se the pore woman restored to 
her said house wit^ thappwrtenawnces She to peassablye and 
quietlye enioye the same according to equitie and Justice. 
And if ye perceive the said Glegge to be wayward and 
obstinate in that behalf, His said highnes pleasor is that ye 
shall aduertise me and other of his graces counsell here to 
thintent suche forther ordre may be taken therin as shall 
app^rtaine Not failing herof as his Ma^jtie trustithe youe, 
Thus fare ye hartely well From London the ij 6 * day of 
December. 

Your louyng Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my Lovinge Freend sir Alexandre Ratcliff knight 
Shereff of Chesshyre. 

328. CROMWELL TO MONTMORENCY. 

Ribier, i. 493 ; Cal. xiv. (ii) 655. Dec 9, 1539. 

As the affair of M. de Rochepot cannot be remitted to France without 
prejudice to the King's honour, Montmorency should urge his brother 
to pursue his right by the means the King offers. Cf. Letters, 316, 
317,351. 

Monseigneur, a present que la Majestc du Roy d'Angleterre 
mon souuerain Seigneur & Maistre addresse ces lettres au 
Roy Tres-Chrestien son bon Frere, touchant le renuoy du 
procez que les Esterlins de la Ligue de la haute Germaniquc 
ont pardeca a 1'encontrc du Sr. de Beaucourt, se nommant 
Capitaine sous Monseigneur de la Rochepot vostre Frere ; 
dont Monsieur de Marillac, son Ambassadcur resident parde9a, 
a fait si grande presse & instance, Considerant d'un cost la 
bonne inclination que ledit Sr. Roy mon Seigneur a, tant 
de gratificr au Roy sondit bon frere en tout ce qu'il pouroit 
raisonnablement auec son honncur, qu'aussi de vous auoir 
satisfait en cct affaire, si le cas & raison le vouloient per- 
mettre : & d'autre coste* que vous qui estes personne si Noble 
& d'honneur, qu'estant bien aduerty de la verite" du cas, vous 



1539] THOMAS CROMWELL 243 

ne voudriez pas presser pour importuner vn tel Prince de 
faire chose qu'il apergoit ne luy deuoir estre honorable, & 
que vous mesme en tel cas voudriez meurement deliberer pour 
digerer vn tel affaire : Pour autant que par les aduis & 
opinions des plus doctes, plus sages & grands zelatcurs de 
Justice, sans aucune partiale affection, il est resolu & conclu 
que sa Majeste", sauf son honneur & conscience ne pouroit faire 
ledit renuoy ; il ma sembte bon comme homme qui ne suis 
que ministre, & souhaite que chacun peut recouurir son droict 
par Justice & raisonnables moyens de vous signifier mon aduis, 
comme au pareil cas i'aurois le vostre tres-acceptable ; c'est 
que mondit Seigneur vostre Frere pour le moins se contente 
& conteste de poursuiure le droit qu'il pretend par tel bon, 
indifferent & honeste moyen comme le Sr. Roy a fait offrir, 
auquel cas il ne doit douter qu'il aura son droit gard6 auec 
bonne & br^ue expedition ; a quoy pour ma part ie tiendray 
volontiers la main, & pour luy m'employeray a mon pouuoir. 
Ie vous prie de prendre mon aduis & bon zele en acceptable 
part, comme il ne procede que du bon vouloir que ie porte 
a I'amiti^ desdits Sieurs Roys nos Seigneurs & a vous, & ceux 
qui 1'entretiennent. Monseigneur, aprds m'estre tres-affec- 
tueusement recommande', ie supplie nostre Createur vous 
donner prosperity & longue vie. De Londres, ce 9. de 
Decembre 1539. 

Vostre bon & asseure* Amy. 

THOMAS CRAMVEL. 
329. (CROMWELL) TO (THE EARL OF SOUTHAMPTON). 

R. O. Cal. xiv. (ii) 726. (Dec. 1539.) 

The King takes the delay of Anne of Cleves in good part. Instructions 
concerning the treatment of seditious priests. 

My very good lorde vftt/i my most harty and effectuel 
cowmendac/bns having the K.inges Ma^te seen and paused 
your Lr//rres of the xxi th of this present whiche arryved here 
this after none, his highnes hath commanded me for answer 
to the first parte of the same to signifie that Albeit his grace 
dothe very moche desire the good arryval of my ladyes grace 
of your lordship and the rest of his scruzntes there in 
Englande, Yet seing the wynde dothe let and steye you 
therin, his highnes taketh your demore in good part as 
reason requireth and prayeth you hartely soe to chere my 
lady and her trayne as they may think the tyme as short as 
the tediousnes of it woll suffer. For the seconde p^rte 
touching the prestes his grace wold you shold cause them 

R a 



244 LI.TTERS OF [1540 

bothe to be executed if the lawes and Justice woll condempnc 
them bothe And if not thenne to precede to thexecution of 
Richardson and to awarde suche punishment to thothcr for 
the concclemcnt as your wisedom shal thinke expedient for 
thcxemple of others. His Ma/nte wold neither make store 
of them ne bestowe a two penys for thrir coveyance hither, 
vnles you shal see farther cause thenne is yet apparant 
not doubting but your good lordship woll cause them to 
be substancially examyned befor thexecution. I trust there 
be no more there of this ranke sorte, a fewe of thise 
might brede as greate a sedition as was somoche writen of. 
This daye his Mawvrte removed to Grenwich and there 
begyneth to entre his newe ordre and among the rest as 
many of the gentlemen penc/oners as be here give their 
attendance vtitA their Axes vppon him. Our lorde sende his 
Ma^rte long lief and good health to enioye his most noble 
Diuises in their best perfection. I sende your lordship again 
the bill of Richardsons hands and so pray god to sende you 
wttA al yowr charge health and a propice and mery wynde 
to bring you nerer vnto vs. From London the 

330. (CROMWELL) TO SIR THOMAS WHARTON. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 16. <Jan. 3, 1540.) 

Directs him to deliver up to the, Scottish officers the arrant traitor, 
Alexander Bell, and to report his own proceedings to the King. 

Mr. Wharton After my right harty co;;/mcndac/ons having 
receyved your \etteres l addressed to me by this berer togither 
wz't// suche other writings as wer inclosed in the same, I haue 
declared the hole effectrj therof to the Kingrr Ma/Vjtc who 
bothe for your discreate handeling of his Aflairrj and for your 
gelding giveth vnto you his right harty thankvj And where 
it appereth by the Ittteres of the lorde Maxwell that the King 
of Scotter is moche desirous to haue delyurrance made of 
oon* Alexander Bell his traifcwr Albeit your \fttfres declare 
that thofficers of Scotland haue not in the same pointc 
cndeuored themselft-j sowel to satisfic the leiges and treaties 
as were convenient Yet considering that It is but an yvel 
store of a traictowr And that it shalbc his honowr rather for 
his parte to satisfic his said treaties according to reason, 
thenne to cowmyt the same faulte wherof his grace might 
note others and therby chardge them bothe in honour and 
dieutie his highnes hathc resolved that you shal in any wise 
make dclyuerance of the said Bell though they shal not as 

1 c. o. of the xix th of December 



J540J THOMAS CROMWELL 245 

of reason they ought doo the semblable, pressing them neiur- 
thcles in that case after a gentle sorte to haue regarde bothe 
to their leages and treaties and also to the iust preceding of 
his highnes wherby they well prrceyve his zeale and deter- 
mynac/on towards Justice and the augmentac/on of thamytie 
whiche very nature beside all other respecter enforceth and 
desircth to haue nurished betvvene his highnes and his good 
Neighbor and Nephieti And howe you shal precede and 
doo herin his grace wold gladly knowe whenne you shal may 
conveniently and also of thanswer whiche shalbe made to 
your cousin Sandeforde accordingly. Thus 



331. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 35. Jan. 7(1540). 

Requests him to report more fully concerning the Porter, but to keep the 
matter secret. 

After my right harty co;mendac*bns to your lordship 
Where sending of Late vnto me your \etterzs w/'t// a discours 
of suche Newes as youe hadde thenne receyved out of Fraunce, 
amongfs other things you wrote of a point conteyned in the 
same whiche shuld touche the porter there whose truth 
neurrtheles you doo freendely mayntain as I knowe not the 
contrary but you may soo doo for anything that is there 
writen to the defacement of the same Neu^rtheles It is 
thought necessary that your Lordship shuld more fully bothe 
signifie the wordes wherin you think him touched, the 
groundes wheruppon you doo note them to grate vppon 
him, what your opinion is vppon the same, and howe many 
haue been made privy either to the said Newes or to your 
adurrtisement, which things as the king^r highnes desirethe 
you to write wit/* al diligence, Soo his pleasure is that you 
shal kepe this aduise secret, not sparing to signifie the 
trouthe in all things according to his MaiVjtes expectaczbn 
and the trust reposed in you. Thus Fare you hartely well 
From Grenwiche the vij th of January 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good Lorde The Visconte Lisle The 
binges depute of his gracrj Town and marches of Calais. 

Endd. My \ordfs preuy seals letter wit/i my LoroVj 
Aunswer therto 



~'ir, LETTERS OF [1540 

832. CROMWELL TO SIR THOMAS JORDAN OF REDBURN. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 90. Jan. 21 (1540). 

The King wishes him to resort to Cromwell at London at once, upon the 
receipt of this letter. 

I commend me vnto yow, aduertising you thatt the kinges 
highnes pleasure and commawndment is thatt for certayne 
causes whiche att yowr corny ng shall more largely be openyd 
vnto yow ye immediatly vppon the recept of thes my letters 
resorte to london to me all excuses settaparte nott fayling 
this to doo as ye tender his graces pleasure and intende to 
avoyd the pmll thatt might otherwise ensue to yow for the 
contrary From london the xxi* of Januarye. 

Yowr Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 
Endd. January xxi 

Add. To Sir Thomas Jurdan of Rcdburn. 

333. CROMWELL TO LORD LISLE. 

R. O. Cal. xv. io& Jan. 26, 1540. 

Concerning the defences and provisioning of Calais. Urges Lisle and 
the officers of the town to be vigilant, although no immediate danger 
is anticipated. 

After my right herty and most affectuouse commendations 
to your Lordship Thies shalbe to signifie vnto thesami the 
receipte of sundry yowr \ttteres and thenv/t^ the boke of muni- 
abns and furnytures And also suche newes as ye have writen 
vnto me, Whereof I have aduertised the K'mgfs Maitste whose 
graciouse pleasure' is that w/t/t all celerite ther shalbe prouision 
of wood sent from hens thither For the whiche propose and to 
have the oversight and expedition thereof if ye will scnde 
sonv acteve prrson of his grac^j Retynue therr he shall see 
afor his departure suche store thereof to be transported as 
shalbe requisite And his highnes willeth that ye and all other 
there eurry man for his office Rowme and part, shalbe so 
vigilant and also in so good ordrc as it apprrteyneth and as 
the statut/j of the same do Require. And albeit his Maicste 
pirceyveth no present nor Imminent Danger to that town, and 
thinketh that no prince wold break the treaties so ferre as to 
Invade or attempt in dede anything agenst the same, yet 
nevertheles forasmoche as it is better to prevente then to be 
prevented and to forsec that the worst may be provided for, 
his gractt pleas///? is that it shalbe diligently forseen ther, Not 



1540] THOMAS CROMWELL 247 

onely that vnder the colour and habite of paysanter and 
market folkw ther entre not in that Town by litel and litel 
a multitude of men of werre desguysed for to surprise the 
sami, but also that in the carter and carres comyng into the 
same ladyn with hey strawe wood or suche other there be not 
brought in weapen or other things conveyed in secretely hydd 
in the same to the disavawtage of the Town My lord seen 
that your lordship hath the chief charge and is put in the 
highest trust there above all other, ye ought likewise to be the 
more vigilant and actif and tymely to forsee and cause that 
such pr0uisions of wyn and other as may be gotten there 
wz't^oute bruyt or "Rumour as therby your good pr^uision 
and Industrie the Towne may be so furnished and in that good 
suretie that his Matties good expectacion of you doth loke 
for, And of suche pnuision that is witA'm the pale and 
marches of thesaid Town it wer well don* ye shuld cause 
wrtAoute any Rumowr or bruyt asmoch thereof as wer mete 
to be brought into the town for the savegarde therof and the 
better furnishemet of thesanv. Thus Fare ye right hertely 
well From London this xxvj th of January. 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my very good lorde the visconte lisle deputie of 
the kingrj Towne and marches of Calais. 

Endd. January 1539, my lord prz'vey scale concernyng 
woode and other furnitur. 



334. (CROMWELL) TO THE LORD (PRESIDENT OF THE 

NORTH). 

R. O. Cal. xv. 166 (ii). (Jan. or Feb. 1540.) 

Desires him to examine the matter in dispute between Thomas Grayme 
and John Blacket, concerning the vicarage of Ilderton in Northum- 
berland. 

After my herte comendaczbns vnto your lordeshipp, The 
same shall vnderstand where as informaabn is made vnto the 
king^r ma/V^te and his most honourable counseill that albeit 
one sir John Blacket was presented by force of a certew 
vowson gevew out of the late surendered monastery of Kirkham 
in the Comitatu of Yorke vnto the vicaredge of Ilderton in the 
Comitatit of Northumberland znd vppow the same presentation 
was institute in the same yet one sir Thomas Grayme prest 
hauing no lawfull tytle ihervnto dothe vexe molest and 



248 LETTERS OF [i-, 4 o 

disturbs the said blakkct in suchc sorte as he can not quietlic 
cnyoyc the same but is enforced to sue vnto hys ma/V-jtie for 
redrew, his maiV\rtes plcaswrr and commandcmewt is that ye 
and other of his grace counseill (in) these parties shall wi'tA 
convenient celeryte vppon the recept hereof call the said 
Blakket and grayme before you and here and cxaw/inc the said 
mater wit// the circu/wsta^c^J thervnto belonging, and trie and 
investigate bothc there titles and sortt suchc for all ordre and 
direction therein as to iustice and equitie shall appfrtene, so 
that his ma/Vjte here wit// his most honourable conseill may 
be no further molested ther. and in case thorow thobstinancc 
of either of the said parties ye can not so do then his highnes 
pleswr is that ye shall adurrtise me of the hole mater how 
///e same in euery poynt dothe stand to thintent that suche 
further directions may be taken therin as shall appertene. 
Thus Fare your Lordship hartelie well. 



335. CROMWELL TO LORD HUNGERFORD l . 

Longford Castle MSS ; Cal. xv. 18$. Feb. 9 (1540). 

Desires him to examine the matter in dispute concerning the late Priory 
of Henton, and to report to Cromwell Cf. Letter 341. 

Thies be for asmoche as the Kinges Majestic hat he ben 
enformed that certaine lycences foundacions and other wry- 
tynges belongyng unto the late priory of Charterhous Henton 
and graunted by Thomas Horton Clothier and other hathe 
ben ymbeysted and conveyd away by certaine persons. The 
Kinges Majesties pleasure is that ye calling Dame Mary 
Horton Wydow, Thomas Horton, William Byrde clerke 
Richard Davis and Sir William Furbcr clerke before you shall 
examine therin and every of theym by vertue of an othc to be 
admynestred to theym by you of and uppon the premysses 
with the circumstaunces therof by all the wayes and meanes 
ye can or may excogitate and devise and to advertise me of 
that ye shall fynd and knowe therin with all convenyent spede 
to thentent I may cause suche order and direction to be had 
and taken in that behalfc as the case shall requyre. Faile ye 
not thus to do as the Kinges trust and expcctacion ys 
in you. 

London, 9 Feb. 

Signed. Add. 

1 From the official Record Office transcript. 



i54o] THOMAS CROMWELL 249 

336. CROMWELL TO LORD STOURTON. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 252 (i). Feb. 23 (1540). 

Desires him to lease his share of the mill at Yewill to John Compton for 
forty years, at the usual rent. 

Aftre my right hartie commendation to your Lordshyp 
Whereas I am informyd that one John Compton of Yewill 
haith in cow/p^rcenere wit/i you a mylne and there of takyth 
the moitie of the profetrs and commodities to the same 
belongyng and for as moche as the said John is dwelling and 
abidyng nyghe vnto the same myll and your Lordshyp fer 
from the vse and commoditie there of, cowtentid to receue the 
rent of the one halfe, I shall desyer you at the co;/templaczbn 
of these my letters to grant vnto the said John Compton 
thoccupacion of your moietie of the said myll by Leasse for 
terme of XL yeres, or so many as ye can fynd in your hart to 
bestow of hym cowueniently at this my request pay/g there- 
fore yerly so moche as heretofore it hathe been accustomyd 
by other your lordshypis tenants And thus ye shall so do 
vnto me thankfull p\esure & in any your lordshypis lawfull 
persutes ye shall requyer the same accordy;/gly. And thus 
Fayr you ryght hartely well. Frome Westmywstre thys xxiii 
of February. 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To my very good lord my Lord Sturton this be 
delivered 

Endd. "Lettcre (of) My lord Preevy Scale February xxiii 
337. (CROMWELL) TO LORD . 



R. O. Cal. xv. 252 (ii). <Feb. 15, 1540). 

Draft of a letter concerning the examination and subsequent treatment of 
Richard Smith. 

Aftre my right hartie comendaabns vnto yowr lordship 
wheras I am enformed that sir "R\c/iard Smithe person of 
Langom in the contie of Pembroke is accused and laid in 
prison by the bailif ther for certain word^y spokyn sounding 
to be treson against the King^r maiestie These shalbe to 
require you vrit/i convenient celeritie (to) send as well for the 
said parson as other his accusers and vpon examinaczbn hade 
and due proves and the said Smithe found gyltye therin he to 
remain in prison to suche tyme as the kingrj further plesor 
shalbe known therin, and in case his said accusers can make 



250 LETTERS OF [i-,40 

no de\v prove of the same that then l he finding sufficicnte 
sureties pfr bondcs for his apperance at all tyws when he 
shalbe called for by the kingrj highnes or any of his ho<wr- 
able consill you suffre him to go at libertie 

338. CROMWELL TO WALLOP. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 285. Mar. 2(1540). 

Directions for his conduct at the French Court. He is to follow up the 
advantages gained by Norfolk, and to do his utmost to assure 
Francis of Henry's amity, while depreciating the sincerity of the 
Emperor. Cf. Letter 340. 

Mr. Wallop after my right hartie commendations These 
shalbe to Signifye that the K'mgcs Maiestie hathe harde the 
reaporte and relation of my lorde of NorfiW. And also seen 
your \cfteres of the xxvij* 11 daye of February e wrytten to the 
same conteynynge suche discourse and conference as sithcns 
his departure you haue had viilh the qwene of Navarre, And 
where the said qwene Seamethe to thinke that the Frenche 
King ys soo bent [to] growe to an ende w/'t// Themp^rowr as 
he woll in no wise breke \vi\Ji the same onles he shuld offre 
him to vnreasonable condic/ons The K.inges Maiesties pleaswr* 
is that you shall take occasion to speak w/t// the said quene 
and that you shall to the same saye as vppon adufrtisement 
receyved from my lorde of NornW>t vppon the significac/on 
of yowr last conferens w*t^ her that my said lorde of NorftW 
dothe most hertely thanke her for all her greate gentlenes and 
aduiseth her that the Kingrj Maw\rte taketh and reputeth her 
as his most perfyt and assured frend and woll not fayle soo to 
impresse the state of her things on his graces rememberance 
as if eurr tyme and oportunyte srrue him she shall well prr- 
ceyve that his grace woll not put this her good aflecc/bn and 
Frendshipp towards him in obliuion. And thoughe Thcm- 
perottr be nowe hieghe and maye for a tyme woorke thingrj 
to his commodyte yet her wisdom knoweth that he is but 
a man and a mortall as other be yea and maye pmrase here- 
after euen whenne he shall think himself most assured of his 
estate and highest fynd that the world ys but slippery and 
woll suwtyme haue his turnes her wisdom must take patyens 
and lyve in hope till tyme shall woorke su;;/me good occasion 
to her cow/modyte. And as for his hicghnes porte he doth in 
no wise Envye the emp^rowrs felycyte, But his grace is rather 
sorye that the said Emprrowr scameth to haue suche an appc- 
tytc as he careth not whose thingrj he haue, or howe or by 

1 Instrtfd abcne tht lint : ye taking sufficient of the said person 



1540] THOMAS CROMWELL 251 

what mcane he get them or what practises he vse in the world 
so [he] may haue his owne will and desyres which ordynate 
mynde is to be consideryd in tyme speaally whenne it bringeth 
furth w/'t/J it a Fantazie that he shuld be pereles which must 
neades partely appere by his woord^ to M r Wyat thoughe 
they be neuer soo gently interpretated. This onely thing you 
maye saye moueth the Kinges Ma*V.rte that he sethe Them- 
peronr grate so moche vppon his good brother the frenche 
king and to take so moche aduauntage of him as he dothe, 
For his grace well seeth that the taking of Millan by investi- 
ture is not onely the dyrect and open waye to make the Duk 
of Orleauns "Thempcrours vassall and Subgiet and soe a straun- 
ger to Fraunce, but also the very meane to make hereafter 
Dissentyon betwcne him and the Dolphin his brother or at 
the lest to engendre busynes betwene theyr posterities and 
soo consequently greate daunger trouble and p^rill to the 
hole Realme of Fraunce. This his Mateste well noteth and 
seing twoo Prince, but yet of twoo dyu^rs natures thus 
traffiking together Lamenteth to see his dere Frend thus 
strayned and wrought by meanes to the others pleaswr*. 
And this point his grace wold also you shuld touche and 
inculcc also w/t// the Dolphin as your Wisdom shall thinke 
convenient whenne tyme and good occasion shal scrue you. 
And his grace desireth youe to reasorte nowe and thenne 
both to the quene of Navarre and also to Madame Destampes 
that you maye the Better Lern the certaynte of thoccurrauntar. 
For whose names you shal herein enclosed receyve a ciphre. 
Furthermore his Ma*V.rtes pleasure is that you shal tak your 
oportunyte for accesse to the Frenche Kingly owne presence 
and after his graces most hertie commendations wit/i lyke 
thanks for thentier Love and Zeale which by the relaczon of 
my lord of NornV yt appereth he bereth in his harte to his 
hieghnes the semblable whereof he may be assured to fynde 
again on his graovr behalf You shal saye that his grace hathe 
been lately enformed that whenne Thempmwr was at Parris 
he shuld make a request for ayde to be ministred vnto him 
against the Duke of Gheldres wherevnto yt shuld be aunswered 
by the Frenche king himself that onles the Kinges Maieste 
shuld assist the said Duke he wold geve no ayd against him. 
But in that case of his hieghnes ayde to thone he wold not 
fayle tassist and ayde thother. And albeit his Maiestie cannot 
in any wise thinke that the frenche king wold make any suche 
answere or determynac/on Yet his hieghnes thought convenient 
bothe most hertely to desier and pray him to signifye frankly 
vnto him whether any suche motion and answere hathe been 
in dede made, and also to adurrtise him that if his h[ighnes] 



269 



LETTERS OF 



mynded any suche matycr he might Justly doo yt \v/t//out 
offence of the Leages and treatyes betwene his grace and 
Thempmwr, For they extend no Further but to suche things 
as eyther prince had thenne in theyr possessions at the making 
of the same whereof Ghelders is no pore/on Wherefore lyke 
as his Maiestie verely trustcth that bothe he woll forbeare to 
geve Themprrowr any suche ayd whatsoeucr shuld happen 
sper/ally seing yt shuld be gevin against him who maye prr- 
case stande himself or his posteryte hereafter in some greate 
stcadc. Even so he woll not onely adurrtise him the playnes 
of this matier But also Frendely ponder and waye what it 
shalbe mete for his Maicste of congruence to doo for the said 
Duke having his grace maryed his Suster If Themprrowr 
shuld attempte to wynne Gheldres by force thother offering 
vnto him most reasonable offres and meanes for the tryall and 
declaraczon of his title to the same. And what aunswere he 
shal make hereunto the Kingfs Ma;Vjte desireth you to adu/r- 
tise wit// dyligence. You shal also vndrestand that Torre is 
imprisoned in flaundcrs the occasion whereof his grace knoweth 
not. Neu^rtheles his pleaswi is that seing he hath srrued 
the frenche king you shal of yourself Labor//- his delyurraunce 
at that hande and get him there if you can for the tyme and 
better framyng of your purpose restored to his Rome and 
place accordingly. Sythens the wryting of this 'Lft/fre hitherto 
the king pleasrr is that at your entre w/t/* the Frenche 
king touching the matier of Gheldres, you shal geve him 
thanks for that the Kingrj Ma/rjte hathe herd that he shuld 
denye Themprrowr ayd against the Duke of Gheldres neurr- 
theles his Ma/rjte hathe been also adurrtised from a good 
mouth that at suche tyme as this demaund was made he shuld 
make his aunswere condycyonel the truth whereof his grace 
muchc desireth to knowe and soo Furth as before. Further- 
more where as my lord of NorftW hathe brought no certain 
aunswere of the frenche kingrj aduise touching Themprrowrs 
woordes vppon the terme ingratitude The Kinges Ma/Vrte de- 
sireth you at this conference w/t// the said Frenche King on his 
gracrj behalf to saye vnto him that forasmuche as my lord of 
NorfiW hathe brought no certain aunswere of his aduise 
touching that matyer being oon of the principal causyes of 
his Legac/bn And that the woordes here delyurred by his 
Ambassador vppon the return of my said lord of NorftW 
concemyng the same thing be yet of suche sorte (as his 
hieghnes taketh them) as cannc admyt no good interprrtac/on. 
His Maiestie knowing how muche this affaire toucheth not 
only himself whose most noble progenitours have eurr worn 
a close crown and neurr knowleged any supfriour neythcr 



1540] THOMAS CROMWELL 253 

King nor Empcrour, But also how muche it toucheth his 
good brother and al other Icings and prince cannot soo passe 
it oui'r in a clowde but most ernestly desireth his good Brother 
aforsaid whom he most entyerly loveth and in whom he hath 
a speciall trust and confydens depely to waye it w*'t/* him and 
frankely and playnely to signifye his aduise what were mete 
to be aunswered in it. For vndoubtedly the woord^j sounde 
soo yvel that his Ma/V^te thinketh it not mete they shuld be 
left vnanswered and what his aunswere shalbe hereunto his 
Ma/frte Pr^yeth you also well to obsrrue and by the next 
tadurrtise him accordingly Thus fare you hertely well From 
London the seconde of Marche. 

Endd. The mynute of my L. P. S. "Letters to Mr. Wallop. 



339. CROMWELL TO . 

R. O. Cal. xv. 305. Mar. 7 (1540). 

Requests the recipient to give the bearer the particulars of the site of the 
late monastery of Nesham. 

I co/wmend me hartely vnto you. thiese be to require you 
vpon the sight herof to deliver vnto my frynd James lawson 
berer herof, the particulars of the Scite [of] the late Monas- 
tery of Nesam w/t// the Demaynes [b]elonging to thesame. 
Thus fare ye [well] from the Court the vii* day of 
[M]ar[c]he. 

Yowr Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 



340. CROMWELL TO WALLOP. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 332. Mar. 12 (1540). 

Information concerning the position and intentions of the Emperor, which 
the King thinks will be of interest to Francis. Wallop is to impart 
this information to the Queen of Navarre, who may communicate it 
to the French King at her discretion. Cf. Letter 338. 

Mr. Wallop after my right hartie commendations where the 
Kinges Maicstie hath receyved certain aduertisementes from 
a very good place which his Ma/V^te thinketh dothe muche 
touche his good brother the Frenche King. And that it were 
very expedyent he had knowlege of the same. His hieghnes 
hathe thought conuenyent to write the same vnto you to 
thintent you maye declare them to the quene of Navarre 
which his hieghnes wold you shuld doo at your first opor- 
tunyte. The p^rticulers be thesse. First his Ma*>jte ys 



LETTERS OF [i.- 4 o 

aduiscd that the Constable and Cardinal of Lorricn shal at 
their cuwmyng in to Flaunders rather be entretayned w/t/r 
chere to shewe an apparaunce of amyte thenne growe to any 
conclusion of things according to the french kingrj desicr. 
Second yt is adurrtised howe the legate for Farneze by his 
Gourrnor Marssellrj dyd move the Frenche King lately by 
the bishop of Romez cowmaundemrwt to mak difficulte 
a while in his conclusion betwene him and the Emp/rowr, 
Saying that the necessite of Themprro//r shuld thereby cause 
him to haue what he wold desier, Whereunto the Frenche 
King shuld aunswere that if Themprrowr wold lyve as he 
dothe in peace and frendeshipp he wold doo his best allwaye 
to shewe lyk correspondence. But if he wold treate any 
further thing It must be for all dependawntrj or dies nothing. 
The latter ende of this saying, that is to saye, The Frenche 
Kinges aunswere onely was secretly rea ported to Themp^rowr. 
And whenne the Reaporter sayd that all dependaunter included 
manny things aswel Burgoyn Navarre treaties of Madril as 
Millan and Pyemount, Themp^rowr aunswered that of trouthe 
the things were nvrvelously intricate, Adding that at the 
treating at Prrpynyon he being thenne at Bersolona. he 
thought it not best to conv to any particulers And Euen 
soo wolde be lothe yet to com to them For qiwth he there is 
daung^r of vnhonest condiabns or of Discontentemewt at 
departing. And therefore it is thought and sayd that to 
wynne a further delaye The King of Romaynez shal also 
goo to vysyt the Frenche King and by these meanes shal 
Thempmwr thus wynne tyme and tak his aduantage in other 
parties having as the K.'mges Maj>.rte ys aduised a secret 
fantazie in his hed That being the Frenche King sickly and 
diseased (which is muche to the kinges hieghnes regretc) he 
deuiseth howe by meanes to protract and wynne Loking for 
that which his grace trusteth he shal not see and thinking if 
he were ones passed he shuld easly ynough Frame al his 
purposes after Euen as he himself wold wyshe and desier. 
Nowe you may require Madame de Navarre to consider what 
these things doo saver and in case she shal think that the 
knowlege of them maiye anything conferre to the Frenche 
King Benefyt She may open the same at her pleasure and 
by oonr point she may prfsfntly Knowe whether any of the 
rest be lyk to be true that is by the woordes spoken by the 
Frenche King himself touching the dependauntu wher 
you may presse her to tak som pains to knowe the certaynt 
as a meane to wayc the better the residue Albeyt his Ma/Xrte 
doubteth not but in case the constable do not growe to a 
thorow agremcnt But shal be put of by delayes newe Invcn- 



1540] THOMAS CROMWELL 255 

cions and deuises. His good Brother the frenche king shal 
easly by the same conuert Thempero//rs mynd and purpose. 
And what aunsvvere she shal presently or vppon deliberac/on 
and inquerye make vnto you, His Ma/V-rtes pleas//r^ is you 
shal adu^rtise wit/i conuenyet diligence Joynyng to your 
adu^rtisemewts suche other occurraunts as you shal there 
lerne from tyme to tyme worthie his gracs knowlege. You 
may also shewe to the quene of Navarre That in lyk man^r 
from a good place his Ma/V^te ys adu^rtised that in Spayn 
they begynne to Murmur for that Thempmw/r shuld practise 
the Maryeng for himself & his childern w/t//out theyr con- 
sents, Saying they will kepe a parlyament vppon that and 
suche other maters Whereuppon it is thought he woll send 
thither the Duke of Alva to doo what he canne tappease and 
quiet them Whereby it appereth that were it not onely for 
thestimaczbn that he hath by the Frenche King he were lyk 
shortely to haue busynes ynough to turn him to. Thus ad- 
uising you that the Kingly hieghnes ys in good helth \vitA all 
your frends here I byd you hertely well to Fare from 
London the xij th of march 

Endd. To Mr. Wallop xij marcij 

341. CROMWELL TO THOMAS HORTON. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 333. Mar. 12 (1540). 

He is to deliver to Lord Hungerford the foundation and other evidences 
of a chantry founded by his uncle, and also a copy of his uncle's 
will, or else to appear before Cromwell to show cause why he should 
not do so. Cf. Letter 335. 

In my right hartie wise I cowmend me vnto you, And 
forasmoche as it is supposed, that the foundacion and dyuers 
other evidence and wrytyngs concernyng a Chauntry founded 
by your vnckall * been cowmen into your hands possession 
and Custodie, thies be not onely to requyre you vpon the 
sight hereof to delyuer vnto my Lord Hungerford of 
Haitesbury, the said foundacion evidence and wrytyngw, 
or asmoche therof as ye haue or may come by, but also a true 
copie of your 1 vnckall ys testament and last will, to thentent 
that vpon the sight therof and due examynacion of that 
matier, suche order and direction may be had and taken in 
that behalf, as equytie and Justice shall requyre, or els that 
ye appere in your owne p^rsone before me the xv th day 
after Ester next comyng to shewe a cause reasonable, why 
ye ought not so to do. Faile ye not therof, as ye tendre the 

1 r. o. Father 



256 LETTERS OF [1540 

kings Ma/sties pleasure. So fare ye hartely well. From 
ray house in London the xij lh day of Marche. 

Your Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To my Lovyng frynd Thomas Horton. 
Endd. My lorde pryvey scale to Thomas Horton. 

i 

342. CROMWELL TO SIR GILES STRANGWAYS, SIR JOHN 
HORSEY, SIR HUGH PAULET, NICHOLAS FITZJAMES, 
AND GEORGE GILBERT. 

R. O. CaL xv. 391 (i-ii). Mar. 22 (1540). 

The King wishes them to examine the truth of the complaints against 
William Hargill, contained in the enclosed bills. 

After my right harty commendations vnto you The 
same shall receave herin closed certain bills of complaint 
Latly exhibited vnto me by on Henry More and other 
thinhabitants of Kilmenton in that countie of Somerset 
agenst on William Hargill gentleman of the same towne and 
Countie that the said Hargill of his extorte power shuld not 
onely wrongefully moleste vex and trouble the said inhabi- 
tants diurrse waies but also vse and behave himseilf emongs 
theim otherwais then doth apprrteyne as ye shall more 
plainely prrceave by the contents of the said complaints. 
The kings Majests pleaswrr and cowmaunde is that you 
calling aswell the said Hargill as the said inhabitants before 
you shall grouwdely and substaunciall here and examyne the 
Matier conteyned in the said bills aswell by Deposic/on of 
wittnesss as proves as otherwais And finally to take suche 
ordre and direction therm as by yo//r approved wisdoms 
shall seame to standc w/t// equite right and good conscyence 
in suche wise as the parleys complayru?//nt may haue no 
cause Resonablc eftsones to complayne. Or ells if the 
Matier shall so stand that ye can not conveniently so doo, 
then the pleas///r of his hieghnes is that ye shall ccrtific me 
What ye haue foundc seen and doon therin to thintent suche 
forther Remedy may be provided for the same as shall 
apprrteync Not failing herof as his grace trusteth you. Thus 
fare you well from London the xxij th of Marche. 

Your assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 



1540] THOMAS CROMWELL 257 

Add. To my loving Freindes sir Giles Straingwige, sir John 
Horsey and sir Hughe Poulet, knights Nicholas Fitzjames 
and George Gilbarde Esquiers and to eurry of them or to three 
of them. 



Complaint of Henry More of Kylmenton, Somerset, yeoman, 
22 March 1540. 

Asserts that Hargill and his sons have several times attempted to murder 
More for daring to demand the return of a sow stolen by Hargill's 
servants. 

To the right honnorable my lord prive Scale. 

In most piteous and lamentable wise complaynyng shewith 
vnto your most honnorable lordship your pore and daily 
Orato//r Henry More of Kylmenton in the Countie of 
Sonvrsett yoman. That wheras one William Hargyll of 
Kylmynton aforsaid gentilman, his sonnes and seruauntes 
being men of wray evill reputaabn & comen fighters and 
quarellers, w*t/*oute any good or iuste cause but onely of 
their pr^pensed malice & myschevous mynde, because your 
pore Oratowr knowing that the seruauntcs of the said Hargill 
had stollen from your oratowr a sowe, whiche he demaunded 
agayne they haue diuerse and sundrie tymes manassed 
threatned assawted and lyen in awayte to murder and slee 
your pore orato?/r, aswell when he hath ben (in goddes peace 
and the Kingr s) in plowing and harrowing his landrj in the 
feld^j as also at his pore dwelling house and diuerse other 
places to his grete feare and daungier of his life, insomoche 
that one of the sonnes of the said Hargill for thaccomplishing 
the same their myschevous intent, lay in awayte vnder a hedge 
vpon the ground of your oratowr who then was at his Shepe- 
house, and comyng homewarde in the evenyng, espied one 
standing there so suspiciously demaunded what he was, 
wherwith he aunswered and said, thowe horeson thow shalt 
knowe bye & bye, and drew oute his swerde rennyng fierly 
therw/t/* at your said oratowr, who fled or els he had ben 
slayne & still w*t/* his swerde redy drawen pursued your 
oratowr to a barne of his, where twoo of your oratours 
scruauntes were, who rescued and defended hym, one of 
them having but onely a Rake in his hande, whiche was 
hewen all in peces, & there the said Hargillrj sonne sore 
woounded & hurte the same your oratowrs scruaunt and 
put hym in feare and daungier of his life, so that he was not 
able to doo any mancr s^ruice to your oratour in nyne or 
tenne wekes after, to the grete losse charge and hynderance 



MERR1MAN. II 



258 LETTERS OF [V l4 o 

of your pore oratowr. And also most honnowrablc lord so it 
was that your oratowr had twoo grete bores whichc strayed 
and went abrode in the woodes, so that he coulde neusr gett 
nor fynde them although he at sundry tymes made grete 
serche for them, supposyng that the saide Hargill had caused 
them to be taken and slayne, for one Richard Carpenter 
sfruaunt to the same Hargill reaported to diuerse persons 
that he ranne after the said bores in the woodrj aboue ij myles 
\v/t// a knyfe drawen in his hande, saiyng he coulde nother 
ou^rtake them nor cause his dogges to holde them, and 
afterwarde said and reaported in the house of yowr oratowr, 
then having sett before hym a pece of brawne, that his master 
had somoche brawne at home that he was wery of it, whiche 
filled so many tubbes fatto and stonoVj that the same Richard 
said, the hole three parisshes of Kylmynton Sturton and 
Bradley coulde not eate it at one meale, whiche semed wray 
suspicious. And thus yowr pore oratowr onely for dcmaund- 
ing his owne goodes & for none other cause (as god knowith) 
is daily in grete ieopardy & daungier of his life, & burnyng 
& distroiyng & spoiling of his house & goodes So that he 
dare not repaire ne come or abide in his pore dwelling house, 
but of necessitie right shortly must be compelled (for safe- 
guarde of his life) to flye and forsake the cuntrey there, to his 
vtter enpoiurysshing and vndoing forcu^r, onles spedy remedy 
be the rather by yowr good lordship provided in this behalf. 
In tender considerac/on wherof, and forasmochc as your 
oratowr, being a wray pore man, not having any frendVj or 
other policie or meane to atteyn and gett his pore living for 
the sustentac/on of hym his pore wyfe and children, but onely 
by his husbondrie & grete labowr, hath ne can haue any manrr 
remedy for redresse of the pranysses against the said Hargill 
or any of his sonncs or struaunlss being of grete substance. 
It may thcrfore please your most honnoarable lordship of 
yowr accustomed goodnes towarde pore men for thaduauncc- 
ment of equitie and Justice to direct your most honnourable 
l<Y/Vrcs to suche discrete and woorshipfull men being Justice 
of peace in the cuntrey there nerc adioynyng, as shall like 
your good lordship to appoynte, cowmaunding them by the 
same to calle bothe the said parties before them, & not 
onely to examyne them & euery of them of the contents of 
this bill w/'t/i the hole circumstance therof, but also to sett 
suchc fynall direction theryn, as yowr pore oratowr may from 
hensforth live in reste and quyet, \v/t//outc any further feare 
vcxaczon or lossc, and to make true relac/on therof to your 
good lordship what they shall perceive theryn, to thentent 
the said malefactors may haue condignc punysshemcnt 



1540J THOMAS CROMWELL 259 

& your said pore oratour recompensed for his said losses and 
hurtrj as right and good consciens requireth. And your 
said oratowr according to his bounden duetie shall daily 
pray to god for the prrsiruaczbn of yowr lordship long to 
endure. 

Four other complaints of a similar nature follow. 

343. CROMWELL TO RALPH SADLER. 

B. M. Roy. 7 C. xvi, f. 149 ; Cal. xv. 469. (Apr. 7, 1540.) 

Concerning the return of Wyatt, and the advisability of his accompanying 
the Prince of Salerno to London. Desires Sadler to request Pate to 
repair to Cromwell. 

Maister Secretary after my right harty cowmendac/ons By 
your letters addressed vnto me By this berer I doo p^rceyve 
the k'mgcs Marries pleasure touching thanswer to Mr. Wyatter 
lr//rres whiche I receyved as I rode hither, and be now 
remytted vnto me I require you to signifie to his Mzieste 
that I shal according to my most bounden dieuty cause 
Mr. pate to put himself in ordre, and giue adu^rtisement 
to Mr. Wyat accordingly iw/mediatly vppon the receipt of 
your answer to thise lettcrzs whiche dispeche to Mr. Wyat 
I shal staye tyl that tyme vppon the purpose folowing. First 
where his Mateste thinketh that Mr. pate might arryve in 
suche season as Mr. Wyat might wel accompany the prince of 
Salern hither, surely I thinke the same, but whither Mr. Wyat 
shuld haue his oportunytie to departe soo sone aftre 
Mr. pates cu;;/myng as he might well accompany the said 
Prince or no, I doubt moche, the tyme of the taking of his 
leave, and the receipt of suche lr/teres and matier as he shuld 
bring \\i\Ji him not being in his Arbitre or appointment. 
And yet as I thinke it were not mete that he made tomoche 
hast even at his departure lest therby he shuld lose suw/me 
knowleage worthie to be related aftre to the king^ Maieste. 
Again vndre his Mantes correction I thinke it more mete 
that Mr. Wyat shuld anymate the said prince (of himself) to 
com hither as thoughe he had given no significac/on of it, 
thenne that he shuld accompany him, being there his highnes 
Ambassad[our]. The world which knoweth that An Ambas- 
sador dare not conducte suche a man, without his Masters 
knowleage may thinke otherwise of it thenne there is cause, 
seing it shalbe no doubt of it opened that neither he hathe 
desired licence to com ne yet shalbe reco;;/mended by 
Themprrowr. In my poore opinion it shuldbe wel don that 
suwme warnyng were sent to Calays for his entreteynement if 
he com, and suwme ordre for the like at Dover etc. for his 

S 2 



260 LETTERS OF [i- )4 o 

money aftrc he shalbc here arryved, w/t//out making any 
further sutes vnto him in this behaulf. Wherein neurrthclcs 
I rcfcrrc me holly to his Ma/V^tcs pleasure as my boundcn 
dicuty requireth and shal vppon your answer make the 
dispcch accordingly. Touching Icighe I thinke the opinion 
good for his cuwmyng home wit/t Mr. Wyat, whiche I trust 
shal be compased in suche wise as he shal not styk at it, 
and thenne his Ma;Vste may obiecte to him his contemptuous 
absence at his pleasure. And if his gracious pleasure be that 
I shal sende the mynutc aftre it shalbc diuiscd I shall accom- 
plishe his pleasure therin as shal appertayn Sithens the 
begy(nni)ng of this Ift/tre I am enformed that Mr. pate is 
there. I pray you sende for him, and helpe him to take his 
leave that he may repair hither vtitit diligence And in the 
meane season his k/fcres of credence shalbc prepared. But 
as for Instructions, I thinke he shall bettre take them at 
Mr. Wyats hande as to lerne the state of things, thenne we 
canne aduise him here, onles it shall please the ki/igrj Ma\rte 
to cowmytt any other secret matier vnto him, thenne I knowe 
of Thus most hartely Fare you well From london this 
Wednesday night 

Your assuryd Freend 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 

Add. To myn Assuryd loving Freende Mr. Sadler esquier 
oorv of the Kingrj Ma;V.rtes two principal Secretaryes. 
Endd. My Lorde Privie seale to Mr Sadler. 

344. (CROMWELL) TO ROGER BRERETON. 

R. O. CaL xii. (i) 950 and xv. 524. Apr. 16 (1540). 

The King is displeased at hearing that his scholar, Hugh Whitford, is 
disturbed in his possession of the parsonage of Whitford. Brereton 
is to see to it that he be suffered to remain unmolested in future. 

In my ryghte hartie mawner I cow/mcndc me unto you And 
where that I wrote my \etteres vnto master Sulyarde and you 
aboughtc October was twelve moneth signcfieng vnto you the 
kynges pleasure conornyng the tythe and possessyon which 
his grace is scolcr Hcughe Whytforde had in the personage of 
Whyteforde in the dioo\* of scynte Assaph. Which benefice 
his highnes, the bishopryche of Sainct Assaphes being vacant 
did gyue vnto his said scoler l of his gracrj prerogatyfe royall f 

1 c. o. by good ryghte and tytle rych was vacant and voyde by 

of his crowne by reason of his resignac/bn, the saide byshopriche 

royall then also being voyde 

* c. o. for as moch as the byshop- 



i54] THOMAS CROMWELL 261 

and thai master Haryson dyd make clayme to the same 
benefyce by vertue of a vowson therof long before grauntyd 
by the Bysshope wherbye he made sute not onlie to dis- 
possesse ///e kynges scoler aforesaid in the same benefyce 
but also to abrogate and abarre the kynges .ryghte and tytle 
and royall prerogative aforeseid contrarie to all good reason 
equite & iustice. And therfore I signefyed vnto you there the 
kinges pleasure was ///at all sutes shulde surcease in thai 
behalfe in flyntshire and that the kinges seyde scoler shulde 
in nowyse be disturbed in his possessyon in the said benefice 
but that the partyes shulde apere here before the kyng and 
his counsayle to abide such ende and dyrecc/bn as shulde 
stande wyth his pleasure to be taken therin And those my 
letteres notwythstondyng nothing regardyng ///at the poore 
scoler hath been in possessyon iiii yeres full at Januarie laste 
nor the kinges saide Royall pra-ogatyve you haue made suche 
proces in those partyes contrarye to my saide L7fcres ///at ///e 
kynges saide scoler Heugh Whyteforde is intollerably vexed 
and trobelyd & dispossessyd of a grette parte of the tithes 
& oblac/bns of the saide benefyce wherof I doo not a lytle 
nvrvaile that you l woll enterprise so to do ageynste 2 the 
kinges ryghte tytle & royall prerogatyve. Wherfor this 
shalbe eftesones to signefie vnto you his highnes pleasure 
is Mat no further 3 proces shalbe made in those parties 
ageynst the sayd Whytford in that behalf And ///at you shal 
se & procure thai ///e seid Heugh Whiteforde shalbe quietlie 
sufferyd and prrmyttyd to enioye the possessyon of the seide 
benefice of Whiteforde wyth all maner fruytes and emolu- 
mentes to the same belongyng vntill suche tyme as the 
matter shalbe debatyd here before the kyng and his counsayle 
And this not to fayle vnder payne of youre allegiaunoe at my 
house in London the xvi day of Apryll 

Add. To my lovyng frende master Roger Brereton sheryf 
of flyntshyre and depute chamtavleyn of Chester and to all 
other his deputyes there. 

345. (CROMWELL) TO PATE. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 662. May II (1540). 

Directs him to be vigilant, and to get all the information he can. He is 
to assure the Emperor that the King will not harbour his traitors. 

Mr. Pate aftre my right hartie commendations Thise shalbe 
to adurrtise youe that the kinges Ma/V^te hathe aswell 

1 c. o. durste be so boulde 

a c. o. my seid \ettms seyng they dyd concmie * c. o. sute nor 



LETTERS OF [1540 

Receyved your L/7/rres declaring the departure from Gauntc 
of the Duke of Clevcs w/t/t the praredinge there of 
Thempm>//r against the Townes men and suche other 
things as in some be conteyned, as yo//r other Lr//fcres 
touching sir Gregorye, and dothe tak your Diligence in 
adurrtisemewt in right good parte not doubting but as the 
tyme nowe soo requireth for that the hole worlde of 
Christendome hangeth yet in ballance Euen soo youe woll 
vse at this tyme suche contynuel vigilancy and soo employe 
your wisedome and dexterite to get good intelligence and 
sure knowleage of al occurrence as you shall may be hable to 
signifye suche matyer from tyme to tyme to his Majrrtie as 
shalbe to his contentacion or at the least necessary for his 
grace knowlege. You shal also vndrestand that lately there 
be arryved in Calays twoo of Themprrowrs Rebelles of 
Rousseler in flaundcrs thone ys called Giles van Straet 
thother Petre ver Anenyan which be fled vppon summons 
made vnto them for their apparaunce before the Empm>//r 
for the matiers of Gaunte. They kepe themselfe secreatly in 
their hostes house and there shal remayn till wee shall eftsoncs 
here from you Wherefore the kinge Mantes pleas///r is that 
vppon the receipt hereof you shall take some other occasion 
for suwme merchaunte matier or suche other as youe shal 
thinke mete to repayre to Monsieur Grandevela and whenne 
you shal haue receyved answer to the pretended matyer ask 
hym whither Themprrowr haue yet thoroughly finished and 
established his matiers of Gaunte, and whenne he shal haue 
aunswered, youe may saye that you were the rather moved to 
demaunde that question of him for that an Englishe man 
passing lately by Calais tolde you that there were there twoo 
persons which declared themselfe to haue fledd thither for 
saulfgard being suwmoned by an officer at Armes tappere 
before the Empm>rs counsail for those matyers. And if he 
demaund theyr names you may tell hym you woll know the 
same more ptrfytely of the merchauntes and soo declare the 
same vnto hym. And if he wishe they might be delywrcd, 
you may of yowrself saye that you knowe right well the 
kings; Mattrte woll extende no suche fauowr to traytowrs, 
but if the same be demaunded he woll gladly doe therein 
as his leagrr and Amytie dothe require. And thus leaving 
the matyer w/t//out moche pressing or seming moche to desier 
it, you shal adu/rtise what his aunswer shalbe and thercw/t//all 
suche other occurrence as you shall thenne knowe mete to be 
signifyed to his Mawvrte accordingly. Thus fare youe hertely 
well From london the xj th daye of Maye. 
To Mr. Pate, xj Maij. 



154] THOMAS CROMWELL 263 

346. CROMWELL TO THE BISHOP OF SALISBURY. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 717. May 31 (1540). 

Desires him to admit a clerk, presented by the patron of the parsonage of 
Hilperton in Wiltshire, to be vicar there. 

After my right harty cowmendacion vnto your good lord- 
ship thiese be for asmoche as my frynd John Walgrave 
esquier patrone of the parsonage of Hilperton in the Comitatu 
of Wilts^/Vr and in your diocese hath presented vnto you 
a sufficient clerk to be parsone ther vpon the dethe of the 
late incumbent, to require you to admyt thesayd Clerk 
w/t//out any delaye as to your office dothe appertayne, 
whereby besides that ye shall do therein that right and reason 
requirethe, ye shall admynyster vnto me right thankfull 
pleasure, whiche I shalbe glad in semblable wise to requite, 
thus hartely fare you well. At my house in london the last 
day of May. 

Your lordshippis assuryd 

THOMAS ESSEX 

Add. To my veray good lord the Busshop of Sarw;. 
Endd. My L. P. S. to the bishop of Sarum vltimo Maij. 

347. CROMWELL TO SIR GEORGE LAWSON. 

R. O. Cal. xv. 746. June 4, 1540. 

Concerning the disposition of funds, to pay for the buildings at Berwick 
and Carlisle. 

Mr. Lawson after my right herty commendations Thiese 
shalbe to aduertise you that the kingr s highnes hath appoincted 
you to Receyve of Mr. Bekw/th the suwme of oon^ thousand 
pounds sterl. to be employed for his gracrj affaires as foloweth. 
Furst his grace thinketh that such buyldingrj as have ben 
alredy appoincted to be made for this present yere at Berwik 
be well nere redy and be almost at an ende, and that ye have 
heretofore receyved so moche money as hath ben and shalbe 
necessary for the deffrayeng of the same, yet nevertheles in 
cace ye shuld nede any more his highnes is contented that ye 
shal employe sonv of the said M u nowe appoincted by you 
to be receyved, the whiche his Ma tie if ye shal nede any 
thinketh it shalbe very litel. And therfore his highnes 
graciouse pleasure and comwaundemewt is that of the samr 
M u ye shal bistowe the VC or theraboutay to buye and provide 
stone lyme sand Tymber and all other mancr stuff necessary 
for the buylding nowe appoincted or that hereafter shalbe 



264 ITERS OF [1540 

appoincted to be donr the next yeir folowing at Berewik 
And the rest of the said M u to be employed abouto the 
prtmision of like stuffe for the buylding to be made this said 
next yer/. For the straight and fortification of Carleil. 
For that ones p^rfowrmed that hath ben appoincted for this 
yere to be donr at Berwik his highnes woll that ye shal staye 
to buyld any newe devise for this present yerr but onely 
employe the said M li in manrr and fowrme before declared 
For the receipt of the whiche M u ye shal receyve herw/tA 
A warrawwt signed w/t/< his Ma"*" hande for the paynv/rt 
thereof. Thus Fare ye right hertely well From london this 
iiii th day of Maye June ' the xxxii lh ycre of his graces most 
Noble Regne. 

Endd. The Minute of My L. P. S. fc7/rre to Mr Lawson 
iiii Junij. 

348. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M. Titus B. i, 273 ; CaL xv. 776. (June 12, 1540.) 

Confessions of some of the charges brought against him : denials of 
others. Pleas for mercy and forgiveness. 

Moste gracyous King and most mrrcyfull sourrayng yo//r 
most humble most obbeysand and most boundcn subiett 
and most lamentable seruattnt and prysoner prostrate at the 
Feate of yo//r most excellent magestye haue herd yo//r plea- 
sure by the mouthe of yo//r Comptroller which was that I 
sholde wrytte to your most excellent highnes such things as 
I thought mete to be wryttyn Consrrnyng my most myser- 
able State and Condicyon for the whiche yowr most haboun- 
daunt goodnes benignyte and lycens the Immortalle god 
three and On rewarde yo//r magestye, and now most gra- 
cyous Prynce to the matyer Fyrst wher(as) I haue beane 
accusyed to your Maiestye of Treason to that I saye I neuer 
in all my lyflfe thought willinglye to doo that thing that 
myght or Sholde displease your Magestye and moche lesse 
to doo or saye that thing which of hit SelfT is so highe and 
abhomynable offence as god knowyth who I dowt not Shall 
reueale the trewthe to yowr Highnes. mynr accusers yowr 
grace knowyth god Forgyve them. For as I eurr haue hade 
loue to yowr Honowr person lyfle pn?speryte helthe welthe 
Joye and Comforte and also yo//r most dere and most entyerly 
belouyd Son the Prynce his grace and your pr0cedingr.y god 
so hclpe me in this myne adurrsyte, and Conffound me yf 
curr I thought the Contrarye. What labours paynes and 



su. 



J540] THOMAS CROMWELL 265 

trauayles I haue taken according to my most bounden deutye 
god also knowyth, for yf it were in my power as yt is goddes 
to make your Magestye to lyue euer yong and prosperous 
god knovveth I woolde yf it hadde bene or were in my power 
to make you so riche as ye myght enryche allmen god helpe 
me as I wold do hit yf it hade bene or were in my power to 
make your Magestye so pusaunt as all the woorlde sholde 
be compellyd to obbey you Crist he knowyth I woolde For 
so am I of all other most bounde For yo//r Maiestye hathe 
bene the most bountyffull prynce to me that eurr was kyng 
to his Subiect ye and more lyke a dere Father yo//r Magestye 
not offended then a maister. Such hathe bene your most 
graue and godlye counsayles towards me at sundrye tymes 
in that I haue offended I ax your mercye. Sholde I now 
for Suche exceding goodnes benygnyte libiralyte and bountye 
be your traytor nay then the gretest paynes wer to lityll 
For me. Sholde any Faccyon or Any affeccyon to Any poynt 
make me a traytor to your Mageste then all the deuyllrj in 
Hell Conffounde me and the vewgeaunce of god light appon 
me yf I sholde ons haue thought it most gracyous sou^rayng 
lorde to my remembraunce I neuer spake w*t/j the Chaun- 
celor of the Augmentacyons and Frognvrton together at on* 
tyme. But yf I dyde I am sure I spake neuer of any Suche 
matyer and yo//r grace knowythe what manner of man 
thrognvrton hathe euer bene eiur towardes your grace and 
your preceding^ and what Maister Chauncelor hathe bene 
towards me god and he best knowyth I will ne Can accuse 
hym What I haue bene towards hym your Magestye right 
well knowyth I woolde to Crist I hadde obbeyed your often 
most gracyous graue Counsayles and adu^rtysmenttrc then it 
hadde not bene with me as now it ys Yet our Lorde yf it be 
his wille Can do wtt/t me as he dyde wz't// Susan who was 
Falslye accusyd vnto the whiche god I haue onlye Co;mytted 
my Sowlle my bodye and goodes at your Magestyes pleasure 
in whos nvrcye and pyete I doo hollye Repose me For other 
hope then in god and your Magestye I haue not. Syr as to 
your Cow/mon welthe I haue after my wytt power and know- 
lege trauayled therin hauyng hadde no respect to persons 
(your maiestye onlye except) and my dewty to the same but 
that I haue done anye Iniustyce or wrong willffullye I trust 
god Shalbere me wytnes and the woorlde not hable Justlye 
to accuse me and yet I haue not done my dewtye in all things 
as I was bounde wherfor I aske nurcye. Yf I haue herde of 
Any conbynacyons Conventycles or suche as wer offenders of 
yo//r lawse I haue though not as I sholde haue done for 
the most parte reuealyd thm and also Causyd them to be 



266 LETTERS OF [1540 

punyshed not of males as god Shall Judge me. Neurrtheles 
Str I haue mcdclyd in So many matyers vnder your Highnes 
that I am not able to answer them all but onr thing I am 
well assuryd off that wittinglye and willinglye I haue not 
hadde will to offend yowr Highnes but harde it ys for me or 
any other medlyng as I haue done to lyue vnder yowr grace 
and yowr lawse but we must daylye offende and wher I haue 
offendyd, I most humblye aske mrrcye and pardon at yowr 
gracyous will and plesure. Amongyst other things most 
gracyous sowrrayng maister Comptroller Shewid me that your 
grace Shewid hym that wit//in thes xiiij days ye Cowmyttyd 
A mattyer of gret Secresye which I dyde Reaueale contrarye 
to your expectacyon Syr I do remembre well the matyer 
which I neurr reuelyd to any Creature but this I dyde Syr 
after your grace hadde openyd the matyer Fyrst to me in 
your Chamber and declaryd your lamentable Fate declaring 
the thingrj whiche your Highnes myslyked in the Qucne at 
\vhiche tyme I shewyd yowr grace that she often desyryd 
to speke w;t// me but I durst not and ye sayd why sholde 
I not alleging that I myght do moche good in gooing to her 
and to be playn wit// her in declaring my mynde : I theruppon 
lakkyng oportunyte not being a lytill greuyd spake preucly 
w/'t// her lorde Chambrrlayn for the which I aske yowr 
grace mrrcye desyryng hym not namyng yowr grace to hym 
to Fynde Som mean that the quene might be inducyd to order 
yowr grace plcsantlyc in her behaueowr towards yow thinkyng 
therbye for {to) haue hade Some Fawtis Amendyd to yowr 
Magestyes Comffort and after that by genrrall woord*\r the 
sayd Lord Chambrrlayn and other of the Quenes Cownsayle 
being wit// me in my chamber at VVestm/>w/^r For lycens for 
the departure of the strang maydens I then requeryd them to 
Counsayle thayr mastres to vse all plesauntnes to yowr 
Highnes the which things vndowtydlye wern bothe spokyn 
before yowr Magcstye Comyttyd the Secret matyer vnto me 
onlye of purpose that She myght haue bene Inducyd to suche 
plcasaunt and honorable Fassyons as might haue bcenc to 
your gracys cowfforde which aboue all things as god knowyth 
I dyd most Couyt and desyrc but that I openyd my mowthe 
to any Creature after yowr Majestye cowmytted the Secresye 
therof to me Other then onlye to my lorde admyrall which 
I dyde by yowr gracys comandemcnt which was vppon 
Sondaye last in the mornyng whom I then Founde as willing 
and glade to scke remydye For yowr Comffort and consolacyon 
and sawe by hym that he dyd as moche lament yowr Highnes 
Fate as eurr dyd man and was woondcrffullyc greuyd to Sc 
yowr Highnes so trowbelyd wysshing grctlye your Comffort 



1540] THOMAS CROMWELL 267 

For the Attaynyng wherof he sayd your hono//r saluyd he 
woolde spend the best blood in his bodye and yf I woolde 
not do the lyke ye and willinglye dye for your Comffort 
I woolde I were in Hell and I woolde I sholde receyve 
a thousande dethis. Syr this is all that I haue done in that 
matyer and yf I haue offendyd your magestie therin prostrate 
at your magestes fete I most lowlye aske mrrcye and pardon 
of your Highnes. Syr ther was also layde vnto my Charge 
at myne examenacyon that I hadde retaynyd contrarye to 
yo//r lawse Sir what exposycyon may be made vppon 
retaynours I know not but this will I saye if eu^r I retaynyd 
any man but suche onlye as were my Howsholde struaunttes 
but ageynst my will god Conffound me but most gracyous 
sou^rayng I haue bene so Called on and Sewyd to by them 
that Sayd they were my Frendw that Constraynyd therunto 
I resayuyd thayr Chyldren and Freendw not as Retaynows 
For thayr Fathers & parents dyd promyce me to Fynde 
them and so toke I theme not as retaynours to my great 
Charge and For non* evyll as god best knowythe interpret to 
the Contrarye who will most humblye beseching your 
magestye of pardon yf I haue offendyd therin Sir I doo 
knowlage myself to haue bene A most myserable and wrechyd 
Synner and that I haue not towards god and your Highnes 
behauyd my self as I owght and Sholde haue done. For the 
which myne offence to god whyles I lyue I shall contyn- 
wallye kail for his m^rcye and For myne offencys to your 
grace which god knowyth wer neu^r malycyous nor willfull, 
and that I neu^r thought treson to your Highnes your Realme 
or posteryte So god helpe me ayther in woorde or dede neucr- 
theles prostrate at your magestes (feet) in what thing soeurr 
I haue offendyd I appell to your Highnes For mercye grace 
& pardon in suche wyse as Shalbe your plesure beseching 
the allmyghtye maker and redemer of this woorlde to send 
your Maiestye Contynuall & long helth wdthe and pr^speryte 
w*t/* nestors yeres to reigne and your most dere Son the 
Prynces grace to prosper Rayn & Contenew long after you 
and they that woolde Contrarye Short lyffe Shame & conffu- 
syon wrytin wit// the quaking hand and most Sorowffull 
herte of your moste Sorowffull Subeiect and most humble 
seruaunt & prysoner this satyrday at your (Tower) of 
london 

THOMAS CRUMWELL 



268 LETTERS OF [1540 

349. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

Hatfield House, Cecil Papers, 124-7 ; Cal. xv. 823. June 30 (1540). 

Answers to the King's inquiries, and information concerning the relations 
of Henry and Anne of Cleves from the time they first met at 
Rochester. 

Most mrrcyfull king and most gracyous souerayng lorde 
may hit please the same to be adiuvtysyd that the laste 
tyme it pleasyd your bening goodnes, to send vnto me the 
right honourable lorde Chauncelcr the Right honorable Duke 
of Norffoke and the lord admyrall to examynr and also to 
declare to me dyuers things from yowr magestye amongist 
the which onr specyall thing they movyd and thervppon 
chargyd me as I woolde answer, beffor god at the dredffull 
daye of Judgement and also vppon the extreme daunger and 
Dampnacyon of my sowlle and consyens to saye what 
I knew in the mariage and consrrnyng the mariage betwene 
your highnes and the quene to the which I answeryd as 
I knew declaring to them the p^rtyculcrs as nyghe as I then 
coulde call to Remembraunce which when they hadde harde 
they in in l your maiestees name and vppon lyke charge as 
thay hadde gyvyn me beffbre cowmaundyd me to wrytt to 
yo//r highnes the trewthe as moch as I knew in that matyer, 
which now I doo, and the veraye trewth as god shall salve 
me, to the vttermost of my knowlage. Fyrst after your 
maiestye herde of the ladye Anne of Clevys arryvall at 
dowr and that her Jerneyes wer appoyntyd towards 
grenwiche and that She sholde be at Rochester on new 
yeres evyn at nyght your highnes declaryd to me that ye 
woolde pryvelye vysyt her at Rochester vppon newyeres 
daye adding thes woordes to norishe loue, which accordinglye 
your grace dide vppon new yeres daye as is abouesayd, and 
the next day being.Frydaye your grace reternyd to grenwyche 
wher I spake w*t// your grace and demandyd of yowr magestye 
how ye lykyd the ladye Anne your highnes answeryd as me 
thought hevelye And not plesantlye nothing so well as She 
was spokyn of Saying Ferther that yf yowr highnes hadde 
known asmoche beffore as ye then knew she shold not haue 
Cow/men w;t//in this Realme, Saying as by way of lamenta- 
cyon what remedye, vnto the which I answeryd and said 
I knew noiu* but was veraye Sory therffore and so god 
knowith I was for I thought hit a harde begynnyng, the next 
daye after the recept of the said ladye and her enterye made 



1 540] THOMAS CROMWELL 269 

in to grewwyche and after your highnes hadde brought her 
to her Chamber I then waytyd vppon your highnes into 
your pryuey chambre, and being ther your grace Callyd me 
to yow Saying to me this woordrj or the lyke my lorde is 
it not as I told yow say what they will She is nothing so 
Fayre as she hathe bene reportyd, howbeit she is well and 
semelye, wherunto I answeryd Saying by my Faythe Syr ye 
Saye trewthe, adding therunto that yet I thought she hadde 
a quenlye mannrr, and neu^rtheles was sorye that your grace 
was no better content, and theruppon your grace cowmandyd 
me to calle to gether your Cownsayle whiche were thes by 
name the archebusshop of Caunterburye the Dukes of 
Norffolke & Suffolke my lorde Admyrall my lorde of 
Duresme and my selffe, to Commonc of thos matyers, and 
to know what cow/myssyon the Agenttrj of Clevys hadde 
browght as well touching the p^rfformfl/mce of the Con- 
uenaunttes sent beffore from hens to Doctowr Wotton to haue 
bene Concludyd in Clevys, as also in the declaracyon how 
the matyers, stode for the Conuenawntts of Maryage betwene 
the Duke of loreyns Son and the sayd ladye Anne, whervppon 
Osleger and Hogeston wer Callyd and the matyers purpossyd, 
wherby it playnlye apperyd that they were moche astonyed 
and abasshed and desyryd that the(y) might make answer in 
the next mornyng which was sondaye and vppon sondaye 
in the mornyng your sayd Cownsaylors and they met Erlye 
and ther eftsons was purposyd vnto them aswell touching 
the omyssyon For the performaunce of the tretye and 
artycles Sent to maister Wotton as also touching the 
Contractor and Couenaunttes of mariage betwene the Duke 
of lorayns Son, and the ladye Anne and what termes thay 
stodde in, To the whiche things so purposyd thay answeryd 
as men moche prrplexyd that as touching Cowmyssyon thay 
hadde none to trete consrmyng the Articles sent to Mr. Wotton 
and as to the cowtractrj and Conuen^/mttrj of mariage they 
cowlde Say nothing but that a reuocacyon was made, and 
that thay were but spowsaylles, and Fynallye after moche 
resonyng they offeryd them selffiw to Remayne prysoners 
vntyll suche tyme as they Sholde haue sent vnto them P'rom 
Clevys the Fyrst Artycles Ratyflfyed vnder the Duke thayr 
maisters Signe and Scale, and also the copye of the reuocacyow 
made betwene the Dulce of lorayns Son and the ladye Anne, 
vppon the which answers I was sent to your highnes by my 
\ordrs of your said Counsayle to declare to your highnes what 
answere they hadde made and Came to yo//r highnes by the 
prevey wey into your prevey Chambre and Declaryd to the 
same all the Cyrcumstaunc^r wherw/tA your grace was veray 






270 LETTERS OF [i; >4 o 

moch displcasyd Saying I am not well handelyd, insomoche 
that I mought well p*rsayue that your highncs was Fully 
detcrmenyd not to haue goonr thoro\v wit// the maryage at 
that tyme Saying vnto me thes woord or the lyke in effect 
that yf it were not that she is com So Farre into my realme 
and the great preparacyons that my states & people hathe 
made For her and For Fere of makyng of a Ruffull in the 
woorlde that is to meane to dryve her brother into the handrj 
of the emperowre and Frenche kyng hands.? being now to 
gether I woolde neurr haue ne marye her, so that I myght 
well prrsayve your grace was neyther Content wit// the 
person ne yet content wit// the preceding of the Agenttrj, and 
at after dynner the sayd Sondaye your grace Sent For all 
yo//r Sayd Cownsaylours and in repeting how your highnes 
was handelyd aswell towching the said Artycles as also the 
sayd matyer of the Duke of loreyns Son it myght and I dowt 
not dyde appere to them how lothe your highnes was to 
haue maryed at that tyme. And theruppon & vppon the 
consyderacyons aforsayd yo//r grace thowght that it sholde 
be well done that She Sholde make a pnrtestacyon beffore 
your sayd Cownsaylours and notaryes to be present that she 
was Free from all contracts which was done accordinglye, and 
theruppon I repayring to yowr highnes declaryng how that 
she hadde made her pnrtestacyon, wherunto your grace 
answeryd in effect thes wooroVr or moche lyke is ther non^ 
other Remedye but that I must nedts agenst my will put my 
nek in the yoke, and so I dep^rtyd levyng your highnes in 
a studye or pensyvenes, and yet yo//r grace Determenyd the 
next mornyng to go thorow and in the mornyng which was 
Mondaye your mageste preparying yourself toward/? the 
seromonye, ther was Sonv questyon who sholde lede here 
to churche and it was appoyntyd that the Erll of Essex 
disceasyd and an Erll that Cam** wit// her sholde lede her to 
chyrche and theruppon one Cam to your highnes and said 
vnto yow that the Erll of Essex was not yet Com* wheruppon 
your grace appoyntyd me to be on that sholde lede here 
and So I went vnto her Chamber to thentent to haue don 
yow Comawndme//t and shortlye after I Cams into the 
Chambre the Erll of essex was Com wheruppon I repayryd 
bake Ageyn in to your graces pryvey Chambre and Shewyd 
your highnes how he was com** and theruppon yowr Magestye 
avauncyd toward the galerye owt of your pryvey Chambre, 
and your grace being in and abowte the middes of your 
Chamber of prescns Callyd me vnto yow Saying thes woordrr 
or the lyke in centens my lorde yf it were not to Satysfye 
the woorld and my Realme I woolde not doo that I must 



THOMAS CROMWELL 271 

doo this day For none erthlye thing, and ther vfitA one 
brought your grace woorde that She was Co;myng and 
theruppon your grace Repayryd into the galerye towards 
the Clossett and ther pawsyd her Cowmyng being nothing 
content that She So long taryed as I iudged then, and so 
consequently^ She Cam*', and your grace afterwards pro- 
cedyd to the Serymonyes, and they being Fynysshyd 
travelyde the day, as appartaynyd, and the nyght after the 
Costom*? And in the mornyng on tewysday I repayryng to 
your Majesty in to your prevey Chambre Fynding your 
grace not so plesaunte as I trustyd to haue done I was so 
bolde to aske your grace how ye lykyd the quene wherunto 
your grace Sobyrlye answeryd saying that I was not all men, 
Surlye my lorde as ye know I lykyd her beffor not well but 
now I lyke her moche woorse For quoth your highnes I haue 
Felte her belye and her brests and therby as I Can Judge 
She Sholde be noe mayde which Strake me So to the harte 
when I Felt them that I hadde nother will nor Corage to 
precede any Ferther in other matyers, Saying I haue left 
her as good a mayde as I Founde her whiche me thought 
then ye spake displesauntly which I was veraye Sorye to 
here, your highnes also after Candlemas and beffore Shoroff- 
tyde oons or twyse sayd that ye were in the same Case wz't^ 
her as ye were affore and that your hert Coulde neuer 
consentt to medyll vrit/i her Carnallye notwithstanding your 
highnes alledgyd that ye For the most parte vsyd to lye 
with her nyghtlye or every second nyght, and yet your 
majestye euer sayd that she was as good a mayde For yow 
as euer her mother bare her, For any thing that ye hadde 
mynystred to her your highnes Shewyd me also in lent last 
passyd at suche tyme as your grace hadde Sum^ cow/munica- 
cyon \\i\Ji her of my ladye marye how that She began to wax 
Stoborne and wylffull, euer lamentyng your Fate and euer 
vereffyng that ye hadde neuer any Carnall knowlage wit/e 
her, and also after Ester your grace lykewyse at dyuers 
tymes and in the whytsonweke in your gracys prevey 
Chamber at grenewyche excedinglye lamentyd your Fate 
and that your gretyst grefife was that ye sholde Surlye neu^r 
haue any moo Chyldren For the Comffort of this Realme yf 
ye Sholde So Contynew, assuryng me that beffore god ye 
thought she was neuer your lawffull wyff at which tyme your 
grace knowyth what answer I madde, which was that I woojde 
for my parte do my vttermost to Comffort & delyu^r yo//r 
grace of your afflyccyon and how sorye I was bothe to Se 
& here your grace god knowyth your grace dyuers tymes 
Sethen \\ytsontyde declaryd the lyke to me, eu*r alledgyng 



272 LETTERS OF 

oiv thing, and also Saying that ye haddc as moclic done to 
mouc the Consent of yowr hert and mynde as cufr dyd man 
and that yc toke god to wytnes but eu/r ye sayd the obstacle 
Coulde neurr owt of yowr mynde and gracyous pr>'nce after 
that ye haddc Fyrst sene her at Rochester I neu/r thov 
in my hert that ye were or wooldc be contentyd w/'t/r that 
maryage, and Syr I know now in what Case I Stande In 
which is oonlye in the nvrcye of god and yowr grace, yff 
I haue not to the vtterest of my Remembraunce Sayd the 
trowthe and the nolle trowthe in this matyer god ncurr helpe 
me I am Sewre as I thinke ther is no man lyvyng in this 
yowr Realme that knew more in this then I dyde your 
highnes onlye except and I am sure my lord admyrall Calling 
to his Remew/braunce Can Shew yowr highnes and be my 
wyttness what I sayd vnto hym after yo//r grace Cam* From 
Rochester, ye and also after yowr gracys maryage, and also 
now of late Sethens wytsontyde, and I dowt not but manye 
and dyuers of my lordVj of your Counsayll bothe beffore 
yowr manage and Sethens haue Right well prrsayvyd that 
your magestye hathe not ben well pleasyd \vit/t your mariage, 
and as I shall answer to god I neurr thought yowr grace 
content after ye hadde ons Sene her at Rochester, and this 
is all that I know most gracyous and most nvrcyffuH 
Sou^rayng lorde, beseching almightye god who eurr in all 
your Causes hathe eu^r Counsaylyd preservyd oppenyd 
mayntayned relevyd and defiendyd yowr highnes so he now 
will witsave to Cownsayle yow preserue yow maynteyn yow 
remedye yow releve and deffend yow as may be most to 
yowr honor welthe prosperytye helthe and Comffort of yowr 
hertys desyre For the whiche, and For the long lyffe & 
prosperouse reighne of of * yowr most Royall magestye I shall 
duryng my lyffe and whylis I am here praye to almyghtyc 
god that he of his most haboundant goodnes, will help ayde 
and Comffort yow and after yowr Contenewaunce of Nestors 
yeres that that most noble Impe the prync/j grace yowr most 
dere Sone may succede yow to reighne long prosperouslye 
and Felycyouslye to goddes plesure, besechyng most humblye 
yowr grace to pardon this my Rude wryting, and to consyder 
that I am a most wooffull prysoner redye to take the dethe 
when it Shall please god and yowr majestye and yet the 
Fraylle Fleshe incytythe me cowtynnewallye to Call to yowr 
grace For m^rcye and pardon For myn* offencys and this 
Crist Salve preserue & kepe yow wrytyn at the towre this 
Wcdensdaye the last of June vttt/t the hevye hert and 



stc. 



r 



1540] THOMAS CROMWELL 273 

tremblyng hande of your highnes most hcvye and most 
myserable prysoner & poore slave 

Most gracyous prynce 

I Crye for m^rcye m^rcye mercye 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Add. To the king my most gracyows Soiurayng lorde his 
Royall magestye. 

350. CROMWELL TO HENRY VIII. 

B. M. Otho C. x, f. 247 ; Cal. xv. 827. (June 30, 1540.) 
Tells the same story as the preceding in slightly different words. 

That it hathe pleasyd your most royall and most nvrcyfull 

M to send to me suche honorable parsonages at ij 

seurrall tymes at ... one tyme Suyd For and at the other 

tyme declaryng v my state and Condycyon, in most 

honorable prudent .... Sage Fascyon my gracyos and most 
benigwe sourrayng lord .... that I Cannott condingly do 

my dewtye to your Magest tynuallye duryng my lyffe 

pray to allmygh(t)y god es may rewarde your gracyous- 

nes and prync ardes me, and vvher gracyous prynce 

thaye at re towards me herd me in every thing what . . 

. . . t any Interrupcyon wit/t suche gentylnes and more 

desyre, So they presyd me by al Coulde to detect 

and accuse any other olde in any wyse not be trew 

vnto your I answeryd as I now doo that yf I kn 

your Realme that were not your trew leag as my dewtye 

is detect them, for grac nothing erthelye that I more 

Couett Royall prison and the welthe of your 

Rea ... w .... our lorde that best knoweth help de- 

claryd to me playnlye the recytall of dy[u]er 

same myn offence being by honest and probbable wytnes 
prouyd I was by your honorable lord^j of the upper howse 
and the woorshipfuli and discrete Cowmu[n]es of your nether 
howse convyctyd & Attayntyd . gracyous souerayne when 
I herde them I sayd as now I saye that I am A Subiect and 
boorn to obbey lawse, and knowing that the tryall of all 
lawse only consystethe in honest and probable wytnes and 
Consyderyng that the state of .... Realme hadde harde 

and Resayued them and th procedyd as I am sure they 

haue done w/t/rout Submyttyd me to thayr centens 

and therffor highlye and eftsons I most hertely 

thanke god but yet I must now bcseche your grace 

of pard albeit lawse be lawse and in them haue 

MERKIMAN. II T 



274 LETTERS OF 1 1 ; 4 o 

yet god is god and knowethe bothc towards your 

Maiest>'C, and your Rcalmc how dere your prrson 

was is and eurr hathe bche greyvd me, That I sholde 

be notyd el hadde yowr lawse in my brest, and 

mentarye god he knowythe the he ton 

and the other gyltles, la full Crysten man and so will 

I e and Conscyens yowr highnes tre wooll, 

but gracyous kyng hathe benc great and yowr 

.... woorlde therffor most gracyous prynce I humble 

Submytt me to yowr and aske off god mrrcyc For my 

Synnes and of yowr high mrrcye & pardon For myn 

offence as to yowr high wysdome shall Seme most convenyent, 
and Syr that eurr I haue dyssayuyd yow in Anye of yowr 
tresure Surlye I haue .... and that god almyghtye best 

knowythe, and so that I holpen at my most nede 

I beseche Crist, Syr vppon es I most humblye beseche 

yowr gracyous magestye d & gracyous lorde to my 

pore Son the good & vertu wyflfe and thayr poore Chil- 

dern, and also to my cs t and this I desyre of yowr grace 

For Crist humblye thanke yowr magestye For Suche 

money as be my good lordes and also beseche the 

same shalbe your gracyous plesure that 

I Shall ly orlde that I may haue those things that 

may .... I Shall dayelye pray for yowr highnes 

things my lordts mouyd and sowlle and conscyens to 

declare what maryage betwene yowr magest 

. . . the which I answeryd as I knew dec ers as 

nygh as I Cowlde and ther wrytt to yowr highnes the 

trcwthc as ich was in this Sorte after that yowr .... 

. . . ne was aryuyd at doucr and dt-s grenwyche and that 

S at nyght yowr h grace repayeryd towards 

nyght to grenwyche wher I spake w/t// yowr grace and 
demaundyd of yow how ye lykyd the ladye Anne yowr grace 
being sum what heuy as I toke hyt answeryd and sayd She 
was no suche manner of wooman as She hadde ben declaryd 
to yow \\-it/t many other things which Surlye moche grevyd 
me for I prrsayuyd yowr grace to be nothing content, neu*r- 
theles yowr highnes determenyd For the met .... the next 
daye to be hadde as it was beffore ap . . . . and after whiche 

metyng and yowr Entre made yowr grace Callyd me 

vnto you askyng me wh tolde me trowth or no, to the 

which I said lyty veray Sorowffull to consydcr that 

yowr grace content and then yowr highnes cowmandyd 

me my lorde of Canterburye my lorde Cha .... Nor- 

ffolke my lorde of Suffolke my lorde and my lorde of 

Durham to Cowmen t manage, and that we sholde 



1540] THOMAS CROMWELL 275 

call the duke of Cleuys to know what C for 

the concluding of Certayn artyc Mr. Wootton and also 

what thaye h the Contracte and Couenawntter .... 

.... ye Anne, and the duke of lorey ger and hodg- 

gesten werrn Cally yd and declaryd your gracyo 

basshed and desyryd that mornyng which was . . . 

.... in the mo to treate of the Artycles beflfor 

proponyd by M .... wotton ne yet hadde browght Any dis- 
charge or decl of the conuenaunttes of Maryage 

betwene the duke of lor Son and the ladye Anne, 

neurrtheles Osleger offer to remayn here as A prysoner 

vntyll suche tyme certayn Artycles Sholde be rateflfyed 

being parce the Artycles purposyd beffore and also 

to bry Autentyke Fascyon & Forme A reuocacyon 

of .... conuenaunttcs and cowtractys of maryage made bet . . 

. . . . e ladye Anne and the Duke of loreyns Son s the 

Ferthest that Coulde be goton of them nges being de- 
claryd, your highnes was ver tt and sayd ye were not 

well handelyd that ye were veraye lothe T an yd 

not to haue concludyd the and then after dynner the 

same so entt For all the sayd my lord^r your Cow(n)- 

sayle g debatyng of the matyer it was des of 

Canterburye and Durham ers betwene the Son of 

lorayn and er butt spowsaylles and that suche 

a nade as was aledgyd. That thenn^ 

estacyon in An honorable presens Notaryes Sholde be 

a Suffy wheruppon your grace R and 

that all the person Insomoche that after her protes- 

tacyon made beffore your lordes and your preparacyon to 
maryage in the mornyng going thorow your Chamber of 
presens your highnes Sayde to me thes woord^r or the lyke in 
centens, my lorde yff yt were not to Satysfye the woorlde and 
my realme I woolde not doo that I Shall do this daye For non 
erthelye thing, and therwzt// on* browght your grace woord 
that She was cowmyng and theruppon your grace procedyd 

to the Fy determynacyon of the Seremonyes vsyd in 

lyke .... after passyd that day honorablye and the ne 

repayring vnto your highnes into your pryvey Founde 

your grace not plesantt and yet neurr nto CO/H- 

m[un]ycacyon \\iih your highighnes 2 I was so 

how ye lykyd the quene, wherunto your grace was 

not allmen alledgyng that ood A mayd as ye Founde 

her declary er brester were and how her belye 

was of uche as your grace hadde not Felte 

1 c. o. that sic. 

* T2 



276 LETTERS OF [1540 

.... yowr gracys woordtt that bcsydss your dis ght 

be dowtyd whether She were rydlye verey displeasaunt 

your grace ter Candelmas and beffore Shoreflft 

me that yo//r harte Coulde neurr otw/'t//- 

stonding that ye For eurr saying that hadde 

Sum Cowm[un]ycacyon w/'t// her of my ladye marye .... She 

began to wax Stoborn and willfull mochc lament 

yowr Fate and Fortune eutr alledgyng that Ye hadde .... 
Carnallye known here, and in lyke wise after ester & in .... 
whyttonsonweke at grenwyche in yowr preuey cham .... ye 
then lamentablye complaynyd yowr Fate decl .... ye hadde 

done all that ye Cowlde to move Nature consentt to 

haue don w/t// her as is prrtenent to yet eu^r ther was 

an obstacle, and t . . . . howght beffore god She was not yo//r 

wyffe I Sayd to your grace at that tyme I dowt no 

race well rememembrethe hyt manye othe thyn 

Whytsontyde yowr grace hathe greuos haunce which 

assurydlye hathe not ne, mor then this gracyous and 

m . . . . g lorde Can I not Saye, but that it laye in my 

power to Com .... and that w/t// Sheding of my blode ye ... 

. . . but I dowt not god who alwcys h delyurr yowr 

grace From this ndc and bryng yow to Cowffort. For 

this knowing myself to be onlye at the nr 

grace and w/Mowt hoppc of lyff that after 

ye Cam From Roch e here, I dyde neiur b t 

to mary For the satysfaccyon of the woorldc 

and your Reallme then otherwyse and thys I thinke to 
be trew as I Shalbe sauyd at the dredffull daye of Judgement. 
I am A right Symple man to be A wytnes in this matyer but 
yet I thinke next your grace I know asmoche as Anye onr man 
lyuyng in thys Realme dothe and that this is trew god Shalbe 

my wytnes who best kn the trowthe, and I trust my 

lorde admy .... bere me wyttnes what I Sayd to him 

retorne From Rochester and also at dyuers I dowt not 

all my lordrs befibrnamyd my p^rsayne bothe beffore 

the Daye of yowr gracyous and after that your 

hignes was not god I neurr thought yowr grace co . . . 

no Sene her and So Crist akyng an ende 

I Shall whyllw I ntencwallye praye For the long . . . 

.... pcrytye & welthe of yowr highnes to es and to 

sende yowr maiestye y ffort In this and all other 

maty prynce yowr Son Felycyouslye to s 

vppon my knees prostrate kyng pardon m^rcye 

and Crist . 



1540] THOMAS CROMWELL 277 

351. CROMWELL TO THE (LORDS OF THE COUNCIL). 

R. O. Cal. xv. 910. July 24(1540). 

An account of the proceedings in the affair of M. de Rochepot Cromwell 
denies that he took, or was promised, any part of the prize. Cf. 
Letters, 316, 317, 328. 

Pleasythit your good lordshippis to vnderstande that 
I haue Redde the k//rre Sent to the kingcs magestye Sent 
from the frenche kyng touching monsieur de rochepote in 
which it appereth that (the) Frenche (king) Supposyth that 
by my meanys the sayd matyer hathe not ben Justlye or- 
deryd and that I sholde haue A gret parte of that pryce . my 
\ordes Fyrst as I Shall answer to god I neu^r barre Fauour in 
the matyer otherwise thenne to Justyce appartaynyth which was 
that esterlingrj whiche sayd thay wer being in leage wzt/j the 
Frenche kyng Robbed by his Subiectes, desyring that Foras- 
moche as ther goodes wer save wzt/rin the kyng^j portrj that 
they myght haue Justyce here, wheruppon the matyer was 
cowmyttyd to the heryng of the Jugdge of the Amyralte 
and ther the proctow of Monsieur de Roche(pot) agreed And 
consentyd to the Jurysdycobn of the Courte, and so the 
Frenche partye aswell as the esterling^ contendyd vppon 
the Matyer whether it Sholde be tryed in Fraunce or Englande, 
and theruppon as I Remembr A centens was gouyn that the 
Matyer sholde be tryed in England wheruppon the Frenche 
ptfrtye dep^rtyd and after sent hether an aduocatte of Frawnce 
who toke hymself to be Satysfyed with the order takyn, and 
also depertyd, and after the ambassador now present here 
made Sute to the king For to haue the Matyer Remyttyd to 
be determynyd in France at whiche tyme A Consultacyon 
of lernyd men beffor the kynges honorable consayle was hadde 
at Gylfforde, and thayr it was thought that the kynges 
magestye myght w/'t// his hono//r Remytt the matyer into 
Fra/mce but it was agreed on the kyngcs partye that yflf the 
Frenche Kyng woold Send his Comyssarye tyll a place In- 
dyfferent that then his magestye woolde the lyke and what- 
soeurr sholde be determynyd ther sholde be prrfformyd, 
my lord of Norffolke my lorde preuy scale, my lorde of 
Durham & my lorde of Wynchester wer at that Counsayle, 
and my lorde of London was at that tyme being the kynges 
ambassadowr Fullye Instructyd of the hole matyer, but that 
cucr I hade any partte of that pryse or that I wer promyssyd 
Any part theroff my lordtr assure yowrselffes I was not as 
god shall and may helpe me and this my good lordcs I pray 



278 LETTERS OF THOMAS CROMWELL 

the etcrnall Rcdemer to prcscrue you all in long lyffc good 
helthc \v;t/r long prr/spcryte at the Towre the xxiiii u daye of 
July wit// the trymblyng hande of yo//r Redman 

THOMAS CRUMWELL. 

Endd. The frewch kingry Lr//<*rc touching MonsiV//r de La 
Rochepot, with Therle of Essex answere. 



AN ITINERARY OF THOMAS CROMWELL 

1523-1540 



COMPILED FROM EVIDENCE CONTAINED IN HIS 
CORRESPONDENCE 



17 Aug. (i5 2 3) London. 

29 Nov. (1525) Begham, Ayles- 

ford Lathe, Kent. 

2 April (1528) Oxford. 

30 June (1528) London. 

18 Jan. (1529) Tendon. 
July (1529) London. 

19 Dec. {1529) London. 

5 May (1530) ' St. James be- 

side Westminster.' 

3 June (1530) London. 
30 June (1530) London. 
24 July (1530) London. 
1 8 Aug. (1530) London. 

Dec. (1530) London. 

1 8 June (1531) London, 
i Oct. (1531) London. 
3 Oct. (1531) London. 

13 June (1532) London. 

19 June 11532) London. 

19 July (1532) London. 

20 July ( 1532) London. 

23 Sept. (1532) London. 

24 Nov. (1532) Eltham, Sutton 

Lathe, Kent. 
Dec. (1532) London. 

6 April (1532) London. 

25 April (1533) London. 

14 June (1533) London. 

26 June (1533) London. 
9 J ul 7 <*533> London. 

1 8 July 1533 London. 

19 July (1533) London, v 

20 July (1533) London. 
23 July <i533> London. 



25 July (1533) London. 

26 July <i533> London, 
i Sept. (1533) London. 

15 Sept. < 1 53 3) Stepney. 
21 Sept. < 1 533) Stepney. 
24 Oct. (1533) London. 

8 Nov. (1533) London. 
ii Nov. {1533} London. 

6 Dec. (1533) London. 

5 Jan. <i534> London. 
28 Mar. <i534} London. 

i May (1534) Stepney. 
4 May (i534) London. 

13 May (1534) Stepney. 
24 May 1534 Richmond. 

4 June (1534) 'My house at 
Canbery,' Finsbury, Middle- 
sex. 

14 July (1534) Chelsea. 

20 July (1534) 'My house in 

London.' 

30 July <I534> Stepney. 
4 Sept. O534) London. 

6 Sept (1534) ' Canbery.' 

21 Sept. (1534) 'Canbery.' 
17 Oct. (1534) The Rolls. 
28 Oct. O534) London. 
ii Nov. (1534) The Rolls. 

17 Nov. (1534) ' The Nete ' 

(near Westminster). 
20 Nov. (1534) London. 
8 Feb. <i535> The Rolls. 
10 Feb. (1535) The Rolls. 

15 Feb. <i535> The Rolls. 
19 Feb. (1535) London. 



280 AN ITINERARY OF THOMAS CROMWI ! I. 



20 Feb. <i;,35> The Rolls. 

21 Mar. (1535) The Rolls. 
10 April 1535 London. 

20 April Oo35) London. 

21 May (1535) London. 

1 8 June <i535> The Rolls. 

14 July <i535> London. 
5 July <'535> London. 

1 8 July <i535> London. 
20 July (1535) London. 

23 July <i535> Winchcomb, 
Kistgate, Gloucestershire. 

29 July (1535) The Monastery 
of Tewkesbury, Gloucester- 
shire. 

9 Aug. (1535) 'At Barklay 
hoornes,' Berkeley, Glou- 
cestershire. 

23 Aug. (1535) ' Thornebury,' 

Thornbury, Gloucestershire, 
i Sept. (1535) Bromham, Swan- 
born, Wiltshire. 

4 Sept. (1535) 'Whofall,' Kin- 

warston, Wiltshire. 1 

5 Sept. < 1 535) 'Wolfall.' 

10 Sept. (1535) 'Ex aula regia 

apud Wolfal.' [King's manor, 
Alderbury, Wiltshire ?] 

29 Sept. (1535) Winchester. 

30 Sept. (1535) Winchester. 

15 Oct. <i535> Stepney. 

19 Nov. (1535) The Rolls. 

7 Dec. (1535) Richmond. 
1 5 Dec. <i535> Stepney. 

24 Dec. (1535) The Rolls. 
30 Dec. (1535) The Rolls. 

3 Jan. 0536) Eltham. 

8 Jan. <i536> The Rolls. 

4 Feb. (1536) The Rolls. 
21 Feb. (153*)) London. 

25 Feb. (1536) The Rolls. 
3 Mar. (1536) London. 

3 April (1536) London. 
3 April < 1 536) The Rolls. 

11 April (1536) The Rolls. 
24 April (1536) The Rolls. 

1 'Whofall,' 'Wolfall' or 'Wolf 
Hall* was the seat of Sir John 



30 April (1536) Stepney. 

17 May (1536) The Rolk 

1 8 May (1536) The Rolls. 
8 June (1536) The Rolls. 

12 June (1536) The Rolls. 

5 July (1536) The Rolls. 
8 July <i->36> The Rolls. 

10 July (1536) The Rolls. 
23 July O53 6 > The Rolls, 
i Aug. (1536) Otford, Sutton 

Lathe, Kent. 

i 5 Aug.<i536> 'Oking' (Wok- 
ing), Surrey. 

7 Sept. (1536) Grafton, Clely, 

Northamptonshire. 
12 Sept. (1536) Grafton. 

23 Sept. (1536) London. 

8 Oct. (1536) Windsor. 

9 Oct. 0536) Windsor. 
26 Oct. (1536) Windsor. 

30 Oct. (1536) Windsor. 
4 Nov. (1536) Windsor. 

10 Nov. (1536) Westminster. 

17 Nov. <i536) The Rolls. 
28 Nov. (1536) London. 

6 Dec. 1536) The Rolls. 
1 6 Dec. (1536) Stepney. 

24 Dec. 0536) The Rolls. 
22 Jan. <i537> The Rolls. 

11 Mar. < 1537) The Rolls. 

24 Mar. <i537> 'The kinges 

palace at Westminster.' 
10 April (153 7) London. 

14 May 1537 Westminster. 

15 May (1537) The Rolls, 

1 8 May 1537 Hampton Court. 
6 June 1537 The Rolls. 

4 July <i537> The Rolls. 
6 July <i537> Stepney. 
8 July 1537 Stepney. 
7 July <i537> Sutton, Woking, 

Surrey. 

24 July (i537) East Hampstead, 
Riplemcre, Berkshire. 

31 July (1537) Sonninghill, 

Cookham, Berkshire. 



Seymour, the father of Henry's 
third wife. 



AN ITINERARY OF THOMAS CROMWELL 281 



1 Aug. (1537) Sonninghill. 

6 Aug. 1537 Windsor. 

7 Aug. (1537) Windsor. 

8 Aug. (1537) Dunstable.Mans- 

head, Bedfordshire. 

9 Aug. (1537) Ampthill, Red- 

bornstoke, Bedfordshire. 

11 Aug. <i537> Ampthill. 
17 Aug. (1537) Grafton. 

25 Aug. 1537 Windsor. 
28 Aug. < 1537) Windsor. 

7 Sept. (1537) Mortlake.Surrey. 
23 Sept. (153 7) Stepney. 

23 Sept. (1537) Mortlake. 

24 Sept. < 1537) Stepney. 

28 Sept. (1537) Stepney. 
30 Sept. (153 7) Mortlake. 

4 Oct. (1537) Mortlake. 

6 Oct. (1537) Mortlake. 
10 Oct. (1537) Mortlake. 

12 Oct. 1537 St. James beside 

Westminster. 

20 Oct. <i537) St. James beside 
Westminster. 

27 Oct. (1537) 'The Neate be- 
side Westminster.' 

2 Nov. 1537 Westminster. 

12 Nov. (1537) London. 

29 Nov. (1537) The Nete. 

30 Nov. (1537) The Nete. 

4 Dec. 1537 The Nete. 

5 Dec. 1537 The Nete. 

10 Dec. 1537 ' The Kinges 

manour of Otlande,' Emley, 
Surrey. 

13 Dec. (1537) 'Otelands.' 

26 Dec. (1537) London. 

7 Jan. <i53 8 > The R o 11 *- 
19 Jan. 1538 London. 

19 Jan. (1538) The Rolls. 

11 Feb. (1538) 'The Court be- 

ing at Westminster.' 
15 Feb. (1538) St. James beside 

Westminster. 
22 Feb. (1538) St. James beside 

Westminster, 
i Mar. (1538) Hampton Court. 

20 Mar. (1538) ' At the Court.' 
26 Mar. 1538 St. James. 



4 April (1538) SL James. 

5 April (1538) St. James. 

7 April (1538) St. James. 

8 April 1 1 538) St. James. 

20 April(i538) London. 
24 April (1538) Stepney. 

4 May (1538) St. James beside 

Westminster. 

5 May (1538) St. James. 

6 May (1538) St. James. 

10 May (1538) Westminster. 

12 May <i538) St. James beside 

Westminster. 

23 May (1538) St. James. 

8 June 1538 Chelsea. 

13 July (1538) Chelsea. 

16 July (1538) Chelsea. 

17 July (1538) Chelsea. 

i Aug. 1538 Petworth, Arun- 
del Rape, Sussex. 

9 Aug. ^1538) London. 
30 Aug. (1538) Bedgebury, 

Scray Lathe, Kent. 

21 Sept. (1538) Penshurst, Sut- 

ton Lathe, Kent. 
30 Sept. (1538) London. 

1 6 Oct. 1538 London. 
19 Oct. (1538) London. 

6 Nov. 1538 London. 

11 Nov. (1538) London. 

24 Nov. 1538 London. 
28 Nov. 1538 London. 

7 Dec. 1538 London. 

5 Feb. (1539) London. 

13 Feb. (1539) London. 

1 8 Feb. (1539) London. 

25 Feb. (1539) London. 
i Mar. (1539) London. 

10 Mar. (1539) London. 

12 Mar. (1539) London. 

14 Mar. (1539) London. 

17 Mar. (1539) London. 

1 8 Mar. (1539) London. 

22 Mar. O539) London. 

3 AprilO539) ' At my house in 
London.' 

6 April (153 9) London. 
12 April (1539) London. 
1 6 April (1539) London. 



282 AN ITINERARY OF THOMAS CROMWELL 



19 April (1539) London. 
(22 April 1539) London. 

23 April (1539) London. 

24 April (1539) London. 

25 Apri)(i539) 'From my house 

in London.' 
27 May (1539) St. James. 

1 June (1539) St. James. 
8 ] une (1539) St. James. 

23 July 1539 Guildford, Surrey. 

24 uly 1539 Farnham, Surrey. 
u ty (1539) ' OtelandV 

19 Sept. (1539) London. 

5 Oct. 1539 London. 

13 Oct. <i539) London. 

1 8 Oct. (1539) London. 

26 Oct. (1539) London. 

8 Nov. (1539) London. 
22 Nov. (1539) London. 

2 Dec. (1539) London. 

9 Dec. 1539 London. 

(3 Jan. 1540 Greenwich.) 
7 Jan. (1540) Greemvich. 



21 Jan. <i-,40> 
26 Jan. (1540) 

9 Feb. (1540) 

23 Feb. <i540> 
2 Mar. (1540) 
7 Mar. (1540) 

12 Mar. (1540) 

12 Mar. (1540) 

in London.' 

22 Mar. (17,40) 
<7 April 1540) 
1 6 April (1540) 

in London.' 
IT May (1540) 
31 May <I540> 

4 June 1540 
<i2 June 1540) 

London. 
30 June (1540) 

London. 

24 July <i54> 

London. 



London. 

London. 

London. 

Westminster. 

Ixmdon. 

'From the Court.' 

London. 

4 From my house 

London. 
London. 
' From my house 

London 
London. 
London. 
The Tower of 

The Tower of 
The Tower of 



A LIST OF THE MINOR PREFERMENTS OF 
THOMAS CROMWELL, AND A DESCRIPTION 
OF HIS ARMS AND CREST 1 

1. Recorder of Bristol, Aug. 8, 1533. 

2. Joint Constable of Hertford Castle and Hertingfordbury, and 
Keeper of the Park, Feb. 27, 1534. 

3. Joint Constable of Berkeley Castle, Keeper of Berkeley Park, 
Master of the Game, and Keeper of Hynton Wood and Red Wood, 
Sept. 1534. 

4. Steward of the Manor of the Savoy, and Bailiff of Enfield, May 14, 

'535- 

5. Steward of the Manors of Edelmeton and Sayes Bery, co. 

Middlesex, May 16, 1535. 

6. High Steward of the University of Cambridge, 1535. 

7. Prebendary of Blewbery, in dioc. Sarum, May n, 1536. 

8. Chief Steward of the Manor of Writtle, and Keeper of the Park, 
June 9, 1536. 

9. Steward of the Honour of Havering-atte-Bower, and Keeper of 
the House, Park, and Forest, Dec. 3, 1537. 

10. Dean of Wells, 1537. 

n. Warden and Chief Justice of the Royal Forests North of Trent, 
Dec. 30, 1537. 

12. Captain of the Isle of Wight, Nov. 2, 1538. 

13. Steward, Surveyor, Receiver, and Bailiff of the Crown Lands 
in the Isle of Wight, Nov. 2, 1538. 

14. Constable of Carisbroke Castle, Nov. 2, 1538. 

15. Master of the Hunt, and Keeper of Carisbroke Park, Nov. 2, 

1538. 

1 6. Constable of Ledes Castle, Jan. 4, 1539. 

1 This list is taken from Doyle's which are not given here, are to be 
Official Baronage, vol. i. p. 689. found in the Life, pp. 142-44- 
Cromwell's more important titles, 



284 MINOR PREFERMENTS, ARMS AND CREST 

1 7. Steward of the Honour of Reylegh, and Bailiff of Reylegh and 
The Hundred of Rochford, Dec. 20, 1539. 

1 8. High Steward of Reading, [1539]. 

19. Steward of the late Monastery of Furness, [1540]. 



ARMS. 

Azure, on a fess between three lions rampant or, a rose gules, 
barbed vert, between two Cornish choughs proper. 

(Granted, 1533 : MS. Coll. Arms, 2nd G. 4.) 



ARMS QUARTERLY. 

I and IV, as above. II and III, Per fess azure and or, a pale 
counter-changed, charged alternately with fleurs de lys of the second, 
and pelicans with wings elevated vulning themselves gules. 

CREST. 

Out of a wreath, a demi-lion, queue fourche'e, holding up a ring, all 
or, the stone gules. 



NOTES TO LETTERS 

[In the following pages the initials D.N.B. refer to the Dictionary of 
National Biography, the initials A.D.B. to the Allgemeine Deutsche 
Biographic, and the initials B.U. to Michaud's Biographic 
Universelle.] 

1. Cf. Cal. iii. 2394 and Life, p. 27. John Creke (merchant 
tailor, and factor to a London trader named William Munkaster or 
Moncaster) became servant to Cranmer in 1533, and was later 
advanced to the post of Esquire Bedell in the University of Oxford. 
Afterwards he was made Gentleman Usher to the Queen ; cf. Cal. 
iv. 3086, 5126; vi. 758, 770, 868, 885, 1378, 1641-2. Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, crossed to France, August 24, 1523, at 
the head of an army of more than 13,000 men; cf. Cal. iii. 3288; 
D.N.B. vi. 218. 'Maister Vawhan,' Stephen Vaughan ; D.N.B. 
Iviii. 179, and Life, p. 52. 'Maister Woodall,' a merchant friend 
of Cromwell's; cf. Cal. iii. 2624. 

2. ' Mastres Smyth,' possibly a connexion of Cromwell's. Richard 
Swift served with William Brabazon under Cromwell ; cf. Cal. iv. 
6217, 6221. 

3. Robert Bolt and William Butrye or Botery, mercers of London. 
The latter was a rich and well-known citizen. In August, 1514, he 
engaged, with two others, to pay ^2,000 for Wolsey's pallium and 
the expenses of his promotion in the Court of Rome ; cf. Cal. i. 
5334 > iv. 2065 (28). On the manor of Kexby cf. Cal. iv. 294, 388, 
2193. 3536 (3)- 

4. Cf. Life, p. 15, and D.N.B. xxiii. 201, 202-4. 

5. Viscount Rochford, George Boleyn, brother of Henry's second 
wife; D.N.B. v. 319. Sir John Feneux or Fyneux, Chief Justice 
of the King's Bench (1495-1527) ; D.N.B. xx. 342. 

6. Cf. Life, pp. 49-51- 'Yo//r Dean there,' John Higdon ; cf. 
Cal. iv. 4074. ' Mr. Croke,' John Croke, one of the six clerks of 
Chancery ; cf. Cal. iv. 3369. ' Mr. Byrton,' in Wolsey's service, 
probably a relation of Dr. John Byrton or Burton, Prior of St. Frides- 
wide's, Oxford, afterwards Abbot of Osney ; cf. Cal. iv. 4074. 

7. Thomas Arondell, one of the gentlemen of Wolsey's privy 
chamber. ' The person that shalbe Dean of his saide Colledge,' 
William Capon ; cf. Cal. iv. 47.78. The 'other londw ... his grace 
hathe purchased of s/> Antonye and s/> Roberte Ughtred ' were 
probably Kexby and Catton in Yorkshire ; cf. Letter 3 and Cal. iv. 



NOTES TO LETTERS 

388, 2193. Sir Anthony Ughtred was Captain of Berwick. 'The 
parsonage of Rudbye,' in Yorkshire, N. R ; cf. Letter 8. ' Snape,' 
Benedictine Priory in Suffolk ; cf. Tanner, Suff., xxxix. ' Dodneshe ' 
or Dodnash, Prior)' of Austin Canons in Suffolk ; cf. Tanner, Suff., 
xvii. ' Wykr ' or Wikes, Benedictine nunnery in Essex ; cf. Tanner, 
Essex, xlvii. ' Horkisley,' Cluniac Priory in Essex ; cf. Tanner, 
Essex, xx. 'The late Mon<M/0ri of Saynct Peter suppressed' is 
probably Horkisley. 

8. ' Fynours ' or refiners of Durham. ' Maister Babington,' Sir 
John Babington, Knight of Rhodes, but probably not ' lorde of Kyl- 
mayne'; cf. Cal. iv. Part iii, p. 3210. ' Saundforde,' near Oxford. 
'Willyam Holgill,' Master of the Savoy, and 'my lorde Conyers' 
(Christopher, Lord Conyers), were Commissioners of the Peace in 
the North and West Ridings ; cf. Cal. iv. 5083 (10, 1 1). 

9. Stephen Gardiner, afterwards Bishop of Winchester ; cf. Life, 
pp. 83-84, and D.N.B. xx. 419. ' Felixstowe,' or Walton St. Felix, 
Benedictine cell in Suffolk ; cf. Tanner, Suff., xlv. ' Rumburgh ' or 
Romburc, Benedictine cell in Suffolk ; cf. Tanner, Suff., xxxvii. 
' Bromehill,' Priory of Austin Canons in Norfolk ; cf. Tanner, Norf., 
ix. ' The prior and conuent of Rochester,' Benedictine Priory 
Tanner, Kent, xlix. ' The abbot and conuent of Saynct Maryes in 
Yorke,' Benedictine Abbey; cf. Tanner, Yorks., cxxix. 2. 'My 
lorde of Oxforde,' John de Vere, fifteenth Earl of Oxford; D.N.B. 
Iviii. 242. ' The Frenssh quene,' Mary Tudor, widow of Louis XII of 
France, wife of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk ; D.N.B. xxxvi. 
397. 'Sayes courte' in Deptford, Kent. 'Byckeling' may be 
Bickley in Kent, near Sevenoaks, or Blickling in Norfolk. It is 
possible that the first letter is R, not B (Cal. has B), which would 
make it Ryckeling or Rickling in Essex. ' Lyesnes ' or Lesnes in 
Kent, near Dartford. 

10. ' Mr. Chaunceler of Wynchester,' possibly Stephen Gardiner, 
who was made bishop there in November, 1531. Bishop Foxe, who 
died in Oct. 1528, refers to 'his Chancellor' in Cal. iv. 3815, but 
does not mention the man's name. Le Neve gives no list of the 
Chancellors of Winchester. ' My systers daughter,' probably Alice, 
sister of Christopher Wellyfed. 

11. Cf. Cal. iv. 5810. 'Maister Cleybroke,' William Claybrook 
or Clayborough, LL.D., Canon of York, Prothonotary, one of the 
counsel for the King in the trial of the Divorce at Dunstable, in 
May, 1533. ' Maister Tonneys,' Robert Tonneys, of Wolsey's 
council. 

12. 'Willyam Brabazon,' Cromwell's servant; cf. Life, p. 52, and 
D.N.B. vi. 138. 

13. Cf. Life, pp. 70-76. 'Mr. Page,' Richard Page, sen-ant and 
agent of Wolsey's. This false rumour of Luther's death does not 
seem to have been general in England. I find no other mention of 
it in the Calendar. 



NOTES TO LETTERS 287 

14. 'Doctowr Leighton,' Richard Layton, afterwards Cromwell's 
agent in suppressing the monasteries ; D.N.B. xxxii. 307. 

15. Cf. Cal. iv. 6226, 6249, 6262, 6263. 'Rafe Sadleyr' or 
Sadler; D.N.B. 1. 109. 'Thomas Rawlyns,' Canon of Norwich 
and servant of Wolsey. 

16. ' Maister Stubbis,' Lawrence Stubbs, servant of Wolsey; cf. 
Cal. iv. 6390, 6495. 'Baudekyn,' a rich embroidered stuff, made 
with warp of gold thread and woof of silk. ' Masteres lacye ' had 
been robbed by her servant John Lawrence, and Robert Turner ; 
cf. Cal. iv. 6473. 

17. ' Mr. doctour Carbot,' Henry Carbot ; cf. Cal. iv. 6558. How 
he was related to Cromwell I have been unable to discover. 

18. Cf. Cal. iv. 6554. 'Office' or inquisitions. Wolsey had a 
palace at ' Batyrsey ' (Battersea). ' Scrowes ' or scrolls (Halliwell). 
'Busshop Bothe,' Lawrence Bothe, Archbishop of York; D.N.B. v. 
387. ' Strangwissh ' or Strangways, apparently a former agent of 
Wolsey's; cf. Cal. iv. 4481. The prebend of Witwang or Wetwang, 
in Yorkshire, E.R. The ' Busshop of Bayon,' John du Bellay, 
afterwards Bishop of Paris and Cardinal, ambassador to England in 
1527 and 1533; B.U. iii. 552. 'My lord of Wyltshyre,' Thomas, 
father of Anne Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire, returned from his embassy 
to Bologna in August, 1530 ; D.N.B. v. 321. 'The seconde Son of 
the emperour ys departyd this present lyffe ' ; cf. Kervyn de Letten- 
hove, p. 26. ' Dans le m^me lieu (Bologna), 1'empereur apprit que 
l'impe*ratrice avail mis au jour son deuxieme fils, Ferdinand, dont la 
mort lui fut annoncee 1'annee suivante (1530) a Augsbourg.' ' Cary- 
stye,' scarcity (Halliwell) ; an Italianism. 

19. 'Nych01as Gyfforde,' an agent of Wolsey's in suppressing the 
monasteries. ' The prynces of [Almayne] Can ne wyllnot Agree to 
emperowr ' ; doubtless referring to the disputes at the Diet of 
Augsburg. 

20. Cf. Cal. iv. 6800 (ii). ' Mr. Borough ' or Burgh, marshal of 
Wolsey's household ; cf. Cal. iv, p. 3048. 

21. Cf. Life, pp. 99-102, and Cal. v. 65, 153, 201. John Frith, 
burnt at Smithfield, July 4, 1533; D.N.B. xx. 278. 

22. ' Mr. Strete,' Richard Strete, Archdeacon of Salop, agent of 
Cromwell's in the West of England ; cf. Cal. v. 13, 332. 'Cawke,' 
a breeding-place for young hawks ; cf. the verb ' to cawken ' in Piers 
Ploughman, pp. 223, 241. 'Calliche' or Calwich, in Staffordshire. 

23. Cf. Cal. v. 302 (ii). 

24. ' The gret maister,' Anne de Montmorency, Count Beaumont, 
Grand Master of France; B.U.* xxix. 172; also life by F. Decrue 
(Paris, 1885-89). 

25. ' Maister Heron,' Giles Heron of Shacklewell, Middlesex, 
Esquire of the Royal Body, and son-in-law of Sir Thomas More; 



288 NOTES TO LETTERS 

cf. Cal. v. 620, 658, 814, 1285 (vii), (ix\ 978 (17), 1139 ( 
1 Rychard Johnson' of Northampton; cf. Cal. v. 1009. 'The 
mannowr of High Hall' I have been unable to identify. 

26. 'Coursers' or 'courser men,' grooms (Halliwell). 

27. Cf. Cal. v. 670. Sir Ralph Ellercar of Yorkshire ; D.N.B. 
xvii. 243. 

28. ' Mr. Wrythesley,' Thomas Wryothesley, afterwards Sir Thomas 
Wriothesley, first Baron of Titchfield and Earl of Southampton ; 
D.N.B. Ixiii. 148. Gardiner was absent as ambassador to France, 
Dec. 29, 1531 Mar. 7, 1532; cf. D.N.B. xx. 420. 

29. ' Such news as hathe Cum from Ratyspone,' doubtless a report 
of the negotiations between the Emperor and the German Protes- 
tants. The Diet of Ratisbon was summoned to meet Jan. 6, 1532, 
but did not actually open till April 17. Charles came to Ratisbon 
Feb. 28. Cf. Baumgarten, iii. 100. 

30. ' The Freer carmelyte,' probably a spy of Cromwell's. ' Jamys 
Gryffyth ap Howell ' (son of Sir Rice ap Thomas), prisoner in the 
Tower, later escaped to Scotland ; cf. Cal. v. 657, 724(9), 1285 (iii); 
vi. 876, 892, 1591. 

31. 'Rice app Griff. Esquier,' brother-in-law to the Duke of Nor- 
folk, beheaded Dec. 4, 1531 ; cf. Cal. v. 432, 563. 

32. 'Maister Rowland' I have been unable to identify. The 
name may possibly refer to Dr. Rowland Lee, Cromwell's friend, 
who was at that time King's Chaplain and Master in Chancery, and 
later became Bishop of Coventry and Lichficld ; D.N.B. xxxii. 373. 
4 Kerry Williams,' Canon of King Henry VIII's College at Oxford. 
Garsington, near Oxford. The Benedictine Priory in Wallingford 
was dissolved by Wolsey to the use of his college in 1528; cf. 
Tanner, Berks., xxiii. 

33. Robert Hogan, besides being the King's ' Maister Coke,' was 
one of the walking foresters of Galtresse Forest, and one of the riding 
foresters in the same; also keeper of the King's orchard in the 
lordship of Sherefhoton, Yorkshire; cf. Cal. v. 318 (29), 457 (3). 

34. Cf. Cal. v. 1561. 

35. Cf. Cal. v. 961, 1304. Sir John Fiujames, Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench; D.N.B. xix. 179, and Foss, i. 160-169. J onn 
Elya received the temporalties of Bruton as abbot,- 14 July, 25 
Hen. VIII ; cf. Dugdale, vi. 335, and Tanner, Somerset, ix. ' Lorde 
Lisle,' Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle; cf. Life, pp. i6off., and 
D.N.B. xlv. 399. 

36. SirWilliam Spencer, Sheriff of Northamptonshire, died June 20, 
1532 ; cf. Cal. v. 1051, and note 2 to page 477. Sir William Paulet 
or Poulet, Master of the Wards, Surveyor-General, Controller of the 
Household, and ' Surveyor of the King's widows and Governor of 
all idiots and naturals in the King's hands ' ; afterwards Marquis 
of Winchester; D.N.B. xliv. 92. Edmund Knightley, Serjeant-at- 



NOTES TO LETTERS 289 

law; cf. Cal. v. 1336, 1368, 1455, 1518. Thomas Alvard, Master 
of Works; cf. Cal. v. 953. 'Cornelys,' Cornelius Hayes, goldsmith; 
cf. Cal. v. 1237, 1299, 1376. A few weeks after writing this letter 
Cromwell accompanied the King to Calais ; cf. Cal. v. App. 33. 

37. The Abbot of Bury was John Melford, alias Reeve, S.T.B., 
who received the temporalties of the monastery April 24, 1514; cf. 
Dugdale, iii. 115, and Tanner, Suffolk, x. i. Richard Malery, mercer, 
of London; cf. Cal. v. 166 (54). 

38. Cf. Cal. v. 1286-7, J 4 6 , *559> l6 35- Tne Earl of Northum- 
berland, Henry Percy, Warden of the East and Middle Marches, 
Sheriff of Northumberland for life ; D.N.B. xliv. 416. 

39. ' The Kynges Buildings ' were three hew houses adjoining 
the royal lodgings in the Tower; cf. Cal. v. 1781. On the Abbot of 
Bury, cf. notes to Letter 37. 

40. Cf. Cal. vi. 167, 218. The Bishop of Ely, Nicholas West, 
diplomatist and chaplain to the Queen ; D.N.B. Ix. 335. 

41. Cf. Cal. vi. 348. Lord Scrope, Henry, Lord Scrope of Bolton, 
died Oct. 1533; cf. Cal. vi. 1382. 

42. Cf. Cal. vi. 578 (50). The Duke of Suffolk, Charles Brandon, 
brother-in-law of the King, Earl Marshal 1523-33; D.N.B. vi. 218. 
Norfolk's 'gret Jorney in Ambassade,' referring to the Duke's mission 
to the Court of France in May, 1533, to urge the French King to 
support Henry against the Pope ; D.N.B. xxviii. 66. 

43. Cf. Cal. vi. 389. ' The Chanon of Colwyche,' Dr. David Pole 
or Powle. 

44. Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle, Vice-Admiral of England, 
Deputy of Calais (March, 1533); cf. notes to Letter 35. 

45. Cf. Cal. vi. 855, 859, 903. 'Mr. doctowr Hawkyns,' Nic. 
Hawkins, nephew and godson of Bishop West of Ely, Arch- 
deacon of Ely, ambassador with the Emperor; D.N.R xxv. 222. 
For the ' packet of \etterzs and instructions,' cf. Cal. vi. 775. 

46. Nicholas Glossop, nephew of Cromwell's mother; cf. Life, 
pp. 4, 5, and Cal. vi. 696, 697. 'My late lorde of Caunterbury,' 
Archbishop William Warham, died Aug. 22, 1532 ; D.N.B. lix. 378. 

47. Cf. Cal. vi. 841 (ii). ' Tharchebisshop of Duntlyn ' (Dublin), 
John Alen, Cromwell's companion in Wolsey's service; cf. Life, 
p. 50, and D.N.B. i. 305. Rayleigh, in Essex. 

48. Audeley, Sir Thomas, Keeper of the Great Seal (1532), Lord 
Chancellor (Jan. 26, 1533); D.N.B. ii. 254, and Campbell, i. 599- 
639. William Gonson, employed irv rigging and repairing the King's 
ships; cf. Cal. vi. 992, 1367, 1381. 

49. Walter Luke, Serjeant-at-arms, Justice of the King's Bench ; 
cf. Cal. vi. 1371. On 'Anthony Stydolffe,' cf. Cal. vi. 841 (ii). 

52. ' The lorde Dacre,' William, Lord Dacre of Gillesland, Warden 
of the West Marches. For his letters, cf. Cal. vi. 750, 876. For the 

MERRIMAN II U 



290 NOTES TO LETTERS 

' \ftffrcs . . . from my Lorde Deputie of Calays,' cf. Cal. vi. 839. On 
' the Freres obseruantw,' Payne and Cornelius, cf. Froude, i. 169, 170. 
Ware, in Hertfordshire. * The warden of the grey Freres of Grene- 
wich,' Thomas Sydynham ; cf. Cal. vi. 705. ' The Ipocryte Nunne/ 
Elizabeth Barton, cf. Life, pp. 118-9, an d D.N.B. iii. 343. For the 
payments by the Staple, cf. Cal. vi. 1319. 

54. Wobum, Cistercian Abbey in Bedfordshire ; cf. Tanner, Bedf., 
xxi ; Abbot, Robert Hobbes ; cf. Cal. vi. 779. Vawdy or Vallis Dei, 
Cistercian Abbey in Lincolnshire, cf. Tanner, Line., Ixxxiii ; Abbot, 
Henry : the name is not given in Dugdale; cf. Cal. v. 1477. 

55. Cf. Cal. vi. 1024-7. Sir Richard Whethel, Mayor of Calais; 
cf. Cal. vi. 947. 

56. The French ambassador, John de Dinteville, Sieur de Polizi, 
Bailly of Troyes, Maitre d'hotel of Francis I. 

57. Robert Baynam, alderman of Calais ; cf. Cal. vi. 539. 

58. ' My lord Chaunceler,' Thomas Audley. D.N.B. ii. 254, and 
Campbell, i. 599-639. 

59. Cf. Cal. vi. 913, 1513. Byland, Cistercian Abbey in York- 
shire ; Abbot, John Ledes ; cf. Dugdale, v. 345, and Tanner, York- 
shire, xxi. Fountains, Benedictine Abbey in Yorkshire ; Abbot, 
William Thirske ; cf. Dugdale, v. 289, and Tanner, Yorkshire, xlii. 
Kievaulx, Cistercian Abbey in Yorkshire. The old Abbot was 
William Helmesley, the new one Richard Ely ton ; cf. Dugdale, v. 
277, and Tanner, Yorkshire, ci. 

60. Cf. CaL vi. 1328. 

61. Cf. Cal. vi. 578(8). Netley, Lettely (Laetus Locus), or Ed- 
wardstow ; or de loco s. Edwardi juxta Southampton ; Cistercian 
Abbey in Hampshire ; Abbot, Thomas Stevens ; cf. Tanner, Hants, 
xxii, and Dugdale, v. 695. 

03. ' My lorde of london,' Bishop John Stokesley ; D.N.B. liv. 403. 
*S/> Will/am Cowplaunde,' possibly the man mentioned in letter 
12, q.v. 

64. Christopher Mont or Mount, sent to Germany in 1533 and 
1534 ; cf. Life, p. 219 ; D.N.B. xxxviii. 204 ; and Cal. vi. 1039, 1115, 
1 2 1 2. ' The Dukes of Bauarie,' Louis, Count Palatine, and Frederic 
his brother, of the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach family; 
cf. A.D.B. xix. 575 ; vii. 603. ' Mr. Hubertus Thomas,' Hubertus 
Thomas I^eodius, Secretary to Frederic, Count Palatine, and his- 
torian of the Peasants' War. 

65. ' Freer Lawraunce ' ; cf. Cal. vi. 309. The two ' strange 
Freers of the order of obsmiantto ' were probably Hugh Payne and 
Cornelius; cf. Letter 52. 'Freer Petow,' William Peto, Provincial 
of the Grey Friars, afterwards Cardinal ; cf. Life, p. 98, and D.N.B. 
xlv. 88. Robert Fowter, Vice-Treasurer of Calais ; cf. Cal. vi. 947. 
On the Emperor's debt to England, cf. Baumgarten, ii. 25, 88, 126, 
*94, 43 6 6 39- 



NOTES TO LETTERS 291 

66. Cf. Life, p. 219, and Cal. vii. 21, 48. Cranmer was raised to 
the See of Canterbury, Mar. 30, 1533; cf. D.N.B. xiii. 20. 'Mr. 
hethe,' Nicholas Heath, afterwards Archbishop of York and Lord 
Chancellor; D.N.B. xxv. 345, and Campbell, ii. 72, 86. 

67. ' Sir Rychard Weston ' ; D.N.B. Ix. 363. The byll ' was the 
c Acte concernyng Fermes & Shepe,' 25 Hen. VIII. c. 13. ( Brewtyse,' 
Brutus. 

68. Cf. Cal. vii. 116, 136, 239, 240; D.N.B. xix. 58; and Life, 
pp. 119, 122. Fisher's letter of Feb. 18 is apparently not extant. 
For the 'saing of the prophete Amos,' cf. Amos iii. 7. On 'the 
Israelite spoyling the egiptians,' cf. Exodus xi ; on ' Jacob to haue 
iiij wifes,' cf. Genesis xxix-xxx. 'Master Pacy,' Richard Pace, 
ambassador, and Dean of St. Paul's; cf. Cal. vii. 1559, and D.N.B. 
xliii. 22. 

69. The Sheriff of Yorkshire, John Constable of Holderness, 
knight. On Sir John Dunham, cf. Cal. viii. 802 (4). 

70. ' [Shire]borne ' or Sherborne, near Basingstoke. 

71. Cf. Life, pp. 120, 121, and Cal. vii. 499. 

72. Wenlock, Cluniac Priory in Shropshire; Prior, John Bayly; 
cf. Tanner, Salop, xxviii. 2, and Dugdale, v. 73. 'Mr. Norreys,' 
Henry Norris, Esquire of the Body, Chief of the Privy Chamber, 
Chamberlain of North Wales and Constable of Beaumaris Castle ; 
D.N.B. xli. 121. 

73. Dr. Sampson, Richard Sampson, LL.D., Archdeacon of 
Suffolk, Dean of the Chapel Royal, afterwards Bishop of Lichfield ; 
D.N.B. 1. 230. ' My lorde of Chester,' Dr. Rowland Lee, Cromwell's 
friend; D.N.B. xxxii. 373. 

74. ' Harmywe,' Armuyden, in Zeeland. 

76. The Earl of Shrewsbury, George, Lord Talbot and Furnival, 
Earl of Waterford and Lord High Steward ; D.N.B. Iv. 313. I have 
l>een unable to identify ' th' Ermyte.' 

78. Cf. Cal. vi. 937; vii. 923 (xxi). This letter has been acci- 
dentally misplaced; it belongs to the year 1533. Cf. Cal. vii, Notes 
and Errata, p. 776. St. Austin's, or St. Augustine's, Benedictine 
Abbey in Canterbury ; Abbot, John Sturvey, alias Essex ; cf. Tanner, 
Kent, xii. 2, and Dugdale, i. 123. On George Goldwyne, cf. Cal. vii, 
923 (xxi). 

79. George Brooke, Lord Cobham, Subsidy Commissioner in 
Kent ; cf. Cal. viii. 386. ' The ferme of the parsonage,' in the lord- 
ship of Hailing or Hawling in Kent, belonged to the Bishop of 
Rochester; cf. Cal. vii. 557 (ii); App. 21, 27. 

80. Whelpeley and his company were apparently little better than 
pirates; cf. Cal. vii. 1278. 

82. Lord Edmund Howard, Controller of Calais, a younger 
brother of the Duke of Norfolk. 

U a 



NOTES TO LETTERS 

83. ' My lord of York,' Dr. Edward Lee, Archbishop ; D.N.B. 
xxxii. 347. 

84. Sir Robert Wingfield, diplomatist, Deputy of Calais (1526- 
1531), Mayor of Calais (1534); D.N.B. Ixii. 193. For the 'anoy- 
saunces,' cf. Cal. vii. 1076, 1335, 1502, 1525. 

85. Thomas Bartlett, Berthelet or Berthollet, the King's printer. 
' The proclamac/on,' probably an edict concerning the purchase and 
sale of wheat and rye ; cf. Cal. vii. 1684. 

86. ' The Surveyowr,' William Lelegrave or Lilgrave. 

87. Lady Lisle, Honor Grenville, widow of Sir John Basset, mar- 
ried to Lord Lisle in 1528; cf. D.N.B. xlv. 400. 

88. 'Mr. Sowthwell,' a rich broker in London : cf. Cal. vii. 512. 

89. ' Mr. Alen,' probably Mr. Thomas Allen, of Rayleigh in Essex, 
brother of the Archbishop of Dublin ; cf. Letter 47* 

90. Thomas Miller, probably the bailiff of Subberton in Hamp- 
shire ; cf. Cal. vii. 1666. 

92. Cf. Cal. vii. 617, 619, 903. The Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity, John Longland, Bishop of Lincoln; D.N.B. xxxiv. 120. The 
Commissary, Dr. William Tresham. 

94. Dudley, Cluniac Priory, then in Staffordshire, now in Worces- 
tershire ; Prior, John Webley ; cf. Tanner, Staffs, x, and Dugdale, 
v. 82. 

95. The Mayor of London, Sir John Champneys; D.N.B. x. 36. 

96. Henry Burton ; cf. Cal. v. 766 (40), and Letter 6. ' Ladye 
Carewe,' probably the wife of Sir Nicholas Carew, Master of the 
King's Horse; D.N.B. ix. 56. 

97. Cf. Cal. viii. 56, and Letter 76. 

98. Cf. Cal. viii. 1 74. Philip Chabot, Sieur de Brion, Admiral of 
France; B.U. vii. 381. 'M r . le Tresorier Palamedes,' Palamedes 
Gontier, Treasurer of Brittany; cf. Life, p. 225. 

100-1. Cf. Cal. viii. 17, 233, 251. Sir Gregory da Casale, 
English agent at Rome. 

102. ' Master Riche,' Richard Riche, Solicitor-General, afterwards 
knight, Chancellor of the Augmentations, and Lord Chancellor; 
D.N.B. xlviii. 123, and Campbell, ii. 9-27. 

103. Trewardreth or Tywardreth in Cornwall, alien Priory ; Prior, 
Thomas Collyns; cf. Tanner, Corn., xxxiv, and Dugdale, iv. 655. 
Fowey, seaport in Cornwall. ' Thomas Treffry ' of Cornwall, sent to 
Cromwell by Edward Wigan, vicar of Plymouth; cf. Cal. viii. 
49 (5). 6 ?6. 

104. Dr. John London, Warden of New College, later employed 
by Cromwell in connexion with the suppression of the monasteries 
and houses of friars; cf. Life, p. 177, and D.N.B. xxxiv. 97. John 
Claymond, President of Corpus Christi College; D.N.B. xi. n. 



NOTES TO LETTERS 293 

'The Presedent of Mawdelyn College,' Thomas Knolles, S.T.P., 
appointed 1527, resigned 1535, to be succeeded however, not by 
Marshall, but by Owen Oglethorpe, afterwards Bishop of Carlisle ; 
cf. Life, p. 143, and Wilson's Magdalen, p. 80. 

105. The Earl of Cumberland, Henry, fifteenth Lord Clifford, 
Warden of the West Marches; D.N.B. xi. 63. 

106. Cf. Life, p. 142; Cooper, vol. i. pp. 371 ff. ; and Letters 
1 1 6, 124, 129, 1 86, 206. The Mayor of Cambridge, Edward 
Thompson. The Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University, John 
Edmonds. On the order, 'takyn the last yere at Lambeheth,' 
cf. Cal. vii. 1003. 

107. Cf. Life, pp. 123-5. 'Mr. Attorney,' Christopher Hales; 
D.N.B. xxiv. 26. ' My lorde Chauncelor,' Sir Thomas Audeley. 
* My lorde cheffe Justyce of the kyngw bench,' Sir John Fitzjames ; 
D.N.B. xix. 179, and Foss, i. 160-9. 'The cheffe Justyce of the 
Cowmon place,' Sir Robert Norwich; cf. Cal. vol. viii. Index; 
D.N.B. xli. 228; iii. 37; and Beatson, pt. iii. p. 73. 'The cheffe 
Barren of the Exchequer,' Richard Leicester. ' Mr. Fytzeherberd,' 
Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, Justice. 'Mr. Solysytor,' William Whor- 
wood succeeded Sir Richard Riche in this office April 13, 1535 ; cf. 
Beatson, pt. iii. p. 93. The Statute ' made in the Fyfte yere of Kyng 
Rychard the seconde,' 5 Ric. II. Stat. i. c. 2. 

108. Sir John Russell the Younger, J.P., not Sir John Russell of 
the Privy Chamber, who later became Earl of Bedford. Wynter, 
Pakyngton, and Vampage were all prominent men in Worcestershire. 
Pakyngton was also Justiciar of North Wales; cf. Cal. viii. 149 
(32, 61). 

109. John Russell, Esquire, of Worcester, J.P., probably a con- 
nexion of Sir John Russell the Younger ; cf. Life, p. 117, and Cal. 
i.v 1124. 

110. Cf. Cal. viii. uio-i, 1123. 'Mr. Boner,' Edmund Bonner, 
LL.D., afterwards Bishop of Hereford and Bishop of London ; 
D.N.B. v. 356. 'The Duke of Holste,' Christian III, King of Den- 
mark ; A.D.B. iv. 184. 'Cauendish,' Richard Cavendish, sent to 
Denmark with Bonner. ' Mr. gostwike,' John Gostwick, Treasurer 
of the First Fruits. 

111. Cf. Cal. viii. not. Ewelme, in Oxfordshire. 'Donyngton,' 
or Donnington, in Berkshire, near Newbury. ' Hokenorton,' or 
Hooknorton, in Oxfordshire. 

112. The Earl of Rutland, Thomas Manners; D.N.B. xxxvi. 56. 

113. Sir John Wallop, Captain of Calais Castle and English 
ambassador at the Court of France; D.N.B. lix. 152. 'Philip 
Melanchton,' the friend and disciple of Luther; cf. Life, p. 226, and 
A.D.B. xxi. 268. 'The king highnes pencions,' probably referring 
to the annual contribution of 50,000 ecus promised in April, 1527, 
by Francis I to Henry VIII, on condition that the latter would 



NOTES TO LETTERS 

renounce all claim to the throne of France ; cf. Mignet, ii. 1 15, 318 ; 
also Cal. v. 1504-5. 'The frensh king . . . being last at Marcelto 
wit^ Pope Clement'; cf. Life, p. 218, and Cal. vi. 1425, 1426; 
'The grete Maister,' Anne de Montmorency, Count Beaumont; 
cf. notes to Letter 24. ' Christofer Mount ' ; cf. notes to Letter 64. 

* Mounsifur de Langie,' Guillaume du Bellay, Sieur de Langey, sent 
to the German Protestants by Francis I in 1535; B.U. iii. 551. 

Heynes,' Simon Heynes, S.T.P., Canon of Windsor, Master of 
Queens' College, Cambridge, and vicar of Stepney, sent to France in 
'535J D.N.B. xxvi. 325. 

114. 'The Busshop elect,' Charles Booth, Bishop of Hereford, 
died in the summer of 1535, and was succeeded by Edward Foxe, 
King's Almoner, Archdeacon of Leicester, Provost of King's College, 
and English ambassador to the German Princes in the autumn of 
1535 ; cf. D.N.B. xx. 113, and Life, p. 227. 

113. Wilton, Benedictine nunnery in Wiltshire ; Abbess, Cecilia 
Bodenham ; cf. Tanner, Wilts., xxxvii, and Dugdale, ii. 318. The 

* Ferme of Chalke' and the ' Manowr of Semky,' in Chalke Hundred, 
Wiltshire. 

116. Cf. Cooper, vol. i. pp. 372 ff.,and Letters 106, 124, 129, 186, 
206. Cromwell was elected Chancellor of Cambridge Aug. 30, 1535 ; 
cf. Cal. ix. 208. 

117. On the Emperor's expedition against Tunis, cf. Cal. ix. 602. 
' Domini de granuell,' Nic. Perrenot, Sieur de Granvelle, Counsellor to 
the Emperor ; A.D.B. ix. 580. On Chapuys and the Princess Mary, 
cf. Life, pp. 216-7. 

118. 'The Busshop of Wissetour,' Hugh Latimer, consecrated 
1535; D.N.B. xxxii. 171. 

119. The Countess of Oxford, Anne, widow of John de Vere, 
fourteenth Earl of Oxford, and half-sister of the Duke of Norfolk. 
'The parke and Bailliswike of Camps,' in Chilford Hundred, 
Cambridge. 

120. 'My mannowr of Rompney,' in Monmouth, of which Davyc 
Morgan Kemys was keeper ; cf. Cal. ix. 478. 

121. Cf. notes to Letter 117. 

122. Cf. Cal. viii. 1121, and ix. 202. ' Domino Parisiensi,' Jean 
du Bellay ; cf. notes to Letter 18. 'Epiaqfi Roffensis,' John Fisher. 

124. Cf. Cooper, vol. i. pp. 373 ff., and Letters 106, 116, 129, 
1 86, 206. 

125. For the laws against the 'Conveyaunce of Corne & other 
thing out of this Realme,' cf. 25 Hen. VIII. c. 2. 

12G. Gardiner was sent to France in October, 1535; cf. D.N.B. 
xx. 419, and Cal. ix. 676. 'Maister brian,' Sir Francis Brian; 
D.N.B. vii. 150. 'His highnes k/fcres/ Cal. ix. 838. On 'the 
delyueraye of the shippes,' cf. CaL ix. 714, and Life, p. 226. On 



NOTES TO LETTERS 295 

'tharticles sent by Melancton,' cf. Cal. ix. 281, 299, 540, 546. 
' Luthers epistle,' probably Cal. ix. 355. For Gardiner's oration, 
De Vera Obedientia, cf. Cal. ix. 403, 442, and D.N.B. xx. 419. 
* The deane ' of the Royal Chapel, Dr. Richard Sampson, afterwards 
Bishop of Chichester ; D.N.B. 1. 230. On Francis' 'recou^rye in the 
procession,' cf. Cal. ix. 812, 86 1. 

127-8. Cf. Cal. ix. App. 7. 'The treatie belli offensiui ratified 
at Amyans,' probably referring to the treaties of Aug. 18, 1527 ; 
cf. Cal. iv. 3356. For the money 'lent to the Duke of Bavier,' and 
' for the assistence of the duke of Wittenberge ' (Ulrich of VVurtem- 
berg, A.D.B. xxxix. 237), cf. Cal. v. 807, vii. 784. On the 'penc/bn 
and salt moneye,' cf. notes to Letter 113, and Introduction to Cal. iv. 
pp. clxxxix-cciii. 'Thempm>w Ambassador/-,' John Hannaert, 
V'iscount of Lombeek.and Liedekerke, Imperial envoy to the Court 
of France. 

129. Cf. Cooper, vol. i. pp. 377 ff., and Letters 106, 116, 124, 
1 86, 206. 

1 30. The letters referred to are apparently not extant. 

131. The King's 'highnes letteres nowe addressed vnto youe' are 
not in the Calendar. The ' \ettexo. sent from themperours Ambassador 
here,' probably Chapuys' letter to the King, mentioned in Cal. 
ix. 1050. 

132. Cf. Cal. ix. 1126. Montacute, Cluniac Priory in Somerset; 
Prior, Robert Shirburn ; cf. Tanner, Somerset, xxxiii, and Dugdale, 
v. 164. On 'Mr. Norres,' cf. notes to Letter 72. 

133. Cf. Life, p. 203. 'Master starkey,' Thomas Starkey, Pole's 
friend; D.N.B. liv. 109. 

135. Cf. Cal. x. 25, and Life, p. 226. 

136. Cf. Life, pp. 229-30. ' Thadmyrall,' Philip Chabot, Sieur 
de Brion ; cf. notes to Letter 98. 

137. Cf. Cal. x. 235 ('the kingw highnes htf/^res'), and x. 256 
(Gardiner's opinion of the German negotiations). For 'my lorde of 
Herford^ preceding*?.? in Germany,' cf. Life, p. 227. 

139. ' Maister pate.' Richard Pate, Archdeacon of Lincoln, 
nephew of Bishop Longland, ambassador; D.N.B. xliv. 10. Salis- 
bury was taken into Gardiner's service and sent back to England in 
May with letters to the King ; cf. Cal. x. 598, 873. ' The ambas- 
sador of fraunce,' Antoine de Castelnau, Bishop of Tarbes, nephew 
of Cardinal Grammont. ' Pomeray,' Giles de la Pommeraye, French 
ambassador to England, 1531-2. 

141. 'Carew' in Pembrokeshire. 'My ladye Katherynes preest,' 
George Athequa, Bishop of Llandaff; cf. Friedmann, ii. 162-8. 

142. 'Mr. Ratclyff,' probably Sir Alexander Ratcliff, afterwards 
Sheriff of Cheshire. 'Mr. Gage,' Sir John Gage; D.N.B. xx. 350. 



~'.M; NOTES TO LETTERS 

1 My man Wyll/amson,' John Williamson, Cromwell's agent, and the 
husband of his wife's sister, Joan ; cf. Life, pp. 55-60. 

143. Westchester or Chester. 

144. Cf. Cal. x. 875. John Whalley, Comptroller of the Mint, 
paymaster of the works at Dover. Wingfield does not seem to 
have been very successful in his new office ; cf. Cal. x. 985, and 
Letter 172. 

145. Cf. Cal. x. 725. 'The matier' referred to in the postscript 
of Gardiner's letters was a rumour of peace between Francis and 
Charles. For the 'Overtures' made by the Imperial ambassador, 
cf. Life, pp. 231-2. 'Thadeus,' Bolle a courier. 

146. Cf. Cal. x. 760. 

147. 'Tharryval of the baylie of Troys'; John de Dinteville 
came to London May 17, three days after this letter was sent. 
4 Mark,' Mark Smeton, organist or spinnet-player. 4 Norres,' Henry 
Norris, Esquire of the Body; cf. notes to Letter 72; Sir Francis 
Weston, D.N.B. Ix. 360; William Brereton, of the Privy Chamber, 
Chamberlain of Chester; all executed May 17, 1536. On 'the 
III C that were out among;; thise men,' cf. Friedmann, ii. 308-9. 
' The vicar of hell/ a popular nickname for Sir Francis Brian. 

148. Cf. Life, pp. 125-9. 

149. Cf. Cal. x. 1069, 1085, and Life, pp. 233-4. 'Thempwwrs 
Ambassadowr ' in France, John Hannaert; cf. notes to Letters 
127-8. 

150. Cf. Life, pp. 216-7, and Cal. x. 1108-9, 1129, 1133, 1136, 
1137. The 'Articles' were three in number: (i) an acknowledge- 
ment of the King as sovereign, and a promise to obey his laws; (2) 
a recognition of the King's title of Supreme Head, and a repudiation 
of the Papal authority ; (3) a confession that the marriage of Henry 
and Katherine was ' by God's law and man's law incestuous and un- 
lawful.' For the completion of the mutilated portions of this draft, 
cf. Sylloge Epistolarum, p. 137. 

151. Cf. notes to Letter 149. 

152. Sir Brian Tuke, Treasurer of the Chamber, D.N.B. Ivii. 295. 
4 Norray nowe clarencieulx kinge at Armes,' Thomas Hawley, Norroy 
King of Arms (1534); King of Arms and Principal Herald of the 
southern, eastern, and western parts of the kingdom, with the name 
Clarencieulx (May 19, 1536); cf. Cal. x. 1015(15). ' Lorde Will/am 
Howarde,' first Baron Howard of Effingham, half-brother to the 
Duke of Norfolk; D.N.B. xxviii. 77. 'The busshope then elect of 
Assaph nowe elect of Saynt Davys,' William Barlow, Prior of 
Haverford West, and Prior Commendatory of Bisham ; Bishop 
of St Asaph (Jan. Apr. 1536), Bishop of St. David's (April, 
1536); D.N.B. iit. 229. On their embassy to Scotland, cf. Life, 
pp. 157-8. 

153. Cf. Cal. . 28, and notes to Letter 147. For 'the treatie 






NOTES TO LETTERS 297 

the FrencheKing made last whenne ponvrey was here,' cf. Cal. 
v - *337> an d notes to Letter 139. 

154. John Harding, vicar of Overton subtus Arderne in Leices- 
tershire; cf. Valor Ecclesiasticus, iv. 181, and note to page 26 of 
Cal. xi. 

156. Cf. Cal. xi. 151, and notes to Letter 147. 

157. Edward Thwaytes, a magistrate in Canterbury. 'The office 
of the Lantern,' the Keepership of the Lighthouse of Calais. 

159. Cf. Life, p. 131, and Dixon, vol. i. pp. 441-4. 

160. Cf. notes to Letter 144, and Cal. xi. 1254. 

161. Cf. Cal. xi. 407, 495. 'The vicar of crowley,' James 
Pratt. 

162. Sir John Clark, Commissioner of the Peace in Oxfordshire; 
cf. Cal. xi. 580, 1406, 1217(20). John Williams and George Gifford, 
both agents of Cromwell's; cf. Cal. xi. 227, 353, 888. Sir John 
Browne, Commissioner of the Peace in Oxfordshire. 

163. St. Faith's, or Horsham St. Faith's, Benedictine Priory in 
Norfolk; Prior, John Sarisbury, Suffragan Bishop of Thetford; cf. 
Tanner, Norf., xxxiv. i, and Dugdale, iii. 635. 'The labor off yower 
Frynd'; cf. Cal. xi. 327. 'My chaplaine,' possibly Dr. Legh. 
This letter and no. 180 are written in a hand which I have not met 
with elsewhere in Cromwell's correspondence ; the spelling is parti- 
cularly curious. 

164. Cf. Cal. xi. 407, 495. 'The person that ye wrote to me of,' 
James Pratt, vicar of Crowle, cf. Letter 161. 'This troubelous 
season,' doubtless referring to the revolt in the North. 

165. Cf. Cal. xi. 562, 587-8, and Life, p. 187. 

166. Cf. Cal. xi. 795. 'Mr. Gostwick,' Commissioner in North 
Wales, not John Gostwick, Treasurer of First Fruits. ' Lord Powes,' 
Powis or Powers, Edward Grey. 

167. Sir Thomas Butler, in command of a company in the North, 
active in the suppression of the revolt there. ' My Lorde of Derbye,' 
Edward Stanley, third Earl of Derby, general of the King's forces in 
the western counties; cf. Cal. xi. 70*3, 856-8, and D.N.B. liv. 50. 

168. Cf. Cal. xi. 809. Walter, Lord Hungerford of Haitesbury, 
executed with Cromwell, July 28, 1540; D.N.B. xxviii. 259. 

169. Sir Ralph Evers the Younger defended Scarborough Castle 
against the northern insurgents; cf. Life, p. 194, and Cal. xi. 883, 
989. 

170. Cf. Cal. xi. 984, and Life, pp. 233-4. Pommeraye arrived 
in England in late October ; cf. Cal. xi. 848. 

171. The Duke of Suffolk was the King's Lieutenant in Lincoln- 
shire, and general of the royal forces; cf. D.N.B. vi. 218. John 



298 



NOTES TO LETTERS 



Browne, son of Robert Browne of Louth in Lincolnshire ; cf. Cal. 
xl 854. 

172. Cf. Cal. xi. 275, 289, 745, 1321, and Letter 144. The 
'check,' or control of the workmen in the royal dockyards (N.E.I >. 
ii. 309-10); the 'ligers' or ledgers; the 'call' or roll-call. John 
Thompson, 4 Maister of the Mayson Dieu,' was apparently an enemy 
of Wingfield's and reported him to Cromwell ; cf. Cal. xi. 1254. 

1 73. The ' other fc//<res ' are apparently not extant. 

174. Cf. Life, p. 194. The ' Duke of Richmonde,' Henry Fitzroy, 
Duke of Richmond and Somerset, Earl of Nottingham and High 
Admiral, natural son of Henry VIII ; D.N.B. xix. 204. 'Therle of 
Anguishe' (Angus), Archibald Douglas; cf. Cal. xi. 512, 1351, and 
D.N.B. xv. 271. 

1 75. The recipient was doubtless one of the persons mentioned 
in Cal. xi. 1205. On the meeting at Doncaster, cf. Life, pp. 192-3 ; 
Froude, vol. iii. pp. 147-531 arj d Cal. xi. 1246. 

1 76. John Longland, Bishop of Lincoln, and Chancellor of Oxford 
University; D.N.B. xxxiv. 120. Spalding, Benedictine Priory in 
Lincolnshire ; Prior, either Thomas Spalding or Richard Elsyn, alias 
Palmer; cf. Tanner, Lincoln, Ixviii, and Dugdale, iii. 210. 

177-8. These two letters have been accidentally misplaced. 
They belong to the year 1535, probably about Sept. 15 ; cf. Cal. x. 
p. 643 (Notes and Errata) ; and Cal. ix. 232, 365, 391. 'The office 
of the Facultees,' the Mastership of the Faculties, a Court under the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, the special function of which was to grant 
dispensations from the Common Law. Anthony Denny, Keeper of 
Westminster Palace and Park. ' Cr/V/ofor Morys,' the King's Master 
Gunner. William Body, Cromwell's sen-ant. Werberge or Warberg, 
a castle in Scania, head quarters of the Lubeckers. On the embassy 
of Bonner and Cavendish, cf. D.N.B. v. 356 and Letter no. Alen 
Hawt, Secretary to Sir Brian Tuke, Treasurer of the Chamber. 
Christopher Mont was in Germany at this time, probably with 
Mclanchthon ; cf. D.N.B. xxxviii. 204. 

179. Cf. Life, pp. 151-2, and Cal. x. 897. 'Thomas Fitzgarrat,' 
tenth Earl of Kildare; cf. D.N.B. xix. 148. ' Tharchbisshop of 
Dublyn,' Dr. George Browne, Provincial of the Austin Friars ; cf. 
D.N.B. vii. 43, and Life, p. 152. 'Maistr Brabazon,' William 
Brabozon, Cromwell's friend and agent, Sub-Treasurer and Receiver- 
General in Ireland ; cf. D.N.B. vi. 138, and Life, p. 52. Lord Leonard 
Grey (D.N.B. xxiii. 196) was sent to Ireland as Deputy, Jan. i, 1536, 
in place of Sir William Skeffington (D.N.B. Iii. 323), who died 
Dec. 31, 1535. 

180. Cf. Cal. xi. 274, and notes to Letter 163. Coxford, Austin 
Prior)- in Norfolk ; Prior, John Adamson ; cf. Tanner, Norfolk, xvii. 
i, and Dugdale, vi. 368. 



NOTES TO LETTERS 299 

181. Anthony Guydot or Guidotti, an Italian wool-merchant, and 
friend of Cromwell's ; cf. Cal. x. 508, and xii. (i) 689. 

182. The letters of the King and Suffolk referred to here are 
apparently not extant. 

184. Cf. notes to Letter 72, and Cal. xii. (i) 909-11. 

185. Cf. Cal. xii. (i) 397, 938, 1028-9, and D.N.B. xxxvi. 150. 

186. Cf. Letters 106, 116, 124, 129, 206 ; Cooper, vol. i. pp. 388 ff. ; 
and Cal. xii. (i) 1182. 

187. Hammes, pursuivant. Gardiner's letters of May 14 are ap- 
parently not extant. On ' thapprehension of his traytovr Pole,' cf. 
Life, p. 205. 

188. Cf. Cal. xii. (i) 1214, 1237. Birlington or Bridlington, Priory 
of Austin Canons in Yorkshire; Prior, William Wode or Wolde, 
hanged 1537; cf. Tanner, Yorks., xix, and Dugdale, vi. 284. Ger- 
vies or Jervaulx, Cistercian Abbey in Yorkshire ; Abbot, Adam Sed- 
burgh, hanged June, 1537; cf. Tanner, Yorks., lix, and Dugdale, 
v. 567. For 'the deposicons takyn of certain women,' cf. Cal. xii. (i) 
1214. 'The havon' was the haven of Bridlington, 'more dangerous 
than Flamborough ' ; cf. Cal. xii. (i) 1307. For the shrine of Brid- 
lington, cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 34, 35, 92. Darcy (D.N.B. xiv. 49), Bigod 
(D.N.B. v. 21), Bulmer, Hamerton, Percy, and Tempest, rebels in 
the Pilgrimage of Grace. The ' twoo ambassadors from thempror,' 
Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, and the Sieur de Ourton, who 
arrived in England in early May. Their mission was to discover 
the state of the north, to learn of England's relations with France, to 
urge Henry to take sides with Charles, and if possible to further the 
negotiations for the match between the Princess Mary and Dom Luiz 
of Portugal; cf. Cal. xii.(i) 684, 696, 873. 

189. Cf. notes to Letter 188. Sir Thomas Wyatt, ambassador 
with the Emperor (April, 1537 April, 1539); D.N.B. Ixiii. 183. 
' Monsieur du Vauldray,' a gentleman of the Emperor ; cf. Cal. xii. (i) 
1054, 1306. 'The bishop of liege,' Erarde de la Marck, Cardinal; 
cf. Cal. xii. (i) 1052. ' Poules,' St. Paul's. 

190. The Lord Admiral, Sir William Fitzwilliam, afterwards Earl 
of Southampton ; D.N.B. xix. 230. John Wynter, merchant of 
Bristol; cf. Cal. vii. 1161, 1168; xii. (ii) 758. 

191. Cf. notes to Letter 168. 

192. ' Lady Whethel,' Elizabeth, widow of Sir Richard Whethel. 
For her controversy with her son Robert, cf. Cal. xii. (i) 985 ; xii. (ii) 
1037-8. 

193. Wyatt's letter of June 23 is not in the Calendar. 'Oking' 
or Woking. ' Thyfbourne ' or Tyburn. For the assaults on St. Pol 
and Montreuil, and the war in Picardie, cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 125 and 372. 
.M. de Canaples, Jean de Crequy, Sieur de Canaples; cf. Cal. xii. (i) 
1065, 1073; xii. (ii) 372. 'The Dolphyn,' afterwards Henri II of 



300 NOTES TO LETTERS 

France. On the 'stellers of the King hawk,' cf. letter 222 and 
Cal. xii. (ii) 774, 811. 

194-5. Cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 231. 'Sir "Wit/ion Minstreley' had 
written a book called ' Lavacrum Conscientiae,' in which he sought 
to prove that priests were above the angels, and ought to be subject 
to no temporal prince. ' Sir \\ittiam Richardson ' had ordered the 
observance of the day of St. Thomas the Martyr as a holiday, as 
of old 

196. Cf. Cal. xii. (i) 283, and xii. (ii) 173. I have been unable 
to find the 'acte' mentioned here, in the Irish Statutes. 

197. William Sandwich, B.D., Warden of Canterbury College, 
Oxford; cf. Cal. xii. (i) 437. 

1 98. ' Old Coley,' Robert Cowley, Clerk to the Crown of Chancery 
in Ireland ; cf. Cal. xii. (i) 963 ; xii. (ii) 383, 874. 

200. Cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 631, 698. 'Jamys of Desmonde,' James 
Fitzgerald, the 'pretended' Earl of Desmond; D.N.B. xix. 123. 
' Jamys fitz moryce,' James Fitzgerald, son of Maurice, heir to the 
earldom of Desmond; D.N.B. xix. 125. 

201-2. ' Fraunces Herbart ' ; cf. Cal. xii. (i) 963. 

203. ' Jamys de la Hyde,' or Delahide, Irish rebel ; cf. Cal. xii. 
(ii) 383, 1310, i. (45). 'Parson Walsche,' Richard Walshe, vicar of 
Loughseudie. 'The Sonne of the late Erie off Kyldare,' Gerald 
Fitzgerald or ' Young Garret,' younger son of the ninth Earl of Kildarc, 
and brother of Lord Thomas Fitzgerald; D.N.B. xix. 123, 148. 

204. Jerome Lynn, Constable of Carlingford Castle in Louth ; 
cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 1097. 

206. Cf. Letters 106. 116, 124, 129, 186, and Cooper, vol. i. 
pp. 389 ff. Barnwell, beside Cambridge. The 'gagyng and cor- 
rection of ... forstalers and regraters ' ; the University was permitted 
to appropriate the fines imposed on those who broke the law by 
purchasing goods before they were exposed in the market, in order 
to sell them again at a higher price. 

208. Io>rd James Butler, son of the Earl of Ossory,and Treasurer 
of Ireland, was in London and in Calais in the early part of 1537 ; 
ct. Cal. xii. (i) 1328; xii. (ii) 83. 

209. ' Maister Leighe,' Richard I^e, Surveyor of Calais. ' Maister 
Marshall,' Sir Richard Grenville, knight, Marshal of Calais. On 
their dispute, cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 338, 466, 550, 555, 704, 830. 'Sir 
Thomas palmer,' Knight Porter of Calais; D.N.B. xliii. 160, and 
Cal. xii. (ii) 341. 'Maister Wingfield'; cf. notes to letter 84, and 
Cal. xii. (ii) 162, 163, 323. 

210. Dr. Roger Dingley, of Staffordshire, was reported to Crom- 
well by Anthony Knyvet, Sept 20, on the charge of ' vexing ' the 
poor men in the country round about him, and of holding dangerous 
opinions concerning the Pope; cf. Cal. xii. ^ii) App. 40. 



NOTES TO LETTERS 301 

213. Lord Butler's letter is not to be found in the Calendar. 

214. 'The fassaghe bentre,' Bantry fashagh or forest in the south- 
west of Ireland. Sir William Brabazon was appointed Vice-Treasurer 
or ' under-tresorer ' in Ireland, Aug. 20, 1534; cf. D.N.B. vi. 138. 
' Newe Bawon,' in Wexford. The ' dyppes ' or Deeps in Bantry 
fasagh. ' Tharchbysshop of Casshell,' Edmund Butler, natural son 
of Piers, eighth Earl of Ormonde; D.N.B. viii. 47. 'My lorde 
deputie,' Lord Leonard Grey; D.N.B. xxiii. 196. On 'Clomell,' or 
Clonmel, in Tipperary, cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 898 (9). 'The Bysshop of 
Watf Horde,' probably Nicholas Comin ; cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 1340, and 
Beatson, pt. ii. p. 302. 'Mr. Wise,' William Wise, Sheriff of Water- 
ford. ' Lady Katryn Butler,' widow of Sir Richard Power ; D.N.B. 
viii. 72. 'The Erlle of Ossery,' Sir Piers Butler; D.N.B. viii. 72. 
For ' prysewynes ' Cal. (in the Index) has ' prize-wines.' ' Kynsale,' 
in Cork. 

215. Edmond Sexton was Mayor of Limerick; cf. Cal. xii. 
(ii) 281. 

216. Cf. Life, pp. 206-7, and Cal. xii. (ii) 552. 'Doctowr 
Wylson,' the King's chaplain; cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 579, and D.N.B. Ixii. 
119. Maastricht, in Limburg, north of Liege. 

217. Cf. Life, pp. 206-7 ; Cal. xii. (ii) 552 ; and Letters 216, 218. 
' Mr. Hethe ' ; cf. notes to Letter 66. ' The Bisshopp^ of Duresme 
and london,' Cuthbert Tunstall (D.N.B. Ivii. 310) and John Stokesley 
(D.N.B. liv. 403). 'The bisshopp of Yorke,' Edward Lee; D.N.B. 
xxxii. 347. 'An oratyon settfurth by the bisshopp of Winchestre/ 
probably Gardiner's De Vera Obedientia. 'A booke of certain 
thinges lately determyned here by the hole clergy,' probably The 
Institution of a Christian Man, commonly called the Bishop's Book, 
printed by Bartlett in 1537; cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 289 n., and Dixon 
i. 518-30. 

218. Cf. Life, pp. 206-7; Letters 216 and 217, and Cal. xii. (ii) 
552. The sentence beginning 'Paul popith Jolyly' is rendered in 
Froude, vol. iii. p. 217, 'The Pope will desire the world to pray for 
the King.' 

219. 'Maistr Horseley,' John .Horseley, afterwards Sheriff of 
Northumberland; cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 1005, 1150 (18). 

220. ' Caterlaugh,' or Carlow, in Leinster; ' Thisteldormont,' or 
Castledermot, in Kildare ; ' Kylken,' Kylka or Kylca, in the same 
county ; ' Castelcurr ' and ' Knokraffyn,' or Knockgraffon, in Tip- 
perary ; ' Glaschare,' in Kilkenny. 

221. William Seintloo, or Sayntlow, military commander in 
Ireland; cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 135, 382. 

222. Cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 869, and Life, p. 234. ' Monsieur de Grande- 
vile,' Nic. Perrenot, Sieur de Granvelle, Counsellor of the Emperor ; 
cf. notes to Letter 117. On ' Anthony lee,' Wyatt's brother-in-law, 
cf. notes to Letter 193. 'Mr. pate,' Richard Pate, Archdeacon of 



302 NOTES TO LETTERS 

Lincoln, nephew of Bishop Longland, and ambassador with Charles V 
(1533-7); D.N.B. xliv. 10. His letter is apparently not ext 
' Dignely,' Sir Thomas Dingley, commander of Baddesley and Maync, 
who had laid himself open to suspicion because he had conferred 
with Sir George Throgmorton and others implicated with Pole; 
cf. Cal. xii. (i) 78, 207, 975, and xii. (ii) 427, 663, 921, 952, 
1023. ' Barbastra,' or Balbastro, in Aragon, north-east of Saragossa. 

224. ' Mr. Dudley,' Sir John Dudley, Vice- Admiral, afterwards Earl 
of Northumberland and Ix>rd Protector; D.N.B. xvi. 109. For 'the 
matier touching Dignely,' cf. notes to Letter 222. 

225. Cf. notes to Letter 220. 

226. Cf. Life, p. 234. Ix>rd William Howard, half-brother to the 
Duke of Norfolk; cf. notes to Letter 152. 'The frenche king 
doughter,' Margaret of France, younger daughter of Francis I. 
' Madame de Longevile,' Marie de Ix>rraine, daughter of Claude, 
Duke of Guise, afterwards Queen of Scotland and mother of Mary 
Queen of Scots ; D.N.B. xxxvi. 391. ' Assher,' or Esher. 'Possidon/ 
Posidonius, Cicero's friend ; cf. Tusculan Disputations, ii. 6 1 (ed. 
Baiter and Kayser, vol. vi. p. 306) : ' Nihil agis, dolor ! quamvis sis 
molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum.' ' Thabbot of Arbroth,' 
David Beaton; D.N.B. iv. 17. 

227. Cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 914-7. 'S/r Reynold Carnabye,' keeper 
of Tynedale, an active agent of the Crown in Northumberland and 
Yorkshire after the suppression of the Pilgrimage of Grace ; cf. Cal. 
xii. (ii) 280, 823. 'Maister Vuedale,' John Woodall, secretary to 
the Council of the North ; cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 100, 102. For the treat- 
ment of the ' pledges ' or hostages for Tynedale and Ryddesdale, cf. 
Cal. xii. (ii) 915, 1077. 'Mr. Fairfax,' Thomas Fairfax, serjeant-at- 
law ; cf. Cal. xii.(ii) 1076-7. ' A shoute Arcre ' (sic), possibly meaning 
' sheet anchor.' At Cromwell's request the sons of Sir Thomas Percy, 
brother of the Earl of Northumberland, were placed, for safety, in 
charge of Sir Thomas Tempest, a royal agent in the north ; cf. Cal. 
xii. (ii) 203, 229, 915. 

228. John Babington, apparently a spy and agent of Cromwell's ; 
cf. Cal. xii. (i) 1104 (n). Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, Justice. 

229. Cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 1053 ; Life, pp. 233-4, and notes to letter 
222. Bartholomew Butler, Rougecroix pursuivant. The 'Ouerture 
for the doughter of portingale,' probably a proposal for a match 
between Prince Edward and Maria, the daughter of John III, King 
of Portugal, who later became the wife of Philip II ; cf. B.U. xx. 
622, and note at the bottom of p. in of Span. Cal. vol. vi, pt. i. 
On 'the passage at Zuse' (Susa in Savoy), cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 1040, and 
Martin, viii. 248. 

230. John, Lord Husey or Hussey, was attainted and executed in 
June, 1537, on the charge of complicity with the rebels in the 
Pilgrimage of Grace; D.N.B. xxviii. 329. 

231. The Bishop of Chester, Dr. Rowland Lee; D.N.B. 



NOTES TO LETTERS 303 

373. This letter is interesting, as one of the earliest recorded mentions 
of gipsies. 

232. Cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 1096, 1260, and Letter 200. 'Bryan 
Oconor,' Irish rebel chieftain; D.N.B. xli. 395. ' Jamys Fitz John,' 
James Fitzgerald, son of John, the ' pretended ' Earl of Desmond ; 
D.N.B. xix. 123. 'Jamys fitz morys,' James Fitzgerald, son of 
Maurice; D.N.B. xix. 125. 

233. Cf. notes to Letters 214 and 232. 

234. Cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 1249. 

235. John Vachell, of a well-known Reading family, was an active 
agent of Cromwell's in connexion with the suppression of the monas- 
teries; cf. Cal. xiii. (ii) 353, 367. Walter Chalcott, sergeant-at-arms. 
On the almshouse at Donyngton (in Berkshire, near Newbury), 
cf. Tanner, Berks., vii. 2. 

236. Cf. Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, i. (i) 466-70; Life, 
PP- 131-3; and Letters 159, 266, 273. 

237. ' Saynct marye wyke,' or Week St. Marj', in Stratton Hundred, 
Cornwall. 

238. Cf. Life, pp. 234-7. Wyatt's letter is apparently not extant. 
' Parme and placence,' Parma and Piacenza, occupied by the Papal 
forces after the battle of Ravenna, restored to Milan (then under 
France) in 1515, retaken for the States of the Church in 1521; 
cf. Guicciardini, vi. 254, vii. 206. In 1545 they were converted into 
an hereditary duchy by Paul III for his son, Pier Luigi Farnese. 
' Kyng ferdinando,' brother of Charles V, King of the Romans, 
afterwards Emperor; A.D.B. vi. 632. 

240. Cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 279. Thomas Barnaby, an emissary of 
Cromwell's. ' Maister Parys,' a servant of Gardiner's. 

241. Cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 329. Peter Reed (' rede '), a messenger. 

242. Cf. Life, pp. 158, 234, and Pref. to Cal. xiii. (i) pp. xxxv ff. 
Peter Mewtas, a friend of Cromwell's, Gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber. * Madame de L.,' Mary of Guise, Mme. de Longueville, 
afterwards Queen of Scotland; D.N.B. xxxvi. 391. Her father, 
Claude de Lorraine, Duke of Guise; B.U. xviii. 224. 

243. Cf. Life, p. 235, and Pref. to Cal. xiii. (i) pp. xxxvii ff. 
Philip Hoby; D.N.B. xxvii. 54. 'The yong duke of Longouille,' 
Francis, son of Mary of Guise and the Duke of Longueville. ' The 
two daughters of Mons/Vwr de Guyse,' Mary, afterwards Queen of 
Scotland (cf. notes to Letter 242), and Louise, later married to the 
Prince of Chimay. 'The Duke of Loraigne,' Anthony, son of 
Ren II, Duke of Lorraine; B.U. xxv. 120. 'His daughter,' Anne, 
afterwards wife of Rene, Prince of Orange. ' The dutchesse of Millane,' 
Christina, younger daughter of Christian II, the deposed King of 
Denmark, and widow of Francis Sforza of Milan. ' Mr. Hutton,' 
John Hutton, agent and ambassador in Flanders, and governor of the 
English merchants there. ' The Regent,' Mary, sister of CharlesV, 




804 



NOTES TO LETTERS 



widow of Louis of Hungary; A.D.B. xx. 374. 'Mr. Harms,' Hans 
Holbein, sent to Brussels to paint the portrait of the Duchess of 
Milan. He finished his picture, which is now at Windsor, in three 
hours; cf. D.N.B. xxvii. 106. 

-II. Cf. Life, p. 236. For the commission of the 'bisshop of 
tarbez ' ( Antoine de Castelnau), cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 386. ' Mr. dudley ' ; 
cf. notes to Letter 224. 

243. Cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 633. George, brother of Anthony Rous 
(treasurer of the Duke of Norfolk), was on his way to Venice. 

247. Thomas Sherle or Shirley, Commissioner of the Peace in 
Sussex ; cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 646 (33). 

248. Cf. Dixon, i. 509-15 ; Cal. xiii. (i) 264, 275, 571, 674 ; and 
D.N.B. li. 452. 'Threpes,' cf. 'to threap' or maintain obstinately 
(Halliwell). 

249. Cf. Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. i. pp. 466 ff. 

250. Cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 679. ' Thise men,' meaning the Imperial 
ambassadors, Chapuys and Mendoza ; cf. notes to Letters 188-9. 
The Bishop of Hereford, Edward Foxe, died May 8, 1538; cf. 
D.N.B. xx. 113. The Bishop of Chichester, Richard Sampson; 
D.N.B. 1. 230. ' Maister Russel nowe Comptroller ' of the House- 
hold, afterwards Earl of Bedford; D.N.B. xlix. 444. 'My lord 
Admyral,' Sir William Fitzwilliam ; D.N.B. xix. 230. ' Doctowr 
haynes ' was sent as special ambassador to Charles V in April, 1538; 
cf. D.N.B. xxvi. 325. 'Docto//r Boner' (cf. notes to Letter no) 
accompanied him. 

251. George Broke, Lord Cobham ; cf. notes to Letter 79. Wm. 
Knell, head yeoman of Brokeland in the Marches of Romney, Kent, 
was accused of speaking treasonable words concerning the Royal 
Supremacy. ' With such acceleration as I have seldom seen,' wrote 
Christopher Hales to Cromwell, was he attainted of high treason, 
April 16, 1538 ; cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 783. ' My lord of Wiltshire,' Thomas, 
father of Anne Boleyn; D.N.B. v. 321. 

232. Cf. notes to Letter 168. 

253. Cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 695. ' Mr. Mason,' John Mason, agent and 
interpreter at the Emperor's Court ; cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 1 165, and xiii. (ii) 
191. ' Hawte,' Sir William Hawte, Sheriff of Kent, and father-in-law 
of the son of Sir Thomas Wyatt, Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger ; cf. 
Cal. xiii. (1)710*. Robert Brancetour, an Englishman at the Court 
of Charles V, attainted of treason in 1539; cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 1104, and 
Life, p. 282. 

254. Lisle's letter of April 15 is apparently not extant. 

255. Cf. Letter 226. 

25G. The ' frende ' of Richard Cromwell was Simon Jakes, Abbot 
of Kenilworth (' Kyllingworthe '). 

Cf. Cal. xiii.(i) 915. 



NOTES TO LETTERS 305 

258. Cf. Cal.xiii. (1)917. 

259. Cf. Letter 256. 

260. Cf. Life, pp. 161-2, and Cal. xiii. (i) 1291. c My lorde of 
Herforde,' Edward Foxe; D.N.B. xx. 113. 'Maister Threasourer 
of the king Maiesties Houshold,' Sir William Paulet ; D.N.B. xliv. 
92. ' Maister brown,' Sir Anthony Browne, brother of the Countess 
of Worcester, and half-brother of the Lord Admiral ; D.N.B. vii. 38. 

261. Wyatt's letter is not in the Calendar. 

262. Cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 962. 

263. Cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 1031, and Life, pp. 161-6. 

264. ' Kingeswood,' Cistercian Abbey in Wiltshire; cf. Tanner, 
Wilts., xx. 

265. Cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 1132-3, and notes to Letter 250. Ratclif, in 
Middlesex, beside London. 

266. A preliminary to the Injunctions of September, 1538 (Letter 

273. q- v -) 

267. ' Mr. Olverton of Rougham ' in Suffolk, probably identical 
with ' William Yelverton,' one of the Commission for gaol delivery 
in Norfolk ; cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 384 (46). 

268. Cf. Life, pp. 161-2, and Cal. xiii. (i) 1291, 1387. 

269. 'The Surveyour there,' Richard Lee ; cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 91, 92, 
594- 

271. Lisle's letter is apparently not extant. c The Ambassadour 
of Fraunce,' Louis de Perreau, Sieur de Castillon ; cf. life in 
Kaulek, pp. ix-xvi. On Jehan Ango, 'vicount of diepe,' and the 
capture of the hoy, cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 211, 257. 

273. Cf. Life, pp. 131-3, and Dixon, vol. ii. pp. 80 ff. 

274. Cf. Cal. xiii. (ii), App. 39, and notes to Letter 168. George 
Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon ; D.N.B. xxv. 123. 

276. Cf. Cal. xiii. (ii) 419, 575, 622; D.N.B. xxvii. 54; Iviii. 179; 
Ixiii. 148. 

277. Sir William Sulyard, one of the Council of Wales, Commis- 
sioner of the Peace, agent of Rowland Lee ; cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 190 (5, 
18), 384 (18, 2i\ 1115 (30), 1309 (20), 1519 (14); xiii. (ii) 1007. 

278. Dr. Thomas Legh, visitor of the monasteries ; D.N.B. xxxii. 
420. William Cavendish, brother of the biographer of Wolsey, 
Auditor of the Augmentations, afterwards Privy Councillor j D.N.B. 
ix. 363. 'The Monasteries of Saynct Oses and Colchister'; St. 
Osyth's, or Chich, Priory of Austin Canons in Essex ; Colchester, 
Benedictine Mitred Abbey of St. John, in the same county : cf. 
Dugdale, vi. 308 ; iv. 60 1 ; Tanner, Essex, x and xii. 

* Mr. Chatmcellar of thaugmetations,' Sir Richard Riche ; D.N.B, 
xlviii. 123. 

HERRI* AN. II X 



306 NOTES TO LETTERS 

279. Cf. notes to Letter 274. 

280. Sir Brian Tuke, Treasurer of the Chamber ; D.N.B. Ivii. 295. 

281. Cf. Cal. xiii. (ii) 786 ; Frpude, iii. 315-6; and Lite, pp. 
208-9, 2 43 " ' Mr. Bonvixi,' a rich Lucchese merchant, dwelling 
in London ; D.N.B. v. 365. 'S/r Fraunc Brian ' ; D.N.B. vii. 150. 

282. Cf. notes to Letters 108 and 109. 'Humphrey Calfield,' or 
Calfehill, bailiff of the lordship of Staunton Lacy and of the liberty 
of the lordship of Cleobury in Shropshire and Chelmershe in the 
lordship of Cleobury ; cf. Cal. xiii. < i) 889 (4). 

283. ' The Late Marquis of Excestre,' Henry Courtenay, executed 
December, 1538; cf. D.N.B. xii. 336. William Button, Commis- 
sioner of the Peace in Wiltshire ; cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 384 (20). ' Smored ' 
or smothered (Halliwell). 

284. This letter may have been written in the latter part of 1537; 
cf. note at the foot of p. 2 of Cal. xiii. (i) and also Cal. xii.(ii) 1235. 
* The said late Sheriff,' probably Sir Brian Hastings, Sheriff of York- 
shire, who died Aug. 6, 1537. ' Vre' or 'use' (Halliwell). 

285. Cf. Cal. xiv. (i) n, 92. 'Mr. Hobby,' Philip Hoby; D.N.B. 
xxvi. 54. 

286. Cf. Life, p. 243 ; Preface to Cal. xiv. (i), p. xxi, and CaL 
xiv. (i) 884; xiv. (ii) 76, 81, 134, 280. The 'old duke' of Urbino, 
Francesco-Maria I de la Rovere ; B.U. xxxvi. 655. ' The young duke ' 
of Urbino, Guido Ubaldo, his son ; B.U. xxxvl 655. The Duke of 
Ferrara, Hercules II da Este; B.U. xiii. 101. The Duke of Mantua, 
Federigo da Gonzaga ; B.U. xvii. 163. 'That bishop which is also 
adurrsary to his naturall prince,' probably referring to Cardinal Pole ; 
cf. Cal. Ven. v. 196. 

287. Cf. Life, pp. 243-50. The 'Duke of Saxon,' Johann 
Friedrich der G^rossmiithige ; A.D.B. xiv. 326. ' The Landgra(ve) ' 
of Hesse, Philipp der Grossmiithige ; A.D.B. xxv. 765. 

288. Cf. Life, p. 251. 'The cafart Cornibus,' Peter de Cornibus, 
a Franciscan at Paris, complained of by Bonner for making the cus- 
tomary eulogy of St. Thomas the Martyr on St. Thomas' Day ; cf. 
Cal. xiv. (1)371. ' Myn other l*//*res,' probably referring to Wriothes- 
ley's letter to Cromwell ; Cal. xiv. (i) 208. On the ships in Flanders, 
cf. Froude, iii. 317-9. 'Georgius Spalatinus,' the humanist and 
historian ; A.D.B. xxxv. i. A portrait by Holbein of the astronomer 
Cratzer is now in the Louvre. 

289. Cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 280. 'Mr. Tucke,' Brian Tuke; D.N.B. 
Ivii. 295. 

290. Cf. Cal. xiv. (ii) 729. 

291. Cf. Cal. xiv.(i) 321, 335, 336, 345, and Life, p. 251. 'The 
duchesse' of Milan; cf. notes to Letter 243. 'M r . Kerne,' Sir 
Edward Carne; D.N.B. ix. 134. Wyatt's letter is apparently not 
extant. ' Joyes,' Christopher Joy, of London, student at Louvain, 



NOTES TO LETTERS 307 

attainted in 1539 for supporting the authority of the Pope; cf. Cal. 
xiv. (i) 248, 264, 308. ' Leyton,' William, brother of Richard Layton, 
Cromwell's agent ; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 248-9, 264, 308, 648. Thomas 
Knight, envoy of Cromwell's ; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 434, 534. 

293. Cf. Preface to Cal. xiv. (i), pp. xxx ff., and Froude, iii. 317-9. 
' Our ambassidowr there,' Thomas Wriothesley. 

294. Cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 433, 440, 447, 456, 485, 487. ' Mr. Tate,' 
Edmund Tate, ambassador with Charles V ; sent April 15, 1539 ; cf. 
Cal. xiv. (i) 746 ; xiv. (ii) 765. 

295. Cf. Life, pp. 249-50. 'The Duchesse* of Milan ; cf. notes 
to Letter 243. 'Nicholas Owton' or Wotton; D.N.B. Ixiii. 57. 
' Richard byrd ' or Berde, of the Privy Chamber. ' Mr. Barnes,' 
D.N.B. iii. 253. ' Sir Bern<rde de Mella,' Bernhard von Mylen or 
von Melen, knight, employed by the Elector of Saxony; cf. Cal. 
xiv. (i) 920. 

296. Cf. Cal. xiv. (1)485. 'Mr. Sydney,' Sir William Sidney, 
Chamberlain to Prince Edward, Sheriff of Kent ; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 
398, 517- 

297. Cf. Life, pp. 153-4, 251. 'The bishop of Rome,' probably 
a mistake for the Bishop of Hereford, Edmund Bonner. For his 
letters and Wriothesley's, cf. Cal. xiv. (1)449-51, 485. ' Mr. Sadleyr,' 
Ralph Sadler, Cromwell's friend, ambassador to Scotland; D.N.B. 
1. 109. His letters, probably Cal. xiv. (i) 236. Cromwell's letter to 
Wriothesley, no. 291. 'Vre' or 'use' (Halliwell). 'My lady Kynge- 
ston,' Mary, daughter of Sir Richard Scrope pf Upsall, in Yorkshire, 
wife of Sir William Kingston, Constable of the Tower ; D.N.B. xxxi. 
1 86. 'Mr. Benton," Sir Edward Baynton, Vice-Chamberlain to the 
Queen ; cf. Cal. xiv. (1)655. ' My lorde of Sussex,' Robert Ratcliff; 
D.N.B. xlvii. 135. 'The bishop of Duresme,' Cuthbert Tunstall ; 
D.N.B. Ivii. 310. The letters from the Council of the North, Cal. 
xiv. (i) 481. ' Robert more,' attainted in April, 1539 ; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 
455. 867(15). The 'monke,' Ruoric O'Spellan ; cf. Cal. xiii. (ii) 
999, 1164; xiv. (i) 455. 'That yong rebell trayter Fitzgerald'; 
D.N.B. xix. 123. Rurik or Ruricus, Bishop of Derry; cf. Cal. 
xiii. (ii) 1164. 'Thabbot of Melrose' (Cistercian Abbey in Rox- 
burgh, on the Tweed), Andrew Durie, afterwards Bishop of Whit- 
horn ; cf. Cal. xvi. 963, 1112. The 'yong duck of Cleves' was not 
dead, but his falher died Feb. 6, 1539; cf. Life, pp. 244-9. 
Richard Harman, Cromwell's envoy, wrote to his master from 
Antwerp, March 24 ; Cal. xiv. (i) 592. ' S/> John Cornewallys,' 
Steward to Prince Edward; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 517. I cannot find 
Harvell's letter. For the ' cowmissions ' for the musters, cf. Cal. 
xiv. (i) 652. 

298. 'The ryver of Roan,' probably meaning the river Seine at 
Rouen. ' Desmond,' James Fitzgerald, the ' pretended ' earl ; 
D.N.B. xix. 123. 'Byryn,' Brian Oconnor; D.N.B. xli. 395. 
' Onellf,' Con O'Neill, first Earl of Tyrone ; D.N.B. xiii. 178. ' O don- 

X % 



NOTES TO LETTERS 

elk,' Manus O'Donnell, Ix>rd of Tyrconnel ; D.N.B. xli. 441. For 
the 'Iftffres for the musters,' cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 712. A 'brout,' or 
moment of time (Halliwell). 'Raguseys' or ships of Ragusa in 
Dalmatia. ' Mr. Gonson,' William Gonson, in charge of the King's 
ships ; cf. Cal. xiv. (ii) 213. ' Mr. Morrison,' Richard Morrison, a 
friend of Cromwell's who had just published a violent invective 
against the treasons of Pole, Exeter, and Nevill; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 401. 

299. Cf. Life, pp. 249-50, and Letters 295, 300. 'This honest 
affaire, ' the Cleves match. ' The Comes de Aquila,' William, Ixrd 
Bedber, Count of Aquila Nova, ambassador from Cleves to England 
in 1531 ; cf. Cal. v. 497, 563, 762. ' His paynter Lucas ' Cranach ; 
A.D.B. iii. 559. 'The duchesse,' of Milan. 'Therle of Nassau,' 
William the Rich; A.D.B. xliii. 129. 'Therle Will ... a Furstem- 
burg,' in the French service ; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 535 ; xiv. (ii) 300 ; and 
Cal. Span. vi. (i), p. 180. For an account of the Diet at Frankfort, 
cf. Baumgarten, iii. 349-60. 

300. Cf. Life, pp. 249-50, and Letters 295, 299. ' Reyner W,' 
probably Reyner Wolfe, printer and agent of Cromwell's ; cf. Cal. 
xiv.(ii) 7 8i(f. 63). 

301. Cf. Life, pp. 210-1, 251, and notes to Letters 291, 293. 

302. ' The late Abbot of Wigmore ' (Austin Abbey in Hereford- 
shire) was John Smart ; cf. Tanner, Hereford, xxi, and Dugdale, vi. 
344- 

303. Cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 672. Sir Edmund Knyvett of Buckenham, 
Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk ; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 672, and D.N.B. .\\.\i. 
338. ' Mr. Southwel,' Richard Southwell, Receiver of the Augmenta- 
tions, afterwards knight and Privy Councillor; D.N.B. liii. 292. 
Portrait, by Holbein, now in the Uffizi : a copy (probably) in the 
Ix>uvre. ' Maistr Wyndam,' Sir Edmund Wyndham, a follower of 
the Duke of Norfolk ; cf. Cal. xiv. (ii) 572. The election apparently 
ended in a riot, but Southwell and Wyndham were returned ; cf. Cal. 
xiv. (i) 800, 808. 

304. Cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 560, and notes to Letter 294. 

305. For the 'newes from the man of Antwerp,' cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 
741. The 'Fowlkers' (Fuggers) and 'Welsers,' the great German 
bankers. On their loans to the Emperor, cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 298, 560, 
741 (2). ' Themperesse ' died May i, 1539. On 'the popes desires' 
that the Emperor discontinue diplomatic relations with England, 
cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 13. ' Petro Bembo,' Cardinal; B.U. iii. 613. 'The 
Iff/fres fro Rome ' must have been sent, not received, March 24. 

306. Cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 560. 

307. Vaughan's letters, Cal. xiv. (i) 767. 'Leynham,' probably 
a priest. ' Senes,' Sienna. ' Creutziger,' Caspar Cruciger, the Pro- 
testant divine; A.D.B. iv. 621. 'Oziander,' Andrew Osiander; 
A.D.B. xxiv. 473. On 'Anthony Rouse' and 'S/> Edward Iching- 
ham's doughter,' cf. CaJ. xiv. (i) 693, 764, 765. 



NOTES TO LETTERS 309 

309. The 'Instructions for Mr. Sadleyer,' Cal. xiv. (i) 771 (2). 
On the dismissal of ' the hulkw ... in holad,' cf. Froude, vol. iii. 
pp. 319-23. 'The Lady,' Anne of Cleves. For 'the exchange 
of CLM 1 dV cf. notes to Letter 305. ' Andelo,' Jean d'Andalot, the 
Emperor's Master of Horse ; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 550, and note i to p. 390 
of the same. ' Andreas de Auria ' or Doria, the Genoese admiral 
and statesman; B.U. xi. 233. 'Solemont,' Thomas Soulemont, 
French secretary to Henry VIII; D.N.B. liii. 271. 'Monsieur 
de Rangon,' or de Rincon, French ambassador with the Turk ; cf. Cal. 
xiv. (i) 1229. 'Castro nouo,' or Castelnovo, taken from the Turks 
Oct. 27, 1538, retaken Aug. 7, 1539. 'The Sophy,' Soft, or Shah of 
Persia. Lorenzo Gritti, natural son of Andrea Gritti, Doge of Venice 
(died Jan. 1539), was sent as ambassador to the Turk, and died in 
Constantinople in 1539. ' Bassas,' or Pashas, viceroys of Turkish 
provinces. Chantilly (25 miles north-east of Paris) was the ancestral 
seat of the Montmorencys. ' Another gewtilman,' Baumbach ; see 
Life, p. 256. ' The duk,' John Frederic of Saxony. 

310. Cf. Life, p. 272, and notes to Letters 291, 293, 299. 
' Enchiridion,' probably the Enchiridion Militis Christian! by 
Erasmus, published in 1503. 

311. It is possible that this letter has been misplaced, though the 
Calendar gives it as of 1539. Wotton and Vaughan were certainly 
on the Continent in April of that year. Dr. John Hewis or Hughes, 
an agent of Cromwell's, employed in the suppression of the monas- 
teries; cf. Cal. xiv. (ii) 542, 565. He also acted as one of the King's 
counsel in the trial of the Divorce before Cranmer in 1533. 

312. Cf. Life, pp. 161-4. The letter of the council and the 
depositions are apparently not extant. 'My lorde Chambrelayn,' 
William Lord Sandes, Captain of Guisnes. His letters, Cal. xiv. (i) 
954, 998, 999. Ioo8 IOI 5- 

313. Cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 1039. Thomas Palmer, Cromwell's servant, 
not the Knight Porter of Calais. ' The barbo//r of Marke,' Jacob 

, a Fleming at Calais. He and ' Raf Hare ' were Sacramentaries ; 

cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 1219. 

314. Cf. Life, 161-4, and xiy. (i) 1058. 'The parishe preste,' 
"William Smith, curate of Our Lady Church at Calais. 

315. 'Mr. Porter,' Sir Thomas Palmer, Knight Porter of Calais; 
D.N.B. xliii. 160. ' Mr. Palmer,' his brother Henry, Spear of Calais, 
Bailly of Guisnes. On their quarrel, cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 1243, 1265, 
1296, 1299. 

316. Cf. Cal. xii. (ii) 481, 930, 1271 ; xiii. (i) 588; xiv. (i) 1129, 
1134-5, 1141, 1208, 1236, 1261, 1301, 1316; xiv. (ii) 656, 779; 
xv. 841, 902; xvi. 12; and Life, p. 299. ' Monsieur de la Rochipot,' 
Francois de Montmorency, governor of Picardy, brother of the 
Constable. One of his ships, captained by the Sieur de Beaucourt, 
had captured, in Aug. 1537, a vessel belonging to Hans Luben of 
Hamburg, enjoying the privileges of the Hansa. Luben and five 



310 NOTES TO LETTERS 

of his men were detained by the Frenchmen, who took his ship, with 
the intention of sailing it to Scotland. But the vessel (either weather- 
driven or else recaptured by ' Favour and Milketon,' two shipmasters 
of Newcastle) went ashore at Whitby, and the requests of Francis and 
his council (transmitted by their envoy the Sieur d'Ampont) that the 
matter be ' renvoyed ' for trial to France were refused, on the ground 
that the ship and goods were in an English port. ' Declinator/am ' 
(cf. French ' declinatoire '), an exception taken against a judge or 
jurisdiction. ' Soulemount ' ; cf. notes to Letter 309. ' Oteland,' in 
Surrey. 

317. Cf. notes to Letter 316. 

318. Cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 1154, and notes to Letter 168. '[M]aister 
Arundell,' Sir Thomas Arundell, High Bailiff of Salisbury, Receiver 
of the Augmentations, Commissioner of the Peace in Dorset ; cf. Cal. 
xiv. (ii) 619 (56). 

319. 'John Wynter,' merchant of Bristol ; cf. notes to Letter 190, 
and Cal. xiv. (ii) 1147. 'Gonston,' William Gonson, employed in 
rigging and repairing the King's ships. 

320. Sir Thomas Pope, knight, founder of Trinity College, 
Oxford; D.N.B. xlvi. 135. 

321. Sir William Paget, knight, Clerk of the Signet, afterwards 
Privy Councillor, and Baron Paget of Beaudesert; D.N.B. xliii. 
60. 'Mr. Brereton,' Sir William Brereton ; cf. Life, p. 154. 'Mr. 
Griffith,' Edward Griffith, one of the Council in Ireland. 'Edwarde 
Dudley,' son of John, Ix>rd Dudley, and Cecily, sister of Lord 
Leonard Grey ; cf. CaJ. xiv. (ii) 311. On Wyndham, Huberdyn and 
Blechinden, cf. Cal. xiv. (ii) 6 1 6. ' Mr. Brabazon,' William Brabazon ; 
D.N.B. vi. 138. 

322. Cf. Cal. xiv. (ii) 392. 

323. Cf. Cal. xiv. (ii) 387. ' The Chauncelor Olesleger,' Dr. Henry 
Olisleger, Vice-Chancellor of Cleves, who accompanied Anne of 
Cleves to England. 

324. Cf. Life, pp. 260-1. 

325. Cf. Life, p. 143, and Davis, pp. 82-6. 

326. John Longland, Bishop of Lincoln and Chancellor of the 
University of Oxford; D.N.B. xxxiv. 120. 'Yoi/r Chauncelor,' 
Christopher Massingberd; cf. Le Neve, ii. 93. On 'the parishe 
prest of Homecastell ' in Lincolnshire, cf. Cal. xiv. (ii) 214. 

328. Cf. notes to letter 316. 

329. Cf. Life, p. 262; D.N.B. xix. 231 ; and Chronicle of Calais, 
pp. 47, 167-9. Southampton's letter of Dec. 21 is apparently not 
extant. ' Richardson ' and ' thother,' William Richardson, priest (cf. 
notes to Letter 194), and William Peterson, formerly Commissary in 
Calais under Warham ; both were executed April 10, 1540, on the 
charge of treason ; cf. note on p. 266 of Cal. xiv. (ii). 

330. Cf. Cal. xiv. (ii) 702, 734, and Life, p. 159. Sir Thomas 



NOTES TO LETTERS 311 

Wharton, Deputy Warden of the West Marches, Sheriff of Cumber- 
land ; D.N.B. Ix. 413. 'The lorde Maxwell,' Robert Lord Maxwell, 
Scottish Warden of the West Marches; D.N.B. xxxvii. 132. 

331. Lisle's letters are apparently not extant. 

333. I have been unable to find the letters and the 'boke of 
munic/bns ' mentioned. 

334. The President of the North, Robert Holgate, Bishop of 
Llandaff. He succeeded Tunstall as President of the Council of the 
North in June, 1538, and later became Archbishop of York ; D.N.B. 
xxvii. 128. 

335. Cf. Cal. xv. 353, and notes to Letter 168. 

336. William, Lord Sturton or Stourton, Commissioner of the 
Peace in Somerset; cf. Cal. xv. 282 (9). 'Yewill,' or Yeovil, in 
Somerset. 

337. Richard Rawlyns (which may be an alias for Smith) was vicar 
of Llangan in 1540, according to the Valor Ecclesiasticus, iv. 410; 
cf. note at the bottom of p. 94 of Cal. xv. ' The bailif ther,' Thomas 
Webbe ; the name is erased in the MSS. 

338. Cf. Life, p. 284, and Pref. to Cal. xv. pp. iv-xii. 'The 
qwene of Navarre,' Margaret of Angouleme, sister of Francis I ; 
B.U. xxvi. 552. The 'Duk of Orleauns,' Charles, younger son of 
Francis I. 'Madame Destampes,' Anne de Pisseleu, daughter 
of the Sieur d'Heilly, wife of the Duke d'Estampes and mistress of 
Francis I ; B.U. xiii. 91. 

339. Nesam, Nesham or Neasham, Benedictine nunnery in 
Durham (Tanner places it wrongly in Northumberland) ; Joanna 
Lawson, Abbess ; cf. Tanner, Northld., xxii ; Dugdale, iv. 548. 
'James lawson,' Alderman of Newcastle; cf. Cal. xiv. (i) 652 
(M 15). 

340. Cf. Cal. xv. 315, 320, and Preface to Cal. xv. p. xxiii. 'The 
Cardinal of Lorrien,' John, brother of Duke Anthony of I^orraine, 
Archbishop of Rheims, and High Chamberlain of France. 'The 
legate for Farneze,' Alexander Earnese, Cardinal, son of Pier Luigi 
Farnese, Duke of Castro, grandson of Pope Paul III, sent as Papal 
emissary to the meeting of Charles V and Francis I. ' His Gouemor 
Marssellw,' Cardinal Marcello Cervini, of Monte Pulciano in Tus- 
cany, Bishop of Nicastro, Chief Secretary to the Pope ; afterwards 
Pope Marcellus II. At ' the treating at P<rrpynyon,' in January, 1538, 
a six-months' truce was arranged between deputies of Charles V and 
Francis I; cf. Cal. xiii. (i) 69. 'The King of Romaynez,' Fer- 
dinand, brother of Charles V; A.D.B. vi. 632. 'Madame de 
Navarre ' ; cf. notes to Letter 338. ' The Duke of Alva,' Ferdinand 
Alvarez de Toledo, statesman and general ; B.U. i. 313. 

341. Cf. Cal. xv. 353, and notes to Letter 168. 

342. Strangways, Horsey, and Paulet, Commissioners of the Peace 



312 



NOTES TO LETTERS 



for the Western Circuit ; Fitzjames and Gilbert, for Somerset ; cf. Cal. 
xv. 282 (5 and 9). 

343. Sadler was made one of the two principal Secretaries to the 
King in April, 1540; cf. D.N.B. 1. 210. His letter, Cal. xv. 468. 
Wyatt's letters, Cal. xv. 448, 462. 'Mr. pate* arrived at the 
Emperor's Court, April 14, 1540; cf. Cal. xv. 530, and D.N.B. xliv. 
i o. ' The prince of Salern,' Ferdinand de San Severino, Prince of 
Salerno, visited England in July, 1540, 'to see the country,' as 
Marillac wrote ; cf. Cal. xv. 901. 

3.44. Cf. Cal. xiii. (ii) 645. ' Seynte Assaph,' in Flint ; master 
Sulyarde,' Sir William Sulyard, Justice there. 

345. Cf. I Jfe, p. 292, and Cal. xv. 582, 583,621, 622. ' S/r Gregorye ' 
Botolph, chaplain to I x>rd Lisle, accused of treason ; cf. Cal. xv. 478. 
' Rousseler,' or Roeselare, about 20 miles south of Bruges. 

346. John Capon, alias Salcot, Bishop of Salisbury, succeeded 
Shaxton in July, 1539; D.N.B. ix. 22. 

347. Sir George Lawson, Treasurer and Master of Ordnance at 
Berwick, member of the Council of the North. 'Mr. Bekw/th,' 
Leonard Bekwith, Receiver of the Augmentations in Yorkshire. 

348. Cf. Life, p. 296. ' Frognvrton,' Sir George Throgmorton, 
afterwards Sheriff of Worcestershire. 'Susan who was Falslye 
accusyd,' doubtless referring to the story of Susanna in the Apocrypha. 
' Maister Comptroller,' Sir William Kingston; D.N.B. xxxi. 186. 
' Her Lorde Chamb^rlayn,' Thomas Manners, Duke of Rutland ; 
D.N.B. xxxvi. 56. 

349-50. Cf. Cal. xv. 822, and Life, pp. 259-60, 263, 297. 
' Osleger,' Henry Olisleger, Vice-Chancellor of Cleves, and ambassa- 
dor to England, Jan. 1540. ' Hogeston,' Wernerus von Hoghestein, 
Chancellor and Hofmeister to the Duke of Cleves, accompanied 
Anne to England, 1539-40. 'The Erll of Essex,' Henry Bourchier, 
killed by a fall from his horse in March, 1539-40 ; cf. D.N.B. vi. 1 1. 

351. Cf. notes to Letter 316, and Life, p. 299. 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES 



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The same. New ed. 1852. 

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Chronique du Roy Franc.oys, Premier de ce nom. Ed. Georges GuifTrey. 

1860. 
COKE, Sir Edward. The fourth part of the institutes of the laws of 

England ; concerning the jurisdiction of Courts. Third ed. 1671. 
Collectanea Curiosa, or miscellaneous tracts relating to the history and 

antiquities of England and Ireland, &c., from the manuscripts of 

Archbishop Bancroft. Ed. John Gutch. 2 vols. Oxford, 1781. 

COLLIER, Jeremy. An ecclesiastical history of Great Britain. 2 vols. 

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Commentaires de Charles-Quint. Ed. Baron Kervyn de Lettenhove. 

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DEMAUS, R. William Tyndale. Ed. Richard Lovett. 1886. 
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Dixox, R. W. History of the Church of England from the abolition of 

the Roman jurisdiction. Third ed. 4 vols. London, 1895. 
Dixox, William Hepworth. History of two Queens, (i) Catherine of 

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DOYLE, James E. The official baronage of England, 1066-1885. 3 vols. 

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DRAYTON, Michael. The history of the life and death of the Lord 

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Henry Ellis, and Rev. Bulkeley Bandinel. 6 vols. 1830. 
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Foedera, conventiones, literae, &c. Ed. Thomas Rymer. 20 vols. 1704- 

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Fourth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts. 1877. 
FOXE, John. The second volume of the ecclesiastical history, containing 

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FREYBERG, M. v. See Herzog Philippen Leben. 
FRIEDMANN, Paul. Anne Boleyn, 1527-1536. 2 vols. 1884. 
FROUDE, J. A. History of England from the fall of Wolsey to the death ' 

of Elizabeth. 12 vols. New York, 1868. 

The divorce of Catherine of Aragon. 1891. 
GAILLARD, Gabriel Henri. Histoire de Francois Premier, Roi de France. 

4 vols. 1819. 
GAIRDNER, James. Mary and Anne Boleyn ; The age of Anne Boleyn. 

(English Historical Review, vols. viii and x.) 1893 and 1895. 

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GALTON, Arthur. The character and times of Thomas Cromwell. 

Birmingham. 1887. 
GASQUET, Francis Aidan. Henry VIII and the English monasteries. 

New ed. 2 vols. S. d. 

The last Abbot of Glastonbury and his 

companions. 1895. 

GNEIST, Rudolf. Englische Verfassungsgeschichte. Berlin, 1882. 
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HALLIWELL, James Orchard. A dictionary of archaic and provincial 

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HEIDRICH, Paul Der geldrische Erbfolestreit. (Beitrage rurdeutschen 

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F. Keutgen; I. Serie, I. Heft.) Kassel, 1896. 
HERBERT OF CHERBURV, Edward, Lord. A complete history of England. 

Vol. ii, the history of King Henry VIII. 1706. 
Herzog Philippen Leben und Sterben, kurz verzeichnet durch seinen 

13 ruder Ottheinrich. (Vol. iv of M. v. Freyberg's Sammlung 

historischer Schriftcn und Urkunden.) Stuttgart and Tubingen, 

1827-36. 
HOLINSHED, Ralph. Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

6 vols. 1808. 
HUME, David. History of England. Continued by T. S. Hughes. 18 

vols. 1854. 
Introductions and prefaces to letters and papers, foreign and domestic, 

of the reign of Henry VIII. By J. S. Brewer and James Gairdner. 

18 vols. 1862-1901. 

Journal of the House of Lords. Official ed. Vol. i. 
KAULEK, Jean ; see Correspondance. 
KERVYN de Lettenhove ; see Commentaires. 

LAFSLEY, G. T. The problem of the North. (American Historical 
Review, voL v.) 1900. 

I.K NEVE, John. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae. Ed. T. Duffus Hardy. 

3 vols. Oxford. 1854. 
LENZ, Max. Briefwechsel Landgraf Philipps des Grossmiithigen von 

Hessen mit Bucer. (Publicationen aus den K. Pr. Staatsarchiven.) 

3 vols. 1880-91. 
Letters and papers, foreign and domestic, of the reign of Henry VI II. 

Edd. J. S. Brewer, James Gairdner, and R. H. Brodie. 18 vols. 

1862-1901. [Cited throughout as Cal.] 

Ltttres et me'moires d'estat. Ed. Guillaume Ribier. 2 vols. 1666. 
LEWIS, John. The life of Dr. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester. 

Introduction by T. Hudson Turner. 2 vols. 1855. 

Life and death of Thomas Lord Cromwell, the true chronicle history of 
the whole. Erroneously attributed to Shakespeare. 1613. 

LJNGARD, John. A history of England from the first invasion by the 

Romans. Third ed. 14 vols. 1825. 
Lords' Journal ; see Journal. 
MACHIAVELLI, Niccol6. 11 Principe. Ed. L. Arthur Burd Oxford, 

1891. 
MANNING, Owen. The history and antiquities of the county of Surrey. 

Continued by William Bray. 3 vols. 1804-14. 
MARTIN, Henri. Histoire de France. Fourth ed. 1885. 

MENDES SILVA, Rodrigo. Parangon de los dos Cromueles de Inglatcrra. 
Madrid, 1657. 

MIGNET, M. Rivalite* de Francois I et Charles-Quint. Third ed. 
2 vols. 1886. 

MOORE, Norman. The death of Katherine of Aragon. London Athenaeum, 
nos. 2988, 2992. 1885. 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES 317 

NOBLE, Mark. Memoirs of the Protectoral House of Cromwell. Third 

ed. 2 vols. 1787. 
NOTT, Geo. Fred. Memoirs of the life of Sir Thomas Wyatt. (Vol. ii 

of the Works of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, and Sir Thomas 

Wyatt the Elder.) 1816. 
Original letters illustrative of English history. Ed. Sir Henry Ellis. 

Second series, 4 vols. ; third series, 4 vols. 1827-46. [Cited 

throughout as Ellis.] 
Parliamentary Papers. Vol. Ixii, part I, Members of Parliament, 1213- 

1702. 1878. 
PAULI, Reinhold. Cardinal Wolsey und das Parlament von 1523. 

(Historische Zeitschrift, vol. xxi.) Munich, 1869. 

Thomas Cromwell, der Hammer der Monche. (Auf- 
satze zur Englischen Geschichte, pp. 293-341.) 
1883. 
PHILLIPS, John. The Cromwell family. Antiquary, vol. ii. 1880. 

The Cromwells of Putney. Antiquarian Magazine and 
Bibliographer, vol. ii. 1882. 

PHILLIPS, Thomas. The history of the life of Reginald Pole. Oxford, 1764. 

PINKERTON, John. The history of Scotland from the accession of the 

house of Stuart to that of Mary. 2 vols. 1797. 
POLE, Reginald. Apologia ad Carolum Quintum Caesarem. Epistolarum 

pars I. Brescia, 1744. 
Prefaces ; see Introductions. 

RANKE, Leopold von. Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation. 
. Sammthche Werke, vols. i-vi. Fourth ed. 1867. 

Die romischen Piipste in den letzten vier Jahr- 
hunderten. Sammtliche Werke, vols. xxxvii- 
xxxix. Fourth ed. 1867. 

REEVES, John. History of English law. Ed.W. F. Finlason. 3 vols. 1869. 
RlBlER, Guillaume ; see Lettres et me'moires. 
ROBERTSON, William. History of the reign of Charles V. Continuation 

by William H. Prescott. 2 vols. S. d. 
ROGERS, James E. Thorold. A history of agriculture and prices in 

England. 6 vols. Oxford, 1882. 
ROPER, William. The life of Sir Thomas More. Ed. J. R. Lumby. 

(Pitt Press Series.) Cambridge, 1897. 
ROUND, J. H. The early life of Anne Boleyn. 1886. 
RUDING, Rogers. Annals of the coinage of Great Britain and its 

dependencies. Third ed. 3 vols. 1840. 
RYMER, Thomas ; see Foedera. 

SCHAEFER, Dietrich. Die Hansestadte und KSnig Waldemar von Dane- 
mark. Jena, 1879. 
SCHANZ, Georg. Englische Handelspolitik gegen Ende des Mittelaltcrs. 

2 vols. 1 88 1. 
SECKENDORFF, V. L. Commentarius historicus et apologeticus de 

Lutheranismo, 1517-46. Leipzig, 1794. 
SHAKESPEARE, William. King Henry VIII. 
SLEIDAN, J. De statu religionis et reipublicae, Carolo Quinto Caesare, 

commentarii. Ed. J. G. Bohme. 3 vols. Frankfurt am Main, 1786. 



318 LIST OF AUTHORITIES 

SMITH, A. L. The Pilgrimage of Grace. (Vol. iii of Social England. 

Ed. H. D. Traill.) 1897. 
SOAMES, Henry. The history of the Reformation of the Church of 

England. 4 vols. 1826-8. 
Spanish Calendar ; see undtr Calendar. 
State Papers. King Henry VIII. n vols. 1830-52. 
Statutes of the Realm. Edd. A. Luders, T. E. Tomlins, and others. 

II vols, 1810-28. 

STOW, John. The chronicles of England from Brute vnto this present 
yeare of Christ. 1580. 

A survay of London. 1603. 
STRYPE, John. Ecclesiastical memorials. 3 vols. Oxford, 1822. 

Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer. 2 vols. Oxford, 
1812. 

S TUBES, William. The constitutional history of England in its origin 

and development. (Clarendon Press Series.) Sixth ed. 3 vols. 

Oxford, 1897. 

Seventeen lectures on the study of mediaeval and 

modern history. Third ed. Oxford, 1900. 
Sylloge epistplarum a variis Angliae principibus scriptarum. (Titi Livii 

Foro-Juliensis vita Henrici Quinti, Regis Angliae. Ed. Thomas 

Hearne.) Oxford, 1716. 
TANNER, Thomas. Notitia monastica. Ed. James Nasmith. Cambridge, 

1787. 
THOMAS, William. The Pilgrim ; a dialogue of the life and actions of 

King Henry VIII. Ed. J. A. Froude. 1861. 
Three chapters of letters relating to the suppression of the monasteries. 

Ed. Thomas Wright. (Camden Soc.) 1843. 

ULMANN, Heinrich. Kaiser Maximilian I. 2 vols. Stuttgart, 1884. 
Valor ecclesiasticus, temp. Hen. VIII, auctoritate regia institutus. 6 vols. 

1810-34. 

Venetian Calendar ; see under Calendar. 
WAITZ, Georg. Liibeck unter Jiirgen Wullenwever und die Europ.iische 

Politik. 3 vols. Berlin, 1855-6. 
W ILK INS, David ; see Concilia. 
WILSON, H. A. Magdalen College. (Oxford University College Histories.) 

1899. 

WOOD, Anthony a. Fasti Oxonienses. Ed. Philip Bliss. 1815. 
WORDSWORTH, Christopher. Cromwell, Earl of Essex. (Vol. ii of 

Ecclesiastical Biography.) 1818. 
WRIGHT, Thomas ; see Three chapters of letters. 
WKIOTHESLEY, Charles, Windsor Herald. A chronicle of England, 

1484-1559. Ed. William Douglas Hamilton. (Camden Soc.) 2 vols. 

1875. 



INDEX 



[The figures in ordinary type refer to page numbers; those in 
heavy type to letter numbers. Page numbers, save when preceded by 
the Roman numeral ii, or when placed in parentheses after letter 
numbers 135-351, refer to the first volume. Names of streets, build- 
ings, and smaller localities are placed under the heading of the town 
in which they are ; e.g. Stourbridge Fair under Cambridge ; Gray's Inn 
under London. 



Abbeville, 193. 

Abingdon, Berks., a popish monk 

of, 248. 
Accountants to the Council of the 

North, 284. 
Act of Succession, see Succession, 

Act of. 
Adamson, John, Prior of Coxford, 

1 68; letter to, 180. 
Admiral, the, see Southampton, 

Earl of. 
Admiralty (' Amyralte '), the Judge 

of the, 351. 
Adriatic Sea, 260. 
Aigues Mortes, 237-8. 
Albany, John Stuart, Duke of, 27. 
Albein, Hanze, see Holbein, Hans. 
AlceterAbbey, Warwickshire, 1 68. 
Alcock, John, Mayor of Canter- 
bury, 126-7. 
Ale, Assize of, 3. 
Alehouses, see Taverns. 
Alemayn, see Germany. 
Alen, see Allen. 
Alexander VI, Pope, 229. 
Allen, or Alen, Dr. John, Archbp. 

of Dublin, 50, 149-52,8?. 
Allen or Alen, John, Master of 

the Rolls in Ireland, 149. 
Allen or Aleyn, John, alderman 

of London, 3. 

Allen or Alen, Thomas, brother 

of John, Archbishop of Dublin, 
80 ; letter to, 47. 

Almaine, see Germany. 



Alva, Ferdinand Alvarez de 
Toledo, Duke of, 340 (255). 

Alvard, Thomas, 62, 68, 36. 

Amicable Loan, 78, 80. 

Amiens (' Amyans '), treaty belli 
offensivi ratified at, 127-8. 

Amos the Prophet, quoted, 68 

(375-6). 

Ampont, le Sieur d', 816. 

Ampthill,Bedfordshire,HenryVIII 
* (53o)i 18 (333) ; letters dated 
from, 203-5. 

Andelot, Jean d', the Emperor's 
Master of the Horse, 309. 

Andrew, a ship called the, 90. 

Androwe, William, of Great Ri- 
borough, Norfolk, 246. 

Anenyan, Peter van, 345. 

Angouleme, Charles, Duke of, 
third son of Francis I ; later 
(1536) Duke of Orleans, 224-5, 
236, 170, 838. 

Angus (' Anguishe '), Archibald 
Douglas, Earl of, 174. 

Annates, Act of, 114, 133-4, 28. 

Anne of Cleves, 244, 259, 261, 
265, 285, 291, 296-9, 287, 
309 (217), 323, 829, 348-9; 
description of her, 261-2, 299; 
her portrait by Holbein, 
262 ; her arrival at Calais, 
262 ; her journey from 
Canterbury to Greenwich, 263 ; 
Henry VIII's first impression of 
her, 263 ; letter to her brother 



INDEX 



William, Duke of Clevcs, 298 ; 

her divorce, 297-300. 
Antwerp, 10, 24, 85, 140, 203. 

305 (211-2); mention of letters 

dated at, 64, 219, 21. 
Appeals, Act of, 113-4. 
Appowell, Thomas, of Calais, 90. 
Ap-Rice, John, see Rice, John ap. 
Aquila, William, Lord Bedber, 

Count of, 200. 
Archers, the King's, 293. 
Arches, Court of, 105-6. 
Ardren, John, 27. 
Ardres, near Calais, 290. 
Armouries, 288. 

Armuyden (' Hannywe *), in Zea- 
land, 74. 

Arondell, Thomas, letter to, 7. 
Arragosco, a poor man of, 7. 
Arthur, Prince of Wales, eldest son 

of Henry VII (died 1502), 298 n. 
Articles, a book of, sent to the 

Princess Mary to sign, 150. 
Articles of Faith, the, in English, 

150 (26), 273. 
Articles, the Six, of 1539, 163, 

2 47 253-5, *59- 6 . 264, 269, 

276, 286-7, 36; Cranmer's 

book against, 25, 255 n. 
Articles, the Ten, of 1536, 130-1, 

204, 234, 239, 150 (28-9). 
Arundel, Sir Thomas, High 

Bailiff of Salisbury, 318. 
Ascugh. Sir Christopher, Gentle- 
man Usher, letter to Cromwell, 

1 86. 
Aske, Robert, 189-93, 195,180 ; 

hanged at York, 103. 
Assher, see Esher. 

Aste, , 256 n. 

Athequa, George, Bishop of 

Llandaff, Queen Katherine's 

confessor, 228, 141. 
Attainder, Acts or Bills of, 70, 

210, 282, 295, 300* 
Audience, Court of, 105-6. 
Auditor to the Council of the 

North, office of, 284. 
Audley, Sir Thomas, Keeper of 



the Great Seal, Speaker, Lord 
High Chancellor, 18. 96, 120, 
126, 186, 232, 36, 68, 65. 1O7, 
250, 278, 207, 340-50 ; letter 
from him and Cromwell to the 
Bailiffs of Weymouth, 48 ; letter 
from him and Cromwell to the 
Mayor and Commonalty of 
Cambridge, 106 ; letter from him 
and Cromwell to Sir John 
Russell and others, 100 ; letters 
to, 53, 85. 

Augmentations, Court of, 170-1. 

Augsburg, 305. 

Augsburg Confession, 247/7. 

Auria, Andreas de, see Doria. 

Austen, Nicholas, Abbot of 
Rewley, Oxford, 168. 

Austria, Archdukedom 0^37-9,42. 

Austria, House of, 93. 

Averey, John, 62. 

Averey, Thomas, 60. 

Avignon, 300 (219). 

Aylesford, Kent, House of the 
White Friars of, 280. 

Aylmer, Richard, chief Serjeant 
in the county of Kildare, 207. 

Babington, Sir Anthony, 228. 

Babington, John, son of Sir 
Anthony, letter to, 228. 

Babington, Sir John (' Maister 
Babington '), 8. 

Babington, Dame Katherine, 
widow of Sir Anthony, 228. 

Babington, Thomas, son and heir 
of Sir Anthony, 228. 

Balam, Sir Nicholas, priest, late 
monk of Henton, 318. 

Balbastro (' Barbastra'), in Spain, 
letter received at, 222, 224. 

Balliol College, see under Oxford. 

Bamborough Castle, Northumber- 
land, 210. 

Bandello, Matteo, 5, 8, 10; pas- 
sage from his 'Novelle,' 19-23. 

Bantry fasagh or forest (' fassaghe 
bentre *), in Ireland, 214. 

Barbary, 305 (211-2), 3O6. 



INDEX 



321 



Barbastra, see Balbastro. 
Barcelona, in Spain, 340 ; letters 
received at, 213, 229, 234, 238, 
241, 244, 260. 
Bareth, William, 52. 
Barking, Essex, 63. 

Barlow, William, afterwards 
Bishop of St. Davids, 157, 152. 

Barnaby, Thomas, courier, 240. 

Barnes, parish of, i. 

Barnes, Robert, English Ambassa- 
doratHamburg, 222,226,258-9, 
287-8, 300, 295 (188). 

Barnwell, the town of, now part of 
Cambridge, 206. 

Barnwell, Patrick, 203. 

Bartelet, Thomas, see Bartlett. 

Bartholomew, Rouge Croix pur* 
suivant, see Butler, Bartholomew. 

Bartlett, Thomas, the King's 
printer, 85. 

Barton, Elizabeth (the Nun of 
Kent, the Holy Maid, 'the 
Ipocryte Nunne'), 118-20, 208, 
52, 65, 68. 

Bashe, Edward, deputy or clerk 
to John Russell, in the Marches 
of Wales, 282. 

Bassas, or Pashas, viceroys of 
Turkish provinces, 809. 

Bath, Somerset, 167. 

Battersea, 13, 18 (332). 

Baumbach, Ludwig von, a Coun- 
cillor of the Landgrave of Hesse, 
256-9, 264-6, 286, 309(219), 
310 ; report by him and Franz 
Burckhard of their embassy to 
England in 1539, 272-7; 
account of his journey to Eng- 
land in 153940, 277-80. 

Bavaria, Duke Otto Henry of 
(' Ottheinrich'), 269. 

Bavaria, Duke Philip of ('den 
pfalzgrauen '), 267-71, 279. 

Bavaria, Dukes of, of the Pala- 
tinate branch, mention of the 
King's letter to, 64. 

Bavaria, William, Elector of, 
money lent to, by the King, 127. 



Bawon, the new, see New Bawn. 
Baxter (' Backster '), Robert, clerk 

of the Common Bench, 96. 
Bayly, John, Prior of Wenlock, 

letters to, 72, 184. 
Baynham, Bartholomew, a servant 

of Cromwell, 67. 
Baynham, Robert, of Calais, 67. 
Baynton ('Benton'), Sir Richard, 

297 ; Isabella, his wife, 297. 
Beacons, 188, 252, 298 (197). 
Bear-baiting on the Thames, 25, 

255 

Beaucourt, le Sieur de, 328. 
Beck, Edward, 205. 
Becket, St. Thomas a, Archbishop 

of Canterbury, printed life of, 1 76. 
Bedford, county of, 6. 
Bedford, Earl of, see Russell, Sir 

John. 
Bedgbury, near Gondhurst, Kent, 

letter dated from, 272. 
Beese, Sir Thomas, vicar of South- 
stoke, Somersetshire, 191. 
Beeston, Thomas, letter to, 45. 
Begham, Kent, 2 ; letter dated 

from, 2. 

Bekwith, Leonard, 188, 347. 
Bell, Alexander, 33O. 
Bellay, John du, Bishop of 

Bayonne, and later of Paris, 

Cardinal, 18, 122. 
Bellay, William du, Sieur de 

Langey, brother of the preced- 
ing, 113 (419). 
Bellyssis, Richard, 51. 
Belthrop, manor of, Yorkshire, 27. 
Bembo, Pietro, Cardinal, 305. 
Benton, see Baynton. 
Beowulf, 125 n. 
Berde, Richard, 295 (187), 300 

(206), 309. 

Berg, Duchy of, 245-7 297. 
Berkeley Herons (' Barklay 

hoornes '), Gloucestershire, letter 

dated from, 112. 
Berks., county of, 6. 
Berners, John Bourchier,Lord,5i, 

1 60. 



MKRRIK.VN. II 



INDEX 



Berwick-on-Twecd, 347. 
Beryer, Thomas, Warden of the 

Grey Friars of Blots. 24. 
Bcton, David, Abbot of Arbroath, 

Cardinal, 1 59, 226. 
Bettys, James, officer of the 

Customs at Southampton, letter 

to him and Richard Palshid, 

181. 

Beverley, 178. 
Bible in English, 130-3, 266. 

273. 
Bigod, Sir Francis, 194-5, 205, 

188-0. 
Bilbao ('Bylbowe'). in Biscay, 

Spain, letter addressed to, 1. 
Birlington, see Bridlington. 
Birmingham (' brymedgham '), 

John, of Ireland, 213. 
Biscay, 27, 1, 190. 
Bishoprics, erection of new, 178; 

right of presentation during va- 
cancy of, 277. 
Bishops (the ' Prelattes '), 97, 

114-5, 66, 244, 305, 19; 

committee of, 254 ; jurisdiction 

of the, 1 1 5-6 ; Prohibitory Letter 

to the, 115, 167. 
Blacket, John, Vicar of Ilderton, 

Northumberland, 334. 
Blagg, Mr., 289. 
Blakamore, Essex, 48. 
Blechinden, William, 321. 
Blois, Grey Friars of, 24. 
Blood of Hailes, 174. 
Blundell, Elizabeth, wife of 

William, 327. 
Blundell, William, of Cheshire, 

327. 
Bodenham or Bodman, Cecilia, 

Abbess of Wilton, letter to, 

115. 
Bodyc, William, Cromwell's 

servant, 62, 177 (45), 179; a 

remembrance for him concerning 

his journey into Ireland, 179. 
Boleyn, Anne, Queen of England 

('la dame'), 17, 64, 70-1, 82-3, 

92, 98, 113-4, 117-8, 129-30, 



M4, 151. '03. 217. 232-3 -jo6. 

13 ; account of her arrest, 147. 
Boleyn, George, Viscount Roch- 

ford, 72, 94; committed to the 

Tower, 147. 
Boleyn, Mary, 82. 
Boleyn, Sir Thomas, see Wiltshire, 

Earl of. 

Bolle, Thadeus, courier. 145. 
Bologna, 25, 75, 93, 216. 122 

(427). 

Bolt, Robert, 8. 

Bonner, Edmund, Archdeacon of 
Leicester, Bishop of Hereford. 
Bishop of London, 73, 86, 
281-3, 177-8, 247. 250, 253, 
288, 297, 309 (217. 219). 317. 

351; letters to, 110. 293. 316; 
letter to Sir Thomas Wyatt. Dr. 
Haynes and him, 267 ; letter to 
Dr. Haynes and him. 265. 

Bonvell, Robert, merchant of 
Paris, 62. 

Bonvixi, Antonio, 281. 

Book for the*solace and consola- 
tion of Princes, 288. 

Bordeaux, detention of English 
ships at, 226, 126-8. 135. 

Borgia, Caesar, 229. 

Borough, Henry, letter to, 20. 

Boston, Lincolnshire, 10, 24, 52, 
174 .; letter addressed to, 138. 

Bothe, Lawrence, Bishop of 
Durham, Archbishop of York, 

18 (332). 
Botolph, Sir Gregory, chaplain to 

Lord Lisle, 346. 
Boulogne (' Bolayn '), 39. 
Bourbon, Charles, Duke of, 28, 

79- 

Bowen, , of Bristol, 190. 

Bowes, Robert, 192. 

Boxley Abbey, Kent, 174. 

Boxworth, , alms-man of 

Donington, 235. 

Brabazon, William, Vice-Trea- 
surer of Ireland, 51, 62, 152, 
179, 214, 321; letters to, 12, 
220. 



INDEX 



323 



Bracton, Henry de, 122 n. 

Bradley, Somerset, 342 (258). 

Brancetour, Robert, an English- 
man in the service of the 
Emperor, 282-3, 253. 

Brandenburg, Joachim, Elector of, 
256-7, 209. 

Brawne, John, 80. 

Brereton, Roger, Sheriff of Flint- 
shire, letter to him, 344 ; letter 
to Sir William Sullyard and him, 
277. 

Brereton, William, of the Privy 
Chamber, 147. 

Brereton, Sir William, Lord 
Deputy of Ireland, 154, 321. 

Brest, in Brittany, 298 (196). 

Breton pirates, 190. 

Brian, Sir Francis (' the Vicar of 
Hell'), 205, 235,126,137,147, 
149 (16), 163-6, 281; letter to 
Gardiner and him, 187 ; letter 
to Gardiner, Thirleby and him, 
258. 

Bridlington (' Birlington ') Priory, 
188 ; Prior of, see Wode. 

Brighton, Sussex, 29 n. 

Brion, Philip Chabot, Sieur de, 
Admiral of France, Ambassador 
to England, 224-5, 13e > 13 ; 
letter to, 98. 

Bristol, 19O. 

Brittany (' Bretayn'), 39, 41, 154, 
225. 

Brocke, Edmond, 117. 

Brockley (' Brokesley/ ' Brokleye '), 
or West Greenwich, in Kent, 
50-1. 

Broke, Sir Richard, Lord Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer, 7. 

Brokesley or Brokley, in the parish 
of Deptford, see Brockley, Kent. 

Bromehill Priory, 9. 

Bromham ('Brumham'), letters 
dated from, 114, 122. 

Browne, Sir Anthony, 260. 

Browne, George, Provincial of 
the Austin Friars, Archbishop of 
Dublin, 152, 176, 52, 179. 



Browne, Sir John. 162. 

Browne, John, of Louth, Lincoln- 
shire, 171. 

Brussels, 251. 

Bruton Abbey, Somerset, 35 ; 
Abbot of, see Elya. 

Brutus, or Brute, King of Britain, 
67. 

Bryges, John, 126-8, 148. 

' Brymedgham,' see Birmingham. 

Buckingham, county of, 6, 8. 

Bulkeley, Katherine, Abbess of 
Godstow, 177. 

Bulmer, Sir John, 188-9. 

Burbank, William, 48. 

Burbek, Robert, of Great Ri- 
borough, Norfolk, 246, 267. 

Burckhard, Franz ('Burgartus'), 
Vice-Chancellor of Saxony, 239, 
244, 249-50, 256-9, 261, 265, 
278-9, 287, 295. 299. 30O. 
309 (219), 31O ; report by him 
and Ludwig von Baumbach of 
their Embassy to England in 
1539. 272-7. 

Burges, John, President Elect of 
MagdalenCollege.Oxford ( 1 5 2 7 ), 
16. 

Burgundy (' Burgoyn '), 340. 

Burgundians (' bourgoynons '), 
army of the, 193. 

Burton, Henry, letter to, 96. 

Bury St. Edmund's, see St. Ed- 
mund's Bury. 

Butler family, 147, 153. 

Butler, Bartholomew, Rouge 
Croix pursuivant, 193, 222. 229. 

Butler, Edmund, Archbishop of 
Cashel, 214. 

Butler, Lord James, son of the 
Earl of Ossory, 208, 213-4, 220, 
225. 

Butler, John, Archbishop Cran- 
mer's Commissary at Calais, 162- 
3, 812, 314. 

Butler, Lady Katherine, widow, 
214. 

Butler, Richard, brother of Lord 
James Butler, 214. 



Y 2 



INDEX 



Butler, Sir Thomas, letter to, 167. 
Butrye, Maister. 3. 
Buttcs, Maister, 97. 
Button, William, Cromwell's 
servant, 283. 
' Byckeling/ manor of, 9. 
By got t. John, a murderer, 77. 
Byland, Abbot of, see Ledes. 
Byrd/ see Bcrde. 
Byrde, William, clerk, 335. 
Byrton, Mr., 6. 
' Byryn,' see O'Connor, Brian. 

Caistor, Lincolnshire, 185. 
Calais, 29 .. 102, 140, 147, 205, 

2 35> 2 5* 2 9< 44 . 55 - 8> 82 > 
84, 93, 99. 143, 26O, 263, 
268, 272, 292, 297-8 (198), 
314, 32O, 343, 345; account 
of the government of, 160-4; 
letters Addressed to, 44, 55, 
57. 60, 82, 84, 86, 93, 99, 
140, 155, 157, 192, 194-5, 
209, 245, 254, 260, 263, 
268-9, 271-2, 312-5, 322, 
331, 333; the Surveyor of, see 
Lelegrave, William; Lord De- 
puty of, see Lisle ; Mayor 
of, see Whethel; letter to the 
Mayor, Bailiffs, &c. of Dover 
and Calais, 183 ; the King's 
house called the Exchequer at, 
322; letter to the Council of, 
312. 

Caldwall. Nicholas, 82. 

Caltield, Humfrey, deputy to John 
Russell, in the Marches of 
Wales, 282. 

Calwich Priory (' Calliche,' ' Col- 
wyche'), Staffordshire, 22, 43. 

Cambray, 205, 189, 297; Dean 
of, 251 ; treaty of, 81, 214. 

Cambridge, 52-3, 142, 145, 
13, 19; the Tolbothe prison, 
116. 124, 129; St. Mary's 
church, 129; Stourbridge Fair, 
106, 116, 129; letters to the 
Mayor, Bailiffs, &c. of, 142, 
106, 116, 124, 129, 186, 206 ; 



Cromwell's scholars at, 53, 13. 
19 ; University of, 13, 106. 116, 
124, 129, 169 (27), 186, 2O6. 

Camerik, see Cambray. 

Camerino, Dukedom of, 243, 286 
(169-70, 172). 

Campion, Edward, Clerk of the 
Peace in Essex, 102. 

Camps, Park, Baillywick and town 
of, Cambridgeshire, 119. 

Canaples, Jean de Cre'quy, Sieur 
de, 193. 

Canbery, manor of, Middlesex, 
60-1, 299 . ; letters dated from, 
75, 81, 82. 

Canewood and Canefields, Essex, 
farm of, 89. 

Canterbury, 120, 262; letter to 
the Mayor, Sheriffs and com- 
monalty of, 148 ; Archbp. of, 
see Cranmer, Kempe, Morton, 
Warham ; Convocation of, 95 ; 
election of burgesses from, 126 
8 ; Prerogative Court of, 14 ; See 
of, i. 

Capon alias Salcot, John, Bishop 
of Salisbury, letter to, 346. 

Captain of the Guard, 293. 

Carbot, Dr., a kinsman of Crom- 
well, 17, 19. 

Cardinal's College, see under Ox- 
ford. 

Carew, mention of a letter dated 
at, 141. 

Carew, Francis, 96. 

Carew, Lady, 96. 

Carlingford, in the county of 
Louth, Ireland, 204, 211. 

Carlisle, 347. 

Carlow Castle (' Caterlaugh'),220, 
225. 

Carnaby, Sir Reynold, 227. 

Came, Sir Edward (' Kerne \ 
Ambassador, 299, 291 (182), 
295 (187), 301. 

Carpenter, Richard, 342 (258). 

Carpentras, in Provence, an. 

Carthusian monks, execution of, 
116, 118, 121. 



INDEX 



Casale, Sir Gregory da, letters to, 
100-1, 122. 

Castellcurr, in the county of Tip- 
perary, 22O. 

Castelnau, Antoine de, Bishop 
of Tarbes, French envoy to 
England, 244 (123-4). 

Castillon, Louis de Perreau, Sieur 
de, French Ambassador to Eng- 
land, 208-9, 235-6, 251-2, 290, 
244 (124), 258, 271, 288, 291 
(181), 293; letter to, 56. 

Castledermot('Thistleldormont'), 
in the county of Kildare, 220. 

'Castro Novo/or Castelnovo, 309. 

' Caterlaugh,' see Carlow. 

Catholicism, Catholick Faith, the 
Old Faith, 88, 92, 104, 182-3, 
254, 267, 301, 303, 305-6. 

Catholic League, 245. 

Cavendish family, 307. 

Cavendish, George, 13, 64-5, 67, 

69, 73-4, 35- 

Cavendish, Richard, 110, 177. 

Cavendish, William, letter to Dr. 
Legh and him, 278. 

Chabot, Philip, Sieur de Brion, 
see Brion. 

Chalcott, Walter, Sergeant-at- 
arms, 235. 

Chalke, the farm of, Wilts., 115. 

Chamberlain, the Lord,see Sandes. 

Chambers, Geoffrey, 10, 24, 174. 

Champneys, Henry, 318. 

Chancery, Court of, 114. 

Channel, the English, 141, 1789. 

Chanseler, Margaret, 117. 

Chantilly, 309 (218). 

Chapuys, Eustace, Imperial Am- 
bassador in England, 3, 7-12, 
75-6, 84, 86, 91-2, 94-5, 98, 
115, 120, 129, 135, 137, 144, 
M9-5I, 155, 167 ., 172, 186, 
188, 216-7, 219, 222-5, 228- 
33 ., 251, 295 ., 131, 145, 149 
(16), 193, 213, 229, 265, 291, 
296-8, 301 (208); letters to, 
117, 121, 158 ; passage from his 
letter to Granvelle, 5, 17. 



Charles V, Kingof Spain, Emperor, 
28, 31, 33-5, 39, 42, 77, 79-81, 

93-4, 135, MO, MS, 150-1, 161, 
205, 210-1, 2i4*-7, 219, 221, 
223-38, 240, 242-3, 245-50, 
252-4, 256-7, 259-61, 266-7, 
269-70, 273, 285, 290, 300, 306, 
18 (333), 10, 21 (339), 30, 
45, 56, 64-5, 117. 121, 136. 
145. 149, 158, 188 (58), 189. 
222-4, 226, 229, 234. 238. 
243 (iii), 244 (123-5), 261, 
265, 276, 281, 285-6 (170), 
288-9, 291 (180-1). 293-5 
(188-9), 296-7, 299-30O 
(205), 301, 305-6, 309 (217- 
8), 310 (221), 338, 34O, 343, 
345, 349 (2 70); attitude towards 
England changed by the death of 
Katherine, 229-33; at war with 
France, 233-4; at Paris with 
Francis I, 281-4; death of his 
second son, 18 (333). 

Charles the Bold, Duke of Bur- 
gundy (died 1477), 245- 

Charles, Duke of Orleans (1536), 
youngest son of Francis I, see 
AngoulSme. 

Charterhouse (' Charthuse '), the 
Proctor of the, see Wayte, Wil- 
liam. 

Charterhouse Henton, see Hinton 
Charterhouse. 

Chauffer, Richard, alderman of 
Calais, 15. 

Chekyng, John, 53, 54. 

Chelsea, letters dated from, 76. 
265, 267-9. 

Cheshunt, Herts, 14. 

Chester or Westchester, 143. 321 ; 
Bishop of, set Lee, Rowland. 

Chester, County Palatine of, 29 //., 
22. 

Chesterfield, Derbyshire, the Bailiff 
of, 76. 

Cheyney, Sir Thomas, 293. 

Chichester, Diocese of, 117. 

Chievres,WilliamdeCroy,Lord,42. 

Christian II, the deposed King 






INDKX 



of Denmark, broihcr-in-law of 
Charles V, 295 (188). 

t'hri>tian III. Duke of Holstein, 
King of Denmark, 221-2, 258, 
279. 287, 110, 296 (188), 296. 

Clarencieux king-at-arms, set 
Ha\\ley, Thomas. 

Claymond. John, President of 
Corpus Chrisli College, Oxford, 
letter to him and Dr. John Lon- 
don. 104. 

Clement VII, Pope, 79, 92, 113, 
122, 129, 134, 215-9, 224,306, 
9, 18. 30, 66, 113, 238; the 
captive of the Emperor, 80 ; his 
death, 223. 

Clere, Alice, daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Boleyn, second wife of Sir 
Robert Clere (' jour susfcr '), 5. 

Clere, Sir Robert, 5. 

Clere, William, son of Sir Robert, 5. 

Clergy, the, 64, 91, 98-9, 102, 
105, 134-5. 1 66, 305, 236, 275 ; 
position of, in 1530, &c., 93-7; 
' Boke ayenst,' 104-1, 125; 
Injunctions to, in 1 536 and 1538, 
141-2. 169, 266. 273. 275 ; see 
also Ordinaries. 

Clerk, Sir John, letter to him and 
others. 162. 

Cleves, Duchy of, 245, 247, 259. 
26i.297; alliance with, 24850, 
256, 259, 268, 271, 285, 290-2. 
300 (206) ; Amelia of. youngest 
daughter of Duke John, 262 ; 
John, Duke of, 244-5 ; Sibylla 
of, eldest daughter of John. 
Duke of, 246-7, 297 (194); 
William, Duke of, 244-7, 250, 
259-61, 266, 285. 291-2, 299, 
287. 295. 297. 299-3OO (206). 
310(22i). 323-4.338,346.350 
(275); letter to him from his 
Bister Anne, 298 ; set also undtr 
Anne. 

Claybrock. William, letter to, 11. 

Clon, ste Clun. 

Clonmcll. parsonage of, in the 
county of Tipperary, Ireland, 214. 



Clun. Shropshire, parsonage *of, 

184 
Cobham. Anne. Lady, daughter of 

Edmund. Lord Brave. 79. 
Cobham. George Brooke. Lord, 

letters to. 79, 251. 
Cognac. League of, 80. 
Coin, 37-8, 123, 135-6. 107.270. 
Coke, see Cooke. 
Colchester, Essex, Abbey of St. 

John, 278. 
Colcokc. Elizabeth, widow (1533), 

68. 

' Coley, Old,' see Cowley, Robert. 
Collyns, Thomas, Prior of Tre- 

wardreth. Cornwall, letter to. 103. 
Cologne, 19, 309-10 (221). 
Colsell. Friar John, 112. 
Colwyche Priory, see Calwich. 
Comin, Nicholas, Bishop of 

Waterford, 214. 
Commandments, the Ten, in 

English, 159 (26). 273. 
Commons, House of, see Parlia- 
ment 

Compton, John, of Yeovil, Somer- 
setshire, 336. 
Compton (* Conton'), Sir William, 

18. 
Constable, Sir John, Sheriff of 

Yorkshire, letter to, 69. 
Constable, Sir Robert. 188-9. 

227 ; hanged at Hull, 193. 
Contarini, Caspar, Cardinal. 211. 
' Contestabile. II,' = Thomas 

Cromwell, 203. 
Convocation, 93-5, 97. 113. 131, 

133. '44. 298, 305, 68 (379), 

159 (28-9). 

Conyers, Christopher, Lord, 8. 
Cook alias Farringdon, Hugh, 

Abbot of Reading, 87, 175, 

248 (129. 131). 
Cooke, John. 61. 
Cooper, Nicholas, Vicar of Che- 

hunt, 14. 
Coote, see Cotes. 
Copingar, William, Sheriff of 

London, 126 n. 



INDEX 



827 



Corn, illegal export of, 123 ., 125. 
262. 

Cornelius, a Friar Observant, 52. 

Cornelys, see Hayes, Cornelius. 

Cornewallys, Sir John, 297. 

Cornibus, Peter de, D.D., a Fran- 
ciscan friar, at Paris, 288 (177). 

Cornforth, William, a murderer,??. 

Cornwall, 142, 208, 237. 

Cornwallis (' Cornwales '), , 

157. 

' Cortigiano,' the, 86. 

Cotes or Cootes, George, Master 
of Balliol College, 143 n., 325-6. 

Council, Proposed General, 206, 
216, 218, 227, 234, 239, 18 
(333), 137, 149, 218 (89), 222. 
234, 244(124), 261. 

Council of the North, see England. 

Coursers, the King's, 26. 

Courtenay, see Exeter, Henry, 
Marquis of. 

Cousin. Jean, 281. 

Coventry and Lichfield, Bishop 
of, see Lee, Rowland ; Bishopric 
of, 22. 

Coverdale, Miles, 52, 131-2. 

Cowley, Robert ('Old Coley '), 
clerk to the Crown of Chancery 
in Ireland, 198. 

Cowley, Walter, 214. 

Cowplaunde, William, 12 [?], 63. 

Coxford, Prior of, see Adamson. 

Cramp-rings, 146, 185. 

Cranach. Lucas, the Elector of 
Saxony's painter, 299. 

Crane, Mr., letter to, 142. 

Cranmer, Thomas, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, i, 113, 119, 121, 
132, 161-3, 182, 186, 263, 29.-. 
52, 106. 250, 307, 349-60; 
his book against the Six Articles, 
25, 255 n. ; letters to, 66, 71, 275. 

Cratzer, Nicolas, astronomer, 288. 

Crede, John, 120. 

Creed, the, in English, 273. 

Creke, John, 27 ; letter to, 1. 

4 Cremonello, Tomaso,' = Crom- 
well, Thomas, 20, 22. 



' Cremuel, Maistre,' = Cromwell, 
Thomas, 17, 18. 

Crpy, the Peace of, 214. 

Creutziger, Caspar, 807. 

Croke, John, 58 ., 60 ., 63 n., 6. 

Cromwell, Anne, 54. 58-9 ., 63 n. 

Cromwell, Elizabeth (Thomas 
Cromwell's wife), 12, 53, 55; 
letter to, 2. 

Cromwell, Elizabeth (Thomas 
Cromwell's sister), see Welly- 
fed, Elizabeth. 

Cromwell,Grace,54, 59-6o.,63. 

Cromwell, Gregory, son of 
Thomas Cromwell (died 1557), 
5. 12, 53-4, 56-61, 63, 145, 
262, 301, 35O (274). 

Cromwell, Henry, Baron Crom- 
well, 301 n. 

Cromwell, John, 2, 3, 13, 17/1. 

Cromwell, Katherine (Thomas 
Cromwell's sister), see Williams, 
Katherine. 

Cromwell, Oliver, 55, 168 n. 

Cromwell, Ralph, 3. 

Cromwell, Sir Richard, originally 
Richard Williams, 54-5, 59, 61, 
168 ;/., 186-7. 256, 296. 

Cromwell, Robert, Vicar of Batter- 
sea, 13. 

Cromwell, Thomas, Earl of Essex, 
traditional accounts of his early 
life, 5, 17-26; theories of Mr. 
John Phillips about him, 6-8 ; 
probably not identical with 
Thomas Smyth, 8 ; probable 
date of his birth, 9; stories of 
his Italian adventures, 10; ex- 
periences in the Low Countries 
and return to England, 1 1-2 ; 
his marriage and family, 11-2, 
52-63, 145, 301, 2, 10, 46; 
his steward and his steward's 
wife, 299 ; early occupations, 
and origin of his connexion with 
Wolsey, 10-6; his early friends 
and acquaintances, 14-6, 51-2, 
56-63, 73, 1, 4, 12, 20; his 
opinion of the Parliament of 



INDEX 



'5*3. 2 7- 1; his speech there, 
30-44; summary view of his 
foreign policy as expressed 
therein, 44-6; employed by 
Wolsey to suppress the smaller 
monasteries, and to superintend 
the buildings at Oxford and 
Ipswich, 48-51, 6-9; his will. 
54-63 ; his treatment of Wolsc-y 
at the time of the latter's dis- 
grace, 65, 70-5, 11, 18-9; 
election to the Parliament of 
1529, and his policy there, 67- 
70; introduction to the King, 
2 5-6. 75"6 i 92 ; to what extent 
was he the originator of Eng- 
land's policy from 1530 to his 
fall? 89-92, 1 1 2-3, 147-8, 
156-7, 1 60, 213-5; his policy, 
internal and foreign, contrasted 
with Wolsey's, 81, 103, 197-8, 
214-5, 231 ; attacks the clergy 
and bishops with Henry, 93-7, 
104-1, 114-6; his relation to 
the Reformation in England, 88, 
97. i3<>-3 265-6, 286, 301, 
306, 309 ; his dealings with 
Tyndale, 99-102, 21; minor 
internal reforms, and early ser- 
vices to Henry VIII, 102-3, 
141-2, 22-5, 29-32. 35-6, 39- 
45, 59, 62, 69, 76, 88, 111. 
144, 172, 344, 347 ; dominant 
note of his internal policy, 112- 
3, 164 ; measures to destroy 
the papal authority in England, 
and to defend the Royal Supre- 
macy in Church and State, 98- 
102, 113-25, 129-35, 165-6, 
100-1, 107, 113, 122, 179, 194, 
197 ; his spy-system, and treat- 
ment of heretics, traitors and 
minor criminals, 98-9, 116-8, 
62, 64, 65, 76-7, 81, 88, 91, 
96. 102-3, 106. 108. 112. 119, 
138, 141, 143, 162, 168, 170, 
191, 194. 203. 228, 231, 236, 
246, 251-2, 262, 267, 270, 
272. 274, 279, 297-8. 318, 



327. 329. 337. 342. 344 ; treat- 
ment of More and Fisher, 118- 
22, 68, 71; his interference in 
parliamentary elections. 125-9, 
253- 308,148, 298. 303; legal 
and financial measures, 133-8, 

1 66, 179; economic and com- 
mercial policy, dealinps with 
pirates, 138-41, 67, 74. 82. 
85, 90, 107, 125, 158, 190, 
213, 262. 271. 316-7. 319, 

328, 361 ; zeal for the advance- 
ment of learning, and relations 
with Oxford and Cambridge, 
142-3, 92, 104, 106, 116. 124, 
129, 186, 2O6, 326-6; efforts 
to avoid gratuitous innovations, 
115, 128, 197-8; his dealings 
with Ireland, 147-8, 154-5. 179, 
196. 198-205. 2O7-8. 211-2, 
214-6. 220-1. 225. 232-3. 
321; management of Wales, 
155-6, 282; attitude towards 
Scotland, 34, 43, 46, 156-7, 
159-60, 38, 185, 330 ; dealings 
with Calais, and Lord Lisle, 
160-4, *4> 65. 60, 84. 86, 99, 

167, 192, 194-5. 209. 254. 
260, 263, 268-9. 292, 312-5, 
322, 331, 333; commissioned 
to visit the monasteries. 166; 
destruction of relics and images, 
174-5; dealings with the minor 
clergy and monks, 165-71, 26, 
30, 36, 37, 39. 52. 54. 59. 61, 
65. 68. 71. 73. 76. 78. 94. 103, 
109, 112, 114-5, 132. 134. 138. 
141, 154. 169. 161, 163-4. 176. 
180. 191. 194, 197, 236. 248- 
9, 259, 264. 266. 273. 276, 
278. 311. 329, 337 ; immediate 
and ultimate results of his sup- 
pression of the monasteries, 
178-9, 307; discontent at iiis 
measures and popular hatred of, 
50-1, 91, 98-9, 116-7, 126-7, 
135, 141, 149-50. 153- ' 55-6. 
172-3, 180-5, 189, 195; ap- 
parent inactivity during the I'il- 



INDEX 



829 



grimage of Grace. 187 ; tells the 
English ambassadors on the 
Continent of the suppression of 
the revolt, 193, 174, 189, 193; 
his plans for the reorganization 
of the North, 197-200, 188, 
219, 227, 284; personal rela- 
tions with his rivals, Norfolk 
and Gardiner, 67-9, 82-4, 129, 
150-1, 187, 190-1, 195-6, 198- 
200, 284-8, 9, 23, 28, 70, 153. 
156, 226, 255 ; dealings with 
Cardinal Pole, 86-7, 204-7, 
210-1, 133, 187, 216-8; at- 
tacks on the Courtenays and 
the Poles, 207-10, 281, 307 ; 
interviews with Chapuys, and 
treatment of Katherine and 
Mary, 216-7. 223, 228-31, 
117, 121, 15O ; relations with 
the Lutherans. 219, 226, 239- 
40, 256-9, 264-6, 64, 66, 110, 
113, 177-8, 3OO, 31O; ap- 
proaches the Italian princes, 
243, 286 ; his leaning towards 
an imperial alliance, 231, 236; 
difference between his foreign 
policy and that of the King, 
231-2, 237-8, 240, 248, 270-1 ; 
quarrels with Henry, 101, 153, 
232, 236 ; relations with the 
Duke of Cleves, 244, 247-50, 
261-2, 287, 295, 299, 323-4; 
attitude on the attempted Ba- 
varian alliance, 268, 270-1; 
prepares the realm for defence, 
251-2, 288, 298; alternate 
hope and fear before his arrest,- 
288-92 ; his arrest, 292-3 ; 
false charges on which he was 
attainted, 293-6, 348 ; gives in- 
formation about the Cleves mar- 
riage, 297-9, 349-50; prayer 
and speech on the scaffold, 301- 
4 ; execution, 302 ; his character, 
27, 85-8; his personal appear- 
ance, 84; his closeness and 
rapacity, 50, 53-4, 152-3, 168, 
*74-5' !68, 180; his legal busi- 



ness, and intimate knowledge 
of the law, 11-5, 47, 49. 52, 
73-4, 102-3, 122-4, 137, 3, 7. 
107 ; his wealth, rapid rise, and 
power, 15-6, 47, 51, 54-63, 
85-6, 128-9, M4-6, 27, 37. 
47, 49 ; his titles and prefer- 
ments, 143, 290, and ii. 283-4 ; 
his patronage. 47, 51, 71-2. 
145-6, 17, 19. 33-4. 46, 50-1. 
61, 70, 72, 78-9. 95. 115. 16O. 
184, 237, 256, 29O, 346 ; his 
'remembrances,' 102-3; his 
itinerary, ii. 279-82. 

Cromwell, Thomas, fourth Baron 
Cromwell, Earl Ardglass, 301 n. 

Cromwell alias Smyth, Walter, i- 
5, 8-9, 13. 

Cromwell, William. 2. 

Cronica Cronicarum, 85. 

Crowle, Worcestershire, 117; the 
vicar of, see Pratt, James. 

Crowther, Thomas, 184. 

Cumberland, county of, 2p., 196, 
198, 188. 

Cumberland, Henry Clifford, 
Earl of, 200 ; letter to, 105. 

Curates, see Clergy. 

Curson, , 22. 43. 

Curwen, Richard, King's chap- 
lain, 98. 

Customs, officers of the, letter to, 
62. 

Dacre, William, Lord, Warden of 
the West Marches, letters from 
him to the King received out of 
the North. 52. 

Damplip, Adam, a preacher at 
Calais, 'the precher,' 162-3, 
268, 312, 314. 

Dampont, Monsieur de, see Am- 
pont, le Sieur d'. 

Danyell, Joan, 117. 

Darcy.Thomas, Lord, of Temple- 
hurst, 188-9, i9 f -2, 195. 188- 
9, 227 ; executed on Tower 
Hill, 193. 

Davis, Richard, 335. 



INDIA 



Dawes, Edward, a clerk for the 
works at Dover. 172. 

Deaken. Richard, friar of North- 
ampton, 311. 

Deeps (' dyppes '). the, in Ireland, 
214. 

Delaware, Thomas West. Lord, 

20*. 

Delingcourt, Thomas, a smith of 

Calais, 272. 
Denmark, 220-1, 66. 177-8. 

205 ( 1 88) ; King of, see Christian. 
Deny. Anthony, 177. 
Denys, Sir Thomas, 122. 
Deptford, Kent, 50. 
Derby, Edward Stanley, Earl of, 

167. 
Deriknockane Castle, beside 

Limerick, 215. 

Derknall, Robert, 126-8. 148. 
Deny, Bishop of, see O'Donnel. 
Desmond family, 149. 
Desmond, James Fitzjohn Fitz- 
gerald, ' pretended ' Earl of. 203. 

232, 298 ; letter to the Kin-. 

20O ; his father and grandfather, 

200. 

Devonshire. 142. 
Deythyke, John, priest, 148. 
Dieppe, governors of the town of, 

7 ; merchants of, 297 ; Jehan 

Ango, Viscount of, 271. 
Dingley, Dr. Roger, letter to, 210. 
Dingley('Digneley'), Sir Thomas. 

222. 224, 229. 
Dispensations, 134. 
Divorce, the (Henry's ' grete 

matter,' the King's ' great cause 

of Matrymony'). 77, 81-4, 89. 

91-4, 98, 103, 113, 130, 176. 

180, 202-3. 214-5, 217-8, 223. 

227. 298, 306. 65. 66, 100, 1O1: 

a book against, 1 76, 800(205). 
Dobson. William, a murderer. 77. 
Doby, David, 6-7. 
Dodneshe Priory, Suffolk, 7. 
Doncaster, Yorkshire, 190, 192. 

176. 
Donington. manor of, near New- 



bury, Berkshire, 111 ; an alms- 
man of the hospital there, see 
Box worth. 

Doraunt. John, of Kctismer. 
escheator in the counties of 
Northampton and Rutland, let- 
ter to, 230. 

Doria, Andrea. 309. 

Dorset, Cecily, Marchioness of, 
1 5 ; letter to, 4. 

Dorset, Thomas Grey, Marquis of, 

14-5. 54. 59 -. * 
Douglas. Margaret, the King's 

niece, 145. 
Dover. 144. 155. 160. 272. 343. 

349-60; letter dated from. 156 ; 

letter to the Mayor, Bailiffs. &c. 

of, 183 ; Master of the Maison 

Dieu at, see Thompson. John; 

Priory of St Rhadegund in, i ; 

Priory of St. Mary and St. Martin 

at, 169. 

Drogheda (' Drodagh *), 1 5 1 . 200. 
' Dromme,' the, of Calais, 209. 
Drury, Sir Robert, 117. 
Dublin, 148, 150-1, 214; letter 

addressed to. 179 ; Archbishop 

of, see Allen and Browne. 
' Duczlant,' see Germany. 
Dudley. Edmond. 126 n. 
Dudley, Edward, 321. 
Dudley, Sir John, 234, 224. 244 

(125). 

Dudley, Prior of. see Webley. 
Dunham, Sir John, 69. 
Dunkirk, meeting of English and 

Imperial ambassadors at, 29. 
Dunstable, Bedfordshire, 113; 

letter dated from, 2O2. 
Durham (' Duresme '), Bishop of, 

see Tunstal!. 
Durham, county and bishopric of, 

29 ., 198, 77. 
Durham, mint in, 51 ; Wolsey's 

' Fynours ' or refiners of, 8. Z. 
Dune, Andrew, Abbot of Melrose, 

297. 
Dutton, Sir Piers, Sheriff of 

Cheshire, letter to, 143. 



INDEX 



331 



Dyppes,' see Deeps. 

Earl Marshal, office of, granted to 
the Duke of Norfolk (1533), 42. 

Eastbourne, Sussex, 117. 

Easthampstead, Berkshire, letter 
dated from, 195. 

East Sheen, see Sheen. 

Edward III, King of England, 77. 

Edward IV, King of England, 209. 

Edward, Prince, afterwards Ed- 
ward VI, 303, 226, 238, 281, 
288, 348 ; announcement of his 
birth, 223-4. 

Edward, Davys, monk of Yawdy 
Abbey, Lincolnshire, 54. 

Egyptians, see Gipsies. 

Elizabeth, Princess, afterwards 
Queen, 114, 225, 233/7., 153 
(21), 238, 281. 

Ellerker, Sir Ralph, 192; letter 
to, 27. 

Elston or Elstowe , Warden 

of the Friars Minors at Green- 
wich, 98. 

Elsyn alias Palmer, Richard, Prior 
of Spalding, 176. 

Eltham, Kent, letters dated from, 
37, 135. 

Ely, Bishop of, see West. 

Elya, John, Abbot of Bruton, 
Somerset, 35. 

Elyot, George, mercer, 1 1 . 

Elyot, Sir Thomas, 101. 

Empson, Thomas, 1 1 . 

England, 10, 12-3, 16, 20, 25, 
28, 45-6, 75, 80, 82, 87, 92-3, 
99-101, 103, 122, 147-9. !53' 
156-60, 162-4, 1 66, 178-9, 182, 
190,196, 198,202-4,206-7,210, 
242-3, 248, 250-2. 257-61, 
264, 266-7, 270-1, 281, 2^4-5, 
287, 291, 299, 306, 308, 21 
(336), 90, 113 (419), 17* (4i), 
218 (00), 286 (172), 287, 206. 
329,351 ; condition of England 
at Wolsey's death, 77-8, 84 ; 
insular position of, 77, 214, 229, 
266 ; changes in (1530-40), 



89 ; domestic administration of 
(1532-40), II2 ; events in (April 
to June, 1 539), 253-5 5 threatened 
expedition against (1539), 251, 
256, 270 ; foreign affairs of, 153, 
1 86, 205,213-41; defences and 
fortifications in, 2 5 1 ; west marches 
of, 159; northern counties, bor- 
ders and marches of, 1 56-9, 182, 
184, 186, 188, 196-200; re- 
bellion in the North (1536), see 
Pilgrimage of Grace ; Council of 
the North in, 198-200, 242,219, 
297 ; letters to this Council, 227, 
284, see also under Holgate and 
Tunstall. 

English trade, commerce and ship- 
ping, 1 36, 1 38-4 1 ; ships arrested 
or detained, 222, 226, 293-4. 

Erasmus, Desiderius, his transla- 
tion of the New Testament, 23 ; 
his ' Enchiridion ' [?], 310. 

Esher, 64-5, 69, 72,226. 

Essex, county of, 102. 

Essex, Henry Bourchier, Earl of, 
349, 351. 

Estampes, Anne de Pisseleu, wife 
of the Duke d', 338. 

Etruria, two lawyers out of, 
10O-1. 

Evangelical princes [of Germany], 
30O (204-5). 

Evers, Sir Ralph, the younger, 
Keeper of Scarborough Castle, 
194; letter to, 169. 

Evers, Sir William, 200. 

Evesham, Worcestershire, 270. 

Ewelme, manor of, Oxfordshire, 
111. 

Exeter, Bishop of, see Voysey; 
Dean of, see Heynes. 

Exeter, Gertrude, Marchioness of, 
daughter of William Blount, 
Lord Mountjoy, 208-10, 3O7. 

Exeter, Henry Courtenay, Marquis 
of, 208-9, 253, 281, 283. 

Fairfax, Thomas, serjeant-at-law, 
227. 



3:v: 



INDEX 



Falicri, Ludovico, Venetian am- 
bassador, 83. 

Farley Priory, Wilts., 167. 

Farnese, Alexander, Cardinal, 
340. 

Farnham, Surrey, letters dated 
from, 316-7. 

4 Fassaghe Bentre,' jBantry forest. 

Favour. , shipmaster of New- 
castle, 316. 

Felixstowe Priory, 9. 

4 Feneux,' set Fyneux. 

Ferdinand, brother of Charles V, 
King of the Romans, afterwards 
Emperor, 247 ., 267, 64, 238, 
34O. 

Fennour, Richard, merchant of 
London, 281. 

Ferrall, William, 117. 

Ferrara, 122 (427). 

Ferrara, Hercules d'Este, Duke 
of, 243, 286 (170, 172-3). 

Fetyplace, Edward, Keeper of 
Donington Hospital, Berkshire, 
111. 

First Fruits of Benefices, no, 133. 

Fisher, John, Bishop of Rochester 
('the Cardinall of S*. Vitale'), 
11822, 142, 162, 166, 227, 
71, 113(417), 122, 300(205); 
letter to, 68 ; mention of a letter 
received from him, 68 ; his 
brother, 68. 

Fitzgerald family, 147. 

Fitzgerald, Gerald, ninth Earl of 
Kildare, 147-51. 

Fitzgerald, Gerald, younger son 
of Gerald, ninth Earl of Kil- 
dare, 153-4, 203, 207 (193). 

Fitzgerald, Lord Thomas, eldest 
son of Gerald, ninth Earl of 
Kildare, 149, 170 (47-8). 

Fitzherbert, Mr., 43. 

Fitzherbert, Sir Anthony, 107, 
228 ; letter to him and Walter 
Luke, Esq., 40. 

Fitz-James, Sir John, Lord Chief 
Justice of the King's Bench, 
123-4, 107; letter to, 36. 



Fitz-James, Nicholas, letter to him 
and four others, 342. 

Fitzmaurice, James ('the young 
man'). 200. 203. 232 ; his father 
and grandfather, 2OO. 

Fitz-William, William, Sheriff of 
London, 1 26 n. 

Flanders, 10, 17, 140. 189, 233, 
256, 274, 66, 177. 187. 216-7. 
276, 281 (161, 163), 287-8, 
204-6, 208 (196, 198), 3O4. 
3O7-0. 338 (252), 348 ; see also 
Netherlands. 

Flemyng, John, of Crofton, York- 
shire, 3. 

Flintshire, 277. 

Florence ('Firenze'), 10,19-23.26. 

Florentines, 18 (333). 

Folkestone Prior}*, 169. 

Kontainebleau, 103. 

Forest, Mr., 68. 

Forests on this side Trent, Justice- 
ship of the King's, granted to 
the Duke of Suffolk for life 

(1533), 42. 

Fountains, Abbot of, see Thir>ke. 

Fowey, town of, Cornwall, 103. 

Fowler, Robert, 66. 

1 Fowlkers/ or Fuggers, 3O8. 

Foxe, Edward, Bishop of Here- 
ford, English Ambassador to the 
Lutheran princes, 227, 114, 137, 
260, 260. 

Foxe, John, 5, 7-11, 75, 255, 
300-2 ; passages from his Eccle- 
siastical History, 23-6, 303-4. 

Fox ley, , check clerk for the 

works at Dover, 172. 

France, 13, 20, 28-31, 34, 37, 
39-41, 43-6, 79-82, 84, 158, 
160, 162-3, 205, 211, 214-5. 
217, 219, 222-7, 2 3!, 233-8, 
241-2, 248-9, 251-3, 255-6, 
260-1, 264, 269-71, 274. 2- 

290, 295 ., 299, 113 (416, : 
183, 287-8, 203, 207. 306, 
300 (218), 316, 331, 338. 351 ; 
Royal Inquisition in, 132-3. 
Francis I, King of France, 9 ., 28, 



INDEX 



3'. 34, S^-T. 41-3, 77-81, 158- 
61, 205, 210-11, 214-9, 223-6, 
229-31, 233-8, 242, 248, 252-4, 
257, 260-1, 266, 269-70, 281-5, 
290, 292, 299, 300, 24, 27, 56, 
98, 113 (416-20), 126-7, 136-7, 
139, 146, 149, 151, 153 (21), 
170, 174 (41), 189, 193, 222. 
226, 229 (104), 238, 244 (123- 
5), 288, 291 (181), 293, 300 
(205), 306 (212), 309, 316-7, 
328, 338, 340, 349 (270), 351 ; 
tries to mediate for Henry with 
the Pope, 218; sends envoys to 
England in 1534 and 1535, 
223-6; at war with Charles V, 
233-4 ; reconciliation with 
the Emperor, 237 ; entertains 
Charles V at Paris, 281-4 ; forti- 
fies Ardres, 290; joy at Crom- 
well's arrest, 299-300. 

Francis, Dauphin of France, eldest 
son of Francis I (died i536),224. 

Francis (' Fraunces,' ' Francisco '), 
a courier, 182, 187, 238, 250, 
261, 235, 289. 

Frankfort, 256-7, 261, 272, 274, 
299, 300 (202, 205), 307, 309- 
10 (219, 221). 

Frederic the Wise, see Saxon}-, 
Frederic III, Elector of. 

Frederick I, King of Denmark 
(died 1533), 220. 

Freigne, Piers, 214. 

French hoods, the fashion for 
ladies in England (1540), 263 n. 

Frescobaldi, Francesco, 9, 19-23. 

Friars, 98, 116, 176-7, 305,52, 
112, 216, 268, 297, 311; two 
strange friars of the Order of 
Observants, 65. 

Frith, John, 21 (338). 

Fuggers, see ' Fowlkers.' 

Fulke, Richard, 117. 

Furber, William, clerk, 335. 

Furness Abbey, Lancashire, 173; 
Abbot of, see Pyle. 

Furstemburg, Count William a, 
299. 



Fynchingbroke, monastery of, 48. 

Fyndern, , 22, 43. 

Fyneux, Elizabeth, widow of Sir 

John, Lord Chief Justice, 5. 
Fyneux or 'Feneux,' Sir John, 

Lord Chief Justice of the King's 

Bench, 5. 

Gage, Sir John, 67-8, 117, 142. 

Gardiner, Stephen, Bishop of 
Winchester, 68, 83, 1 23-4 ., 1 29, 
193, 2<>5. 226, 230, 234, 240, 
285-91, 294, 250, 280, 351; 
letter to the Lord Protector 
Somerset, 1 23 .; letters to, 9, 23, 
28, 70, 126, 128, 130-1, 185, 
139, 145-7, 153, 156, 173, 182, 
240, 255 ; letters to him and 
Sir John Wallop, 127, 136-7, 
149, 151, 170, 174; letter to 
him and Sir Francis Brian, 187 ; 
letter to him and Lord William 
Howard, 226 ; letter to him, Sir 
Francis Brian and Mr. Thirleby, 
258 ; his oration, ' De vera 
obedientia,' 126, 217. 

Garigliano, battle on the, 9, 10, 
20. 

Garneys (' Garnysshe'), Sir Chris- 
topher, Knight-Porter of Calais, 
60. 

Garret or Garrarde, Thomas, 
Rector of All Hallows, Honey 
Lane, London, 300. 

Garsington, Oxfordshire, 32. 

Garter, the Order of the, 157, 293, 
286(171). 

Gascoigne, Sir William, 48. 

Gascony, 41. 

' Geanes,' ' Genes,' or Genoa, 34, 
305. 

Gelderland, Duchy of (' Gheldres '), 
245-7, 261, 273, 285, 291-2, 
297, 338. 

Gelderland, Charles, Duke of, 
245-6. 

German Reformers, 131,294; see 
a/so Lutherans and Lutheran 
doctrines. 



INDEX 



Germany, Germans, German 
alliance, Ac. (' thuczenlant,' 
' Duczlam '), 81. 139, 162, 
219-20, 220, 222, 227, 238, 
239. 243-4, 248, 253-6, 260-2, 
.. 268-9, 2 73. 2 77, 284, 
287, 18 (333). 1. 21 (339), 53, 
64, 66,177 (44), 222. 287, 300, 
305, 300 (217), 810 (220). 

(Jen is. the house of, see Jervaulx 
Abbey. 

(ihent ('Gaunte'), rebellion in 
(539) 261,284,291, 345. 

Gifford, George, letter to him and 
others, 162. 

Gifford, Nicholas, 68, 19. 

Gilbank, see Gylbanke. 

Gilbert, George, letter to him and 
four others. 342. 

Gipsies ('Gipcyans,' ' egipc.yans '), 
231. 

' Gipswiche,' see Ipswich. 

Glaschare Castle, in the county of 
Kilkenny, 220. 

Glastonbury, Abbot of, see Whit- 
ing. 

Glastonbury Tor, 176. 

Glegg, John, of Cheshire, 327. 

Glossop, Nicholas, of Wirksworth 
in Derbyshire, 4. 

Glossop, Nicholas, of the Gild 
of Merchant Tailors, servant to 
Archbishop Warham, 46. 

Gloucestershire monasteries, 1 66- 

7- 

Godstow, Abbess of, see Bulkeley. 
Golde, John, head clerk for the 

works at Dover, 160. 
Golden Fleece, Imperial Order of 

the, 269. 

Goldwin, George, 78. 
Golstone, Henry, Mayor of Salis- 
bury, 248 (129). 
(ionson, William, of London, 48, 

298 (198), 319. 
Gontier, Palame'des, Treasurer of 

Brittany, French Ambassador to 

England, 255, 98. 
Gooding, Richard, 138. 



Gordon, Lady, 111. 

(Jostwick, John, Treasurer of 

First Fruits, 11O, 118, 280 : 

letter to. 125. 
Gostwick, Mr., Commissioner in 

North Wales, letter to him ami 

Mr. Stompe, 166. 
Gowgh, Bishop Bonner's servant, 

293 (bis). 

Gowghe, John, 82. 
Grafton, Northamptonshire, letters 

dated from, 161-2, 206. 
Grafton, Richard, printer, 132. 
Grammont, Gabriel de, Bishop of 

Tarbes, Cardinal, 216. 
Clranvelle, Nicholas Perrenot, 

Sieur de, 117, 222, 229, 265. 

345 ; passage of a letter from 

Chapuys to, 5, 1 7. 
Gravelines, 251. 
Grave, William, 8 n. 
Grayme, Thomas, 334. 
Great Seal, the, 29, 64. 
Greenwich, Kent ('grunewicz'). 

263, 277, 278, 829, 349-50; 

letter received at, 285 ; letter 

dated from, 331 ; friars of, 98. 
Greenwich, West, Kent, see 

Brockley. 

Gregory, Elizabeth, 60 . 
Gregory, Sir, see Botolph, Sir 

Gregory. 

Grenville, Sir Richard. Knight- 
Marshall of Calais, 2O9. 
Grey, Lord George, 4. 
Grey, Lord Leonard, Lord Deputy 

of Ireland, 151-4, 208. 207. 214, 

215, 232 ; letter to him and the 

Council of Ireland, 179 : letter 

to him, 288. 
Griffith, Edward, one of the 

Council in Ireland, 321. 
Griffith, Rice ap, esquire, 31. 
Griffith ap Howell, James, 30. 
(irimaldo, Ansaldo, of Genoa. 19. 
(iritli, George, 309. 
Gritti, Lorenzo, of Venice, 309. 
Gucldres, see Gelderland. 
Guienne (' Gwyen '), 41. 



INDEX 



335 



Guildford, Surrey, 316, 351; 
letter dated from, 315. 

Guise, Antoinette, Duchess of, 
wife of Duke Claude, 243 (i). 

Guise, Claude, Duke of, 242-3 ; 
his two daughters, Mary and 
Louise, 243. 

Guise, Louise of, younger 
daughter of Duke Claude, sister- 
in-law of the King of Scotland. 

235- 

Guisnes Castle, near Calais, 290. 
Gundelfynger, Joachim, a Niirn- 

berg merchant, 267. 
* Gurrea,' executioner, 302 n. 
Guydot, Anthony, 181. 
Gylbanke, William, 74. 

Hacket, John, the King's agent in 
Flanders, 66. 

Hailes, Abbot of, see Sagar. 

Hale, John, a Carthusian, 1 16. 

Hales, Sir Christopher, Attorney- 
General, 25, 75, 1O7. 

Hall, Edward, 263, 300-2. 

Hallam, John, 194. 

Hamburg, 222, 258, 295 (188- 
90). 

Hamerton, Sir Stephen, 188-0. 

Hammes, , pursuivant, 187. 

Hampton Court, 189 (59, 60) ; 
letter dated from, 187, 244. 

Hannaert, John, Imperial Am- 
bassador in France, 127. 

Hannibal, 27. 

Hanns, Mr., see Holbein, Hans. 

Hanseatic League, 139, 220. 

Hapsburg, House of, 79, 245. 

Harding, John, parish priest of 
Harding (Overton subius Ar- 
derne, Leicestershire), letter 
to, 154. 

Hare, Ralph, 93, 313. 

Hargill, William, of Kilmenton, 
Somerset, 342. 

Harley, John, 184. 

Harlowebery farm, in Essex, near 
Hunsdon, Hertfordshire, 37. 

Harman, Richard, 297. 



' Harmywe,' see Armuyden. 
Harreson, John, friar of Northamp- 
ton, 311. 
Harrington, William, Lord Mayor 

of York, 189. 
Harrison or Henryson, Mr., 277, 

344. 
Harvell, Edmund, 243, 133, 297 ; 

letter to, 286. 
Harward, Anthony, 1 1 7. 
Hastings, Sir Brian, Sheriff of 

Yorkshire, 284. 
Hatfield House, 297, 349. 
Haverford West, the Mayor of, 

letter to, 31. 
Hawkins, William, and William 

Randall, Bailiffs of Weymoulh, 

letter to, 48. 
Hawks, the King's, 22, 78, 193, 

222. 

Hawkyns, Dr. Nicholas, Arch- 
deacon of Ely, Ambassador with 

the Emperor. 45. 
Hawlde, Patrick, Prior of Holy 

Rood in Limerick, 199. 
Hawley, Thomas, Clarencieux 

king-at-arms, 152. 
Hawt, Alen, 177. 
Hawte, Sir William, 253. 
Haybourne, Richard and William, 

letter to, 58. 
Hayes, Cornelius (' Comely s '), 

goldsmith, 36. 
Haynes, see Heynes. 
Heath, Nicholas, Chaplain to the 

King, 207, 219-20, 226, 66; 

letter to him and Dr. Nicholas 

Wilson, 217. 
' Heiydyng,' see Heydon. 
Hell, the Vicar of,' see Brian, Sir 

Francis. 

Henly, Richard, priest, 274, 279. 
Henry I, King of England, 126. 
Henry V, King of England, 77. 
Henry VII, King of England, 

39, 70-1,77, 112, 126, 137-40, 

164, 262 n., 67. 
Henry VIII, King of England, 

summons the Parliament of 



336 



INDEX 



1523, 28-9; Cromwell's ideas 
of his power and importance, 
35-6, 44-6, 112, 164; his rela- 
tions with Parliament, 31, 69, 7.-,, 
1 25-8, 253-4, 1*8, 298 ; Crom- 
well ingratiates himself with. 
25-6, 69-76, 92 ; his policy and 
administration, 77-81, 213-8, 
229-34, 237, 240-1 ; his first 
divorce, see Divorce; attitude 
towards the Pope, 93-101, 113- 
4. 134-5. in*. 218, 234-5, 
100-1 113. 122. 149. 218 ; zeal 
for orthodoxy, 77, 162-4, 243 ., 
353-4, 293-4. 21, 281, 312, 314: 
his absolute power in Church 
and State, 92-8, 112-28, 151-2, 
156, 107 ; wrings important 
concessions from the clergy, 
93-7 "5-6; attitude towards 
William Tyndale, 99-102, 21; 
treatment of More and Fisher, 
28-9, 115-22, 68, 71, 113, 122 : 
his financial position, 28-9, 70-1 , 
78, 133-7, 154, 166; his use of 
the funds obtained in the sup- 
pression of the religious houses, 
178-9; his treatment of the 
northern insurgents, 188, 190-6, 
174, 189, 193; personal popu- 
larity and loyalty to, 77, 182, 
189 ; his treatment of Katherine 
and Mary, 216, 228-9, ISO; 
early endeavours to enlist Pole 
in favour of the Royal Supremacy, 
202-4, 133 ; later attitude 
towards Pole and his family. 
205-9, 187, 216-8 ; matrimonial 
proposals for, 1 58-9, 234-6, 244, 
249, 242-3. 287 ; his treatment 
of foreign am bassadors, 157,122, 
224-6, 231-2, 235-6, 239-40, 
251-3, 256-8, 266, 272-80, 
292, 139 ; his relations with 
Cromwell, 89-92, 101, 128-9, 
M3-4, 153. 213-5, 232, 236- 
41, 248, 251-2, 268, 270-1, 
284-97, 348-50; his relations 
with his other ministers and 



ambassadors, 64, 69-70, 82-4, 
128-9, l8 7. 190-1. 195-6, 198- 
200, 284-8, 28. 131, 153. 226, 
239 ; his attitude towards Scot- 
land and his nephew James, 
157-60, 234-5, 242, 38, 174, 
186, 33O ; his dealings with 
Ireland, 147-54 ; his attitude 
towards the Emperor, and his 
dealings with Spain and the 
Netherlands, 79-81, 223, 229 
34, 242-3, 251, 253-4, 260-1. 
280-4, 300, 117, 121. 158. 189. 
222-4, * 229, 234, 238, 241. 
244. 25O. 261, 265. 276, 285, 
289. 291, 293-4, 296-8. 301, 
305-0. 309. 338, 340. 343; 
his relations with France and 
Francis I, 79, 81, 215, 217-8, 
223-6, 233-7, 242-3, 251-4, 
260-1, 280-4, 290, 300, 56, 98, 
113, 126-8, 13O-1. 185-7, 
145-7, 149, 161, 170, 173-4, 
226, 229. 244, 257-8, 288, 
309, 338, 340 ; his policy 
towards the Lutheran princes, 
21920, 226-7, 238-40, 243, 
250, 256-8, 264-6, 270-80, 64, 
66, 110, 113, 177-8, 299-300. 
307, 310 ; his dealings with the 
Duke of Cleves, 244, 247-9, 
259-62, 285, 290-2, 299, 287, 
295.299,309; his personal rela- 
tions with Anne of Cleves, 263, 
285, 291, 296-9, 349-50 ; his 
Lttbeck policy, 220-2 ; his plan 
for an alliance with Bavaria, 
266-70; letters to, 29-30. 36, 
62. 65, 67, 88, 288. 296-9, 
305. 307-10, 348-50. 

Henry, Dauphin of France (1536), 
afterwards Henry II, 193, 338. 

Henryson, Mr., see Harrison. 

Henton, manor of, 318. 

Herbert, Francis, one of the 
King's Council for Ireland, 201, 
202. 

Hereford, Bishop of, see Bonner 
and Foxe. 



INDEX 



337 



Hereford, bishopric of, 114. 

Hermit, the, 76. 

Heron, Maister, letter to, 25. 

Hesse, Philip, Landgrave of, 243, 
246, 249-50, 256-8, 264, 266, 
272, 274-5, 287, 295 (188-9), 
296. 300. 305, 310 ; mention of 
the King's letter to, 64. 

Hethe, see Heath. 

I lexham, Northumberland, 297. 

Hexham Priory, Northumberland, 
185. 

Heydon, Sir John (' Heiydyng '), 
267 ; letter to him and Sir Roger 
Townsend, 246. 

Heynes, Dr. Simon, Dean of 
Exeter, 113, 250, 253 ; letter to 
Sir Thomas Wyatt, Dr. Haynes, 
and Dr. Bonner, 257 ; letter to 
Dr. Haynes and Dr. Bonner, 265. 

Hieronymo, an Italian of Sienna, 
307. 

Higden, John, Dean of Cardinal's 
College, Oxford, 48, 6, 18 

(330- 

High Hall, manor of, 25. 

Higons, Margaret, 117. 

Hilperton, Wiltshire, 846. 

Hilsey, John, Bishop of Roches- 
ter, 174, 176- 

Hinchinbrooke Nunnery, Hunt- 
ingdonshire, 1 68 n. 

Hinton Charterhouse, near Bath, 
Priory of. 335. 

Hobbes, Robert, Abbot of Wo- 
burn, Bedfordshire, letter to, 64. 

Hobbys, John, Sheriff of Canter-, 
bury, 126-7. 

Hoby, Philip, Groom of the 
Chamber, 235, 276, 281, 285 ; 
letter to, 243. 

Hogan, Robert, the King's master 
cook, 33. 

Hoghestein (' Hogeston '), Wer- 
nerus von, Chancellor to the 
Duke of Cleves, 349. 

Holbein, Hans, 262, 243 (ii). 

Holgate. Robert, Bishop of Llan- 
daff, Lord President of the 



Council of the North, letter to, 

334. 

Holgill, William, 8. 
Holinshed, Ralph, 93, 300-1. 
Hollanders, Holland, 74, 293, 

309. 
Holmpatrick, the farm of, near 

Dublin, 198. 

Holstein, duchy of, 221, 66. 
Holstein, Christian, Duke of, see 

Christian III, King of Denmark. 
Holy days, 'grete nombre of,' 

in; articles put forth for the 

abrogation of certain superfluous, 

169 (29). 
Holy Maid, the, see Barton, 

Elizabeth. 
Honysdon, 37. 
Hoo, William, Vicar of Eastbourne, 

117. 

Hooknorton, Oxfordshire, in. 
Horkisley Priory, Essex, 7. 
Horncastle, Lincolnshire, 184 ; 

the late parish priest of, 326. 
Horseley, John, keeper of Barn- 
borough Castle, 219. 
Horsey, Sir John, letter to him 

and four others, 342. 
Horton, Mary, widow, 335. 
Horton, Thomas, 336 ; letter to, 

341. 

Horwood, John, 60. 
Horwood, William, 184. 
Houghton, John, 116. 
Howard, Lord Edmund, Comp- 
troller at Calais, letter to, 82. 
Howard, Katherine, afterwards 

Queen, 291 n. 
Howard, Thomas, half-brother of 

the Duke of Norfolk, 145. 
Howard, Lord William, 157, 234, 

162; letter to him and Bishop 

Gardiner, 226. 
Howell, James Griffith ap, see 

Griffith. 
Howell, John, Prior of the White 

Friars of Northampton, 811. 
Hoy laden with the King's timber 

taken by Frenchmen, 271. 



33S 



INDEX 



Iluberdyn, John. 321. 

Hughes, Dr. John, letter to him, 

Dr. Wotton, and Stephen 

Yaughan. 311. 

Hull. Yorkshire, 194, 48. 103. 
Humber, river, 188. 
Hungary, 18 (333). 
Hungerford. Walter, Lord, letters 

to, 168. 101. 252. 274. 279. 

318. 335, 341. 
I luntingdon. Hospital of St. John 

in, 81. 
Huntingdon, George Hastings, 

Earl of, 274, 270. 
Husee ('Huse'), John, Lord 

Lisle's servant, 155. 
Hussey or Husey, John Lord, 

185. '95. 180. 23 ; executed 

at Lincoln, 103. 
Hutton, John, agent or ambassador 

in Flanders, 216, 243 (ii, iii). 
Hyde, James de la, 203. 
Hynd, Thomas, 235. 
Hynde, John, 62. 



Ichingham, Sir Edward, one of his 

daughters, 307. 

Ilderton, Northumberland, 334. 
Images, and image worship, 171. 

174-5, 150 (28), 263, 273 

(153-4). 

Ingworth, Richard, Bishop of 
Dover, 176-7. 

Injunctions to the clergy, see 
Clergy. 

Ipswich (' Gipswiche '), Wolsey's 
College at, 50-1, 65, 73, 7-0, 
13, 18 (331)- 

Ireland, 29 ., 291, 207 (193-4), 
208(197), S 2 ? ; subjugation of, 
M7-54 ; Parliament there 
(53 6 ) 5> ; Irish Church, 152 ; 
letter to the Lord Deputy and 
Council of, 170 ; Commis- 
sioners for, 152-4 ; letters to 
these Commissioners, 108-205, 
207-8. 211-2, 214-5, 221. 
225, 232. 



Irish ( YrisheO, William, 252. 

Isabella of Portugal, Empress, 
wife of Charles V, 168. 305. 

Italy, 7, 9-1 1, 16-8. 20. 34, 79- 
80, 85, 87 ., 162, 202. 206, 229, 
243, 30, 218 (88). 220 (104), 
286 (170). 3O7; scarcity of 
grain in, 18 (333). 

Jakes, Simon, Abbot of Kenil- 

worth, 256, 250. 
James V, King of Scotland, 154, 

157-60. 234-5, 242. 174(4i), 

226, 242. 33O. 
Jennyns, , sergeant of the 

King's pastry-house. 810 (220). 
Jenynges, Edward, friar of North- 
ampton, 311. 

Jerome, William, Vicar of Step- 
ney, 300. 
Jervaulx Abbey, Yorkshire, 188 ; 

Abbot of, see Sedbergh. 
John III, King of Portugal, Maria, 

daughter of, 220. 
John Frederic, Elector of Saxony, 

see Saxony. 

Johnson, Richard, 25. 
Johnson, Thomas, i26. 
Johnson, William, a servant of 

Cromwell, 60. 

Jones (' Jonys '), Maister, 40. 
Jordan, Sir Thomas, of Redburn, 

letter to, 332. 

Joye, Christopher, 201 (183). 
Joyner, John, Prothonotary of the 

Common Bench, 05. 
Juliers, Duchy of, 245-7 ., 273, 

207. 
Juliers and Berg, Maria, only child 

of William, Duke of, wife of 

John, Duke of Cleves, 245. 
Juliers and Berg, William, Duke 

of (1496), 245. 
Julius II, Pope, 10, 24-5, 100, 

101. 

Karbott, Dr., see Carbot. 
Katherine of Aragon ('prynces 



INDEX 



dowagier'), 81-2, 91-2. 98, 113, 
118-9, 130-1, 156, 182, 204, 
216-7,219,223, 228, 238, 298*;., 
306, 52, 65, 181; her death, 
228-30, 136; her priest, 141. 

Katherine, image of Saint, 171. 

Kempe, John, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, 2. 

Kemys, Davye Morgan, letter to, 
120. 

Kendall, , Chantry priest 
of Barking, Essex, 63. 

Kendalsland, 2. 

Kenil\vorth('Kyllingworthe'), Ab- 
bot of, see Jakes. 

Kenninghall, 129, 190. 

Kent, county of, 174, 296; the 
Nun of, see Barton, Elizabeth. 

Kerne, see Carne. 

Kexby, Manor of, Yorkshire, 3. 

Kildare county, 207, 214. 

Kildare, Earls of, see Fitzgerald. 

Kilka Castle ('Kylken'), in the 
county of Kildare, 220, 225. 

Kilmallock, in the county of 
Limerick, Ireland, letter dated 
from, 200. 

Kilmenton, Somerset, 342. 

King's Bench, Court of, 93. 

King Henry VIII's College, see 
under Oxford (Cardinal's Col- 
lege). 

Kingston Manor place, Notting- 
hamshire, 228. 

Kingston, Mary, wife of Sir 
William, 297 (193). 

Kingston, Sir William, Comp- 
troller, Constable of the Tower, 
348. 

Kingswood Abbey, Wiltshire, 264. 

Kinsale, in the county of Cork, 
Ireland, 214 ; ' prysewynes ' of, 
214. 

Kirkham Monastery, in Yorkshire, 
334. 

Knell, William, 251. 

Knight, Thomas, Cromwell's ser- 
vant, 291 (183). 

Knokraffyn, or Knockgraffon, 



Castle, in the county of Tippe- 

rary, 220. 
Knolles, Thomas, President of 

Magdalen College, Oxford, 14^. 

104. 
Knyghtley, Edmond, committed 

to the Fleet Prison, 36. 
Knyghtley, Richard, 36. 
Knyvett, Sir Edmund, letter to, 

303. 
Kyderminstre, Richard, Abbot of 

Winchcomb, 14. 
Kylken or Kylka, see Kilka. 
Kyngston, John, 158 (22). 
Kytche, John, letter to, 81. 

Lacoke, Thomas, priest, 264. 

Lacy, Henry, 51. 

Lacye, Masteres, 16. 

Lambert, John, 243 ., 281. 

Lambeth, 3, 106. 

Lanbedye, Carmarthenshire, Pre- 
bend of St. David's, 287. 

Lancashire abbeys, 173. 

Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, i. 

Langdon Abbey, Kent, 169. 

Langey, see Bellay. 

Lanishen, Glamorganshire, 5. 

Lantern, the office of the, at 
Calais, 157. 

Lark, Peter, Bishop Gardiner's 
servant, 130-1, 135, 139, 145, 
153(2i), 174, 226. 

Lasco, Miguel de, Physician to 
Katherine of Aragon, 228. 

Laiimer, Hugh, Bishop of Wor- 
cester, 175, 118. 

Latimer, John Nevill, Lord, 192. 

Laufen, Battle of, 267. 

Laund Priory, Leicestershire, 
1 68 n. 

Lawrence, John, 16. 

Lawrence, Friar John, 65. 

Lawrence, Robert, 116. 

Lawson, Sir George, Master of 
Ordnance at Berwick, letter to, 
347. 

Lawson, James, 339. 



Z a 



340 



INDEX 



Layton ( Leighton'), Dr. Richard, 

143. 166-71, 182, 14. 316. 
Layton, William, brother of Dr. 

Richard, 291(183). 
Ledes, John, Abbot of Byland, 

Yorkshire, letter to him and the 

Abbot of Fountains, 50. 

Lee, , 171. 

Lee, Anthony, brother-in-law to 

Sir Thomas Wyatt. 222. 
Lee, Edward, Archbishop of 

York, 189. 217 ; his servant. 83. 
Lee. Rowland, Bishop of Coventry 

and Lichfield (Chester). Presi- 
dent of the Council of the 

Marches of Wales, 122, 145, 

155. 156, 182, 73; letters to, 

231. 256. 
Legh, Dr. Thomas, 115, 143 ., 

166-71, 182-3; letter to him 

and William Cavendish, 278. 
Leicester, Richard, Chief Baron of 

the Exchequer, 1O7. 
Leicester. Archdeacon of, see 

Bonner. 
Leicester, county of, 36. 

Leigh, . 343. 

Leigh, Richard, Surveyor of 

Calais, 2O9. 
Leight, Oliver, 816. 
Leighton, see Layton. 
Lelegrave or Lilgrave, William. 

Surveyor of Calais, 86. 269. 

322. 

Leo X, Pope, 77. 
Lesnes (' Lyesnes '), Kent, breach 

of the Thames into the marshes 

of, 9. 

Levyns, Christopher, 126-7. 
Lewes Priory, Sussex, 168 n. 
Leynham. , a mad prophet. 

307. 

Leyton, see Layton. 
Lichfield, a prebend in the church 

of. 256. 

Liege, letter dated from, 206. 217. 
Liege, Cardinal of, see Marck. 
Lieutenant of the North, 196. 
Lightfoot, Humphrey, 143. 



Limerick, the mayor and bur- 
gesses of, 199 ; Priory of Holy 
Rood in. 199; Deriknockane 
Castle beside, 215. 

Limington, Somerset, 14. 

Lincoln, Bishop of, see Longland. 

Lincoln, the city of, 193 ; letter 
addressed to, 75 ; assizes, 49. 

Lincolnshire. 186-90, 192, 7. 
297. 

Lisle, Arthur Plantagenet, Vis- 
count, Deputy of Calais, 160-4, 
35. 297 (192), 298 (198), 312, 
32O; letters to, 44. 52, 55. 57. 
60, 82, 84. 86. 93. 99. 14O. 
155. 157. 192. 194-5. 2O9. 245. 
254, 260. 263, 268-9. 271-2, 
292. 313-5, 322. 331. 333. 

Lisle, Honor, wife of Arthur, 
count, 55, 57, 268 ; letter to, 87. 

Lisle, Humfrey, 68. 

Lissasson, John de, servant of the 
French Ambassador, passport 
for, 183. 

Little Marlowe, Prioress of, see 
Vernon. 

Littlcmore. sometimes called 
Sandford, Nunnery. Oxford- 
shire. 6. 8. 

Llandaff, Bishop of, see Athequa. 

Llangan ( Llangom '), Pembroke- 
shire, 337. 

Loches, 281. 

Lodge, Henry, 142. 

London, n, 18-23, 51-*. 66-7, 
88, 92, 140, 149, 151, 157, 171 
174, 187, 193, 220, 251, 256, 
257. 26 5. 267-8, 272-3, 277, 
279, 288, 290, 305, 52 (bis), 
65, 88-9, 121, 128, 244 (124), 
281,316,332; letters dated from, 
67-8, 1. 7, 9, 19, 12, 15-8, 20, 
23-6, 30-6, 38, 40-4. 47-53. 
56, 69. 66, 69. 77-8. 80. 84, 
87. 96, 98. 10O-4. 106-9. 
133, 138. 140-2. 168, 171, 180, 
184, 228, 234. 254, 271, 276- 
82. 285, 288-91. 293-3OO. 
302-6, 3O7-11, 319-25, 327-9. 



INDEX 



341 



332. 335, 338. 340-2, 344-7 ; 
letters addressed to, 2, 56; 
Bishop of, see Bonner and Stokes- 
ley; the Lord Mayor and Al- 
dermen of, letter to, 95 ; Austin 
Friars, 12 ., 52, 54, 85, 88; 
Bread Street ward, 15; election 
of Sheriffs, 126; Fenchurch, 
12 . ; the Fleet prison, 171; 
Fleet Street, the inhabitants of, 
174(42); Gray's Inn. 47; King's 
Bench prison, 62 ; Ludgate 
prison, 62 ; Marshalsea prison, 
62; merchants of, 298 (198); 
Merchant Tailors of, see Mer- 
chant Tailors ; the Nete (' Neate 
besides Westminster '), letters 
dated from, 86, 225. 229-31 ; 
Newgate prison, 62 ; five Or- 
ders of Friars in, 62 ; Paternos- 
ter Row, 26; Paul's Cross, 119, 
122, 287, 197; St. Helen's 
Nunnery, i68. ; St. Paul's 
Cathedral, 189 (60); Throg- 
morton Street, 88 . ; the Tower 
of, 121, 149, 151, 164, 176, 
186-7, 207-9, 2 <>3, 288, 292-3, 
299, 39, 147, 281, 298 (197); 
letters dated from, 348-9, 351 ; 
Tower Hill, 209, 193 ; Tyburn 
(' Thyfbourne '), 119, 151, 193; 
Westminster, see under W ; Win- 
chester House, 291 n. ; York 
House, York Place (Whitehall), 
13, 68. 

London, Dr. John, Warden of 
New College, Oxford, 177; 
letter to him and Mr. Clay- 
mond, 104. 

London, Roger, monk, reader of 
divinity at Reading Abbey, 248. 

Longford, Mr., 43. 

Longland, John, Bishop of Lin- 
coln, Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of Oxford, 182 ; letters to, 
92. 176, 326. 

Longmede, Nicholas, 1. 

Longueville, Francis, the young 
Duke of, 243. 



Longueville, Madame de, see Mary 
of Guise, Queen of Scotland. 

Lords, House of, see Parliament. 

Lorraine, Anne, daughter of Duke 
Anthony of, 235, 243. 

Lorraine, Anthony, Duke of, 259- 

61. 24a 

Lorraine, Francis, Marquis of 
Pont-a-Mousson,son of Anthony, 
Duke of, 259-61, 298,349, 350. 

Lorraine, John of, Archbishop of 
Rheims, Cardinal, 340. 

Louvre, the, 262 ., 281. 

Low Countries, see Netherlands. 

Lowleye, Thomas, servant to Mr. 
Norreys, 72. 

Lowth, 171. 

Ltibeck, 139, 220-2, 238, 258. 
295 (189) ; English treaty with, 
221 ; letter to the Senate and 
Consuls of, 74. 

Lucas, see Cranach. 

Luiz, Infant of Portugal, 235, 189. 

Luke, Walter, letter to him and 
Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, 49. 

Lumley, George, son of Lord 
Lumley, 194, 189. 

Lumley, John, Lord. 192. 

Lund ('londen'), John Vesalius, 
Archbishop of, Imperial pleni- 
potentiary at Frankfort, 256, 
299, 307. 

Lupset, Thomas, 203. 

Luther, Martin, 77, 13, 126, 307. 

Lutherans, Lutheran Alliance, 
Lutheran doctrines, &c., 92, 219, 
222, 226-7, 238-40, 242-3, 
246, 248, 250, 256-9. 262, 264- 
6, 268, 270-1, 286-8, 294. 13, 
18 ; see also under Germany. 

Lyesnes, see Lesnes. 

Lynne. Jerome, keeper of Carling- 
ford Castle, 2O4. 211. 

Lyons, 305. 

Machiavelli, Niccolb, 16, 85-6, 

203. 

Madeleine of Valois, 1 58. 
Maestricht, in Flanders, 216. 



849 



INDIA 



Magdalen College and School, 
see under Oxford. 

Magna Charta, 102. 

Majoris. Philip, Dean of Cam- 
bray. Imperial Ambassador, 251. 

Malery. , and his wife, 37. 

Malleus - monachorum. = Crom- 
well. Thomas, 165. 

Manchester. Collegiate Church 
of. 178. 

Mantua, 234. 

Mantua. Frederic Gonzaga, Duke 
of. 243, 286 (170-3)- 

Marches of Scotland, 196-201. 

Marches of Wales, 1 55-6. 

Marck. Erarde de la. Bishop of 
Liege, Cardinal, 205, 189. 

Margaret, daughter of King 
Henry VII. Queen Dowager of 
Scotland, letter to, 185. 

Margaret, younger daughter of 
Francis I, 226. 

Margaret of Angoulfime, Queen 
of Navarre, sister of Francis I, 
338. 340. 

Marignano, gn. 

Marillac. Charles de, French 
Ambassador to England, 252-6, 
260. 292-3, 296. 300. 309. 316, 
328. 351. 

Marke,' the barber of, a Fleming 
at Calais, 313. 

Markeby, , priest of Boston, 

letter to him and another priest 
named Thamworth, 138. 

Markes. see Smeton, Mark. 

Marseilles, 218, 223, 11& 

Marshall, Maistcr,' of Calais, see 
Grenville, Sir Richard, Knight- 
Marshall of Calais. 

Marshall. Thomas, 104. 

Marssclles ' (Cardinal Marcello 
Cervini. afterwards Pope Mar- 
ccllus 1 1), 840. 

Mary, daughter of Henry VII. 
widow of Louis XII of France, 
Duchess of Suffolk. 31. 33, 9. 

Mary, the Princess, 82, 114. 
'44-5. '06, 158, 160, 217, 219. 



323-1^8,232 .. 235, 244. 249, 
259. 266-8. 270. 29511. .306. 117, 
121. 153 (21). 170. 189. 222. 
224. 229. 238. 281. 287. 299. 
349 (271). 350 (276); letter to, 
160. 

Mary, daughter of Claude. Duke 
of Guise, widow of Louis, Duke 
of Longueville, Queen of Scot- 
land, 158, 334, 235, 226. 242. 

Mary, Queen of Hungary, Regent 
of Flanders, 251, 56. 189. 243 
(ii, iii), 276, 291, 294, 296-7, 
301 (208). 

Mary Guldeford, a ship called 
the, 319. 

Mason. John. 234. 253. 265. 
276. 

Massingbenl. Christopher, Chan- 
cellor of the diocese of Lincoln. 
326. 

Massye, . Bishop Gardiner's 

servant. 146. 226. 

Matthew's Bible. 132. 

Maximilian I. King of the Ro- 
mans. Emperor, 245-6. 

Maxwell. Robert. Lord, 330. 

Maynooth Castle, 151. 

Mediterranean trade. 139. 

Medmenham, Abbey of, Bucks, 
48. 

Melancthon, Philip. 226, 113(416, 
419). 126. 307. 310 (220-1). 

Melford alias Reeve, John. Abbot 
of St. Edmund's Bury, letters to, 
37. 39. 

Mella, Sir Bernard de, or von 
Mylen. 291(189, 190), 299. 

Mellessent, John. 186. 

Melrose, the Abbot of. see Dune. 

Melton-Mowbray, cell of. Leices- 
tershire, 1 68 n. 

Mendoza, Don Diego de, special 
ambassador from the Emperor. 
188-9. 229, 265. 

Mercaior, Michael (' Michel '). 
297(194). 

Merchant Tailors of London, 
letter to. 46. 



INDEX 



343 



Mewtas. Peter, 62 ; letter to. 242. 

Meyer, Sir Mark, of Ltibeck, 220. 

Michel, see Mercator. 

Michelham Priory, Sussex, i68w. 

Michell, William, 3. 

Middleburgh (' Medelborow '), n. 

Milan, Duchy of, 34, 226, 232, 
284, 238, 338, 340. 

Milan, Christina. Duchess of, 235, 
237, 267, 243 (ii, iii), 281 (180), 
295 (187), 301, 305. 

Milan, Francis - Maria Sforza, 
Duke of, his death (October, 
1535). 229. 

Milketon, , shipmaster of 

Newcastle, 316. 

Miller. Thomas, Lancaster Herald, 
1 88, 190. 

Miller, Thomas, of London, 90. 

Minstreley, Sir William, priest at 
Calais, 194. 

Modenham Priory, Kent, i68. 

Monasteries, suppression of, 17, 
48-5 1 . 55 6 4, 88, 90, 103. 
165-79. l8z 213, 35, 3>7 
163, 166, 175, 180, 188, 199, 
249, 259, 264, 278, 302, 311, 
318, 334, 335, 339. 

Money, see Coin. 

Monks, 48-9, 1 1 6, 166-7, l &9- 
72, 175, 177, 181, 183, 185, 
248. 297(i 9 3), 298(i 9 7). 

Monoux, Alderman George, 52. 

Mons, Provost of, see Wignacourt. 

Mont, Christopher, 219-20, 226, 
239. 243-5, 247, 249-50, 264, 
267, 278, 113 (419-20), 178, 
299, 305,309(217, 219), 310; 
letters to, 64, 287; letters to 
him and Thomas Paynell, 296, 
300. 

Montacute, Prior of, see Shirburn. 

Montague, Henry Pole, Lord, 
208-9, 2S1 

Montmorency, Anne de, Count 
Beaumont, Grand Master and Con- 
stable of France, 157, 208, 252, 
292-3, 113 (416-20), 193, 309 
(218), 340 ; letters to, 317, 328. 



Montreuil (' Muttrel '), 174, 193. 
More, Henry, of Kilmenton, 

Somerset, yeoman, 342 ; his 

complaint against William Har- 

gill, 342 (257). 
More, Maudelyn, 60 n. 
More, Robert, priest of Chichester, 

297. 

More, Roger, 60 ., 63. 
More, Sir Thomas, 28-30, 32. 

100, 118-22, 166, 227, 71, 113 

(417), 122; his daughter, see 

Roper, Margaret. 
Mores, Mr., a servant of Wolsey's, 

68. 
Mores (' Morys '), Christopher, 

177. 

Morice, Ralph, Cranmer's secre- 
tary, 255 . 
' Morkesse ' (probably a mistake 

for Morlaix), 34. 
Mortlake, Surrey, i, 222, 265; 

letters dated from, 209, 211, 

215-6, 220-2. 
Morton, John, Archbishop of 

Canterbury, 4. 
Moryson, Richard, 248 (131), 

298 (199). 

Mount, Christopher, see Mont. 
Mountjoy, William Blount, Lord. 

15- 

Munkcaster, Maister, 1. 

Munster, proposed reformation 
of, by James of Desmond, 2OO. 
203. 

Muriell, William, Bishop Gar- 
diner's servant, 258. 

Musters, 189, 252, 298 (197). 

Mustiam, Master, letters to, 6O-1. 

' Muttrel,' see Montreuil. 

Myxberye, Oxfordshire, 84. 

Naples, Joanna of. 262 n. 
Nassau, Henry, Count of, 224. 

299. 
Navarre ('Nauerne'), 33, 840 

(254). 

Navarre, the Queen of, see Mar- 
garet of Angoulcme. 



34V 



INDEX 



Neath Abbey, Glamorganshire, 
1 68*. 

Ncsham. a Benedictine Nunnery 
in Durham, 330. 

Netherlands or Low Countries, 
1 1-2, 52, 99, 101. 140. 225. 
251, 261, 284-5, 290-'- 21 
(339), 158, 305 ; the admiral of 
the, 8O5; see also Flanders. 

Netley, Abbot of, see Stevens. 

Nevell, William, 115. 

Nevill, Sir Edward, 208-9. 

Nevill, Sir John, 2 1 o. 

New Bawn (' the newe Bawon '), 
in the county of Wexford, 214. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 227. 

New Year's presents, 102, 146. 

Neyll, Henry, friar of Northamp- 
ton, 811. 

Nice, in Savoy, letter received at, 
253. 

Nice, the Peace of, 233. 

Nicolas, the courier, 281. 285, 
280. 204. 3O4. 306, 3OO. 

Nisiprius to be tried at Lincoln 
Assizes. 40. 

Non-resident clergy, 273 (153-4). 

Norfolk, county of, election of 
Knights of the Shire to Parlia- 
ment, 303. 

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, Duke 
of, 34. 37-8, 67-70, 82-4, 123, 
129, 141, 147-8, 150-1. 153-4, 
187, 190-2, 194-5, 197-200, 
236-263, 273, 283-5, 291, 293, 
296, 300, 9, 13, 42. 63, 86, 
174, 25O. 3O7. 316, 338. 340- 
51 ; letters to, 107. 188, 210. 

Normandy, 39. 41, 208 (196). 

Norris (' Norreys'), Henry, 72, 72, 
132, 147, 153. 

Northampton, county of, 36. 230 ; 
White Friars of, 311. 

Northumberland, county of, 29 ., 
196, 198; coast of. 159. 

Northumberland, Henry Percy, 
Earl of, 200 ; letter to, 38. 

Norway, 66. 

Norwell, Notts, 2. 



Norwich, 303 ; diocese of, 163. 

Norwich, Sir Robert, Chief Jus- 
tice of the Common Pleas, 
107. 

Nottingham, 188. 

Nottinghamshire, 2, 13. 

Nun of Kent, the, see Barton, 
Elizabeth. 

Nuns, 49, 172, 177. 181. 31O 
(220). 

Nttrnberg, 219, 267. 

Oatlands (' Otlande '). the K: 
manor of, Surrey, 316 : letters 
dated from, 232-3. 318. 

O'Connor, Brian (' Byryn'), 152, 
232-3. 208 (197). 

Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, I. 

O'Donnell, Manus. Lord of Tyr- 
connel, 208 (197). 

O'Donnel, Rurik, Bishop of Derry, 

207(193). 

Offley, John, 143. 

Oking, see Woking. 

Oldsworthy,Nicholas,letter to, 114. 

Olesleger, Dr. Henry, Vice-Chan- 
cellor of Cleves. 823. 340-50. 

Olverton (' Yelverton'). William of 
Rougham, Norfolk, letter to Sir 
Roger Townshend and him, 
267. 

O'Neill, Con, Earl of Tyrone, 
208(197). 

Onley, Adam, brother of [John], 
the Attorney of the Augmenta- 
tions, 184. 

Ordinaries, 96-7 ; supplication 
against the, 96, 104-11. 

Orleans, Charles. Duke of, see 
Angouleme, Duke of. 

Ormond. Sir Piers Butler, Earl of, 

'47- 
Osborn (' Ousburn '), Bailiff of the 

town of Cambridge, 120. 
Osiander, Andrew, 3O7. 
Ossory, Piers Butler, Earl of. 214. 

225. 
Osulstone or Ossulton. Middlesex, 

Hundred of, 47. 



INDEX 



345 



Otywell, Mr., of Westminster, 
50. 

Overton subtus Arderne, Leices- 
tershire, see Harding. 

Owton, see Wotton. 

Oxford, 68, 92. 162 ; letters dated 
from, 6, 157. 

Oxford, Anne, Countess of, letter 
to, 119. 

Oxford, John de Vere, fifteenth 
Earl of, 9. 

Oxford, University of, 142, 13, 
159 (27); letter to the, 92; 
state of the University in 1535, 
143; Chancellor of, see Long- 
land ; Colleges : Balliol College, 
143,326, letter to the Fellows of, 
325 ; Cardinal's Collegers, 50-2 , 
73, 102, 6-8, 13, 18 (331), 32 : 
Magdalen College, 143, 202, 
16, 104: Magdalen School in, 
14 ; Priory of St. Prides wide's at, 
202, 6; the Friars of, 177. 

Oxinbold, farm of, 72. 

Pace (' Pacy '), Richard, Dean of 
St. Paul's, 68 (378). 

Padua, 203. 

Page alias du Fount, John, 60, 
13. 

Paget, Sir William, Clerk of the 
Signet, letter to, 321. 

Pakington, John, letter to him 
and others, 108 ; joint letter from 
Sir Thomas Audley and Crom- 
well, to him and others, 109. 

Palame'des, Mr. le Tre'sorier, ste 
Gontier, Palame'des. 

Palatine of the Rhine, Louis, 
Count, Elector, 256-7, 267, 
299. 

Palishall, 2. 

Palmer, Henry, Spear of Calais, 
brother of Sir Thomas, 816. 

Palmer, Sir Thomas, Knight- 
Porter of Calais, 205, 209, 816, 
331. 

Palmer, Thomas, Cromwell's ser- 
vant, 313. 



Palsgrave, John, i.-,. 

Palshid, Richard, officer of the 
Customs at Southampton, letter 
to him and James Bettys, 181. 

Papacy, see Pope. 

Pardon, the royal, 94-5, 190-4. 

Paris, 39, 45, 132-3, 226, 240, 
281, 285, 291, 113 (419), 838 
(251) ; University of, 202 ; Grey 
Friars of, 24. 

Paris, Philip, 240. 

Parish registers, institution of 

(i538), 5, 141, 273(i54). 

Parkersplace, 2. 

Parliament, 47, 78, 90, 92-3, 
95-7, "3, 123- 125-6, 133-5, 
M4-5- 155-6, 170. 172, i? 8 , 
180, 192-3, 208, 210, 228, 256, 
258, 272, 274, 276, 289, 291, 
298-300, 305, 19, 122 (428-9), 
174(4i), 175, 298 (197, 199), 
303 ; Acts of, 94-5, 1 1 3-4 (4), 
115, 120 (2), 121, 123-5. 134 
(4), 136(2), 138. 141, 155(3), 
156, 170(2), 175, 178, 210, 
254, 260, 282, 289 (2), 294-5, 
299, 71, 107, 177 (44) 5 of 1523, 
27-46, 86, 157, 213, 1; of 
1529, 6 5, 67-70, 93 ; of 1533- 
40, 90; of 1539, 253; a Bill 
that no person shall keep above 
2,000 sheep, &c., 67 ; House of 
Lords, quotation from the 
Journal of, 292. 

Parliament, the Irish, 151, 179, 
232; mention of Acts passed 
in, 179, 196. 

Parma, 238. 

Pashas, ste Bassas. 

Pasleu, John, Abbot of Whalley, 

173- 

Paston, Sir John, 5. 
Paston, Sir William, son of Sir 

John, 5. 
Pate, Richard, Ambassador with 

ihe Emperor, 292, 300, 139, 

146, 222. 253. 343, 345. 
Pater nosier in English, 159 (26), 

273. 



:vir. 



INDEX 



Patison. John, of Loulh, Lincoln- 
shire. 171. 

Paul III, Pope. 121, 153. 159, 
189, 204-6. 210-1, 224. 227, 
243. 247, 250, 255, 268, 270, 
100-1, 122 (430). 137. 140 
(15. 1 6), 189, 216-8 (88-9), 
222. 229. 238. 286. 288, 293-5 
(187-9), 297. 300 (204-5), 305, 
309-10 (221), 340. 

Paulet, Sir Hugh, letter to him 
and four others, 342. 

Paulet, Sir William. Treasurer of 
the Household, 68, 36. 260. 

Pa via. Battle of, 79. 

Payne, Hugh, a Friar Observant. 
62 

P.iynell. Thomas, 249-50, 299. 
3O5, 8O9-1O ; letters to Christo- 
pher Mont and him, 295, 300. 

Payvy, John, friar of Northamp- 
ton, 311. 

Penshurst, Kent, letter dated from, 
274. 

Percival (' percyvall '), Lady, wife 
of Sir John. 237. 

Percy, Lord Henry, 13. 

Percy, Sir Thomas. 188-9 ; his 
children, 227. 

Perpignan, 340. 

Pershore. Worcestershire. 108. 

Persia, the Sophy of, 809. 

Pery, George, one of Chapuys' 
gentlemen, 193. 

Peter's pence, 134. 

Peters, Bartholomew. King's Sur- 
geon at Calais. 44. 

Peterson, William, priest, Com- 
missary in Calais under Arch- 
bishop Warham, 329. 

Peto or Petow, William, Pro- 
vincial of the Friars Observants. 
98, 65. 

Petrarch, his 'Triumphs.' 86. 

IVtworth, Sussex, letter dated 
from, 270. 

Philip, Archduke of Austria, father 
of Charles V, 140. 

Philips, Thomas, 155. 



Phillip?, John, of Putney, 2, 4. 

6-7. 13- 

Picardy, 299, 309 (219). 

Piedmont, see ' Pyemount.' 

Pilgrimage of Grace, rebellion in 
the North, 103, 137. 144, 173, 
176. 180-201, 205. 21 o, 169. 174. 

Pilgrimages forbidden, 159 (28), 
273. 

Pirates, 141. 190, 213, 319. 

Placentia. 238. 

Placet, John. 168. 

Poghley, Priory of, Berks.. 48. 

Pole, Sir Geoffrey. 207-9. 

Pole, Reginald, Cardinal, 5. 9-11. 
51, 76. 86-7. 91-2. 153. 253. 
260, 301, 174. 187, 189. 216-8, 
288 (173). 295 (188). 297. 
30O (204), 3O1 ; letter to. 133 : 
story of his career (1500-1540). 
202-1 2 ; passage from his ' Apo- 
logia ad CarolumQuintum,' 18-9. 

Pole, Sir Richard, 202. 

Pomeray. Gilles de la. 139 (5), 
163(2i), 170. 

Pomfret or Pontefract. Yorkshire, 
18991. 

Poole. the Mayor and Officers of. 
letter to. 80. 

Pope, the ('the busshop of rome'), 
in a general sense, oath of alle- 
giance to, &c., 97, 113-6. 121, 

135. *5 6 a21 -i z86 - 71. 113 

(418-9), 159 (26), 236. 273 

(154), 274. 286. 300. 
Pope, Sir Thomas. Treasurer of 

the Court of Augmentations, 

letter to. 320. 
Porpoise sent by Lisle as a 

present to Cromwell, 313. 
Port tyihe. 142. 
Porter, Mr.. jr Palmer. Sir 

Thomas, Knight - Porter of 

Calais. 

Porter, John, of Palishall. 2. 
' Portingale.' the daughter of, see 

under John III. 
Portsmouth, the Mayor and 

Officers of, letter to, 8O. 



INDEX 



347 



Portuguese Ambassador, a, 295 n. 

Posidonius ('Possidon'), the friend 
of Cicero, 226. 

Poulet, see Paulet. 

Pount, John du, alias Page, see 
Page, John. 

Power, Dominick, 150. 

Power, Nicholas, 214. 

Power, Piers, son of the Lady 
Katryn Butler, widow, 214. 

Powis, Sir Edward Grey, Lord, 166. 

Poynt, John, B.A. Oxon., 287. 

Praemunire ( ' primineri '), 64, 74, 
93-5, 16, 18-9. 

Pratt, James, Vicar of Crowle, 
Worcestershire, 161, 164. 

Praye, Monastery and Hospital 
of, near St. Albans, 6. 

Preacher, a, at Calais, see Damp- 
lip, Adam. 

Preaching, Order to be taken for, 
236 ; injunctions as to sermons, 
159, 273. 

Prelates, see Bishops. 

Privy Council, King's Council, 
92-4, 144, 163,186, 191, 196-7, 
199, 256, 288, 293-4, 305, 18 
(332), 31, 90, 106-7, 112-3 
(417), 141, 143, 170, 175, 206. 
21O, 217 (85), 226, 228, 261. 
267. 281, 291 (iSo-i). 297 
(193), 298 (197, 199), 307, , 
315 (229), 316, 324, 327. 344. j 
349-51 ; letters to the Lords of ! 
the, 83, 351. 

Proclamations, 135, 141, 188, 
190-1, 194, 239, 253, 36, 86. 
281 (163), 293 (184), 310 i 
(220); Act about, 123-5, 1O7. 

Proctors in the Courts of tho 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 
105-6. 

Prophecies, 168. 

Prophecy of the year 1512, 204. 

Protestantism, Protestanis, Re- 
formers, 81, 88, 99, 100, 130, 
142,220, 240,246-7, 286-7, 294, 
305-6, 286 (173); see also under 
Lutherans. 



Pryor, Elizabeth, see Williams, 
Elizabeth. 

Pryor, Sir John, 1 2. 

Pryor, Mercy, 12, 59. 

Purycroft, virgate called, 6. 

Putney,parishof,i,3-5,7,i7-8,23. 

' Pyemount' (Piedmont), 34O. 

Pykerde.John. friar of Northamp- 
ton, 311. 

Pyle, Roger, Abbot of Furness, 

173- 

Pyssow, manor and park, in 
Hertfordshire, 41. 

Quare impedit, an action of, 277. 

Raguseys, ships of Ragusa, 298 
(198). 

Ramsay Abbey, Huntingdonshire, 
1 68 //. 

Randall, William, one of the 
Bailiffs of Weymouth, see Haw- 
kins, William. 

Rangon or Rin9on, Monsieur de, 
French Ambassador with the 
Turk, 309. 

Ratclif, Middlesex, 265. 

RatclirT, Sir Alexander, Sheriff of 
Cheshire, letter to, 327. 

Ratclyff, Mr., 142. 

Ratisbon, news from, 29. 

Raveneston, Priory of, Bucks, 48. 

Rawlyns, Thomas, 15. 

Rayleigh or Rayley, in Essex, 
letter addressed to, 47. 

Reading, Abbot of, see Cook. 

Real Presence, the, 163, 243 n. 

Record Office, n, 27, 50, 54, 
104, 311-2 ; Ireland. 821. 

Rede, Peter, courier, 229, 241, 
244 (124). 

Reedsdale (' Ryddesdale '), North- 
umberland, 227. 

Reformation, Reformers, see under 
Protestantism. 

Relics, i74,159(28),278(i53-4), 

286(i73> 

Resbye, Richard, Friar Observant 
of Canterbury, 1 20. 



.Us 



INDEX 



Rewley, Abbot of. see Austen. 
Reynolds, Richard. 116. 
Reynolds, Sir Roger, Master of 

the Hospital of St. John in 

Huntingdon, letter to, 81. 
Rhine, the Lower, 245. 
Roan, the ryver of,' meaning the 

Seine at Rouen, 298. 
Riborough, Great, Norfolk. 246. 

267. 

Rice, John ap, 115. 143 ., 166-7. 
Richard II. King of England, i. 

107. 
Richard III. King of England, 

'37- 

Richardson, Sir William, priest 
at Calais, 194, 329. 

Riche, Sir Richard, Solicitor- 
General, Chancellor of Augmen- 
tations, 182, 1 86, 296. 278. 318. 
348; letters to, 102, 111. 259. 
264, 302. 

Richmond, Surrey (' Riczmunt '), 
272, 9, 62; letters dated from, 
74, 127-8. 

Richmond and Somerset, Henry 
Fitzroy, Duke of, Lord High 
Admiral, 174. 

Richmondshire, 284. 

Rievaulx Abbey, Yorkshire, elec- 
tion of a new Abbot (1533). 59. 

Ripon, Collegiate Church of, 178. 

Rithe, Richard, goldsmith, of 
Evesham, 27O. 

Rochelle, 19O. 

Rochepot, Franois de Mont- 
morency, Sieur de, Governor of 
Picardy, 299, 316-7. 328. 351. 

Rochester, Kent, 263, 297, 68 
(.374), 349-6O ; Prior and Con- 
vent of. 9 ; the Mayor of, letter 
to. 262. 

Rochford, Viscount, see Boleyn, 
George. See also Wiltshire, Sir 
Thomas Boleyn, Earl of. 

Roehampton, parish of. i, 6. 

Rolls House, the, 146; letters 
dated from. 83. 85. 93-5. 97. 
99, 106, 126. 130-1. 136-7. 



139. 143-4. 147-9. 151-6. 170, 
172. 174. 181-2. 186, 189-90, 
236-7. 

' Roman Empire,' 269. 

Rome, 10, 17, 23-5. 84, 92 
121. 142. 158-9. 20.-,-;. 210-1. 
217, 247, 306, 3O, 10O-1. 139. 
218 (50). 261. 305; breach 
with, separation from. 90-3. 
112-3. 3. '33- 165-6. 
307; Papal Court at, 14, 24, 
8 4 93. J 59; sack of, 80; Sec 
of (' Holy See '), 216, 218. 221. 
227, 247, 255, 268, 306, 30. 
286. 

Romney or Rompqey, ftvRumney. 

Roo, Mr., master of the free 
school at Week St. Mary, Corn- 
wall. 237. 

Rood of Grace, the. 174. 

Roper, Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Thomas More. 113 (4 1 7). 

Roper, William, 28. 

Rougham, Norfolk, 267. 

Rous, Edmund, 143. 

Rouse. Anthony. 307. 

' Rousseler,' in Flanders, 845. 

Rowe, Mr., 52. 

Rowland, Maister, Parson of 
Garsington, Oxfordshire, letter 
to, 32. 

Rows, George, Cromwell's ser- 
vant, 245. 

Royal Supremacy, 90, 93-7, 
113-4, 116, 118. 1 21-2. 14.- 
148, 156, 1 66, 183, 203. 20.-,. 

Roydon, a farm near Southamp- 
ton. 61. 

Rudby. in Cleveland, parsonage 
of. 7, 8. 

Rudston. Robert, Sir Thomas 
Wyatt's servant, 294. 

Rumburgh Prior)'. 9. 

Rumney (' Rompney'), Manor of, 
Monmouthshire. 63. 12O. 

Rurik, Bishop of Derry, see 
O'Donnel. 

Rush, Sir Thomas, 62. 65, 67, 
69. 



INDEX 



349 



Russell family, 307. 

Russell, Henry, letter to John 
Russell and him, 290. 

Russell, Sir John, Comptroller of 
the Household, afterwards Earl 
of Bedford, 25, 72, 75, 250. 

Russell, Sir John the younger, 
J. P. of Worcestershire, letter to 
him and others. 108 ; joint letter 
from Sir Thomas Audley and 
Cromwell, to him and others, 109. 

Russell, John, Esquire, one of 
the Council of the Marches of 
Wales, J. P. of Worcestershire, 
117 ; letters to, 109, 164, 282 ; 
letter to him and Sir Gilbert 
Talbot, 161 ; letter to him and 
Henry Russell, 290. 

Rutland, county of, 230. 

Rutland, Thomas Manners, Earl 
of, Lord Chamberlain to Anne of 
Cleves, 192, 848 ; letter to, 112. 

Ryddesdale, see Reedsdale. 

Ryvaulx Abbey, see Rievaulx. 

Ryvet, Hugh, 316. 

Sacramentaries, 162-4, 26O, 263, 

268, 281(162-3), 312. 
Sacraments, 109, 131, 169 (27). 

273 (152). 
Sadler, Ralph, 51, 60, 63, 66, 

159-60, 297, 15, 297, 309 ; 

letter from, 67-8 ; letter to, 343. 
Sadolet, James, Bishop of Car- 

pentras, Cardinal, 211. 
Sagar, Stephen, Abbot of Hailes, 

Gloucestershire, 174-5. 
St. Albans, Abbey of, 72-4. 
St. Austin's, Canterbury, Abbot 

of, see Sturvey. 
St. Edmund's Bury, Abbot of, 

see Melford. 

St. Faith's, Prior of, see Salisbury. 
St. Florence, a benefice in . the 

diocese of St. David's, 6. 
St. George, Order of, collar of 

the, 293. 

St. James (' sent Jocop '), we- West- 
minster. 



St. John of Jerusalem, Knights 
of, 289. 

St. Leger, Sir Anthony, 154. 

St. Low (' Seintloo'), William, 221. 

' St. Marye Wyke,' see Week St. 
Mary. 

St. Neot's Priory, Huntingdon- 
shire, 1 68 n. 

St. Osythe's Priory, Essex, 168 ., 
278. 

Saint Pol, in Artois, 193. 

St. Rhadegund's Priory, see Dover. 

Salerno, Ferdinand de San Seve- 
rino, Prince of, 343. 

Salisbury, Margaret, Countess of, 
mother of Cardinal Pole, 202, 
204, 207. 209-10, 253. 

Salisbury, , courier, 139, 147. 

Salisbury, Bishop of, see Capon 
alias Salcot, and Shaxton. 

Salt money, 127. 

Salvey, Richard, to be Clerk of the 
Peace for Worcestershire, 290. 

Sampson, Dr. Richard, Dean of 
the Chapel Royal, afterwards 
Bishop of Chichester, 250; letter 
to, 73; a dozen copies of his 
' Oration ' sent to Bishop Gardi- 
ner in France, 126. 

Sandes, William. Lord Chamber- 
lain, 312. 

Sandford Nunnery, see Littlemore. 

Sandford, , cousin of Sir 

Thomas Wharton, 330. 

Sandwich, Kent, 74 

Sandwich, Dr. William, of Canter- 
bury College, Oxford, letter to, 
197. 

Sapcottes, Henry, letter to, 75. 

Saragossa, in Spain, letter re- 
ceived at, 193. 

Sarisbury, John, Prior of St. 
Faith's, Horsham, 168; letter 
to, 163. 

' Satanae Nuncius,' = Cromwell, 
Thomas, 91-3, 203. 

Savage, John, 171. 

Sawtry Abbey, Huntingdonshire, 
1 68 n. 



860 



INDEX 



Saxony. 243. 247. 249. 261. 
Saxony, Frederic III. the Wise, 

Elector of, 245. 
Saxony. John Frederic, Elector i 

of, 240, 243-4. 246-7, 249-50, 

256-9, 261, 264, 372, 274-.-,. 

287. 287. 295 (186, 188-9), 

297 (i 94), 299-300. 805 (213). 

309(219). 310. 
Sayes Court, Manor of. 9. 
Sayntclere,' Mr., 68, 102. 
Scales, Lord, 5. 

Scarborough. Yorkshire, 158, 194. 
Scepperus. Dr. Cornelius, Imperial 

Ambassador in France, 244 

Schmalkaldic League, the, 243. 
245-7. 256-7, 264, 266-7. 

Scotland, 28, 43, 45-6, 147, 150, 
'53. !55-9> 84, 9 6 - 291, 4. 
27, 77, 90, 152, 174 (41), 297 
(193). 298 (197); raid against 
the Scots by Henry, Earl of 
Northumberland (1532), 88. 

Scrooby, Notts, 190. 

Scrope, John, Lord, 192; letter 
to, 41. 

Scudamor. Edward, 171. 

Sedbergh, Adam, Abbot of Jer- 
vaulx, 189. 

Seintloo, see St. Low. 

' Selant,' see Zealand. 

Semley, Manor of, Wiltshire, 116. 

Senklers Bradfield, Suffolk, 117. 

Sennowe, a farm at Great Ri- 
borough, Norfolk, 248, 267. 

Sexten, Edmund, 215. 

Seymour family, 307. 

Seymour, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir John, widow of Anthony 
Ughtred, wife of Gregory Crom- 
well, 145, 301. 

Seymour, Jane, Queen, 130, 152, 
234, 153 (21), 189 (60), 223; 
announcement of her death, 220. 

' Seyntcler,' James, 90. 

Shakespeare. William, 65. 

Shaxton, Nicholas. Bishop of 
Salisbury, letter to, 248. 



Sheen, parish of East, i ; Charter- 
house at, 17. 

Sherborne, St John's of. in 
Hampshire, 7O. 

Sherley. Thomas, Cromwell's ser- 
vant, 247. 

Sherlock, James, Receiver in the 
county of Wexford, 212. 

Sheuerys,' Lord of, see Chievres. 

Shields, South, 154, 297. 

Ship . . . . , Hugh, commander of 
a merchantman, 74. 

Ships, arrest and detention of, see 
Bordeaux and English trade. 

Shirburn, Robert, Prior of Mont- 
acute, letter to, 132. 

Shrewsbury, George Talbot, Earl 
of, Lord Steward, 187-8, 190. 
192 ; letters to, 76, 97. 165. 

Shrine to be taken down, 188. 

Sibylla, see under Cleves. 

Sidney, Sir William, Sheriff of 
Kent. 296. 

Sinclair, see Sayntclere and Seynt- 
cler. 

Sittingbourne, Kent, 263. 

Skeffington. Sir William, Lord 
Deputy of Ireland, 147-8, 150-1, 
204. 

Skipworth Moor, Yorkshire, 189. 

Skryn, Martin, 2O4. 

Sleaford, 185. 

Smart, John, Abbot of Wigmore, 
302. 

Smeton, Mark (' Markes'), 147. 

Smith, Richard, Vicar of Llangan, 
Pembrokeshire. 337. 

Smith, William, Parish priest of 
St. Mary's at Calais, 163, 314 
(226). 

Smyth, John, of Putney, 4 n. 

Smyth, John, attorney, 48, 63 n. 

Smyth, ' Mastres,' 2. 

Smyth, R., 8 n. 

Smyth, Thomas, 6-8. 

Smyth alias Cromwell, Walter, 
see under Cromwell. 

Smyth, William, armourer, 3, 
7,8. 



INDEX 



351 



Snape Priory, 7, 9. 
Sole, Richard, 168. 
Somerset, Edward Seymour. 

Duke of, Lord Protector, letter 

to him, from Bishop Gardiner. 

123 n. 

Soinmer, Mr., 20. 
Sonninghill, Berkshire, letter dated 

from, 196, 198. 
Soulemont or Solemont, Thomas, 

French Secretary to Henry VIII, 

309 (217-8), 316. 
Southampton, 298 (198); the 

Mayor and Officers of, letter to, 

80 ; letter to the Officers of the 

Customs at, 181. 
Southampton, Sir William Fitz- 

\villiam. Earl of, Lord Admiral, 

288, 297-8 (196), 348-9; 

letters to, 190, 250, 329. 
Southstoke, Somersetshire, 191. 
Southwel,' Richard, 303. 
Southwell, Notts. 2 ., 18. 
Southwell, Mr., 88. 
Spain, 21, 42, 79, 81, 84, 163, 

2IO-I, 214-5, 217, 219, 222- 

3, 225, 230-8, 241-2, 248-9, 
255, 264, 269-71, 281, 284, 

299, 188 (58), 213, 288, 291 
(181), 294-5 (188), 301, 305- 
6, 309(217-8), 340 (255). 

Spalatinus, Georgius, 288. 

Spalding, Lincolnshire, 176; Prior 
of, see Elsyn. 

Spencer, Lady, widow of Sir 
William, sister of Edmond and 
Richard Knyghtley, 36. 

Spencer, Sir William, executors 
of, 36. 

Spicer, Richard, 168. 

Splottes, lands called the, in the 
Manor of Rumncy, Monmouth- 
shire, 12O. 

Stamford, Lincolnshire, 188. 

Standish, Henry, Bishop of St. 
Asaph, 277, 344. 

Stanesgate, Essex, 48. 

Staple, the, 52. 

Star Chamber. 31. 



Starkey, Thomas. 203. 133. 

Starky, John, 126-7. 

Steelyard (' Stylyard '), 140, 

316. 
Stepney, letters dated from, 56- 

7, 72-3. 79, 91. 124. 129. 145- 

6, 173, 191-3. 210, 212-4, 

255. 
Stevens, Thomas, Abbot of 

Netley, letter to, 61. 
Stokesley, John, Bishop of Lon- 
don, 100 ., 63, 217. 
Stompe, Mr., Commissioner in 

North Wales, letter to him and 

Mr. Gostwick, 166. 
Stourbridge Fair, in Cambridge, 

106, 116. 129, 186, 206. 
Stourton or Sturton, William 

Lord, letter to, 336. 
Straet, Giles van, 345. 
Stralsund, Peace of (1370), 220. 
Strangeways, (' Strangwissh '), 

18 (332). 
Strangways. Sir Giles, letter to 

him and four others, 342. 
Strat Margel (' Stradmarsell') 

Abbey, in Montgomeryshire, 

166. ' 
Strete, Richard, Archdeacon of 

Salop, letters to. 22, 43. 
Stubbs, Maister, 16. 
Sturton, Somerset, 342 (258). 
Sturvey alias Essex, John. Abbot 

of St. Austin's, Canterbury, 

letter to, 78. 
Stydolffe, Anthony, a ward of 

Cromwell, 49. 
Suavenius, Peter, Danish Envoy to 

England, 222. 
Subsidies, Lay, 29, 185, 1, 177 

(44). 
Succession. Act of. 114; the new, 

1 20-1, 143, 71, 179. 
Suffolk, Charles Brandon, Duke 

of, 18, 187-8, 192, 273, 1, 9. 

111. 182, 26O. 297, 349-5O ; 

letters to, 42, 171. 
Suffolk, county of, 93. 
Sulyard, Sir William, J. P. of 






INDEX 



Flintshire, 344; letter to him 

and Roger Brereton, 277. 
Surrey. Henry Howard, Earl of, 

son of the Duke of Norfolk, 187. 
Surrey, Thomas Howard, Earl of, 

afterwards Duke of Norfolk, see 

Norfolk, Duke of. 
Susa (' Zuse '), a town of Italy, in 

the Alps, 229 (104). 
Susanna, 348. 
Sussex, Robert Ratcliff, Earl of, 

i?3. 297. 

Sussex monasteries, 168. 
Sutton, Surrey, letter dated at, 

194. 

Sutton at Hone, Kent, 61 . 
4 Swepestake/ a ship called the, 

177-8. 

Swift, Richard, 62, 2. 
Sydney, Mr., see Sidney, Sir 

William. 
Sydynham, Thomas, Warden of 

the Grey Friars of Greenwich, 

62. 
Symonds, Robert, of Pershore, 

Worcestershire, 108. 

Talbot, Sir Gilbert, letter to him 

and John Russell, Esquire, 161. 
Tate, Richard, Ambassador with 

the Emperor, 294, 304, 309. 
Taunton, Somerset, 67. 
Taverns or alehouses, 159 (28), 

266. 

Tempest, Nicholas, 188-9. 
Tempest, Sir Thomas, 227. 
Temple Dartford, Kent, 61 n. 
Tenby, Pembrokeshire, 19O. 
Terouenne (' Tyrouenne,' ' The- 

rowenne '), 39, 193. 
Tewkesbury Abbey, letter dated 

from, 111. 
Thadeus, the courier, see Bollc, 

Thadeus. 
Thames, bear-baiting on the, 25, 

*55 ; mock fight of the galleys 

before the King (1539), 255 .; 

breach into the marshes of 

Lesnes, 9. 



Thamworth. , priest of Bos- 
ton, letter to him and another 
priest named Markcby, 138. 

' Therowenne,' see Terouenne. 

Thirleby, Dr. Thomas, Ambas- 
sador in France, letter to Bishop 
Gardiner, Sir Francis Brian and 
him, 268. 

Thirske, William, Abbot of Foun- 
tains, Yorkshire, 64; letter to 
him and the Abbot of Byland, 
69. 

Thisteldormont, see Castledermot. 

Thoby, Essex, 48. 

Thomas, Mr. Hubertus, Secretary 
to the Duke of Bavaria, 64. 

Thomeson, Robert, an overseer 
in the works at Dover, 172. 

Thompson, John. Master of the 
Maison Dieu at Dover, 172. 

Thornbury. Gloucestershire, letter 
dated from, 113. 

Thorpe, near Chertsey, Surrey. 12. 

Throgmorton, Sir George, 296, 
848. 

Throgmorton, Michael, 203-7, 
174, 217; his letters to Crom- 
well, 206 ; letters to. 216, 218. 

Thuczenlant, see Germany. 

Thurston, , Cromwell's cook, 

62. 

Thwaites, , Bishop Gardi- 
ner's servant, 130. 

Thwaytes, Edward, Cromwell's 
servant, 167. 

Thyxstyll. King's chaplain. 307. 

Tiptree, Essex, 48. 

Tirrell, Maister, 119. 

Toledo. 2io-i, 242, 806 ; letters 
received at, 289, 294, 3O4, 
306. 

Toles, John, merchant of London, 
281. 

Tonbridge, Kent, 2. 

Tonneys, Maister, 11. 

Torre, , imprisoned in Flan- 
ders, 338 (252). 

Tourney (Toumai), city of, 34, 
39, 4- 



INDEX 



353 



Tournon, Francis de, Archbishop 

of Bourges, Cardinal, 216. 
Tower of London, see London. 
Townsend, Robert, Esquire, 246, 

267. 
Townsend, Sir Roger, letter to 

him and Sir John Heydon 246 ; 

letter to him and Mr. Olverton, 

267. 
Transubstantiation, 162-3, 2 54> 

314 (226) ; deniers of, see Sacra- 

mentaries. 

Treffry, Thomas, 103. 
Trewardreth, Cornwall, the Prior 

of, see Collyns. 
Trinity, ship named the, of Hull, 

48. 
Troyes, Jean de Dinteville, Bailly 

of, French Envoy, 226, 147, 149, 

151. 
Tudor, House of, &c., 77-8, 94, 

112, 125, 138, 140, 160, 196-7, 

209, 262, 309. 
Tuke, Sir Brian, 53, 177-8; 

letters to, 152, 280, 289. 
Tunis, 225, 117, 121. 
Tunstall, Cuthbert, Bishop of 

Durham, President of the 

Council of the North, 95, 200, 

242, 273, 217, 250, 297, 349- 

51; letter to him and the Council, 

227. 
Turkey, Turks, 82, 86, 234, 237, 

240, 260, 18 (333), 21 (339), 

30, 238, 296, 299-300 (205), 

3O5-6, 309. 
Turner, Robert, 16. 
Tykford, Priory of, Bucks, 48. 
Tyllet, Edmond, 117. 
Tyndale, John, 100 n. 
Tyndale, William, 52, 99-101, 

132, 240; his 'Obedience of a 

Christian Man,' 99 ; his ' Practise 

of Prelates,' 100; his 'Answer* 

to Sir Thomas More, 100, 21. 
Tynedale, Northumberland, 227. 
' Tyrouen,' set Terouenne. 

Ughtred, Sir Anthony, 145, 7. 

MEKRIMAS. II A 



Ughtred, Sir Robert, 7. 
Urbino, Francesco Maria da 
Rovere, Duke of, K.G., 286 

(I?/)- 
Urbino, Guido Ubaldo da Rovere, 

Duke of, 243, 286(169, 171-3). 
Uses, Statute of, 136-8, 183. 
Uvedale, John, Secretary to the 

Council of the North, 227. 

Vachell, John, letter to him and 

Sergeant Chalcott, 235. 
Valladolid ('Valodd'), in Spain, 

189 (61). 
Vampage, John, letter to him and 

others, 108. 
Vatican, 93. 
Vaughan, Stephen, 52, 60, 63-4, 

85, 99-ior, 219, 251, 264, 1, 

36, 53, 276, 291 (182), 301 

(208), 307, 309; letter to Thomas 

Cromwell, 73; letters to, 21, 

177-8, 811. 

Vauldray, Monsieur de, 189, 193. 
Vawdy Abbey, Lincolnshire, state 

and condition of (1533), 54; 

Henry, Abbot of, 64. 
Venice, Venetians, 10, 18, 139, 

243, 30, 286 (170), 296-8 

(198), 309 (217-8). 
Venlo, Treaty of (September 7, 

1543). 2 47 n. 
Verney, John, 111. 
Vernon, Margaret, Prioress of 

Little Marlowe, 146. 
Villa Franca, near Nice, letter 

received at, 265. 
Voysey or Veysey, alias Harmon, 

Bishop of Exeter, 155. 
Vuedale, see Uvedale. 

Wales, 29;;., 122, 147; borders of, 
167 n.; Royal Commissioners 
for, 155; reform of, 155-6. 

Walgrave, John, 346. 

Wallingford Priory, 48, 6-8, 32. 

Wallop, Sir John (' Valloup'), 92, 
I93 2 3. 282, 28 4, 288, 290, 
294-5 n., 126, 128, 135, 156, 



354 



INDEX 



173, 316 ; his reported abuse of 

Cromwell, 1 7, 75-6, 92 . ; letter 

from him to Henry VIII, 300; 

letters to, US, 127, 136, 147, 

140, 151, 170, 174, 338, 84O. 
Walsh, Richard, Parson of Lough- 

seudie, 203. 

Wandsworth, parish of, I. 
Warberg (' Werberge '), in Scania, 

the castle of, 177. 
Ware, Hertfordshire, 52. 
Warham, William, Archbishop of 

Canterbury, 3, 17, 95, 105, 46, 

68 (375). 

Warwick, county of, 36. 
Waterford, Bishop of, see Comin, 

Nicholas ; Recorder of, see White, 

James; Mayor, Bailiffs, &c. of, 221. 
Waters, Edward, 48, 319. 
Watson, Edward, 76. 
Wayte. William, Proctor of the 

Charterhouse, 274. 
Webbe, John. 171. 
Webley, John, Prior of Dudley, 

letter to, 94. 
Webster, Augustine, Carthusian 

Prior, 1 1 6. 
Week St. Mary, Cornwall (' saynct 

marye wyke '), 237. 
Welbeck, John, of Putney, 5. 
Wells, Somersetshire, 176. 
Wellyfed, Alice, 59. 
Wellyfed, Christopher, 5, 53, 59. 
Wellyfed, Elizabeth, 5, 55, 58, 6 1. 
Wi-llyfed, William, 5, 58-9, 61. 
Wellyfed, William, the younger, 59. 
Welsborne, John, Gentleman of 

the King's Privy Chamber, 34. 
Welsers, 306. 
Wenlock, Shropshire, Prior and 

Convent of, letters to, 72, 184 ; 

Prior of, see Bayly, John. 
Werberge, see Warberg. 
Wesley, Richard, 214. 
W r est, Nicholas, Bishop of Ely, 

letter to, 40. 
Westchester, see Chester. 
Westminster, 39 ; letters dated 

from, 169, 186.227 239,261,336. 



Westminster Abbey, 1 75. 

Westminster Gardens, 25. 75. 

Westminster, St. James's Palace at, 
102, 272, 274 (bis) ; letters dated 
from, 14. 183, 223-4. 238. 24O- 
1, 246-7. 250-3, 257-8, 260, 
262-4. 312-4. 

Westmoreland, county of, 29 ., 
198, 188. 

Westmoreland, Ralph Nevill, 
Earl of, 297 (193). 

Weston, Sir Francis, 147. 

Weston, Sir Richard, under- 
treasurer of the Exchequer, 67. 

Wettin, the House of, 245. 

Wexford, the Sheriff of, letter to, 
196. 

Weymouth, Dorset, letter to the 
Bailiffs of, 48. 

Whalley Abbey, Lancashire, 1 73 ; 
Abbot of, see Pasleu. 

Whalley, Edmund, Abbot of 
York, 51. 

Whalley, Hugh, 60. 

Whalley, John, letters to, 144, 
160. 

Wharton, Sir Thomas, Deputy 
Warden of the West Marches, 
Sheriff of Cumberland, 159, 200; 
letter to, 330. 

Whelpeley, George. 80. 

Whethel, Lady (Elizabeth, widow 
of Sir Richard) and her son, 192. 

Whethel, Sir Richard, Mayor of 
Calais (1533-4), 55. 

Whitby. Yorkshire, 316. 

Whitchurch, Edward, printer, 132. 

White. James, Recorder of Water- 
ford, 214. 

White Rose, adherents of the, 
209. 

Whitford, Flintshire, 277, 344. 

Whitford, Hugh, 277, 344. 

Whiting, Richard, Abbot of 
Glastonbury, 175-6, 248 (131). 

Whityngham, Manor of, Bucks, 1 1. 

' Whofall,' see Wolfhall. 

Whorwood, William, Solicitor- 
General (1535). 107. 



INDEX 



355 



Wigmore, Abbot of, see Smart. 
Wignacourt, Escuyer de, Provost 

of Mons, 251. 
Wilffprde, William, 1. 
Wilkinson, George, 62. 
Williams, virgate called, 6-7. 
Williams, Elizabeth, widow of 

Thomas, daughter of Sir John 

Pryor, 12. 

\Villiams, Herry, 32. 
Williams, John, lawyer, 5. 
Williams, John, letter to him and 

others, 162. 

Williams, Katherine, wife of Mor- 
gan, sister of Thomas Cromwell, 

5, 54, 58, 186 . 
Williams, Morgan, of Putney, 5, 

54, i86. 
Williams, Reginald, of the West 

Country, 91. 
Williams, Richard, 6. 
Williams alias Cromwell, Richard, 

see Cromwell, Sir Richard. 
Williams, Thomas, 12. 
Williams, Walter, 59-60. 
Williamson, Joan, 55, 58, 60. 
Williamson, Joan the younger, 59. 
Williamson, John, 55, 58-60 ., 

63, 142, 177. 
Wilson, Dr. Nicholas, Chaplain to 

the King, 206-7, 2 9 2 %LQ', 

letter to him and Nicholas Heath, 

217. 

Wiltshire monasteries, 166. 
Wiltshire, Sir Thomas Boleyn, 

Earl of, Treasurer of the King's 

Household, 72, 93, 18 (133), SO, 

251 ; letter to, 6. 
Wimbledon, extent of the Manor 

of, i ; Court Rolls of, 1-8. 
Wimbledon, parish of, 1-4, 7. 
Winchcomb, letter dated from, 

110. 
Winchcomb, Abbot of, see Kyder- 

minstre, Richard. 
Winchester, letters dated from, 

118-21. 

Winchester, Bishop of, see Gardi- 
ner. 



Winchester. Bishopric of, 68, 72- 
4, 18; Winchester House, see 
under London ; White Friars of, 
177; Chancellor of the diocese 
of, 10. 

Windsor, 191, 196; letters dated 
from, 164-8, 199-201, 207-8. 

Wingfield, Sir Robert, 84, 209. 

Wingfield, Thomas, comptroller 
of the works at Dover, 144; 
letter to, 172. 

Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, 141. 

Wise, William, of Waterford, 214. 

Witherington, Sir John, 200. 

Wittelsbach family, 267, 269, 271. 

Wittenberg (' Witteberg '), in Sax- 
ony, 307. 

Wittenberg theologians, 220. 

' Wittenberge,' Duke of, see Wttr- 
temberg. 

Witwang, the Prebend of, 18 (3 2 2). 

Woburn, Abbot of, see Hobbes. 

Wode or Wolde, William, Prior 
of Bridlington, 189. 

Woking (' Oking '), Surrey, 193 ; 
letter dated from, 168. 

Wolf, Robert, Bailiff, letter to, 81. 

W[olfe], Reyner, 800. 

Wolff, Sir William, clerk, 81. 

Wolfhall ('Wolfall,' 'Whofall'), 
Wiltshire, the seat of the Sey- 
mours, letters dated from, 116-7. 

Wolsey, Thomas, Archbishop of 
York, Cardinal, 12-5, 17-8, 25, 

27-3. 35. S 8 , 42, 47. 54. 75-8, 
83, 86, 88-91, 93, 103, 129, 135, 
140, 147, 152, 155, 165, 179, 
203, 218, 229, 271, 285, 308, 
3, 7, 9, 11 ; his plan to suppress 
the smaller monasteries, 48-52 ; 
his disgrace, 64-75 > his foreign 
policy, 77. 79-81, 213-4, 231; 
letters to, 6, 8, 13-9. 

Woodall, Maister, 1. 

Wool-trade, 138, 140, 181. 

Worcester, the Bailiffs of the city 
of, letter to, 270. 

Worcester, Bishop of, see Latimer, 
Hugh. 



.Tifi 



INDEX 



Worcester, IJishopric of, 118. 

Worcester Market, 117. 

Worcestershire, 109, 290. 

Worme, Percival, a murderer. 77. 

Wotton, Nicholas, Ambassador to 
the Duke of Cleves, 250, 261-2, 
295, 300, 309, 349, 350; 
letters to, 323-4 ; letter to Dr. 
Hughes, Stephen Vaughan and 
him, 311. 

Wounds of Christ, the five, 184, 
210. 

Wriothesley, Sir Thomas (' Wry- 
thesley,' ' Wrysley '), Ambassador 
in the Netherlands, 210, 251, 
256, 28, 159, 276, 293 (184), 
294, 296-8 (198); letters to, 
291, 301. 

Wullenwever, George. 221. 

Wiirtemberg.Ulrich, Duke of, 127. 

Wyatt, Sir Thomas, 211, 236, 
242, 281-4, 240, 265, 291, 296 
(188), 301, 309, 338, 343; 
letters to, 189, 193, 213, 222-4. 
229, 234, 238-9, 241, 244. 
250, 253, 257, 261, 276, 281. 
285, 289, 294, 204, 306. 

Wyke Nunnery, Essex, 7. 

Wyke SL Mary, see Week. 

Wykys, Elizabeth, wife of Thomas 
Cromwell, see Cromwell, Eliza- 
beth. 

Wykys, Harry, of Thorpe, near 
Chertsey, 12. 

Wykys, Joan, see Williamson, 
Joan. 

Wylkynson, see Wilkinson. 

Wyllyams, see Williams. 



Wyndham, Sir Edmund, 303. 
Wyndham, Thomas, 321. 
Wyngfield, see Wingfield. 
Wynter, John, of Bristo!,19p, 319. 
Wynter, Roger, letter to him and 
others, 108. 

Yafford, East, Yorkshire, Manor 
beside, 88. 

Yarmouth Cell. Norfolk, 168 n. 

Yelverton, William, see Olverton. 

York, 193; Abbot and Convent 
of St. Mary's in, 51, 9. 

York, Archbishop of, see Lee, Ed- 
ward, and Wolsey; Mayor of, 
see Harrington. 

York, Archbishopric of, 203, 13, 
18 ; Convocation of, 95 ; Parlia- 
ment at, looked for, 175; the 
Treasurership of, 14. 

York House, York Place, see 
under London. 

Yorkist dynasty, 208; nobles, 
209. 

Yorkshire, 188-90, 192, 196, 198, 
210, 3, 7-8, 18, 69, 77; East 
Riding of, 194. 

Yorkshire, the Sheriff of, see 
Constable, Sir John. 

Yorkshire rebels of 1536, song 
written for the, 181-2. 

Yrishe, see Irish. 

Zealand ( Selant'), 273, 74, 293, 
310 (221). 
' Zuse,' see Susa. 
Zutphen, 247 n. 



Oxford : Printed at the Clarendon Press, by HORACE HART, M. A. 



Life and letters of