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Harvard College 


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' "■Vl»0TO,, ™,„„„ 




The public will naturally expect, that in elioming a patron 
the LiFK OF CicEnn, I siioiild address myself to Momi' person 
of illustrious rank, (iistinguislu'd by his parts and elotjueiice, 
and bearing a principal share in the great affairs of llic nation ; 
who, according to the usual style of dedications, might be the 
proper subject of a comparison with the hero of my piece. 
Your Lordship's name will confirm that expectation, and your 
character will justi^ me in running some length into the 
parallel ; but my experience of your good sense forbids me 
the attempt. For your Lordship knows what a disadvantage it 
would be to any character to be placed in the same light with 
that of Cicero; that all such comparisons must be invidious 
and adulatory ; and that the following history will suggest a 
reason, in every page, why no man now living can justly be 
compared with nim. 

I do not impute this to any superiority of parts or genius 
peculiar to the ancients ; for human nature has ever been the 
same in all ages and nations, and owes the difference of its 
improvements to a difference only of culture, and of the re- 
wards proposed to its industry : where these are the most 
amply provided, there we shall always find the most numerous 
and shining examples of human perfection. In old Rome, the 
public honours were laid open to the virtue of every citizen ; 
which, by raising them in their turns to the command of that 
■igbty empire, produced a race of nobles superior even to 
kii^s. This was a prospect that filled the soul of the ambi- 

I for I 


tioi(«, and roused every faculty of mind and body, to exert it 
utmost force : wliereaa, in modern states, men's views beinj 
usually confined to narrow bounds, beyond which they canno 
pass, and a partial culture of their talents being sufficient (i 
procure every thing that their ambition can aspire to, a grea 
genius has seldom either room or invitation to stretch itself ti 
its full size. 

You see, my Lord, how much I trust to your good nature 
as well as good sense, when in an epistle dedicatory, thi 
proper place of panegyric, I am depreciating your abilities 
instead of extolling tliem ; but 1 remember, tiiat it is an hift 
tory which I am offering to your Lordship, and it would il 
become me, in the front of such a work, to expose my vera 
city to any hazard : and my head indeed is now so full o 
antiquity, that I could wish to see the dedicatory style re- 
duced to that classical simplicity, with which the ancient writert 
used to present their books to their friends or patrons, . a 
whose desire they were written, or by whose authority thej 
were publbbed : for this was the first use and the sole piirpost 
of a dedication; and as this also is the real ground of mj 
present address to your Lordship, so it will be the best argu 
ment of my epistle, and the most agreeable to the characte: 
of an historian, to acquaint the public with a plain fact, tha 
it was your Lordship who first advised me to undertake tht 
Life of Cicero ; and when, from a diffidence of my strength 
and a nearer view of the task, I bc^aii to think myself ua 
equal to the weight of it, your I,l)r(^^hip still urged am 


leisure, not in vicious pleasures, or trifling diversious, con- 
tnVed, as we truly call it, to kill the time ; out in conversing 
with the celebrated wits and scholars of the age ; in encou- 
nging other people's learning, and improving their own : and 
here yoar Lordship imitates them with success, and for love of 
letters and politeness, may be compared with the noblest of 
them. For your house, like theirs, is open to men of parts 
ted merit; where I have admired your Lordship's agreeable 
manner of treating them all in their own way, by introducing 
questions of literature, and varying them so artfully, as to give 
every one an opportunity, not only of bearing a part, but of 
leading the conversation in his turn. In these liberal exercises 
you drop the cares of the statesman ; relieve your fatigues in 
the senate ; and strengthen your mind, while you relax it. 

Encomiums of this kind, upon persons of your Lordship's 
quality, commonly pass for words of course, or a fashionable 
langruage to the great, and make little impression on men of 
sense, who know learning not to be the fruit of wit or parts, 
for there your Lordship's title would be unquestionable, but 
an acquisition of much labour and study, which the nobles of 
our days are apt to look upon, as inconsistent with the ease 
and splendour of an elevated fortune, and generally leave to 
men of professions and inferior life. But your Lordship has 
a different way of tliinking, and by your education in a pub- 
lic school and university, lias learned from your earliest 
youth, tliat no fortune can exempt a man from pains, who 
<iesires to distinguish himself from the vulvar ; and that it is 
a folly, in any condition of life, to a'^[)ire to a superior cha- 
racter, without a superior virtue and industry to support it. 
^Miat time, therefore, others bestow ujjon their sports or plea- 
sures, or the lazy indolence of a luxurious life, your Lordship 
applies to the improvement of your knowlcdf^e ; and in those 
early hours, when all around you are hushed in sleep, seize the 
opportunity of that quiet, as the most favourable season of 
study, and frequently spend an useful day, before others begin 
to enjoy it. 

I am saying no more, my Lord, than what I know, from 
my constant admission to your Lordship in my morninor visits, 
before g^ood manners would permit me to attempt a visit any 
v^'liere else ; where I have found you commonly engaged witli 
the clas>ical writers of Greece or Rome ; and conversiuG^ with 
those very dead, with whom Scipio and Lielius used to con- 
verse so familiarly when living. Nor does your Lordship 
assume this part for ostentation or amusement only, hut tor the 
real benefit both of yourself and others; for I have seen the 
solid effects of your reading in your judicious reflections on tlic^ 



policy of those aoctent goverDtnentS) and have felt your w^ghl 
even in controversy, on some of the most delicate parts of tMfe 

There is another circumstance peculiar to your Lordship 
which makes this task of study tlie easier to you, by gini4 
you not only the ^eater health, but the greater leisure tx 
pursue it; I mean that singular tempeiance in diet, in wttiiJ 
your Lordship perseveres, with a coustaucy superior to ever^ 
temptation, that can excite an appetite to rebel ; and shews ' 
firmness of mind, that subjecta every gratification of sense ft 
the rule of right reason. Thus, with all the accomplishmenC 
of the nobleman, you lead the life of a philosopher ; and whiL 
you shine a princip^ ornament of the court, you practise tb< 
discipline of the college. 

In old Rome there were no hereditary honours; but whei 
the virtue of the family was extinct, its honour was extinguisbec 
too; so that no roan, how nobly soever born, could arrive ai 
any dignity, who did not win it by his personal merit: anc 
here again your Lordship seems to nave emulated that antneni 
spirit ; for, though born to the first honours of your country, 
yet, disclaiming, as it were, your birth-right, and putting your- 
self upon the footing of a Roman, you were not content with in- 
heriting, but resolved to import new dignities into your &mily; 
and, after the example of your noble fother, to open your own 
way into the supreme council of the kingdom. In this augna4 
assembly, your Lordship displays those shining talents, by 
which you acquired a seat in it, in the defence of our ex- 
establishmt'iit; in maintiiiiiing the right* of the people, 


kBmed by opposition, are apt to charge each other with 

rfeaf^ wtucb were never dreamt of perhaps by either side, 
jet, if there be any who know so little of you, as to distrust 
joar principles, they may depend at least on your judg- 
ment, that it can never snfi^r a person of your Lordship's rank, 
bom to so large a share of the property, as well as the honours 
of the nation, to think any private interest an equivalent, for 
ooosendne to the ruin of the public. 

I mention this, my Lord, as an additional reason for pre- 
senting you with the Life of Cicero : for were I not persuaded 
of your Lordship's sincere love of liberty, and zeal for the 
happiness of your fellow-citizens, it would be a reproach to 
you, to put into your hands the Life of a man, who, in all the 
variety of his admirable talents, does not shine so glorious in 
any, as in his constant attachment to the true interests of his 
Goontry, and the noble struggle that he sustained at the ex- 
pense even of his life, to avert the impending tyranny that 
finally oppressed it 

Bat I ought to ask your Lordship's pardon for dwelling so 
long upon a character, which is known to the whole kingdom, 
as well as to myself, not only by the high office which you fill, 
and the eminent dignity that you bear in it, but by the sprightly 
compositions of various kinds, with which your Lordship has 
often entertained it. It would be a presumption to think of 
adding any honour to your Lordship, by my pen, after you 
have acquired so much by your own. The cLief design of my 
epistle is, to give this public testimony of my thanks, for the 
signal marks of friendship, with which your Lordship luis long 
honoured me ; and to interest your name, as far as 1 can, in 
the fate and success of my work ; by letting the world know, 
what a share you had in tne production of it ; that it owed its 
being to your encouragement; correctness to your pencil; and 
what many will think the most substantial benefit, its large 
subscription to your authority. Per, though in this way of 
publishing it, 1 have had the pleasure to find myself supported 
bja noble list of generous friends, who, without being soli- 
cited, or being asked by me, have promoted my subscription 
with an uncommon zeal, yet your Lordship has distinguished 
yourself the most eminently of them, in contributing not 
only to the number, but the splendour, of the names that 
adorn it. 

Xext to that little reputation, with which the public have 
been pleased to favour me, the benefit of this subscription is 
the chief fruit that I have ever reaped from my studies. I am 
indebted for the first, to Cicero ; for the second, to your Lord- 
ship. It was Cicero who instructed me to write ; your Lord- 
ship who rewards me for writing : the same motive, therefore, 


which iuduced toe to attempt the history of the one, engages n 
to dedicate it to the other, that I may express my gratitna 
to you both, in the moat effectual maimer that I am able, I 
celebrating the memory of the dead, and acknowledging t) 
generosity of my livbig benefactor. 

I have received great civilities, on several occasions, fro 
many noble persons, of which I shall ever retain a most grat 
ful sense ; but your Lordship's accumulated favours have loi 
ago risen up to the character of obligalionB, and made it a 
perpetual dutv, as it had always been my ambition, to profe 
myself, with tiie greatest truth and respect, 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship's most obliged, 

And devoted servant, 


to wbat u KlTuiced, than the fragmenta quoted in llie mugin, ta 
the brevity of notes would admit. 

But whatever prejudices may be suspected to adhere to Ih 
writer, it is certain, that, in a work of this nature, he will have mav 
more to combat in the reader. The scene of it ia laid in a pUc 
and age, which are familiar to us from our childhood : we learn tk 
names of all the chief aclors at school, and choose our several favoni 
Ites according to our temper* or fancies : and, when we are leu 
able to judge of the merit of them, form distinct characters of ead 
which we frequently retain through Ufe. Thus Maiius, Sylla, C« 
SOT, Pompey, Cato, Cicero, Brutus, Antony, have all their aeven 
advocates, zealous for their fame, and ready even to quarrel ft 
the superiority of their virtues. But, among the celebrated name 
of antiquity, those of the great conquerors and generals attract on 
admiration always the most, and imprint a notion of magmuiimit 
and power, and capacity for dominion, superior to that of othc 
mortals : we look upon such, as destined by Heaven for empire, an 
bom to trample upon their fellow-creatures, without reflecting o 
the numerous evils, which are necessary to the acquisition of a glorj 
that is built upon the subversion of nations, and the destructio: 
of the human species. Yet these are the only persons who ar 
thought to shine in history, or to merit the attention of the reader 
dazzled with the splendour of their victories, and the pomp of thei 
triumphs, we consider them as the pride and ornament of the Ro 
man name ; while the pacific and civil character, though of a] 
others the most beneficiBl to mankind, whose sole ambition is to sap 
port the laws, the rights and liberty of its citizens, is looked upoi 
as bumble and contemptible on the comparison, for being forced b 
truclde to the power of these oppressors of their country. 

' ■ following hislorj, thi-'refort', if I h.ivi.- h;i;ii)ei:c(i U> afira 


aegoaiDled with it, than the generality of his readers ; and when he 
mats a &ct, that does not seem to be well grounded, it may £uxly 
he imputed, tUl a good reason appears to the contrary, to a more 
atensi?e view of his subject ; which, by making it clear to himself 
ii apt to persuade him that it is equally clear to every body else ; 
ud that a fuller explication of it would consequently be unneces- 
ttij. If these considerations, which are certainly reasonable, have 
Imt their proper iufluence, I flatter myself, that there will be no 
JQst cause, to accuse me of any culpable bias, in my accounts of 
things or persons, or of any other £Eivour to the particular charac- 
ter of Cicero, than what common humanity will naturally bestow 
upon every character, that is found, upon the whole, to be both 
great and good. 

In drawing the characters of a number of persons, who all Hyed 
in the tame city, at the same time ; trained by the same discipline, 
and engaged in the same pursuits ; as there must be many similar 
strokes, and a general resemblance in them all, so the chief diffi- 
culty will be, to prevent them from running into too great an uni- 
formity. This I have endeavoured to do« not by forming ideal 
pictnrea, or such as would please or surprise : but by attending to 
the particular facts, which history has delivered of the men, and 
tracing them to their source, or to those correspondent affections, 
from which they derived their birth : for these are the distinguish* 
ing features of the several persons ; which, when duly represented, 
and placed in their proper light, will not fail to exhibit that precise 
difference, in which the peculiarity of each character consists. 

As to the nature of my work, though the title of it carries no- 
thing more than the Hhtory of Cicero's Life^ yet it might properly 
enough be called, the History of Cicero's Times: since, from his 
first advancement to the public magistracies, there was not any 
thing of moment transacted in the state, in which he did not bear 
an eminent part, so that, to make the whole work of a piece, I 
have given a summary account of the Roman affairs (during the 
time even of his minority) ; and, agreeably to what I promised in 
my proposals, have carried on a series of history, through a period 
of above sixty years, which, for the importance of the events, and 
the dignity of the persons concerned in them, is by far the most in- 
teresting of any in the annals of Rome. 

In the execution of this design, I have pursued, as closely as I 

could, that very plan which Cicero himself had sketched out, for 

the model of a complete history ; where he lays it down as a fun- 

dimental law, that the WTiter should not dare to affirm what was 

false, or to suppress what was true ; nor give any suspicion either 

of favour or disaffection : — that, in the relation of facts, he should 

observe the order of time, and sometimes add the description of 

places ; should first explain the councils ; then the acts, and lastly, 

the events of things ; that, in the councils, he should interpose his 

own judgment on the merit of them ; in the acts, relate not only 

what was done, but how it was done ; in the events, shew what 

share chance, or rashness, or prudence had in them : that he 


•hould deicribe, likewiie, the particular choncten of all the grrf 
penoni, who bear atiy coniiderable part in the itory ; and ■'■"^ 
dreu np the whole in a clear and equable style, without a£hdm 
any ornament, or seeking any other praise but of penpieidMj 
These were the mles that Cicero hod drawn ap for himself, wMJ 
he was meditating a general history of bis country, as I have tibl,] 
occBsioD to mention more at large in its proper place. 1 

But as I have borrowed my plan, lo I have drawn my maleiiv 
also, from Cicero, whose works are the most anthentic monuntori* 
that remain to us, of all the great transactioni of that age ; bef 
the original accounts of one, who himself was not only a spectati^ 
but a principal actor in them. There is not a single part of tP' 
writings, which does not give some light, as well into his own kiM 
lory, as into that of the Republic : but his familiar Utleri, aafi 
above all, those to ^tlieut, may justly be called the mentmri 4 
lAr timet ; for they contain not only a distinct account of evcr^ 
memorable event, but lay open the springs and motives wheii0 
each of them proceeded ; to that, as a polite writer, that lived ti 
that very age, and perfectly knew the merit of these letters, sayp 
Ike man wAo read* ihetn mil hate no occationfor any other history ^ 
thote timet '. 

My first business, therefore, after I had undertaken this task 
was to read over Cicero's works, with no other view, than to extrae 
Hvm them all the passages that seemed to have any relation to m] 
design : where the tediousness of collecting an infinite number o 
testimonies, scattered through many diiTerent volumes ; of sortii^ 
them into their classes, and ranging tlicm in proper order ; the ne- 
cessity of overlooking many in the first search, and the trouble o 
retrieving them in a second or third, and the final omission of seve- 
ral, through forgetfulness or inadvertency, have helped to abate tba 

nider, •wiiich had often occurred to i 

goi^p and cuitonu of Rome, and liable to fieqnent mtstakM, m. 
wdl at subject to prqudicet in tbdr relation of Roman kSUbu 
PhitaRb lived ftom the reign of Claudius to that of Hadrian | .!■ 
which he died very old, in the pogsession of the prieatfaood of dJK 
Delphic Apollo : and though he is supposed to have reaidod h> 
Rome near forty years, at different times, yet he never aeoat tcl 
have acquired a sufflcient skill in the Roman language, to qnatifr 
himielf for the compiler of a Roman history. But if we ahooH 
allow him all the talents requisite to an historian, yet the attenft 
of writing the lives of all the illustrious Greeks and Romani, «m 
above the strength of any single man, of what abilities and U- 
sure soever ; much more of one who, as he himself tells u>, WH 
Bo engaged in public business, and in giving lectures of pbiloaopln 
to the great men of Rome, that he had not time to m^e himatf 
master of the Latin tongue, nor to acquire any other knowledgs el 
its words, iban what he had gradually leamt by a previous use and 
experience of things ' : liia work, therefore, from the very nature ti 
it, must needs be superficial and imperfect, and the sketch, ratlier 
than the completion, of a great design. 

This we find to be actually true in hii account of Cicero's life, 
where, besides the particular mistakes that have been charged npoa 
him by other writers, we see all the marks of haste, inaccuracy, and 
want of due information, from the poverty and perplexity ot du 
whole performance. He huddles over Cicero's greatest acts in a 
summary and negligent manner, yet dwells upon his dreams aod 
his jests, which, for the greatest part, were probably spnrions; 
and, in the last scene of this life, which was of all the most glorioua, 
when the whole counsels of the empire, and the fate and liberty of 
Rome rested on his shoulders, there he ia more particularly trifling 
5 he hod the fairest opportunity of diapl 

decluei ufterwards of himself, that he wu adnioniafaed and «hb* |' 
mandet), by a viiioD from heaven, againit hii own will and isri» 
nation, to undertake the task of writing his hittory '. 

Upon these collections from Cicero, and the other ancient% 1 
finuhed the first dmught of my history, before I began to inqoin 
after the modem vrritera, who had treated the Bame subject befiM i 
me, either in whole or in part. I was unwilling to look into thea I 
sooner, lest they should fix any prejudice insensibly upon a», j 
before I bad formed a distinct judgment on the real state of the 1 
lacts, as they appeared to me from their original records. Foi 
in writing history, as in travels, instead of transcribing the relaticNa i 
of those, who have trodden the same ground before us, we sbonU ■ 
exhibit a series of observations, peculiar to ourselves ; such as thi 
facta and places suggested to our own minds, from an lUtcDtifB 
survey of them, without regard to what any one else may have d#* 
livered about them ; and though in a production of this kind, when 
the same materials are common to all, many things must necessarilj 
be said, which had been observed already by others j yet, if tha 
author has any genius, there will always be enough of what is new, 
to disringuish it as an original work, and to ^ve him a right to caQ 
it his own, which I flatter myself will be allowed to me in the M- 
lowing history. In this inquiry after the modem pieces, which 
had any connexion with my argument, I got notice presently of a 
greater number than I expected, which bore the title of Cicero's 
life ; but, upon running over as many of them as 1 could readily 
meet with, I was cured of my eHgemess for hunting out the rest, 
since I perceived them to be nothing else but either trifling pane- 
gyrics on Cicero's general cliaracter, or imperfect abstracts of his 
principal acts, thrown together wiihin t!ie compass of a few pages 
in duodecimo. 

ii It ?:• 

a ranging niv niaicri;i;s ::-:*j i:.::-- ;r-. ^"tr i .i.srs . _i "wi-.i 
rer, 1 have always take:: c^re i^ ;:l.*«1: *!*: ii'* ^-■v * .: 

3t forget to pay a due aiic-idiii M- lir Fr=c:i i...ii..riu 
ks happened to coincide w::h i::y pin .: zzz-^ . znsri."^ 
listory of the two Triumvirite* : — ^: iz^t hzt .^z*.i.i :i 
1 Government ; and of L"r Exile :: C.^=r:< — ti.ii is-: i^ 
genious and useful, and :^vr rir^L i r^:.- iw^i-t: :' _:•: 
.te of the facts, which thev tr::r-:s ^: L.-5-riir Ll: l- .' 
V been at the fountain-heid. •■sie-ii: :!=- --i «_ i^iv: 
rials, so the chief benefit thit I rr:n>.ei i-.~ Vzn ■»*.? " 
:«view with stricter care :he z^^r:: : . -t* zuLitsi^-i _i vi^li 
from them, as welJ aa :-j renii-i n^ ::' s. r-: :zv i.—'..£t 
id omitted, or touched perhaps :r::r s-^-U; :!,«.- —^z- it- 
But the author of the Exile L&s :r 
rately of them, by bupp-rrtizz Lis 
lal testimonies from the o!d a-:h:>r5. wiin _« ii..- :_t vi.-. 
historv that can jrive satiifactiii. :: sljtt ::r-:i:.:- i^::.r 
»y laying open the ground •:- w'-.:i ;: ii :=:J1: v-.i:i-.._- 
5tory assumes the air of iri zz^ast-i -•: :i:**r jr- 
than in proportion to oar cj/ii.::i. :: Hr j-ii-rir^": lijI ji--*- 
le compiler. 

s a little piece also in cur cik-l i-r'-^ir, Li_,t-:- ' 'j 'jwi-:- «. ■ 
le Life of Cicero, which. :L:u*i ,z ri-.-r* i lerj i^ftrrn: u.- 
'icero from what I have doLe. tt: 1 : : — d - :: re: t*-.i.i •»-.--i 
for the elegance and spir.: with wi::i :: j -BTir-ei- ij :•-= 
irs to be animated wiih a war:n :f r^.-.e. h .: ■-: :-.-m. 
is of a great man, from s-'.-nie *li^"-t :x«.bis« :f i-s Tr.r^ri 
c points of conduct, with out rrgir*i:i.z '^-tir id l^zj:.- ▼■-•-i 
» or the figure that they Ciake ir. hi* ge-erri. liiri^r-*?. a -x* 

r things in a microscope, wLiii w*:re ns.dc i: :* *.-n*7-r?i 

^ • • ... 

» c • r'^we^m w nn r.ln ^ » ^_ j » ^ » .' ^. wi^ ••■»•»!.•» •."•""■••_ --i".".'" ••- 


nwnt upon them, has made that OM more obrknu and aocea 
all : I mean the learned Mr, Mot^ult ; who, not content w 
tailing the remarka of other commentator*, or, ont of the nA 
their volnmea, with selecting the best, enters upon his task « 
spirit of a true critic, and by the force of his own genins, hi 
pilj illustrated many passages, which all the interpreten beta 
had given up as inexplicable. But since the obscurity d 
letters is now, in great measure, removed, by the labonrt > 
gentleman, and especially to his own conntiymen, for whoi 
ticular benefit, and in whose language he writes ; one canno 
wonderiDg, that the Jesuits, Catrou and Rouill^, should not 
it worth while, by the benefit of his pains, to hare made then 
better acquainted with theta ; which, as &t as I am able to 
from the little part of their history, that I have had the curio 
look into, wonld have prevented several mistakes, wfaich the 
committed, with r^ard both to the facta and persons of the I 
nian age. 

Bnl, instead of making free with other people's miatakes, it 
become me perhaps better to bespeak some favour for my own. 
historian," says Diadoms Sicnlus, "may easily be pardoned f( 
of ignorance, since all men are liable to them, and the truth I 
be traced from past and remote ages : but those, who neglect 
form themselves, and through flattery to some, or hatred to 
knowingly deviate from the truth, justly deserve to be ceni 
For my part, I am far from pretending to be exempt from em 
that I can say ia, that I have committed none irilfiilly, and o 
the means which occurred to me, of defending myself against 
but since there is not a single history, either ancient or moder 
I have consulted, on this occasion, in which 1 cannot point ou 
ral, it would be arrogant in me to imagine, that the same inadve 
r want of iudgi 


Am vorU, tint ao beautifully disfiUj, ami no £>KibIj ici 
»d, all thoM generoiu principle*, Utat lend to exalt and pe 
Naa natura : the lore of Tinac, liberty, oar countrj, wmI a 

I catiuot tupport this rcfleetiao b^ a better antfaoriljr, than 
■amtia ; wbo, having coatiacted MKne prqadicc* afsiut 
ben young, makes a recantation of them when old, in tbe Ibuu 
uuge of a letter to his fiieod UlaEteniu ' : 

"Whfn I was a boy," saya be. " I was fooder of Seneca thui. 
^n> ; and till I wax twenty years old, could not bev to speoi] 
imc in reading htm ; while all tbe otlier writera of antiquity _ 
lUy pleased me. Whether my judgment be improved by age, I 
aaw not ; hul 1 am certain that Cicero never pleased mc so mucb, 
'ben I was fond of Chose juvenile studiea, as he doe» now, when I 
m grown old ; Dot only for the divine felicity of his style, but the 
rartity of his heart and morals : in short, he has inspired my soul, 
od nude me £eel myself a better man. I make no scruple, tliere- 
ME, to exhort onr youth, lo spend their bowrs in reading and grt- 
ing bis books by heart, rather than in the vexatious squabbles and 
tenA controversies, with which the world abounds. For my own 
m, tboogh I am now in the decline of life, yet as soon as 1 have 
dished what I have in hand, 1 sb&ll tlunk it no reproach to me, 
I Mck n reconciliation with my Cicero, and renew ui old ac- 
ountanoe with him, which, for many years, baa been unhappily 

Bel'rirc I conclude this preface, it will not be improper to ad(i a 
Wit ahtttict, or general idea, of tbe Ranmn govenunent, from iu 
nt JBidtBlieti I7 Bomoltu, to tbe time of Cicero's birth ; that tbose, 
ho bav« not been conversant in the aflain of Rome, may not come 
mite atnngen to tbe subiect of the following history. 

The Gonititiition of Rome ia very often celebrated by Cicero, 
dd other writni, as tbe moat perfect of all govemmenta ; being 
■p^ly tempered and composed of the three different sorts, that 
n naoally distingaiahed from each other ; tbe monarchical, tbe 
DBtociatical, and tbe popular'. Their king waa elected by tbe 
•opte, as die head of tbe Republic ; to be tbeir leader in war, 
w guardian of the law* in peace ; tbe aenate waa bia council, 
imea also by tbe people, by whoae advice he waa obliged to 
ncn bimaelf in all bis meaanres : but the aovereignty was lodged 
1 the body of tbe citizens, or the general society ; whoae prerogative 

WM, to enact laws, create magistrates, declare war *, and to receive 
(^eals in all caaca, both &om the king and the senate. Some writers 
■ve denied this right of an appeal to the people : bnt Cicero ex- 
■enly meodons it among the regal constitntiona, as old as tbe foun- 

■ Eaaa. Ep. td Jo. UUtt. in Cic. Tiucul. Qnnt. 

* StMao OK ojituDc muliluUoi Rempub. quB ci tribiu generibui lUii, ngtJi, opIioH, 

jMKitin, roafiu* raodie«. — Fngm. dc Rcfi. 2. 

Cob in illin de Konb. bbri* pormtdere vidcatur AfricuiDS, omnium Rcmmpubli- 

lufUMnaiTCtetcmilUm tiuMCDptimam. DeLcg. 2.1U. Paljb. 1. 6.p.460. DiMi. 


■ Dion. H*]. 1.2. 87. 



iladon of the city ' ; which he had deraonitrated mon st imigt imt 
treatiae on the Republic ; whence Seneca hat qaoted ■ pMMgM 
confirmation of it: and intimateB, that the lame right waa deaH 
likewinc in the pontifical boolcs '. Valeriut Maximna givei w4 
instance of it, which is confirmed also by Livy, that Horathu, hit 
condemned to die by kingTullus, for killing his aister, waa acqoiNf 
upon hia appeal to the people*. ; 

Thi* nas the original constitution of Rome, even undei tW 
kings : for, in the foundation of a state, where there waa no An 
to compel, it was necessary to invite men into it, by all propetM 
Gouragements ; and none could be so effectual, as the assuianei • 
liberty, and the privilege of making their own laws *. But the kJHI 
by gradual encroachments, having usurped the whole adminiAMN 
to themielves, and, by the violence of their goTemment, being fpfiK 
intolerable to a city, trained to liberty and arms, were finally <B 
pelled by a general insurrection of the senate and the people. Hi 
was the ground of that invincible fierceness, and love of their comtt) 
in the old Romans, by which they conquered the worid ; lot th 
aupetiority of their civil rights naturally inspired a aupetior lirta 
and courage to defend them ; and mode them, of course, the braW 
as long as they continued the freest, of all nations. 

By this revolution of the government, their old constitution «) 
not so much changed, as restored to its primitive state : for thoai 
the name of king was abolished, yet the power was retained ; wil 
this only difference, that instead of a single person chosen forlif 
there were two chosen annually, whom they called consols : inTeiti 
with all the prerogatives and ensigns of royalty, and presiding in ti 
same manner in all the affairs of the Republic * ; when, to convin 
the citizens that nothing was sought by the change, but to seco 
their common liberty ; and to estiiblish their sovereignly again o 


degree tbey thought fit, by the proposal of (octioni Imwi fur din 
the public lands to tho poorer citizeni ; or by the free dittribu 
of com ; nr the nlralilion of iill debts ; which are ftll cenbuy to lif 
quiet, otid diicipline, and public laith of societies. This ^un rf ' 
the tribunician power was carried to its greatest height by the in 
Grmcchi, who left nothing iinattemptcd, that could mortify the unitti 
or gratify the people ' ; till, by their agrarian laws, and other Mdi> ; 
tious acts, which were jrroedily received by the city, they had in |^ I 
measure OTcrtumcd the equilibrium of power in the Republic M 
which its l>(.-ace and prosperity depended, 

Jiut the violent deaths of these two tribunes, and of their p 
adherents, put an enil tu their sedition, and was the first cinl b 
that was spilt in the streets of Rome, in any of their pnblie di»> 
■cnsions ; whicli, till tliis time, had aJwnys been composed by thi . 
method of patience and mutual concessions. It must seem atnagi j 
to observe, how tlicgc two illustrious brothers, who, of all men, wsa 
the dearest to the Roman people, yet, upon the first retort to anna, 
were severally deserted by tiie multitude, in the very height of 
their authority, and suffered to be cruelly massacred, in the face id 
the whole city : which shews what little stress is to be laid oa the 
assistance of the populace, wlien Uie dispute comes to blows ; and 
that sedition, though it may often shake, yet will never destroy, a 
firec state, while it continues unarmed, and unsupported by a mili- 
tary force. But this vigorous conduct of the senate, thon^ it 
seemed neeessary to the present quiet of the city, yet toon aftei 
proved fata] to it : as it taught all the ambitious, by a most senuble 
experiment, that there was no way of supporting an usurped au- 
thority, but by force ; so that, from this time, as we shall find in 
the following story, all tliosc who aspired to extraordinary powers, 
and a dominion in the Republic, seldom troubled themselves with 



TuLUtiB CicxEOwwlKRiion the third of Jcnm^JI, 

^he az-handred-fortjr-aeventb year of Rome, about 'i 
hundred and seven years before Christ *. Hia birAi if we 
helieve Plutarch, was attended by prodigies, foretelliog the 
future eminence and lustre of his character, " which might 
" have passed," he says, " for idU- dreams, had ^ot the event 
** soon confirmed the truth of the prediction :" but since we 
have no hint of these prodigies from Cicero himself, or any 
author of that age, we may chai^ tliem to the credulity or 
the invention of a writer who loves to raise the solemnity of his 
■tory by the introduction of something miraculous. 

His mother was called Helvia; a name mentioned in history 
and old inacriptious among the honourable families of Rome. 
Sie was rich and well descended, and liad a sis^r married to r 
Roman knight of distiniruisbed merit, C. Aculeo, an intimate 
fiiend of the orator, L. Crasaus, and celebrated for a sin^lar 
'n^ hL '" ' 

knowledge of the law ; in whi^ his sons, likewise, our Cicero's 
nnans, were afterwards very eminent*. It is re- 
I that Cicero never once speaks of hb mother in any 

cousin-gennans, were afterwards very eminent*. It i 
■arkable, that Cicero never once speaks of hb mother in any 
psrt of bfi writii^gB ; but his younger brother Quintus has left 

■ 111 Ndou Jul. nttaH meo. Ep. kI Alt. 7. 6. It. 13. 43. 

* Ikn cDBpuution fiilloin tht cnininoii m of CbTJlt'a birth. * 
^ ktcr than il ought to be. Pomnov the Smt vw bom il 
• IblMorStpMmbcr. Vid. ngh. AiuhI. Plin. 37, 3. 

■DrOnt. I. 48.21. 

a little story of her, wliidi u'ems to intimate lier good tnatiM^- 
inent niiH housewifery; "liow she used to flealall lier wm 
" casks, tlic empty as well as the full, tliat when any of tboi 
" were found empty and uiiBOaled, nhe mi^ht know them li 
*' liave been engpticd by stealth ;" it bein^ the most inuil 
theft among the Nhivos of great fimilics to steal their master^ j 
wine out of the vessels'. { 

As to his father'N liimily, nothing was delivered of it but ii ' 
extremes': which is not to be wondered at in the history of> 
man, wliose life was so exposed to envy, ils Cicero's, audwiM 
fell a victim at last to the power of his enemies. Some derin 
his descent from kings, others from mechanics'; but the tniA 
lay between both ; ^r hix family, though it had never bontt 
any of tlie groat offices of tlie lleuublic, was yet very andnt 
and honourable *; of principal distinction and nobility in (hit 
iKirtof Italy, in which it resided ; and of equestrian rank'.fnB 
ite first admission to the fi^edom of Rome. 

Some have insinuated, that Cicero affected to say but little 
of the »)lendour of his family, for the sake of being considered 
as the founder of it; and chose to suppress the notion of bit 
regal extraction, for the aversion tliat tlic people of Rome had 
to the name of King; with which however he was si 

reproached by his enemies °, but those speculations are wholly 
imaginary : for us oft as there was occasion to mention tu 
character and condition of his ancestors, he speaks of thm 
always with great frankness, declaring them " to have been 
" content with their paternal fortunes, and the private honours 
" of their own city, without the ambition of appearing on ^c 


ic MBge ol Rome." Tlius in a spfteit lo ihr pniplv 
Uactt-aDoemeiit loUie consulsliip: ** I haw oo invtrnc*-,** 
^, " to enlai^ before you, upon tin- nfiM«<?9 of my aact*- 
; not but tti«y were all su(^ as myvfU. «1m> iun tU-^crnlnl 
I their blood, and trained by dieir diKciptine ; but bcevnM 

lived without this applaiue of |-M>pulnr tatae, aod ike 
ndonr of these b<H]ouri>, which you cunler'.*' It is oa 
'Count, therefore, that we find him so ofwn call«d a n«w 

not that his &Biily was nev or i^oble, Imi beaiiH« k« 
le first of it, who ever Eooght and obtained iW paMic 
jacies of the state. 

i place of his birth was Arpinnin ; a city anciently of the 
les, now part of the kingdom of Naples; whic^ upon iia 
siou to Rome, acquirer the freedoai of the city, and wk^ 
:d into the ComeliaD tribes It had the honour abo of 
dng the ereat C Marios; which gare occaHon to Pompcv 

in a poblic speech, " That Rome was indebted lo ihw 
oration for two citixens who had, each in his turn, pre- 
ed it from ruin'." It may justly, therefore, elaiin a piac« 

memory of posteritv, for eiviii^ life to ^ucb worthies, who 
ilified the character which PUny gives of true gWy, 
loing what deserved to be written, and writing what de- 
ed to be read ;" and makios the wosid the bappier and 
Iter for their harinjj lived in it '. 
e territory of Arpiiium was rude and mountainom, lo 

Cicero applies Homer's description of Ithaca; 

'Ti* roojt indrtd, tti brtidi i grti'mui mr < ' 

amily seat was about three miles from the town, in a 
on extremely pleasant, and well adapted to die nature of 
imate. It was surrounded with groves and sliady walks 
g from the bouse to a river, called Fibrenus; "which 

divided into two equal streams, by a tittle inland, covered 
I trees and a portico, contrived both for study and exer- 
, whither Cicero used to retire, when he bad any parti- 
u- work upon his hands. The clearness and rapidity of 
stream, murmuring through a rocky channel ; the shade 

verdure of its banks, plated with tall poplars; the re- 
kable coldness of the water; and, above all, its filing by 
ccade into the nobler river Liris, a little below the island, 
•s OS the idea of a most beautiful scene," as Cicero him- 
las described it- When Atdcus first saw it, he was 
ed with it, and wondered that Cicero did not prefer it to 

' r>e \xt. Acnr. b 

3.S. xa-ua-l-i ' 

all Lis otlier liouttes; declaring a contempt of tlie I 
magnificence, marble pavements, artificial canals, and fon 
streams of the celebrated villas of Italy, compared wiUi i 
natural beauties of this place'. The house, as Cica 
was but small and humble in his grandiather*s time, a 
to tiie ancient fni^IIty, like the Sabine farm of old Cur 
till his father beautified and enlarged it into a handsome M 
spacious habitation. 

But tliere cannot be a better proof of the delightfulnc 
the place, than that it in now possessed by a convent of mait% 
and called the Villa of St. Dominic'. S'tnuii^e revolutiaii! k 
see Cicero's porticos converted to monkish clinsters ! the Hit 
of the most refined reason, wit, and learning, to a nuraeffrf 
superstition, bigotry, and enthusiasm ! What a pleasure mtA 
it give to these Dominican inquisitors to trample on the in> 
of a man, whose writings, by spreading the light of reason mfi 
liberty through the world, liave been one great instrument rf 
obstructing uieir unwearied pains to enslave it. 

Cicero, being the first born of the family, received, as usadi 
the name of his father, and grandfather, Marcus. This naae 
was properly personal, equivalent to that of baptism with i% 
and imposea with ceremonies somewhat analogous to it, on d>e 
ninth day, called the lustrical, or day of punficatiDn '; when 
the child was carried to the temple by the friends and relation 
of the family, and, before the altars of the gods, recommended 
to the protection of some tutelar deity. 

Tullms was the name of the family ; which, in old langnsf^e* 

aij^iiifu'd flowinfT stroiims, or dncts of wator, and was derived, 

[irulialily, fnnn their ancient situation, i 

* a reputatioti of ^»e the best hitsbandnu'ii, or improren of 
' that ftpecicH '." As Tullius, tberefore, the fomtty dubCi «■• 
Wriv^ from tlic iutuation of tlie (ana. so Cicpro, ute ranuiuF, 
from Uie culture of it t>v vetches Tlik, I ny, is the atoM 
pnitiable, because agriculture was litld tKe raoM Hbrrttl «•»• 

tytnent in old Rome, ami those tribes, which resiHed od (hrir 
US iu the country, the most bmiourabte; «nd ihb rny 
Eniii, from which Cieeio drew his name, vts, in all «ec« of the 
Kcpublic, ill ^eat request with tlt^ neuier people ; bein^ tmr 
nf die usual largesses bestowed upoD then br th4r rich, and 
kU every where in the Uieatres «im streets ready jurcbed nr 
I boiled for present use '. 

Cicero's grandfather was Iivin|| at the timR i»f h'» birth, atid 
from the few hint*, whicli are left of bim. •eeniA to have bern 
1 nan of businesH, and interest in )iis country '. lie «riw at 
Ae head of a party in Arjiinum, in opiiOMtJnn tu a bu«y turbu- 
feat man, M. OratidtU!!. whose sister he had uarriiil, who was 
pii^n^ forwanl » potiiilar Inw, to oblige the town U> irannct 
^1 their affairs by duIIul The vauAr mut brought before tfa« 
ronsul Scaums : in which old Cicero beluived himnplf mt well, 
I&U the consul paid bim the eomplcmeni to wiah. •* that a mait 
" of hki spirit and virtue would conu- nntl act with ihrm Jn Hk 
"gnat theatre of the Republic, aiid ii»l confine hn laleni* lo 
"ihenwrrow- -j>lieri- .if lii^ nun o'r]"ir:i!iMii '." TJi,rc i» a -^ly- 
inj likewise liLn-.'- ■■! - ;-.. .J _■ i ■ r ::.■■■■■ : ... i, of 
"those time- '■. . ' -_ - ■ ■ - ' .r.-ek 

"tbev knew, the grt?ater knaves they were';" which carries 
*itii It the notion of an old patriot, severe on tlie iuifwrtatiun 
rf foreign arts, as destructive of tlie di^pline and manners of 
iu> country. This grandfather had two sons : Marcus the 
tUer, the father of our Cicero ; and Lucius, a particular friend 
*f the celebrated orator, M. Antonius, whom he aceoinpanicil 
to hit govemnient of Cilicia'; and who left a son of the same 

ilXwMqaiHiiBiiBi. DcOnL2.'66. 

S.B. AgmtputofthriUTnio Rook wm Siiiut; for iht prUrt r.fCiliri 
■■ri Id oJert th« coaaU of Sttu, cwTKd al[ ihflr raadvn lo Ihr iiur^n nf ItvUi 
mU Lkni ihne lo Hit Gr«^. ibiuu^ vhaK hwdt tht\ uiualU pt-rd lu H 
ime iknm. ibnTfnn. who hid iht lotiftu -iih thfir fJr«-i»n nw.i.i-. lo. 
n^antlf talked Crtrb the beat, wrn Ihr man mttiir^ in iJI ll>r linlr iHrk- la'. 
ibl (cmtade ulunlklwbn; "hitb old Cum. like tu» the C.ntM, impu 
Ik ana ud nuuKn tf Circa iurlf. V>d. Adr. Tumcb. in j«« Ctertno. 

' DeOnLZ I. 



man, wfaaritJ 

le prindnil * 

iiame, frequently metitiuiietl by Cicero with great 
H youth of excellent virtue and accomplighmeDts '. 

H» fiitiier Marcus also wiis a wise and learned man, i 
merit recuminemled him to tlie &niillBrity of the prindpil* 
ma|j;istrdtra of the Republic, especially Cato, L. Craasu^ and 
L. Ciesar *; but bcin^ " of an infirm and tender constitudo^ 
'■ he Rpent hin life chiefly at Arpiuum, in an elegant retm( 
" and the study of polite fetters '." 

But his chief employment, from the time of his havingui^ 
was to give them the best education which Home could >fc4 \ 
in hopes to excite in them an ambition of breaking throogli A* a 
indolence of the tumily, and aspiring to the honour* « At 1 
state. lliey were bred up with their cousins, the yoM| ^ 
Aculeos, in a method approved and directed by L. Cranui; < \ 
man of tlic first dignity, as well ad the first elo<]uenee in RoM^ 
and by those very masters, whom Crassus himself made mi > 
of*. The Romans were, of all people, the most careful ud 
exact in the education of their children: their attention to it 
began from the moment of their birth ; when they committed 
them to the care of some prudent matron of reputable character 
and condition, whose business it was to form their first habits 
of acting and speaking ; to watch their growing passions, aod 
direct them to their proper objects ; to superintend their sports, 
and suffer nothing immodest or indecent to enter into them; 
that the mind, preserved in its innocence, nor depraved by a 
taste of fiilso pleasure, might be at liberty to pursue whatever 
W!is liiiKlabIc, and apply iii whole strengtn to that profession, 
ill whicli it desired to excel'. 


trrupt elocution : thus the two Gracchi were thought to owe 
DAt elegance of speaking, for which tliey were famous, to the 
BSlruction of their mother Cornelia ; a woman of great poiite- 
lesB, whose epistles were read and sidiuired, long after her 
kath, for the purity of their language '• 

This, probably, was a part of that domestic discipline, in 
which Cicero was trained, and of which he often speaks : but 
as 60on as he was capable of a more enlarged and liberal insti- 
tudon, his father brought him to Home, where he had a house 
of bis own ', and placed him in a public school, under an emi- 
nent Greek master, which was thought the best way of edu- 
oting one, who was designed to appear on the public stage, 
ndwho, as Quintilian observes, ought to be so bred, as not to 
far the sight of men ; since that can never be rightly learned 
u solitude, which is to be produced before crowds'. Here he 
pve the first specimen of those shining abilities, which render- 
ed him afterwards so illustrious; and his schoolfellows carried 
lome such stories of his extraordinary parts and quickness in 
learning, that their parents were often induced to visit the 
school, for tlie sake of seeing a youth of such surprising 

About this time a celebrated rhetorician, Plotius, first set 
up a Latin school of eloquence in Rome, and had a great re- 
sort to him*: young Cicero was very desirous to be his scholar, 
but was over-ruled in it by the advice of the learned, wlio 
thouorht the Greek nutsters more useful in fonniuir him to the 
bar, for which he was desii^iied. Tin's method of bei^iiiniuir 
with Greek is approved by Quinlilian; because ••' tiie Latin 
'* would eoine of itself, and it seemed most natural to heirin 
*' from the fountain, whence all the lloinan learninir wa> de- 
*' rived: yet the rule," he says, '' must be practised with some 
" restriction, nor the use of a forei»i^n lan^uaj^e pushed so far, 
** to the netjjlect of the native, iis to acquire with it a foreign 
'* acn-nt and vicious pronunciation ^'' 

Cicen/s father, encourajj^ed by the pronnsin<r jrcnius of his 
i»<>"? sj)ared no cost nor pains to improve it by the heij> of the 
al)kst masters, and anionjr the other instruetors of his earlv 
youth, put him under the care of the poet Arehias, who eanie 
l<' Rome with a hitJjh reputation for learnintr and poetry, when 
Cicero was about five years old, and lived in the family of 
-Jicullus': for it was the custom of the great in tiio>e da\ *s to 
<*ntertain in their houses the princij)al seholars and philosophers 

Il'i'I it. ill Unit. p. I»l!>. tiiit. Stliii^t. ('i.n..'li. 
" Till* i- .. !i;itlKr |ii«M»f nf tlic \vt:ilili ;iiitl *!<.''.i i>«liiir^ <iiM(li!"-:i '•» ! !^ » n.iiy. -;!:.«. 
' 't rti.t lit a n:«'.UraU" lmu>c in Konic. in a iii'iitaMr |mH •»!" t'u- <! >. »i: I"i «>iu' <i| 
•■ (•■.i;.'i latjk. u I- al»uut tui> huiHirid |»<)iiii<l- '•ttilinj jn i .iiii;,i:i 

\ 1 . ■_'. ' IMi!t:n« li ill hi-J l.itV ■ S-ii .■»)i. ilo » lai:- Ivi vI'miI-i. . ; . J. 

I.. 1 I. ■? V\y^ Anhia I. X 

of ClriH'ti', witl] u liliiTty of opening a sclioo), and t 
tc^c-ilicr witli ilifir own cIiilHreii, any of tlie otlier VM 
iioliility ami freiitry of Itntne. Under tliH master, Cia 
H|)|ilivtl liimsfir fliiefly to poetry, to wliich lie was iiaturt 
udrlk'toil, ami iiiailf >acli a prolieieiiey in it, that wliilc he « 
Htill a boy, lie i-ouipnsed anil pulilUlied a poein, called Glaucoi 
I'tiritius, wliifli was uxtiuit in Plutarch's time'. 

After fini>[iing the eoursc of ilioic puerile studies, it wwtk 
custom III change the haliit of the boy for tliat of the man, ni 
take wliat they ciiUed tlio manlv gown, or the ordiim^ n^rf^ 
the citizens: this was an (iceii>mii of great joy to the v<H||:l 
men ; wlio hy this vliange | into a state of ereatei' Ebert||'<l 
uiifl eiilarjFviiient from the power uf their tutors . They UmI 
introduced at the Riiine time into the Forum, or the great iqMli^ 
of the city, where the assemblies of the people were held, ■«" '^ 
the niagist rates used to haraujrite to them from the rostra, ind i 
where all the [udiMc jileailings and judicial pr<>ceedings m» ' 
usually traii!^acted : this therefore was the grand sehoot of 
business and elotpieiiee ! ihe scene, on which all the affain of 
the empire wore tletermined, and where the foundation of tlieit 
hopes and fortunes were to be laid : so that they were iiitnh 
duced into it with much solemnity, attended by all the frientU 
and dependants of the family : und after divine riles perforraed 
in the Capitol, were committed to the Kpeeial jirotection of 
some eminent senator, ilistiiiguiiihed for his eloquence or know- 
ledge of the laws, to he instructed by bis advice in die 
management of civil aifairs, and to form themselves by his 
example for useful members and magistrates of the Uepublic. 

Writers are divided about the precise time of changing the 


der the care of Q. Mucins Scwvola, the augur, the jtrincipal 
iryer, as well as statesman of that nge : who Iiad {lassod 
rough all the offices of the Republic, with a siiijgrular reputa- 
an of integrity, and was now extremely old : Cicero never 
irred from his side, but carefully treasured up in his memory 
ft llie remarkable sayings which clropped from him, as so many 
esfious of prudence for his future conduct ' : and after his 
leatb applied himself to another of the same family, Sesevola, 
the high priest, a person of equal character for probity and 
skill in the law; who, thougli he did not profess to teach, 
yet freely gave his advice to all the voung students who con- 

Under these ratisters he acquired a complete knowledge of 
the laws of his country; a foundation useful to all who design 
to enter into public aflfairs; and thought to be of such consi*- 
^nence at Kume, that it was the common exercise of boys at 
wbool to learn the laws of the twelve tables by hearty as they 
did their poets and cht^sic authors^ Cicero particularly took 
sudi psiins in this study, and was so well acquainted with the 
most nitricate parts of it, as to be able to sustain a dispute on 
any question, with the greatest lawyers of his age*: so that in 
pleading once against his friend S. Sidpicius, he deelareil, by 
way of raillery, what he could have made good likewise in fact, 
that if he provoked him, he woidd profess himself a lawyer in 
three days' time''. 

The prufe>sion of the law, next to tluit of arms and flo- 
fjiience, wn^ a sure rrconiiniMulation to the tir^t limumrs of tin* 
liepublic-'. and for that reason was prosiTved. as it wtn* lirrc- 
tlitarv, in >omf of tin.' noblest families of Kome^: who, bv 
ti[Jviiifr tiu'ir advice i^ratis to all who waiitrd it, cnga-^iMl the 
favour and obsorvasii/f of their fi-llow ciiizt'iis, and acquired 
jrreat authoritv in ail the atfairs of Ntato. It was the custom of 
thisf old senators, ctninciit r<»r tlieir wisdom and experience, to 
Walk everv morninii* an and down the Fonnn, as a <ii:;nal oi 
their uiterinir thernsi-lvcs fiH'clv to all, who had occasion to con- 
them, not only in caNCs of law, but in their private and 
domestic affairs". Hut in later times they chose to sit at home 
^*ith their doors (»|H'n, in a kind of throne or raised seat, lik(? 
the contessiirs in toreiirn churches, giving access and audience 

' !>' Aiiiii-it. 1. - Ilrur. 1..;::'. ..!it. Stl.. (.\,nM,li. -i \h- l,.-il.. _'. -J:!. 

* K;.. |'.,a,. 7. -J-J. . I'lo .Mm.iia. l;i. o II,. U. 

' \''i"J!iin ir.Tii j'iitrc uiit !ii.ij"«i''- iil!«|u;i -jImi;.! |>iri-^*.n< mil!, li -tmitrii jili-nniujiir 
.11 •■'.If.ij jruric imnli- L'xri']li.ri- : ut (). Muiiii- 1'. tiliii-. "ii juu- «ivili. nii'.'i. 
•2. l.i. 

' M vfru ^f:niiliiiin im* rti.iiii vi<!i!ii'.- ii;iti-\<i^o :iiiil>Mi;iMUTii lum- (jumi rial 
-'^ijn*. (utn ni;i III iHiTn-l, t:.rrv<' livilii'^ 4'Tni,;'nr>. Miri^iHi ^r; fi»|»i.iiii .\'l «j"H'h iiliiu 
'I '<■■ uiiibwl.iiiti'- ct ill *»>l <) -t.-iicnti > <I'>iir, i!;i :iilil>:ktMi n<>ii -'•Imn iii <i> Jmk- immIj ;ii| 
"" ^' lie tili:i (oUiMuiula - lU •Mimi dtui'iuv :«'it "iVicm aiit luv'tin nkoitui. 


to all people. Thrs was tlie case of the two Scsevolas, espedi 
tke augur, whose house was called the oracle of the city'; i 
who, in the Mars!c war, when worn out with age and inSn 
ties, gave free admission every day to all the citizens, ai M 
as it was light, nor was ever seen by any in bis bed during d 
whole war'. 

But this was not the point that Cicero aimed at, to guard t 
estates only of the citizens: his views were much larger; ■ 
the knowledge of the law wats bnt one ingredient of many, 
the character which he aspired to, of an universal patron, il 
only of the fortunes, but of the lives and liberljes of his cos 
tiymen : for that was the proper notion of an orator, or pleid 
of causes ; whose profession it was to speak aptly, elegand 
and copiously on every subject which could be offered to hi 
and whose art therefore included in it all other arts of I 
liberal kind, and could not be acquired to any perfection, «il 
out a competent knowledge of whatever was great and laud*! 
in the universe. This was his own idea of what he had und 
taken'; and his present business therefore was, to lay a foi 
dation fit to sustain the weight of this great character : so t 
while he was studying the law under the Scaevolas, he spen 
large share of hb time in attending the pleadings at the I 
and the public speeches of the magistrates, and never pas 
one day without writing and reading something at home ; c 
stantly taking notes, and making comments ou what he n 
He WHS fond, when very young, of an exercise, which had b 
recommended by some of the great orators before him, of re 
ing over a number of verses of some esteemed poet, or a { 
J carefully as to retain the suhsttmcc of then 


F th« H<?aveiis into Latin verse, of which many fng- 
re sull extant; ood published also an oriffiimJ poem, of 
tic kind, in honour of his countryman, C. Marius. This 
ch admired, and oft«n read, by Atticus : and old Sacvula 
pleased with it, that, in an epigram which he seems to 
ade upon it, he declares " that it would live ax Umg as 
ouui name and learning subsisted ' i" there remains Htill 
specimen of it, describing a memorable omen given to 

from the oak of Arpiiiumt which from the spirit and 
^ of the dcscriptjoo, shows that his poetical genius was 
inferior to his oratorial, if it had been culDvutcd with 
le diligence'. He published another poem, also, called 
, of which Donatus has preserved four lines in the Life 
Mice, in praise of the elegance and purity of tlwt [loet's 
But while he was employing himself in these juvenile 
es, for the improvement of his invenUon, he applied 
', with no less industry, to philosophy, for tin; enliuve- 
if his mind and understanoing ; and, among hiH other 
I, was very fond, at his age, of FbiedruA, the Epicurean ; 

soon as he had sained a little more experience and 
^nt of things, he wholly deserted and constantly disliked 
iiciples of that sect; yet always retained a particular 

for the man, on account of his learning, humanity, and 

peace of Rome was now disturbed by a domestic war, 
"filers call the Italic, Social, or Marsic: it was begun 
onfederacy of the principal towns of Italy, to support 
emand of the freedom of the city : the tribune Drusus 
ade them a promise of it, but was assassinated in the 
t of publishing a law to confer it : this made tbem despe- 


■it ScvoU dc fratri. mei HUrio ant 


•Bclit i 




' Hie Jovi. •Uiwrni tnbito pini»U StlMa 


Jam uIibU animos. ism dum ulU dolor 
Abjicit efflidtcm. ctlurntum ndlligil in 


SBjue olitn ■ Solis, nilido. coavcitfl «i . 

Hone ubi pnrprlibua pennia lanoque: ic 


Contpriit Mariui, divini Numinii Augui 

Pinibui intonuit cosli Pnler ipK nniitrii 

Sic AijuilK citnim (iriaavit Jappiler ome 

— DeD 



lo iixount of iKe arBumcnl of Ibit piece. 

he meni 


of itl 



Dolhing more than the Gitrk word A.<M<ii 

X the po«m, 


- w gwdeu. exhiWlrd a variety of Jlffbren 

,d flo 



IT Mjj, wore (bnd of giving Bucli titles t» 
A..,ii«. &c. [Praf. Hill. Nai.) and Pan. 


r book> 




lit the 


n. u 


rate, and resolve to extort by force, what tliey could not o 
by entreaty'. They alleged it to be unjust to exclude tl 
from the rights of a city, which the^ sustained by their a 
that in all its wars they furnished twice the namber of tn 
which Rome itself did; and had raised it to all that he^tof I 
power, for which it now despised them'. This war was ew ■ 
rieil 00 for above two years, with great fierceness on bod 
sides, and various success : two Roman consuls were killed ii ^ 
it, and their armies often defeated : till the confedentcs ^ 
weakened also by frequent losses an<l the destruction of one " 
ally after another, were forced at last to submit to the mperior 
fortune of Rome'. During t)ic hurry of the war, tbe businoi 
of the Forum was intermitted ; the greatest part of the nugiF 
trates, as well as the pleaders, being personally enei^ed in it; 
Hortensius, the most flourishing young orator at tne bar, wb 
a volunteer in it the first year, ana commanded a regiment the 

Cicero likewise took the opportunity to make a campugn, 
along with tlie consul Cn. Pompeius Strabo, the father of 
Pompey the Great; this was a constant p»rt of the education 
of the young nobility : to learn the art of war by personal ser- 
vice, under some general of name and experience ; for in an 
empire raised and su]inortcd wholly by arms, a reputation of 
martial virtue was the shortest and surest way of rising to its 
highest honours ; and the constitution of the government was 
such, that as their generals could not make a figure even in 
camps, without some institution in the politer arts, especially 
that of speaking gracefully' ; so those, who applied themselves 
to the peaceful studies, and llie imnntgement o" ' "' ■" ' 

Upon the breaking out of this war, tlie Romans save tim\ 
freedum of tlio city tu all the towns which con dnuetf firm t*i 
them; 8ii(l, iit the end of it, after the destruction of tbiW 
hundred thousand lives, thought fit, for the sake of their fatnrt 
quiet, to grant it to all the rest ; but this step, which they coiH 
mdered as the foundation of a perpetual peace, was, as an 
ingenious writer Las observed, one of the causes that hastened 
their ruin : for the enormous bulk to which the city was swelled 
by it, gave birtli to many new disorders, that gradually eo^ 
runted, and at last destroyed it ; and the discipline of the imn, 
calculated for a people whom the same walls would contain, 
was too weak to keep in order the vast body of Italy ; so tha^ 
from this time chit'liy, all affairs were decided by niction and 
violence, and the influence of the great; who could briny 
whole towns into the Forum, from the remote parts of Italy; 
or pour in a number of slaves and foreigners, under the fbna 
of citizens ; fur when the names and persons of real citizens 
could no longer be distinguished, it was not possible to know 
whether any act had passed regularly, by the genuine sufir^e 
of the people'. 

The Italic war was no sooner ended, than another broke out, 
which, though at a great distance from Rome, was one of tht 
most ditficuTt and desperate in which it ever was engaged ; 
against Mithridatcs, King of Pontus, a martial and powerful 
prince, of a restless spirit and ambition, with a capacity equal 
to the greatest designs : who, disdaining to see all his hopes 
blasted by the overbearing power of Rome, and confined to the 
narrow twundary of his hereditary dominion, broke through 
his barrier at once, and overran the lesser Asia like a torrent, 


. , the BufFrage of the peojile. This nuVd en-at 
in die city between the opposite partit-K, ni wtiicK the 
of Q. Poinpeius the eonsut, and the son-iii-luw of Syllm 
killed : Sylla happened to be absent, qtielling the remains 
rf (he late coiDiaotions near Nola : but upon tlie news of these 
(fiwrden^ lie hastened with his le^'oDs to Rome, and having 
miered it, after some resistance, drove Murius and his aecom- 
p&ccs to the necessily of saving themselves by a precipitate 
mght- This was the beginning of ihe first civil war, properly 
to called, which Rome bad ever seen ; and what gave both tJie 
occasion and the example to all the rest that followed : the 
tribune Sulpicins was taken and slain ; and Marius so warmly 
puiaued, that he was forced to plunge himself into the niariihm 
of Mid turn urn, up to die chin in water ; in which condldon he 
lay concealed for some ume, till, being discovered and dragged 
out, he was preserved by the compasgion of the inhabititntM, 
irbo, after refreshing him from the cold and hunger which be 
W Rufftred in his flight, furnished liim with a vessel, and all 
necMBaries to transport himself into Afric'. 

Sylla in the meanwbile having quieted the city, and pro- 
Knbed twelve of his chief adversaries, set forward upon his 
npeditiou against Mithridates: but he was no sooner gone, 
than the civil broils broke out afresh between the new consuls, 
Cinna iuid Octavius; whlcb Cicero calls the Octavian war*. 
Fur Ciniia, attemplin^ to reverse all thnt Sylia had es tab lis bed, 
was ilrivL-n out .if tlie city by liis colleague, willi six of the 
Oibjoa, and deposed from the consulship : upon this be 
gathered an army, and recalled Marius, who, having joined 
nil forces with him, entered Rome in a hosdie manner, and, 
with the most horrible cmeity, put all Sylla's friends to the 
Bwoii, without regard to age, dignity, or former services. 
Amoog the rest felithe consul, Cn. Octavius ; the two brothers, 
LCinar and C. Csesar; P. Ciassus, and the orator M. An- 
loniiis; whose head, as Cicero says, was h.ied upon that rostra, 
where he had so strenuously defended the Republic when 
eoasid, and preserved the heads of so many cidzens; lament- 
ing, as it were ominously, the misery of that fate which hap- 
pened afterwards to himself, from the grandson of this very 
Antonius. Q. Catnlus also, thoiuh he )iad been Marius s 
colleague in the consulship, and in his victory over tlie Cimbri, 
was treated with the same cruelty; for when his friends were 
iniercediDg for his life, Marius made them no other answer. 


but. Up must (lip; lie minr die: -to tliat lie was oliliged to kill 

Cicero saw tliis memonilile entry of his eountr^nuui M*ria% 
who, ill lliut H(lviiiicc(l a^e, was su for from beiiijr broken, kc 
sayfl, by his hte i-alnmitv, that he wemed to he more alert ud 
^'igorotis than ever; when he heani him recounting to tlw 
peo])l>!, ill e-tciiNO for the cruflty of his return, the many miserin 
whicli he had lately suffered ; when he was driven hvm that 
eoiiittr>' which lie liiid saved from destruction; when all Ui 
estate was sei/ed and pluiiderett by his enemies ; when he nnr 
his yoniifT M>n alxo the partner of his distress: when he WM 
almost drowned in the marshes, and owed his life tg the mern 
of the Minturnensians ; ^i-heii he was forced to fly into Afric m 
a small bark, and become a sujijiliaut to those to whom he Ind 
^vcii kingdoms; but that since he had recovered his dignity, 
and all the rest, that he had lost, it should be his care not to 
forfeit that virtue and eournge, wliieli ho had never lost*. 
Murius and Ciniia having thus got the Republic into their 
luindx, declared tlieinseh'cs consuls : but Marius died anex* 
pcctedly, as soon almost as lie was inaugurated into his new 
dignity, on the l:}th of January, in the 7l)th year of bis age; 
and, according to the most probable account, of a pleimtie 
fever *. 

His birth was cibKCuro, though »ome call it equestrian; and 
his cducarion wliolly in camps; where he learnt the first mdt- 
mcnts of war, under the greatest master of that age, the younger 
frteipin, wiici destroyed Carthage : (ill, by Icing service, diB- 
tiiiguished vidniir, and u peculiar hardiness an<l patience of 
digcipline, he advanced himself gradually thromrh all tlie ' 

«'!* I. It zno. 17 

who were sap'^ ::\: \\v]\ \i\:u :r. Niimaiirui, u!:ar i;iner:iJ tljf 
RefiubSc Wi.iii.f L.iu. ::i ca^t* i»t anv aLvuii'iif r.» iiiiii<>c*ll: 
" tiar man." replied Lc, p« lint in j: i«» >iariu^, •• af tlu* iMirtuin 
"of rbe tah.'e." In ih*:* tivUl Lo ^xa*"; caii!i«»ii> ami |>it>vi(ifnt : 
iod wiile lie w;i<» watcLinor rho m«»'*t favimraUi' oiviiorr unities 
of action, auectt-tl ro take all Li^ nu'a'^ures J'n»in anjiur** ami 
rfirinerj." nor ever ;;ii\v liatrlo. till. l.»v j>reti'ntleil <»nu'n.s ami 
Dirine aiIinon::i«.»:"!>. he had inspired Li** M^ldiiT** with a confi- 
deikv of vict».ry: <** that hi«* enemies drea<hd him, a* somc- 
tiinif more than niorta! : and both tViuinU ami foes hfliovfcl 
iiim to act always hy a peculiar impuUe ami diiectitm from llu' 
gods. IIi« merir, however, wiis wholly military, void c»f every 
accompli>hment of li.*aniinir. uhieh he opuidy affeeted to «U"»pi^e : 
so that Arjiiiiurn ha«i the sin^^ular felicity tf) produce the most 
•glorious conteDiiier. as well as the mo>t illustrious improver of 
the arts and eloquence of Rome. He made no fi^-ure there- 
fore in the ifown, nor had anv other wav of s||>tainin«r his 
auiliority in the city, than by c'icrishin;r the natural jealousy 
between the senate and the people; that by his declared en- 
init\* to the one. he mi^ht alwavs be at the head i»f the other; 
whose favcMir he managed, not with any view to the jmblic 
^ood. for he had nothin^j^ in him of the state«»man, or the patriot, 
out to the advancement of hi< private interest and ji^lory. In 
*lion, he was craftv, cruel, covetous, ]u>rfidious: of a temper 
and talents i£r tat: \ serviceable abroad, hut turbuleiil and dan- 
gfroii«» at i.oriie: an iuij^lacabU* enemy t<» the nobles: c'ver 
Hvki:iif <'eo;i*i'«iis to m««rrity tin m, and nady to sacrilici' the 
Rt'l'Lii*::^ v.I.icii !se had •»;i\«<l, to IiIn ambiiion and ie\«'niri.. 
AffiT a iifi- ^p^nt in tli** ju rpt-tual toils of foreit^n or donjcstic 
•v.'irs i:e (lied a? Le^r in liis b»'d, in a tr,,(,(l <il,| ;itr<.. and in his 
*t".\i:r}i enn^Jilship: an luincmr thai no Konian bet()ri him evj^r 
•iriLiiinL'il : wliich is uri^ed by C'otta, the acadi*mic, as one artju- 
ii'iJU aTnon;^>f orjnr^ ai:;ainst the existenci* of a Pinvidmce '. 

Il.e rran^acrion> of the I'orum \\cre Lfrearh in^Truprid 
f'V the**, civil dissensions; in which sonie of tlu' br'»r (»rators 
v.irri' killed. otliiTs baiiislud: Cicero, Injwever, aitcnded the 
iiaran^Mr'* of tlie nia;^i'*t rates, who possf».sfd rhe rostra in 
■iji'ir turU'* : an«! biini^ now about the a^f of twt ntv-niu', ilrew 

N* .•'.:■-::: \--. ; V, ii. Tat. :2. > -. ' S. IV M:;.. .'■;.;;• ij.-il::!.! .k- ii.::.'. p.. .1':'^ 
Hi ■■ ".''i, \ m'. M...\. ■-. i.>." l'<']' '.I'..- I<i'"i i.ii!! .i":vin i-.|«<il>:i'.".- • .• ■ - '■..-•■• • 
■'.":• ■Ii-M'.i'ii. f|...ilii >L-t.-.Ti.. « »t ::au-. ^\ill. I'.iT "J. I'J."; n.- Ifj;-..,ri -.!■«■.. ..i.r iM 
■•'..■.:■••'.% it -t.i V '.•■.!"•. .1-. (.'.'l. J. .\/ nii.ri. - •>:■! M :."jii iM-**'- t'--:!!'. ■ >\ .'•»! 
■-'■'':"i: ..%::, itii <.-"\ ; •: lK"J!ii!i i;'"Mj i uth r:» |iriili!i:'.:. >.!i: '. Il- ". .' ■.• !•"_*' 
'■.'v.; ,..,. It i-, i'.-,.;, Aij- 'i-.!!!. >:vr uijIi miu '..'Uiarwrn -l-.s •i'.,---.i:'.n! • Mjiti n.'.-'.'-n m, 
■•:■ '.ir .i;iti--i!!inii. i- •■■• t-- '::•';» ri \« li'. :V:il. .M.,\ '_'.'.'" <^»'. .■.".•. '••ll" •■j't;!..'.*. 

■ •.• , 1 T.i I- '.f »iii;i;!. . '..•■■ -.■.•'.- :;i"i:.-'. ■•i-:.:..ii'.":-. ■n «M«!',"it -'iiii::! •: .. 

'•■ . 1*. •.■_'. \ . j ' .!■..•■ ■'.■ |.tih.::'--j.>. (ifi*. C. M.I- :"^. <i'. <■•'■•"'■ •'. ;•. Vij.:--- .•; » 
..••'.•,■■"■;•■ 1, i>: :•■■•.,... J .!■■. t ■ t 1.1 t.ti'i '■ 1.4 !'• I .' i '''■"■•''!■■ ■■ •■. 'l»ni' '•■ • 


up, prulutbly, thoite rlietoricul pii'ccs, wliidi w^re pabliahed bj 
liim, B8 lie tells us, when very young, and are supposed to ' 
the same that still remain on the subject of invenbon : bnt 
coDdcmned and retracted them afterwards in his advanced an 
as unworthy of his maturer judgment, and the work onlv of i 
boy, attemiiting to dijrest into order the precepts which ne Iti 
brought away from school *. 

In the meanwhile, Philn, a philosopher of the first nameh 
the academy, with many of the principal Athenians, fled to 
Rome from the fury of Mithridates, who had made himidf 
master of Athens, and all the neighbouring parts of Greeoa: 
Cicero immediately became his scholar, and was ezceedinch 
taken with his philosophy ; and by the help of such a profemr 
gave himself up to that study with the greater inclinatioD, M 
toere was cause to apprehend that the laws and judidal pio* 
ceediiigs, which he had designed for the ground of hia fame and 
fortunes, would be wholly overturned by the continuance of 
the public disorders*. 

But Cinna's party having quelled all oppoeition at homc^ 
while Sylla was engaged abroad in the Mithridatic war, then 
was a cessation of arms within the citv for about three yean, n 
that tlie course of public business began to flow again in id 
usual channel ; and Molo, the Rhodtan, one of the prindnl 
orators of that age, and the roost celebrated teacher of m^ 
quence, happening to come to Rome at the same time, Cioo* 
presently took the benefit of his lectures, and resumed lui 
oratorical studies with bis former ardour'. But the greatest 
' ' : indiiiitry was the f:tme and splendour of HortensiuA, 

■•■-■^»%* MMm 


\uB inteiral Sylla was performing great exploits against 
dates, whom he had driven out of Greece and Asia, and 
d once more to his own territory ; yet at Rome, where 
was master, he was declared a public enemy, and his 
confiscated : tliis insult upon his honours and fortunes, 
dm very desirous to be at home again, in order to take 
enge upon his adversaries ; so that after all his success 
war, he was glad to put an end to it by an honourable 

the chief article of which was, that Mithridates should 
the whole expense of it, and content himself for tlie 
with his hereditary kingdom. On his return he brought f 
dth him from Atoens the famous library of Apellicon 
nan, in which were the works of Aristotle and Theo- ' 
IS, that were hardly known before in Italy, or to be 
indeed entire any where else '. He wrote a letter at 
ne dme to the senate, setting forth his great services, 
i ingratitude with which he had been treated ; and ac- 
ng them, that he was coming to do justice to the Re- 

and to himself, upon the authors of those violences ; 
sed great terrors in the city ; which, having lately felt 
ribie effects of Marius's entry, expected to see the same 
f acted over again by Sylla. 

while his enemies were busy in gathering forces to op- 
jn, Cinna, the chief of them, was killed in a mutiny of 
1 soldiers : upon this, Sylla hastened his march, to take 
lefit of that disturbance, and landed at Brundusium with 
thirty thousand men : hither many of the nobility pre- 
resorted to him, and among them young Pompey, about 



otliiT con«iil, Scipio, found incHn*! In corrupt lih nrmr, l| 
Hruw it over to niinsetf: lie gave Scipio, liowerer, liu ■ 
wlif) went into a voluntary exile at Marseilles', 'llie^ 
CoiiaitU cboacn in tbe mean time ut Rome, were Cti> Ptf 
Carbo mid young Marius; the first of whom, after I 
defeats, was driveo out of Italy, aud the second beelef 
Preeneste ; where, beirig reduced to extremity, and dec, 
of relief, he wrote to liamasippus, then praetor of the d 
call a meeting of the senators, as if upon busineM of ■ 
tsnce, and put the principal of them to the sword : in Uwq 
sacre many of the nobles perished, and old Sc^vola, the ll 
priest, the pattern of ancient tempenuice and prudetM 
Cicero calls liim, was slain before the altar of Vesta 'i 
which sacrifice of noble blood to the manes of his father, f 
Marius put an end to his own life. 

Pompey at the same time pursued Carbo into Sinlvi i 
liaving laiten him at Lilyb%um, sent his head to Sylla, WM 
he begged his life in an abject manner at his feet: this if 
some reproach upon Pompey, for killing a man, to whom he h 
been highly obliged on an occasion where his father's boor 
and hb own fortunes were attacked. But this is the consti 
effect of factions in states, to make men prefer the iotereatsi| 
a party, to all the considerations, cither of private or pubS 
duty t and it is not strange that Pompey, young and amb**^™* 
should pay more rej^rd to the power of Sylla, than to a si 
of honour or gratitude *. Cicero, however, says of this ( 
that there never was a worse citizen, or more wicked I 
wiiicli will tro a great wav towards excusing Pompt 


rns of Itaiy; where, besides tlie crime of parlvi which wa* 
iJoned i<) none, it was &tMl to be possci^seti of iiioiiev, Innds, 
a pleanaiit seat ; all manner of licence bein^ Indulged to nii 
i>Wnt anny, of carving for themselves whut fortunes they 
ued '. 

En this general destruction of the Marian faction, J. CiMwr, 
m about seventeen years old, had much difEciilty Vt escape 
b life: he was nearly allied to old Marins, and hud married 
ina's dauffhter ; whom he could not be induced to put awav, 

all the threats of Sylla; who, conaiderini^ htm fi>r that 
son as irreconcileable to his interests, deprived him of his 
Vs fortune and the priesthond, which he liwl obtained. 
aar, therefore, appreheiidinf still somewhat worse, tlioufrht 
iradent to retire and conceal Id m self in the country, where, 
Jig- discovered accidentally by Sylla's soldiers, he was forced 
redeem his head by a very large sum : but the intercession 

the vestal virgins, and the authority of his powerful rela- 
OS, extorted a grant of his life very unwillingly from Sylla ; 
O bade them taite notice, that he, for whose safety they were 

solicitoiM, would one day be the ruin of that aristocracy, 
lich he was then establishing with so much pains, for thai 

law many Mariuses in one Csesar '. The event contirmctl 
ila's prediction ; for, by the experience of these times, young 
esar was instructed both how to form and to execute that 
ikeme, which was the grand purpose of his whole life, of 
ipi«»ing the liberty of his country. 

As soon as the proscriptions wi're over, and the scene grown 
little calm, L. Flaccus, being chosen interrex, declared 
rlla dictator forsettling the state of the Republic, without 
ly liinitation of time, and ratified whatever he had done, or 
ouU do, by a special law that empowered him to put any 
iBen to death without hearing or trial '. This office of die- 
tor, which in early times liaa oft been of singular service to 
K Republic in cases of difficulty and distress, was now grown 
fioDR and suspected, in the present state of its wealth and 
Bwer, as dangerous to the public liberty, and for that reason 
id been wholly disused and laid aside for one hundred and 
rnity years past * : so that Flaccus's law was the pure effect 

' Knuiue uti qaiuiiic domuDi aul villun. pottremD iiit t» ant vEBtiaicnliim nliriijiin 

Mai I Lial. dabat (wcnni, ut it in nroKripuirum diuhcto traeu Nequc priut iinii 

nkadi fait, qoam SjIbooiDci >uob diniiii eiplciiu SaUuel. c. 51. Plut. Svlk. 

'Sdnnt cnm, qDciirincoluninn Unto open cupennt, qilindoqiiR nplimBliiiin par- 

*,lau<ccuai omnl defcndisKnt, cxiliofuliirnni: nom Cmari niullgi Marioi inme. 

■ton. J, Cm. c. 1. Pint, in Cm.]— Cinn»i g«ncr, ciijus fiUom ut ifpu<lian;l, nnllo 

■<• coBHlli pcrtnil. Veil. Ps(. 2. 13. 

> Db Lh. Agnr. con. Rull. 3, 2. 

' INjoi lionoriii murpMio per snnni tix mtmniraii ut spparwi pnpiilum Roma- 




of force and terror ; and tliougb preteiitled to be made b] 
people, was utterly detested by tliem. Sylla, liowevcr, 
invested by it with absolute nutliurity, made many useful reel 
Intiona for the better order of the goveriiment; and byll 
plenitude of his power changed in a great measure the in 
constitution of it, from a democralical to an aristocradc^ fit 
by advancing; the prerogative of the senate, and depi 
that of the people. He tx>ok from the Eque.strian order 
judgment of all causes, which they had enjoyed from tiie ti 
of the Gracchi, and restored it to the senate; deprived 
people of the right of choosing the priests, and replaced il 
the colleges of priests : but, above all, he abridged the 'maaoi 
rate power of the tribunes, which had been the chief son 
of all the civil dissensions ; for he made them incapable afa 
other magistracy after the tribunate ; restrained the liberty 
appealing to them ; took from them their capital privilege, 
proposing laws to the people : and left them iiotliiiig but th( 
negative; or, aa Cicero says, tlie power only of helping, nd 
of hurting any one '. But, tliat he might not be suspend ll 
uming at a perpetual tyranny, and a total subversion of th 
Republic, he suffered the consuls to be chosen in the reguta 
manner, and to govern, as usual, in all the ordinary a&irs d 
the city : whilst lie employed himself particularly in refornd^ 
the disorders of the state, by putting his new laws in execw 
tion ; and in distributing the confiscated lands of the advent 
party among his legions : so that the Republic seemed to llCi 
once more settled on a legal basis, and the laws and ju^Qll 
proceedin^j's began to flourish in the Forum. About the 


ml being previously acquaiDted with every thing worUi kuow- 
■g in art or nature ; that this is implied in ttic lery name of 
in orator : whose profession it is, to speak upon every Kubjcct, 
vluvh can he proposed to bim ; and wliose eloquence, wiiLout 
Ite knowledge of what be speaks would be the prattle only 
ud impertinence of children '. He had learnt the rudimenta 
if grsnuDar and languages from the ablest teachers: gone 
Ihfotigh the studies of humanity and the politer letters with the 
uet Arehias ; been instructed in philosophy by the principal 
InrfnBors of each sect ; Pli^rus the Epicurean, Fhilo ibe ao- 
Ipmic, Diodotiis the stoic; acquired a perfect knowLedgv of 
Ik Ixw, from the greatest lawyere, as well as (lie greatcM 
falevmen uf Rome, the two Scievoias ; all wbich acooinpliii^ 
Mnte were but ministerial and subservient to that on which 
H»iu^)es and ambition were singly placed, the roputatiun of 
ID Ofator; to qualify himself, therefore, particulaily for thia, 
w attended the pleadings of all the speaken of his time ; hcani 
be daily lectures of the most eminent orators of Greece, mkI 
ras perpetually composing somewhat at bame, and dcclainil^ 
indcT their correction : and, that he might neglect notfalitg 
vhich could help iu any degree to improve and polish hi» style, 
it i^ent the intervals ofliis leisure in the company of ihe 
bdiea ; especially of those who were remarkable for a potit«> 
neas of lanijuage, and whose fathers had been di.stinguishi'd hy 
I bme and reputation cf their eloquence. Wliile he studied 
the law, therefore, under Scsevola the augur, he frequently 
aa«v«ned with his wife Leiia, whose discoone, he gays, mu 
tiBCtiired wilJi all the elegance of her father, I^elius, the 
Botiiest q>eaker of his age : he was acquainted likewise with 
Wtbaghter Mucia, who married the great oiator I^ Ciaaaus; 
nd with her gran d-daugb ten, the two LiciniK : one of them, 
tihe wife of iZ Sdpio; the other of youngs Marins; who all 
oeelled in that deucacy of the Ladn tongae, which was peco- 
Jim to tbeir families, and valned themselves on preserving and 

t|Nngatu» it to their posterity. 
,M TktM *£»ned and i 

I accompushed, he offered himself to the 
. 'I^r about the age of twenty-six ; not as others generally did, 
ttv and ignorant of their bunness, and wanting to be formed 
■ use and experi^ice*, but finished, and qualified at 
Die to stisbdn any cause, which shtMild be commiued to him. 
VW been controverted both by the ancients and modems. 

■nan nnuB macnnnB, atque miBni. Kinituiii eonmDliu. Ve Unl. i.ti. A i 
' Lipmu tfkMM Cotwliw, autm Gnechannn— uidiiDi at pdIm Iflir. Caii 

ft tcimo : «JB ilhlD pitri* ckgaatil tinctuD tidimiu : cl filiu cjiu Huriu m 

■nsHnwi iiiilnfiitD«tai,ftc. but. 319. 



wliitt was till- Kret caiiw in whicli lie was engaged; sotaem 
it for tliat uf P. Quinctius : others for S. RtMcitu : but neiw 
of tlicm arc in tlie right; for in Ills oration for Quinctiiu h 
fxprcssly <leclan'8, that he hail pleaded other ninses before it; ' 
and in tluit for UosL-ins, §avs only, tlmt it was the firat publid I 
or criminal cause, in wliich he was concerned : and it is reason- T 
able to imagine, tliat lie had tried his stren^h, and acqnired j 
Home credit in private causes, before he would venture upau 
a public one of tliat importance ; agreeably to the advice whickj 
Quintiliaii ^ives to his ynnnfr pleaders ', whose rules are g 
rally drawn fruin the practice and example of Cicero. 

The cau^e of 1'. Quinctius n-as to defend him firom an a 
of bankru]ilcy, brought against him by a creditor, wbo^ 31 

Sretence of hii* having forfeited his recognizance and >*' 
rawn himself from inslice, had obtained a decree to seiz 
estate, ami expose it to sale. The creditor was one of dl>l 
public criers, who attended the magistrates, and, by his interat^ 
among them, was likely to oppress Quinctins, and had alreadf 
gained an advantage against him by the authority of Hortea- 
gius, who was his advocate. Ciccru entered into the cause, it 
the earnest desire of the fained comedian, Roscius, whoM 
sister was Quiiictius's wife' : he endeavoured at first to excuK 
himself; allej^ng that he should not be able to speak a »onl 
against llortensius, any more than the ntlier players could act 
with any spirit before Roscins ; hut Roscius would take no, naving formed such a judgment of him, as to think no 
man so capable of supporting a desperate cause, 
crafty ami powerful advers 

or cicBBO. 25 

ftntenUdent of iiiyllit ' ; since Koecius's ilefeut^e woulil ii«<»*> 
Hriljr Icail tliem Uito majiy cmiipUiiiite on the time*, and tW 
fppr«««oR<i of the girat: out Cicero roadily undertook it, :» a 
■^orious oppurtuiiity of enlisting himself into tlio service of 
liik counlrV) luiil givin<r a public testimony of liis |>rincitilni and 
ual for iMt liberty, to which he hail ilevotod the tabouni of 
tit lifr. Kacciu8 was uequitted, to the great bonour of Cicero; 
>,irbwe ooDnge and uddrcK^ in defending him was applauded by 
like whole city ; so that from tbis moment, he vim looked upAi 
^ BR ndrocate of the first class, and equal to the gmitot 

I Uaving: occaflioo, in the course of his pleading, to mcDtioo 
ibat remarkable punishment which tlieir ancestora had cgif 
Itived for tJir^ murder of u parent, of sewing liic crimitial alive 
in a »ck, and throwing him into the river, he nays, ** thai the 
nnnini; of it was, to strike him at once, as it were, outof tbff 
kyMem of nature, by taking from him tbc air, the aMii, the 
mter, amt the earth ; that lie, wbo had destroyed tliv nutlior 
of his being, should lose the benefit of thoNo elements, whence 
ill tilings derive their being. Tliev would not throw htm lo 
tlie beusta, lest the contagion of sucii wickedness should raiike | 
the beasts themselves more furions : they would not comnit { 
Mm nake<l to tlie stream, lest be should pollute tiie very tea, 
which was the purifier of ail other pollutions: they leit him | 
uo share of any thing natiinil, Low vile or common soever; for > 
what is so common as breath to the living, earth to the dead, / 
the sea to those who float, the shore to those who are cast up i* ' 
Vet these wretches live so, as long as they can, as not to draw 
brea^ from the lur ; die so, as not to touch the sroDod ; are 
M tossed by the waves, as not to be washed by tnem ; so cast 
out upon the shore, as to find no rest even on the rocks *>" 
This passage was received with acclamations of applause : yet* 
q>eakiiig of it afterwards himself, be calls it, *' the redondaney 
nFa juvenile fancy, which wanted the correction of his sounder 
jo^rmeDt; and, like all the compontiona of yonng men, was 
not applauded so much for its own sake, as for the hopes it 
give of his more improved and ripened talents '." 
' ^3^ke popularity of his cause, and the &vour of the audience 
,n|^ bim such spirits, that he exposed the insolence and vil- 
pay of the bvourite Chrj-sogonus with great gaiety; and 
fintaced even to mingle several bold strokes at ijylla hmiself; 

inic patnnof propter Chryioginii gntiam derulum, — iw 
ta cnnimu fan, ut hie nulJo negotio tollcTTlur. cum ■ amOa 

Ida dcfoiaat, aoi dieM prvCtcIo, JndicH —Pre Ro«io Amer. iO. II. 

■ Prima cuuapo^b^ pro 8. B«no dicta. lanlum lommcndationii hitwiL, ut Don 

Mct-qBB DBS MiMmduu Hlrodiiia ridcrrtur. DdncCHindc multc Brat, 1M. 

» Pro Ro«c. *. * Or«. 2S8. cd. Lwnk. 

26 THE UF£ 

which he look care hcmever to palliate, by observing, ** 

through the multiplicity of Sylla'§ a^ra, who reigned m. 
absolute on t^rth, as Jupiter did in heaven, it was not poniblk 
for him to ktinw, and necessary eren to connive at mur ' 
tfainfrs, wliicli his favourites did against his will *. He would 
nut cumplaiu," he says, "in times like those, that an innocent 
man's entate was exposed to public sale; for were it allowed ti 
him to speak freely on that head, Koscius was not a person (d 
such consequence, that he should make a particular complaint 
on his account; but he must insist upon it, that by the law of 
the proscription iL«cif, whether it was Flaccus's, the iuterrex, I 
or sylla's, the dictator, for he knew not which to all i^ j 
Uoseius's estate was not forfeited, nor liable to be sold'." In 1 
the conclusion, he puts the judges in mind, '* that nothing wa ' 
M> much aimed at by the prosecutors in this trial, as, by the ' 
condemnation of Uoscius, to eain a precedent for destroying 
the children of tlie proscribed: he conjures them, thererore, 
by all the gods, not to be the authors of reviving a second pro- 
scription, more barbarous and cruel than the first : that the 
senate refused to bear aiiv part in the first, lest it should be 
tliought to be nuthorized ^y the public council : that it was 
their business by this sentence to put a stop to that spirit i^ 
cruelty, which then j^ossessed the city, bo pernicious to die 
liepublic, an<l so contrary to the temper and character of their 


As by this defence he acquired a great reputation in hii 
youth, so he reflects upon it with ])ieasure in old age, and 
recommend-t it to his sou, as the surest way to true glory and 


!, as before, in the same task of pleading cruscs ' ; anH 
n one especially) uioie obnoxious to Sylta'a reNentmmt, even 
titui that of Roscius ; fur iu tiie case of a womau of ArrL'ttiim, 
it defended the ri|i;ht of certaiu towns of Italy to the freedom 
«f Rome, though Sylht himself had depriveil them »f it by no 
eKpTe«« law ; maintaining it to be one of tliose nalurai rights 
which no law or power on earth could bdce from them: in 
which also he carried his point, in opposition to Ciitta, an 
OTStor of the first character and abilities, who pleaded ugiuim 

Bm we Iiave a clear account from himself of tlie real motire 
of hu journey: "My body," says be, "at thi« time was ex- 
ceedingly weak and emaciated; my neck loii^ and small; 
which IS a habit tliought liable to great risk of life, if eagiif;ed 
b any fetigue or labour of the lungs ; and it garo the greater 
liann to those who iiad a regard for me, that I used to spoak 
without any remission or variation, with tlie utmost strctt^h of 
my poif%, and great agitation of my body : when my friend)) 
[berefore and physicians a<U'i8ed me to meddle no more with 
causes, 1 resolved to run any hazard, rather than quit the hripen 
of glory, which I proposed to myself from pleading ; but wheu 
I considered, that by managing my voice, and changing my 
way of spewing, I might ootb avoid all danger, and nneak 
wiui more ease, I took a resolution of travelling into Asia, 
merely for aa opportunity of correcting JBy manner of apeak- 
itig: M t^t, after 1 had been two years at the bar, and 
acouired a reputation in the Forum, I left Rome '," && 

He mw twenty-eight yearB old when he set forward opoD 
hu travels to Greece and Asia; the feshionable torn: of all 
those, who travelled either for curiosity or improvement : his 
Brat visit was to Athens, the capital seat of arts and sciences; 
where, some writers tell us, that he spent three years *, though 
m troth it was but six months : he took up his quarters with 
Antiochus, the principal philosopher of the old academy ; and, 
ander thb excellent master, renewed, he says, those studies 
which he had been fond of from his earliest youth. Here he 
met with his schooUfellow, T. Pomponius, wno from his love 
to Athens, and his spending a great part of his days in it, 
obtained the surname of Atbciu ; and here they revived and 

> Prima can** poblici pto 8. RdkId dicta — ddnccps inde mullc — iluoB com twem 
titUDJom Tcmtui ia aniii. Brut. p. 4M. W. 

• Popnlng Romnnt, I.. 8q1U IKcUlora fntate, cemitiii ceoturiatit, mnnictpHi dTf- 
titon ademit^ >d«mt iiiilrm Hivi: da igrii ntum cM: fait mim populi poUHtu: do 
OTJtau ne tamdin qoIdcDi nlull, quamdiu ilU SdIUdi tenpori) urni tb!u«utiC, Alqae 
too hanc adoleicentuliii caiuam eum igepem, contra hommem diicrtiinnium mntnidl- 
rcnte Cetla, ct Sulla Tint, iadicatain «l. Pn Dom. td Pontlf. 30. Pro Ciedna. 

' Bret. 437. ' E^«^WiChran. 

• Pomponiui— iU cnim H Alheoii cDliotani, ul lit |>inie udui u Alticit, et id eliam 
T^ognomine ndcatnr haUtata*. p« Pin. b. 2. 

confirmed that memorable frieadslitp, which subsisted between 
them through life, with so celebrated a constancy and aSe^ 
don. Atticus, being an Epicurean, was often drawing Ciceiw 
from his host Antiochus to the conversation of Ph tear us and 
old Zeno, the chief professors of that sect, in hopes of makiof . 
him a convert ; on which subject they used to have many dw> '] 
pates between themselves; but Cicero's view in these viaili 
was but to convince himself more effectually of the weaknen 
of that doctrine, by obserWug how easily it might be confotet^ 
when explained even by the ablest teachers '. Yet he did not 
give himself up so entirely to philosophy, as to neglect hit 
rhetorical exercises, which he performed sUll every day ver^ 
diliffently, with Demetrius the Syrian, au experienced master 
of the art of speaking '. 

It was in this first journey to Athens, that he was initiated 
most probably into the Eleusinian mysteries : for though we 
liave no account of the time, yet we cannot fix it better than 
in a voyage undertaken both tor the improvement of his mind 
and body. The reverence with which he always speaks of 
these mysteries, and the hints that he has droppea of their end 
and use, seems to confirm what a very learned and ingenious 
writer has delivered of them, that they were contrived to 
inculcate the unity of God, and the immortality of the soul'. 
As for the first, after observing to Atticus, who was also one 
of the initiated, how the gods of the popular religions were all 
but deceased mortals, advanced from earth to heaven, he bids 
him remember the doctrine of the mysteries, in order to 
recollect the universality of that truth : and, as to the second, 
he declares his initiation to be in fiicl. what the name iuelf 

Ttum Alliens he passed into Asia, where he gutlieretl about 
kirn xll the principal orators of the country* who kt'pt him 
ei»npany throujjh the rest of h'la voyage; luid with whom hfl 
cmMantly exercised himself in every place, wherv he made 
my shiy, " The chief of them," says he, " was Meuippug of 
Siralonica, the most elocjuent of ail the A«i»tic8 ; and ii to be 
neither t«dioti«, nor impertinent, be the charitcteriHtic of sn 
AlDc orator, he may justly be ranked in tluit class : DioHynus 
akn nf Magnesia, JEschylus of Ciiidos aiid Xcnochit of Adra- 
nyttus, were continually with me, who were rei-koned the firat 
rhetoricians of Asia: nor yet content with (hew, I wenl to 
Rhodes, and applied mj'selt again to Molo, whom 1 had tieanl 
hehre at Rome ; who was both an experienced pleader, and a 
fine writer, and particularly expert in ob»er\ing the foulta of 
bis scbotan, as welt as in his method of leachiiit; and improv- 
ing them : his greatest trouble with me was to restrain th« 
exuberance of a juvenile imagination, always ready to overflow 
its hanks, within its due and proper channel '. 

But as at Athens, where he employed himself chiefly in phi- 
losophy, he did not intermit his oratorical studies, so at Rhodes, 
ohere his chief study was oratory, he gave some share also i^ 
his time to philosnphy with Poaidoniua, the most esteemed and 
learned stoic of tiiat age ; whom he often speaks of with 
honour, not only as his master, but as liis friend '. It was liia 

Itn of Beam, Hdl, Eljriiira, PatgUarj, and all Uul nhted U> tbe tatvn tUta af Ibt 
iai ; bcng amiii wtd to incnlots mon KnriblT, ud eiemplifr Ihi docUiiui dalinnd 
tu tbe taitMtad : and aa tiucj were a proper aobject for poetrj, lo the; an rreaneotlj 
allBdett ta b7 Qte andent poeta. Cicen), m one of bii lctt«n to Attieaa, bega of hbn, at 
ifa re^Bcd otChifioa, an eminenl poet of that age, to 1(1111 then a relation of tbe EIou- 
Bain rhee, iilikch were deaigned pTohablj for au epiiode or nnbelliduneDt to Bome at 
Chilina'a ninb *. Thk cai^rmi abo the prshabilitT of that ingenioni camnient, which 
the lane eseeUenl miter haa ^Ten od the iilth book of ths JEoiii, where Virjil. aa he 
, in their genuine order, 

J u uul Poaidomiu, which Pompej often nied to tol! j that 

_ .. ._x, aahe waa reluming from Sjria towarda Rome, he called at 

Rbodea on pnrpeae to hear him ; bat being informed, on Ida artival there, that he waa 
citrenKlj U] (rfihe gout, he had a mind howerer Id lee him i and in hii viiit when, after 
Ibe first eomplimenU, he began to expresi fail concern for finding him ao ill, that he 
roold not haTo the {doumn lo hear him, " Bal you can hear me," rqilied PcaidDniua, 
"dot ahmil it be laid, tliat, on account of anr bodilj pain, I intTered lo great a man to 
Mcae to me in Tain." Upon which he entered pmantlj hilo an arpiDient. u he \ty npon 
ia bed. and maintained, with great elnquenee. that nothing waa reallj good, bul what 
m bonett : and being all the while in eiquiiite torture, lie often cned out " O pain, 

iben ahalt nerer gun thy ptrinl ; ft- ■- •' *- ■''■ ' — " '■■" 

lo be an eriL" Thii waa the perft 

ihe laat : while auothei pDor itcnc, I>ioni 

wben. by the tortnre of the atone, he waa forced lo conleia, that wbat nil i 

tonght him waa blie, and that he feit pain to be an evil, ii treated by all their 

a poltroon and laie deaerter. Which ihewa that all their boaaled iirmnCH 

_.!._._ - 1.1 .: ri J reputation, than lo any real principle or 


Nat, Deor. 2. 7*. De 

' Chiliui le mgat, et Mo ejni ronto, Evfw 
t See Die. L(^t. of Moaei, p. IBS. 

I conMuit care, that the progress of hu knowledge should keep 
I pace with the improvement c^ his eloquence ; he coimderM 
the one as the foundation of the other, and thought it ia vain Ik 
acquire omameola, before he had provided necessary fomitowt 
he declaimed here in Greek, because Molo did not underftaM 
LAtin ; and, upon ending his declamation, while the rert 4^ dw 
company were lavish of their praises, Molo, instead of yvpag ' 
any compliment, sat silent a considerable time, till obserrinf 
Cicero somewhat disturbed at it, he said, " As for yon, Cioen^ 
I praise and admire you, but pity the fortune of Greece, Ir" 
I see arts and eloquence, the only ornaments which were lefi t* 
her, transplanted by you to Rome'." Having dins finished 
the circuit of his travels, he came back again to Italy, after m 
excursion of two years, extremely improved, and changed M ' 
it were into a new man : the vehemence of his voice and actioa 
was moderated ; the redundantnr of his style and &ncy cor- 
rected; his lungs strengthenetf; and his whole consCitatin 
confirmed '. 

This voyage of Cicero seems to be the only scheme and 
pattern of travelling from which any real benefit is to be 
expected: he did not stir abroad, till he had completed ids 
education at hune ; for nothing can be more pernicious to a 
nation, than the necessity of a fore^ one ; and after he had 
acquired in his own country whatever was proper to fiwm a 
worthy ddsen and magistrate of Rome, he went, confirmed by 
a maturity of age and reason against the impressions of vioe^ 
not so much to learn, as to polish what he had learnt, by vint- 
ing tiioee places where arts and stuences flourished in their 


'iiinp«y returned about tliia time ric(Ariaij:i from ArHr; 
mhe had greatly enlarged the bounds of the empire, by 

conqoest and additioD of many new countrioa Ui the 
ma ilominioTi. He v,-aa received with j^reut inarka of 
^ by the dictator, Sylia. who went out tu met' t him at 
ihead of the nobility, and »alut«d htm by the title of Mu^- 
I&, ot the Great ; which, from that audkority, was ever afwr 
Tea to him by all people. But his demand of a triumph 
imted both Sylla and tlie senate ; who diought it Um 
]U>iliou« in one, who had passed through none of rhe [luhlic 
fictt, nor was of a^e to be a senator, to aspire to an honour, 
bichbail never been granted, except lo coiutuls or pmtorB: 
nt Pompey, insisting on his demand, extorted Sylla's couseut, 
nd «8S the first whose tntmipbal car is said to have been 
rawn by elephants, and the only one of the equestrian order 
'bo had ever triumphed ; which gave an unusual joy to the 
itofAe, to see a man of their own body obtain so signal un 
loaour; and much more, to see him descend again from it to 
liiold rank and private condition among the knights '. 

While Pompey, by liis exploits in war, had acquired tlie 
umame of the Great, J. Caesar, about six years younger, was 
[Iving proofe likewise of his military genius, and serving as 
1 Tolanteer at the siece of Mitylene ; a splendid and flourish- 
ng city of Lesbos, wliich had asskted Mithridates in the late 
rar, and perfidioiuiy delivered up to him M. Aqnilita, a 
yenoa of conwlar dvnity, who had been sent ambassadtn- to 
hat idag, md, after the defeft of the R<xnaD army, had takeD 
'«^ve m MHylene, as in a place of the greatest security. 
Mitnridatea ia said to have treated him with die last indignity ; 
airring him about in triumph, mounted upon an ass, and 
iorcmg him to proclaim every where aloud, that he was Aqni- 
ha, iilio had been the chief cause of the war. But the town 
now paid dear for that treadiery, being taken by storm, and 
ilmost demtJished) by Q. Thermus : though Pompey restored 
it afterwaids to its former beauty and liberty, at the request 
itf his fsTonrite freedman, Theophanes. In this siege Cssar 
otttained tbe heueor of a civic crown ; wUt^, though made 
Kffly 4^ oaken leaves, was esteemed the most reputable badge 
tf martial virtne ; and never bestowed, but for saving the bfe 
i^a citizen, and killing, at the same time, an enemy '. 

' BdlsHi in Atrita mudmiim conlcdt, TktoKm eienitnio dflnrtarit. Quid tbto 
Eqnitem Rom. Criumphin? Pro Leg, Mui.21. Africa too 

- - at.' [Plin. Hirt. NiU 7. 26.) R™« primum jonctf 
Pompeii Higni, Afnano trimnpho. lb. 8. 2. Plot, in 


Sylla died while Cicero was Ht Athens, after he had 
down his dictatorship, and restored liberty to the Repi 

and, with ati uncommon frreatness of mind, lived many mi 

an a private senator, and with perfect security, in that d^' 
where he hod cifercixed the most bloody tjTanny : but nothi^- 
waa thought to be greater in his character, tlian that, duri^' 
the three years, in wliich the Marians were masters of Ittlj^ 
lie neither dissembled his resolution of pursulnjf them by wni% 
nor neglect^l the war which he hun upon bis hancb; bol 
thought it his duty lirst to chastise a foreign enemy, before W< 
took his revenge upon citizens '. His family was noble mi 
patrician, which yet, through the indolcncy of his ance9toi% 
had made no figure in the republic for many generations, and t 
was almost sunk into obscurity, till he produced it again ioto ' 
light, by aspiring to the honours of the state. He was a lovv 
and patron of polite letters, having been carefully instituted 
himself in all the learning of Greece and Rome; nut, fromi 
peculiar gnietv of temper, and fondness for the company of 
mimics and players, was drawn, when young, into a life of 
luxury luid pleasure ; so that, when he was sent qusestoi to 
Martus in the Jugurthine war, Marina complained, that, in m 
rough and desperate a service, chance had given him do soft 
and delicate a quiestor. But whether roused by the example 
or stung by the reproach of his general, he behaved himself io 
that charge with the greatest vigour and courage, suffering 
no man to outdo him in any part of military duty or labour, 
making himself equal and familiar even to the lowest of the 
soldiers, and obliging them all by his goiwl offices and Lb 


Ab soon as Sylla was dead, die old dbsensioiii, 
been smotbered awhile by the terror of his power, I 
again into a flame between tbe two factions, suppot 
ratty by the two consuls, Q. Catulus and M. Lep 
were wbolly opposite to each other in party mid | 
Lepidus reftolved, at all adventures, to rescind th 
Syfla, and recall the exited Marians; and beiran < 
solicit the people to support him in that resolution 
attempt, tuough plausible, was factious and uns) 
tending to overturn the present settlement of the 
which, after its late wounds and loss of civil blooi 
nothinf; so much aa rest and quiet, to recover a tol< 
gree of strength. Catulus's mther, the ablest statesi 
time, and the chief assertor ot the aristocratical iiiti 
been condemned to die by Marius : the son, tbere 
inherited his virtue, as well aa principles, and was c;oi 
them by a resentment of that injury, vigorously opi 
effectually disappointed all the designs of his collea^ 
finding himself unable to gain his end without rec 
arms, retired to his government of Gaul, with inten 
a force sufGcient to subdue all opposition : where th< 
his levies and military preparations gave such umbra 
senate, that they soon abrogated his command. Upi 
came forward into Italy, at the head of a great a 
having possessed himself of Etruria without o 
marched in an hostile manner towards the city, to tb 
of a second consuUhip. He had with him several of 
majrisrr.itc--i, Jinii i!ic l'"0<1,-s of all the tril)uiK>s, ai 

tliat he freely and fonrardly resumed bis former employi 
of plt!adTii|T; and after one year more spent at tlie bar, ol 
in the next tliedi(fnity of qusestor. 

Amotip the causes which be pleaded before his qtuwtoiA 
Wits that of tlie fapiioiis comedian Kosdus, whom a nagti 
merit in his art bud recoininended to the familiarity and fiiei 
ship of the ^eatest men in Rome '. The cauae was th 
one Fannius had made over to Kosci us a young slave, toi 
formed by him to the stage, on coudition of a partnerahisj 
the profits which the slave should acquire by acting: theshl 
was afterwards killed, and Roscius prosecuted the rnurd* 
for damages, and obtained, bv a eomposltion, a little farm wi 
about cijrht hundred pounds, for his particular slkare: Fanf 
alno sued separately and was supposed to have gained as mu 
but, pretending to have recovered nothing, sued Koscius for 
moiety of what he had received. One cannot but obsei 
from Cicero's pleading, the wonderful esteem and reputal 
in which Koscius then flourbhed, of whom he draws a v 

amiable picture. " Has Koscius, then," says he, "defraudi 

his partner ? Can such a stain stick upon such a man ? wt 
I speak it with confidence, baa more integrity tlmn skill, nu 
veracity than experience: whom the people of Rome know 
be a better man than he is an actor ; and while he makes t 
first figure on the stage for his art, is worthy of the senate I 
liis virtue'." In another place he says of lum, "that he w 


iul<l be tempted to commit a fraud for t)ie paltry tiiin) of 
IT bond red '. 

At the time of Cicero's return from Gree«^, tbere reigned 
the Forum two oratore of noble birtli and great authority, 
tta and Hortensius, whose glory inflamed him with an 
lulation of their virtues. Cotta's «-ay of speaking was calm 
i easy, flowing wjtb great elegance and propriety of dic-tion : 
irtensius's sprightlvi elevated, and warming both by bis 
rds and actions ; wbo being the nearer to him in age, about 
^t years older, and excelluig in his own taste and manner, 
« cMnsidered by him more particularly as his pattern, or 
npeiitor rather, in glory '• The business of pleading, 
DUgb a profession of all others tlie mofit laborious, yet was 
It mercenaiy, or undertaken for any pay; for it was illesitl 

take money, or to accept even a present for it: but ihe 
Ae«t, the greatest, and the noblest of Rome freely offered 
eir talents to the service of their citizens, as the common 
tardiani! and protectors of tlic iinioceiiC and distressed '. 
his was a constitution as old as Romulus, who assigneil the 
itrooage of tJie people to the patricians or senators, without fee 

reward : but, in succeeding ages, when, through the avarice 

the nobles, it was become a custom for all clients to make 
nual presents to their patrons, by which tlie body of the tnti- 
ns was miMe tributary as St weru to the senate, M. Cinciits, 

tribune, published a law, prohibiting all senators toi^take 
oney or gifts on any account, and especially for pleading 
uses. In the contest about this law, Cicero mentions a 
lart reply made by the tribune to C. Cento, one of the 
ators who opposed it ; for when Cento asked him, with some 
jrn, " What is it, my little Cincius, that you are making all 
is stir about 7" Cincius replied, " that you, Caius, may pay 
r what you use '." We must not imagine, however, that this 
neroeity of the great was wholly disinterested, or without 
y expectation of fruit; for it brought the noblest which a 

: noliiil. 



Dito lum eirellebanl ontoTre, nui me imiUDdi cnpiditali- incium 

It, Coll 

Diwrli igitiirboiuinii, elf»iilo1aboranti!,qiiod(]uEinfnitriiie.t nioribi 

1., n.iii« 

iMi tt oon grmte n gratuilo Jefendentis, U-ntficiii el [mtnwinia ItU 
tfuia legem Cincum <Ie donis et nrnncrih.n, nni quia VKlignlii jam t 



t miwnt 


' Cincliii 


i, b uii Tclis. Cic.deOrBt.2. 71. 

fha Cinciui liw tu mide in the year of Bonie S49, uid rccnmmended to ihe people, 
Cieero uIIk ui, bj Q. Fibiua Muimiu, iu ihe cilreBiiiy t>r faU lee, Dc Scnecl. t. 
L l>igh. Annkl. tODi. 2. p. 218. 

Ubcral tnind cutild receive, the fruit of praise and honour fi 
tht-' ^>ul>lic loice of their country ; it was the proper instrom 
of their ambition, luid (he sure means of advancitig them j 
the fifHt diftiitiea of the state ; they gave tJieir labours to a 
people, ana the people repaid them with the honours aad p~ 
iprmerits which they had the power to bestow : this was a « 
and happy constitution, where, by a necessary conn&uon I 
tween virtue and honour, they served mutually to prodqf 
and perpetuate each other; where the reward of none 
vxcited merit, aad merit never foiled to procure honours; 
oidv policy which can make a itadon great and prosperous. 

Thus tlie three orators just mentioned, according' to I 
custom and constttuiion of Rome, were all severally emphv' 
tliis summer in suin^ for the difTcrent offices, to wbicn Q 
difTerent age and rnnk gave them a right to pretend ; Com ' 
for ttie consuliihip, Hortensius tlie sedileship, Cicero the qu«»- 
torship; in which they all succeeded: and Cicero especialljr 
had tlie hoTiour to he cliosen the first of all his competitors of 
the unanimous nuffrage of the tribes ; and in the first year in | 
which he was capable of it by law, the tliirty-first of his age'. 1 

The qiiafstors were the general receivers or treasurers of dht ' 
Republic; whose number had been gradually enlarged with 
the bounds and revenues of the empire from two to twenty, u 
it now stood from the last regulation of Sylla. They were 
sent annually into tlie several provinces, one with every pro« ' 
consul or governor, to whom they were next in authority, and j 
had the proper equipage of magistrates, the liclors carryiif 1 
the fiisees before them : which was not, however, allowed to 

Bb fand opmt to Uui virtue ami tndtMn- of every [iriwtv 
^^■ca; ajiH ihv i'v/^ahy at thh !»ovrri*i^i coun(.-il niainUiiMH] 
Btji ntcceMinti of membcrti, whose dUtinguishctl merit Wt 
Kk TBOOnimcadpd dicm lo tlic notice and favour of tlirir 

^HQie BotuuU iif tltU year were Co. Octa^-iw sitd C. S(Tib»^ 

Bhl Cttrio ; the first was Cicero's particular fri^itd, a tirrvotf . 

Hr nnfalar ttumanity and henevolence, liiil cruelly afflidMl 

bttfa uc gout: wltvm Ciuero tlterefure ur^«4 tt* an example 

Emnu tbe Epicureans, to sbew, tliiit a lite >)upportetl by ui> 

Bawqt eotitd nut bv made miserable bv psiin '. Tbe •oron^ ~ 

^Mt y profetNed orator, or pleader at ide bar, uliere he nttM 

Hn# Mune credit, without any other accompltvbnient of affl 

^^^■Itrv, tban a certniii purity aiid splendour of hn^ta^^m 

^BtreA boat the inmitutinn of a Catber who «rii» e^trvmed titr 

Bi eloquence : his action vras vebement. with mi absurd a 

Bkmer of waving bJs Irody from one stdc to the other, as le 

|Hve occaLfiun to a jei>l upon Kim, tiukt be had learned to ■prtth 

■ D a boat. Tliey were bolli of them, however, jntwl m;igi»- 

Ibates; such as the present state of the Republic required; 

I firm to the interests of the senate, and tlie bite e»L-tl>lUhnient 

I Bade hy Sylla, which the tribunes were labouring by all tbdr 

I Vts to overthrow. These consuls, therefore, were called 

f before tbe people by Stcinius, a bold and fiieiioiK iribtinc, to 

I declare their opinion about tlie revocalion 'it' S I'.'- .. ■-. i iH 

the restoration of the Iribuntcian power, "iii i; 

only question that engaged the /eal and aili'' ' , _, : 

Curio spoke much aeainst it with his nsuaJ vehemence and 

■gitatioD of body; while Octavius sat by, crippled with the 

gont, and wrapped up in plabters aod ointments. When Cnrio 

Had done, the tribune, a man of humourous wit, told Octaviin, 

■dni honora — [In Vctt. Act, 1. 4.] Popolnm 
~Ho, ct m iltunuo gnda dwnit&tii^ mi 
a. [pMt rad. ad Sen. 1,1 ha mmfiia 

K> papolo, adltUMue in ilium ■nDimum ordincin ami 

iBacibWliaUnt. PnSext.eS. 

Tktataaat af Oe mnaer of filling up the kdiW i> confirmcil by on 
— n«f Olcas'iii«k«: fcrcxmniple ; vhcn Cictin n* cIccWd adilc. Ilie n 

_.._,_ . Yen. 1.1. S.] Agjiiii, 

to tarn, kc begged of yoang Cnrio, u he did of ajf bii fr 

r. [In Ven. 1. 1. 6.] Anin: nhen tbc eotoi 
'■■''■■' ifbi. 
In hi 
onlyquirtor, *m rIecwJ tribune ;' upon which, Clcrro. ii 

. of yoqng Cnno, u he did of 
DDged to Mm bejond the jnr, 
Mtor, *M elect*d tribune; opo 

dt pnnioti«i, ti 

k ukad it of him bcloR H of * Kixtor of the uoblot binb, ud ■ voutli of th 
intcmt; but now of m tribune of the people, vho had the power to gnat his 
■ktd. Boat. Fjud. 3. 7. 
' De Fin, 2. IS. 


that he could never make amendi to An eidlea^e 
service of that day ; for if he bad not (akm much pains 
away the flies, tliey would certaialy have devoured him 
while SiciniuB was pursuing hia seditioufi practices, and ■■■ 
all endeavours to excite the people to some violence agM 
the senate, he was killed by the management of Curio, h 
tumult of his own raising*. 

We have no account of the precise time of Cicero'i m 
riage; which was celebrated most probably in the end of d 
preceding year, immediately after his return to Romet «" 
lie was about thirty years old : it cannot be placed ] 
because his daughter was married the year before h' 
ship, at the age only of thirteen ; though we suppow h 
be born this year on the fifth of August, which is mi 
to be her birth-day'. Nor is there any thing certain d 
of the family and condition of his wife 'lerentia; yet |„ 
her name, her great fortune, and her sister Fabia's being'i 
of the vestal virgins', we may conclude, that she was noU 
descended. This year, therefore, was particularly fortantt 
to him, as it brought an increase, not only of issue, bat ■ 
dignity into hit family, by raising it from the equestrian to d 
senatorian nmk ; and, by this early taste of popular liivoa 
gave him a sure presage of his future advancement to tl 
superior honours of the Republic. 





one pnetOT, or snpMM simmar, 1 
ittDsed Slili to bave, «oli cf tlMB,* dl . , 

rnred (Lis offit% not MB gtf^ batfttnat; and c 
hesajs, as a public AMtrCk in whidi Aa ena of dw woiM .. 
-^ turned upon him; ud, Uud he miglU Mt ik put Wlffc IJw 
„.nter credit, resolved to dnoto Ut Wtatd* attwihaB to 1^ Mid 
ti denv himself everv pkame, every gntififlitioa of Ui ipp^ 
litev eveu the most inndccnt and tninial, 4ioh coaU ebitaat 
fte laiidable discharge oCit*. 
Sicily wa-H usually called the gianvy of the RepnbUe*; m4 
« uuKAtor'e chief employmeiit bi it was, to supply corn and 
Ruvwions for the use of the city ; hot there happening tu bo a 
peculiar scarcity this yea at luitne, it made the people very 
dBliiOTOu5, and ^ve tlid tribunei an opportunity of ijiilamjiv 
^enttfae more estsily, by ehar^ii^ it to the loss of the tribui ' ' - 
JKHKr, aud their bein? left a prey by tliut means to the op 
Ron of the great *. It wai Decenary, therefore, lo the p 
quiet, to scud out W^^aod ipeedy supplies from Sic 
which the island was like to be drained ; so that Cicero li 
££cult task to furnish what was ^sufficient for the dcnuuiits 4 
die city, without being grievoni tit the same time to (he p 
Htires; yet he iiiaiiagcd the matter with m inuehfj 
■nd addiwi, diat he made Tery great exportadaol 
any burden upon the prorioce ; shewing great court _ 
wbile to the dealeis, justice to the merchants, g^neronty to 
the inhabitants, humanity to the allies : and, in short, doitv 
all manner of good offices to every body, by which he gained 
the love and admiration of all the Sicilians, who decreed 
greater honours to him, at his departure, than they had ever 
decreed before to any of their chief governors '. During his 
residence in the country, several young Romans of quality, 
who served in the army, having committed some great clisorder 
and offence against martial discipline, ran away to Rome for 
fear of punishment; where, being seized by the magistrates, 
they were sent back to be tried before the pnetor in Sitrily: 
but Cicero undertook their defence, and pleaded for them ao 
well, that he got them all acquitted*; and by that means 
oUiged many considerable families of the city. 

* IM qmttor lum&ctuf, ut mi 




«■ dttUd 

ted credi- 


ortri> th» 

tro TtnuH ciiKi- 

■um; at omiii«irai*r quir jn 




mordiniriis cnpi- 

> nb H. Cato Hpiciu, cellun 




Vtrr. ].S 

ri«m pie 

i. RonuiuiiSW- 

• nd. Ont. Caum in toffont 



• Pnn«m(i infumm. cmriuic 


mum numcrum 


mm; negoriuoribuf conrf^ 


In the lioun of leisure from his provincial aflairs, he em*' 

E toyed himself very diligently, as he used to do at Rome, in 
is rhetorical studies; agreeably to the rule which he con^ 
staiitly inculcates, never to let one day pass without some ex* 
ercise of that kind : so that, on his return from Sicily, hit 
oratorica] talents were, according to his own judgment, in their 
full perfection and maturity '. The country itself, famous of 
old for its school of eloquence, might afford a particular invita- 
tion to the revival of those studies : for the Sicilians, as ha 
tells us, being a sharp and litigious people, and after the expul- 
sion of their tyrants, hanng many controversies among them- 
selves about property, which required much pleading, were the 
first who invented rules, and taught an art of speaking, ti 
which Corax and Tysias were tne first professors; an Ut 
which, above all others, owes its birtli to liberty, and can never 
flourish but in a free air *. 

Before he left Sicily, he made the tour of the island, to we 
every thing in it tliat was curious, and especially the city <rf 
Syracuse, which had ah^ays made tlie principal figure in its 
history. Here his first request to the magistrates, who wwe 
shewing him the curiosities of the place, was, to let him see the 
tomb of Archimedes, whose name had done so much honour to 
it ; but, to his surprise, he perceived that they knew nothing 
at all of the matter, and even denied that there was any such 
tomb remaining: yet, as he was assured of it beyond all 
doubt, by the concurrent testimony of writers, and remem- 
bered the verses inscribed, and that there was a sphere with a 
cylinder engraved on some part of it, he would not be dissuaded 
from the pains of seardiiiig it out. When they had carried 


tngenioiis citizen, if it had not been discovered to them by a 
natire of Arpinum '." At the expiration of his year, he took 
leave of the Sicilians by a kind and affectionate speech, assui^ 
ing them of his protection in all their affiurs at Rome ; in 
which he was as good as his word» and continued ever after 
their constant patron, to tlie great benefit and advantage of the 

He came away extremely pleased with the success of his 
administration ; and flattering himself, that all Rome was cele- 
brating his praises, and that the people would readily grant 
him every thing that he desired: in which imagination he 
landed at Puteoli, a considerable port adjoining to Baiae, the 
diief seat of pleasure in Italy, where there was a perpetual 
resort of all the rich and the great, as well for the delists 
of its situation, as the use of its baths and hot waters. But 
bere, as he himself pleasantly tells the story, he was not a little 
mortified by the first friend whom he met; who asked him,' 
*' How long he had left; Rome, and what news there ?" when 
he answered, ** That he came from the provinces." ^^ From 
Africa, I suppose," says another : and upon his replying with 
some indignation, *^ No ; 1 come from Sicily :" a third, who 
stood by, and had a mind to be thought wiser, said presently, 
** How ! did you not know tliat Cicero was qusestor of Syra- 
cuse?" Upon which, perceiving it in vain to be angry, he 
fell into the humour of the place, and made himself one of the 
company who came to the waters. This mortification gave 
some Jfttle check to his ambition, or taught him rather how to 
apply it more successfully; "and did him more ^ood," he says, 
'*than if he had received all the compliments that he expected: 
for it made him reflect, that the people of Rome had dull ears, 
but quick eyes ; and that it was his business to T<ee"p7iimself 
always in' their sight ; nor to be so solicitous how to make them 
hear of him, a^ to make them see him: so that, from this moment, 
he resolved to stick close to the Forum, and to live ])erpetually 
in the view of the city ; nor to suffer either his porter or his 
sleep to hinder any man's access to him ^" 

At his return to Rome, he found the consul, L. Lucullus, 
employing all his power to repel the attempts of a turbulent 
tribune, L. Quinctius, who had a manner of speaking pecu- 
liarly adapted to inflame the multitude, and was perpetually 
exertini^ it, to persuade them to reverse Sylla's acts^. These 
acts weie odious to all who affected popularity, especially to 
the tribunes, who could not brook with any patience the dimi- 

' Tmm:. Qua'«>t. .5. 3. ^ p^o LVI. 

" Ilom'i ruin summH pot< stitc jirrpditii?, tun) ad inflamraandos animoe raultitudinis 
i'< ommodatus. Pro C'lucnt. '2f>. IMut. in Luoill. 

nution of their ancient power; vet all prudent meu wotf 
desirous to support them, as the t>est foundation of a lastiiif : 
peace and firm settlement of the Republic The tribniw j 
Siciiiius made tlie first attack upon Uiem soon after SylVl 
death, but lost his life in the quarrel ; which, instead of quench 
ing, added fuel to the flame; so that C. Cotta, one of the not 
consuls, a man of moderate principles, and obnoxious to nd- 
ther party, made it his business to mt^ate these beats, by 
mediaUng between the senate and the tribunes, and remitting 
« part of the restraint that Sylla had laid upon them, so fiur M 
to restore them to a capacity of holding the superior magi^ 
tracies. But a partial restitution could not satisfy them ; they 
were as clamorous still as ever, and thought it a treachery (» 
be quiet, till they had recovered their whole rights ; for wniek 
purpose, Quinctius was now imitating his predecessor, Sicinini^ 
and exciting the populace to do themselves justice ae;ainst their 
oppressors, nor suffer their power and liberties to be extorted 
from them by the nobles. But the vigour of LucuUus pre- 
vented luni from gaining any farther advantage, or malcingany 
impression this year to the disturbance of the public peace *. 

C. Yerres, of whom we shall have occasion to say more here- 
after, was now also prxtor of the city, or the supreme adminis- 
trator of justice; whose decrees were not restrained to the 
strict letter of the law, but formed usually upon the principles 
of common equity ; which, while it gives a greater liberty of 
doing what is right, gives a greater latitude withal of doing 
wrong; and the power was never in worse hands, or more cor- 
ruptly administered than by Verres : " For there was not t 
in Italy," says Cicero, " who had a lawsuit at Rome, hut 


their escape, the fp-eatest part was destroyed, and among dum 
their ^ncral, Spartacus, fightine bravely to the last at At ) 
}iead of his desperate troops '■ This was called the semie wir, j 
for whicli Crassus had the honour of an ovation ; it boiw 
tbouglit beneath the dignity of the Republic to grant a AiS ' 
triumph for the conquest of'^sUves: but to bring it as nearv 
posnble to a triumph, Crassus procured a special decree of tha 
senate, to authorize liim to wear the laurel crown, which was tlw 
proper ornament of the triumph, as mjTtle was of the ovatira'. 
The Sertorian war h^pened to be finished also fortmiatelf 
near the same time. The author of it, Sertorius, was bred 
under C. Marius, with whom he had served in all bis ma, 
with a singular reputation, not only of martial virtue, but of 
justice and clemency i for though he was firm to the Maria 
party, he always disliked and opposed their cruelty, and 
advised a more temperate use of their power. After tbe deaA 
of Cinna, he fell into fSylla's hands, along with the consul 
Scipio, when the army arandoned them : Sylla dismissed him 
with life, on tbe account, perhaps, of his known moderation ; 
yet, taking him to be an utter enemy to bis cause, he soon 
after proscribed and drove liim to the necessity of seeking hit 
safety in foreign countries. After several attempts on Amca, 
and the coasts of the Mediterranean, he found a settlement in 
Spain, whither all who fled from Sylla's cruelty resorted to 
him, of whom he formed a senate, which gave laws to the 
whole province. — Here by his great credit and address, he 
raised a force sufficient to sustain a war of eight years against 
the whole power of the Republic ; and to make it a question, 
whether Rome or Spain should possess the empire of the 


to Ae mpport of Sertorius ' : but instead of f[wiuHH 
expected froni Sertonus's death, he mttml tbe nine. < 
lie tad made himself the chief, and put an rod to • u. 
was trholly supported by the reputaUou of thegennwl: i 
Krolteti provinces pre§enUy submiued ; and ihe amy Ita 
BO confidence in their new leader, was easily hrekeo and 
persed, and Perperna himself taken prisoner. 

Pompey is celebrated on tliis occasion IVn- aa act ni 
prudence and g;enerostty : for when Perpema, in 1 
taring bis life, offered to make some importtnt diBDO* 
to put into his hands all Kertorins's pa^ien, in wU. 
MTeral letters from the principal senators of UoiDe^ f 
htm Ift bring bis army into Italy, for the sake of om 
tiie present government, he ordered the papem tu bh. 
without rrodmg^ them, and Perperna to be killed witlwin 
ii^ Itini '. He knew that the best way of li«ii)ing tlie diac 
lejlts of the city, where fection was petpetmliy at m 
£lliirb the public quiet, was to ease people of those fean 
»«flWti i onsne96 of ^uih would suggest, istbvr tkaa posv 
jikBecessity of seeking their security from a chaiwe of 
nd die overthrow of the state '. As be returned into ] 
Uie head at tus victorious army, he happened to Ml in 
widi the remains of those fogitives, who, after the dei 
of Spartacus, bad escaped from Ciassin, and were .. 
their w;iy in a both' to^variU the Alps, whom he iiitcict-ptmOf 
and entirely cat off, to the number of five thoDsand ; and, m n 
letter upon it to ihe senate, said, that Crassns, indeed, had 
defeated the gladiators, but that he had plucked up the war by 
the roots *. Cicero, likewise, from a particular dislike to 
CrassDS, s&ected in his public speeches to give Pompey the 
honour of finishing this war, declaring, that the very &me t4 
his comuicr had broken the force of it, and his presence ex- 

' Srlla 't CmudIod, at pnsdliimni, twmitDnuinc Sntorinm, pr^ nnuti max 
bein brrm • at mnlla >li« Jimiiit incolomn. TeU. I'it.2. 2S. 29. 

Jam Aftkie, jun Bkleuibui Innlu fartnnun riptniu, id[hiih|oc in ocauuln — 

tand n p HiRpAniun unuTil Siuh Uato faoBti nno i]iipenl0re reknlrre m Rouuih 

Doq potuit: mddiCuA Metella Cu. PompeiuL Ut «f>tu inri <!]□, c1 uidpiLi temper 
tdt, aRriTcic : nee Umoi print bcUo, qum nionim Kcleie el inddik, adoclui nt. 
Plor. 3, 22. 

nil in tantam SerlnriuiD umii ctlnlit, nl ^i qmnqnenninm diiudicui dcid potaerit, 
HiiWLii R(uiiuiiiT« in umia pliu cuet roboni, ct uler popular iltcri pviturui font, 
Tttl. P»l. 2. 90. 

A M. Pripcma ct iliii conjuntii in FonriTJa jntcrfectni «t. ocuvo docatui lui anno; 
lauBui dui. el adveniu diiM Impcntorca. Pompnom el Metf llom, fcpe par, fnqnenliii* 
•iRn. Ent. Ut. 96. Vid. etiun Plul. in Scrtario tt Pomp. Appiui. p. 418. 

• Pint. iQ Pomp. Appi«i.*23. 

> Id unto cirium numeco, magu mnltitudo at eoraiD, qni proptrr metum pone, 
(tteaurum luonim eoiurii, ngioi moiui convtnionexiiio Rcip. querunt. Pro Sat. 46. 

a ittfoe imminutum ut; idrentii 
ui eliam tprvitia virtato Tictoriaque 

For ihiN victory in Spain, Pompey obtained a second tri- 
umph, while lie van fltill only a private citizen, and of ^ 
equestmn nink: but the next day lie took possession of tlw 
GonsulKliiii, to wliich lie had been elected in bis absence ; and, 
as if he had been born to command, made his first entiy into 
the senate in tlie pri){>or post to preside in it. He was not yet 
full thirty-MX years old; but the aenate, by a decree, dispensed 
with the inciipitdly of his a<rc and absence, and qualified him 
to hold the liiirhciit mEif^istriic)-, before he was capable, by law, 
of pretendinj; even to the lowest; nnd hy hid authority M. 
Crassus was elected also for his collenmuc '. 

C'rasHus's fatlier and elder brother lost their lives in the ma^ 
sacreA of Mariiit and Cinna; but he himself escaped into Sptun, 
and lay there concealed till Sylla'a return to Italy, whither ba 
presently resorted to him, in hopes to revenge the ruin of hii 
fortunes and fuinily on the opposite faction. As he H-as at- 
tached to Sylla's eiiiiae, both by interest and inclination, so he 
was much conNidered in it; and, being extremely greedy aod 
rapacious made use of all bis credit to enrich himself by the 
plunder of the enemy and the purchase of confiscated estates, 
which Cicero calls his harvest. Hy these methods he raised 
an immense wealth, computed at many millions, gathered ^m 
the spoils und calamities of his country. He used to say, that 
no man could be reckoned rich who was not able to maintun 
an army out of his own rents': and, if the accounts of anti- 
quity I>e true, the iinmber of his slaves was scarce inferior to 
that of a full army : which instead of being a burthen, made 
one part of his revenue ; being all trained to some useful art or 


kis eau^ and fiuniliar address, and a readiness to assist ail who 
wantea either his protection or his money, acquired a great 
aathority in all the public affairs ; so that I^ompey was glad to 
eabrace and oblige him, by taking him for his partner in the 

five years were now almost elapsed, since Cicero's election 
Id the Qiuestorship ; which was the proper inter\'al prescribed 
by law, before he could hold the next office of tribune or sedile; 
and it was necessary to pass through one of these in his way to 
the superior dignities : ne chose therefore to drop the tribu- 
nate, as being stripped of its ancient power by tne late ordi- 
nance of Sylla, and began to make interest for the aedileship, 
while Hortensius at the same time was suing for the consulship. 
He had employed all this interval in a close attendance on the 
Forum, ana a perpetual course of pleading ^ which greatly 
advanced his interest in the city ; especially when it was ot- 
lerved, that he strictly complied with the law, by refusing not 
only to take fees, but to accept even any presents, in which 
the generality of patrons were less scrupulous '. Yet all his 
orations within this period are lost ; of which number were 
those for M. Tullius and L. Varenus, mentioned by Quintilian 
and Priscian, as extant in their time. 

Some writers tell us, that he improved and perfected his 
action by the instructions of Roscius and .-Esopus ; the two 
most accomplished actors in that, or periiaps in any other age; 
the one in comedy, the other in tragedy *. He had a great 
esteem indeed for them both, and admired the uncommon 
perfection of their art: but though be condescended to treat 
tbem as friends, he would have disdained to use them as masters. 
He had formed himself upon a nobler plan, drawn his rules of 
action from nature and philosophy, and his practice from the 
most perfect speakers then livinjr in the world; and declares 
the theatre to be an improper scliool for the institution of an 
orator, as teaching gestures too minute and unmanly, and la- 
bouring more about the expression of words, than of things * : 
nay, he laughs sometimes at Hortensius for an action too fop- 
pish and theatrical % wbo used to be ndlied on that very 
account, by the other pleaders, with the title of "the player;" 

' (.'um iiritur esscm in plurimis causis, ct in principibus {latronis quinquennium fcrc 
vprsa.tu«. Brut. p. 440. 

=< Plut. Cir. 3 i},i,]. 

♦ Qui* ru-fcX rtpus esse Ora tori in hoc oratorio motu, 9tattiqnc. Ro^ii pf-itum? — tamrn 
Tifxno >uaj-cnt «tu«liopifi diccndi adoWrcntilms in gc*tu discendo hKriouuin in<ire clal»o- 
njT. I)e Onit. L. 50. Vid. Tu?c. ni^j). 4. 25. 

0:nn«-6 autcni hos motus *>ul*equi debet gt-stus : non hir verha pxprimcii*. ">roniiMi*, 
«rii uTiiverfani rem et sentenliam ; non demonstrationc »ed Mpnitiratioiic declajans, latc- 
Him inflertjonr hac forti zc virili, non ab s^ena et histrionibue. lb. 3. .50. 

- INiUincius Pationum tuum — cerviculam jaciaturtim. In Voir. L. 3. If'. 


so tliat, ill th« cause of P. Sylla, T<»^iiatus, a free speaker « 
the otiior kiiIi?, iiilted )iim, Dy way of ridicule, Dionyaia, ■ 
actress of those tiiiic:^ in great request for her dancing '. Yi 
Hortciisius himself was so 1^ from borrowing his manner bm 
tlic stjtgc, that the stage borrowed from liim ; nnd tfae two edi 
brated actors just mentioned, Roscius and vEaopus, are n_ 
to have nttendod all the trials in wliich he pleadea, in ords IK 
perfect the action of the tlieatre by tliat of the Foram ; whidi 
seems indeed to bo tlie more natural method of tfae two, tb 
they who .ict in feigned life sliould take their pattern from d 
true; not those who represent the true copy from that whidi 
feigned '. We are told, however, by others, what does not seea ' 
nhidlT imprnhnMr. thit Virrrtr irinl tn rlivrri himnrlf nnmrtimn 
' with floscius, and make it an exercise, or trial of skill between 
', tliem, which could express the same passion the most varioutly) 
t)ie one by words, die other by gestures '. 

As Iio had now devoted himself to a life of business and 
ambition, so he omitted none of the usual arts of recommend- 
ing himself to popular favour, and facilitating his advance- 
ment to the superior honours. He thought it absurd, " that 
when every Httlc artificer knew tlie name and use of all hii 
tools, a statesman should neglect the knowledge of men, who 
were the proper instruments with which he was to work: he 
made it his misiness therefore to learn the name, the place, 
and the condition of every eminent citizen ; what estate, what 
friends, what neighbours lie had ; and could readily point oat 
their several houses, as he travelled through Italy ." This 
knowledge, which 


1^ to salute them all femiliarljr, and shake hands with them,/ 
hm particular acquaintance '. 

Fhtarch says, *< that the use of these nomenclators was con- 
ay to the laws ; and that Cato, for that reason, in suing for 
\ ihe pnblic offices, would not employ any of them, but took 
' dl that trouble upon himself." but that notion is fully con- 
fcled by Cicero, who, in his oration for Murena, rallies the 
afcsvrd rieour of Cato's stoical principles, and their inconsis- 
tency with common life, from the very circumstance of his 
iKTing a nomenclator — "What do you mean," says lie, " by 
keeping a nomenclator? The thing itself is a mere cheat: 
fiyrif it be your duty to call the citizens by their names, it is a 
ihame for your slave to know them better than yourself. — 
Why do you not speak to them before he has whispered vou ? 
Or, after he has whispered, why do you salute them, as if you 
knew them yourself r* Or, when you have gained your elec- 
tion, wby do you grow careless about saluting them at all ? 
AU this, if examined by the rules of social lite, is right ; but 
if by the precepts of your philosophy, very wicked *." As for 
Cicero himself, whatever pains he is said to have taken in this 
way, it appears from several passages in his letters, that he 
constantly had a nomenclator at his elbow on all public oc- 

casions *, 

He was now in his thirty-seventh year, the proper age for 
holding the aedileship, which was the first public preferment 
that was properly called a magistracy ; the quaestorship being 
an office only or place of trust, without any jurisiliction in the 
citv, as tlie aidiles had *. These a^diles, as well as all the in- 
ferior officers, were chosen by the ]>eople votinj^ in their 
tribes; a manner of electing of all the most free and popular : 
in which Cicero was declared jedile, as he was bef<»re elected 
qujestor, by the unanimous suffrage of all the tribes, and pre- 
ferably to all his competitors *. 

There were originally but two a»diles, chosen from the body 
of the people, on pretence of easing the tribunes of a share of 

' ViJ. fie pctitione C'onsulai. xi. 

MercPinnr «cn'inn. qni iliriot nnmina: l.Tvum 
Qui fodiat latu*, ct neat trans jninrl'^nMlrxtram 
PorriiTfTC. Hir njultuni in Faliia \aU't, illr Vilina: 
ruililict liir fasces <labit., \c. — Hot. Kpi-l. 1. 'J. 
' Pint, in C'ato. 3 j»ro Murmn, IMi. 

* L"t ni-iiio nuiliu* ordinis homo noinenflatori notiis f"ii«rit, qui ni.iii'. j:ini non •. Ad Att.4. 1. 

' riiis will €Xpi;iin what Citero &av> ab^ivp of Ponif»<'v's <nur.u2 upon tl:«' «on 
' irfilj). a: aii :i-zr when hi* ua* inra]»;ihu' r.'vcn <»f the lowc-t iiia;:i>ii u y. H".i, ihou-.:h 
-'•"■f.Iy sjw-jkiriir. the n'dil<^-hip wa« the fir^t which wa? inlliil ;i mniristir.* \ ; \«t ('i»rro 
t-m-eif. an*l all the o'.d writrr-. jrive l>.«- '^ani*- title :ils(» tn the in'.unii'-- m: 1 .,i:n->-u.|- 


t Me ri.m qu.T-toieni in prinii-. jrdileni priorcnt — diniti- -uflrn;' > |irp\i;r,- Komnji'.i 
f.v if!.-i» 1 1. Pi«or. I. 

F. -2 


Utcir trAiible : wlionc clitrf duty, from which the 
vm t\crWei\, wm to take care of the edifices of the cntj ; ndl 
to inH(>ect the markets, weightft, and measures ; and Kgi-' 
late the shown and f^mes, which were publicly ezhilnleirM 
the fcfitii'als of thoir gods '. The senate afterwards, ^^Hf' 
an op|wrtiintty wlicn the people were in good humour, n^ 
viuled to have two more created from their order, ana dt 
superior rank, called curule ffidiles, from the arm-cbair rf 
ivory, in which they sat *. But the tribunes preseody n* 
pented of tlieir eoncesston, and forced the senate to cooMS^ ' 
that these new a*diles should be choiten indifferently from Ac 
palriclan or plebeian families '. But whatever difference tbtfl 
mifrlit be at first between tbc curule and plebeian sediles, tW 
province and authority seem, in later times, to be the nm^ 
without any distinction but what was nominal ; and the tn, 
who were chosen the first, were probably called the cmli 
ndilea, as we find Cicero to be now styled. This maeisttMy 
gave a precedence in the senate, or a priority of votmg ul 
speaking next after the consuls and prtetora ; and was the fini 
tliat qualified a man to hare a picture or statue of bimsel^ ui 
consequently ennobled his femily ' : for it was from the nwobcr 
of these statues of ancestors, who had borne curule offieo^ 
that the families of Rome were esteemed the more or ha 

After Cicero's election to the sRdileship, but before Ui 
entrance into office, he undertook the famed prosecution of 
C. Verrcs, the late prietor of Sicily, charged with many fl^ 
grant acts of injiislice, rapine, and cruelty, during bis trienniM 



preU'niliHl enemy was in reality a secret friend, employedl 
Verrcs liimself, to get the cause into his hati(k, in oraci 
betray it : liis prctotiidons, however, were to be preTioualy i 
vicled by a kind of process uilled divination, on account of 
beiitj^ wholly conjuctiind; in which the judges, withoot < 
htilj) of witnesses, were to divine, as it were, what wm fit tft'' 
be done : but in the first hearing Cicero easily shook off 
weak antagonist, ndlyin^r his character and pretensioiu wi 
^eat deal of wit and humour, and showin?, that the 
pntron of such u cause could not be one who offered 
tbrwnnlly, but who was drawn to it unwillingly from the 
sense of his duty ; one whom the prosecutors desired, and 
criminal dreiuleu; one qualified by his innocence, as well 
cxjterioncc, to sustain it with credit; and whom the custon 
their ancoiitors pointe<l out and preferred to iL In this spee^fe' 
after openin)^ the reasons why, contrary to his former pTBCtiH|^ 
and the rule which he had laid down to himself, of dedicatiaff 
his labours to the defence of tiie distressed, he now appesnd 

as an accuser, lie adds, "the provinces are utterly u 
the allies and tributaries so miserably oppressed, that they havi 
lost even the hopes of redress, and seek only some conubrt in 
their ruin : those who would have the trials remun in the 
hands of the senate, eomphiin, that there are do men of repu- 
tation to inidertake impeachments, no severity in the judges: 
the people of Home, in the meanwhile, though labouring 
under many other grievances, yet desire nothing so ardently 
as the (Uicieiit discipline and gravity of trials. For the waut 
of trials, the Iribuilitiau power is called for again : for the 


senate, but in a forei^ tangua^, and to talk Greek 
Grecians '. But Cicero answered liim with suuh Kfiicil 
re«olution, urging the sunction of the laws, and the peni^H 
contemning tlipin, that the prtetor was furced at last to lei hi 
carry away all iho voticiicrs and records wliicb be requited'. 

D'ut the city of Mossaiia continued obstinate to the- last, and 
firm in its cn^^cmcnts with Vcrres: so that when Cicero oiM 
thither, lie received no compliments from the magistrates, as 
offer of refresltinents or quarters ^ hut was left to shift fgi 
himself^ and to be taken care of by private friends. An !&• 
dignity, lie says, which had never been offered before to K ^ -, 
senator of Home ; whom there was not a king or city opM * 
earth, tliat was not proud tu invite and accommodate with ft | 
lodging. But he mortified tliem for it severely at ihe tnaif 
and threatened to call them to an account before the senate, 
as for an affront of tlie whole order *. After he liad tinished 
his business in Sicily, having reason to apprehend same danget 
in retuniing home "hy land, not only from the robbers, wbo 
infested all those roads, but from the malice and contrivance 
of Verres, he chose to come hack by sea, and arrived at 
Home, to the surprise of his adversaries, much sooner than he 
was expected *, and full chained with most manifest proob of 
Verres' guilt. 

On his return he found, what he suspected, a strong cabal 
formed to prolong the affair by all the arts of delay which 
interest or money could procure', with design to throw it 
off, at least to the next year, when Hortensiiis and Metellui 
were tu be consuls, and Metellus's brother a prsetor, by wlrne 
united authority the prosecution might easily be baffled: and 
they had already carried the matter so far, that there was not 
time enough left within the current year to go through the 


M( of sBortening the method of the proceeding ', so as 
ng it torn issue, at any rate, before the present praetor 
rfibm aud his assessors, who were like to be equal 
'. Instead, therefore, of spending any time in speak- 

* employing his eloquence, as usual, in enforcing and 
iting the several articles of the charge, he resolvea to do 

more than produce his witnesses, and offer them to be 
ated : when the novelty of die thing, and the notoriety 
iiilt, which appeared, at once, from the very recital of 
sitions, so confounded Hortensius, that he had nothing 
r his client ; who, despairing of all defence, submitted, 
expecting the sentence, to a voluntary exile '. 
this account it appears, that of the seven excellent 
which now remain on the subject of this trial, tlie 
only were spoken, the one called the Divination, tlie 

First Action, which is nothing more than a general 
:o the whole cause : the other five were published 
Is, as they were prepared and intended to be spoken, 
had made a regular defence ; for as this was the only 
which Cicero had yet been engaged, or ever designed 
raged, as an accuser, so he was willing to leave these 
as a specimen of his abilities in that way, and the 
f a just and diligent impeachment of a great and cor- 
jistrate *. 

! first contest with Caeciiius, he estimates the damage of 
lans at above eight hundred thousand pounds ^ ; but this 
mptitation at hirge, before he was distinctly informed of 
: for after he had been in Sicily, and scon what the 
tually amounted to, he charges them at somewhat less 
that sum * ; and though the law, in these cjiuses, gave 
amages, yet no more seems to have been allowed in 

the single sum ; which gave occasion, as Plutarch 

• to a sus])icion of some corruption, or connivance in 
or suffering so great an abatement of the fine : but if 
) any abatement at all, it must needs have been made 
insent of all parties, out of regard, perhaps, to Verres' 

iininn* confeilio videtur in Vcrrnn vi-l rontnihcrc tcmpom dicenili iii:i]iii!'<>o, 
1 annum, qun eiat C^. Hortensius consul futuru-s, incidtiv. Quintil. <». ."). 
turn t-^t n<»n comniitltre, «it in bar cau^a praetor nolii-* coiisiliiunqnc uintctiir. 

h«'C — ut utar tcvtibus «italini. lb.— S<.'<1 tantunnnodo ritarct tester — cl coh 
tcnopindos daroi: <jua art<- ita est iatii;atu!» Hortensius. ut niliil, runtrafjutKl 
;niret : ipse etiaiu Vcrns, dtsperalo patrocinio, ?>tia ftp<^»nte dis< ederet in 
rguin. Asconii in Act. J. 

is orationibu!« defensor futurns, arrus'itionis «)frKiuni liis libiis, qui Verrina- 
nunciipaiitur. conj|K:nR:ire deerevit : et — in una ruusa viui buju:- ariis et clu- 
•^nstrart. A><'on. Arjfuni. in Lib. it in Vrrr. 

nine abs tc,C'. Vcrres, sc?.tertiunj millies i x Icte reiw^tn. Divin. in Caril. .5. 
I C. Vcrrem— qwu<hingeniie«« s-cstcrtiuni ex Sieilia eontiu lej;e«> abittiili^se. 


Bubminioti, and shortenine the trouble of the p 

it is certain, tlmt so br m>in leaving any imputatioB « 

Bort u[iun Cicero, it highly raised tite reputation, bodiv 

abilities uiid iutefrrity, as of one, whom neither money n 

bril)e nor power terrify, from prosecuting a public oppwMlc^^^ 

an«i the .Siciliumt ever siiter retained the hignest sense <rf ^^^r 

iterviceH, and on uU occasions, testified the utmost zeal En ^iw 

IterMOu and interests. 

From the coitclu^iion of these onidons, we may obaerrB, 
tlmt Cicero's vi<rour in tliis cause liad drawn upon him the cnTy 
and ill-will of the nobility : which u'as so ha., however, froa • 
moving him, that, in open deiiunce of it he declares, " that ^ 
nobles were niitural enemies to tlie virtue and industry of dl 
new men ; and, ai if they were of anotlier race and specie^ 
could never be rcconcilen or induced to favour them, by any 
ubaervaiice, or good offices whatsoever ; that, for his pwV 
therefore, like maiiv others before him, he would pursue hit 
own course, and make his way to the tavour of tlie people, ami 
the honours of the ctate, hy his diligence and faithful service^ 
without rcganting the quarrels to which he might expose him- 
self. — Tlutt if, in this triiil, the judges did not answer the good 
opinion wliieli he had conceived of tliem, he was resolved ta 
jirosecutc, not only tho^c who were actually guilty of cottui^ 
tion ; but tliDSC too who were privy to it ; and if any should U 
so autlacious as to attempt, by power or artifice, to influeau 
the bench, and screen the criminal, he would call him to 
auswer fur it before the people, and sliow himself more vigoi^ 
ons in pursuing him, than lie hod been even in prosecuting 
V'erros '." 

But, before I dismiss the cause of Verres, it will not be 
'mpropor to add a short iiecount of some of his principal 


•eeuation waa divided inta four heads: I. Of c 

iH^njr muses ; '2. Of extordoo in collMtin^ tbe debet 
Hues of the Republic; 3. Of plundcriug u«Mibi«c<a 
miues aiKl wrouglit plat«, wbicb wb> Ua peculiar 
Ofill^aJaiid tvniDiiical punishinentL I »k»Jl gif 
a or two of each from the great umnber lint Qciera 
ed, wliich yet, as be tells as, was hat m auU eztnct 
ifiuitely greater, of vliicli Verres kad b«en uctmaUy 

as not an estate in Sicily, of sm j coandeniAe nbtr^ 
been disponed of by will for twenhr yean pw^ 
es bad not bis einUsark« at work lo uia mmdc §^m 
, or some omisUon in executing the oooditiMW of 
', as a ground of extortiug looney from i&e iMtr. 
esa, a man of eminent quaCiy, waa in qoiet pow ^ 
eat inUentance, left lo lum by ilie will of * reW 
had enjoined biro to erect certain »tatoe« in tb« 
he cityi on the penalty of forfeiting tbe estate In 
ian \'enus. The statues were erected acmrdiog 
yet \'e[Tes, having found some little pretrocc far 
itborned an ob»cure SiciUao, one of bis own u>- 
Bue for tbe estate in the name of VenuK; and wfam 
iras brought before Mm, forced Dio to conyuaJ 
ir about nine thousand pounds, and to yield to ham 
axis bree*! of mares, vdtb all (be raloable pUl« and 

an eminent citizen of Halicig, bad been i 

late pnetor, C. Sacerdoa, of a capital crime, of 
ras boDonrably acquitted; but when Vetres tuc- 

tbe government, tbe proaecalora renewed tkeir 
1 brought bim to a second trial before tbeir new 

wbicfa Sopater, trusting to Im inoocence, and tbe 
if Sacerdoe, readily submitted witbout any appre- 
langer. After one bearing, tbe cause was aajourned, 
arcbides, tbe freedman and principal M^ent of 
le to Sopater, and admonisbed him, as a friend, not 

too much on the goodness of bis cause, and bis 
olution, for that bis adversaries bad resolred to 
f to tbe prsetor, who would ratber take it for savii^, 
ying a criminal, and was unwilling likewise to reverse 
int of bis predecessor. Sopater, surprised at this 

and not knowing what answer to make, promised 

of it; but declared binwelf un^le to advance any 

Urge sum. Upon consulting his friends, Uiev all advlaed iam 
to take the hint, and make up the matter; so tnat, in the aeeaai 
ai-'eting with llmarchides, after alie^ng his particnlar wu| 
of money, he compounded the money for about Bcrea hnndrad 
pounds, which he paid down upon tne spot '. He now took 
ail his trouble to be over: but, after another hearing, the canw 
was still adjourned ; and Tiroarcbides came again to let hill 
know, that uis accusers had offered a much larger sum than 
what be had given, and advised him, if be was wise, to coDUikr 
well what he had to do. But Sopater, provoked by a pr»- 
oeeding so impudent, bad not the patience even to hear Tt 
marchides, but flatly told him, that they might do what thw 

f 'leased, for he was determined to give no more. All im 
riends were of the same mind, imagining, that whalenr 
Verres himself might intend to do, he would not be able to 
draw the other judges into it, being all men of the first figun 
in Syracuse, who had Judged the same cause already, with the 
late preetor, and acquitted Sopater. When the third heariag 
came on, Verres ordered Petilius, a Roman kuigbt, who wm 
one of the bench, to go and hear a private cause, which wai 
appointed for that day, and of which he was likewise the judge. 
Petiiius refused, alleging that the rest of his assessors would 
be engaged in the present triaL But Verres declared, that 
they migtit all go with him too if they pleased, for be did not 
desire to detain them ; upon which they all presently withdrew, 
some to sit as judges, and some to serve their friends in the 
other cause. Minuciua, Sopater's advocate, seeing the bendi 
thus cleared, took it for granted, that Verres would not proceed 

or CirEBO. 

tinier by his clerfe 'nmarcliides, he commanded Sopater to 
•peak wliat he bad to say in his own defence. Sopater im- 
flored him, by all (he eo^s, not to proceed to sentence till tlie 
KSt of the judges could be present ; but V'errea called tor the 
vilnemes, and, after lie had heard one or two of them, in a 
■munary way, without tlieir being interrogated by any one, put 
tn «ncl to the trial, and condemned the cnminal '. 

Among the various branches of Verres' illegal gains, tJie 
■le of offices was a considerable article ; for there was not a 
magistracy of any kind to be disposed of, either by lot or a 
tnx vote, which he did not arbitrarily sell to the best bidder. 
The priesthood of Jupiter, at Syracuse, was of all others the 
most honourable : the method of electing into it was to chnse 
tfaree by a general vote out of three several classes of the 
nttiens, whose names were afterwards cast into an urn, and 
llie first of them that was drawn out obtained the priesthood. 
Verres had sold it to Theomnastua, and procured him to be 
named in the fir^t instance among the three : but as the re- 
Diiiining part was to be decided by lot, people were in great 
expectation to see how he would manage uiat which was not 
■o easily in his power. He commanded, therefore, in the first 
place, that Theoranastus should be declared priest, without 
casting lot8 ; but when the 8yracusians remonstrated against it, 
an contrary to their religion, and the law, he called for the law, 
which ordered, "that as many lots should be made as there 
were persons nominated, and that he, whose name came out 
the first, should be the priest." He asked them, " How many 
were nominated ?' they answered, " Three ;" — " And what 
more then," says he, " is required by the law, than that three 
lots should be cast, and one of them drawn out i"' They an- 
swered, " Nothing :" upon which he presently ordered three 
loti, with Theomnastus's name upon every one of them, to be 
cast into the urn, and so, by drawing out any one, the elecdon 
was determined in his &vour '. 

'Vhe tenth of the corn of all the conquered towns in Sicily 
belonged to the Romans, as it had formerly done to their own 

Erinces, and was always gathered in kind, and sent to Rome ; 
ut as this was not sufficient for the public use, the praetors had 
an appointment also of money from the treasury tur the cur- 
rent year. Xow the manner of collecting and ascertaining the 

« Irte tcMn dlwi jabet. Didt una* M dtsr breriUr. Nihil inlm- 
t PTODimtiit. bu — pTDpenuu de wUa uituit: hominem mno. 
9 mMoluttim, indicia cmk, d« icDtcntii Kribe, mcdid, hsrnQFid»- 

' NmH^'i^r aporUrt aM Utt wnm eonjiri, nnmni eduei ? Nihil. ConjidjubM 
tnL b qnibni OBBibu wripbuii «mM nanwn TbeomiMti. Fit clamoT nuximna— iU 
JgrWiUadMcradMiiiniamplUinumpBibuKntWBgin TheDmnulaikliii., 

Susntity of tithe*, vtts settled by an old lav of king IKa% 
le most moderate and equitable of all their ancient tyraiiM 
but Verreft, bv a Strang sort of edict, ordered, that the ornntf 
should pay wtiatever the collector demanded ; but if he a> 
acted more than his due, that he should be liable to a fine if 
eight dmes the value '. By this edict, he tlirew the piuperty,' 
as it were of the island, into the power of his officers, to nham 
he had farmed out the tithes : who, in virtue of the new hm, 
■eised into their hands the whole crop of every town, mc 
obliged the owners to give them whatever share of it, or ca»* 
position in money, they thought fit ; and if any refined, thor 
not only plundered them of all their goods, but even tortadl 
their persons, till they had forced them to a compliance *. Bf 
this means, Verres having gathered a sufficient quantity of OOtt 
from the very tithes, to supply the full demands of Rooi^ 
put the whole money, that he had received from the treasury, 
into his own pocket * ; and used to brag, that he had nt 
enough from this single article to screen htm from any ii*- 
peachment : and not without reason, since one of his iJeA^ 
who had the management of this corn-money, was proved It 
have got above ten thousand pounds from the very fees widtif 
were allowed for collecting it *. The poor husbandmen, fa 
the mean time, having no remedy, were forced to run awiy 
from their houses, and desert the tdlage of the gronnd ; so A^ 
from the registers, which were punctually kept in every ton, 
of all the occupiers of arable lands in tiie island, it appeared 
that, during the three years government of Verres, above two* 
thirds of the whole number had entirely deserted their forms, 

soothsayer, and Valerius his crier ; to whom he usually 
1 all disputes, in which he had any interest. Scandilius 
i to have them named out of the magistrates of Sicily, 
; the matter should be referred to Home : but Verres 
d, that he would not trust a cause, in which his own re- 
n was at stake, to any but his own friends ; and when 
lius refused to produce his proofs before such arbitra- 
erres condemned him in the forfeiture of his ^^nger 
vSL» forty pounds, to Apronitts '. 

leius was tlie principal citizen of Messana, where ho 
ery splendidly in the most magnificent house of the 
id used to receive all the Roman magistrates with great 
lity. He had a chapel in his house, built by his an- 
» and furnished with certain images of tlie gods, of 
ble sculpture, and inestimable value. On one side 
L Cupid, of marble, made by Praxiteles : on the other, 
:ules of brass, by Myron ; with a little altar before each 
) denote the religion and sanctity of tlie place. There 
ikewise two other figures, of brass, of two young women, 
Canephorse, with baskets on their heads, carrying things 

for sacrifice, after the manner of the Athenians — the 
)f Polycletus. These statues were an ornament not 
Heius, but to Messana itself, being known to every 
t Rome, and constantly visited by all strangers, to whom 
i house was always open. The Cupid had been bor- 
by C. Claudius, for the decoration of the Forum in his 
dp, and was carefully sent back to Messana; but Verres, 
.e was Heius's guest, would never suffer him to rest, till 
stript his chapel of his gods, and the Canephora; ; and, 
r the act from an appearjince of robbery, forced Ilciiis 


to enter them into bis accounts, as if they had been sold t» 
him for fifty pounds ; whereas, at a public auction in Konc) -; 
as Cicero snya, they hod known one single statue of ham,'- 
of a moderate size, sold, a little before, for a thoumxi'< 
Verres bad seen, likewise, at Heius's house, a suit of cnrim 
tapestry, reckoned the best in Sicily, betne of the kind wludh 
was called Atlalic, richly interwoven with gold : this be ifr 
solved also to extort from Heius, but not tul he bad seemed 
the statues. As soon, tliercfore, as he left Messana, be hegpt 
to urge Heius, by letters, to send liim the tapestry to Am- 
geiitum, for some particular service which be pretended; bat, 
when he had once got it into his hands, he never restored it*. 
Now Messana, as it is said above, was the only city of Sidly 
tliat persevered to the last in the interest of Verres ; and, tf 
the time of the trial, sent a public testimonial in his praise, bya 
deputation of its eminent citizens, of which this verv Heius m 
the chief. Yet, when he came to be interrogated, and cnM- 
examined by Cicero, he frankly declared, that, though he WM 
obliged to perform what the authority of bis dty had in^Msad 
upon him, yet that he had been plundered by Verres of hit 
gods, which were left to bim by his ancestors, and whidihe 
never would have parted with, on any conditions wfaatsoen^ 
if it had been in his power to keep them *. 

Verres had in his family two brothers, of Cilida, the one t 
painter, the other a sculptor, on whose judgment fae chiefly 
relied, in his choice of pictures and statues, and all other piecM 
of art. Tbey had been forced to fly from their country, for 
robbing a temple of Apollo, and were now einployed U) hunt 


ynih orders to bring two silver cups also, which he was 
m to have, adorned with figures in relief, to be shown to 
pnetor. Pampbilus, for fear of greater mischief, took up 
aps, and carried them away himself: when he came to the 
ie, Verres happened to be asleep, but the brothers were 
ing in the hail, and waiting to receive him ; who, as soon 
nejr saw him, asked for the cups, which he accordingly 
need. They commended the work ; whilst he, with a sor- 
ill £ac»9 began to complain, that if they took his cups 
I him, he should have nothing, of any value, left in his 
le. The brothers, seeing his concern, asked how much he 
Id give to preserve them ; in a word, they demanded forty 
ms; he offered twenty: but while they were debating, 
rres awaked, and called for the cups ; which being presently 
wn to him, the brothers took occasion to observe, that they 

not ansvirer to the account that had been given of them, 
I were but of paltry work, not fit to be seen among his 
te: to whose authority Verres readily submitted, and so 
mphilus saved his cups \ 

[n the city of Tvndaris there wbs a celebrated image of Mer- 
ry, which had been restored to them from Carthage by 
ipio, and was worshipped by the people \%ith singular devo- 
n, and an annual festival. This statue Verres resolved to 
ve, and commanded the chief magistrate, Sopater, to see it 
iten down, and conveyed to Messana. But the people were 

inflamed and mutinous upon it, that \'erres did not persist 

his demand at that time ; but when he was loavinj^ tlie place, 
newed his orders to Sopater, with severe threats, to ^ee his 
mmand executed. Sopater proposed the matter to tlie senate, 
10 universally protested against it : in short, \'erres returned 

the town, and inquired for the statue : but was told by 
>pater, that the senate would not suffer it to be taken down, 
d had made it capital for any one to meddle with it without 
eir orders. " Do not tell me,*' says Verres, " of your senate, 
d your orders ; if you do not presently deliver the statue, 
iu shall be scourged to death with rods.'' Sopater, with tears, 
aved the affair again to the senate, and related the praetor's 
reats; but in vain; they broke up in disorder, without j^iving 
y answer. This was reported by Sopater to \ erres, wlio 
IS sitting in his tribunal : it was the midst of winter, the 
*ather extremely cold, and it rained very heavily, when 
erres ordered Sopater to be stripped, and carried into the 

Cib\Tat» »imt fratrcs — quorum ahtnini finjfere opjnor *• cfn. th'-i:. :A\t r-im 
e pirtorem. — Canes venatiros dircre*, ita odorabaritiir omnia, et j^rvr'-.i/aharit. In 
rr. 4. 13. 

Vfemini Pamphilam LilyheKanum — mihi narrare, emu i-i*? ab «'••♦■ hwlriain Bo*:thi 
nu fartam, pra^rlaro opere tt grandi pondere, per potettafm ab*tijli*«'t : *e «ane tri*- 
u et conturhatum domum revertuce, &r. lb. I 4. 


titi THE LIFE 

in[irkft-|ilucp, uittl tlierc to be tied upun en cquestriim sta 
uf C Murvi-lliiM, and exposed, naked as he was, to tlie nin, i 
ttie vttUI, iuid Htri'tL-htf), in a kind oF torture, upon tlie bin 
]iorsi> ; wliere )ic iinist necessarily liave perished, if the 
of tlie town, out of coin|Hi»>ion to him, liad not fore 
seniile to (jraiit the Mercur)- to Verres '. 

Vitiinfr Aiitini-hus kiiii; of Syria, having been at Rome, ll 

chiiiii ihe kiti|rdiiin of I'gypt, in right of liis mother, ] ' 

through Sieity, »t tliis time, on Ids return home, and ca 
Syracuse; whore Verres ^'hu knew that he bad a great trmH 
siirt.' with liini, receivinl liitn with u particular civility ; mA^ 
him liiriTC prcxeiits of wine, and all refreshments for Iiis tilim 
and entertained him most magnitieeritly at supper. The iaagi 
pIoEMfd with this compliment, invitetf Verres, in his tuni,Mi 
sup with him, when Ins side-board was dressed out in a ronl 
manner, with his richest plate, and many vessels of solid godt 
set with precious stones, among which there was a large ing 
of wine, tnaale out of an entire gem, with a handle of gola M 
it. \'erres greedily surveyed and luluiired every piece, lod 
tlio king lejoiced to see tne Roman prtetor so well satisfied 
with his entertainment. The next morning, Verres sent to tba 
king, to borrow some of his choicest vessels, and, particularlr 
the jn^, for the sake of shewing them, as he pretended, to ha 
own workmen ; all which the king, having no suspicion of lui^ 
reitdilv sent. Hut, besides these vessels of domestic use, the 
king fiiid brought with him a large candlestick, or branch &r 
sevi'nil lights, of inestimable value, all made of precious stonei^ 
and n'loriied with the richest jcwcU, which be had desiguedlw 

or cncKKo. G7 

enfere, to eo away, and leave it with him. Several dan 

Med, uid £e kiiig bewd nothiiig from Verrea; ao that M 

■mfct proper to teiniiid kinit by a dril meange, of sendiiif 

k the vesHeU : but Veirea ordered the semnts to call ^;aiii 

le otLer time. In ahor^ after a aecmid mrimflT, with no 

ler success, the king wai forced to q)eak to Verres himaelf : 

n which Verres eamettly entreated him to make him ■ 

sent of the candleatidc lliekiDgaffinned it tobeimpoan- 

oa the account aC his vow to Jupiter, to whidi many itatioaa 

e witncwes. V^rrea than b^pn to dn^ some threata; bnt, 

ling them of no more effect than his entreaties, he com- 

nded the king to dqiart, instantly, out of his province, de> 

-ing, that lie had received intelligence of certain pirate% 

1 were coming, (rom hia kingdom, to invade Sicily. The 

ir king^, finding himself thus wused, and robbed of his tre^ 

B, went into the great square of the city, and, in a public 

iinbly of the peaplet Galling npon the goos and men to bear 

tbiony to the injury* made « solemn dedication to Jupiter 

die candlestick, which he had vowed and designed for the 

ttttol, and which Verres had, forcibly, taken from him*. 

When any vesftel, richly laden, happened to arrive in the 

(^ Sicily, it was generally seized by hia wies^ and in- 

emers, on pretence of its coming frotn Spain, and being filled 

nrith Sertoriiis's soldiers; and, when the commandere exhi- 

Uted their biUs of ladins^, with a sample of their gonjds, to 

prove themselves to be fair traders, who came from different 

qnarters of the world, some producing Tyrian purple, others 

inbian spices, some jewels and precious stones, otHers Greek 

vines and Asiatic slaves ; the very proof, by which they hoped 

to save themselves, was their certain ruin: Verres declared 

&eir goods to have been acquired by piracy, and seizing the 

ikips, with their cargoes, to his own use, committed the 

■hole crew to prison, though the greatest part of them, 

perhaps, were Roman citizens. There was a femous dungeon 

m Syracuse, called the Latomiae, of a vast and horrible depth, 

dug out of a solid rock, which, having originalljr been a quarry 

rf Stone, was converted to a prison by Dionysius, the tvrarit. 

Here Verres kept great numbers of Roman citizens in oliaiiui, 

lAombebad first injured to a degree that made it neeewiaiy U> 

dcMroy them; whence few or none ever saw the bjcbl aR".". 

bat were commonly strangled by his orders'. ^ 

(^e Gavins, however, a Roman citizen of the t«wt' '" ■«•' 

4««»iaiiit,<»ndeUbriim&ctam e gemmii,quod lo t.i*iwi. j^ . 

l«ralBa « in illo eonTMtn civium HomUKmui. d««- ^«*»" 

OpLVuftc Ht28,29. «,;» c«U. iu*"'"'- ' ■ - ' ' 


Imppciieil to escape from this dreadful place, and ran atrarj 
Mctwatiu : wlicre, faaeymg liinuelf out of danger, aud btf^ 
ready to embark for Italy, he began to talk of the injai 
wliich lie liail received, and of going straight to Rome, wh 
Verres should be sure to hear of him. But he might as n 
luive said the words in the prsetor's palace, as at Messaoa: 
he was presently seized, and secured till Verres' arrival, « 
coming thither soon after, condemned him as a spy of the fi 
tives, first to be scourged in the market-place, and then mi 
to a cross, erected for tlie purpose, on a conspicious part (tf ■ 
shore, and looking towanis Italy, that the poor wretch i^h 
have the ailditioniS misery of suffering that cruel death in rijp 
as it were, of his home '. 

The coasts of Sicily being much infested by pirates, itm 
the custom of all prstors to fit out a fleet every year, for tfa 
protection of its trade and navigation. Thb fleet was providei 
by a contribution of the maritime towns, each of which uso)^ 
furnished a ship with a certain number of men and proviskai: 
but Verres, for a valuable consideration, sometimes remitte 
the ship, and always discharged as many of the men as wen 
able to pay for it. A fleet, however, was equipped, of sera 
ithips; but for show rather than service, without their com^ 
mciit, either of men or stores, and wholly unfit to act agaiari 
an enemy; and the command of it was given by him, cot to hi 
quaestor, or one of his lieutenants, as it was usual, but to Cle» 
menes, u Syracusan, whose wife was his mistress, that he 
mi^ht enjoy her company the mOrt fnely at home, while ha 
husband wtia employed abroad. For. iii*itead of spending tht 


The AccU in ilie mean time, sailed out of Syracii^. in LTeat 
pomp, and saluted Verres and his company as it parked : ulien 
tbe Roman prsetor, says Cicero, who had nor been >een hefore 
&r many days, showed himself at last to the sailors, ^ran^iinsr 
tn the snore in slippers, with a purple cloak and re>t t!n«in2r 
down to his heels, and leaning on the shoulder of a irirl. to 
riew this formidable squadron ^ : which instead of scourin^f tie 
the seas, sailed no farther, after several day<, than into the i^rz 
rf Pachynus. Here as they lav peaceably at aiJcLr-r. th»^y 
were surprised with an account of a number of pirate tri jrtr»-i, 
lytnjF in another harbour very near to them : ui>on which u.^ 
admiral Cleomenes cut his cables in a ereat fri^ct.r. ririi vrh 
all the sail that he could make, fled away towarri* Pt-'.«.r'i«. a:..i 
escaped to land: the rest of the ships folloued him a« f^«T ;:« 
they could ; but two of them, which sailerl the *Iowr--. wrre 
taken by the pirates, and one of the captains killed: the i-^l.rr 
captains quitted their ships, as Cleomenes had d'-'n*-. ar.'i -^r-'. 
safe to land. The pirates, finding the ships de*^rt^«^. ^t f t«» 
to them all that evening*, and the next day sailed U/i'Vy i'.-.-.i 
the port of Syracuse, which reached into the very Le-irt of ?• •> 
town : where, after thev had satisfied their curicr^itv. ar.d r!]r-i 
the city with a general terror, they ^iled our asT^iir. a* >:•-:•:- 
and in good order, in a kind of triumi»h over \VrT€^. ar.d t:.r: 
authority of Rome '. 

Tlie news of a Roman fle«'t I •unit, an'i >'. rt; •:■'.-- ::> . • • v 
pirates, made a great noi so thro:] ./h a.: >;■.:.•/. J.- -• ■•:.--. 
in excuse of themselves, we r** ti.rc-'i '«• "-.. ■ - •-.- • ■ 
tjjeir ships were scan(lal<»ii'»ly ui.:.r«»v;. !.■■■. v. . .- 
stores, and in no condition to I'iic- h. »:.-:::' : ■-: 
relaiinor how many <ti tiuir ^aii^r- ':. : . '••: • ■. 
Verres' particular orders. *ni v L«'iij r: • 
laid. When this camr fo iji- ♦nr*. : 
and after threaten in ir tlM i:i v* ry -■.■■.- 
manner, forced them to th-cluz*^. :i!.'i 'i- 

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of stifling tlie clamour, and thst it would necessarily teuk 
Rome, he resolved, for tlie extenuation of his own crim^ to 
BBcrifice the iioor captains, and put them all to death, eieepL 
the admiral Cleoineiies, the most criminal of them all, and, it 
his request, the commtmiler also of his ship. In consequoHe 
of till!! resolution, the four remaining captains, after fourteen 
days from the uction, when thev suspected ho danger, were 
arrested, and clupt into irons. They were all voung men, of 
the principal families of tiicily, some of them the only bods of 
agea pareiit», who came presently, in ^eat consternatioD, to 
Syracuse, to solicit the praetor for their pardon. But V'erni 
was inexoralilc; and liuvin^ thrown tliem into his dungeov 
where nobody was suffered to speak witli them, condemned 
them to lose their heads ; whilst all the service that their db- 
hapuy (tarents could do for them, was to bribe the execulioMr 
to nisputcli them witik one stroke, instead of more, which be 
brnially refused to do, unless he was paid for it, and to pur- 
cliase of Ti march ides, the liberty of giiing them burial '. 

It hapjiened, however, before this loss of the fleet, that a 
EUnglc pirate ship was taken by Verres' lieutenants, and brought 
into Symciise ; which proved to be a very rich prize, and had 
on board a fj;ri'at number of handsome young' fellows. There 
was a bund of masiciuns anions them, whom Verres sent away 
to Home, a present to a friend; and the rest, who had either 
youth or beauty, or skill in &ny art, were distributed to hts 
clerks and dependents, to be kept for his use; but the fe* 
who were old and deformed, were committed to the dungeon, 
and reserved for punishment '. The captain of these pirates 
had long bci'ii a terror lo the Sicilians : so that they were all 


I opportuuity lli«r«fore to cleur tlie dungeon of Uime 
lunuui citizens, whom he had reserved for nuch nn occasiun, 
jnI qow brought out to e.\t'cution nn a part of tho piratical 
anew: but to prevent tin- impreuitioiis ann cries which citixiiia 
■cd Id make of their beiiiK free Romans und to liiader their 
wing koowu also to any utner cilizt>D§ there prvsi-tit, he pro- 
kfoed them all with their heoiHs und fuccs so muffled up, ilut 
lliey could neither be beard nor seen, and in thiti i.Tuel maiHiitr 
linUroyuiI ^eat numbers of innocent men'. Hni f> finisli si 
Iwt this whole story of Verres : After he kid lived many y«-af» 
in a miserable esile, forgotten and deserttil by all hiH trieiitb, 
W u saiil to have been relieved by the genenmty of ('ic<rro*i 
jel was proscribed and murdered after all by Marc Antony, 
MTtbc eake of his fine statues aiid Corinthian vesnelH, wliicli 
he refu«>d to part with ' : " happy only," iu l^ciantiiii^ «iy». 
" Iwforc Ills death, to have seen tLe more deplorable end of (lu 
(lid etivroy and accuser, Cicero '." 

Bui ncttlier the condemnation of this criminal, nor tho con- 
ccmions »lr«iuly made by the senate, were able to pacify th« 
^imteDte of die people: they demanded ntill, as loualy tt> 
ever, tlie rcstoratioa of the tribunician power, and th« ngbt 
of judicoturtt to tbe equestrian order ; till, after variona contcstH 
and tumults, excited annually on tliat account by the triboDn, 
they were gratified this year in them both ; in tlie firet by 
I'ompey tbe consul, in the second by L. Cotta. tlie pni-lor . 
The tribunes were strenuously assisted in all this strujj;^Ie by J. 
Cfcsar ', and as strenuously opposed by all who wished wtrfl to 
the tranqmllity of the city ; for long experience had shown, 
that they had always been, not only the cnief disturbers of the 
public peace, by the abuse of their estravagant power, but the 
constant tools of all the ambitious, who had any designs of 
■drancing themselves above the laws'; for, by corrupting one 
or more of the tribunes, which they were sure to effect by 
paying their full price, they could either obtain from the 
people whatever they wanted, or obstruct at least whatever 
ibould be attempted against them : so that this act was gene- 
rally disliked by the Setter sort, and gave a suspicion of no 
good intendons in Pompey; who, to remove all jealousies 

' ArckiiHnUm ipfum vidii HBmo — cum omnet, ui motert, mncuiTcrfnt, qumrrinl, 
Ti4«n enpcnnt, (tc. [ib. S6.J Cum muhoni nuncmi dtcnet, turn iite in coniia 
Itnu, qn« domum niun it pindi ibdonnt, tubiliEacra cirpit tiTct Ronunna, una* 

••hiti* c curat ul palani UquB necrm rapirbuitur, Ik. Ib. 28, in. 

RRlilMnC TdLPit.3.30. 
* Aoclom natitaaidK UiboniciB potcitotii ei 
> Dc Lq. L 9. 


against Iiim, on tliis, or any other account, volunlBrily took aa ^ 
oatli, that, oil the expiration of liis consulship, he would accept j 
no public comtnand or government, but content himself with j 
the condition of u pri\'ato senator '. i 

Plutarch N])eaks nf this act, as the effect of Pompey's grati- 
tude to the peo])le, for the extraordinary honours which they [ 
had heaped upon him ; but Cicero makes the best excuse fix i 
it, after i'ompey'ii death, which the thing itself would bear, '.' 
by observing, that a statcsnnan must alwaj's consider not only ' 
wliat i« best, but what is necessary to the times ; that Pomper . 
well knew tiiu impatience of the people ; and that they wouM '■, 
not bear the loss of the tribunician power much longer; tad. i 
it was the part, therefore, of a good citizen, not to leave loa- j 
IhuI one, the credit uf doing what was too {wpular to be irilt ', 
stood '. But whatever were Pompey's views, in the restitute 
of this power, whether he wanted the skill or the inclination to 
apply it to any bud purpoMC, it is certain, that he had cause to 
repent of it afterwards, wjien Csesar, who had a better head, 
with a worse heart, took advantage of it, to bis ruin ; and, by 
the help of the tribunes, was supplied both with the power and 
the pretext for overturning the Kepublic '. 

As to the other dispute, abont restoring the right of jud^og 
to the knights, it was thought the best way of correcting the 
insolonco of the nobles, to subject them to the judicature of an 
inferior order, who, from a natural jealousy and envy towards 
them, wouhl be sure to punish their oppressions with proper 
severity. It wa* endeii, however, at last, by a compromise, 
and a new law was prepared, by common consent, to vest this 
power jointly in the senators and the knights; from each of 

i^fc. ^f)^ 

iasnd Cn. X^entulus ; both of them oipntioned by Cicero 
ii particular acquaintance, and llie last, lis hi§ intimate 
id'. Their autuorit^-, after so tonp an intertniuioH, was 
mfA wMh that seventy whicli the libertinism of the times 
lired: for they expelled above sixty-four from the senate, 
notorious immoralities, the greatest part for the detestnble 
dice of taking monev for judging causes ', and, among them, 

Aotonius, the uncle of the triumvir ; sabscribing their 
sons for it, that he had plundered the allies, declined u 
il, nortgnged his lun<U, and was not master of his estate ' : 
t this very Antonius was elet^ted tedile and pnetor, soon 
ler. in his proper course, and within six years, advanced to 
« consulship : which contirms what Cicero says of this censo- 
wi animadversion, that it was become merely nominal, and 
id no other effect than of putting a man to the blutth *. 

From the impeachment of Verres, Cicero entered upon the 
dileehip, and, in one of his speeches, gives us a short account 
r the dutj- of it : "I am now chosen sedJIe," says he, "uid 
m sen&ible of what is committed to me by the Roman pet^lo : 

»m to exhibit, with the greatest solemnity, the most sacred 
potts to Ceres, Liber, and Libera ; am to appease and conci- 
lale the mother Flora to the people and city of Rome, by 
be ceLebmdon of the public games ; am to furnish ont those 
indent shows, the first which were called Roman, with all 
>ossible (liirtiitv ami ri'lifpon, in honour of Jupiter, Juno, 
VliuLTva ; ;uii hi laki.- care, also, of all the sacred e<litici'S, and, 
ndeed, of the whole city *," &c. The people were passion- 
itely fond of all these games and diversions ; and the public 
lUowance for them being but small, according to the frugality 
»f the old Repablit^ the sdiles supplied the rest at their own 
wit, and were often ruined by it. For every part of the 
.'mptre was ransacked for what was rare and curious, to adorn 
ihe splendour of their shows : the Forum, in which they were 
cihibited, was usually beautified with porticos, built for the 
pnrpoaei and iilled with the choicest statues and pictures which 
Rmdc and Italy afforded. Cicero reproaches Appius for drain- 
ing Greece, and the islands, of all their furniture, of this kind, 
br the ornament of his ledileship * : and Verres is said to have 

' N«D BriM-c™ UDl»bu. «t uiidtk : cum .lun ™.-^n^i« o. 


MHritado. ProCluen.43. 

nviai: ii ni-n in-^'Ui in S^Ti^tum ndieroni, Md etiun illuum ipMnun r 

cmm JDdidb 

'tnJntiiDDt. lb. ViJ. Pi)ili. AnTul. ad A. U. 683. 

' Aw-niu. in Ont. in T..;; . ca«l. 

' fMi»ri»ill4iduninibiiri:n.ikinn»lo»ff(!rtpr»U!rnil»r™. Itaiine q 

.»l. Fng- 

ii«t.elib.f deRcpi.b. c^i N.,nio. Md Verr 

. 5. H. 

in nihil • Inri. 

toinn ngDs. tabuUt. niniuiienlamiD ijuDd niperfail in iuiia el camninnibut lodi, 
OnEda>l4*M luulit ouuiibut, boDoru populi Rom. aun — deportavit. Pio Dmn. 


supplied liis friends, Hortensius and Metellus, with all tl 
fine statues of which he had plundered the provinces '. 

Several of tlie ffreatest men of Cicero's time had d 
guished themselves by an extraordinary expense and ma 
cence in tiiis maf^istrucy; Lucullus, Scauriu, Lentulus,!: 
tensius*, and C. Antonius, who, though expelled solatelyfr 

■ the senate, entertained the city, this year, with atsgt ' 
'whose scenes were covered with silver; in which he i 

' lowed, afterwards, by Mursena ' : yet J. Csesar outdid L 

' all ; and in the sports exhibited for his lather's funeral, n. 

the whole furniture of the theatre of solid silver, so that ■ 

■ beasts were tiieii first seen to tread on that metal * ■ ''■■' ' 

his ambition; for the were oidy purctiasing the consnlsUBf 
he the empire. — Cicero took the middle way, and observe' 
rule, which he prescribed afterwards to bis son, of an ex{ 

agreeable to his circumstances * ; so as neither to hurt bis d 
ter, by a sordid illiberaltty, nor his fortunes, by a vain ostc»> 
lation of miignificeuce; since the one, by making a man odioi^ 
deprives him of the power of doing good; the other, bymakiw 
' * ' ' >>...• - 'oing ilf; 

him neeestiitotLS, puts him under tlie temptation of doing ii 
thus Mamcrcus, by declining the tedileship, through frumlky, 
lost tlie consultthip * ; and Csesar, by his prodigality, was ntrad 
to repair his own ruin, by ruining the llepublic. 

Hut Cicero's popularity was built on a more solid foundatioii, 
the affection of his citizens, from a sense of his merit and 
services; yet, in compliance with the custom and humour <f 
the city, he furnished the three solemn shows above-men- 


cuser. Your honour ia united with that of this temple ; and 
by the lavour of the senate, and people of Home, your nama 
ia consecrated with it to all posterity ; it must be your cai^, 
therefore, that the Cspitol, as it is now restored more spleiH 
didly, may be furnished also more richly than it was b«fore; 
■a if the lire had been sent on purpose from heaven, not t» 
destroy the temple of Jupiter, but to require &om ua one mora 
shining and magnificent than the former '." 

In this year Cicero is supposed to have defended Fonteus 
and CEecina. Fonteius had been prKtor of the Narbonew 
Gaul, for three years, and was afterwards accused, bv Ae 
people of the province, and one of their princes, InducM^ 
mams, of great oppression, and exactions, in his govemmm^ 
and, especially, of uiposing an arbitrary tax on ue exports 
tion of their wines. There were two hearings in the canat^ 
yet but one speech of Cicero's remaining, and that so imper- 
fect, that we can hardly form a judgment either of the meri^ 
or the issue of it. Cicero allows the charge of the wines to be a 
heavy one, if true ' ; and, by his method of defence, one would 
suspect it to be so, since his puns are chiefly employed in ex- 
citing an aversion to the accusers, and a compassion to the 
crimmal. For, to destroy the credit of the witnesses, he repre- 
sents the whole nation as a drunken, impious, foithlesa people ; 
natural enepiies to all religion, without any notion of tne san^ 
tity of an oath, and polmdng the altars of their gods widi 
human sacrifices. "And what &uth, what piety," saya be, 
"can you imi^ine to be in those, who think that die gods are 
to bo appeased by cruelty and human blaod ' ?" And, to raise, 


Lucios Cicero, the late companion of his journey to Sicily ; 
whose death he laments, with all the marks of a tender affec- 
tion, in the following letter to Atticus. 

** You, who of all men know me the best, will easily conceive 
how much I have been afflicted, and what a loss I have sus- 
tuned, both in my public and domestic life : for in him I 
had every thing which could be agreable to a man, from the 
obliging temper and behaviour of another. I make no doubt, 
therefore, but that you also are affected with it, not only for 
the share which you bear in my grief, but for your own loss of 
a relation and a friend ; accomplished with every virtue ; who 
loved you, as well from his own inclination, as from what he 
used to hear of you, from me ^,'' &c. 

What made his kinsman's death the more unlucky to him at 
this juncture, was the want of his help, in making interest for 
the praetorship, for which he now offered himself a candidate, 
after the usual interval of two years ', from the time of his 
being chosen sedile : but the city was in such a ferment all the 
summer, that there was like to be no election at all : the occa- 
sion of it arose from the publication of some new laws, which 
were utterly disliked, and fiercely opposed by the senate. 
The first ot them was proposed in favour of rompey, by A. 
Gabinius, one of the triounes, as a testimony of their grati- 
tude, and the first fruits, as it were, of that power which he 
had restored to them. It was to grant him an extraordinary 
commission for quelling the pirates, who infested the coasts and 
navigation of the Mediterranean, to the disgrace of the empire, 
and the ruin of all commerce^; by which an absolute command 
was conferred upon him through all the provinces bordering 
on that sea, as far as fifty miles within land. These pirates 
were grown so strong, and so audacious, that they had taken 
several Roman magistrates and ambassadors prisoners, made 
some successful descents on Italy itself, and burnt the navy of 
Rome, in the very port of Ostia *. Yet the grant of a power 
so exorbitant, and unknown to the laws, was strenuously op- 
posed by Catulus, Hortensius, and all the other chiefs of tlie 
senate, as dangerous to the public liberty, nor fit to be in- 
trusted to any single person : they alleged, that these unusual 
grants were the cause of all the misery that the Republic had 

' \t\ Att. 1.5. 

^ I't si yE«lili«? fuisses, |K)3t bicnnium tuiis annus es^ct. Ep. fum. 10. 2.'>. 

^ Qui* navijfuvit, qui non s»C' ant mortis aut servitutis |>fritulo coinmittcret, cum aut 
hu*ni«; aut refcrto pni'donuui iiiari navigaix't .' Pro leg. Manil. 11. 

* Qui 'Ail vw ab exterif* nationibus vcnircnt, captosquorar, cum Ic^ati |>opuli Romani 
n^lcmpli Mtit.^ Mcrcatoribus tutum marc non fuisse <licam,cnm<lu<Mlccim secures in po- 
trttatem pi-aedonum pervencrint .^— Qui<l ceo Osticnse incommodum, atque illam lal»cm 
et ijfTiominiam Reipub. querar, cum, proijc m>.pectantibus vobip, cla.«>»iH ca cui Consul po- 
[•<ilj Uomani prwpositus c»sot, a praxlonibus capta atque opprcssa est ? lb. 12. 


saffered, from the proscripdons of Mariug and Sylb, who, br 
a perpetoal succession of extraordinaiy comnutDds, were mam . 
too gi'eat to be controlled by the authority of the laws ; dnt 'i 
though the same abuae of power was not to be apprehended ] 
from Pompey, yet the thing itself was pernicious, and contnry ] 
to the consUtution of Rome ; that the equality of a democracj I 
required, that the public honoura should be shored alike, hj ■• 
all who were worthy of them ; that there was no other way to 
make men worthy, and to furnish the city with a number and 
choice of experienced commanders : and if, as it was saki bf 
some, there were really none, at that time, fit to commaDd, bot 
Pompey, the true reason was, because they would suffer none to 
command but Pompey'. All the friends of Luculluswere pai^ 
dcularly active in tne opposition ; apprehending that this new 
commission would encroach upon his province and command ia 
the Mithridadc war : so that Gabinius, to turn the popular d^ 
mour on that side, got a plan of the magnificent palace, whidi 
LucuUuB was building, painted upon a banner, and carried 
about the streets by his mob ; to intimate, that he was "'^'ng 
all that expense out of the spoils of theRepublic '. 

Catulus, in speaking to the people against this law, de- 
manded of them, if every thing must nenls be committed to 
Pompey, what they would do if any accident should bebll 
him r Upon which, as Cicero says, he reaped the just fruit of 
his virtue, when they all cried out, with one voice, that their 
dependence would then be upon him '. Pompey, himself, who 
was naturally a great dissembler, affected, not only an indiffei^ 
ence, but a dislike to llic emi>ioymeiit, :ui(l i>i'frf;;*''' o*^ the 


k l£e pnce of tliem at once, as if pk-nty Iiad been actwUy 
and \ But thougli the senate ix>uld not binder the law, 
yrt they bad their revenge rtn Ciabinios, the iiutlior of it, by 
prereoting Lis bciii^ chrtseii oiii- «f Pom[>ey's lieuu'imnt*, wbJcb 
ns what be chiefly aimed at, and wliat I'omjwy hiinsclf miIi- 
cited': tbougli Pompey probttbly made liitn atu'ctids for it io 
tome other way ; since, as Cicero s»ys Kc was so necesaitous at 
(Us time, and so proflifrare. that, if lie li.-id not cttrricd bis law, 
be inu«t bave turned pirute himself. Po[upi.-y had a fli>«t of 
Kre hundred sail allowed for thio c.\pedit)0D. with twenty-four 
^('Utenanis, chosen out of the senate ' ; wWm lie dixtribuieil m 
tkitfully through the several HtationA of the Mediterranean, 
that, in Ie«s tiian fifty dayf«. he drove the pirates out of all 
Uicir lurking boles, and. in four montliv, put an end to the 
whole war : for he did not pr^Hire for it till the end of wiuter, 
lei out uiwii it ill the brginiiiji^ of spring, and finished it in 
lli« iniddle of auminer '. 

A second law was published by L. Otlio, for the uMit^tinufiit 
of distinct Heat», in tlte tbeatres, to the equestrian oider, who 
wed, before, to xil promiscuously with tlie populace ; but, by 
this law, fourteen rowa of benclies, nest to those of the aeua- 
[ore, were to be appropriated to their use; by which he secured 
to tliem, m» Cicero nayit, both their dignity and tln^ir pleaturo *. 
The aenaie obtained the §aine privilege, of separate aeats, about 
an buudred years before, in tlie coiisuUhip oi Scipio Africanus^ 
which highly di^iuted the peopte, and gave occaiiun, saya 
Livy, as ail innovations are apl to do, to much debafe and cen- 
sure : fi>r many of the wiser sort, condemned all such distino- 
tioiu in a &ee dty, as dangerous to the poblic peace; and 
Sopio fainuelf aftnwards repented, and blamed nimself for 
Kiffering it '. Others law, we may imagine, gave stiU greater 
offence, as it was a greater affront to the people, to be re- 
mored yet &rUier fitmi what, of all tbioga, they were fondest 

* Qm ti» > *obf* nuidaKi baile pnEfodtiu cat impenMr, tmH repRile TilHn 

ct ■■■iat. OBanum jit ex tamat nbertMc •gTanun djaCnnu nuc cScmn polniMCt. 
Pn 1^ Haa. 15. 

* Ne h ^Mttni A. GtUniDi CTn. Pomiieia expMoid tc poKoUnti. lb. ID. 

* Niri ngitiaiKiii dc jontieo bcllo tnluHt, pnfccto egntate mc imjmbiMtc ctmcVu 
•inticBm falie Inaet. P«l ndit. in SniM. 5. 

* Plat, m Pomp. 

> Idh mutnii, nt ■ BrnDdino pmhctDi ert, ODdeqainqniceuma die loum *d imperiun 
^gpuB Rooiui Ciliciun uljiinxit_iU tulum beUan^— Cn. PomHiiu eHKiu bicnw 
■f^annt, inemite Ten nuecpit, nmlw adcta eoaTedl. Pni 1^. Mmh. 12. 

* L. Otho. Tir fortii rneut ■iii—iim, cqiuaOri anKnl nMilait Dim •oloD digaititna, 
Pro Unr. 19. 

o^ ihe 9>gtit oi f-'i^ji &ii<- «^»«^5 : it was carried, bowever, hf 
ibr aochoritv ot ibe :rib(i::e. and b frequently referred to, m 
ibe cl:i^c «Tiwr<> a? &3 act. Ten' memorable ', aod wbat niMI 
mocii no'is^ in in dmt-. 

C. C<:«uelius, alsx anoiLer tribune, vas piuhine forward S 
third law, of a zr^ver kind. lo proLibii bribery id elediiHii^ hf 
the sanctiifD of^ the <evrrest penalties : the rigour of it U^jr 
di^lea;^ the viable. wLo^ warm opposition raised great di^ 
oraeri ia the riiv : so I'iai ail other biuine^ was iaterrupte^ 
the eteciioiif of magistrates adjourni-d, and the consols forced 
to have a guard. The maiier, h<.>«'ever, was compounded, bf 
modeiadng the s«veriij- of the penalties, in a new law of 
bv the cumuls, ohich was atvepied by Cornelius, and ena 
in pruper form, under the title oi the Calpurnian law, from 
name of the consul C. Calpumius Piso '. Cicero speaks of it 
still as H^orouslv drawn ' : for. besides a pecuniary fine^ it 
rendered the ^iJty incapable of any public office or place ia 
the senate. This Cornelius seeo'.s to bare been a brare and 
honest tribune, though somewhat too fierce and impetuous in 
aBsertinir the rights of the citizens : he published another law, 
to prohibit any man's being absolved mim the obligation rf 
the laws, except by the authority of the people; which, though 
a part of the old constitution, Kad long been usurped by the 
senate, who dispensed with the laws by their own decrees^ and 
those often made clandestinely, when a few only were privy to 
them. The senate, being resolved not to part with so valuable 
a privilege, prevailed with another tribune to inliibit the pvh- 
lication of it, when it came to be read ; upon which Corneliu 
took die book from the clerk, and read it himself. This was 

r was a magistrate nest in rf^niiy to ihiaAMm 

irieiiially as a colleague or assutnnl «• AMi !■ Ait 

ration of justice, and to sapplv their plna ah* 1m w^ 

At firat th«re waa hut one ; liut as Ui« iamUmt waA 

of the Republic increaseH, ao the iiiimbs rf ifcs fo^ 

s gradually enlarged from one lu i--ii;bL TWy wn 

. not am the inferior magistrates, by tKe BM|4a viliqf 

m their tribea, but in tlieir centuries, as the conMiMdManiB 
■In were. In the first method, the majofity of yttm fa ttA 
tribe determined the general rote of the tribe, imi a Wmimt^ 
•f tribes determined the election, in which the MMnatalihMa - 
U as good a vote as the best : but in the secoad^ Am hthm 
lipovfer was thrown into the hands of Uie b cl t ei Ml^ 1||^ 
a wise oontrirance of one of their kings, Seri'iui TriUaai vlw 
Prided the whole body of the citizens into a kndnd hmI 
ninety-three centuries, according to a census V niaatioK af 
l^ir estates : and then reduced these centuries into MX daHi^ 
ucordiog to the same ruJe, assigning to the fnc or ficfant 
dass ninety-ecren of these centuries, or a tMioritf of A* 
whole number; so that, if the centuries of na Uit ihto 
agreed, the aSair was over, and the votes of all Ae mt iarff* 
nificant *. 

The business of the praetors was to preside and j^^g* ia dl 
taoses, especially of a public or criminal kind, a^ere iMr 
several ii.ri-rlicri.-.n^ were a*siiriied to tliem by lot'; and it fell 
to Cicero's to ait upon actions of extortioo and rapine, brought 
Bgsiost mwHtiates and governors of provinces ' ; in which, as 
he tells ns nimself^ he h»i acted as an accuser, sat as a judge, 
and presided as pnetor *. In this office he acquired a great 
lepnlation of int^^ty, by the condemnation of Licinius Macer, 

£ person of praetorian dignity, and great eloquence ; who would 
LTe made an eminent figure at the bar, if his abilities had not 
been sullied by the infamy of a vicious life*. " This man," as 
Plutarch relates it, " depending upon his interest, and the in- 
flueoce of Crassus, who supported him with all his power, was 
so confident of being acquitted, that, without waiting for sen- 
tence, he went home to dress himself, and, as if already ab- 
solved, was returning towards the court in a white gown ; but 

• AnLGtL 13. 15. 

• FWn tfait diTinon oT ths people into cluMt.tbe mrd clMdcAl, which we now ml)' 
WirniCTi of theSrR imk, i> d«nT«d : for it UEnlflsd ariginiUf pemmi of the fint cUii, 
■11 the red being MtW inAs cluwin. lb. 7,19. 

• In TeiT, Act. I. 8. 

• PovttilatnT ^tud me pnttorflin primnm de pveuniit repetundis. Pro Cornel. I. 

• Aezimn da pccuaiu repctiindh, judex wdl, pntor quniri, &e. Pio R«blr. 
FmI. «. 

• Bret(u,Si2. 

being met on his way by Crassus, and iiifonnecl that be « 
oonaemned by the unanimous suffrasc of the bench, he ti 
hU bed, and die<l immediately." The story is told diffete 
by other writers: "That Macer was actually in the M 
expecting the issue; but perceiving Cicero ready to give jnd^., 
ment against liim, he sent one to let him know tl^t he mtfl 
dead, and stopping his breath at the same time with an baoA'al 
kerchief, instantly expired; so that Cicero did not proceed lK-1 
sentence, by whicli Macer's estate was sared to bis Boa U* J 
dnius Calvus, an orator afterwards of the first merit and i 

nence'." But, from Cicero's own account it appeara, t , 

after treating Macer in the trial with great candour andeqni^i 
he actually condemned him, with the universal approbatioa rf I 
the people ; and did himself much more honour and service ij J 
it, than he could have reaped, he says, by Macer's frieodshy 
and interest, if he had acquitted him . 

Manilius, one of the new tribunes, ito sooner entered into 
bis office, than he raised a fresh disturbance in the city, 1^ 
the promulgation of a law, for granting to slaves, set free, 
a right of voting among the tribes; which gave so much scan- 
dal to all, and was so vigorously opposed oy the senate, that 
he was presently obliged to drop it' : but being always venal, 
as Velleius says, and the tool of other men's power, that he 
might recover his credit with the people, and engage the 
lavour of Pompcy, lie proposed a second law, that Pomp^, 
who was then in Cilicia, extinguishing the remains of the 
piratic war, should have the government of Asia added to his 
commission, with the command of the Mithridadc war, and of 
all the Roman armies in those parts*. It was about eight 

OF cicbho. 83 

] was still increased, by the onlodcy defou of vac of 

i, Triariu$; who, io a lasli viuraevmpDt villi 

, , .03 destroyed witli the Ins of fiis cainp, and die 

Meat of his troom: so ihaX as 90011 as ihej- heard thai Glabra^ 
be consul of the Last vear, was appointetl to fucecvd hiM, mad 
etnally arrived in A&ia, tliry btiikje iini iiito aa open mnttajTi 
jtd refused to foUov him any tartlier, declaring Utemseires to 
t no longer his soldiers : txit Glabrio. npon the dpits of liteae 
isiRderf, living no iaclinatioD lo enter upon so tmuble^omea 
Dminand, cbose to stop short in Bithynia. without ever goin^ 
t the anny '. 

This [DUtinous spirit io Lucullus's troops, and the loss of ht> 
Mhority with tliem, which Glabrio was still less qualified to 
main, gave a reasonable pretext to Manilius's law ; and rnm- 
iey*9 success against the pirates, and his being spon the ^wt 
rith a great army, irtade it likewise tlie more plausible: M 
kn, after a sharp contest and opposition from some of the best 
nd greatest of tlie senate, the tribune carried his point, and 
ot the law confirmed by the people. Cicero supported it with 
11 his eloquence, in a specca from the rostra, which he had 
«Ter mounted till tlus occasion : where, in displnyiog the cka> 
■cter of Fompey, he draws the picture of a consummate gene- 
il, with all the strength and beauty of colours, which words 
an give. He was now in the career of his fortunes, and in 
ight, as it were, of the consulship, the grand object of his 
mbirion; so that his conduct was suspected to flow from on 
ntercsted view of facilitating Lis own advancement, by paying 
his court to Pompey's power: but the reasons already in- 
imated, and Pompey's singular character of modesty and 
betinence, joined to the superiority of his military fame, 
■%bt probaDly oonvince him, that it was not only safe, but 
ecessary at this time, to commit a war, which nobody else 
onld finish, to such a general ; and a power, which nobody 
be oi^it to be entrusted with, to such a man. This he him- 
elf solemDly affirms in the conclusion of hb speech : " I call 
be gods to wttnees," says he, " and especially those who pre- 
ide over this temple, and inspect the minds of all who aomt- 
ister tlie public affairs, that I neither do this at the desire of 
ny one, nor to conciliate Pompey's favour, nor to procure 
rom any man's greatness, either a support in dangers, or 
viatuice in honours : for as to dangers, I shall repel them as 

man ought to do, by the protection of my innocence ; and 
>r honours, I shall obtun them, not from any single man, nor 
rem this place, but from my usual laborious course of life, and 
be continuance of your favour. Whatever pains, therefore^ I 

■ P» log. Mudl. 2. 9. Plul. ib. Dio. 1. 36. p. 7. 



bare taken in this cause, I have taken it all, I aMure vog, ft 
the sake of the Republic ; and, so br from aemn^ any int~^ 
of mjr own by it, nave ^ned the iU-will and enmity of n 
partly secret, partly declared ; unnecessary to myael^ yat ■ 
naelesa perhaps to you : but, after so many Eavoun n 
from you, and this very honour which I dow enjoy, ] 
made it my resolution, citizens, to prefer your will, uedi_ 
of the Republic, and the safety uf the provinces, to all my 
interests and advantages whatsoever '." 

J. Ctesar, also, was a zealous promoter of this law ; bat fi 
a ditferent motive than the love either of Pompey, or tki I 
Kepublic : his design was, to recommend himself by it to tl 
people, wiiose favour he foresaw would be of more use to Id 
than the senate's, and to cast a fresh load of envy on Pompm I 
which, by some accident, might be improved afterwards tr *" 

rt; but his chief view was to make the precedent fi 

that whatever use Pompey might make of it, he himself ahAi 
one day make a bad one '. For this is die common efiel 
of breaking through the barrier of the laws, by which muj 
states have been ruined; when, from a confidence in tM 
abilities and integrity of some eminent citizen, they iavot 
him, on pressing occasions, with extiBordinary powers for tba 
■ • ' - ■ ■ ■; for ' 

[i benefit and defence of the society ; for though p 
so entrusted, may, in particular cases, be of singular serviosi 
and sometimes even necessary ; yet the example is always 
dangerous, furnishing a perpetual pretence to the ambitioM 
and ill- designing, to grasp at every prerogative which had 
been granted at any time to the virtuous, till the same power, 


rota] passions ; whose lust no sense of shame restrains - I 

IT the riciousness of her mind, perverts all the laws of mei 1 
be worst entU; nho acts witli such folly, that aunt? cnii taE* 
er for a human creatnre ; with such violence, that none can 
nagine her to be a woman ; with such cruelty tluit none can 
Dooeive her to be a mother ; one, who has confoundi-d not onlv 
te name and the rights of nature, but all the relatiou!i i>f it 
w: the wife of her son-in-law ! the step-mother of her sou ! 
be invader of her daughter's bed ! in short, who hiu nothing 
rft in her of the human species, but the mere form '." 

He 13 supposed to have defended several other crimtna]t« this 
ear, though the pleadings are now lost, and particularly M. 
''uodanius : bat what gii'es the most remarkable proof of hit 
ndusliy, is, that dnring his pnetor&hip, as some of the ancient 
rriters tell us, though he was in full practice and exerctsr of 
peaking, yet he &equented the school of a celebrated rbetori* 
lan, Gnipho '. We cannot suppose that hi)t design was to 
Mm any thing new, but to preserve and confirm thai rterfec- 
ion which he nad already acqnired, and prevent any ill habit 
ram growing insensibly upon liim, by exercising himself under 
he observation of so judicious a master. But his chief view 
ertainly was, to give some countenance and encouragement 
Gnipho himself as well as to the art which he profexsed ; 
ind by tlve preiteTice and authority of one of the first ina>;is- 
rates of Rome, to inspire tfiu young nobli's willi an aniliitimi 
o excel in it 

When his magistracy was just at an end, Manilius, whose 
ribuoate ezpirea a few days before, was accused before him of 
apine and extortion : and though ten days were always allowed 
tlie criminal to prepare for his defence, he appointed the 
'ery next day for tne trial This startled and offended the 
itizens, who generally favoured Manilius, and looked upon the 
iTOsecation as the effect of malice and resentment on the part 
>f the senate, for bis law in bvour of Pompey. The tribunes, 
herefore, called Cicero to an account before the people, for 
reating Manilius so roughlv ; who, in defence of himself, said, 
hat as it had been his practice to treat all criminals with huma- 
lity, so be had no design of acting otlierwise with Manilius, 
)n^ on the contrary, bad appointed that short day for the trial, 
lecaDse it was the only one of which he was master ; and that 
t was not the part of those who wished well to Manilius to 
hrow off the cause to another judge. This made a wonderful 
jiange in the minds of the audience, who, applauding his con- 
tact, desired then dwt he would undertake the defence of 

Manilius, to which he consented ; and steppinir up won into 
the rostra, laid open the source of the whole ^&ir, with man 
severe reflections 'upon the enemies of Potnpey '. The tn^ 
however, was dropped, on account of the tumults which araw 
immediately after in the city, from some new inddents of nuek 
g;r cater importance. 

At the consular election, which was held this anmmcr, P. 
Autronius Psetus, and P. Cornelius Sylla, were dedand 
consuls ; but their election was no sooner published, than ibe^ 
were aecused of bribery and corruption by the Calpumiu 
law; and, being brought to trial, and found guilty, before tUr 
entrance into office, forfeited the consulship to their aocoMii 
and competitors, L. Monlius Torquatus, and L. AnrellM 
Cotta. Catiline, also, who, from his prsetorship, had obtunad 
the province of Afric, came to Rome this year, to appear a 
candidate at the election; but, being accused of extortion and 
n^ine in that government, was not permitted by the oonanls 
to pursue his pretensions *. 

This disgrace of men, so powerful and desperate, eiwagad 
them presently in a conspiracy against the state, in which it 
was resolved to kill the new consuls, with several otfaen of the 
senate, and share the govcniment among themselves : but the 
effect of it was prevented by some information given of the 
design, which was too precipitately laid to be ripe for ezeciH 
tion. On. Piso, an audacious, needy, fections young noble- 
man was privy to it ' ; and, as Suetonius says, two more of 
much greater weight, M. Crassus and J. CiMar; the first of 
whom was to be created dictator, tlie second his master of the 


1 be are saiil to liave entered Into a new nnd eepnmto 
tneiit, tbat tlie one should begin some disturbance 
ttO, vhile the otlier was to prepare and iiiBame matters nt 
e: but this plot also was defeated by the unexpected death 
of PSw> ; M'bo was assasainated by the .Spaniards, as some say, 
tat bia cruelly; or, as otfiers, by Pompey's clients, and at t£e 
fal^^tion of Pompey himself. 

^wem, at the expiradou of hb prsetorship, would not accept 
<auf fiareJfiT) proyioce ', the usual reward of that tnagiatraevi 
Hd tbe cnief ft'uit which the generality proposed from it. lie 
lad no (Ktrticular love for money, nor genius for arms, so tliat 
Ame governments had no charms for him: the glory which 
be pursued, was to shine in the eyes of the city, as the guar- 
diwn of its laws, and to teach the magistrates how to execute, 
the citizens Imw to obey them. But he was now preparing U\ 
sue for the consulship, the great object of all his h(^es ; aud 
his whole attention was employed how to obtain it in his proper 
year, and without a repulse. There are two years neccswrily 
to iulervene between the praitorship and consulship ; the first 
of which was usually spent iit forming a general interest, and 
soliciting for it, as it were, in a private manner; the second 
in suing for it openly, in the proper form and habit of a can- 
didate. The affection of the city, so signally declared for liim, 
in all the inferior steps of honour, gave liJm a strong; prosump- 
lioii of siictes.-! ill \ih i<Ti.-~ci\t pretensinris tu tlic liiijl/c-l : but, 
as lie had reaMU to apprehend a great opposition from the 
nobilitv, who hxAed upon the public dignities as a kind of 
birtb-nght, and could not brook their bemg intercepted, and 
snatched fiWi them by new men * ; so he resolved to put it 
out of their power to hurt Mm, by omitting no pains which 
could be required of a candidate, of visiting and soliciting all 
the citizens in person. At the election, therefore, of the tri- 
bunes, on the sixteenth of July, where the whole city was 
assembled in the field of Mars, he chose to make his first effort, 
and to mix himself with the crowd, on purpose to caress ana 
salate them, &miliarly, by name ; and, as soon as there was 
any vacation in the Forum, which happened usually in August, 
be intended to make an excursion into the Cisalpiue Gaul, 
and, in the character of a lieutenant to Piso, the governor of 
it, to visit the towns and colonies of that province, which was 
reckoned very strong in the number of its votes, and so return 

> PictiuDQae, at limul forisillc.ipK RonUF, id m novu Hinauri^irrtnt. lb. 

BuBt^dDi aicant^ jmberiv cjiit injuBto — borbann nciuiTimK patj ; hIii autrni, cauitM 
31<». Co. Pompfii fete™ climta, wlnntot. eju. Pwononi agg™6..s, Salln.t. 19. 

' Tn in pnvincUm ire aolwiti : nan poaflutn id ia tc reprebcnderc^ qui>d in 1Ddp» 
pnrtw — probsTi. Pro Munen. 20. 

' Non idnn Buhi licet quod iii, qui nobili anierf nili tunt. qiiibui Dina» papuli Ro- 
mani bcDcAcia ckmBirntibui defcruntur. In Vnr. 6. 70. 

to Rome in January following '. While he was thos emplofi 
io suing for the consulship, L. Cotta, a remarkable lorert 
wine, was one of the censors, which gave occasion to one 4 
Cicero's jokes, that Plutarch has transmitted to us, that h^pea 
ing one day to be dry with the fotigne of his task, he calU 
for a glass of water to quench his thirst ; and when bis frienl 
stood close around him, as he was drinking, " You do wetl* 
says he, " to cover me, lest Cotta should censure me, for drisl 
ing water." 

He wrote about the same time to Atticus, then at Athens, t 
desire him to engage all that band of Ponipey'B dependant 
who were serving under him in the Mithrioatic war, and, k> 
way of jest, bids him tell Pompey himself, that he would m 
take it ill of him, if he did not come, in person, to his efectiaiil 
Atticus spent many years in this residence at Athens, wUd 
gave Cicero an opportunity of employing him, to buy a groi 
number of statues, for the ornament i^ his several villas, e^ 
cially that at Tusculum, in which he took the greatest plea 
sure ', for its delightful situation in the neighbourhood of Ilome 
and the convenience of an easy retreat from the hunr am 
fatigues of the city : liere he had built several rooms ana gat 
leries, in imitation of the schools and porticos of Athena, wmcl 
he called, likewise, by their Attic names of the Academy 
and Gymnasium, and designed for the same use of phUoso 
phical conferences with his learned friends. He had givei 
Atticus a general commission to purchase, for him, any pieo 
of Grecian art or sculpture, which was elegant and curfotu 
especially of the literary kind, or proper for the fiirziiltire o 
hia academy'; which Atticus executed to his great Kitisfactioi 


FaiDon as possible, with aity other statues and urnamentfi wbicfa 
you think proper for the place, and in my la»ie, nnd fjood 
Minugh U> pleiLie your's ; but, above all, such as will suit my 
lymnasiuni auH nortico: for I am grown so fond of all tliinKs of 
tut kind, that tuough oiliere, probably, may blame me, yet I 
depend on you to oscist me '." 

Of all tbe pieces which Atticus sent, he seems to have been 
, tlie most pleased witli a sort of compound emblematical fi)(ureii, 
representing Mercury and Minen-a, or Mercriry and HerciiW 
jointly, upon one base, called Hermarhenie and HiTmerdcl»: 
for Hercules being the proper deity of the GymnaAium, Mi- 
nenra of tbe Academy, and Mercury common to both, they 
exactly suited the purpose for which he desired them'. Ilut* 
he was so intent on embellishing this Tusculaii villa with all 
wrts of Grecian work, that he sent over to AttJcus tlie uluns of 
Us ceilings, which were of stucco-work, in order to denpeuk 
pieces of sculpture, or painting, to be inserted in tfav compart- 
nents; with tne covers of two of his wells, or fountain*, wliich, 
tocording to the custom of those times, they used to form after 
lome elegant pattern, and adorned with figures, in relief*. 

Nor was he ]ess eager in making a collection of Greek books, 
Uid forming a library, by the same opportiinih' of AtticDs's 
help. This was Atticus's own passion, wlio, having free access 
to all the libraries of Athens, was employing his slaves in cnpy- 
ii^ ^e works Oi their best writers, not onlv for his own tmBt 
but for mie abo^ and the common profit botD of tbe slave and 
the master: for Atticus was remarkable, above all men of hu 
rank, for a &niily of learned slaves, having scarce a foot-boy in 
his house, who was not trained both to read and write for him *. 
By this advantage he had made a very large collection of 
choice and curious books, and signified to Cicero his design of 
selling them ; yet seems to have intimated withal, that he ex- 
pected a larger sum for them than Cicero would easily spare : 
which gave occafflon to Cicero to beg of him, in severd letters, 

■ IK 8. 

■ HomatliBM to* me Ttldt dcleeUI. lb. 1. Qood id me de Honutliaia leribif, 
fa niU gTVinni st— flnod et Hennn oommone amnimii, et Hinem nngnlcra CM is- 
UE tin* grmnmni. lb. 4. Sign* DMln et Hemwnctu, eam commoduume poteik, 
nfim impoDU. lb. 10. 

The laraed gesenll; Uke lh«K ncnnenfle uid HennMhenn to be Dothuig mare 
duu A 1^1 iquare pedettil of atone, whicb vu tbe emblem of Mercarr, with the bead 
•tlbeothn- dcily, Minerrs or Hen: ule^ upon ii, of which wrt there are tevenl (till 
enant.H ve kc them de«ribcil in tbe booki otintiqailiea. Bui I un >pl to think, that 
tbnbfdi nf hrrth the deit^ei were Hnaedme* ibo joined together upon the Hme pedcMal, 
~ '- , u we we in thoH uitiqae flgum which (re DOH indiKrimioMalj 

l*w tiW miado, qnot in tectorio mtrioli ptamm incladere, et putnlla 

lo ■> MBt p*Mii liUntiMiiii, ungnoilc optimi, et plarlmi libnrii ; nl ne pedli- 
■iibniiiiii eiMl, qui non atnimqne honim pnlchre fuere poHet. Cora. 


to reserve die wbole number for him, till be cotild raise moatf ' 
enoueb for the purcbase. 

"Pmy keep yuur boolcH," wya be, "for me, and do lat. 
despair of my beinjr able to make tbem miae ; wbicb if I en 
compass, I sball thiiik myself richer tban Crassus, and despin 
the fine villas und ^rdeiis of lliem all '■" Again : *' Take can 
that you do nut part with your libmry to any man, bow eapt 
soever be may be to buy it : for I am setting apart all my littb 
rents to purchase tliat relief for my old age *." In a tided 
letter be says, " Tliat be bad placea all bis hopes of oom&rt 
and pleasure, whenever be sliould retire from business, M 
Atticus's reser^'iug these books for him '." 

But to return to tlie affairs of the city. Cicero was mnr 
engaged in tlie defence of C. Cornelius, who was accused, ani 
tried, fur practices against the state, in bis late tribunate, beCon 
the prstor, Q, Utillius. This trial, which lasted four dayi, 
was one of the most important in which he had ever been cm- 
cerned: tbe two coui^uls presided in it; and all the chieisof 
the senate, Q. Catulus, L. Lucullus, Hortensius, &c. appeand 
as witnetiscs against the criminal ' ; whom Cicero defended, M 
Quintiliun says, not only with strong, but shining arms, and 
with a force of eloquence, that drew acclamations from the 
people *. He publisiied two orations, spoken in this canse, 
whose loss is a public detriment to the literary world, rince 
they were reckoned among the most finished of his compoa- 
tions: he himself refers to them as such ' : and the old critics 
have drawn many examples from tbem, of tliat genuine elo- 
quence, which extorts applause, and excites admiration. 

C Papilla, one of the tribunes, puMi?hetl u liiw, this year, 


c: iw bad been soliciting Cicero to underlalte bis dvfenoe; 
vbch at one lime, was much inclLned, or dcU^rmtiiecl rather to 
da ii, for the sake of obliging the noble«, especially Crosni- and 
Ousuft, or of making Catiline at least his bicnd, as bo ngnl- 
fin in u letter to Atticus : " I design," says li«, '■ at preaettt, 
to defend my competitor Catiline: we have judj^ to our 
moid, yet such as tl}c accuser himself k pleased with : I Iui}>c, 
if he be acquitted, tliat be will be the more ready to serve me, 
in onr common petition ; but if it fall out otlicntise, I sliall 
bear it with patience. It is of great importance to me, to have 
you here as soon as possible: for there is a general pcrswwion. 
tbat certaiu nobles of your acqu^ntance will be against me: 
ind you, I know, could be of the greatest service, in gaining 
litem over'." But Cicero changed bis mind, and aid nut 
defend liim * ; upon a nearer view, perhaps, of his designs, and 
iraitorotis practices; to which be seems to allude, when de- 
wribing the art mid dissimulation of Catiline, he declareii, that 
he himself wan once almost deceived by him, i>>o as to take him 
foraeood citizen, a lover of honest men, a linn and faithful 
frienn ', &c. But it is not strange that a candidate for the 
consuUhip, in ibe career of his ambition, should think of de- 
fending a man of the first rank and interest in the city, when 
all the consular senators, and even the consul himself, Tor- 
quaiu^ appeared with him at tbe trial, and gave testimony 
in his favour. \\ hom Cicero excused, when tiicy were after- 
wards reproaclied with lE, by observing, tliat they had no notion 
of his treasons, nor suspicion, at tliut time, of liis conspiracy ; 
bu^ out of mere humanity and compassion, defended a friend 
in distress, and, in tbat crisis of danger, overlooked the infomy 
of his life *. 

His prosecator was P. Clodiiis, a young nobleman as profli- 
gate as himself; so tbat it was not difficult to make up matters 
with such an accuser, who, for a sum of money, agreed to 
betray tbe cause, and suffer him to escape * : whicb gave occa- 
sion to what Cicero stud, afterwards, in a speech against him, 
in the senate, while they were suing together for the consul- 
ship : — •" Wretch I not to see that thou art not acquitted, but 
reserved only to a severer trial, and heavier punishment'." 
It was in this year, as Cicero tells us, under the consuls Cotta 

' Ad AU. 1,2. • A*™. inTog-emd. 

) HeipaDiii, me, inqaim, qnondam ille pene dccepil, cum et civil mibl boau), el 
optnni cDJiuque cQpiduA, e( nrmuft HmicuB ct fidcbs vidervtar. Pro Crelio^ti, 

t Aenmti *imt unn nomine Coniuluvi— offuerunl Catilinir. ciitnquc laudirimt. 
NiJlm tnm patcbat. nulla cnt cogniu. canjiintio, &c. Pro Syll. 29. 

I A Catifina nccaniam acccpil, iit tiirpinime [rovancareliir. lie IlinHp. trip. 30. 

• O miacT. qui noD Kniiu illo judirio te nnn alHolutt.m. veruai »d Bliquod Krtriul 
judicium, it majm mppiiciiim reictvalmn. Oral, in Tog. laod. 


and Torqnatiu, that tho§e prodi^es lu^pened, whidi were hh 
terpretea to portend the ^reat dangers and plots, that mw 
naw hatching against the state, and broke out, two yean after, 
io Cicero's consulship; when the tnirets of the Capitol, the 
statues of the gods, aod the brazen image of the inbnt Rcna* 
lus, sucking the wolf, were struck down by lightning '. 

Cicero, Being now in his forty-third year, the proper wp 
required by law ', declared himself a candidate for the couaW 
ship, along with six competitors, P. Sulpicius Galba, L. Set- 
irius Catilina, C. Antonius, L. Cas^us Lon^nus, Q. Cont 
Bcius, C. Licinius Sacerdos. The two first were patridaoik' 
the two next plebeians, yet noble ; the two last the sons of 
fathers, who had first imported the public honours into their 
families : Cicero was the only new man among them, or on> 
born of equestrian rank*. Ualba and Cornificius were pe^ 
sons of great virtue and merit ; Sacerdos, without any par* 
ttcular blemish upon him; Cassius, lazy and weak, but not 
thought so wicked as he soon after appeared to be; AntoDins 
and Catiline, though infamous in their lives and characten, 
yet, by intrigue and taction, had acquired a powerful interest 
in the city, and joined all their forces against Cicero, as their 

CuHtolio puTDm ilquo lutuilciii, ubcribiu lupiou inbuatem fuiiH ■"-■"' """■ Id 
C>til. 3. 8. 

Tb» nme Agure. u it ii gmrnllj' thought, fanned in bimM. oT the inhnta, Bonnlw 
.., T.__. . . ...■.._ .1 „ :. ..,., , __j .!.._ Tp iheC»{riloI mAlbt 

of > UqucfKlion, by > •Irokc of Lhlning, oa one of the legi of iho wolf. Owtt 
I hu dcKCibcd the prodiDi' in the f^loving Una : 


most foniiidable antagonist, in which they were vigorously 
mpported by Crassus and Csesar ■• 

This was the state of the competition ; in which the practice 
cf bribing was carried on so openly and shamefully, oy An- 
toniuB and Catiline, that the senate thought it necessary to 
ghre some check to it, by a new and more rigorous law ; out, 
when they were proceeding to publish it, L. Mucins Oreitinus, 
me of the tribunes, put his negative upon theuL This tribune 
lad been Cicero's client, and defended by him, in an impeach- 
ment of plunder and robbery ; but, having now sold himself to 
Us enemies, made it the subject of ail his narangrues, to ridicule 
his birth and character, as unworthy of the consulship : in the 
debate, therefore, which arose in the senate, upon the merits 
of his n^;ative, Cicero, provoked to find so desperate a con- 
federacy against him, rose up, and, after some raillery and 
expostulation with Mucins, miade a most severe invective on 
the flagitious lives and practices of his two competitors, in a 
speech usually called in Toga. Candida, because it was delivered 
b a white gown, the proper habit of all candidates, and from 
which the name itself was derived '. 

Though he had now business enough upon his hands to 
engage his whole attention, yet we find him employed in the 
defence of Q. Gallius, the pr»tor of the last year, accused of 
comipt practices, in procuring that magistracy. Gallius, it 
seems, when chosen sedile, had disgusted the people, by not 
providing any wild beasts for their entertainment, in his 
public snob's; so that, to put them in good humour, when he 
stood for the praetorship, he entertained them ^ith gladiators, 
on pretence of giving them in honour of his deceased father '. 
This was his crime, of which he was accused by M. Callidius 
whose father had been impeached before, by Gallius. Cal- 
lidius was one of the most eloquent and accurate speakers 
of his time, of an easy, flowing, copious style, always delight- 
ing, though seldom warming his audience, which was the only 
thing wanting to make him a complete orator. Besides the 
public crime just mentioned, he charged Gallius with a private 
one against himself, a design to poison him ; of which he pre- 
tended to have manifest proofs, as well from the testimony of 
witnesses, as of his own hand and letters: but he told his story 
^^ith so much temper and indolence, that Cicero, from his 
coldness in opening a fact so interesting, and where his life had 
been attempted, formed an argument to prove that it could not 

* Catilina ct Antor.iu*, quanquim otur.ibn*« maaime infami* f op^m v.ta c^*^.-:. tznicn 
m'jhum poterant. Coierun: enim anjl>o. u: CictToncni ror.-ula'.ii 'i«-ji*:ererjt. I'Jjiitoribui 
sn firmisjimi*. M. Cras«o et C.C«are. Awron. ar/wm. ii: Tr»g. «.arid. 

' Ascon. arTum. ' Ascon. not. ib. 


be true. *' How is it poesible," sava he, " CalUdiua, for jm 
to plead in bucIi a manner, if you did not know the thing It 
be forged ? How could you, who act with such force of eW 
quence in other men's dangers, be so indolent in your own? 
Where was that grief, that ardour, which was to extort cnM 
and lamentations from tlie most stupid ? We saw no emotiaa 
of your mind, none of your body ; no striking your &ireheM^ 
or your thigh ; no stamping with your foot : so that, instead rf 
feeling ourselves inflamed, we could hardly forbear sleepian 
while you were urging all that part of vour charge '." Cioens 
speech is lost, but Gallius was acquitted: for we find hi^ 
aifterwards, revenging himself, in the same kind, on this voy 
Callidius, by accusing him of bribery in his suit for the eo^ 
sulsliip '. 

J. Ctesar was one of the assistant judges this year to Ae 
pnetor, whose province it was to sit upon the Sicarii, that i% 
those who were accused of killing, or carrying a d^;ger vitli 
intent to kill. This gave him an opportunity of citing befbie 
him, as criminals, and condemning, by the law of assassinatioii, 
all those, who, in Sylla's proscription, had been known to kill, 
or receive money for killing, a proscribed citizen ; which 
money Cato also, when he was quastor the year before, had 
made them refund to the treasury *■ Csesar's view was, to 
mortify the senate, and ingratiate nimself with the people, by 
reviving the Marian cause, which had always been popular, 
and of which he was naturally the head, on account of his near 
relation to old M;irius ; fur which purpose he hiid the hiirdiness 
likewise to replace in the C'upitol the trophies and statues nf 
Marius, which Sylla had ordered to be thrown down apd 


Mbhip, of the murder of many citizens in Sylla's proscription : 
d which though he was notoriously guilty, yet, contrary to all 
ezpecCatioD, he was acquitted ^ 

Catiline was suspected also, at the same time, of another 
Imdoiis and capital crime, an incestuous commerce with Fabia, 
one of the ves^ virgins, and sister to Cicero's wife. This was 
ckarged upon him so loudly by common fame, and gave such 
mumU to the city, that Fabia was brought to a trial for it ; but, 
ddier through her innocence, or the authority of her brother 
Cieero, she was readily acquitted: which gave occasion to 
Gieero to tell him, among the other reproaches on his flagitious 
liie, that there was no place so sacreo, whither his very visits 
did not carry pollution, and leave the imputation of guilt, where 
tbere was no real crime subsisting '. 

As the election of consuls approached, Cicero's interest ap- 
peared to be superior to that of all the candidates: for the 
nobles themselves, though always envious, and desirous to 
depress him, yet, out of regard to the dangers which threatened 
die city from many quarters, and seemed ready to burst out 
into a flame, began to think him the only man qualified to 
preserve the Republic, and break the cabafs of the desperate, 
oy the vigour and prudence of his administration : for, in cases 
of danger, as Sallust observes, pride and envy naturally subside, 
and yield the post of honour to virtue '. The method of ch us- 
ing consuls was not by an open vote, but by a kind of Lallot, 
or little tickets of wood, distributed to the citizens, with the 
names of tlie candidates severally inscribed upon each : but, in 
Cicero's case, the people were not content with this secret and 
silent way of testifying their inclinations ; but, before they 
came to any scrutiny, loudly and universally proclaimf^tl Cicerf> 
the first consul; so that, as he himself declared in his speech to 
tliem, after his election, he was not chosen by the votes of 
particular citizens, but the common suffrage of the citv : nor 
declared by the voice of the crier, but of the whoh? Uoman 
people *. He was the only new man who had obtained the 
sovereign dignity, or, as he expresses it, had forced the 
entrenchments of the nobility for forty years past, from the 
first consulship of C. Marius, and the only one likewise who 

' Bis al»*nlntuin Catilinaiu. Ad Att. 1. I'J. Sallust. 31. Dio.l. .V]. p. 34. 

- Cum iu vixi«;ti. ut Tioii c&*ct locus tain sanrtus, quo non adventu' tiiU'. t*tiam cum 
iilj»a Lulla sulx-s^ct, criinr u afft-rrtt. Orat. in IV^j. mnd. Vid. Awon. ud l»Hum. 

' S<d ubi jK-riculuui advt-nit, invidia at(juc *upcrbia poift fu«TO. Sallu^t. -'*». 

* S<-ti tamen majniirttenlius csw illo nihil }M>test, qurnl nici> coiuitii?« non UiNfllam 
Indicfm tacita? liUTtati*, scd voctin vivam ynn vobi* indiccni vt•^tmruIn t Tjja nie 
oiuntaium tulisiifs. — Itaqm* me non extrvuia tribu* sutTra^norum, ^c-d prinii ilii vo-iri 
<.rM-ursu«, nequc fingulu* voce? pneconum, fce<l una voce univervus populu> Komanu<i 
nn.-uleni dc<laravit. Dc leg. Atrrar. contra Hull. 2. 2. in Ti-on 1. 


bad ever lAtained it io bia proper year, or witliout a repnl 
Antoniiu was chosen fab colleague by the majority of a tu^ 
centuries above his friend and partner Catiline; wfaich WW 
effected, probably, by Cicero's management, who conndenA- 
him as the less dangerous and more tiw:table of the twou 

Cicero's father died this year, on the twenty-fourth of N^ 
vember ', in a g^ood old age, with the comfort to have seen Ui 
son advanced to the supreme honour of the city, and wantei 
nothing to complete the happiness of his life, but the fwldHwi 
of one year more, to hare made bim a witness of the glory of 
his consulship. It was in this year also, most probably, thwu^ 
some critics seem to dispute it, that Cicero gave his daugtet 
Tullia in marriage, at the age of thirteen, to C. Piso Fnigj, ■ 
young nobleman of great hopes, and one of the best &milies u 
Rome * : it is certain, at least, that his son was bom in lim 
same year, as he expressly tells us, in the consulship of I* 
Julius C»8ar and C. Marcius Flgulus*. So that, with tha 
highest honour which the public could bestow, he received At 
highest pleasure which private life ordinarily admita, by A* 
birth of a son and heir to his bmily. 


Cicero was now arrived through the usual gradadon of h» 
nours, at the highest which the people could regularly give, or 
an honest citizen desire. The offices which he had already 
borne. La<i but a partial iurisdictiuu. confined i 


96 of tlieir ambition, were forced to practise aO die vtt 
uity : to court the little as well as the ^^eat, lo eq>oaee 
nples and politics in vogue, mid to apply ibeir tuente 
itaie fneoos, rather thmi to serve the public '. Bat 
Lilsbip put an end to this subjection, and with the ooi»- 

tlie state gave them the oommBnd of tbenHetm: •« 
only care left was, how to execute this high office witk 
id dignity, and employ the power entnoled to then 
leneSt antl service of their coantrv. 
re itow therefore to took upon Cicero in a differmt 

order to form a just idea of hi« dianeter: lo cuosider 
t as an ambitious courtier, applying all hia thot^ts 
IS to his own advancement ; I>at as a rneat nu^MtnU 
lesman, administering tbe a£uf« and ilirectutg ibe 

of a raigbEy empire. And, accordii^ to the accounts ot 
ancient writers, Rome never stood in greater weed of 

and vigilance of an able consul than in thi« verj' year. 
tides the traitorous cabala and conspiraciea of tbow vb« 
tempting to subvert the whole Republic, tlie i»ew tii- 
ere also labouring to disturb the preaeot quel ct it; 

them were publishing laws to abolish ereiy ibhig thai 
d of Sylla's establishment, and to restore the aoas of the 
>ed lo their estates and honours^ others to iwetse ihe 
lem of P. Sylla and Auironius, eoiidenined for bribery, 
ilace tlifm in iLl- s.-uji.' - : -unit.- u^;..' tV^r ■-■.vj' Jfj^in* ail 
and others for dividii^ the lands erf' the pnblie to the 
citaena ' : so that, as Cicero declared, both to the seoale 

pet^ie, the Republic was delivered into his hands fall 
>i« and alarms ; distracted by pestilent laws and sedi- 
irangaes ; endangered, not by fore^ wars, but intes- 
Is, and the traitorous designs of prougale citizens ; and 
■re was no mischief incident to a state which the honest 
: cause to ^prebend, the widced to expect '. 
t gave the greater spirit to the authors ^ these attempts, 
toaius'B advancement to the consnkhip ; they knew him 
'the same principles, and embarked in the same designs 
emselves, which, by his authority, they now hoped to 
ito effecL Cicero was aware of this ; and foresaw the 
-i of a colleague equal to him in power, yet oppotite in 
and prepared to frustrate all his endeavonn for the 
lerrice : so that his first care, after tfaeb election, was to 


gain the confidence of Antoniua, and to draw him from Uid 
engoj^ments to the interests of the Republic; beine coniir 
that all the success of his administration depended qm 
He began therefore to tempt him by a kind of ar^nmco^v 
seldom fails of its effect with men of his character, the o" 
power to his ambition, and of money to his pies 
these baits he caught him ; and a bargain was prescDdya) 
upon between them, that Antonius should hare the e 
of the best province, which was to be assigned to them at 1) 
expiration of their year '. It was the custom for Ae aenal' ' 
ap]>oint what particular provinces were to be distributed a 
year to the sereral magistrates, who used afterwards to t 
lots for them among themselves; the preetors for the p 
the consuls for the consular provinces. In this pe '' 
fore, when Macedonia, one of the most desirable 

of the empire, both for command and wealth, t&l 
lot, he exchanged it immediately with his coUeaanie far 01^ : 
alpine Gaul, which he resigned also soon after in iBTOiir of (L 
Metellus ; being resolved, as he declared in his inw^ntfal 
speech, to administer the consulship in such a manner, as 4i 

fiut it out of any man's power, either to tempt or terrify Ui 
rom his duty ; since he neither sought nor would accept tKf 
province, honour, or benefit from it whatsoever: "the onb 
way," says he, " by which a man can dischaige it widi grcrf^ 
and frec<lom, so as to chastiHC those tribunes who wish ill U 
the Republic, or despise those who wish ill to himself' :"• 
noble Htclaralioti. -m.I w,,rtliy lo ho trnnsniiti.Hl \o poMt-rity, ! 
for an example to ;ill n];^;iitrates in a free oWtc. By tliii 

eorti and made one of the capital poinb' of his admiiiie'^ 
I mate the equestrian ordiT with the senate, iulu one ■ 
hrty and interest. Tliis bodyof men, next to the ser- 
ine €)f the richest and most splendid families of f 
wm the ease and affluence of their fortunes, yrete na' 
wfl-aSected to the prosperity of the Republic: and 
Im> the cnnnant fartners of all the revenues of the i 
1*1 a great i>art of the inferior people dependent upon 
Scero imagined, that the niiiled weight of these two 
>ould always bo an orer-balance to any other power 
bUe, and a secure barrier against any attempts oi 
upuhir and ambitious upon the common liberty '■ H' 
be only man in the nty capable of effecting; such a co 
ebi" now at the head of the senate, yet uie darling oi 
mishts, who considered him as tlie pride and ornimipi 
Iteir order, whilst he, to ingratiate himself the more with 
fleeted always in public to boast of that extraction, and . 
imself an equestrian : and make it his special care t" '* 
ben in all their ai^rs, and to advance their credit and 
D that, as some writers tell us, it was the authority of nis 
nl^ip that first disdngui shed and established them into a 
nier of the state '■ The policy was certainly very good, 
he Republic reaped great benefit from it in this very y 
hrough wblcVi he had the whole body of knights at his <Ievo- 
Idb, wfao^ with Attictis at their head', constantly attended fats 
irder% aiid Mrrad as a goard to his person ' : uk! if the same 
laziiD bad been pursued by all succeeding consuls, it might 
inbatiy fasn preserred, or would certainly, at least, have 
mlM^ed tbe liberty of the Republic. 

Hamv hid tbis foundation for tbe laudable dtscharge of 
ib eoiHUlbipt be took possession of it, as usual, on the first of 
htamrj. A li^e before bb inauguration, P. Servilius Rullus, 
Me of tbe sew tribunes, who entered always into their office 
n tbe teotb of December, bad been alarming the senate with 
&• pRKDulgAtion of an Agrarian law. These laws used to be 
ERMily received by the populace, and were proposed, there- 
nre, by factions magistrates, as oft as they bad any point to 
eury mtb tbe multitude against the public good : but this law 

' m Bnltitadinrai tnm pTiDdpibm, Eigvotmn ordinc 
h IfeML S. Nsque dIIb tIi tuts npcrietnr, qna anjim-' 
>i— ■arai, UatuDque cooniinuooan braianir- — 

* CfcwB iwmiTn itaialiTit EqncMie noniea in eaniuiuu na ; ci > 
s e» n ot^BA profectiun cdcbzmiu, et ejui Tint pcculuri populuiUI 
d^m plane Ihk lothun coipai in Kcfub. fkclira nt, eav'^"* •Jjiti lenitui popn. 
■nt BcBuao BqniBtcr oidti. Plin. Hin. N. 1.33.2. 

* Tm, BqnJU* bntnl, tUMc, tatit me octmn e nibii, oDiirik Km|wr wnriMCnro 
nUa, fti. Fn Smtii. Pat. 6. Nunc, Ten com c^uitatni ille, qncm tfo in Clha 
-^iUiiBa, ta rigniliro w pfioc^ coUocuam, Hailnm dcwmerit. Ad Att. 2. 1 . 


WM, of aU others, the most extraraesnt, and, b^ a ■ 
gnntinff more to the people than haa ever been g^ven 
■eemed likely to be accepted. The purpose of it was, U 
a decemrinite, or ten cominissioners, with abeolate pv 
five yean over all the revenues of the Republic: to di 
them, at pleasure, to the citizens ; to sell and buy wht 
dtey thought fit : to determine the rights of the prese 
aeMors; to require an account from all the s^neials 
exceptioj{ Pompey, of the spoils taken in their wars ; i 
colonies wheresoever they thou^t proper, and partica 
Capua ; and in short, to command wl the money and £ 
the empire. 

The publication of a law, conferring powers so exceani 
■ just alarm to all who wished well to the public tranq 
ao that Cicero's fint business was to quiet toe appreben 
the cit)-, and to exert all his art and authority to baffle 
trirues of the tribune. As soon, therefore, as he was i 
wiu his new dignity, he raised the spirits of the sen 
assuring them of his resolution to oppose the law, and 
abettors, to the utmost of his power ; nor suffer the slal 
hurt, or its liberties to be impdred, while the admini 
continued in his hands. From the senate he pursued 
bune into his own dominion, the Forum ; where, in ai 
and elegant speech from the rostra, he gave such a ■■ 
the inclination of the )>eople, that they rejected this A 
law with as much eagerness as they had ever before n 

of Um Icings to domioeer over them. ' ■ 
•t buv«, from tli« natural effect of that [lOwcr * 
mI by It*; ajid proceeds Co insinuate, tKat ir « 
against their favourite Pompevt >in<l pai 
to retrench and insult his autliority : " 
I," says he, " for my nilling so aftea upon 
you yourselves imposed the task upon me, wi.„ 


to join with you, in defending his dig;nity. 
? : 1 have hitherto done ail that 1 rouid do : 

it by my private Mendsbip for the maji, nor hy 
'flf honour, and of this supreme magistracy, which 1 oo 
Srma you, though witii his approbation, vet without life* 
Sioce then I perceive tliis law to be tU'si^cd as a k 
ngine to overturn his power, I will resist the attempts of 
Bten ; aiid, as I myself clearly see what they are aim! 
1 will take care that you shall also see, and be conviik 
Ion '.'* He then shows how the law, though it excepb 

Ey from being accountable to the decemvirate, yet ez- 
n from being one of tlie number, by limiting the d 
thme who were present at Rome ; tliat it subji-cted like 
llieir jurisdiction the countries just conquered by btni, . 
}iad always been left to the management of the genpral ' : 
which he draws a pleasant picture of tlie tribune Kullus, 
all his train of officers, guards, lictors, and appariton ', h 
gering in MJlhridates's kins^dom, and ordering Pompey wm 
attend him by a mandatory letter, in the following strain : 

" P. Servilius Rullus, tribune of ihe people, decemvir, to 
CoBos Pompey, the son of Cuseus, greetii^. 

** He will not add," says he, " the title of great, when he hw 
bMB hbemiiig to take it from him by law*. 

** I Teqtnre yon not to fail to come presenUy to Sioope, and 
l>ni)|[ Be a mmcient guard with you, while Isell those landa, 
by ay hw, wluch you have gained by yoor valour." 

He obmrres, that the reason of excepting Pompey, was not 
froB anr reelect to him, but for fear that be would not submit 
to Ac indignity of being accountable to their will : " Bnt 
Panpey,** says he, " is a man of that temper, that he thinks it 
In doty to bear whatever you please to impose : but if there 
be any thing which you cannot bear yourselves, be will take 
cue uiat you shall not bear it long against your wills '." He 
proceeds to enlarge upon the dangers which this law threatened 
to th^ libertjes ; that instead of any good intended by it, to 
die body of the (ntizens, its purpose was to erect a power for 
dw oppression of them ; and, on pretence of planting colonies 


in Italy and the proriitces, to settle their own creatom m 
dependentB, like bo many varrisonB, in all the convenient p 
of the empire, to be rt^oy, on all occasions, to support t 
tyranny : that Capua was to be their head-quarters, their fi 
vourite colony ; of all cities the proudest, as well as the n 
hostile and danf^rous; in which the wisdom of their t 
would not suffer the shadow of any power or m 
remain ; yet now it was to be cherished and advance 
Rome ' : that by this law, the lands of Campania were to bt' j 
sold, or given away : the most fruitful of all Italy, the tnrMt 
revenue of the Republic, and their constant resource, when itt 
oUier rents failed them ; whicli neither the Gracchi, who, of all 
men, studied the people's benefit the most, nor Sylla, who gan 
every thing away, without scruple, durst venture to meodk 
with *. In the conclusion he tabes notice of the great iavoar 
and approbation with which they had heard him, as a sure omoi 
of their common peace and prosperity; and acquaints then 
with the concord tnat he had established with his colleague, m 
a piece of news of all other the most agreeable ; and promiMt 
all security to the Republic, if they would but show the same 
good disposition, on future occasions, wb'ch they had signified 
on that day ; and that he would make these very men, who bad 
been the most envious and averse to his advancement, confea^ 
that the people had seen farther, and judged better than they, 
in choosing him for their consul. 

In the course of this contest, he often called upon the tri- 
bunes to come into the rostra, and debate the matter with him 
before iIk->i>lf ' : liiit they ili.tiislit il more [irudciit to de- 
cline the cliiilleiigo, uiul to iillack liim rather by Sctidous 


» to B true law, as it CBtablisbnl a lyraoiiy in the city; 
" it had some escuge from the times, and, in tlieir [ir«- 
uimstances, seemed proper to be supported : especiallv 
who, for this year of bis consuUliip, prufessed liiimvlf 
3 of peace ' ; but that it was tbe beisbt of impudenoe 
, to charge him with obstrncting their interests, for 
f Sylla's enaits, when tbe very taw which that tri- 
._.i then urging, actually eatabltshed and perpetuated 
lioM grants ; and showed lUelf to be drawn by a son-ui-luw of 
J' Viigias, who possessed more lands tban any other man, by 
Alt inridious tenure, which were all, by this law, to be partly 
nnliniicd, and partly purchased of him *. This be dcnioD- 
rintcs frutn the expreM words of the law, which be bad stu- 
dioiHly omitted, he says, to take notice of before, that be might 
net revive old quarrels, or more any argument of new dls- 
»isian in a season so improper ' : that Hullut^ therefore, 
vh» accused bim of defending Sylla's acts, was, of all others, 
iie most impudent defender of them : for none had ever af- 
inned them to be good and legal, but to have some plea ouly 
fiom possession and the public (jttiet; but, by this law, the 
otates that bad been granted by them were to be fixed upon 
sbeUer foundation and title than any other estates whatsoever. 
He concludes, by renewing bis challenge to the tribunes, to 
come and dispute with htm to Lis face. But, after several 
fruidess attempts, finding themselves wholly unable to contend 
with him, they were forced at last to submit, and to let the 
affair drop, to the great joy of the senate. 

This alarm being over, another accident broke out, which 
' ^t hare endangered the peace of the dty, if the effecta of 


not beat prevented by the authority of Cicero. Otho's 
Inr, mentioaed above, for the assignment of separate seata to 
die eqaestrian order, had highly offended the people, who could 
not d&;est the indignity of being thrust bo &r baclt from their 
Cremona ; and whde the grudge was still fresh, Otbo, hap- 
pom^ to come into tbe theatre, was received by tbe populace 
with an uniTersal hiss, but by the knights with loud applause 
aid dapinng : both sides redoubled vieii clamour with great 
fi erce n efls , and from reproaches, were proceeding to blows; 
till Qcero, informed of tbe tumidt, came immediately to the 
t^tre, and, calling the people out, into the temple of Bellona, 
M tamed and stung them, by the power of his words, and made 
them so ashamed of their folly and perverseness, that, on their 
return to tbe theatre, they cbanged their hisses into applauses, 
and vied with the kni^ta themselves in demonstrations of their 
respect to Otbo*. The speech was soon after published: 

' lb. 3. 2. » lb. 3. I. 4. ' lb. 3. 2. ' Plutorcb> LifsofCkcro, 



tbou^, from the nature of the thin^, it muit have been 
upon (he spot, and flowed extempore from the occaston : 
w it was much read and admirea, for several ages after. Ma 
memorable instance of Cicero's command over men's jiiimmism 
BO some have ima^nrd it to be alluded to in that beautiful |Mi> 
sage of Vir^l '. 

Ai' nlnti BduH) !■ pnpiUa eum trpf nSrta aM 
iiidit*^, t^r^tfmf ammii hjiuUf ritgia ; 
J-imi/m I'-ia* rl >.uu njlij*/. riiriir arma undhaf : 
Tmm fmttitf yr\ftvitt €l jumtu tifnrit antm 911EH 
Anttjrrf,*i(f^^ iirnriijifmr aMnoms at 

.\> wbn 

rl/tttora malait.—WTt- K^- ■■ 1S3- 

:* ih' ipmoblr cmvd, 
f tnnni ud thinti for blood ; 

1 1 miDilnl tnnpiat lliei. 
Witli ill tlir tuililrn inui Ihil nft luf^lu* : 
irtoior naTrdiT irr'**'* imidii ibc tinft. 
In ni'nl) »lrict mi innonnn of life. 

id tlic wiM n 

ohLlr Ibc 

Thtjr vnih. uut calmi theUiDiiit of tbrir Muli. — Mr. PHI, 

One topic, which Cicero touched in thiB speech, and the onlr 
one of which we have any Lint from antiquity, was to reproaa 
the rioters, for their want of taste and good sense, in "'"*""g 
such a disturbance, while Roscius was acting *. 

There happened, about the same time, a third instance, not 
let» remarkable, of Cicero's great power of persuasion : Svlli 
had, by an express law, excluded the children of the proscribed 
from tlie senate and all public honours ; which was certunly an 
act of great violence, and the decree rather of a tyrant, than 
the law of a free state'. So that the persons injured by i^ 
who were many, and of great hmilies, were now making all 
'^"■- efforLs to get it rcvor^cd. Their petition was highly 


J; Mtfup kerab ikm port of a itkt *^frmr wl» 
be ibrara to toknte^ and ami laaiiitaiii, wlial ha 
•MTOfa^ ibr Aa fld» of Aa con m iop good : i^iacablj 
^iakyadown b his Book of Qflke% ttut BMB7 Ainga 
va natoally right and Jott, ara jtf^ hy tutmn drani- 
aad copjimctaiao of tmipii made dithoneit and m|it \ 
^ to Aeinotanea bafara m^ he dadared»ia a ^laedi aottda 
j|iw«dl yaaia aAar, that lia laid eicbded firm 
mhoKfa and honoit yooiMf men» iHknii fcrtonahad thrown into 
Mo anhappy a wtnatko, thut if Amj had obtdnad power, thay 
[wBddprdM>IyharaempIoyadittotbenimof thaiCate'. Tha 
^iraa oMao jtait mandoned, made FBny braok ont into a land 
;: tf nptnnias adnuiatioo of Aa man, wlio aooM pannada Aa 
-jmmt to giva m Adr biead, Aeb plaMora, and thav iii|arici 
li Aa dnnno 01 his ekiqaenoe *• 

Tha next tnomcAm of moment^ in wfaidi lia wm ogigad, 
vai Aa dafenoa of C Rabirin% an aged eenator, ae cne M by 
T» Lahianna^ one of the tribanei^ of treeion or rebdHoB, tit 
hfllad I* Satarninn% a tril>me, aboot forty yeaia bal»^ 
d aieed a daDgerous sedition in Aedt¥. Thafiwl^ifit 
lad baan trna^ wm not onlr legd,'bnt hwmble, being dona 
m ehefianee to a decree of toe aenate, bv wliich all Ae dtiaeae 
mn re qai i ad to tdra arms in aid of the eonsols, C Marine 
■■dij* neeni. 

But Ae pmushment of Rabirius was not Ae thing aimed at, 
nor the Hie of an old man worth Ae pains of distorbinfi^ Ae 
peace of Ae dty, Ae design was to attack that prerogative of 
the senate, by wliieh, in Ae case of a sudden tumult, Aey 
could aim Ae city at once, by requiring Ae consuls to take 
care that Ae Republic received no detriment ; which vote was 
aipposed to ^ve a sanction to every thing that was done in 
coDsequence of it ; so that several traitorous mamstrates had 
been cot off by it, wiAout the formalities of a trial, in Ae act 
of stirrinjg up sedition. This practice, though in use from the 
earliest times, had always been complained of by Ae tribunes, 
as an infringement of the constitution, by giviufi^ to Ae senate 
an arbitrary power over Ae lives of citizens, which could not 
Imlly be taKen away without a hearing and judgment of Ae 
whole people. But tne chief grudge to it was, from its bein? a 
perpetual check to Ae designs of Ae ambitious and popular, wlio 
a^ired to any power not allowed by Ae laws : it was not diffi- 

I 8fe mvlta, mm honesta natun Tidentur esse, temporibus fiont non honeita. Do 

* EgD adoleteentefi fortes et bonos, sed ubos ea conditione fortuDA, ut, si essent zna- 
nftratiu adcpti, Rdpub. ttatum conTulsuri viderentur— comitiorum ratione priyayi. 
In PteoB.2. 

> Quo te, M. TuUi, piaculo taceam ? &c. Plin. Hist. 1. 7. 30. 


cult for tbem to delude the multitude ; but the senate « 
BD caaily managed, whoi by that single vote of con 
Uepubhcto the consuls, could frustrate at once idl Uw f 
of tlieir popularity, when carried to a point whidi was da 
OU8 to tlie state : for since, in virtue of it, the tribune* t 
selves, whose persons were held sacred, might be taken a 
without sentence or trial, when engaged in any traitorous pn 
tices, alt attempts of that kind must necessarily be faazardooftj 
and desperate. " 

This point, therefore, was to be tried on the penoa «f 
Kabiriua, in whose ruin the &ctious of all ranks were interestML 
J. Ceesar suborned Labienus to prosecute him ; and proonred 
himself to be appointed one of the duumviri, or the two jui^ei 

allotted by the pnetor to sit upon trials of t 
tensius pleaded his cause, and proved, by many n 
the whole accusation was false, and that Saturnini 

tually killed by the hand of a slave, who for that a 

tained Iiis freedom from tlie public '. Csesar, however, eagerlj 
condemned the old man, who appealed from his sentence to 
the people; "where nothing," says Suetonius, "did him m 
much service, as the partial and forward severity of Ilk 


The tribunes, in the meanwhile, employed all their power 
to destroy him ; and Labienus would not suffer Cicen to 
exceed half an hour in his defence*; and, to raise the greater 
indignation against the criminal, exposed the picture of Sator- 
ninus in the rostra, as of one who tell a martyr to the libertiM 
of (lie people. Cit-ero opLiiii! the defence with threat gravity, 
'^darintf, that in the niamory of man, tliere had not been a 

ow^waao. 107 

^lus' — that be slionld ban p ^*-*— r* and fangj^ at k, m 
ui act tkut merited rewnria iiiitead of ponithiiMot. H«n hm 
waa inun upted by tlie ckmour «{ the oppoBto fiutkn ; bat Iw 
gherrtBi it to be the faint efiorti ci s maah put of Uie m- 
aaabtf : und that the Imdy of the peo|^ wbo wera ulesl* 
«aaU a«ver have made bim conMil, if they bad thoacbt Un 
cubic of being disturlied br w feaUe u inmlt; muck he 
MneA tlirin to drop, sJiiee it Mtf^ed oolv tbeir fidljr and the 
tnferiuritv of their Humben. Tbfi MMmbfr beiiif qmetad^ iw 
tliat though RalMnM did not Icfll Satanu- 

gges on to declare, tliat t ^ 

nw, yet be look arms with intant to kill Um, tontber with the 
cMMiits and all the best ef the dtr; to which bitbimoiir, TirtiWb 
nd doty called him. He pnts I^lRenna in mind tbat be waa 
Uwyouttg to be acqtuiiiited with the nerilaof tbat canae; tbat 
W WH not born when SatnmiaDS was )dlled» and could not be 
«ppriKd how odious n»d deteatabls hii name waa to all the 
Mople : thut some Imd been bannbed fin- oomploiniiM; only d 
bs death ; otbeis, for having n pictnre of him in tbeir lioaaea': 
dial be wondered, tliLTPfere, where Labienoa bad p r oc u red 
dnt picture, which tion« dumt ventiue to ke^ even at home; 
■ad much more, that ho had the hardioeaa to prodnce, befise 
•a asMtobLy of the people, what bad been the rain of othai 
nm's foTtunes-'that to durn Rabiriut with tbia dime, was 
u> con<Icinn the greatest and worthiest citizens whom Roma 
had ever bred; and though they were all dead, yet the injury 
was tbe same, to rob them of the honour due to tbeir names 
and memones. — " Would C. M ariug," says he, " have lived in 
perpetual toils and dantrers, if he had conceived no hopee con- 
cerning himBelf and his glory beyond the limits of this life? 
When he defeated tin>f<e iuimmerable enemies in Italy, and 
«red the Republic, did he ima^ne that every thing which 
related to him would die with him .'' No ; it is not so, citizens; 
there is not one of us who exerts himself with praise and virtue 
in the dangers of the iiepublic, but is induced to it by the 
eipectatioii of a fuiiinty. As the minds of men, therefore, 
seem to in- divine iiiiil immortal, for many other reasons, so 
eapedally for this, that in all the best and the wisest, there is 
M BtnHig a sense of something hereafter, that they Eccm to 
Klish nothing but what is eterfial. I appeal then to the souls 
of C. Marius, and of all those wise and worthy citizens, who, 
irom this life of men are translated to the honours and sanctity 
of the gods ; I call them, I say, to witness, that I think myself 
bound to fight for their fame, glory, and memory, with as much 
zeal, as for the altars and temples of my country; and, if it 


were neceanry to take antu in tbe defence of their praisi^ 
I ihould take them as strenuously, as they tLemselres did te 
the defence of our common safety '." 

After this speech the people were to pass judgment on ' 
Rabirius by the suffrages of all the centuries: but there being 
reason to apprehend some violence and foul play from the 
intrigues of the tribunes, Metellus, the augur and pmtor 
of that year, contrived to dissolve the assembly by a stratagem 
before they came to a vote * ; and the greater amdis that pre- 
sently ensued, and engaged the attention of the city, prevented 
the hither prosecution and revival of the cause. 

But Cnsar was more successful in another esse, in whidi be 
was more intei-ested, his suit for the high priesthood, a poat of 
tbe first <lignity in the Republic, vacant by the death <n M^ 
tellus Pius. Labienus opened his way to it by the pnUicatioB 
of a new law, for transferring the nght of electing from tbs 
college of priests to the people, agreeably to the tenor irf a 
former Uw, which had been repealed by Svlla. Cont^ 
atrengtli lay in the favour of the populace, which, bv imnwunw 
bribes, and the profusion of his whole substance, he oad gained 
on this occasion so effectually, that he carried this high office 
before he had yet been pr^tor, agunst two consular comp^ 
titors of tbe first authority in Rome, Q. Catulus and P. Servi- 
lius Isanricus ; the one of whom had been censor, and then 
bore the title of Prince of the Senate; and the other been 
honoured with a triumph : yet be procured more votes againrt 
them, even in their own tnbes, than they both had out of the 
whole number of the citizens *. 


CbOnBtodarUaMrifrf Abdme; wImi^ wlAoM dnv. 
'mg or exmanv it, be Umd^ told tSaOf -limt there wbk two 
liodies in tJw RepDUk^" nwning die wnete and the paopK 
"the one of Aon infinn, whhe weak heed, die ether ttnn 
wHliout a heed; whidi Iwt hed eo wdl deeemd of hiioa thet 
it should never went e heed while he Urcd." He had made a 
deda^raof Ae nxne Idnd, and ID die mne plaee^ afew den 
^^^^^^-, opoD Catxfn threatening Um with an bupma^- 
edj rejdied, ** Aat if any flame shonld he ezdtad 
i^ he wonld aztiiigaiah i^ not with water, bitf a 

' TVae dedaradoDi etarded die aenat^ and ooovineed ibam 
flat nedriny bnt a deq>ente ooupiiaey, ripe fiw '^trntimi, 
floaU iiMpire ao dviwan aHuranee; ao that they proeaeded 
hmmtimHrif to that decree, which waa dw naoal refi^ in aD 
cMea off inDunent danger, of ordering the oonmb to take cam 
that Ae Repoblio received no Iwm*. Upon thii Geno 
d wA leJ hie guard, and called eoBM tnopa into thedty; an^ 
when Reelection of caBnb came on, that he mig^ hnprint a 
anaae ef hm own and the poblie dai^er Ae men alningly, W 
toifc ene to dranr back ki gown, in the view of the PMjd^ 
and diaoorered ■ ahinii^ breMt-pbUe whidi be wore nnoer It * t 
by wUtk pfecaotion, m he ttwd Cadline afterwarda to Ui 
iaee, lie nrevcBted hii de^;n of billing both him and the eaai> 
petitots tor die GODsnlship, of whom D. Jimiiu Silanus and L. 
LitnniuB Mmma were declared consuls elect *. 

Catiline tfaiu a second time repulsed, and breathing notbiiw 
but revenge, was now eager and impatient to execute Lu 
grand plot: he had no other g;ame left; his schemes were not 
only suspected, but actually ^scovered by the sagacity of the 
conaul, and lumself shunned and detested by all honest men ; 
w that he resolved, without farther delay, to put all to the 
hazard, of rmmng either hia country or himself. He was sin- 
ralaily formed, ooth by art and nature, for the head of a 
oespemte conspiracy ; of an illustrious fomily, ruined fortunes, 
profligate mind, undaunted courage, unwearied industry; of a 
capacity equal to the hardiest attempt, with a tongue that 

' Tnm enhd dual duo coipon «« Rdpub. ; unn 

m deha<i,ir.!!nnoaq.itr- latcnim 

bUDID, ane opiU: haic, cum )U it •> meritum 

(act. c^ut, H Ti.o, nan dofulu- 

nuD.-^;iiin idem ills pwcu diebui uite CttoDi, 

id H OOD iquK, Kd niimt mtioc- 

tanm. Pro Muinn. 2S. 

» SJlMt. beU. CuiL 29. Plot. Cic. 

* DeKTndi id cuupam— cnm i1!i 1>U iaugni(|iM 

xaait, rt cum in metu at peiiculo couinlem yidor 

enl, id quod fkctum eit, td opem 

110 THE LIFr. 

could expliun, aiid a liand tbat cuuld execute it '. Cicero givei 
US his inst character in many parts of his works, but in none I 
more lively picture of him than in the following passage*: 

" He had in him," Bays he, " many, though not expreas 
intages, yet sketches of the greatest virtues ; was acquainted 
with a great number of wicked men, yet a pretended admirer 
of the virtuous. His house was furnished with a rariety of 
temptations to lust and lewdness, yet with several indtementi 
also to industry a'ld labour : it was a scene of vicious plea- 
sures, yet a B<mool of martial exercises. There never was 
such a monster on earth, compounded of passions so contrary 
and opposite. Who was ever more agreeable at one time to 
tlie best citizens ; who more intimate at another with tke 
worst f who a man of better principles ? who a fouler enemy 
to this city? who more intemperate in pleasure? who moM 
paUent in labour? who more rapacious in plundering? who 
more profuse in squandering ? He had a wonderful &cu|n 
of engaging men to his friendship, and obliging them by hu 
observance, sharing with them in common whatever he was 
master of; serving them with his money, his interest, his 
pains, and when there was occasion, by the most daring act! 
of villany; moulding his nature to bis purposes, and bending 
it every way to his will. With the morose, he could live 
severely; with the free, gaily; with the old, gravely; with the 
young, cheerfully i witli the enterprising, audaciously; with 
the vicious, luxuriously, lly a temper so various and pliable, 
he gathered about him the profligate and the rash &om all 
countries, yet held atladied to him, iit itn" sjune time, many 

OP i:lCF.RO. I ] I 

te have the nmnnand of all tlie forces tli»t ri'tnained. But bi* 
Cf«ttmt hopes lay in yylln's veteran solitivni, whose caiiHc he 
had always espoused, ana among whom he liad tiecu bred ; who, 
to the namber of about an hundred ibousand, M-erc ai-lljcd in 
the different districts and colonies of Italv, in the {)08fiP!i>iiuri of 
hods assigned to (hem by Sylla, vldAt the ffeuenility had 
I wBSted by their sices and luxury, and wanted anolbtr civil 
1. WW to repair their sliattered fortunes. Amoni; thcM he ein- 
P ployed his a^nts and officen in all pnrbs to di-baucli them to 
Lb service ; and, in Etroria, had actually enrolled a eonsidi-r- 
I able body, and farmed them into a little army, under tlie <.'om- 
mand of Mantius, a bold and experiencml c^rntiirioii, who 
niled only for his orders to take the field '. We inuitt add to 
thiif, wKiit all wTiters mention, the universal digaffeclion and 
dtMonteot which possessed all ranks of the city, but eKpccially 
the meaner sort, who, from the uneaainesa of their ciroini- 
ttancew, and the pres-sure of lh«'ir debts, wislied for a chan)^ 
of government : so tliat if Catiline hud gained any little ad- 
T«Dtage at setting out, or come off but equal in the first 
battle, there was reason to expect a ^nerul declaration in hiit 

I He called a council, therefore, of all tlie conspirators, to 
I aettlc the plan of their work, and di\-idc tlie pnrCs of it amonv I 
I themselves, and fix a proper day for the execution. Then 
were about tliirty-five, whose names are tninsniitted to us as 
principals in the plot, partly of the senatorian, partly of the 
equestrian order, with many others from the colonies and 
municipal towns of Italy, men of families and interest in their 
Wreral couiirries. The Hoiiators were P, Cornetiu* l.entulus. 
C. Cetbegus, P. Autronius, L. Cassias Loni^nuB, P. Sylla, 
Serv. SyDa, k. Vari^imteius, Q. Curias, Q. Annius, M. Por- 
ciuB Lecca, L. Bestia '. 

Lentalns was descended from a patridan branch of the Cor- 
nelian foniily, one of the most numerous, as welt as the most 
Smdid, in Rome. His grandfather bad borne the title of 
nee of the Senate, and was the most active in the pursuit 
and destruction of C. Gracchus, in which he received a dan- 
lerous wound*. The grandson, by the favour of his noble 
birtb, had been advanced to the consulship about eight years 

' CM(n nml in Ittln cODin Rempab. in Etniria bacibui cnllocau. In CilEI. 1, 
i It. 3. 8. 

• Srd omnino cuacU plebei, noviniin reran) itudio, Cililini' IncepU pinbibat — 
quod li primo pntlio Catilin* luperior, aat eqi» muiu diieoiiMM, profeclo nagni 
cUdn, ftc. Sdlnat. 37. 39. 

• adhut.17. 

• Nnm P. Lentnlnni, prindpcm teaatu«? Complurc* aliot ■unimo> vlrog, i^iii cnm 
L. 0|4iRiD aninls umul Qnecbum in Anntinnm penecuti ■unii' quo in pnelio 
IcDtnlm gnre nisni acoplt. Philip. 8. 4. in Citil. 4. 6. 

lis THE UFB 

b« WIS raiiMd oat of the senate soon after by Ait 
cvworv far the aotonoas in&mr aS his life, till, by obtainin* 
tW pnrconhip a second time, vVkh he now actually enjoyej 
W Kco«med li» ionaer place and nnk in that supreme oooih 
dl '■ Hit pans were but modente, or rather slow : yet Ae 
lawrHn-ti ot lus person, the gracefulnen and propriety of Ui 
aii »»> tW stnngdi aod sweetncaa of his voice, procured hha 
M^ ivpnatMo as a speaker *. He was lazy, luxurious, and 
nod^atelv wicketl : ret so vvn and ambitious, as to expect 
tma the overthrow ot the government, to be the first man in 
^ RepabUr : ia which ^cy he was strongly flattered by 
soBe crafty suothsarers, who a»ured him, frmn the Sibylline 
bMfcs. "lliai there were three Comeliuaea destined to tha 
«bwBioa of Rome ; that Cinna and Sylla had already poa- 
•nsed it, and tbe prophecy wanted to be completed in him'.' 
With these Tiew» he enterra freely into the conspiracy, trusting 
» Catiline'; riai^wr K>r the execution, and hoping to re^i tbe 
eUet miit hvm its success. 

Cetbe«u» was of an exnacdtm equally noble, but of a tem- 
per fierw. imftetuouK, and daring to a degree even of fury. 
He bk.1 been «^nnlr engaged u the cause of Mariua, witii 
wthMk he was ilriven out ot Rome; but, when Sylla's afiin 
liecttme pKwpen>c». he pteseuily changed sides, and throwing 
hioKwlf at SvlU's teet. and ^romtting great services, ww 
rvstuceil to iKe oit^- *. Alter >vUa's death, by intrigues and 
£kUivu he acqiure^ so great an influence, that, while Pompey 
was abr«ail, he governed all things at home; procured for 
Anixxiius the command over the coasts of the Mediterranean, 

iwms entnwtcd with the niMl hlaiidy and despente 

dw tank of mn««)u.Tping tbeir euemicji wiibiii ilir 

MM i>f tLo ootispiniUtrit wurc not less illustrious for ■m 

The two Syitas were nepliews t«> tim dictator of 

AvtroniDs had obtained the consuUliiji, but vem i 

bribery ; oiid Casnius was competitor for il vvitli 

■df. In short, tlicy wen- all of the sime stamp ana 

neu whom dUappointxneutSi ruined fortuiim, uiid 

1ir«s, had [in-|iuri'd for any design against the staU 

w1mis« hopew of eiutc an<l advancement depended oa-^ 

ofaflnirs, and the subversion of tlio Republic 

At this 0ie«^ng it wan renmlred. that n ireneral influrT< 
(timtld be niwed through wj, U,^ ?nt parlA of 

were assigned to different leaders; iiun. Catiline shov 
yra»lf at the head vftlie troops in Ktruria ; that Rome 
be lired in many pliiccH iil once, and a tmusacre fiegoi 
laiue time, of tlie whole Fienate, and all their enemies ; a. 
none were to Iw be spiu-ed except the »one of Potnf 
were to be kept «n hoKtagi s of their peace and reoou 
with the father : that, in 3i' consternation of the lire a., 
tacre, Catiline should be ready with his 'I'uscan army, m 
the benefit of the public confuMon, and make himself r 
nf tlie city; where Letitulus, in tlie mean while, as ti>. 
£gnity, was to preside in their genera! councils ; C'awtii 
manage the affair of firing h ; Cethegiut to direct the tna.>.s;tcrB . 
But uie vigilance of Cicero being the chief obstacle li> nil tbeil^ 
hopes, C'atjiine was very desirous to see him taken oft" iiefore 
be leh Home ; upon which two knights of the compiiiiv iL»der- 
lock to kill him the next morning in his hed, in an earlv visit, 
on pretence of btHinesa '. They were both of his Hc<jiiain^ 
auce, and used to frequent his house ; and, knowing his 
ciutom of giving free access to all, made no doubt of l»eing 
readily admitted, aa C. Cornelius, one of the two, ufti'nvarda 
confessed '. 

The meeting was no sooner over, than Cicero had informa- 
tion of all that passed in it: for, by the intrigues of a uoman 
named Fulvi-i, be had gained over Ciu-ius, her gallant, one of 
the conspirators, of senatoHan rank, to send him a punctual 
accoont of all their deliberations. He presently imparted tliis 
btelligeoce to some of the chiefe of the city, who were as- 

' Coii, Pacdi, HyUm, Cethegi, AntonS, V«pgunt«ii, ilqne Lon^ni : noe hmilw ? 
j»fl»iMJiMiin'Hiiiii' *ri Flor. 1.1.1. 

• Cm Catiliu cgndcretnr id txercitnin, Lntnlni in utIm niinqnerftur. Curiai 
heaiSkL, Cetbcriu «di pnponnHDr. Pro S;ll. 19. Vid. Plot, in Cie. 

• DixM puIliilBm tiU on num, quod e^o liTrnrn : lepcrti lunt duo Equila 
Baonriifaita fata COT* libennnt, et mc ilU ipi« nocte ml* lu«m me mco id iectnia 
klatetompoOicamitiu. In Citil. 1.4. it. Sdlnit. 28. 

• '^BCtsmalOT, Cvrndi.idqDodtuidcm iliquanda confitrlur, illim tibi officioMm 


«embt<!ij that erpniiiK. » usual, at his house ; ioforming thca^^ 
not oaW of the de^Unii but naminff the men who were lij 
execute it, and the ren- hour when Uiey would be at his nte :, 
all which fell out exactly as he foretold; for the two knightt 
came before breat of dar, but hod the mortiiicatioD to find tilt 
house wvll guarded, and all admittance refused to them'. 

Cadline wa» disappointed likewise in another a&ir, of na 
less moment, before he quitted the citj ; a deaign to sunirin 1 
tbe town ot' Prvneste. one of the stronreet fortresses of Italyr ■ 
within twenty-tire miles of Home: which would have bcM 
«l' singuUr us*- to him in the war. and a sure retreat in alt 
eWDtS : but Cicero was stiU beforehand with him, and, fnn 
the apprehensioDS of such an attempt, had previously seat 
otders to the place to keep a special guard; so that whn 
Catiline came in the nieht to make an assault, he found the* 
to well prorided. that he durst not venture upon the expeii- 

This was the »tate of the oonspiracv, when Cicero delivered 
the tirsi ot' those tour speeches, which were spoken on the 
ocnkMon of it. and are $ti)l extant. The meeting of tlie ooi^ 
spirstors was on the sixth of November, in the evening; and 
OD the eighth he summoned the senate to the temple of Ju[^ 
ler. in the Capitol, where it was not usually held but in timet 
vi public alarm *. There had been several debates before thii 
on the same subject of Catiline's treasons, and his des^a of 
killing the mnsul : and a decree had passed, at the mobon of 
Cicerw. to offer a public reward to the first discoverer of the 
plot: if Hsbve, his liberty, and ei^hi lutiiJred pounds; if a 
cilizen. his tiarriou. and sixteeu hundred '. Yet C'atiliii 

IICBEO. 115 

|M4t*p<mi tlTa BHk, SDd bid the oanfidcnm to come to dib 
Defy ineetid^^ in the C^ntiri; wUdi ao chocked the wholo 
inhly, that aoae eren of hk "T'«'"f"iT dunt Tcntore to 

Mlute hun; and tkt oonenhr MtietmB quitted that part d the 
home ill whichl»«fcaDdleftthewh(He bench clear tofaim'. 
CietTo vas so pnnJwd hj bk impiidence, tint, inicead of 
entering upon My bmi i i W i , ■■ he dengned, ■ddreaniw biaaielf 
itrecUy ta CatHiMk he bidu oat into a moat aevere inreetire 
wainst him, adit «^ all the fire and Airce of an iBeenaed 
wquence, laid aMn Ae wliolo oohtm of hie rillanie^ and the 

DBbmely of hia b 

He put hioi in miad, diat there was a decree already made 
igwnst him, by vUch lie ooold take bta life*, and that he ao^at 
* ' SJt 1<"V Vt ■"><!B many, &r more eminent and 

yijid been taken off by the nme aotfamity, for the 
^of treaeonablededgos; that if he ahonld etdcr 
^ to be UUed apoa the wpat, there was eanae to 
^l|llliliiail|. tUt it wooU be thought rather too late than tao 
tnmit bat Aeie wia a certwi reason which yet withheld him : 
*naB ahalt then be pat to death," wye he, " when diere ia 
■■I • man fbnod so widied, so desperate, so like to thyw 
nI^ iribo will deay it to be done justly. Ae long as there is 
«s n^ Ana ta defend thee, thon sbalt lire, and lin ao^ la 
Aon BOW dcat, annoaoded by the guards which I hare plaeed 
■bout thee, so as not to suffer thee to stir a foot against the 
RepuUi^ whilst the eyes and ears of many iltall watch thee, 
as they hare hitherto done, when thou little thoughtest of it *." 
He then goes oa to give a detail of all that had been concerted 
by the coaspiiators at their several meetings, to let him see, 
tutt he was perfectly informed of every step which be had 
taken, ar deagned to take ; and observes, that he saw several 

at that very time in the senate, who had assisted at those 
meetings — he presses him, therefore, to quit the city, and, 
ice 2l his councils were detected, to drop the thought «f 

fires and massacres ; that the gates were open, and nobody 
•bould stop him '. Then, running over the fl^igitioua enor- 
■lities iHT his life, and the series of his traitorous practices, he 
eihorts, urges, commands him to depart; and, if he would be 
advised by him, to go into a voluntary exile, and irer them 
from their fears; that, if they were just ones, they might be 
safer ; if groundless, the quieter ': that though he would not 
pnt the question to the house, whether they would order him 
mto banishment, or not, yet he would let him see their sense 

' Qoa t* CI ^c tanU riniuiitU, lol ex lui, amioi ac iMc«Hiii> liluuvit '• Quid, 
iBod ■dientn tno uta nbMllU ncueftcU lunl ? &c. Ibid. 1. 7. 
* HtbctmnScMtuciHUultaiBfale, Cslilii»,v('h«ii«i>elim*r. Ih. 1 I. 


iqMD it, by their manner of beharing while lie was m^ _ 
to it; for, sliouM lie bid any otter senator of credit, P. S 
tills, or M. Marcelltts, to go into exile, they would all i ' 
affainst kim at once, and lay violent Lauds on their C 

Jet, when he sdid it to him, by their silence they approved i^] 
y their KufTeriii^ it, di-creed it ; hy saying nothing, |n>l 
claimed their consent': tliat be would answer likewise £ar tfcl^ 
IcniKhts, who were then guarding the avenues of the BernA^I 
ana were liardly restrained from doing him violence ; that if htl 
would consent to go, they would all ouietly attend him to th* { 
gates. Vet, after all, it', in virtue of nis command, he sho^ • 
really go into banishment, he foresaw what a storm of envy k - 
should draw by it upon himself; but he did not value that^ % 
by his own calamity, he could avert the dangers of the Ro- 
public: but there was no hope that Catiline could ever be 
induced to yield to the occasions of the state, or moved wilk 
the sense of his crimes, or reclaimed by shame, or fear, or 
reason, from his madness *. He exhorts him, therefore, if he 
would not go into exile, to go, at least, where he was expectM^ 
into Manlius's camp, and begin the war ; provided only, thet 
he would carry out with him all the rest of his crew : (Jut 
there he might riot and exult at his full ease, without tbe 
mortification of seeing one honest man about him * : there be 
might practise all that discipline to which he had been trained 
of lying upon the ground, not only in pursuit of his leird 
amours, but of bold and hardy enterprizes: there he migbt 
exert all that boosted patience of hunger, cold, and ivant,^ 
which, however, he would shortly find himself undone, at 
tlien iiitnidm ' ' ' 


Kty; yet, ifihc ^fmtest was sure ta befij me, it waa always 
J peniwsion, thut envy, Jictjuirwl by virtue, was ri*»I!y giory, 
n efivy : but there art' some tif thm very order, wlio lUi not 
tli«r see the dangers wliicb iiane over ua, ar rise dissemble 
hai ihey see ; who, by the M>}tnc«s of tlieir votes, cherish 
'■(ilinc's b()])es, an<l add utreng^Ii lo tlie conspiracy, by not 
elieviii^ it: wliose authority influences iiuiriy, not only uf 
le »-icked, but the weak ; who, if I had punished tliis man as 
e cle«erveH, would not have fjiilfd tn crv nut upon me for 
niiig ibe tyrant'. Now, I am perauadeif, that, when he is 
Bce gone iiitu Maolius's eamp, whither be actually designs tn 
tt, none can be so silly as not to aee that there is a plot, none 
» weJceil as not to acknowledge it: whereas, by biking him 
ff alone, though tliia pestilence would be somewhat chedied, 
1 could not be suppressed: but when he has thrown himself 
alo rebellion, and carried out bis friends along wirli faim, and 
nwti Iti^tber the profligate and rlesperate fn>in all iiarts of 
be empire, not only this ripened plague of the Itcpiinlic, but 
be very root and setid of all our evils will be extirpated with 
lifR at nnce." Then applying himself again to Catiline, he 
WQcludo with a short prayer to Jupiter : " With these gmens, 
l^tilinef of all prwperity to the Republic, but of destruction 
10 tliy«eir, and all those who have joined themselves witli thee 
!D all kinds of parricide, go thy wav then to this impious and 
iboniiid^ wtr; whilst thou, Jupiter, whose religion was 
ctfaUnhed wiA the foundation of this citv, whom we truly 
call Stator, the stay and prop of this empire, wilt drive tbia 
ataii ami bia accmnplices from thy altars and temples, from the 
booses and walls of the city, from the lives and fortunes of us 
all; and wilt destroy, witn eternal punishments, both living 
ad dead, all the haters of eood men, the enemies of their 
Mntry, the plunderers of Italy, now confederated in this de- 
ttstaUe league and partnership of villany." 

Cadlinp, astonished by the thunder of this speech, had little 
to My for himself in answer to it ; yet, with downcast looks 
ind suppliant voice, he begged of the fathers, not to believe 
too hastily what was said agunst him by an enemy ; that his 
birdi and past life offered every thing to nim that was hopeful ; 
■nd it was not to be imagined, that a man of patrician family, 
■iose ancestors, as well as himself, had given many proofs of 
^r affection to the Roman people, should want to overturn 
l^govemment; while Cicero, a stranger, and late inhabitant 
rf lunne, was so zealous to preserve it. But, as he was going 
DD to. give foul language, the senate interrupted him, by 
I general outcry, calling nim traitor and parricide: upon which 

118 THE UFB 

bein^ furious and de«perate, he declared again, alond, wkath 
had gaid before to Cato, that since he was circuiiiT«ited f^ 
driven headlong by his enemies, he would quench the fli . 
which was raised about him, by the comtnon ruin; and* 
rushed out of the assembly '. Aa soon aa he was ' 

his house, and began to reflect on what had passed, p 
it in Tain to dissemble any longer, he resolved to enter i 
action immediately, before the troops of the RepuUie \ 
increased, or any new levies made; ao that, aner a I 
conference with Lentulus, Cethegus, and the rest, about w 
had been concerted in the last meeting, having givien &—-,■ 
orders and assurances (^ his speedy return at ue head V'' 
a 'Strong army, he left Rome that very nidbt, with aMW 
retinue, to m^e the best of his way towards Etruria*. 

He no sooner disappeared, than bis friends gave out that ha 
was gone into a voluntary exile at Marseilles*; which nm 
industriously spread through the city next morning, to rnw 
an odium upon Cicero, ^r driving an innocent man flM 
banishment without any previous trial or proof of his guilt: 
but Cicero was too well informed of his motions, to entertna 
any doubt about his going to Manlius's camp, and into actai 
rebellion : he knew that be had sent thither already a qoanti^ 
of arms, and all the ensigns of military command, with ^M 
taWer eagle, which he used to keep with great superstition m 
his house, for its having belonged to C. M^us, in his expedi- 
tion against the Cimbri*. Itut, lest the story should make 
an ill impression on the city, he called the people together 
' > r'oriim, lo f{ive ihcni ;in account of what passed in 

or CICBBO. 119 

on^ht, lon^ afpi, to liavc tadknA tba iMtptudakawat : 
tin of niir .-aOMton, tiiw £wiplim of the Mnpn^ sad 
iblic itiiell nqinred it: but baw wuny woald then 

I who wuiild not bare beliered what J chi yd hJH 

kift? liuw tnaiiy who, thnK^ woaknoi, wodU aeror ham 
iHwioed it, nr, tlimi^ WMkcdnew, would have dcfeiuM 
kf'~~He observes, dwt if he hod pot Citiliiie to dei^ he 
Amid have drawn iqMn hiaielf anch an odimn, ■■ wonU have 
jHid^red bim unable to pw ec iite his aeoomplicea, aod ntiipate 
ihe nrnuting of the dompincT; but, w &r iram briivaftaid af 
him ROMT, be wa'j lony mly that be weat off with to faw 
to Mtend iiim ' ; that hia fimee were ctmtenptible, if < 

irith tho»e of tlit.- R^oblic, made np of a niKrable, aeedv 
Rw, who had wAsted their nbetance, forfeited their baiia, aod 
roiUd run nway, not only at the rigifat of ao anov, bat of tlw 
prastoKsediut:— Tldit tliate who had deeerted hisamTiaod 
■taid behiud, were mora to be dreaded than the army itwlft 
and tb« more »o, bticanoe they knew Urn to be inCgraMd of all 
ibrir d«»)f{iis, yet were not at all moved by it: that ha bad 
laid opeti all their ooundla in the senate the day bebre^ nien 
vfaid) Caiiline was ao diafaeartened, that he immediately fled: 
Aat he could not gneaa what theee othera meant; if they 
ima^ned that he tilrald alwaya use the same lenity, they wan 
mu^i rnifttaken ' ; fir he had now gained what he oad hitherto 
lieen w^ting for, to make all the people see that there was a 
conspiracy; that now, therefore, there was do more room for 
eiemency, the case itself required severity : yet he would still 
^aiit them one thing, to quit the city, and follow Catiline: 
nay, would tell them the way; it was the Aurelian road, and, 
il Ihey would make haste, they might overtake him before 
night. Then, afier describing the profligate life and con- 
versation of Catiline and hw accomplices', he declares it 
insufferably impudunt for such men to pretend to plot : the 
lasy agaiost the acl^ve, the foolish against the prudent, the 
drunken against tliC sober, the drowsy against tlie vigilant; 
who, lolling at fea^^ts, embracing mistresses, staggering with 
wini^, stufffd will) victuals, crowned with garlands, daubed with 
perfiunes, belch, in their conversations, of massacreing the bo- 
neat, and firing the dty. " If my oonsulship," says he, " since 
it cannot cure, should cut off all these, it would add no small 
period to the duration of the Republic : for there i^ no nation 
which we have reason to fear ; no king w)io can make war 
upon the Roman people ; all disturbances abroad, both by land 
and sea, are quelled by the virtue of one man ; but a domestic 
war still remains; ue treason, the danger, the enemy is 

1*20 THE LIFE 

within : we are to combat with luxury, with iiudne«B, wifb^' 
vilbny : in this war 1 profess myself your leader, and take npa rf: 
nyseffall the animosity of the desperate: whatever can poiai*? 
biy be healei), I will heal ; but what ought to be cut off, 1 1^' 
nerer suffer to spread to the ruin of the dty *." He then takw 
notice of the report of Cadliae's beine driven into exile, Iwl 
ridicules the weakness of it, and says, t^t he had put that inift> 
ta out of doubt, by exposing all his treasons, the day befiK^ 
in the senate '. He laments the wretched condition, not aaif 
of goveminic, but even of preserving states : '* For if Cati- 
line," says he, " baffled by mv pains and counsels, shoold 
really change his mind, drop all thoughts of war, and betaka 
himself to exile, he would not be said to be disarmed ami 
terrified, or driven from his purpose by my vigilance : bn^ 
uncondemned and innocent, to be forced into b^ishment by 
the threats of the consul ; and there would be numbers WM 
would think him not wicked, but unhappy ; and me not a dili- 
gent consul, but a cruel tyrant." He declares, that though, 
nir the soke of his own ease or character, he should never wnh 
to hear of Catiline's being at the bead of an army, yet they 
would certainly hear it in three days' time : that if m«i 
were so perverse as to complain of bis being driven away, 
what would they have said, if he had been put to death? 
Yet tliere niis not one of those who talked of his goiiw 
(0 Marseilles, but would be sorry for it, if it was true, aid 
wishitl much rather to see him in Manlius's camp * : he 
pnn-eeds to describe, at large, the stren^ and forces of 
Catiline, and the ilifferent sorts of men of which they v 

ot cicno. IS] 

wtlihe district of I^cenum, t^oppoMill CBlil»e*a modoot 
•B tkit side : and for aettUx^ all mattni U iMma, bad n»- 
awncd the senate to meet wu that iiioniiiqc, wldch, m tbe^ 
■Bv, WAS then assembling. M tat thoM^ dwrefiwa^ i^ «H« 
left behind in tbe city, thoaglk ther ««n now owmia^ jm, 
■Hc they were born citizen^ }ta admoniibcd then, agna aad 
inb, tluit bis lenity had been waitiiig only, fiir w opportaaby 
cf demonstratin]^ the cerounty of tlie plot; tha^ iiv dw laMj 
b should never foi^et tiiat thn mw hv conntry, ha th^ cciiaa^ 
who ttiouzht it is <luty ladier to lire with nmu, or ^ for 
tb«ni. "There \s no guard," mya he, •■ qNm Ac galea, aoaa 
10 watch the roada; if anyoneliBBaiBand to wlthdiawUaMl^ 
k may go whenever he pleeaea; bnt if he laakca Aa leatt 
Uif triilitn the city, so as to be caught ia any orert-act agaimt 
tbt Republic, be Uiall know thiUthne are b it TJgilant eonaal^ 
oeellent magistnites, a ftoot Koate: — dnt there are wrmm, 
and a prison, which our ancerton prorided, an the aro^er af 
naifest crimes ; and alt thia ihall be tnumcted in audi a ■■»■ 
Btf, citizens, that tbe greateat ^aocdera ahall be qoelled witk- 
gtt the least hurry- ; the greateat dangera, vithoat any tuamlt; 
idomestic war, the most deqterate ot any in oar memory, Inr 
aie, your only leader and geneial, in my gown : wUdi I wlu 
Eunage so, that, as iar an it ia iMMnbte, not one even of tha 
guilty shall euSer punislinoent in the city : but if their aiiJa 
cioQSaeaa, and my country's danger, should necemarily drire 
ne from this mila resolution, yet I will effect, what in so cruel 
and treacherous a war could hardly be hoped for, that not one 
honest man shall &li, but all of you he safe by the puaishment 
of a few. This I promise, citizens, not from any confidence 
in my own prudence, or from any human counsels, but from 
tbe many endent declarations of the gods, by whose impulse I 
>m led into this persuasion ; who assbt us, not as they used to 
do, at a distance, against foreign and remote enemies, but by 
their present help and protection, defend their temples and 
our houses : it is your part, therefore, to worship, implore, and 

Qto them, that, since all our enemies are now aubdued 
bv land and sea, they would continue to preserve this 
city, wnich was designed by them for the most beautiful, the 
most flourishing, and most powerful on earth, from the moat 
detestable treasons of its own desperate citizens." 

We have no account of this day's debate in the senate, which 
met while Cicero was speaking to the people, and were wait- 
ing his coming to them from tbe rostra: but as to Catiline, 
after staying a few days on the road, Ut raise and ann the 
country through which he passed, and, which his agents had 
already been dispelling to Ins interestfs he marched directly to 
Manlius's camp, with the fiisces and all tbe ensigns of military 


i dUplayciI before htm. Upon this nevrs, the wmli'i 

dedaml both him an<i Maiilitis pubhc enemies, with offers tf i 
piinioi) to all hU folhiwcrs, who were not condemned of Ga{nlil 
crimes, if they returned to their duty by a certain day; lai 
orderecl the cuiisuU to make new levies, and that Antoniai 
should folhtw Cutiliiie with the army; Cicero stay at home la 
ginrd the city '. 

It will seem strong* to some, that Cicero, when he hti 
certain information of Catiline's treason, instead of Beizing iSm 
in the city, not onlv suffered, but ur^red his escape, and foread 
him, as it were to begin the war. But there was good resMB 
for what he did, as he frequently intimates in his speeches ; he 
had many enemies among the nobility, and Catiline many 
secret friends: and tliooj^h he was perfectly informed of the 
whole proj^ess and extent of the plot, yet the proob being 
itot ready to be laid before the public, Catiline's disBimulattoo 
mill prorailed, and persuaded great numbers o( his innocence; 
so that, if he hail imprisoned and punished him, at this time, 
as lie deserved, the whole faction were prepared to raise ■ 
i^neral clamour luratnst him, by representing his adminiiCr^ 
tion as a tyranny, and the plot as a forgery contrived to sup- 
|H)rt it : whereas, bv driving Catiline into rebellion, he made 
nil men see the reality of their danger; while, from an exact 
account of his troops, he knew them to be so unequai to those 
of the Kepublie, that there tvas no doubt of his being destroyed, 
if ho ctiiild 1k> pushed to the necessity of declaring himself, 
before his other projei-ts were ripe for execution. He knew 
also, that if Catiline was once driven out of the city, aad 

,_ IM^ wbo had married his sister, thouf^h ec|ii!i 
,lktt collcH^c ' '• be was joiood in the accuMttion 
' ^appointed candidates, S. Sulpicius, a pcrKoti a 
mrth and character, and the most celebrated law^r i 
Kit whose service, and at whose instance, Cicon i '^ 
kibery vnts chiefly provided '. 

Muraum vms bred a soldier, and had acquirer 
b llie Mithridatic «'ar, as lieutenant to LucuUu 
BOW defetided by three, the greatest men, as r^ 
fnaleat orators, of Rome, Crassiis, Uortensius ana 
B that tlicre bad seldom been a trial of more expectac 
account of the dignity of -" '*-- parties concerned 
diaraeter of the accusers i ic reasonable to belii 

there was clear proof of le illegiil practices; yt 
Ciernv's speech, which, thi imperfect, is the ooiy • 
ii^ monuraent of the trans i, tt seems probable, th 
were such only, as ihougi ly gjieaking, irregulf 

Trt warranted by custom . ii<> --le example of all cai 
and, though heinous in th" s of a Cato, or an angr; 
ptlitor, were usually ovei i-ncd by the magistrates, ai 
(jocted by the people. 

The accusation consisted of three heads ; the scam, 
Mur^na's life; the want of dignity in his character and &. 
and bribery in the late election. As to the first, the gre, 

Lltxxo'^iliJiiUCii i> AUJJioiiliat rL'juoxliiiiik' : lit; iidmuui&Lcs CitO 
not to throw oat mch a calumny so inconsiderately, or to call 
the oSBSol of R«me a dancer ; but to consider how many other 
trimes • man most oeedg be guilty of, before that of danciog 
CQold be truly objected to him : since nobody ever danced, even 
m aolitnde, or a private meeting of friends, who was not either 
dmnk ar mad; for dancing was always the last act of riotous 
beoqnetS) gay places, and much jollity : that Cato charged him, 
therefore, with what was the effect of many vices, yet, with 
Bone of those, without which that vice could not possibly sub- 
nst : with no scandalous feasts, no amoon, no nightly revels, 
no lewdness, no extravagant expense *. &c 
- As to the second article, the want of dignity, it was urged 
chiefly by Snipicius, who being noble, and a patrician, was 
the more mortified to be defeated by a plebeian, whose extnto* 
dim he contemned : but Cicero rii^cules the vanity of think- 
ing no family good but a patridan; shows that MursBus's 

* Lcptm L> Luenllo fait -. qoft in l^ttiono d 
flidit. mm pulf m ri, pvtim obodian* cqnl 


gran(tbtfaer and ^eat erandfaUier liad been pnetore ; and UmC : j 
bis fother also, from tKe same dijrnity, had obtained the bononr 1 
of a triumph : that Sulpiciiis's nobility was better known to tbe 
antiquaries than to the people ; since his grandfather had ners 
borne any of the principal offices, nor his father ever moonted 
higher than the equestrian rank : that being, therefore, the eoa 
Otti Roman knignt, he had always reckoned him in tbe same 
class with himself, of those who, by their own industry, had 
opened their way to the highest honours ; that the Cariasea, 
the Catos, the Pompeiuses, the Mariuses, the Didiuaes, the 
Cseliuscs, were all of the same sorti that when he had broken 
through that barricade of nobility, and laid the consulship open 
to the virtuous, as well as to the noble, and when a consul, of 
an ancient and illustrious descent, was defended by a cm>d8u1, 
tbe son of a knight, he never imagined that the accusers would 
venture to say a word about tbe novelty of a tiunily ; that he 
himself had two patrician competitors, the one a profligate and 
audacious, the other an excellent and modest man ; yet that 
he outdid Catiline in dignity, Galba in interest ; and if that 
had been a crime, in a new man, he should not have wanted 
enemies to object it to him ^. He then shows, that the science 
of arms, in which Mnriena excelled, hud much more dignity 
and splendour in it than the science of the law, being that 
which first gave a name to the Roman people, brought guny to 
their city, and subdued the world to their empire ; that martial 
virtue had ever been the means of conciliatmg the favour of 
the people, and recommendin? to the honours of the state; 
and It was Init rou^oiiahle thiit u ^lll>lJl^l h<il<! llic first place in 

but let its influence be repcUed from the dangOTi tmd 
uction of citizeos : for if any one slioulil say, thut Vata 
muld not have taken the pains to accuse, if lie liad doI be<iii 
Mnred of the crime, be establishes a very unjust law to men 
in distress, by making the judgment of an accuser ta be enn' 
■dcred as a prejudice, or previous condcninalion of the crimi- 
aal'." He exhorts Cato not to be so severe on what iin<-teiit 
eostotn and the Republic itself had found useful; nor to deprim 
tbe people of the plays, gladiators, and feasts, which l\um 
tnccstors had approved ; nor to take from candidates an opjMi^ 
tonity of obliging, by a method of expense, which indicatedJ 
their generosity, rather tlian an intention to corrupt '. JJ 

But whatever Muriena's crime might be, the circumstano^ 
wLicb chiefly favoured him, was the difficulty of tiie time^ 
and a rebellion actually on foot ; which made it neither saf« 
DOT prudent to deprive the city of a consul, who, by a military 
education, was the best qualified to defend it in so dangerom a 
crisis. This point Cicero dwells much upon, declaring that 
be undertook this cause, not so much for the sake of Murseoa, 
as of the peace, the liberty, the lives and safety of them all. 
" Hear, hear," says he, " your consul, who, not to speak arro- 
gantly, thinks of nothing, day and night, but of tlie Kepublic: 
Catiline does not despise us so far, as to hope to subdue this 
city witii the force which he has Ciirried out with him : the con- 
tagion is spread wider than you imiifjine : tJie Troj;iii horse Ls 
within our walUj which while J ;un consul, .shall tk-vit oppre*^ 
yoa in /oar sleep. If it be asked, then, what reason I have 
to fear Catiline? none at all; and I have taken care that nobody 
else need fear him : yet I say, that we have cause to fear those 
troops of hifl, which 1 see in this very place. Nor is his army 
•0 much to be dreaded, as those who are said to liave deserted 
it: tor in truth, they have not deserted, but are left by him 
only ai spies upon us, and placed, as it were, in ambush, to 

destroy ns the more securely : all these want to see a worthy 
consul, an experienced general, a man both by nature and 
fortunes attached to the mtercsts of the Kepublic, driven by 

your sentence from the guard and custody of the city '." After 
nrg^g this topic with great warmth and force, he adds, " We 
are now come to the crisis and extremity of our danger ; there 
is no resource or recovery for us, if we now miscarry ; it is no 
time to throw away any of the helps which we have, but, by 
all means possible, to acquire more. The enemy is not on the 
banks of the Anio, which was thought so terrible in the Punic 
war, butin the city and the Forum. Good gods! (I cannot speak 
it without a sigh,) there are some enemies in the very sane- 

■ Aid. SS. > Ibid- 36. * Ibid. 37. 


tuuy ; some, I say, even io the senate ! The gods grant that; 
my colleague may qnell this rebellion by our arms; whilst I,'' 
in the gown, by the assistance of all the Qonest, will dispel the 
other dangers with which the city is now big. But what will 
become of us, if they should slip through our hands into the 
new year, and find but one consul in ue Republic, and bin 
employed not in prosecuting the war, but in providing a col- 
league ? Then tnis plague of Catiline will break out in all iti 
fiiry, spreading terror, confusion, fire and sword, through the 
dty '," &C. This consideration, so forcibly urged, of the ne> 
cesmty of having two consuls, for the guard of the dty, at the 
opening of the new year, had such weight with the judge% 
tbat, without any deliberation, they unanimously acquitted 
Murana, and would not, as Cicero says, so much as hear the 
accusation of men the most eminent and illustrious *. 

Cicero bad a strict intimacy all tliia while with Sq1[»* 
dus, whom he had served with all his interest, in this very 
contest for the consulship '. He had a great triendship alto 
with Cato, and the highest esteem of his integrity : yet tie not 
only defended this cause against them both, but, to take off the 
prejudice of their authority, laboured even to make them ridi- 
culous; rallying the profession of Sulpicius as trifling and 
contemptible, me principles of Cato as absurd and impracti- 
cable, with so much humour and wit, that he made the whole 
audience very merry, and forced Cato to cry out, *' What a 
fiu^dous consul have we * I" But, what is more observable, 
the opposition of these great men, in an affair so interesdng, 
gave ni> sort of intcrru|>luiii (o tlieir frieiidsliip, which i 


PJI^ Bipddic iliel^ wldcl^ by ft wise poHcf 9 inpo^ 
^ iti inbfftctB to defiBnd mar ibllaw-citiieiis in their daiiget% 
^Aiivil Ttgud to ftny frieniUiips or engaffements wbatBoever \ 
lElMBHBpki off this Idod wiU i!e inove or IM 
fc fWipiiU on ae the public Juqppens to be the mung prindpk; 
ftrlMt ii a bond of muon too fiim to be broken by any litde 
tfaMBeM abont die meaBoret of putoing it : bat where pri- 
aiAitioo and party leal hare the ascendant, there every 
-'* anst neeessarily create aniBiosity» as it obstructs tha 

of diat Kood, whidi is considered as the chief end 

«f ISb^ pimfte benelt and adrantsge. 

BrfwB Ae trial of Mnrsena, Cicero had pleaded another 

of. Ae same kind in the defence of C. Piso^ who had 

firar yean befixr^ and acquired the character of a 

ksfo and Yigoioas magistnite: but we hare no remains of the 

■Bischj aor any tiiii^ more said of it^ by Cicero^ than diat 

no waa aoqpdtted, on account of his landaole behaviour in his 

•MSiU^*. We learn, however, from Sallust, that he was 

seeassd of cp pies s i Mi md extortion in his government, and 

tht the proaecution was promoted diiefly by J. Cnnur, out of 

isrs^garar Fisoi^s having arlntrarily punishea one of his friends 

« ^enti in Gisa^ne (Saul '• 

Bat to letam to the affiur of the conqpiracy. — ^Lentolus and 
die rest, who were left in the city, were prepuing all thines 
for the execution of their grand design, andf solicitiog men of all 
ranks, who seemed likely to favour their cause, or to be of any 
Qse to it Among the rest, they agreed to make an attempt on 
tbe ambassadors of the Allobroges, a warlike, mutinous, faithless 
people^ inhabiting tbe countries now called Savoy and Dau- 
phiny, greatly disaffected to the Roman power, and already 
ripe for rebellion. These ambassadors, who were preparing 
to return home much out of humour with the senate, and with- 
out any redress of the grievances which they were sent to com- 
plain o^ received the proposal at first very greedily, and pro- 
mised to engage their nation to assist the conspirators with 
what they prmcipally wanted *, a good body of horse whenever 
they should begm the war; but reflecting afterwards, in their 
cooler thoughts on the difficulty of the enterprize, and the 
danger of involving themselves and their country in so despe- 
rate a cause, they resolved to discover what they knew to Q. 
Fabius Sanga, the patron of their city, who immediately gave 
intelligence of it to tlie consul \ 


* Hanc nobis a majoribus esse traditam disciplinam, ut nullius amicitia ad propulaanda 
perieula impediremur. Pro Sjlla, 17. 

> Pro FUeco, S9. » Sallust, 49. 

4 Ut eqiiitetQin in Italiam qnamprimiim mittercnt. In Catil. 3, 4. 

• AUooroget diu incertam babuere, quidnam consilii caperent.—Itaque Q. Fabio 
SuigK rem onmem, nt cognoverunt, aperiiut. Sallust. 41. 


Cic«ro'a instructions u[>oii it wcrp, tlint die ami 
Kbould coDtiiiue In fi'igii tlie same zoal which they haif liithi 
sboMii, nnd promise every thing that w&a required of them, tSl 
thev had got a full insight into the extent of the plot, wiA 
distinct proofs ugaiuit the particiiiur actors in it ' : upon whiek 
M their next conferenee with the conspirators, they uisisted 01 
haniig some eredentials from them to show to their people tt 
home, without which they would never ue indueen to enter 
into an engH^ment so hazardous. This was tliought reason- 
able, and presently complied with ; and Vultnrcius was n^ 
pointed to go :il»iiir with the imiliiLSsudors, and introduce them to 
Catiline on their roiid, in order to confirm the agreement, and 
exchange assurann-^ also with him; tu whom Lentulus sent at: 
the same time a iiarticubr letter, under his own hand and seal, 
though without tiie name. Cicero, being punctually informed 
of alllheiic facts, (.-luiccrted privately with the ambassadors, the 
time and manner of their leaving itome in tlie night, and that 
on the Milviau bridge, about a mile from the city, they should 
be arrested with their papers and letters about them by two of 
the pTvtors, L. Flaeeus and C. Poutinius, whom he had in- 
structe<l for that purpose, and ordered to lie in ambush near the 
place, with a strung guard of friends and soldiers : all which 
was successfully executed, and the whole company brought 
prisoners to Cicem's house by break of day '. 

'Hie rumour of this uccidenl presently drew a resort of 
Cicero's prindiial friends alxuii him, who advised him to open 
the letters before he produced them in the senate, les^ if 
nothing of moment were found in them, it mit;ht be thought 
ish mid imiirudent to raise an nnnecessarv ternir and alarm 


and seal ; and, when his letter was read, to the lame pi 
with Cethegus's, he confessed it to be his own. Then 
tultu's letter was produced, and his seal likewise own 
him; which Cicero perceiving to be the head of his g 
father, could not help expostulating with him, "that diei 
imaffe of such an ancestor, so remarkable for a ain^lar' 
of Eis country, had not reclaimed him from his tnita 
designs." His letter was of the same import with the a 
two ; but, having leave to speak for himself, he at first im 
the whole charge, and began to question the ambassadtn 
Valturcius, what business they ever had with bim, and oav 
occasion they came to his house ; to which tliey gave clear 
distinct answers ; signifying by whom, and how often thej 
been introduced to him ; and then asked him, in their ti 
whether he had never mentioned any thing to them aboid 
Sibylline oracles; upon which, being confounded, or infatm 
rather by the sense of his guilt, he gave a remarkable proo^' 
Cicero says, of the great force of conscience : for, not onlylS 
usual parts and eloquence, but his impudence too, in vUJl 
he outdid all men, quite failed him; so that he coafeasedUl 
crime, to the surprise of the whole assembly. Then VultM* 
cius desired that the letter to Catiline, which l^entulns )ai 
sent by him, might be opened, where Lentulus again, thoi^ 
greatly disordered, acknowledged his hand and wal: it vtt 
written without any name, but to this effect: " You will konr 
who I am, from him whom 1 have sent to you. Take care IB 
show yourself a man, and recollect in what situadon yon an; 
and consiilur wliiit is u.m iiot-os'^ai y for yon. Be sure lo make 

■■CicrroN mime, fur lii* hs^n^ p tW r rf A* Ay horn a 
^biaernuon, ibe amem froi* m ia«MBr% and Iln^ fiva 

^Kub* veiute beii^ fii'^tnissed, Cioero went directly into the 

^^^■•t and gave the people nn aoeotiat of the wfaole jwoeeod 

HK in th« manniT as it is just rdated: where im obwired to 

■aMD, tlini t lie titaiiksirtving tleireed io bis naac^ wai Uw finC 

r«liici> luiii 'ver been decre^ to any nUB in tbe gOWn : tbqkaU 

I otlk<ir tlutjik-j^inngs bad beea u^mnted fiir sone p"f«™<f 

Ljanina lu iW> Republic; this aume lor Bring it*: tlwt, by 

Iab Ktnure of these accomplitwa, ail CatiUae* hopei wen 

HpMled at once ; for when he waa drinag Catiline out of tha 

^Hty, be foresaw tJiat if be was oncw removed, there would ba 

^HtOllltlig to apprehend from tbo drowiinew i^ Lenbdo^ tba 

^ps of Cassius, or tbe rashness of Cedkegvs : that Catiline wm 

■ilbt ItGe and aoitl of the conspiracy ; whs ne^ took a thing to 

whe done, because he bad onlerei it; bat alwi^ fidlowedi aoli- 

r dted, and saw it <lone himself: that, if he had not driven him 

■ froa bis secret plots, into open rebellion, he eould oerer ha«a 

I delivered tbe Republic from iti daneen^ or nerer, at len^ 

I viUt so much ease and quiet: thnt Catiline would not haTO 

I named tlie fatal day for their deatmctioD ao kng beforehand; 

I nor ever suffered bis band and seal to be brongU againet liin, 

I M the mauifest proof of hiti jruilt ; all which wae M flunagad, 

I in bis abBenc«, iliat no theft in any private hoaee was ever 

I more clearly detected tliau this whole ooai^)ineT: that all tlua 

F was (he pure effect of a divine influence; not Otuy for its beinr 

I abot-e tbe reach of human coutnel, but because tbe gods had 

I ut remarkably interposed in it, as to show themselves almost 

I lisibly : for, not to mention llic nightly streams of light from 

, tlie western sky, tbe blazing of tbe heavens, fiashes of light- 

I ning, earthquakes, &c. be could not omit what happened two 

years before, when tbe turrets of the Capitol were struck 

down with lightning; bow tlie soothitayers, called together 

from all Elniiiii, liuclared, thiit fire, slaughter, the overthrow 

Af the liu^ civil hot, and tJie ruin of the city were portended, 

irnleM tome means were found out of appeasing the gods : for 

which purpose they ordered a new and larger statue of Jupiter 

to be made, and to oe placed in a position contrary to that of the 

fonner image, with its face turned towards the east; intimating, 

that if it looked towards tbe rising sun, the Forum, and the 

•enate-bouse, then all plots against the state woukl be detected 

•0 evidently, that all me world shoold see tbem ; that, upon 

b OHO. s. A. 6. 

" I Dott li«ne urbem cond .., ^.. , — 

quod cMCTK bc-n« gna. Iii 

■ Qagd mibi pTimum pott huic urbem FOndilam tooilo contigit — qi 
' '-rmtur, Quiriln, "^ ■— - ' •■ 

nU RcpuUick (ouituU «M. lUd. fl. 


this answer, the consuls of that year gave immediste wdf 
for makine and placing the statue; but, from the slow pn 

greaa of tne worlt, neither thev, nor their successors, nor M 
himself, could get it finished till that very day : on which, faf 
the special influence of Jupiter, while the conspinitois u 

witnesses were carried through the Forum to the temple • 
Concord, in that very moment the statue was fixed in its plani 
and, being turned to look upon ihem and the senate, both tT 
and the senate saw the whole conspiracy detected. And 
any man, says he, be such an enemy to truth, so rash, so n 
ftS to deny, that all things which we see, and, above all, I 
this city is governed by the power and providence of 
gods'? He proceeds to observe, that the conspirators n 
needs be under a divine and judicial infatuation, and cooU 
never have trusted afiairs and letters of such moment to ma i 
barbarous and unknown to them, if the gods had not cob- i 
founded their senses : and that the ambasswon of a nation M 
disaffected, and so able and willing to make tvar upon theoi 
should slight the hopes of dominion, and the advantageov 
offers of men of patrician rank, must needs be the effect (rf > 
divine interposition; especially when they might have gained 
their ends, not by fighting, but by holding their tongues. He 
exhorts them, therefore, to celeorate that thanksgiving 6a.j 
religiously, with their wives and children '. That, for all hil 
pains and services, he desired no other reward or honour, bat 
the perpetual remembrance of that day : in this he placed all 
his triumphs and his glory, to have the memory of that day 


if all their rage at last, when repelled from the people, should 
turn singly upon him, they should consider what a oiscourage- 
ment it woula be hereafter to those, who should expose tliem- 
selyes to danger for their safety. That for his part, he would 
erer support and defend, in his private condition, what he had 
acted in his consukhip, and show, that what he had done was 
not the effect of chance, but of virtue : that if any envy should 
be stirred up against him, it might hurt the envious, but 
advance his glory. Lastly, since it was now night, he bade 
them all go home, and pray to Jupiter, the guardian of them 
and the city ; and though the danger was now over, to keep 
tbe same watch in their houses as before, for fear of any sur- 
prise; and he would take care that they would have no occasion 
(0 do it any longer. 

While the prisoners were before the senate, Cicero desired 
lome of the senators, who could write short hand, to take notes 
of every thing that was said ; and when the whole examination 
was finished, and reduced into an act, he set all the clerks at 
work, to transcribe copies of it, which he dispersed presently 
through Italy and all the provinces, to prevent any invidious 
misrepresentation of what was so clearly attested and confessed 
by the criminals themselves S who for the present, were com- 
mitted to the free custody of the mcigistrates and senators of 
their acquaintance ', till the senate should come to a final reso- 
lution about them. All this passed on the third of December, 
a day of no small fatigue to Cicero, who, from break of day 
till the evening, seems to have been engaged, without any 
refreshment, in examining the witnesses and the criminals, and 
procuring the decree which was consequent upon it : and, w hen 
that was over, in giving a narrative of the whole transaction 
to the people, who were waiting for that purpose in the Forum. 
The same night his wife Terentia, with the vestal virgins and 
the principal matrons of Rome, was performing at home, ac- 
cording to annual custom, the mystic rites of the goddess 
Bona, or the good, to which no male creature was ever ad- 
mitted ; and, till that function was over, he was excluded also 
from his own house, and forced to retire to a neighbour's; 
where, with a select council of friends, he began to deliberate 
about the method of punishing the traitors; when his wife came, 
in all haste, to inform him of a prodigy, which had just hap- 
pened amongst them ; for the sacrifice being over, and the fire 
of (he altar seemingly extinct, a bright flame issued suddenly 

' Con««titui senatores, qui omninin in<li( inn dirtn, imrrT(»^nitu, ro«'|K»n>:i j»n>rrilKTi'nt : 
dotribi abomnibu* siatirn liliraiii*. ilividi pa-siiii ct j)civiilj:uri atnuc n\\ populo Romano 
ini|KT<xvi — divii^i toti Italia*, eini>ii!i oninc«> provintiuM. Pro Syll. 14. I'), 

^ Ut abtlicato magistratti, Lentultis, itcniquc (wteri in liln'ri-* custodiis hal)cantur. 
Itaquc Lentiilii5, P. Ixjntulo Spintheri, qui turn .^lilis crat ; Cclhcgiis Cornificio, &c. 
SalluM. 47. 

fmtmn peace and nfetr tber be^an to be Koliratoiu ' : wbog 
Cneroy trbfrnrin^ tb« inrlinaDon of the boose, itnd rising qjb 
W p« Ae qncstion. mxle hi« fourtb ^>eecb, vrbich now ml 
mnas. on the «4i!>)«-ct cf ilii- lrun?4ct)OD ; in wLich he delirenf 
Ut smdmenK wiih ail ibe >kill bolh of tbe orator aiid tba 
smmnwi : end. «bi:e be seemed to sbow a perfect neutnlitj^ 
•■d to girt Mjual rommerdatioQ to botL ibe opinions, was ai^ 
faUr laboanns. all ibe «bile. to turn tbe scale in &vour of < 
SuBBs's wbirfa he oon>idere<l as a necessary example of sen* 
rilT in tbe present cimimstancej of tbe Republic 

be declared, thai tbougb ii mas a pleasure to bim to ob- _ 
■nre tbe coocem and solicitude nhicb the senate bad expressed 
«o bis aeeotmt. yet be b^^ered of tbem to lay it all aside, and) { 
wilbout any revard to bim. to think onlv of themselves and 
their fiunilies: that be was willing to su^er any persecutioO) 
U, bv bi« labours, be could secure ibeir diirnity and safety: 
tbat bk life bad been oft attempted in the Forum, the field of 
lian, tbe senate, his own bouse, and in bis very bed : tbai^ 
far tbeir quiet, be bad digested many things against his will, 
without speaking of tbem : but. if the gods would grant tbat 
inue to bij consulship, of saving tbem from a massacre, tbe 
city from flames, all Italy from war, let what fate soever attend 
himself, be would be content with it *. He presses tbem, 
therefore, to turn their whole care upon tbe state; tbat it was 
Dot a Gracchus or a Suluminus, who was now in judgment 
before them ; but traitors, whose design it was to destroy the 
dty by fire, the seoate and people by a massacre ; wlio bad 
solicited the Gauls «nd the very slaves, to join with them io 
their treason, of which they had all been conWcted by ietten, 

0. m 

ban with the last severity : the one tiiougbt, that those wkt 
od alteisptpd to deprive them all of life, and to exUDniik 
he Tcry name of Rome, ought not to enjoy tiie benefit of 
iring a moment: and he had showed willial, ihat this jiiinMi 
mathuA often been inflicted on seditious dlizens: the odkar 
ineaeined, that death was uot desig'ned by the god§ for » 
paniskment, but the cure of our miseries: so that the wise Mrw 
■nffered it unwillingly, the brave often sought it voluntarityi 
bat that hoods and imprisonment, especially if perpetnal, wcm 
contrived for the punishment of detestable crimes : these tbnWp 
fore, lie ordered to be provided for^hem in tlie great towna «( 
Italy : yet, in this proposal, there seemed to be some iiijuttJM^ 
if llie senate was to impose that burden upon the towa^ or 
tame difficulty, if they were only to desire it: yet, if dl^ 
thought fit to decree it, he would undertake to find those, WOO 
would not refuse to comply with it for the public good : tliat 
Cwsar, by adding a penalty on the towns, if any of the criai^ 
nais ehould escape, and enjoining so horrible a continenaa^ 
widiout a possibility of being released from it, bad deprived 
tliem of all hope, the only comfort of unhappy morUtUt ba ' 
had (H'dered tbeir estates also to be confiscated, and left tben 
nothing but life, which, if he had taken away, he would hsra 
eased them at once of all farther pain, either of mind or Iwdy; 
for it was on this account that the ancients invented those in- 
fernal panishmentB of the dead, to keep the wicked under some 
awe in this life, who, without them, would have no dread of 
death itself. That, for his own part, he saw how much it 
was his interest (liat they should follow Csesar's opinion, who 
bad always pursued popular measures ; and, by being the 
author of that vote, would secure him from any attack of po- 
pular envy : but if they followed Silanus's, he did not know 
what trouble it might create to himself; yet that the service 
of the Republic ought to supersede all considerations of his 
danger : that Caesar, by this proposal, had given them a per- 
petual pledge of bis sdfection to the state, and showed the 
difference between the affected lenity of tbeir daily declaimers, 
and a mind truly popular, which sought nothing but the real 
good of the people : that be could not but observe, that one of 
tboee, who valued themselves on being popular, had absented 
himself from this day's debate, that be might not give a vote 
upon the life of a citizen ; yet, by concurrmg with them in all 
their previous votes, he baa already passed a judgment on tlie 
merits of the cause ; that, as to the objection urged by Cf&sar, 
of Gracchns's law, forbidding to put citizens to death, it should 

Bt pdeilH. npiid infrrw ejiiiniodi qiiHliin 
leruni, qued ndelicet inlcUintiuit, hli 
. llrid. i. 

140 THE UFB 

lenoe of the fitttiom should ever defeat his hopes, he recoM^ 
meDded to them his infant son, and trusted, that it would im 
a sufficient guard, not only of bis safety, but of his dignity, U 
bare it remembered, that he was the son of one, who, at the 
hazard of his own life, had preserved the lives of them alL 
He concludes, by exhorting them to act with the same courage 
which tliey had hitherto shown through all this affiiir, and to 
proceed to some resolute and vigorous decree ; since their lirec 
and liberties, the safety of the city, of Italy, and the wbdc 
empire depended upon it. 

This speech had the desired effect; and Cicero, by digcoret^ 
ing his own inclination, gave a turn to the inclination of the 
■enate ; when Cato, one of the new tribunes, rose up, and* 
after extolling Cicero to the skies ', and recommenmng |o 
the assembly the authority of his example and judgment, pn^ 
ceeded to declare, agreeably to his temper and principles, that 
be was surprised to see any debate about the punishment at 
men, who had begun an actual war i^ainst their country : that 
their deliberation should be, how to secure themselves against 
them, rather than Itow to punbh them; tliat other crimes might 
be punished after commission, but, unless this was prevented 
before its effect, it would be vain to seek a remedy after ; that 
the debate was not about the public revenues, or the oppree- 
nons of the allies, but about their own lives and liberties ; not 
about tlie discipline or manners of the city, on which he had oft 
delivered his mind in that place ; nor about the greatness or 
prosperity of their empire ; but whether they or their enemies 
should possess that empire ; and, in such a case, there could 


tor themselves : that they were not deliberating on the fete 
only of the conspirators, but of Catiline's whole army, which 
voold be animated or dejected, in proportion to the vigour or 
mnissDess of their decrees : that it was not the arms of their 
meestors which made Rome so great, but their discipline and 
mnnerSy which were now depraved and corrupted : that, in 
the extremity of danger, it was a shame to see them so indo- 
lent and irresolute, waiting for each other to speak first, and 
trusting, like women, to the gods, without doing any thing 
for themselves : that the help of the gods was not to be ob- 
tained by idle vows and supplications : that success attended 
the vigilant, the active, the provident ; and when people gave 
themselves up to sloth and laziness, it was in vain for tliem 
to pray ; they would find the gods angry with them : that the 
flagitious lives of the criminals confuted every argument of 
mercy : that Catiline was hovering over them with an army, 
while his accomplices were within the walls, and in the very 
heart of the city ; so that, whatever they determined, it could 
not be kept secret, which made it the more necessary to de- 
termine quickly. Wherefore, his opinion was that since the 
criminals had been convicted, both by testimony and their own 
confession, of a detestable treason against the llepublic, they 
should suffer the punishment of death, according to the custom 
of their ancestors *. 

Cato's authority, added to the impression wliich Cicero had 
already made, put an end to the debate; and the senate, ap- 
plauding his vigour and resolution, resolved upon a decree in 
consequence of it ^ And, thonj^h Silanus had first proposed 
that opinion, and was followed in it l)y all the eonsiilar senators, 
yet they ordered the decree to be drawn in Cato*s words, be- 
cause he had delivered himself more fully and explicitly upon 
it, than any of them ^. 'I'he vote was no sooner passed, than 
Cicero resolved to put it in execution, lest the nitrht, which 
was coming on, should produce any new disturbance : he 
went directly, therefore, from the senate, attended by a nume- 
rous guard of friends and citizens, and took Lentulus from 
the custody of his kinsman, Lentulus Spinther, and conveyed 
him throut^h the Forum to the connnon prison, where he de- 
livered him to the executioners, who presently stran^rled him. 
The other conspirators, Cethegus, Statilius, and Gabinius, 
were conducted to their execution by the praetors, and put to 
death in the siime manner, together with Ca'parius, the only 
one of their accomplices, who was taken after the examination *. 

« Salluat. 52. " Tbid. .53. 

• Idcirco in ejus sententiam est facta discefftio. Ad Att. 12. 21. 
« Salhitt. 55. 


and knoMring that he should quickly have sohliers enou^rh, if 
Us friends performed their pirt at home \ ^ thau when 
the consul Antonius approaclied towards him with his armv, 
he shifted his quarters, and made frequent motions and marches 
tlkrou|rh the mountains, sometimes towards Gaul, sometimes 
towards the city, in order to avoid an cn2a^ement till he 
could hear some news from Rome ; but, when the iatitl account 
came, of the death of Lentulus and tlie re^t, the face oi his 
affiurs began presently to change, and his army to dwindiC 
apace, by the desertion of tho!»e, whom the hope» of victory 
and plunder had invited to his camp. His fii>t attempt, there- 
fore, was by long marches and private roads throu^rh liie Appe- 
nine, to make his escape into Gaul : but Q. Metellus. who had 
been sent thither by Cicero, imagining that he would take 
that resolution, had secured all the passes, and ported himself 
80 advantageously, with an army of three legions, that it was 
impossible for him to force his way on that side: whilst, on the 
other, the consul Antonius, with a much greater force, blocked 
him up behind, and inclosed him within the mountains ^ An- 
tonius himself had no inclination to fight, or, at least, with 
Catiline ; but would willingly have given him an opportunity 
to escape, had not his quaestor ^^extius, who was Cicero'^ crea- 
ture, and his lieutenant Petreius, urged him on again>t his will, 
to force Catiline to the necessity of a battle ' : who, «»eeincr all 
things desperate, and notliin-r left hut eitin-T to ili*.- r.r curjquer, 
resolved to trv his fortune airaiii<t Aiitoniii"*, th«»u::li iiiucii tlje 
stronger, rather than Metcllus; in ho|»t'*» >tiii. tiiat out ot ri.^:iird 
to their former euiratrements, lit* Mii'j:lit pu^>ii)lv ci*ijrrlvc •-••ni*.' 
way, at last, of throwing the victory into lii> liiinn* \ liur. Anrii- 
nius happened to be se;iztd, at that vitv time. uitJj a li' ot the 
gout, or pretended, at least, to be su, that lir rniirlit havo no ^liare 
in the destruction of an old friend: so tliar ti:e coniinaiid k-il, 
of course, to a much better soldier and lionf'ster niaii. Petrt.-ius; 
who, after a sharp and bloody action, in wliiili lu- l<i>t a ciiii>i- 
derable part of his be^t troops, destroyed Catiline and lii> 
whole army, fighting desperately to the last man . 1 hey all 
fell in the verv ranks in which thev stood; aiiH, a^ if iiishireil 

' SpcTiliJit jiropfdivin in:».nj:L:- • ■»;>i.i« "^o h.tbit'.nim. -i Kouj »; i'^' ;. .:;i.> :•■■. j-.'r:.'-.--i iit 
— iiit« u.'i Kfiviiiii iipiulialuc. .SulicrC. .0'). 

^ Iliiil. .''7. 

' Hni' brcvc' ilic.iiii : -i M. Pt tr« ii U'ln fXiclkr= .'ii.".iij<i f*. tir.-ir- !{■ .:«. '■ i:.'. r.-^n 
fUTijinu ;iijrioril;i- .'ipud iiiiliti.'-. imn ii:itirn.u> ■.•!.« ir. ir ni/.i:i.r. • \*.i'.-" :. :it ':■.». ..;;■. 'or 
fi \*. SfMiu- .'ul •'Xi i;.i!iiliiin Ant'iriinin, coli'.i'.aiiJiMu. ;«■ in.;" ".,< i.'l .11. li.-«i:. i;..: i* 
iilo iii licllr* C'M.'t hicrni li)cii-<. \c. 

Sexiiii:*. cum siio fxon.itn. -umiua c*Hiii*..i*c • >t A'.: '•?.;!. in '•'T;-*. !*.■;-. H.r t^r,, 
Huid pra^lic«rni. qinhM- ril<u> coii!>uKui a<i win iri :<.ri«i.iiu ^.\^ ;■..;:: ; 'j ■'» '•..iiiiiio- a«i- 
niovcrit, kS:*-. Fro Scxi. ."). 

* AiTiow ct. oTi iXirica avTov K<iTa. to o-tn'ufuuTnv i.tii^..\oK'XKyiTnv tT^nf. Oio. 
1. 37. p. 47. 

•• SuUnst. oO, 


wkk tbe t e ajiiK i^cic of d^as 'teaAa. fiia^it not m> bbc^ t| 
CMiqner, as to teL Oea ^im » demr a> tbey eoold ; 
Cadtrne oarl ch?^4i«:i«i b ue twaa, la mingle tbe 
(aiu!i^ wii Q«b own rtd=. 

TfaiH nuM tiJs £k3i-e<i coe^iiacy: in wUd some tt Ac 
pcateK BtcH in Roce w«re «(»p«cwtl xo be pHnlely 
parDcnikHy Cranc^ zs-i Cz^ar : (Key were bodi influenced b^ 
tbe nice nMdve. t^-i iclr-ii i^of^r p^t^xpSf by tbeir 
in tbe dty, la ad^^nc^ L:«3i^«Ires in iLe geneial ca 
to tbat soTeRi^nt pover wiiicli tL«y simed aL Ciasus, wb» 
had alvan been Cicero's ecemy. by zn officioosneas of briw 
in^ leiten and intelligence to Kim. during the alann of & 
plot, seemed to beirav a cixisci<>u«cess of 
CaMar'« wbole life made it probable, tbai there 
be any plot in vhicb be bad Dot roiae share 
wss so general a $u»j:-icion upoo Lim. e^pecialli 
in farour of tbe criminal that be bad some difficulty to 
with life from tbe n^e of the kni^bts. who guarded tbe nv^ . 
nues of tbe senate: «bere Le durst not venture to appear anj j 
more, till be entered upon bis prxtorsbip with the new year . 
Crassus was aciuallv accused, bv one Tarquinius, who WM 
taken upon tbe rood as be was ^ins; to Catiline, and, upon 
promiie of pardon, made a di-^covery of what be knew ; when^ 
after confirming what the other witnesses had deposed, be 
added that be was sent by Cras»us to Catiline, with advice to 
bim, not to be discouraged bv tbe seizure of bis accomplices, 
but to make the f^reater haste, for that reason, to the city, in 
order to rescue them, and revive the spirits of his other friends. 

OP cicsHO. 145 

Ei1%i»n of the dty^ not to cut ott, but to heal every part 
»«■• dmUe. Sio thati when some infonnadon was grren 
pnripe agaimt Gmar, he choae to stifle it^ and eouU not be 
id to diaig» him with the pIot» by the most pressing 
ooi of Catalns and Fiaa, who were both his particnkr 
; die one hf the loss of the high priesthood, the other 
[^ Ae iaq»eadunent above mentioned • 
'^ Wldst die sense of all these services was fresh, Cicero was 
ftr them to the full of his wishes, and, in the very way 
1m desired, by the warm and grateful qiplauses of all 
of tiie city. For, besides the honours alreadv men- 
Lb Oellius, who luid been consul and censor, said, in a 
to the senate, that the Republic owed him a dvie 
jbr having saved them all firom ruin ' : and Catulus, in a 
Bse^ dedared him the fiither of lus country' ; as Cato like- 
did ttom the rostra, with the loud acclamations of the whole 
yesBie': wh«nce Pliny, in honour of his memory, cries out. 
If nsil tfaoB, who wast first saluted the parent of thy country *J* 
This dtfe, the most glorious which a mortal can wear, was 
tins precedent, usurped afterwards by those, who, of all 
Is, deserved it the least, the emperors ; proud to extort 
fiem slaves and flatterers, what Cicero obtained firom the free 
vole of die senate and people of Rome. 

-Roma paretdem. 

Roma patrempatruB Cioeronem libiera dijnt.—JuY. 8. 

Tbae, Cicero, Rome while free, nor yet enthraird 
To tjnni'% will, thj country^s parent call'd. 

AIJ the towns of Italy followed the example of the metropolis, 
in decreeing extraordinary honours to him ; and Capua in 
particular, chose him their patron, and erected a gilt statue 
to him*. 

SaUust, who allows him the character of an excellent consul, 
says not a word of any of these honours, nor gives him «nny 
greater share of praise, than what could not be dissembled by 
an historian. There are two obvious reasons for this rcsorved- 
ness; first, the personal enmity, which, according to tradition, 
subsisted between them ; secondly, the time of publishing his 
history, in the reign of Augustus, while the name of Cicero 
was stUI obnoxious to envy. The other consul, Antoiiius, 
had but a small share of the thanks and honours which wore 

> Apman. Bell. ciir. 1. 2. p. 430. Sallufct. 49. 

* L. UelUiu, his audientiuus, civicani coronam dcberi a Rcpiihlica dixit. In Pifton. 
8. it. A. GeU. 5, 6. 

' Me Q. Catulus, princeps hujiis ordinis, frcquenti&siino ttcnatu Parcntem Pntrin) 
nominsvit. In Pis. 3. 

4 Pint, in Cic^—Ki^otvot d* avrdu xai truTtpa t^v iraTpiio's irpovayopivrravTO'iy 
itrc/Soqirfy ^ d$^u>«. Appian. p. 431. 

& StlTe, primus omnium parens patriae appellate, &c. Pliii. Tlist. N. 7. 30. 

« Meinaunta statua donarant : me patronum nnum adscivcrant. In Pis. 11. 


■Ml iODsi E>i csit* ii^txsci. viva tLf T |«9Hid. Cimo'i d»> 1 
^3 w 3> AJX'Oik ii ; b«. - '>eir;c iirtT-eti frc« ibai by one rf j 
aif =-iba3«s ^ <*>» ojc-.«t:: ^? iw^rxin tiie eonDnaance of it^ i 
wooHi bMoce was qnii-ri:^ »> ;ae :«in of oae ytar '. ' 

Ai hit first eotTUKTC taio Lis oi£ce. I- LscnUn* was mK- 
einn)^ the drnt^nd 0I a Iriamph tor Lis victories orer MiAri- 
daCes, in wbicfa be bad been ottrtmcted for three yws sue- 
eev^irely, by Uie iatriTues (^ some of the mapsawba', who 
paid their cuurt to Pompey, by putting this anoot apaa hit 
riraL By the law and c-u>io[n of the Repoblic do geneial, 
while he was in actual commaDd, could eome witiun the gxtet 
of Rome, without forfeiting' his commission, and, consequeDtlV) 
Jl Fr,t, .:.r., -.,. „i:,-rr: : ., .;,,. Ln v' u.\'iuol. all 

mr cwmmo. 147 

hope for in Sit, i^ obterriiiK the .tnrbnleDt and 
■c'led state of the aty, he withdrew himself, not lo^ after, 
poblic affaire, to ■peoil the mmaDia of hk <bya in a 
polite and splendid fetreat '. He wis a generoBs patrmi of 
kaning, and btnueU' eadnni^ karned ; to that hb boose wm 
ibe constant resort of Ae prinapal aehcrfan and wits of Oreece 
wd Rome ; where he had pr«nwled a weU-fiini«bed Ubrarjr, 
with p<»rticos and g^leriea annexed, for the coarenieiMa of 
walks and literary cooferaDOH^ at.whid> he himself naed fi^ 
qneiiUy to assist: giving an example to the world, of a HCb 
tnly noble and el^an^ if it had not been sullied by too gnat 
«tiDctDre of Asiatic sflftncaa and ^nearean Inxnry. 

After this act of jntiee to LqcoUds^ Qcero had an oppor* 
tanitT, before the ex^rindon of his ccnttnkhip, to pay all dna 
honour, likewiife, to his friend Poinpey ; wbo> sinoe he last left 
Berne, had gloriously finished the Pinticand Mithridatic war, 
b* the destruction of Mithridates himsrif : upon the receipt of 
wnicfa newti, the senate, at the motion of Cicero^ decreed ■ 
public thank8gi\-ing in lus nam^ of ten days : whidi was twice 
M long as had ever been decreed before to any geneial, eyen 
to Mariua himself, for his (^bric rictay *. 

But before we closd the aeconnt of the memorable eventa of 
this year, we must ncA omit the mention of one, which distin* 
r 7ul^ed it afterwards, BS a particnlar en in the annals of Rome, 
the Inrtb of Octavins, surnamed Augustus, which happened on 
the S%d (^September. Velleius calls it an accession of glory 
to Cicero's consulship ' : but it excites speculations ratlier of a 
different sort; on the inscrutable methods of Providence, and 
the short-sighted policy of man ; that, in the moment when 
Rome was preserved from destruction, and its liberty thought 
to be established more firmly than ever, an infant should be 
thrown into the world, who, within the course of twenty years, 
effected what Cadline had attempted, and destroyed both 
Cicero and the Republic. If Rome could have been saved by 
human counsel, it would have been saved by the skill of Cicero; 
but its destiny was now approaching : for governments, like 
natnial bodies, have, with the principles of their preservation, 
the seeds of ruin also essentially mixed in their constitution, 
which, afiter a certain period, begin to operate and exert them- 
selves to the dissolution of the vital frame. These seeds bad 
kmg been fermenting in the boweb of the Republic; when 
OcteTins came, peculiarly formed by nature, and instructed 

< Pint, in Locnll. 

' Qdb eonnile nfennte, priwun dcrem dlttum aappliotio decret* Cn. Pompno 
XitliridBia taterfeete ; cojoi arntintlitpriDiiim dnpliaU nt nippllotio cannlirii. O9 
prarinc. CofUdlu'. xi. 

■ » CoPMland Oeaari* ■■■ mediae™ Kljerit deen*, mtui M •nno D. AugTutui. 
Ten. Z 9S. SdMob. e. 6. IHo, p. &90, 

t an en^ 

IMC "U -f^aCl 

iv-BK atvaartr^: r »-n3 iwi-r. Tiis was gcoenll] 
iMMN •■'a 1 «:i««a T-im ■na far-briar cdosiiI: and, ai 

mmbCnr fC «-tuir k v^^.- VML': sty %-' ibem: hot Metelliu, OM 
jr a* w^ T'.ii>i:ie>. «-•!.' ifjv^f^ cvaatonlr to open thdr 
ia^%cv> T • ^uoM Tv'BU.'c^i'; a.-^ a» i cf>edmeD of the 

jUfft •Tit-J ^WT ■.-;'T«i>.-W 

B^Kv lauii ion-.-y ifct? Utt .Tin : isviiHa^. that he, who 
3<u; .iCK'ji> >; ^tflt::! i::.i>ri:r-:^ .'-^^i :^'<t to be pennitted to '' 
jptMA M i.in9«.: ■ ■• rx-i Ci."^rA "i» «a» never at a kn^ \ 
JKOnai ji ■jtvathtiKiatc % jr-i!.:ajT Nvm ol the cath, ezaltuw 
ne '>ta< A 'ii» -".-icff. >-«<;rf .-u.- Al-.x:i. so as all the peopb 
■ti^jc Jeur tia: le a^x sf^-i Uie Republic and the atr 
Vwt ^liii : «3iol "iiti Vi-'ZTax z^.o* Am&nned with an noi- 
wfsi^ >d(Mf. UK ♦■■-: -.'Of v-.-fof. *-r»i oot that what he had 
tmicj ■•*i r-ie . l'^s> :a«; irTtf^iM afimii was turned, by 
hw yr-sfiv-v .'i' 2i:-'i> :.• JL» c>-a:ir ^ooour : and he was coi^ 
ihii.-(«v-. ZTvar -jif F..t'i2i %• 2» b*>-.»e. with all posvble demon- 
se:u:(.i» %■(' rwftfvt. Vy :ae whole cin\ 

land, after sm| 

reset) red to disappooA 
r. «=:eT) Cicero had mounttil 
■3 liis iKi act of hb offing 
: joeak. or to do any thnf 
' ■ hohd 

^^^^^».<9I. Ck. U. C«.-D. Juiiiui aUuiu. L. Udniua Miubiu. 

■"lint who were fUblly recboned the firnt citizens of the Republic. 
m VbCy detivereil their opinions tbc first always in the sena(«; 
B mif eouimonly, determined the opinions of the rest: for, aa 
U Ibcjr bad passed through all the pubiii: uffices, and been cotivei^ 
■ WBl m every branch of the administration, so liieir experietiee 
I gUft tbeiD great authority in atl debates; and, haviDg little or 
I MHhine further to expect for themselves, tliey were esteemed, 
B Mt omy the most knowing, but, jrenerally speakin|r, tW most 
I lfaijitcrest«tt of all the otlier senators, and to have no other 
U TJFW in tlieir deliberations, but the peace and prosperity of 
B the Republic. 

I This was a station exactly suited to Cicero's temjjer aiid 
r »ttlii»; he desired no forei^i governments, or command of 
P amies; his province was the senate and the Forum; to guard, 
I M it were, the vitals of the empire, and to direct all its couiicilx 
to Uieir proper end — the general good : and, in this advanced 
I post of a consular senator, as in a watch-tower of the state, to 
f Aeene isach threatening cloud and rising; sturm, and give the 
ahnn to his fellow-citizens from wliat quarter it was coming, 
I and by what means its effects might be prevented '. This, as 
ht frequently intimates, was the only glory that he sought, 
the comfort with which he flattered himself, that, after a life of 
ambition and fatigue, and a course of faithful services to the 
R«>ablic, he should enjoy a quiet and secure old age, beloved 
and bononred by his countrymen, as the constant champion 
and defender of all their rights and liberties. But be soon 
found himself mistaken, and, before he had quitted his office, 
be^an to feel the weight of that envy, which is the certain 
fnut of illustrious merit: for the vigour of his consulship had 
raised such a zeal and union of all the honest, in the defence 
of the laws, that till this spirit could be broken, or subside 
again, it was in vain for the ambitious to aim at any power, 
but through the ordinary forms of the constitution ; especially 
while he, who was the soul of that union, continued to flourisn 
in full credit, at the head of the senate. He was now, there- 
fore, the common mark, not only of all the factious, gainst 
whom he had declared perpetual war, but of another party, not 
less dangerous, the envious too; whose united spleen never 
left pursuing him fronr this moment, till they had driven him 
oat of that city, which he had so lately preserved. 

The tribune Metellus began the attack; a iit leader for the 
paipose ; who, from the nobility of his birth, and the authority 
of Ids office, was the most likely to stir up some ill humour 

■ IddRO in hu cnitadii et tuiquHD ii 

A. Irk Mi. Cm. 4S iSmm^ 

yij t bim, br hmiltin^ sad reriling him, in all his 
wr patnng auxeom to death witb«Nit m trial : in b1 
WM itmiuoiKty snpported by Cieav, who pmbed hii 
ttcwMc, to the promolgadoD of terenX pesoleat lawi^ 
nre great disturbance to the senate. Cioero bad do ii 
tion to enter ioto a coateM witb the tribane, but took Mmd 
pma to make ap the matter witb bim, br the interposition m 
the women ; particularly of Claudia, tbe wife of his bintkir 
Hetellu, and of tbeir sister Mucia, the wife of Pompey;ht' 
empkryed, also, lereral common friends, to persuade him to bt> 
quiet, and desist fium bis rashness ; but bis answer waa^ tfaC 
he was too far engaeed, and bad put it out of his power ' ; M 
that Cicero bad notning left, but to exert all bis rigour and' 
eloquence, to repel tbe insults of this petulant magistrate. 

Csnar, at the same time, was attacking Catulus, with do teM 
Tiolence ; and being now in possession of tbe pr«torefaip, made 
it tbe first act of bis office to call him to an account for embe>> 
zling the public money, in rebuilding tbe Capitol; and prt^Mxed 
also a law, to etTace his name from tbe fabric, and grant the con- 
mission for finishing what remained to Pompey; but thesemta 
bestirred themselres so warmly in the cause, that Casar wm 
obliged to drop it '. This experiment convinced tbe two ma- 
gistrates, that It was not possible for them to make bead agunst 
the authority of tbe senate, without the help of Pompey, whwa 
tbey resolved, therefore, by all the arts of address and flatterr, 
to draw into tbeir measures. Witb thb view, Metellus pub- 
lWiL-,1 a liiw, to cull him home, with his army, in order to settle 

A.l'rb.U!ll. C'ic. 45. (.'uh.— U. Juuiiu :«luitu. L. Udniui Mur 

refuse notliiiig, hud prevuiled with ]^ou to suppress what jt0t 
had prepared to any, in the tieiiate, iii praise of me : wbea-^ ' 
said this, 1 a<lde(l, tliut, in the affuir of saving the state, I ^l 
divided the task with you, in sucli a manner, that I wm i 
secure the city from intestine dangers, you to defend Italy fha 
the open arms and st^ret plots of our enemies : but, that tb^ - 
glorious partnership had Wen broken by your Mends, lAs!- 
were afraid of your makin>r me the least return for the gtetbet \ 
honours and services which you had received from me. Il j 
the same discourse, when 1 was describing^ the ezpectatkil 
which 1 had conceived of your s))eech, and how much I wa 
disappointed by it, it seemed to divert the house, and a mode- 
rate biugli ensued ; not upon you, but on my mistake, and tlv 
frank and ingenuous confession of my desire to be prused bf \ 
"~ii. Now, in this, it must needs be owned, that notniug COOM i 
said more honourable txtwards you, when, in the most shin- | 
iug and illustrious part of my life, 1 wanted still to have the ] 
testimony of your commendation. As to what you say of oar < 
mutual afTectioii, 1 do nut know what you reckon mutual ID -. 
friendship, but 1 take it to be this ; when we repay the same ' 
good offices which we receive: should I tell you then, that I gave 
up my province for your sake, you might justly suspect my sin- 
cerity : it suited my temper und circumstances, and I fiad more 
and more reason, every day, to be pleased with it : but this, 1 
can tell you, that I no sooner resigned it, in an assembly of the 

Ceople, than I began to contrive how to throw it into your 
ands. I say nothing about the manner of drawing your lots; 
but would have you only believe, tliat tliere was nothing done 
"" "'" by my colleague without my privily. " 



ingly plened witfa that affectionate and frater~ 
Bbpoeiu'oo of your'^ M fbU of hmnantty uid pie^ ; and, in 
ipwcond, to foi^ve me, i^ in any eaae, I have acted against 
r krotiiCT, for tlie service of the Repidjtic, to which no man 
'« a warmeT friend than myself; bat, if I have been acting 
Ml the defensivo, asunBt his most cruel attacks, yon may 
i yoiiKe\i well used, that I have never yet troubled yon 
with any compbuiiCs against htn> As soon as I found that he 
mtt prvpiirinjr to lum the idide farce of his tribunate to ny 
destructioii, I applied myself to your wife Claudia, and your 
(Wter Miicia, whose zeal for my service I had (rften experi- 
enced, 01) the account of my familiarity with Pranpey, to di»- 
taade him from that outrage : but he, as I am sure yon have 
heard, on the last day of the year, put such an afiiont upon 
me, when consul, and after having saved die state, as had never 
been ulTvred to any manstrate, the moat tnitoromly affected, 
by depriving mc of tJie liberty of speaking to die people, upon 
faying down my office. But his insult tamed only to my 
«rater faooour : for trhen he would not suffer me to do any 
tiung more tbaii swear, I swore, with a load voice, the troet^ 
as Weil as the noblest, of all oaths; while the people, with ac- 
clamations, swore lilceirise, that my oath was true. Afier SO 
signal an injury, I sent to him, the very same day, some of 
our cranmoD friends, to press him to desist from his resolution 
of pnnuing me ; but his answer was, that it was not then in 
his power : for he had said, a few days before, in a speech to 
the people, that he, who had punished others without a hear- 
ing, ought not to be suffered to speak for himself. Worthy 
piuriot and excellent citizen ! to adjudge the man who had 

f reserved the senate from a massacre, tlie citv from fire, and 
taly from a war, to the same punishment which the senate, 
with the consent of all honest men, had inflicted on the authors 
rf those horrid attempts. 1 withstood your brother, therefore, 
to his face ; and, on the first of January, in a debate upon die 
Republic, handled him in such a manner, as to make him sen- 
sible, that he had to do with a man of courage and cunstancy. 
Two days after, when he began again to harangue, in every 
three words he named and threatened me: nor had he any 
thins so much at heart, as to effect my ruin at any rate; not 
by we legal way of trial, or judicial proceeding, but by dint 
of force and violence. If I had not resisted his rashness, with 
firmness aad courage, who would not have thouglit, that the 
vigour of my consulHhip had been owing to chance, rather than 
to virtue ? If you have not been informed that your brother 
attempted all tnu against me, be assured that he concealed 
firom you the most material part: but, if he told you any thing 


of it, you ought to commeud my temper and patience, for o 
expostulating witli you about it : but siuce you must now I 
sensible, that my quiirrcl with your brother was not, as yO-_ 
write, for a word, hut a most determined and spiteful design tM 
ruin me, pray observe my humanity, if it may be call^ bf 1 
that name, and is not rather, after so flagrant an outnwe,^-.] 
base rentisfiiiess and abjection of mind. I never propOsetfaBf fl 
thing agiiiiist your brother, when there was any question abmt 1 
him in the senate : but, without risiue ^m my seat, assentol 1 
always to those who were for treating him the most &vounbly> 1 
I will add farther, what I ought not, indeed, to have been o~~ 
cemed about, yet I was not displeased to see it done, and e 
assisted to get it done ; I mean, the procuring a decree for d 
relief of my enemy, because he was your brother. I did no^ 
therefore, attack your brother, but defend myself only againM 
him ; nor hiis my friendship to you ever been variable, as you 
write, but firm and constant, so as to remain still the aame^ 
when it was even deserted and slighted by you. And, at thii 
very time, when you almost threatenetl me in your letter, 
I give you this answer, that 1 not only forgive, but highly 
applaud your grief; for I know, from what I feel within my«el^ 
how great the force is of fraternal love ; but I beg of you, alsO) 
to judge with the same equity of my cause; and if, without any 
ground, I ha\-e been cruelly and bEirbarously attacked by yota 
friends, to allow that I ought not only not to yield to them, but 
on such un occasion, to expect the help even of you, and your 
army also, ajraiiisl ihum. 1 was always desirous to have ' 


w Sal auciiority in the Republic, tod to whrao ill putiet 

V Stmrdly paying their court 

I Ckebu to Ck. PoHPEiufl the Grea^ emperor'. 
/ bad an incredible pleawre, in common wiA all people^ 
■ tlie ptiliiic \ettmr wnich yoa Kot: lor you oare nc io it 
B&sunuice of peace, which, from my confiduice in yon 
, 1 bad alnan been promioDg. I most tell yoa, how* 
yoar old enemieo, bat new friendi, are extremely 
uiid disafipcintsd at iL A< to the particular letter 
m sent to me, dumgh it brought me bo slight an inti- 
of your fnend^p, yet it was very agreeable : fior 
nuthing U apt to giTO me eo modi satisbctioD, as the ooo- 
tdousne^ of my nrricee to my friends; and if, at any time^ 
tlicy are not requited as they ous^t to b^ I an always content 
that the balance of the account should rest on my side. I make 
no doubt, however, bnt that, if the distinguished seal, whidii 
t have always sliovni fiar your ioteresta^ has not yet suffidently 
recommended me to yon, the public interest, at least, will con- 
ciliate and unite ns. But tnat you may not be at a loss to 
know what it was, whic^ I expected to find in your letter, X 
wilt tell it you frankly, as my own nature and our friendship 
require. 1 expected, out of regard both to the Republic, and to 
our foniiliariiy, lo tiare had some compliment or congntolation 
Irom you, on what I lately acted in my consulship; which you 
omittt'd. i imfi^ine, for fear of giving offence to certainpereons: 
hut 1 would have you to know, that the things which I have 
been doing, for the safety of my country, are applauded by 
the testimony and judgment of the whole earth ; and when you 
come amongst us, you will find them done with so much pru- 
doice and greatness of mind, that you, who are much superior 
to Scipio, will admit me, who am not much inferior to LseliuB, 
lo a snare both of your public councils and private friendship. 
Adieu *." 

■igniSed nolhing more, in iu originil uh, Ihui tha gcncnJ or 
. 1 innr : [Cic. de Oral. 1. «.] in which «inc il belonged eoudly 

, _._ . .. . helorj, in whKli 

ud girti numben of the meoif iltia, the »ldici1, by in uniic^nsl 
lalnte their gcnenl in (he field with the apiKllalinn o( ein]wrr>r, uci 
whole merit of the Bclion to hi, lutpicea and conduct. Tbig becami 
which M eommai.den were proud, u being the effect of lucccii i 
liT tbdr proper nlour ; and it wat alwayi the fint aad Decemry >tc 
On thcae oecuiooa, therefore, the title of emperor wa> conaiantly 

L 0> 

t m^ :iM -^OUCi; 

K-MOL i r^-ii €njQEry ws set oa i 
^ IF lur iir~-.aicCw<. upon the i 

!. "iic TIM Mcr^c ia^cjligvDGe which h 
L XT'tn T-r^ iaiT-j r; ticsr;. ii; ritHued ibe reward i "" ' 
, zti-s. ;if;-f; Ti -zit i-s- dsoj^-sTK of the plot. Bed 
wiiic i£ Ltt':t:i-^L K^i^jBC Cjesir. ^la toM to I 
: Ut :f±?i^ ^> produce s letter I 
Clicflfstf- bi C^sar'* i-rz ml:*:. Csar knnd s 
a» ;^«-l w '^cui 13 nATBAiii^c. uii w» Kvf«d to implore d 
■i toi :e-iC3ii:cT :c L~Vsr:. ~; t?-;t« dm be also had ginij 
cvIt i^:fTMa:e oc Cat:'— f* iii-ijTs : bet br his rigoor all 
KUT-i^ izi riie chj. z^ xalz-fi x r.L. rvi-ei^ ai last npoo Ui 1 
weweT^: Sie i* iecfrrs-i CiHaf «" tie rewd, and i "' 
Veess* e>?<ii=i::ei v^ tt^t- irrc; Sie had beeo miseiifity 
hac(L-«<L asfi ilz>:t!< kfZ«-: ~ry •±-i £»fc : oor cmitent with ^aa, 
W izTT^Mc^i ;i-f -izjes:^ S-?Ti-^ !•». fee safferin^ a superior 
■•[r»c3:« ii> b« aml£a«ti ~3«f<}ce him '-. 

^erenl odwrv hoveTer, oC nxi$iderable nnk, were foand 
pTiiin- and boakhed: «ocae ot them not tpfoaiag to thf9 
dtatioo. och^rs after a trial : tti. >L Pomas Lecca, C. Cof 
Detios I- VarffonCeius. Serria< Sylla. and P. ADtromiiB, tte. 
The Li^t of chese. vho !i:i>( the cv>nsuUhip four veais beforCt 
ttpoa a corn-icdon of briber^-, had been Cicero's schoolfellow, 
and coli<r3;£ue in ihe qusstor^p : and solicited him, with many 
tean, to undertake hi$ defeocv : but Cicero not ooIt refused to 


~J.rit.esl. Cie-ti. Ctm.-D,taaimmk 

ihhchanetet lodi gnit petulance, and onployed emy 
which could raise u odium and enry ap<m bin: be called 
ig a king, who assuowd a power to nve or dcttray, juM aa 
tbmigtil fit; said, that be was the diird fonifn kiav who 
ktd reigned in Rome after Nnma and Tarqmnitn; and, that 
Sflla would liave run away, and never atood a trial, if he bad 
AM underiiiken his cinae; whenever he mentioned the plot^ 
and the danger of it, it waa with so low and feeble a voice, that 
oeoe bui the judges could bear him; hot when be apoke of As 
pmoD iut«l the death of the conspirators^ be ottered it in ao 
tmd nnd lamentable a strain, as to make the whole Fonim tuifi 
•itb it '. 

Cicero, therefore, in his reply, was pnt to the tremble of 
defiradin? himself, as welt as bia client As to Torqtntiia^a 
esffing him foreigner, on the account of his being bom in one 
of the corporate town* of Italy, be owns it: anain that town, 
be ays, whence the Republic had been twice preserved fiain 
nrin ; and waa glad that he bad nothing to reproadi hira witfa, 
but what alFected cot oidy the greatest not, bat the twatesl 
men of tlie city; Curios^ Comncanins, Cato, Marios, ftc. bat 
anee he had a mind to be witty, and would needs make bim ■ 
foreigner, why did not be call bim a foreign consul, rather than 
a king ; for that would have been much more wonderful, sineo 
foremen had been kings, but never consols of Reoie. He 
admonishes him, who was now in the course of bis preferment, 
not to be so free of giving that title to citizens li^t )>e should 
wie day feel the resentment and power of such forei^em: 
that if the patricians were so proud, as to treat him and the 
judges on the bench as foreigners, yet Torquatus liad n^i right to 
do It, whose mother was of Asculum '. " Do not call me then 
foreigner, any more," says he, *' Jest it turn upon younielf ; nor 
a king, lest you be laughed at, unless you tliink it kingly, to 
live so as not to be a s^ve, not only to any man, but even to 
any appetite; to contemn all sensual pleasures; t» covet no 
man's gold or silver, or any thing else ; to speak one's mind 
freely in the senate; to consult the good, rather than the 
humour of the people ; to give way to none, but to withstand 
many : if you take this to a& kingly, I confefM myself a king; 
but if the insolence of my power, if my dominion, if any pr'tud 
or arrogant saying of mine provokes you, why <lo not y»<i urge 
me witn that, rather than the envy of a name, and the con- 
tumely of a groundless calumny?" — lie proceeik to tthttw, that 
his kingdom, if it must be called so, was of so luliorious a kitirl, 

tkM ibnv V3B nat a nmn in R^ae wbo woold be eontoBt ^ 
tok* kii i^MC '. He ptis kim in aund, that he was <i 
•» iilnl£r and bear vnn hii p e itiw . oat of r^;ard to J 
Taaik, aod to his Cuber — tbo^i no man bad ever thrown d 
rii^bn It aepersoa apctt kin. vitbost ]xiag chartiaed for H 
Wl thai b« bad bo mind to tall npoo one vbom be oooU ^ 
cadv Tanqniib : «bo bad Drithcr strenetb. nor age, nor I 
pcrieaee eooneb tor him lo cootend with: he advise 
■— iiti, noi to abase bis patieitee much looeer, lest be a 
W »— T*— * at bst to diaw- ckii the stings of his ^leecb agUMtft 
^H *. As to the merits of the cause, tbougb there was ■■ t 
iMniliii prooC vel there were many strong presumptiona a^^ 
SrUa, with which his adrersry hoped to oppreai bim: hat 1 
Ucov endeanHirvd to oonfute him. bv appealing to Ae tenot \ 
asd c&aiacier of hk life ; proteMin^, in the Mronffest tenn% 
dat be who bad been the searcher and detector ^ tbe pbi^ 
aad had bken socfa pains to get intelligence of die irtiola 
extent of it, had nerer met with the Inet biot or siupicioD (tf 
Sylla's name in it : and that be had no other moti^'e for defead> 
ii^ bim, but a pure rward to justice ; and as he had refused 
to defend otben, nar, bad g:ii'en eridence against tbem, from 
Ae knowledge of their gnili, so he had undertaken Sylla's de- 
fence, through a persoaaon of his innocence *. Ton]uatas, for 
want of direct proc^ threatened (o examine Sylla'a slares bjr 
torture: this was sometimes practised, upon uie demand in 
tbe prosecutor: but Cicero obserres upon it. that the effect of 


i, oo the PaiatiM loll* adjobim^ to tliat ia «Uck be 
rsj-s lired with bii father^ and vliialt be k now np- 
I u> Itave given up to liM brother Qmntoi. The booae 
t him near 30,000/. and aeeaH to bam been one of ibe 
: in Home; it wai built about thirty jtmn bcAte, by 
B bmoun tribune, M. liniH Dnsiia; oo whieb ewioii, we 
t laid, time wlien the ardiitect {womiaed to build it far Uai^ 
n todt a manner, that nom offhii Dcagbboon abould omioah 
' Bat, if you hare anj •kill,'' replied Drnsua, *■ contiiye 
iBiKer so, that the wdiM nay aee wbat I am icang'." It 
«>a* sjtuaiett in the most eonq^CBoua part of the aty, near to 
ifce centre of all busincM^ overiookmg the Forum and ^ 
nstra; and what made it the mote aplendidt m» it» beia^ 
jmned to a nortico or colonnade, called by the name of Ca- 
tulns; who uuilt it out of the CSmbric ^mhIb, on that ana 
where Fhtccus formerlv tired, who§e bonse was demolisbed bf 

?abb'c authority, for his Kditiotu piaeticea with C Gnudos . 
n this purchase he followed the rule which he recommenda 
in his OfSces, with regard to the habitation of a prindpal 
dtiieD ; that his dignity shoold be adorned by his hooae^ 
hut not derived from it ' : wh^e be mentions seTeral instancet 
of great men, who, by the mlendour of their houses, on Am 
very hill, which were constantiy strikine^ the eyes of the people, 
and imfwmtinff a notion of their magnificence, made their way 
ibe man easily to the highest honours of the Republic. 

A. Gellius tells us, that, having lesolved to buy the house, 
and wanting money to pay for it, he borrowed it privately of 
his client Sylla, when he was under prosecution ; but the story 
taking wind, and being charged upon him, he denied botli the 
borrowing and the design of purchasing, yet soon after, bought 
the bonse ; and, when he was reproached with the denial of it, 
replied only, laughing, that they must be fools to imagine, 
that when he haa resolved to buy, he would r^se competitors 
of the purchase by pnKlaiming it '. 

The story was taken, probably, from some of the spurious 
collections of Cicero's jests; which were handed about, not 
only after his death, but even in hia life-time, as he often 
complains to bis friends': for, it is certain, that there could 

■ Com pTonitttnt ti urhilectiii, iu k EdiHcilunini, iil libera b contprrtu. iminiinii 
ab omubui arbitrii we t Tu T«ro, in<iiiic, b quid in 1« irtia m, itA i-ninpone domum 
>aBi,Bt qixkqiudngaiDiboninibiiipenpidpoHit. Veil. Put. 2. 14. Kp.fam. A. 6. 

> If. Fliona, qui* cum Qrucho conira Rripub. Mlutcm foecrac, *t tmitflu Mntrntis 
cat intofeclur, tl douiiii cjsi evcna ctl : in qun jiortiruDi p«l aliquBnla Q, (.'nliilui de 

* Onudaol miin ilienilu domo, non ei domoloti qiicrenda. I)e OfFic 1.39. 

* A-Odfiu, 12. 12. 

* Ai* cnim, nt ego diMMKrim omnii omniiim dicu, in hi> tt'nm 8r>liana in me ean- 
(rrri. Qoiit ? tii idpatrrii? noniic dofrndi-?nonnr r™«ti«? &c. Kp. fim. /. .12. 

be notklnic Hii^bonourable in th« pardiase, since it was ti 
^ted 4o publicly, that, before it was even coneladecl, one of k 
frieiHlt convTSiiulated kim upon it, br letter, from MacedoiwS 
Tbe truth is and what he himself iJoes not dinemble, that hr 
borrowed part of the moTiey, to pay for it, at six per eentl 
and iays menilv, upon it, that he was now so plungea in deT ' 
aft to be ready fur a plot, but that the eonspiraton would i 
trust bim '. It raUed, indeed, some censure upon his vaoi^ll 
for purcliasin? sit expensive a house with borrowed DMneyn 
but MeMala, the consul, happening soon after to buy Antro-. 
niu&'a house, at a greater price, and with borrowed moaey ta% 
it gave him some pleasure, that he could justify' himself by tha.. 
example of so worthy a m^strate : " By Messala's purcluMe^* 
nys he, " I am thought to have made a good bargain ; and 
men begin to be cont-inccd, that we may use the wealth of 
our friends, in buying what contributes to our dignity *." 

But the most remarkable event, which happened in the end 
of thin year, was the pollution of the mysteries of the Bona 
Dea, or the good goilaess, by P. Cludius ; which, by an un- 
happy train of consequences, not only involved Cicero in an 
unexpected calamity, but seems to have given the first blow 
towards the ruin of the Kepublic. Clodius was now quiestor, 
and, by that means, a senator ; descended from the noblest b- 
mily in Rome, in the vigour of his age, of a graceful person, 
lively wit, and flowing eloquence ; but, witli nil the advantages 
of nature, he had a mind incredibly vicious ; was fierce, inso- 

»as so » 
t were can 

according to annual flHtom, WW now celebntiiu' in bar 
iiifui an<i myttle SKrifiees of the goMeaa, to 
vras erer adiiutted, and wnere every 
scEmpnloodr ezdoded, tliat even pio- 
corered dimng tbe ceremony *. Thn 
t a proper scene for Clodins's genius to act upon ; an oppor- 
lity of daring, beyond what man had ever dared before 
i: the tbougUt of mixing the impurity of his lusts with the 
ctity of these venerable rites, flattered hia imagination so 
ICnN^ly, tliat he resolved to gain access to his mistress, in tb« 
rery tatdst of her liolv ministry. With this view, he dressed 
kbtfelf in a woman's liabit, and, by the benefit of his smooth 
bee, and tlie introduction iMf one M the nuuds, who was in the 
■eeret, hoped to pass withont discoveir: but, by some mi»- 
take, between him and his ffoide, he lost his way, when he 
oune within the bouse, and fell in, unluckily, among the odier 
female servants, who, detecting him by his voice, uarmed the 
*hole company by their shrielcs, to the great amazement of the 
natrons, who presently threw a veil over the sacred mysteries, 
while Clodius found means to escape by the &vour of some of 
&e damsels *. 

The slory was presently spread abroad, and raised a general 
touidal and horror tliroiigh the whole city : in the vulgar, for 
tlie profanation of a religion held the most sacred in Rome ; 
in the belter sort, for its offence to good manners, and the 
discipb'jie of the Hepublic. Csesar put away his wife upon it; 
and the honest, of all ranks, were lor pushing this advantage 
against Clodius as far as it would go, in hopes to free them- 
selves by it, of a citizen, who by this, as well as other speci- 
mens of bis audaciousness, seemed born to create much disturb- 
luioe to the state'. It had been the constant belief of the 
popnlace, that, if a man should ever pry into tliese mysteries, 
he would be instantly struck blind ; but it was not possible, as 
Cicero says, to know the truth of it before, since no man, but 
Clodius, had ever ventured upon the experiment : though it 

lift; fit jvro populo Romano; fit in ea dooio, qur nt in imperio; lit 

UD, Appi filinm, ere.. . . ._ 

UQ pTD pvpulo fieretf eumque per ] 

..«. — .o..^ inbaik. AdAtt. 1.12. 

■ Yidtbum, illud fcelni tun impsnunum, audiciun Um 

raalii, BSHlii, Tulumti. nsn jwuc arceri ntii Bnibiii : enipton 

w:u tii'V ti'unii, as he lell^ Mm. that the blitiduesa of the 
was CMirened to that of the mind '. 

The a&ir v» soon brought before the senate; 
was resolved to refer it to the college of priests, who 
it to be an abominable impiety : upon vLich the consub 
ordered to provide a law for bringing Clodius to a trial I 
before the people '. But Q. Fufius Calenus, one of the 
banes, supported by all th^ Ctodiaii Action, would not 
the law to be offered to the «iitrrage of the citizens, 
laked a gteai ferment in the city, while the senate adheredj 
tbeir former re^Iuiion, though the consul Piso used all 
endeavours to divert them from it, .ind Clodius, in an a' ' 
manner, threw himself at the feet of every senator; yet, 
a second debate, in a fiiU hou«e, there were fifteen only 
Toted on Clodius's side, and four hundred directly aj * ' 
•o that a fresh decree passed, to order the consuls 
mend the law to the people, with all their authority) and tlatJ 
no other buMness should be done, till it was carried ; but iUf * 
being likely to produce great disorders, Hortensios proposal •: 
an expedient, which was accepted by both parties, that tli^ I 
tribune Fufius should publish a law, for the trial of Clodius, 1^ : 
the praetor, with a select bench of judges. The only difiei^ ^ 
ence between the two laws was, whether he should oe tried 
by the petiple, or bv [wrticular judges: but this, says Cicei«^ 
was evcTv tliiiii;. l)orionsiiis was afraid, lest he should escap« 
in the >itu.ibbre, without aiiv trial: beinE: persuaded that no 
.,-., pl!;fl™l,:.,l,.s.,i.l, 

•etiate reatlily ordered, with prat commendations of tb— ^ 
deace: bat when it came to the issue, twenty-five on^2,_ 
tlenined, while thirty-one absolved iiira. Crassus i^ ^^H 
fcave been Clodius's chief manager, iu tampering w"^^*** 
iad}^ ; employing every art and instrument of corrupti^^^^fS 
II suited the different tempers of the men ; and where i*^^ 
would not do, offering even certain ladies and young ni^%^ 
quality to their pleasure. Cicero says 'hal a more scaud^^^ 
eompany of sbarpers never sal down at a gaming labie : ^-^^^ 
nous senators be^^ijrarly knights, with a few honest men am ^^ 
them, whom Clodius could not exclude; who in a crew so un /'"^ 
to themselves, sat with sad and mournful faces, as if afniici ^ 
being infected with tlie conti^on of their infamy ; and I 
Catulus, meeting one of them, asked him, what they meant '| 

5 a guard. were they afraid of being robbed of the mt 
lodius had given them '? 
This transaction, howev 

'ery serious concern tOl 

desiring a guard . 

' (1 given 

ever, gav ^ 

Cicero, who laments, that the firm and quiet state of the Re- 
public, which he had established in his consulship, and wUi^ 
seemed to be founded in the union of all good men, was iWp 
lost and broken, if some deity did not interpose, by this singK 
judgment; if that, says he, can be culled a judgment, for thltlj 
of the most contemptible scoundrels of Rome to violate all thi 
ia just and sacred, for the sake of money ; and rote that to \ 
false, which all the world knows to be true. As he loc 
npon himself to be particularly affronted by a sentence, gin 
In flat contradiction to his testimony, so he made it his busiDM 
on all occasions to display the inicjnity of it, and to sting l" 

several actors in it with all tlie keenness of his raillery '. 

a debate soon after, in the senate, on the stale of the RepHbltoT* 

let Idok iqMM the Hqmblie. **fiat tboa 

'mfhti ** die jndgw hare not icMmd 

', but for ft priH» ; they designed thee no kind- 

g thee at bone, bat to deprive thee <tf the 

exile. Wherefive, &then, rouse your nsnal 

« your dignity; (here sobdsta stiir die nme 

tie honest ; they hsre had indeed a fresh lotijeet 

in, yet their eimiwe is not impaired bv it ; no 

has beiallen as; mtt tliat only, which lay cm- 

r discovered ; and, by the trial of one deq»emte 

y others are found to be as bad as he '." 

I, not caring to eocoonter Cicero by formal q>eeche^ 

piB tenze him with lailleir, and torn the debate into ridi- 

i "V'oo are a fine ffnitiinDan, indeed," says he^ **aDd 

» been at Baice." <'ThafB not m> fine," replied Cicens 

lo be caught at the mysteries of the goddess." " Bat 

.." says he, " bus a down of Arpiniun to do at the hot 

kf "Ask that friend of yonr's," replied Cicero, *'wbo 

aiDOotfa's mind to yonr Arpinttm clown'." '*Yon hove 

liouse*," says he. "Yon should have said, judges,* 

lys be, " would not bwen 

your oath." "Yes^" repfied Cicero, " twenty-fin 

givre credit to me; while the rest would not give anv 
but made you pay tout money before hand^ Tkm 
led the laugh so stronpy on Cicero's side, that Clodina 
confounded, and forced to sit down *. But being now 
declared enemies, they never met without some strokes of this 
kind apon each other; which, as Cicero observes, must needs 
appear flat in the narration, since all their force and beauty 
depended on the smartness of the contention, and the spint 
with which ihey were delivered'. 

The present consuls were M. Pupim Piso and M. Messala; 
the first of whom, as soon as he entered into office, put a slight 
sSront upon Cicero : for his opinion having been asked always 
the first, by tlie late consuls, Piso called upon him only the 
wcond, on Catuhis the third, Hortensius the fourth : this, he 
«a)-s, did not displease him, since it left him more at liberty 
ia ^is votiag ; oiid freed him from the obligation of any com- 


* TUl b nmioMd to rafer to hii ilitsr Cladis, ■ 1>dv funaua ror het intninei ; wba 
W been tiTiog ill uti to tempi Ciccn to put amy Teientis. and to tike hrr for hi* 

' ThoDfb Clodiui Rprouhn Cicirn hen for the ntrsTBgrnnt puirhne ol i home, 
»« 1m hinwelf a wd lo b»« giTen »ft(;nniriia neat four limM u much for one, Tii, 
•kill 119,0001. •telling. Plhi.llut. N. 1-36. 15. 

10 poMUDt lubne noiiw nm, neqiic icnusuleoi, rtmato illo itadi* 

A.Urb.fiS'.'. VicVi. Co»— M. Pupiui I'kw. M. Vdcriui MoW^ 
plauaBce to a man whom be despised '. TLb coo^ 
mrmly in the interests of ClodJus ; not so much out of ^ 
ship, as a iiatural inclination to the wont side ; for, test 
to Cicero's account of bim, lie was a man of a weak and tf 
mind ; a churlish, captious siieerer, without any turn d 
and making men laueh by his looks rather than jests; 6 
iag neither the popular nor the aristocratical party; fton 
no good was to be expected, because he wished none ; M 
to be feared, because he durst do none; who would ban 
more vit^us, by having one vice the less, sloth and Itii 
&c. Cicero frankly used the liberty, which this consul 
hariour allowed him, of delivering his sentiments witho 
reserve; giving Piso himself no quarter, but exposing 
thing that he did and said in favour of Ciodius, in such i 
ner, as to binder the senate from decreeing to him the pr 
of Syria, which had been designed, and in a manner pr 
to him *. The other consul, Mesrala, was of quite a di 
character ; a firm and excellent magistrate, in the tr 
terests of his country, and a constant admirer and imil 

About this time Cicero is supposed to have made that t 
oration, still extant, in the defence of his old precept 
poet Archias : he expected, for bis pains, an unmorb 
tame from the praise of Archias's muse; but, by a contra 
<^ things, instead of deriving any addition of glory frc 
chias's compositions, it is wholly owing to his own, tt 
! ,.f \vM:i.< lias rii.t !,,(,.' ajro boon buni-d in ol 

or cicno. 167 

r^ ^^VA«i«>! ek-.m. Om^-M.r^lmVin. " »---■ 

** (%^^Viw, in ttio bri^ of hii fiuM uid factnlHi, Aon th* 
^J^^P^'cnr, IWritjr bad been much alarmed dmathiiBa 
^^^^^■Kffl n'jinrts fmm aMnKl, and •everal tumola at koine; 
iTitl npprefaennon prerailedt of his coming at the 
iniiv. «> take the govertimeot into hn hanu '. It 
III \c had it now in his power, to make himaelf 
' Re[>iibli(^ withoat the huard eren of a war, or 
oiij<j<i[i lo ciintrel him. Cbbbt, with the tribnae Me- 
Bs inviting him tD i^ and had no other ambition at 
t, than to Kt-rve nnder Um : bat Pompey was too pble^ 
to be ea<iiily induced to M deqierate a resolution; or 
r ratJiCT, iiitteed, to hare had no thooghts at all of 
It mm, hut to liavo been content with the lank which he 
I ponesaed, of the first eidxcn of Rooie^ without a rivaL 
[iMd lived in a perpetoal eourse of niecen and glorjr, wit^ 
t aav ftlur, either from the senate or the people, to inqiire 
b mh seotiineiiS of rerenge, or to give hmi a pretence 
nt measures : and be was pemiaded, that the growing 
of [he city, woold soon force all pardea to create 
xUir, Tot the aettlement of the slate ; and thoilght It of 
} honour to his dMiBCter to obtain that power, by the con- 
t of hi§ citizvii^, than to extort it from then by rlolenoe. 
t what4>veT appTcDennons were conceived of lum, befwe his 
'ne, tliey nM vanished at his arriral; for, he no sooner set foot 
B^, than he di^ibanded bis troops, giving them orders only 
ttend Mm in lits triumph; and, with a private retinue, 
I pursued his journey to Rome, where the whole body of the 
[ people came out to receive him, with all imaginable gmtula- 
ions and expressions of joy, for his happy return '. 

By hia late mtories lie had grently extended the barrier of 
tlie empire into llie continent of Asia, having added to it three 
powerful kingdoms', Poutus, Syria, Ditliyiiia, which he re- 
dsced to the condition of Roman provinces ; leaving all the 
vther kings, and nations of the east, tributary to the Kepublic, 
M br as the Tigris. Among his other conquests, he took 
the city of Jerusalem, by the opportunity of a contest about 
tbe crown, between the two brothers Hircanus and Aristobu- 
Ids: the lower town was surrendered to him, with little or no 
opposition ; but the fortress of the temple cost him a si^^ of 
three months ; nor would he have taken it then, so ea'^iiy, as 

M, buK ti pHflcicnd^' facrtatui lum. Pro Arc'liia, 9. 1 1 . 
' Plnl, in Pomp. ' 

A. Urb. 692. C'k. iti. Coh^M. Pupiui fi-i. M. Vdcriin M« 

Dio tells an ', had it not been for the advaotage, that the b 
ueged gave him, by the observance of their weekly sabba'* 
on which they abstained so religiously from all war, as to n 
lect even their necessary defence. He showed great huDMi^, 
to the people* and touched no part of the sacred treasury tih 
vessels of eolfli which were of an immense value ' ; yet wmV 
drawn, by his curiosity, into such a profanation of their teaph^l 
as mortined them mure than all that they had suffered by thai 
war : for, in taking a view of the buildings, he entered widi 1 
his officers, not only into the holy place, where none but ths i 
priests, but into the holy of holies, where none but the high 1 
priest was permitted, by the law, to enter : by which act, as k | 
very eminent writer, more piously, perhaps, than judicJouth^, 
remarks, he drew upon himself the curse of God, and never 
prospered afterwaros '. He carried Aristobulus and his diil:- 
dren prisoners to Rome, for the ornament of his triumph ; and 
settled HircanuB in the government and the high prieBthoodl» 
but subject to a tribute. Upon the receipt of the public letteta, 
which brought the account of his success, the senate passed a 
decree, that, on all festival days, he should have the privilve 
to wear a laurel crown, with his general's robe; and in the 
euuestrian races of the circus, his triumphal habit : an honour} 
wnich, when he had once used, to show his grateful sense <^ 
it, he ever after prudently declined ; since, without adding 
any thing to his power, it could serve only to increase the 
envy, which many were endeavouring to stir up against 

OP cicno. 160 

I Deans, tim •atfaority of the aesata irnid ramctod; 

__.& obQged him to was gnat iiiuMig;eBwii^ and maoe Idm 

P« csDtiaus of oJhncHng any aide, that lie pleaaed nana. 

I CSpero says of hia fint ^Mcdt, that it waa neither agreeaUe to 

wAe poor, nor re&hed t^ the ikli ; diaq>poiiited the aeditioiia, 

f jot gave no sada&etioa to the htmeat '. As he happened to 

I come borne in the very heat of Clodins'a afiir, ao he wwt pn- 

I aeotiy ar?^. by both parties to declare for the one or the 

IMher. Fii£us, a bn^, fiwtioiia tribune, demanded of hiao, 

I before tlie people^ what he thought of Clodiiu^a being tried hf 

[ tke prastor and a bendt of jmbea ? to which he anawered, very 

' ally, aa Cicero caltt i^ that he had erer taken tha 

of the aenato to be of the gresteat weiriit in all 

_ nd wbeo the cooaol Mnaaala awed Iubd, in toe aenatc^ 

a opinion waa of that profiuiaUon of religion, and tha 

WMapoaed abont it? he took oocanon, witbont entering into 

particnlars, to appland, in general, atl that the aenate haadone 

in it; and) upon tattiag down, told Cicero, who sat next to him, 

that he had now laid enon^, he thought, to signify his aentK 

Beats of the matter'. 

Crassus observing Pompey's reserve, resolved to pnah him 
to a nHire explicit dedaretian, or to get the better of him at 
least in the good OEunitHi of the senate ; rising up, therefore to 
■peak, he launcfaea out, in a very high strain, into the piaiaea 
of Cicero's coiisulahip ; dedaring himself indebted to it ftv hia 
beini;t, at that time, a senator and a citizen ; nay, for his veiy 
hlteity and hia life; and that, as often as he saw his wife, his 
&mily, and his country, so often he saw bis obligations to 
Cicero. This discomposed Pompey, who wss at a loss to under- 
stand Crassns's motive ; whether it was to take the benefit of an 
3»portunity, which he had omitted, of ingratiating himself with 
icero; or that he knew Cicero's acts to be in high esteem, 
and the praise of them very ^reeable to the senate ; and it 
piqued him the more, for its coming from a quarter, whence it 
was least to be expected; from one whom Cicero, out of regard 
to him, had always treated with a particular slight. The intn- 
deat, however, raised Cicero's spirits, and made him exert him- 
self before his new hearer, Pompey, with all the pride of his 
eloquence : his topics were, the firmness and ^avity of the se- 
nate; the concord of the equestrian order; the concurrence of all 
Italy: the lifeless renmins of a baffled conspiracy ; the peace and 
plenty which had since succeeded: all which he displayed with 

non Etmn. luqiie TiiftebBt. A 
* Mibiqur, ut uiCdit, dixit. » 

A. Vii. 6ff2. Cic. Hi. Con.— H. Pupiui rUo. U. VnJcrim HbmU. 

bn Utmost force, to let Pompey see his ascendaat still in that < 
■■embly, and bow mucb be naa been imposed upon by the am 'j 
counts of hb new friends '. Pompey, likewise, on his side, began ! 
presently to change his tone, and affected, on all public oeea* j 
■MMn, to pay so great a court to Cicero, that the other hctioO ' 
gave him the nick-name of Cnnus Cicero: and their seemii^ • 
union was so generally agreeable to the city, that they were . 
both of them constantly clapped, whenever tJiey wi}eared in 
the theatre, without a hiss from any quarter'. Yet Cicero 
aauly discovered, that all this outward civility was but feigned 
and artificial ; that he was full of envy within, and bad no good 
intentions towards the public ; nothinj^ candid or sincere ; no- 
thine great, generous, or free, in him *. 

Tnere was one point, which Pompey resolved to carry, this 
nunmer, ^[ainst the universal inclination of the city; the eleo 
tion of L. Afranius, one of his creatures, to the considship : in 
which he fights, says Cicero, neither with authority, nor in* 
terest, but with what Philip of Macedon took every fortresi, 
into which he could drive a loaded ass *. Plutarch says, that 
he himself distributed the money openly in his own gardens: 
but Cicero mentions it as a current report, that the consul 
Piso had undertaken to divide it at his house: which gave birifa 
to two new laws, drawn up by Cato and his brother-in-law, 
Domitius Ahenoborbus, and supposed to be levelled at the 
consul ; the one of which gave a liberty to search the houses, 
even of magistrates, on information of bribery ; tlie other de- 
clared all those enemies to the state, at whose houses the 


A. Ttb. no. Ck. 16, 

Kiburbs : eu diat the Moate and people, in oomplimsnt to Mn^ 
Wid th«ir juumblies, generally^ dnrug that dme, widiODt tin 
«»lls ; some of whidi are nwotioBed to hare been in the Fla- 
Biioian drcus'. Bit tnaiapb latted two dim, and waa Ae 
KKHt vpleiidid wbioh had ever beco seen in Rome: he haUt a 
tMU)>le to Minerva oat of the tgftfai with an iaaci i plio ii , giyiMT 
a •uminar)- of his victanfl»: "That he had finiihed a war« 
d)irty-ye«rs ; had vaoqaiahedf dain, and taken two mlUioM 
ooe liundred aiid ei^ty-threo thoownd men ; aonk or taken 
•igbt bnndred and forty-4ix ihipa ; reduced to the powCT of thui 
empire a tiui\ss»ad fire hondred and thirty-eight towm and 
fonreHes: aod subdued all the oonntriea between the hho 
Msmtis aod the Red Sea*." 

Quintus Cicero, who, by the help and intereat of hii broAor, 
iraa folluwing him at a proper diatance diron^ all tiie bmtoaia 
of the state, having been pnetor the last year, now obtainod 
the government of Asia; a rid and noble pm'iBee, eoa i; Me- 
hvitoiug the greatest part of whiU n called Aaia Minor. Bo- 
Eore he went to take poBHMon of it, he eartwetl^ preMod 
Atticua. whose sisfer he married, to go alone ^th faun, aa one 
uf his lieutenants ; and resented his refusu so heinou^y, thai 
Cicero had no small trouble to make them friends b|^. 
There ia an excelk^nt letter, on this sabject, from Cicero to 
Atticui ; which I cannot forbear inserting, for the light which 
it gtrea as into the genuine character of all the three, as well 
w of other great men of those times, with a short account also 
of the present state of the Republic. 


'■ I PERCEIVE, from your letter, and the copy of my bro- 
ther's, which you sent with it, a great alteration in his afFeo- 
tioo and sentiments with regard to you : which alFects me with 
all tliat concern, which my extreme love for you both ought 
to give me ; and with wonder, at the same time, what could 
possibly happen either to exasperate him so highly, or to effect 
BO great change in him. I had observed, indeed, before, what 
you also mistrusted at your leaving us, that he had conceived 

' FuSdi in condonciD pTnduxit PDnipciuniimigclatui iuCirco Flaminio. Ibid. 11. 
' C^. IViuriEii'K. Cn. p. MAnstn. Imi-. 


Offidih. Cartkllis. M.D.XXXVIU. 

tuibiii. a. m.cuti. liacl'. ad rvbiii'm. 


TtrruH. MI8ITO. HiNuiv«_PliD. Hht. N. 7. 2i>. 

A.UTh.693. Ck.46. Cnt^H. Pupiu Hi». H. V>lcriiu HcwU. 

Bome secret di^^ust, wliich shocked and tilled his mind with J 
odiooB suapiciotu : which though I was often attempdng to J 
heal, and especially after the aUotment of his province, yet I 3 
could neither discorer that his resentment was so great, as h 3 
appears to be, from yoar letter, nor find, that what 1 said bad j 
so great an effect upon him as I wished. I comforted myself j 
however, with a persuasion, that he would contrive to see yos ^ 
at DjTrachium, or some other place in those parts ; and, in 
that case, made no doubt but that all would be set right ; not 
only by your discourse, and talking the matter over between 
yourselves, but by the very sight and mutual embraces of eoA 
other : for I neen not tell you, who know it as well as myself 
what a fund of good nature and sweetness of temper there ii 
in my brother, and how apt he is, both to take and to forsive 
an offence. But it is very unlucky, that you did not see him; 
since, by that means, what others have artfully inculcated has 
had more influence on his mind, than either nis duty, or his 
relation to you, or your old friendship, which ought to have 
bad the most. Where the blame of all this lies, it is easier tor 
me to imagine than to write ; beine afraid, lest, while I am 
excusing my own people, I should be too severe upon your's; 
for, as I take the case to be, if those of his own family did not 
mfdce the wound, they might, at least, have cured it. When 
we see one another again, I shall explain to you more easily 
the source of the whole evil, which is spread somewhat wider 
than it seems to be, — As to the letter which he wrote to you 
froin ThLSsiiliiiiicM, and wlmt you suppose Iiim to have said of 

and metliud of life ; wbiL<it I was drawn, by a sort of atnbition, 
lo the desire and pursuit of honours; you, by other maiiuis, 
' in BO «vtsc blame»Dle, to tbe enjoyment of an Iionuiirablo re- 
tnot. But for die genuine character of probity, diitgencc, 
cxacuiew of behaviour, I neither prefer myself, nor any man 
dw to yoii ; and, as for love to me, after my brother and my 
ftwn fiimily, 1 give you always the fintt place. For I saw, and 
war it in a manner the most affecting, both your solicitude and 
your joy, in alt tbe various turns of my aflairs ; and wait nftna 
plmsed, as well with llie applause, which you gave me in 
■oeces, as the comfort which you administered in my fear« ; 
mndi even now, in the time of your absence, I feel and regret 
the loss, not only of your advice, in which you excel all : but 
of tbat fiimiliar chat with you, in which I used to talte so much 
delight. Where then, shall 1 tell you, tliat I most want you ? 
m public aflairs ? where it can never be permitted to me to 
■it idle; or in my Ubours at the bar? which I sustained Iwfore, 
throagh ambition; but now, to preserve my dignity : or, in my 
domestic concerns ? where, though I always wanted your help 
before, yet, since the departure of my brother, I now stand 
the more in need of it. In short, neither in my labours, nor 
' Kst; neither in business, nor retirement; neither m tlie Forum, 
nor at home ; neither in public, nor in private affairs, can I 
live any longer without your friendly counsel, and endearing 
conversation. We have often been restrained, on both sides, 
by a kind of shame, from explaining ourselves on this article ; 
boi I was now forced to it, bv tliat part- of your letter, in which 
Vou tbou-ht fit to jii-(ity vour-.-ir ;irul y.uu way of life to me. 
but, to return to my brother : in the present state of the ill 
Irmnoar which he expresses towards yon, it happens, however, 
eonrenieDtly, that your resolution of declining all employments 
dnoad, was declared and known long beforehand, both to me and 
roorotber friends; so that your not being now together, cannot 
oe ebaived to any quarrel or rupture between you, but to 

rir jo^^inent and choice of life. Wherefore, both this breach 
yoor UDioD will, undoubtedly, be healed again, and your 
friendship with me remain for ever inviolable, as it has hitherto 
been. We live here, in an infirm, wretched, tottering Repub- 
lic : for you have heard, I euess, that our knights are now 
almost di^oined again from the senate. The first thing which 
they took amiss, was the decree for callinc; the judges to account, 
who bad taken money in Clodius's a^r : I happened to be 
lAsent when it passed ; but, hearing afterwards, tiiat tbe whole 
onler resented it, though without complaining openly, I chid 
tbe lerMte, as 1 thought, with great effect ; and, in a cause not 
' ', ^ke forcibly and copiously, l^hey have now 


A.L'tke)3. Cit.46. Cao.— M. Pupiiu l^u. M. Vilcriiu Me^Ia. 

another curious petition, scarce fit to be endured ; which Ttl I 
not only bore with, but defended. The company, who airW 
the Asiatic rerenues oi the censors, complained to the aemtt^ 
that, throuf^h too great on ea^rness, they had given more firt 
tbem than they were worth, and be^ed to be released fnm 
the bai^ain. I was their chief advocate, or rather, indeed, tW 
Meond; for Crassus wna the man, who put them upoa maldiig" 
diia request. The thing is odious and shameful, and a pnUfi 1 
coofiessiuo of their rashness : but there was great reason to a^ 
prebend, that, if they should obtain nothing, they would M 
wholly alienated from the senate ; so that this point, alaoy wm 
principally mantled by me. For, on the Ist ajid 2nd of Dih 
cemher, 1 spoke a great deal on the dignity of the two (adef% 
and the advantages of the concord between them, and was beai^ 
very favourably in a full house. Xothing, however, is yet 
done ; but the senate appears well disposed : for Metellus, tba 
consul elect, was the only one, who spoke against us; thongb 
that hero of our's, Cato, was going also to sneak, if tiie short' 
Mess of the day had not preventeahim. Thus, in pursuit of 
my old measures, 1 am supporting, as well as I can, that 
concord which niy consulship had cemented: but, since no 
great stress can now be laid upon it, I have provided mysdf 
another way, and a sure one, I hope, of maintaining my antfaiH 
rity ; whici), I cannot well explain by letter, yet, will give you 
a short hint of it. I am in strict friendship with Pompey — 
I know already what you say— and will be upon my guard, a 
&r as caution can serve me, and give you a farther account. 


A. UriK 1*1*3. CU". 47. Cotfc— g. CttxlliM* McHlus CVlrr. K. Afraiiiu*. 

Bitcliief, by pursuing his maxims absurdly, and without any 
mard to Cne times * ; and upon a review of the transactions, 
wudi had passed since his consulship, and the turn which 
the pnblic aflfairs were then taking, he seems to foretel, that 
the Republic could not stand mucii longer; since this very 

Cr baa overthrown the two main [)illars of it, which he had 
a erecting with such pains; the authority of the senate, 
nd their union with the knights \ 

Q. CsBcilius Metellus and L. Afranius were now consuls. 
The first had been prsetor in Cicero's consulship, and com- 
manded an army against Catiline, and was an excellent magis- 
tnte, and true patriot ; a firm opposer of all the factious, and 
a professed enemy also to Pompey ; in which he was the more 
heated by a private resentment of the affront offered to his 
sister Mucia, whom Pompey had lately put away \ His part- 
aeri Afranius, was the creature of Pompey's power ; but of no 
credit or service to him, on the account of his luxury and lazi- 
ness; being fonder of balls than of business. Cicero calls him 
a consul, w'homnone but a philosopher could look upon without 
whing ; a soldier without spirit ; and a proper butt for the 
raillery of the senate, where Palicanus abused him every day 
to his face : and so stupid, as not to know the value of what he 
had purchased *, 

By the help of this consul, and some of the tribunes, Pompey 
imagined, that he should readily obtain the rafificatioii of liis 
acts, together with an Agrarian law, wliieli lit; was pushing 
forward, at the same time, for the (li^tributiori of lands to his 
soldiers; but he was vigorously opposed in tlieni both by 
the other consul, Metellus, and the generality of the senate \ 
Lucullus declared, that they ought not to eonHrm his acts in 
the gross, as if they received them from a master, but to con- 
sider them separately, and ratify those only which were found 

' I'nus est, qui r>ircl, ronstaiitia ni;ii:is vi iiiti-jriitaic, r|U.'iiii. ut itiilii viiiftur. <-on>i]io 
•■• iTJiTfijio, Cat"; qui jni'-eni-* jMiblii-aiio*-, (|U<»-. Iialjuit auiairl^-imos '•iii, trrtiuTii j;un 
miri^ni vexat, iicpic eis a s<-riatu ri"si>«nsun> ilsui {liititnr. A<1 Alt. I. IM. it. "J. 1. 

'■* Na.Qi »l ca hreviter, qua- ]ni*t di-i4 r»sun» tuuui acta ><uiit, < oliig:iin. jani « M.liinu.-* nr- 
ff*<c e!«t. rc-fi RoinaTia« <liutius stare ii'iu |ios«r. 

Si<- ille annu« 'luo Hnnarnciita Ktiimli. jm/i u\v utiuid r:rni-iiiu*:i, cvntit : ii:iiu ct >c- 
T.atu* auftoritatcin aljccit. ct nplinuni conccMiiiani «liMunxit. A«l Alt. 1. IJ!. 

^ M«t«-llu« «-*t coiij»>iI ciiroiriu*., et iios ainat, A.c. M>i(I. 1«M, \U. *2(». I>iu. 1. 'M. I». ■'-. 

* <!jiicui necrio piu'lcr rms [ihilosuphuM a««|>ictTf •«inc huspiratu po-^iM't. 

Auli uutcui filiu«<,o Dii iinniortnlcs! quain iu^navu> ct fiiw annim luilt.'j! ipiaui digiiuh, 
qui Paiicano, vicut facit, on ail male audicnduiu quotidic pi-a.'licat ! 

IlIc alUrr ita nihil e«»t, ut plant' i[ii'u\ euicrit, nc^riat. 

Auli Hlius vcn> ita s-o gcrit, ut ejus cotlSIllatu^ nun con-ulatu;!' ^it, M-tl nia'jni n<>stri 
inrtriruiv^ kf. -Xd Att. ilml. Dio, ibid. 

* Apraria auteni prom ul;iata est a I^'lavio, *-aiic lcvi>, 6l<\ A«1 Att. 1. IH. 

AjrrahH lex a Haviu tribum* picb. vchcincntcr adtabatui. auctmi" P<iiri|MiM: — Nihil 
fKiptilarc fialxrhat prater au«:toicm.- Iluic loti nitioui iiifnuin- m uiituv :.«Kci>ab:itur. su^- 
picank Pompcin novnm quandain pulcntiain qu.'i*ii. Ibi'l. ]!> 

M W naMcabee '. Bat tii« tribone Flanus, who was the pn^i. 
■ irrirr at Ae l>v. bnpaiieiit of tfais (^poadon, and iiiiiiiMlirfB 
W Pdai|wy'> poa-er. had the hardineffi to commit MetelliM IB^ 
prino : aod, when ail the senate toUo«ed, and resolved to fiLif 
t» priMa tiMx he ciapt hU chair at the prison door to keep tbcM i 
■n : bot thii rioien«e za*'e such a general scandal to toe titft i 
ikai Potnpey fouod it adri<at>Ie to draw off the tribuoe, and 1 
Kiier-e tie e»3>ul'. In order to allar these heats, Cicera I 
tMend an amea-imeat to the law, whic£ satisfied both partio^ t 
br secnHn^ the p>.v<se»ion? of all prirate proprietors, aiid hn>> 1 
dennf lae public lands iroui beiuz {riven away : bis pn^Nial '. 
ns^ that out of the new revenue^^ which Pompey had acquired 
to t^ empire, nre rears' rents should be set apart to purcfaaw 
hods, hx- the inteniW distribution '. But the promss of th* 
aiui «s$ sospended by the sudden alarm of a Gallic war, 
which was always terrible to Rome, and being now actually 
cosmeooed br several reri>li^ nations called for the inUD^ 
diate caiv and anention ot the eorernment *. 

The senate decreed the two Gauls, severally, to the two 
coasu'tf : and Te«:jaire>i them to make levies without any r^ard 
•a priviie^. or eiemptiea Irora sen-ice: and that three senaton 
sbould b« cbweit by lot, one of them of consular rank, to be sen^ 
with a public ciuncter. to the other Gallic cities, to dissuads 
them frvim joining in the war. In the allotment of these amba^ 
aadors. the Kr^ lot hapiiened to tall upon Cicero; but the whole 
UMmblv remoQstratc-d against it. declaring his presence neceft- 
sar^' at Kome. and that he ou^ht not to be employed on suck 

OF '. I . LsL .' 
A. Vrb. t>S«. CV 47 f. .-» -^ .-_.•- - _ • -_. 

ku8, I suppose, lo rrioiDf-i. I ->i --.i- :- «:> ^ ni ■:'--. -- 
Bi uhy as he is excellent ui &1. v-i-rT r e^; -»-:•:• 

Cieeronow finishecL in tie Grr*r£ -^.-^".ifcrT. s--' . ii-r --• .r 
nuoiner of Isocntes wha: L* c£-> i C'.cr-':--*.— . •" "'-I-- 
of the Traii»ction« oi L> C-.-'+r^si-: : l:*: •^-- - -■ 
with a desire, if Le ar-cri-'i^i ->. -. :.:.j^: - 
Athens, and the cities of Greece. H? i^ltI'':'^: - *^ft - l 
piecttj at the same time. ari^^. on :i^ i&n-r •^^'-r:'*. tr 't: .'.— : ..*-w 
vUch he rallies, a^ roueli ^Sii ij- »isirrL ts- v--*.. . - l* 
beanty, bat its simplicity. He *-£■::: 'i> c-tl -s :-t a..- - '- -i-. - 
niv, of Rhodes, and beJKred tl^: ir -» -i.-: »-:-=^^.t.-- t m - •.;-r- 
ngnment, in a more e\e-jr^ii ar.-i ^ii'^-rr.^ r.i_- 1-- :.-:-- 
doiuas answered bim. "a-ith a orr; .Ir.T-.- :. .-.•- --"-"j: * '- ".j 
encouraged to rate, by tLe --rr^Sil .: i> : ^.-- . = v^. , ..-.- 
deterred from attempting it. l. > ' • .- ^. ..-■ •*•- - 
OQselv, that he had confuur-'io! :::r -_ -r v :r— t *-i.-. •:. i.- : 
free^ himself from the l:r.p»jr:\.' 'zy : -i -r .- - v -. .1.. 
had been teasing him su ivci-. lu '-r -^ri- • . • r * -_ v • -_- ^ - -.- 
bistory of his act>\ WLat :.e st;.-, :. '▼:.-- : • -..• - j iiit- 
tek npon himself, is that i: »s^- :. ■ i z-i-r^^^ '•'.- ' -' - ---^ 
tory; which make« our \o^ of i: tLr iT^.*- :. •" ■ - .-' :.i'T 
given a more exact acct'unt of ti---' r :.'•=-*. ::-.: ri.- : v -.^^ 
possibly had, in un eiitr-rriir.:: j "-. ' '- - ■ • ■ . •- '' 
elegance; wliicL. not "li!;. ] . ;•- - - • - - . - - - - 
done very lii;j:hly. liut, a* . - • « -. 
there be anv xli'm^r h. y." * . * . . • 

i>egood Greek, or f-i-li't: •-:. j ' . • 

not say what Lucu!!;;-? t^il : . ■: . • 

nius, that lie had s«t!te:t"i * '. • • • -■ - -. • .. 

to make it appear to be T!.e *a. -'-: : . ; • ■ ■ •. j 

of that kind >iioiild be fuiiTi I ::. :; 1 • . . " ' 

contrary to my intennon ." 

Upon the plan of tlic-Sf rrf-:/. !r-. •- ----i. . - ..-- - .. 
a Latin poem, in three book*. ::. • •■ . -; •• - • - 

history to the end of lii'? »xi!e. "r- • \ ■ : " " - • -• * 
it, till several years afr^r : ;:••! ■; :• : -■ -> ^-r .[■. •.^■. -. • : 


' >r« -If- jlii'- *.'. I. f C'*t I i.'r^J^. ".•■.■■:■• . ■..■'■■■.-" 
'.••:. ijii^T.^'ptr': .:i?;.lLt. (. -.ij •.■.■...'..:■ .■- ;: 

' T:- I j]l;i — ):ort>Ii.]a ti/"?-'- ■.•■";>■'■ ■•■■'•■-■-. 
.j*fi. q* p*] •mjirritT.u i.r;:>\-:-,:.* ; • .* • .--.._ ■ •■ 

%5«l'loii!ur. — A'l nui n -'.;■,;-• ...r! !!■ ■ 1' -■;:■-■ ■ — .. 

Wj'-I»T. — ri'in IlKHln r,<>!j t\:.'.^'..l\: :. : - t - ■ -: . • •■ . ■ '- " ■ ■■ — 

r'ijT;t»irJ»:ivi iivt-i-.tU: rijii'-i:* n; : '. ■■._■■ •-■.■. "'"" 

]un\ e.\hil»*-rc iniii) ii;'k]»--'i'.iiii i:^' ■• ; •.: .\ \-- _. . 

* CoLninfriituiiuin <orj-.:l:<fi- tiii s <.•;*• ■ .. :•-...■ . :• - - ' rr ' 

*^■iO•\ homini Atiico inirji,- ffrn*: i-i ♦-? .' •. .-. .-•:•' * ' . 

•tpinor. Panomii Lucnlluv He -iiik r,-: .1 .-...•'■.-•. '■ * " ...:'..:■'. H.r. : 

Lniuini- e**e, idcirco larlani qiiswl&m *' t-.\- i. i v!.-.*.i.- A: :. ■ •.■,.: •.;: 
rj-i^m^i ii, me iiDprudente erit et invv.'i H.-i. 1 i"-. 

— y. C-. f-f Murtlii'CeiM, 

tW reMQUnent of ihoee whom lie Uad lashed in it, for ^n:^" ' 
ilon« dial pan rery sparinely. but of tfaiwe, rather, "''^I^''^ 
be k^ not celebrated, ii beins entiles to mention all "\\^^^ 
been «en-keable to him '. This jiiece u also \<3&%, eitf^*^^^^ 
few fragments, scattered in ditTL-renl jiarts of his other ^^2 
ug«- The three bookt- were severally inscribed to three ^ gf0^. 
Miues ; of which his tirother expresses the highest appf^^j^ 
tioDi and admonishes liim to bear in mind what Jupiter f^U^ 
commeiHls in the end of L'miiia, or tlie second book, w'"'^!^ 
concluded, probably, with some moral lesson, not unlike t^ 
what Calliope prescribes in the tliird '. 

QnbtTM •iitt'i fSKt^ Tinmti <j(it3i'i-/sii. fitiili, 
lluintnr : dAjK -jkor/iiKi.'r. AiWci^ itmonun, 
Th»t nsble pnurt*. ia wlijili ihvttuliw! youih 
Wa> tnia'd ut Tirw. liVr^i. and tniib : 
Ib whwh. wbcB fon'iil. vou *uih honour mo. 
White Rmnr. wiib tnqiJrr uij ippluitf look'd on. 
Thtf ume pnnue: inJ lo^ a^h fruniug nar, 
A fmb iucmM of fiinc w J g\aty l<m. 

He published, Ukewise, at this time, a collection of the pria- 
cipal speeches which he had made in his consulship, under the 
title of hht Consular Orations : he chose to make a separate 
volume of them, as Demosthenes had done of his Philippic^ 
in order to give a specimen of his dvil or political taleuls; 
bein^ of a different maimer, he says, &om the dry and crabbed 
style of the bar, and showing, not only how he spoke, but how 
he acted. The two first were against the Agrarian law of 
Rullus : the one to the senate, the other to the people : the 
third, on the tumult about Othn : the fourth, for Rabirius : the 
fifth, to the sons of tlie proscribed : the sLxth, upou his resign- 
ing the province of Gaul : the seventh, eighth, ninth, and 

1^47' CiA-^CmMmUtliMmtCi^. L.Aft«ria. 

Ill limt been omtriting all this while how to re- 
' nil deMMf b^Bi flow to ghre ma ofiMttg to 
which be Ikd ftimed for that pnrAoae. Hii pto- 

^ t<> i;rt lii iMwI f dioMB tribone, uid in that offioe, to 
'^ out of tiic dtj, by tbe iniUieatian of k law, wUdi, 
t irtratsgem tt Mber^ he aoped to obtmde apon the 
Hut. as aH patfMMa weft faieqidile of the triln- 
ib original inCiiathMi, ao hig fint atep waa to nadte 
I plebeian, b^ the preliee c e of an adoptron into a ple- 
', whicb mM net yet be done witnoirt the miffing 
||^pl«. Tliia Mae waa whtAy new, and contraiy toafl 
'»: wanting every ooniRtiDii, and serving none of (he 
6 wfaicli were raqumd id genml adopdwls ; so that, on 
Tde fint proposiil. It aeemed too extnvagant to be treated 
I mtiomiy, ana wmild aoon hare been hisaedoff with scorn, bad 
( iMM bepn concerted, and privately aopported, bv penona of 
_ ^ weight than CImGn. Cbot waa at the bottom of 
i^ and Pompoy secretly fimnred it : not that they intended to 
Tata Cicero, but to keejy him only ttnder the lash ; and, if diey 
not draw liim aito their neasures, or make him, at leas^ 
■t qoiet, to let Cloiftn looae upon him. The solicitor of iC 
■H noe Merenniu^ an ebscore, hardy triSAne, who first 
imwd it to the scnute, and afterwardN to the people, but met 
wilK no encouragement from either; for tlie cnn<tiil Metelliu, 
though brother-in-law to Clodius, warmly opposed it'; nndde- 
cUred, that he woiild strangle him sooner, with liis own hands, 
than suffer liim to bring such a dingrace upon his f.imilv ' = yet 
H«rennius persisteil to press it, but without iiny vtsibfe eflect 
IT fiucceas ; ainl so the matter hung tiiroiigh the remainder of 
itir year. 

Cici;t(i afTected tn treat it with the contempt, which it seemed 
lu deserve : sometimes rallying Clodiua with much plea.<vintry ; 
MDetiBMS admonishing him, with no less gruvity: be told 
him, in the senate, that his attempt gave him no manner of 
pain ; and that it should not be any more in his power to over- 
turn the state, when a plebeian, tnaii it was in the power of 
the patricians, of the same stamp, in the time of his eousul- 
i^ip *, But whatever face he put outwardly on this affair, it 

SiST™" ™ri"'^'d a".™ "" ' ' "**"*' " ' "' f"™""""- *^ *'"'■ '^' 

PraniHtkB ms cum oiMiaitciilii prnpcdirm npicta. Ibiil. 

I III, (atem nan umuUl, Md pluir Tnbunut y]ch. Rcri vunll. Ibii). 

* Viiudl pcBcIaR MMiIIiu impidU et iin)icilict. Had. 3. I. 

) IM Coum] JDdiiteBtnD farcre atque t-aiuntaii, nt tt minu [nlrrTpcliinini. luill. 
(MB immta diztrit. Pn fMio, 24. 

* 8>S Diqiie BipK^MTC diii «w nobii UhonndDm, qaod nibilo muit ri Ikjtnnim 
OMt PMnto Bewpab. pnden, qnnn rimllibni rjm me nnnilr Patrinit CMM Ikitum. 
Ad An. 3. 1. 



A. Urb. 693. Cic. 47. Cw. -Q. Cniliui Melfllui Cdrr. 

gave him a real uneasiness within, and matlc him unite 
self more closely with Pompey, for the benefit of bis pro 
tion, against a storm, which he saw ready to break upoa h ^ 
while Pompey, ruffled likewise by the opposition of the senati|| 
was as forward, on his side, to embrace Cicero, as a peraM| 
necessary to bis interest. Cicero, however, imagining, tU 
this step would be censured by many, as a desertion of his gi| 
principles, takes frequent occasion to explain tlie motives of i% 
to his friend Atticus, declaring, that the adoption of Oodi^ 
the alienation of the knights, the indolence and luxury of tkt 
consular senators, who minded nothing but their fish-pmidih 
their carps and mullets, and yet were all envious of him, maik 
it necessary for him to seek some firmer support and alliaootL 
— That, in this new friendship, he should attend still to whirt 
the Sicilian wag Epicharmus whispered, " Be watchful, and 
distrust, for those are the nerves of the mind '." Oo anothw 
occasion, he observes, that his union with Pompey* thon^ 
useful to himself, was more useful to the Republic, by gaining 
a man of his power and authority, who was wavering and irre* 
solute, from the hopes and intrigues of the factious : that if this 
could not have been done, without drawing upon himself a 
charge of levity, he would not have purchaseu that, or any othor 
advantage, at such a price ; but he had managed the matter sO) 
as not to be thought the worse citizen for joining with Pompey, 
but Pompey himself the better, by declaring for him. — Tha^ 
since Catulus's death, he stood single and unsupported, by the 
..1. iulars, in tlic catiso of [!if aristocrucy : tor, as tlie [loel 

k. IM. am. CIc #. OMi_l). OwOha Hatdln* Cdcr. L. AlhaliH. 

happeued between m, it mnat have eansed gnat distarb- 

t in the ReputJie; vhidi I hare guarded Bgauut in iuch a 

in«r, thnt, without departing from my own maziiBa, I hmra 

lert^ him the better, and mde htm remit Bomewhat of bit 

vpnfairity : for, yon mnat know, that he now speakB (HF my 

Cto^ which maity lure been ineenaiog Itim against, modi more 

lonously than li« does of his own ; and declares, that he had 

vnly served tlie state Baecearfally, hat that I had sared it '. 

Wl»t good this will do to me, I know not : bat it will certainly 

a much to the Republic. What if I coold make Cnear also 

better citizen, whme winds are now rery proaperoiu ; should 

i do any great harm by it ? Nay, if there were none who 

feally envied me, but all were encouraging me as they oi^t, 

H would yet be more commendable to heal the vitiated parts of 

die slate, than to cot them off: but now, when that oody of 

buekls, who were planted by me in my consolBhip, with you 

■t dteir bead, as oar gnard in the Capitol, have deserted the 

•nmie, and our i-oioulm place their chief happiness in training 

die lish in their [HHida, to feed from their nands, and mind 

mtlung eUe ; do not you think, that I am doing good servtoe, 

W mannging so, diat those who can do miAcnief, will not? 

For, as to our friend Cato, yon cannot lore bim more than I 

flo; y«t, with the best intentions, and the greatest integrity, 

he often hurts the Republic ; for he deliven his opinion, as if 

it were in the polity of Plato, not in the dregs of Romulus '. 

What could be more just, than to rail those to an account, who 

hftd received money for judging? Cato proposed, the senate 

sgreed to it: tht' knights presently declared war against the 

KDate, not against me; for I was not of that opinion. What 

more impudent, tlian to demand a release from their contract? 

yet it was better to suffer that losa, than to alienate the whole 

<i>ieT : but Cato opposed it, and prevailed ; so that now, when 

tbe consul was thrown into prison, as well as in all the tumults 

I "bich have lately happened, not one of them would stir a foot ; 

' tiiougb, under inc, and the consuls who succeeded me, they had 

defended the Republic so strenuously," &c. * 

In the midst of these transactions, Julius Ciesar returned 
^m the government of Spain, which had been allotted to him 
from his prsetorship, with great fame both for his military and 

^^B ^.em. 1 1 cuim cd« giniUf, mi .1 con«rv»lB cipu . 

tiMW commote, upinvit nemo eorum, quoruiu (^ concur^g, llemquc CdhihIci, quy 
pM nw tiierant, Rcmpub. dsfendrre xilcamt. Ibid. 

Cit.41. (-<!■— Q.CBiliiulIelrlliuCcltT. L. A 

He conquered the barbarous nations by 1 
amu, and avilized them by hie taws ; and, barine suM 
die whole country, as far as the ocean, and been sunted < 
perar by the soldiers, came away, in all haste, to Rome, te ■ 
at the same titne, for the double honour of a triumph and \ 
rmwnhhip ' But his demand of the first was, acoording to l| 
imial forms, incompatible with his preteosious to the aeoH ' 
nnce the one obliged him to continue without the cibr, ' 
odier made his presence necessary within : so that, fiiidi^^ 
areraioQ in the senate, to dispense with the laws in his &i«i|^ 
be preferred the solid to the specious, and dropped the trinnifK 
to Uy hold on the consulship '. He designed L. Luoooua M 
his colleague, and privately joined interests with him, on oaMt 
dition that Lucceius, who was rich, should furnish money Mft 
fici«it to bribe the centuries. But the senate, always jnal— I 
al hit designs, and fearing the effects of his power, wkM 
supported bv a colleague, subservient to his will, eqmuaed At 
other candithte, BibuTus, with all their authority, and maila ■ 
oommoD purse, to enable him to bribe as hi^ as bis oomM- 
titota ; which Calo himsetf is said to have approved *. By nfa 
means they got Bibulus elected, to their great joy; a nuui fifa 
to their interests, and determined to obstruct all the amUtMNM 
attempts of Csasar. 

Upon Cnsar's g^^K ^ Spain, he had engaged Craaani 
to stand bound for him to his creditors, who were claoaorow 
and troublesome, as &r as two hundred thousand pounds stef> 
ling; -i> miiiii liiil lio waul l<i Ije worth nothing, as he nier- 

w: by whicb t^ OmM m^a^ «!%• A^m^b to 

Fhi agreeme-jit : to dn PoM^ey cflHl* MSM^fe^ ■■ amaM 
«f (b diKnist wliich tke «e«ae bill SmmJUaMw m m ^ liik 

If ifcdr (KTvene wppog mnn f 

Tkb 1^ cnanDoaly oUrA Ih e fat ^ mmtmmti wUA «w 
noUnng eUe> in realit>-. but a InaMn^ o^NpHMy if llNi^ 

BW Mtfy. by rM>l«nc«, w^al tfcay ciM aM ahlM W b^ 
IWpsy't Harf nwdrr w« la g^ Ui aib aa^Bid hv Ui^ 
iaUaeenmWup; Cvtor**, Wging «7 » PiHVCjni ^n^ 
■ advanoe his o<m ; ud QMnA, ta pm llM anfiiM^ 
«Udi W covM not MKBisalM^ bflfa ^fciiiii rf Fba- 
fwatul tlw v^our of C«ar'. IM C— ■ wfca fcMii *a 
■ebtw, eaMJyaw. tfat AeiMrfiii— fc i rfk— ^aw- 
avAy rackmnd lo (tiOMelf : he knew, tkM dv aU oaaa^ !»■ 
taea tbe odier two, l^raif)! it mi^ be m H w wJ, cmU acfar 
In bsalMl, witlMMl Inrtne a aecKt jabasy btlvua Aaai; 
■ad M, by tbdr c«mboi<» dc^ W warn ihc ta ariBa feHiril 
termr » all odiers, w*, by 

r. he bof»ed to g^m u 
J botii'- To cement ibii nni 

by dK tiM <>f blocMl, a» well m iaterart, be can 
JoBi^ a Itatndfbl ax>H am<>in[riiAed yoaag' laoy, ii 
[ Pomffj : and, rmm lliit i^n*. all tbe Rtnao wrii 
^^1^^ of the titJJ »ii^ uU^'h sfierw^nfa eimied, and tbe (ab- 
naaoii of tba Rcpubtict in which tbey eadeA '. 

both '. To cement Ibii nniiQ, iberMac, Iba man mgm^f, 
by ibe tiM <>f blocMl, a» well m iaterart, ba me Ui imffitm 

uaiMi Ana L'-.^i. I. U. 

Cicero might hare made what terms he ples£>«d «ith th« 
triuntTirate ; been admitted even a partner of their f««-er. and 
aibortb in their league ; which seemed to want a man of h'n 
doracter, to make it complete. For, while the re»t were en- 
gaged in their governments, and tbe command of annie* 

uiliam Fmipnut hibocni. at udHcb tea in tiu»iBuiii» pr^ 
' " I. 'piai uiiaiArtnriiui. h 

iherom, bAuil malto povtta raffrnturvin hh*. Din, 1. 37.^5, 

■ "i. Poni|ifigiP « f'raiium inil»pot™ti»»ocwtw. qn»>irbi«limt1«. 
liveTM> quMur tnntArr, *tatn nut fKi'ulnlit full. VHI Pkl. 2. M 
™a<n.X^H« Crm-2. I. 

A. I'tb-tiSa. Cic.47. C'uiL— Q. UHiliua HMellw Ccler L. J 

abroad, his autbority would have been of giogukr use, at )i__^ 
to manage the affiiirs of the city, and solicit what they had-jj 
transact with the senate or people. Cseaar, therefore, was e 
tremely desirous to add him to the party, or to enga^ h' 
lather in particular measures with nimself; and, no sot 
entered into the consulship, than he sent him word, by t 
common friend, Balbus, that he would be governed in ei 
step by him and Pompey, with whom be would endeavour t 
join Crassus too '. But Cicero would not enter into any tmtf: 
gagements, jointly with the three, whose union be abhoTrBl:|| 
oor into private measures witli Csesar, whose intentiont M 
always suq>ected. He thought Fompey the better citizea «f 
the two ; took his views to be less dangerous, and bis tempar 
more tractable; and imagined, that a separate alliance wnk 
him, would be sufficient to screen him from the malice <tf Ui 
enemies. Yet, this put him under no small difficulty : for if 
be opposed the triumvirate, he could not expect to continoa 
well with Pompey ; or if he served it, with the senate : in tlw 
first, he saw his ruin ; in the second, the loss of his credit 
He chose, therefore, what the wise will always chuse in radi 
circumstances, a middle way ; to temper his behaviour ao, that, 
with the constancy of his duty to the Republic, he might baT« 
a regard also to his safety, by remitting somewhat of bis oU 
vigour and contention, without submitting to the meannesi <rf 
consent or approbation ; and when his authority could be of no 
use to his country, to manage their new masters so, as not to 
tlii'ir jimviT t<) Ills iJivn ilostriictioii ; which was all 

OF CICERO. 18.0 

A. Trb. 663. Civ. 47. CoM^g. Cviiliu^ MitelluH (Viii . I.. Afniniu».. 

writes about them, to Atticus, shews what a value he set upon 
dtt preseot, and what pleasure he expected from the use of it. 
** Fkpirius Psetus,'' says he, ** an honest man, wh(» loves me, 
im giren me the books, which his brother Ser>'ius left ; and 
Moe your agent Cincius tells me, that I may safely take 
ifcem by the Cindan law ', I readily signified my acceptance 
tf them. Now if you love me, or know that I love you, I 
beg of you to take care, by your friends, clients, hosts, freed- 
■en, slaves, tliat not a leaf of them be lost I am in extreme 
want both of the Greek books, which I guess, and the Latin, 
which I know him to have left: for I find more and more 
comfort every day, in giving; all the time, which I can steal 
faun the bar, to those studies. You will do me u great plea- 
ure, a very great one, I assure you, by shewing the same 
diligeDoe in this, that you usually do in all other affairs, which 
you take me to have much at heart'," &c. 

While Cicero was in the country, in the end of the year, 

Uf architect, Cyrus, was finishing for him, at Rome, some 

additional buildings to his house, on Mount Palatin : but 

Atticus, who was just returned from Athens, found great fault 

with the smallness of the windoH-s ; to which Cicero gives a 

jocose answer, bantering both the objection of Atticus, and the 

way of reasoning of the architects : "You little think," savs 

lie, " that, in finding fault with my windows you cond<*rnrj tfio 

institution of Cyrus*; for, when I made the same ohjoctiori, 

Cyrus told me, that the prospect of tin* HehU (\i(\ not af)p<-ar 

to such advantatce through htr^^T livlit-. I\,r Irt th*- <*ve !>«• 

A: the object 13, C; the ray> I), E; you *-vi.- the n>t. It 

vT-^ion, indeed, were performed, as yoii Kpiciir**an«* hold, hv 

images flying oft* from the object, tho^e imat^es woidd he well 

crowded in so stniit a passage; hut if, by the erni-^-^ion of rav* 

from the eye, it will he made commodiou-^lv enou:rl«- If von 

tind any other fault, you shall have a** jro«Kl jl*« you hrinj^: 

Jinless it can be mended without anv co-^t to me*." 


C'jesar and Bibulus entered now into t]i<* con>uUhi[;, wirh 
views and principles wholly opposite to each other ; w jiile th«: 
senate were pleasing themselves with their addre-**-, in prrjcnrini; 
one consul of their own, to cheek the and>iTii>n of the othi-i, 
'Mid e.\p<*cting now to reap the fruit «»f it. ijut rh<v present I y 
ttiiiiid, upon trial, that the balance and constitntinn of thi- 
Kepuldic were quite changed, by tin? ovi-riiearinj; [>ow<'r of the 

' Thi' plr-f.j-iiiitjy, uliii ri ( if^iu :i-.iii- j ♦, *. ,;r - '.i. •■ i ;.:i-i,* ■■! .\- v - - u..". r.*. >- .j.j 
T.f <Linc with thai I'f th<- ii :t!i'.i ■ i '.],': 1 .•.\ . -■- J ■ ; ». .i.j • I •• .i* f;in...;.. !,: :» i'.:,>,i.:\ 
ya- 2 ZfH-\ w.irmul f"i '..ikiii;: ..ri\ \-i* -. !:•. 

• All Alt. 1. -J*). 
kihinii'j I'* Mil «• ;«hiut'<i ;'.iii '.t Xf.:. ■;'ii'-:.. -j*;.'-: ' v »■,.»? t.^iu* . 

' \U.\. '2 X 

A. tr*. iM. tie U C«. -C Ju-^l KW N.Cal|«ri 

itnr: larf dat C«sar w*s too »tn»n^ to be controlled by^ 
ti ifae ^exi >Bd ordinary method- of opposition : he had ga^ ^ 
«««« •.<<' tW trihuoe:!^ ot iThom N'atirdus was the captain of ^^ 
HMtmarws : wbose ia»k it was to Hour the streets, seem 1^^ 
vi^uiN i!t -iw Foniai. and clear it. by a superior forc^ rf ^^>f 
«M vmv rrepanni to ofipi«e them. ^k 

^Otxz.ts. in t^ ic^nn time, was pushing on the aSxai at M^S 
■iwiri ■ : and ^miaiinf the people to conlinn the taw, 
fet IM Mv^rumi :>>r th^ purpiKe. The triuinvinite pre 
w btf icatBff iL or ai l^a$( lo *Z3bA neuier : bat were watddMv^ 
laMTv'* B0CHO9. in L-'nier to ake their measures from his OOWk. -: 
imtt. w«j.-a ^ikrT >i:-i mx nod so obsequious as thev expeenAr- 
la ta.» nsensi ii !ia£<^-[Md that C Antonius. Cicero'a eal< _ 
i pMvrsed Macedixiia from the time of Ul . 
tarn impeac&ed. and brouiffat to a trial, for tlw 
c o< a» orovince : and, beio^ found guite^ 
> nnpenuu exile. Cicero was his adrocat% 
ML ^ »c < v mt.ui. ii isi piendiiv. happened to fall, wiUi hb 
ai^b. »<iMi»- iaat a oi^>aiat oi the times, and the oppw*- 
«M 4C ntf K^rocue. is a ttrte thai was interpreted to reflect 
«i«ecvn ^mk ;Kir Tfvwm rmkn. The stny was caititi 
mrsvti'r » C«sar. and rtpc cs ented to him in such calooi% 
UK M ?««fc'*W a.* ;«TesKw ii pcesentlT on Cicero^ bv bringing 
: xni «K w eaeer in it, that he instant^ 
r «c ae p^vpie. and, ixiag assisted by Po^ 
mace ih<- art lecal sad auspicious, got the 
ry »e ;wvvU'. tarou^h >U the forms', within 
■trwt Mu;:» trvos :m tisK i^' C)cen>'$ speaking. 

^itatKii^ wW ««» i:^ 4'.^;ur mv being advertised ol wlwt 
Fc: -jotice to Pompey, that he was 

'- h 


For hig danger was brought one step nearer, by 

die tribunate open to Clodiuft. wfaoae next attempt 

proiifibly reach home to him. The^e lav^ of adof>tioo 

avediawD up in the style of a petition to the people, after 


^May it please yoii, citizens, to onlain. that P. Q'hi^xxa he. 

liaO XDteDfs and purposes. of law. as truly the «on of Kon- 

if he were bei^otten of his body in lawful nuuriaee : 

Cbat Fonteius have the power of life and death over 

aa much as a father lias over a proper M>n : thk. 

I pray you to confirm, in the maniier in which it h 

I 9% 


Tliere were three conditions atisolutely neceMar\' to make 
HSCC of this kind regular: first, that the adupter should be 
alder than the adoptetC and incapable of procreatintr children, 
after having endeavoured it, without success vhen he «a» 
capable : aeoondly, that no injury or diminution shouM be done 
ID the dignity, or the religious rites of either family : thirdly, 
that diere should be no fraud, or collusion in it, nor any thing 
SDoght by it, but the genuine effects of a real adoption. AO 
the^ particulars were to be prenoudy examined by the college 
sf priests; and if, after a due inquir\', they approved the peD- 
tioD, it was proposed to the suffrage of tlje citizeas living ia 
RiMoe, who voted according to their original division, into 
thirty curiae, or wards, which seem to have been analogous to 
our parishes ' ; where nobu*ine*s howev»-r. couM h**: transact^^. 
wkeu an augur or consul wa«» ^i\r<^j\\\vs ^'i•■ ii»-av» :.-. N-'-*. in 
tills adoption of Clo'liu^ tliero WtL«! \.ii^ •>:.': «.r •:.•-•»- C'...'.'':*.:« :• 
ohser\'eii : the colleifc* of {•ri-'Sl- wa* ::..• •» rr.'-.-,-.* ::.- y. ,•:.• ..•'-■ 
llie ariop t er, l''c»r 1 1 ei u 'i, h.i'i a w i f •:■ ?::..! c .-^ :.'::-.: : ^ ^- '; u.:-. ? \ 
obscure and unknown, niii tw(-i:r-. v. ;::- i,. :. •.:.•:. f ,'-:! .. 
»as thirty-five, anrl a -^enat^ir. ot t.'n: fi-r'.*-*' :::•;. ;:. Ki rr.«- : 
III ir was there any tliiiiif meant Ijv it. • .' : .r-.v ♦•.• •-..;':.■ •:,.• 
laws, and procure \\\ki triliiiiiair- : fi^r. •:.•■ .\T...J:z -Ai- ; .. -,- - . r 
over, than C*l»»Hiii*' wa> ernancipaf*.-'!. *yz -*»■: iVr*.- -^r.-j,-.'., '>\ ;.:- 
now father, from all hi> obiiirJiti'^n^ . IJ i" •:.■-»: o'-":. 

••* *. ' - 

■ 11:.- law^.i.--. :-•.-: ...1 •-•.. . •. : -.r- •. ■-. '■ . ■ •.'.'■ 

k?:-! ■■■!" .:.■'.;.•.-.:. v! . ■- - ■•■.■:■■ ■ ■ ■• ■ 

'i'--ii-i- j}:!-:.:. *:..•. v ':«-*-.••■ ..:-•■ • - ■ • ■ - 

■ViJc* ' f t^> :-.<■'. ' .*■-•.! *.' '■ ■■ -■.'. ."■- ':'•'•■; . • • . ■' ■ . • .- ■ 

;'i .- '.'i. I-'-''- '■' ■■.>■-■■ •.: •..'.■'.• */ ■ 

:■■•;•. v= " ^'■■■' -' • ■ ' -■ ■ ■ • ■ -.- ; . . ■ ■ ; 

'^ ;.. ■ -! ■. ■; ." . ■" -■ • '.-■•':.' A •-. . 

!'.•-,„ IK • . . •;.... • ..• K f'. Ii'i.', - 

A. I'rt. 6!M. Ck. 4 

nified notliing to Ceesar, who always took the shortest wafi 
what he aimed at, and valued neither forms nor laws, iriiea^ 
had a power sufficient to control them. 

But the main trial of strength between tbe two consub i 
about the promulgation of an Agrarian law, which Csenr I 
|Mvpared, for distributing the lands of Campania, to twM 
thousand poor citizens, vbo had each three childreo or OM 
Bibulus mustered all his forces to oppose it, and came down^ 
the fonim, full of courage and resolution, guarded by thre* 
the iribuoes and the whole body of the senate; and as < ~ 
Ciesar attempted to recommencl it, be as often interrupted 
and loudly remonstrated against it, declaring that it >1— — 
nerer pass in his year. From words they soon came to bloitM 
where BibuluB was roughly handled ; his foscea broken ; pott 
of filth thrown upon his liead ; his three tribunes woanded, tat 
the whole party driven out of the forum, by Vadnius, at At 
head of desar's mob'. When the tumult was over, and At 
forum cleared of their adversaries, Ctesar produced Porapej 
and CrasBus into the rostra, to signify their opinion of the law 
to the people ; where Pompev, ^er speaking largely in pt«iH 
of it, declared, in the conclusion, that if any snould be so nardr 
as to oppose it with the sword, he would defend it with ha 
shield. Crassus applauded what Fompey said, and warmly 
pressed the acceptance of it ; so that it passed upon the spo^ 
without any brther contradiction *. Cicero was in the country 
during this contest, but speaks of it with great indignation, in 
a li'itiT 1.1 Ariii-ii-. iiiid "orKler^ ar Pomin-y'fi jmlicy, in sup- 


A. L'rb. 694. Cic. 48. Con^C. Juliui Cvsar. .M. CJpuiniui Bibulu'. 

Siair, with a resolution to shut himself up for i!ie roiiiuiuin^ 
t months of the year, and to act no more in public hut by 
ik edicts ^ This was a weak step in a magistrate, armed with 
Mrerei^ authority; for, though it had one effect, which he 
imposed by it, of turning the odium of the city upon his 
flilkagae* yet it had another, that ovcrl>alanced it, of strength- 
ODDe the hands and nusing the spirits of the adverse party, by 
iBATing the field wholly clear to tliem. 

As Caesar^s view, in the Agrarian law, was to oblige the 
populace, so he took the opportunity, which tlie senate had 
dmnm id to his hands, of obliging the knights too, by casing 
them of the disadvantageous contract, which they had long, in 
vain, complained of, and remitting a third part of what they 
had stipulated to pay him': and when Cato still op|K)sed it, 
vidi his usual firmness, he ordered him to be hurried away to 
prison. He imagined that Cato would have appealed to the 
tribunes ; but seeing him go along patiently, without speaking 
I word, and reflecting, that such a violence would create a 
fresh odium, without serving any purpose, he desired one of 
tlie tribunes to interpose and release hlm^ He next procured 
aipeciai law from the people, for the ratification of all Pom- 
pey's acts in Asia; ana, in the struggle about it, so terrified 
and humbled Lucullus, who was the chief opposer, that he 
brought him to ask pardon at his foet\ 

He carried it still with great outward respect towards Cicero ; 
and gave him to understand again, by Hal bus, tliat lu? depended 
on his assistance in the Agrarian law : but Cicero contrived to 
be out of the way, and spent tlie mouths of Aj)ril aud May in 
lus villa, near Antium, where he had placed his cliirf coIl«*ctioM 
of books*; amusing himself with his studies aud his chiidreu, 
or, as he says, jocosely, in eouutiu;^ the waves. He was pro- 
jecting, however, a system of geogra})]iy, at the retpiot of 
Atticus, but soon grew weary of it, as a sid)ject too dry aud 
jejune to admit of any ornaniunt'^; aud being desired aJMJ by 

' Ac poj>tcro (lie in scnatu ronnuotuin, rur quo«|ii:iiii rt-pi'ito, qui siijur tali ri>n 
rtrrnatkiiir- refer r<\ aut ren«*tit? tiliquiri amlcTi-'t — in rain c«»ei:it •Ir'-jw nitininiii, iii 

3'joad miteMatt' aliiiet. <l<»nio aUlitiis niliil aliml qiiam jK-r tdiru olinunrian-t. Sm-tnii. 
. (Jt,. 21). 
' D:r., 38. fiJ. 3 piut. Cro. 

* L. Lncullo, lilK-rin^ roUtcnti tnntiini r-alumnianim Dictum iiijocit. nt a<I >;(miii:i ultro 
iij'i acredcrt-t. Sucton. J. L'tv?,. 2<K 

* Nani ant fortitrr rt-.sistcndurn f^t l«yi A^iaiia-, in quo <st qua-tlani dimiratin, stil 
plfoa laudis : anl quio*mduin. qni)il rst mm di'-siniilc, atqno ire in Solnninni, ant 
.Vniium : ant etiani adjuvanduui, quod a uic ainnt Ca-'-uroni si<: iXjK-irtarr, ut n«>ii 
'lulitct. Ad Alt. '2. X 

ItviTic aut libris me dcU-cto, qnonnn habeo Anlii fcslivani ropiani, aut fluotu** nnnjoro. 


* KWriira ymoypatpiKa^ quae constitucram, maanum o|ni*« <'si, — et lionnlr sunt res 
'Wficiles ad cxplicandum et ofioiiiilf \ ne<' tam j)<>ssunt iiv^i]nuynafpii<r6ai^ quam 
^idfbaiur. 11 ». 

Atticiu bi send him tlie copies of two orations, whicli he fawl,- ' 
lately made, his answer was, that he had torn one of them, *ti^f 
conld not gire a copy i and did not care to let the other g#U 
abrokd, for the praises which it bestowed on Poinpey; b''"'"" 
dnposed rather to recant, than publish them, since the adoi 
of Clodius'. He seems, indeed, to have been too apleneli . 
present, to compose any thing but invectives, of which kind ht -* 
was now drawing up certain anecdotes, as he calls them, of 4 j. 
secret historv oithe times, to be shewn to none but Atdcni^ im 'i 
tbe style of Theopompus, the most satirical of all writers: ferdi 4 
his polidcs, he says, were reduced to this one point, of hatiaHl 
bad citiiens, and pleasing himself with writing agtrinst them : mm 
since he was driven from the helm, he had irothing to wiidi, bof 
to see the wreck from the shore ; or, as Sophocles say»% 

Umder lit tMirr </a qood nnm roof, 
Wilk auHl mrtmly ealm aadprume to Jup, 
Heorlie laid itorm ujhI beatiitg niu inbi«l. 

Clodius, having got tlirough the obstacle of his ad(mtio■^ 
began, without loss of time, to sue for the tribunate, whilst a 
report was industriously spread, which amused the city for a 
while, of a breach between him and Caesar. He declared 
every where, loudly, that his chief view, in desiring that oflBce^ 
was to rescind all Caesar's acts ; and Csesar, on his part, H 
openly disclaimed any share in his adoption, and denied hta to 
be a plebeian. This was eagerly carried to Cicero by young 
Curio; who assured him, that all the young nobles were m 
much incensed against tlieir proud kings, as he himself, and 
would not bear iTiem mut:Ii \on^<ev ; antl tlial Meniniiu8 


>.S»4, CiE. 40. C.H.-f;. JultuiCnwr. M. ralinitii>.n IWolii., 

ipture, as it U iihtted iu Cicern'ij Wltcrs was Cl4Mliijs's 
an offer, whicii the trimnvirate mailo In him. of an 
to kine Tijrranes; for, hciiiK wpary of bU iiisolcDce, 
je^ous of his frrMwii)^ power, tlioy Wl coiitrtved tiiis em- 
lynrnt n« 8» lioiiourabie way of getting rid of him : but, 
ihe present coniiilion of the Uvpubliv, Ciodius hiinw hiti 
«<u iiDportitnce too welt, to i]uit his views at home, by Ui\ 
o&t (if Ml little advantage abroatl; and was diagustetl, tliat 
Czwi had not iiami^d him among the tweoty ommissioiitm 
^ijpointed to divide tlie Campaniau lands; and resolved not to 
ttrfruiH the city, till lie had reaped the fruits of the trihuiiat*-. 
Cicero, mentioiung this alTmr to Atticiis, says, " I am much 
lUtghtrd with what you write about Clodius : try all meai)s to 
nrch inU> the bottom of It ; and send or bring me word, whaC- 
titr you either learn or suspect; and, especially, what he 
iaund* to rlu about the embassy. Before I read your letter, 
I was wishing that he would accept it; not for tlie sake of de- 
tlin'og a battle with him, for 1 am in wonderful spirits for 
Sghtiug ; but 1 imagined, that he wouhl lose by it all the popu- 
Ivily which he has gained, by goincr over to the plebeians. — 

Wbat then did you mean by makuig yourself a plebeian ? 
Wu it ouly to pay a visit to Tigranes ? Do not the kin^ of 
Armeoia oae to take notice of patricians ? You see how 1 had 
been preparing myself tu rally the embassy ; which, if he 
slights after all, and if this, as yon say, disgusts the authors 
wd promoters of the law, we stiiJI have rare sport. But to 
iay tlie truth, Publius has been treated somewhat rudely by 
tbem ; mocc he, who was lately the only man with Csesar, 
cuioot now find a place amoii^ the twenty ; and after promis- 
iog one embassy, they put Urn otT with another: and, while 
liiey bestow the rich ones upon Drusus, or Vatinius, reserve 
tiu» barren one for him, whose tribunate was proposed to be of 
iieh ufte to them. Warn him, 1 beg of you, on this head, us 
much as you can ; all our hopes of safety are placed on their 
Wling out among themselves, of which, as I understand from 
Curio, some symptoms begin already to appear'." But all 
this noise of a quarrel was found, at last, to be a mere artifice, 
as the event (juickly showed : or, if there was any real disgust 
among them, it proceeded no farther, than to give the better 
colour to a re|K>rt, by which they hoped to unpose upon 
Cioero, and draw some unwary people into a hasty declaration 
of themselves ; and, above all, to weaken the obstruction of 
C'Jodius'fl- election &um that quarter, whence it was chieSy to 
be ^prehended. 

19*2 THE LIFE 

A. Urb. 6H. Cic. 48. C«t.— C. Juliui Cmar. M. CiJpxiniiui BibuloL 

Cicero returned to Rome in May, after an interview 
Atticus, who went abroad, at the same time, to bis estate 
Epirus: he resolved to decline all public business, as much 
he decently could, and to give the greatest part of Ms tin 
the bar, and to the defence of causes ; an employment all 
popular, which made many friends, and few enemies ; 
be was still much frequented at home, and honourably t 
abroad, and muntained his dignity, he says, not meanly, 
ndering the general oppression ; nor yet f^eatly, consu' 
the part which he had before acted '. Among the other i 
which he pleaded this summer, he twice defended A. Thermi 
and once L. Flaccus ; men of praetorian dignity, who were 
acquitted. The speeches for Thermus are lost; but that 
Flaccus remains, yet somewhat imperfect ; in which, thoi ^ 
be had lately paid so dear for speakmg his mind too freely, w^-.: 
find several nold reflectioTis on tne wretched state of subjection, 
to which the city was now reduced. 

This L. Valerius Flaccus liad been prsetor in Cicero's co»> 
suLship, and received the tlianks of the senate for bis zeal and 
vif^ur in the seizure of Catiline's accomplices ; but was nov 
accused by P. Lelius of rapine and oppression, in his province 
of Asia, which was allotted to him from his prsetorsliip. The 
defence consists chiefly in displajring the dignity of the cri- 
minal, uid invalidating the credit of the Asiatic witnesses. 
Cicero observes, that the judges, who had known and seen the 
integrity of Flaccus's life, through a series of great employ- 
ments, were themselves the best witnesses of it, and could 

OF cicLRo. I9;j 

.L Trkfi'dl. fi.-. 4rt. 0>**. C. Jtiliin C.t-;ii. M. C"iil|mniius lilhulnw. 

hdiboodf and praise, on the success of an impiulont lie: 

of the Roman witnesses, who were pnuhiced a^iiitst 
thouffh several of them came anc^ry, ficrco, and wll- 
B^ to ruin him, yet, one could not help observing with what 
ftion and reli^on they delivered what tliey had to say ; and 
1^00^ they had the greatest desire to hurt, yet, could not do 
k far their scruples : tliat a Roman, in giving his testimony, 
WM always jealous of himself, lest he shouul go too far: wcigheil 
ill Us words, and was afraid to lot any thmg drop from him 
too hastily and passionately ; or to say a syllable more or less 
tku was necessary ^ Then, after showing at large by what 
MHidalous methods this accusation was procured agsiinst Flac- 
Mil aad after exposing the vanity of the crimes charged njioii 
Um, toucher with the profligsite characters of the particular 
witnesses, he declares, that the true and genuine Grecians were 
•Hon Flaccus's side, with public te!>ti monies and decrees in his 
finrour. " Here,*' says he, "you see the Athenians, whence 
hamanity, learning, religion, the fruits of the earth, the rights 
aad laws of mankind, are thought to have been first propa- 
gited; for tlie possession of whose city, the gcnls themselves are 
tttd to have contended, on the account of its beauty : which is of 
•0 great antiquity, that it is reported to have brought forth its 
own citizens, and the same spot to hav(» been their parent, their 
nurse, and their country; and of so groat authority, tliat flu* 
broken and shattered fame of Orerro depends now "singly on the 
credit of this city. Here also are the F^aeedaMjionians, v. Ihjsc 
tried and renowned virtue was eonfirined not onl\ \)\ nature, 
but by discipline ; who ah)ne of all the nations u])on earth, have 
subsisted for above seven hundred years, without any ehan^<* 
in their laws and manners. Nor ean I pass over the eit\ of 
Marseilles, which knew Klaccus wlien first a ♦*ol(li( r, and afffr- 
wards quaestor; the gravity of whose (li»ei|)Iine 1 think jjnfer- 
able, not only to (freece, but to all other eitie>; whicrh, tliou^h 
separated so far from the coiuitry, the eusfouis, and the i;in 
a^uage of all Grecians, surrounded by the nation** of (Janl, .jid 
washed bv the waves of barbarism, is so wisely iiovcrrnid bv 
the councils of an aristocracy, that it is easier to praise tjirir 
constitution, than to imitate it"." One part of thr charirj. 

■ Pro FTarro, i. 5. This rliarartor of tlio (iurk .'iikI |{(itn:iii witru--*- i- i^mtl, 
azre<-dble to wlial INiljhiiis, thonpli liinistll' :i (Jn-ci.'Ui. liri'l lonir lu Inn- oK r\(.| il.-i* 
Thii*p. whft in:iii:iC''d ihc pnMir: morn"V in (iiccro. tliou'jli thi'\ <j.ivi' cvi i ^d in.itu Imhk'' 
ujW »jirctiif» for tlieir lieliavionr, roul<l not Uv iniJumi !•• ;u t lioin'!l\. oi pi. . i-i iIhji 
fciith. in the (•«•«.■ even of a .Hiii|:le tJilcnt : w}M;r«a«i. in Koin«\ out of pi ii i< ■rr«ii«i •«! 
5hf Mnctitv of an oatli, thfv wen* nrvrr knoMn to \iol;itr tlnir tni'-t. tli'>M;li in Jin- 
manik^mcnt of tin* }(rc'ate«»t «>nnis. [Polyh. I. H. p. -lUii.] Tlii- vv:i-i «• i<.'iinl;. U*i' of iln: 
oJd Kcpiihlio ; hut \v»* irmsl make j^ivat allowrmrr for tlir l:inu'n:i'/«- of tin- l»ii. ••. In n v\r: 
*inH C'ii:en> applyinj; the Mnw int«'trnt\ ami ir.;:ii«l to im oath to tli» i h:'i:u >«i ol l.i- o^n 
tinio^. ' - Tro I-'hirro. 'J'j. 

A. I'rb. 6»i. Lie. 4S. Coo.— C. Jiiliui Cnu. M. C'llpuniiiu Bibuliu. 

Off^nst Flaccus, was, for prohibiting the Jews to carry oi 
bu province the gold, which they used to collect, annn 
through the empire for the temple of Jerusalem ; all whk 
seized and remitted to the treasury at Rome. The di 
itself seems to imply, that the Jews made no mean fignn 
this time, in the empire; and Cicero's answer, thoueh it 
trays a great contempt of their religion, through his igDoM 
of It, yet shows, tliat their numbers and credit were very 4 
siderable also in Rome. The triut was held near the AaM 
steps, a place of great resort for the populace, and partimb 
for the Jews, who used it, probably, svt a kind of exchangei 
general rendezvous of tlieir countrymen : Cicero, therel 
proceeds to say, " It was for this reason, Lselius, and for 
sake of this crime, that you have chosen this place, and all 1 
crowd, for the trial : you know what a numerous band 
Jews are; what concord among themselves; what a bustle A| 
make in our assemblies. I will speak softly, that the judgi 
only may hear me ; for there arc people ready to incite tba 
against me, and against every honest man ; and 1 would a 
willingly lend any help to that design. Since our gold At 
is annually carried out of Italy, and all tlie provinces, in d 
name of the Jews, to Jerusalem, Flaccus, by a public e<fii 
prohibited the exportation of it from Asia ; and wiiere is tim 
a man, judges, who does not truly applaud this act? tk 
senate, on several different occasions, but more severely in n 
consulship, condemned the exporlation of gold. To withstan 
this barbarous superstition was a niece, therefore, of lamldU 

t Aqr to be hM w nmr: mee they hsTe lat t» see,' 

^ BniWi wlnt aoaaim they Imtc of « : and, by tbeir 

f eMqnered, bow Mr tbey are to the godi '." Hie pio- 

b in tbe last placp, to •how, what be bad intiniated in tbe 

J, that tbv n-al aim of tbis trial waa to Mcrifice tboae 

I "ngnaiix^i itxnaaetvei igBiiMt Catiline, to the naliGe 

I lervoge of the s«<litioai ; and pnts the ivign in mind, 

~ be bSe of the cit>', ud tie aafe^ of ail honest men, now 

I on tbt^r nhduMi-n: that tbev mw in what an unBcttled 

IT thin{^ wvK, and vimt a turn toor afiUn had taken : tbal^ 

f manT 
» eontrinnf;, 

i might b 

iin{^ wt!r«, ana whb ■ mm ineir anana nao tanen : cnai^ 
' manT otli«t acts, wbidi eertain men had done, tbeyvere 
mtrinnf;, thiii, by tbe votea and dednona of the judgea, 
hmcflt niau might be nndooe : that dieae jodires, indeed. 

my iaadable iadgmenla in &n«r of tbe Repnblie; 
r acanwt th« wit-ketmev of the eonspiniton : ye^ some 
le ucmebt lfi« Rt-pnblic not yet anffidently chained, till 
citizens were inndTed in the nme punishment with 
wane "C. A moiling" si^ he, "is already oppremed; 
it be M>: be bad apecnltar inbmy upon htm: yet, even 
" I may be allowed to say i^ would not have been con- 
•d by yon : tipon whose emid^nnation a Mpuldire was 
•A up to Catilme, and oelebiated with a feast and oon- 
? of our auducious and domestic enemies, and funeral 
performed «i him : now the death of Lentulus is to be 
revenged on Flaceits; and, what mnrc Ri;reeable ttacriRce can 
jTBU offer to liitn, tiiaii by Flaccus's blood to satiate his deteg> 
nUe hatred of us alK' Let us then appease tlie manes of 
Lentolus; pay tlie last honours to Celhe^u)); recall tbe ba- 
aished ; nay, let me also be punished for the excess of my love 
to my conntry: I am already named and marked out for a 
trial : hare crimes fiir;rcd; dangers prepared for me; which, if 
they bad attempted in any other method, or if, in tbe name of 
tbe people, they !ia<l i^tured up the unwnry multitude against 
me, I conltl better have borne it ; but it is not to be endured, 
that they should think to drive out of the city, tbe authors, the 
leaders, the champions of our common safety, by the help of 
flenuors and knights, who, with one mind and consent, as- 
sisted so greatly in the same cause. They know the mind and 
rnriinstion of the Homun people : the people themselves take 
all possible occasions of declaring it : there is tio variety in 
their sentiments or their language. If any one, tiieretbre, 
call me thither, I come ; I do not only not refuse, but require 
the Koman people for my judge : let force only be excluded ; 
let swords and stones be removed ; let mercenaries be quiet ; let 

196 THE UFE 

A.rrfc.GM Cic.ia. C«.— C. Juliiu Chu. M.C^ilpanii 

slcres be KJleiil; and when 1 come to be lieanl Tor i 
time will not be k man so imjuat, if he be free and a c 
wbo will not be of opinion, that they ought to vote me re 
radier than punishment '." He concludes, by applying 1 
atit, aa usual, to move the pity and clemency of the I 
towards the person of the criminal, by all the topics proi 
excite compassion ; the merit of his former services ; the n 
of his bmily ; the tears of his children ; the discouragem 
die honest; and the hurt, which the Republic would sof 
being deprived, at such a time, of such a dtizen. 

Q. Cicero, who succeeded Flaccus in the province of jj 
was now entering into the third year of his govemmen^ * 
Cicero sent him a most admirable letter of advice, abMt^ 
administration of his province ; fraught with such exoa 
precepts of moderation, humanity, justice, and laying i 
roles of governing, so truly calculated for the good of manl 
that it deserves a place in the closets of all who govern, M 
especially of those who are entrusted with the commandl 
foreign provinces; who, by their distance from any immedfa 
control, are often tempted, by the insolence of power, to W 
of great oppression. 

The triumvirate was now dreaded and detested by all ltd 
ot men : and Pompey, as the first of the league, had the ft 
share of the public hatred : " so that these affecters of pop 
larity," says Cicero, " have taught even modest men to hia' 

he imei.jlii.^.i ini(i prou'i.t^i ^l^faill^^ ail tlifir acts. 'I'liese edii 

and draif kn ovt bj I 

mMB i^ Aoocb 1 

tile all the wmU\ diJ&Ml, hBMitadi ud talked kmllr 

it these proceed ii>|rs : aai^ abore all, fowg Ctaio, at Ab 

' thr ynun^ iioliilin-; ** jet^ we wek bo naedr," Hya 

u UmtDgfa 3 peBazrioB} that then k bb icnm^ hm 


I ioclinadotn of ibe paanla were ■bawI^ cUefly, aa be 
<, bi Lbe theatres and pablk dhow*; whera, wbcn Cmmr 
, he was received otjn witb a dead mikmmti bat 
^ Corio, who folinwed nha, a p pear e d, ae waa 
f tnctl w be in t)ie bewht of bi» glory. 

1 playa, Dipiiil ^l^ ne tt^ediaa, bappeoiu^ ta 
■ fBaagvB, ID lii« |>ar^ wUcb — 
HC«r Of Pompry, lie vm forced 

M dapped, aa 
And IB tba 

were tbovbt U 
Id repeat tben a 

t of which sentenced, lbe wbele t 
rii^ uul clafijiiiig, itiat tbey could bardly be qvieud'. 
tnpey was ^ratly ^liockfid, to find biaiBelf nUen to low in 
c esicrm of llie city : liv had, bilberto, lived in the miist ut 
I S'*")'* ^' u"^'' ^trarit;c-r lo di^raoe, which made him tlie inare 
Impatinit noder so mortifying a change : " I could »icarce 
renazB from tears," says Cicero, " to »ee what aii abject, 
paltry fif^ure he made in the rostra, where he never used to 
appear, but witb universal applause and admiration : mvaiily 
kannpnng sgainBt the edicts of Bibulus, and displeaisiiig not 
anly ojb audience, but himself; a spectacle, a^eeable to none 
■a mtich as to Crassus; to see him &llen Mt Tow from buch a 

, D mcdSchui Dollm KAcnlur. d^ . ._ 

Ktnnur. Ad AU 2. 3). 

1 Diphilai Tn^csdul in D«trnm Pompdnin prlnlinUr 

inli Pompcv. I" iwinl liini u'll to iht 

,_j ji'Ci)>u«; nhilhtr C»«r wnt u rxprm to him. in all Luic. to 

■HDHDt Ud witb whu hu puHii, and to call him, probably, lo Romr. Val. 
=^1. 6. 2. 


A. Urb. 694. <it. 4«. I'gw.— C, Jiiliii> fi 

L'utpuniiiu Bibolm 

height: — and aa Apelles, or Protogenes, would have I. 
grieved to see one of their capital pieces besmeared wiAi • 
so it waa a real grief to me, to see the man, whom I 
painted with all the colours of my art, become of a suddi 
deformed; for though nobody can think, since the a& 
Clodius, that I have any reason to be his friend, yet my II 
for him was so great, ihat no injury could cfTace it ." 

Ceesar, on the other hand, bejjan to reap some part of t 
fruit, which he expected from their union : he foresaw, fil 
the fint, that the odium of it would fali upon Pompev; 4 
benefit accrue to himself: till Pompey, gradually amU 
under the envy, and himself insensibly rising by the powetJ 
it, they might come at last to act upon a level : or, as Ho 
States the several views of the tliree, Csesar wanted to acqui 
Craasus to increase; Pompey to preserve his dignity*, 
that Pompey, in reality, was but tne dupe of the other t 
whereas, if he bad united himself with Cicero, and thro 

him with the senate, whither his own and his country's inte ^ . 

called him, and where, from the different talents of the ma^„^ 
there coald have been no contrast of glory or power; he mnit- 
bave preserved, through life, what his utmost ambition seemed 
to aim at, the cliaracter not only of the first, but of the bert 
citizen in Rome : but, by his alliance with Csesar, he lent hi* 
authority to the nursing up a rival, who gained upon him du^ 
in credit, and grew too strong for him, at last, in power. The 
people's disaffection began to open his eyes, and moke him 
sensible of his error; which he frankly owned to Cicero, and 
seemed desirous of entering into measures with him to retrieve 
it*. He saw himself on the brink of a precipice, where to 

A. lib. 6»1. Cm. 48. I'uM.— L. Juliut L'HU. M. l'*l|Hui„ut BilwlM 

Cnsar, however, unwilling to let the matter drop «o 4 
brooght him out again the next A&y, and produced Lim 
people in the rostra; and, in that place, where Bil>iilus, t 
consul, durst not venture to shew himself, e.xhibiteil ihi^ n 
as his puppet, to utter whatever he should thinh (it to im, 
Vettius impeached several here, whom he had not named bcf^ 
in the senate; particularly Lucullus and Domitiu^i lie ilK 
not name Cicero, but said, that a certain senator, of gre^^^ 
eloquence, and consular rank, and a neighbour of the cuiisutf? 
had told him, that the times wanted another Brutus, or Al 
When he had done, and was going down, being called I 
again, and whispered by Vatinius, and then usked, alot 
wkeihcr he could recollect nothing more, he faither dccla 
tliat Piso, Cieero's son-in-law, and M. Laterersis, were. aU 
privy to the design'. Dut it happened in this, an it con 
does in all plotii, of the same kind, that the too great eagen 
of the manners destroyed its effect: for, by the e.xtravagand 
to which it was pushed, it confuted itself; and wits enb 
(ained with so general a contempt, by all orders, tliat Cae 
was glad to get nd of it, by stnmgling or poisoning Vettiill 
privately, in prison, and giving it out, that it wns done by thti \ 
conspirators '. J 

Tne senate had still one expedient in reserve for mortifying 1 
Ctesar, by throwing some contemptible province upon him, a' 
the expiration of his consulship ; as the care of the woods o 
the roads ; or what should give him at least no power to molest I 
them*. The distribution of the provinces was, by andenC 
usage and express law, their undoubted prerogative,* whidi 
had never been invaded, or attempted by tne people*; so thit 
this piece of revenge, or rather self-defence, seemed to be 

y.'.o particular;.. »:.■ 

thai 1.1 

:.i.e<: troiii you; 
I want you f 
'.-..Z veiore he M 
.is T:i<U yon idk 
t.iv : it coming, B 
*:^^-^* I lay on f 
. I':: vour Ion • 

- * . .. .■ :■. ::: :!.> ar'air, wa.^ ti> Mibdu« (SetP 
■>:r^— '.r.: *■■ I'^r. ;ij :ii tVirvi; liim lo a depeudyi 
z :r » :,.-. t:.:. •■i'l.i.r i.i- m^i- [Tii-jieiy encooiMh 
:■■ r -> .■: :.-.:v.. -.c n\ii )ir<i]iii>iti:r oxj^ttlients to ^M 
■\.-^r.:\ ':.v "rfrriii to juil liiiii into tho commiMiM 
: „:;■ ; :;.f IjhiU of Cani|iaiiia. with wliich twenty I 
I -'.«!. »«nati>rs u'l-re char^uil : liiit, !i« it was an iufili 

ir.'.i- thi' [>iai.v ot rnie di-ceast'd. anil not an origan 
iv'.n. CiciTO ilici not tliink it for hU diifnitA- to nuay 
>^c-i. on liiiv ucnmnt. tu lioiir n p:iri In an afiiirK 

iiC thi'n utlere)!. in the tniK>t uhlifiiif manner) to 
s or.e of Lis lieiil^nants in (iiml. and jiressed it enw 
>.T, 'ini : which was both a sure and honourable mr 
■.-r -^.t i-lan^cr. and nhm he might have made use o^ 
■;. j." :: *tneii Lis purpiwo. without embarrassing liin- 
i.c t;,;:y or it': yet Cieero, after some hesitation, 

:'::» .iX*. He h~.i« uuuiilinir to one the obligation 
:\:\. 10 a:iy maTi. and much more to Cspsar: being 

;:' i\»-*:!>le. to ilefend himx'lf by his own strriigtli ; m 

c.ifi.\ !;ave done, if the triumvirate would not hare 
Lti:ist tiini. Hut this stiffness so e?Eas|>emred Csesu', 
re^ilved iinmeiliiitely to assist Clodius. with all his 



A.l'Hi.694. Cic.4S. r«.— ('. JuliutCVur. H.C«l|>unii< 
picion of violence. His n-ife, the sister of Clodius, a li 
intrij^iiig woman, was commonly thought to have 
him ; as wt II to revenue his opposition to all the at 
her brother, as to gain the greater liberty of pnrauing her tf 
amours. Cicero does not scruple to charge her with it^ inl 
speech for CVliu-s where he gives a muvine accouot d m 
dead) of her huKbaTid, whom lie visited in his last mon 
whet), in brokon, fidtering accents, he foretold tlie i 
which was ready tu break, both ujioii Cicero, and the ] 
public; and, in ihc midst of his agonies, signified it to be kl 
only concern, in <lying, that his friend and his country sT 
be deprived of his help at so critical a conjuncture '. ? 

By Metellus's deaUi a place became vacant in tlie collegi^ 
of Augurs: and though Cicero was so shy of accepting aoj { 
favour from tlie triumvirate, yet he seems inclined to hart '■ 
accepted this, if it had been onered to him, as he intimates ia ' 
a letter to Atticus. " Tell me," saj's he, " every tittle of news 
that is stirring; and since Nepos is leaving Home, who it tO 
iiave his broUier's augurate, it is the only thing with whidi 
they could tempt me. Observe my weakness! But what 
have I to do with such things, to which I long to bid adieu, 
and turn myself entirely to philosophy ? I am now in earnest 
to do it; and wish that I had been so from the beginning'." 
But his inclination to the augurate, at this time, was nothing 
else, we sec, but a sudden start of an unweighed thought ; no 
•ooner thrown out tlian retracted: and dropped only to Atdcua, 
to whom he used to open all his thoughts, with the same free- 
dom, with which they offered themselves to his own mind ' : 

ID curia, qiuuii in rMtrii, qoim in Renb. flnniiiMt. 

w to Iw m s Cottcmv c 

I, ihK h« aUt Wr kid lln my ^(«M^ V 

M(*«ur fe; ■qr>«akllvtoa«i^ 

t be %mwt ^tk fae^ k «n, Ite W h^ 

^ach iiiwij iMletd. ta Wre beea Ae 

■ dwBefa he «a wiAta tvn^ hOcs of tlame, nc 

r stirred from hk wttrtaa, to Mlidt or iffii liiiiiy'rii 

I rtich he must aectinniljr have ifaf , if had ■■]■ nal dcare 

Cicero'* f<Mtnnes sea 
I Im en«Die« were gaiijnp mmd iqwa kim, wad any a 
I (F bdp from the ne« ■watitfes HMt taiii the «csfe to Ui 
I mla. CutMlus u«ed t4 tdlkm, dot be kad do cbmc I 
I tmj Uitnu : for diat t 
[ Irisi : aoti Rome had i 
I gnbcr, except in Citioi^i tmimjr*. 
come; and Hurae iaw, in on Tear, i 
More, in peaceful tinm, nnee Ua foonditioii — two | 
Men adraDced to that h^ digmtjr. 

These were L. Calpnraiiw Fim and A. Gabbtioa; tbe ooe, 
tke GuJier-ia-law of C^ar; tbe other, the at ata re of Pnaptj. 
Before tbeir entrance into offc^ Gmo had eooerived gnat 
lopes of tbem, and n«t witboot reaooa ; ftr, by tbe Bamajge 
rf his dat^bter, he waa ^Ked to Fim ; who eonl iBii ed to gire 
Ub iU tbe marks of bis umfideuce, and had cnqdoyed him in 
ftb^lite election, to picaide orer the rolei of the h ailii^- een- 
tny: and, when he entered into his office, on the mat of 
JMiDUTi mked his pinion the third in the senate, or the next 
dttr I^nnpey and Crassus*: and he might flatter himself also, 
probably, that on account of the influence which they were 
', they would not be very fortfard to declare them^elres 
Bt him *. But he presently found himself deceived : for 
lodios had already secured them to his measures by a pri\-ate 
contract, to procure for them, by a grant of the people, two of 


erdotiam dcoiqut, mm, qumudmuliiiii ir fxittinun irbitiw. nnn didicill 
populique Boaumi dcmejudicia inicnnlcK. tjiqat H Aupa jxHin fieri ri 

n Rcpiib. 

Ad Qui! 

qnod ait«A nfgltreTam. Ep. fkni. 15. _. 

* AudKnm ei akpinidaniiia homiiie-^. Ci 
bnDL, duofl Tero DuuquizD pott Rouum condiUi 

COOBII^^ 'p^T^i"^" "" """""^ 

* Ccnuulo K optima «l 
Td miRricon me iffinei 

pcvfcc«ni; qiwiQ kKleadit jBimiriil trtlio Loco KntenlUm rogaru, coDitrtcLuta iniLDLrii 
Bdpob. Uadidiili. P»t ml. in Sen. 7. In I^a. 3. 6. 

* Th« Mlbor of ihe Exile of Cicm, lo •ggi»™te the prrtidy of C^niui, tell) ll^ 
thftt Cicrm hid defcDded him In m I3|utu cusv, uid produrr^ k fnicmmt uf the omian : 
bnt benktUkc* Ihc lime of tbeftctj for that defence nt nol made till icTcnl fnn 
after tUa eootiikhip ; *• m (hall tee bercaner. in ita pmper place. Hiit. de I'Eiil da 
Cic.p. IIS. 

the best governments of tlie empire; for Piso, Macedonia, witti 
Greece and Thessaly; for Gabinius, Cilicia: and when the 
last was not thought good enough, and Gabinius seemed to be 
displeased with his bargain, it was exchanged, soon after, for 
Syria, with a power of making war upon the Parthians '. For 
this price they agreed to serve him in all his designs, and par- 
ticuUrly in the oppression of Cicero ; who, on tliat accomi^ 
<^n ca\h them, not consuls, hut brokers of provinces, and 
sellera of their country '. 

They were, both of them, equally corrupt in their morals, 
yet very different in their tempers. Piso nad been accused, 
the year before, by F. Clodius, of plundering and oppressing 
the allies : when by throwing himself at the feet of his judges, 
in the most abject manner, and in the midst of a violent 
rain, he is said to have moved the compassion of the bench, 
who thought it punishment enough, for a man of his birth, 
to be reduced to the necessity of prostrating himself so mise- 
rably, and rising so deformed and oesm eared with dirt*. But, 
in truth, it was Csesar's authority that saved him, and recon- 
ciled him, at the same time, to Ctodius. In his outward car- 
riage, lie affected the mien and garb of a philosopher; and his 
aspect greatly contributed to give him the credit of that cha- 
racter: ne was severe in his looks; squalid in his dress; slow 
in his speech ; morose in his manners ; the very picture of 
antiquity, and a pattern of the ancient Hepubtic ; ambitious to 
be thought a patriot, and a reviver of the old discipline. But 
this garb of rigid virtue covered a most lewd and vicious 


A. UA.695. Cie.49. Co«.~L. Calpurnioi Pito. A.Gabiniut. 

His ooUewoe, Oabinins, was no hjrpocrite, but a professed 
ndw from ue beginning; my, foppish, luxurious; always 
snlad and perfomed; and living in a perpetual debauch of 

CiDg, wine, and women ; void of every principle of virtue, 
NV, and probity ; and so desperate in his fortunes, through 
tte eztravag^uioe of his pleasures, that he had no other re- 
Mnee^ or hopes of subdstence, but from the plunder of the 
Bcpablic. In this tribunate, to pay his court to Pompey, he 
fipoagid to the mob the plan of Luciillus's house, to show what 
m cspensive fiedbric one of the greatest subjects of Rome was 
hnlding^, as he would intimate, out of the spoils of the trea- 
mrj ; yet^ this vain man, oppressed with debts, and scarce able 
ts abow his head, found means, from the perauisites of his oon*- 
laUuis to build a much more magnificent palace than Lucullus 
loBielf bad done ^ No wonder, then, that two such consuls^ 
mdv to sacrifice the empire itself to their lusts and pleasures, 
duNud barter away the siuety and fortunes of a private senator, 
whoae virtae was a standing reproof to them, and whose very 
presence gave some check to the free indulgence of their 

Clodins, bavins gained the consuls, made his next attempt 
upon the people, l)v obliging them widi several new laws, con- 
trived diefly for their advantage, which he now promulgated. 
First, that corn should be distributed gratis to the citizens. 
Secondly, that no ma^trates should take the auspices, or 
observe the heavens, when the people were actually assembled 
on public business. Thirdly, that the old companies, or frar 
temities of the city, which the senate had abolished, should be 
rerived, and new ones instituted. Fourthly, to please those 
also of higher rank, that the censors should not expel from the 
senate, or inflict any mark of infamy on any man, who was 
not first openly accused, and convicted of some crime, by their 
joint sentence '. These laws, though generally agreeable. 

intneri. Vmitits ampere nontra liac purpura plebi'ia ct pcnc fusca. Capillo ita horridOf 

Hi tanta erat gravitas in oculo, tanta coiitractio frontin, ut illo eupcrciiio Respub., tan- 

quam Atlante cerium^ niti vidcretur. [Pro Sext. 8. J Quia triBtcm pcmpcr, quia tacitur- 
nnm, quia subhorridum atque incultum vi<h'bant, ct quod erat co nomine, ut ingcncrata 
fiunilie frugalitaa videretur; favebant — etenim animus ejus vultu, flagitia parietibus tege- 

(nntar ^laudabat homo doctos PIiiloHO[>hos nescio quos — 9. Jacebat in suo Grfficoruni 

fcFtorc et vino — Grseci stipati, quini in lectulis, swpc plures. In Pis. 10. 27. 

His ntitur quan pncfcctis libidiuum suanim : hi voluptates omncs vestigant atquo odo- 
nntur; hi sunt conditorcs iustructoresque convivii, &c. Post red. in Sen. 6, 

Obrepisti ad honores errore hominum, commendatione fumosarum imaginum, quanim 
timile nihil habes prater colorem. In Pis. I. 

* Alter unguentis affluens, calamistrata coma, despiriens conscios stuprorum — fcfollit 
nemioeii^-JioiDinem emersum subito ex diuturnis tencbris lustrorum ac stuprorum — 
▼ino, gtneis, lenociniis, adultcriisque confectum. Pro Sext. 9. 

Cur illcffurgo, heluatun tecum simul Reipub. sanguincm, ad coelum tamen extruxit 
▼iUam in Tiwculano visceribus eerarii. Pro Dom. 47. 

• Vid. Otat. in Fit. 4. et notaa Asconii. Dio, 1. 38, p. 67. 


'>•* THE LIFE I 

w<trt k^Uy u3<«aMXBkl« : lending; to relax the public diaci^ 
pMe. at a time vheti it wanted most to be reinforced : Cicef^B 
mik [KMi all to Ke l^T^IW at kimself, and contrived to pm^K 
Ae aav tk> hit ruia : <«> (hat he provided his friend, L. Niod 
wim^ «ae at tite tribane*^ lo put bis negative upon diem; c*^^ 
HCBuY iw [^ LI* ot tniefnides; which, under colonr of, 
■Pupicirinf thwe Kvieiies. ^ve Clodius an opportunity tt^ 
yirhfrinc vi army. a:;d enli^iin^ into his serrice all the acaKi 
aai ttzc^ n* tke tin '. Dion Cassius ^ays. that Clodios, fewf 
JMt- MM du» ofpoiition should retard the effect of his otlwC: 
piwfcvtk 9«rHKkH\i Cioervv in an amicable conference, to witt 
*aw ai» tiiSune. and ^i^'e no interruption to his laws, upoB 
a pctMusf and ciKiiition. that he would not make anv attempt 
ajtaaara him ' -. bci wv find, tntm Cicero's account, that it «a 
w *mt.v «i ae fHemis which induct him to be quiet against 
k» t^v jik^meat : bev-ause the bws themselves were popular, 
aai liki boi pemyialiv afect him : thou|;h he blamed hinudt, 
MWi anerwanK n.v hk iikiolence. and expostulated «-ith Atti- 
cwk M- adviaa; him to it : when he fell, to his cwt, the *d- 
«4Bec£ir w^-a Cloiirw ha>i fainei) by it * . 

C^r t>e :r«e ie«i<n of' all ihe^se laws was. to introduce only 
wink Setttrr |:7Kir. tke j^rand plot of the play^the banishment 
iMt Cicvtv: wiick ns now directly anempted, by a special 
kiw, iat^vrti^. t&at wboetm hail taken toe life of a cidxen, 
RtK-votSiraiMxi, ana without a trul. should be prohibited frran 
Stv and wanrr '. Though Cicero was not named, yet he was 
aMtri.«\i out by the bw : his crime was, the putting Catiline's 

JLIMlMS. Gk.4i. 

nd the jommg malOkf, to dw 

• with 'WOBBf^ WJEBMHS St 

tlMir Ubit^ Sid peqwtHdly alteMled kni wb&m the 
iaqilon the protoedoo and sHMdMee of tbe people. 
city «io DOW in gnot iwilalioB, and ctvrj port of k 
oil one flde or tlie oner. The eeaale net io the 
of Cdoeoid; nAaeOceraro fticnik MMnbled n the 
whcnee all the knighto and the yoaag aoUes wmt ia 
lit of aMNindagi to throw thfaioiliii at the fset of 
1^ oaaaoli^^ and beg mar i i itfri N nit io n in Gtenf% betmm. 
mm heptUslMNne that day, on porpoee to avoid them; bnt 

jiiiiiTiii ' rr T ' 1 ' V r r x' '* ' 

liMpn waa ■ecooded by the entreatiei and tean of the whole 
■flio: he treated Cicws cfaaiaeter and eonfoUup with the 
ipoat drriiBfln, and repobed the whole eoo^Muiy, with thiMatt 
iiianbi^fiw thrir finntlen paiDi to sopport a Ittnidaig canKu 
Sli laiwd great indvnation in the aHeniblv ; iriiere the tii- 
■H% Minnine, imteadof beiiy di§cui u aged by the riolenee of 
be powanl, made a motioo, that the lenate abo should chaa^ 
hwr bdiity widi the rest of the city : which waa agreed to^ m- 
UmAf^ bj an nnammoot rote. Gabiniat, enr^;ed at tUi^ 
bw onl of the senate into the Fomm ; where he dedarad to 
k people, firom the rostra, that men were mistaken to ima- 
riae» tluit the senate had any power in the Kepubiic; that 
ne knights should pay dear for that day's wora ; when, in 
Cicero's consulship, they kept ^uard in the Capitol, with their 
drawn swords : and, that the hour was now come, when those, 
who lired at that time in fear, should revenue themM;U'es on 
tlieir enemies: and, to confirm the truth of what he said, be 
binished L. Lamia, a Roman knight, two hundred miles from 
Ae city, for his distinguished zeal and activity in Cicero'* ser- 
fice ' ; an act of power, which no consul before him had ever 
presumed to exert on any citizen; which was followed pre- 
lendy, by an edict from both the consuls forbidding the seriate 
\o put their late vote in execution, and enjoinin^^ them to 

' Pro me pneiente tenataa, bomiAmnouc vmnti miliiA restem iLbUTeruiji. V*h\ ivi. 

' HUc saliito *mii izurredilnlis in Csfnurb-xn moldtudo ex toU ai V, cuoctaqtur ) tali* 
OBTcnmet, Tettem mntandun omnct, mt^'^i^ etiun omni ntione. wnrttft conftilki, nw>- 
oun pablids dudbiu Respub. careret, d«fex.<>ii4ina patanint. r>v. eodrm ttm^/n 
enBtas in ade Concordic,— cum Sens uniTtmui 'jrir* ciodnnatum co&iTzleni fftzbai. ban 
Iter Qle iMHrndiu et serenu domi le cminilto trneUa Qom turn tupcrrbia camuin illud 
c hhm unpliarimi ordinis precc* et claniHm<»niiii fvr.^nn lacrymat irmidiarit ? Me 
nam at contemsit belluo patrie? Veatrit nrecibuft a it^rome iftto rrpudiati* rir incre- 
fibiU fidr Ti NinniuB ad ■iimaiii de Kepao. retulit. beauunaque fr^'itn* rcateni pro 
M* Mlate mutandam censoit — Ejutnimatos erolat e lenatu— -advocat c/ociooero— ^erran 
nymmWy li etiam turn aeoatam aiiquid in Rep. potte arbitnnr.tur. — VethMe t«rnipui ii», 
«i in tiiDore foiaent, oldaeeDdi ae. — L. Lamiam — in coocka* relegaiit, cdixitque ut 
b orbe abcaMt miUia paaaaom docent»— {Pro SexL 11, 12, 13. it. ooct tc4. in Sen. &] 
2iiod ante idtempiii an Romano contipt ocminL Epiat. fam, 11. 16. 


A. L'rk 69S. Cic. 4». Com —1.. dpumiut PiM. A. Gibiniua. 

iiimin tbeir ordiiiary dress '. " And where is there," I 
Cieero, *(m all history, a more illustrious testimony, to 
hoooor of any man, than that all the honest, by private fa 
mtion, and the senate, by a public decree, should change t 
k^it tot the sake of a single citizen ' ?" 

Bat the resolution of changino^ his gown was too harty 
iaconnderate, and helped to precipitate his ruin. He was 
named in the law, nor personally affected by it : the ters 
it were general, and seemingly just, reaching onlv to tfa 
wbo had taken the life of a citizen illegally. Whether 
was his case, or not, was not yet tl)e point in issue, but ti 
the subject of another trial ; so that, by making himself a 
ninal, before his dpie, he shortened the trouble of his enen 
discouraged his friends, and made his case more desperate I 
he needed to have done : whereas, if he had taken the pu 
commending or slighting the law, as being wholly unconoei 
Ui it; and, when he came to be actually attacked by a set 
law, and brought to a trial upon it, bad stood resolutely a 
his defence, he might hare baffled the malice of his pr 
cuton. He was sensible of his error, when it was too L 
aod oft reproaches Atticus, that, being a stander-by, and 
heated in the game than himself, he would suffer him to a 
Bmii blunders '. 

As the other consul, Piso, had not yet explicitly dedt 
himself, Cicero, accompanied by his son-in-law, who was 
near kinsiiiao, tuok occasion to make liim a visit, in hope 
move iiim to espouse his aiuse, and support the authorit 

orcicBRO. 211 

ndnedt i£ he conld not procure tome rich province ; 
d iMpes of one from Clodiiis, bat despaired of any 
Ae inate; tbat^ for lus own part, it was bis bosi- 
bim, on ibis occasion, as Cicero bad bumoored 
in bis consnlsbip ; and tbat tbere was no reason 
the belp of tbe consols, since it was every man's 
look to biinself * : wbicb was all that they could get 

aD die while, was not idle, bat poshed on his law 
vigoor ; and, calling the people uto the Flaminian 


tbiiher also the young nobles and the knightSt 
■0 bnsy in Cicero's cause, to give an account of their 
to dnt assembly : but, as soon as they appeared, be 
U slaves and mercenaries to fiall upon them with 
and volleys of stones, in so rude a manner, tbat 
almost lolled, and Vibienus, another senator^ 
bort, that he died, soon after, of his wounds', 
uoed tbe two consuls, to deliver their sentiments 
paople^ on tbe merit of Cicero's consulship ; when Gabi^ 
b rlai ' Td, with great gravity, that he utterly condemned 
j^jMttinff dtisens to death without a trial : Piso only said, 
il^e bad always been on the merciful side, and had a ffreat 
wnum to cruelty '. The reason of holdinj? this assembly in 
m Flaminian circus, without the gates of Rome, was to give 
Smbt an opportunity of assisting at it, who, being now in- 
Oled with a military command, could not appear within the 
prfls. Csesar, therefore, being called upon, after the consuls, 
i deliver his mind, on the same question, declared, that the 
meeedings against Lentulus, and toe rest, were irregular and 
Ikgal : but that he could not approve the desi^ of punishing 
By body for them : that all the world knew nis sense of the 
Htter, and that he had given his vote against taking away 
heir lives ; yet he did not think it right to propound a law, at 
Us time, about things that were so long past ^ This answer 
pas artful, and agreeable to the part which he was then acting ; 

* "BfjUtt Gmbinium ; nne proTincia stare non posse : spem habere a tribuno pleb.-^ 
HBsta omdem desperasse : hujus te cupiditati obsequi, sicut ego fecissem in coUega 
Wtf : nihil esM quod praesidiam consilium implorarem ; sibi quemque consulere oportere, 
'A In Pis. 6. 

* Qni ftdeaae nobilissimos adolescentes, honestissimos cquites Romanos deprecatorea 
mm nlstii jiuaerit ; eosque operarum suanim gladiis ot li^idibas objecerit. Pro 
St. 12. 

win himc ipsum Hortensium, Inmen et omamentum Reipub. pene interfici servomm 
■m— ^n* in tnrbs C. Vibienus, senator, vir optimus, cum hoc cum esset una, ita ett 
irii Htm, Qt vitam amiterit. Pro Mil. 14. 

* PkMMi Ypce et temulenta, quod in cives indemnatos esset animadyersum, id sibi 
Utgmvii aneUwTebementiaaime displicere. Post red. in Sen. 6. 

Cpn MtM SntorNfitiia quid lentiies de consulatu meo, respondes, crudelitat«m tiU 
Mi ilftMra. In Pit. 6. Te lemper nrisericordem fuisae. Post red. in Sen. 7. 
« Din, L 8S. p. S9. 



for while it conlinned the foundation of ClodiiLs's law. 
a sliow of moderation towards Cicero ; or, as an ingi 
writer expresses it " left appearances only to the one, hut i 
real service to the otlier '." 

In this same assembly, Clodius got a new law likw 
enacted, that made a great alteration in the constitution of 
Repuhlic; viz. the repeal of the ^lian and Fusian lawa; 
whieb the people were left at liberty to transact all pal 
business, even on the days called Fasti) without bein^ liabU 
he obstructed by the magistrates, on any pretence whatsoert 
The two laws, now repealed, had been in force about a hi 
dred years'; and made it unlawful to act any thing with 
people, while the augurs or consuls were observing the hean 
and taking the auspices. This wise constitution was the nuan' 
support of the aristocratiail interest, and a perpetual curb U 
the petulance of factious tribunes, whose chief opportuni^ of 
doing mischief lay in their power of obtruding dangerous ar^ 
upon the city, by their credit with the populace. Cicero, tha 
fore, frequently lameuts the loss of these two laws, as fatal 
the Republic ; he calls them, the most sacred and salutary 
of the state : the fences of their civil peace and quiet ; the 
walls and bulwarks of the Republic, which had held out ag 
the fierceness of the Gracchi; the audaciousness of Satumini 
the mobs of Drusus ; the bloodshed of Cinna ; the arms 
Sylla * ; to be abolished, at last, by the violence of this worA* 
less tribune. 

Pompey, who had hitherto been giving Cicero the strong«t 


to be oiBtioot of Tentnring himaelf there, md to 
care of im life ; iriudi wu bcnlcated to faim, Hko- 
^\ at lutme, by peroetnal ktten and metmgtm, 
laded toBoia, that be thought fit to withdnw Sm- 
the city, to hn honae on the Albon hill '. It 
ed, that he eooU eDtertun any real i^prelu 
. both CicOd^l dianeter, and his own, nnke that inera- 
but if he bad oooerived any, it wai ata, as Cicero aaya, 
him, but agdntt the ounmon enemies of them both, 
might potaibly attempt sanewhat in Cicero's name ; ■ 
, by the opportnm^ of charging it opon Cicero, hope to 
rid of tiiem bodiat the same time. Bat the most prooable 
tli^ being oblved by hn eivagemenli with 
to desert Cicero, and siwr him to be dnren out of the 
was willing to humour these innnuations, aa ginif 
plausible pretext of excusing his perfidv, 
Cicero had still with him, not only all the bes(^ bnt 
the grealert part of the dtv, determined to run all 
and oxpoae their lives for ms safety ' ; and was more 
match for all the strength of Clodius and the consuls^ if 
ite only would Stand neuter. Before things cam^ 
extrtimity, he tboi^ht it advisable to press Pom- 
suvh a. m.'tnner, as to know, for certiuD, what he had to 
Opect ftow him: some of his chief frieoda undertook this task; 
LncuIIus, Torqimtus, Lentulus, &c. who, with a numerous 
■UendaDce of cidzens, went to find him at his Alban villa, and 
to intercede with him, not to desert the fortunes of his old 
fneud. He received them civilly, though coldly ; referring 
&em wholly to the consuls, and declaring, that he, being only 
t private man, could not pretend to take the field against an 
irniei) tribune, without a public authority ; hut if the consuls, 
hy u (IccrcL- of iJiu senate, would enter into the afl^r, he would 
(Resentlv arm himself in their defence*. With this answer 
liwy adaressed themselves again to the consuls, but with no 
better success than before ; Gabinius treated them rudely ; bat 
Hso calmly told them, that he was not so stout a consul as 

Diurovirate oi 

nimea alii lituni miticdiliB. alii nunciit. ilii coram iaa iidliTcnint, ut illc, cum ■ ■»• 

•a in <auM Um bona, UdIo iludio Kimtut, caaK 
tarn puvto, tola dcniqus IlilU ul Dmnem contr 

M ad U L. Lentulni, L. Tocquituf. M. Liiculli 
Bwitale* aratum in Albanum otaceratumquc vcncruii. nc m 

n Bafpub. (bnusti conjnnclu.— 8r cunlrs anntiiim liibuniii 

ko daeertuc nolle ; Coiuulibiu ci Kuntiu coniullo Kempub. 

iptoluln. InpB.31. 

xprdiU. Ibid.lfi. 

gni amiin id sum 
' nim> Ii>nutiu toe- 

A. Ilk OM. Ot iS. C«s^L. CilpuUBt Pbs. A. OiUainL 

Torqnatu§ ind Cmrxt had been ; that there wia no bm 
anns, or fightine ; that Cicero imEht save the Repnii 
aeaMid time, if he pleased, by witbarawin^ bimaelf ; fop-jj 
•bid, it would cmt an infinite ({oantity of nvil blood; aM| 
abort, tbst neither he, nor his colleague, nor his soiMiJk 
Cmar, wonid relinquish the party of the tribune '. !< 

Afiter this repulse, Cicero resolved to make his last efit 
Pompey, by throwing himself, in person, at his feeL Ploi 
tells ns, that Pompey slipt out at the back door, and wooU 
see him : but it is certain, from Cicero's account, that lui 
admitted to an audience; and when he began to prea^ 
even supplicate him, in a manner the most affecting, 
Pompey flatly refused to help him : alleging, in excoi 
himseli^ the necessity, which he was under, of acting not 
agunet the will of Csesar'. This experiment convinced Cii 
that he had a much greater power to contend with, than ' 
had yet appeared in sight : he called, therefore, a coun< 
his ftiends, with intent to take his final resolution, agree 
to their advice. The question was, Whether it was b« 
stay, and defend himself by force ; or to save the effonc 
blood, by retreating, till the storm should blow over? Luc 
advised the first; but Cato, and, above all, Hortenaius, wa 
ui^ed the last; which, concurring also with Atdcus's ad 
88 well as the fears and entreaties of all his own fiunily, i 
him resolve to quit the field to his enemies, and submit 
voluntary exile' 


A little before his retreat, he took a small statue of MiQ< 

I part of the city, 
d Baturally excite an afiecti 
e peuplr, by letting tlMn Ma» diRt his heart «M itiU 
ere be bsd ilr[i<nit«cl hia goda. After thk aet, he 
r hinwelf iii the night. eaBocicd by a ntunerooi gtnrd 
k, wtw, aTter a day's joanej or two, left him, with 
tcxpr«nioDs of teniUrne^ to pnnue ioM way t o wa nfa 
. wbicli lie proposed for the place of hia reaiaenee, and 
for bis eminent services to the ialand, he anured hinaelf 
' reoepiJiHi and safe retnaL 


wretclie<l alternative to which Cicero waa reduced, ti 
^ either hi« country or Lis life, ia aiifficieiit to conftlte ^I 
oiviU of those, who, from a hint or two in hia writingi^ 
nirely tbrown out, and not well nndetatood, are so forward 
to charge him with the levity of temporisiuff, or selling himself 
for any bribe, whicli could fec<l his vanity : for nothing is more 
trident, tlian that he might not only have avoided this storm, 
bat obtained whatever honours he pleased, by entering into 
tbe measures of the triumvirate, ana lending his authority to 
tbe support of their dowlt ; and that the only thing which 
[mroked Csesar to bring this calamity upon him, was, to see 
aU his offers slighted, and his friendship utterly rejected by 
him'. This lie expressly declares to the senate, who were 
conscious of tbe tj-uih of jt; that Csesar had tried all means to 
mdnce him to take part in the acts of his consulship : had 
(Ared him commissions and lieutenancies, of what kind and 
with what privileges he should desire ; to make him even a 
fimrtli ID the alliance of the three, and to hold him in the same 
rank of friendship with Pompey himself. " All which 1 
refbaed," says he, " not out of slight to Csesar, but constancy 
to my principles ; and because I thought the acceptance of 
them unbecoming the character which I sustained ; how wisely, 
I will not dispute ; but am sure, that it was firmly and bravely ; 
when, insteaa of baffling the malice of my enemies, as I could 
eaaily have done, by that help, I chose to suffer any violence. 

216 THE UFE 

A.L'Tb.695. Cit.4». Con^L. CtOpunuu Pin. A. GiikBlm 
rather thui to desert your interest, and descend from ■ 

CsBsar continued at Rome, till he saw Cicero driven ■ 
it: but had no sooner laid down his consulship, than he b 
to be attacked and affronted himself, by two of the new p 
L. DonaiduB and C. Memmius; who called in i 
validity of his acts, and made several efforts, in t 
get them annulled by public authority. But the a 
no stomach to meddle with an affur so delicate; so that t 
whole ended in some fruitless debates and altercatioiu ; 
Ceesar, to prevent all attempts of that kind, in bis i 
took care always, by force of bribes, to secure the let 
magistrates to his interests; and so went oif to his provinoej 
Gaul*. But as thb unexpected opposition gave some littf* 
ruffle to the triumvirate, so it served them, as an sdditioi 
excuse for their behaviour towards Cicero ; ailing, 
their own dangers were nearer to them than other people 
and that they were obliged, for their own security, not t 
irritate so popular a tribune as Clodius*. 

As soon as it was known that Cicero was gone, Clodtiitf' ' 
filled the Forum with his band of slaves and incendiaries, and ' 
published a second law, to the Roman people, as be called 
them, though there was not one honest citizen, or man ot 
credit among them*. The law, as we may eather fron 
the scattered passages of it, was conceived in the followu^ 

Whereas, M. T. Cicero has put Roman citizens to dafttht 
unheard and uncondemned ; and for that end forged ^e 
authority and decree of the senate : may it please you to 
ordain, that he be interdicted from fire and water: that nobody 


hv was drawn by Sszt CSadioi, tba 

Wr of (lie iribiint ; Aon^ Vatmioi dio Iiid wna 

, and vas the oalf one, of Mntariin nok» i^m 

f «pfirDved it'. It was MMntUIf mill and invili^ bodi 

alter and tfa«^ farm : fSoTt in tM fint phoe, it «M not 

rly ■ law, but Mliai tiiey oJIhI ■ pririle^ or an ac^ to 

f pvnald^ on a particular dtisen by name, wtdiOBt an^ 

' — trial; which was exanmij pntntbitcd by the sMat 

d fluidainental coastttirtioiM of Am Repnblic *. 8^ 

, the terms of it were ao afaaotd, that amy ananlM 
'm; for it enacted, not tliat Qoero may or iboiiid ba^ 
t be be interdicted ; whidi was impoanblc; wwa am 
I eortb, sayN Cicero, can make a thing to ba Joncv 
t i>e done*. Thirdly, die penal danae beings groondad 
■geution notoriously take, that Cicero had fofged Aa 
f the senate, it could not powiblr ataod, iar want of m 
Lastly, though It pnmdea that nobody dioaU 
■ kim, yet it had not ordered him to be expelled, or 
ujwned him to quit the city*. It waa the cmtom, in aU hnn 
niMe liv the tribes, to insert the name of die tribe whidl waa 
' fim called to vote, and of the nun who fiiat voted in it fcr the 
km; that he might be transmitted down with the law itael^ aa 
lb» prindptd e^ouser and pronoter of it'. Thii honour waa 
eirea to one Sedulius, s mean, obscure fellow, without any 
witted habitation, whu yft, afterwards, declared, that be was 
not in Home at the time, uad knew nothing at all of the 
■alter: which gare Cicero occasion to observe, when he was 
n^raacbing Clodius with this act, that Sedulius might cattily 

■ TM. Pm Dam. 18, IS, 20. Port nd. in Bi 

■ Hhw tilii legem 8. Clodioi Krif«l — homi: 
4b. Mda Mi Mngujnii. — Hoc tu icliptar*, 

Pro Dam. 2, ID, la Ule iiaui oi 

0Unb X1T. Ubulp, Icgn priTitTi 

[ ied n( inlerdictum nt^-Scxle 

, nfirmim poUmt ? 

|n«nptio. nt w Ipa (TiiwlTmt ? iWd. 19. 

N-B. Tbe diitiiietiDn btn intinuted bcIicRn io(erdk*lDr, iml MittTdiclum nt, de- 
Htva tbe BtlCDlimi of nil gmnmiriun. V<tj «rt comnionly uied indifff renllr, u Unm 
vbaUr cMinlent ; Tet, iccortiDg lo Citero'i critinnn, the one, *e «ee, tatka Ihe khh 
■hiiii, wbere tbe othet ij jiul md proper. 

• Brt enim, qood M. Tulliui Unim SemUoi coniullum rrtulcHt, li igitur («dIU M. 
tam ScbMu* canniltniD, turn Ht rogilla : n non retalit, nulla eit. Pro Dom. 19. 

< Tojkti de me ne recipcrrr, non at nirem — pinu eil, qui t«ccperit ; qtiua omnci 
n^exeniat: ejectioDalUHi. Ibid. 20, 

TTtibm aeip» prindpium hiil : pro Tribu, ScJiliii L. F. Turo primal iriTil. Thii 
w tbe four, u inifan rrom firoiienU of Iho old Um. Vi.l. Froulin. dc Aqucd.^ 
Ft^mtnt. Legii Thotie, «pud Rei Agnr. fjcriploret. Liv. 9. 38. 

t tit ^tum, TeTTi ad pmiululii, nut verlni 
ibid. 18. Quid li iii verbii tcripU eM iita 

lL.VA.tU. t^utt. Cm.— I. Cdpnuoi PlM. A.Oabiniu. 

be Ike fint voter, wbo, for the want of a lodging, used l|| 
•U ii%kt in dte Fomm ; bat it was stnmee, toat when IM 
driren to the neennty of foif;inff a leader, he should ^ 
aUe to find a more repnttble one\ H 

With this law a^punst Cicero, there was another pabHil 
at the Mane time, which, according to the stipulation aUl 
■entioaed, was to be the pay anaprice for it ; to grant k 
two '""■"I" the provinces above specified, with a providi 
whaterer tnx^M and money they thought fit'. Both the 
p— nd without oppooition ; and Clodius lost no time in pal 
the first of them in execution ; but fell to work, imoiema 
in plondering, burning, and demolishing Cicero's houses 
in the city and the country. The best part of his goods ' 
divided between the two consuls ; the marble columns oi 
palatine house were carried publicly to Pi»o's &thep-iii- 
and the rich furniture of his TuscuJan villa, to his nei^h 
GlAiniiM; who removed even the trees of his plantatimis 
his own rrounds*; and, to make the loss of bis house in II 
irretrievable, Clodius oonsecrated the area, on which it m 
to the perpetual service of religion, and built a temple up 
to the goodesB Liberty*. 

Whi& Cicero's house was in flames, the two consuls, wit 
thrar leditiouB crew around them, were publicly feastii^ 
congratulating each other for their victory, and for faa 
revenged the death of their old friends on toe head of Cii 
where, in the gaiety of their hearts, Gabinius openly brag 
tliatheliiwlaUiiys lieoii tLe f:.v,„.nte of Cailliiie; and 
that be wns cousin to Cetbegus'. Clodim 

i Aea about «U yean old, «ilh ■■ IbMbI to UB hkm*t 
i* duld wu carefiillr guanbd bv tbe fiin^ «r ife 
1^. and removed from the reufa at ua m^tm. Tit 
l^eii MDctnary in the temple of Vcsla, bat « 
iir& lorcibly. by liia ordcre, to ibm pBbHe Mm, 
k W was «tQn?> to be esamiiwd^ aboot the t 
r iuabaDcTs elTecte : but, haag m wsmui of « ■ 
^■nl reaoludou, §he bore all lui luBlti with ft ■ 

while ClodiiM seemed to afan __ 

gratification of his revenge^ lie waa arrwiag oa a 
tnt«rpst, at the wune tini^ wiadt be bad andi it 
The lioitsc, in which he hiiMelf Bred, wm eopti g ' — 
_ a part of Cicero's ground ; iriuch, bdil|^ DOir Ud «pfla» ■ 
■aile that side of the I'aiaiine hiO tbe Bioat any and desnUe 
■taatton in Rome : his intention, dwfefbn^ wm, bj At pw- 
ebne of anotlier house, which etiiod next to him, to nabe tbe 
aiwte atva his own, with the benefit of tbe fine poitioo ^d 
MDple annexed : so that lie had no aooner demdabed Gearft 
hnne, than he be^n to treiit witb tbe owner of tbe next 
Q. Seias I'ostumus, a Roman knigb^ wbo abHristdy n.fiw J 
ti >ell it, and declared, that Clodim^ of all men, Bboold Denr 
bre it, while he lived: Cludiue tbreatened to obatmct Ui 
■iadows ; but finding that neither bia tbreati^ nor (Am anjlad 
iBf thing, he contrived to get the bnig^t poaoDcd ; and ao 
bnvht the house, after )m death, at the sale of hit effecta, by 
nt&iddiag all who offered for it. His next step was to aecure 
Ae remaining part of Cicero's area^ which was not included in 
^ consecration, and was nou' aUo exposed, by his direction, 
la a public auction ; but its it vtas not easy to find any citizen 
•ho would bid for it, and he did not care to buy it in bis own 
name, he was forced to provide an obscure, needy fellow, called 
SeatD, to purchase it for him, and, by that means, became 
maater of the most spacious habitation in ^1 the city*. 

Pro Sell. 24. 

(hUntnxwinnmucniTioUnt? QnunnUTirtii, 

uuiSiu iu^o 


■n nlwiOtt— 

miror 1 nun id 
nodum m V«ita 

■ A 1e qaMMOl oiDnu nen lonuDmc, uque ftnuniw 
MP.VibriiB-Briptn Id quod op Tnuimo cum Bet 

u legi, qu'nnui 

> Ibm enm loci Olini, cum cdiimi capldiuti! SignrH. 


enoBiUTil : hibiUn lue « 

MgDUee ToloH: dnuque et nugnu et nohile. doDM 
HBpnrfi 4110 men* dbetwiu iili cunoin cndii ciipuit, 


Eodem puneto 
ndit, ul domniB 

AiTCDdent. CnmiUeid i]eguTt.piiinoKluiaimbiiieiii 


rum mlubUnr. 

uuo futunm. 

Acutu. ulolei. 

DW fx Mm wnnoue inWUeilt, quid fieri oportent. 

euo vertiMin. 

pnapectn jBT- 

m roncupienl 


A. L'ifc. OSl Ck. 49. Cm^L. Calporaiai Pwh A. Dduiiiu. 

This desoUtioo of Cicero's fortuDes at home* and the oj 
wludi he suffered abroad, in beiiu; deprived of every ^ 
that was dear to him, soon made him repent of the r^oM 
of his flij^ ; which he ascribes to the envy and treadui 
his eoooB^on, who, taking the advaola^ of his fears, aaj 
perplexity which he was under, pushed him to an act ; 
rninoas and inglorious. This he chiefly charges on ] 
touinsi and though he forbears to name him to Atticoi 
account of the strict friendship between them, yet he aci 
him very freely to his brother, Qaintus, of coming every 
iosidionsly to nis house, and, with the greatest profeasioi 
seal and affection, perpetually insinuating, to his hopes 
fears, that, by giving way to the present rage, he could 
&il iMT being recalled witL glory, in three days time '. ] 
tenaius was particularly intimate, at this time, with Ptnn: 
and might, possibly, be emploved to urge Cicero to this i 
in order to save Pcmipey the disgrace of being forced tc 
agunst him with a high hand. But let thatlie as it wi 
was Pompey's conduct which shocked Cicero the most; no 
its being contrary to his oaths, which the ambitious can e 
dispense with, but to his interest, which they never n^ 
but throiif^ weakness. The consideration of what was a 
to Pompey, made him depend on his assistance * : he < 
have gimrded against his treachery, but could not suspect 
of the folly, of ginng himself entirely up to Ctesar, who 
the prindpal mover and director of the whole a^r. 

In this ruffled and querulous state of his mind, stung 
Uie recollection of his own mistakes, and the i — '^ ' 


t tbe It*] aim of tba h im f ifte wm. 

■ lunbleli 

ehiin: yet, k b ■• Ibm eatnn, tfiat allrcifatniM 

en in vain. If tbey j»d foond it aeeemarj to exert 

ength sigainst Um ; and tbit iIkt bad alraady pro. 

DO &f, to suffer Um to rcfnain in toe dty, in defiuMe 

d; and if their power lad been aetnally employed to 

'm away, hh retiim mart hare been tbe moie Je^erate^ 

Y the more intereited to keep bim out; ao that it aeetna 

been his most prndent part, and the most agreeable to 

ictiir, to yield as he did, to lie necewty of the timaa. 

re hare a full aceoont of tbe modres erf hii retread in 

»eche« which he made after hii retnm, both to lite aenate 

the pifiplo, " Wlien [ aaw the senate," aa^ b^ **depriTcd 

K k-ader^: myself partly pmliedt anid ptttly betrayed by 

I At magistrates, the slavM enimled by mme, nnder ibe eoloar 

I d fntrniitics ; the remains of Cadline'fl fiireea brought again 

[ iaca die field, under their old diieb; the knight* terrified with 

pittcripttotis ; the eorponite towna with nulitarr execution ; and 

I dl witn death and desimdion : I could itiU have defended 

by arms; and waa adriaed to it by my brave frienda, 

I I want that same cootie, which yon Md all aeen Be 

m other occasions : but when I aaw, at Ae «me ttiM^ 

^ if I tM>nquered my nreaent enemy, there were many more 

Miind, whum 1 had still to conquer; tha^ if J hmpenea to be 

(onqneted, many honest meD would fidl both with me, and 

ifier me ; that there were petmle enough ready to revenge the 

tribune's blood, while the punishment of mine would be left to 

the forms of a trial and to posterity ; I resolved not to employ 

lorce in defending my private safety, after I bad defended that 

of the public without il; and was willing, that honest men 

diould ratbej- hmaot thv ruin of my fortunes than make their 

oen desperate, by adhering to me ; and if, after all, I had 

fidlen slone, that would have been dishonourable to myself; if 

amidst the slaughter of my citizens, &tal to the Kepuhlic '." 

In another speech :" If in so good a cause," says be, " sup- 
ported with such zeal by the senate ; by the concurrence of all 
lunest men ; by the r^dy help of all Italy ; I had given way 
to the rage of a despicable tribune, or feared the levity of two 
contemptible consuls, I must own myself to have been a 
coward, without heart or head — but there were other things 
which moved me. That fury Clodius was perpetually pro- 
daiming in his harangues, that what he did against me, was 
done by the authority of Pompey, Crassus, and Csesar — that 
these three were his counsellors in the cabinet, his leaders in 

■ Pott Rd. in Sen. 13, U. 


A.Cih.eU. Cic.4S. Caw^[.C*ipunuDiPin. A. Otbhiiu! 

tkc field ; one of whom famd an army alreidjr in Italy, aod t? ""^,^ 
other two could raiie one whenerer thejr pleased. What tl 
Was it my part to regard the vaio bra^ of an enemy, fa] _ 
tkrown oat against uose emitieut meni^ No; it was aotV 
talking, but their silence, which shocked me ; and, though lIlM . 
had other reasons for holding their tongues, yet, to one in lifi_. 
chvnmstances, their saying nothing was a declarntKin : thii 
rilence a confession : they had cause, indeed, to b^ alarmed fli 
their own account, lest their acts, of the year before, should fa 
annulled by the pnetors and the senate — many people, 
were iostiUing icalousies of me into Pompey, ana perpet 
admonishing niin to ben-are of me; and aa for Caesar, « 
■ome imagined to be angry with me, he was at the gates of tl 
city with an army, the command of which he liaa given i 
Appius, my enem}-'> brother. When I saw all this, which \ 

3ien and manifest to every body; what could I do? W 
lodins declared, in a public speech, that I must either ( 
qner twice or perish : so that neither my victory, nor my &Bjr]|,^ 
would have restored the peace of the Republic '." 

Ctodius, having satiated his revenge upon Cicero, propose 
another law, not less \-iolent and unjust, agaitL«t Ptolemy, I 
king of Cyprus ; to deprive him of his kinedoni, iind reduce 1 
it to a Roman province, and confiscate the whole estate^ J 
This prince was brother to the king of Egypt, and reign- 1 
ing by the same right of hereditary succession ; in full peae« | 
and amity with Home; accused of no practices, nor su^ . 
peeted of any designs against the Republic; whtwe only 
crime was to be rich and covetous; so that the law was an un- 
paralleled act of injustice, and what Cicero, in a public H>eeeh, 
aid not scruple to call a mere robbery *. But Clodius had aa 

i Tii Ol etc. t». Cos.- L Calpmnliu I^m. 

rWjMioe, Cato tnu chiuged irilti tbe 

|B*F Clodius a double pleasure, by ira| _ 

^ . k Dpoa the rrarest mun in Rome. I C wm i part, li 

^ tf the mme mw, as well aa »f l^silo'i irim. w 

ill exiles of Byzantium, wliom Aeir cttjr tmA 

a crimes aguinst the public peao«'. The tttgt^ 

Old) dirty work, km » nia)tter-|Meei and wrrad 

I of great use to Clodius : Grat, to get lid of a 

■ adveraiiry. for the retouinder of Us nagpitiaejr ; 

If, to fix a blot OD Cato himself, and flhmr, tliat A» HMM 

I paetenders to virtue might be caught by a pmpar bait: 

Ijr, to «top his mouth, for the future, as he openly b ia g a aJ, 

-^^ c^dnouring against extraordinary commiMUma: fa^wlT» 

a dU^ him, above all, to acknowledge the Tali£ty of Ba 

t, by bis submitting to bear a part in them *. Ilw tribmia 

i the suisfaction to see Cato taken in hia trap; and i»- 

ved a congratulatory lett«r upon it from CmtK, aJdwad 

kUm in the ^miliar style, of Caesar to Clodioa; vhi^ ba 

KiMd pablicly to the people, as a proof of the tinrnlar iotiaMiy 

JittveeD them '. King Ptolemy, in the meanwmla, aa aeon aa 

I W beard vf the law, and of Cato's approach toward a Cypra% 

I Waa end to his life by poison ; unable to bear As dMgnea of 

E was. at once, both bis crown and his wealtb. Cato «*^ 

L MIn his corami«aiou with ^eat fidelity : and ratomed, tiia 

I'wr ibliowing, in a kind of triumph to Rome, witb aU Um 

r na^s effects reduced into money, amounting to about a mit 

^aim and half sterling : wliich he delivered, ^nth great pomp, 

bio the public treasury '. 

This proceeding was severely condemned by Cicero; though 
ie touches it in his public speeches with some tenderness, ftir 
the sake of Cato ; whom he labours to clear from any share of 
Aa iaiqtnty : " The commission," says he, " was contrived, 
HtiD adorn, bnt to banish Cato; not offered, but imposed upon 

' Bsjam peennia dipoitiiidK, et, li quit mimi jut defenderel, bella gereodo Cuaoaa 
li^BCiMi- IVo Dnn* 8- 

it ttiUD V> DBSMiO H. ClMDil •pIcDdomD DUCuUk TolDITUIlt. Pto Scil. 33. 

Th nM itgfi ttUiid, at CjpiiDi Kex — euni booii omiiibiit lub pnccone aubjiccTTtar, 
<t<xalea BfnotiiiB ndoMTantiir, Eidnn, inquit, ntimque de re ncgodum dedi. fio 

Dm. SO. 

) Sob luHMtlBenitbdniD miniidnl titulo H. Cstoncm m Rq>. nlrgnii. [Veil. PU. 
Itft.) NoniUl oriiindiiin H. Citanem, wd rtleguidnm patiTenint : qui in condone 
mIihi dfuiint, Kognim le ereUiMe CatonL mm Kn^ier omtn extnordiiuTiu poteitata 
OcnfokM. Quod ti ills repmliiiwt, dobiutit qnin d ' " '" 

• Plat—jCMo, FbT. S. a 

A.llrb.695. Clc49. CMi.-L. Cilpiunlai Pbo. A. GdibutB. 

him. Why did lie then obey it ; just as he had sworn to obey 
other laws, which he knew to be uojust, tliat he might not 
expose himself to the fury of liis enemies, and, without doinr 
any good, deprive the Republic of such a citizen. If he had 
not submitted to the law, be could not have hindered it; the ' 
•tain of it would still liave stuck upon tlie Republic, and he 
himself suffered violence for rejectiuf it; since it would hare 
been a precedent fur invalidatrng alt the other acts of that 
year : he considered, therefore, that since the scandal of it 
could not be avoided, be was the person best qualified to Smr 
ffood out of evil, and to serve his country well, though in a 
bad cause'." But howsoever this may colour, it cannot justify 
Cato's conduct, who valued himself nighly upon bis Cyprian 
transactions ; and, for the sake of that commission, was drawn 
in, as Clodius expected, to support the authority from which 
it flowed, and to maintain the legality of Clodius's tribunate, 
in some warm debates even with Cicero himself*. 

Among the other laws made by Clodius, there was one, like* 
wise, to give relief to the private members of corporate town% 
against the public injuries of their communities. The purpose 
of it was specious, but the real design, to screen a creature of 
his own, one Merula, of Anaguia, who had been punished, or 
driven from his city, for some notorious villanies, and who, in 
return for this service, erected a statue to his patron, on part 
of the area of Cicero's house, and inscribed it to Clodius, the 
author of so excellent a law. But as Cicero told him, after- 
wards, in one of his speeches, the place itself where the statue 
stood, the scene of so memorable an injury, confuted both the 
excellency of the law and the inscription '. 

But it rs time for ua to look after Cicero in his fliglit; who 

OF cicsRo. 225 


■ JL Vik OS. Gfe. 49. Cottw— .1^ Cdpurniiu PIso. A. Qabfaiiut. 

B Ml « crael flhodc ta him, and the first taste of the misery of 
I lUffBUOB ; that an oM friend, who had been highly obliged to 
UtoS* of die Mune par^ and principles, should refuse him 
^-* in a calamity, which he hieul drawn upon himself by his 
to die Republic; speaking of it afterwards, when it 
Us business to treat it severely, <^ See," says he, ^* the 
af these times; when all Sicily was coming out to meet 
^_, Ae prvtor, who had often felt the we of the same tri« 
koM^ and in the same cause, would not suffer me to come into 
Iha islaod. What shall I say ? That Virgilius, such a citizen, 
■id anflh a man, had lost all benevolence, all remembrance of 
Mr omuDon sufferings, all his piety, humanity, and faith 
Isw aiJ a ne? No sudi thins;: he was afraid, how he should 
■Bglj aoalain the we^ht of that storm, which had over- 
paw aiiid our joint forces ^'' 

'TUs unexpected repulse from Sicily obliged him to change 
Us route, and turn back again towards Brundisium, in order 
Id pass into Greece : he left Vibo, therefore, that he might not 
sspoae his host Sica to any danger, for entertaining him ; ez« 
peetiiig to find no quiet, till he could remove himself beyond 
Am bonnds prescribed by the law. But in this he found himself 
aiMaken ; for all the towns on his road received him with the 
most public marks of respect; inviting him to take up bis 

Crters with them, and euardin^ liim, as he passed throu£;h 
ir territories, with all imaginable honour and safety to his 
person. He avoided, however, as much as possible, all public 
places; and when he came to Brundisium, would not enter into 
the city, though it expressed the warmest zeal for his service, 
and offered to run all hazards in his defence ^. 

In this interval, he was pressing Atticus in every letter, and 
in the most moving terms, to come to him ; and, when he re- 
moved from Vibo, gave him daily intelligence of all his stages, 
that he might know still where to find him ; taking it for granted, 
that he would not fail to follow him \ But Atticus seems to 

» Plot, in Cic. 

' Biciliam pctiYi animo, qtiip ct ipsa erat inilii.. sicut donnii^ una, conjuncta; et obtine- 
batur a Virgilio : qnocuin mc unn vel maxiine turn vetusta auiicitia^ turn mei fratris 
eoWefpz, turn Rcspub. sociarat. Vide nunc caligineni t(>ini>onim illonim. Cum ip«a 
pnoe infola mihi seee obviarn forrc vcllet, pnetor illc cju»4lem tribuni plcb. concionibus 
propter eondeni Reipub. cauKiin seppe vexutus, nihil aui])lius dico, nisi me in Siciliam 
ventre noluit, &c. Pro Cn. Plane. 40. 

< Cum omnia ilia Munieipia, (\\iw ftunt u Vihone BnindiHinm, in fide mea C9sent, iter 
mihi tutum, multiR miniUinlibii<(. niHgiio cum ruo metu pr«9titenmt. Bnmdisium veni, 
Tel potius ad mceuia acce«si. UrlK'm unnm mihi amiciKsimam declinavi, quee i^e vel {>o> 
tins eaEictndi, quam e suo complexu ut eripi>rer facile pateretur. Ibid. 41. 

* Sed te oro, ut ad me Vibonem Jitatim veuias. — Si id non feceri* mirabor, sed confido 
te e«ae facturum. AdAtt. 3. 1. 

Nunc, at ad te antea scHpai, si ad nog veneris, consilium totius rei rapicmup. IbiA 2. 

ItfT Brandisiam rerfu* contuli — nunc tu propera, ut nos conwquare, n modb Iredpie- 
fliiir. Adhuc invitamur ben^e* Ibid. 3. 

Nihil mibi optatiu* cadere poMe, q\iam ut tu me qiiam primum conf*equare. Ibid. 4. •• 


have given him no ansiver on this head, nor to have had m 
tbouffhts of stirrine from Rome : he was persuaded, perfai 
that hi* company abroad could be of no other use to hun, f' 
to give some little relief to bis present cha^n ; whereaa 
condnuauce in the city might be of the greatest ; not aoly h 
relieving) but removing his calamity, and procuring his rei 
tion: or, we may imagine, what his character seems to au^^ 
that though lie had a greater love for Cicero, than for i _ 
man, yet it was always with an exception, of not involTiDVcj 
himself in the distress of his friend, or disturbing the tranqnil*^ 
Hty of his life, by taking any share of another's misery ; aoA^ 
that he wan following only the dictates of his temper and pin*.^ 
Ciplea, in sparing himself a trouble, which would have madtfi 
him suffer more than his philosophy could easily bear. Bn^- 
whatever was the cause, it gave a fresh mortification to Cioem 
who, in a letter upon it, says, << 1 made no doubt but that I 
should see you at Tarentum or Brundisium : it would haf* 
been convenient for many reasons, and, above all, for my 
design of spending some time with you in Epirus, and regv 
lating all my measures by your advice : but since it has not 
happened, as I wished, I shall add this also to the great num- 
ber of my other afBictions '." He was now lodged in the vilb 
of M. Lenius Flaccus, not far from the walls of Brundinon, 
where he arrived on the I7tli of April, and on the last of the 
same month embarked for Dyrrbachinm. In his account of 
himself to his wife, ** 1 spent thirteen days," says he, *■ with 
Flaccus, who, for my aaiie, sligiitfd the risk of bis fortunes 

. I all tlioughn of Out, sod wm iodined to go to 
»: tiii be waa iaforBad, that it would be datwerous for 
BlmT«l into that part of Greece; where all uiow, who 
wen baniabed for Cat)lioe*i ooiwpincy, and eqiecially' 
niiMt, th«n resided ; who would have bad some comfort, 
ir exile, to revenge themielrea on the author of their 
, if tbey could have ought bim*. 

arch telU us, tba^ in auling out of Bruodisium, the 
which was fair, changed of a sudden, and drove him 
kdi ^ai» ; and when be pmed over to Djrrrbachium, in the 
kcomT attempt, that there bqipeDed an earthquake, and ^ 
(nat storm immediately after hia lanting; from which, the 
aBDlikw.y4.T8 foretold, iltat Ills May abroad would not be long. 
Bu it ia atrange, that a writer, ao food of prodigies, whidi 
■obodjr vise takes notice 0^ should omit the story (tf Cicero's 
dnwn, which was more to bis purpose, and ta related by 
Cieero hiin&elf ; that, in ana of the stages of his flight, being 
lo^d in the villa of a Mend, after he luul loin reetlesa and 
wakeful a great part of the night, he fell into a sound sleep, 
break of day, and when he awaked, about eight in the 
iiig, told his dream to thoae round him ; that, as ne seemed 
H be wundering, disconsolate, in a lonely place, C. Marins, 
•mOk bis fasces wreathed with laurel, aeoeeted him, and de- 
asoded, why he was so melancholy; and when he answered, 
Aat he was driven out of his country, by violence, Marius 
took him by the lianil, and bidding him be of courage, ordered 
the next lictor to conduct him into his monument ; telling him, 
that there he should tind safety : upon this, the company pre- 
lently cried out, that he would have a quick and glorious 
Klarn'. All which was exactly fulfilled; for his restoration 
irag decreed in a certain temple, built hy Marius, and, for that 
reamn, called Marius'ii monument; where the senate happened 
to be assembled on that occasion*. 

Thifi dream was much talked of in the hnnlly, and Cicero 
bioHelf, in that season of hia dejection, seemed to be pleased 
«itb it; and on tlie first news, of the decree's passing in 
Marina's monument, declared that nothing could be more 
£irine : yet, in disputing afterwards on tlie itiitiire of dreams, 
be asserts them all to be vain and fantastical, and nothing else 

I Quod me reoM el IiorUlil, ut ipuJ le in ^iro lim ; ToluntM lus mihi nWt gnu 
111 fV ■! ftlneru mm ul divirUreiD, primuin eai dciium; dcindc sb AiUnxiia at 
oRni, qnatiidul J deinde niie le. Nun cutcllum miinituni hubiunti mihi |ir(ide»rt, 
tnimiriUi non e*t rumMuium. Quod ri ladereni, Atbeiiu pctcmn : une iu cidibu 
«. Tdlem. Nuut gt noiiri liMIc* ibi tunc, ct te non hnbemui. Ad Au. 3. 7. 

* De DiTiD. I. 38. V»l,M»i.l.7. 

1 Tdcrini Muimui cilli lbi< oionumeDt ot Muiui, the ttmp\t of Jiipiler-. bol H 
nan, tnnii Cic«n>"i tccoiiol, to have btcn the Wniplr of Honour mnd Virtu*. 

e 2 


A. I'rb. (iU5. CV. If. Van.—L. I'llpiitniui 

but the iin)>erfect traces, and coufused impreasioiis, whi 
wskins tlioiielita Wve upon tlie mind; tliat, iu his 1 
therefore, ns it was natural for him to think much uponi 
countryman Marius, who had suffered tlie same calamilyy.a 
that was the cause of his dreaming of him ; and that do ^^ 
woman could be so silly, as to give ajiy credit to dream' 
in the infinite number and variety of them, they did not ■ 
times happen to hit riirlit'. 

When he came to Dyrrliachium, he found confirmed, < 
he had heard before in Italy, that Achaia, and the neiehiM 
Jng parts of Greece, were possessed by those rebels, wiio I 
been driven from Home on Catiline's account. This det 
mined him to go into Muccdunia, before tliey could be infom 
of his arrival, where bis friend, Cn. Piuncius was then qiuetl 
who no sooner heard of his landing, than be came to find h 
at Dyrrhachium ; where out of regard lo his present circu 
Btanoes, and the privacy which he affected, dismisun^ I 
officers, and laying aside all the pomp of magistracy, he ca 
ducted him, with the observance of a private companion, tb « 
his heod-qnarterg at Thc&siilonica, about the 21st of MRy*=| 
L. AppuleiUB was the prfetor, or cldcf governor of the pr<H ] 
vince : but though lie was an honest man, and Cicero's friendt ; 
vet he durst not venture to grant him his protection, or 8he«« 
nim any public civility, but contented himself with conniving 
only at what his quaestor Plancius did*. 

While Cicero staid at Dyrrhachium, he received two ex- 
presses from Ills brother Quintus, who was now coming home 
from Asia, to inform him of his intended route, and to settle 
the place of their meeting : Quintus's design was, to pass from 
EpLcsus til Athi'iis and LJiciico, by lauil, through Macedonia; 


i.i;rkSS5. Ck.49. Com^—L. Calpurniui Pim. A. Gabintuf. 

to Me him ; beiw unable to bear the tenderness of 
IB aeediMr, and much more, the misery of parting ; aud 
~ apprehensive, besides, that if they once mot, they 
not be able to part at all, whilst Quintus's presence 

necessary to their common interests: so that, 

one aflSiction, he was forced, he says, to endure 

moat cmel one, that of shunning tlie embraces of a 

Tnbeiti, however, his kinsman, and one of his brother's 
Is, paid him a visit, on his return towards Italy, and 
inted him with what he had learnt in pissing through 
dbat the banished conspirators, who resided tliere, were 
forming a plot to seize and murder him ; for which 
he advised him to go into Asia; where the zeal and 
of the province would afford him the safest retreat, 
his own and his brotlier's account'. Cicero was dis- 
to follow this advice, and leave Macedonia; for the 
Appuleius, though a friend, gave him no encourage- 
to stay; and the consul Piso, his enemy, was coming to 
command of it the next winter : but all his friends at Uome 
ed his removal to any place more <listant from them ; 
Plancius treated him so affectionately, and contrived to 
all things so easy to him, that he dropped the thoughts 
of dmnging his quarters. Plancius was in hopes that Cicero 
-wonld be recallea with the expiration of his qusestorship, and 
that he should have the honour of returning with him to 
Home, to reap tho fruit of his fidelity, not only from Cicero's 
gratitude, but the favour of the senate and the peopled The 
only inconvenience that Cicero found, in liis presijiit situation, 
was the number of soldiers and coneourse of people, who fre- 
quented the place, on account of business with the cjujestor: 
for he was so shocked and dejected by his misfortune, that^ 
though the cities of Greece were offering their services and 

• QuiDtU!* Fratcr ctim ex Asia veTiis-st't ante Kalciid. Mai. et Athcuus vmisssc Idil>. 
rddc fiiit ci |irojH:r;iii<iu!n, iic quid uIjwiis ucciiK-Tt't rnluiiiitatJ!:, siijuis fnrw fuisM.'t, 
•)ai contciitus nottri** iuali8 non csMrt. It:4quo ciini inuliti projicM-'.irc Rdinuiii, qiiani 
&d mc vi-nirc : et biuiiiI, dicaiii cnim quod vcruin oht, — animuin induccn* n<ui potui, »it 
ant illuiu ainaiitift6iniuiii luci. inoUitt^imo aniriio timto in nMrmrc Uhpircrcni — atoun 
fliain illnd timebani, quod juoferto accidi&set, no a uw digredi uou jmjkscI. — IIiijiis 
ai-rilrtlatin cventum altera acerbitale non vidcndi fnitris vitavi. Ad Alt. 3. .0. Ad 
Quint. Fra. 1. 3. 

' (.'um ad me L. Tubcio, mens. neces-iiiiiuK. qui Fratri meo Iiiralus lui'^et, (U'cedcn.s 
K-x. Asia vmisisct, t-aj^ue iiiMdiaii, qjias inihi {tarat;is alt c.vulihu?. c<iiijurati5 audierat, 
ikSiinio aiuicixsiiino delulisAet. In Awani lue ire, propter ejus |irovinciip niceum et cum 
fn:n: me<» necesHtudinein. Pro IManc. 41. 

a Planciu*!. homo oflieiofrisi'inms, me cujjit ei>sc secum el adliuc relinet — hpc-rat posse 
fieri, ul xnecuin in Italiam deredat. Ep. Fani. 14. 1. 

I>iiigius. qu»im ila vol)i* placet, non discedam. Ibid. '2. 

M^ adhuc Plancius libeialitate s>uu retinet — h|)e-. liomini i!>t injccta, fi.m eailcm. qnflf 
inihi. po«i^^^ nos una decedere : quam lem sibi mapno bonori --perat f«»ir. Ad Att. X'22. 

A.ITrb.695. Cic. 49. CoM—L. Cdpanlin Pbo. A.G*Uiin«. 
eonipltmenis, and striring to <lo him all imaginable h 
yet De refused to see all company, and was so shy <rf die|i 
that he could hardly endure the light*. ■) 

For it cannot be denied, that, in this calamity of im t 
he did not behave himself with that firmneas, wkicb fl 
rcMonably be expected from one, who had borne so { 
a part in the Republic ; conscious of his int^rity, and n 
in the cause of Iiis country : for his letters are eenet^ 
witii such lamentable expressions of grief and £spair, t 
best friends, and even nis wife was forced to admonish^ 
sometimes, to rouse his courage', and remember his I 
character. Atticus was constantly putting him in mind ■ 
and seot him word of a report, that was brought to F 
one of CrasBus's freed-men, that his affliction had d 
his senses: to which he answered; that his mind w«4 
sound, and wished only, that it had been always so, wbt 
placed his confidence on those, who perfidiously abinedll 
nis ruin*. 

But these remonstrances did not please him; he t 
them unkind and unseasonable, as he intimates in i 
bia letters, where he expresses himself rery movingly oa i 
subject. " As lo your chiding me," says he, " so <mea 
so severely, for being too much dejected ; what misery is l) 
1 pray you, so grievous, which 1 do not feel in my prana 
calamity ? Did any nuui ever fall from such a height of Hfj 
nity, ill so good a cause, with the advantage of such taleaM 
"" "" "" " ■iiii'li su]i]Hirl of all lionest men? Is i 

fm ill dMpatitioii, whieh 
I, hk eooDtry, more pa»- 
wl tbe loM <rf liieiii iDora 

mfuitu\M, it' some perfidiou 

'itiirithin my irwn nalb *»**&& 

," t&yt he, " to amut MB m yoa da« nib yoar 

war sdrice, and yaar intenrt; bat mre yosnelf 

f comlbrtinif, nod mocb more of *l»Mi»ig ■«; jsr 

a lid (fan I cunniil help cbngin^ it to your wsnt of 

ooDMrn fur me; orliaro I imagme to be m afflicted 

9LS to be incoDSoUtM eren youtwlf '.** 

', indrcrf, attaciceH in hie weaknt peit ; the only 

Rkinnbivh he was vulnerable: lo hare been as great in 

'liin, ai be was in prcMperity, mmld bare been a petfec- 

wt gtveii to mat) : yet, thie very weahaeM flowed fron a 

1^ whicb rt.-tMleie<l Iitm ii>e niiire amiable in all the other 

koflife: au<l the same ti^) 

e fais friend«, hU children, 
(dy than other men, made liim fieel 

My: " 1 have twice," says li^ " aaved the Repnblie; 
'k elory ; a second time, u-ith misery: for I will nerer 
^ leif to be a man ; or hm^ of bewing the Iom of a 
■er, children, wife, country, withoot sorrow. For what 
' a had been due to me for quitting what 1 did not value*." 
jther speech ; '' I own my grief to have been extremely 
; nor *\o I pretend to that wii^dom, which those expected 
, who gave out, that I was too mudi broken by ray 
: for such a hardness of mind, as of body, which doea 
I pain, is a titupidiiy rather than a virtue. I am not 
F those to whom all things are indifferent ; but love my- 
F and my friends "* *>ur common humanity requires ; and 
) who, for the public good, parts with what he holds the 
arest, gives the Jii^hest proof of love to his country'." 
Ttieri" \vsi.« riTidtlH-r run -ide rat ion, which added no small sting 
to his affliction : to reflect, as be often doe?, not only on what 
he had loat, but how he had lost it, by his own fault ; in 
■sSering himself to be imposed upon and deluded by false and 



ut fKU, npem. 

raniilio, gntii ji 


;um ^1, eg. t 

itTcctuiD ma 

■rbilrir. nl U 

inuiD nfma conioUri Hwil. Ibid. 

■ Una) bii Rcmpub. vrnTi, t«ncl glom. 


.■ «.tm in boc 




fntre. cirivimi: 


■IriiL hof bonorii 

^. : 

line doiorc raruiw zl 

orwr. Qood 

■ f^d^Km. < 

laotl 1 me brncfirium h&bcrctis, 

cum pi 

«.«.. -ill.. 


* Aenpi mignum aiqne 

iDm<libi]«n dalo, 

m Btgo : nt^iie 


|ium nonaulli 

r •nimo nimi. IVkId , 

t JBiiW am 

i durit,™, .icul < 

,..nd «m dril. 

KDlit, Itupo- 

Ml pMin*, q»m Tin„t™ 

im ^^"C he 


. quom ii, qui I 

Uhjl CD 

tWM In-Hl 

>m K lui, lai 

p«Wl.l— qui 

Btip.b. «. 

m, . q«it™. .. 

iDima r<iiD <laloR di*tlli 

itnr, ri fUia r: 

ire Ml 

:. Pro Dam. 

SB, ST. 

^ti*:utE» ^.«c^i-< This le tTequeQ:;y b.>ui:li«s upon io a Ml 
*3ivn »a<:*>. i-M i: ^ItJ Kim verj- weT^relv : " Tho^^ 
C^Mi'~ «ij* ■■<• " •* iiicriiiiMo. yet I ax v.oc Jisiurbed 
»-. TM =ii's«rT\ i>: »".j: I iVifl. as :htf Mw".et.ii«>ii of my 
W'^,i-7v:Vf. »:.e:. y. -.1 inar. !.on m::ch 1 am afflicted, in 
■■1-'' I 1=1 *i?:r',:-.j :l.t p^:ii^:imiiit »>: my t'ollv, not e, 
*«^r.U :>r Ijvi'i: tr-<:e'; i">» mac:: to on*, whom 1 did not k 
TO ':v ± rjsOL. 1: mu-; reci!* l>e cruelly monifyiiiff to N^j 
oC 'zi* ze~.^:. -..'.mW len'terof 'liv re ;> nut ion. iiml pasSKKWld^ 
ix:'. ol L-vTy. ;o :::-.t'u:t: t.:< ciilaiiiiiy lo his own blunden, MMMI 
£tr..:\ ':.:::-.>«'.; the kiuiv ot iiii'ii tiot so wUo as himself: ytftt 
iTTer A... ;: ttviy rt.i>o!i.»:'.y '-e ti;:e>tio:n.'il. uuetber his inqnitfP^ 
:aU- 1-: :i:* >*.>;:, w.i* ::>': 0*1:;; rather to the iealous mt^ 
(juenilou^ :'.j:;ire if jr.ic:ion ii-clt. tli:m to any real fuundnlj— 
ot ir--:r.: :'or Atrio::* woi.ld never allow hi* suspicions to ht ^ 
JBSl. not ive:: .i^.~ti;;j: where they seemed to B^ 
'th< i:ej«:t>:'. I'h:* is '.he surutaiice nt «'hat Cicero hinndf 
-ays. ;o e.\*-:;#e :r.e e\co** i-l his e"^*: i»nti the only excOMlr 
iti,W\;. u'.it;:. Call It [r.Aito to- Uii'.i : that he diil not pretedl 
to tv ;i s:o:^'. :'.>'r .is; ire t>> il.e cLiraeter of a hero : yet we SN 
some w:l;e>. la''v^r::.t: to ditVnti him. even a^ns't IiimMlf; 
au-i eKiiiavourl::; to ^ersu.iile us. that all this air of dejectisa 
Aiui i'loi<^; «as wl-.^Ly teijiie<l aiul iLviumed, iW the nke of 
BKniit^ >.v:»}U'^io:i. a:iil e;ii:;vnt<2 his friends to exert theilH 
»eS>s the more w:irm:\. in soliciting his resiorati<Hi ; lesthk 
adiiv'iio:! ^l.oulti .ie>:rey him. before tliey could effect it*. 

\Mic:i he haii hee:i k;oiie a little more than two months, 
his iVienLt Ni:::i:us. the iriliiiiie. maiie a mation. in the senate^ 
to ixval hin>. a:iil repeal the law of Clodius: to which the 
boose readiiv i^^reed with a^l of the trihmies, till one • 

OF cic£Ro. -J.';.'; 

vkt left Asia on the first of May. arriv*^ nt Kjmj-. 
lecrived with great demon^tratioiKH of r<^j •«'('«. f^i 
if lU ranks, who flocked out to me^t tAv: . < ':*:•-•'» 
anaddidonal anxiety on hiH account I^-^t !:j«: ^ i'#^j&*( 
lyoMans of the impeacbment. uLich t:.'-. v.-.r-'-ii*' - ••' . 
oe able to expel him too: es|KrC2aJ ly. «$;:.*>- T I'x^ -*• • 
AppiuSf was the praetor, whoMr I'^ h w<i» *'/ » - '/•; 
tmb*. But Clodius was now Ir^^iri^ ^ro.--^ cVoi^ 
grown so insolent, on his late <»uct.-«'*^ ^'^* <•(- * * 
I eoold not bear hiQi any lon;f<-r: for :i;^--.'-/ *'<.• -r.*' 
and sent Cato out of hi<» way. he '/"/>- v. :''. - '- 
a mttch for Pompey : by wLowr Liiii. o; . < ■ • t > ,♦ 

ke had acquired all hif* [Kjwer : ar.'L i/. o;^*.- ''■ •.■%" 'vt */ 
seized by stratagem, into hi* Jiaijo-u v^- ^' * "f i -y 

Joes, whom Pompey had brought wi«L ;,;rr. •" .: *-.?#,•, 

kept a prisoner at Home, in the cu'Vy;. '-i J :•. < • ••.*- 
'; ana, instead of delivering Lirr- •-■:•. »•«'• •' •• :» . 
him, undertook, for a iar^e • .rr. "f ; 
his liberty, and send him howtr, 'Il'.k. vyir<) 
without a sharp enj^agement I -^ !■**-«-:. ;.',-:. %•' ; .< » 
iiko marched out of Rome, with a h^xJ. o:' .v*" v. »- : •".> 
la leoover Tigranes by force : but C, . 'x: !.•:••« - • ••- • • • • 
6r hinif and killed a great jiart of jl:- './y::.;-** . >• ' *•■ 
tkcBA Papirius, a lloman knight of I ^>:m *<';.' • 
tanee, while Flavius al'**^, hi/i-M-.:- iJa/: •.•,:: r ^ v^ - 

with life *. 

This affront roustM V*':t.\--. ' • • • - 

m m 

as well to correct tl;»- ■ t'/j^.'.^:-.- • ^ •. 
credit, and iiiirratiaV: !.':'.'.-■ :!'.*■•' 
dropped some hint* oi :.i- !• . • '' -. 

i.»ariicularlv to .inic^-. .... - •. . • 

a;^eeable news: \i\-* :. >.'..-.' ■• 
of Pompey^ "sinc'-r".';.. ••■..• • 
sent a cojiV of i»i- .. ■-. r •• /i" .-. 
time, that if IV'.'::: • ■■ ' •- ,■ ' ■ - '• 

t • 


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IaS ^■' r. . ■ • ■ 


Yi. S#-xi. 



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234 THE LIF£ 

A.Urb.695. Cw. 49, Com.— L. Citparniui Puo. A. Gkbiniuh 

ceived, in tlie case of Ttgnmes, he should despair of h 

Dtored by any thing '. ' 

indiBacy with Pvmpey, .._. 

that Fompey would certain 

he heard from Cesar, whi . 

Thia intelligence, ^m so good an author, raised Gi 

hopes, UU, nndiiig no effects of it for a considentbie tiiM 

began to apprehend, that there either was nothing at all I 

or that Cwaar's answer was averse, and had put an end li 

The foct, however, shews, what an extraordinary defiv 

Ponipey raid to Ciesar, that he would not take a step u 

a&ir, at Home, without sending lirst to Gaul, to consolt' 

about it. 

The city was alarmed, at the same time, by the rumoi 
a second plot atfainst Pompey's life, said to be contrive! 
Clodius, one of whose slaves was seized at the door (d 
senate, with a da^er, which his master bad given him, a 
confessed, to stab Pompey : which, being accompanied 
many daring attacks on Pompey's person, by Clodius's i 
made him resolve to retire from the senate and the Forum 
Clodius was out of his tribunate, and shut himself up ii 
own house, whither he was still pursued, and actually ben 
by one of Clodius's freedmen, Damio. An outrage so auda) 
could not be overlooked by the magistrates, who came 
with all their forces, to seize or drive away Damio; upon « 
a general engagement ensued, where Gabinius, as Cicero 
was forced tolireak his league with Clodins, and figh 
Pompey: at first faintly and unwiHitigly, Init, at last, heai 

JLULtU ae.W. C«i.— L. CiIpuniD. [^H. A. Cimbiiiii 


r aaj daagn was really formed agairut Pompey'ii 
> ttmy waa contrived to aerve his present views, it 
I prDbiblr, at leut, that bia fears were feigned, nnd the 
_ r too ooDtemptible, to give him any just apprehension ; 
fl Ae sliultiae himself up, at home, made un impression tipon 
i nlgar, uw fumishea a better pretence for turning go 
Kin Clodins, and quelling that insolence wliieh he him- 
, niiwd; for this was the constant tenor of his politics, 

l> gire a firee oonne to the public disorders, for the sake of 
d^bj'iDg his owti importance to more advantage ; that, when 
cfe stomi was at the height, be mieht appear at last, in the 
— me, like u deitr of the tueatre, and reduce all iiguin to order; 
pectine soil, tWt the people, tired and hara&sed by these 
pfrpetnu tnmiilts, would be forced to create him dictator, for 
aeuini; the quiet of the ci^. 

He eonsiuB elect were, P. Cornelius Lentuius and Q. Me- 
tallBB Nepas:.the first was Cicero's warm friend, the second 
tn old enemy; the same, who put that affront u|K>n him in 
hfin^ down bis consulship : his promotion, therefore, was a 
creat discouragement to Cicero, who took it for granted, that 
Ee would emplov all his power to obstruct his return ; and re- 
fleeted) as be tells us, that, though it was a great thing to drive 
Ub oat, yet, as there were many who hated, and more who 
cmried him, it would not be difficult to keep him out'. I3nt 
Meteiins, perceiving which way Pompcy's inclination, and 
Caesar's also, n'as turning, found reason to chancre his mind, or, 
at least, to di^emblc it: and promised, not only to (five his 
consent, but his assistance, to Cicero's restoration. Ills col- 
league, LeiituUiH, in the meanwhile, was no sooner elected, 
than be revived the late motion of \iiutins, aiul priijiosed n 
vote to recal Cicero; and when Clodiiis iiitemipted linn, and 
recited that part of )iis law, wliieli made it criminal tu move 
any thing about it, Leiitulus declared it tn be no law, bnt a 
mere proscrintion and act of violence '. 'i'his alarmed Clodiiis, 
and obliged liim to c.tert all his artn, to support tlie validity of 
the law: he threatened ruin ntid dostruclinti to all who should 
dare to oppose it; and, to imprint the groatiT terror. ti\ctl upon 
the doors of the scnatc-lionse, that elaiiM- wliieli prohibited nil 
men to speak or act in any manner for t'ieiru's return, on pain 
of being treated as enemies. This gave a further disquiet to 
Cicero, lest it should dishearten his active friends, and fnrnijsh 
an excuse to the indolent, for doing notliiug; he insinuates. 

Cow. — L. t'llpumi 

tt^M. A.Cibinii 

thereforr, to Atticus, what miglit be flaid to obviate it; thatii 
such clauses were oiilv bugbears, witliout any real force; i 
otherwise, no hiw couM ever be abrogated ; and whatever e** 
this was intended tu have, tliat it must needs full, of ( 
with the law itself. 

In this anxious stute of his mind, jealous of every thia^ ., 
that could hurt, and catching at every thing tliat could hdpC 
him, auotlier little incident happened, which gave him a fresh 
cause of uneasiness : for some of his enemies had published an 
invective oration, drawn up by him, for the entcrtainuient only 
of his intimate friends, aganist some eminent senator, noti^ 
immed, but generally supposed to be Curio, the father, wIw^iV 
was now disposed anH engaged to serve him : he wos surprised , 
and concerned, that the oration was made public ; and bis ill- • i 
structions upon it, to Atticus, are somewhat curious, and shew ' 
bow much oe was struck with the iipprehension of losing SO 
powerful a friend, " Vou have stunned me," savs he, " with 
the news of the oration's being published : heal the wonnd, as 
you promise, if you possibly can : 1 wrote it long ago in anger, 
after he had first written gainst me; but had suppressed it so 
carefully, that I never dreamt of its getting abroad, nor can 
imagine how it slipped nut: but since, as fortune would have it, 
I never ha<l a word with him in person, and it is written more 
negligently than my other orations usually are, I cannot but 
think that you may disown it, and prove it not to be mine : 
prav take care of tliis, if vou see any hopes for me; if not, there 
IS tlie less reason to trouble myself about it '." 

His principal agents and solicitors at Kome were his brotlier 
Quintiis, his wife Terentia, Ins son-in-law I'iso, Atticus, and 
lliil tlie brotljer and tk- wife, bcinir l.tnh nf lliem 


i. Trk. fill Cic. 49. Cow.— L. CalpiimiuB Piso. A. Gabiuiu*. 

afidr; and, instead of being daunted by tlie depression 

Andlyy and the ruin of their fortunes, seems to liave 

ammated rather the more to withstand the violences of 

enemies, and procure her husband's restoration. But 

nf Cicero's letters to her, in these unhappy circumstances, 

jire the clearest view of her character, and the spirit with 

she acted. 


''Do not imagine that I write longer letters to anyone 

to yooy unless it be when I receive a long one from soine- 

^ kodr else, which I find myself obliged to answer. 1«W I liave 

■atniim either to write, nor, in my present sitwition, employ 

.-■ ■ ■l el ton anything that is more troublesome to me; and when 

I k ai to yoa and our dear Tulliola, I cannot write without a 

[ liod of tears. For I see you the most wretched of women, 

whom I wished always to see the happiest, and ought to have 

; as I should have done, if I had not been so great a 

I am extremely sensible of Piso's services to us; 

hire exhorted him, as well as I could, and thanked him as I 

ahU Your hopes, I perceive, are in tlie new tribunes ; tliat 
be effectual, if Pompey concur with them : but I am 
aEraid still of Crassus. You do every thing for me, I see, 
with the utmost courage and affection : nor do I wonder at it ; 
hot lament our unhappy fate, that my miseries can only be 
relieved by your suffering still greater : for our good friend, P. 
Valerius, wrote me word, what I could not read without burst- 
ing into tears, how you were dragged from the temple of \'^esta 
to the Valerian bank. Alas, my light, my darling, to whom 
all the world used to sue for help ! that you, my dear Terciitia, 
sLould be thus insulted ; thus oppressed with grief and distress ! 
and that I should be the cause of it; I, who have preserved so 
many others, that we ourselves should be undone ! As to what 
you write about the house, that is, about the area; I shall then 
take myself to be restored, when that shall be restored to us. 
But those things are not in our power. What affects me more 
nearly is, that when so great an expense is necessary, it should 
all lie upon you, who are so miserably stripped and plundered 
already. If we live to see an end of these troubles, we shall 
repair all the rest. But if the «une fortune must ever depress 
us, will you throw away the poor remains that are left for your 
subsistence? For God's sake, my dear life, let others supply 
the money who are able, if they arc willing: and if you love 
me, do nothing that can hurt your health, which is already so 
impaired : for you are perpetually in my thoughts, both day 
and niirht. I see that vou decline no sort of trouble ; but am 


A.Ut<i.6!)S. Ck.4». C-aa.-l,.(<ii1|Hirn)u«PI». A. Cilii 

afraid bow you will aiutain it. Yet the whole a^r de| 
on you. Pay tlie first regard, therefore, to your health, I 
we may attain the end of all your wbhes and your labour*. ' 
know not whom to write to, except to those who write to dT 
or of whom you send me some good account. I will not 1 
move to a greater distance, since you are against it ; but «w 
have you write to me as often as possible, especially if ] 
have any liopes that are well-grounded. Adieu, my dear Ii 
adieu. — The 5th of October, from Thessalonica." 

Terentia had a particular estate of her own, not obooi 
to Clodius's law, which she was now offering to sale, fori 
supply of their present necessities: this is what CiMro re'" 
to, where be intreats her not to tlirow away the small rem 
of her fortunes ; which he presses still more warmly in anol 
letter, putting her in mind, that if their friends did not fail I 
their duty, she could not want money; and if they did, tf 
her own would do but little towards making them easy: 
implores her, therefore, not to ruin the boy, who, if there v 
any thing left to keep him from want, would with a modei 
share of virtue and good fortune, easily recover the rest'. 1 
son-in-law, Piso, was extremely affectionate and dutiful itf^l 
performing all good offices, both to his banished father and diit'4 
family; and resigned the queestorship of Pontus imd Bithyni^'^ 
On purpose to serve them the more effectually by his preaJeaetf^ 
in Rome : Cicero makes frequent acknowledgment of bW '^ 
kindness and generosity : " Piso's humanity, virtue, and lore, 
for us all is so great," says he, " that nothing can exceed it; 
the gods grant that it may one day be a pleasure; I am sore 
it wul always be an honour to him*." 


i.lbk69ll Cie.49. Co«k-~L. CaJpiirniiu Pim). A. (iabiuiu*. 

who thought him too cold and remiss in his 
r: mad fimded, that it flowed from some secret resent- 
ba^inff never received from him, in his flourishing 
any beneficial proofis of his friendship : in order 
to loose his SEeal, he took occasion to promise him, 
sof Ilia letters, that, whatever reason he had to complain 
t seore, it should all be made up to him, if he lived to 
i: "If fortune," says he, " ever restore me to my country, 
iUI be my special care, that you, above all my friends, 
^ ! cmae to rejoice at it : and though, hitherto, I confess you 
nmed but litde benefit from my kindness, I will manage 
■r ne future, that, whenever I am restored, you shall find 
dear to me, as my brother and my children : if I 
wanting, therefore, in my duty to you, or rather. 

I baTe been wanting, pray pardon me ; tor I have been 

?lf»/ - 

wanting to myself ^" But Atticus begged of him 

rin^ aside all such fiuicies, and assured him, that there was 

i vie least ground for them ; and that he had never been 

by any thing, which he had either done, or neglected 

ior him; entreating him to be perfectly easy on that 

and to depend always on his best services, without giving 

if the trouble, even of reminding him'. Yet, after all. 

Scion itself, as it comes from one who knew Atticus so 
, seems to leave some little blot upon his character : 
tever cause there might be for it, it is certain, that 
Geero, at least, was as good as his word, and by t)ie care 
vkich he took, after his return, to celebrate Atticus's name in 
ill his writings, has left the most illustrious testimony to 
posterity of his sincere esteem and affection for him. 

Sexuus was one of the tribunes elect: and, being entirely 
devoted to Cicero, took the trouble of a journey into Craiil, to 
lolicit Caesar's consent to his restoration ; which, though he 
obtained, as well by his own intercession, an by Ponipey's 

Bbe of making hlin his heir, yet left the bulk of hjg ebtate to Atticii>, -mIio ha<i Iweii 
Ten observant of bis humuur : for whirh fraud, uihled to his notorioiiH .iv::ricu und 
t-xtortion, the mob scizeil his dead body, and drapr^**! it iiifumunsly about the streets. 
VaL Max. 7. 8. Cicero, congratulating Atticus upon hiii ailoptiun, addre«>ue«i hin letter 
to Q. CaKilius, Q. F. Pomponianus, AtticuM. For, in assuuiinj: the name of the adopter, 
h wu usual to add also their own family name, thou^di changed in its tertiiiiiution, rrom 
PrimpAniuft to Pomponianun, to preserve the memory of their real extraction : to which 
MDie added, aI»o, the suniame, as Cieero doe» iu the present case. Ad Att. 3. '20. 

' F^fo, si inc aliquando vestri et patria? compotem fortuna feccrit, certe etticiam, ut 
noaxime Ixeterc unus ex omnibus amiei«; meaque officia ae Htudia, (\uvc jianim antea 
luxerunt (fatendum est enim) ftic cxe<^uar, ut me a^ue tibi ac fratri et liberis nostri$i 
mtilutum puto*. Si quid in to pecca\n, ae potius quoniam p<ccavi, igiiosee : in me enim 
ipram peccayi veheraentius. Ibid. 15. 

3 Quod me vetas qiiicquain eufrpicari accidissc ad animum tuum, quod secus :i me 
erga te commiMum, ant pretermiroum videretur, ((cram tibi moixm vt liberabor ista 
run. Tibi tamen eo plus debco, quo toa iu mc humanitas fuerit excelsior, quant in tc 
mea, I>Hd. 20. 

A. Vth. C95. Cio! 49. C«..-l.. Clpuniim R». A. G.Wniu». 

letters, yet it seems to have been with certain limitations, not 
agreeable to Cicero; for, on Sextius's return to Rome when 
he drew up the copy of a law, which be intended to propose, 
upon his entrance inta office ; conformable, as we may imagine, 
to the conditions stipulated with Crosar; Cicero greatly dis- 
liked it; as being too general, and without the mention ereu 
of his name, nor providing sufficiently either for his dignity, 
or the restitution of his estate ; so that he deares Atticus to 
take care to get it amended by Seztius'. 

The old tribunes in the meanwhile, eight of whom were 
Cicero's friends, resolved to make one effort more, to obtain a 
law in his favour, which they jointly offered to the people, on 
the twenty-eighth of October: but Cicero was much more dis- 
pleased with this, than with Sextius's: it consisted of three 
articles; the first of which restored him only to his former 
rank, but not to his estate; tlie second was only matter of 
form, to indemnify the proposers of it: the third enacted, that 
if there was any tning in it, which was prohibited to be pro- 
mulgated by any former law, particularly by that of Clooius, 
or which involved the author of such promulgation in any fine 
or penalty, tliat, in such case, it should have no effect. Cicero 
was surprised, that his friends could be induced to propose such 
an act, which seemed to be against him, and to confirm that 
clause of the Clodian law, which made it penal to move any 
thing for him : whereas, no clauses of that hind had ever been 
regarded, or thought to have any special force, but fell of 
course, when the laws themselves were repealed: he observes. 


, 19. Cdu.— L. CBlpurniui FiK. A. GiUnii 

to Ciodius's law, the validity of which was acknowledged by 
Cato, and several otiiers of tlie principal citizens'; and they 
were induced to make thiit push for it, before they (juitted their 
office, from a persuasion, tliat if Cicero was once restored, on 
I any terms, or with what restrictions soever, the rest would 
follow of course; and that tlie recovery of his dignity would 
necesearity draw after it every thing else that was wanted : 
Cicero seems to have been sensible of it himself on second 
thoueht^ as he intimates, in the conclusion of his letter. " I 
should be sorry," says he, " to have the new tribunes insert 
such a clause m their law ; yet, let them insert what they 
please, if it will but pass and call me home, I shall be content 
with it'<" But the only project of a law which he approved, 
was drawn by his cousin, C. ViselHus Aculeo, an eminent 
lawyer of that age, for another of the new tribunes, T. Fadiua, 
who had been his quaestor, when he was consul : he advised his 
friends, therefore, if there was any prospect of success, to push 
fbrward that law, which endrety pleased him '. 

Id this suspense of his affairs at Rome, the troops, which PIso 
liad providea forhis^vernmentof Macedonia, began to arrive 
it) D;Teat numbers at Thessalonica': this greatly abtrmed him, 
ind made him resolve to quit the place without delay ; and, as 
it was not advisable to move farther from Ilidy, he ventured to 
come still nearer, and turned back again to liyrrhachiuin : for 
though this was within the distance forbidden to him by law, 
yet he had no reason to apprehend any danger, in a town par- 
ticularly devoted to him, and which had always been under his 
special patronage and protection. He came thither on the 
twentv-fifth of November, and gave notice of his removal to 
his friends at Rome, by letters of the same date, begun at 
Thessalonica and finished at Dyrrhachium': which shews the 
great haste, which he thought necessary, in making this sudden 
change of his quarters. Here he received another piece of 
news, which displeased him; that, with the consent and assist- 
ance of his managers at Rome, the provinces of the consuls 
elect had been furnished with money and troops by a decree of 

me paCoiMC. Fro Dom. 16. 

* Id apnl nne noliia odvm Iribuno! picb. feirc: iti pcrfcnnt modo quidlibct : 


in Bpo, vide Ifgem, quam T, Fidio Kripiil yitelliui : ca mihi 

Me adhnc Plonciui reliaet. Sed jam cum sdnmure militia diccrmtnr, fkdendum 

jflicioia. Ep.Faro.U. 1. 

hffc lemper a me defenu etl. Ibid, 3 

— ■^-'^- "— '^whin«. «i ™i 

El.- F»m. 14. 1 

r: lb «t ditcedamui. 
hlnm Tmi quod et lil 
Nam (BO «o nomine (am DjTrharbii, ut qu*m cclerrime quid agatori 
tots. C^te Bnim hac wrmper B me defenia r>l. Ibid. 3. 

<}nad mei Kudiom hibM DTrrhkrhinoi. id fm perreii, cum ilU tiip*riora Th«esa- 
■— ■ '-^- — 132. "■ "-- " ' 

A.VA.C95. Cic-tf. C«.— L. CUr«™<" P^> A. OaUiutu. 
tke Benale : bat, in wluu manner it affected him, and i 
KMon he had to be uneasy at it, will be explained by his o 
letter apon it to Atticus. 

" When you fiist sent me word," sa)-s he, " that the com 
proTinces had been settled and pronded for by your oonsentt^l 
thooffh I was airaid, lest it might be attended with some ~ 
eonaequence, yet I hoped that you had some special reasa 
fiir it, which I could not penetrate; but, having since beea^' 
informed, both by friends and letters, that your condoct if '. 
univeisally condemneil, I am extremely disturbed at it; be> 
cause the little hopes, that were left, seem now to be defitroyed; 
for should the new tribunes quarrel with us upon it, what 
&rther hopes can there be? and they hare reason to do so; 
since they were not consulted in it, though they had under- 
taken my cause, and have lost by our concession all that 
influence, which they would otherwise have had over it; 
especially, when they declare that it was for my sake only, 
that they desired the power of furnishing out the consuls; not 
with design to hinder them, but to secure them to my interest ; 
whereas, if the consuls have a mind to be perverse, they may 
now be so, without any risk ; yet, let them be never so well 
disposed, can do nothing without the consent of the tribunes. 
As to what you say, tnat, if you had not agreed to it, tbe 
consuls wou la have carried their point with the people; that 
could never have been done, against the will of the tribunes : 
I am afraid, therefore, that we have lost by it the affection of 
rihuiies; or, if Uiat slill remuiiiK, Lave lo^t, at tea^L, our 


TrVrtSS. Clr.4». Coh. -I.. C.lpiiniiui> IMu. A. 

tboagh it stiould happen to be disagreeabi* ^ 

But Atricus, instead of answering this letter, or ramer indeed 
lefore he received it, having occasion to visit his estate in 
Eptnis, to<^ Lis way thither, throngh Dyrriiachium, on pur- 
ftfe to see Cicero, and explain to him, in person, the motives 
tf their conducL Their interview was but short; and, after 
fhey parted, Cicero, upon some new intelligence, which gave 
bim fresh uneasiness, sent another letter after him into Epirus, 
to call him back again : " After you left me," says he, " I 
received letters from Home, from which 1 perceive, that 1 must 
tad my days in this calamity; and, to speak t)ie triitli (which 
l^ou wiU take in good part) 'f there had been any hopes of my 
trtum, you, who love me well, would never have left the 
dty at such a conjuncture : but I say no more, lest 1 be 
thought either ungrateful, i ^irous to involve my friends too 
in my ruin; one tiling I I that you would not fail, as you 
We given your word, to come to me, wherever I shall happen 
lobe, before tlie first of January'." 

While he was thus perplexing himself with perpetual fears 
and SQ^ictons, his cause was proceediufr very prosperously at 
Rome, and seemed to be in such a train, that it could not be 
obttnieted much longer : for the new magistrates, who were 
atmag on with the new year, were all, except the pnetoi" 
Appios, supposed to be his friends; while his enemy Clodius 
•as soon to resign his office, on which the greatest part of his 
power depended; Clodius himself was sensible of the daily 
decay of his credit, through the superior influence of Pompey ; 
»iio bad drawn Cassar away from him, and forced even Ga- 
binins to desert him : so that, out of rage and despair, and the 
deaire of revenging himself on these new and more powerful 
enemies, he would willingly have dropped the pursuit of 
Cicero; or consented even to rccal him, if lie could iiave per- 
tuaded Cicero's friends and the senate to join their forces with 
him against the triumvirate. For this end, he produced Bibu- 
lus, and the other augurs, In an assembly of the people, and 
demanded of them, whether it was not unlawful to transact any 
ppblie business, when any of them were taking the auspices? 
To which they all answered in the afiSrmative. Then he asked 
Bibulns, whether he was not actually observing the heavens^ 
as oft as any of Csesar's laws were proposed to the people ? To 
which he answered in the affirmative : but being produced a 
■ecoDd Ume, by the prntor Appins, he added, that he took the 
aiiq>ice8 also, in the same manner, at the time when Clodius's 

=-(4 THE UFE 

A.r::k«&. Co. «.'. C.M_L Ca>ir^« FteL A.Cabiniui 

■rC «t »uiyCMQ wts raoCnBcd by die people: but ClodiM 
wafie 3« c^adbni h» piwnt reveoj^e. little regarded how mm 
m m.i. < ^>wi kinelf: but in^ed, that all Caesar's i 
•^kc •» b« anaalW by the seuie. a» being contrary to ti 
— p«;ft: aai. on that coodilioo. declared publicly, that 1 
lflBwii«iMJti faeiftf back Cieero. the guardian of the city, < 
laf awm AtaiAfrf'. 

la DM fase at o^ revvnee, b« fell upon the consul Gabiiuoi 
tmL. m am aae^mbiy d the people, which he called for th 
pii JWM. via hi» ixail veiietl, aiid a lilile altar and fire befo 
aoa. MBiKnimi kiic whole estate. This had been sometiiD 
Mae ^pnan traitonxH ciiizeB« ; and, when legally perfoni 
hvi tae cdeci «t a coaftscation. by making the place i 
<&e» evwr aAer sacred and public: but. in the present caa^ 
ii «at ewjaSereJ only k» an act of madness : and the tribun^ 
Xaisiak is nikale of it. consecrated Clodius's estate in die 
9i^K ixm aad HaBner, that whaierer efficacy was ascribed to 
dw «Be. t^ ocker w^l jualy rhallei^e the same'. 

Baa the exfwted War was now come, which put an end to 
hat Affcrtihif ntttanate : it had been uniform and of a piece 
6m Oe fi»t iv the last: the most in&mous and cormpt that 
R^^ k^ «Tirr seea : there wai scarce an office bestowed at 
* TT dr any &*var |7anted to a prince, state, or city abroad, 
h«l wkK he Ofvniy soid to the best bidder: the poets, says 
Ckwwk oMaJd iwC ieixo * Chai^bdis so voracious as his rapine: 
be <wifeKTed the diie of tang on those who had it not, anil took 


95. Cic, 49. Com.— L. Culpumius Piso. A. O.Wniu». 

pie, granted this priestlinod to one Brogitarus, a petty 
tretgD ill tlio«e parts, to whom he had berore given the titia 
f Ud^: " and 1 sliall tliink him a kin^ indeed," says Cicero, 
>|r «ver he be able ta pay the purchase money:" but the 
pik of the temple tvere de.stined to that use, and would nooii 
•re beeu applied to it, if Deiutarus, king of Galatta, a prince 
f Doble character, and a true friend to Rome, had not de- 
tcd the impious barj^ain, by taking the trmple into his 
!Ctioii, and maintaining the lawful priest against the in- 
m not suffering Brogitarus, though his son-in-law, to 
-tate or touch any thing belonging to it'. 
AU the ten new tribune*) ha3 solemnly promised to serve 
IScera; yet Clodius found means to corrupt two of them, 
I An til (US Serranus, and Numerius Quinctius Gracchus; by 
'use help he wa^f enabled still to make head against Cicero's 
Sty, ana retard his restoration some time longer: but Piso 
A Gabinius, perceiving the scene to be opening apace in Uis 
Innmr. und his return to be unavoidable, thought it time to 
pX out of his wavi and retire to their several governments, to 
t^oy tlie reward of their perfidy : ho that they both left 
Home, with the expiration of their year, and Piso set out for 
Macedoiiiu, Gabinius for Syria. 



i.trlt.69E. Cie.fiO. Can.— P-Comcl. Lenlul. Spinlhcr. Q.CkII. Mctcl. KepM. 

On the first of January, the new consul, Lentulus, after the 
ceremony of his inauguration, and his first duty paid, as uBual, 
to religion, entered directly into Cicero's affair, and moved the 
Knate for his rL-storation'; while his colleague, Metellus, de- 
dared, with much seeming candour, that though Cicero and 
be had been enemies, on account of their (lilferent seuti- 
nentE in politics, yet he would give up his resentments to the 
aothority of the fathers, and the interests of the Republic*. 

' Qui ■ccrou pn-unb PeHinnntem ijMum. Kdmi dooiicilininqnc Mairii Dconini 
Wtcnft, el Brogilutif Gulloffnrco, impuro honiini nc ntfuio — tutnm iLl^im locum 
bmrnaiMv vpnilfdrHs. Sctccrdotcm ab ipHH irii, pulvjnaHbuBqiid dGtrnieHfl. — Qua 

, .. |tw ID ipso pHbiniiiiEc lul illnm ip*4ro 

ftfBriptlti Mitia el in illo taco Finoque pcnolvernnl. — PnUbn reKiiD, li liAbneril undo 
Blwnt. — Nirni cam malu rc|^ tuiit in Dtiaura, lum ilia Diuimc, quod tibi num- 
kBBHulliUB dcdil. — Quod Peuiuunlcni per u'clu!' i If •ioUliini, ct Hccrdolr. tocriHiie 
f-lt-f-r— RcupeinTil. — Qiiod cnrciiiDniai nb omiii ifIiisIuw ncreptu & Bnigiluv polliii 
■M linlt, noTiillqut gtiicniiH suimi niuritro mo, qunm illiid Faruni nnliquiUlc nli- 
JM«ann.— Dn H.rasp.^rop. 13, I'n. .-^sl, 2". 

USD nrnm nln prim, quaot de me i^ndum judinvit. Foit red, %d 

legs ejua modemUo de mc? Qui cam inimicitlni libi mccum tx 
■uccpu* OH diiiucl, eu ic Polribui copicriplji di^it cl lemporibui 
B.— FraSeil.SZ 


A. I'Ki.eSC. Cic.50. CoH— P.Cora.LcDtuLSpiDlber. Q. C«e. Hcta. Ncfw. J 
Upon which L. Cotta, a person of consular and ceosorian r 
being aaked his opinion the first, said, that nothing had I 
done agunst Cicero, j^eeably to right or law, or the cui 
of their ancestors ; that no citizen could be driven out of i 
dty without a trial ; and that the people could not condi 
nor even try a man capitally, but in an assembly of l_ 
centuries ; that the whole was the effect of violence, turbal 
times, and an oppressed Republic : that, in so strange a r 
lution and confusioD of all things, Cicero had only step^ 
aside, to provide for his future tranquillity, by declining ttc 
impending storm; and, since lie had freed the Republic htKtl 
no less danger by hU absence, than he had done before by Ui 
presence, ttiat he ought not only to be restored, but to ht 
adorned with new honours ; that what his mad enemy bai 
published against him, was drawn so absurdly, both in woidi 
and sentiments, that, if it had been enacted in proper form, it 
could never obtain the force of a law : that, since Cicero, there- 
fore, was expelled by no law, he could not want a law to 
restore him, but ought to be recalled by a vote of the senate, 
Pompey, who spoke nest, having highly applauded what Cotta 
said, added, that, for the sake of Cicero's future quiet, and to 
prevent all farther trouble from the same quarter, it was hi* 
opinion, that the people should have a share in conferring that 
grace, and tlieir consent be joined also to the authority of the 
senate. After many others had spoken, likewise, with great 
H-ariiirli, in llie livfcnco and praise of Cicero, tlii'v yli i-ui: 
u]iaiiimou--ly, into I'oiiipey's opinion, and were proceedi t ig 

LtDtul. Splalhor. Q. Cbc. Hetel, Nqn*. 

friends, being not only perfidious and coiitrarv to his engage- 
noiB, but liighiy ungrateful to Cicero; who m bU consulship 
iti beiMi his special eiicourager and benefactor'. 

The si-nale, however, though hindered at present from 
|MH»g their decree, were loo well united, and too strongly 
■■ppoTtcd, to be bafBed much longer liy the arti&ces of a 
bcuon : tbey resolved, therefore, without farther delay, to 
prcppound a law to the people for Cicero's restoration ; and the 
l*eoty-second of the month was appointed for the promulga- 
tion of it. When the day came,- Fabricius, one of Cicero's 
bibimes, marched out with a strong giiard, before it was light, 
W get possession of the rostra : but Clodius v/aa too early for 
kirn; and, liaviug seized all tlie posts and avenues of the 
Forunii was prepared to give him a warm reception ; lie had 
purchased some gladiators, for the shows of his sediieNhi|), to 
wbich he was now pretending : and borrowed another band of 
Mb brother Appius ; and with these well armed, at the head 
of his slaves and dependents, he attacked Fabricius, killed 
(nrenil of his followers, wounded many more, and drove him 
nite out of the place : and, happening to fall in at the same 
time with Cispius, another tribune, who was coming to the aid 
if bis colleague, he repulsed him also with a great slaughter. 
The gladiators, heated with this taste of blooti, opened their 
•ay on all sides with their swords, in quest of Quintus Cicero; 
whom they met with at last, and would certainly have mur- 
dered, if, by the advantage of the confusion and darkness, he 
iad not hid himself under the bodies of his slaves and freed- 
men.wlio were killed around him; where be lay concealed, till 
the fi^y was over. Tlie tribune, Sextius, was treated still more 
TDUghly; for, being particularly pursued and marked out for 
destruction, he was so desperately wounded, as to be left for 
dead upon the spot ; and escaped death, only by feigning it : 
but while he lay in that condition, supposed to be kdled, 
Clodins reflecting that the murder of a tribune, whose person 
was sacred, would raise such a storm as might occasion his ruin, 
took a sudden resolution to kill one of his own tribunes, in order 
to charge it upon his adversaries, and so balance the account, 
by making both sides equally obnoxious : the victim doomed 

■ b Iribuuu plcb. qnem tft muii 


A. Urt>.S96. Ck.50. C«L— P. Con. Uolul. Splnlher. Q. CWe. Met^ N^iC d 
to this sacrifice was Xumerius Quiactius, an obscure 1 
raised to this dignity by the caprice of the multitude, i 
make himself the more popular, had assumed the surname 4 
Gracchus; "but the crafty clown," says Cicero, having i 
some hint of the design, and finding that his blood was to wi 
off the envy of Sextius's, disguised himself presently in t 
habit of a muleteer, the same in which he first came to Ron 
and with a basket upon his head, while some were calling a 
for Numerius, others for Quinctius, passed undiscovered by i 
confusion of the two names; but he continued in this dansi 
Ull SexUuB was known to be alive : and if that discovery t 
not been made sooner than one would have wished, thou^l 
they could not have fixed the odium of killing their meroeoaty. 1 
where they designed it; yet they would have lessened tM' ' 
in&my of one villany, by committing another, which all peoplft 
would have been pleasea with." According to the account oi 
this day's tragedy, the Tiber, and all the common sewers^ 
were filled with dead bodies, and the blood wiped up with 
sponges in the Forum, where such heaps of slam baa never 
oiefore been seen, but in the civil dissensions of Cinna and 
Octavius '. 

Clodius, flushed with this victory, set fire, with bis owo 
bauds, to the temple of the nymphs ; where the books of the 
censors and the public registers of the city were kept, which 
were all consumed with tlie fabric itself. He then attacked 
the houses of Milo the tribune, and Ctecilius the pnetor, with 
Are and sword; but was repulsed in both attempts with loes: 


I de.Sa. Cm*.— p. Cora. Untul. Kpiiillier. Q. Cm. Hctel. Nnpoa. 

H*. upon tiiese outrages, Milo impeached Clociiiis in 

! tlie violation of the public peace : but the cotinul 

frbo had not yet abandoned him, with the praetor 

, and the tribune Serranus, resolved to prevent any 

I upon it; and, by their edicts, prohibited either the 

il himself to appear, or any one to cite him'. Their 

oice was, that the quxstore were not yet chosen, whose 

s to make the allotment of the judges ; while they, 

, kept back the election, and were pushing Clodius, 

■ M tfe same time, into the aedileship ; which would screen him, 

■ of eoarae, for one year from liuu. Milo, therefore, 
findkig it impracticable to x) justice in the leeal 
nnhod, resolved to deal wil .a uih own way, by opposing 
futtx to force; and, for th , purchased a band of gla- 
diators, with which he had skirmishes with him in the 
streets: and acquired a grei putation of courage and gene- 
naty, for being the first, 11 the Romans, who had ever 
bought gladiators, for the di of the Republic'. 

This obstruction given lu ero's return, by an obstinate 
ud desperate faction, made le senate only the more resolute 
to effect it : they passed a st ind vote, therefore, that no odier 
bodoess should be done, t i it was carried; and, to prevent 
»1I farther tumults and insults upon the mj^istrates, ordered 
lie consuls to summon all the people of Italy, who wished 
well to the state, to come to the assistance and defence of 
Cicero'. This gave new spirits to the honest citizens, and 
drew a vast concourse to Koine from all parts of Italy, where 
there was not a corporate town, of any note, which did not 
testify its respect to Cicero, by some public act or monument. 
Pompey was at Capua, acting as chief magistrate of his new 
colony ; where he presided in person, at their making a decree 
lo Cicero's honour, and took the trouble, likewise, of visiting 
ill the other colonies and chief towns in those parts, to appoint 
ihem a dav of genera! rendezvous at Rome, to assist at the 
promulgation of the law'. 

I GbdKtom— compreheaii, in «eintuiii inlroducti, coufeni, in tidcuU conjecli * 
HiloDe, inniin m Semoo. Pro Seat. 39, 

* B« tibi coniul.prvUr, tribanui plcb. novi dot! generia edicU proponunt ; ne nu 
tUt, ae citctni. PioSeit. II. 

■ 8ed honorl 1010010 Milani noilro nupcr fuit, quod gladlntaribui emptii Rcipub. 
OBK, qua nlute noitn contincbitur, oarnea P. Clodii cocalua ruroretque comprsuit. 
DgDffic.3. 17. 

* Itaqna p«lc* nihil voa civibna, nihil lociii, nihil Rcgibua mpoadiitu. Poat red. in 

Quid mihi ptscUnui iccidere poluit, quam quod ills rcfi^rcnto to) decreiigtii, ut 

In^BU mm nuu futom nt ut lilciii contularibui ex 3. C. cuncta ex lulia omnN, 

It cnidalit>- 


A. VA. 6K. Ck. 50. Cow— P. Cora. L«ntul. Slather. Q. Cm. M«t«l. NipMk J 
Lentuliu, at the same time, was entertaining the dty « 
abowa and stage plays, in order to keep the people Id gi 
bumour, whom be bad called from their private afi^rs in li 
conntTV, to attend the public business. The shows were e 
hibited in Pompey's theatre, while the senate, for the conv»>l 
nience of being near them, was held in the adjoining tempWl 
ol honour and virtue, built by Marius, out of the C^morwj 
spoils, and called, for that reason, Marius's monument: ben^ ^ 
according to Cicero's dream, a decree now passed in pn^ier ': 
form for his restoration ; when, under the joint influence of 
those deities, honour, he says, was done to virtue; and tba 
monument of Marius, the preserver of the empire, gave safe^ 
to his countryman, the defender of it '. 

The newa of this decree no sooner reached the neigbbourin^ 
dieatre, than the whole assembly expressed their sadsfoctioQ 
br daps and applauses, which they renewed upon the entrance 
01 everv senator : but when the consul Lentulus took his place, 
they all rose op, and, with acclamations, stretched-out lunds, 
ana tears of joy, publicly testified their thanks to bim. But 
when Clodius ventured to show himself, they were hardly re- 
strained front doing him violence; throwing out reproaches, 
direats, and curses upon him : so that, in the shows of gladta- 
tOTs, which be could not bear to be deprived of, he durst not 
go to his seat in the common and open manner, but used to 
start up into it at once, from some obscure passage under the 
benches, whid), on t!i;if iHY'oiiiit, \ia- iiico-rly i-alK^il llii> Appian 
way ,- where ho ' ■ . - 


'- Q. C«c. Hetit. N<pM. 
niien ihe decree passeij, the famed tragedian, j^Lsopiit), wlio 
Mied, as Cicero say?, the same ^ood part m the Keptililic, tlint 
bdlid upon the sta<{e, was performing the part of Telamori, 
banisfacil from bis countr|', in one of Accius'a pla; s ; where, by 
th« ompbafis of his voice, and the change of a w )rd or two in 
nme of the lines, he contrived to turn the thoughts of tbe 
•adieoce on Cicero. " What he ! who nlways stood up for the 
Bepublic ! who, in doubtful times, spared neither life nor for- 
tODCe — the greatest friend, in the greatest danger — of such 
pvtB and buents — O father — I saw his houses aiid rich furui- 
tareaJlinflames — O ungra onstant people; for- 

Eetfiil of services I — to see a naiiished ; driven from 

Lig country; and sufier him rinue so!" — At each of which 

sentences there was no en* lapping. In another tragedy, 

of the same poet, called 1 when, instead of Brutus, be 

pronounced Tullius, who e ;d the liberty of his citizens; 

tbe people were so affecti ,uat they called for it again a 
thousand timea. This was constant practice through tbe 

vhole time of bis exile : I e was not a passaj;e in any play, 
wbicb could possibly be applied to his case, but tbe whole 
audience presently catebed it up, and by their claps and ap- 
plauses, loudly signified their zeal and good wishes for him '. 

Tboii^b a decree was regularly obtamed for Cicero's return, 
QodiuB Iiad tbe courage and address still to binder its passing 
into a law : be took all occasions of haranguing the people 
against it; and when be had filled the forum with his merce- 
naries, he used to demand of them aloud, contrary to the 
custom of Rome, whether tbcy would have Cicero restored or 
DM; upon which bis emissaries, raising a sort of dead cry in 
tbe negative, he laid hold of it, as tbe voice of the Roman 
people, and declared tbe proposal to be rejected '. But the 
senate, ashamed to see tlieir authority thus insulted, when the 
whole city was on their side, resolves to take such measures, 

fejieioiioi* libilis citimeicfbint. Videlimi igilur, qunnlum int«r populum Ruminum, el 

deconri ? Ibid. £9. 

icio de ilia 3. C. id 1udo> lanunqiH perlato, lumniui utiri;^ et me- 

K dniderio oiei — tumnii Miim poetffi ingmium non tolum irte >u> Kd 
rimebiil. Quid enim ? qui Hemp, efrto Bnimo BdjuTcrit, iiminetit, tle- 
lis, — re dubia aec dubiUiit viuui oiTrrre, nrc capili pcperceiit,— aam- 
.DiDiD in bell«— inmniD ingmia prtEdilam— O I'uler— >iM omniB lidi 

Mil pelli, pulium pulJinlni— quR ligaiticalio fuetit omniuni, que dcclsnlia volunUtn 
■b umTmo popuja Rauuno? 

Naiiuiutim>um>p»ll>tui inBrulo, Tulliue. qui liberUtfin civibut atabiliirent. Hil- 
bn KTocUnm »t. Ilud. 66. 7. H. 

1 nu ifibuiiiu plfb. qui dfl me— non msjatum auarnm.Kid Qneculorum inttituto, 
a intnTonrs nlcbmt, vcllotne me redire : rt cum erst nclmnutnin MmJTWii 
E-~TH ^oabm; pepolum Ramuium negue diieb«l. Ibid. 59. 

bonlc KDiperi 
ttmiilo dalore 


A. Uifc.89S, Clr.M. Cow^P. Corn. Lmtul. apinther. Q. Cw:. Hetel. Nipat, 

in the support of tbeir <tecrees, that it should not be powiMM 
to defeat them. Letitulus, therefore, summoned them into titl 
Capitol, on the twenty-fifth of May, where Pompey began dill 
debate, and renewed the motion fur recalling Cicero; andci 
a grave and elaborate speech, which he had prepared in wrifr>u 
ing, and delivered from his notes, gave him the honour (' 
having saved his country '. All the leading men of the aeBil 
^oke after him, to the same effect ; but the consul, Metellai, 
notwithstanding his promises, had been acting, hitherto, a'^ 
double part ; and was, all along, the chief eiicourager and sup^ *j 
porter of Clodius : when Servilius, therefore, rose up, a penoM j 
of the first dignity, who had been honoured with a triumpk ■% 
and the censorship, he addressed himself to his kinsman Mef ■-! 
telius ; and calling up from the dead all the iamity of tlitt 
Metelli, laid before him the glorious acts of his ancestors, wiA 
the conduct and unhappy fate of his brotlier, in a manner ao 
moving, that Metellus could not hold out any longer against 
the force of the speech, nor the authority of the speaker; ba^ 
with tean in his eyes, gave himself up to Servilius, and pro- 
fessed all future services to Cicero : in which he proved very 
unrere, and from this moment, assisted his colleague in pro- 
moting Cicero's restoration ; so that, in a very full house, <^ 
four hundred and seventeen senators, when all the magisttste* 
were present, the decree passed, without one dissenting voic^ 
but Clodius's ' ; which gave occasion to Cicero to nTite a par- 
ticular letter of thanks to Metellus, as he had done once before, 
upon his first declaration for him '. 


A. VA. <H. dc. M. CoM^P. Com. LntDl. %>iDtlMr. Q. Cm. Httel. Nopot. 

states and citjei, which had received and entertdoed Cioeroid 
and that the care of his person Bhoald be recommended to a^ 
foreign nations in alliance with them; and that the RomaaJ 
generals, and all who had command abroad, should be ordered * 
to protect his life and safety *. 

One cannot help pausing awhile, to reflect on the great 
idea, which these &ct8 imprint of the character and dignity of 
Cicero; to see so vast an empire in such a ferment on his 
account, as to postpone all their concerns and interests, for 
many months successively, to the safety of a single senator *; 
who had no other means of exciting the zeal, or engaging the 
affections of his citizens, but the genuine force of his personal 
virtues, and the merit of his eminent services: as if the Republic 
itself could not stand without him, but must fall into ruins, if he, 
the main pillar of it, was removed ; whilst the greatest monarchs 
on earth, who had anv a^rs with the people of Rome, were 
looking on to expect the event, unable to procure any answer 
or regard to what they were soliciting till this a&ir was de- 
dded : Ptolemy, the king of Egypt, was particularly affected 
by it : who being driven out of his kingdom, came to Rome 
about this time, to beg help and protection a^nst hb rebel- 
lious subjects ; but, though he was lodged in Pompey's house, 
it was not possible for him to get an audience, till Cicero's 
cause was at an end. 

The law, now prepared for his restoration, was to be offered 
to the suffrage of the centuries : this was the most solemn and 
honouraijlL' way of transjiciinjj jiiiy public business, where the 

en. Unmi. Spmilicr. g. Ckc. HoIeL Nepot, 

lies, it should then be obstructetf, to come away directly upon 
le anthority of the senate, and rather liazara liis life, tlian 
Mr ihe loss of his country any longer '. But the vigour of 
»e tate debates had bo discouraged the chicfe of the taction, 
■at ihej- left Clodius single in the opposition; Metellus 
ropped him, and )iis brother Appius won desirous to be 
Biet'; yet, it was above two months still, from the last decree, 
rfore Cicero's friends could bring the affair to a general vote, 
hicli they effected, at last, on the fourth of AugusL 

There had never been known so numerous and solemn an 
sembly of the Roman people as this: all Italy was drawn 
geiher on the occiuiioo : it was reckoned a kind of sin to be 
isent; and neither age nor infirmity was thought a sutGcient 
leuset for not lending a helping hand to the restoration of 
icero : all the magistrates exerted themselves in recommeod- 
ig the law, excepting Appius and the two tribunes, who durst 
ut venture, however, to oppose it; the meeting was held in 
le field of Mars, for the more convenient reception of so great 

multitude ; where the senators divided among themselves the 
nk of pre«i<ling in the several centuries, and seeint; the poll 
airly taken : the result was, that Cicero was recalled from 
iil«, by the unanimous sulTrage of all the centuries; and to 
ht infinite Jny of the whole city '. 

Cludiii'-, li'jwfitT, li;i<i the hardiness, not only to appciir, ijut 
ospeak in this assembly against the law ; but nobody regarded 
r heard a word that he said : he now found the diti^rence 
lentioned above, between a free convention of the Roman 
eople, and those mercenary assemblies, where a few desperate 
itizeiiB, headed by slaves and gladiators, used to carry all 
ffore them : " Where now," says Cicero, " were those tyrants 
: the Forum, those haranguers of the mob, those disposers of 
ingdoms?" — This was one of the last e^enuine acts of free 
ome; one of the last efforts of public liberty, exerting itself 
I do honour to its patron and defender : for the union of the 
iumvirate had already given it a dangerous wound, and their 
isseosion, which not long after ensued, entirely destroyed it. 

But it gave some damp to the joy of this gloiious nay, that 

' Hibi in .nimo at legum U 
aba. n potiui tita qaimjatrij 
• Bedii cum muinu digoIUU:, 
>M^ P»Dom. 33. 

1 Q» d» qui. i:i.i. fuil. qui no 


lioncm eipectcre, ct u oblrecUblti 
Lcircbo. AdAtu3.S6. 
fralre luo ullero conBulc rcducento 

111 nefat cue putaret, quKuoque iti 
nlenlamfcrrtP Pg.t red. in Sen. 
luHIionrm uec •cn.:<^tuli> »cis jui 

■i, pmlcHjuo duo* dc lipide eni|ito 
lem faaminDDl tunUni, ncque iplci 

, altera pnetore po- 

t KUteiut vilolii- 

lUun puUvii, Pro 

cm, » quo non ent 
• tribuDoi plebik— 
ididiorem fuiiK,- 

cutlodo fuiwe Ubulu-uoi — 


A. Urb. 696. Cic. 90. Ccm^P. Coni. LbWuL Another. Q. Cmn. Uelel. Ktfim, 

Cicero's soD-in-law, Pibo, liappened to die not lon^ before i^ 
to the eztreioe grief of the family ; without reaping the firinll 
of hig pietV) ana sharing the pleasure and benefit of CicenA 
return. His praises, however, wid be as immortal as Ciceni) 
writings, from whose repeated chanu:ter of him we learn, tha^ 
fi>r parts, probity, virtue, modesty, and for every i 

Jilishment of a fine gentleman and fine speaker, ne 
eft his equal bebincT him, among all the young noblei at 
that age'. 

Cicero had resolved to come home, in virtue of the senatA ] 
decree, whether the law bad passed or not; but, perceirin^ , 
from the accounts of all his fnends, that it could not be d^ 1 
feated any longer, be embarked for Italy on the foordi cf ' 
August ; the very day on which it was enacted : and landed 
the next dav at Brundisium, where be found his daoghter 
Tullia already arrived to receive him. The day happened to 
be the annual festival of the foundation of the town, as well m 
of the dedication of the temple of safety at Rome ; and dw 
l»rth-day likewise of Tullia : as if Providence had tiirown aU^ 
these circumstances together to enhance the joy and solemni^ 
of his Unding; which was celebrated by the people with the 
most profuse expressions of mirth and gaiety. Cicero took up 
his quarters again with his old host Leniug Flaccus, who had 
entertained him ao honourably in his distress, a person of great 
learning as well as generosity : here he received the welcome 
news in four days from Rome, that the law was actually ratified 
by the people with an incredible zeal and unanimity of all t' 


. C5c. ao. Ci-.,— p. Com. Uiitijl. Spinlhet, Q. Crr. Mrtcl, Miixi.. 

IfiTlif to &ee liim as he passed, and congratulate him t»i hi» 
" m: so tliat the whole road was but one continued street 
I Brundisium to Rome, lined on both iiides with crowds uf 
Imo» women, and children; nor was there a prfefecture, town, 
l« colony through Italy, which did not decree him statues or 

Cbtic honours, and send a deputadon of their principal mem- 
m to pay him their compliments : so that it was ralJier less than 
Ik trulJi, as Plutarch says, what Cicero himself tells us, that 
IdU Italy brought him back upon its shoulders'. "But that 
■ n«day,":eys he, " was worth an immortality ; when on my 
llppraaeii towards the city, l~ - senate came out to receive me, 
InuDwed by the whole body the citizens; as if Rome itself 
i left its foundations, and narched forward to embrace its 
I pKKnrvr '." 

I As (toon as he entered the ^tcs he saw the steps of all the 

I lenples, porticos, and even the tops of houses covered with 

Ipcuple, wbo saluted him with an universal acclumation, as he 

lnardi«cl forward towards the Capitol, where fresh multitudes 

e expecting his arrival ; yet, in the midst of all this joy, he 

" — t help grieving, he says, within himself, to reflect, that 

> grateful to Uie defender of its liberty, had been so 

f enslaved and oppressed'. Tlie Capitol was the 

»t or throne, as it were, of the msyesty of the empire ; 

i the moat magnificent fabric of Rome, the Temple 

or of that god whom they styled the Greatest and 

to whose shrine all, who entered the city in pomp 

iph, used always to make tlieir first lisit. Cicero, 

tbocfbre, before he had saluted his wife and family, was 

obfiged to discharge himself here of his vows and thanks for 

bis safe return ; where, in compliance with the popular super- 

Uicioii, he paid his devotion also to that tutelary Minerva, 

whom, at his quitting Rome, he had placed in tlie temple of 

ter father. From this office of religion he was conducted by 

tlie same company, and witli the same acclamations, to his 


vidnvin. Nrqiic 

Itsd iffDHiniH « opjiidiii ? Qtiid cunciinuin ex ngrii plnim futiil 
•rlihoiiP ftr.inPEHm.32. 

Iteb emcla pmc mil hmnfm irpnrtaiit. Poit rod. in Sen, l-'t. 

StiMmr lato urbn lulir liwUx din aftirt MlTentst mci ildebantur. Via muliliudine 
lotann amliquc niiiwiniin rrlebniliulur. Pro Seit. 63. 

MJtam ille din mihi quidrm imur inimnrlnliwtiii rnii — cnm Stnnl'ini t-pwtuin ridi, 


LCABM. Vam. C*,Leiiiul.9i^odier. (J Cbc. HeWl 

brother's house, wlier« this great procession ended : 
from one end of it W the other, was so splendid and triumpb 
that he had reason, he saj-s, to fear, lest jieople should in 
that he* himself, had contrived his lute flight, for the sake a 
~ ~ 8 a restoration '. 


Cicero's return was, what he himself truly calls it, the 1 
ginning of a new life to him'; which was to be govemedjf 
new maxims, and a new kind of policy ; yet, so as not to Eon" 
bis old character. He had been made to feel in what 1 
the weight of power lay, and what little dependence 
placed on the help and support of his arLstocratical frienq 
Pompey had served him on this important occasion very s 
cerely, and with the concurrence also of Cssar ; so as to n 
it a point of gratitude, as well as prudence, to be more oh 
vant of them than he had hitherto been : the senate, on t 
other hand, with the magistrates and the honest of all ran] 
were zealous in his cause; and the consul Leiitulus, above a 
seemed to make it the sole end and glory of his administradi 
This uncommon i^asent of opposite parties in promoting h 
testoration, drew upon him a variety of ohligations, which mttst 
Deeds often clash and interfere with each other; and whidi it 
was his part still to manage so, as to make them consistent 
with his honour, his safety, his private and his public duty 

or CICERO. 350 

h.m. ae.» C«l,-P.OM>.UBtBLlFiaUMr. Q. Car. Hatd. Napo.. 

gba iluttbi to Hum in pabtic^ for their bUe ■erricei: 

I, aAer a ^neral pnSemion of his obligsdons to them all* 

'e Im particular Mknowledgments to each ma^tnte by 

to die comula, the tribones, the pmton : he addreased 

a the tribunps, before the pmtors; not for the dimity 

ilfcair office, for in that they were inferior, but for their 

r auttrority in making law! ; and, consequently, their 

■ merit in carrying hit law into effect The number of 

^private friends was too great to malce it possible for him to 

nnaerateor thank tbcm aU; so that he confined himself to 

I BiKtstrales, with exception only to Pompey*, whom, for 

e amioence of his character, though, at present, only a pri- 

te man, he took citro to distingiiish by a personal address and 

f amplimt'nt. But us Lentulus was the first in office, and bad 

' ' ' vith the greatest affection, so he gives him the lirst 

mare nt m/i pr^se ; and, in the overflowing of his gratitude, 

Sles him. the parent and the god of his life and fortunes'. 
« next ^ny be paid his thanks likewise to the people, in a 
' tpcecb from the rostn; where be dwelt chiefly on tne same 
tnioi which he liad <iJied in the senate, celebrating the parti- 
etuar menu and scrvitses of his principal friends, especially of 
Pompey ; whom lie declares to be the greatest man for virtue, 
wiadura, «nfl ginry, who was then living, or had lived, or 
SOT would live ; and that he owed more to liim, on this occa- 
WB, Uian it was even lawful, almost, for one man to owe to 

Both these speeches are still extant, and a psissage or two 
from each will illustrate the temper and disposition in which he 
retomed : in speaking to the senate, after a particular recital 
cf the services of his friends, he adds; " as I have a pleasure 
hi enumerating these, so 1 willingly pass over in ftilcnce what 
•thers wickedly acted against me : it is not my present busi- 
ness to remember injuries; which, if it were in my power to 
revenge, I should choose to forget ; my life shall he applied to 
other purposes; to repay tlie good omccs of those who have 
deserved it of me; to hold fast the friendships, which liave 

' Cam pcrpaacii nominatim ^mtUt tgivKm, qu'rd ooinei enumcnui nullo modo pot' 
NBL Kclut lulcm g»et qumiiiiun pisMtiri. Ibid. 30. 

Sodienio uiMm die DomiDBlim r me iniitti>nm<ibu> itatni gratiu esse ngcndu, ct d« 
piruli nni. qoi pro wluW mn monicipia, colonintciuc uliiiiFH'I Poal red, JD i^on. IS. 

' FrinMp* P. Lentulni. parcnn u dcui nmtrs litc, roniiriK. &t. ibid. 4. Il mi 

■wtd. Deiu at martali, juvue mnmlein. [Plin. Hi«t. 2. 7'] Thiu Cicem, » ha 
oUa Lanlnliii here hit god, », on other occoaioni, gi*<^ the ntmc ^ipellalion to Plilo. 
Dna Ills iMWtra Plilo_[Ad AU.4. In.] to express tlie higlinl >eu>e of tho bcncflli 

* Cd. Pompciiu, Tir omniuDi qui (iint. fucrnnt. cnint, pilncept virtiito, upientia, ac 
■laria. Hak ego IwDiini, Quiritei, tanluni dalwo, <|usnliim bomincni homini dcbrrerii 
fa* Mt. Poat red. ad Quir. 7. 

A.Urt<.e»C. Cic.50. Co»,_r, Com. I^lul, 3(rfiith»r. Q. C«. Mctrl. K*piit. 
been tried, as it were, in the fire : to wage war with dedaraA- 
enemies ; to pardon my timorous, nor yet expose my treach^ 
roiu friends; and to balance the misery of my exile by tW' 
dignity of my return'." To the people he observes; thk*^ 
there were four sorts of enemies, who concurred to oppreii 
him: the first, who, out of hatred to the Republic, were mortal 
enemies to him for having saved it : the second, who, onder a 
false pretence of friendship, infamously betrayed him : die 
third, who, through their inability to obtain what he had ae- 
quired, were envious of his dignity: the fourtb, who, tho^^ 
by office they ought to have been the guardians of the l& 
public, bartered away his safety, the peace of the city, sad 
the dignity of the empire, which were committed to their tnMt 
" I will take my revenge," says he, " on each of them, a g r c ^ 
ably to the different manner of their provocation ; on the bad i 
atizens, by defending the Republic strenuously; on my per* 
fidioufi friends, by never trusting them again ; on the envioiM| 
by continuing my steady pursuit of virtue and glory; on thoae 
merchants of provinces, by calling them home to give an 
account of their administration : but I am more solitntona bow 
to acquit myself of my obligations to you, for your great 
sendees, than to resent the injuries and cruelties of my en^ 
mies: for it is much easier to revenge an injury than to repay 
a kindness, and much less trouble to get the better of bad men, 
than to equal the good '." 

""' ' ' ■ ■■ |.]j^ senate had leisure again 

' ' now a case before 



A-UtKCae. Ck.M, CgH^P.CMB. IculuI.SpluUier Q. C«. Mctel.NF|M. 

I of com, secreted from commou use'. He sent liis mol) 
i to Hm! tbeatrr, in wliicli the prsetor Ciecilius, Ciceru's par- 
yat fmiKl, was exliiliiling tlie Apolliiiariuii shows, where 
I laised §uch a terror, tliat they drove the whole company 
. it: tiien, in the same tumultuous inauner, tliey marclK-d 
! Ttfmple of Concord, whither Metellua had summoned 
e aeDate ; but, happening to meet with Metellus in the way, 
lliejr presently attacited him with volleys of stones; wilii M>inc 
«f which tiiey wounded even the consul himself, who, for the 
greater itecurity, immediately adjourned tlie senate into tlie 
capito). They were led «-■ 'jy two desperate ruffians, their 
Mual commanders, M. Lo s und M. Serf^us; the first of 
wkom lijid in Clodiut«'s tiibunate undertaken the taak of killing 
Pompey ; tlie second had been captain of the guard to Catiline, 
sad w^is probably of his fumily': but Clodius encouraged by 
^ hopeful begtnnintr, put himself at their head in person, 
and puntUL-d the senate into the capitol, in order to disturb their 
■Icimtes, and prevent their providing any relief for the present 
evil ; and, above all, to escite the meaner sort to some violence 
agaiiwt Cicero. But he soon found to his great disappoint- 
mtni, that Cicero was ton strong in the affections of the city, 
til he hurt a^in so soon : for the people themselves saw through 
liii di-si^ii, and were so provoked at it, that they turned uni- 
venally against him, and drove him out of the field with all 
Ilia mercenaries ; when, perceiving tliat Cicero was not present 
in the sen.ite, they eullied out upon him by name, witli one 
roice, and would not be quieted till he came in person to un- 
dertake their causi>, antl propose some expedient for their 
relief. He had kept his house all that day, and resolved to 
do so, till he saw the bsue of the tumult; but when he under- 
stood that Clodius was repulsed, and that his presence was 
tiniveisiilly ri'ijuirrd h\ ihe cuiisuIh, the senate, and the whole 
people, he came to tlie senate house, in the midst of their 
debutes, and being presently asked his opinion, proposed that 
Pompey should be entreated to undertake the province of 
restoring plenty to the city; and to enable him to execute it 

MiaiD HnuHiun one dixit. Qui. «( iiU lAlliuB? Qui tu tri 
^DiD fntclficicnduii) dcpaundl. — Quia ot Scrgius ? amiiEcr Ca 
fon, AigniCer Kdiiioaii — bis at^up hujiktmodi Judlnii, cum lu 
coDtulct, Id •cDUiim — npenliuot iai|itlu> coni[>anr«. Peg Dun 

M Mctello— qui (unl 

I. l'iV6M. l-icSiL < 

1. L*oMl.8|«ntb<r. Q. Ck. HelcL Ncroi. 

with effect, should be invested with an absolute power over ij 
the public stores and corn-rents of the empire tJirougb all d 
proriooes : the motion was readily accepted, and a vote ii 
diately passed, that a law should be prepared for that pui _ 
and offered to the people'. All the consular senators wtt 
absent, eicept Me^ala and Afnioius; they pretended to I 
afimid of the mob ; but the real cause was then* anwiUingv' 
to concur in granting this commission to Pompey. The o 
sols carried the decree wirh them into the rostra, and read 1 
publicly to the people ; who, on the mention of Cicero's m 
iu which it was drawn, gave an universal shout of appla 
upon which, at the desire of all the magistrates, Cicero ma 
speech to them, setting forth the reasons and necessity of d 
decree, and giving them the comfort of a speedy relief, firou 
the vigilance and authority of Pompey '. The absence, hon^ ' 
ever, of the consular senators, gave a handle to reflect upm 
the act, as not free and valid, but estorted by fear, and withoitt 
the intervention of the prindpal members ; but the very nett 
day, in a fuller house, when all those senators were present 
BOO a motion was made to revoke the decree, it was unaOH 
mously rejected*; and the consuls were ordered to draw up a 
law conformable to it, by which the whole adminbtratioa at 
the com and providons of the republic was to be granted to 
Pompey for five years, with a power of choosing fifteen lieute- 
nants to assist him iu it. 

This furnished Clodius with fresh matter of abase upon 
Citvro: lio i.-li:ir^i'ii him witli iiit;ratitin!f, aiid the desertion of 

rnlul.Siullwr. Q. Cac. MtML NtpoK 

P-Bompey '. But Ck-eto defended bimHelf, by Miyirifjf, tbat 
f must not expect to piay cLe same jnuae upon htm, now 
1 he «ntA rc>tt»retl, with wliicli tlicy htiil niinvd liim before, 

f Vy laiuof; jeaiousiies between liim and Poinpry ; thut be had 

f nartMl fur it too severely already, to be cuugbt agiiiii in th« 
mae trap ; that, in decreeing this com mission to Pompey, he 

I had diHcnur^ed both his private obligations to a friend, and 
Ui public duty to the §tate; that those who judged all ex- 
tnBniiniirv power to I'ompey, must grudge ihc victories, the 

r ttnunpttft, die accession of dominion and revenue, which their 

I' famer grants of this sort ' <• procured to tiie empire; that 
Ae auoceie of tbose shew en what fruit they were to expect 
from this*. 

Biit what autliority soever this law conferred on Pompey, 
hii creatures were not yet satisfied with it; so tliat Messius, 
OM of the tribune^ proposed another, to give him die addi- 
lional power of raising wliat money, fleets, and armies he 
dMiughttit; with a greater command through all the provinces, 
than their proper governors had in each, Cicero's law seemed 

. DHxlein, in comparison of Messius's: Pompey pretended to he 
esntm wtUi the first, whilst ail his dependants were pushing 

I far the last : they expected that Cicero would come over to 
them; but he continued silent, nor would stir a step farther ; 
for his alf^rs were stiii in such a slate, as obliged him to act 
vkh caution, and to manage both the senate and the men of 
power ; the conclusion was that Cicero's law was received by 
ill parties, and Pompey named him for his first lieutenant, 
ilcclaring tbat be sliould consider him as a second self, and 
act uotbtng without his advice'. Cicero accepted the employ- 
ment, on condition that he might be at liberty to use or resign 
it at pleasure, as he found it coiiveiiifnt to liis affairs'; but he 
toon after quitted it tu )<is brother, iiud cliuse iu continue in 

NcKJt qnintuin mirioHuic nUrU. quu ni geHcril. qua dignilate 

im poflH Labcfacuri, quibui 

■Its MuteiP penrnleranl— J»t» 

mritn nl erroiia mr 

■i mtgDx, ui mc non 

folum pigeU 

U.l>it» iH.. «d Mmn 

, pudr.!. 

Ibrd. U. 

nmB li qtiem pomltOLl 

i, .lira TJcl 

Ions populi Rommi 

DfceMt ot 


Ibid. 8. 

' Legem C«n>ul» t 

unt— alwram MeMiii 

,., qut oi»i 

ui. pwuf. 

IB iu polM. 

toTnio, qui a> oblintnl 

iprtilura. el DisjnJ 


in proin. 

.. nil nr 

iiM-a In ConsiiUrit i 

r. h»^ Mm^I 

MOf««KU. Pomptnu 

1 niim v. 

elk K dmt; F^mili 

■m h»DC, 

ra dn« F«- 

Tonio rremuDt, noa tucc 

nibil »dhoc PoiititicM 

Kton&it. AdAIt.4.1. 

uhrel, n» principsm 




* &«B»*Piinpmol«riiu 

.am Fwn.. «. null. 

, r«n»p«ii 


nt, li nllem, 

A.Uik6Mi. Ck-M. Cm—P.CoTn. Lentnl.Siilmlhn. 

tbe citjTi where he had the pleasure to aee the end of li 

effectually answered; for the credit of Pompey's name i 
itiately reduced tbe price of victuals in tbe marketa, ■ 
vifi^ur and diligence in proeecuting the affair, soon e 
a general plenty. 

Cicero was restored to his former dignity, but not to t . 

former fortunes ; nor was any satisfaction yet made to him Md 
the ruin of his liouses and estates : a full restitution indeed haJC 
been decrped, but was reserved to his return; which came iwv^ 
before the senate, to be considered and settled by public iiiitto n 
rity, where it met still with great obstruction. The chief Sti 
ficulty was about his Palatine house, which he valued above Ai- 
tbe rest, and which Clodius, for that reason, had contrived toi- 
alienate, as he hoped, irretrievably; by demolishing tbe bbri^ ', 
and dedicating a temple upon tbe area to tbe goddns Liberty: ; 
where, to maxe his work the more complete, he pulled dowB ' 

also the adjoining portico of Catulus, that he might build it ap 
anew, of the same order with his temple ; and by blendiiur tbfl 
public with private property, and consecrating the whde to 
religion, might make it impossible to separate or restore BUT 
part to Cicero ; since a consecration, legally performed, maiw 
tbe thing consecrated unapplicable ever after to any private 

This portico was built, as has been said, on the spot where 
Fulvius Flacciis formerly lived, whose bouse was puolidy de- 
molished, for tbe treason of its master : and it was Cloaiua'a 
design to join Cicero's to it, under the same denomination; as 
a perpetual memorial of a disgrace and punlthment inflicted 
by the people'. Wlien he had finished the portico, therefore, 
and aiiiR'M^d Lis tenipli? to il, wLich took up but a small part. 


l^lkrcfore, <yf all tirifcm, were called tofi 
; to hc&r tha laiiue, which C 
bHbre tliem : they were men of the msi miy uiia 
in the republic: and tliere never was, as \^icero tells 
II an appearance of them in any cause, since the foun- 

of tbe city : he reckons up nineteen by name : a great 
of wbom were of consular rank '. His first care, before 
into the merits of the question, was to remove the 
|njiMlice«, wbicb his enemies had been labouring to instil, on 
tk account of his late conduct in iiivour of Pompey, by ex- 
plaining^ tbe motives, and shewing the necessity of it; con- 
brring, at the same time, to turn tbe odium on the other side, 

hv mnniiig over the histo *' '"'Hiua's tribunate, and paindug 

all its riutences in the mc colours ; but the question on 

wbich the cause singly tf" was about tbe efficacy of the 
pretended consecration oi use, and tbe dedication of the 

lenple: to shew tbe n' my, uierefore, of this act, he en- 
ilearours to overthrow tiie very foundation of it, and prove 
Clodius'e tribunate to be originally null and void, from the 
iDralldity of his adoption, on which it was entuely grounded : 
it shews, that tlie sole end of adoption, which the law acknow- 
Inileed, was to supply the want of children, by borrowing them, 
B It were, from other families ; that it was an essential condi- 
tiui of it, that he who adopted bad no children of bis own, nor 
IraB in condition to have any : that tbe parties concerned were 
riiliged to appear before tbe priests, to signify their consent, 
tbe caase of the adoption, the circumsrances of the families in- 
terested in it, and the nature of their religious rites; that the 
priests might judge of the whole, and sec that there was no 
fraud or deceit in it, nor any dishonour to any family or per- 
son concerned : that nothing of ali tlii-' had been observed in 
the ease of Clodiug : that the adopter was not full twenty years 
dd, wheo he adopted a senator, who was old enough to be his 
father: that he had no occasion to adopt, since he bad a wife 
and children, and would probablv have more, which he must 
oecessarily disinherit by this adoption, if it was real : that 
Clodius had no other view than, by tlie pretence of an adop- 
tion, to make himself a plebeian and tribune, in order to over* 
turn the state : that the act itself, which confirmed the adoption, 
waa null and illegal, being transacted while Bibulus was ob- 
serving tbe auspices, whicn was contrary to express law, and 
huddled over in three hours by Csesar, when it ought to have 

nlU He rr, ne de capitc quidcm Viiginum Valaliiim, lam frciiiicnt callegiuin judicuK. 
n* Haraip. rvbp. G, 7. 

A.Uib.S96. C'k.50. Com— P. Cora. Lntul. Spiiilha. Q. Ck. MclcL Mi^H. 

been published for three market davs, successively, at tbek 
tervai of nine days each ' : that if toe adoption was trra 
and illegal, as it certainly was, tlie tribunate must needs I 
loo, which was entirely built upon it: but granting Ou 
bnnate, after all, to be valid, because GOme eminent men i 
have it so, yet the act, made afterwards, for his baniahn 
could not possibly be considered as a law, but as a priTT 
onlv, made against a particular person ; which tlie sacred 1 
Bn<f the laws of the twelve tables, had utterly prohibited: 
it was contrary to the very constitution of the republic^ i 
pnnish any citizen, either in body or goods, till he had bM 
accused in proper form, and condemned of some crime, I 
competent judges: that privileges, or laws to inflict peoi' ' 
on single persons, by name, without a l^ral trial, were < 
and perniaous, and nothing; better than proscriptions, and fcr 
all things not to be endurec! in their city*. Then, in enteriag*- 
upon ^e question of his house, he declares, that the whoH' 
effect of his restoration depended upon it ; tliat if it was ml' 
given back to him, but suffered to remain a monument of- 
triumph to his enemy, of grief and calamity to liimself, h»- 
conld not consider it as a restoration, but a perpetual punislH 
ment: that his house stood in the view of the whole people; 
and, if it must continue in its present state, he should be forced 
to remove to some other |)lace, and could never endure to live 
in that city, in which he must always see trophies erected boA 
against himself and the republic : " the house of Sp. Melioa^" 
says Iif, "who iiffocli-rl [i tyruiiiiy, «;ls lovi^lled: and, by the 

A.Utb.69e. CicSO. Cou.— P. Com. LeotoL Bf^thet. Q. Coc UeteL Ncpo*. 

the sacred books preBcribed : " nor is it strange," aaya he, 
" that in ad act so mad and villanous, bis audaciQusnesa could 
not get the better of his fears : for what pirate, though ever so 
barbarous, after he had been plundering temples, when, pricked 
by a dream or scruple of religion, he came to consecrate s«KDe 
altar on a desert shore, was not terrified in his mind, on being 
farced to appease that deity by his prayers, whom he had pn^ 
voked by iiis sacrilege? In what horrors, then, think yon, 
must this man needs be, the plunderer of all temples, houses, 
and the whole city ; when for tlie expiation of so many i^ipie- 
ties, he was wickedly consecrating one single altar*?" Ibea 
after a solemn invocation and appeal to all the gods, who pecu- 
liarly &voured and protected that city, to bear witness to the 
integrity of bis zeal and love to the Republic, and that in all 
his ubours and Btru^les he had constantly preferred the pub- 
lic benefit to his own, he commits the justice of his cause to 
the judgment of the venerable bench. 

He was particularly pleased with the composition of this 

Seech, which he published immediately ; ana says upon it, 
at if ever he ma!de any figure in speaking, his indignatiMi 
and the sense of his injuries bad inspired him with new force 
and spirit in this cause *. The sentence of the priests turned 
wholly on what Cicero had alleged about the force of the Papi- 
rtan law, viz. that if he, who performed the ofEce of consecra- 
tion, had not been specially authorized, and personally ap- 
pointed to it, by the people, then the area in question might, 
without any scruple of religion, be restored to Cicero, liiis, 


—P. Com. I^ntiil. Sjiinlhrr, Q. Ciw, Metei. Ncpui. 

Tbe senate met the next day, in a full house, to put an end 
Eo this afiair; when Marcellinus, one of the consuls elect, being 
railed on to speak first, addressed himself to the priests, and 
desired them to give an account of the grounds and meaning 
of their sentence ; upon which Luculhis, in tiie name of the 
^ rent, declared that tbe priests were indeed the judges of reli- 
gion, but the senate of the law ; that tliey tberefore had deter- 
mined only what related to the point of religion, and left it to 
the senate to determine, whether any obstacle remained in 
point of law. All the other priests spoke largely after him in 
favour of Cicero's cause. When Clodius rose afterwards to 
speak, he endeavoured to waste tbe time bo. as to hinder their 
coining to any resolution that day ; but, after he bad been 
speaking for three hours successively, the assembly ^rew so 
impatient, and made such a noise and hissing, that he. was 
forced to give over: yet, when tJiey were goin^ to pass a 
decree, in the words of Marcellinus, Serranus put bis negative 
upon it. This raised an universal indignation, and a fresb 
debate began, at the motion of the two consuls, on the merit 
of the tribune's intercession ; when, after many warm speeches, 
they came to the following vote: "That it was the resolution 
of the senate, that Cicero's house should be restored to him, 
and Catuius's portico rebuilt, as it bad been before; and that 
tliis vote should be dcfundfd by all the in a^'ist rates; and, if any 
riolence or obstruction was offered to it, that the senate would 
look upon it as offered by bim who bad interposed his nega- 
tive." This staggered Serranus, and tbe late farce was played 
over again ; his father threw himself at bis feet, to beg nim to 
desist; he desired a night's time, which at first was refused, but, 
on Cicero's request, granted ; and the nest day he revoked his 
negative, and, without farther opposition, suffered the senate 
to pass a decree, that Cicero's damage should be made good to 
him, and bis houses rebuilt at the puolic charge '. 

The consuls began presently to put the decree into execu- 
tion; and, having contracted for the rebuilding Catulus's 
portico, set men to work upon clearing; the ground, and de- 
molishing what had been built by Clodms: but, as to Cicero's 
buildings, it was agreed to make an estimate of his damage, 
and pay the amount of it to himself, to be laid out accordmg 
to his own fancy : in which his Palatine house was valued at 
sixteen thousand pounds; his Tusculan at four thousand; bis 

Mibi fiieta ttlim at Bratulalio : nemo enim dubiut, (jiiin domm nobiB tiMl idjudiaU. 
'" m Appim ct dcdit : nimciol jnm poputo, pon- 

m libcrtotmi iit dcrmdint. Hie cum rtiain illi infimi 

A.Utb.696. Cic. HI. CoM^P. Con. UaUl.apinlher. Q. Ck. Hetel. Nepo*. 

Foimian only at two thousand. This was a very deficient 
and Bbaroeful valuation, whicli tdl tlie world cried out upon; 
for the Palatine bouse had cost him, not long befoKi, near 
twice that sum : but Cicero would not ^ve himself any trouble 
about it, or make any exceptions, which gare the consuls a 
handle to throw the blame upon his own modesty, for not re- 
moostmting against it, and seeming to be satisfied with what 
was awarded ;l)ut the true reason was, as he himself decUrea, 
that those who had clipped his wings, had no mind to let them 
grow again ; and though they had been his advocates, when 
absent, oegan now to be secretly angry, and openly envious of 
Ui% when present '. 

But as he was never covetous, this affair gare him no great 
uneasiness ; though, through the late ruin of hu fortunes, be 
was now in such want of money, that he resolved to expose 
his Tusculau villa to sale; but soon changed his mind, and 
built it up again, with much more magnificence than before ; 
and, for the beauty of its situation and neighbourhood to the 
dty, took more pleasure in it ever after, than any other <tf his 
country seats. But he had some domestic grievances about thia 
time, which touched him more nearly, and which, as he signi- 
fies obscurely to Atticus, were of too delicate a nature to be 
explained by a letter ' : they arose chiefly from the petulant 
humour of his wife, which began to give him frequent occa- 
nons of chagrin ; and, by a series of repeated provocations, 
confirmed in nim that settled disgust, which ended at last in a 


A. Urt. 6M. Ci.:.SO, Com— P. Com. Lfiilul. Spiiiil,.rr <*. C«- Mowl, Nupo.. 

•ome little coldness between tliem, and gave no small pleasure 
to the cominon enemies of Uiem both '. 

But Cicero's chief concern at present wa^, liow to support 
im former authority in the city, and provide for his future 
safety, as well ag^nst the malice of declared enemies, as the 
enry of pretended friends, which he perceived to be growing 
Dp afi^sh against him ; he had thoughts of putting in for the 
ceiiBOreMp; or of procuring one of those honorary lieutenancies, 
which gave a public character to private senators ; with intent 
to make a progress through Italy, or a kind of religious pilii-ri~ 
mage to all the temples, groves, and sacred places, on pre 
of a vow, made in his exile. Thia would give him an 
(unity of shewing himself every where in a light, whici 
rally attracts the a(tent-on of the multitude, by testif 
pious regard to the favourite superstitions and local relig 
the country ; as the great, in the same country, still pa 
court to the vulgar, by visiting the shrines and altars > 
saints, which are most in vogue : he mentions these p 
to Att'cus, as designed to be executed in the spring, resi 
in the meanwhile, to cherish the good inclination of tlie pcb 
towards him, by keeping himself perpetually in the view of mic 
dly '. 

Catulus's portico and Cicero's house were rising again apace, 
and carried up altnivit to the roiif: when Cludiii^, ivitliout any 
warning, attacked them, on the second of November, with a 
band of armed men, who demolished the portico, and drove the 
workmen out of Cicero's ground, and with the stones and rub- 
bish of the place began to batter Quintus's house, with whom 
Cicero then lived, and at last set fire to it ; so that the two 
brothers, with their families, were forced to save themselves 
by a hasty flight. Milo had already accused Clodius for his 
former violences, and resolved, if possible, to bring him to 
justice ; Clodius, on the other hand, was suing for the tedile- 
ship, to secure himself, for one year more, at least, from any 

Crosecution: he was sure of being condemned, if ever he was 
rought to trial, so that whatever mischief he did in the mean 
time was all clear gain, and could not make his cause the 
worse'; he now therefore gave a free course to his natural 
fiiry; was perpetually scouring the streets with his incen- 

Lberent, pctere mhw^ nut vatirun ItgntidnviQ lumsive prope 
omniJun firaoniin.liiconiiii. Ad Atl. 4. 2. 

* Anwtii bmninibiis ante diem III. Non. Novemb. eipnlti inn t fnbri de area noitn, 
AtorteU ponicul C»nili— Qna id I«rliim pang perrenent. Quinti fralris domui 
prims ineU conjoetu lapidum, ex trea noatri, dcinde jnnu Clodii inflsiniiiiU, inapH- 
UaM aTb«, coniMtii ignibui. — Vid«l, ti oitinsa ouoa rult paUm, ncHilrnl, nihilo luuii 
uiiuir<liffid]ionin,<)uUBulbue>it,in judicin futnrwn. Ibid. 3. 


A. Utt>. 696. Cir. 50. Coh^P. Cum. Lenlol. S|ilat)ier. Q. Cbt. Mclrl. NepiM. 

tliaiies, and tltreatening fire and sword to the dty itself, if an 
assembly was not called for the election of sediles. In thin 
humour, about a week after his last outraee, on the eleventh 
of November, happening to meet with Cicero, in the sacred 
street, be presently assaulted him with stones, clubs, and drawn 
swords : Cicero was not prepared for the encounter, and took 
refure in the vestibule of the next bouse; where his attendants, 
rallying in his defence, beat off the assMlants, and could easily 
have killed their leader, but that Cicero was willing, he says, 
to cure by diet, rather than surgery. The day following, 
Clodius attacked Milo's house, with sword in hand, and ligbtM 
flambeaus, with intent to Storm and burn it: but Milo was 
never unprovided for him : and Q. Flaccus, sallying out with 
a strong band of stout fellows, killed several of bis men, and 
would Have killed Clodius too, if be had not hid himself in the 
inner apartments of P. Sylla's house, which he made use o^ on 
this occasion, as his fortress '. 

The senate met, on tlie fourteenth, to take tliese disorders 
into consideration; Clodius did not think £t to appear there; 
but Sylla came, to clear himself, probably, from tne suspicion 
of encouraging him in these violences, on account of the Iree- 
dom which he had taken with his house '. Mttny severe 
speeches were made, and vigorous counsels proposed. Mar- 
celltnus's opinion was, that Clodius should be impeached anew 
for these last outrages; and that no election of lediles should 
be suffered, till he was brought to a trial : Milo declared, that 
) long as he continued in office, the consul Metellua should 


<A.0ikill. Ck.£flL C«M-P.Con.L0Btiil.S|iintlMr. Q. Ok. MeteL Kcpoi. 

U was odledy or declarioff, that he was taking the auspices on 

tiMit day ; so that the three brothers were baffled and disap- 
poiatecC though they were perpetually haranguing and labour- 
vag to inflame the people against those, who interrupted their 
MwmHifW and right or electine; where Metellus's speeches 
were tarbnlent, Appius's rash, (Jlodius's furious. Cicero, who 
gmm this account to Atticus, was of opinion, tiiat diere would 
Ee no deetion ; and that Clodius would be brought to trial, if 
he was not first killed by Milo, which was likely to be his fate: 
'^MSk^'^ Mys he, << makes no scruple to own it; being not 
deCarred by my misfortune, and having no envious or perfi- 
duNis eomisellors about him, nor any lazy nobles to discourage 
him : it is commonly given out, by the other side, that what 
he does^ is all done oy my advice ; but they little know, how 
nnidi eoodnct, as well as courage, diere is in this hero \'* 

YoDiw Lentnlus, the son of the consul, was, by the interest 
of. Us nther, and the recommendation of his noble birth, 
dioaen into the colle^ of augurs this summer, though not 
▼et seventeen years old; having but just chang^ his puerile 
m the manly gown ' : Cicero was invited to the inauguration 
feasts where, by eating too freely of some vegetables, whidi 
hupened to please his palate, he was seized with a violent pain 
or ue bowels, and diarrhoea; of which he sends the following 
account to his friend Gallus : — 


'* After I had been labouring for ten days, with a cruel 
disorder in my bowels, yet could not convince those who 
wanted me at tne bar, that I was ill, because 1 had no fever, I 
ran away to Tusculum : having kept so strict a fast for two 
days berore, that I did not taste so much as water : being worn 
out, therefore, with illness and fasting, I wanted rather to see 
you, than imagined that you expected a visit from me : for my 
part, I am afraid, I confess, of all distempers ; but especially of 

' Egrcgiiis Marcellinui, omnes acres; MetelluB calumnia dicendi tempui exemlt: 
oondones turlnilentsB Metelli, temerariae Appii, furiotissima Clodii ; hcc Umen •umma^ 
Hid Milo in Campam obnunciasset, comitia futura. — Comitia fore non arbitror ; reum 
Publium, nm ante occisus erit, fore a Milone puto. Si le inter viam obtulerit, occiram 
iri ab ipao Milone video. Non dubitat facere; pne se fert ; caeum ilium no«tnim non 
cztimetcit, &c. 

Meo conaiUo omnia illi fieri querebantur, ignari qoantmn in illo heroe esset animi, 
qoantom ctiam consilii. Ad Att. 4. 3. 

N.B. From tbeso focts, it appears, that what is said above, of Clodius^s repealing the 
^y]^Ml and Fusian laws, and prohibiting the ma^tratcs from obstructing the assemblies 
of the people, is to be understood only m a partial senoc, and that his new law extended 
no fiuiner, than to hinder the magistrates from dissolving an assembly, after it wai 
actuallj convened, and had entered upon business : for it was still unlawful, we see, to 
CQBvene an assembly, while Uie mupstrate was in the act of observing the heavens. 

* Cui simerior annus idem et viruem patris et pnetextam populi judicio togam dederit. 
Pro Sext. «». it. Dio, 1. 39. p. 99. 



k.DA.eM. Uf.Sft C(]H_P.Can. L-nlul.flpiDtlier. (J. Ck. HeM. Ntpoi. 
curpd the rote of the senate : ihe opporlunity of a com- 
nd, almost in sigbt of E^ypt, mmle liim g^iiprully thought 
have the best pretensions to ihnt charge, and he wa§ a»> 
led of Cicero's warm assistance, in Boliciling tlie confirtnattoa 

In this situation of affairs, the new tribunes entere-' 

ke; C. Cato, of the same family with his namesake M 

Bone of the number; a bold, turbulent man, of no U 

prudence, yet a tolerable speaker, and generally i 

Uer aide in politics. Before he had burne any public 

tBttempted to impeach Gabinius of bribery and corruf 

i Jtot being able to get an audience of the prjetors, h< 

WK hardiness to mount the rostra, which was never allow 

■■private citizen, and, in a speech to the people, decj 

Iwnpey dictator: but his presumptinn had like to havo 

6 dear; for it raised such an indijrnation in the am 
he had much difficulty to escape with his life'- 
tpened bis present mat^istracy, by declaring loudly 
OBg Ptolemy, and all who favoured him ; especially Le 
Aom he supposed to be under some private engagemeni 
•n, and, for that reason, was determined to baffle alt 

Lupus, likewise, one of his coUeae^ues, summoned the senate, 
nd raided an expectalion of ?<ime uncommon proposal from 
im : it was indeed of an extraordinary nature ; — to revise and 
iinul that famed act of Caesar's consulship, for the division of 
le Campanian lands : he spoke long and well upon it, and 
^as heard with much attention ; gave great praises to Cicero, 
ith severe reflections on Csesar, and expostulations with 
*ompey, who was now abroad, in the execution of bis late 
HnnuBsion. In the conclusion he told them, that he would 
ot demand the opinions of the particular senators, because he 
ad no mind to expose them to the resentment and animosity 
f aoy ; but from the ill humour, which he remembered, when 
lat act first passed, and the favour with which he was now 
eard, he could easily collect the sense of the house. Upon 
hich Marcellinus said, that he must not conclude from their 
lence, either what they liked or disliked : that for his own 
art, and he might answer too, he believed, for the rest, he 
itose to Bay nothing on the subject at present, because be 
lought that the cause of the Campanian lands ought not to be 
KH^ht upon the stage in Pompey's absence. 

> Vt CUa, adokuMU oulliu* caoailu,— tu vinu effugenl ; quod com GaUiuun da 
dtilB Tvlbt pcatnWc, oaqiu pcBtom ditbot iliquol idiri poueaC, tsI peMtmtem mi 

■- ' - TB •iwodit.ot PompBium nriTmlnidicUlorem»pi»lI«rii. fnfbtt 

" - - V>dQaiiit.FrU.].3. 

A. Urb. 690. Ctc. SO. Om^t. Cora. Leotnl. SpintW. Q. Cbc. MetoL NtpM. 

Tfaia affair beine dropped, Raintius, anotber tribune, rose vf 
and renewed tbe f^bate about Milo's impeachment of Clodii^ 
and called upon Marcellinus, the consul elect, to gire Ut 
opinion upon it; who, after inveighing agdniit all the vi*- 
lences of Clodiiu, proposed, that, in tbe first place, an allo^ 
meat of judges should be made for the trial; and after Hat, 
the election of eediles; and if tmy one attempted to hinder tfct 
trial, that he should be deemed a public enemy. The otbii 
eonsul elect, Philippus, was of the same minn ; but the tri- 
bunes, Cato and Cassius, spoke against it, and were f<» uv 
ceeding to an election before any step towards a triaL Wbei 

«cero was called upon to speak, he run through tbe wbok 
ies of Clodius's extravagances, as if he had been accuoi^ 
him already at the bar, to the great satisfaction of the assemUy: 
Andstius, the tribune, seconded him, and declared, that m 
bustness should be done before the trial ; and when the hoose I 
was going universally into that opinion, Clodius began to speak, 1 
with intent to waste the rest of the day, while his slaves and 
fbUowers without, who had seized the steps and avenues of tbR 
•enate, raised so great a noise of a sudden, in abusing some of 
Milo's friends, that the senate broke up in no small hurry, and 
with fresh indignation, at this new insult'. 

There was no more business done through the remaining 
part of December, which was taken up, chiefly, with holydays- 
Lentulus and Metellus, whose consulship expired with Uie 
year, set forward for their several governments; the one for 
Cilicia, the other for Spain: Lentulus committed the whole 
direction of his affairs to Cicero: iiud Metellus. i 

ov ciCKito. S77 

h.69T. Ot-Sl. Cm^-Co. Con. LcM. MwMJlliiBi. L. Hir. PUUtipM. 

to find in them certaio verses, forewarniDr the Roman 

not ttf Mplace an exiled king of Egypt with an amiT. 

^ ' pat to hia pnrpoae, that there coald be no doubt 

finged; bat Cato called up the gilardiaoB of the 

ba roatra, to testify the passage to be genuine; 

piiblidy read and explained to the people : it waa 

I the senate, who gteedily received it ; and, after 

on this scruple of religion, came to a resolutioD* 

„ . daogeroua to the republic, that the king should 

be restored by a multitude'. It cannot E>e imagioed, Uat they 
laid any real Stress on this admonition of the Sibyl, for ther^ 
was nut a man «ther in or out of the house, who did not tallr 
it for a fictiMi : but it was a fiur pretext for defeatiog a project, 
^nek waa graerally disliked : they were unwilling to gratify 
any nMn'a ambition, of visiting the rich coontry of Egypt, at 
Ae kad of an army ; and persuaded,, that without an army no 
■■a would be aolicitous about going thither at all*. 

IVk jwint being settled, the next question was, in what 
masaa the king uould be restored: various opinions were 
pnpoaed ; Craaans moved, that three ambassadors, chosen from 
thaw who had some public command, should be sent on the 
errand; which did not exclude Fompey: Bibulus proposed 
that Uuee private senators, and Volcatius, that Pompey alone 
should be charged with it: l)ut Cicero, Hortensius, and Lu- 
cullus u^ed, that Leutulus, to whom tbe senate had already 
decreed it, and who could execute it with most convenience, 
should restore him without au army. The two first opinions 
were soon over-ruled, and the struggle lay between Lentulus 
and Pompey. Cicero, though he had some reason to complain 
of Lentuius, since liis return, particularly for the contemptible 
valuation of his houses, yet for the great part which he had 
borne, in restoring him, was very desirous to shew liis grati- 
tude, and resolved to support him with all h» authority. 
Pompey, who had obligations also to Lentulus, acted the same 
part towards him, whicli he had done before towards Cicero. 
By his own conduct and professions, he seemed to have Len- 
tulus's interest at heart ; yet, by tlie conduct of all his friends, 
seemed desirous to procure the employment for himself; while 
the king's agents and creditors, rancying tliat their business 

Lu religionii oJumniarn, non religinne, scd nnJaToUn^ c1 

gitjonil lairidiHCDDinrob&t. Ka. Void. 1, 
D« H«|i Aleuudrino '- " ' 

_...._. .. . Ad QninL Fr. 2. 3. 

hidiKniin Sctc nli|{ionit, Don Iain ut tc imp«<liKDt, quiun utncquit, propter ox 


'ic.Sl. CsM. — L'n.Carn. L 

would be serred the most efFectuidly by Pontpey, began 
to solicit, and even to bribe for him'. But the senate, ti 
Cicero's iiiAiieiice, stood frenerally inclined to Lentului; 
after a debate, wliicii ended in hi!* favour, Cicero, wha 
been the manajirer of it, happening to sup witli Pompey 
evening, took occasion to press htm, with much freedoi^ 
to suffer bis name to be used in this competition, nor gii 
handle to his enemies, for reprouching him with the dewrl 
of a friend, as well us nn ambition of engrossing all power 
himself. Pompey seemed touched with die remonstrance 
professed to have no other thought, but of serving Lenti 
^hile his dependents still acted so, as to convince every bdjf: 
that he could not be sincere*. 

When Lentulus's pretensions seemed to be jn a hoptM 
way, C. Cutu took a new and effectual method to disappoaC' 
tlwm, by proposing a law to the people, for taking away Ht 
government, and recalling him home. This stroke surpiiNd 
every body ; the senate condemned it as factious ; and Len- 
tulus's ton changed his habit upon it, in order to move the 
dtiiens, and hinder their offering such an affront to his fiither. 
The tribune, Caninius, proposed another law, at the nae 
time, for sending Pompey to Egypt: but this pleased no 
better than the other ; and the consuls contrived, that neither 
of them should be brought to the suffrage of the people'. 
These new contests gave a fresh interruption to Ptolemy's 
cause ; in which Cicero's resolution was, if the commisBOii 
could not be obtained Tor Lent u I us, to prevent its being 


•, L. Mdr. PhllippuL 

ptt IpiUt lo Pom|.iey, and save tbeniHelves th« (tise^raoe 
g baffled by a competitor ' ; but the seimte v/a i 

km the whole atTair, that lliey resolved to lea 
1ft for hiniHelf, without interposing at all in his : 

the matter hung ; whilst other alTairH, more imereMi 
IF daily rUing up at home, and engaging the attentio 


e election of lediles, which had been industriously posU 

1 through all the last summer, could not easily be kept 
f Any lunger: the city was impatient for ite magistrates ; and 

npecially for the plays and sliowa vni^u ..hicU they used to 
(BtertaJD them; and several at^o uf tlie new tribunes being'' 
teolous for an election, it was held, at last, on the twentieth of 
bnu&ry, when Clodius was chosen sedile, without any oppi>- 
idon; so that Cicero began once more to put himself upon 
at ruard, from the certain expectation of a furious tedite- 

ll may justly seem strange, how a man, so profiigate and 
timinBl as Clodius, whose life was a perpetual insult on all 
nrs, Divine and human, should be suffered not only to live 
rithout punishment, but to obtain alt the honours of a free 
ity in their proper course ; and it would be natural to suspect, 
bat we had oeen deceived in our accounts of him, by taking 
hem from his enemies, did we not find them too firmly sup- 
ported by fects to be called in question ; but a little attention 
a the particular character of the man, as well as of the times 
1 which he lived, will enable us lo solve the difficulty. First, 
be splendour of his fiiinily, which had borne a principal share 
1 all the triumphs of the Republic, from the very foundation of 
1 liberty, was of great force to protect him in all his extrava- 
ances. Those, who know any thing of Rome, know what a 
tiong impression this single circumstance of illustrious nobi- 
Itf would necessarily make upon the people. Cicero calls the 
obles of this class, pnctors and consuls elect from their cradles, 
y a kind of hereditary right, whose very names were sufficient 
advance them to all the dignities of the state '. Secondly, 
lb personal qualities were peculiarly adapted to endear him to 
U the meaner sort: his bold and ready wit; bis talent at 
laranguing; his profuse expense; and his being the first of 

' Bod nreor no »ut eripintur nobii chum regU, bhi rfweraur, Sed li «• cogel, ml 
ididun Uninm, quod non — mihi difpliccbat ; ut nequr jicftc Rrjcm piUnmuT, nee 
atn njnignmliboi, id lutn defcrri, id quem prope jam dtUlum videtur, Ne. «i quid 
on obOnoMimiu, repulii erne Tidcsiniir. Ep. Fam. 1. S. 

smnia fiiint Urdion propter furiai* HlIUuLii cipcctatiouem. Ad Quint. 2.2. 
1 idem milii licet, n\iod im, qui nobili eenerc niti lunt, quihus omDia populi So- 

Enrt MUlHUe ipw, Uuida coociluDKula commindadu^Oninei leniper boni aobi- 
ilBti bTEiniK, &c. Pro Sell. 9. 

A. Dri^ 697. Cit. SI. Com. — Cn. Con. LotL Hunlliaiu. L. Mtf. Piuiiffm. 

liM fiuDily who had pursued popular measures, agunst tki 
nuurims of his aQcestors, who were all stern aasertors t^ 
aristocratical power. Thirdly, the contrast of opposite beti 
who had each their ends in supporting him, contributed pn^ 
dually to his safety ; the triumvirate willingly permitted, mi 
pnvately encouraged, his violences, to make their own pow 
not only the less odious, but even necessary, for ctnitrolliar 
the fury of such an incendiary ; and though it was often tunw 
agunst themselves, yet they chose to bear it, and dissenUa 
their ability of repelling it, rather than destroy the man vW 
was playing their game for them, and, by throwing the B^ 
public into confusion, throwing it of course inta their hands: 
the senate, on the other side, whose chief apprehensions wen 
from the triumvirate, thought, that the rashness of Clodias 
ought be of some use to perplex their measures, and to stir in 
the people against them on proper occasions ; or it humoured 
their spleen, at least, to see hmi often insulting Pompey to his 
&ce >. Lastly, all who envied Cicero, and desired to lessen 
his authority, privately cherished an enemy, who employed all 
his force to dnve him from the administration of a^rs. This 
accidental concurrence of drcnmstances, peculiar to the man 
and the times, van the thing that preserved Clodius, whohe 
insolence could never have oeen endured in any quiet and 
regular state of the city. 

By his obtaining the sedileship, the tables were turned be- 
tween him and Milo; the one was armed with the authority 
of a magistrate, the other become a private man ; the one freed 

Cic.S\. Cum.— Ca. Cam. LcDl. HmmtUDDi. L. Mar. PbHIppiu. 

tiual clamour of reproaclies and invectives, pnd'>< 
inder him from going on, or at least from bei h' 
. __nipey was too firm, to be so baffled; and s ."i 
tbree Bours, with a presence of miud, wliici 
rilence, in spite of tlieir attempts. When Clod 
answer hint, Milo's party, in tlieir turn, so distu 
foanded him, that he was not able to t^peak a v, 
number of epigrams and lampoons upon him ai 
were thrown about, and piiblidy rehearsed amon^ ^ 
tude below, so as to make him quite furious: till r 
himself a little, and findi ' " ' to proe. 

speech, he demanded aloi o it wat 

tempted to starve them by lai ch they p' 

cried out, Pompey : he then asKeo, who it was that a> 
be sent to Egypt? They all echoed Pompey: but* 
asked, who it was, that they themselvc); had a mir 
They answered, Crassus; for the old jealousy w" 
ing out again between him and Pompey ; and 
pearcd that day on Milo's side, yet he was not, ae 
a real well-wisher to him. 

These warm proceedings among the chiefs, brought 
fray below, among their parti zans ; the Clodians begati 
attack, bnl were repulsed by the Pompeians ; and Clodius him- 
self driven out of die rostra : Cicero, wlicn he saw the affair 
proceed to blows, thought it high time to retreat, and make 
the best of his way towards home : but no great iiarm was 
done, for Pompey. having cleared the Forum of his enemies, 
presently drew uff his forces, to prevent any farther mischief or 
scandal iirom his side'. 

Tbe senate was presently summoned, to provide some 
remedy for these disorders ; where Pompey, who had drawn 

Xn himself a fresh envv from his behaviour in the Egyptian 
ir, was severely handled by Bihulus, Curio, I-'avonius, and 

d nil. Id. Feb. 

..|™>om«m.. Qui. .^lc«i,dSr- 
iir TCllenl^ KeBpondcbinC, Cni 

I in Clodiuru ct CLodlun diceron- 

Hon fore nrm, qnui tignit iLjito, Clodi^ni noBtnn conipuUro copenint. Riuii 
(tolor, Bivm iUi ul loco om innvcirnt. Fulut eit ■ noitrii impelm, fum npei» 
E)«i]i> de Rocirii CIihUui. Ac not qiimiiie tum Tugimm, ncquid in tiirba.— -Sci 


Po'inpclai .f'.iQiiim.''"Ai"QuiBi. Frra'a! 

A, l'tb.(i97. Cir.Sl. Com.— Cn. Cdtd. UbU HualliBiu. U Hw. FUUffM. 
others ; Cicero chose to be absent, since he must either haw 
ofren<lt>(l l*<im|iey, by saying nothing for him, or the hoMM- 
party, by <lcft<ii((iiig liim. The same debate was carried ss 
for seveml daj's, in wliich Ponipey was treated very rot^Uj^ 
by tlie triliune Coto ; wlio inveij^hed against hiai with gnrt 
fierceness aiH) hiid open his perfidy to Cicero, to whom ht 
paid llie hiifhest cum [ill men ts, uiul was heard widi much atten* 
tion by all I'onipey's enemies. 

Pompey answered him, with an unusual vehemence; asil 
refleotinfc o)>enly un I'rassus, as the autlior of these afiront^ 
declared, that lie would euard his life with more care, thta 
Scijiio Africanus did, wlieii Carbo murdered him. I'heN 
warm expresninns Sf i-med to open a prospect of some giitt 
■ffitation likely to ensue : Pompey consulted with Cicero oa 
the proper means of his security : and acquainted him with 
his apprehensions of a design against his life; that Catons 
privately supported, and ( lu<liu-i furnished with money by 
Ciassus; and botli of them eneoura^ed by Curio, BibalB% 
and the rest, who enried him ; that tt was necessary for luB 
to look (o himself, since the . meaner people were wholly 
alienated, the nobility and senate tr<'"erally disaffected, ud 
the youth cumipiet). Cicero readily consented to join finwi 
with him. and to summon (heir clients and friends from ill 
|>arts uf Italy: for ihaui;h he liad no mind to fight his faattlei 
in the senjiie, he was desirous to defend his person &om ill 
violent', i>specially a^ninst Crassus, whom he never loved: 
they re««>lv«l. likewise, to (>p)H>se, with united strength, all 
the attempts of Clodiu« and Cato, against Lentulus and Milo'. 
Clodius. un the other hand, was not less busv in mustering 

OP cicEnti. 

Cie. 51. Com.— Ca. Coin. Lent. Mirccllinui. L. 

I Mity ; from which time we find no ^i mei i 

vat consul, Marceilinus, who drew hi.^ colleag '*''' ■ 
g with htm, was a resolute opposer of the Iri 4 

•ell as of 111! the violences of llie other magisfrati K 

fauoa, be resolved to suffer no assemblies of ("- 
^Ocspt such Its were iiccesaary for the elections into 
Iffices: his view was to prevent Cato's law for recaiu 
bine, and the monstrous thinB;a, as Cicero calls thei 
pome were atteniplirtg, at this time, in fhvoiir ol 
Cicero gives liim the charac ' ' ' best cons" 

ie had ever known, and bh > .n one ihi 

Seating Pompey, on ail occaf s, loo ruaeiy ; whici 
Cicero often absent himseif froru the senate, to ovoid ti 
jart, either on the one side or the other '. For the bu^- 
jfaerefore, of his dij^nity and interest in the city, he re» 
Us old task of pleading causes ; which was always populj"' 
vputable, and in which he was sure to tind full emploi^ 
Sis first cause was the defence of L. Bestia, on the tt 
February, who, after the diitgntce of a repulse &om the j ^ 

liipa in the last election, was accused of bribery and corrup- 
ion in his suit for it; and notwithstanding the authority and 
iloqueiice of his advocate, was convicted and banished. He 
iras a man extremely corrupt, turbulent, and seditions; had 
ilways been an enemy to Ctcero ; and supposed to be deeply 
;i]g[aged in Catiline's plot; and is one instance of the trutli of 
vhat Cicero Aavs, tlial he whs often forced, agiiiiist his will, 
o defend cert;iin jiersons who had not deserved it of him, by 
lie mtercession of those who had '. 

Csesar, who was now in the career of his victories in Oaiil, 
enta request to the senate, tlmt money mi^ht be decreed to 
lini for the payment of his army, with a power of choosing 
en lieutenants, for the better management of the war, and 
he conquered provinces; and that his command should be 
troloDged for five years more. The demand was thought 
"ery exorbitant; and it seemed strange, that, after all Tiis 
loasted conquests, he should not be able to maintain his army 
rithout money from home, at a time when the treasury was 

' Gonial nlegr^iiii Lentnlni, nun impediente Cnllega: tk inqiism l^o^^l^ ut nwlio- 
K non Tidcrim, Dice coinili)il« fieniit omnet. — Sic Icgibui pcmicinMuiaiii obtil- 
itar, DMximc CaWnit. Nunc ipint Citonem Lcntiilui n legibui rrmovit, cl eat, qui 
■ Chbc msnitn pnnniilgBnmt.— Mamllinui aiilem hoc una mibi minui nlieracit, 
■ad mn nimig Hperc tmcUt, quanquun id Senatii nnn invito tiuAt : quo ego mc libra. 
iUBCiiru,ct>bDmnipam Reip. lubtnha. Ad Qiiint. 26. 

» A. D. III. Id. dM wo BcMia de ambitu ipud Prntomn Cn. Domitiuni, in Fora 
M^nuimoconvenlu. Ibid. 2.3. 

Cant nawinfiauun hominw non opiime dc mc tnoritot, nmtu cornin qui ben* nsriti 
in>t.dcfraden. Eft. Fim. T.I. VId. Philip. Xl. .^ Silluit. 17. 43. Plot, in Cie. 

A.l'ik.S9T. ac.51. Cwt—Cn. Cora. Lent. HuccUlDO*. U II 
greatly exhausted ; and the reiieiral of a commission, < 
at first by violence, and a^inst the authority of the i 
was of hard digeBtion. But Ctesar's interest prevailed, ■ 
Cicero himself was the promoter of it, and procured a dee 
to his satisfaction; yet, not without disg;usting the old patriol^l 
who stood firm to their maxim of opposing all eztraordinHj I 
grants: but Cicero alleged the extraordinary services of Cmw; I 
and that the course of his victories ougbt not to be ched * 
by the want of necessary supplies, while he was so glorioa 
extending the bounds of the empire, and conquering natk 
whose names had never been lieard before at Rome: md 1 
though it were possible for him to maintain his troops withoit I 
their help, by the spoils of tlie enemy, yet those spoils on^ 1 
to be reserved for toe splendour of his triumph, which it i 
not just to defraud by their unreasoiuible parsimony '. 

He might think it imprudent, perhaps, at this time, to csfl 
C«sar home from an unfinished war, and stop the prt^ress of 
his arms in the very height of his success ; yet the real mottre 
of his conduct seems to have flowed, not so much from the 
merits of the cause, as a regard to the coodition of the dmes, 
and his own circumstances. Fur, in his private letters, he 
owns. That the malevolence and envy of the aristoctatical 
chiefs had almost driven him from his old principles, and, 
though not so far as to make him forget his dignity, yet so M 
to take a pro|>er care of his safety, both which might be easily 
consisrent, if there mts any faith or gravity in the consular 
senators : but they had managed their matters so ill, that those 
whii \<fro suiw^rior to ilumi in po 

rb. G9T. Cle. 61. Coa^-Cn. Corn. Lent. Mu»Uinii>. L. Mur. PhiUppm. 

lent was quite changed ; aiid what he liad proposed to 
If as the end of all hie toils, a dignity and liberty of acting 
oting, was quite lost and gone ; that there was nothing 
ut eitlier meanly to assent to the few, who governed all; 
ikly to oppose them, without doing any good : that he 
opped, therefore, all thoughts of that old consular gra- 
nd character of a resolute senator, and resolved to con- 
himself to Pompey's will; that his great affection to 
ey made him begin to think all things right, which were 
to him ; and he comforted himself witli reflecting, that 
reatneas of hia obligations would make all the world 
; him, for defending what Pompey liked, or, at least, for 
■posing it ; or else, what of all thmgs he most desired, if 
endsliip with Pompey would permit him, for retiring 
public business, and giving himself wholly up to bis 

t he was now engaged in a cause, in which he was 
y and Bpecially interested, the defence of P. Sextius, 
te tribune. Clmliiiri, who gave Cicero's friends no res- 
having himself undertaken Milo, assigned the prosecu- 
if Sextius to one of his confidents, M. Tullius Albino- 
, who accused him of public violence, or breach of peace 
tribunate*. Sextius had been a true friend to Cicero 
distress ; and borne a great part in his restoration ; but 
cases of eminent service, conferred jointly by many, 
one is apt to claim the first merit, and expect the first 
of praise : so Sextius, naturally morose, fancying himself 
:tea, or not sufficiently requited by Cicero, had behaved 
ihurlishly towards him since his return j but Cicero, who 
ever forgetful of past kindnesses, instead of resenting 
jrverseness, having heard that Sextius was indisposed, 
in person to his house, and cured bim of all his jealousies, 
-ely offering his assistance and patronage in pleading his 

lem ilU rci contolatur, tyaoA ego is lutn, cui tc] muim 
Idendun, qus PaniiKiug velit, Tel Mceatg, vel elianij 
1 n«tn mc itudia rcfcnm littcnmiD, quod pn>f«to facis 

diuEDUcadutn. Ibid. S. 

A. VrtLliST. Cir. &I. Co«,-4'd. Corn. Lent. HuccUiniu. L. Mir. Fhfflff. j 

TliiH was a disaiipointment to the prosecutors ; who flatb 
tbemsflves, that Cicero was so much disgustei), tliat he wi 
not be itersuatled to plead for him; but he entered intod 
cause with a hearty inclination, and made it, as in effect t 
really was, his own'. In his gpeech, which is stiil en 
after laying open the histiiry of his exile, and the dm 
of his own conduct, through the whole progress of it, he si 
that the only unround of prosecuting Sextius was, his &itk 
adherence to Rim, or rather to the Kepuhlic ; that, by ei 
demning SextiiiR, they would, in effect, condemn him, who 
all the orders of the city liad declared to be unjustly ezpelle^'l 
by the very same tnen, who were now attempting to ezpd I 
Sextius: that it vraa a banter and ridicule on justice itself, li 1 
accuse a man of violence, who liiid been left for dead upon tkc I 
spot, by the violence of thiee who accused liim : and whan j 
only crime was, that he would not suffer himself to be quits j 
killed, but presumed to guard Ins life against their future it- 
tempts. In short, he managed the cause so well, that Sestini 
was acquitted, and in a manner tlie most honourable, by Ab 
unanimous sulTrages of all the judges; and with the unirem) 
applause of Cicero's humanity and gratitude '. 

Pompey attended this trial as a friend to Sextius: while 
Csesar's creature, \'atinius, appeared not only as an advenvy, 
but a witness against him : which gave Cicero an opportunity 
of lashing him, as Sextius particularly desired, wiUi all m 
keenness of hb raillery, to the ^reat diversion of the audience; 
for, instead of interrogating him in tlie ordinary way, about 
the facts deposed jii the trial, he contrived ti 

|Irit.S97. Clt.SI. C<ib_Cd. Coin. Lent. MuMlilniM. L Mir. Pbi.^ 

■gation, and ia nothing else but what Cicero himself calls 
B perpetiutl invective on the mnfristrucy uf Vutiaius, and 
Mooduct of those who supported him '. 

In ttie beginning of April, tlie senate gmoted the sum of 
Be hundrea thousand pounds to Pompey, to be laid out in 
Uiasing corn for the use of the city ; where there was still 
pKat scarcity, and as great, at tlie same tiine, of money : so 
It tbe moving a point so tender, cnnld not fail of raising 
j|« ill humour in the assembly ; when Cicero, whose old 
kit seems to have revived in uim, from his late success in 
piiua'a cause, surprised them, by proposing, that, in the 
pent inability of the treasury to purchase Uie Cumpanian 
■Is, which, by Caesar's act, were W be divided to the people, 
^ act itself should be reconsidered, and a day appointed for 

r deliberation. The motion was received with an universal 
and a kind of tumultuary acclamation. The enemies of 
I triumvirate were extremely pleased with it, in hopes that 
.Would make a breach between Cicero and Pompey ; but it 
hred only for a proof of what Cicero himself observes, that 
Wbs very hard for a man to depart from his old sentiments 
^politics, when they arc right and just'. 

Ptompey, whose nature was singularly reserved, expressed 
■•Qoeuiness upon it, nor took any notice of it to Cicero, 
IMigfa they met and supped together familiarly, a^ they used 
ido: but he set forward soon after towards Afric, in order 

provide corn; and intending to call at Sardinia, proposed 
embark at Pisa, or Le<^harn, that lie might iiave an inter- 
iw witt Ccesar, who was now at I-uca, the utmost limit of 
I Gallic government. He found Ciesar exceedingly out of 
Uotir with Cicero ; for Crassus had already been with him 

Ravenna, and greatly incensed him by his account of 
eero's late motion ; which he complained of so heavily, that 
nnpey promised to use all his authority to induce Cicero to 
up the pursuit of it; and, for that purpose, seut away an 
press to Rome, to intreat him not to proceed any further in 
till his return; and, when he came afterwards to Sardinia, 

Twinlum, > qD« palun oppugnibatur, irtntnitu noftn concidiiniit, Diia homiai- 
•na nUndendbiu. Quid quvria? liomo petulana, ct nudu Viiiniug vdde pertui^ 
M, delriliMtaHue ditceuii. Ad Quint. 2. i. 

r< aednitB Fompeio, cum ut Uuitiret P. Sextium introinwl in urbem diiinatqaa 
TMinini, ma fonuni et felidute C. Cmitrii Mmmotum, illi mmicum e»w OEpiHa; 

Atn. Tott «ro inierroestio mea nihil hibuit, nisi repreheniionein illiui Trihimii- 

atm aBtnm de un Uto . 

^2*'nDlB bc^lwt, et umonB csHUi. AdQi 

:imD. Ep. Fim 
id H-S cccc. Kd eoden 
iKipe cDnciondi. Acriorr 

AjwiL mihl sl.Seiwliu uKntai, ut it igro Cunpuio, idibiu Mkija, fnqucDii 
-' ' — NampolDinugiiinirciiii illiiu auiB lander*. Ep.Fui.1.9. 

A. I'rii. ii!i>. Cir. SI. CoM'-^^n. Coni. Lrnl. Mvcrllinui. L. Mu. Plii%& j 

where liis lii'Utoiiuiil, Q. Cicero, then resided, he entered' 
mediutcly into an expostulution with him about it, Tecounl 
all hi<< services bi his brother, and that every thing, wlud 
liiid dune for Iiim, wax dune witli Cseskr's consent ; and : 
niiiidin;r htm uf a former cuiirenation between themseliOi 
euneeniin^ (Vsar's acts and what Quintus himself had 
taki-ii fur hit hniiher un tliat head ; and, as he then made hiM* 
iK-lf uiisweritblc I'ur him, so he was now obliged to call him b 
the |H>rfonniuice uf th»st> en^a^cment^: in short, be beg 
him to iireMM his brother to support and defend Casaaft 
terestu and «li)rnitv, or, if he could not persuade him to tb^ 
to enETii^o him at [east nut to itct against them '. 

Tills remunstrance from Pomuey, enforced by his brotbs 
Quintus, •ita|;gcrc<I C'iciTo's resolution, and mude him eoKi 
into a frcNli deliboratiun with himself, about the measures J 
his conduct; where, after casting up the sum of all his thonghBi 
and weighitig every, which concerned either la 
own or the iiublic interest, he determined at last to ditf 
the aifair, rather than ex])usc himself again, in his prewit 
situaiiini, to the animoifity of Pompcy and Csesar ; for whidi 
he makes the following apology to his friend Lentulus: thd 
tliose, who professeil the same principles, and were embarkol 
in the same cause with him, were perpetually envying and 
thwarting him, and more disgustetl by tlie splendour of hu life, 
timn pleased with any thing which he did for the public se^ 
vice : th:it their only pleasure, and what they could not eveo 
dissemldc, while- he was acting with them, was to see him di»- 


n. Cicfit. Cmc^Co. Cotn. Lcpl. tUncUinui. L. Mn. Philippu, 

both ; he bad no naaon to apprelieiid the L'litir)fe of 
wy, if, oil some occasions, lie voted and acted a little 
tly from wliBt he used to do, in complaisance to such 
^ tliat lii.'i union with Pompey necessarily included 
mh wliom both he and his brother had a friendship 
F lung stanilioe ; which tliey were invited to renew, by 
inner of dviiitiea and good offices, freely offered on 
it's part: that, after Cnsfu^s great exploits and victories, 
Ht-'public itself seemed to inte^Mne, and forbid him to 
Aarrel with aiich men : that when he stood in need of their 
■ristaocc, his broilier had engaged his word for him to Fom- 
tf, and Pompey H> Csesar ; and he thought himself obliged 
t make ^ond tliusc eneagements '. 

Tais was the ^t'Tierai state of his polidcal behaviour : he had 
, inncli larger view, a more comprehensive knowledge both 
t men and th)ti^«, tlian the otlier chiefs of the aristocracy, 
Rbolus, Marcelliii us, Cato, Favonius, &c. whose stiffness had 
oined their causi-, and brought them into their present sub- 
fC&on, by alifimtiiig Pompey and the equestrian order from 
he senate: they considered CHcero's management of the tiium- 
irate, as a mean istibmission to illegal power, which they were 
Iways opposing and irritating, though ever so unseasonably ; 
rhereas Cicero thought it time to give over fighting, when 
he forces were so unequiil : and that the more patiently they 
uffierad the dominion of tlieir uew muNters, the more tcmpe- 
ately they would use it'; lieiiig persuadc-d tliiit Pompey, at 
esst, who was the head of tiicm, h;ul no designH nguirist (he 
inblic liberty, unless he were |)ruvok('d and driven to it by 
he perverse opposition of his enemies '. These were the 
rounds of that complaisance which he now generally paid to 
im, for the sake both of his own and the public (juiet : ni con- 
eqnence of which, when the appointed day came for 

III penlavhcendaDi, nl . 

■cgBWcm, (tt, jlniiitune witcm Ult in liu nirnto im- 
ri dfdcmt.Pl Fnit™ mci, qimiu rumprio. 

CMiniutaU Mu r»tin ttl Sr umnii. j>idWimim, Rei ioiiu« piiblioc. Oliiim nobis extf- 
mimm at: qood li. qui (mtiunlur rcmm. pispititiiri Tidentiir, >i qiildiini taouiine, patisn- 
M Mmni potenliun fcne poKirrint. Ilignilnlrm quidem ilUm con.ntiirein foMii ol 

rdiimn canimictiMJDan, at (omineni rlirioiwum ubdiriwrunl. Ibid. 8. 
> lUd. 1. B. 

A.l'rb.fiu;. I'l. 1. Cui. -1.1.. L'un. Unt. Minvltjuui. L. Mar. PbUirra. 

iloriii^ till' iM-^i.' iif tliv (.'iiii)])itiiian lands tl>e deltate <Iro}}))ed rf 
kiiime, wli«ii it wus urtiliTstocxl, tluit Cicero, the mover of ' 
was abst'iit urid bail t'liaii^ed hia mind : thou){li it was iw^ 
lie ill ti mil I I'M, witliout some stru^le in his own breast, that 14 
submitted to tbis !sti.>|i, which was likely to draw upon hini 
imputatiuii of Ivvitv '■ 

His duu^rlitor, 'i'ullia, hariiifr now lived a widow about 
year, was married tu a second husband, Furius Crassipes; ul 
the wetldin^ feast bold at Cicero's house on the 6th of April; 
we find very littlo suid of tlio character or condition of Urn 
Crassipes; but bv Cicero's care in making the match, the fai- 
tune which he paid, and the cungratuhition of bis friends npoi 
it, he ap])ears to have been a nobleman of principal rank and 
dignity '. Atticus, also, who vras about a year youneer 
Cicero, Wiis married this spTiii|r to I'ilia, and inviteafaiin m 
the wedding ^ As to his domestic affiiirs, his chief carc,S 
present, was about rebuilding three of his houses, which veft 
demolished in his exile ; and repairing the rest, with that alH 
of his brother, out of which thev were driven in the last attad 
of Clodiiis : by the bints, which be gives of them, they ill 
seem to have lieen very magnificent, and built under the di- 
rection of the best arcnttccts : Clodius gave no ^ther inter- 
ruption to them, being forced to quit the pursuit of Cicero, in 
order to watch the motions of a more dangerous enemy, Milo. 
Cicero, however, was not without a share of uneasiness, witbio 
his own walls; his brother's wife and his own neither afreed 
welt with each other, nor their own husbands : Quintnn wai 

op CICBBO. 291 

SI. Ca«.— Cn. Cms. Loit. HunlliBiii. L. Mw. PUHfyu*. 

Kii^ Ptuleciiy** mSut WW no more talked of; Pompey Iwd 
3keT business upon hk hands, and was so ruffled by the tri- 
one CatM, ai]d tbe conanl Mwcellinns, that he laid aside all 
liougfats of it (at hiinael^ and wished to senre Lentulus in it 
pie senate lia<l P***Gd a vote against resttHing him at all; 
lut one of the tnoones inhilnted them from proceedinir to a 
lecree ; aod a fomwr decree was aftoally subsisting in mvour 
if L«ntulus : Cicens therefore, after a consultation with Pom- 
>ey, sent him their jcdnt and last advice ; tha^ by his eomtuand 
>f a province, so near to ^TP^ » !>« "^^^ ^^ l^st judre of 
mhat he was ubie to do, w if lie found himself master of the 
dun^, and was SMured of success^ he might leare the king at 
Ptolemais, or aome other neighbouring city, and proceed 
without him to Alexandria ; where, if, by the influence of his 
Beet and lrrKip'<, he could appease the public dissensions, and 
persuade tbe iiihabttaots to receive their kin^ peaceably, he 
might then carry him home, and wo restore him according to 
the lirst decree; yet, without a multitude, as oar religiooi 
men, says he, tdl us the Sibyl has enjoined : — that it was the 
opinion however, of them both, that people would judge of the 
Eact by the event : if he was certdn, therefore, of carrying his 
Mia^ ha should not defer it; if doubtful, should not undertake 
It: fat, as the world would applaud him if he effected it with 
eese* so a miscarriage might be fatal, on account of the late 
vote of the senate, and the scruple about relig;ion '. But Len- 
tulus, wisely judging the uSatr too hazardous for one of his 
dijfnity and u>rtunes, left it to a man of a more desperate 
diaiacter, Gabinius; who ruined himself ^ooii after by em- 
barking in iL 

The tribune Cato, who was perpetually inveighing against 
keeping gladiators, like so many standing armies, to the terror 
irf" the citizens, had lately bought a band of them, but finding 
himself unable to maintain them, was contriving to pan with 
them again without noise or scandal. Milo got notice of it, 
and privately employed a person, not one of nis own friends, 
to buy them; and when they were purchased, Raciiiug, another 
tribune, talcing the matter upon himself, and pretending that 

perlemtituBlur, aunn 

ir, c]H(in»ilmoilmn bomi 

wm nfifhid Kt^IlM plKsn diiernnt. Seil hax xDlsiitis lic el illi ct nobii pnbabatur, 
wt at mtata homfan* ds too eonHlto oxiMimsluKH videnmiu.— Na* quidnn hoe Hnli- 
mm ; ri ■zpbiMnm tiU ril^poM* U k|pu ilUu> potiri ; non ewe cunctudum : ri duMum, 
MM mm coB^JiuB, Ac. Ep. Tim. 1. 7. 

V 2 

t I'll 

I. Minvl 

].. Mw 

i)ii>v Mrrc l)iiii:;lit fi)r )iim. ]iiilili.slic4l a pn>c)nination, 
( 'iirii's fjimlly lit" yljiiliiitors was to ho soI<l Uy nuction ; w 
ijavc nil Mtwill ilivirMiiii In rlic cirv '. 

Mil.-V iriiil lii-iiii; ]iiit i.ff t<. tlio fifth of May, Cicero _. 
the Ih'ik'Hi lit' :i sliort viii'atioii to iiinkt! an excursion intotkl 
cimiiiry tn vUit Lis i>sC;i[i-> iiiul villat in (litTerctit psirls oTIlil^' 
Hv sjii-nt Hvc ihivM ill Arpiiiiini, wlioiic-v lir pnicceded to la i 
ntluT liiiiiM"> at I'oniiH'iii* anil C'iima>; ami stunpcil awhile, ~ 
lii'4 n-lnrn, at ATiliiim. whori' hi.- hail hitcly reuuill hiii 
anil wivt iiiiu- 1 1 is] II is! 11^ and nnlonnfr his liUrary, by the dinfr 
liiin iif 'l'\ raniiiii ; tin- n-niaiiw "f wliii-h, ho says were 
fitii-iili'ralili' llian hi- i-xiK-rli-d from tho late ruin. Attica 
It-Ill him two of his lihrarlaiK to assist hi<> own, in taking 
higiii-s. anil jilaciij^ lhi< Imoks in imh-r: which Iio cnlls the 
fusion lit' a mhiI into tin- IhmIv of his liuusc*. Durinir tU 
liiiir, his ohi t-ni'iiiy. (iaiiiiiiiis. ilio ]iriicon«nl of Syria, liaritf 
;rain(>i| soini' ailvaiitaL;!' in .Iiiilca. airiiiiist Ariiitobuliis, who hu 
lit'i'n i)cllinnii-il liy IVmju-y. luii] on (Init accniiiit, was raiNag 
troiihk-s in ihc cinmlry. soiit [niiiiic lottorv to the senate to 
jjivi- an aninint nf his vietury, ami to Ih';j the (lucree of i 
thaiikspviii;; for it. His frii'mls took the opjM>rtunity cf 
moving till' alfiiir in ficiTo's ahsonei-. from wIiokc authoriiT 
they a|i)in'h('ni]eil soino ohstrnclion ; hut tde KCiiate, in a filll 
honsiv sli!rii|i,'<| his It-Iti-rs. anil rcji-ctrd hiM snit : an alTront, 
whii-h liiiil iii'vtT hern olfereil hcfiiri' to any |ir(H-oi)siiL Cicero 
was inliniti-ly (h-li[;lili-il with it; <iills tlic resohition divine, 
and was ilonhly pli'aseii for its hi-in^; tin; free and ^*niuiie 


97. Ck. 51. Com. — Cn, Corn. Lent. Mareciliii us. L. Blar. Pliilippiu. 

1 about tlitt dme, in the neighbourhood of Rome : 
noises under ground, with clauiing of arms; and on 
n hill, a little shrine of Juno, which stood on a table 
le east, turned suddenly of itself, towards the north, 
errors alarmed the city, and the senate consulted the 
es, who were the public diviners or prophets of the 
illed in all the Tuscan discipline of interpreting por- 
events; who gave the following answer in writing: 
lupplications must be made to Jupiter, Saturn, Nep- 
d the other gods : that the solemn shows and plays 
1 n^ligently exhibited and polluted : sacred and reli- 
aces made profane: ambassadors killed, contrary to 
1 law: &ith and oaths disregarded : ancient and hidden 
\ carelessly performed and profaned; — That the gods 
8 warning, lest, by the discord and dissension of the 
»rt, dangers and destruction should fall upon the senate 
chiefs of the city; by which means the provinces 
U under the power of a single person : their armies be 
great loss ensue ; and honours be heaped on the un- 

ind disg^raced '. " 

nay olwierve, from tliis auswer, that the iliviners were 
le direction of those who endeavoured to apply the 
B of religion to the cure of tlieir civil disorders : each 
tterpretiug it according to tlieir own views: Clodius 
handle from it of venting his spleen afresh against 
and, calling the people toii^etlier for that purpose, 
'd to persuade them, that this divine admonition was 
I particularly aj^iinst him ; and that the article of the 
no religious places referred to the case of his house ; 
fter a solemn consecration to religion, w<is rendered 
rofane; charging all the displeasure of the gods to 
account, who affected nothing less than a tyranny and 
ession of their liberties ^ 

) made a reply to Clodius, the next day, in the senate; 
fter a short and general invective upon his profligate 
leaves him, he says, a devoted victim to milo, who 
to be given to them by Heaven, for the extinction of 
lague, as Scipio was for the destruction of Carthage : 
res the prodigy to be one of the most extraordinary, 
id ever been reported to the senate ; but lauy^hs at the 
Y of applying any part of it to him : since Jus house, 
roves at large, was more solemnly cleared from any 
yr relation to religion, than any otlier house in Rome, 

'glim. Manutii io Orat. de Haru9|>. rcsponci. Dio, 1. 39. p. 100. 

by l)u> ju<l);in<?iit of tlie piesLs (Uo senate, and all tbeat 
uf tliv city'. Tlu'ii niiiiiiiig tlirougli the several vtiddl 
th<> iiii^wiT, 111- !it)i>ws tliom all tu tally no exadly «hk T 
jiuioriiius uct^ and imniL-tics of CIndius's life, [lint they M 
lint [H>ssiMy l>c u)>|>]ie[) to any tliine else — that, aitoi 
Mi>i>rts 'iiLid til Ik> negligently perfnnnea and polluted, it d '^ 
ileiiotcd tliciiolliiiiiiii of tli<> Me^.ilensian play; the mnl 
rahlc and roliiritm'* of all utiior simws; which Clodius l 
IV* teililc, pxlitbitcd in liorinur of the motlier of the ^ 
wlicre, when tin' nii^jistrati's and tilizens were seated, to p 
take of the diversions anil t)ie usual proclamation was i>>*^l 
tn eommaiid all slitves to retire, a vast body of them, gathcnll 
from all parts of the city, by the order of Clmliiis, forced Ml 
way ii)Miii the stage, to the ^reat terror of the assembly; what | 
mueli mi-wliief ariit bliKHlxliMl would have ensued, if the cob 
Marcellinus hy his firmness and presence of mind, had n 
. quieted tlie tumult : and, in another repreiientatlan of Ae | 
Name plays, the <ilav<.s, enconr.'^red Hfpiin by Clodius, wenm 
audaeiuus and sucei-tsful, in a second irruption, that they dron 
the whole company imi of the theatre, and possessed it eih I 
tirely tu themtielves*: that, as to the profanation of sacred I 
relifrious places, it could not he intt>r[>rcted of any thing n ] 
aptlv, at uf what Clodius and his friends had done : for ttit, 
in the liowso of Q. Seins, which he had bought, after murdo^ I 
In^r the owner, there was a ehajiol and altars, which he hi^ 
lately domoli-hed : that L. Pi?>o had destroyed a celebrated 
cliBpel of Diana, where all that neighbour hood, and some ewn i 


j now punaiD); popnl 

: at one dme ■ &roimte of llw 

uHidier of the teoate ; wbow credit warn wboUj' 

J i>y tlieir qowreh and anuDontiu. He exhorto tbem. 

Tore, ill the eonduiati, to bemre of fidliar into tboae . 

es, of irbich the goAt so eridently fonraniefl them : and 

e OLTv, e»pecialljr, that the fonn « the Republic waa not 

1; aiace all dnl contesta between great and powerfal 

Kits, must Di^ceanrily end, either in an uQirersal destmo- 

I, or a tyranDv f^ the conqaeror : that the state wa* now in 

ittertng » coadition, that nothing coold preaerre it but 

' concord : ibat there was no hope of its being betteTt 

ile Clodius remained napiuushed; and bnt one degree left 

being worse, hj being wholly nuned and eoalaTed; fiir the 

trentton of which, the gods had given them this renaritable 

timonition ; for they were not to believe, what was si 
■presented ou thd stifle, that any god ever descended from 
eavea to converse femiliarly with men : but that these extra- 
irdinwy aoonds and agitations of the world, the air, the ele- 
neat^ ware the only voice and speech, which Heaven made 
■seof; that these admonished them of their danger, and pointed 
•ot the remedy ; and that the gods, by intimating bo freely 
be way of their safetvi had shewn, bow easy it would be to 
Mcify them, by pacifying only their own animosities and dis- 
orda among themselves. 

About the middle of the summer, and before the time of 
boooDg new consuls, which was commonly in August, the 
enate b<^;an to deliberate on the provinces, which were to be 
awgned to them at the expimtioii of their office. The con- 
olar provinces, about which the debate singly turned, were 
he two Gauls, which Caesar now held ; Macedonia, which 
PSao; and Syria, which Gabinius possessed. All who spoke 
lefbre Cicero, excepting Serrilius, were for taking one or both 

he Gauls from CEesar ; which was what the senate generally 

le gladly laid hold 

I the occasion, to revenge himself on Piso and Gubinins, and 

leaired; but when it came to Cicero's turn, he gladly 

iserted all his authority, to get them recalled with some marks 
if diwrace, and their goveniments assigned to the succeeding 
misuu; hut as for CEesar, his opinion was, tliat his < 

' D* Hunip. r»p, 17, 18, 

sliuuUt be conltiuicd to liim, till he had finished the war, wbick 
tie wits carrying »n with cuch succcsa, and settled the oonqoc^ 
ed countries. This gave no nmall ofTeiice ; and the consa! PU- 
Ii|>pu!t coulil not forbear interrupting and reminding hiin, tkl 
lie had more reason to be angry with Ceesar than with Gibt 
iiius hini^etf ; Miice Ciesar was the author and raiser of all tbi 
storm, width had opiireKscd him. But Cicero replied, that, ii 
tilts vote, he was not pursuing his private resentment, but Ae 
public gootl, which had reeonciled him to Ceesar ; and that be 
eoiild not be nn enemy to one, who was deserving so well of 
his country : that u year or two more would complete his cod- 
(Hte.xts, and reduce all Gaul tn a state of peaceful subjection: 
tliat the oinsc was widely different between Caesar and the 
other two; that Ca^ir's administnirion was beneficial, pros- 
perous glorious, to the Keptiblic ; theirs, scandalous, ignoni- 
nioiLS hurtful to their subjects, and contemptible to thra 
enemies. In Nhort, he nianajred the debate so, that the senate 
came fidly into hii« seutimoiitK, and decreed the rcvocatioa of 
Piso and Gubinius '. 

He was now likewise eng»^ed in pleading two constderahle 
causes at the bar; the one in defence of Cornelius Balbw, 
the other of M. Ctelius. Bidhns wsw a native of Gades, in 
Spain, of a splendid family iti that citVi who, for his fidelity 
atid services to the Uoniati general^ iti that province, and espe- 
cially in the Sertorian war, had the freedom of Rome confeiwl 
itpoii him by I'ompey, in virtue of a law, which authorized him 
lo grant it to as many as he thought proper. But Pnmpey' 


▲.UfffcL6i7. CSe.51. Ooh.— Cn. Corn. Lent Mwcellinut. UMw. PhilippiM. 

id Gnnr; -by whose fiivour he had acquired great wealth and 
dMer ; beb^ at this time general of the ardllery to CsBsar, 
■A die principal manwer or steward of all his amurs. 'Ilie 
IdfgM ipnre sentence tor him, and confirmed his right to the 
if^tmm which foundation he was raised afterwards, by Aa- 
[■MOB, to the consulate itself: his nephew, also, young mlbus, 
»h» WM made free with him, at the same time, obtained the 
iMMmr of a triumph, for his irictories over the Garamantes ; and, 
m Pfiny tells us, they were the only instances of foreigners, 
■sd adopted citisens, who had ever advanced themselves to 
■Aer or those honours in Rome\ 

CkriiuSy whom he next defended, was a younc^ gentleman of 
B^MStrian rank, of great parts and accompUsnments, trained 
nder the discipline of Cicero himself; to whose care he was 
Boasmitted, by his fiither, upon his first introduction into the 
Porom : before he was oif age to hold any magistracy, he had 
iiiringnished himself by two public impeachments; the one of 
CX Antonius, Cicero's colleague in the consulship, for con- 
ipiring against the state ; the other of L. Atratinus, for bri- 
bery and oormption. Atratinus's son was now revenging his 
hAer's qoarrel, and accused Coelius of public violence, for 
being eonoemed in the assassination of Dio, the chief of the 
Alexandrian embassy ; and of an attempt to poison Clodia, the 
sister of Clodius : he liad been this lady's gallant ; whose re- 
sentment, for her favours sli|rhted by him, was the real source 
of all his trouble. In this speech Cicero treats the character 
ind gallantries of Clodia, her commerce with Coelius, and the 
i;aieties and licentiousness of youth, with such a vivacity of wit 
ftud humour, that makes it one of the most entertaining, which 
be has left to us. Ccelius, who was trulv a libertine, lived on 
the Palatine hill, in a house which he hired of Clodius, and, 
unong the other proofs of his extravagance, it was objected, 
that a young man, in no public employment, should take a 
separate house from his father, at the yearly rent of two hun- 
dred and fifty pounds : to which Cicero replied, that Clodius, 
he perceived, had a mind to sell his house, by setting the value 
of it so high ; whereas, in truth, it was but a little paltry dwell- 
ing, of small rent, scarce above eighty pounds per annum*. 
Coelius was acquitted, and ever after professed the highest re- 

' Fuit et Balbns Cornelius major consul — Primus cxtcruorum, atque etiani in oceano 
leBitoTum uto* iUo honore. Hist. N. 7. 43. 

Gannia eupni Ganimantum : omnia armis Romaiiis superata, ct a Comclio Balbo 
crinmpbAU, imo omnium extemo cumi et Quiritiuui jure donato : quippc Gadibus nato 
dvitw Rom. cum Balbo majore patruo data est. Ibid. 5. 5. 

' Sanptiu nniui generis objectus est, habitationis : triginta millibus dixistis eum 
Imbitare. Nunc domnm intelligo P. Clodii innuLim esse vcnaleni, ciijus hie in sdiculis 
tobitet, decern, ut opinor, millibus. Pro Ccelio, 7. 

A.L-[b.(i!i7. L-K-bl. CW.-L11. L'mn. LcDi. Mualliiiii>. L. M^. Philqipu. 
ganl for Civera ; witli wliom be lipid a correapondence tt 
letU'rs, wliicli will ((ivc us occasion to speak more of him ii 
tlie Bcquol of tlii> liiHton'. 

CIclTo seeuiN to liiivv cuinposed a little poem, about tUi 
time, in compliment to Csesar: and excuses his not seodii^it 
to Atliciis, lit-(-ii»sp Ci«Siir pressed to liavc it, and he had re- 
wrved no ('o|iy : tliou^li, to confess the truth, he says, he toaoi 
it very difficult to dij^t the meanness of recanting his old 
principles. " Hut tiilieu," says he, '* to all ri^ht, true, hooett 
counsels: it ii incredible, what perfidy there is in those, who 
want to be leaders, and who really would be so, if tliere wm 
any faitli in them. 1 felt what tliey were to my cost, when 1 
was drawn in, deserted, and betrayed by them : 1 resolved still 
to act on with them in all tiling ^ but found them the same M 
before; till, by your advice, 1 came at last to a better mind. 
You will till me, that you advised me indeed to act, bat not 
to WTite; it is true; but 1 was willing to put myself under ■ 
necessitv of .-uUieriiig to my new alliance, and preclude tke 
possibility of returiiinfr to those, who, instead of pitying me, 
as tliey ought, never cense cnvyin^r mo. But since those who 
have no power will not love me, my business is to acquire the 
love of those who have : you will say, 1 wish that you had done 
it long ago; I know you wished it; and I was a mere ass for 
not minding you'." 

Ill tins year, also, Cicero wrote that celebrated letter to 
Lucecius, in which ho presses him to attempt the history of 
his transactions : Lnccems was a man of eminent learning and 


.697. Cic. 51. Com. — Cn. Cora. Lcut. Marcelliuus. L. Mar. Philippui. 

that this short interval was distinguished with such a 
of incidents, and unexpected turns of fortune, as fiir- 
the happiest materials, both to the skill of the writer, 
i entertainment of the reader; that, when an. author's 
)n was confined to a single and select subject, he was 
apable of adorning it and displaying his talents than in 
le and diffusive field of general history ; but if he did 
nk the facts themselves worth the pains of adorning, that 
lid yet allow so much to friendiship, to affection, and 
J that favour, which he had so laudably disclaimed in 
faces, as not to confine himself scrupulously to the strict 
F history, and the rules of truth. — That, if he would 
ike it, he would supply him with some memoirs, or 
ntaries, for the foundation of his work ; if not, that he 
' should be forced to do, what many had done before 
rite his own life ; a task liable to many exceptions and 
ties ; where a man would necessarily be restrained by 
y, on the one hand, or partiality on the other, either from 
g^, or praising himself so much as he deserved, &c. ^ 
1 letter is constantly alleged as a proof of Cicero's vanity, 
;essive love of praise : but we must consider it as written, 
a philosopher, but a statesman, conscious of die greatest 
8 to his country, for which he had been barbarously 
. ; and, on that account, tlie more eager to have them 
^nted in an advantageous light, and impatient to taste 
yart of that glory, when living, which he was sure to 
Dm them when dead : and as to the passage which gives 
gnce, where he presses liis friend to exceed even the 
of truth in his praises, it is urged only, we see, con- 
lly, and upon an absurd or improbable supposition, that 
us did not think the acts themselves really laudable, or 
^raising : but whatever exceptions there may be to the 

!r, there can be none to the elegance and composition 
etter; which is filled with a variety of beautiful senti- 
illustrated by examples, dniwn from a perfect know- 
f history; so that it is justly ranked among the capital 
of the epistolary kind, which remain to us from anti- 
Cicero had employed more than ordinary pains upon 
was pleased with his success in it : for he mentions it 
2U8 with no small satisfaction, a!)d wished him to get a 
■ it from their friend Lucceius. The effect of it was, 
icceius undertook what Cicero desired, and probably 
ome progress in it, since Cicero sent him the memoirs, 
le promised, and Lucceius lived many years after, in an 

' Ep. Fam. 12. 

uiiiiitiTr(i|iieil fricmMii]' witli liiin, tliougb nritb^r tfab, n* 
any ikIkt nf lii-' wntiii;r^ had tlit> fortune to be preserved I 

AM [x-dpk'N fVis anil iiii-linaiiuii^ Wtraii now to turn tonidl 
C'iPMir: will), (ty t)u' I'l'lal of )iU victorit>s seemed to Htb] A* 
fame nf l*i'ni|ti'y liiinsclf : am) l>v liis aililress and gtraavAj, 
If.tiiieil ^rouiiii iii>iiii liiin daily in autlmrity and influence n 
piiMic affidr'^. He spent tlie winter at Luca ; wlittlier snt 
iiirKtHirse of all ranks n-sortcd tu him from Rome. Hen 
I'liinpi'V and CrasHns wore ag-.iin made friends l>v Iiim: m 
pntji-et formed, itjat tliey jiliould jointly i>eize tfie consul 
for the next year, tliou^li lliey liad not dceiared themselra 
iiinilidalL'S u'itiiiii tlie usual time. L. Lloiiiitius Abenobarbn^ 
ii profe^^eil enemy, wus one of the <.-oui net! tore ; uLo, Uiiakisg 
liiiMNelf hiire of sueeess, eoiild not foHH-ar bra^jrinj^, tlut M I 
would elTeet. wlieii eonsnl, what he could not do when pnetWi ! 
rescind (.'ie>ar'>< atis und n.>cal him from his ^rernment': 
wliieh ma<le tliein resolve at all hauinia to defeat him. Whit 
greatly lavouretl (lieir design, was the oltsliiiary of the tribune 
C. Cuto: who. to revenue himself on Mareelliiius, for not stA- 
foriiiL; him to hold any iL-4icmli]ies of the people, for promul- 
jratiniT his laws, wuuUf not sntfei- the consuls to hold any for 
the choice of the ma^istratos'. The triomvttatc itupportea him 
in this resolution till the y^-ar expiriHl, and the govvniment fell 
into on iiiterreiriinm ; when, by faction and violoiice, and the 

terror uf trwiiis, poured into the city, thev extorted the con- 
sulship out ul the hand.s of Domitius : ana secured it to tliem- 


ti Oi^9K~VkTi~a»t'~0^ Ctn. Lmt. IbnetliDiiv L. Hw. Pbil^pM. 

a jruung nobleman, who had impeached ManiliiM Crispiu, 
of prEetoriaa nak, and notorioiuly guilty, being pro- 
by rumpey^ protectiaii of htm, turnedhii sUadt agaimt 
onipcy bim«etf, up diamd bim with many aines against 
Miiu> ; being ai^udi uenfore, by Pompey, why be did 
ebusc In imneacli hin^ rather t^n the criminal be n- 
briskly, tlint if be wooid give ball to stand a trU* 
lout raiiiin^ » c'lril war, he would aoon bring faim befim 

A-lTtb-GM. Cit.Hl. 

DuKiNG tbe coiilinnance of these tamults, occasioned by the 
loctioit nf the new consuls, Cicero retired into the country; 
^TG he Htaid to tbe beginning of May, mncb oat of bumoar, 
disgnfited both with the Republic and fainuelf. Attieo^S 
lODStant twivice to liim was, to consult his safety and interest, 
hr uniting himself with the men of power; ana they, on their 
art, were as ronstantly inviting him to it, by all possible 
^Bsoninces of tlicir affection : but, in his answera to Atticus, he 
obeents, tliat tbi-ir two cases were very different; that Atticus, 
■ having no pi?ciiliiir character, suffered no peculur indignity; 
nothing but what was common to all tbe citizens ; whereas his 
own condition was such, that, if lie suoite what he ought to do, 
he should be looked upon as a ma<liiiaii ; if what was aseful 
onlv to himself, as a slave; if notliin;^ at all, as quite oppressed 
ana subdued : that his uiiea8iness wat the ^eater, becaase he 
could not shew it without beiii^ thought ungrateful :^" yiiall 
1 withdraw myself, then," says be, "from business and retire 
to the port of e^e ? That will not he allowed to me. ^tball 
I follow these leaders to tbe wais, and, after bavin;; refused to 
command, submit to be commanded ? I will do so ; for I see 
that it is your advice, and wish that I bad always followed it : 
or, shall I resume my post, and enter again into affairs? I 
cannot percuade myself to that, but ix^jrjn tu think Phi- 
loxenus in the right ; who chose to bo carried back to prison, 
rather than commend the tyrant's venes. TIiIh it what I am 
now meditating ; to declare my dislike at least of what they 
are doing'." 

4r too {Kim, quant de Muilii «piir, in conriliuin jiidirn mitimn. Ibiil. 

■ Tu qnidnn, ftai n lulun -voXiTinlt, Umcn niiUam liiU'ri pinpmni HTtiliiteni ; 

:tO? THF. i.iFi: 

.t.lrb.«!MI I'lt.VJ. t;.,,.— fu. riUBiKiU. Miiou. 11. M.IjoiiwiCdmI 1 

Sucli were tlie iuritatu>iis nt' liis miiiil at tliU time, v^^ 
qiiently MirnifliK in hit letters: liv was now ut oneof^nl 
till tlii-'di'liiflitt'til >ht>n> ui llaiir, thu diii'f place of nmts 
l>li>a>urt> tiir (lu- ^reut uiiil rich: Pnmpey caiue dolbil 
April, and iin sihiiiit iirrivtM). tliiui lie sent bim his ff~* 
iiifiitit. uiiil ^[H■llt Ills wiiolc lime with bim: tLey I 
ilitciiiirse on public iitfairs, in which Pompey exprei 
iiiifasiness ami uwnci) himself tlissadsfieil with bu owb pntB 
tlifm; but Cicero, in his uccimnt of the conversation, intiBMi 
Mime !<uspii-iiiii of lii> sincority'. In the midst of this coiiifi^ I 
»nd diversion, Cicero's entertitiiimeiit was in hia stupes; Ml 
he never rcsiiU-d iiny where ivitlinnt securing to himself Ac I 
usi> of a •rtxhl library : here he liiut the cummaiid of FausUtf^ I 
the sou of Sylla. iiiiil soii-iti-law of I'oinpey ; one of the bcA 1 
ctilleotions of Italy; gathered from the spoils of Greece, vi I 
e«peciallv of AiheiK. from wliieh ^yllu brought awav mof I 
tbou'SUMf volumes. He had nobody in the house with bim bit I 
Diouysius, a learned Greek slave, whom Atticua liad imdc 1 
free, ami who was entrusted with the education of the twa 1 
youn^ I'ieeros, the ^iiui aiul the nephew : witli this compoiiioD 
lie w;ts tli-voiiring books, sini-e the wretched state of the public ] 
hail dei>Tived him, asi he tells us. of all other pleai^ures. " I 
hud much r.iiher," mivs he, to Atticus, " be sitting on your 
little iH-neh, under Aristotle's pieture, tlian in the curule cnain 
of our great ones: or tuking a turn with you, in yourwalk^ 
than with him, whom it must, I sec. he my fate to walk with: 
Jis for the success of tlitit walk, let Fortune look to it, or some 
god, if there Iv any, who takes care of us'." He mendoiu, 
in the siime letter, ii current report at Puteoli, that King 
Ptolemy was restored ; and desires to know what account thej 


fil at Rone:- the report was very true; for OabiniiM, 

id bjr Ftalemy^B goMi and the plunder of Egypt, and 

itgBa dais aa aome write, by Pompe^ himself undertodc 

IJHa Urn on the throne with his Syrian army ; which he 

fkimA a l^h hand, and the destruction of all the king's 

^ ~ in open defiance of the authority of the senate and 

of the sibyl : this made a great noise at Ilome, 

the people to such a de|p«e, that they resolved 

leel their displeasure for it, very severely, at bis 

■l eoDeagne Piso came home the first, from his nearer 
^■Miaii* 3[ Macedonia ; after an inglorious administration 
jpr pravinoe^ whence no consular senator had ever returned 
flto a trimnph. For though, on the account of some trifling 
e in ne field, he bra procured himself to be saluted 
by his army, yet the occasion was so contemptible^ 
aim dnitt not send any letters upon it to the senate ; but^ 
f appuwslng the subjects, plundering the allies, and losing 
bait part en his troops, against the neighbouring barbarians, 
hiraded and hdd waste the country, he ran away, in dis- 
^ from a mutiny of the soldiers, whom he disbanded, at 
iridiont their pay*. When he arrived at Rome, he 
alripped his fiances of their laurel, and entered the city ob* 
acoiely and ignominiously, without any other attendance than 
hia own retinue*. On his first appearance in public, trusting 
to the authority of his son-in-law, Csesar, he harl tlic liardiniMs 
to attadc Cicero, and complain to the senate of his injuriouM 
treatment of him: but when he began to repn>ach him with 
the disgrace of his exile, the whole assembly inti;rrupt(?d hitn 
by a loud and general clamour^. Among other things with 
which he upbraided Cicero, he told him, that it was not any 
envy for wnat he had done, but the vanity of what he had 

> ▼id.Dio,1.89,p. 116,&c. 

i Ez qna aUauot pmtorio ioiperio, consuUri quidcm iicriio rediit, qui incoliifjii* fuerit, 
qui BOB triumpofurit. In Pison. 16. 

Ut ex ea proTincia, qtue fuit ex omnibus una maziino tritimp^iAli*, nuJlaa tit «d •eaa 
~ HttefM mittere aiuus. Nuntius ad tenatiim uiiMt»e«t uulJui. Ihid. \if. 

If itto de uniiM maxima parte exemtut. I bill. 20, 

Djniiaeliiiim ut venit deccdeni, obsessut ett ab ii« iiMii militibui — Quibii* cum jurttu* 
■fllliiiMUl, te,^u« deberentur, p<»tero die penirjluttinim ; domum m; aUiidit : inde lUKtv 
latonpetU crepdatat, Tette senili navem coniccndit. Ibid. 'Mi. 

s fibc itte — Hacedonicus Imperator in urbem ne intulit, ut nulliu* nc/ntinUini obMuri* 
iial redftns unqoam fuerit deaertior. Ibid. 23. 

Onm to— detractam e cruentis fiucibus lauream ad portatn Kkqtiiliruim abjerikti. 
Hid. 80. 

4 Tone ttotna et meum disceMum ilium — maledicti et contumelia; loco ponen*? Quo 
faideni tampon ccpi, patret conscriptif fracttim immortalcni Tittri in ma amorift— 
Ml aon adBiiinniintionef ted roce et clamora abjecti hominii — petulantiam fregiatii 


:t04 THE LIFE 

A.l'rb.'.mt, <'ii VJ I ..-t-L'a. roBptiut >fa,n<i>-U M. LkiunBll**!)- 

siiil. wliK-li liiul ilrivcn liim intu cxilv; and tliutaMug|En 
nf \>i>. 

was till' i-uuM' of all IiU i-ntiiniity: )iy provoking Piraipn'K'l 
iiiiiko liiin f»'ol, luiw iniu'li tin* power of tlie ti;eneral «■« Si^ 
rior to tliat of tin- iinitor: lii' put liim in mitm, also, tbalitMi 
iiipiiit mill iingi'ntToiK to cxort l]i« Milceii only against mm^ 
whom lie liiid rcaioii In (■oiiU-mn, wiiliout t1arin<r to medA 
witli tliciM' who liail mon- power, and when- his rpscntmpntwi 
mort> diu''. linl ii had Ih-po In-ttor for him lo have stifled Ui 1 
complainls, anil siiflV-rcd Cici^ro to he qniol; who, oxasp«^ | 
hy hin iniprndi'iK :illafk, inadi> a rt-ply to him upon the ipo^ 1 
ill itn invi'fiiv*' tpci-ch, thr M>vi'rest, pcrliap>i, iliat was tnt I 
Kpoki-n liy Hiiv man, on tho pi-rson, tho pitrr.<, the whole life ' 
anil (.■on<Uict ot I'lso: which, us ]on<!; as the llomiin name snlh 
si«tN, must deliver down a most di-testab1o eharnctor of him to 
idl puslerity. As to the verse, with whitli he wjw urged, he 
ridieulos the altsunlity of I'iso's ap)>licati(ni of it, and teVU him, 
that he hud eontrived a very cxtniordiniiry |>nnishment for 
poor poets, if lln-y were to he banished for every bad line; 
Ihat he wa* a eiitie of a new kind; nut an Aristarchns, hula 
};niininitliod I'halaris; whl^ instead nf e.Tpuiivinfr the verse, 
uai for destroying the atitlior; that the verso itself could not 
imply an alTront to any man whatsoever: that he was an am, 
and did not know his letteni, to imagine, that, by the gown, be 
meant his own jrown ; or by arms, the arms of any particular 
general : and not to see, that he was speaking only in die 
|KH'li(^iI style; and. as the one was the emblem of peace, the 
olhrr of war, that he eontd mean notlunn; else, than that the 


iMdSce of such as Piso; who were contiiiiially infusing 
^ and suq>icioii8 into him, till they had removed from 
jQnidence all who loved either him or the Republic '• 
•wit this time the theatre, which Pompey had built at his 
ickirge, for the use and ornament of the city, was solemnly 
4cd and dedicated : it is much celebrated by the ancients, 
til grandeur and magnificence : the plan was taken from 
jitMlre of Mytilene, but greatly enlarged, so as to receive 
iBMdioosly forty thousand people. It was surrounded by a 
/ka, to shelter the company in bad weather, and had a 
ikt or senate-house, annexed to it ; witli a basilica also, or 
ffd haU, proper for the sittings of judges, or any other 
JUic bunness ; which were all finished at Pompe/s cost, and 
smed ^th a great number of images, formen by the ablest 
Mlen» of men and women, famed for something very re- 
aikable or prodi^ous in their lives and characters '. Atticu^^ 
idbrtook tne care of placing all theiie statues, for which 
mr dbarged Cicero with his thanks to him'; but what 
this fiibnc the more surprising and splendid, was a beau- 
Ihl temple^ erected at one end of it to Venus the Con<|ueresA; 
lod to eoDtrived, that the seats of the theatre might serve 
M stairs to the temple. This was designed, it in said, to 
avoid the reproach of making so vast an expense for the 
mere use of luxury : the tem]>le being so placed, that those 
who came to the shows, might seem to come to wor^llip the 

At the solemnity of this dedication, Pompey entertained the 
people with the most magnificent shows, which had ever been 
ezkibited in Rome : in the theatre, were st^ige-plays, prizes of 
musics wrestling, and all kinds of bmlily e.\ercisc*s : in the 

I Qnoiuam te non Aristarclium, scd graniniatiriini Phalariin liAheTnii«>, qui non notam 
tppimii^ ad malnm Tersum, ted poctam uruis proM><|uarc — Quid nunc te, Ahirif , litoni* 
doecftm? Nmi dixi banc togani, qua sum ainictuR, nee arma, scutum rt gladium uniufe 
Impentorii: led quod pads e»t insigne ct otii, topi; contra autein annu, tuniultuii ac 
Mii, more poetamm locutuB, hoc intclligi volui, belluin ac tuniultuni pati ntquc otio 
co utc— a miD — in altero — hcrercm, niM tu me rx|)ediKse^. Nam rum tu— d( tructam e 
Cfu e n ti a fiucibus lauream ad portam Ksquilinani alijc* isti, indiraj>ti, non mo<lo amplift- 
tinutj led etiam ininimae laudi laurcam concessi!ii>c — Vis I'onipcium i^to venu inimicum 
mihi ene factum — Primo nonne compcnHabit cum uno vei^iculo tot mca Tolumina 
Undam tuarum ? Vcstne fraudes, — vcbtne criminatiuneb insidianini nieanim — eHt-ccnint 
at cap ezduderer, &r. In Pison. 30, 31. 

* rompcius Magnus in ornanieuti<« theatri niirubilcs fania po»uit inia^rincM : ol> id 
diligcntius magnorum artifirum ingeniis elabt^ratari : int<-i- quu» Kiriiur Kut\ch«.', st %iginti 
libciia Togo illata, enixa tnginta partus; Alcippe, Klephantuni. Plin. Hint. 7. 3. 

* Tibi etiam gnitias ;igelMit, quod t^'uma coniiN>ncndu 8UfeC('pi^>'e^. Ad Att. 4. .9. 

* Qnnm Poni|>oiu», inquit,ardem Victoria; dedicatunis esMrt, ciiju«»graduh vicem theatri 
Cttcnt, &c. A. Cell. x. 1. Vid. Tertull. de S[M,'ctac. 

E^ion Cawius mentions it, as a tradition he iiad mot with, that thin theiitrc waa not 
rr^Mj bnilt by Pompey, but bv his frccdnian, Dcnietriu-*, wlio ha^l uiadi* liiniself richer 
than bla master, by attending liim in his wnt>; and, to take ofr the envy of raihing so vant 
an ciNtf, laid out a conaidGnble part of it ujran the thi*atre, and gave the iiouour of it to 
Pompey. Dio, p. KKT. Sencc. dfe Tranq. Anim. c. V-. 


'JMB' "Tve life 

A-l'rheie Cic.S3 Cod -eB.K«pri«M*fiitull. M.Udaii 

orciH, lionie- races, and huntings of wild beasts, fc 
tuccvmiwiy, in which five bundrrd lions were killedi|M 
the last day, twenty elepliaats; whost? lamentable n 
vben mortally wounded, raised such a coininUenitiaD ■ 
nultitude, fruin a vul^r uotion of their ^eat »en«e wl 
10 raarii that it destroyed tlic whole diversion of thtskiMr 
drew curses on Pompey himself, for beintr the autlior d 
nuch cruelty ' : so true it is, what Cicero observi>s of iU*1| 
of prodigality, that there is no real <ligiiily, or k 
m It : tlmt it satiate!!, while it pleases, and is for^tten, ■* 
n it is over'. It gives us, however, a genuine idekttfl 
wealth and grandeur of these principal subjects of ^^ 
who, from their private rei'euues, could raise such noble bl 
iags, and provide such shows, from the several quartets til 
world, which no monarch on eartli is now able to exhiUt. 
Cicero, contrary to his custom, was present at these il 
out of compliment to Pompey, and gives a pardcular M 
of them to his friend M. Marius, who could not be dravflfl 
tkem from his books and retreat in the country. " The C 
actors," eaya he, " who had left the stage, came on to itl( 
in honour to Pompey ; but, for the sake of tlteir owo h 
ought rather to have staid away ; our friend ^sopus ap_ 
to be quite sunk and worn out; so that all people seemed II 
tnr to fip^nt him his quietus; for, in attempting to laiie'- 
voice, where he had occasion to swear, his speech fiilteredH^I 
Jailed him. In the other plays, the vast apparatus, and orowMl 
machinery which raised the admiration of the mob, spoiled te I 
entertainment: six hundred mules, infinite treasures of plaX^l 
troops of horse and foot fighting on the stage. The huntil^l 
indeed, were magnificent: but what pleasure, to a man rf ' 

Me to j&opu*, 1 would wiUiiigljr oait iW it^r. 

with yau, ana such as you, in m poliie awl Hbml 

It rity continued, for a great part of Uih •uiiuDrT, viUwiU 

lual ii)a;riHtrut«s : for tlie eleclioiH, whicb Uad been post- 

from die laiit year, were still kept off l>y the ™«m..U , (JU 

ounld settle tliem to their minds, and Mvurc thvn tv tlwir 

BWtures : which they effected, at laH, except in tbc tarn 

n tribunes, who «lip|>e<I into Hir office SffunM tbdr ■iU: 

die most remarkable repuhe k-ml, of M. Calo baat tke 

ihip, which was given to Vatlnius: fruca tiur heat dttMS 

\e won't. Cato, u^kiii hi« return (rom the Cypnan rojMi^ 
ompliinented by the ftenaie, for ihtU mwicp, wnfa Uw oftv 
i praetor&hip in an eitraordJDaiy muraer'. Bat h« it- 
I the compliment, thinking it »ore ad^rMaUc to Ui 
■cler to obtain it in the ardira(r\- my, by the free rhtif* 
le people : but when tite fdection tauiie on, in wbic^ W 
I Ibougot sure of suocesa, FoDipey broke up the mmtmhif, 
— 'enc« of somewhat inaaspicioas in the hearem, and, by 
■ Bod management, got V'atinitw d*x-Wrrd praMo^ wfa* 
!en repuUed the year before, with dMgnce, (ram iks 
lip*: but this being carried bv fwoe of mooey, MhI 
/ to produce an impmchmeiit of \ atitiim, Afnniaa mored 
I for a decree, that the prwtori «houhl not be t|nestiofk«l &m 
bribery after their eteclittn, u hicL pa-iied. ttfoaitkt the fjeneral 
humour of the senate, with an exception only of «iily liayH, in 
' which they were to be considered is private men. The pre- 
' fence for the decree wan, that so mueh of the year being apenti 
die whole would pass without any prsetora at all, if a liherty of 
impeaching was allowed. " From this moment," uy* Cicero, 
"tney have given the excluoion to Cato; ami, beiitg matter* 
of all, resolve that all the world shall know it'." 

Cicero's Palatine house, and the adjoining portico of Catulna, 
were now finished, and, as he and bis brother were the curators, 
likewise, of tlie repairs of the temple of Teilus', so they seem 
to have provided some inscriptions for these buildings in honour 
ami memory of themselves: but, since no public in»criptJo»s 

Stiuiut nlitionnn iDUrpool jnhrtKi. ut inHonii tomitim 

■ Pnxiiiu daucDtiB niBruu — qncmiun qncDi hcrnoRm Cuoni lu^Trrut, Tmtiaia 
n oMetl imu. Vil. M». f. 5. Vlut. in Pomp. 

* A. D. III. Id. Hiii S. C. behim nt de imbim in Afruii Hntniliun. Btd magu 
OB geniw BruIb). Conniln nan lunl pcnccuii mrum Knuntiu : qui Afniiia turn 
■eat ■wiiiiii iddidRiiDt, ul prstar« iu crarcnlur, u< din LX. prinii cHent. — Bo di* 
itaMB plme npuduniDt. Qoul mulu ? Tcorat oouiu. idquc iU omna iDtcllignB 
Ant. AdQ ■ ■ " " 


A.I-A.CM. fk S3. L'«.t.- C«.P-ipriiiiMip™.n. M.lirM»Ci-»IL | 
could be net up, unless by public sutliority, they trateil 
bemive of an oppoBition mm Clodius. Cicero mendm 
aae to l*oin|iey, who promispd his assistance, but adnMall 
to txlk hIm) with Cth8Sus, which he took occasion to^HH 
attended liim home one dav from the senate. Cnusost 
undertook the uflair, and toU him, that Clodius had >?<"^ 
carrv for liiiniielf, hy I'nmpey's help and hix, and that, if Cin| 
would not opiHKW C'hxliiis he was persuaded that t~ 
would not disturb him; tii which Cicen> consented. CW 
business was 'o procure one of thoxe free or honorary li 
nancies, that he nii^ht ^o with a public character to Byi 
and kinff Bro^itarns, to gather the money which tliey e 
him f«ir |Mist servicen, " As it Ls a mere money matter," ■ 
Cicero, '* 1 shall not concern myself about it, whether 1 (■■a 
my own |>oint or not. tliough Pompey and Crassiis have jonlh -1 
undertaken it; but he seems to have obtained what he dedn^t | 
Hoce, besides the intended inscriptions, he mentions a ■ 
also of his brother, which he had actually erected at the teo^ I 

Trebonius, one of the tribunes in the interests of the tti- | 
umviratp, published a law, for the assignment of provinces U 
the consuls for the term of five years : to Pompey, Spain tod ' 
Afric; to Crassiis, Syria, and the Parthian war, with the 
power of raising what forces they thought fit : and that Oesai's 
commission shoidd be renewed also for five years more. Tbf 
law was opfHtsed by the generality of the senate ; and, abon 
all, by Cutts Pavonius, and two of the tribunes, C. Atdm 
Capitis and P. Aquilius Gallus : but the superior forM of the 
dHisuls and the other tribunes prevailed, and cleared the Foma 
by violence of alt their opponents. The law was i 

*« Wing dre«8ed up a little alur, Miwd naiy with a itm 
4 Bcrifice to devote him to deMroctioa '. AlmM wis aJiew 
^Hs turned out of tbe senate br Appiin, wbea he ■ 
* ftlsifviDg the auspices on iM& oMasioD ; but tbe i 
Iteof Craseus sopported tbe credit of tbem; and c 
H Tuigar opiniun of the ineritable force of tboM andeat fiBi% 
tdrawiDj; down the divine venevanee on all, vks pnaaBaa 
'contemn them'. Appius wa» odp of ibe aagan; aad dw 
Jy one of tbe colletre, who maintained tlw tratli of thdr 
paiei, and the reality- of diTiaatJoo; &v ^i4 W «^ 
^bed at by the rest ; «bo charged him abo witfc ■• afaii^ 
y, in die reason, which be MihMrnbevL for kk eeaMre tf^ 
nnt, viz. that be had £alsi£e<i tbe aatfitet, and hr— )gCl a 
M calamity on the Roman people : br if tbe ammem, ibqr 
i, were false, tliey could nitt pamMj bare aof CMS, «r k 
r cause of that calamity'. But tboneb tbey were m 
y forged, it u certain, bowerer, thai ibey hail a real ii 
Uie overtbrow of CraMos : for tbe terror of them ^ad deeply 
iseased tlie minds of the soldiers, and made tbem Ivra rvety 
ng wliicb they saw, or beard, to an omen ut ibeir T«ta; ^ 
tt when the enemy appeared in ngbt, they wm Mrack wntk 
:h a panic, that they bad not courage or spirit e 
make a tolerable rwistance. 
CrassuA was desirous, before lie left Rome, t 
Cicero : they had never iiv>tn real friends but KtiM 
site in party ; and Cicero's early en^agemenu with Pmnpey 
pt bim, of course, at a distance from Ciawtu : tbeir mldneat 
a still increased on account of CadlineN plot, of whii-h Cra^ 
I was strongly suspected ; and charged Cicero with l»eing tbe 
tfaor of that suspicion : tbey carried it, however, on hoOi wka, 
th much decency; out of regard to CraiMn'<> ton, Fubliu*, a 
jfessed admirer and disciple of Cicero; till an accidental de- 
te in the senate blew up iheir secret grtulge intA an open 
arrel. The debate wat upon Gabinius, whom Crawut un- 
rtook to defend, with inany -4-vert- reflectioiM upi/n (.'tcfTo; 
mlied, willi ii'> k-«> acrimony, and i^are a h-tr rent t/f 
1 resentment of CrsL4sii«'s many injuries wbidi Iwd U-wi 
theriiig, he says 'fveml year*, but bin d<«naant *-i hma, that 
took it to be extin^rui-tlied, till, frum tfai* accidi^it, it bnntt 

Dio,3. 39. p. I'm. Phil.lrvf™*-. 

lo replit 
It old re 


A. t'rb.6W. ClcK. Iw^-Cb. PompcLut Migiiui 11. 

out into a flame. The quarrel gave great joy to the d 
the iwnate, who highly applauded Cicero, in hopes to e 
him with the lriHm«nite : out Pompey laboured hard to a 
it upi mid C'H^ir also, by letter, expressed his iineauneia n^ 
it ; and bfggeil it of Cit-cro as a favour, to be recondled « 
Craxsus; sa tluit lie could not hold out against an interafl 
so powerful, and so well enforced by his affection to T^i^l 

mtnu p*l 

their recon filiation was confirmed by mol 
feffiioiis of a tdnccro friendship for the future ; and Ci 

S't-e a public teittini'itty of it to the city, invited himself j^l 
fere his departure, to sup with Cicero; who entertained Wf 
in the gardens of his son-in-law Crassipes*. 'I'hese gards 
were upon the banks of the Tiber, and seem to have be 
famous for their beauty and situation* : and are the only pmf I 
which we meet with of the splendid fortunes and condition rf I 

Cicero spent a great part of the summer in the country it 
study and retreat; pleased, he sa>-s, that he was out mtkt I 
way of those Mjiiabbles, where he must either have defeiuM | 
what he did not approve, or deserted the man whom he oag;kl 
not to forsiikc'. In thiN retiremoitt, he put the last hand to 
his piece, on the Complete Orator, which he sent to Atticns, 
and promists also to send to Lentulus; telling Mm, that be 
liad intermittc<t his old task of orations, and betaken himself 
to the milder and gentler studies; in wliich he hod finished, to 
his satiMfaotioii. three books, by way of dialogue, on the subject 
of the orator, in Aristotle's manner, which would be of use to 
his son, young Lentulus, being drawn, not in the ordinary way 
of the schools, and the dry method of precepts, but compre- 
hending nil that the ancients, and especially Aristotle i ' 

OF CICEHl). 31 1 

Si's. Li..oJ, CuH.— Cu. I'oiupciui Muguu. II. M. LiimimCraitui I!. 

Uiree books contiun as many dialogues, uimim tbe cbu- 
aad idea of the [lerfect new omtur : the priDcipal speakers 
P. Crassus and M. Antonius; persons of the first dignity 
I Republic, and tlie greatest masters of eloquence, wliicn 
le ImwI tlien known : tliey were nearly forty years older 
Ciwro, and the first Romans who could pretend to dispute 
prize of oratory with the Greeks, and who carried tlie I^tin 
jue to a degree of perfection) which left little or no room 
any furtlier improrement'. The disputation was under- 
en at the desire and for the instruction of two young orators 
great hopes, C. Cotta and P. Siilpicius,w]io were tlien bc- 
linning to nourish at the bar : Cicero himself was not present 
.t it, but being informed by Cotta, of the principal heads, and 
j|eneral arj^umenl of the whole, supplied the rest from his 
•avn invention, agreeably to the different style and manner, 
wlucJi those great men were known to pursue ; and with de- 
-ns^ to do honour to the memory of them both, but especially 
flC Crassus who bud been the director of his early studies ; 
tntl to whom he assigns the defence of that notion, which he 
Umsclf always entertained, of the character of a consummate 

Atlicus was exceedingly pleased with this treatise, and com- 
mended it to tbe skies ; but objected to the propriety of dis- 
mUaing Scfevola from this disputation, after he liad once been 
introduced into the first dialogue. Cicero defends himself by 
the example of their god, Phito, as he calls him, in his book on 
Goverument; where the scene being laid in the house of an 
old gentleman, Cephalus, the old man, after bearing a part in 
the lirst conversation, excuses himself that he mubt go to 
prayers, and returns no more; Plato not thinking it suitable 
to the character of his age, to be detained in tlie company 
through so long a discourse ; that, with greater reason, there- 
fore, tie had used the same caution In the case of Scasvola ; 
lincc it was not decL'iit to supjiosy a ptTson of his dignity, 

pnMatat— Trie 

nnio ip» m 

iior qiiB 

m Artoniu 




1, Ul 


di Latim 

prima tDUutlUi 

MUEl no 

r, j»n 


j^d^i. >b h 


innniclior" Brut. 275, 

pomt ni» 




Nvne lA Antmium, Cr. 

•. N« 

n ego 



(oiMC muimo* 
lUd. 250. 

■ No. mioi. 

>C in bit pn 








qui ipti MIT 

n«ii non 


cm 111, 

t quib 

.1 C 




lacoi m *entcn 

fu huiu. d 


i> iradidis 

lel, qu 

in e 




mbrare eon 

Out. 3.4. 

Ut a (Cnw 

), «M r« 

niqiuim ptrem illiiu ingenio, ■( 


Umen •India 


III. lUd. 


rb.C«9. Tic iS. (.'<~— 1^ Domiiiu. .thcDflUrbiu. A. CljxidMi* Pakfc«. 

i; and bids ttim look upon that letter) as a lea; 

which, on hia part, should be inviolably observed' 
! month of February beins generally einploycil in 
ice to foreign princes ana ambassaaor), Alltio(;llu^ 
na^ene, a territory on the bunks of the Euphrates', 

a petition to tlie senate, for some new honour, or 
which was commonly decreed to princes in allianc. 
public: but Cicero, being in a rallying humour, 
itition so ridiculous, that the honse rejected it, ai 
nion, reserved, likewise, out of his jurisdiction, otic 
neipal towns. Zeugma, in which was the cliief bridf^' mta 
e over tlie Euphrates. Caesar, in his eoniulsliip, had 
d to this king the honour of the praete.xta, or the robe of 
iman magistrates ; which was always dlsagreeablr to the 
y, who did not care to see tliese petty princes put upon 
me rank with themselves; so that Cicero, calling out 
;he nobles, " will you," savs he, " who rcfuwd tbe pm- 
n the king of Bostra, suffer this Comageniaii to Mrut in 

?" But tliis disappoiiitment wa^ not more mortiMng 

king than it was to the consuls, whose best perquisites 
Itawn ^m these complimento, which were always repaid 
h presents; so that Appiiis, who had been latelv recon- 
xt Cicero, and pnid a particular court to him a( tVv time, 
d to him, by Atticus, and their common friends, to suffer 
!tit)ong of this sort to pass quietly, nor destroy the usual 
(t of the month, and make it quite barren to him', 
ero made an excursion this spring to visit his several 
and estates in the country; and, in his Cuman villa, 

" A Treatise on Folilics ; or, on the best State of a 
ind the Duties of a Citizen ;" ho calls it a great and 
lus work, yet, worthy of his pains, if he could itucceed in 
f not, I shall throw it," says he, " into that sea which is 
efore me, and attempt something else, since it Is impos- 
or me to be idle." It was drawn up in the form of a 
ue, in which the greatest persons of the old Kepublic 
ntroduced, debating on the origin and best constitution 

AhHu.. V idct fnim. u h.« gtn 

icrc dknidi* 

mm. EiimquG luti jnCDW ulit 

: n.T.' '"' 

lum in Euphntr. Zturaa: ff\ 



111 f«.-a.?-M-ilu Jiii Id igno- 

tan, quibua Iniut nl rlpl«lit- 
^ U Quim. 2. 12. "^ 

Q„„ g«. 

tf* <y>iiin>oU» A|^*u> totuK me 

A. Veil. (iW- Cu:. U. t'oM.— L. Dommui 

how afS^'cable )ii» brother's compiuiy was to him, by the 
of their old afTirctiun : and since be was dow removed to 
a distance from him, he would lake care, that, in their 
want of each otiier, he should have cause at least to i^oia^^ 
that his brotlier was with liim, tather thao any one else. Hi 
thanks him, also, fur sending the lawyer Trebatius to hiiu,Ml 
says upon it, jocosely, that there was not a mao before iBtt 
army, who knew huw to draw a ren^izance. Cicero^ io Ui 
account of his letter to his brother, says, " it is kind in fOt 
and like a brother, to press me to this ^endship, thongk I 
am running tliat way apace, myself, and sliaU do, what lAi 
happens to travellers, who, rising later than they intemfat 
yet, by quickening their speed, came sooner to tbeir joime;^ 
end tlian if they had sot out earlier ; so I, who have orcMlq* 
myself in my obser\'ance uf this man, though you were t» 
queutly rousing me, will correct my past laziness by memSfli 
my pace for the future." But as to his seeking arty adraatm 
or personal benefit from this alliance, " believe me," says it, 
" you who know me, I have from him already what I mnt 
value, the assurance of his affection, which I prefer to all iht 
great things that he offers me '^." In another letter hesqi^ 
" I lay no great stress on his promises, want no farther hon- 
ours, nor desire any new glory, and wish nothing more bat 
tlie continuance of his esteem, yet live sdll in such a course <f 
ambition and fatigue, as if 1 were expecting what 1 do not 
really desire '." 

lint though In' iniidi' no use of Ciestr's generosity for liim- 


. sS, V'oa.—l.. D<>D>li>u« AlLfDoLorbus. A. C'Uuiliii* VuIcIkt. 

it show both what a share he possessed, at this time 
B confluence, and with what an affectionate zeal he 
a lecommend his friends. 


pSep, how I have persuaded myself to consider you as a 
"nd self; not only m what affects my own interest, but in 
t concerns my friends: I had resolved, whithersoever I 
t abroad, to carry C. Trebatius along witii me, tliat I 
^t bring him home, adorned with the fruits of my care and 
nteBB : out since Pompey's stay in Rome has been longer 
I I expected, and my own irresolution, to which you are 
b Btranger, vrill either wholly hinder, or, at least, retard my 
5 abroad at all ; see what I have taken upon myself: 1 
^ n presently to resolve, that Trebatius should expect the 
ne things from you, which he had been hoping for from me; 
_r did 1 assure liim with less frankness of your good will, 
jAti 1 used to do of my own; but a wonderful incident fell 
.ut, botli as a testimony of my opinion, and a pled^re of your 
!|hilii>Aiiity ; for while I was talking of this very Trebatius, at 
Ixoy bouse, with our friend Balbus, your letter was delivered 
I to me, in the end of which you said, as to M. OrRus, whom 
you recommended to me, I will make him even king of Gaul, 
or lieutenant to Lepta ; send me another, therefore, if you 
please, wliom I may prefer. We lifted up our hands, both I 
and Balbus ; the occasion was so pat, that it seemed not to be 
accidental, but divine. I send you, therefore, Trebatius : and 
send him so, as at first indeed 1 designed, of my own accord, 
but now also by your invitation: embrace him, my dear Caesar, 
with all your usual courtesy ; and whatever you could be in- 
duced to do for my friends, out of your ree;ard to me, confer 
it all singly upon liim 1 will be iinswerablc for the man ; not 
in my former style, which you justly rallied, when I wrote to 
you about Milo, but in the true Roman phrase, which men of 
sense use ; that there is not an honester, worthier, modester 
man living ; I must add, what makes the principal part of his 
cbaracter, that he has a singular memory, and a perfect know- 
ledge of the civil law. I ask for him neith^-r a regiment, nor 
fovemment, nor any certain piece of preferment: I ask your 
enevolence and generosity ; yet am not against the adorning 
him, whenever you shall think proper, with those trappings 
also of glory : in short, I deliver the whole man to you, from 
my hand, as we say, into your's, illustrious for victory and 
faith. But I am mure importunate than I need to be to you ; 


A.l'rb.tm9. C'».U. C'<i«.-L.l>omiduiAkaii>bwbiu. A. CIuhUiu PakU. 

of government; Sdpio, LBelius, Pbilus, Maniliiu, &c.' TW: 
whole watt to be distributed into nine books, each of them An 
subjoct of one day's disputation : when lie liad fiiiisbed the tvt 
first, tliey were read in hia Tusculan villa, to some of Vt 
friends: where Sallust, who was one of the company, ftdnit^ 
him to change liia plan, and treat the Kuliject in his own pa>^ 
•on, as Aristotle had done before him ; alleging, that the lab*) 
diiction of those ancients, instead of adding graTity, gave ■ 
air of romance to the ari^ument, which would nave toe gmta 
weight, when delivered from himself, as being the work, notrf 
a little sophist, or contemplative theorist, but of a cotu ' 
senator and statesman, conversant in the greatest a^r^ 

writing what his own practice, and the experience of idmt 
years, had taught him to be true. These reasooa aeeniM 
very plausible, and made him think of altering Lis scheme: 
especially, since, by throwing the scene so far back, he pre> 
eluded himself from touching on those important revolutiont tt 
the Republic, which were later than the period to which it 
confined himself: but, after some deliberaDon, being nnwilling 
to throw away the two books already finished, with which m 
was much pleaded, lie resolved to stick to the old plao, and m 
be had preferred it from the first, for the sake of avoiding 
offence, so he pursued it without any other alcerittion, than that 
of reducing the number of books from nine to six; in whidi 
fonn tliey were afterwards published, and survived faiaa fiir 
several ages, though now unfortunately lost*. 

From tiie fragments of this work, which Still remain, it 

op CICKHO. Jlo 

'. Ck. is. Cun.— L. Uumiiiui AlicDoUrbut. A. Cliiidlui f^lkl'er. 

jr : of the origin of society ; the nature of law and obli- 
; tile eternal difference ol right aiicl wrong; of justice 
J the only good policy, or foundation either of public or 
private prosperity: ao tliat he calls his six book», so many 
mtdge» givet\ to the public for the integrity of liis conduct . 
TAc younjfer Scipio wan the principal speaker of the dialogue, 
whose part it was, to assert the excellency of the Roman con- 
ttitution. preferable to tliat of all other states ' : who, in the 
oxtb book, under the fictiou of a dream, which is still pre- 
letred to us, takes occasion to inculcate the doctrine of the 
immortality of the soul and ' , in a manner so 

lively and entertaining, that i. luis ueen me standing pattern, 
ever since, to the wits of succeeding ages, for attempting the 
nme method of instilling moral lessons, id the forms of dreams 
ur visions. 

He was now drawn at last into a particular intimacy and 
correspondence of letters with Ctesar, who liad long been en- 
deavouring to engage him to bis friendship, and, with that 
view, had invited his brother Quintus to be one of his lieu- 
tenanta in Gaul; where Quintus to pay liis court the better 
to bis general, joined heartily in jiresstng his brother to an 
union with Lim, instead of adhering so obstinately to Pompey, 
who, as he tells him, was neither so sincere, nor so generous 
a friend as Ciesar *■ Cicero did not dislike the advice, and 
expressed a readiness to comply with it, of which Balbus gave 
an intimation to Ctesar, with a letter, also inclosed, from Cicero 
himself; but the packet happening to fall into water, the letters 
were all destroyed, except a scrap or two of Balbus's, to which 
Cesar returned answer, " I perceive, that you had written 
somewhat about Cicero, which I could not make out ; but, as 
fez as I can guess, it was something rather to be wished, than 
hoped for *." But Cicero sent another copy of the same letter, 
which came safe to his hands, written, as he says, in the fami- 
liar style, yet without departing from his dignity. Csesar 
answered bim with all imaginal^e kindness, and tne offer of 
every thing, in which his power could serve him, telling him, 

I Cmn icx libiii, twjqaDm pmdibui, mi? ipHuia Dbitrinxerim^ quos tibi tarn vuldc pro- 
buinadeo. Ad Att. 6. 1. 

> An ceua, cam in illii dc Repub. librit penuoilcre ridutur AfrictiniH, mnniiiin 
Benunpub. matnin vcteRm illam fuiuc optimam. Dc Lr£. 2. 10. vid, ib. ]. 6, 9. 

Cavnini. Ad Quint. 2. 13. ' 

• lileKripdt a<t Balbum.furiFulum ilium epiilolirum. in <]iui fuerat ct meiet Batbi, 
IsMm nbi aqua madidum reddllum else : ut nc illud qiiidcui sciii, meam fuists aliqutm 
nBtoliuii. Bed ei BalW fpistola paiica verba inlelleierat, ad <|uie rcscripsii liii Tcrbia ; 
Ut Cicerone video tc quiddam acnpeiiK, quod ego non inlelkifi -, qnantum aiilem con- 
icetdia coUHuebar, id cnl hujmmodi, ut magiB opUndum, qiuun tpenndum nuUnm. 
Ad <}niat 2. \2. 

iiiid, wiili tlio loss i>f liberty, losing evfry thing eUe ibat 
vitlimblc, siiikfi •rriiiluully Hf^iti iiiti> its original bu-barism. 

l'i(vri), taking it for granted tliat Trebatitis followed Ci 
iiit<» Itriciini bej;iiM to Joke witli liiin npoii the worn' 
fiiriire that ii Briii^li luwyer would make at Rome; and, 
wiw liiN jirofcssion to guard wtlier people's safetv, bids 
bi'waro tliiit In- liiiiiMvIl' wti* not caught by tlie l3ridsb ch* 
riotoerM '. Ittii 'rrcluiiius it Si'eins knew how to take care*! 
Iiimtelf wiilimir C'icero'i aiiviiv; and, when C^^r passed ant'; 
to Britiiin. elii»ii> to stay behind in Gaul. Tbis gave a freA 
handle lor railUTy ; and C'ieero congr.itulatos liim upon heiif 
arrived at la-t in a country where he vrs» thnnvht to know 
sonu>ihiii^: that if he had gone over ah<o to IJHtjiiii, thai 
would not have heeii a man in all that ^cat ishind wiser thu 
himself. He tdisorvcs, iluit he was much more csiiitiout ii 
■nilitary, thin) in civil contests; and wonders tliHt, being niA 
a lover of swimming, ho could not be pt-r^naded to swim ID I 
the nceiui ; and, when he etudd not be kept awiiy from erny 
show of gladiators at Home, hud not cnrio«itv to see the < 
Drilisli charioteers : he rejoi«*s, however, after nil, that he did 
not go, since tlu-v should not now be tronhlcd with the im- 
pertinence «f hit 'llritish stories *. 

Qnintus Cicero, who hii<l a genius for poetry, wfis projectiiffi 
the plan of a poem, upon their British expedition, ;ind i>egffe3 
bis brother's assisliuiee in it : Cicero approved the design, and 
olwerved upon it, that the nature and hitnalioa of p^ccs so 
Ktrauire, (lie manners of tlie people, their Irattlcs with them, 
and tlio general himself, C<e«ir, were oxcelknt subjects fw 

K or CICBBO. 3'il 

<[^Uih.e8S. Ck.U. CiiM^-L. Oiwllhii AhenoliTbm. A. C'Utulin* Pukbcr, 

put it was impowible to coiKrive bow much he wanted leisure 
r versifying-: that, to write rerses, required an ease and 
teerfulnesa of oiind, wbitli the time* had taken from him;, 
td tiiat bis poelJail dumo was quite extinguished by the sad 
vmsct of things Ijefure tliem'. 

tie had sent Csesar his 3reek poem, in three books, on tlie 
Koiry of his consuWiip; and Cnsar's judgment upon it was, 
AC tne beginning of it was as good as anything wluch he had 
er seen iu timt kingiiuge, but that the following lines, to » 
s-twn place, were not equal in accuracy and spiriL Cicero 
i^res, therefore, to know of his brother, what Csasar really 
DU^bc of the whole ; wliether the matter or the style dis- 
eased him ; and bcg9 that he would tell him the truth freely; 
nee, whetlier Ciesar liked it or not, he should not, he aays, 
t a jot the less ple^ised with himself. He began, however, 
■other poem, at hiii brother's earnest request, to be addressed 
, Casar, but after some prepress, was so dissatisfied with it, 
at he tore it': yet, Quiiitus still Ufging, and signifying that 
B bad acquainted Csesar with the design, he was obliged to 
•jHune it, and actually finished an epic poem i» honour of 
Jmw; whi<di he promises to send, as soon as he could find a 
ropor eonveyance, that it might not be lost, as Quintus's 
rngedy of Erigone was in coming from Gaul ; the only thing 
Etys nie, which had not found a safe passage, since Cmsar 
^v^meA that province*. 

While Cicero was expressing no small dissatiMfaction at the 
neBBures which hia present situation obliged him to pnrsue, 
I!!aeS8r was doing every thing in his power to make him easy : 

!t cXiai qwRU, cum Elcclnm el Tnudem 9cri|Hriii<. Ibid, 3. 6. 

N. B. ThcH four IngHlin, aaiil lo l>e written in 'itlecn diti>, cinnnt bo tupping 
o hnv brnt Drigiiul produclionn, but Imnelnlinni Troni hoic of the (irctili piicu, nf 
■^kk Qumtui vu agnt muur; fiiiisliiKl by hiiu in huu for thi muntiininoni of 
he ouop ; for Ibc word Troadeni in tbc text, Ibi nsnw uf one of ihcm, ihuiilil innii 
pcob^y beTmdf*, tbt litle of one of Euriiiidei' nlaji : u tbr Elect™ aba n 

' QiiM mo dr briendii rcnibui rogds. incredible eat. tui fraler, quantitn 
wmpore — FKerem uni»n ul fotttm, •rd— Op'it fsl ill poimi qi|- '- - ' ■ ' 
]iimia pUoe mihi Inapan eripi<]nl. Ibid. 3. .'•. 

De vembni — dc^at mihi oper^ quK nnn modo tempu,, ted et 
csn nroDiti dnidenl ; icd nbrst cliani (rOovaiaafiit, &t. Ibic 

' Scd heiu Id, celari lideor ■ le, qunmodoiiam. mi fntrr, d 

Nun priDiiifD librum u Itginr Hripait ad me ante : et prima lie. u( negel 

quidrm mttion )rfft 
mbo. Die mihi *f 

"-- * '■.... . tbiA.'i.U!. 

mpotwnm. inHdi. Ibid. 3. I . § 4. 

■ Qnod me <niiitiit>iin id ilium poeina jnbci pcrfletrc ; eUJ diatnilni tdm open, t 
■aims mm mnlto n»^a, qunni«n e:< epialola, niiim ad le mitcnitn, cognoTil Conr 
iHqaid CMC tioniim ; nvertir ad inititiilum. Ad Quinl. H. 

Qpod me hoTttrit, ul abM]Fiin,h(bcn abtoliilam iiiavo.mibi ouidem Di< videtur, » 
ad CaMrem. Sedquan locunleiem labellariiim. nc nccldat qiioJ Erigonc lue; cui n 
" ■- - A Gallia tiitum non fuit. Ibid. 9. 

A.ITrb.«n. IV, M 

be trcMed his brallwi 


-1, IViiuiiu. MnuUiUu \ ^W^'icm 

Itk m moth kindnesa, » if ^ r* 
■elf had bevn liU eciicntl ; K^ive him die chmce o< A 
<)uartpr«. luiH lite legiion wliicli lie Uk«l best': »nf 
lnpi>«(iiiig to write to him from Rome, he shewed llie 
Quintiis aii'l Heclured that he would not answeiU; A^ 
QninttM cirillv pressed him not (a pui such an Scp^v^ 
CloditM for tiieir sakes'. In the midst of all bit km 
Britain, he sent frequent aeconnts to Cicero, in hIsinniD 
of hin process and success, and, at the instant of quitting 
itland wrote to )iim, from the very shore, of the einboiU 
of the troops, and hi« havinfi; taken hostages and impo 
tribute : and, lest he should be surprised at baring no h 
at the same time, from his brother, he acquaints htni 
Qtiintiis was then at a distance from Iiim, and cotiU Dotll 
the benefit of tliat express : Cicero recnved all theM li 
Rome, in less (ban a montli after date, and takes ni 
mie of them, that it arrived on the twentieth day, 
^ual to that of our preficnt couriers by the post*. 

As to the newA of the city, this summer, Cicero t 
brother, that there were some hopes of an election of b ^ 
Mrates, but those uncertain ; some suspicion of a dictator, wl I 
that not more certain ; a ercat calm in ttie Forum ,- but of ■ I 
dty, seemed to be quietea rather by the effects of age, than flf I 
concord : that his own conduct, as well in public as in prirat^ I 
was just what Quintus had advised, softer than tlip tip of Ml f 
«ar; and his votes in the senate such as pleased otheis, rather I 
than himself. 


*^ Cir, a Cow.-L. Dm 

'' V tlib profusion of i^ that intenat mc riten frtus fimi 

'*^Us and Cn. Doraitiiis, who joined their iDteretts, 

strange son of ccHitnct with ue conaula, which was 

^ in writing-, aiii attested, in pnq>er fixtn, by many oi 

J^ods on both sidea ; by which the «<™ip'U obliged tliMn- 

*u aerve them, with all their power, in die enBuiog ele^ 

') *ivt they, on thflir put, underta<^ when elected, to 

^^ for the consuls «bat provincea they desired; and nre 

vosd of above tlirec tlKnuand pounds, to provide mree 

togun, who tliould testify, that they were present at making 

s aw, t(>r gratitiiig tliom those prorinces, when no mek law 

had ever been imuie ; and two consular senators, who shonld 

■ffirni, that tJicy wi^re present likewise, at paasine a decree of 

tbe KiHite, for funiisliij^ the same provinces with arms and 

ooney, when the senate DAi never been consulted about it*. 

Memmius, wlio was strongly supported by Cffisar*, findiiw 

Mune reason to dislike his bargain, resolved to break it, an^ 

by Pompey's advice, e^te an account of it to the senate. 

E\)inpey was pleased with the opportunity of mortifying the 

consnl Domitiiis, and willing, likewise, to take some revenge 

on Appius, who, thougli his near reUtion, did not enter so 

fully as he expected into his measures*: bat Casar was much 

out of humour at this step*, as it was likely to raise great 

scandal in the city, and Strengthen the interest of those, who 

were eiideAvouriu^ to restrain that infamous corrupdon, which 

WW the main instrument of advancing his power. Appitis 

never dianged countenance, nor lost any credit by the di»- 

cuvery ; but his colleague, Domitius, who affected the cha- 

meter of a patriot, was extremely discomposed; and Memmius, 

AnUtiu ndil immuii, nunqiiBni par fuit. Ad Qiiinl. 3. 15. 

BBqnere me nunc in auii|>uni. Anl«t unbilni : a^fia ii toi ifiim ; ftmiu ci Iriciito 

Idib. QuiBt. bctnm (nt bwibiu if^X^ ^'^ nulto nt, pecunu omnium diguitetcm 

txmavM. Ad Atl. 4. IS. 

* CowDlea lUgnnt infunia, quod C. Mcmmiua cindiililiia puctinncm in flfiuta 

H. S. qiuJrageiia contnlihm dircnl, ai eseent ii»i coniuln fuel!, niii Irvs Bupirw de- 

!»,qui te dicrrenl in onuudit provintiii cnniulkribiu ncriWndii mfTuiMO, cum 
„ IB Smmtui quidem fuHKl. Hav pMlio Don mtliia ird nomioibiij ct pracrip- 

iDdodu, auFtart pDiDpdo. Ad AtL 4. 18. 

« Dio, r»"p, m" ™'"' "'" ™" "°'° ' 

• lit qui inn inUllinbunui munliationem illim Hommii talde Cnui diulksn. 
Ad Atl. 4. 16. 

Y 2 

b.G99. Ch-.SS. toi»— L. Dt 
ined for the future, unless for murder '. Hut Q. Scievola, 
the tribunes, took a more efiectital wav tu mortify iLem, 
Iving to hinder any election of cousuU, during bis tna* 
I, in wliicb he persevered, and by liis authority dissolved 
assemblies convened for that purpose'. The tribuiiiciaii 
ite$, however, were remarkably modest this year ; for 
lade an agreement among themselves, which they all 
led by an oath, that, in prosecuting their several inte- 
[faey would submit tlieir conduct to the judgment of 
tnd deposit four thousand pounds u-piece in his hands, 
irfeited by those whom he should condemn of any irre- 
aractice. " If the election proves free," says Cicero, 
is thought it will, Cato alone can do more tnan all the 
1 all the judges'." 

reat part of this year was taken up in public trials : 
IS aun C. Cato, who had been tribunes two years before, 
■ied in the beginning of July, for violence and breach of 
n their magistracy, and both acquitted: but Procilius, 
their colleagues, was condemned for killing a citizen in 
1 house : " whence we are to cullect," says Cicero, *' that 

eopagites value neither bribery, nor elections, nor inter- 
ns, nor attempts against the state, nor the whole Re- 

a rush; we must not murder a man, indeed, in liis own 

tlioiigi. (hill, perliaps, might bo diino nnnlemtely, since 
r-two acquitted Procilius, when twenty-eight condemned 
Clodius was the accuser in these impeacbments; which 
CaXOf as soon as he was acquitted, seek a reconciliation 
'iceroand Milo'. It was not Cicero's business to reject 
sndship of an active and popular senator; and Milo had 
in for his service in his approaching suit for the consul- 

But, though Cicero hod no concern in these trials, he 
intinually employed in otliers, tlirough tlie rest of the 
tr: "I was never," says he, "more busy in trials than 
in the worst season of tlic year, and the greatest heats, 

nihitu posiiikli lUDt omnca, qui eontuluuni petual — Migno m in molu «(, 

i quod tut hominutn .ul legum inlerilu. o.teDditur. Ad Quinl. B. 2. 

uta abulnntur, n«c potihi': qniiquiDi diniubitur, niii qui liominem occideril, 

t obnnntiUionibui, migni nlunti 


in particuUr friend. Driuiis's trial wits W 

from wbJcb, after (^iiie home to write a &« 
liged to return to Vitinius'a in tlua iJtcriiooii 

specimen of tbe Lurry tii wliit-h lie general 
' little time which he had to spend upon lu: 

his studies : and th(»i)(li he was now cart 
eat works of the learned kind, yet he had 
; tclU UB, for meditating and composiDg, li 
Kiiifra few turns in bis gardens, for the ex.. 
and refreshment of his voice '. V'atinius li 
! fiercest enemies; was ir - ccrpctual o — 
itics ; and, like Bestia, mei ed aboi 

abandoned libertine: eo miol tlie dt 
tusible handle for some censure u 
'menta with Fompey, and especially t 

Cfesar, made it necessary to embrace C 

long whom Vatinius was most warmly ri 

IS, being recalled, as has been said, from his gt 
jnied to Rome about the end of Ii^eptembe. . 
/ery where, on his journey, timt he was going Ui 

■ a triumph: and, to carry on that farce, contii 

hout the gates; till, perceiving how odious lie was 
in, he stoic privately into the city by night, to avoid 
;e of being insulted by the populace '. There were 
rent impeacJiments provided again )tt liim: the first, 
able practices against the state ; tJie second, for the 
his proviuce ; the third, for bribery and corruption ;. 
ay persons offered themselves to be prosecutors, that 
a contest among them, befofe the praetor, bow to 
ir several claims '. The first indictment fell to L. 
wfao accused him, the day srfter he entered the city, 
ifiance of religion, and the decree of the senate, he 
Ni the king of^ Egypt wjtii an army, leaving his own 
aked and open to the incursion of enemies, who had 
t devastations in it. Cicero, who had received from 
all the provocation which one man could receive 
ler, had the pleasure to see his insolent adversary 
; and was prepared to give him such a reception as 

KUHit A. U. xii. Cal. Oct. nihil lucpiui, i 

u in urbem, hoBtium tijAiie^ iovuiucL IbiiL 2. 
tres ulhiic rsctiones postiiliml, Alc. Ad Quint. Fr. 3. I. § 5. 
-ribcbuu ante lurcm, npiid Cxonem cent divinUio io Gabiuium fu 
n, ct Ti. Nrroncu, d C. ct L. Aatonin. Ibid. 2. 

Cui.ii. Com.— I~ Dusitiiu Alic' obu^ni. A. Cliuaa 


in order to give tliem an accxiuiit, according to custom, ol ^^^ 
state of his province, and the troops wbich he had leftk.i^^ 

lie deserved : but Gabinins durst not venture to show In ^^^1 
fnr the fint ten clays, till Ite was obliged to come to the ""^j^^ 

which he had : 
n an he liad told his story, he was going to retire, k*^^ 
(he consuls detained him, to answer to a complaint htat^l0^ 
against him by the publicsna, or fanners of the revenues, *mM^ 
were attending at the door to make it good. This drew on i^ 
debate, in which Giiliiiiiug was so urged and teazed on all aiti$^. 
but especialiy by Cicero, that trembling with passion, Mi-^ 
unable to contain himself, he called Cicero a banished nmi 
*■ upon which," Buys Cicero, in 8 letter to his brother, "■•• 
thing ever Iiappened more honourable to me : the whole semla 
left their seats to a man, and, with a general clamour, ran ^ 
to his very face: while the publicans also were equally fieits 
and clamorous against him, and the whole company beharsd 
just as you yourself would have done '." 

Cicero had been del ib cm ting, for some time, whether he 
should not accuse Gabinius himself; but, out of regard to 
Pompcy, was content to appear only ns a witness against him*; 
and when the trial was over, gives the following account of it 
to his brother, 

'* Gabinius is anjuitted : nothing was ever so stupid as lui 
accuser, Lentulus; nothing so sonlid as the bencu : ye^ if 
Pompey bad not taken incredible pains, and the rumours of i 
dictatorship had not infused some apprehensions, he could not 
have held up his head even against Lentulus: since, with sudi 
an acciisor, und such judges; of the seienty-two who sat upon 
him, tliirty'two condemned )iim. The sentence is so in&moui, 
that bo seems likely to fall in the other trials, especially that 


I there Wei^ other things which influenced me : Pompey 
ti have (Considered it as a struggle, not about Gabinius's 
ly, but his own dwnity : it must have made a breach be- 
en us; *e should have been matched like a pair of gla- 
0is;»s Pacidianus, with j^erninus the Samnile; he would 
abl^ have bit off one of my ears, or been reconciled at 
t wicli Clodius — for, after all the pains which 1 had taken 
rvehim; when I owed nothing to him, he every thing to 

yet he would not bear my differing from him in public 
I, tdsay no worse of it; and, when he was less powerful 
be is at present, shewed what power he had against me, 
Y flonrishing condition : why should I now, when I have 
pen all desire of power, when the Republic certainly has 
I when he alone has all, chuse him, of all men, to contend 

for, that must have been the case: I cannot tliink that 
'Onid have advised me to it. Sallust says that I ought 
re done either the one or the other ; and, in compliment 
mpey, have defended him : who begged it of me, indeed, 
»rnestly — A special friend, this SaJlust ! to wish me to 
e myself either in a dangerous enmity, or perpetual in- 
1 am delighted with my miildle way, and, when I had 

my testimony foithfuUy, and religiously, was pleased to 
Gabinius say, that, if it should be permitted to him to 
ise in the city, he would make it his business to give me 

edon; nor did he so much as interrogate me ." He 

the same account of this trial to his other friends; how 
tins acted his part so ill, that people were persuaded that 
evaricated — and tliat Gahinins's escape was owing to the 
.tigable industry of Pompey, and the corruption of the 

ont the time of this trial, there happened a terrible inun- 
I of the Tiber, which did much dninagc at Rome : many 
9 and shops were carried away by it, and the fine gardens 
icero's son-in-law, Crassipes, demolished. It was all 
ed to the absolution of Gabinius, after his daring violation 
igion, and contempt of the Sibyl's books : Cicero applies 
lie following passage of Homer ': 

A) when, in iutumn, Jotb hii fiirj pours. 

And euth it l»den wiih inceuani bIiqwc™ ; 

Whfnguiltymortalt break th' etemsl Uw>, 

And judget, Imb'd, bclny the righlwui canK, 

From (heir deep badi he bidi llie rivErt riu, 

And opens nil t\e flood-gitei „! the >kie<.— Pope, II. 16. v. 466. 

Qnint.3. 4. 

remant omnea pneviriealum ; drinde rompeii mini couiraiio, Jndicum tardti. 

, i. IS. 

vm, el mwime Appia ad Martii, mira [.rolnviei. Crauipedia ambntitio ibUU, 

ibtnrn pluriniH. *'- — -' ' - 

Zi4H num in 'b 


A. I'l^. <>!■!'■ <'i' '■■''• ('"*—■- IVHuiliiH AIwdoWtIhu. A. i'lmudiiB Palchn. 

But Oiibiiiius's «liuiger was not yet over : he wu to be tiM 
» spixiiul time, for tlic pliuider of hii proTinoe ; where Cl 
Mcinmiiifl, oiiu of the triouoe», was hi* acciuer, and M. CiM 
liiM jiiiIk<^( witli whom he was not likely to find any frrov: 
I'ompfy prciHcd Cicero to defend him, and would not wint 
of any exciuto ; mid Uabitiius's humble behaviour in tbe lita 

trial won iiiU'nded lo miikc way for Pompey'a solidWMi 
Cicero stAud firm fur a loii)^ time: "Pompey, sayslM^**!^ 
bouM hard with me, but has yet made no impresuoa, nor, if I 
retain a grain of lilxTty, ever will '." 

Oh ! <TC Hint iln iitmcc (hull l<lut nj fame, 
O'cTvhclmiai'urtli 11.4.^11). 

But Pompuy'H incessant importunity, backed by Ctesa^ntK^ 
nest request, made it vain to stm^le any lunger ; and fbrtcd 
liim t^(ain9t his judgment, his icsohition, and hia dignity, M 
defend Oabinins, at a time wlien his defence at last prorad rf 
no service tu him ; fur he was found iruilty by Cato, and eoa- 
demneil, uf course, to a )>erpetual bariiMhmenL It is probdile, 
that ('icero's uratiun was never published, but as it was lui 
custom tu keen the minutes, or rough draught of all his plead- 
ings, in what lie called his Commeutaries, which were extiot 
many aji^-s after his death ' ; so KL Jerome has preserved fnn 
them a small fragment of this s|>eccli, which seems to be > 
iwrt of the apology, that lie found himself obliged to make for 
It ; wherein lie observes, that when I'ompey's authority W 
once recunciled him toO^iniiis, it was no longer in his power 
* ■ 'Old defeiidini; him ; " for it wiis evor my pcr-suasiun," says 


▲.UrikCML CScAS. Cow. L. Dwnidm AlieiittbMbug. A-CUudfattPidelier. 

Un to ^end Valiiiiiis. This gave occasion to that 
amid ebbonfte answer from Ckero, already refened to, 
a-befinre Gabiniiis'a trial; which would otherwise have 
Ilia apology more difBcult, in which he lays open the 
Miand p ro gr e ss of his whole befaavioitr, from the time of 
Ib^^cadkb — ** Aa to the case of Vatinins,'' he says, ^^as soon as 
j^^ms- choaen prsBtor, where I warmly opposed him, in fiirour 
i^. C^ls^ Pompey prevailed with me to be reconciled to him ; 
nsar aftenmds, look surprising pains with me to defeml 
Co wUcfa I consented, for the sake of doing what, as I 
aid the oourt at the trial, the parasite in the Eunudi advised 
lia patron to do: 

^ Whenerer die talks of Ph»dri», do you presently praise 
nvaplub, ftc. so I begeed of the iudges, that since certain 
lanona of disdngoishra rank to whom I was much obliged, 
ao toad of my enemy, and affected to caress him in the 
S befinre my face, witn all the marks of fiEoailiarity ; and 
they had their Publius to gire me jealousy, I miaht be 
id bB have my Publius, also, to teaze them with in my 
tm." Then, as to his jgneneml conduct, he makes this general 
lefenee ; ^ that the union and firmness of the honest, which 
nbaialed when Lentulus left Rome, confirmed,'' says he, << by 
nay consulship, and revived by yours, is now quite oroken and 
ieaerted by those who ought to have supported it, and were 
looked upon as patriots; tor which reason, the maxims and 
measures of all wise citizens, in which class I always wish to 
be ranked, ought to be changed too: for it is a precept of 
Plato, whose authority lias the greatest weight witli me, to 
Dontend in public affEiirs, as far as we can persuade our citizens, 
but not to offer violence, either to our parent or our country. 
If I was quite free from all engagements, I should act there- 
fore, as I now do; should not think it prudent to contend with 
90 great a power; nor, if it could be effected, to extinguish it in 
our present circumstances ; nor continue always in one mind, 
when the things themselves, and the sentiments of the honest, 
Eire altered ; since a perpetual adherence to the same measures 
has never been approved by those who know best how to 
Kovem states ; but, as in sailing, it is the business of art to be 
nirected by the weather, and foolish to persevere with danger 
in the course in which we set out, rather than by changing it, 
to arrive with safety, though later, where we intended ; so to 
OS, who manage public affairs, the chief end proposed being 
dignity, with public quiet, our business is not to be always 
saying, but always, aiming at the same tiling. Wherefore, if all 
things, as I said, were wholly free to me, 1 sliouhl be the same 
man that I now am ; but when I uin invited to this conduct, on 

iAVHS. Ck. M. Lua.-L. Dnmiliiu AhfODbutnu A L'luJini l>iildHr. 

' moDey, snd lived in Alexandria lor that purpose, iu ibe 
1 service, as tlie public receiver of tils taxes, and weariii)r 
illium or [labit of the country. 

ero urjred, in defence of Riiuirius, that he had borne no 
1 that transaction ; but that his whole crime, or rather 
was, that he had lent the kingjrreat sums of money for 
pport at Rome ; and venture^l to trust a prince, who, as 
: world tJicn thought, was ^niii£ to be restored by the au- 
y nf the Roman people i that the necessity of going to 
I for the recovery of that debt, was llie source of all his 
Y ; where he was forced to take whatever the king would 
tr impose : th»t it was h>s misfortune to be obliged to 
it himself to the power of an arbitrary monarch ; that no- 
could be more mad, than for a Roman knight, and citizen 
tepublic, of all others the most free, to go to any place, 
! he must needs be a slave to the will of another; tliatall 
Tver did so, as Plato and the wisest hod sometimes done 
tstily, always suffered for it. This was tlie case of Ra- 
; necessity carried him to Alexandria ; his whole fortunes 
at stake ' ; which he was so far from improving by his 
' with that king, that he was ill-treated by him, imprisoned, 
tened witlt death, and glad to run away at last with the 
nf all ; and, at that very time, it was wholly owing to 
/s generosity and regard to the merit and misfortunes of 
d friend, that he was enabled to support his former rank and 
;tnan dignity '. Ciabinius's trial had so near a relation to 
and was ko often referred to In it, that the prosecutors 
not omit so &ir an opportunity of rallying Cicero, for the 
which he had acted in it : — Memraius observed, that the 
jea of Alexandria had the same reason for appearing for 
niusi, which Cicero had for defending him — the command of 
iter. "No, Memmius," replied Cicero, "my reason for 
ding him was a reconciliation with him ; for 1 am not 
aed to own, that my quarrels are mortal, mv friendships 
fftal : and if you imagine that I undertook tnat cause for 
rf Pompey, you neither know Pompey nor me, for Pom- 
vould neither desire it of me, against my will, nor would 
er I bad preserved the liberty of my citizens, ever give up 

. tUKt. 8. 9. ' lb. 15. 

IQB mlbi fuil, cue eundim defendrrein. Mihi, C. Meinmi, nun deftndendi 
fait, ncondUitJD gntuB. Neqiip Tero me ^tmhct^moriaia intmidivt tempiief- 
Idtiai iabtn. Nun n me inviium puUi, ne Cn. Pompeii inimum oBenderem, 

"" ™ "^^ '" Pro'c! SXr! P»l. 12. " nxao* 

MBmon finnn«&<i': it ta certain Ui&t Bhe liail lived long eiii>ugli 
pa e r v c aU the ends wLicli he proposed from tliat alliaiiep, unil 
p^Kocure for him every thing that Poropey's power could 
^fivti for, wliile Pompey, forgetful of his honour and interpst, 
■■■ pending his time iiiglorioiiitly at home, in the caresses of 
kjrminK wife, and the deUghts of Italy; and, as if he had been 
My Qetur'i^ agent, was continually decreeing fresh honours, 
fnopa* and money to him ; Ceeaar wiis pursuing the direct road 
^ empire ; tmining his legions in all the toils and discipline of 
t. bloody war ; himself always at their head, animating them by 
kii courage, and rewarding them by his bounty ; till, from a 
fteat and wealthy province, having raised money enough to 
Mrriipt, and an army able to conquer till who could oppose 
lim, he seemed to want nothing for the execution of his vast 
les^CTM, but a pretext to break with Pompey ; which, wt all 
■rise men foresaw, could not long be wanted, when Julia, tlie 
pMDGnt of their union, was removed. For though the power of 
the triumvirate had given a dangerous blow to the liberty of 
Rome;, yet the jealousies and sepanite interests of the chiels 
obliged them to manage it with some decency ; and to extend 
it, but rarely, beyond the forms of the constitution j but when- 
mi that league should happen to be dissolved, which had made 
[hem already too great for private subjects, the next contest, of 
course, must be for dominion, and the single mastery of the 

On the second of November, C. I'ontinius triumphed over 
Jie Allobroges : he had been praetor, when Cicero was consul; 
ind, at the end of his magistracy obtained the government of 
iiat part of Gaul, which, having been tampering witli Catiline 
;ii his conspiracy, broke out soon afterwards into open rebellion, 
}ut was reduced by the vigour of this general. For tliis sor- 
rice he demanded a triumph, but met with great opposition, 
which he surmounted with incredible patience : for he perse- 
rered in his suit, for five years successively ; residing all that 
rhile, according to custom, in the suburbs of the city, till he 
^ned his point, at last, hy a kind of violence, Cicero was his 
:riend, and continued in Home on purpose to assist him; and 
ihe consul Appius served him with all his power: but C'atn 
protested that Pontinius should never triumph while he lived; 
< though this," says Cicero, " like many of his other threats, 
rill end at last in nothing." But the pr^tor Galba, who had 
Men his lieutenant, having procured, by stratagem, an act of 
he people in his favour, he entered the city in his triumphal 



s so rutMy received an>l op|MK>eil 
>rced to an 

(lintii^li t)ie !iiri*rts. timt lie vras Tore* 

inak« Ui 

uiili liis swiinl, and tin* xUiiightor of many of bu kdvn^ 

III till- Hill of till' yi'iir, (.'iceni i-oiisi'iiteil to be one of Po* 
ppyV licutoiiuiits ill SfKiiii : wliivli lie be^iii to tliink coiivenieot 
to till' )>ri-M-ii( -liilc (if liU itlTairs, and ro»olvi*d to set fijrwwJ 
fur tliiil |iroviiici> iilunit t)io mid(lK> of Jiiiniiiry': but tliil 
•teemed tii ^ivi- miiiic iiiiilirni^ii t» (.'aesur, wlio, l>v llii> lielp d 
<juintiis liopoil III iliM'iifii^t; liiin |rnidiially fmm I'uinpn', 
uiid to iittiicli liini 111 liiin-i'lf; and, witli tliiit view, lind beg^ 
uf biin. ill liit Ictli-nt, to (iintiiiiic at Koiiio \ for the sake d 
servtii;; liimNt-lf witli liU miihoTity. in all affairs wliidi lie iai 
ocL-jLsioii to Iraiixiiel tlierc : tio tliat out of re<ritnt, probably, ta 
l'ies:ir\ uTicasiiii-ns, CiitTo soon rliaiigvd bis mind, ami resigned 
bis lifuteiiuiiry : to wbieli In- seoms tu idlude, in u lfttt>r to lui 
brotber, wberv be tuiys, that be bad no secotul tIiouffht« in 
wbatevvr eoiiccnied Oie^ir ; tliat be would make good his ea- 
){a|rt>ineiits to bim; and liavin^ entered into his friciid.->Iiip witk 
jud;;inoiit, was now attitcbcil to liini by affL-vtiun*. 

lie Hill oni|<li>y('d, at Cii'^iir'H deiiire, along witb Oppius, in 
settling tbi' plan of a must expensive aii<l niugiiiticent work, 
wliieli C ii-sir Will i^oing to execute at Kome, nut of tlie spoili 
of Cititl ; a iietv fiirnni, witb many ^raiid l)iiildin;r« annexed to 
it ! for tin- iitk'h of wliieb alone, tfii-y luiil (."ontracted to pay to 
tbi- several owners about five huiulrcil tliiiu«;ind poundu; or, as 
Suetonius eoinpiiles. ne;ir double that siiin '. Cicoro cidls it a 
gloriims niece of work, and savii. '• that the i>arlilioP! 

D-CSS. Clc.53. CoH^L. Dauillmi AI.cnol.rbii>. A. (.-ku<liu> Pu 

was employed in raiaing another, not much inferior to 
U own expense: for he repaired and beautified an an- 
asilica in the old forum; and built, at the same time, a 
le, with Phrygian columns, which was called after hia 
ime, and is frequently mentioned by the later writere, as 
c of wonderful magnificence, computed to have cost him 
lundred thousand pounds '. 

E new tribunes pursued the measures of their predeces- 
nd would not simer au election of consuls ; so that when 
w year came on, the Republic wanted its proper bead: 

case, the administration fell into the hands of an inter- 
1 provi:$ional magistrate, who (nust necessarily beapatri- 
tnd chosen by the body of patricians, called together for 
urpose by the senate '. His power, however, was but 
jved, being transferred, every fi\e days, from one inter- 

anotber, tiU an election of consuls could be obtained : 
le tribunes, whose anthority was absolute, white there 
no coneuU to control them, continued 6erce against any 
>n at all : some were for reviving the ancient dignity of 
ry tribunes ; but that being unpopular, a more plausible 
le was taken up, and openly avowed, of declaring Pompey 
or. This gave great apprehensions to the city, for the 
<ry of Sylbi's dictatorship ; and was vigorously opposed by 
i chiefs of the senate, and especially by Cat« : Pompey 
to keep himself out of sight, and retired into the country, 
jd the suspicion of affecting it. " The rumour of a die- 
hip," says Cicero, "is disagreeable to the honest; but the 
tmngs which they talk of, are more so to me ; the whole 
is dreaded, but flags: Pompey flatly disclaims it, though 
ver denied it to me before: the tribune, Hirrus, will 
bly be the promoter : good gods ! how silly and fond of 
If without a rival ! At Fompey's request, 1 have deterred 
us JunianuB, who pays a great regard to me, from med- 
with It. It is hard to know whether Pompey really de- 
it or not : but if Hirrus stir in it, he will not convince us 

ini, coniumiimiij H-S. Kxcenliei : cum privaiiB non potfrmt tnuuiBi minDn pc- 
Efflcicmus Km glorintiuiinini. Nun in Ciumhi Mania Kpu tributif cODiitih 
' ' ' ' ' iFicelta parlicu.utmiUi^ iMUUuni con- 

Simul tdjongttur huic o|irri villa eliun pi 
ku in DWilia Fon> Builicun jam [wn« tciuil itxiem uitiqui 
bcit miigni(icenti»imam. Nihil graljua illo 

m. lb. 

. Awon. HiiUB. in Hilc 



uai ye » awnc ta it '." In another letter; ** mtluDg _ 
done a» ID ike diemonlup : Poapey is sdU ataeiit ; Afp 
iaacmi fawtie: Hinw prrparin^'to propoK it; batKMI 
an miB«tl at mily to iaierpoae tlieb Dtntire : ^ ninJii 
■oc DtMible iheir Weadi about it ; the cliiefii ai« ^auatit" 
keep Bt>eli' <iiiiei '." Cicero's friend, Milo, was iimolakl 
w act OD iy» cccasiMi : be was (onuag an interest fortfet . 
«ui^p: and. it he declared i^siost a dictatorship, wai rfi 
of mkin:; Pompey his enemy: or, if he should not bdpAi 
of^Mwenn. thai it would be carried by fonre ; in both wUA 
cues hi» own pretensions were sure to be disappointed:)! 
wa* ineiined. therefore, to join in the oppcnition, bol m It 
ODit', as to repel any Holence '. 

The tribunes, in the mean time, were growing eresy Af 
more and more insolent, and engroasing all power to d» 
selves : till Q. Pompeius Kufus, the grandson of Sylll^ ■! 
dtc motK Venous espauser of a dictator, was, by a Tnitl 
decree of the senate, committed lo prison ; and PiuDpey Ii» 
sell, opon his return to the city, 6nding the greater and beM 
part utterly averse to hu^ dictttorship, yielded, at last, aftam 
tnierre^num of six months, that Cn. bomitius Calvinu, mi 
M. Messala. should be declared consuls*. These were sgne- 
abie likewise to Cxsar : Cicero had particularly reoommeaU 
Messala to him : of whom, he says, in a letter to bis brotfaa; 
" as to your reckoning Messala and Calvinus sure coniuli^ JN 
^ree >ith « hat we think here ; for 1 will be answerable k 
r for Messala'." 


LUrb. 700. evil. Coii.— Cn. OoDiilnuCi 

M Pompey, without tbe fear of any great harm, while ther« 
iMto sure a check upon him as Csssar; who, upon any ex- 
llitant use of that power, wouUI have had the senate, and all 
c better sort, on Iiis side, by the specious pretence of asscrt- 
e the public liberty: Cicero, tlierefore, judged rightly, in 
Hilunei that there were other things, which might be ap- 
vhended, and seemed likely to liappen, tiiat, in tlieir prc- 
nt situation, were of more dangerous consequence than u 

There had scarce been so long an interregnum in Rome, 
Dce the expulsion of their kings; during which, ail public 
niness, and especially all judicial proceeding!*, were wholly 
iterrupted ; which explains a jocose passage in one of Cicero'n 
Iters, to Trebatius: " if you had not already," says he, 
been absent from Rome, you would certainly have run away 
>w: for what business is there for a lawyer in so many inter- 
tgoums? I advise all my clients, if sued in any action, to 
ove every interrex twice for more time; do not you think, 
lat I have learnt the law of you to good purpose 'i"' 

He now began a correspondence of letters with Curio, a 
lung senator of <listii^uisned birth and parts, wlio, upon his 
FBt entrance into the Forum, had been committed to his tare, 
id was at this time quaestor in Asia. He was posses-sed of a 
Tge and splcnilitl fortune, by the late death of his father; so 
mt Cicero, who knew his high spirit and ambition, and that 
e was formed to do much good or hurt to his country, was 
ssiroiu to engage him early in the interests of the Republic ; 
id, by instilling great and generous sentiments, to inflame 
im with a love of true glory. Curio had sent orders to his 
rents at Rome, to proclaim a show of gladiators in lionour of 
■ deceased fother ; but Cicero stopped the declaration of it 
ir a while, in hopes to dissuade him from so great and fruit- 
m an expense*. He foresaw, that nothing was more likely 
I eorropt his virtue, than the ruin of his fortunes, or to make 
cm a dangerous citizen, than prodigality; to which he was 
itnnilty inclined, and which Cicero, for that reason, was tbe 
ore desirous to check, at his first setting out: but all his 
ideavours were to no purpose; Curio resolved to give tbe 
low of gladiators ; and by a continual profusion of his money, 
Kwering to this beginning, after he had acted the patriot for 

' BW ante Roma prorectui eon. nunc «ni uiie rFlinqucm. Qnii enim lot inler- 

_ .,? Ei.Fuii.7. 11. 

* Bop itMinin nan dgfuil (ierlmndorum muuenim tao Domiiu : wd nee mihi pla- 
it, wte cmqnOD tnanim, qutd^aam U abKnte Gai, quod tibi, cub Tw u nea, naa ewM 
cgnm, kt. Ibid. 2. 3. 


*.Urb,700. ficW. L-oM,--C'n.r)omiliu»<.ulvn;u.. M. V.ltriut Mnnli. 

tAer to rejoice at, the loss of Crassus himself. For after the 
'bath of Julia, Crassiis's authority was the only means left of 
Mrinn^ the power of Pompey, and the ambition of Csesar, 
*iiffi ready always to support tlie weaker, against the en- 
Mcft^ments of the stronger, and keep them both within tlie 
tkunds of a decent respect to the laws ; but this check beine 
)Ow taken away, and the power of the empire thrown, aa a kind 
■f prize, between two, it gave a new turn to their several pre- 
(msiona, and created a fresh eompetition for the larger share ; 
Ifticb, as the event afterwards shewed, must necessarily end in 
ike subversion of the whole. 

f Publius Crassus, who perished with bis fatlier in this fatal 
Upedition, was a youth of an amiable character ; educated with 
Ibe strictest care, and perfectly instructed in all ttic liberal 
Nndies: be bod a ready wit and easy language; was grave 
rithout arrogance, modest without negligence; adornea with 
ill the aecomplisbmcnGa proper to form a principal citizen and 
eader of the Ilepublic : by the force of his own judgment be 
ibH devoted himself very early to the observance and imitation 
{ Cicero, whom be perpetually attended and reverenced with 
kind of filial piety. Cicero conceived a mutual affection for 
lim, and observing bis eager thirst for glory, was constantly 
nstilling into him the true notion of it ; and OTchorting him to 
lursue that sure piitli to it, wliieh his anccslors biul left beaten 
ind traced oat to him, through the gradual ascent of civil 
tonoars. But by serving under Caesar in the Gallic wars, he 
lad leamt, as he fancied, a shorter way to fame and power 
han what Cicero bad been inculcating; and having signalized 
JiDself in a campaign or two, as a soldier, was in too much 
iBSte to be a general; when Csesar sent him, at the head of a 
housand horse, to the assistance of his father in the Parthian 
rar. Here the vigour of bis youth and courage carried him 
■n so for, in the pursuit of an enemy, whose chief art of con- 
|uest consisted in flying, that he had no way left to escape, 
>ut what bis high spirit disdained, by the desertion of his 
roops and a precipitate flight; so that, finding himself op- 
■refsed with numbers, cruelly wounded, and in danger of 
ailing alive into the hands of the Partliiaiis, he chose to die 
>y the sword of his armour-bearer. Thug, while he aspired, 
S Cicero says, to the fame of anotlier Cyrus or Alexander, he 
ett« abort of that glory, which many of his predecessors bad 
eaped, ftom a succession of honours, conferred by their 
ountry, as the reward of their services'. 

pucri^ semper, tunen boc 

K^led, in the exercise of his subordinate magistmcy'. Pompey 
^ wholly averse to Milo,who did not pay him that court 
^kb he expected, bat wraMd to affect aa independency, and 
1* trost to his own rtrengtl^ while the other two o(«npetitoni 
*cre wholly at bia devotink Hvpanus bad beMi his quaBtor* 
nd always liis creature i and ae designed to make Seipio 
lib fether-in-kw, bf marrying hit daughter Coraelia, a lady of 
jkiebrMed aceomjiliihinratB, ue widow of young Crassua. 
I' Cicero, on the oiber hand, served Milo to the utmost of hi> 
Bower, and anli-ml^ wished him success. This he owed to 
Hilo's coiistiint atlachmeDt to him, which, at all baxanls, be 
Hm- resolved to repay. The affair, however, was likely to 
me bim mudi truiiole, as well from the difficulty of the i^mh 
■lioD, as iVum Miln's own conduct and unbounded prodigabty, 
which threatened the ruin of all his fortunes. In a letter to 
kia brother, who w» sdll with C»sar, he says, " Nothing can 
l>e more wretched dian these men and these times : wherefore, 
once no pleasure can now be had trom the Republic I know 
lot why 1 shuiiUI make myself uneasy: books, study, quiet, 
■r eoniitiY-Iionses, and above all, my children, are my sole 
im^tt. Milo is my only trouble : I wish his consulship n 

gut an end to it; m which I will not take less pains, than I 
lid in my own ; and you will assist us there also, as you now 
do: all lluDgs stand well with him, unless some violence defeat 

a usaid only, how his money will hold out : for he is 
mad beyond all bounds in tlie magnificence of his shows, which 
he is now preparing at the espense of 250,000/. ; but it shall 
be my care to check his inconsiderateness in this one article, 
as &r 88 I am able'," &c. 

In the heat of this competition, Curio was coming home 
from Ana, and eipected shortly at Rome ; whence Cicero sent 
an express to meet him on the road, or at hia landing in Italy, 
with a most earnest and pressing letter to engage him to Milo's 

' OocuiTcbtt ei, muicuD m debilein Pnrliniin buatn fulur«iu coimule Milone. Pro 
HDon. 9. 

* Ilaqna « Rq>, quonUm nihil jam TolupUlii api potcat ; cur stoTnachcr, nrado. 
Ijttfna me tl ■ludiH nottrm, et Dlium, villcque delecunl, maximcque |mtn lUHtri. 

•am FDiaui in nutro ; toque ittinc, quifd farn, odjaTubii. Dc quo cvten (ni^ pluke via 
riipuenl) rocMj lunt : de re familiiri linieo. 

qui Indw U.S. CCC. campuel. Cujut in hoc UDO iuconsiileKintiiuii et ego luitintbo, 
otjpowm, AdQiiim. 3. 9. 

Ciceio bad grrnl mmn for the apiirehrniHniis whirh he ei[ire!«i on account of Milo'a 
eitimT^mce : for Milo hud alt«dj wa«ril ihice «tatr« in jtiving piajs and shnwi to the 
pcmilei anJ.whtn be went, soon afl.r, into exile, «i> found to owe still above half a 
mimon of oni nioDfr. Plin. 1. 36. U. Amoh. A^iim. in Milon. 

am now taking for Milo, you can believe mc to be 

of benefits : Ungrateful ; if a good man ; if worthy, in 
f your kindneis ; I beg of you to relieve my present 
le, and lend your betping hand to my praise ; or, to 
lore truly, to my safety. Aa to T. Anniua tiimself, I 

you, if you embrace him, that you will not lind a man 
ater mind, gravity, constancy, or of greater affection to 
id, as for myself, you will add such a. lustre and fresh 

to me, that 1 shall readily own you to have shewn the 
?al for my honour, which you exerted before for my 
ttion. If I was not sure, from what I have already 
it you would see how much 1 take my duty to be in- 

in this affair, and how much it concerns me, not only 
gle, but even to fight for Milo's success, I should press 
1 farther ; but I now recommend, and throw the whole 
Hid myself also with it, into your hands; and beg of 
assure yourself of this one thing, that, if I obtain this 
'rom you, I shall be more indebted almost tu you, than 
• Milo himself; since my safety, in which 1 was priu- 
issisted bv Idm, was not so dear, as the piety of shewing 
titade will be agreeable to me, which, I am persuadeo, 
be able to effect by your assistance. Adieu'." 

senate, and the better sort, were generally in Milo's 
; but three of the tribunes were violent against him, 
ipeius Rufus, Munatius Plancus Bursa, and Sallust the 
n ; the other seven were bis fast friends, but, above all, 
lius, who, out of regard to Cicero, served him with a 
ar zeal. But, while all things were proceeding very 
ously in his favour, and nothing seemed wanting to 
lis success, but to bring on the election, which his ad- 
M, for that reason, were labouring to keep back, all his 
ind fortunes were blasted at once, by an unhappy ren- 
■ with his old enemy Clodius, in which Clodius was 
>y his servants, and by his command, 
r meeting was wholly accidental, on the Appian road, 
from the city; Clodius coming home from the country 
1 Rome ; Milo going out about three in the afternoon j 
t on horseback, with three companions, and thirty ser> 
veil armed ; the latter in a chariot, with his wife and 
ind, but with a much greater retinue, and, among them, 
ladiators. Tlie servants, on both sides, began presently 
t each other; when Clodius, turning briskly to some of 
men, who were nearest to him, and threatening them 

■ Ep. Fam. 2. C, 

A. rib. 701. at. a. 

with hU usual fierceDess, receired a weuiid in the iboaUa 

from one of the glailiatora ; and, after receiviiw Kveial mta 

general fray, which instantly ensued, finding his Ub ■ 
r, was forcea to fly for shelter into a nnghbooring tann. 
_ _ . heated by this success, and the thoughts of revei^e^ mk 
reflecting that ne had already done enotign, to gire his ens^ 
a great advantage against him, if he was left alive to pumu i^ 
resolved, whatever was the consequence, to have the plesisit 
of destroying him, and so ordered the house to be stanna^ 
and Clodtus to be dr^ged out and murdered. The nuHbrflf 
the tavern was likewise killed, with eleven of Clodiua's to- 
vants, while the rest saved themselves by flight ; so that Cl^ 
dius's body was left in tlie road, where it fell, till S. Tedio^t 
senator, happening to come by, took it up into his chaise, tai 
brought it with him to Home, where it was exposed in ObI 
condition, all covered with blood and wounds, to the view <f 
the populace, who flocked about it in crowds, to lament du 
miserable fate of their leader. The next day, tlie mob, headed 
by S. Clodius, a kinsman of the deceased, and one of his chief 
incendiaries, carried the body naked, so as all the woondi 
might be seen, into the Forum, and placed it in the rosti^ 
where tlie three tribunes, Milo's enemies, were prepared to 
liarangue upon it in a style suited to the lamentable occasioa, 
by which they inflamed their mercenaries to such a height of 
fury, that, snatching up the body, tliey ran away with it into 
tlie senate-house, and, tearing up the benches, tablet^ and 
I- llilnir conil.L.-.lil.lo, ih^^'^-ied u]> a funeral pile upon ttie 

OF ClCBno. 

to little piirpoae; for tlie three tribunes employed all tlie 
of party aiid faction to keep up the ill humour of the 
ilaoe ; und, what was more fatal, Pompey u-ould not be 
lUgbt into any measures of accommodating the matter; so 
t the tumults still increasing, tht; senate passed a decree] 
ikat the interrex, a&sisted by the tribunes and Pompey, should 
take eare that the Republic receive no detrimeut ; and that 
Fompey, in particular, should raise a body of troops for tlie 
pommon security, which he presently drew together from all 
|Hirts of Italy. In this confusion, the rumour of a dictator waa 
Again industriously revived, and gave a fresli alarm to the 
•etiate; who, to avoid the greater evil, resolved presently to 
^eate Pompey the single consul ; so that the interrex, Servius 
jiulpidus, declared his election accordingly, after an iuterrcg- 
Oiun of near two months'. 

I A.Urb.701. Cic.Si. Cm—Co. roiopeiusM^Dui HI. Sine Cllegt, 

PoMPEV applied himself immediately to calm tlie public 
' disorders, aiid published several new laws, prepared by him 
for that purpose : one of tliem was to appoint a special com- 
mission, to inquire into Clodins's death, the burning of the 
senate-bouse, and the attack on M. Lepidus ; and to appoint 
an extraordinary judge, of consular rank, to preside in it: a 
second was, against bribery and corruption in elections, with 
tlie inflictions of new and severer penalties. — fly these lawa, 
the method of trials was altered, and the length of them limited : 
three days were allowed for tlie examination of witnesses, and 
the fourth for tlie sentence : on which the accuser was to have 
two hours only to enforce the charge ; the criminal tliree for 
his defence': which regulation Tacitus seems to consider as 
the first step towards tne ruin of the Roman eloquence, by 
imposing reins, as it were, upon its free and ancient course . 
Ccelius opposed his negative to these laws, as being rather 
privileges than laws, and provided particularly against Milo : 
tut he was soon obliged to withdraw it, upon Pompey's de- 
daring that he would support them by force of arms. The 
three tribunes, all the while, were perpetually haranguing and 
terrifying the city with forged stories, of magazines of arms 
preparea by Milo, for massacreing his enemies, and burning 
the city, and produced their creatures, in the rostra, to vouch 
the truth of them to the people. They charged him particu- 
larly with a design a^j-iinst Pompey's life, and brought one 

' Tid. DiD, iliid. ei Awv,,,, Amim. ' IW.!. 

» Primiu lerUo conauUln Cn. Poiiipeiu» ulrionit, imposuiMiuc veluli fncaoi eloqucn- 
ti«,&c Dialog. <le Ont. 38. 


A.l'rb.70l. t'icU. C'M.^l'D.raiupeii»MmgnuiItl. SiDcColkjl. 

Liciniua, a killer of ibe victims for Bacrifice, to declare diri 
Milo'a senrants bad confessed it to him in their cups, and Ika 
endeavoured to kill liiin, lest be should discover it: aodt k 
make his story tlie more credible, shewed a slieltt wound inks 
Hide, made by himself, which he affirmed to have been OfU 
by the stroke uf a gladiator. Pompey himself confirmed lb 
met, and laid an ai-coiint of it before the senate; an^ bf 
doubling liiN guard, atTocted to intimate a real spprehenooa tf 
danger'. Nor were tht>y less industrious to raise a ' 
against Cicern; unil, in order to deter bim from 
Alilu's cause, tiireuteued him also with trials and persecutjoai; 

giving It out every where, that Clodiiis was killed indeed hf 
le hand of Milo, hut by the advice and contrivance ofi 
greater man '. " Yet, such was his constancy to his fnend,* 
says AKcotiiuH, " that neither the loss of popular fevoor, Mr 
Pompey'it sutiiiicions, nor his own diinger, nor the terror rf 
arms, could liiveit him from the resolution of undertakiai 
Milo's defence'." 

But it was Pomney's influence and authority which niined 
Milo*. lie WHS tlio only man in Rome who Lad the power 
either to bring him to a trial, or to get him condemned: not 
that he was concerned fur Clodius's death, or tlie manner of 
it, but plca-sed rather that the Republic was freed, at any nte, 
from Hu pestilent a demagogue ; yet he resolved to take tie 
bcn<-fit of the oceaition, fur getting rid of Milo too, from whose 
ambition and high spirit he liad cause to appreliend no Icsi 
trouble. — -He would not lii^teii, tlierefort', to any overtures 


A.Vih.70l. C'icA'j. Coi,-Cn.PainpriiuMByMiu III, SniCalttga. 

to dischiir^e a vow, said to be made by him, on the ao- 

it of Clodius's ileuli '. 

' When tUe examination was over, Munatius Plancus called 

people together, and exhorted them to appear in a full 

the next day, when ju(lg;n]eiit was to be given, and to 

re their sentiments in so public a manner, that the criminal 

light not be suffered to escape : which Cicero reflects upon, 

the defence, as an insult on the liberty of the bench'. Early 

die moniing, on the eleventh of April, the shops were all 

IkDtt and tlie whole city gathered into the Forum, where the 

iveouee were possessed by Pompey's soldiers, and he himself 

Heated in a conspicuous part, to overlook the whole proceeding, 

0tid hinder all disturbance. The accusers were young Appiiis, 

tfiB nephew of Clodius, M. Antonhis, and P. Valerius, who, 

according to tlie new law, employed two liours in supporting 

their indictment. Cicero was the only advocate on Milo's 

i.-fide ; but, as soon as he rose up to speuli, he was received with 

BO rude a clamour, l>y tlic Clodians, that he was much dis- 

EOinposed and daunted at his first setting out, yet recovered 

tpint enough to go tlirougli his speech of three hours, which 

Vras taken down in writing, and published as it was delivered, 

fliougb the copy of it now extant is supposed to have been re- 

touchetl and corrected by him, afterwards, for a present to 

Milo, in his exile'. 

In the council of Milo's friends, several were of opinion, 
that he should defend himself, by avowing the death of Clodiua 
to be an act of public benefit : but Cicero thought that defence 
too desperate, as it would disgust the grave, by opening so 
great a door to licence, and otfend the powerful, lest the pre- 
cedent should be extended to themselves. But young Brutus 
was Dot so cautious, who, in an oration, which he composed and 

Eublished afterwards, in vindication of Milo, maintained the 
illing of Clodius to be right and just, and of great service to 
the Republic'. It was notorious, that, on both sides, they had 
oA«n threatened death to each other ; Clodius, especially, had 
declared several times, both to the senate and the people, that 
Milo ought to be killed ; and that, if the consulship could not 
be taken from him, his life could : and when Favonius asked 
him once, what hopes he could have of playing his mad pranks, 

■ Tid. Amod. Aijum. Id Milon. 

em licere lobit, quod ■entiali^ libera 

JBdkain. Pm Milon. 2«. Vid. Ahod. ibid. 

• CSeero, cmo iacipiTel dicere, icceptm est 

CTlimatione Clirfianonirn— it»que non 

«, <pim lolitai ent, cai»UntiH dixit. Manet n 

Icm ill» qiioquo occpla ejua oimtio. 


• Cum quibiudim p!«t,Iwl, iU defendi crim. 

, interfici CloHiiira pro Rqnib. faine, 

a«m fondun M. Bnilui »ciilu> eu in « oniio 

e. quin, pro Milone r<m>p«uit.« edi- 

A.l'rii.TUl. Ck. U. 1'(m.~Cb. roBpnutM^gnu* III. Sine Calk^ 

while Milo was liviug, he replied, that ia three or four day%il 
most, he should live do more : which was spc^en jot thm 
days l>efore the &tal encounter, and attested by FaTaniiw'. 
Since Milo then was charged with being the contriver of HA 
meetinfT, and the nfrgreflsor in it, and several testimonies wot 
produce<l to that purpose, Cicero chose to risk tbe cause m 
that issue ; in hopes to persuade what seemed to be the ant 
probable, that Clodius actually lay in wait for Milo, ind cot 
trived the time and place ; and that Milo's part was but ■ 
necessary act of self-defence. This appeared ptaufflble, &■■ 
the nature of their equipage, and the circumstances in wUck 
they met : for though MUo's company was the more numoim 
yet it was much more encumbered, and unfit for an engB» 
ment, than liui adversary's ; he himself being in a chariot wiA i 
his wife, and all her women along with him : while Clodins wiA 
his followera were on horseback : as if prepared and equipped 
for fighting'. He did not preclude himself, however, by aai, 
from the other plea which he often takes occasion to insinuate, 
that if Milo had really designed and contrived to kill ClodiMt 
he would have desersed honours instead of punishment, for 
catting off so desperate and dangerous an enemy to tbe peaoe 
and liberty of Rome '. 

In this speech for Milo, after he had shewn the folly of pac- 
ing such a regard to the idle rumours and forgeries of his ene- 
mies, as to give them the credit of an examination, he toudtct 
Poftipey's conduct (md pretended fears, with a fine and mas- 
terly rtiillery : and, from a kind of prophetic foresight of whsl 

A. I'rb. 701. Cir. .w. (.'ix.—Cu. I'ompriuB MiiEnat III. dtotCoOtglL. 

ev would contemn, if diey were at liberty to do it. He 
■ud not refuse an audience to that paltry fellow, Licinitis, 
\fO gave tlie infonnation about Milo's servanb — I wa.t sent 
t among the first of those friends, by whose advice he laid it 
tfbrc the senate ; and was, 1 own, ifi no small consternation, 
see tlie guardian both of me and my coiiiitry under so gr<'ut 
1 apprehension ; yet, I could not liclp wondering tliat sucli 
ffdit was g;iven to a butcher ; such regard to drunken slaves ; 
id how the wound iu the man's side, which seemed to be the 
jck only of a needle, could he taken for the stroke of a gla* 
Mot. But Pompey was shewing his caution rather than hia 
pri and disposed to be suspicious of every thing, that you 
^ht have reason to fear nothing. There was a rumour, also, 
at CfEsar's house was attacked for several hours in tlie niglit ; 
e oeighbours, though in so public a place, heard nothing at 
L of it; yet, the affair was thought fit tu be inquired into. I 
HI never suspect a man of Pompey's eminen t courage of beine 
norous; nor yet tliink any caution too great in one, who hud 
ken upon himself the defence of the whole Uenublic. A se- 
itoT, likewise, in a full house, affirmed lately in the capitol, 
at Milohad a dagger under bis gown, at that very time: Milo 
ripped himself presently in that most sacred temple; that, 
nee hia life and manners would not give him credit, tlie thing 
»elf might speak for him, which was found to be Mse, and 
isely forged. But if, after all, Milo must sHU be feared, it is 
longer the aifair of Clodius, but your suspicions, Pompey, 
hich we dread: your suspicions, I say, and speak it so, that 
III may hear me. — If those suspicions stick so close, that they 
■e never to be removed ; if Italy must never be free from new 
vies, nor the city from arms, without Milo's destruction j he 
oold not scruple, such is bis nature and his principles, to bid 
lieu to his country, and submit to a voluntary exile : but, at 
iking leave, he would call upon thee, O thou great one ! as 
s now does, to consider how uncertain and variable the con- 
Idon of life is; how unsettled and inconstant a thing fortune; 
hat unfuthfulness there is in fiends ; what dissimulation 
lited to times and circumstances ; what desertion, what co- 
ardice in our dangers, even of those who are dearest to us ; 
lere will, there wUl, I say, be a time, and the day will cer- 
Mlly come, when you with safety still, I hope, to your for- 
tnes, though changed, perhaps, by some turn of the common 
mea^ which, as experience shews, will often happen to us all, 
»j want the affection of the friendliest, the fidelity of the 
orthiest, the courage of the bravest man living '," &c. 

■ Pro Milon. 24, 25, 3«. 

Or' tHii- mill tifrv jinlip's. who sat ui>uii Milo, thirteen mif 
ni-t)iiitiiil, itiiil ihiriy-ii>:ht CDnHciHiivd, Liin : the votes «m i-. 
uoiiiiily kTivi'ii liy I<:tlKit : but I'liio, who ubsulved him, clnM> 
eivi- hi« voii' i<|>i-iily: "iiiiil, if he liad ilone it earlier," »fi 
VfUfiif. ■' wiiiiUl havo dniwn othi-rs nfter him: dnce all nn 
nniviiiivcl. iliui hi> uhii ua.> killeil, was, of all mIio had cnr 
livtil, till- iii»'t {u-niii'ioii'i I'tiomy to hi." cuuiitry, ami U d 
gmn\ iiifii'." Mill) w('[it into rxiU' at Marseille^, a fewillj) 
uftiT lii» i-iiiiil<'inriiiiii>n : his iU-liL« were so t^'eat, that he n 
glail tn rotire tin- mhiiut friMii lhi> ini[i<irtuiiitv of hi$ neditm: ._ 
toT whiiM' •>;ili«rni-(iiiii his ulinti- t-siute wits Jsold by puhtic Uf \.^ 
»n. IIiTi,' (.'itvni still oimliiiiiitl hi- cxin* for 'liiin, and, il L 
'■> fricnil'^, nrilort-il uiKMif his wifL-Vfreedmni t 
-I at (h<- sill-, ami to piin-liuse the gmut V 
ill (inltT to ilis{io«t' of thtiin, aftern-ards, tt \. 
, fur rhc lioiiofit of Miloniiil liis wifcFaujt^ l 
In- saved fur them. Itiit hi» intruded w 1 
L'U n'1i>hi-il l)y Mihi, as he expected: Sx I 
rhihxiiuii'i wiL« Mi-ipi'i-:eil i if playing; tliu kii.-ive, aod secreting 1 
l^jirt iif tlio t'ffi'it* til his (iwii ii>t>, wliieh nave Cicero great uo- I 


nuiecrt with Mili 

I'hilolilllU-. 1.1 

i*art of ihe flft' 
the ht-t ailv;uil 
if ;tiiy ihiiii,' on 
viee w;i» 


tliat hf jire-i-ed Attieui aiidCoilius to ititmire inio I 
ry iiarruitly, and oblii^e Fhilotimus to gire sads- 
faetioii to Mili>'> frioiuU: and to mv, especially, that liis ovn 
ropuiatioii did mil siilfer by llie maiiavomont of bis sen-aiit'. 
Thri>ii>:h thi-i uliole >tnii;>;le about Milo, Pumpey treated 
CiCcro with great humanity ; he assi^n^d him a guard at tlie | 
trial; foi^ve all bis labours for his niend, though in oppose 

I he was Kcquitml by a great majority. Bat Sex. 
B, the captain of tJie other side, Laul not the ludc la 
so well, but was condemneti, an^ banished with BevenU 
of that faction, to the great joy of the city, for baroing 

Wiute-house, and the other violence; cmainitted npoti 

" "8 death'. 

.DA.701. Cic.55. Cmt—Cn. Pomp. H^BiB III. Q. CaoL Mxcl. &jfHi. 

OMFSY no sooner published his new law a^nn bribery, 

itfie late consular candidates, Sdpio and Hypsstis, were 

rally impeached upon it; and, being both of them noto- 

8y guilty, were in great danger of beii^ condemned ; bnl 

Ipey, tailing the bwiy of the judges together, begged o( 

. as a favour, that out of the great number of stale cri* 

S, they would remit Scipio to him ; whom, after be bad 

ed from this prosecution, be decbred hts ooHeagne in the 

ikbip, for the last five months of the year; having finit 

him his fatiier-in-law, by marrj-ing his daughter, Cornelia. 

t other candidate, Hypsieus, was left to tlje mercy of the 

llr^ and, being likely to fare the worse for Scipio's escape, 

||d to be made a sacniice to tbe popular odiinn, he watched 

ti opportunity of access to Pompey, as he was coming out of 

is bath, and, throwing himself at his feet, implored his pro- 

ection : but though he had been his qusestor, and ever obse- 

[uious to his will, yet Pompey U said to have thrust him away, 

fith great haughtiness and inhumanity, telling him. coldly, 

hat he would only spoil his supper by cfelaining him *. 

Before the end of tlie year, Cicero had some amends for the 
on <^ his friend Milo, by the condemnation and banishment 
if two of the tribunes, the common enemies of them both, Q. 
i'ompeiiu Rufus, and T. Munatius Plancus Bursa, for the 
■Mences of their tribunate, and burning the senate-house. 
Ivsoon as their office expired, Coelius accused the first, and 
^cero himself the second; the only cause, excepting that of 
i^nres, in which he ever acted the part of an accuser. But 
Snrsa had deserved it, botli for his public behaviour, in his 
iffice, and his personal injuries to Cicero; who had defended 
lod preserved him in a former trial. He depended on Pom- 
ley's saving him ; and had no apprehension of danger, since 

> Akoo. ATgam. pro Milao. 

* Cn. maton Pompeiui qium iDKlcnMr ? Qui balnea rgmni, aalc pedt* >u« pro. 

slmt^ ■""i"*- nddem iwmiD] «i lUiutriam mini, mnonii loco > Jodidbgt depo*- 
n*. Ti]. Hu. 9. S. it. Flat, in Pomp. 


Cie. 55. C™.-Cu, I'ump. U.gnu> 111. Q. CkJI. .MMbI. fkipio. 

pifp desigued, tben, as a supplemeDt or secoud volume to 
|_*rther upon the Republic, was distributed, probably, as 
«ther was, into six books; for we meet witli some quo- 
~~» among the ancienU from the fourtli and iittJi ; though 
are but three now rematnirifr, and those in some places 
rfvet. Ill the first of these, he lays open the orif^n of 
%nd the source of obligation, which he derives fram tike 
"^rsal nature of things, or, as be explains it, from the con- 
Uute reason or will of the supreme God * : in the other 
k books, he gives a body of laws, conformable to hts owd 
ft and idea of a well-ordered city ' : first, those which reiiite 
fetieion and the worship of the gods : secondly, those which 
"^•mbe the duties and powers of the several magistrates, from 
ll llie peculiar form of each ^vemment is denomtnatf-d. 
I lawH are generally taken from the old constitution or 
n of Rome'; with some little variation and temperamenti 
trived to obviate tlie disorders to which tliat Republic was 
''', and to give it a stronger turn towards the aristocratical 
; in the other books, which are lost, he had treated, as 
( telle, of the particular rights and privileges of the Roman 

Ponpey was preparing an inscription this summer for t)ie 
nnt of the new temple, which he had lately built to Venus 
Conqueress, containing, as usual, the recital of all his 
h; but, in drawing it up, a question happened to be started, 
labont the mnuoer of expressing his third consulsttip ; whether 
■ jt shomld be by consul tertium or tertio. This was referred to 
mltue principal critics of Rome, who could not, it seems, up-ee 
Fldbfnit it; some of them contending for the one, some for the 
L dCher; so that Pom(«;y left it to Cicero to decide the matter, 
and to inscribe wliat he thought the best. But Cicero, being 
uBwiUiDg to give judgment on either side, when there were 
^eat authorities on both sides, and Varro among them, ad- 
vised Pompey to abbreviate the word in question, and order 
Tert, to be inscribed, which fully declared tlie thing, without 
determining the dispute. From this fact we may observe, 
hfiw nicely exact they were in this age, in preserving a pro- 

DC iciuparelegnul Mlum.queni probiinui, liTJuni lUimi;. Ibid.). 2. 

■ Bt ri \am Iiirtc i me hodic rogibunliir, ijiiie non (inl in Hoitn Rcpnb. B«c ftwrioC, 

' — '--> man Bujnnno, qoi lum, u[ Itx, nitbtL Ibid. 2, 10. 

u» MB valtnn, ^uvd putuem ntfrmdniB in liglbas. Wi. t. S. 

AlifcTul. iK-4S l-<w._ti.. P«,^ Mii^ut III. y.l-«ot.M*d.t!opJ 

|iriely of iutguage in their public monumenU knd i 

Amon;; the other acts of Pomney, in this third e 
there «'».< a iirw law a^n<t briber}', contrived to ■ 
the cild ones that wen* already substlvtintir a^nst it, 1^4 
qualifyiii>f hII future mnsuls and prsetors from holdinfrf 
province, till live years after the expiration of ibeit na 
t^acie^ ; fur this was thought likely to give some check lifl| 
eagerness of ^iiinif and bribing for those great ofGces, il 
the chief fruit and l>eiiefit of them vas removed to such ■ A 
taiice '. But, before the law rxused, Porapey toak i 
provide an exception fur him^lf, and to get tne gore 
of ^S|lai^ contitiiied tu him fur fire yean longer, with 
poiniinf nt of moiii-y for the payment of his troops ; and Ial| 
this sihould give offi.'i]ce to Csesar, if sometliing aKo of a 
traordiiiar)' kind was not provided for him, he proposed a !>■,■' 
to dispense with Ciewr's absence in suing for the consul^¥~ 
of which Ciesiir at that time seemed very desirous. Coeliii 1 
wa» the promoter of tliis law, engaged to it by Cicero, tt I 
the joint ri-quest of Pomney and Ctesar ' ; and it was carried I 
with the coiicurrence of all the tribunes, though not witboul 1 
difficultv and obstruction from the senate: but this udusihI j 
fitvour. instead of satisfying Ciesar, served only, as Suetooiut I 
rays to raise Ins hopes and demands still Idglier *. 

By PomjH'y's law, just mentioned, it was provided, that for 
the supplv of governors for the interval of five years, in which 
the consuls iuid pneturs were disqualified, the Benatora of coa- 
suhir and prietorian rank, tvho had never held any foreign 
command, should divide the vacant provinces among tben- 
•*'""* v."!-.!' !n consequence of which, Cicero, who was obliged 

tic. 55. (.'«»^Cu, Puiii[i. M^Bu. lir. Q. Ciwil. Mclel. Htiplp. 

'and espectatioD, obtruded at last upon Cicero ; wliube 

bness it bad been, through life, to avoid them '. 

The city began now to feel the unhappy effects both of 

Vnlin's and Crassus's death, from the mutual upprebensions and 

'^tnlousies, which discovered themselves more and more every 

Oay between Pompey and Cassar : the senate was generally in 

_ Pompey's interest; and, trusting to the name and authority of 

to great a leader, were determined to humble the pride and 

ftmbition of Cspsar, by recalling bim from his government; 

wllilst Csesar, on the other hand, trusting to tJie strength of his 

troops, resolved to heep possesaion of it in defiance of all their 

' -votes ; and, by drawing a part of his forces into the Italic, or 

Cisalpine Gaul, so as to be ready at any warning to support 

Ilia pretensions, began to alarm all Italy with the melancholy 

prospect of an approaching civil n-ar ; and this was the bitua- 

tion of affairs when Cicero set forward towards his government 

of Cilicia. 

A.Urb.7(n. Ck.M. r««~8crT. Sulpk-iui Bufui. H. Cliudiui Mureelliu. 
This year opens to us a new scene in Cicero's life, and pre- 
sents him in a character, which he had never before sustained, 
of the governor of a province, and general of an army. These 
preferments were, of all others, the most ardently desired by 
the great, for the advantages which they afforded, both of ac- 
quiring power and amassing wealth: for their command, though 
accountable to the Roman people, was absolute and uncon- 
trollable in the province: where they kept up the state and 
pride of sovereign princes, and bad all the neighbouring kings 
paying a court to tliem, and attending their orders. If their 
genius was turned to arms, and fond of martial glory, they 
could never want a prele.xt for war, since it was easy to drive 
the subiecl.s into rebellion, or the adjoining nations to acts 
of hostility, by their oppressions and injuries, till, from the 
destruction of a number of innocent people, they bad acquired 
the title of emperor, and with it the pretension to a triumph ; 
without which, scarce any proconsul was ever known to return 
from a remote and frontier province*. Their opportunities of 

ID unditKt, nt mihi mm impc- 

, _._, ^ d preUnd lo 

■ triuDtpb, uhn hid not enlarged the boiindi of ihf nnpin by bit conquetta, ud kilted, 
ml leut, five ttaounnd cncmiea in baltls.wilhaul an; coiuidcnbli lOBof bit ova wldirn. 
Thi» VH eipreMlv cirnied by Bn old l»w ; in lopport of whith » lecond ni •funrardi 
prarided, tfaU made it pful for any of (heir tnumphut commandfri lo give a falie 

A. I a -.":. (...>.'. lM>-._'kr> ^ulpiiiui Kuril. M L iudr^ Hu 

Kisinir inuiify v,vte as immeiise aa their power, and b 
only by tlu'ir own ti)ipentes: the appoiiitments from t}ieti» | 
Kiiry. f<ir tlivir cciiiiiKijCPt plate, and necessary funuBm, 1 
amniintt')! itn it appi'itrs frum xome iiistaiiees, to near a bondid | 
ami lit'iy tlmiiKiiKl jKiiinils ' : and bnideis the revenues of Itinf 
di>m«. iiiid )My ni ariiiier', of uLii-li they had the artutiBT 
m:inui;cini-ni. l!ii-y oiiilil I'xact wliut contributions tfaey ptmi^ 
not only t'roin ihi- ciiii- of their own jtirisdiction, but froDiD 
flic states iuid |)rim-i"i arijiuid them, uho were under thepiv 
tt'L-iion of Hitinr. Diit while their primary cure was to enrid 
tlieiuselves t)ii-y i-urricil out wiiti them always a biuid of huugiy 
fritnuliand depemliuiH. :is tlicir lieutenants, tribunes, prxfed^ 
M iih a rri'w of frt'edmeii and favourite slaves, who were lit 
likewise to be euriehoil by the spoils of the province, sdcI tlw 
■iaie of their musror's favours. Hence flowed all those accuM- 
tions and triuk for the jitintder of the subjects, of which wc 
read so much in the Uonian writers: for as few or none of the 

i>rtK-ou«uU liohaved lli('m«L-lvt>s with that exact justice, as to 
eave no riHini ftir complaint, so tiic factious of tlie city, and 
the ([iiarreU of families. sul)sistiu|f from former impeacbmenti, 
^etierallv oxcitod »ome or oiher in reveuiro the affront in kind, 
by luidcrtakiiiir (he cause of an injureil province, and dreseing 
lip an imiieai-linient ui^aicist their enemy. 

Itut wliaiever lienetit or clory this {rovemment seemed to 
otfer. it had iii> cliarni» fur Cicero : the thinj; itself was di>- 
a:;rivable to hi-i temper', nor worthy of those talents, whicli 
wt-re formed to sit at the helm, and shine in the administration 
of the whole HepuMic: w that he considered it only 

OF ciustto. 359 

|^A. Vt^ 703. C'ic. W. C'uH.— !Mn>. SiUpioliu Rufui. M. Ciaudiui MiroUui. 

If lAao^ng tbe gavernor : and this was more likely tu liappea 
i present, through the scarcity of magistrates, who were now 
"" capable by tie late law of succeeding him. Before his 
-Uturr, tberefore, lie solicited all his friends not to suffer 
I a mortificadoii to fall upon LJm ; and, after lie was gone, 
-~« wrote a single letter to Rome, without urging the same 
•Sts, in tlie most pressing terms ; in his first to Atticus, 
bill three days of their parting; : *' Do not imagine," says 
** that 1 have any other consolation in this great trouble, 

^ 1 the hopes that it will uot be continued beyond the year : 

i^jMany who judge of me by others, do not take me to be in 

„/«araaC : but yon, who know me, will use all your diligence, 

jjiepedally when the affair is to come on '." 

3 He left the city about the first of May, attended by his 

I Itrotber and their two sons : for Quintua bad quitted his com- 

I miBsion tinder Caesar, in order to accompany him into Cilicia, 

in the same capacity of his lieutenant. Atticus had desired 

1 liim, before he left Italy, to admonish his brother to show 

! complaisance and affection to his wife Pomponia, who 

had been complaining to him of her husband's peevishness and 

churlish carriage ; and, lest Cicero should forget it, he put him 

in mind again, by a letter to him on the road, tliat since all 

the femily were to be together in tbe country, on this occasion 

of his going abroad, be would persuade Quintus to leave his 

wife, at least, in good humour at their parting: in relation 

to which, Cicero sends him the following account of what 


" When I arrived at Arpinum, and my brother was come to 
■6} our first and chief discourse was on you ; which gave me 
an opportunity of felling upon the affair of your sister, which 
yon and I bad talked over together at Tusculum : I never saw 
any thing so mild and moderate as my brother was without 
^ring the least hint of bis ever having had any real cause of 
offence from her. The next morning we left Arpinum ; and 
that day being a festival, Quintus was obliged to spend it at 
Arcanum, where 1 dined with him, but went on afterwards to 
Aquinum. You know this villa of his: as soon as we came 
thither, Quintus said to his wife, in the civilest terms. Do you, 
Pomponia, invite the women, and I will send to the men: 
(nothing, as far as I saw, could he said more obligingly, either 
in his words or manner:) to which she replied, so as we all 
might hear it, I am but a stranger here myself: referring, I 
guess, to my brother's having sent Statins before us to order 

> NoU fuim mihi iliun eoniolntioncm <iis hiiju' inKtnlu moleilia, niil quod ipno 
MO iMglaniD urnnt Ton. Hoc mc iu veil* multi nou crwiunt iii coniuttudiac dio- 


▲. Urb. 702. CSc 56. Owl— Sot. Salpidot Rafut. M. CUudiut Marcellot. 

tiUm in. those parts; and had invited and pressed Cicero 
!;.apend some days with him upon his journev: they pro- 
id great satisfiusdon on both sides from this interview, for 
opportunity of Cfrnferring together, with all freedom, on 
present state of the Republic^ which was to be their sob- 
\i tlMMiffli Cicero expected, also, to get some lessons of the 
f land, from this renowned commander. He promised 
I an account of this conference; but the particulars being 
deKcate to be communicated by letter, he acqumnted him 
r» in general^ that he found Pompey an excellent citizen, 
proTuled fat all events which could possibly be appre- 

Afker three days' stay with Pompey, he proceeded to Brun- 
where he was detained for twelve days, by a slight 
Btion, and the expectation of his principal officers, par- 
Itelarly of his lieutenant Pondnius, an experienced leader, 
tbm same who had triumphed over the Allobroffes, and on 
irliose' skill he diiefly depended in his martial amirs. From 
BWhndirinm, he sailed to Actium, on the fifteenth of June ; 
jvhenee^ partly by sea, and pardy by land, he arrived at Athens 
jjJB tiie twenty-sixth '• Here he lodged in the house of Aristus, 
rilie piindpal professor of the Academy ; and his brother not far 
from him, with Xeno, another celebrated philosopher of Epicu- 
nifl^s school ; they spent their time very agreeably; at home, in 
{Afloaophical disquisitions; abroad, in viewing the buildings and 
antiquities of the place, with which Cicero was much delighted : 
there were several other men of learning, both Greeks and 
Romans, of the party ; especially Gallus Caninius ; and Patro, 
an eminent Epicurean and intimate friend of Atticus '. 

There lived at this time, in exile, at Athens, C. Memmius, 
banished upon a conviction of bribery, in his suit for the con- 
sulship ; who, the day before Cicero's arrival, happened to go 
away to Mitylene. The figure which he had borne in Rome, 
gave him great authority in Athens ; and the council of Areo- 

^ Nof Tarenti, quo« cum Pompeio diaXoyovi de Repub. habuerimus ad to pencribc- 
mni. Ibid. ^ 

Tarentum reni a. d. xv KaL Jun. quod Pontininm statueram cxpcctaro, commodis- 
nmam duxi dies eos — cum Pompeio cousumcre ; coque magis, quod ci gratum esse id 
videbam, qui ctiam a me pctient, ut secum et apud so essom qnotidie : quod coucessi 
libenter, multos euim ejus praeclaros de Repub. sermones accipiam : instruar ctiam con- 
nliia idoneis ad hoc nostrum negotium. Ibid. 6. 

E^, cum triduumcum Pompeio ot apudPompcium fuissem, proficisccbarBrundisium. 
— drvem ilium egregium relinqucbam, et ad hcec, quo; timentur, propulsanda paratissi- 
mnm. Ibid. 7. 

* Ad Atl. 5. 8, 9. 

* Valde mo Atheiue delectanint : urbs duntaxat, et urbis ornamentum, et hominum 
•mom in te, et in nos qnaedam bencvolentia ; sed multum et philosophia — si auid est, 
est in Arifto apud quern cram, nam Xenoncm tuum — Quinto conocfl8cnun.^Aa Att. 5. 
10. Ep. Fun. i 8.13.1. 

ytagv^ hnd i^iited him t piece of ground to build npu, i 
wliere Epicurus fiirmerly lived, aod where there atill reiiiBiiiti 
the old ruins uf Ids walls. But this grant had giren gnM 
offence to thi; whole body of the Epicureans, to see the remuia 
of tlieir muKter in danu^r uf being destroyed. They had writ 
ten to Cii-ero, at Kumc, to beif him to intercede with Me» 
mills, to cMiiso'it to a revocation of it; and now at Athna, 
Xeno and I'atru renewed tlieir instances, and prevailed witk 
him to write about it, in the most effectual manner; for thougk 
Meminius had laid aside his design of building, the Are»- 
paj^ites would not recul their decree without his leare'. 
Cicero's IfttLT in <lrawii with much art and accuracy: he laugk 
at the trilling zeal iif these pliilosopliere, for the old ruhbiik 
and pidtry ruins of their founder, yet earnestly presses iltm- 
mius to indulire them in a prejudice, contracted through -wok- 
ness, not wickedness ; and, thoui^h he professes an utter dislike 
of their philosophy, yet he recommends them, as honest, agree- 
able, friendly men, for whom he entertained the highest 
esteem '. From this letter one may observe, that the greatot 
difference in philosophy mode no difference of friendship amonc 
the great of these times. There was nut a more deduta 
enemy tu EjiiiJUTUs's doctrine than Cicero : he thought it dc' 
Btructive of morality, and pernicious to society; but he charged 
this consequence to the principles, not the profcsson of them; 
with many of whom he held the strictest intimacy, and found 
them to be worthy, virtuous, generous friends and loven J 
their country ; there is a jocose letter to Trebatius, when h» 


A. Crb. 7OT. Ck.X. (.uM—Ser.. SuliHiiiu BuFut. M, ['laiiJiu. Mirctllii.. 

lat law will you allege for the distribution of commoQ right, 
len nothing can he common with tJiose who measure all 
ings by their pleasure? with what face can you swear by 
piter; when Jupiter, you know, can never be anpry with 
y man? and what will become of your people of Ulubree, 
ice you da not allow a wise man to meddle with politics? 
lerefore, if you are realty gone off from us, I am sorry for 
: but if it be convenient to pay this compliment to Pansa, 
forgive you ; on condition, liowever, tliat you write me word 
lat you are doing, and what you would have me do for you 
re '." The change of principles in Trebatius, though equi- 
leot in effect to a change of religion with us, made no atte- 
tion in Cicero's affection for him. This was the dictate of 
ason to the beat and wisest of tlie heathens; and may serve 
expose the rashness of those zealots who, with the light of 
mfist Divine and benevolent religion, are perpetually insult- 

I and persecuting tlieir fellow- Christians, for differences of 
mion, which, for the most part, are merely speculative, and 
Uiout any influence on life, or the good and happiness of 
ril Hodety. 

After ten days spent at Athens, where Pontinius at fast 
ued him, Cicero set sail towards Asia. Upon leaving Italy, 

had charged his friend Ccelius with the task of sending him 
B news of Rome; which Cuelius performed very punctually, 

a series of letters which make a valuable part in the colleo- 
in of his familiar epistles ; they are polite and entertaining ; 

II of wit and spirit : yet not flowing with that easy turn and 
•gancc of expression, which we always find in Cicero's, 
ae first of them, with Cicero's answer, will give ua & speci- 
!n of the resL 


** According to my promise at parting, to send you an 
count of all the news of the town, 1 have provided one to 
llect it for you so punctually, that I am afraid, lest you 
autd think my diligence at last too minute : but I know 
w curious you are : and bow agreeable it is to all, who are 
road, to be informed of every thing that passes at home, 
M^h ever so trifling. I beg of you, however, not to con- 
no me of arrogance, for deputing another to this task; 
ice, as busy as I now am, and as lazy as you know me to be 
vriting, it would be the greatest pleasure to me to be em- 
oyed in any thing that revives the remembrance of you: 
it &e packet itself which I have sent, will, I imagine, rea- 


ilily fxcii-i- mv : f»ir wlmi l?i»ure would it require, notonljH 
tniiiocriltp, hilt til attoml eivn to tlic contents of iii iLen at 
all the clitTtTs lit' tlie M>iiatf. edictis plays, rumours: ifi< 
Kimiiltf diif^ U"t y\vn>v you, pray let tn« "know it, thatlnf 
Dot ^ivo you iroulilc at luv cost. If aiiy thing impoRtf 
Iinp|n-u4 in till' Uo]uil)lic, above the reach' of these haAuj 
writers, 1 uill M-ml yiiu an ucciniut of it mvself: in <■> 
manner it w;i<> traiisii-ti-il: what speculations are raised npa 
it: what I'fffCLs appn-hendcd: at present, there is no ^ 
cx[ii-i-tatii)n of :iny ihiii^: ns to those rumours, which ntt 
so warm at Ciniiie, of iissi-mblinir the colonies beyond ckc 
I'll, when I i-iimc to Koine, I hi>',ird not a svliable aW 
them. MiinvUii". Ino. Wcuiise lie hits not yet made ttj 
motion for a Miu-fi".«ir to the two Gauls, but puts it oft » 
he tolit me himwi'lf, t« the first of June, has revived themM 
talk coiieiTiiiiig him, whieh WHS stirring when we were at Row 
tofirether. If vnn saw Pompey, as you dei-i^iied to cio,pnT 
seiitl mc wortf in what teni])cr you found iiina ; what convfi^ 
sation he had with you ; what inclination he shewed ; for he it 
apt to think one thiii<r, luiil say another; yet has not wit eaoogii 
to conceal what he really, means. \s for Ceesar, there an mu^ 
iigty re|)ortt about hiin, but pro|)^rated only in whispen: 
some say, that he has lost all his horse ; which I take, indefd, 
to he true: others, that the seventh legion has been beat«a; 
anil that he himself is besieged by the Bclloract, and cut <tf 
from the re-<t of his army. There is nothing yet certain; nor 
are these imcertaiii storiea publicly talked of; but amonj ' 

C'ic. ie. Vou.~tisT-^. SulpiciiK Kiifu>. M. (^Uudlui MiiRa)ii.» 

teiHl me the matches of irladiators; the ndjouriimetits uf causes; 
md Chrestus's news-letter ; and what iioboiiy dares mention 
n me when at Rome ? see how much I ascribe to you in my 
iodgment : nor indeed without reason, for I have never yet 
net with a better head for politics: I would not have you writ? 
ipbat passes every day in public, though ever so important, 
nilesB it happen to affect myself: others will write it; many 
^riag accounts of it; and fame itself conveys a great part to 
De: I expect from you, neither the past, nor the present; but 
Is from one, who sees a great way before him, the future only; 
ibaX when I have before me, in your letters, the pLui of the 
Republic, 1 may be able to judge what sort of edifice it will 
ic Nor have I hitherto, indeed, any cause to complain of 
roQ : for nothing has yet happened, Which you could foresee 
Mtter than any of as; especially myself, who spent several 
bys with Pompey, in conversing on nothing else but the 
Republic; wljich it is neither possible ikor proper for me to 
explain by letter : take this only from me : that Pompey is an 
^cellent cidzen, prepared, both with courage and counsel, for 
bU events which can be foreseen : wherefore give yourself up 
to the man ; believe me, he will embrace you ; for he now holds 
tlie same opinion with us, of good and bad citizens. After 1 
bad been ten days at Atbenx, where our friend Gallus Cant- 
nius was much with me, I left it on the sixth uf July, when I 
sent away this letter. As I earnestly recommend all my affairs 
to you, so nothing more particularly, than that tiie time of my 
provincial command be not prolonged. This is every thing to 
me; which, wheji, and how, and by uhom it is to be managed, 
you will be the best able to contrive. Adieu '." 

He landed at Ephesus on the twenty-second of July, after 
t slow but safe passage of fifteen days; the tediousness of 
which was agreeably relieved by touching, on the way, at 
leveral of the islands of the j^gean sea, of which be sends a 
kind of journal to Atticus '. Many deputations from the cities 
of Asia, and a great concourse of people, came to meet him as 
br as Samos; but a much greater still was expecting his land- 
ing at Ephesus. The Greeks flocked eagerly, from all parts, 
to see a man so celebrated through the empire for the fame of 
his learning and eloquence ; so that all his boastings, as he 
merrily says, of many years past, were now brought to the 
test '. Aner reposing himself, for three days, at Ephesus, he 

> De cancunu IcgMiMnim. primtorui 
»i, Hd Riinbilem in modum Epheii 
llt|iR urtD KID mnlloium luinDrum o 

'.ma THE LIFE 

.«. I it- ri.'.>. I'l.' Sh. • ..->— Sen. Sulpiciut Hufu*. U. CUiiL^. JiuciWiM 

inarcbml furwanl inwanlf liis pro\iuce ; and on the last if 
July arrivpil at Lavdicea, one of tlie capital cities of his jm 
dictiitn. Friim tlii^ mument, tlie date of his ^fo^'ernment ea» 
mpticnl. which lie biiU Atiiciis take notice of, that he migh 
knoM- hrtw t" wiinpiitc ihc precise extent of his annual term '. 

Il H';is C'in-rii'it>liiti»ii. in this proWiiciul comnuDd, to 
practice thiwo ailiiiiral>le rules which he had drawn up formnlT 
for hit bnitlirr; ami fnuu an emplovnient, nliolly tedioum 
diHa;rreeahle III hiui. toderivu fresli jfinrv upon his' character, br 
leavinip the innocemv and intcirrity of his administration isi 
patK-ru of trover i)iti<; to all sueceiedin<|r proconsuls. It hid 
always been the ni^tnin. when any ^rerni>r> went abroad w 
their nnivirtoe*. that the ooiititries thruuvli which iliey passed, 
should defray all the char^ros nf their juurnev : but Cicero no 
sooner set hi-* foot on foret^ ground, than he forbad iH 
cxpen-ie whatsoever, public or priiiite, to he made either irmo 
hiinselt^ or any nf his company, which raised a sreat admiTa- 
tion of him tu all the cities ut Greece'. In Asia he did the 
same, not sutTerinir his olticers to accept what was due to them, 
even by law, forage and wood for firing, or any tiling eUe, but 
mere house-mom, with four beds, which he remitted alw^ai 
oft as it was practic.tble, and obliged them to lod^ in their 
tents; and, by his example, and constant exhortations, brouji;bt 
his lieutenants tribunes, and prefects so fully into his nin- 
aures, that they all concurred with him, he says, wonderfiilly, 
■a a JimIous concern for his honour '. 

Bein? desirous to put himself at the head of his annV. 

1^^^ OF CICERO. 

A-trb. n». LHi. to. Com Sfn Su1[.H'mi Ruf.x. M. dMriim 

f Comagene, (which was confirined from tlie Other priocet et 
lose paru) that ihe Parthiana had pa-ssed the Eli}Arst«S, with 
mighty force, in order to invade tlie Komiiii tetritory, under 
be coRimand of Pacorua the king's son. U|iOq this news, he 
urched towarda Cilicia, to secure his provinitf from the inrottds 
( the eueiiiy, or any commotions within : but as All accew to 
i was difficult, except on the side of Capjiadocia, an open 
OUDtry, and not well provided, he took his nmte throu^ that 
Jn^om, and encamped in that part of it, wUJL-fa borderM npon 
!^Ifcia, near to the town of C'ybistra, at tin; foot of Monnt 
Taurus. His army, as it is said above, coasisted of aboat 
welre thousand foot, and two thousand s\x hundred hone, 
lesides the auxiliary troops of the neighbouring states, and 
«peciaily of Deiotarus, kin^ of Galatia, the tnoM Authfiil ally 
if Rome, and Cicero'iii particular friend, whose wbtrie foroM be 
Ould depend upon at any warning '. 

While he lay in this camp, he had an opportunity of exfr- 
luting a special commis^on, with which he was chaiged bj 
he senate, to take Ariobarzanes, king of Cappadocia, under 
lis particular protection, and provide for the security of bk 
>er8on and government: in honour of whom the senate bad 
lecreed, what they had never done before to any forngn 
wince, tliat his safety was of great concern to the senate and 
>eop)e of Rome. His father had been killed by the treachery 
tf his subjects, and a conspiracy of the siimc kind was appre- 
lended agiiinst the eon; Cicero, therefore, in a council of his 
ifficera, gave the king an account of the decree of the senate, 
md tliat m consequence of tt, he was then ready to assist him 
nth his troops and authority, in any measures that should be 
xmcerted for the safety and quiet of his kingdom. — The king, 
ifter great professions of his thanks and duty to the senate, 
for the honour of their decree, and to Cicero himself, for his 
»re in the execution of it, said, that he knew no occasion for 
giving him any particular trouble at that time ; nor had any 
lospicion of any design against his life or crown ; upon which 
Cicero, after congratulating him upon the tranquillity of his 
iffairs, advised him, however, to remember his father's fate, 
md, from the admonition of the senate, to be particularly vigi- 
lant in the care of his person, and so they parted. But the 

' lnaMtra.Yemx. d. ni. Kil. SqM. t.d. iii. (jmitum IminTi. EihnoMritcnm 

lUgii Anliochi Comigcnl Irgxti jirimi mihi nonrinninl Pinhorum muriu copiu 

BMmtera traniire ta&— "^^ — ■• — ~ ''-"- — •■ ~ —■•■' '-" -■ 

^rnnm, Orodi Rcsii I 
ka. Ep.F>ni. lfi.l. 

Eodam Ac *b Jimlilicho, PhjUicbe AnbnB — Htlerp de tiidnn nbu>. Ac. 


\ .■,.*■. I. > • ■.-— -wf-S-pieiai K.rfui. M. CUuJiut Mnnlht\: =^.yrT.!nj. ii.c kiti^ retunied early to the camp, attended 
iv L-n-iLc: a:i-l couasellctps. and. with maor tears, implond 
:=.- i'-:n::--^ o: Ci«rit. aiiH the benefit of the senate's decree; 
.:iv_L.r:- i. :Li: i.e Lxl received unHoubted ititelligesee ofi 
J .'^ »..:.h ::.— ^-. »l.o »ere privy to it, durst not rentoret* 
^i»»v^tr ::.. I i^vr.-'- urrivrtl in tlie €>3untry: but, trustiiig la 
t> 4u:i"T-.:y. L»'i civen full information of it; and tint 
•> :T^ »:...> «.i* }ir.**ont. au<I ready to confirm what he 
»*:■_ ij- S>i;i v.l:i.::i-i lo enter into it by the offer of the 
c!\»r.: :,e 'ix^ji-fr:. ti.i-ri-turf. ihat some of Cicero's troops migkt 
U ^:t «;:1 :i:ii :--t Li- k'lttr ^uard and defence. Ciceit 
:.-: • i:::!. thj: nv.yUT th.- pro^eiit alarm of the Parthian war, bi 
ft-^; : :..■: -..*!.ii>:y le:i.i him any jwrt of his armv: that sioee 
i:<t vvr..:':rai:y »is dt:.'e:e<l. hi* own forces would be suf&dou 
U'T frevf :'.n:ii t:.e i-iTvcts ..f it : that lie should learn to act the 
V\r.£. Sy »;.,'»::i_' a ;>T,.i>,>r i-oncem for hiji own life, and ewit 
hi" zks-i.'- jv^er ill }iu:ii>!iiiiir ihe authors of the plot, and pai^ 
Jof.iKj .I'.l the re»i: ih^i lie need not apprehend any &nhK 
.Ur^'T ahi-n Li* pei>i'le were acquainted with the'senate'i 
O.tvrt-e. A:-.i «du a Kom^n army $o near lo them and ready to 
f-j; :: 1:1 (■xi't:::;:on : and iiavin^ thus encourag-ed and com- 
Io,-:t\i t;.L- ii;.;^, he marched towards Cilicia, and gave an we- 
\.\<-^".'. ot tli:> aov-iiiein. and of the motions of the l*arthians, ia 
iu>> : -.;i>l:>,- '.o::o> to the consuls and the senate; he added a 
pr:i.i:f \::t:z ii.*o to Cato. who was a particular favourer and 
[\icro:-. ot Ariioar/Luies. in which he informed him, that he had 
Dot ooty lecured the kin^s person from any attempt, but Iiad 


e.SI. Cai^-toT.Ba^a* Balis, ti. Ckodin lluaUnt. 

r lo both ndei ; to the prinoeB, for the opportunity of 
r lo their interests the most powerfnl men of the Re- 
6y a kind of honourable pension ; to the Romans, for 
I «ODvenieiice df pladng their money where it was sure to 
' f the ereatest return oT profit The ordinary interest of 
9 piovmcial loans was one per cent, by the month, widi 
"ist ui>on inteKSt: this was the lowest; but, in extraordi- 
t hazardous CMea, it tras frequently four times as much, 
ry received monthly from this very kin^, above aix 
nd pounds sterlinfi which vet was short of his full 
lereaC Brutu», also, had lent him a very large sum, and 
mestly desired Cicero to procnre the payment of it, with 
I arrears of interest: but Pompejr's agents were so pressing, 
A the king so needy, that thouzh Cicero solicited Brutu^s 
air very heartily, he had little nopes of getting any thing 
r Urn: when Ariobananes came, therefore, to offer him t^e 
B prosent of taoney which he had usually made to every 
r governor, he generously refused it, and desired only, 
, instead of giving it to him, it might be paid to Brutus; 
^_t the poor prinoe was so distressed that he excused himself, 
by the necessity \fhich he was under of satinfying some other 
more pressing demands; so that Cicero gives a sad account of 
bis negociatioii, in a long letter to Atdcus, who had warmly 
Beoommended Brutus's interests to liim. 

•* I crane now," says he, " to Brutus ; whom, by your au- 
dwrity, I embraced with inclination, and began even to love ; 
but — what am I going to say? I recal myself, lest I offend 
yoa — do not think, that I ever entered into any thing more 
willingly, or took more pains, than in what he recommended 
to me. He gave me a memorial of tlie particulars, which you 
had talked over with me before. 1 pursued your instructions 
exactly; in the first place, I pressed Ariobarzanes, to give 
that money to Brutus which he promised to me : as long as 
the king continued with me, all things looked well ; but he was 
afterwards teazed by six hundred of Pompey's agents; and 
Pompey, for other reasons, can do more with liim tlian all the 
world tKnJdes ; but especially, when it is imagined that he is to 
be sent to the Parthian war: they now pay Pompey thirty- 
three Attic talents per month, out of the taxes, though this 
&lls short of a month's interest ; but onr friend CnEeus takes it 
calmly; and is content to abate somewhat of the interest, with. 
oat pressing for the principal. As for others, be neither does, 
nor can pay any man : for be has no treasury, no revenues : 
he raises taxes by Appius's method of capitation : but these 
are scarce sufficient for Pompey's monthly pay : two or three 
of the king's friends are very rich ; but uiey hold their own 

u clmcly an rilber you or 1. — 1 do not forbear, but 
aok, ur^. hihI chid* niin, bv letters ; kin^ DriobUTB ll 
mc, Uwt W luid sent people to him o» purposeitoHl 
Bnitiw ; but tlicY brouffbt him wont back, tbiU he hd^ 
DO mouthy: whicn 1 take, indeed, to be the ut»e; ditn 
it more drained lima bis kingdom; nothing f* 

tint llrutus had reooromended another af^r of nefl 
nature to Cicero, which gave him much Diore trouslfc T 
city of SaUmls in Cypruis, owed to two of his frko^fl 
prcieiuled, Scnptius and Klatiiiiti^ ahoxe twenty JH" 
pounds sterling, upou bond, at a most extrar^ant it 
lutd he begg^ of C'icero to take their persons anil O 
under hia specud protection. Appius, who was BrutWttt 
In-hiw, had j^aiitcd every thing which was asked to Sei| 
s prefecture in Cyprus, with some troops of horse, wi^id 
be miserably bara&Hed the poor Salaminjaiis, in order Ml 
them to comply with his unreasonable demands : for iitm 
Up their whole senate in the council-room, till fire of i 
were starved to death with hunger'. Brutus laboured ti 
him in Uie same degree of favour with Cicero : bat ( 
being informed of tliis violence at Ephesus, by a d^ 
from Sulamis, made it the first act of his government 10 n 
the troops from Cyprus, and put an end to Scaptios's pial 
ture, having liud it down for a rule, to ^rant no commaaj H 
any man wTio was concerned in trade, or negociaring mon^ 
in tlie province : to give satisfection, however, to Brutiu, ki 
enjoined the Snlamiiiians to pay off Scaptius's bond, n"' 


. M.CiMidliuHuwIlui 

the repeated instances of Brutus and Atticus, he wan 

ed to orer-rule it; though Urutuft, in order to move 
more effectually, thought proper lo confean, wbit ho 
lon^ dissembled, iLat the debt was really hia own, and 

only his agent in it'. Tliis surprisi'd Cicero still 
d though he had a warm iaclination to oblifire UrutiiB, 
luld not conaeDt to so flagrant an injustice, but makes 

and heavy complaints of il in his letters lo Articu*. — 
ave now," says he, in one of them, "the ground of 
uct; if Brutus does not approve it, I see no reason 
should love him ; but I am sure it will be approved hy 
' Cato'." In another — " If Brutus thinks that I ought 
him four per cent, when, by edict, I have decreed but 
iigh all the province, and that to the satisfaction of tJie 
usurers ; if he complains, that I denitMl a prsefeciurc to 
cemed in trade, which I denied, for that reason, to 
;nd Lenlus, and to Sex. Stadus, though Tortjuutu* 

for the one, and Pompey himself for the other, yet 
li^usting eitlier of them ; if he lakes it ill tliat I rp- 
le troops of horse out of Cyprus, I sliall be worry, 
:hat he has any occasion lo be angry with me; but 
>re, not to And him the man that I took him to be. — 

have you to know, however, that I have not forgot 
L intimated to me in several of your letters, that it I 

back nothing else from the province, but Ilriitus's 
p, that would be enough : let it be so, since you will 
o: yet it mast always be with this exception, as fiir M 

done, without my committing any wrong — '." In a 

How, my dear Atticus ! you, who applaud my in- 
ind good conduct, and are vexed sometimes, you say, 

are not with me; how can such a thing, as Knnius 
le out of your mouth, to desire me to grant troops to 
, for the sake of extorting money ? could you, if you 
h me, suffer me to do it, if I would ? — if I really bad 
fa a thing, with what hcc could I ever read again, or 

i« Umpare ip» impingil mibi Firiilalun Ruptioi Bnili, ran illam ■no 

jwcuniun oh tuAm- Ibid. 

uccrtcpratnWlgc. tljid.5.2l. 

Mpotabit me qiutenm ccnWiinui oporluui* iermen, ^vi In laUjn- 
bt obKmivm, itique fdiiiuem. iil<|De clUm lurbiiaiiiiii fenmMnbiu 
ii pnfKlarmm ntftotulori dtnrgmUm queir tur, qood tsfn Totquito noMro tn 
^MDpeifi ipfli La S. Suiio nfjravi, ct iii probavi ; li ^.^uiUfl driacUm loalttt^ 

■IpUne U inlcIliEcn lolni, mihi non OLtUiite iUiid,qitsd 


A.ltbTVi. Tk.W. r.*.-S>rT. Sulpdu Rnfiu. H.CluCHlfari 

touch thoiie books of mine, with which yoa ut a 

{leased'.'" He tolls him, likewise, in confidenn, i 
truiiu's K'tten to him, pi-en when he was asking &Tan%< 
unm-inncrly. churlish, and arrogant ; without regaidiiif i 
what, or lo whom he was writinv; and if he oondnoM ii 
humour — " you may love him awDC," says he, **if Toajli 
yuu Bhull have no n\-al of me; but he will come, IbtM 
a better mind'." Rut to shew, after all, what a nal i 
tion he liad lo oblige him, he never left uiving kisg i 
caiies, till he luul squeezed from him a hundred til 
{Kirt of Druius's debt, or about twenty thousand paui 
oame sum, probablv, which had been destined to Cicm 
self. ' ] 

While he lay encamped in Cappadocia, expecting vkt« 
the I'arrhians would move, he received an account, tbi t 
had takf II a different route, and were ad\'anced to Antiid 
Syria, where they held C. Cassius blocked up ; and ih 
detachment of them had actually penetrated into Cilitni 
were routed, and cut off by those troops which were Id 

Suard the country. Upon this be presently decamped, 
y great journeva over Mount Taurus, marched in all ' 
to po:>sess himself of the passes of .Vmanus ; a great and il 
mouiitiitii, Iving between iSvria and Cilicia, and the cod 
iMuudary of tliem both. &y this march, and the appra 
hi> army to the neighbourluHMl of ijyria, the ParChiani I 
di?irourHir**d. retired from Autioch : which gave Cassius a 
puTtunity of falling upon them in their rptreat. and train 
'^ Table advantage, in which one of their ' ' 


uus liad madtt terrible at R<»ne, Cioero'a friends, wlio 
a great opinion of hia military talenta, were in some pain 
') »Afet\' aii<i 8iiccen : but now tliat he found bimself 
ma ]iu8]k'(1 to the neceasity of acdng the general, he 
■ to have waiueil neither the courage nor conduct of an 
tienced leader. In a letter to AtticuB, dated from his 
— *' We arc in great spirits," says he, " and, as our 
'a are good, ijave no distrust of an engagement: we are 
y encamped, with plentv of provisions, and in sight 
t of Cilicia ; with a small army indeed, but, as I have 
_ 1 to believe, encirely well affected to me ; which I shali 
iblff by the accession oif Deiotams, who is upon the road to 
B me: I have the allies more firmly attached to me, than 
7 governor ever had : they are wonderfully taken with my 
liness and abstinence : we are making new levies of citizens, 
d efflablishing magazines : if there be occasion for fighting, 
a ^U not decline it; if not, shall defend ourselves oy the 
^ngth of our posts: wherefore, be of good heart, for I see, 
I much as if you were witli me, the sympathy of your lore 
ir me '." 

But the danger of the Parthians being over, for this season, 
!7tcero resolved, that his labour shoula not be lost, and his 
rmy dismissed, without attempting something of moment 
"he inhabitants of ihe mountains, close to which he now lay, 
i a fierce, untamed race of banditti, or freebooteia, wno 
F'had never submitted to the Roman power, but lived in peiw 
petnal defiance of it, trusting to their forts and castles, which 
ivere aapposed to be impre<rna))]e from the strength of their 
sitnation. He thought it, therefore, of no small importance to 
tbe empire, to reduce them to a state of subjection ; and, in 
order to conceal his design, and take tliem unprovided, he 
drew off his forces, on pretence of marching to the distant 
parts of Cilicia ; but, after a day's journey, stopped short, and 
liaving refreithed bis army and left nis baggage behind, turned 
back again in the night with the utmost celerity, and reached 
Amanus before day, on tbe thirteenth of October. He di- 
vided his troops among his four lieutenants, and himself, 
accompanied by his brother, led up one part of them, and so 
coming upon the natives by surprise, they easily killed or 
made them all prisoners : they took six strong forts, and 
burned many more ; but tbe capital of the mountain, Erana, 
made a brave resbtance, and held out from break of day to 
four in the afternoon. Upon this success, Cicero was saluted 
emperor, and sat down again at the foot of tbe hills, where he 

. '^ . 



', ■ 





•a • 

•■ - , •' i.. 



acX. Cou^SiTv. Sutpicini Kiirns. M. CiindiutMimllut. 

same spirit and fierceness, called Tiburani, ter- 
ete of Pindenissutn, voluntarily submitted, and 
; so that Cicero sent bis army luto winter quar- 
9 command of his brother, into tbose parta of the 
h were thought the most turbulent '. 
ras enffapeain this expedition, Papirins Pstus, 
t and Epicurean, with whom he had a particular 
correspondence of facetious letters, sent liim some 
ictions in the way of raillery; to which Cicero 
he same jocose manner: *' Your letter," says he, 
i a complete commander : 1 was wholly ignorant 

great skill in the art of war ; but perceive, that 
i Pyrrhua and Cineas. Wherefore I intend to 
ecepts, and withal, to have some ships in readi- 
ast; for they deny that there can be any better 
it the Parthian horse. But raillery apart ; you 
at a general you have to deal with : for, in this 

have reduced to practice, what I had worn out 
eadiog, the whole institution of Cyrus," &c.' 

exploits spread Cicero's fame into Syria, where 
list arrived to take upon him the command; but 
lose within the gates of Antioch, till the country 

all the ParthiaiiB : his envy of Cicero's success, 
iperor, made him impatient to purchase the same 

same service, on the Syrian side of the moun- 

but he had the misfortune to be repulsed in hia 
the entire loss of the first cohort, and several 
nction, which Cicero calls an ugly blow, both for 
he effect of it*. 

ero had obtained what be calls a just victory at 
in consequence of it, the appellation of emperor, 
med from this time ; yet he sent no public ac- 

foua ciTcumdciLi, kx vaalcUtif cutHROuo maiimia lepfli, wccrc, 

jgnavi, u^MHquc tonneatis multi^^ mnltii ugittonis^ TqJigno uiwro 

ggcumo die rem canfed. Ep. Pttu, 15, 4. 

Pindeniisffi? qui lunl? inquics: nomea audivi nnnquun. Quid ego 

im, ^Btoliain, «nl Mucpdoniam redder*? hoc jam hc habilo, n« 

a negotia kcH potuiwe. &c. Ad Att. 5. 20. 

i Salurnalibiu tcrtiii, niin hrt Kribcbam in tribunali, rea erat od 

limriKvlcreet audariari'iamni: sb hit, /"tWenfiu upto.obndM 
hnienii dimiei. Q. Fnttreni nnolio prajHiaui, ul id vicitaut caplii 
cciiui cotlocarclur. Ep. Fun. IS. 4. 

hortem primain lolam pcrdidil— tauc pliufaiu odioKiiii .iccepcral turn 

:\7ti THE LIF£ 

A.l'rb.7ti3. CV.J';. CM>.-jCTT.Siilpicl»Riiriu. X.CUbAm 
couiit of it to Rome, till after tlie a&ir of Piai 
ex)i1iiit uf morp eclat and importance ; for which be 
the huiiuur uf u tliaiik^iving, oiul b^an to eatx 
ewii uf a triiiinpb. H» public lotter is lost, bat 
siipiilivd by a particular narrative of the whole i 
pnvatv lctt*?r tu Cato; the dc$l^ of paying this 
to C'uto. was to ciigajrc bis vote and concurrence to die 
of the supplk'atiun ; and, by the pains which he takes to 
it, u'htTC he wa» sure of ^inin^ his point without it,lliemill 
high opinion which he had of^Catos authority, atid hov^j 
siruus lie was to liavc the testimony of it on hia side. BuQli' 
wat nut to i>e moved Irom his purpose bj' complinwnfe V 
inotiri's of frieud^ihip : he was an enemvi by principle, todi 
decrees uf tliis kind, and thought them ijpstowed too dKul^ 
and prostituted to occasions unworthy of tliem : so *hat «ta 
Cicero's letters came inider deliberation, though he spoke «iA 
all imiiginablc lionoiir and respect of Cicero, and highly o- 
lolled both his civil and military administration, yet neTiili4 
against the supplie-ation ; which was decreed, however, witlioit 
any other dissenting voice, except that of Favonius, who \ani 
always to iniinic Cato, and of Hirrus, who bad a penonl 1 
quarrel with Cicero : yet, when the vote was over, Cato b' 
self assisted in dniwmg up the decree, and had his m 
inserted in it; which tvas the usual mark of a particular af- 
pralKition of the thing, and friendship to the person in whM 
favuur it passed '. liut Ciito's answer to Cicero's letter mil 
sJiew the temper nf the man, and tlie grounds on which he 
acted on tin?* occasion. 

ni -M. r. CICEHO, EMPEItOn. 

07 CICBRO. 377 

.56. CoB^-Ssn.SiilpldiuBigM. H. Cludlra IhradlM. 

) recovery of tbe allie« to their duty and affection to our 

tapire. 1 am glad, tiowerer, that a Bapplication is decreed ; 

', where chance has no part, bat the whole was owin^ to your 

nummate prudence and modeTatioci, you are better pleased, 

\ we should hold ourselves indebted to the gods, than to 

I. But if you think that a BupplicadoD will pave the way 

I a triumph, and for that rrason choose that fortane should 

^TC the praise rather than yourself; yet a triamph does not 

tdirays fulluw a supplicatioD, and it is much more hcniounible 

'* 1 any triumph, for the senate to decree, that a province is 

serveil to the empire by the mildness and innocence of the 

;eneral, ratlier than by the force of arms, and the fovour of the 

jods. This was the purpose of my vote; and I have now em- 

^oyed more words tiian it is my custom to do, that you might 

erceive, what I chiefly wish to testify, how desirous I am to 

mvince you, that, in regard to your Klory, I had a mind to 

9 what I took to be the most honourable for you; yet rejoioe 

D see that done, which you are the most pleased witn. Adieu, 

Pjmd still love me ; and, agreeably to the course which you have 

y begun, continue your int^rity and diligence to the allies and 

'the Republic'." 

Csesar was delighted to hear of Cato's stiffness, in hopes that 
it would create a coldness between him and Cicero; and, in a 
OHcgratnlacoiT letter to Cicero, upon the success of his anns, 
■ndthe supplication decreed to him, took care to aggravate the 
Tndeness and ingratitude of Cato*. Cicero himself was highly 
disgusted at it; especially when Cato, soon afterwards, voted a 
supplication to his son-in-law, Bibulus, who bad done much less 
to deserve it. " Cato," says he, " was shamefully malicious ; 
be gave me what I did not ask, a cliaracter of integrity, justice, 
clemency; but denied me what I did: — yet this same man 
voted a supplication of twenty days to Bibulus. Pardon me, 
if I cannot bear this usage';" — 'yet as he had a good opinion 
of Cato in the mwn, and a farther suit to make to the senate 
in the demand of a triumph, he chose to dissemble his resent- 
ment^ and returned him a civil answer, to signify his satis&ction 
and thanks for what he had thought fit to do *. 

Cicero's campaign ended just so, as Ccelius had wished in 
one of bis letters to him ; with figliting enough to give a claim 

> Bp. Fun. 15. 5. 

* luque Cvwr ill litUms, qiiibui mihi gratuUtur, vX omnia pollicetur, qua Diodo 
(XDlMt CitODii in me ingniiMimi injuria, A<l Att. 7. 'i. 

* Ath wart — Calo quid agtt : ijni ^uidem in i 
iDtaBriUti*, joititue, clsmcnliip, fldi-i ti:>timDnium, , 

labasi, negBTit u hie idem Bibulo dicnim vigiaii. IgnoKe n 

fene. lud. 

* Ep. FuD. 15. fi. 


.• Kutut. M. ClaiHL.a 

to the laurel, vvt witliout the risk of a battle with tlw fm- 
ihiitii-'. Dunne thes« moiiifas of actioo, he aent Anj it 
two ytturiic (.'iceros the »uu and iiephow, to king " ' 
ciiun. uniW tho conduct of the kini(;'a son, who came oi 
jiow- III inviu' tlit>in. They were kept strictly to tlwir 
and e.xtT<.-Ui'>, unil made irrvut proficiency in both; though At 
Olio of tlii'tn. M I'iciTii siiys wiuited the Sit, the other tfaeifK 
— Their in tor, ])i<i]iy>iiis, uttended them, a niaii of great Mn> 
ing and jiTobity. but. as hi< young pupils eoinpliiined, borib^ 
jiassionnte '. l)i-iotiiru'« himself was setting forward tsJM 
Cicero, with all \iU fiircL<s tipoii the tirst uews of the I^tna 
irruption. He hud with him thirty cohorts, of four huiiM 
men each, armed and diisciplined after the Roman mi 
with two thousaiKl horse : but the Parthian alarm being 
Cicero sent courienj to meet him on the road, in order It 
prevent his mareliing to no purpose, so fur from his on 
dominions*. The old king, however, seems to have bron^ 
the children back again in person, for the opportunity of p^ 
ing his compliments, and spending some time with his friendr 
for, bv what Cicero intimates, they appear to hare bad 
interview '. 

The remaining part of Cicero's government was employed 
ill the civil utFairs of the province, where his whole carewa^ 
to ease the several cities and districts of that excessive ]oii 
»f debts, in which tlic avarice and rapaciousness of fanom 
gitveriiors luul iiivolvetl them. He laid it down for the fixed 
rule nf hi.s adminiHt ration, not to suffer any money to be ei- 

OP cicsRO. 379 

A. VrK TtG. r«.£6. Co«^-S<r*.8iilpici<uRBfiu. M. Cluuliu* M«k«I1di. 

ties of ilie piOTinca used to pay to all tbeir proconsuls loi^ 
vtributions for being exempted from furnishing winter qnar- 
rs to the army.- — Cyprus alone paid yearly, on this siDgle 
Kwunt, two liiiudred talents, or about forty thousand pounds: 
lit Cicero remitted this whole tax to ihem, which alone made 
vast revenue; and applied all the customarv perquisites of 
is office to the relief of the oppressed province : yet for all 
M services uud ffenerority, which amazed the poor people, he 
lould accept oa nonoius, but what were merely rerbal ; pro- 
hibiting all espennre monuments, as -statues, temples, brazen 
bofses, &c. which, by the flatterv of Asia, used to be erected 
bf course to alt governors, thongn ever so corrupt and <^pres- 
nve. While he was upon his visitation of the Asiatic dismcts, 
Aere happened to be a kind of &mine in the country ; yet 
wherever he aiAe, he not only provided for hb &mily, at ais 
own expense, bat prevailed witn the merchants and dealers, 
who had any quantity of com in their storehouses, to supply 
tiie people n-ith it on easy terms ' ; living himself, all the woile, 
Bplendialy and hospitably, and keeping an open table, not only 
for all the Roman officers, but the gentry of the province *. In 
the tblionitiu; letter to Atticus, he gave him a sununary view 
of his manner rf eoveming. 

** I see," says ae, " that you are much pleased with my 
Moderation and abstinence ; but you would be much more so 
if yon were with me, especially at Laodicea, where 1 did 
wonden at the sessions, which I nave just held, for the affairs 
<rf the dioceses, from the thirteenth of February to the first of 
Miiy< Many cities are wholly freed from all their debts, many 
greatly eased, and all, by being allowed to govern themselves 
by thai own laws, have recovered new life. There are two 
ways by which I have put them into a capacity of freeing, or 
of easing themselves at least of their debts ; the one is, by 
suffering no expense at all to be made on the account of my 
government. When I say none at all, I speak not hyperbolic 

P!?^L , — lenindimi, non uidiiWlmnl ommbu)"™[i)"licirut n'l'ihi 

ik^um ncgo lumplitB fi^luni. Pntter cum acccpic n«no. Elu 
Mccpimut. Ad Att. 5. '2\. 

AlrbTtti. Cic.Sti. Com.— Srrv.Sulpk-iuiBafai. H.Cbodia 

ntlly; tbore is not so much tu a farthing: it ia inaedibkhfl 
think whut relief thev bare fuuud from this ungle ulidfta 
'llic otlit^r is this : ilioir own Greek loa^tmtes haa HaiamlfM 
abused und jilundered them. I examiueH every one of tM^f 
whci liail borne any office for ten ;^'«irs past : they all pbUf 
confeitMCil ; and, without the i^omiiiy of a public conridiv 
made ro!>titutioii of the money which tliry had pill^td: U 
that the i)eo[>le, wh<i bad paid nothing tu our &nnen fiit Ai I 
present lustrum, have now paid the arrears of the las^ na i 
witJioiit murmuring. This iias placed me iii liigh brour vfcl 
the publieanu : a grateful set of men, you'll say : I bare nil I 
found them such. — 'I'hc rettt of my jurisdiction !>ball be niiii8|M I 
with the same address ; anil create the same admiration of ^ 
rlcmeiiey and easiness. There is no difficulty of access tsa^ 
M tlierc is to all other proriiieial governors; no introductia 
by my chamberlain : 1 am aU-ays up before day, and walkiif 
in my luill, with my doors open, ui> I used to do when a ca^ 
ditkte at Uome: this is great and gracious here; tboa^ 
not at all tronblvsunie tu me, from my old habit «h1 w- 
pline'," &c. 

This method of governing gave no small umbnisre to Aj^h; 
wlio eonsiilered it as a reproach ujwn himself, and sent ami 
(jvierulons letters to C'ieens because he hat) reversed sraie of 
his ctmstitutioiis : " And no wonder," says Cicero, " that be 
IS diNplcuMHl with my manner, for what csin be mure unlikf, 
than liis aibiiiiiistration and mine? L'lider him the provioee 
' ■ '' s and e.xactionS; iindL-riiK', tiot a[>eiiny 

%.70Z ClcAJ. Ca«<— BerT.BB^dniBufiu. M.CUndliHlbiMlIin. 
; profesaioos of hononr and respect towards Appitu, 
hen he found it necessary to Tcscrnd his decrees; coo- 

ing himself onlyi he says, as a second physician called in 
X case of sickness, where he found it necessary to change 
\ method of cure, and when the patient had Men bron^t 
by evacuatioos, and blood-letting, to apply all kinds of 
•live and restoring medicines'. 

U sooD as the goremment of Cilida was allotted to him, he 

quaialed Appius with it by letter, begginz of bun, that, as 

- -mao could succeed to it with a more fhendly disposidtm 

n himself, so Appias would deliver np the province to him, 

Qch a coiiditioQ, as cme friend would expect to receive it 

a another': in answer to which, Appius, having iotiniBted 

e desire of &a interview, Cicero took occasion to press it 

I much earnestness, as a thing of great service to them 

I ; and that it might not be defeated, gave him an account 

F all his stages aud motions, and offered to regulate them in 

ich a manner, as to make the place of their meeting the most 

p-eeable to Appius'a convenience: but Appius being dis- 

Uflted with the first edicts, which Cicero published, resolved, 

?or that reason, to disappoint him ; and, as Cicero advanced 

k into the province, retired still to the remoter parts of it, and 

f contrived to come upon him, at last, so suddenly, that Cicero 

liad not warning enough given to go out and meet him ; 

which Appias laid hold o^ as a fresh ground of compkunt 

■gainst Cicero's pride, for refusing that common piece of 

TMpect to him *. 

This provoked Cicero to expostulate with him with great 
nurit — " I was informed," says he, " by one of my apparitors, 
tnat you complained of me for not coming out to meet you ; I 
despised you, it seems, so as nothing could be prouder — when 
your servant came to me, near midnight, and told me, that you 
would be with me at Iconium before day, but could not Bay by 
which road, when there were two ; I sent out your friend Varro 
by the one, and Q. Lepta, the commander of"^ my artillery, by 

Pam.3L 13. ' "'" "'' """" "'' '"^""'' "'' '' ■"■.■" "'- ""=" 

< Ut li Hedicoi, cum KgTotuB alii medico Indltui lil, irewi *rlit a medico, qui 
iifaiftaimt prorinciun cunrit, un^incm miierii, &c. Ad Alt. (i. 1. 

neccm oect — bicc una CDnaabiio occurreb&i, qaod nM|ue tibi amidor, quun ego nim, 
qidiqnam pouM incccdcrc^ nequt ego ab uUo Provlnciim udp«re, qui mallet cam mibi 
qu>» muiDic uplMm cipliCEUniiguF, &r. Kp. Fim. 3. 2. 

4r)atnnr, &c. Ibid. fi. 

t tdvcBlare tidcl, profcctui eat Tinum ueqae laodicia. Ad 


3«-i THE LIFE 

A. I'rb.rvJ. Cir.^. i'uMi.^3rr*. Mulpkiui Kufbi. .M. ClaodiiuHimUa. 

iIr> Dtlicr, with instructions to oacli of tkpm, to bring me tindi 
luitict' of your u|<proaeli, tliat 1 mi^ht come out in penM It I 
meet vou.' Lo|ita cumc runninir back presently in all brill 
to HC(|iiiiiiit mi.', thut you had iUrrady |>a5sed dt the amj I 
upnii u')iii-]i I went directly to Ictuiium, where you knovw I 
D'st. I )icl I llii'n refuse tu come out to you ? to Apjuui Chi- 
iliiis: til Hii cuiiHTor: llii>n, occordinir to ancient custom; u^ 
above nil, tu my friciKl ' I, who of all men, am apt to do mm 
ill tliat wuy than iH-coincs my dignity? but enough of dk 
The same man ttilil me, likewise, tiiat you said. What ! Ajaim I 
went out to meet Lentulnis: Lentulos to Appius; butUem I 
would not come out to Appius. Can you then be giullyrf ] 
!>ui-h inipertiiionci.'? a man, in my judgment of the gnvkri I 
prudenc*.-, leitruiri};, experience ; mid, I may add, p^toMi 
too, which the fSttiicH n^^hcly judge to be a virtue? do yw 
imiigiue, that your Aii|iiuscs aitd Loutuluses are of mm 
weif^ht with nic than tiic ornaments of virtue? before I hi 
obtuiuetl those honour^ which, in tlic opinion of the worhl, ve 
tliou^hl to Ih> the frruatest, 1 never fonclly admired those namei 
of your's: I looked indeed upon those, who had left them to 
vou, aa irreat men ; 1)ut after I had acquired, and borne die 
lii^rhest command;*, so lu to have uotlung more to desire, eithir 
of hoiioiir or glory, I never, indeed, considered myself as your 
superior, hut hoiied, tluit I was become your equal : nor did 
I'ompey, wIkuh I jirefer to all men who ever lived, nor Lea- 
liiliis whom 1 prefer to mj-self, think otherwise : if you, how- 
ever, are of » (litfiTrnt opinion, it will do you no harm to reai^ 
■ altentioii, what Athenodorus sa^s on this subjei 


A-Vrt).1fa. CV.H. CiM^^wv.SalflciniBafM. H. Oludlui HmaDtu. 

!en>'» letter! to Appius make one book of his familiar 
y the greatest part of which are of the ezpoatnlatoiy 
_ n die subject of their mutual jealousies and complaiots : 
Ins slippery slate of their friendship, an accident h^pened 
Rome, which had like to hare put an end to it. Hia 
fl'liter Tuilia, titer parting from her second husband Cras- 
J8, as it is probably thought, by dirorceS was married, io 
! fiither's absence, to a tbira, P. Cornelius Dolabellai sereral 
I inul been offered to her, and, among them, Ti. Clandioa 
_, who afterwards married Liria, whom Augustus took 
r from him : Nero made hia proposals to Cicero in Cilicia, 
I referred him to the women, to whom he had left the 
lagement of tbat a&ir ; bat, before those orertorea reached 

>IB, they had made np the matd with Dolabella, being 

mightily taken with his complaisant and obeequions addre8i\ 
He was a nobleman of patncian descend and of great parts 
jnd politeness; bnt of a violent, daring, ambitious temper, 
^warmly attached to Cteear ; and, by a life of pleasure and 
fe]q>ense, which the prudence of Tuilia, it was hoped, would 
PDorrect, greatly ctistreBBed in bis fortunes; which mode Cicero 
I very uneasy, when be came afterwards to know it*. Dolabella, 
I Rt tlie time of thb marriage, for which he made way also by 
I tbe divorce of his first wife*, gave a proof of his enterprising 
[ renins, by impeaching Appius Clauaius, of practices against 
I uio utate, in his government of Cilicia, ano of bribery and 
eomiption in bis suit for the consulship. This put a great 
difficulty upon Cicero, and made it natural to suspect, that he 
privstely favoured the impeachment, where the accuser was his 
flon-in-lkw: but in clearing himself of it to Appius, though he 
dinembled a little, perhaps, in disclaiming any part or know- 
leiLee of that match, yet he was very sincere in professing him- 
self an ntter stranger to the impeachment, and was, in truth, 
greatly disturbed at it But, as from the circumstance of bis 

' Vint conGnn) tbia notion i>, that Ciu«]>n Bin>esn to hiiTs Wn iliiri! at ihia 
tbBe,lIld under Ciccro'i dieplcasurc: who mcnliom liini u the ntiljr Hnator, boudd 
Hinu, la whgm bo did not thmk £i lo wrilo about the ifTair of bti lupplication. Ad 

An. 7. 1. 

* Ego dmn ID pronnria omnibui rebus Appium omo, aubito eum faclui ucuHloria 
(jn* toccT — led midt mihi nihil minui pmaram fgo, rjui do Ti, Neronc, qui mociim 
coent, ceiMi homioM ad TniiliiToi rniKram, qui Homam vcneninl factii ■ponulibui. 
Sid hoc ipera mcliui. Mutiem qnidem valilo intclligo dclcctui obwquia ct comitate 

notti ftiwiU. lUd. 7. 3. 

Dolabellun a te ^udeo primum landiri. d«ia<le etiain amari. Nam a qua tpcni 
TnlliB tnea pnidrntu poue tcmpcrari, ido cui tun cniilalsi ictpondcutl. Ep. Fam. 
2. IS. it. 8. 13. 

Hac otalectahar tpecula, nolabcllam mcum rore ab iia molntiii, qua) liberlate luk 
coDtimienl, libcruin. Ibid. \6. 

* innd mihi occumt.quod icier poilTilationem, ct aominiii dtlationrm, uxor a DoUbelU 
Biewlt. Ibid. 8. 6. 


Com — Serr. Aulpidu) Kafm. M, CUuiiu 

hiicivifliii); tu Ajipiuii in his frovernment, be u'aa of all men d( 
intist LitimliK' tif srrviiifr or hurting IiJm at the trial, so ^Vf^ 
whu tiMik ffiTAt itsiiti" lu Ncrcpn Anpius, was extremely dctsH 
to (>ii^i|Cf him till thi-ir siile, and iiad thoughts of sending ■ 
■>f hi- stiKs to him for that purpose : but Cicero sared it» 
lliui iroiililf. Iiy (li.-i-Iariii|r early and openly for Appin^fli 
promiHiitr fvorv thiiii; from the province that could posnid]ili 
of xervice to hiin: wliieh he thuufrht himself obliged tadolb 
rnofL' fitrwunlly, to prevent any suRpiL-ion of treacfaerj' to !■ 
frivtid, on the acmiiiit of his new alliance': so that Appb^ 
instead of deeliniiig a trial, contrived to bring it on, as mhoS 
he could: and, with that view, lianiig dropped his pretenwH 
to a triumph, entered the city, and olfered himself to )■ 
judires. lit'fore his accuser was prepared for liiin, and i 
quitted, without any ditlicultv, of both the indictments. 

In a little time after his trial, he was chosen censor, togetkt 
with Piso, CaiMar's fulher-in-Uiw, die last who bore that oSa 
during the freedom of the Hepuhlic. Clodiiis's law, m» 
tioiied above, which had greatlv niitrained the power of time 
magistnites, vas re]>ealed the last year, by Kcipio, the 
and their ancient antliority restored to them', which n 
exercised with gri>at rij^our by Appius; who, though really i 
libertine, and remarkable for iiinulgin^ himself in all ^ 
luxury of life, yet, by an oiFectatioii of severity, hoped to re- 
trieve hin t'huraeter, and jkiss for an admirer of tlmt andeot 
<)iscijiliiie. for which many of his ancestors had been celebrated. 

''-■■'■■— -■ plea«unt account of him to Cicero; "Doyoc 


oP cicEan. mS • 

i.VA.TO-2. V\r:.SG. (.'oai.-Si'.v.Sulpidua Kufut. M.t'kudiuB Maircllui. 

,j served only to alienate people from Ponipey's lauHe, 

. wliom Appius was strictly allied : whilst his coileB^iie, 

I foresaw that effect, chose to sit still, aiicl siiHer him 

e the knights and senators at pleasure, which lie did 

!at treedoDi; and, among others, turned Sallust, the 

} out of the senate, and was hardly restrained from 

_ iLe same affront upon Curio, which added still more 

8 and strength to Caesar'. 

to the public news of the year, the grand affair, that en- 
1 all people's thoughts, was the expectation of a breacli 
«n Cfesar and Pompey, which seemed now unavoidable, 
n which all men were beginning to take part, and ranging 
uelves on the one side or the other. On Porapey'a there 
El great majority of the senate and the magistrates, with tlie 
V sort of all ranks: on Caesar's, all the criminal and ob- 
ious, all who had suffered punishment, or deserved it; the 
; part of the youth, and the city mob; some of the 
tribunes, and all who were oppressed with debts; who 
I leader Ht for their purpose, daring, and well provided, 
1 wanting nothing but a cause. This is Cicero's account ; 
md Coelius's is much the same: "1 see," says he, "that 
Pompey will have the senate, and all who judge of things; 
Ctesar all who live in fear and uneasiness; but there is no 
Domparison between their armies '." Ciesar had put an end to 
the Gallic war, and reduced the whole province to the Roman 
^oke ; but though his commission was near expiring, he seemed 
to have no thoughts of giving it up, and returning to the con- 
dition of a private subject: he pretended that he could not 
possibly be safe, if he parted with his army, especially while 
Pompey held the province of Spain, prolonged to him for five 
year^'. The senate, in the meanwhile, in order to make him 
easy, had consented to let Inm take the consuUhip, without 
coming to sue for it in person : but when that did not satisfy 
bim, the consul, M. Marcellus, one of his fiercest i 

moved them to abrogate his command directly, and appoint 

him a successor; and, since the war was at an end, 

<1 appoi 
to obli^ 

HT Deot, n quiuQ primuDi lixc ri^am TCni. t^gii ScantiniK juiliciutn Hpud Druiiin 

H. Appiiiin He tabulift et biroU oatTC. Ka^ Faa 

■ no, I. 40. p. ISO. 

■ Hoc Tid™, cum hamlns on 

OF cheho. 

<JMi,7tl3. Cir..W. C«*.—, M. HmJiiii MariTllm. 

«S«, Pompey, who afTected [rreat moderation, in wliatever 
uj of Cesar, was tcazed ana urged, on all aides, to make 
C2>li<^t declaration of his sendments. When be called it 
* to determine any thing aliout Csenar'a government, 
e the first of March, the term prescribed to it by law, 
E asked, what, if any one should then put a negative upon 
>» be said, there was no difference whether Csesiir refused 
*ey the decrees of the senate, or provided men to obdtruct 
*: ** What," says another, "if he should insist on being 
Atl, and holding bis province loo?" " Wlial," replied 
kjwy, "if my son should take a stick and cudgel me'i"' 
Btting the one to be as incredible, and as impious also as 

Soero's friend. Coelius, obtained the ledileship this summer 
I his competitor Himis, the snme who had opjioscd Cicero 
fc« angurate, and whose disappointment gave occasion to 
jr jokes between them in their letters'. In his mi^istraey, 
eing customary to procure wild beasts, of all kinds, from 
rent parts of the empire, for the entert«unment of the city, 
ins be^ed of Cicero to supply him with [mnthers from 
dok, and to employ the Cybarites, a people of his province 
sd for hunting, to catch them : "for it would be a rcflec- 
upOTi yon," says he, "when Curio had ten panthers from 

country, not to let me have many more." He recom- 
ds to bim, at the same time, M. Feridius, a Roman knight, 

had an estate in Cidcia, charged with some services or 
-rent to the neighbouring cities, which he begs of him to 
discharged, so an to make the lands free ' : he seems also, 
are desired Cicero's consent to his levying certain contri- 
ons upon the cities of his province, towards defraying the 
jnae of his shows at Rome, a prerogative, which the sedileA 
IV9 claimed, and sometimes practised ; though it was denied 
:Dem by some governors, and particularly by Qiiintus 
TO, in Asia, upon the advice of bis brother' ; in answer to all 
tb, Cicero replied, that he was sorry to find that Uh actions 
i to mach in the dark ; thut it was not yet known at Ki^me, 
not a farthing had been exacted in his province, except 

lar. Quid ti.inqnii ulius, « ( ^miml fsm m exr 
DtCT. Quid N lilitii' mem fiiitrin iiiihi iiDpiiiu:<'i 
•id. 2. 9, 10. U. R. 2, 3. 9. 

t. Patitcum Curioai 


fur the pny men I of j ii»t debts : titat it w» neither fit ftl4 
extort muney, nor for Coeliiu to t&ke it, if it were m 
for hiiDM'lf ; unA itdmontslied htm, who had nndertakenll 
of accusing others, to live himself wiA more c 
to panthers, that it was not consistent nith his c 
impose the charge of hunting; them upon the pow y 
But, though he would not break his rules for the s^ 
friend, yet he took care to provide panthers for him U Id 
expeiwe ; and i<ays pletMontly, upon it, *' that the b 
a Bad complaint against him, and resolved to quit the i 
aince no snares were laid in his province for i 
ture but themselves*." 

Curio likewise obtained the tribunate this summer, i 
lie sought with no otlier design, as many imagined, tfa 
the opportunity of mortifV'ing Ctesar, against whom \ 
hitherto acted with great fierceness '. But Cicero, whr 
from the temper andviews of them both, how easy it « 
to make up matlers between them, took occasion to 
congratulatory letter to him upon his advancement, ii_ 
he exhorts him, with great gravity, to consider into what t A 
gerous crisis his tribunate had fallen, not by chance, bat lui I 
own choice ; what violence of the times, what varietj- of daoml | 
hung over the Republic; how uncertain the events of OiOp I 
were; how changeable men's minds; how much treachery iM I 
falsehood in human life — he begs of him, therefore, to bewnt 
of entering into any new councils, but to pursue and defeat 
what he himself thought right, and notsulTerliimself to bedran 
away by the advice of others — referring, without doubt, to SL 
Antony, the chief companion and corrupter of his youth. la 
the conclusion, he conjures him to employ his present power ] 

op UlLliKlJ. 
.703. CiclC. (.'DU.~-Scrv.aa)pkiusKuru>. M. Clnudiil* Min'fllui. 

od Kods ! bow much do I long to be laughing with yuu 

b, >03. Cic. £7. CoM^L. Amiliiu Piulu. C, CUodiiu HuceUua. 

[lew cousuls being Cicero's n&rticutar friends, he wrote 
ulatory letters to them both, upon their election, ia 
ie begged the concurrence of their authority to the 
3f his supplication ; and, what be bad more at hearty 
y would not suffer any prolongation of his annual term; 
i they readily obliged him, and received his tlianks also 
r for that favour . It was expected, that sometliing 
Id now be done, in relation to the two GauU, aim 

ointment of a successor to Caesar, since both the consuls 
pposed to be his enemies ; but all attempts of that kitid 
ill frustrated by the intrigues of Casar ; for when C. 

us began to renew tiie same motion, which his kinsman 

ie the year before, he was obstructed by his colleague 

and tlie tribune Curio, whom Csesar had privately 

by immense bribes, to suifer nothing prejudicial to his 

to pass during their mE^istracy *. He is said to have 
?aulus about three hundred thousand pounds, and to 
luch more'. The first wanted it to defray the charges 
! Splendid buildings, which he had undertaken to raise 
■wn cost ; the second, to clear himself of the load of his 
vhich amounted to about half a million'; for he had 
his great fortunes so effectually, in a few years, that he 

other revenue left, as Pliny says, but in the hopes of 
war*. These &cts are mentioned by all the Roman 

CjiUgfat by tbc upoili of Gaul, and Ckut'i gold, 
Curio lura'd ttuSlor, »nd )>i> country »ld— 

Tius applies that passage of Vir^l, " vendidit hie auro 
," to the case of Curio's selling Rome to Csesar. 
-o, in the mean time, was expecting, with impatience, 
iration of his annual term, but, before he could quit the 
e, he was obliged to see the account of all the money, 
<ad passed through his own or his officers' hands, stated 
anced; and three fair copies provided, two to be de- 

u pogclli piipugit me tuo <:lMiTi^pho. Quid aii ? Ciratnni nunc defcndtt 
uluKpuuretunEierinePnuo iWvivuii, nuUii. Ibid. 13. 
S. 7, 10, 1 1, 12, 13. ' Suet™. J. Cm. 29. 

pMited in two of the priucip^ citi«s of faja jn 
third in the treasury at llomv. 

Tbal liis whole aaminiatratioD, therefore, might be o( 
he was very exact and nunctual in acquitting Iiiiwl 
duty, and would not induW his officers in the use of a 
money beyond the legal dme, or above the Bom pir~ 
Uw, as appears from his letters to some of them « 
it*. Out of the annuiil revenue, which was c 
for the use of ihe province, ho remittnl to the t 
he hod nut expended, to the amount of above ei^t h 
thouBitud pounds. '* This," toys he, " makes my vkoli 
pany groan ; they imairiiied, that it should have been i 
among themselves, as if I ought to have been a better bt 
for the treasures of I'hrygia and Cilicia. than for o 
But they did not move me ; for my own honour weigl 
me the most : yet, I have not been wanting, to do en 
in mjr power, that is honourable and generouB to tl 

His last concern was, to what hands he should c 
government of his province upon his leaving it, nnce i 
no successor appointed by the senate, on account of t! 
among them auout the cane of Caesar, which disturbed ll 
debates, and interrupted all other business. He had no q 
of his quiestor, C. Cwlius, a young man of noble binh, 
no great virtue or prudence ; and was afmid, af^r his ■ 
administration, that, by phtcing so great a trust iti one of ttl 
character, he should expose himself to some censure. Battl| 
had nobody about him of superior rank, who waa wiUEof b 
accept it, and did not cure to force it upon his brother, leslM 
might give a handle to suspect him of some interest or pi^ I 
tiality m the choice'. He dropped tlie province, •'- — '-" ' 

13. Vk. 37. Cdu.— L. iEmiUui PluIus. C. CUiidiu* Minctliu. 

n a particular dettul of all tlie newa of die city — 
e odious reports," says he, "nbout Curio and Paulus; 
!ee any dan^rer, while Pompey stands, or I may say, 
ile he sits >f he has bat his health ; but, in truth, I 
or my friends Curio and i'aulua. If vou are now, 
at Rome, or as soon as vou come thitoer, I would 
lend me a plan of the whole UepubUc, which may 
n llie road, that I may form myself upon it, and re- 
temper to assume on my coming to tlie city ; for 
advanta^ not to come thither a mere stranger '." 
hat a confidence he placed in Pompey, on whom, 
ir whole prospect, eitlier of peace with Csesar, or of 
linst him, depended : as to the intimation about his 
is expressed more strongly in another letter: "all 
" says he, " hang upon the life of owe man, who is 
very year by a dangerous fit of sickness'." His 
1 seems to have been peculiarly subject to fevers ; 
It returns of which, in the present situation of affairs, 
apprehension to all his party; in one of those fevers, 
atened hia life for many days successively, all the 
aly put up public prayers for his safety ; an honour, 
never been paid before to any man, while Kome 

king leave of Cilicia, Cicero paid a visit to Rhodes, 
e, be says, of the children '. His design was to give 
ew of that flourishing isle, and a little exercise, 

that celebrated school of eloquence, where he him- 
udied with so much success under Molo. Here he 
le news of Hortensius's death', which greatly af- 
, by recalling to his mind the many glorious strug- 
hey had sustained together at the bar, in their com- 
■ the prize of eloquence. Hortensius reigned abso- 

Forum, when Cicero first entered it: and, as his 
me was the chief spur to Cicero's industry, so the 

Cicero s industry, i 
■cimen, which Cicero soon gave of himself, made 
, likewise, the brighter for it, by obliging him to 
e force of his genius, to maintain his ground against 

^ «1 txhm *«Wu« 
■riDiD vicor dokn. 

■, yule 

, dc Paulo 

at modo. 

8ul I 
rmihl 1 

quo ulliim pcriculum <ide*in 

olius Rein, tl jam « RoDue, 
qua mc fingcre powiiin, &t. 

lam .cnia 




tia, aniii 

iia, poiitna otnnn noMraa iprt 

n Imiporo uniTersa 
,Pal.2.4H. r>in.p 
tin i]«-«lcn« ltT..«l.i 

. IM. 

All. 0,7. 

• nliile . 

cj„., primo omDium dvium, 
i Jo Q. Hortpnui nitHTtc emet 

■.y.f> THH Lirr. 

\ 1,1, ;i-3 <i..:-: I .»- -I.. -Ttniil.u, l>.u!.;^. I ". CiaiuLiW Ssirila. 

hit v<iui))r riv-ol. 'lliey paKsefl a ^reat pott of tbeiiliTaBl 
kiiiif iif ei|tuil contest ana emulation of eack other*! mcfit:' 
lliirii-Tibiuv l>y tlie stijicriority of bU rears, haring fintpHU 
ttiroiigli till' iisiiul frrnilannii of public honours, and mlSm\ 
ill" ambiiiixi, by nbtjiiiiiiig the hif^best, began to relu 
wh;ii iif hN ohi cixiU'iiiion, and gave way to the charmiofi 
am) luxury, to whiirh his nature strongly inclined him','" 
wiw fiirt,-cit, at la-t, hj- the general voice of the citj", to 
the ]to^t of honour to Cicero; who never lost sight a til 
true point of nWy. nor wa» ever diverted by any ten,_ 
uf pleasure fruin his >tpady course and laborious pumitrfl 
virtue. Ifortensius publi^iiied several orations, wnich w«l 
extant luu if after his death; and, it were much to be i 
thiit they had remained to this day, to enable us to ft 
judL^ineiit of the ditTereiil t;ilent8 of these two great mn; hril 
they are said to have owed a freat part of their credit ta At | 
udrantaire of his action, which yet nas thought to hare i 
of art thau nus necessary to an orator, so tluit his compontMi ' 
were not admiri-d so much by the reader, as they had beesbr 
the hearer* ; while Cicero's more valued productions nnulcit 
others of that kiiul less sought for, and consequently die lea 
eitrefully pres*.>rved. Horteusius, however, was "genenlly 
iiUowedl by the ancients, and by Cicero himself, to have pv- 
liessed every uecumplishinent which could adorn an orator— dfr 
gunee uf style; art of composition; fertility of invention; sireet> 
netis of clociiti<ii) : gracefulness of action '. These two rinh 
lived, however, always with groat civility and respect torn 


17i%.7iS. Ck.57. Co«^— L. Anfliiu Ptaluf . C. CUadiui MarcelluB. 

_ deprived of the service and authority of so ezpe- 
m trtatfwimn at so critical a oonjuDcture \ 
Rhodes he passed on to Ephesiis, whence he set sail, 
.ftit of October, and after a tedious passage, landed at 

00 the fourteenth '• Here he lodged afi;ain in his old 

1 at the house of his friend Aristus. His predecessor, 
who passed also through Athens, on his return, had 
m new portico or vesm>ule to be built at his cost, 

temple of the Eleusinian Ceres; which suggested a 
likewise, to Cicero, of adding some ornament of the 
Ubd to the academv, as a public monument of his name, 
dl aa of his affection for the place; for he hated, he 
those fiilse inscriptions of other people's statues', with 
the Greeks used to flatter their new masters, by efiao- 
idw dd titles, and ascribing them anew to the great men 
He acquainted Atticus with his design, and desired 
upon It ; but, in all probability, it was never eze- 
flbice nis stay at Athens was now very short, and his 
Its wholly bent on Italy : for as all his letters confirmed 
the certainty of a war, in which he must necessarily bear 
J^^arty so he was impatient to be at home, that he might have 
MM dealer view of the state of a&irs, and take his measures 
widi greater deliberation \ Yet he was not still without hopes 
of peace, and that he should be able to make up the quarrel 
between the chiefs ; for he was, of all men, the best quali- 
fied to effect it, on account, not only of his authority, but of his 
indmate friendship with them both ; who severally paid great 
court to him at this time, and reckoned upon him as their own, 
and wrote to him with a confidence of his being a determined 
friend \ 

In his voyage from Athens towards Italy, Tiro, one of his 

* Ntm et amico amitso, cum conBuctudine jucunda, turn multoruxn offidomm con- 
junctknie me privatum videbam — au^ebat ctiam molestiam, quod magiu sairientium 
e i -vl um bononimaue penuria, vir egrcgius, conjunctisaimusque mecum contilionun om- 
Bivm eodetate, aiieniasimo Reipub. tempore cxtinctut. Brut. init. 

* Prid. Id. Octob. Athenas venimus, cum sane adveraia Tentis xiii eaaemoB. Ep. 
Fam. 14. 5. 

s Audio Appium irpajrvXaiov Eleuaine facere. Num inepti fuerimus, si nos quoque 

Academis fecerimua ? equidem valde ipsas Athenas amo. Volo esse aliquod 

monumentum. Odi falsas inscriptiones alicnarum statuarum. Sed ut tibi placebit. Ad 
Att. 6. 1. 

4 CcNnioTi ex multorum amicorum litteria— ad anna rem spectare. Ut mihi cum ve- 
nero, diasimiUarc non liceat, qiiid sentiam. Sed quum subeunda fortuna est, eo citiua 
dabimns operam ut veniamus, quo facilius do tota ro delibercmus. Ep. Fam. 14. 5. 

Sire enim ad concordiam res adduci potest, sive ad bonorum victoriam, utriusve rei 
me ant adjutorem esse vclim, aut certe non cxpertem. Ad Att. 7. 3. 

* Ipsom tamen Pompeium soparatim ad concordiam hortabor. Ibid. 

Me autem nterque numeral suum. Nisi forte simulat alter.^ Nam Pompeius non 
dnbitat (vere enim iudicat) ea, qua» dc Kepub. nunc scntiat, mihi valde probari. Utri- 
mque autem accepi litteras ejusmodi — ut neuter qucmquam omnium pluria facere quam 
me videictur. Ibid. 7. 1. 

A. I'lthTHS. Cir. 'ir. ('«H.— L.^mainaPuiliM. C. CUudini IbncUa. 

slave*, wliom he soon after made free, happened to bll mA, 
and vna left behind at I'atrap to the care of friends and a jtij- 
Biciati. The mention of such an accident will aeem triAiisti 
those who arc not acquainted with the character and exceiat 
qualities uf Tiro, ana how much we are indebted to him br 
preserving and transmittinfr to posterity the prerioiu coUeeliM 
of Cicero's lertvrs, of which a Kreat part still remain, aod cm 
entire hook of ihom written to Tiro himself; several <rf wfaitk 
relate to the subject of this rery illness. Tiro was truned ^ 
in Cicero's fnmily, amoni; the rest of hia young slaTea, in erof 
kind of useful und polite learning, and, beinr a youdi of nh 
gular ports and industry, soon becirac an eminent scholar, sad 
extremely serviceable to his master, in all his aHairs, both cM 
and domestic. " .\s for Tiro," says lie to Atticus, " I see yoi 
have II concern for him: though he is wonderfully useful to ati, 
when he is well, in every kind both of my business and stndic^ 
yet, I wish his health, more fur his own humanity and modestf, 
tlian for any servici* which I reap from him '." But his letter 
to Tiro himself will best shew what an affectionate master be 
waA : for from the time of leaving him, he never failed writiif 
to him by every messenger or ship which passed that way, 
though it were twiee or thrice a day, and often sent one of hii 
servants express to bring an account of his health ; the first of 
tliese letters will give us a notion of tlie rest. 


" I thought that I should hare been able to bear the want 
of you more easily; but Jii truth I cannot bear it: 

OF cicsno. 3Ud 

A.rrb. 703. Cic.iT. C«..-l., iEmilluirjiulu., U. Cl.u.liui Mirc.lJm 

'yoa will overtake roe Bt Leucas : but if you st^y to establish 
ymtr keaitfa, take care to have good compaii]', good weather, 
"cuid a good vessel. Observe this one thing, my Tiro, if you 
Hove ine, that neither Mario's coming, nor this letter, hurry 
■yoa. By doing what is most coiidacive to your health, you 
will do what is most agreeable to me : weigh all these things 
jby your own discretion. 1 want you ; yet so as to love you ; 
ny love makes me wish to see you well ; my want of you, to 
see you as soon as possible : the first is the better; take care, 
therefore, above all things, to get well again ; of ait yotir innu- 
'laerable services to me, that will be the most acceptable. — 
The third of November '." 

By the honour that he mentions in tlie letter, he means the 

lionour of a triumph, which his friends encoura^d him to 

H demand for his success at Amanus and Pindenissum : in writ- 

r ine upon it to Atdcus, he says, "consider what you would 

L luivise me with regard to a triumph, to which my friends invite 

me: for my part, if Bibulus, who, while there was a Parthian 

I in Syria, never set a foot out of the gates of Antioch, any more 

1 thaa he did upon a certain occasion out of his own bouse, liad 

, not BOlidted a triumph, I should have been quiet : but now it 

i is a shame to sit still *." Again, "as to a triumph, I had no 

thoi^hts of it before Bibulus's most impudent letters, by which 

he obtained an honourable suppiication. If he had really done 

all that he has written, I should rejoice at it, and wish well to 

bis suit : but for him, who never stirred beyond the walls, while 

there was an enemy on this side the Euphrates, to have such 

an honour decreed ; and for me, whose army inspired all their 

hopes and spirits into his, not tA obtain tne same, will be a 

disgrace to us ; i say to us; joining you to myself : wherefore 

I am determined to piisib at all, and hope to obtain all"." 

After the contemptible account which Cicero gives of Bibu- 
lus's conduct in Syria, it must appear strange to see him 
honoured with a supplication, and aspiring even to a triumph ; 
bat this was not for any thing that he himself had done, 
but for what his lieutenant Cassius had performed in his ab- 
sence against the Parthians; the success of the lieutenants 
being ascribed always to the auspices of the general, who 
reaped the reward and glory of it; and as the Parthians were 
the most dangerous enemies of the Republic, and the more 

' Ep. F™. 16. 1 

' Ad AK. 6. 8. 





m tonuii ute Bibult 



. A quo .i « goM. 


am scripBt, pu- 

dmnn at bonart &t 




pedem jsru, quoad 


d. EnphrM.n, 

fUt, QOD OltDlerit, 



, TUO, 

uju. ««c™.u .pern 


lerciliu habiiil. 

expratai, at, nt ipno, h 

-L. £iulii» P>ulii>. C. CbuAui. H 


iKirtk'ularly (InWod at tliM done, for their late defeat of Cna^ 
MO any ]ulrurita){e ^iiiptt a^nst them was sure to be «A 
rctvivvd at llinne, and repaid witL all the honours lint mM 
reaMiiiably be cloinaiided. • 

NVhenercr any pr»ouiisul returned from his prorinettnA 
pretensions to a triuin|ib, his foscea, or ensi^s of mMffOiKfi 
were wreutlied with laurel : with this equipage, Cicero bnU 
at Urundisium, »ri the twenty-fifth of Xorember, where hkife, 
Tereiitia Hrri\'ed at the same moment to meet him, so 
their first salutation was in the ?reat square of the city. Fi« 
HrundiHium he marched forward by slow stages towards "Rami, 
makin^r it h!^ business, on tlic road, to confer with kll !■ 
friends of both parties, who came out to salute him: ulk 
learn their sentiinenU on tlie present state of afiiun; bm 
which he won perceived, what of all things he most dieadci 
ail universal tlispoHition to war. llut as he foresaw the ccn^ 
(luences of it mure coolly and clearly than any of them, so !■ 
hrst resolution was to apply all his endeavours and authority 
to the mediation of a peace. He had not yet declared for 
either side; not that he was irresolute which of them to chooM^ 
fur he was determined within himself to follow Pompey ; bit 
the difficidty was, how to act, in the mean time, towards Csmt, 
so as tu avoid taking part in the previous decrees, which were 
{ire))iirt>d against him, for abrogating his command, and obl%- 
ing him lu disbiiiid his forces on pain of being declared u 
enemy ; here he wished to stand neuter awhile, that he miglit 
aet tlie mediator with the better grace and effect '. 

Iti this <lis|H>sition he liad an interview with Pompey, on the 

A.Vtb.Tm. CicH, Cna. 

instance of it; for that Hirtius came from Csesar, a few 
before, and did not come to see him; and when Balbiis 
lised to bring Scipio an account of bis business, the next 
Mvning, before day, Hirtius was going back ^aiii to Caesar 
the nieht : this be takes for a clear proof of Cteaar's resolu- 
te break with him. In short, I have no other comfort. 
In imugiiiing, that be, to whom even his enemies have 
A a second considship, and fortune given the greatest 
'er, will not be so mad as to put all this to hazard : yet, if 
begins to rush on, I see many more things to be appre- 
!n(iea ttian I dare venture to commit to writing; at present, 
' jil propose to be at Rome on the third of January '■" 
'^ There is one little circumstance frequently touched in 
' Y^**"*'* letters, which gave him a particular uneasiness in his 
> ^present situation, viz. his owing a sum of money to Caesar, 
['vbich he imagined might draw some reproach upon him, since 
ike thought it dishonourable and indecent, he says, to be a 
debtor to one, against whom we were acting in public affairs : 
yet to pay it at that time would deprive him of a part of the 
money which he bad reservet! for his triumph'. He desires 
Atlicus, however, very earnestly, to see it paid, which was 
done, without doubt, accordingly, since we meet with no farther 
mention of it: it does not appear, nor is it easy to guess, for 
wbat occasion this debt was contracted, unless it was to supply 
the extraordinary e:tpense of his buildings after his return 
from esile, when he complained of being in a particular want 
of money from that general dissipation of his fortunes. 

Pompey, finding Cieero wholly bent on peace, contrived to 
have a second conference with him, before be reached the city, 
in hopes to allay hb fears, and beat him off from that rain pro- 

^Ject of an accommodation, which might help to cool the zeal 
of hb friends in llie senate : he overtook him, therefore, at 
Lavemium, and came on with him to Formiae, where they 
Spent a whole afternoon in a close conversation. Pompey 
strongly dbcouraged all thoughu of a pacification, declaring, 
that Uicre could be none but what was treacherous and dan- 
gerous ; and that, if Caesar should disband his army, and take 
the consulship, he would throw the Republic into confusion; 
but be wiia of opinion, that when he understood their prepa- 
rations against him, he would drop the consulship, and hold 
&st lib army : but if he was mail enough to come forward and 

' Ibid. 7, i. 

■ Illiid tuii«D nou ilninun, dual idcsH lo pnUba, dt Cipurii nouiinE ro^irc. at con- 
fcctnlD relioquu. Ibid. 6. G, 

HM auiem uolmiHiaiDDi aX, quod tolnndi s^iiil nummi Cinuui. ct iuiitnimcrDlum 
triuiDphi «• confercndnoi. E»l eniio aiiopipoii, i1.^i«oXiti«uh«mv x/no-fi iXi'thi' 



' 9tage was from Pompey's villa, near Alba, because liis 

~ I Rt 'ritsuuliim, lay out of the great road, and was not cotn- 

lious for a public entry : on his arrival, as he says, he fell 

k the very flame of civil discord, and found tlie war in effect 

; for the senate, at Scipio's motion, had just voted 

. ...w, that Ceesar should dL'^miss his army by a certain day, 

frbe declared an enemy,- and when M. Antony and Q. Cas- 

I, two of the tribunes, opposed their negative to it, as they 

_i done to every decree proposed against Ccesar, and conld 

^.'••t be persuaded by the entreaties of their friends, to give 

t i^"^ to tie authority of the senate, they proceeded to that vote, 

"^icli was the last resort in eases of estremity, that the con- 

^'■uls, pnetors, tribune?, and all who were about the city with 

ipiocoosnlar power, should take care that the Republic re- 

^. wived no detriment. As this was supposed to arm the 

'HUtgistrates with an absolute power tu treat all men as they 

^ pleiMet^ wbom they judged to be enemies, so the two tri- 

Tjeuueis together with Curio, immediately withdrew themselves 

J tipon it, and fled in disguise to Csesar's camp, on pretence of 

H danger and violence to their persons, though none was yet 

■* offered or designed to them '. 

"^ M. Antony, who now began to make a figure in the affairs 
of Rome, was of an ancient and noble extraction : the grand- 
. n of that celebrated statesman and orator, who lost his life 
< in the massacres of Marius and Cinna: his father, as it is 
already related, had been honoured with one of the most im- 
portant commissions of the Republic ; but after an inglorious 
discharge of it, died with the character of a corrupt, oppressive, 
and rapacious commander. The son, trained in the discipline 
of such a parent, whom he lost when he was very young, 
launched out at once into all the excess of riot and debauchery, 
and wasted his whole patrimony before he had put on the 
manly gown ; shewing himself to be the genuine son of that 
father, who was born, as Sallust says, to squander money, 
without ever employing a thought on business, till a present 
necessity urged liim. His comely person, lively wit, insinu- 
ating address, miule young Curio infinitely fond of him; so 
that, in spite of the cominnnda of a severe father, who had 

Bad MBmliiu. 8ed incidi in ipiam fluoiaum liiilii diKordim lol potiiu belli. £p. 
Fte. 16. II. 
Ebo in Tnnuluium nihil hoc tcmpon:, Deiiuui est toit dvaVTMi, &e. Ad 

* AntoBiu qnidem ooitcr ei Q. Ciniua, nulln vi expulai, id Cnorcm cum CarioriB 

, ul cunirfmiiB, oc (|'iid B«p. detrimenli 

I I'rKjIM. Vu ». t 


often itirool Antony out af doors, and forbtddm hint hi 
bt> could not be previuied with to faniake his cmnpi 
tupplicd him with moncry for Iiiit frolics and amoan, til 
inrolvKl liimsvlf, on liU account, in n ilcbi of fifty t 
potiiids. 'Dili f;rTeatIv sfflictH old Curio; and Cice 
otllo'l in to bcal the dtstreM of the family, whom the wa^ 
trvaled, with tear* in his eyes, to iuteroeoe for Antony,! 
as for htmx-if, and not suffer them to be parted : but C 
havinv prewlod with the father to make his son aej bf ■ 
chai^in^f his deht«, advised him to in&ist upon it, u i **■ 
lion, an^ to enforce it by liis pntemal povrer, tl 
)mvc no &rther commerce with Antony *. This I 
dation of an early aversion in Antony to Cicero, inw 
by the perpetual course of Antony's life, which fori 
pened to throw among Cicero's inveterate enemies: fot^l] 
■ccond marriage of his mother, he became son-in-bw tl 
Letitulus wbo was put to death for conspiring- with ( 
by whom he «-as initiated into all the cabals of a t 
^tion, and infected with principles pernicious to the lilw 
tif Home. To revenge the death of his father he aXtai 
himself to Clodius, and, during hb tribunate, was one cf A 
ministers of all his violences; yet was delected, at the ■■ 
time, in some criminal intrigue in his liunily, injurions Utbt I 
honour of his patron*. From this education in the dty.kl 
went abroad, to learn the art of war under Gabinius, the wA I 
profligate of all frenerals; who gave him the command of Ul I 
norse in Syria, where he signalized his courage in the r"* — 
tion of King Ptolemy, and acquired the first ta.<^te i 



.j^lM.704. Ck.5a CoM.-^. CUudiuB Marcellus. L. Corn. Lentulm Cms. 

to sue for the qusestorship \ Csesar recomnf|iided 

a pressing maoDer, to Cicero, entreating him to accept 

*s submission, and pardon him for what was past, and 

him in his present suit; with which Cicero readily 

and obliged Antony so highly by it, that he de- 

presently a^nst Clodius, whom he attacked with 

fierceness in the Forum, and would certainly have killed, 

had not found means to hide himself under some stairs. 

y openly gave out, that he owed all this to Cicero's 

' , to whom he could never make amends for former 

ot by the destruction of his enemy, Clodius '. Being 

qusBStOT, he went back immediately to Caesar, witliout 

g his lot, or a decree of the senate, to appoint him his 

: where, though he had all imaginable opportunities 

^■cqniring money, yet, by squandering as fast as he got it, 

e a second time empty and beggarly to Rome, to put in 

fiir tbe tribunate : in which office, after the example of his 

y ^ i M Ml Curio, having sold himself to Csesar, he was, as Cicero 

iin, as much the cause of the ensuing war, as Helen was of 


:•* It is certain, at least, that Antony's flight gave the imme- 
i' Aate pretext to it, as Cicero had foretold : <^ Csesar," says he, 
*will betake himself to arms, either for our want of prepara- 
tknif or if no regard be had to him at the election of consuls : 
bat especially if any tribune, obstructing the deliberations of 
' the senate, or exciting the people to sedition, should happen 
to be censured or overruled, or taken off, or expelled, or, pre- 
tending to be expelled, run away to him * .'* In tlie same letter, 
he eives a short but true state of the merit of his cause : 
" Wliat," says he, "can be more impudent? You have held 
your government ten years, not granted to you by the senate, 
Dut extorted by violence and faction : the full term is expired. 
not of the law, but of your licentious will : but allow it to be a 
law; it is now decreed, that you must have a successor: you 
refuse, and say, have some regard to me : do you first shew 

* Prinsin ultiinani Cialliuni ex yEgypto qiisiin tlomuiii — veni^jti e (iallia a<l (^noKJtunm 
petendam. Ibid. Viil. Pint, in Anton. 

' Accepcram jam ante C'jr!*ans littcras, ut milii sati-fieri patcrcr a te — iw-ttca cuh- 
toditU4 Mini a te, tu a ine ohscrvalus in pctitione (^ua;stnra', 4110 qnidein tempore P. 
Clotlium — in foro es eonatu^ oecidere — ita prac^licahai*, to iion t-xii^timare, ni!<i ilium 
intorfccisscs, unquam niilii pro tuis in ii»c injinii-s «.ati» e>sc lartni'iini. IMil. -0. 

Cum 9e ille fujnciiH in seaianim tenelniiH alrtlidi^-vet, \'e. Pro Mil. 1 .">. 

* Dcinde ftine Senatus con-inlto, -ini- sortc, Miie lepo ad Ci'sjirem ruenni^ti. Id 
enini uniini in teriis, ej^cstali?, a-ris alirni, nequitire, pcrditijs \'it<T nitioniltus |H'rfu- 
}nuiii eiwe ducehas — advola^ti eiren»> ad Trihnnatmn, nt in eo Mairi-itniln, si ponsos, 

viri tui nirailiH esse ut Helena Trojauis. i-ic isle li'iic Reipub. causa belli. \c. Pbilip. 


* Aut addita causa, si forte Tribunus pleb. Senatum inipcdiens, aul i>opulum incitanp, 
notatUB, aut Si'natun consulto r irciimsrnnttis, aut sublatus aut exp\il»U8 sit, diccnsve 8C 
expnlsum ad te confngcrit. Ad Att. 7. ii. 

u d 

I villi |iTi,'teTlli to lUfj) 

■■'f .. "fiiiT*-"'!- it'i'l c<mtniry li> r/ic 
,, '-■■;;.,• t ifsir'-i ^irfiiL^tli lny imt in fJif 


• .tf Jii* lryo]>!>' : u ci'iii>i<UT.iblii [>;irt iif nh 

..•'-'",,,iiii:: WiIi-lliiT towariN ihe cmiiiiH-^ i>l' It;i/y, 

.-• ■ '_^;^f iiiti) ui-tit)u :il any wuniin;;: the flii^lit i 

■■•-' _ -,1V litin a iilau<iltU' Ii:iiiiUL' In liejiiu, ;mil ^i-ci 

"•'^'li* ""''"i["- '"" ""''''■ '■*■''' '"'"tivf." riuys I'll 

*■'"' ■ .amt' tliiii iiiiiiiiati-il C'\ ru< anil Alo.xaiuior ln-li> 

■■"..rMl".' I'l'-"-*' "»■ ""ii'ikiii;!: iIr- un.meudKJ.le th 

■■"■■!^."',,ji.i li"- wil'l :iiiil>ili«-» -'f iH^iiitf cIk' i:rfalf>t i 

■-'■■''i,|. nliii-li v(a- iior |n."il>lc. tiil l\»iniu-v »as fii 

■' "V" I-iviiiir lii.l.l. rli.r.r,.ri-. of tl.r (..v;(si..ii. Ii 

■■^;',' V'-vh1 ill.' l!«l-ioN.. >vl, «;i, tie Wmidarv 

"Cimv ■•!' 'I'-'t "i''^' "* ''■''>■ ■""' ii'iirtiiiiiil (mmiiA 

i' ■■,. uiaiiaiT. |iiisM".vcil liiiii-i'lt". «itlniiit ri'-UtaiiCc, 

'*. ..nai ii'Mii- ill 1''^ "-'v. AriiiiJiiiiiii, l'i»iiuriiiii. .) 

c'*'. 1... ' 

■V iliis iiinfii-tNl ami tliMmloivil -taif <if tho cily, ( 
.. ..ItBvn' Milii-itiiiir till- ili'iTi-f 111' UU iriiiFiu'li, ni wl 
""J. ^■iiali- >i-i.i(ira tl.ur r..a,ly a-iiv-nr : Init llie 
I niul""^ '" "!"'>'' ''"' '■"■"III' iiiiiri' jiarlicularlv his o 
., tibal it i"i:il" '"' <l.'l"iTrnl lor a wl.ik-, rill tlio imWi, 
•^ bi'll'T M-ltl.'il. -iviii- Ills wiTil. iliat Ik- woulil tl.oi, 

MT "*' ■' '''"'"■"■ ■ "'" (.a-^ar's ^miilou inardi 
S\^,. |i(il an "'I'll t" «ll I'ariluT llioii^lits of it, ami str 
- with sucli a panic, lliat, as il' he Lad been alread; 

op lUCERO. 

e same reason, when he perceived his new province wholly 
ovided against an enemy, and that it was impossible to 

Capua without a strong garrison, he resigned his emptoy- 

y and chose not to act at all '. 

pua had always been the common seminary or place of 
•eating gladiators for the great men of Rome ; where CsBtiaT 
I a bmous school of them at this time, which he had long 
■Btained under ttie best masters for the occasions of his pub- 
llhows in the city; and as tliey were very numerous and 

■ furnished with arms, here was reason to appreliend tluit 
mf would break out, and make some attempt in favour of 
D master, which might have been of dangerous consequence 
Uie present circumstances of the Republic; so that Pompey 
li^ht it necessary to take them out of their school, and dis- 
tate them among the principal inhabitants of the place, 
feoing two to each master of a family, by which he secured 
pn from doing any mischief. 

While the Pompeian party was under no small dejection on 
fpnnt of Pompey's quitting the city, and retreating from the 
Broach of Ceesar, T. Labienus, one of the chief commanders 
I the other side, deserted Csesar, and came over to them, 
|ieh added some new life to their cause, and raised an ex~ 
Malion, that many more would follow liis example. Labienus 
jleminently distrnguished himself in the Gallic war, where, 
m to CiBsar himself, he had borne the principal part ; and, 
vCsesar's favour, had raised an immense fortune ; so that he 

■ much caressed, and carried about every where, by Pompey, 
p promised himself great service from his fame and expe- 
nce, and especially from his credit in Cesar's army, and the 
Bwledge of all his counsels : but his account of things, like 
It of all deserters, wan accomntiodated rather to please, than 
lerve his new friends ; representing the weakness of Caesar's 
Ops, their aversion to his present designs, the disalFection of 
I two Gauls, and disposition to revolt; the contrary of all 


II apud ilium mcc btteiz cohorUtionesquB ad puem valcceDt. Ep. 

Nmm ccrtc Deque turn pMcavi, cum imparalam jam C^niun, non salum ignarui 
■ctui, (cd etism pcrfidie suspkionem fugicDS, accipere nolut. Ad Att. 8. 12. 
tund tibi oslcndcraiD, cum i me Capuim rcjicktam : quod feri non vltuidi nncria 
•.Md qUDd ildcbam teaeri ilhm uibem tineexercilu tiod pouc. £p. Cic. ulFoaip. 

J Ckero, when proeom-il of Ci/icia, ofitn menliom the Dinctta tlisl were u- 
ed to faJB nTcrnmcal, {Ep. Fam. 13.67.) bo m thit command of Capua he olli 
hU th> f^iaooput of ihc Cuupanian coait : nhich ihcw>, Ibnt thc» namei, which 
B upropiialed aftcmrda in the Chrittian church to character! and powcn eccle- 
iol, canied irilh thtta, in theii original uw, the notion of a real anihoiit; and 

qui Capue aunt — aane commode Pompciui dittribuit, him 

di> patrlbDi tunlliuiim. Scatonim in ludo I» fuerunl ; cniptionBm &ctiiil 



A. Urb. 704. Cvr. 58. Com. — C. Claudius Marcvllus. L. Com. LcntuluB Cms. 

garrisons, he will attend the senate, when the eon- 
come to be settled, and not go to Sicily, where his 
is more necessary, which I am afraid will be of ill con- 
p|i^pience : — ^there is a strange variety in our sentiments ; the 

Sart are of opinion, that Caesar will not stand to his 
that these offers are made only to hinder our prepa- 
i: but I am apt to think that he will withdraw his troops : 
he gets the better of us by bein^ made consul, and with 
1 iuqoity, than in the way which he is now pursuing ; and 
cannot possibly come off without some loss ; for we are 
^ittitndalonsly unprovided both with soldiers and money, since 
nil that, which was either private in the city, or public in the 
treasuiy, is left a prey to him \" 

Dimng the suspense of this treat}', and the expectation of 
CflBsai^s answer, Cicero began to conceive some hopes that 
both sides were relenting, and disposed to make up the quarrel 
— Caesar, from a reflection on his rashness, and the senate on 
their want of preparation : but he still suspected Caesar, and 
the sending a message so important by a person so insignifi- 
cant as young Lucius Caesar, looked, he says, as if he had done 
it by way of contempt, or with a view to disclaim it, especially 
when, after offering conditions, which were likely to be ac- 
eepted, be would not sit still to wait an answer, but continued 
his march, with the same diligence, and in the same hostile 
manner, as before '. His suspicions proved true ; for by letters, 
which came soon after from Furnius and Curio, he perceived 
that they made a mere jest of the embassy '. 

It seems very evident tliat Cresjir had no real thoughts of 
peace, by his paying no regard to Pompey's answer, and the 
trifling reasons wliicu he gave for slighting it * : but he had a 
double view in offering those conditions; for, by Pompcy's 
rejecting them, as there was roa.son to cxijcct, from his known 
aversion to any treaty, he hoped to load him with the odium 
of the war; or, by liis embracing them, to slacken his prepa- 
rations, and retard his design of leaving Itiily ; whilst he him- 
self, in the mean time, by following him, with a celerity that 

' Ibid. 7. 1.5. 

' Sjtoro in prajsontia pacem nos habere. Nam et ilium furoris, et Ininr nostrum copia- 
niin Rn]»pflpnitot. Ibi«l. 

Tariien vcrcor ut his ipMS (CjP'.ar) contcntus sit. Nam cum i«ta mandata dedissct L. 
Cspsttri, debiiit efsc paiillo qtiirtior, duin rt'.syM>n!«a roffrrcnttir. Ibid. 7. 17. 

C;ir«in-iii quidom, L. Ca^are cum niamlatis dc puce mij*so, umien aiunt acorrime loca 
nrru|>are. Ibid. 18. 

L. C.'»»>;irem vidi ut i<l ipsum niibi ille vidcatur irridcndi rauwi feci&se, qui tantis 

ill- rirbu.H liiiic mandata diderit, niiii forte noii dedit, ct liic sennonc aliquo aiTCpto pro 
niandatisi abusii^ est. Ibid. lit. 

* Arccpi tuas, Pbilotimi, Fumii, Curionis ad Fiirnium, qiiibus irriilct \,. 
i'.TiKiri* Icsrationem, n»id. UK 

* Cm. Comment, de Hell. civ. 1. 1, 


. 704. Ck. 58. Com — C. Claudius Marcellus. L. Corn. Lcntulut Cnit. 

not persist in it : the same imagination made Pompey 

"e senate so resolute to defy, when they were in no eon- 

Ito oppose him. Caesar, on the other hand, might pro- 

im^^e, that their stiffness proceeded from a vain con- 

f their strength, which would induce them to venture a 

■ <with him in Italy ; in which case he was sure enough to 

Mmdh : so that both sides were drawn farther, perhaps, 

dwy intended, by mistaking each other's views. Caesar, 

ro might well apprehend, that they designed to try their 

1^ with him in Italy ; for that was the constant persuasion 

i .whole party, who thought it the best scheme which could 

pnnied : Pompey humoured them in it, and always talked 

keep up their spirits; and though he saw, from the 
the necessity of quitting Italy, yet he kept the secret to 
df, and wrote word, at toe same time, to Cicero, that he 
tid have a firm army in a few days, with which he would 
li aeainst Caesar into Picenum, so as to give them an 
rtanity of returning to the city *. The plan of the war, 

was commonly understood, was to possess themselves of 
principal posts of Italy, and act chiefly on the defensive, 
!der to distress Caesar, by their different armies, cut off his 
atnnities of forage, hinder his access to Rome, and hold 
continually employed, till the veteran army from Spain, 
tr Pompey's lieutenants, Afranius, Petreius, and Varro, 

1 come up to finish his overthrow ^. This was the notion 
h the senate entertained of tlie war ; tliey never conceived 
ssible, that Pompey should sul)mit to the disgrace of flying 
"e Caesar, and giving up Italy a prey to Ins enemy. In 

confidence Doniitius, witli a very considerable force, 
some of the principal senators, threw himself into Corfi- 
I, a strong town at the foot of the Appennine, on the 
atic side, where he proposed to make a stand against 
ar, and stop the progress of his march ; but he lost all his 
)S in the attempt, to the number of three legions, for 
; of knowing Pompey's secret. Pompey, indeed, when he 
what Domitius intended, pressed him earnestly, by several 
rs, to come away and join with him, telling him, that it 

mnc< nos dirpoo-c^ajz/nTouv, cxnertcs sui tanti et lam inufcitati coiisilii rclinqucbat. 

:t. «. 8. 

ipciusi — ad nic soribit, paucis diebus so firmiim rxcrcitnm babittmim, spcmque 

si in Picenuin a^Tuni ip*ic vcncrit, nos Houiam rcdituros esse. Ibid. 7. 10'. 

iscepto aiitom bello, nut tcucnda fit urbs, aut ea irlccta, illc roniiiicatu ct rcliquis 

intcrcludendus. Ibid. 7. iK 

autera ille sui^ cunditiouibu'j stare iiolucrit, bclluni paratiini est : tantummodo ut 

iteicliidannis, nc ad iirbcm poisit arceilire : i\\uu\ sperabannis fieii posse : delectus 

na^ios babebainus — ex IIihpania«}uc mx le^'ioius et inapna auxilia, Afranio et IV- 

ucibu?, bab<;t a tergo. Videtur, A iiisaniet, posse oppiimi, uiodo ut urbe salva. 

am. lb*. 12. 

Dina autem spcs Afraniura cum mapnis' copiis adventare. Ad Att. 8. 3. 


A.l'rt-:ilt. •V.Ut I !•» —IM Iau.ll(» SlanTUilt. L. Cm LiK* 

Uiu iin]WMiil)lt: tu make any opposiition to Ctar, tl 
wbuk> furccH were iinite<l : aiid tuat, as to liimnel^ Wli 
liiiii only tlie two legttiiifi which were recalled froa Crt 
were not to lie tniMiwl agairiitt him : and if DomilHI 
eiiiaiiglf liiiiiKcIf in Corfiiiium, so as to be preclodcdh 
fmin a rvrrciit, that he couM not come to his rditl' 
weak all uniiy, niid bnde him, therefore, not to be M 
to hear of his retiring;, if Cssar should persist to wuA ' 
him ' : yet Domitius, prepossessed with the apiDioD,A 
uus to be the s«.iit of war, and that Pompey would nm 
so frooA a bwty of troou^f and so many of bis best fna 
lost, would not quit the advantageous post of Cotfii 
depended still on bein)r relievecT; and when be vai 
Itesie^d, sent Pomncy word, how easily Ciesar mig 
tereepted bctwwn tlieir two armies '. 

Cieero was as niueh disappointed as any of the re 
never dreamt of their being obliged to quit Ital; 
l'omi)oy's motioiiA, he perceived, at last, bis intc 
wliicli lie speaks, with great severity, in several of 
and bogs Atticus's adviee upon that new fece of tl 
and to enable Atticns to give it the more clearly, ! 
Id him, in short, what occurred to his own miu'd i 
siile and the other, "'llie great obligations," says 
I am under to Pompey, and my particular fricndsbi] 
us well as the cause of the Republic itself, seem i 
me, tliiit I ought to Join mv counsels and fortune 
Itesides, if I stay beliuid, ana desert that band of tl 
most eminent citizens, I must fiill under tlie power 


rat. 701 Cie.Sa Con.— C. CUudiui MtRnUiu. L. Com. Lenluloi C'ru>. 

other : nothing has liitherto been done by our Pompey, 

* It prudence or courage ; I may add, also, nothing but 

"Wtniry to my adrice and authority: I will omit those 

Jkw be first nursed, raised, and armed this man 

K-Republic ; how he supported him in carrying his 

mee, and without re^^d to the auspices ; how he 

jrtber Gaul to his government, made himself his 

^^amsted as augur in the adoption of Clodius, was 

ms to restore me, than to prevent my being expelled, 

^d the term of Ceesar's command, served him in all his 
iu his absence, nay, in his third consulship, after he 
k to espouse the interests of the Republic, how he insisted, 
~*~ ~ I tribunes should jointly propose a law to dispense 
'ience in suing for the consulship, which he con- 
rds by a law of his own, and opposed the consul 
en hu moved to put an end to his government 
tte first of March : but to omit, I say, all tills, what can be 
i_ '^Re dishonourable, or shew a e;reater want of conduct, tluin 
4Ma retreat, or rather shameful flight from the city ? what con- 
^ MiODs were not preferable to tlie necessity of abandoning our 
(lautitry? the conditions, I confess, were bad ; yet what can be 
** irorse tiian thb? but Pompey, you'll say, will recover the 
^ Republic: when? or what preparation is there for it? is not all 
Ik ^Scenum lost? is not the way left open to the city? is not all 
tMOt treasure, both public and private, given up to the enemy? 
Jlfn a word, there is no party, no forces, no places of rendezvous 
for the friends of the Uepublic to resort to; Apulia is chosen 
for our retreat ; the weakest and remotest part of Italy, which 
implies nothing but despair, and a design of fljing by the op- 
portunity of too sea," &c. ' In another letter, " there is but 
one thing wanting," says he, "to complete our friend's disgrace; 
hlH lailing to succour Domitius : nobody doubts but that he 
will come to his relief; yet I am not of that mind. Will be 
tlien desert such a citizen, and the rest, whom vou know to 
be with him? especially when he has thirty cohorts in the 
town? yes, unless all tilings deceive me, be wil! desert him; he 
is strangely frightened : means nothing but to fly ; yet you, 
for I perceive what your opinion is, think, that 1 ought to 
follow thb mail. For my part, I easily know, whom I ought 
to fly, not whom I ought to follow. As to that saying of mme, 
which you extol, and think worthy to be celebrated, that I had 
rather be conquered witii Pompey, tluui conquer with Cffisar, 
it is true, I still, say so ; but with such a Pompey as be 
tlicn was, or as I took him to be : but, as for tliis man, who 

or ciCBso. 411 

CkX CoM-C. Ckaika KumHw. L. C«n. I^Dtala* Cm. 

the war bat die •eenrity of liit penoa uid 

_ on the otlier hand, q>peared every day more aad 

despicable, by flyinG^ before an enemy, whom hia pride 

'^pervt^rsene^ was nia to have driven to the neceMity o^ 

^^ arms.—" Tell me, I b^ of yon," saya Cicero, ** what 

^he more wretcbeH, than for the one to be gathering aiH 

"Wifc from the worst of canaea, the other givine offence in toe 

.^> 'J die one to be redioned the preserver of his enemies, the 

' fthe deserter of \m friends? and, in truth, though I have 

la affection wiiich I ought to have for our friena Cnssai^ 

I ^^ cannot escuse hii not coining to the relief of such men : 

l^^fcf be was at'raid to do it, what can be more paltry ? or if, ai 

9 tliiuk, he thought to make his cause the more pcnidar, by 

r destruction, what can be more unjust ' '{" &c. From thn 

■ .experiment of Cawar's demency, Cicero took occasion to 

9 him a letter of compliment, and to thank him particularly 

%b generous treatment of Lentulus, who, when consul, bad 

~^ D the chief author of his restoration ; to which Casar r^ 

led the following answer : 


" You jud^e rightly of me, for I am thoroughly known to 

I, that nothing is ^irther removed from me than cruelty; 

I, as I have a great pleasure from the thing itself, so I rejoice 

i Iriuinpli to find my act approved by you : nor does it at 

1 move me, tliat thoM, who were dismissed by me, are said 

> be gone away to renew the war against me ; for I desire 

nothing more, than that I may always act like myself; they 

iKke themselves. I wid that you would meet me at the city, 

'that 1 may use your counsel and assistance, as 1 have hitherto 

\ done in all things. Nothing, I assure you, is dearer to me 

) than Dolabella ; I nill owe this favour therefore to him : nor is 

it possible for him, indeed, to behave otherwise, such is his 

' humanity, his good sense, and his affection to me. Adieu '." 

When Pompey, after the unhappy affair of Corlinium, found 

himself obliged to retire to Brundisium, and to declare, what 

lie had never before directly owned, his design of quitting 

Italy, and carrying the war abroad'; he was very desirous to 

draw Cicero along with him, and wrote two letters to him at 

' 8ed elaecro t« ^nid hoc miKriut, quun sltenim pliaiua in r<HliniiDi ouh qiicnre ; 

, , , ^D hoc, quod Uliboi i 

tiMnllqiM igiuTiiu?MiK,ntquidua 
patanlt, qstd iojiiiliiu? Ad An. 8. 9 

lii >ui fecit. Ibid. 9. 2. 


A.Vffc.7tM. Crm. — C. CUwliiu Mirtrlliu. L. Cm. Idula Qi 

FormWi to pi^ss him to come away directly; bat C 
atrcaily tnucli »ut nf humour with him, was dbvtiiud d 
morf fiy l)t« short and negligent manner of wndl^ af 
occwiiuii HO tm|)orbiiit ' : tiie second of t^ompey"* IctK 
Cicero's tuiswer, will explain tlie present state uf tl 
and Ciccro'§ sentiments upon ibem. 


" If you are in good health, I rejoice : 1 read yoor tl 
witb pleasure: for J perceive in it your ancient nUatfl 
your concern for tbe common safety. The consuls ai*<^ 
to the army, which 1 bad in Apulia: I earnestly exb«rtj|| 
by your siugular and perpetual aifection to the RepmlS 
come also to us, that, tiy our joint advice, we may t^U 
and relief to the afflicted state. I would have you IT^'^ 
Appiun way your road, and come in all haste to Bm 
Take care of your health." 


" When I sent that letter, which was delivered to T«f 
Canusium, 1 had no suspicion of your crossing the sea m^ 
service of the Uepublic, and was in great hopes, that we A 
be able, either to brinjp about an accommodation, wbicli t«4 
seemed the most useful, or to defend the Republic wi& i 
greatest dignity in Italy. In the meantime, before my U 
reached you, being informed of your resolution, by the ioatni^ ' 
tlons which you sent to the consuls, I did not wait till I cooll 
have a letter from you, but set out immediately towards yw 
with my brother and our children for Apulia. When we wot 


.^Urii. 704. Cic.58. Goes. — C. Claudius Marccllus. L. Corn. Lcntulus Crus. 

in Capua. Upon reading these letters, I was of the same 
n witn all the rest, that you were resolved to march to 
ium with all your forces, whither, when Ca?sar lay before 
'town, I thought it impossible for me to come. While this 
^ r was in the utmost expectation, we were informed, at one 
the same time, both of what had happened at Corfinium, 
that you were actually marching towards Brundisium: 
when I and my brother resolved, without hesitation, to 
you thither, we were advertised by many, who came 
Samnium and Apulia, to take care that we did not fall into 
hands, for that he was upon his march to the same 
where our road lay, and would reach them sooner than 
could possibly do. This being the case, it did not seem 
^3aable to me, or my brother, or any of our friends, to run 
^ ajsk of hurting, not only ourselves, but the Republic, by 
t rashness ; especially when we could not doubt, but that, if 
^ journey had been safe to us, we should not then be able 
Overtake you. In the meanwhile, I received your letter, 
Ited from Canusium, the twenty-first of February, in which 
Da exhort me to come in all haste to Brundisium : but as I 
id not receive it till the twenty-ninth, I made no question 
It that you were already arrived at Brundisium, and all that 
ad seemed wholly shut up to us, and wc ourselves as surely 
tereepted as those who were taken at Corfinium : for we did 
t reckon them only to be prisoners, who were actually fallen 
X> the enemy's hands, but those too not less so, who happen 
be inclosed within the quarters and garrisons of their ad- 
rsaries. Since this is our ciise, I heartily wish, in the first 
ice, that I liad always been with you, as I then told you 
ten I relinquished the command of Capua, which I did not 
for the sake of avoiding trouble, but because I saw that the 
wn could not be held without an army, and was unwilling 
at the same accident should happen to me, which, to my 
rrow, has happened to some of our bravest citizens at Cor- 
lium : but since it has not been my lot to be with you, I wish 
at I had been made privy to your counsels ; for I could not 
Nssibly suspect, and should sooner have believed any thing, 
an that, for the good of the Republic, under such a leader 
you, we should not be able to stand our ground in Italy : 
»r do I now blame your conduct, but lament the fate of 
e Republic; and though I cannot comprehend what it is 
lich you have followecl, yet I am not the less persuaded, 
at you have done nothing, but with the greatest reason. 
ou remember, I believe, what my opinion always was ; first, 
preserve peace, even on bad conditions ; then al)out leaving 
e city; for as to Italy, you never intimated a tittle t(» me 



about It : bat I do not take upon ray»elf to ihonk i 
■dvice oufrht to have been followeti ; I follomd 
llml for til* sake of the Republic, of whicb I i)«^ 
which ia now overturneti, so as not to be raised upa)^ 
out a ci<ril and tnmt t>erniciou9 war; I soui!;ht jiniJ 
to be with you; nor will i omit the first oppurlunit^^ 
offers i>f effecting it. I easily perceived, through all thia 
that I did uot satisfy tho«c who are fond of fighthig: for !■ 
no (MTuple to own, that 1 wished for nothing so mu^ ■ 
not but that I liad the same amireheusioiis fnm t 
but I thought them more tolerable than a dvil wan 
the war was begun, when 1 sow that eonditioiis of p 
offered to you, and a full and honourable answer jrivenB* 
I bejfau to weigh and deliberate well upon my own Oi 
which, considering your kindness to me, I fancied that I 
easily explain to your satisfaction : I recollected thatl* 
only man, who, for the greatest services to the p^iB^J 
suffered a most wretched and cruel punishment: thatllj 
the only one, who, if I offended bim, to whom, atllx* 
time when we were in arms against htm, a second t 
and most splendid triumph was offered, should be ii 
again in all the same struggles ; so that my person s 
stand always exposed, as a public mark, to the insults of 
fligate citistens : nor did I suspect any of these things tf' 
openly threjitened with them : nor was I so much S 
them, if they were really to bettit me, as 1 judged it p 
to decline them, if they could honestlv be avoided. You Idl 
in short, the stale of my conduct whde we bad any hopes <(1 
peace ; what has since happened deprived me of all p<ne« » 
do any thing: but to those whom I do r~' -' " -='- 

. CicuU. (.'oaL— C.l-Uii<LuBMarcd1u«. L.Corn, UnluluCnii. 

D conduct, which were the most liable to exception, 
'* I have neither done aor omitted to do any thing, 
Lhas not both a probable and prudent excuse — and, in 
i willing to collider a little longer what was right 
t for me to do '." The chief ground of his deliberation 
'lat be still thought a peace possible, in which case 
y and Csmar would be one again, and he had no mind 
B Csesar any cause to be an enemy to hJm, when he was 
e a friend to Pompey. 

things were in this situation, Cfesar sent young 
I after the consul Lentulus, to endeavour to persuade 
> stay in Italy, and return to the city, by the offer of 
f thing that could tempt him : he called upon Cicero on 
^y, who gives the follow ing account of it to Atticus : 
tng Balbus came to me on the twenty-fourth in the 
_.. ig, running in all haste, b ! private roads, after Lentulus, 
t letters and instructions from Catsar, and the olTer of any 
ernment, if he will return to Rome ; but it will have no 
ct, unless they happen to meet : he told me that Ciesar 
fed nothing so much as to overtake Pompey — which I be- 
i( and to be friends with him again — which 1 do not 
iffs; and begin to fear, that all his clemency means nothing 

Uat last, but to give that one cruel blow. The elder 
IS writes me word, that C»!Sar wishes nothing more than 
ive in safety, and yield the first rank to Pompey, You 
: bim, I suppose, to be in earnest'." 

'icero seems to think, that Lentulus might have been per- 
led to stay, if Balbus and he had met together; for he had 
>pinion of^ the firmness of these consuls, hut says of ihem 
I, on another occasion, that they were more easily moved 
jvery wind, than a feather or a leaf. He received another 
;r, soon after, from Balbus, of which he sent a copy to At- 
S, that he might pity him, he says, to see what a aupe they 
ight to make of him '. 

"balbus to CICERO, EMPEROR. 

I CONJURE you, Cicero, to think of some method of making 
tar and Pompey friends again, who, by the perfidy of cer- 

persons, are now divided; it is a work highly worthy of 
r virtue: take my word for it, Csesar will not only he in 

<ltiil pTKlCTiniBuni nl, nuoii non haWat Mpiintem (riciiMtionrin et plunc qTiid 

D. tt anid rucirtKluni mitii «mi, diuiiui cogiiarv maliii. lb. 6. 13. 


THE l-irE 

k.ltffc.TM. O.Sft < 

your powrr, but think kinuidf inlinhilj^ oUgml to 7<^ Vjl 
iroulu cliargi? yourwlf with ilu« abtr- I sko^ lie 
Pompey wuuM iln m too; bnl, in tfa« prewat oranM 
b what 1 wi>ik ratbvr tiun hopr-, Utat be mar be biw^ 
lenns: but, whenever he giveb over flying and (itwing 
1 ahBll not despair, that your BDtbority may ixn '' 
with him. Cinvir takn it kindly, tliat vou wen Ebr 
Mayiiijir in Italy, and it was the greatest oblmtlMi 
could coufiT upon nie: for I love him as maat u 1 d»' 
htmself; if he had suffered me to talk to kin asfif^' 
used to do, and not so often shunned the opportunitlA 
•ou^ht of conferring with him, I should have be«a test 
tlinn I now um : for, assure yourself, that no man am tv' 
afflicted than I, to see one, who is dearer to me ihauB 
acting his part so ill in his consuMup, that he seems tab 
thing nitlier tlimi a consul : but should he be disponed tol 
your advice, mid take your word for Caetatr's gooA int~ 
and ynua tlte rest of hb consulship at Home, I should 
hope, tliat, by your authority, and at his motion, Pou 
Ctnar may be made one again, with the approt»tion 
the senate. Whenever this can be brought about, 1 shall tlriift 

that I liavo lived long enough: you will entirely appro"*' 


am sure, what Ctetar did at Corfinium : iu an aflair of ihl I 
aorl, notliing conid fall out better, than that it should \« I 
(raiisucted without blood. I am extremely glad, thai my i»- I 
phi-w'ii vixit was agreeable to you : as to what he s " ' 
1 piirt, ntid what Caesar hjroself wrote to you, 


jji^.7M. CicSB. Con>— C.CIaudiuiMimeUiu. L. Com. Leatulm Cnu. 

lWu£N I bad but just tiine to see our fnenii Furnius, nor 
Id conveniently Rpeak with, nr bear him, was in baste, and 
Iny marcb, bavin^ sent tbe legions before me, yet I could 

rby without writing, and sending' him to you with my 
though I have often paid this duty before, and seem 
Jy to pay it ofiener, you deserve it so well of me. I de- 
of you, in a special manner, that as I hope to be tn the 
' shortly, I may see you there, and have the benefit of your 
ice, your interest, your authority, your assiBtance in alt 
1^ But to return to tlie point : you will pardon the baste 
I, brevity of my letter, and team tbe rest from Furnius." 
iirhidi Cicero answered. 


'Upon reading your letter, delivered to me by Furnius, in 
tit you pressed me to come to the city, I did not so much 
ider at what you there intimated, of your desire to use my 
ice and authority, but was at a loss to find oat what you 
int by my interest and assistance; yet I flattered myself 
» a persuasion, that, out of your admirable and sin^lar 
ifom, you were desirous to enter into some measures for 
tbiishin? the peac« and coneord of the city; and, in that 
If I looked upon my temper and cliaracter as fit enough to 
employed in such a deliberation. If the case be so, and 
1 have any concern for the safety of our friend Pompey, 
1 of reconciling him to yourself, and to tlie Republic, you 
I certainly find no man more proper for such a work than I 
, who, from the very first, have always been the adviser of 
ce* both to him and the senate ; and, since this recourse to 
W} have not meddled with any part of the war, but thought 
I to be really injured by it, while your enemies and enviers 
!e attempting to deprive you of those honours, which tbe 
tnan people had granted you. But as, at that time, I was 
only a favourer of your dignity, but im encourager also of 
era to assist you in it: so now the dignity of Pompey 
at\y affects me : for, many years ago, I made choice of you 
I, with whom to cultivate a particular friendship, and to be, 
[ now am, most strictly united. Wherefore I desire of you, 
rather beg and implore, with all my prayers, that, in the 
Ty of your cares, you would indulge a moment to this 
iwht, how by your generosity, I may be permitted to shew 
■elf an honest, grateful, pious man, in remembering an act 
the greatest kindness to me. If this related only to myself, 
honid hope still to obtain it from you : but it concerns, I 

iny»i.*lf to liave recoivod tho sainc g^race i 
ha«l done: towards whom, if by this you 
grateful, let it bo your care, 1 beseech yc 
too towards Pompey *." 

Cicero was censured for some passaj^ \ 
CVsir took ciire to make public, viz. the cor 
admirable wisdom ; and, above all, the ack 
bein^ injured by his adversaries in the pre: 
of wiiich, he siiys, that lie wa** not sorry fo 
it, for he himself had given several copies ( 
in^ what had since happened, wiis pleased 
the world how much he had always beeu 
an<l that, in urging Csesar to save his cou 
his business to use such expressions as wei 
gain authority with him, without fearing t 
of flattery, in urging him to an act for wl 
have thrown himself even at his feet '. 

He received anotlier letter on the sami 
the same time, written jointly by Balbus 
Csesar's chief confidents. 


" The advice, not only of little men, 
even of the greatest, is generally weighed, 
of tlie giver, but the event; yet, relying 
we will give you what we take to be the h\ 
which you wrote to us ; whicli, though it s 
prudent, yet certainly flows from the utmc 
tion to you. If we did not know from Cj 

^^B OP lu xiio. 419 

I^BA.TOi. CK.3a. Coa.— (J. L'kuiIiusM4Uvtilliu. L. Corn, Lentului Cnu. 

jf« part in those deliberations ; that, by your help, who have 
linet frieiidsliip with thein both, tlie whole aflair may be 
Httd with ease aail dignity : or if, on the contrary, we be- 
■Kd that C»sar would tint do it, and knew that he was 
a^Ved upon a war with Pompey, we should never try to 
"Qwade you to take arms against a niaa to whom you nave 
' greatest obligations, in the same manner as we have always 
ii^eated you not to figlit against Csesar. But rince, at pre- 
*'t, we can only guess ratlier than know what CsBsar will do, 
bave nothing to offer but this, that it does not seem agree- 
V to your dignity, or your fidelity, so well known to all, 
ma you are intimate with them both, to take arms againat 
iner: and this we do nut doubt but Caesar, according to his 
■Uanity, will highly approve; yet if you judge proper, we 
ll write to bim, to tet us know wimt lie will really do about 
t and if he returns us an answer, will presently send yon 
tioe, what we think of it, and give you our word, that we 
a advise only what we take to be most suitable to your 
nour, not lo Caesar's views ; and are ])erBuaded, that Csesar, 
rtof his indulgence to his friends, will be pleased with UV 
Us jtuat letter was followed by a separate one from Balbus> 


"Immediately after I had sent the common letter from 
ppius and myself, 1 received one from Ciesar, of which I 
ve sent you a copy ; whence yon will jierceive how desirous 

is of peace, and to bo reennciled with Pompey, and how 
• removed from all thoughts of cruelty. It gives me an ex- 
tme joy, as it certainly ought to do, to see him in these sen- 
uent^ As to yourself, your fidelity and your piety, I am 
tirely of the same mind, my dear Cicero, with yon, that you 
OOOt, consistently with your character and duty, bear arms 
airut a man to whom you declare yourself so greatly obliged : 
tt Csaar will approve this resolution, I certainly know, from 
I siiiguhtr humanity ; and that you will perfectly satisfy him, 
' taking no part in the war agamst bim, nor joining yourself 
faia adversaries : this he will think sufficient, not only from 
111, a person of such dignity and splendour, but has allowed 
eren to me, not to be found in that camp, which is likely to 

formed against Lentidus and Pompey, from whom 1 have 
eeived tlie greatest obligations: ' It was enough,' he said, 
F I performed my part to him in the city iind the gown, 
licJi I might perform also to them if I thought fit:' where- 
re, I DOW manage all Leiitulus's afiiiirs at Home, and dis- 


;. CImA* IbmUak LC«.U 

dutri^c my dutyi my fidelity, my piety, to titan boA* Tl 
trutb. I dn not take the hopra of an accomnindatiem ■ 
now M> law, to b<- quite <]<-s[>crate, slmx Cmaai is'miXm 
in which wc t>ii);lit to wish him : one thing would pi 
if you think it iiropur, that you would writ« to bim, u 
a fFuant from him, as you did firom Pompey, xt tht A 
Muo's Irial, witli my ajwrobation ; I will andemlw fol| 
1 rightly know Ciesar, tiial be will sooner pay a K^siiW 
dignity, tltaii to his own ioteresL How pratlently twiiw 
tluon, I know not; but this I cert^nly know, thai <^ 
I wntc, I write out of a singular love and affection to jMil 
li-t me die (m> a'< Csesar may but lire) if I hiive not «^ 
au esteem for you that few are equally dear to OK- 
you have taken any reiiolntion in this affair, 1 wisHlhAp 
would let me know it, for 1 am exceedingly solidtimll 
you shontd discharge your duty to them both, wVi^V 
truth, 1 <un eoiifident you will discharge. Take care of n*^ 

The offer of a guard was artfully insinuatetl; fot»lJit'|J 
carrivd an appearance of honour and respect to Cicero'sfl 
•on, it must uecesKirily have made him Caesar's prisooet,! 
deprived him of tlie liberty of retiring, when he found it pitfi 
out of Italy : but he was too wise to l>c caught by it, or nM 
■noved in uny manner by tlie letters themselves, to entail 
the least tliouglit of going to Rome, since, to a^ist in d 
senate, when Pompey and the consuls were driven out et% 
was, in reality, to take part against them, \^'hat gave Ul I 
a more immediate uneasiness, was the daily expectation of * 
interview with Ciesar himself, who was now returning ftflB 
Brundisium by llie road of Fonnijp, where he then residfti: 

or cic-iiito. 4»l 

1THI.7M. Co«.-C. ClBu-liui IiUri'.'llui. L.Corn. LentuIuaCriu. 

1. After maiiy things said, an both sides, he bade me 
9 however, ana try to make peace : ' Shall I do it,' says I, 
any own way?' *Do you imagine,' replied he, 'that I 
prescribe to you?' * I will move tlie senate then,' says I, 

« decree against your going to Spain, or transportiiig 

troops into Greece, and say a great deal besides, in be- 
ng tlie case of Pompey :' ' I will not allow,' replied he, 
U things to be said :' ' So I thought,' says I, ' and for that 
>n will not come; because I must either say them, and 
y more, which I cannot help saying, if I am there, or not 
e at all.' The result was, that, to shift off the discoorse, 
wished me to consider of it; which I could not refuse to do, 

80 we parted. I am persuaded, that he is not pleased with 
; but I am pleased with myself: which I have not been be- 
e of a long lime. Aa for the rest, good gods, what a crew 
faaa with him ! what a hellish band I as you call tliem: what 
eplorablc affair ! what desperate troops ! what a lamentable 
)g, to see Servius's son, and Titinius's, wiih many more of 
k rank, in that camp, which besieged Pompey f He hag 

legions; wakes at all hours; fears nothing: I see no end 
his calamity. His declaration at the last, which I had almost 
fot, was odious; that if he was not permitted to use my ad- 
t, he would use such as lie could get from others, and pursue 
neasureg which were for his service '." From this confe- 
X, Cicero went directly to Arplnum, and there invested 
son, at the age of sixteen, with the manly gown: he re- 
ed to carry nim along with him to Ponipey's camp, and 
ight it proper to give him an air of manhood before he 
Sted him into the war; and since he could not perform that 
nnony at Rome, chose to oblige his countrymen, by cele- 
ting Uiis festival in his native city'. 

Vbde Csesar was on the road towards Rome, young Quintus 
ero, the nephew, a fiery, giddy youth, privately wrote to 

to offer his service, with a promise of some information 
ceming his uncle; upon which being sent for, and admitted 
in audience, he assured Csesar, that his uncle was utterly 
Aected to all his measures, and determined to leave Italy 

go to Pompey. The boy was tempted to this rashness by 
hopes of a considerable present, and gave much uneasiness 
it, both to the father and the uncle, who had reason to fear 
e ill consequence from it': but Csesar, desiring still to 
nt Cicero from declaring against him, and to qutet the 

Bgs mcD Ciceroni, qiioniBm Romi carcmus, Arpiui potiuinium togam pnnm dedi, 

e maiiidpibui notirii fuii graliini. Ibid. 19. 

Utt«m cjui id Cninm miHU iu gnviter tulimup, n( tc quidcm ctUremiii — 

A.UA.nH. Ot.M. Cam. — V CUbidhs UunnH. L. C«n I 

appnlMMieai which bo mifflit entertain for wLi: 
look occwioa to«i|^ify to him, in a kind letter h-: 
Out be retained m> n-M-ntmcrit of tiu refosal to c» 
cily. though Tulliu and St-r\-ius coraplaiiied, that bt 
flhrvH the aami- in<lul?«nce to them: — Kiiliculous i 
Cicero, wlin, oTler sending their aoos to b«sieg« P<-, j 
BrHiul»iuin, [inMeiul to be scrupulous about g«o^ ■■ 

Cicero's behaviour, however, and residence in iLoK _ 
«f hi^ which were iieiirest to the sea, gare rise to a gaJ 
report, tlial he was wHicing uiiiy for a wind to cnrrv him M 
to I'oinjiey; upon which, Ctesar sent him anotW preiflf 
letter, to try, it possible, to dissuade him from tliat ste(>. 


" TuoL'Gii 1 Derer imagined that you would do snydDf 
rashly, or imprudeutly, yi-(, moved by tlie commoD re'ptft 1 
thought proper to write to you, aod beg of you, by out muDsl 
affeclioD, that you would not ran to a declining cause, utillhr 
you did not thudi fit to go while it stood firm. For ^ou «fl 
do tltc greatest injury to your friendship, and consult bntl 
for yourself, if you clo not follow where fortune calls; fwiB 
tilings seem to liave succeeded niost prosperously for as, mMt 
unfortunately for them : nor will you be thought to have fit- 
lowed the cause, (since that was the same, when you cboeeV 
withdraw jourself from their counsels) but to have t.'ondeiimt' 
somi- act of mine : than which you can do nothing that couU 


op ciCEno. 423 

k TM. Cie. SB. Com.— C Cliuiliue Maitdliu. L. Cora. Lcmuliu Cnu. 


*■ If I had not a great esteem for you, and modi greater 
leed thau you imafrine, I should not be concerned at the 
port, which is spread of you, especially when I take it to be 
He. But, out of die excess of my Section, I cannot dis- 
aible, tliat even a report, thouu^h false, makes some impreft- 
dn OR me. I cannot believe that you are preparing to cron 
1^ sea, when you have eueh a valut^ for Dolabella, and your 
W^ter TuUia, that excellent woniaa, and are so mudi valued 
f Hfl all, to whom, in truth, your dignity and hononr are 
pnost dearer than to yourself; yet, I did not think it the part 
t B friend, not to be moved by (he diKonrse even of ill-design- 
te men, and wrote this with the greater inclination, aa I take 
^ part to be the more difttcult on the account of our late 
Hdness, occasioned rather by my jealousy, than any ininiy 
ntn yon. For I desire you to assure yourself, that nobody is 
jMrer to me than you, excepting my Caesar, and that I know, 
ho, that C%sar reckons M. Cicero in the first class of his 
Sends. Wberofurc I beg of you, my Cicero, that you will 
eep yourself free and undetermined, and despise the fidelity 
f u>at man who first did you an injury, that ne might after- 
Wrds do you a kiudness; nor fly from him, who, Uiough he 
bould not love you, which is impossible, yet will always desire 
> see you in safety and splendour. 1 have sent Calpurnius 
9 you with this, the most intimiile of my fiends, that you 
Hgbt perceive the great concern which I have for your life 
an dignity '." 

C(eIius also wrote to him, on the same subject ; but finding, 
y some hints in Cicero's answer, that he was actually prepar- 
ig to run away to Pompey, he si'iit him a second letter, in a 
lost pathetic, or, as Cicero calls it, lamentable strain ', in 
opes, to work upon him, by alarming all his fears. 


** Being in a consternation at your letter, by which you 
bew that you are meditating nothing but what is dismal, yet 
either tell me directly what it is, nor wholly hide it from me, 
presently wrote this to you. By all your fortunes, Cicero, 
y your children, I beg and beseech you, not to take any step 
tfnriDus to your safety : for I call the gods and men, and our 
khip, to witness, that what I have told, and forewarned 
f, was not any vain conceit of my own, but after I had 

•ijU. 10. B. ' M. Coli cpigtolam icriptam miKiabililcr. Ibiil. 10. 9. 


A. t'lk TVi. OcM. r«« 


. . (IumUuj Munilu L. Cb. l^^tf 

talk«d with C«Mr, and understood from itim, how beff , 
to net after bu victory, I infMnned you ot what I hd U 
If yoi) imagine that his conduct will always be ibea 
diotnlttiiijf KU enemies iutd ofTerin? conditions }in K 
taken; he tliinkx, and evt'ii talks, of nothing liul wbtti 
and wvvie, and is gone away mucb out of liumoor i 
•enate, and tlioroo^ldy pruvoked by the oppodtiaa^ 
has met witb, nor will tbere be any room for meny. ' 
fore, if you yourself, your only son, vour bouse, yoor n 
ing Itopiit, Ml ilear to vou : if 1, if tbe worthy mm, jti 
in-law, have any weigltt with you, you should i 
overturn our fortunes, and force us to hate or to r 
that cau»e in which our safety consists, or to eniertuia 
impioun wish airuinst your's. Lastly, reSect on this, duial 
have alreudy given all the offence which you can gi^i^l 
Riaying so long behind ; and now to declare ag^n^ & ■ 
queror, whom you would not offend, while his o" — ' 
cioubtful, aiii' to fiv after those who run auay, with n 
would not join, w^iUe they were in condition to res 
utmost folly. Take care, tliat while you are ashamed B 
^prove yourself one of the best citizens, you be not tooll _ 
in determining what is the best. But if I cannot whoUypfr* 
vail with you, yet wait, at least, till you know- how we siKtaJ' 
in Spain, which I now tell you will be onr's, as soon as C«r 
comes thither. What hopes they may have when Spain is It* 
I know not ; and what your view can be in acceding to a de^ 
fate cause, by my fuitli I cannot find out. As to the tliii^ 
which you discover to me by your silence about it, Caesar hi 
been infurnied of it; and, after the first salutation, told mt, 
■nlly, what he had heard of you ; 1 denied that I knC 


TU. Ck. sa. Com.— ('. CliuliH Ibnellai. L. Con. Laatolw Chv. 
ds'b sdvice, as well aa Lis prai^ce, was gromided upon 
m, which be bad before advaDced, in a letter to Cieero, 
D a public dissension, as long as it was carried on by 
;thods, one ought to take tite honeeter side ; but wheo 

to arms, the stronger ; and to judge-that Uie best miieh 

safest '." Cicero was aot of Us opinion, but governed 

in this, as be generally did, in all other cases, by a 
Y rule ; that where our duty and oar safety interfere, 
jld adliere always to wliat is righ^ whatever danger we 

paid Cicero a friendly visit of two days, about this 
□ his way towards Sicily, the command of which Cteaar 
mmitted to him. TheV convenalioii turned on' the 
<y condition of the times, and the impending miseries 
war, in which Curio was Open, and without any reserve, 
ng of Caesar's views: be exhorted Cicero to choose some 

place for his retreat ; assured htm, that C«8ar would be 
. with it; offered him all kind of acconunodadon and 
isage through Sicily : made not the least doubt, but that 
would soon be master of Spain, and then follow Pompey 
is whole force ; and that Fompey's death would be the 

the war : but confessed witbal, that he saw no pro^>ect 
imering of hope for the Hepublic ; said, that Ccesar was 
roked by the tribune Metellus, at Rome, that he had a 
7 have killed him, as many of his friends advised ; that 
lad done it, a great slaughter would have ensued ; that 
mency flowed, not from his natural disposition, but be- 
le thought it popular : and if he once lost the affeclioDS 
people, he would be cruel : that he was disturbed to see 
ople so disgusted by his seizing the public treasure ; and 

he had resolved to speak to them before he left Rome, 
durst not venture upon it, for fear of some affront; and 
way, at last, much discomposed '. 

leaving tlie public treasure at Rome a prey to Ceasar, 
ured, more than once, by Cicero, as one of the blunders 
friends ' : but it is a common case, in civil dissensions, 
; honester side, through the fear of discrediting their 

by any irregular act, to ruin it by an unseasonable 
ition. The public money was kept in the temple of 

; and the consuls contented themselves with carrying 
he keys, fancying, that the sanctity of the place would 

it from violence ; especially when the greatest part of 

4*>ti THE LIFE 

A.riK:«( t'lcVi (A — ('. CUudiut M4rccllu». L. Cora.Lnn^Q« | 
it wi» n fuiitl of a sacred kind, set apart by the lam far i» Id 
dions uiilv of the Uut eslfrency, or the terror of a GallitB»: 
■lion', f'ompev va> iiensible of the mistake, vbenitmM 
late, and !«nt iiistructions to the consuls to go ba^ndW 
nwuy this Kicred treasure: but Ceesar was then tofuaiiati, 
tliHt they durst not venture upon it; and LeatulnscoUtf^ 
him woni, lie himself should first mareh against CssviA 
I'icvuum, that tliL'v mitrht be able to do it with safety*- Cw 
had none of these htii))Ii-s : but, as Aoon as be came to Sa^ 
unlori'd tlu- doors of tlie lompio to be broken open, inddf 
miiney to he scizeil for his own u»e ; and liad like ts )m 
killed* the tribune Metellus, who, trusting- to the authonlf' 
his office, wat silly enough to artpmnt to binder him. ft 
found there an immense treasure, both in roin and wn^rf 
solid golrl, reserved from the spoils of conquered nations, &■ 
the time even of the I'lmic war : " for the Republic," n Vbj 
siiys " had never been richer than it was nt tliis day'." 

t'iccro wai now impiitient to be gone, and the moremM 
ae(.*<innt of the inconvenient ])omp of his laurel, and ticM 
and stvlo of emperor ; which in a time of that jealons)' wi 
distraction, ex|io«i'd him too much to the eyes of the ftiSt, 
if well ui to tiio tauntu and raillery of his enemies *. titn- 
"olvi'il to cross the sea to Pompey; yet knowing all his motiM 
ti> be narrowly wntcheil, took |iains to conceal his intentioa, 
enpeciall}- froin .\)itony, who resided, at this time, in Ui 
iii-i^liiioiirhiHid, and kept a strict eve upon him. He mt 
him word, therefore, by letter, that he had no design aponX 


road or not. Csear hos imposed this task upon me, not to 
(for nny man to go out of Italy. Wherefore, it signifies 
thing for me to approve your resolution, if I have no power 
indnlge you in it. I would have you write to Caesar, and 
Ik that favour of him : I do not doubt but you will obtain it, 
pecially since you promise to retiun a regard for our friend- 
After this letter, Antony never came to see him, but sent 
a excuse, that he was ashamed to do it, because he took bim 
t be angry with him, giving him to understand, at the same 
tine, by 1 rebatius, that he had special orders to observe bis 
potions '. 

These letters give us the most sensible proof of the high 
iMeem and credit in which Cicero flourished, at this time, in 
llwine : when in a contest for empire, which force alone was 
to'ifecide, wc see tbe eU'ieh on both sides so solicitous to gain 
R man to their party, who had no peculiar skill in arms or 
tolents for war : but bis name and authority was tbe acmii- 
lidon which they sought ; since, whatever was the fate of their 
Bins, -the world, tbey knew, would judge better of tbe cause 
ivhii^ Cicero espoused. The same letters will confute, like- 
ivke, in a great measure, the common opinion of his want of 
resolution in all cases of difficulty, since no man could shew a 
HVeter than he did on the present occasion, when against the 
rmportunities of his friends, and all the invitations of a suc- 
xeefal power, he chose to follow that cause which be thought 
the best, though he knew it to be tiie weakest. 

I>aring Csesar's absence in Spain, Antony, who bad nobody 
M> control him at home, gave a free course to Jiis natural dis- 
position, and indulged himself, without reserve, in all the excess 
at lewdness and luxury. Cicero, describing his usual equi- 
pi^e in travelling about Italy, says, " he carries with bim, in 
ui open chaise, tbe famed actress, Cytberis ; his wife follows 
in a second, witli seven other close btters, full of bis whores 
md boys. See by what base hands wc fall ; and doubt, if you 
can, whether Ciesar, let him come vanquislied or victorious, 
trill not make cruel work amongst us at bis return. For my 
part, if I cannot get a ship, I will take a boat, to transport 
myself out of their reach ; but I shall tell you more after I 
iiare had a conference with Antony'." Among Antony's 

' IMi 

* NomiDUiin de me nbi imperattiiD dicit Antoniua, ncc me tamen ipte tdhuc Tident, 
sTrelaiio MrraTit, Ibid. 12. 

'Miiiu — ad mi miiit. K pudon dctvtritum ad mc Don veniiae, quod ms libi luc- 
vaURt. Ibid. 15. 

a nperta porU 


-C. CUudiua Maroitluii. 

lent anxiety, and draw out sometbing which may 
I to me'." 
Btlie time of his leaving the city, together with Pompey 
! senate, there passed not a single day in wiiich he did 
B or more letters to Atticus ', the only friend whom 
1 with tlie secret of his thoughts. From these letters 
B that the sum of Atticus's advice to him !igree<l eii- 
'l his own sentiments, that, if Pompey remained in 
i ought to join with him; if not, should stay behind, 
«H^>ect what fresh accidents might produce'. This was 
j^ ^* Cioero had hitherto followed: and as to his future cou- 
"^ though he seems sometimes to be a little wavering and 
*^state, yet the result of his deliherations constantly turned 
I ^symu of Pompey. His personal atfection for the man, pre- 
.. ='^^«e «f his cause, the reproaches of the better sort, who 
^^90iai to censure Uts tardiness, and, above all, his gratitude 
; fiirours received, which tiad ever the greatest weight with 
;r ^^» made him resolve, at all adventures to run after him; and, 
t; ^SSl> be was displeased with his management of the war, 
^.^ ^fiwithout any hopes of his success*; though he knew him- 
:-.. ^nre to be no politician, and now perceivea him, he says, tc 
^ ^AO general; yet, with all his faults, he could not endure the 
«^ ^fc(^t of deserting him, nor hardly forgive himself for stay- 
^^Kaq long behind him: "For, as in love," says he, "any 
„_^vE|g dirty and indecent in a mistress wiQ stifle it for tlie pre- 
~ nti so llie deformity of Pompey's conduct put me out of 
^^JBpnour with him; but now that he is gone, my love revives, 

■ fel I cannot bear his absence '," &c. 
^^-*. What held him still a while longer, was the tears of his 
^ BBuly, and the remonstrances of his daughter Tullia, who 
^IWrcated him to wjut only the issue of the Spanish war, and 

^' ' in hi» (go nw comullationibut eitrcrne. 

3j£ 9. 4. '' ' "™ '^"'*' """"" 

'W ■ HoJDi uitcin ci>jttnl:r Dim «aliim en cui . , 

B'.il^a iaa ad le litWRu, Md . Ibid. R. 12. 

H AltsniD tjbi eodcm die hue epiitolum dictnTi, el pndie dedenmi lucitiDaan ludinontn. 

■ IWd. 10. 3. 

■ ■ Ego quidemtibi DDnnm nurior, ti Pempeiuiluliun relinqutt. W quoque profugrn; 

■ BiBDDis enlm pciiciilo &d«,n« Hcinub. prodenB; cuiquidempmlcriug poterii ptoikue, 

■ ri mnicrih &c. Ibid. 9. :0. 

■ < Ic^d uimi crimen homn. Ibid. S. 2, .\ 7. 

p Ntc mebercule hoc fotHo Heipub. raiin. quiia fundilus tlelclam |iiita, eikI ncquit 

L IDA pnlet ingnliun In eiuu, qui nic Icvavil iii incDmnifHlii, quiliui ijue ■fFecont. 
I lUd. 9. 19. 

Portunntniil eomniilteudi omnia. Sine nto connmur ulU. 81 mtlini quid Kcidciit, 

—•-'-- Ibid. .. a. 


('•«.— C. OUuJiu* MwccUiM. L. Cora. Lntnl'uCm. 

ui^l it as the advice of Atdcus '. He waa pasaionatelj U 
of tliis daughter, and with great reason ; for ahe was a «a«i 
of lingular accompliahmcnta, with tlie utmost j^ection mi 

piety to him. Speaking of her to Atticus, " How adrninU^* 
says he, "is her virtue? how doca she bear the public calamihr? 
how lier (lomeHtic disgusts ? what a greatness of mind did m 
shew at my parting from tbem ? in spite of the tendernoi d 
her love, sue wishes me to do notliing but wiiat is r^t, ui 
for my honour '." Dut as to the aSair of Spain, he answmi 
that whatever was the fate of it, it eouJd not alter the case wilk 
regard to himself; for if Caesar sliould be driven out of it,li 
journey to Pompey would be less welcome and repnlahK 
since Curio himself would run over to him ; or if the war «■ 
drawn into length, there would be no end of waiting; a, 
lastly, if Pompcy'a army should be beaten, instead of sittiic 
still as they odviaed, he thought just the contrary, and shoufl 
choose tlie rather to run away from the violence of siici ■ ' 
victory. He resolved, therefore, he says, to act notbii^ ' 
craftily; but, whatever became of Spain, to find out Pompn 
as soon aa he could, in conformity to Solon's law, who i m v fr it 
capital for n citizen not to take |>urt in a civil dissension '. 

Before his going off, f^ervius Sulpicius sent him won], finni 
Home, that he had a great desire to have a conference wilk 
him, to consult in common what measures they ought to take. 
Cicero consented to it, in hopes to find Servius in the saiM 
minil with himsoif, and to have his company to Pompey^ 
camp :, in answer to Iiis mcssjiiri-, he iiiti ma [■.■(! Ijia iiuii 


found liim so timorous and desponding;, and so full of 
raples upon every thing which was proposed, that, instead of 
Hsing him to the saine conduct mth himself, he found it 
.jpceaaary to conceal his own design from him. " Of all the 
ji^eii," says he, " whom I have met with, he is alone a greater 
inward uian C. Marcellus, who lamenU liis having been 
ponsul, and urges Antony to hinder my going, that he himself 
any stay with a better grace '." 

K Cato, whom Pompey had sent to possess himself of Sicily, 
nought fit to quit that post, and yield up tlic island to Curio, 
jvfco came likewise to seize it, on Csesar's part, with a superior 
ipvce. Cicero was much scandalised at Cato's conduct, beinff 
Wersuaded that he might have held his possession without diffi- 
milty, and that all honest men would have flocked to him, espe- 
Ebally when Pompey's Beet was so near to support him : for if 
Wat had but once appeared on the coast, and begun to act, 
Curiu himself, as he confessed, would have run away (he fint 
*• 1 wish," says Cicero, " that Cotta may hold out Sardinia, as 
it is s^d he will : for, if so, how base will Cato's act appear '." 

In these circumstances, while he was preparing all things for 
his voy^e, and wailing only for a fair wind, ne removed from tu« 
Cuman to his Fompeian vtlla, beyond Naples, which not being 
■o commodious for an embarkment, would help to lessen the 
suspicion of his intended flight '. Here he received a private 
message from the officers of three cohorts, wliich were m gar- 
rison at Pompeii, to beg leave to wait upon him the day fol- 
lowing, in order to deliver up their troops and the town into 
Ilia luinds; but, instead of listi'ntng to the oveiliire. ho slipped 
away the next morning, before dav, to avoid seeing them; 
since such a force, or a greater, could be of no service there ; 
and he was apprehensive that it was designed only as a trap 
for him *. 

Thus, pursuing at last the result of all his deliberations, 
and preferring the consideration of duty to that of his safety, 
be embarked to follow Pompey -. and tnough, from the nature 

' Ssnii eaDriJio nihil Bipeiliiur, Omn«ciption«iooinni WQlmliioccuminl. Uduih 
C MaretUa co^ovi timidiorem, quFm CoQiiilem fuiiw pcrnitet — qni etiun ADtaniuin 

« Curio meeiim iiiit^Sicili* diffidcni, u Pompeioi rnvipiro capiBct.* Ibid."?. 

Curio— Pomprii cluKm liuicbal : que ri curt, h de SidlTa nhiturum. Ibid. 4. 

CalA qui Siciliiuu icnerc nulla neguiio poCuit, et >i tenuitift. omnes boni ad cum » 
eontutifBentf Syracutis profcctun at n. d. 8. Kal. Mali — iiiiiiAin, quod aiiint^ CotU 
Swdiobm Umeal. Eit enim runior. O, « id fuerit, lurpcm CaMnnm 1 Ibid. 16. 
, • En ut minuereni •utpicioncm profMtionii, — profeclue eiim in Poinpcianum a. d. 
till Id. Utibi mem, dum qun adnavigandum opui cueni, paiarentUT. Ibid. 

4 Cuin td ^lam Teniaum, voniuni ot ad me, Ccnturionca (rium cohortium, qua 
FMnpcni lunt, ms tcUo potlridic ; hm: mccuiD Ninniui nosier, vello cd> mibi >e et Dp- 
pidBailnden. At ord ciw poairidie a villa ante luccm, ut me omntnn illi nan riderenl. 
Qiyd ttiim ent in tnbiu cohorlibai ? r " ' ' 
tM, at ImuinmDr. Omaem i^tur tu 

.?qiiid« plu™?ouo»ppar«tu?— ct liniulflerip 

A.L'rt>.7M. Cic.SS. Cow^^X. Claadin* MiRdlUk L. Cwn. Lotnlv Cw 
of the war, lie plainly saw, and declared, that it was a cnttB- 
tioD only for rule ; yet he thought Pompey the modeater, it- 
neater, and juster king of the two; and if Ae did not conqi^ 
that the very name of the Roman people would be exfr 
gnishcd: or if he did, that it would still be after the maantr 
and pattern of Sylla, with much cnieltv and blood'. MTA 
theee melancholy reflections, he set sail on the elerentb d 
June*, rustling, m he tells us, koowinglv and willingly iill 
voluntary destruction, and doing just what cattle do via 
driven by any force, running after those of bis own kind; 
<* For, as the os," siiys he, "follows the herd, so I follow Ac 
honest, or those at least who are called su, though it be ti 
certain ruin V As to his brother Quintus, he was so far ftw 
desiring bis company in this flight, that be pressed him to tw 
in Italy, on account of his personal obligations to Casar, iM 
the relation that be bad borne to him : yet Quintus wouU ari 
be left behind; but declared that he would follow his broAa 
whithersoever he should lead, and think that partj' right 
he should choose for him*. 

What gave Cicero a more particular abhorrence of the war, 
into which lie u-as entering, was, to see Pompey, on all oe» 
sions, aflecting to imitate Sytia, and to hear bint often BTi 
with a superior air, '* could ijylia do such a thiii^, and canaol 
I do it?" as if determined to make Sylla's victory the patten 
of his own. He was now in much the same circumatancei in 
which that conqueror had once been; sustaining tlie cause of 
the senate by his arms, and treated as an enemy by those 

OP ciceho. 4otl 

A.Vrh.TtH- Cic.SS. Coh^C. C'lauitiu^ Mu.eUof. L. Can. Lentulai Cnu. 

ind threaten iiig ruin nnd proscription to all his enemies. This 
Tequently shocked Cicero, as we find from many of his 
etters, to consider with wiiat cruelty and effusion of civil 
ilood the success, even of his own friends, would certunly be 
itlended '. 

We have no account of the miiiinor and circumstances of his 
iroyage, or by what course he stLL-red towards Dyrrachium: 
Tor, irfter his leaving ItaW, all liis coirespondence with it was 
in great measure cut oif^ £o that ^om June, in which he 
railed, we find an iiitermissioa of about nine months in the 
series of It'ta letters, and not more than four of them written 
m Atticus (luring the continuance of the war'. He arrired, 
liowcver, safely in Pompey's camp with his son, his brother, 
Bud nephew, committing the fortunes of the whole family to 
tlie issue of that cause : and thtit he might make some 
amends for coming so late, and gain the greater authority 
with his party, he furnished Pompcy, who was in great want 
of money, with a large sum, out of his own stock, for the 
public service '. 

But, as he entered into tlio war with reluctance, so he found 
nothing in it but what increased his disgust : he disliked every 
thin? which they had done, or designed to do ; saw nothing 
good amoiifrst them but their cause ; and that their own counseu 
would ruin them : for all the chiefs of the party, trusting to 
the superior fame and authority of I'ompey, ana dazzled with 
the splendour of the troops, which the princes of the east had 
sent to their assistance, assured themselves of victory; and, 
without reflecting on the different character of the two armies, 
would hear of nothing but fighting. It was Cicero's business, 
Uierefore, to discourse this wild spirit, and to represent the 
hazard of the war, the force of Ccesar, and tlie probability of 
bis beating them, if ever they ventured a battle with him: 
but all hb remonstrances were slighted, and he himself re- 
proached as timorous and cowardTy by the other leaders : 
though nothing afterwards happened to them, but what he had 
often foretold '. This soon made him repent of embarking in 

' Quun cnbro illad, SylU potiiit^ ego non pnl«nj? — 

Ila SyOalant uiimui *j»B, et pmienplunt diu. [All. 9. 10.] Cnious iiOKlor Syllini 
iwni itmilitudmem concupiiil. tltuit noi \iya. [Ibid. 7.] ul nan aonniuaiiin led gene- 
ntim proKiiptio eucl infonnaU. Ibid. 11.6. 

»Vid.Jbia. 11.1,2,3. 4. 

• Bui ^oo rebiu omnibus, qood ii quoquo in ungnitui e«l, ijiiicuni »iimui, cui nof- 
nain dedimui pecuniun muluun, opitianlCB nobis, caneliluliB rebut, «m rem etiun 
Imtorifore. [Ibid. 11.3.] h quM hBbuimui ruciilutei, eai Pompeio lum, cum id vidt- 
huDDT ii|iicnteT fjuerc, detuIimuB. Ibid. 13. 

« QoippBinihitwcquBiceidunl, necouiBagiirtur, iilloniodoprobiinlnr. (Ibid. II. 4.] 
nibU booi pnter aiuun. (Ep. Fun. 7. S.] ilaque czo. qucm turn forlM illi viri. Doinitii 
et LaataU, tlmidum eH« dieebuit, ta. [Iluil. 6.2r; quo qiiid«in in btllo, nihil Bdvmi 
Msddit noo pradicratc me. Ibid. 6. 

F f 


— C. Cliii.Ji.ii Mircrlln. 

ft CUU60 io iinprudeiitlr conducled ; and it uAded In bii i 
eontent, to finn himself even blameil by Caio for c 
tbcm Mt nil. and deserting that iieiitnil roat, vthiA I 
have i^vpii him the better opportunity of bringing ^ 
Bccommodittioii '. 

In tlitH diwH^roeubie situation he declined all emple)-ai 
and finding his counsels wholly slighted, resumed bin ■ 
way of rKiilery, and what be could not dissuade by liiiiii 
rity, cnilottvonrcd to make ridiculous hy his jestM. Thiigl 
occnsinn, aflcrwards, to Antony< in » speech to the seoUti 
oenKurc the levity of his behaviour in the oitamity of > a 
war, and to reflect not only upon his fears, but the i 
ftbleneas also of his jokes: to which Cicero answered, A 
though their camp, indeed, wiis full of aire and anxiety, -jtM 
in circumstance* the must turbulent, there were cerbun B 
Btvnts of relaxation, which all men, who had any hum 
ibem, were ^hid to lay hold on : but while Antony repros 
him, both with dejection and joking at the same time, it ■ 
tiurc proof that lie had obse^^■ed a proper temper and m 
tion m tlirm both '. 

Young Brutus was also in Pompey's camp, where I 
tinguihhed himself by a peculiar zeal : which Cicero iDei 
as the more remarkable, because lie Jiad always professed * 
irrecoiicileable hatred to Fonipey, as to the murderer of litfl 
lather *. liut he followed the cause, not the man : 8acrifici||fl 
all his resentments to the service of his country, and looki^fl 
now upon Pompey as the general ,'■-'" ■ ■■ • ' 



ic.SS. rou.— C. CUudiui MiireeUiw. L. Con. Lgntuln* Cnw. 

mk only to have been prudent, but necessBrv '. What shocked 
tooole so much at it, was tlie Hiscovery that it made of his 
toakness and want of preparation ; and after the security, 
b^kh he had all along aflfeeted, anrl the defiance so oft de- 
Mred against his adversary, it made him appear contemptible 

run away at last on tlie first approach of Qesar : " Did yoa 
^'^er see," says Ccelius, " a more silly creatore than this 
OiDpey of ynur's : who, after raising aU this bustle, is found 
' be such a trifler ? or did you ever read or hear of a man 
■Sre vigorous in action, more temperate in rictory, than our 
*war ' ?" 

Pompey had left Italy about a year befwe Csesar found it 
iknvenient to go after him ; during which time he had g;atbere<l 
t rast fleet from all the maritime states and cities dependant 
to the empire, without making any use of it to distress an 
taemy who had no fleet at all : he suffered Sicily and Sardinia 
Id fall into Ctesar's bauds without a blow; and the important 
town of Marseilles, after having endured a long siege for its 
ifiection to his cause : but his capital error was the giving up 
^pun, and neglecting to put himself at the head of the l>est 
nay tliat he had, in a country devoted to his interests, and 
onunodious for the operations of his naval force : when Cicero 
irat heard of this resolution, he thought it monstrous' and, in 
ruth, the committing that war to liis lieutenants against the 
uperior genius and ascendant of Caesar, was the ruin of his 
lest troops and hopes at once. 

Some hare been apt to wonder, why CjBsar, after forcing 
?ompey out of Italy, instead of crossing the sea after him, 
rheii he was in no condition to resist, should leave him for the 
pace of a year to gather armies an<l fleets at his leisure, and 
trengtben himself with all tlie forces of the east. But Ciesar 
>ad good reasons for what he did : lie knew, that all the troops, 
?hicb could be drawn together from those countries, were no 
utch for his ; that if he had pursued him directly to Greece, 
nd driven him out of it, as he liad done out of Italy, he 
bould have driven him probably into Spain, where, of all 
ilaces, he desired the least to meet him; and where, in alt 

1 Quorum dax ««xm 




rtii, cui nc Pi«n» quidtm 

m ttta Itiliini relinc 


mole, ei 

Ud. 9, 10. 


Cn- Pom 

ptium Tidi«li ? qui tonUi 

• Onudi faK claHit 

n Yi 



.ut IcgiHi 



>, Colcli. 

.. Ty«,, 

SHione, ( 

'•CaWs:'* ■■'■'■■ 

Xoiuduil Mfjftna — copUre 



l.Urti.7M. Cir.Sa. Com,— CClniidiui 

L. CanuLnliiluifia I 

evpiitM, Fom]>py had a sure resource, as loog as it mi a 
BP«sod by a nrm and veteran army: wbicL it was CiKu'tll 
•iiiess, tnerefore, to destroy, in the first place, or 
expect no success from the war; and there was no opportioiii 
of destroy in i; it so tavounible, as when Pompey him^'lf <wi 
Siich a dbtanee from it. This was t!ie reason of !ii- n; 
back with so much expedition, to find, as lie sn'ul. 
without a general, and return to a general witJiout ;hi 
The event shewed, that he judged right ; for within t'ni !:;;■ 
from tlie first Night of his enemy in Spain, he made iiiwIH 
master of the whole province '. 

A.L'rb.7(lfi. CiT.G9. Com.— C. JuliMCMwII. P.S«rnliu> Val» iMonu 

After the reduction of Spain, he was created dictator t^ 
M. Lepidits, then pnelor at Rome, and by his dietatortal p*"" 
declared himself consul, with P. Serrilius Isauricus : bui t' 
was no sooner invested with this office, than he marched » 
Bnindisium, and embarked on the fourtli of January, 
to find out Pompoy. The tarrying about in his person &t 
supreme dignity of the empire added no small authority tolii) 
cause, by making tlie cities and states abroad the more caiitiira 
of acting against him, or giving them a better pretence, »i 

least, for opening their gates to the consul of Itome '■ 

Cicero, all this while despairing of any good from the *». 
had been using all his endeavours to dispose his friends to 

OP ciCERU. 437 

l,.70i. Clc.M. CoB^C.JuliuiCmull, P, ScTrlliui V.ti.Twuric*. 

sltips, and remove the war into some distant piucc. Upon 

I Dolabella, who was with Csesar, sent a letter to Ciiiero, 

t Pompey's camp, exhorting him, that if Pompey should be 

Ten from these quarters, to seek some other countryj be 

lid sit down quietly at Athens, or any city remote from the 

r : tbat it was time to think of bis own safety, and be a friend 

'faimself, rather than to others : that he had now fully satia- 

bis duty, his friendship, and his engagements to tliat parly* 

faicfa be bad espoused in the Republic : that there was nothing 

fit, but to be where the Kepublic itself now was, rather than 

following that ancient one to be in none at all — and that 

sar would readily approve this conduct ' : but the war took 

•quite difTerent turn ; and, instead of Porapey's running nway 

'^ mi Dyirachium, Caesar, by an unexpected defeat before it) 

IS forced to retire the first, and leave to Pompey the credit of 

mning him, as in a kind of flight, towards Macedonia. 

While the two armies were thus employed, Coelius, now 

ntor at Rome, trusting to Ills power, and the success of his 

irty, began to publish several violent and odious laws, e»pe- 

blly one for the cancelling of all debts'. This raised a great 

tune in the city, till he was over-ruled and deposed frota his 

(Bgistracy by the consul Servilius and the senate: but, beinf 

tfide desperate by this affront, be recalled Milo, from bis exile 

at Marseilles, whom Cfesur bad refused to restore: and) in 

concert with him, resolved to raise some public commotion in 

favour of Pompey. In this disposition he wrote bis last letter 

to Cicero; iu whicb, after an account of his conversation, and 

the service which he was projecting, "you are asleep," says 

he, "and do not know how open and^weak we are here : what 

are you doing? are you waiting for a battle, which is sure to 

be against you? I am not acquainted with your troops; but 

our's have been long usc<l to fight hard, and to bear cold and 

hunger with ease'." But this disturbance, which began to 

alarm all Italy, was soon ended, by the death of the auttiora of 

it, Milo and Ccelius, who perished in their rash attempt, being 

destroyed by the soldiers, whom they were endeavouring to 

debauch. They bad both attached themselves very early to 

the interests and the authority of Cicero, and were qualified by 

I Illnd uileia t w p«to, ul, ti iaio ille ctitnTerit hoc pcriciiliiin. et M ■bdidcrit in <:1a>- 
MB, ta tuii lebiia coDiulu : et a[i<|iianila libi potiut quam ciiivii •» amicug. SBtiifiKluin 
«M JMB 1 (e Tel oSicia, vel runtliaritali ; utisfiictuni ctinm prtibm. et ci Rcipub. quam 
tttfroliBbu. Reliquum «t> iibj nunc est Rctpub. ibi Hiinua potius^ quani dum vcierem 
{thai Mqumur. limui in nulla. Ep. Fam. 3. 9. 
• "-». Comm. 3, 600. 

1 dormidi^ Dec hmc adhuc mibi viclcniiriL iDtclligpTO^ qn»m not patcamnt, ct quam 
-~Ilt_! — quid istic fuilii? |inEliuiii cipcctittia.quDdfiniiiuiiiiiimeK? TegCrai 
tL Ncttri nldc dqiugiuuc, el iacile klgvic el ouriro contueTeiinl. Ep. 

A, rTb.:iU ric.59. t-H.--C.JuUa*CHulI. P-ScrriliiDTuiilii 

their tmrts and fortunes, to bave made a priacipal figure in i 
Hcpuolic, if they had continued in those setitimenB, and I 
Hered to his advice ; but their passions, pleasures, and ai ' 

fat the ascendant; and, through a factious and turbnlentfl 
urried them on to this nrctcned fiite. 
AU thoughts of peace being now laid aside, Cicero't n 
advice to Fompey was to draw the war into length, nor ew 
^ve Cesur tiie opportunity of a battle. Pompey appm 
this counsel, and pursued it for some time, till he g^nieiid 
advantage above mentioued before Dyrrachium ; which f^ 
him sucL a confidence in his own troops, and such a oonta 
of Caesar's, that "from this moment," says Cicero, "1 
great man ceased to be a jj^eneral ; opposed a raw, oew-iai 
army to the most robust and veteran legions ; was shameAf 
beiiten ; and, with tike loss of his camp, forced to 6j M) 
alone '." 

Had Cicero's advice been followed, C»sar must inevltdj 
have been ruined ; for Pompey's fleet would have cut off I 
supplies from him by sea ; ana it was not possible for hiff 
8ul»ist long at land, while an enemy, superior in numbai 

troops, was perpetually harassing him, and wasting the count 
and the report every where spread, of his flying from D 
chium, before a victorious army, whicli was pursuing him, 
his march every way the more difficult, and tlie people of da 
country more shy of assisting him; till the despicable i«n> 
that he seemed to make, rsisea such an impatience for fi^ll^j 
and assurance of victory, in the Pompeian chiefs, as drew tbdl 


CotL-CJuliuiCmarll. I>. Seniliui Vmth InmlciB. 

I himself approved, tlian in all the other wan in whtcL he 

1 been engaged. In his wars against fweign enemies, bis 

iver was abstilute, and all liis motions depenaed on bis own 

II ; but in this, besides several kings and princes of the east^ 

lO attended him in person, he had with him, in bis camp, 

Dost all the chief m^^strates and senaton of Rome; men of 

nal dignity with himself, who had commanded anniea, and 

itained triumphs, and expected a share in all his counsela, 

ltd that in their common danger, no step should be taken, but 

their commou advice : and, as they were under n» engage- 

nt to his caase, but what was vohiiitary, bo they were 

%ssarily to be humoured, lest through disgust, they sboold 

lert it. Now these were all uneasy in their present sitna- 

■no, and longed to be at home, in the enjoyment of tbeir 

■Kates and Jionours; and, having a confidence of victwy, 

■om the number of their troops, and die reputation of their 

■BWler, were perpetually teasing Pompey to the resolution of 

fc battle; charging him with a design to protract the war for 

Pbe sake of perpetuating his authority, and calling him another 

Agamemnon, who was proud of holdhig so many kings and 

eenerals under his command ' ; till, being unable to witnatand 

Uieir reproaches any longer, he was driven, by a kind of shame, 

and against his judgment, to the experiment of a decisive 


Caesar was sensible of Pompey's difficulty, and persuaded 
that he could not support the indignity of shewing himself 
aA^id of lighting ; and from that assurance, exposed himself 
often more rashly than prudence would otherwise justify : for 
his besieging I'ompey at Dyrrachium, who was master of the 
sea, which supplied every thing to him that was wanted, while 
bis own army ktk starviuK at land ; and the attempt to block 
Op entrenchments so widely extended, with much smaller 
Dumbers than were employed to defend them, must needs be 
tbougbt rash and extravagant, were it not for the expectation 
of drawing Fompey by it to a general engagement: for when 
be conld not gain tnat end, his perseverance in the siege had 
like to have ruined him, and would inevitably have done so, 
if be had not quitted it, as he himself afterwards owned'. 






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Ivpfiaylia (TTpaii 






A. t'tb. 7IU. Ck. 5a. CoM^-t'. Juliu* Cwr II. P. Snriliu Tuala 
It muMt bi- ubaerved, likewise, Uiat, while Pompey idm 
walls ur ciitri'iiclimeiits between liim and Csesar, not all Cm 
viffi>ur, nor tlic course of his veterans, could gun dttlrt 
u(lvaiibi;re ii^ruiiist liim; but, on the contraT7, that Caw* 
baffled ami ilisappotntefl in every attempt. Thai, at ft» 
distum, lie could make no impression upon the tova, A 
I'ompey at full leisure, had secured his retreat, and a 
liis tTUO|M : and at Dyirachium, the only considei^le 
wliieh happened between tliem, was not only disadvaiUM^ 
but almost fatal to him. Thus far, Pompey certainly shevnlift 
self tlie greater captain, in not suffering- a force, which be 
not resist in the field, to do him any hurt, or carry any pal 
ajl^inst him, since that depended on tlie skill of tne seDoA 
By the help of entrenchments, he knew how to make nil Hi 
raised soldiers a match fur Ceeaar's veterans : but when he 
drawn to encounter him on the open plain, he fought wot 
insuperable o<lds, by deserting; " his proper arms, as Cim 
says, " of caution, counsel, and authority, in which he m 
superior, and committing his fate to swords and speai^ wi 
bodily strength, in which his enemies far excelled him '." 

Cicero was not preN(.<nt nt the battle of Pharsalia, but nskft 
behind at Dyrrachium, muth out of humour, as well as out if 
order. His discontent to sec all things going wrong on ikri 
side, and contrary to his advice, had brought upon him aniH 
habit of bodv, and weak state of health, which made him de- 
cline all imblic command ; but he promised Pompey to ibllo«, 
and continue witli him, us soon as his health permitted * ; and m 
a pledge of his sincerity, sent his son, in the meanwhile, oloi^ 


A. tiib. 'Oy Cic. 59. Com.— C. Jullui Cieur II. P. Sairilm, Vitli Inuiicu*. 

(is sword, and would have killed lum upon the spot, if Cato 
md not prei'ented it. This fact is not meotioned by Cicero, 
»efc seems to be referred to in Iiis speech for Marcelius, where 
le says, tliat in tite very war he had been a perpetual assertor 
if peace, to the hazard even of his life '. But the wretched 
levrs from Pharsalia threw them all into such a consternatioN, 
liait they presently took sliippiug, and dispersed themselves 
levefally, as their hopes or inctiuations led them, into the dif- 
iereBt provinces of the empire '. The greatest part, who were 
letermined to renew the war, went directly into Afric, the 
general rendezvoua of their scattered forces : whilst others, who 
irere disposed to e.Tpect tlie farther issue of things, and take 
BQcb measures as tortune offered, retired to Acliaia : but 
Cioero was resolved to make this the end of the war to himself, 
■nd recommended the same conduct to his friends, declaring, 
that as they had been no matcli for Csesar when entire, they 
could not hope to beat him, when shattered and broken*: 
■nil so, after a miserable campaign, of about eighteen months, 
he committed himself, without hesitation, to the mercy of the 
conqueror, and landed again at Bruudisium about the end of 

-A.Ulb.;<»- Cic«l C™.— C.Jul.Cn^t Diclat. II. M. ABtoniuiMog. Eqiiit. 

Cicero do sooner returned to Italy, tlian he began to 
reflect, that he had been too hasty in comine home, before 
the war was determined, and without any invitation from the 
conqueror ; and in a time of the general licence, had reason to 
apprehend some insult from the soldiers, if he ventured to 
appear in public with his fasces and laurel ; and yet to drop 
them, wonld be a diminution of that honour, which he had re- 
ceived from the Roman people, and the acknowledgment of a . 
power superior to the laws : he condemned himself therefore, 
for not continuing abroad, in some convenient place of retire- 
ment, till be had been sent for, or things were better settled '. 

■ MulU de iHice diii, ct iu ipM bcllu. oulcm eliun cum cipilii mci )wriculo Kmi, 
Pro Marcell. 5. 

■ pMicii uDe pogt djebui ci Pharuliu fugi veninc LabieDum : qui cum iateritum 
czercilui UDDciaTiuel — nive, eubita pcrmrili CDtiKcndiBtii. Do Djtid. I. 33. 

* HaDc fga belli milii fincm feci : ncc pntnTi, cum intcgri pott non rutucmui, fnictoi 
nipeiiom fore. Ep. Fun. 7. 3. 

• ^o »ero el incautc, ui Kiibii, celcrins quim oportuit, feci, &c. Ad Alt. 11.9. 
Oun TolunUlii me me* nunqiam pornilebil, comilii panilcl. In oppido Bliqua 

lg(b: iptum hoc non me nngcreC. Brundiili jaccre in omnea pul«s ett molntum. 
Pnnioi ■eesdere, ot luadea, quomodo sins licloribut, quo) popului dcdit, ponuiii? qui 
mm bicolumi A^mi bod poHuat. Ibid. 6. 

A. l'rb.7(ll>. Vit.tO. Com.— C. Jul. Cnu Dictat. IL lLABtei■l^.l^ 

What fcnve him the g^rcater reason to repeot of this «cpt« 
H messa^ which lie received from Antony, wboeorentd^ 
in ('a>sar'ti absence, and with the same chnrlian tfA ^ 
which he would liave held him before in Italy agiinttldi4 
M>eme<l nuw diKjioscd ta drive him out of it : for he kbI !■ 
the co|>y of u letter from Csaaar, in which Ctenr sigpificd, iM 
he had heard tliat Cato and Metellua were frtnflB^ ^ 
appeared openly there, which mi^ht ocfssion aome dkh^ 
ance : wherefore he strictly enjoined, that none ibooU h 
Buffered to come to Italy without a special licence im 
self. Antony, therefore, desired Cicero to excuse him, i 
he could not help obeying Cnsar's commands; but Ciccnat 
L. Lamia to osHiirc him that Csraar had ordered DiJabdhi ' 
write to him to come to Italy as soon as he pleased; inAdrt 
he came upon the Hitthority of Dolabella^ letter: so tiM 
Antony, in the edict, wliieh he published to exclude the IW 
peians from Itiilv, excepted Cicero byname; which added lA 
to Im mortification, since all his desire was to be connired* 
only, or tiicitly permitted, without betn^ personally din- 
)riii<thod from tlie rest of his party '. 

Diit he had scvend other ?ricvnnce8 of a domestic ka^ 
whieli concurred also to mate him unhappy .- his bnX^ 
Quiiilus with his son, after their escape from Pharsalia, fat- 
lowed Cicsar into Asia, to obt.-un their pardon ft-om him ii 
|H>rsoii. (juiiitiis liad particular reason to be afraid of Hi 
resentment, on account of the relation which he had bonie M 
him, as one of his lieutenants in Gaul, where lie liad ben 
treated by him with great generosity: so that Cir 


: ; A. llTb. T0«. He, GO. Com.— C.Jul. Cffisi DWIM. II. H. Anbmlu* Miff. Equh. 

■pother and nephew should hurt themselves lather than him, 
\Jm their perfidy ' : for, under all the sensts of this provocation, 
Jb behaviour was just the reverse of their's; and narin? been 
Jbfenned tbut Ciesar, in a certain conversation, had t^ar^^ 
0S brother with beiug the author of tiieir goin^ away to 
*~ mpey, he took occasion to write to him in the following 

'•* As for my brother, I am not less solidtons for bb lafety, 
di my own ; but, in my present situation, dare not veatare 
t rreommeiid bim to you : all that i can (wetend to, is, to beg ' 
Bt you will not believe him to have em done any Hang 
wards obstructing ray ^ood offices, and affectimi to yon: 
it ratiier, that he was silways tlie adviser of our nni<», and 
s companion, not the leaner, of my voyage : wherefore, in 
other respects, 1 leave it to you to treat aim, as your own 
lanity, and his friendship with you, require ; but I intreat 
_ _., in the most pressing manner, that I snay not be the canse 
f hurting him with you, on any account whatsoerer '." 
He found himself, likewise, at this time, in some distress for 
int of money, which, in that season of public distraction, it 
i very difficult to procure, either by borrowing or selling; 
sum which he advanced to Pompey had drained him ; and 
his wife, by her indulgence to stewards, and favourite servants, 
bd made great waste of what was left at home ; and, instead 
l«f saving any thing from their rents, iiad plunged him deeply 
D debt; so that Atticus's purse was the chief fund which he 
Itad to trust to for his present support ^ 

The conduct of Dolabella was a further morBfication to hira; 
who, by the fiction of an adoption into a plebeian fomily, had 
obtained the tribunate this year, and was TaisinD; great tumults 
■od disorders in Rome, by a law, which he puMished, to ex- 
punge all debts. Laws 01 that kind had often been attempted 
by den>erate or ambitious magistrates ; but were always de- 
tested by the better sort, and particularly by Cicero, who treats 
tb«m as pernicious to the peace and prosperity of states, and 
sapping the very foundations of civil society, by destroying all 

' Quiulus piisit lilium Don •alum >ui deprccatorein, led ctiaDi DccuBatorom mei — 
neqne tctd dt«i>lit, nbicunriue eat, omnia in memaledict 
tun incndilnle ucidit, Dihil in hi> ouUs tim iccTbum. 


MKt h*biliiru«— multapoilraPilritconumiliscclcrcPatrom esse locutum. Ibid. 10. 

* Com mifai litters s Dalbo minoie missn eB.<ent, Cswrem fiittimire, Quintum fia- 
trem litanm ma ptorcriioiiia fuitH, sic tnim aeripsit. Ibid. 12. 

* TeUm coDudcirei iit sit, undc nobii iiippcditenlur lumtui ncccuarit. Si quu habni- 
nu fieolutn, cai Fompeio, turn, com id videbaannr lapientDr &cere, detulimua. 

bilk and creii'n omonfr men '. No wooder, tJiereiiire, litf^ 
find tiiin taking thU afinir m> much to hcut, xod coi 
W lieavily in many of his IcUen to Atticus, of the E 
of his Mn-iii-law, aa an additional source of afflicnona 
mce to him *. Dolabella nits gntatly erobamsed it^ 
fertuaea, and, while be was with Caesar abroad, KeM 
kA his wife destitute of neeessaries at home, and fi 
ncur to her fiiilier for subdiistence. Cicero, likerat^ 4 
ikrough the ditfieultv uf the tim^ or for wsot of a ■ ~ 
■ettlement on DuIaOelln's part, had not yet paid all h 
ttinc ; which it was usual to do at three different f 
within a time limited by law -. he had dischai^ed the tn I 
and WHS DOW preparing to make tlie third [Klyment, wUl'^ 
frequently anil pre^iuj^ly recommends to the care of Atb 
But Dolubella's whole life and character were so eodi^l 
contrary to tlie manners and tem|>er both of Cicero and Tobl 
that a divorce ensued between them not long^ after, thoustiiil 
•ceount of it is delivered so darkly, that it is hard to Nn* f 
what time or from what side it first arose. 

In these circumstances, Tullia paid her father a vlsUK | 
Brnndisiom, on the thirteenth of June : but his ^reat lore fi 
her made their meeting only the more afflicting to him a tl' 
kbject state of their fortunes : " I was so far," says he, "fi 
taking that pleasure which I ought to have tlone from drtl 
virtue, humanity, and piety of an excellent daughter, ihtll | 
was exceedingly grieved to see so desen-ing a creature in SB ' 
an iinhnppy coiidition, not by her own, but wholly by mf 
fault: I s!tw no rcoMon, therefore, for keeping her lot 

^^^^F OF CICERO. 445 

if.l?A.TOfi. ricGO, CoM_C.Jiil.CMarDirtat. II. M. AntoniusMig. &iLii. 

b^ .St thia would he his fate: I cannot, however, help griev- 
h- Bat it; for I knew liim to be an honest, grave, and worthy 
r- »h'." 

r_ "iThia was the short and true character of the man, from one 
&0 perfectly knew him; not heightened, as we sometimes 
ttd it, by the shining colours of his eloquence ; nor depressed 
^- y ^le darker strokes of his resentment. Pompey had early 
^Oqaired the surname of the Great, by that sort of merit, 
. -fflticb, from the constitution of the Republic, necessarily made 
Q,^ni great ; a fame and success in war, superior to what Rome 
i^iBd ever known in the most celebrated of her generals. He 
.l>rl triumphed at three several times over the three different 
I of tlie known world, Europe, Asia, Africa ; and, by his 
iries, had almost doubled the extent, as well as the reve- 
, of the Roman dominion; for, as he declared to the peo- 
jble on Ids return from the Mithridatie war, he had found the 
lesser Asia the boundary, but left it the middle of their empire. 
He was about six years older tljan Ciesar; and while Ciesar, 
tnmersed in pleasures, oppressed with debts, and suspected by 
jll honest men, was hardly able to shew his head, Pompey was 
'^^Tflourishing in the height of power and glory; and, by the con- 
/'■ent of all parties, placed at the head of the Republic. Thia 
' ' — « the post that his ambition seemed to aim at, to be the first 
n in Rome ; the leader, not the tyrant, of his country ; for 
i lie more than onee had it in his power to have made himself 
the master of it, without any risk, if his virtue, or his phlegm 
I at least, had not restrained him: but he lived in a perpetual 
expectation of receiving, from the gift of the people, what be 
did not care to seize by force ; and, by fomenting the disorders 
of the city, hoped to drive them to the necessity of creating 
bim dictator. It is an observation of all the historians, that 
while Cffisar made no difference of power, whether it was con- 
ferred or usurped ; whether over those who loved, or those who 
feared him ; Pompey seemed to value none but what was of- 
fered ; nor to have any desire to govern, but with the good 
will of the governed. What leisure he found from his wars, 
he employed in the study of polite letters, and especially of 
eloquence, in which he would have acquired great fame, if his 
genius had not drawn him to the more dazzling glory of arms : 
yet he pleaded several causes with applause, in the defence of 
bis friends and clients; and some of them in conjunction with 
Cicero. His language was copious and elevated; hb senti- 

un Regum *1 populomm inimin occiip*™!, ut quocunnue TeniBcl, hi 
ID). Non poHiim ejiuouum nou dokic: boniioem enfm int(!gTDin c 
m ecgnovi. Ad Alt. 11.6. 

OF ctCBito. 447 

A.UHt.Tfx:. CicM. Cwa C.Jul. Cnu Dictu. li. M. AntooiiuM^. E^oit. 

IJMfi : the lather of tbc reigning priiice bad been h^ljr 
^Uged to him for liis protection at Home, and reetontioii 
1^ ha kingdom ; and the son had scut a coonderable fleet to 
Eb •aetstaiice, tn the present war : l>ut, in HoB ruin of his tor- 
■nes, what gratitude was there to be eipected from a oonrt 
Itemed by eunuchs and mercenary GriWks? all whose poli- 
iw tamed, not on the honour of the kingt but the ettablish* 
■But of Uicir own power; which was likeFy to be eclipsed by 
^ admission of Pompey. Hon- happy liad it been for him to 
tove died in that sickness, when all Italy waa putting up vows 
pd prayers for his safety ; or if he had falleo by the chance <tf 
tar, on the plains of Pharsalia, in the defence of bis country's 
pberty, lie had died still glorious, thoui;h unfortunate: bat, as 
■ lie had been reserved for an example of tlie instability <d 
Iknman greatness, he> who a few days before commanded kiv* 
ttid consuls, and all the noblest of llome, was sentenced to me 
Ity a council of slaves; murdered by a ba«e deserter; cast OMt 
ittked and hea<Uess on the Egyptian strand; and, "when the 
ivhole earth," as V'elleius says, *' had sciu-ce been sufficient for 
bis victories, could not find a spot upon it at last for a grave." 
Bis body was burnt on the shore by one of his freedmeo, witb 
Ute planlcs of an old fishing boat : and his ashes being conveyed 
to nome, were deposited, privately, hy his wife Cornelia, in a 
Mult of his Albao villa. The Egyptians, however, raised a 
Bonument to him on the place, and adorned it with figures of 
Imtss, which being defaced afterwards by time, and buried 
almost in sand and rubbish, was sought out and restored by the 
Emperor Hadrian '. 

* Hujiu dri Gutigium tanlii uictibui fortunii exiuUC, ul primum n Africa, itenim 
B EoT^H, tertio ei A«a triumplmrel ; rl quo! partes tcrr»nim Orbii lunt, lolidem 
bcOTCt moniimeDU viclorin [Veil. Pit. 2. 40,] Ut ip» in concione diiil. Arimm 
nltiinMn proTincimiiii Kcepluc, mediam palriie mlilidiHe. [Plin. Hut.7. 26. Flor. 
I. 5.] Fotcntia qua houorii causa ad eum dcf«m(iir, Don ut ah «a occupantur, 
Dnp^OBai. [YelL Pat, 2. 29. Dio, p. 176.) Meui auUm n^tulia Cn. Pompdui, 

lin enpiditai ad bellicaa larnlct atntnxiMet. Erat DraiioDt aalia amplui : nm pru- 
lanter ndebai: actio vcm cjui habfbat ct in to« inunum aplendcmni, cl in motu 
MDnnam dignitatem. [Brut. 354, lid. it. pro Balb. I. 3.] Forma cii-ellcni, dod a, 
IDS lot commmdalur KUtii, wd ex dignitatc constanli. (Veil. Pal. 2. 29.) lllod 
■■ prabom, ipaumque bunorem ciimiit frontii. (Plin. Hiat. 7. 12.) Solel cnim 
lliDd Bcntiro et lnqui. nequc tanti^m va)?re inEffDio, ut non appareat quid cnpiAt 
[E^ Fam. 3. I.] lUe Jnit, aiixit, armavit— ills GaUin ultcnoiii adjuncUir— ills 
pnTinciB pnpagUfir ; ille abuntii in omnibue adjutor. [Ad Att. R. 3.] Alncrat 
f^—ii III, eundcm rcpcnte limcte FTpcrat. [Ibid. S.] Ego nihil purtcrmi^, quantum 
been, nitique polui, quin I'ompeium a Casarii eonjuniiionc avocircm — idem tgo. 
Cam jam omnea opci et iitas et populi Uomani Pompciua ad Cnarem detulisact, 
■naue « tcntin cifpiuet, qus ego inlo mnlto piovidEram — pacit, concordiE, cani- 

Mm, «[ at rompoo et ilc Rcpub. contilia fucriiut : qua li valuisKnl, Koapub. tlarel. 
[nU, 2. 10.) Muld totca, mo et initio no conjiinfreret to eum Canare, monuiaa Pom- 

pdtm, et peatCK, ne lejuageiM. &c. (Ep. Fam. S. G.) Qi 
-e pHM dilinui do : — " --— — ■ ■"- ™- 

PharaalK* fnga Pafdium pro- 


A-Cifc.70C- (V.W, C«— 

On the news of Pompey's deatJi, Cesar wm 
tator Uie sniwnd tiine in his absence, and M. 

fnaotter irf the tiwrw, vrho, by virtue of tliat post, eoi 
tbin^ abwluu-ly in Italy. Cicero continueo all ttie 
Bnin(iiiuuin, in a sitnation wholly disagTeeable* an ' 
him, he saj-s. than any punistunent: for tbe air of 
b^ean to affoct his health, and, to tbe uneaanc^s of 
aditdl an ill 6tat« of body ' ; yet, to move nearer UmM. 
Home, without Irave from Itis new masters, was not tbsdi 
advifdible ; nor did Antony encourage it ; bein^ pleased iiH( 
we may believe, to see him well mortified : so that ht }aii 
boprs of any ease or comfort, but in tbe expectatioD of CMk 
return, which made his stay in that place the more ne tui ^ 
for the opportunity of paying his early compliments to tiiatf 

But what g;ave him the ^eatest uneasiness wa», tobel 
still in suspense, in what touched him tbe most nearly, the 
of bis own safety, and of Ciesar's disposition towards htm: if, 
though all Csesai's friends assured him not only of pardon, kH 
<rf aQ kind of favour, yet he had received no indmaiioaif 
kindness from CVsar himself, who v-txa so embarn^ed ■ 
Egypt, tliat he had no leisure to think of Italy, and£dMl 
BO much as write a letter thither from December to June; li» 

as he had rashly, and out of gaietj-, as it were, involved 

there in a most desperate war, to tlie hazard of afl his fonaa4 
he was ashamed, as Cicero says ', to write any thing about it 
till he had extricated himself out of that difficull 


Ui%.706. Cic.60. Com.— G.Jiil.CMtrDictatII. M. Antonius Mag. Equit. 

lo his obedience : for Curio after he had driven Cato 

6i SicQy» being ambitious to drive Varus also out of 

■ad having transported thither the best part of four 

whidi Cffisar had committed to him, was» after some 

^_J9De8B upon his landing, entirely defeated and destroyed. 

Us whole army, in an engagement with Sabura, King 

ras a young nobleman of shining parts, admirably 
nature to Mom that character, in which his father 
ler had flourished before him, of one of the prin-* 
enton of Rome. Upon his entrance into the Forum, 
committed to the care of Cicero; but a natural pro- 
to pleasure, stimulated by the example and counsels of 
peipetual companion Antony, hurried him into aU the 
mvagance of expense and debauchery : for Antony, who 
hpsgn wanted money, with which Curio abounded, was ever 
Mpqnions to his will, and ministering to his lusts, for die 
MNOrtanify of jgratifying his own ; so Uiat no boy, purchased 
1^ the use of lewdness, was more in a master's power, than 
tttony in Curio's. He was equally prodigal of his money, 
pd Ills modesty; and not only of nis own, but of other 
iPDle's: so that Cicero, alludine to the infamous effeminacy 
rfiis life, calls him, in one of his letters, Miss Curio. But 
rhen the father, by Cicero's advice, had obliged him, by his 
atemal authority, to quit the familiarity of Antony, he re- 
nrmed his conduct, and, adhering to the instructions and 
"^'g^tpa of Cicero, became the favourite of the city, the leader 
if the young nobility, and a warm assertor of the authority 
if the senate, against the power of the triumvirate. After 
lis fieither's death, upon his first taste of public honours, and 
idmission into the senate, his ambition ancl thirst of popularity 
mgaged him in so immense a prodigality, that to supply the 
nag^ificence of his shows and plays, with which he entertained 
lie city, he was soon driven to the necessity of selling himself 
» CsBsar, having no revenue left, as Pliny says, but from the 
Hscord of his citizens. For this, he is considered commonly, 
ly the old writers, as the chief instrument, and the trumpet, as 
t were, of the civil war, in which he justly fell the first vic- 
;im ; yet, after all his luxury and debauch, fought and died 
vith a courage truly Roman, which would have merited .1 
setter fate, if it had been employed in a better cause ; 
or, upon the loss of the battle, and his best troops, being 
idmonished by his friends to save himself by flight, he an- 
iwered, " That, after losing an army, which had been com- 
nitted to him by Csesar, he could never shew his face to him 




.y-i^rf.tiAt.M»l^li>a'i •r<bh4 

M^j ■ IT>li .11 hill liiiiiiai 



'A.Urti.Tex. Ch.N. Coa^-C.jDLaMwDictit.11. H. AntaDitiillig. Bfuil. 

Under (lii« anxiety of mind, it was an additional exaction to 
D to hear that lui reputation was attacked at Rome, for nib* 
Itliiie: so hiHtily to tbe conqueror, or putdn^ himself rather 
!b]] idU bi< power. Some oondemnea him for not following 
Mnpcy : soOfl more severely for not going to Afric, as tbe 
■eatVHt part had done; others, for not retiring with many <^ 
party to lldiaia; tiU they couhl see the farther prtwrefls of 
■ war. Ai he was always extremely sensible of what was 
lid or hini li)r honest men, so he begs of Atdcus to be his ad- 
jcate ; nud girea him some hints, which might be ui^ed in 
defeDc«. Ai to tbe first charge, for not following Pompey, 
Miyit, that Pcnnpey's &te would extenuate the omission of 
it «tct>; of the second, that though he knew many biave 
n to [if ill Afrie, yet it was hia opinion, that tbe Republic 
either cfiiikl, nor ought to be defended by the help of so bar- 
krniiR nti<l treacherous a nation : as to the third, he wishes 
ideod tliiit he had joined himself to those in Achaia, and 
rts them to be in a better condition than himself, bc«aii8e 
re ncrc many of them tt^ether; and whenever they re- 
ticfl to Italy, would be restored to their own at once; 
preas he was confined like a prisoner of war to Bmn- 
lura, withmit tbe liberty of stirring &om it till C^Bsar ar- 
While be continued in this uneasy state, some of his friends, 
■t Rome, contrived to Hend him a letter in Cs3Br'§ name, 
dated the ninth of February, from Alcxaiidrin, encouraging 
fcin to lay aside all gloomy apprehensiiuns, and expect every 
thing that was kind and friendly from him : but it was drawn 
in terms so light and general, that instead of giving him any 
latisfoction, it made him only suspect, what he perceived after- 
wards to be true, that it was forfred by Ualbus or Uppiue, on 
pnrpoite to raise his spirits, and administer some little comfort 
to him '. All his accounts however, confirmed to him the re- 
port of Cfesar's clemency and mwleration, and his granting 
pardon, without exception, to all who asked it ; and witit regard 
to himself, Cesar sent Qiiintus's virulent letters to Balbus, 

tud. 1. 13. 

' Dic«li*r debdijM cum Pompeio profiriici. Eiilui illii 

rideinlur, qua •eoiper ni 

me cum Fompeio pronciicl. tntui illiiH minuit tjui oScii |>T»- 

onsm. 8ed » omnibui nihil muii dnidBnlur, quam quod in 

Judido hoc iiim uiui, nan esu bKrWifl ivxiliia fulKiiuiiu) RUtla 

hac nidhM habcnl, quuu ao*,qnad etmulti lunl una in Wd, ei cum in luliuu vonerint, 

Ud. 11. 7. 

■ lit Bieiita apiitaU nihil ronntetur: nun ft eiiguc KripUeit ct magnu luipicioDH 
kte, Don eM ab lUo. Ibid. IG. 
Bi qao ipWUigit, illud do litteni m. d. v. Id. Feb. ditii (quod inuw oot, atiwn b 

t>g 2 


A.Ui1ik706. Cic.60. CoM«<-JC.Jiil.CMU'Dietat II. M. Antooiiu Mag. Equit. 

||lii hbf be says, worth hemng ; since what was given by a 
* -Tier, might always be taken away again at pleasure \ But, 
4lwir meeting, he had no occasion to say or do any thing 
was below his dignity; for Caesar no sooner saw him, 
he alighted and ran to embrace him ; and walked with 
ahNie^ conversing very familiarly for several furlongs '. 
Wtom tUa interview, Cicero followed Caesar towards llome: 
imposed to be at Tusculum on the seventh or eighth of 
bober; and wrote to his wife to provide for his reception 
^B^irrf, with a large comrany of frienos, who designed to make 
^pome stay with him '• From Tusculum he came aftem^ards to 
IiMm city» with a resolution to spend his time in study and re- 
'|| | W t» till the Republic should be restored to some tolerable 
IjiiMie; having made his peace again, as he writes to Varro, with 
iiJ|ia oU friends, his books, who had been out of humour with 
^pbim fiir not obeying their precepts; but, instead of living 
.jgOUietly with them, as Varro nad done, committing himself to 
;<Jpe Uvbiilent counsels and hazards of war, with fiuthless com- 

i. On GoBsar's return to Rome he appointed P. Vatinius and 
.Q.Fiifios Caleniis, consuls for the three last months of the 

rr: this was a very unpopular use of his new power, which 
continued, however, to practise through the rest of his 
feign; creating these first magistrates of the state, without 
any regard to the ancient forms, or recourse to the people, 
and at any time of the year ; which gave a sensible disgust to 
the city, and an early specimen of the arbitrary manner in 
which he designed to govern them. 

A«Urt>.707. Cic. 61. Coss—C. Julius Cssar III. M. .SmiliuB Lepldus. 

About the end of the year, Caesar embarked for Afric, to 
pursue the war against Scipio, and the other Pompeian gene- 
rals, who, assiste(l by king Juba, held the ])(>ssession of that 
province witli a vast army. As he was sacrificing for the siic- 
cess of this voyage, the victim happened to break loose, and 
run away from the altar ; which being looked upon as an un- 

' Scd non atlducor, ()ucDi<iuaui bonum ullam salutcm mi hi tauti fuissc putare, ut coni 
|ieterein a1> illo. Ibid. l(>. 

Sed— ab hoc ipso quo) daotur, ut a Domino, rurauB in ejusdcm sunt potestatc. 

» Plttt. in Cic. 

> Efi. Fam. 14. 20. 

* Scito cnim mo pofttcaquam in nrbcm venerim, rcdiisso cum vctoribus aniicis, id est, 
com Ubrb nostriii m gratiam — ^igTios<nHit mihi, revocanl in cuiiauctudinom pristiniun, 
teniae, quod in ca jicrmanst'iiii, Kipicntiorem, quam mo dicuut fuibw, &.c. Ibia. 9. 1. 

""> "fn..„ fi "~' J ■ 

I- ,: ■:,'•'■.'• I:;. „,., ' """1 » JT-j '''"> kiilui J 

• ■^-:^ ;'^!:- •-■-: ;r"; '-■"■■^.J^l^':'"'^^ 



Vrb.707. Ck.61. Cou^C. Juliui Cftsar 111. M.^iiiiliui Uiudiis. 

Afranius and Petreius, quitted bis arms, and retired 
lies ; so that his present circamstances were not very 
from those of Cicero ; who, in all his letters to him, 
with great freedom, the utter ruin of the state; and 
that they should live together in a strict communica- 
"•tadies, and avoid, at least, the sight, if not the tongues 
; yet so, that, if their new masters should call for tiieir 
settling the Republic, they should run with plea- 
assist, not only as architects, but even as masons, to 
it np again : or, if nobody would employ them, should 
* wad read the best forms of government, and as the learned 
had done before them, serve their country, if not in 
and Forum, yet by their books and studies, and by 
ODg treatises of morals and laws \ 
"this retreat, he wrote his book of Oratorial Partitions, or 
of ordering and distributing the parts of an oration, so 
adapt them in the best manner to their proper end, of 
and persuading an audience. It was written for the 
ion of his son, now about eighteen years old, but seems 
been the rude draught only of what he intended, or 
lo have been finished, at least to his satisfaction ; since we 
AC mention of it in any of his letters, as of all his other 
which were prepared for the public. 
'Another fruit of this leisure was his dialogue on famous 
^ JtorS) called Brutus, in which he gives a short character of 
^^ W who had ever flourished, either in Greece or Rome, with 
"wnj reputation of eloquence down to his own times ; and as he 
^ generally touches the principal points of each man's life, so an 
attentive reader may find in it an epitome, as it were, of the 
Roman history. 1 he conference is supposed to be held with 
^ Bmtus and Atticus, in Cicero's garden at Rome, under the 
.^ statue of Plato % whom he always admired, and usually imi- 
tated in the manner of his dialogues; and in this seems to 
have copied from him the very form of his double title ; 
Brutus, or of F'amous Orators ; taken from the speaker and 
■ the subject, as in Plato's piece, called Phjedon, or of the Soul. 
This work wjis intended as a supplement, or a fourth book to 
the three which he had before published on the complete 
orator. But though it was prepared and finished at this 

' Nou decsse »i quia adliibcrc volot, Don modo ut Arcliiteclos, vcnim ctiam ut fabroSf 
md sdific«odauL Kcmpub. ct {MJtius lilwntcr acciirrcre; si lu-uio uUtnr opera, taincn ct 
•eribcre ct U'gcre -jroXixtia? ; ct si minus in curia at^uc in foro, at in litteris et libris, ut 
doctinimi veteres ftci'runt, navarc Htiupub. et dc nioribus ct Icj^ibus quKrere. Mihi 
luBc videntur. En. Viuu. i). '2, 

• Cum idem placuifcuct HHb, turn in pnitulo, propter Platonis Statuam conscdimui. 
Brut. 28. 


limo, wliik' Cuto was living, as it i« intimated in n 
|iurt.i of it, yet, a:> it appears from tlie preface, it wnM 
iiiudf |iu)ilic till the year following', after the deatb d li 
tliiuKlitvr TulHu. 

As at tilt; (>|>ciiiui{ of the war, we found Cicero io debt k 
C'i«sur, so now wi' ineut with several bints, in his letlai,<( 
C'it-sir's iK-iiJt; iiiilt'liteil to him. It arose, probably, frai 
inortirit^c iluit Cicero liad upon the cxinliscaitNl estate of mm 
lVtm))i'iaii. wliiL-li CVsir hail seized; but of what kind nm 
it Hus C'lL-iTi) Will ill puiii for bis money; he saw but tee 
ways, lie >ays, i>f i;i;riii)^ it; by purcliasinff the aBle' 
(\i->ar'> iiui-tioii. iir takiiiET mi a.'^si^mciit on the piircli>ie,a 
iiiin|ii>niuliu^ tor li:iif with the brokers or money-jobboi rf 
iliu^i' tiim*. ulio woiilil ailvanco tlic money on uiose tsM 
Till.' tir>i ho (U'L-liinii to Ix.' Iiuse, and that he would rather ]m 
his ik-bt. iliaii tiiiiL-h any thing confiscated : the seamd k 
thoHirht liuzitnlous, and that iiolKxly would pay anythtnEB 
Mich uiii-ertaiii timc^ : the third he liked the best, but d«no 
Attiviis's advice upon it '. 

lie luiw at hist parteil with his wife Terentia, whose has 
uiid conduct hail luiifr been uneasy to him : this drew upon 
some ci-iisurc, fur putting away a wife, who bad lived with 
above thirty yearn, the mithful partner of Iiia b«^ and ftutn . 
and the mother of two children, extremely dear to him. Bat 
siic wa» u woman of an imperious and turbulent spirit, expen- 
sive and ne^li^cnt in her private affaini, busy and intri^ai^ 
' 1 tlie public, and, in the height of her husband' 

'='■ . OF CICERO. 467 

A.Urfab707. Cie.61, Com.-~€. JuUm Cmu HI. M. ^miiius Lepidua. 

jm>bablv, to drop it\ What gave his enemies the 

er faandle to rally him was, his marrying a handsome 

^ woman, named rnblia» of an age disproportioned to his 

to whom he was guardian ; but she was well allied and 

;: oircnmstances very convenient to him at this time^ as he 

in a letter to a friend, who congratulated with liim on 

to year giving me joy,'' says he, ''for what I have 

I know you wtth it: out I should not have talcen any 

step m Boeh wretched times, if at my return, I had not 

id my private aflSdrs in no better condition than those of 

RefnibHc. For when, through the wickedness of those, 

m my infinite kindness to them, ought to have had the 

concern for my welfare, I found no safety or ease from 

ir intrigues and perfidy within my own walls, I thought it 

to secure myself by the fidelity of new alliances 

ke treachery' of the old '." 

returned victorious from Afric, about the end of July, 
ikgr d|e way of Sardinia, where he spent some days : upon which 
jCMOva says, pleasantly, in a letter to Varro, he nad never seen 
^(Aiit ten of his before, which, though one of the worst that he 
Iw^ lie does not yet despise '• Ine uncertain event of the 
Afrjcan war had kept the senate under some reserve ; but they 
BOW began to push their flattery beyond all the bounds of 
decency, and decreed more extrav^ant honours to Caesar, than 
w«re ever given before to man, which Cicero oft rallies with 
great spirit: and, being determined to bear no part in that 
servile adulation, was treating about the purchase of a house 
at Nwles, for a pretence of retiring still farther and oftener 
from Rome. But his friends, who knew his impatience under 
their present subjection, and the free way of speakine which 
he was apt to indulge, were in some pain lest he should forfeit 
the good graces of Csesar and his favourites, and provoke them 

' Do Pompeii m^ni filia tibi roscripsi, nihil mo hoc tempore ct^tarc. Altcnm voro 
Ulam, quam tu scribis, patonosti. Niliil vidi fcedius. Ibid. 12. 11. 

* Ep. Fam. 4. 14. 

In ca g cc of divorce, where there were cliildren, it was the custom for each party to make 
a settlement, by will, on tlicir common offspring, proportionable to their several estates : 
which is the meaning of Cicero*s pressing Atticus so often, in his letters, to put Tcrentia 
in mind of making her will, and depositing it in safe Lands. Ibid. 11. 21, 22. 24: 

13. la 

Terentia is said to have lived to the ago of an hundred and three years; [Val. Max. 
a IS. Plin. Hist. 7. 48.] and took, as St. Jerome says, for her second husband, Ciccro^s 
«nemy, Sallust ; and Messtila for her tliird. Dio Cassius ^ves her a fourth, Vibius Rufus ; 
who waa consul in the reign of Tiberius, and valued himself for the possession of two 
tUngii. which had belonged to tlie two greatest men of tlie age before him, Cicero*B wife, 
and CsBnr's chair, in which he ^-as killed. Dio, p. 612. Ilieron. Op. To. 4. par. 2. 
p. 190. 

* lUud ciiim adhuc pncdium suum non insiicjdt : ncc ulliim habet detenus, scd tamcn 
non coniemnit. Ep. Fam. 9, 7. 


M. .Atiillui LcpJu, 

t<jM tiir l>y tLr keenness of bis raillery- '. 1'hey pKa§eil kim M 
acct>in[n<»liii> hiin«ell to tbe tunes, uid to use more caudm ii 
Lit ili70>utv>. oiu) to reside more at Rome, Mpecally wka 
Uievir «a> iIhti'. who would interpret the distance and redot 
uhii-ii hf a.'Ttvitil. as a proof of hb avenion to him. 

Ijui Lis :ui«iieiN, on this occasion, will shew the real rtatctf 
'i.U «<.'niimL-:it<aiiil i»nduct towards C'esartas wellasof Caurt 
t»war<l« liim. Writing on thU subject to l^pirius Pata^k 
says. "You aiv of D{>imon, t perceive, that it will not be it 
Itivetl to mo. a.* I ihi>ut:ht it mifht be, to quit theae afiinrf 
tilt' dty: you ti-U me of Caiulu^ and those times; bnt ^K 
■ haie tLi>y (o those ' I m)-setf was unwilling', at iH 
time, to Mir from clio tfuard of the state: for I then sat attht 
lielm. and hii.l the rudder, but am now scarce tlioug^ht woAj 
to work at tho pump : nould the senate, think you, tms fenr 
ilevree)^ if 1 should live at Naples? While I am still at Rone, 
and attend the t'orum, ilieir decrees are all drawn at on 
friend'" hou$e: utui. whenever it come$ into his bead, mynaiK 
U «et down, as if preseut M drawing them : so that I hear &om 
Armenia and Syri;i of decrees, said to be made at my mocion, 
of whioh 1 had never heard a syllable at home. Oo not take 
nie to Ih' ill je^t : f»T 1 a«iure you that I hare received letten 
iroiu kiiic^ from the remotest parts of the earth, to thank me 
for civilly them the title of kin^ : when, so far from knowia; 
that uny #uch title iiad been decreet! to them, I knew not em liiere were any ^iuch men in bein^. What is then to be 
»liy. as loiiif a> onr master of manners continues here^ 


A. Urb. 707. Cic.(>l. Com<-C. Julius Cesar III. M. /Knulius liCpidus. . 

efer, I say, can be done by art, towards acquiring their good 

. graoes, I have already done it witli the greatest care; nor, as I 
beUeTe, without success: for I am so much courted by all, who are 
in any deg^ree of favour with Csesar, that I begin to fancy that 
dley love me : and though real love is not easily distinguished 
frMn fidse, except in the case of danger, by which the sincerity 
of it may be tried, as of eold by fire ; for all other marks are 

. oommon to both ; yet I nave one argument to persuade me 
that they really love me ; because both my condition and theirs 

. is muhf as puts them under no temptation to dissemble ; and 
as tar him^ who has all power, I see no reason to fear any thing, 

, nnkn that all things become of course uncertain, when justice 
and riffht are once deserted ; nor can we be sure of any thing 
that £pends on the will, not to say the passion of another. 
Yet I have not, in any instance, particularly offended him, but 
behaved myself all along with the greatest moderation : for, as 
OBce I took it to be my duty to speak my mind freely in diat 
city, which owed its freedom to me ; so now, since that is lost, 
to speak nothing that may offend him, or his principal friends : 
but if I would avoid all offence, of things said facetiously, or 
by way of raillery, I must give up all reputation of wit ; which 
I would not refuse to do, if I could. But as to Csesar himself, 
he has a very piercing judgment; and as your brother Servius, 
whom I take to have been an excellent critic, would readily 
say, * this verse is not Plautus's, that verse is ;' having formed 
his ears, by great use, to distinguish the peculiar style and 
manner of different poets, so Caesar, I hear, who has already 
collected some volumes of apophthegms, if any thing be brought 
to him for mine, which is not so, presently rejects it; which he 
now does the more easily, because his friends live almost con- 
tinually with me ; and in the variety of discourse, when any 
thing drops from me, which they take to have some humour 
or spirit in it, they carry it always to him, with the other news 
of the town, for such are his orders : so that if he hears any 
thing besides of mine, from other persons, he does not regard 
It. 1 have no occasion, therefore, for your example of ^T^no- 
raaus, though aptly applied from Accius : for what is the envy 
which you speak of? or what is tliere in me to be envied now? 
but suppose there was every thing : it has been the constant 
opinion of philosophers, the only men, in my judgment, who 
have a right notion of virtue, that a wise man has nothing 
more to answer for, than to keep himself free from guilt; 
of which I take myself to be clear, on a double account; 
because I both pursued those measures which were the justest, 
and when I saw that I had not strength enough to carry them, 
did not think it my business to contend by force with those 


A. I'tb, Tie rk.61. C.«_t\ Juiiu, c 

who were too strong for me. It is certain, thereftm, 
minot be blnmcd, id what cvacema tie part of aeeoia 
«» tlmt is now left, is not to say or do any thine Tooligtli 
mbly apuiist tJ.e men in power; which I take also » he ik 
part of a w«e man. As for U.e rest, wUt people mavKMr 
to be «ud by me, or how he may take it, or with wW»» 
my live witli me, who uow so assidaously court o^k 
M not m my power to answer. 1 comfort myself, tiiaM 
With the consciousness of my former conduct, and the uA- 
relion of my present : and shall apply vour sinulilude bm 
Acciiw, not only to the «»se of envy. Gut of formne, -iiit 
comidcr as light and weak, and what ought to be repelldit 
a firm and K''<^at mind, as waves by a rock. For usee h 
Greek history is full of examples, how the wisest men bit 
endured tyrannies at Alliens or Syracuse ; and, wli«i &0 
dU«8 were enslaved, have lived themselves in some M- 
sure free, why may not I tliink it possible to mauiiab n 
rank so. as neither to offend the mind of any, or hurt atjm 
dienity ' ?" &c 

I'setUB having heard, that Cseaar was going lo diride vaat 
lands in his neighbourhood to the soldiers, began to be ahvi 
for his own estate, and writta lo Cicero, to know how ba tliM 
distribution would extend : to which Cicero answers, " Are ooi 
you a pleasant fellow, who, when Balbua has just been viA 
you, osK me what will become of those (owns and their lauds' 
ns if either 1 knew any thing tliat BiUbus docs not; or if aim? 
lime, I chance to know any thing, I do not know it from him: 


A. XJA. TV!. Cie. 61. Com«— C. Jalius Ccnr HI. M. ^milins I^dus. 

Republic^ as he himself, perhaps, may desire, and we all 

' ' to wish, yet he has linked himself so with others, that 

not the power to do what he would. But I proceed too 

^^ inr I am writing to you : be assured, however of this, 

not only I, who have no part in their counsels, but even 

"ddef himself does not know what will happen. We are 

to him, he to the times : so neither can he know what 

ibam will require, nor we what he may intend S" &a 

diie6 of the Csesarian party, who courted Cicero so 

at this dme, were Balbus, Oppius, Matins, Pansa, 

j^ Dolabella : they were all in tibe first confidence with 

■, yet professed tne utmost affection for Cicero; were 

mcnning at his levee, and perpetually engaged him to 

irith ihem; and the two last employed themselves in a 

exercise of declaiming at his house, for the benefit of his 

of which he gives the following account in his 

way, to Pffitus : — " Hirtius and Dolabella are my 

in speaking; my masters in eating: for you have 

, I guess, how they declaim with me, 1 sup with them.'* 

Jb another letter he tells him, that as king Dionysius, when 
tttffen oat of Syracuse, turned schoolmaster at Cormth, so he, 
Iwring lost his kingdom of the Forum, had now opened a school 
r— to which he merrily invites Psetus, with the offer of a seat 
md cushion next to himself, as his usher'. But to Varro, 
seriously, " I acquainted you," says he " before, that I 
intimate with them all, and assist at their counsels : I see 
no reason why I should not — for it is not the same thing to 
bear what must be borne, and to approve what ought not to be 
approved.*' And, agsun : ** I do not forbear to sup with those 
who now rule : what can I do ? we must comply with the 
times V 

The only use which he made of all this favour was, to screen 
himself from any particular calamity in the general misery of 
the times, and to serve those unhappy men, who were driven 
from their country and their families, for their adherence to 
that cause, which he himself had espoused. Csesar was desi- 
rous, indeed, to engage him in his measures, and attach him 

" Ibid. 17. 

* Hirtiam ego et Dolabellam dicendi discipulos haboo, ccenandi magistros : puto cnim to 
ttidiMe— 411m ftpud me dcclainitarc, me apuu cos coenitarc. Ibid. \i\. 

Ut DkmTrius Tyrannns, cum Syracusis pulsus cssct, Corinthi dicitur ludum apcniifiAo, 
lie <igo— amisso recmo forcnM, ludum quai»i habere cceperim — sella tibi erit in ludo, tun- 
qam hjpodida«cuTo, proxima : cam puivinuH scquetur. Ibid. IB. 

s Oftentavi tibi, mo istis esse familiarem, et consiliis eonim intercssc. Quod e^ cur 
n'liili nlbil video. Non rnini est idem, ferre si quid fcrcndum est, et ])robnre, si quid 
IHofanidiim non est. Ibid. 6. 

Non denno apud istos, qui nunc dominantur, cicnitare. Quid faciani ? tempori sen'i- 
cndnm est. Ibid. 7- 

4'»'-' THE LIFE 

*, 1 ;. :■■:. I . '^l ■ u«~l J ui. ..(.>«, Ill, M ,Ka,.!i* Lf?.!:-. 

in«fif:!>l\ M hii intcrosta: but lie would bear no part na 
a>liiii[:i«t:3Uoii, rsiablwhrd on tbe ruins of bis caunDj: m 
ever cuTod to l>e acquainted with tbeir alfain, or to innt 
« hat tliey were iloinff : *o that, whenever he enured ■• 
tL^ir ciiiiiit^U a<( lie siiftiilies above to Varro. it was crnly^ 
the (.'Oh' »i *4iinf csilixl Aiend required it, for whose Ktnt 
he scrui-'.eii n«> mo.tii« of soliciting', and attending even Ciw 
him^it : tli<iu;;h ht.* wa^ sometimes shocked, as be eomjilinK 
by the diiSi-ulty ol acce<^ and the indig-nity of waitin^nia 
aii:ei.-banit>er: ii»t. imlteil. tliroufrh Csesar's fault, vlia w 
al«':iy« re.-iiiy to ::ivi> liini audience, but fri>m ibe inultipEalf 
<>t his adiiin. by wktwe hands all the fovours of the «BfBi 
»ire <i;.;H'n*od ■- Titus, in a letter to Ampius, whose pote 
hi- iu.i i'riK,'iirt-ti. " I haie i^ulicited your causi-." says he, "box 
eaiTorij my prf^ent situation would well justify : fiirin 
ile»:r»- :o mi- you. am! my constant love for you, ninstanh- 
ou-!j cu'.tiiniMl oil viHir part, overruled nil regard to tfc< 
pr(>t-::t «iak t.vinlititoi of my power and interest Emr 
tiiiii; t: jt ri-l^itt* to your roturn and safety is promi$e<1, obb- 
ftrmiii. r.xeii. ;iii'i wiilioil: I «aw. know, was present at ewrj 
stop : :"i'r. t-y £•.•"■} luck. I have ull C'je««ir's friends eiignged » 
me by an i>!<i aiN]iuiintance and friendship : so that, next I* 
hini. t: i-y i>,iv the lir*>t re^mrd tn me. Paiisa, Hirtius, Balbo. 
^V:-!'.;^ >rt:i:;-s l\»:iimiiis. take all occasions to ^ve me prodf 
of ;;-,<:r »:::_':i'.jr irTi'i'tion, If ibis Lad been sought and |H»- 
e::r. i -'v ■.in. I rlixuil liave no reason, as thiniips now slan^ f> 
!v,ii I have ilone nothing- with the view of 


A.Uri>.707. Cic.61. C0M..-C. Joliiit C«nr III. M.^ffimOiotLepklut. 

tm way of life, he says, ^< Ekurly in the morning, I receive 
fiompumeni» of many honest men, but melancholy ones, as 
of these eay conquerors; who shew indeed a very 
and affectionate regard to me. When these visits are 
I shut myself up in my library, either to write or read : 
aoiaie» also^ come to hear me, as a man of learning, be- 
I am somewhat more learned than they : the rest of my 
I give to the care of my body; for I have now bewailed 
itry longer, and more heavily, than any mother ever 
. lier only son ^" 
is certain, that there was not a man in the Republic so 
Bolarly engaged, both bv principle and interest, to wish 
to its liberty, or who haa so much to lose by the subver- 
of it as he: for, as lons^ as it was fi^verned by civil 
and stood upon the foundation of its laws, he was, 
lly, the first citizen in it; had the chief influence in 
; the chief authority with the people : and, as all his 
and fortunes were grounded on the peace of his country, 
jiil his labours and studies were perpetually applied to 
{Komotion of it : it is no wonder, therefore, in the pre- 
dtuation of the city, oppressed by arms, and a tyran- 
power, to find him so particularly impatient under the 
fiapnmoB misery, and expressing so keen a sense of the dimi- 
^■Utttion of his dignity, and the disgrace of serving, where he 
':■ liid been used to govern. 

CSnsar, on the other hand, though he knew his temper and 
principles to be irreconcileable to his usurped dominion, yet, 
oat of^inendship to the man, and a reverence for his character, 
was determined to treat him with the greatest humanity ; and, 
by all the marks of public favour, to make his life not only 
tolerable, but easy to him : yet, all that he could do, had no 
other effect on Cicero, than to make hira think and speak 
sometimes favourably of the natural clemency of their master : 
Mmd to entertain some hopes from it, that he would one day be 
persuaded to restore the public liberty : but, exclusive of that 
hope, he never mentions his government, but as a real tyranny ; 
or his person, in any other style, than as the oppressor of his 

But he gave a remarkable proof, at this time, of his being 
no temponser, by writing a book in praise 0/ Cato ; which he 
pnablished within a few months after Cato's death. He seems 

' Hae k;itiir est none vita nostra. Mano salutamus domi et bonos viros multos, sed 
ti)slai» et bot UbIos victorcs; qui mc quidcm pcrofficioso ct peramanter observant. Ubi 
Mlatatlo defliudt, litteris me involve, aut scribo aut lego. Veniunt etiam qui me audiant, 
■ dk)ctnin hominem, quia paullo sum, quam ipsi, doctior. Inde cor|K)ri omne tem- 

ppt datnr. Patriam elnxi jam gravius et diutius quam ulla mater unicum filinm. 


to Itave Ikvii K'ft n giinnliati In C'ato's son : as be wu abo ■ 
yniiiig l.iicuUus CuUt's nephew * : and this testimony of Cdi'i 
fn<>ti(lKlu|) niul jud^pnt of him, mi^ht induce Iiim tlieaME 
rontlily to jmy tliis linnour lo his memory. It was a BBttffi 
however, of iiti small deli Iteration, in ubat' manner he oogkli 
treat the Milijoct; his friends advised Iiim not to be too eqiU 
uiid parlieuliir, in the detail of Cato's jiralses ; but b) coiM 
himM-lf with ii frenenti encomium, for foar of irritating Cas 
liy imshin^ the ai^meiit too ^r. In a letter to AtticDi,k 
t-»ll!i this " an Archimeilean problem ; but I cannot hit npa 
any thing," says he, "that those friends of yinir's will nJ 
with jiloitiiire, or even with patience ; besides, if I sliould inf 
till- neeiiiint of Cato's votes and speeches in tlie senate, aai « 
lii.o pnlitind conduct in the state, and give a slight commeD^r 
tuin only of his eoiisUincy and gravity, even this may be man 
than they will care to hear : but the man cannot he praised, > 
he deservi>tt, unless it l>c particularly explained, how he fac- 
t'lhl nil that has hap|K-ne<l to lis : how he took arms to pr^ 
vent itH happening : and parted with life rather titan see it 
happen '." These wen- the topint which he resolved to ft- 
play with all his fon-c ; and from the accounts ^ven of ik 
work by antiquity, it ap)>ear<i, that he had spared no foiH 
to adorn it, but extolled Cato's virtue and diameter to the 

The hook was soon spread into all hands: and Csfsar, m- 
ii'ud of expressing any resentment, atletrted to be maA 
ci! witli it ; yet declared, that he would answer it: i^ ". 


A.Urb.707. Cic.61. Com.-^. Julius Caesar III. M. iEmilius Lepidus. 

Hne mistakes in his account of the transactions, in which Cato 
id been concerned, especially in the debates on Catiline's 
lot; in which he had given him the first part and merit, in 
BTOgation even of Cicero himself ^ 

Csesar's answer was not published till the next year, upon 
is return from Spain, after the defeat of Pompey's sons. It 
■8 a laboured invective ; answering Cicero's book, paragraph 
Y paragraph, and accusing Cato with all the art and force of 
■ rbetoric, as if in a pubhc trial before judges ' : yet with ex- 
reBsions of great respect towards Cicero ; whom, for his vir- 
les and abihties, he compared to Pericles and Theramenes of 
.tbens': and in a letter upon it to Balbus, which was shewn, 
f his order, to Cicero, he said, that by the frequent reading 
: Cicero's Cato, he was grown more copious ; but, after he had 
mA Brutus's, thought himself even eloquent \ 

These two rival pieces were much celebrated in Home ; and 
id their several admirers, as different parties and interests 
imxMed men to favour tlie subject of the author of each : and 

18 certain, that they were the principal cause of establishing 
id propagating that veneration which posterity has since paid 
» the memory of Cato. For his name being thrown into con- 
oversy, in that criticiil period of the fate of Rome, by the 
titron of liberty on the one side, and the of)pressor of it on 
le other, became, of course, a kind of political test to all sue- 
ceding ages, and a perpetual argument of dispute between the 
iends of liberty and the flatterers of power. But if we con- 
der his character without prejudice, lie wtis certainly a great 
id worthy man : a friend to truth, virtue, liberty ; yet falsely 
leasuring all duty by the absurd rigour of the stoical rule, he 
as generally distippointed of the end, which he sought by it, 
le happiness both of his private and public life. In his pri- 
ite conduct, he was severe, morose, inexorable; banishing all 
le softer affections, as natural enemies to justice, and as sug- 
esting false motives of acting, from favour, clemency, and 
impassion ; in public affairs he was the same ; had but one 
de of policy, to adhere to what was right : without regard to 
mes or circumstances, or even to a force that could control 

' Catonem primum scntcntiam puUt de animadversiono dixisse ; quam omncs ant« 

cerant pra?ter Csesarem, &c. Ad Att. 12. 21. 

From thia and other particulars, M-hich are mentioned in the same letter, we may 

•erre, that Sallust had probably taken his accoimt of the debates npon Cutiline*s Ac- 

Dsplices, from Brutus's Life of Cato, and chosen to copy even his mistakes, rather than 

jnitice to Cicero on that occasion. 

■ Ciceronis libro— quid aliud Dictator Caesar, quam rcscripta orationo, velut apud 

iic« re«pondit? Tacit. Ann. 4. 34. it. Quintil. 3. 7. 

» Plut. m Cic. 

* Legi epiatolam : mnlta do meo Catonc, quo stepis&ime legendo se dicit copiosiorcm 

turn: Bruti Catone Iccto, se libi visum discrtum. Ad Att. 13. 46. 

H h 


Jib. 707. Cic.61. Coss.-^. Julius C«sur III. M. ^milius Lepidui. 

sero, as it appears from his letters, was forced to use all 
ind authority to persuade him to return, and take the 
of that grace, which they had been labouring to attain 
K But how the affair was transacted, we may learn 
tcero's account of it to Serv. Sidpicius, who was then 
ul of Greece — " Your condition," says he, " is better 
ur's, in this particular, that you dare venture to write 
rievances, we cannot even do that with safety: not 
i any fault of the conqueror, than whom nothing can 
s moderate, but of victory itself, which, in civil wars, 
fB insolent: we have haa the advantage of you, how- 
i one thing ; in being acquainted, a little sooner than 
th the pardon of your colleague Marcellus : or rather 
in seeing how the whole affair passed; for I would 
m believe, that, from the beginning of these miseries, 
since the public right has been decided by arms, there 
Jiing been done, besides this, with any dignity. For 
bimself, after having complained of the moroseness of 
las, for so he called it, and praised, in the strongest 
the equity and prudence of your conduct, presently de- 
beyond all our hopes, that whatever onence he had 
d m>m the man, he could refuse nothing to the inter- 
of the senate. What the senate did was this : upon the 
ti of Marcellus, by Piso, his brother Caius having thrown 
' at Caesar's feet, they all rose up, and went forward, in 
licating manner, towards Caesar: in short, this day's 
ppeared to me so decent, that I could not help fancying 
Jaw the image of the old Republic reviving : when all, 
re, who were asked their opinions before me, had re- 
thanks to Caesar, excepting Volcatius, (for he declared, 
would not have done it, though he had been in Mar- 
place,) I, as soon as I was called upon, changed my 
for I had resolved with myself to observe an eternal 
, not through any laziness, but the loss of my former 
' ; but Caesar's greatness of mind, and the laudable zeal 
jenate, got the better of my resolution. I gave thanks, 
re, to Caesar, in a long speech, and have deprived my- 
r it, I fear, on other occasions, of that honest quiet, 
was my only comfort in these unhappy times : but since 
hitherto avoided giving him offence, and if I had always 
led silent, he would have interpreted it, perhaps, as a 
)f my taking the Republic to be ruined, I shall speak 
J future not often, or rather, very seldom ; so as to 

» Ibid. 4. 7, 8, 0. 

H h 2 

: tM k - ■ 
■ ■ii>rf*i»i 

:— llblaa U>c 

Bi t II •• • ■ ■■ ii T i r , Ok Caar i.<L . fc i Mai 
Ifal I ir ■■ rf .WA W aMtUBxJ ..nan ki|i>ad 
IHH. m h. i^gaia a a Irtacr a tae ctf Csu's pni 
Am^*. "nm, i Widbit. ke i m aainili . mftnvs a ' 
^OTn A^liaalaipc*cfc,rafct^ifiint ofanold R 
arf .. naa.a.U. aaa nil xhink h flCnnee, (bat M f 

Cam^-C. SvHat Cau III. H. JEmillu Upidni. 

<M eiids of your uatare by a lattety of living'* you nay then 
lU us, if you please, that you have lived long enouga : yet 
.-liat is it, after all, that we cao really call long, of wUct tfiere 
1 an end 7 For when that end is once come, all part pleasure 
I to be reckoned eH nothing, rince no more of it is to be ez- 
lected. Thtiugh jroor mind, I know, was never content with 
bese narrow boutuls of life, which nature has assigned to na^ 
lut inflamed always with an ardent love of immoitality: not 
9 liua, indeed, to be considered as your life, which ia comprised 
to this body und breath ; but that — that, I say, is your life, 
wiiicli is to flourish in the memory of all ages : which posterity 
ttrill cherish, and eternity itself propagate. It is to this that 
raa must attend ; to this that you must form yourself; which 
na many things ab-eady to admire, yet wants something still, 
(jiat il may jDruise in you. Posterity will be amazed to hear 
lad read of your commands, provinces; the Rhine, the ocean, 
tbe Nile; your inaamemble battles, incredible victories, infl- 
ate Dionnmeuts, splendid triumphs ; but, unless this dty be 
Mtabli^hed again by yoor wisdom and counsels, your name 
indeed will wander tax and wide ; yet will have no certain seat 
it place at last where to Sz itself. There will be also amongst 
those, who are yet nnbom, the same controversy that has bmn 
unongst us ; wlien some will extol your actions to the skies, 
Vthers, perhaps, will find something defective in them ; and, 
that one thing above all, if you should not extinguish this 
Same of civil war, by restoring liberty to your country : for 
the one may be baked upon as tJie effect of &ite, but the other 
» the certain act of wisaom. Pay a reverence, therefor^ to 

those judges, who will pass judgment upon you in ages to 
Bome, ana with less partiality, perhaps, than we; since Uiey 
1 neither be biassed by affection or party, nor prejudiced 

by hatred or envv to you : and though this, as some falsely 
Imagine, should tnen have no relation to you, yet it concerns 
jTou certmnly, at the present, lo act in such a manner, that no 
gblivion may ever obscure the lustre of your praises. Various 
»«re the inclinations of the citJzens, and their opinions wholly 
livided ; nor did we differ only in sentiments and wishes, but 
In arms also and camps ; the merits of the cause were dubious, 
ind the contention between two celebrated leaders ; many 
loubted what was the best; many what was convenient ; many 
vfaat was decent; some also what was lawful'," &c. 

But though Csesar took no step towards restoring the Re- 
public, he employed himself this summer in another work of 
\ benefit to mankind, the reformation of the kalendar ; 

■ Pro H. MucoU. a, 9, 10. 

A. 1'>IM7. Cic.fil. Com— C. JoUdi Cmw III. U. jEmlUm Ltpta. 
by accommodating the course of the year to the exact on 
of tliv sun ; from whicli it Iiad vai'ied so widely, as to oeca 
li straii<j^ confusion in all tlieir accounts of time. 

The Homan year, from tlie old institution of Nnina, n 
lunar ; Imrrowod from the Greeks ; amongst whom it 
of three liumlreil and fifty-four days: Ntima added one man ■ 
Uicm, to make the whole number odd, which was thought it 
more fortunate: and to fill up the deficiency of his year, lo4t 
measure of the sohir course, inserted likewise, or interadiliit 
after the manner of the Greeks, an extraordinary mont