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Application to the Duke for a Sitting. A Difficulty about the 
Duke's Clothes. Correspondence with the Duke. The Duke 
obliterated. Another Petition to the Commons. Petition to 
the House of Commons. Achilles : Lord Abercorn. Death of 
a Daughter : R. Colborne. Achilles finished : Necessity. 
Meeting of Creditors. Decorating the House of Lords. Re- 
view of 1835 - Page 3 


Sickness and Struggle : Lecturing. A Commission from 
Lord Audley. Working up for the Poictiers Picture. 
Death of a Child, Mr. Ewart's Fine Arts Committee. 
Formation of the Royal Academy. In Straits. In the 
Bench. A learned Head Turnkey. Scenes in the Bench. 
Another Statement to his Creditors. A Letter to his Land- 
lord. A kind Landlord : Wilkie. My Landlord - 28 


The School of Design. At the Mechanics'. Successful lectur- 
ing. The Maid of Saragossa. Letter- writing in the Spec- 
tator. His Liverpool Commission : Lecturing. Death of 
Lord Egremont - - - - - - 62 


At Manchester. A Visit to Drayton. Difficulties. Death 
of a Step- son. The Picture progressing. Sir Joshua's Me- 
morandum Book. An ignoble Ride. Anecdotes of the 
Duke. Wilkie's General Baird and Cellini. The Liverpool 
Picture finished. Lecturing at Liverpool. Painting the 
Picture of the Duke - - - - - 78 



Picture of Milton. Lecturing at Newcastle: Chartists. Cor- 
respondence with the Duke. The Duke's Clothes and Accou- 
trements. The Nelson Monument. The Duke's Clothes again. 

A Visit from D'Orsay. A Kun to Waterloo. Artists* 
Difficulties with the Duke. At Walmer with the Duke. The 
Duke in Walmer Church. Death of the Duke of Bedford. 
Picture of the Duke finished - Page 101 


Opening of the Year. Haydon's Political Lucubrations. Lec- 
turing at Oxford. A Letter to Wordsworth : the Reply. At 
Oxford. Hamilton : Bronstedt: Wilkie. Mary Queen of 
Scots. Benjamin West. The Prophets of Michel Angelo. 
Sibyl : his School. Break up of the School. Anti-slavery 
Convention. Abolitionists. The Anti-slavery Convention Pic- 
ture. Sonnet on the Picture of the Duke. On the Anti- 
slavery Picture. Solomon after twenty-seven Years. Review 
of 1840 - - 133 


Sketching O'Connell. With Thomas Clarkson at Playford. 

The Inspiration to great Deeds. Note from Beaumont. 
Death of Wilkie. Feelings at Wilkie's Death. On Wilkie. 
Prospects in the New Houses. Comparisons: English Art 
and Foreign. First Lesson in Fresco. First Attempt in 
Fresco. Reconciliation with Mr. Harman. Retrospect of 
1841 - 167 


His Hopes and Fears in 1842. Barry's Pictures and Character. 

Discouragement of British Art. Vindictiveness of the 
Critics. Alexander and the Lion begun. Working under 
Difficulties. Good Landlords: Rumohr's Letters. Rumohr 
on Modern Art. Rumohr on German Art. At Work at Sara- 
gossa. Sketches for Saragossa. Wordsworth. Words- 
worth's Knowledge of Art. Rumohr on Modern Art. Details 
as to Wilkie's Death. Beginning his Cartoon. Qartoon 
Drawing : Necessities. Rumohr on Cartoons. At his 
Cartoons. Miss Barrett's Sonnet on Wordsworth. Rumohr 
on German Art - - - - - - si 97 



A New Year. Obtains Armour from the Tower. Letter 
to Eastlake. Finishes Cartoons. Misery and Relief. 
The Cartoon Exhibition. Not successful. The Struggle 
withj Disappointment. Still struggles with Disappointment. 
Sir George Cockburn on Napoleon. On his ill Success. 
Letter to the Duke of Sutherland. Turning out Napoleons. 
British Institution .... Page 241 


Letter from Sir Joshua's Niece. At Work. More Napoleons 
Musing. Lectures at the Royal Institution . A Fete with 
the Buonarroti. Large and small Pictures. The Duke in 
a Passion. Frescos in the Royal Exchange. Decoration 
of Houses of Parliament. Illness of his Son Frank. Picture 
Cleaning. Sketches Aristides. Review of 1844 - 268 


At Fifty-nine : the Blind Fiddler. Prayer for Success. 
Painting the Devil. Plan in Substitution of the Academy. 

Praise from " The Times." Wordsworth in a Court Dress. 

Harass. Saved from an Execution. A new Pupil. 
A Visit to Sir Joshua's Niece. An Application to Sir R. Peel. 
At Work on Nero. Prayer at the End of the Year 293 


Dining in the Wellington Statue. Advertising his Exhibition. 
Letter from Wordsworth. The Touchers and the Polishers. 
Beginning his Third Picture. In Edinburgh. Preparing 
for Exhibition. Failure of the Exhibition. At Bay. 
The End. His Will. His Character. His Times in Rela- 
tion to Art. Estimate of him as an Artist - - 322 

APPENDIX I. - 381 

II. - - 386 

HI. - - - - - 389 










HAYDON inaugurated this year with a picture of Achilles 
revealing his Sex at the court of Lycomedes, by his 
sudden forsaking of womanly ornaments for arms. But 
he was soon compelled to quit a large and heroic subject 
for smaller and more saleable works. His necessities 
this whole year through were severe ; and embarrass- 
ments, continually accumulating, were met by every ex- 
pedient that urgent wants and sanguine hopes could 
suggest. The year was one of keen political excitement. 
The Peel Ministry resigned, and the Whigs returned to 
power under Lord Melbourne. The burning of the 
Houses of Parliament the year before had given an 
opening for hope that some arrangement for Art-deco- 
ration might be made in the new building, and provision 
for this was urgently pressed on the Ministry by Haydon 
in and out of season. 

The appointment of Mr. Ewart's select committee of 
inquiry into the means of extending a knowledge of the 
arts and principles of design, including an inquiry into 
the constitution of the Royal Academy, and the effects 

B 2 

4 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1835. 

produced by it, (the appointment of which may be attri- 
buted in a considerable degree to Haydon,) afforded him 
an opportunity he had long sought of impressing his 
views on Parliament and the people. But these pro- 
spects and hopes were dimmed by the loss of one of his 
children, and his anxieties were not lessened by the 
birth of another. 

"January 6th* A pupil of David spent the evening 
with me. David said a good thing to him, ( When you 
cease to struggle, you are done for.' This is more like 

" At the Polish ball the Lord Mayor (who squints) 
said to Lady Douglas, ' Which do you prefer, my Lady, 
Gog or Magog?' 'Of the three, 9 she replied, 'your 

" Rubbed in Milton and his daughter selling Para- 
dise Lost, and Eloise and Abelard at their studies. 
Preparing for the year's work. 

"The people are in a dreadful condition; the ex- 
citement beyond all belief. I have not stirred from my 
painting-room. I hate to have my mind disturbed. 
The Tories say the people must go through a crisis. It 
is their obstinacy which has produced it. 

" 7th. Rubbed in two new subjects Milton at his 
Organ, dear Mary at her Glass. Saw Lady Blessington 
to borrow an armlet. 

" 10th. Read Mignet's History of the Revolution. 
Extraordinary that all the murders of the French Revo- 
lution were perpetrated according to law, and on an 
abstract principle of virtue. ' La terreur sans vertu *est 
une crime : la vertu sans terreur est une faiblessej said 

* The 21st volume of the Journals begins with this year, with 
the motto, "A man shall not be established by wickedness, but the 
root of the righteous shall not be moved. They that trust in the 
Lord shall be as Mount Sion, which cannot be moved, but abideth 
for ever." 


" 16th. In the city on business; much harassed in 
money matters. 

" Ilth. Rubbed in Samson and Dalilah. 

" Raced the town to raise money. Got a commission 
to paint the Duke on the field of Waterloo, from Boys 
the printseller. Sentiment with the Duke won't do. 

" i 4, Burwood Place, January 19th, 1835. 
" ' May it please your Grace, 

" ' To permit me to intrude a moment, and to inform your 
Grace, with your leave, that I have received a commission 
to paint your Grace musing on the field of Waterloo, to be 
engraved as a pendant to the picture I had the honour to 
paint for Sir Robert Peel, of Napoleon musing at St. Helena 
conqueror and captive. 

" ' 1st. May I presume to ask your Grace to give me leave 
to make a chalk sketch of your sword and dress, such as you 
wore at Waterloo under your cloak ? 

"'2nd. Would there be any hope of being allowed to attend 
your Grace for half an hour, and make a rapid sketch of 
your Grace's figure, at any time early or late ? 

u ' I acknowledge to your Grace I approach you with every 
delicacy, and prepared to withdraw with every apology, 
should this intrusion, considering my feelings as a conserva- 
tive, Reformer and Whig, be considered unwarrantable or im- 
pertinent. But as I never scrupled to express my enthu- 
siasm for your genius to any party, I anticipate your pardon, 
even if your Grace refuses consent. 

" * With the same respect as dictated my letter to your 
Grace when you relinquished the Government in 1830, 

" ' I remain, 
" ' Your Grace's faithful servant, 

" B. R. HATDON. 

" ' To his Grace the Duke of Wellington, &c.' 

" * The Duke of Wellington presents his compliments to 
Mr. Haydon, and has received his note. 

" ' The Duke hopes Mr. Haydon will excuse him, but he 
really has not leisure at present to sit for a picture. 
" ' London, March 22nd, 1835.' 
B 3 

6 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1835. 

" 3lst. All of a sudden yesterday a new conception 
of the Duke burst into my head. I took up a canvas 
and in two hours dashed in the best conception by far, 
the one that shall be engraved. Wrote a strong letter 
to the Times on the National Gallery. 

" The month ends, and I have worked well. I have 
had comparative peace. I consider it a good beginning 
to have had an order connected with Wellington. The 
next month begins to-morrow, and a dreadful pecuniary 
want I anticipate ; but my old fire is revived. I have 
begun again on public encouragement, and again will 
I be in the thick of the fight. I trust for extrication 
and salvation to that Being to whom I have always 
trusted, and feel confident I shall not trust in vain. 

"February 1st. Sunday. Called on Lord Melbourne. 
He was lounging over the Edinburgh Review. He 
began instantly, ( Why here are a set of fellows who 
want public money for scientific purposes, as well as 
you for painting; they are a set of ragamuffins.' * That's 
the way,' said.I; 'nobody has any right to public money 
but those who are brought up to politics. Are not 
painting and science as much matter of public benefit as 
political jobbing ? You never look upon us as equals ; 
but any scamp who trades in politics is looked on as a 
companion for my Lord.' ( That is not true,' said he. 
' I say it is,' said I ; and he then roared with laughter, 
and rubbed his hands. 

"He had been to Woburn, where he had met Chantrey 
and Landseer ; I could not get him to touch on politics. 
' Lord Melbourne, will you make me a promise? ' f W8at 
is that ? ' ' Pass your word to get a vote of money for 
Art, if you are premier again.' Not a word. 

"No old politician ever speaks on politics so as to 
give you a notion of what is going on. 

" After chatting a good while about everything, I bid 
him good bye. 


" 3rd. At the Duke's, and sketched the cloak he 
wore at Waterloo, the coat, plain hat, &c. To-morrow 
they are to be sent to me. The contrast of his house 
with Lgrd Grey's was extraordinary. I was shown into 
a waiting parlour full of pistols and muskets. All about 
Lord Grey was anti-military, while everything seems to 
be martial about the Duke. 

" Mugford, his steward, told me the Duke had given 
him the cloak, and God only knew where the hat was. 
Is this simplicity, absence of vanity or want of senti- 
ment in the Duke ? Napoleon dwelt on, often looked 
at and left to his son the coat he wore at Marengo and 
the sword of Austerlitz. 

"9th. Worked unsatisfactorily. The Duke lent 
me his hat, belt and coat." 

Unluckily Haydon wrote to thank him for his kind- 

This, it appears from the next letter, was rather a 

" London, February 7th, 1835. 

" I received last night your letter of the 6th, in which you 
inform me that you had applied to and obtained from my 
servant one of my coats, and that you had painted a picture 
of me which you wished me to see, and which was ready for 
the engraver. 

" You wrote to me on the 19th January to inform me that 
you had received a commission to paint a picture of me. I 
told you in answer that I had not time to sit for a picture. 
You then wrote to desire that I would order my servant to 
let you see my coat, &c., to which letter I gave no answer. 

" You thought proper, however, to go to my servant, and 
procure from him one of my coats, &c., without any order or 
consent on my part, and you now come to me to desire me 
to inspect the picture before it goes to the engraver. 

"I have no objection to any gentleman painting any 
picture of me that he may think proper ; but if I am to 

B 4 

8 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1835. 

have anything to say to the picture, either in the way of 
sitting or sending a dress, or in any other manner, I con- 
sider myself, and shall be considered by others,, as responsible 
for it. 

" I must say that I by no means approve of the subject of 
the picture which you have undertaken to paint. Paint it, 
if you please, but I will have nothing to say to it. 

" To paint the Emperor Napoleon on the rock of St. 
Helena is quite a different thing from painting me on the 
field of battle of Waterloo. The Emperor Napoleon did not 
consent to be painted. But I am to be supposed to consent ; 
and moreover, I on the field of battle of Waterloo am not 
exactly in the situation in which Napoleon stood on the rock 
of St. Helena. 

" But a painter should be a historian, a philosopher, a 
politician, as well as a poet and a man of taste. 

" Now if you will consider the subject of the picture to 
which you desire me to be a party in the year 1835, in any 
one of these characters, you will see full reason why you 
should not choose that subject ; and why I should not 
consent to be a party to the picture. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your most obedient, humble servant, 


Haydon wrote at once to explain the impression he 
had been under that it was with the Duke's permission 
that the valet had furnished the clothes, and afterwards 
sent this letter in addition : 

" London, February 8th, 18354 
" My Lord Duke, 

" Having, I hope, exculpated myself from the accusation 
of going to your servant, contrary to your wishes, to obtain, 
by tampering with him, what your Grace objected to grant, 
though I was ignorant of such objection, may I now venture 
to reply to the latter part of your letter ? 

" Your Grace says ' a painter should be a philosopher, a^ 
historian, a politician, a poet and a man of taste/ 


" It really appears to me, your Grace, that imagining a 
great general visiting the field of his greatest battle after 
many years is both natural and poetical ; that the musings 
that must occur to him there would be philosophical ; and 
though it would not be strictly historical if it had not hap- 
pened, yet there is surely no bad taste in contrasting the 
conqueror with the vanquished, or in showing the one in his 
deserved desolation, and the other in his deserved triumph. 

" 1 1 on the field of Waterloo am not exactly in the same 
situation as Napoleon on the rock of St. Helena/ your Grace 
adds. Certainly, I reply. It is because your Grace is in a 
different situation, that I glory in placing you there, and 
that the public and the army will glory in seeing you there. 

" With respect to the subject, it occurred to me at the time 
I painted Sir Robert Peel's picture of Napoleon. I had 
always resolved to do my best to honour, as far as my pencil 
could honour, that man who dared in face of the world to 
break the chain of an imagined invincibility, who returned 
to his own country encircled by a splendour of fame which 
will last as long as the earth he inhabits, who came back 
from the command of a victorious army a simple citizen, 
subjecting himself to the same laws and paying allegiance to 
the same sovereign as the humblest individual in the land 
he saved. 

" Ah, your Grace, you were wanted, and your genius had 
full scope, because you were necessary ; but it is not impos- 
sible to imagine a genius in another way, who loves his 
country with equal devotion and feels equally conscious of 
being able to honour it, but whose talents are not in demand 
and who is only aware of the extent of his power from the 
torture of suppression, who passes his life in vain aspirations 
for opportunities which will never be granted him, and who 
will go out of the world pitied, disappointed and ruined. 

" With respect to the immediate facts connected with the 
commission alluded to, they are as follows: 

" It was accidentally proposed by a printseller who had 
purchased the copyright of Napoleon that I should paint 
your Grace at Waterloo. I naturally seized the order with 
avidity, for I was totally without employment. Your Grace 

10 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1835. 

cannot blame me for this, when I tell you I have six children, 
one a midshipman in the Wolf, Captain Stanley, one a 
scholar at Wadham College, Oxford, and four at home, and 
that, as Johnson said, I have still to provide for the day that 
is passing over me. Your Grace cannot wonder then that I 
was ready to do what I conceived would honour you, as well 
as provide subsistence for my family, at least for a month 

" Two-thirds of the purchase-money was paid; so that there 
is no method of stopping publication, but by purchasing the 
picture of them and the copyright, and this it is not worth 
your Grace's while to do. 

rt With respect to the large picture which I have begun 
and prepared for completion, the same size as Sir Robert 
Peel's Napoleon, which is entirely my own property, that, 
now I know your feelings, I pass your Grace my word of 
honour to proceed with no further without your leave, and 
to obliterate it without delay if you desire it. 

" I trust, therefore, I shall now regain your opinion as a 
gentleman, and remain 

" Your Grace's admirer and servant, 

" B. R. HAYDON. 

" His Grace the Duke of Wellington, &c." 

" London, February 9th, 1835. 
" Sir, 

" I have had the honour of receiving your letter of the 8th 
inst. In the letter which I wrote to you on Saturday I 
stated my reason for disapproving of your having applied to 
my servant for my clothes without my previous consent. 

" The same reason still exists. I am not and cannot If a 
party to or an encourager of the picture which you are 
painting of me. Do as you please with it. But I have 
nothing to say to it. 

" There can be no doubt that your communication with 
my servants, without my previous permission, was not 
regular, I cannot say otherwise. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your most obedient, humble servant, 



" I wrote his Grace, saying, I admitted it was not re- 
gular, but that I certainly had an impression the clothes 
could never have come to me but through his leave ; 
that my thanking him for them was an evidence of my 
belief, and that he never could have known I had them 
if I had not informed him ; that I had destroyed the 
large picture, and should destroy the small one if the 
purchaser was disposed to accede. To this I received 
the following answer : 

"'London, February llth, 1835. 
" Sir, 

" ' I have already told you that I have not the smallest ob- 
jection to your painting and engraving a picture of me in 
any way you please, and in any costume. It is impossible 
for me to have any feeling on the subject, provided that it is 
clearly understood that I am no party to the picture. 
" ' I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" < Your most obedient, humble servant, 


" 12th. Worked hard. At the first dawn of morn- 
ing had a flash of an Imperial Guard musing at 
Waterloo, as a fitter companion for Napoleon. Finished 
it over the Duke ! This is the first time an Imperial 
Guard extinguished the Duke." 

The result of this correspondence, so characteristic 
on both sides, was that the publication of the print was 
arrested for the time. 

" 14th. Out whole day; very much harassed; 
sold the Imperial Guard to Ackerman for 317. 10s. Came 
home relieved. To work Monday, but still harassed. 
Thanks to God for this relief! 

" 2 1st. These times are serious indeed. Never were 
political feelings deeper, more determined, or more 
threatening. Literature and Art will be sacrificed. I 
can get nobody to think of Art, and the question, which 

12 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1835. 

was becoming one of great interest, is going out entirely. 
Individually my standing in society is decidedly im- 
proved. But my want of employment is as great as ever. 
I feel inspired, elevated in divine God ! I feel inter- 
nally in communication with the Deity, as if he were 
near, nearer than ever, as if I were sure of support, 
though in trial. 

" God ! What can these mysterious struggles mean? 
Why, if gifted with high power in my art, is it always 
to be developed by trouble and want ? Even now, I 
begin the day with only one sovereign in the world, and 
must send some sketches to the pawnbroker for exist- 
ence. I wrote to Lord Melbourne and offered him a 
study of himself for ten guineas. No reply. 

" 26th. Began Lord Grey Musing. Worked sot- 
tishly, stupidly, inefficiently, leadenly. 

(( 27th. Went to the city in a state of misery not 
to be expressed. Called on Moon, the printseller. I 
told him of my dreadful situation. He is to call this 
day. I had written to Lord Egerton, offering to paint 
the fire of the Houses of Parliament for 507. He an- 
swered he had not room for pictures, and sent twenty 
guineas. Horrid work, this perpetual charitable assist- 
ance. This is only additional evidence of what I have 
always said : when a house is full of old works there is 
no room for existing talent. Came home in better spirits. 
Went to Lady Blessington's in the evening. 

" Everybody goes to Lady Blessington's. She has 
the first news of everything, and everybody seems de- 
lighted to tell her. No woman will be more missed. 
She is the centre of more talent and gaiety than any 
other woman of fashion in London. 

" March 1st. Called on Lord Melbourne, and found 
him reading the Acts, with a quarto Greek Testament 
that belonged to Samuel Johnson, given to him by Lady 


" ( Is not the world, Lord Melbourne, an evidence of 
perpetual struggle to remedy a defect ? ' ' Certainly,' 
he mused out. ' If, as Milton says, we were sufficient 
to have stood, why did we fall ?' Lord Melbourne rose 
bolt up, and replied, < Ah, that 's touching on all our 

" We then swerved to Art. He advised me not to 
petition before Ewart's motion. He advised me to see 
Ewart and judge of his character. I told him that all 
the Ministers began with enthusiasm and ended by doubt, 
because they first saw the propriety of my propositions, 
and then asked advice of the Academy, who, perfectly 
contented with their monopoly and emolument, denied 
the necessity of State support. 

"4th. Nearly finished the Duke of Sutherland's 
small Napoleon. 

" 5th. Idle. Went to Hamilton to consult about 
this Committee for the building of the Lords. Called 
on Hume, who was knocked up a-bed. 

" 6^. Called on dear Hamilton. Carried him the 
petition*, and we laid our heads together, to improve it. 

* The following is the petition addressed by Haydon to the 
Commons' and Lords' Building Committee, which was presented 
by Lord Morpeth : 

" The humble petition of B. R. Haydon, historical painter, to the 
Right Hon. the Chairman and Committee of the House of Com- 
mons' and Lords' Building Committee, 

" Showeth, 1. That it is now nineteen years since, at the period 
of the purchase of the Elgin Marbles, the committee appointed to 
make that arrangement concluded the report upon the subject by 
recommending to the attention of the Legislature the great ad- 
vantage which had accrued to painting and sculpture in so small 
a state as Attica by the patronage of the government. 

" 2. That though indisputable talent has been developed in 
painting by very liberal though private patronage in England, of 
those branches which private patronage can advance, viz., portrait, 
peasant-life, landscape, sea views, animal painting, and still life ; 

14 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1835. 

He suggested a great improvement. I went to Halket's 
and wrote a fair copy. Drove to the House. The 

yet in historical painting enough has not yet been done, either by 
painters or by the State, to establish the character of Great Britain 
in the opinion of foreign nations as a historical school : this cannot 
be attributed to any deficiency of genius, because great excellence 
has occasionally been shown in individual and insulated works, but 
solely because there was no adequate space or existing necessity, 
it is supposed, to justify the State in affording that encouragement 
by which alone in foreign countries those who attained eminence 
have been always supported. 

" 3. That it appears to your petitioner that the obligation to re- 
build the two Houses of Parliament will at last give to the Legis- 
lature or to the Government the most favourable opportunity of 
developing the acknowledged talent now in England, by State 

" 4. That if spaces were assigned in the old House of Lords for 
designs in tapestry to commemorate a great national triumph, no 
just reason can now be given why equal spaces should not be left 
in the new House for the commemoration by painting of other 
national triumphs equally important. 

" 5. That your petitioner has no personal object in thus intruding 
himself on your notice, having for thirty years of an anxious life 
given public evidence of being always more animated by a love for 
his country's honour, than by any desire for gain or emolument; 
but there can be no dereliction of principle in respectfully saying 
he is ready at a moment's notice to lay a series of designs before 
your right honourable Committee, to illustrate the superiority of 
the British Constitution, as a fit ornament for a British senate- 
house : and he is equally ready, if others are considered more 
worthy, to contribute his support in helping to execute their 
designs ; his anxious desire being principally to get the principle 
acknowledged and acted on, and to direct the attention of |the 
Committee to the value of the great opportunity thus placed wifhin 
their reach, and to urge them to consider the vast benefits which 
may accrue to the arts and manufactures of this country, if this 
favourable moment be seized for the encouragement of historical 
painting, which has been so long, so ardently and so helplessly ex- 
pected, during the last century, by all the greatest men in tlhe 

" 6. That as the House has with the greatest liberality spent a 


Building Committee were sitting. I sent it in to the 
chairman, Lord Granville Somerset, and prayed for 
success. God grant it ! Thou knowest I have never 
given in. 

7^. Finished the Duke of Sutherland's Napoleon. 
Called on Hamilton, who advised me to send a copy of 
the petition to the Duke of Wellington, which I did. 

" I am most anxious about this matter, because it 
really is the climax of my efforts, to obtain which I have 

vast sum, viz., 153,000/., in procuring the finest examples to guide 
the native artists as follows: viz., 

" Townley marbles - - - 20,000 

" Elgin marbles .... 35,000 

" Phygaleian marbles - 19,000 

" Angerstein pictures ... 58,000 

" A Titian, Poussin, and Coreggio - - 10,000 

" Lord Londonderry's Coreggios - - 11,000 


surely something might now be done to reward those whose works 
have proved these examples were not afforded in vain. 

" 7. That the memorials of former times, which a few months ago 
received their last blow, and are now lost for ever, testified, that 
even in the middle ages the Sovereigns of this country gave large 
and liberal encouragement to historical painting ; for the walls of 
St. Stephen's Chapel, and the Painted Chamber, were evidences of 
the conviction entertained that it was to the interest and honour 
of the State it should be fostered at that time. 

" 8. That your petitioner begs to conclude by appealing to your 
right honourable Committee, whether it will not be subject of 
regret to the future historian if an age so far advanced in know- 
ledge, and so distinguished in talent, as the present, should prove 
itself less sensible of the great value of history-painting than one so 
remote and comparatively uncivilised as those of Henry III., when 
the two Houses of Parliament would certainly not have been re- 
built without the embellishment of historical painting. 

" And your petitioner will ever pray, 

" B. R. HAYDON. 
"London, March 6. 

"4, Burwood Place, Connaught Terrace." 

16 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON". [1835. 

staid in England, neglected to go to Italy and devoted 
my whole life to the accomplishment of this great na- 
tional object. If the Committee, Lords or Commons, 
if the Duke take it up, it will go on. God only knows. 
The misery is, the art is considered but as an embel- 
lishment, a sort of gilding, nothing more. 

" 9th. No answer. Went into the city for money. 
Came back disappointed. 

" Rubbed in a grand subject Orestes hesitating to 
murder Clytemnestra, ghost of Agamemnon. 

"llth. Advanced Lord Grey Musing. It will 
make an interesting thing. Exceedingly distressed in 
mind on money-wants. Wrote to the Duke of Devon- 

Haydon had painted at this time a small picture of 
Napoleon at St. Helena for the Duke of Sutherland. 
Just after the picture arrived at the Duke's, who should 
enter the room where it was placed, previously to being 
hung up, but Lucien Buonaparte ! The Duke, who was 
there at the time, told Haydon that he had just time to 
turn the picture to the wall. 

" 1 8th. Hard at work and completed my little 
picture of a Statesman musing after a Day's Fag. 

" Cassandra much liked. One of the papers said the 
c Veteran Haydon.' This is the first step towards the 
grave. By-and-bye, ' Old Haydon ; ' then * Poor old 

(( 20th. Rubbed in Mr. Cowper, and Mrs. Leicester 
Stanhope, from a tableau vivant I saw at her house, as 
a Scotch girl and lover ; very pretty. 

" 23rd. Saw Ewart, and had a long conversation 
previous to the motion for a Committee. He is a sen- 
sible man, and regulated my enthusiasm. The diffi- 
culties are great, but he will do it. 

"25th. My trials are severe, yet I trust in God 
with all my heart ; and if I had really begun a picture 


all would be right, for mind in artists preys upon itself. 
Nous verrons demain matin. 

"28th. Took my dear little Georgy beautiful 
little creature to Sir Charles Clarke ; was there all 
the morning. Then called on Lord Grey, who was 
looking well. He is going to put the Banquet in the 
dining-room, which will do me good. Then came home 
and made a drawing for the Achilles ; appointed a 
model for Monday ; but so many pecuniary anxieties 
will accrue next week, I dread to think of the loss of 

"O God! what 507. would do! Float me entirely 
in, and lay the foundation again of triumph. 

" I was obliged to take out five heads dear Harry's* 
collection of Napoleons and pawn them for 71. ; and 
now, Saturday, I am reduced to 17. 15s., with a dear 
infant ill, and bills to meet next week to the amount of 
507. Good heavens ! But I despair not. Oh, no ! I 
shall be relieved. Began Achilles again, which I wish 
I had never left for trifles. God bless me through it, as 
He has always blessed me through all my works, in spite 
of every misery. 

"29th. Drank wine with my old friend Billy f, the 
dearest friend I ever had, and went in the evening to 
Lady Blessington's. She described Lord Abercorn's 
conduct at the Priory. She said it was the most sin- 
gular place on earth. The moment anybody became 
celebrated they were invited. He had a great delight 
in seeing handsome women. Everybody handsome he 
made Lady Abercorn invite ; and all the guests shot, 
hunted, rode or did what they liked, provided they 
never spoke to Lord Abercorn except at table. If they 
met him they were to take no notice. 

(t At this time Thaddeus of Warsaw was making a 

* His dead boy. 

t Newton, his landlord, a Phoenix of a man. 

18 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDOIs. [1835. 

noise. e 'Gad,' said Lord Abercorn, ' we must have 
these Porters. Write, my dear Lady Abercorn.' She 
wrote. An answer came from Jane Porter that they 
could not afford the expense of travelling. A cheque 
was sent. They arrived. Lord Abercorn peeped at 
them as they came through the hall, and running by 
the private staircase to Lady Abercorn exclaimed, 
' Witches, my lady ! I must be off,' and immediately 
started post, and remained away till they were gone. 

" April 4th. At work at the Achilles. I omitted 
to subscribe to Soane's tribute. I wrote to tell him I 
was too poor. He enclosed me directly a cheque for 
107., for which I shall give him a share.* He ought not 
to have done so, and I ought not to have accepted it." 

On the 8th of this month the Peel and Wellington 
Cabinet resigned. 

" May 1st. Hard at work, and nearly completed 
' We are a ruined Nation.' Being obliged to put in a 
couple of portraits spoils it ; but to such hard uses does 
necessity drive one. Lord Grey's help to-day has se- 
cured me from immediate ruin, and under the blessing 
of Providence I will get through. On Monday I return 
to Achilles. There, there only, is my energy fixed. 

" 7<$. I painted a sirloin yesterday on John Bull's 
table in style. Finished the Old Tory." 

This refers to a capital humorous picture of a lusty 
John Bull at breakfast, surrounded with every luxury, 
and proclaiming the ruin of the country. 

" June 1st. Anxious the whole day about .my 
dearest Georgy. Sir Charles Clarke came and said she 
ought to do well. She looked like a suffering and 
prostrate lily. We had her baptized in case of the 

" 5th, Dearest Georgy will die like the last three 

* In liis picture of Xenophon. 


from suffusion of the brain a dreadful disease. As I 
watched her to-night in her convulsions, her beautiful 
head had a look of power and grief no one could forget. 
It's dreadful work. I tried to sketch her dear head, 
but could not. The look was of another world, as if 
she saw sights we could not see and heard sounds unfit 
for our mortality. Sweet innocent. 

" *7th. My dearest Georgy died to-day at ten 
minutes before six. 

" 14th. I have no employment. My landlord 
allows me to pay off my debt to him by Achilles, and 
allows me 57. 5s. a week for five months to do it in. 

" 1 Itli. Called on Ridley Colborne and had a con- 
versation. It is extraordinary how ingenious men are 
to find excuses for the errors of power, and how very 
ready they are to join the hue and cry against unsup- 
ported opposers of it. 

"Ridley Colborne put forth all the most common- 
place truisms with the gravest oratorical assumption, in 
answer to my questions. At last I said, ' Will you 
vote for the Committee?' He drew in and said, < I 
make no promise.' 

" The fact is the aristocracy are determined to carry 
the Academy through. The Academy is a necessary 
appendage to the spring fashions, and people of fashion 
can no more do without it than they can do without 
their valets or ladies' maids. 

" 22nd. Excessively distressed. No employment 
but my landlord's charity. The Session is passing. 
The Academy has advanced in power. They will get 
into the National Gallery and laugh at the country. 

" 23rd. Visited the tomb of my dear children.* I 
hope I shall be able to leave something to keep it in 

* In Paddington new churchyard, 
c 2 


" 24:th. Opened the Bible in an agony of despairing 
thought. Hit at once on the following passage : 

" ' I will go before thee, and make the crooked paths 
straight ; I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and 
cut asunder the bars of iron.' Isaiah, chap, xiv., v. 2. 

" A passage like this sent me through Macbeth in 
the middle of want, when my father left me. 

" (Note. October 30th. It sent me through Achilles, 
then painting, and will support me while I live.) 

"July \kih. I tried an experiment in 1830. I 
wrote to Sir Robert Peel I was in prison, and begged 
his protection of my family from the brutal tax-collector. 
He wrote to the Treasury instantly, and orders were 
issued to the collector to wait. As soon as I returned 
to my family I kept my word with Sir Robert, and 
paid up all my arrears. 

" Now I am in such necessity I cannot pay up my 
arrears and register myself. I have written Charles 
Wood, and told him about Peel, and asked him to help 
me with 17/., and I will repay him it 5L at a time. 
We shall see. This will be a fair specimen, and I'll 
bet five ito one Wood refuses. 

" They may say what they like of Peel ; he has a 
good, a tender and a feeling heart. 

" ]4:th. Hard at work. Wrote the Duke of Devon- 
shire, Lord Morpeth and Hume for help to pay my 
taxes. Not a sixpence from either, I'll bet. 

" 15th. Lord Morpeth helped me." 

At this time, to Haydon's great triumph, Mr. E\art 
obtained his Select Committee "to inquire into the 
best means of extending a knowledge of the arts and 
principles of design among the people (especially among 
the manufacturing population) of the country ; and 
also to inquire into the constitution of the Royal 
Academy, and the effects produced by it." Haydon's 
unceasing efforts had no little share in producing this 


result, and the triumph he expresses about it is natural. 
To aid the promoters of the inquiry, he wrote letters to 
the newspapers, and determined on giving lectures at 
the London Mechanics' Institute, under the auspices of 
Dr. Birkbeck. 

"18^. Hard at work, and finished another little 
picture of e We are a ruined Nation.' 

" 20th. I lecture at the Mechanics' Institute. It is 
quite an experiment. God support me. I hope I shall 
get through. As to matter I am quite sure; but self- 
possession in face of a multitude is different from self- 
possession in a study. 

"22nd. Finished Achilles, thanks to God! Began 
it April 1st. Painted three weeks on other things. 
Two weeks idling, i. e. not painting, but not idleness of 

" At half-past nine my dearest Mary presented me 
with a boy. Shall I call the dog B. R. Haydon ? 

"26th. Began Christ raising the Widow's Son. 
God bless my commencement, progression and con- 
cluding, and the same protection and courage to con- 
quer difficulties as He has ever granted, and render this 
picture as well as Achilles beneficial to my dear land- 
lord, Newton, for whom, and to pay off whom, they 
are painted. Amen with all my soul. 

"29th. Such was my necessity last Saturday I was 
obliged to take down all my drawings in the parlour 
while Mary was actually in labour-pains, and raise 
money. But I shall carry my great object, and, 
glorious creature, she will suffer anything rather than 
that I should fail. 

" Made another sketch of another conception, and a 
much finer one. I painted it in one continual agony. 
I was threatened with an execution, and expected at 
every knock to see the man enter. Heart-breaking 
apprehensions seized me at intervals of thought, but 

c 3 

22 MEMOIRS OP B. 11. HAYDON. [1835. 

I got through, something constantly saying, 'Work 
away and trust in God.' I did so, and succeeded. 

"Sept. 8th. Worked hard, and brought on my 
picture to a resting-point. This evening, at last, I 
lectured* at the Mechanics' Institute. After all my 
humiliations it was at first a rather nervous affair. 
The audience paid me keen and intense attention, and 
ultimately were enthusiastic. One man said my de- 
livery was perfect; another, who was deaf, said my 
delivery was the only thing wanting. Dr. Birkbeck 
said, as we went out, f You have got 'em : it is a hit ; ' 
and I think it was. I laid down principles which 
must reform English Art, and I had an audience who 
gloriously comprehended them. 

" 26th. The agony of my necessities is really 
dreadful. For this year I have principally supported 
myself by the help of my landlord, and by pawning 
everything of any value I have left, until at last it is 
come to my clothes, a thing in all my wants I never 
did before. I literally to-day sent out my dinner suit, 
which cost 10/., and got 21. 15s. on it for to-night's 
necessities. Oh, it is dreadful beyond expression ! I 
could not go to dearest Mary and ask her for her little 
jewelries ; but I am now, if invited to dinner, without 
a dress to dine in. 

" I finished the feet of the widow's son capitally, and 
if I can complete the hand left I shall have done the 
picture ; but these wants press hard indeed. ( Great is 
the glory, for the strife is hard.' I 

" Painted all day, but in great anxiety. 

" 28th. Lay awake in misery. Threatened on all 
sides. Feared the dreadful effect on my dear Mary. 
Doubtful whether to apply to the Insolvent Court |o 
protect me, or let ruin come. Wrote to Lord Spencer 

* This was the first of the published lectures. 


and Mr. Harman in a state not to be understood. Im- 
proved the picture, and not having a shilling sent a pair 
of my spectacles, and got 5s. for the day. 

" 29th. Sent the tea-urn off the table, and got 105. 
for the day. Shall call my creditors together. In God 
I trust. 

" 30th. My worthy landlord called, and I told him 
my horrid condition. He behaved well, but was hurt I 
had not told him before. Painted after he was gone, 
but in a harassed state not to be described. To-morrow 
is the meeting : God enlighten them ! I go to sleep 
something like a culprit in Newgate, who expects to be 
awakened by the execution bell. God protect us ! Let 
me get out of debt this time ; if ever I get in again 
punish me. 

" October 1st. Harass, threats, harass. Worked hard 
and finished the drapery. 

" 2nd. Harassed. Awoke at two with heated con- 
sciousness of approaching ruin. Listened if dear Mary 
was ill ; all dead, silent. The children expect some- 
thing, and are nervous. The servants lag. What an 
instinct there is in a house. The creditors met last 
night. Some got up in the midst of examining my 
statements to look at my picture of the Widow's Son. 
A little, fat, worthy fellow said, ' Just returned to life ; 
yes, indeed, beautiful I ' All that came granted me 

" 3rd. Out all day to see creditors. One at Mar- 
gate, one in Devonshire, and so forth. Came home, 
tired and irritable. By way of a comfort, served with a 
writ in the evening by a fellow (who would not come to 
the meeting) for books. Hail Sunday solace of the 
dray-horse and the debtor Hail ! 

" 5th. Out with my dear landlord, and quieted two 
important creditors. As a proof of this man's innate 
goodness of heart, he said as we went along, ' I hope I 

c 4 

24 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1835. 

shall get you through.' Came home and looked at my 
picture in sorrow. Nothing Saturday or Monday. 

Qth. Worked hard, and finished the widow's son. 

*lth. Out and got another creditor to sign till 
June, 1836. Came home exceedingly tired, and fell 
asleep from sheer want of repose, as if my brain was in 
a stupor. 

"8th. Out uselessly; fatigued to death. Looked 
at my picture. 

" 9th. Worked deliciously, as I was resolved to paint, 
let what would happen. This ruined me in 1823. 

" Painted the mother's head, 

" 10th. My wedding-day. Worked hard and finished 
the mother. This week ended so far well; nearly all 
my creditors have agreed to my terms, but still there 
are some who harass. Last Saturday I did not expect 
to get through this week; but I trusted, and have 
done it. 

" 13^. Hard at work, and put in a beautiful head 
of dearest Mary. 

" Called on Lord Melbourne, and had an hour's in- 
terview. ' Is there any prospect, my Lord, of the 
House of Lords being ornamented by painting ? ' * No,' 
he thundered out, and began to laugh. f What is the 
use of painting a room of deliberation ? ' f Ah,' said I, 
f if I had been your tutor at college you would not have 
said that.' He rubbed his hands again, looking the picture 
of mischief, and laughed heartily. I then said, ' Let me 
honour your reign.' He swaggered about the room in his 
grey dressing-gown, his ministerial boxes on the table, 
his neck bare, and a fine antique one it was, look- 
ing the picture of handsome, good-natured mischief. 
' Suppose,' said he, ' we employ Calcott.' ' Calcott, 
my Lord, a landscape painter !' said I. e Come, nly 
Lord, this is too bad.' He then sat down, opened his 
boxes and began to write. I sat dead quiet, and waited 


till his majesty spoke. 'What would you choose?' 
( Maintain me for the time, and settle a small pension to 
keep me from the workhouse.' He looked up with real 
feeling. ' Let me/ said I, ' in a week bring you one 
side as I would do it.' He consented, and we parted 
most amicably. God knows what will come of it. 

" 16th. Worked very hard, and delightfully. Made 
a sketch of one side of the House of Lords, as I propose 
to adorn it, with a series of subjects to illustrate the 
principle of the best government to regulate without 
cramping the liberty of man : 

Anarchy - Banditti. 

Democracy - Banishment of Aristides. 

Despotism - Burning of Rome. 

Revolution - La derniere charette. 

Moral Right - Establishment of Jury. 

Limited Monarchy - King, Lords and Commons. 

" God grant this victory at last. 

" 20th. Out again was so miserable at not being 
able to paint I came home and set to work, come what 
would, and left my dear landlord to attend to it. 

"21^. Worked hard and delightfully at Christ's 
head. God only knows if successfully. What a con- 
dition mine is ! No prints no books all gone as 
security for loans to support my family. Yet * Go on ' 
I ever hear, as I have ever heard for thirty years. God 
bless me with health and vigour of mind to my last 

" 28th. On Sunday I sent down by Lord Mel- 
bourne's desire the sketch of one side of the House of 
Lords, containing pictures to illustrate the best govern- 
ment for man. He saw it, and seemed more nettled 
than pleased I had proved its feasibility. He objected 
to the picture of Revolution being taken from the 
French. He said the French Government would think 

26 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1835, 

it an insult ; and said the subjects ought all to refer to 
the House of Lords and English history. I replied it 
should be an abstract idea, illustrated from the history 
of the world. After musing some time he said, ' It cer- 
tainly does express what you mean, but I will have nothing 
to do with it. He then went on bantering me, and I 
replying in the same strain ; it was an amusing duel. 

" 30th. God protect us Amen. Sold some prints, 
which relieved our actual wants, and nearly finished the 
figure, though being so dark it may want supervision. 
I think I may say I am beginning to reap at last, in ex- 
ecution, those delights I looked forward to when dis- 

" God in heaven grant me twenty years more of 
meridian powers." 

At this time Lord Brougham's Discourse of Natural 
Theology appearing engrossed Haydon ; and, as is 
usually the case, when any book deeply interested him, 
he has filled many pages of his Journal with arguments 
and reflexions suggested by it, at the end of which he 
acknowledges he should have been painting instead of 
writing them. 

" Nov. 4ih. Lord Brougham's book threw my mind 
entirely off its balance for painting, and I have not 
touched my brush till to-day, and then very feebly. 
Such speculations always act thus on me. 

" 6th. Up to this moment I have not actually 
painted. Why ? Harass, anxiety, want of money, 
loss of time in being obliged to trudge about and aell 
my own prints, at fifty years old nearly, and after 
thirty-one years' intense devotion to the art. It is 
hard ; but God's will be done. 

" Dec. 5th. Hard at work, and advanced well. An 
Academician said the sun of Art had set in this country. 
The silly creature ! It has never risen. The first streak 
of the dawn has but just appeared. The morning star is * 

1835.] REVIEW OF 1835. 27 

still glittering. The comets Reynolds, Hogarth, Wilson, 
Gainsborough, were blazing but irregular lights. We 
have never had the steady effulgence of the sun. 

3Uf. The last day of 1835. Another last day. 
On reviewing the year, though I have suffered bitter 
anxieties, I have cause for the deepest gratitude to my 
great Creator in raising me up such a friend as my dear 
landlord, who has helped me when the nobility forsook me, 
as usual ; and employed me to paint the Widow's Son 
and Achilles, paying me five guineas weekly, to the 
amount of 100 guineas, and then striking off 400 
guineas for each from the gross debt. During the 
whole of that time I have not had a single inquiry as to 
what I was doing, or if I wanted anything to do, though 
they all know my necessities, rny large family and my 

" I close this year, 1835, apprehending an execution; 
but I despair not. A star is always shining in my brain, 
which has ever led me on, and ever will. 

" Though the Melbourne Ministry, in imitation of 
their head, have no feeling for Art, a feeling is dawning 
among the mechanics and the middle classes. Day has 
broke, however far off may be the meridian sunshine." 

Through all the sore struggle of this year Hay don 
had seen more of fashionable society than at any period 
since that of his early successes. I find constant men- 
tion of dinners, and routs and charade -parties. Entered 
pele mete with notes of invitation to such gay and plea- 
sant assemblies are urgent appeals for commissions to 
great patrons, lawyers' letters, many notes refusing 
assistance, not a few giving it. No wonder that the 
constant battling with necessity had already begun to 
tell as well on Haydon's mode of working as on his 
powers. He was now painting pictures for bread, 
repeating himself, dispatching a work in a few days, 
over which, in better times, he would have spent months 3 

28 MEMOIRS OF B. R. IIAYDOtf. [1836. 

ready to paint small things, as great ones would not 
sell, fighting misery at the point of his brush, and 
with all his efforts obliged to eke out a livelihood by 
begging and borrowing, in default of worse expedients, 
such as bills and cognovits. In short, the net of em- 
barrassment was now drawn closely about him, never 
more to be struggled quite clear of while he lived, 
though the proceeds of lecturing relieved him at times, 
and enabled him to pay his way for considerable pe- 
riods together. A less elastic temperament and a less 
vigorous constitution would have broken down in one 
year of such a fight. Haydon kept it up for ten. One 
justice must be done him : if he pleaded hard for him- 
self in his necessities, he pleaded as passionately for Art. 


" January 1st. Prayed God to bless us through the 
year, and went into the city to beg mercy from a lawyer 
till Monday, though I have no more chance of paying 
then than now. To-day I had another sum due. I 
must beg money to-morrow for that. I came home to 
attend to my sick children, relying on the lawyer's 
honour. So has passed the first day of 1836. 

" 2nd. Harass, harass, harass. Fred ill. 

" 5th. Dashed in Adoration of Magi. 

"7th. Not fairly begun yet. The canvas came 
home to-day. God bless it, and what I put on it. 

" 8th. Rubbed in the Magi. God bless me through 
it. Sketched from naked model the figures for the 

" 9th. Completed the rubbing-in of the picture, and 
made two sketches of lion and man, and had a kind 
letter from the Duke of Bedford, with 5Z., a re*al 
blessing. I took my dress coat out of pawn with it to 
lecture at the Mechanics' Institution, 


" 10th. My house in great anxiety, from so much 
sickness. I hope the dear baby will not suffer. Mar- 
riage entails great interruption, but I think it prevents 
a man's mind eating him up, which is the case in too 
much solitude. 

" ll^/i. ' Italy is the place for a painter,' said my 
friend. I say, ( No.' In Italy everything has been 
done. England is the place for enterprise, where every- 
thing is to be done. 

" 13th. Head my second lecture at the Mechanics' 
Institution on the bones, with great applause, and in- 
troduced the naked figure. 

" I told them all if they did not get rid of every 
feeling of indelicacy in seeing the naked form, and did 
not relish its abstract beauty, taste for Grand Art would 
never be rooted amongst them This was received with 
applause, and I broke the ice for ever. I always said 
the middle classes were sound, and I am sure of it. I 
was obliged to take my black coat out of pawn to lec- 
ture in ; and this morning, when all my friends are 
congratulating me, in walks an execution for 50/. I 
wrote to Lord Melbourne, Peel and Duke of Bedford. 
Lord Melbourne sent me directly a cheque for 70/. 
This was kind-hearted. He told me I must not think 
him hard, but decidedly he could not repeat it. I con- 
cluded rny grateful reply by telling him that I should 
think nothing hard but his building the House of Lords 
without pictures, at which he laughed heartily I will 
be bound. 

" What a grand style the artists had got 
into their heads in the last century ! 
Nothing natural was the - - grand style. 

Bad colour - - grand style. 

No light and shadow - grand style. 

Clothing a king and beggar alike - grand style. 
Dislocated knees, hip, wrists and neck grandest style. 

30 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [!836. 

" 25th. My birthday, fifty years old. Settled 
the subject for Newton, Samson and Delilah. God 
bless me through it ! Amen. 

26/A. Another execution for 227. Wrote Lord 
Lansdowne. No answer yet. I shall stand it out ; but 
the expenses are horrible. This is always the way after 
any publicity. 

"30th. Rubbed in Cassandra. (Released from exe- 
cution, after a week's agony.) 

" 3 1st. Passed the day in divine peace after the tor- 
ments of the week. Read prayers to the children, and 
wrote my fourth lecture. How will the academic au- 
thorities of Art in Europe stare to hear these rebellious 
doctrines promulgated by a simple Englishman in a 
Mechanics' Institute, No. 37, Southampton Buildings, 
Holborn. Why the cocked hats of all the presidents 
will rise up like Mahomet's coffin, and be suspended in 
horror between earth and heaven, uncertain which to 
fly to for refuge and protection. 

" Hail immortal cocked hats! the last of an illus- 
trious race hail! but carry with you this consolation 
in adversity, nothing human is stable. Babylon, in 
all her glory, fell. Why should cocked hats escape the 
sentence of all things human ? 

" February ?>rd 10#z. Being a little clear, I began 
to glaze the Widow's Son : drying oil and mastic, half 
and half. 

" I6th. The R. A.'S complain I do not go on in e a 
quiet gentlemanly way.' Exactly so. When I got into 
a prison nothing would have pleased them more than if 
I had died in a ' quiet gentlemanly way.' 

" 19th. Glazed and completed, but I can look back 
with little satisfaction on the passing of the last two 
months. So much harass and thinking for lectures, 
though they were triumphantly received. So much ne- 
cessity and pecuniary want are sad occupiers of time. 


However, I trust in God, as I have ever done, and hope 
humbly he will have the mercy to permit my two last 
pictures to be sold for my sake, and for the encourage- 
ment of my worthy landlord to go on helping me to 
finish other works. 

" Called at the Duke's to see Cassandra; was not 
pleased. Her head is too small, and that is the fault of 
all the heads : and the foreground kneeling man is too 
large. One gets flattered so in one's own painting- 
room, and thinks so highly of one's immediate efforts ; 
I was abashed at seeing so many faults. They shall 
not occur again. 

" 24th. I dined with Lord Audley last night.* 
He gave me two handsome commissions. I trust in 
God they will turn out satisfactorily ; and that He 
will bless their commencement, progression and con- 

" March 2nd. Hard at work. Lord Audley has 
given me a handsome commission, the Black Prince 
thanking Lord James Audley for his valour after the 
battle of Poictiers. This subject will bring me into 
English history, which I have long wished for. 

" 4th. In the City, for what the City is only fit 
for cash and disappointed. 

(f 5h. In the City for cash, and the best of the 
joke is, got it. Lord Audley called and sat while I 
finished his second son. Settled the size and every- 
thing. All now afloat, thanks to God ! What I have 
gone through these pages testify ! Let any man of 
feeling reflect that on the loss of a beautiful infant we 
were obliged to pawn our winter things to bury her, 
that when my dear Mary was screaming in labour I 
rushed into my parlour, took down the drawings of my 
children and raised 21. on them, after my landlord had 

* Lord Audley was undoubtedly at this time insane. 

32 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON, [1836. 

advanced me 31, that on the night of my most brilliant 
success I took my coat out of pawn, and had the 
torture of being obliged to return it the next day, with 
the thunder of public applause ringing in my ears. 

" Lord Audley seems quite aware of all, and says he 
hopes his example will be followed by the nobility in 
recording the deeds of their ancestors. 

7^. Lord Audley dined with us, an old George IV. 's 
man, the lineal descendant of the Lord James Audley 
who fought at Poictiers. He told us all about his 
poverty ; of Lord Grey's getting him 3007. from the 
King's privy purse, and his losing it in a coffee-house ; 
of his going to Lord Dudley at twelve at night, and 
stating his misfortunes, and that Lord Dudley went 
into the next room, and wrote a cheque for 1500Z. 
for him. 

" He said George IV., one day when he dined with 
the King in company with Sir E. Horne, said ' Audley, 
I must kiss your forehead,' and did so in honour of 

" He drank freely and fell asleep. I could not help 
being deeply interested at seeing the descendant of 
Lord James Audley dozing by my fire- side. 

" He said, since he gave me that commission, he had 
been advised not to do so, for fear his picture should be 
seized. He told us, ' he despised the scoundrel.' 

" Lord Audley said, ' Money is at your command.' 
He talked of making my daughter presents, but this I 
shall not allow, and if he does anything out of the|way 
in point of liberality for me I will write to his eldest 
son, for I do think he is eccentric. He made me tell 
him how much I owed, and said, ' Would you not like 
to be cleared ? ' But it is a large sum. 

" He praised my daughter (who is beautiful), and 
said, ' If Bill likes her, and she will marry him, I will 


give him 50,OOOZ. * He told stories capitally well, and 
laughed heartily, and then stopped, and laughed, and 
looked serious. His manners were peculiar and made 
me melancholy. What seemed to dwell on his mind 
was his former poverty. He told me our meeting was 
providential, and that I should never want. He got 
excessively tipsy with little wine. I went for a coach 
and sent him to the New Hummums. I feared after I 
ought to have seen him home. 

" Poor Lord Audley, he means to do us a service if 
not persuaded out of it. 

" He was very witty, and concluded always his stories 
of the nobility assisting him, by saying, * You know I 
always brought in Poictiers.' 

" 10th. Lord Audley called ; was highly pleased, 
and left me 851 He talked no more of Bill and 50,000/. 
He saw my little dear, who said, 'Lord Audley is 
different to-day.' I did not tell her, but the fact was 
he was sober ; all the difference. 

" \\th. Spent the day at the Museum, and read 
Hollinshed, Stowe, and Froissart. Stowe's is the best 
account. Looked into Stothard's beautiful Monumental 
Effigies, and into Meyrick. 

"19^. The private day at Suffolk Street. Sir 
Robert Peel was there in the morning and admired the 
Achilles. He went to the Falstaff, and said to a mem- 
ber, ' I don't know if this is not his forte.' Now this 
was very mischievous. It is not more my forte than 
Napoleon, or the head of Lazarus. 

" 20th. Read late last night in Stowe's Chronicles 
and hurt my eyes. Sent the children to church, and 
read prayers to myself with the greatest delight. There 
is nothing like piety. 

" Sir Joshua said no man would be a great painter 
who looked to Sunday as a relief. I say he will never 

* My simplicity in believing the vagabond! B. E. H. 1845, 

34 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1836. 

be a great painter, the development of whose powers 
will be injured by one day in seven devoted to religion. 

" Rubens arose at four, prayed, and entered his paint- 
ing-room. Here was the most daring spirit in the art 
a man who had only to use his brush as authors use their 
pens, and do little else but write his conceptions on can- 
vas not venturing to begin for the day till he had 
prayed for blessing on his efforts. 

" I always used to remark that the idlest students 
worked hardest on a Sunday. Call on them in the week, 
they were never at their studies : call on a Sunday, and 
you were sure to find them buried in all the grubbiness 
of dressing-gown and dirty slippers. 

" 2lst. Hard at work and advanced rapidly. Pictures 
that used to take me years I do now in months. Those 
which now take me months, I hope soon will only take 
me days. 

" 30^. Lectured at the Mechanics on Composition ; 
tried them on the Academy, and succeeded. The com- 
mittee were in a funk. 

" In the committee afterwards they said, ' Your 
enthusiasm carried them on, or they would not have 
borne it.' No. It was their understandings carried 
them on. They have an instinct against oppression. 
They know I am the victim. 

" April QtJi. Lectured at the Mechanics with great 
applause. Hamilton ( ( ce cher William Hamilton,' as 
Canova called him) went, and seemed highly gratified. 
He took his son, Captain Hamilton, a fine sailoj-like, 
manly fellow. They seemed astonished at my hearty 
reception from the audience. They are of a different 
race to the audiences at the Royal Institution. 

" I2tk. In the city and succeeded. Curse the 
crowded, stinking, smoky, golden city, with its *iron, 
money-getting, beastly, under-bred snobs ! 

"May 3rd. Finished my lecture. 

1836.] DEATH OF A CHILD. 35 

" 4th. Delivered it, and concluded the series tri- 
umphantly. Frank and dear Mary were there, and when 
she came in with her beautiful face, they gave her a 
round of applause. Ah, would my dear Harry had been 
present. How his magnificent young soul would have 
expanded ! " 

The picture of Xenophon was raffled for on the 9th 
of this month and won by the Duke of Bedford. The 
amount of subscriptions was 8407., and the noble winner 
presented the picture to the Russell Institution, Great 
Coram Street, Russell Square, where it now hangs. 
There is great vigour in the work throughout, and parts 
of it, such as the head of the horse in the centre, the 
back of the rider who is carrying his wife, the wounded 
soldier and the female figure, are admirable. But it re- 
presents rather an episode in the march up Mount 
Theches than the discovery of the sea from its summit ; 
and the distribution of the picture is not pleasing ; the 
foreground figures look too large, owing to the want of 
a group in the middle distance to connect them with 
Xenophon and his soldiers on the hill-top in the back- 

On the 16th of the same month death took Haydon's 
youngest child, Newton. Passionately attached to his 
children as Haydon was, this blow fell heavily, and left 
him for many days in a melancholy apathy. " That 
dear, innocent quiet angel of a baby haunts my ima- 
gination," he writes on the 25th. And it should not 
be forgotten that the sorrow came at a time of grievous 
straits, when everything on which money could be 
raised was often pawned for necessaries. The success 
of the lectures, it is true, was some set-off against want 
and family griefs. Haydon was a most effective 
lecturer. His confident, energetic, and earnest manner 
carried his audience cheerfully along with him. His 
delivery was distinct and animated, and his style better 

D 2 

36 MEMOIKS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1836. 

adapted for hearing than reading. The two published 
volumes of lectures will be found to contain much the 
germ of which is to be found in the Autobiography 
and Journals, and their publication renders unnecessary 
more detailed notice of the lectures themselves in this 

The lecturer's power of rapid and vigorous drawing 
also stood him in good stead, and the masterly effect with 
which he dashed down on his black board a figure or 
a limb, or illustrated the leverage of a bone, or the 
action and mechanics of a muscle, always commanded 
interest and applause. Then he was never afraid of 
his audience ; he ruled them, sternly enough sometimes, 
and never shrunk from a reprimand when he thought 
they deserved it. A friend who attended his lectures 
at Liverpool has described to me how once, when he 
had got up two wrestlers on the platform to demonstrate 
the laws of muscular action in the living subject, the 
audience having laughed at some contortion of the pair, 
Hayclon fiercely addressing the laughers as "You fools !" 
checked the merriment, and ordered his hearers to ob- 
serve and admire, with more respect for God Almighty's 

Lecturing, which Haydon had now fairly begun, 
became before long one of his main resources, and it 
must be added to the other means he took of inculcating 
his views of Art and its relations to government and 

"June 2lst. Out on business. Came home. 
Dashed in the composition of the Heroine of fearra- 
gossa. Did little to Poictiers. I have had a great deal 
of money ; have paid a great deal away ; have none 
left, and am harassed out of my life. 

" Mr. Ewart's Committee* commenced its sittings 

* The Committee consisted of Mr. Ewart (chairman), Mr. Mor- 
rison, the Lord Advocate, Mr. Pusey, Mr. John Parker, Mr. 
Wyse, Mr. H. T. Hope, Dr. Bowring, Mr. Heathcoate, Mr. Strutt, 


in June, and, as may be supposed, Haydon followed the 
progress of the inquiry with interest. What parti- 
cularly pleased him was to see the Academicians brought 

Mr. Hutt, Mr. Brotherton, Mr. Scholefield, Mr. David Lewis, Mr. 

It examined manufacturers, connoisseurs, picture-cleaners and 
dealers, Royal Academicians and artists. Its report adverted to 
the little encouragement hitherto given to the arts in this country,' 
to the close connexion between arts and manufactures, and the 
want of means for instruction in design in our principal seats of 
manufacturing industry : and suggested, in addition to the Normal 
School of Design, which Government had now taken a vote for es- 
tablishing, local schools to be assisted by grants ; the formation of 
museums and galleries of art, and further, the formation of a cheap 
and accessible tribunal for the protection of invention in design. 

With respect to Academies, the Committee inclined to the 
belief that the principle of free competition in Art will ultimately 
triumph over all artificial institutions, and pointed out strongly 
the ambiguous, half public, half private character of the Aca- 
demy, without directly Recommending any modification of its con- 

With respect to the National Collections, the Committee recom- 
mended the compiling of a catalogue for the use of visitors, the 
fixing on the frames of the pictures the names of the school, the 
master, the date of his birth and death the purchase of the 
works of living British artists, after they have stood the test of 
time and criticism the deposit in the National Gallery of the 
Cartoons from Hampton Court the admission of practical and 
professional critics among the persons entrusted with the duty of pur- 
chasing works for the National Gallery, and an improvement in 
the constitution of commissions for deciding on plans of public 
works, by subjecting them first to the test of public criticism 
and afterwards to a tribunal consisting of artists in general, 
assisted by persons professionally acquainted with the subject of 
the work. 

In conclusion they submitted, that in the completion of great 
public buildings, the arts of sculpture and painting might be called 
in for the embellishment of architecture, and expressed their 
opinion that the contemplation of noble works in fresco and sculp- 
ture is worthy of the intelligence of a great and civilised nation. 

It will be obvious to all readers of these Memoirs, that many of 
the most important of these recommendations were the very things 

D 3 

38 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1836. 

to public examination. His personal grudge and his 
views of art, education, and patronage had now become 
too completely intertwined in his mind for him to se- 
parate, or for us to unravel them. His own examination 
took place on the 28th, and the result, he says, was 
glorious. In entering this fact in his Journal he adds, 
" When I think that in 1804 I went into the new 
church in the Strand, and on my knees prayed I might 
be a reformer of tha Art; that often and often I have 
had those extraordinary inspirations of ' go on ' super- 
naturally whispered ; and that now I am permitted to 
see the beginning of the end of this imposture, I must 
believe myself destined for a great purpose. 1 feel it ; 
I ever felt it ; I know it." 

" The result seems to be," (he says a little later,) 
" that the artists are disposed to compromise and save 
the Academy. 

" If they do, they deserve all that may and will 
happen to them again. After thirty years' fighting, 
the Government have done all they wished ; they have 
granted a Committee ; if the artists have neither talent, 
skill or disinterestedness enough to make full use of so 
vast an advantage, then let them no more complain, 
but bend their necks to the chain and the padlock, and 
submit for another seventy years to the kicks they 
have so valorously grumbled under for seventy years 

His learned and genial friend, Mr. Gwilt, whom 
Haydon often applied to for information on the Hislory 
and Antiquities of Art, (on which he could hardly'find 

which Haydon had most vehemently urged on Ministers and the 
public. Haydon in his evidence suggested a constituency of artists 
who had exhibited three years, to elect annually twenty-four* di- 
rectors for a central school of Art in London, in connexion with 
branch schools in the country. 


a better informed or more accessible authority,) fur- 
nished him with matter for this examination. * 

Haydon was not satisfied with the results of this in- 
quiry, nor the conduct of the artists examined. He 
complains that they showed no comprehension of a 
general principle, but kept driving away at individual 
grievances till the patience of the Committee was ex- 
hausted. He was angry, too, that the anti-academic 
party among his brethren did not formally apply to 
him to be their leader and champion. Thus he com- 
plains : 

* Here is Mr. Gwilt's useful summary of facts in the history of 
Academies of the Fine Arts. 

The Academy of St. Luke was founded by Girolamo Muziano, a 
native of Aquafredda, in the territory of Brescia, who was born in 
1528, and died in 1590. Gregory XIII. made him superintendant 
of works to his chapel. Muziano endowed it during his life, and 
at his death left all his property to it. Muziano was of Titian's 
school. Louis XIV. having, in 1665, established a French Aca- 
demy at Rome, with a pension for twelve scholars of the three 
arts, induced the Academy of St. Luke to let it be hung on to the 
original foundation. 

The Royal Academy of Architecture at Paris was, through the 
intercession of M. Colbert, founded by Louis XIV. in 1671, and 
confirmed by Louis XV. in 1717. It was the practice for lectures 
to be delivered constantly by the members, who were twenty-six in 

The Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture at Paris was 
founded in 1648, and confirmed through the interest of Mazarin in 
1653. Colbert procured it an endowment. It consisted of a di- 
rector, chancellor, four rectors, a treasurer, twelve professors, &c. 
by whom daily lectures were given, and the model set. Prizes 
were given every three months. It sent the most promising stu- 
dents to Rome. 

The Academy of St. Luke at Venice was the earliest regular as- 
sociation for the study of the arts, and was established about 1345, 
but did not take the name of Academy till 1350. The Academy 
" delle belle arti" at Florence^ was founded by the Grand Duke, 
Peter Leopold in 1784. Premiums twice a-year, and a grand 
competition every third year. 

i> 4 

40 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1836. 

" The meanness of the behaviour of the artists to me 
is extraordinary. When I attacked the Academy in 
1812, they all rushed to the Academy as to a father for 
protection from this madman, predicting my death, 
my ruin, my destruction, &c., but finding I have kept my 
ground, that I proposed and have got a committee, they 
now hold their meetings secretly and privately ; never 
give me notice, fearful of my taking the lead, as I should 
instantly do, which they know. They are absolutely 
intriguing to do all without me, and so get the honour 
which I have so successfully fought for. It is despicable, 
and just like them. They have been so cowed by 
the despotism that has ruled them, that they are like 
the Portuguese, not fit for the liberty we want to give 

" In consequence of disappointment from Lord Aud- 
ley, I am without a guinea ; and now, this day, have 
not a coat in my drawer. Shocking ! 

" 15th. This day Thou knowest what is to happen. 

God, I ask only for justice and truth to triumph. 

" 16th. Justice, indeed, triumphed. Shee, the Pre- 
sident, was examined. 

" I came down at one, and found Ewart in the chair, 
the room full, Shee sitting in the bitterest agitation. 

1 placed myself right opposite Shee, which seemed to 
disturb him. He arose, bowing, and affecting the 

The Institute at Bologna was originally founded by Eustacliio 
Manfred! in 1690, but did not bear its present name till 17f 4, 
when it was joined by a sort of College bearing that name. 

The Royal Academy of Sciences at Turin was founded about the 
middle of the eighteenth century. Its memoirs first published in 

The Academy at Padua, end of the eighteenth century. 

The Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture at Vienna, 
in 1705. 

Royal Academy, London, 1768. 


strongest respect for the Committee, begged to know 
by what authority he was summoned, as he considered 
it was only by permission of the King he could be there. 
The chairman ordered the committee clerk to read the 
authority, which being conclusive, poor Sir Martin was 
obliged to bow. He then entered on a rambling defence, 
and was repeatedly called to order by Ewart, and told 
to stick to the point. He accused the evidence of being 
personal and partial. Rennie jumped up and denied it, 
and was called to order. Shee shaking his hand at me 
across the table, in the most extraordinary manner, said, 
' That 's the respectable man,' alluding, of course, to my 
misfortunes. Honourable Sir Martin ! First to drive me 
into distresses, and then grossly to allude to them before 
a committee called for the purpose of inquiring into the 
effects of institutions. Mr, Pusey proposed the Court 
should be cleared. Shee begged the gentlemen round 
him might stay. The absurdity was so great, that leave 
was granted for all to stay, on the understanding that 
no altercation or personalities took place. Shee then 
dwelt on a mere incorrectness of diction in my evidence 
which gave a wrong sense, as if it was an intentional or 
gross ignorance of mine. 

te I said the esprit du corps of portrait- painting be- 
came embodied by the Royal Academy, and killed 
Hussey, and embarrassed Hogarth. This reads as if the 
Royal Academy killed Hussey, who died long before 
it was founded, whereas I meant the esprit du corps 
killed him. 

" It was too gross to suppose I am so ignorant of 
Hussey's period ; but Shee chuckled over this, and Phil- 
lips, Wilkins, Hilton, and Howard, laughed inwardly 
with a delight at having caught Haydon napping which 
was pitiable to see. 

" Conscious I had all three of the Committee of 1809 
in the vice, I smiled, and was dead silent. It was quite 

42 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1836. 

a scene. Shee went on, reading the diploma, and verbiag- 
ing away ; Ewart repeatedly begging him to be concise. 
At last began his examination. ' Do you think Acade- 
mies beneficial or no?' 'Extremely beneficial.' s Do 
you think the Academy is conducted with a feeling for 
justice?' ( Certainly.' e Do you think it justice that 
600 artists should be kept out on varnishing days ? ' 
s Certainly. This is one of the privileges of the Academy.' 

" So may say Mahomet Ali when he bowstrings a 

"'Do you think forty enough?' 'Certainly. I 
know no man of great genius out of the Academy.' 
' Do you not think Mr. Martin,' &c. ' Certainly, 
Mr. Martin is most respectable,' &c. And so it went 
on ; blind to all genuine principle seeing only the 
Academy and its bounded circle and including all that 
was great, illustrious, or immortal within its walls. He 
seemed like a man who was asleep amidst the stirring 
activity of mind abroad in the people. All he saw was 
the Academy and its members. He then again abused 
me for saying the Academy was founded on the basest 
intrgue, and mentioned Reynolds, Chambers, West, 
and Paul Sandby, as men whose characters were a 
security, when four more intriguing old rascals never 
lived. Why, the Academy obliged Reynolds to resign 
because he intrigued, they said, to get in Bonomi to 
please Lord Aylesford. Farringdon was a thorough- 
bred intriguer. 

" Shee said the Academy as a body had appealed to 
the King about High Art, and no answer was returned. 
Mr. Ewart asked him if he knew Waagen's opinion of 
Academies. Shee imprudently said he did not, and he 
must have higher authority than Mr. Ewart's for his 
having an opinion against the Academy. This was 
gross. Mr. Ewart ordered the committee clerk to give 
in Waagen's evidence, wherein he read to Shee, wi^h 


gusto,]Waagen's opinion, that he considered Academies 
destructive ; that Academicians became portion of the 
State; that it had been known that men of medium 
talent had obtained employment and distinction who 
were Academicians, while men who had not, though of 
the greatest genius, had struggled on in poverty and 
without employment. There was I, a living instance, 
and was not the whole scene a scene of retribution? 
The very men, the very hangers Shee, Phillips, and 
Howard who, twenty -nine years ago, used me so 
infamously in hanging Dentatus in the dark, by which 
all my prospects were blasted for ever, at which Lord 
Mulgrave so complained, were now at the bar before 
me like culprits under examination. How Sir George 
would have relished this ! 

" Ah, little did they think in the despotism of their 
power, that I, a poor student at their mercy, would ever 
have the power to do this, to bring them face to face, 
to have them examined, ransacked, questioned, 

" Ah, they are deservedly punished ! 

" July 18th. Idle, and lectured at the Milton, a 
delightful theatre cool. I felt like a lion and read 
like one. 

" 19th. Attended the Committee; the impression 
Shee had made was decidedly unfavourable to his 
cause. Sir John Paul was examined, and gave very 
interesting evidence as to the state of design in manu- 

" Sir John alluded to the fact that he had casts of 
some ancient tombs, and that he had given them to 
stone-masons ; and that the people preferred them, and 
chose them for the tombs of their friends. Here Mr. 
Hope, with his peculiar delicate and dry manner, asked 
Sir John Paul if the shares in the Cemetery Company 
were not high. He said they were. Sir John was a 

44 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1836. 

se Old Landseer was examined ; but he was prolix 
and flowery. He quoted Shee against himself as to 
Academies, and made some good hits. 

" The Committee will do immense good. Would 
any man believe that Hussey was living in 1774?* 
And Shee is the man to accuse me of ignorance of 
dates ! 

" 20th. Went to the British Museum, and found 
two interesting pamphlets connected with the Royal 
Academy, by which it appears decidedly that the di- 
rectors who were expelled from the chartered body of 
artists became Academicians, and that not being able 
to carry their exclusive intentions in the constituent 
body, they resorted to the scheme of an Academy of 
forty, securing a majority of their own way of thinking, 
that they might enact their exclusive laws. This is 
indisputable from Strong's pamphlet, 1775, and another 
in the Museum, 1771, entitled, ' Considerations of the 
Behaviour of the Academicians who were expelled the 
Chartered Body for 1760-69.' 

" Reynolds promised the chartered body, of which he 
was member, not to exhibit with the expelled directors ; 
but finding the King protecting them, he broke his 
word, did exhibit, and was expelled the incorporated 
body. This is not known, nor did I know it till to- 
day. Tickled by a knighthood, he joined the directors, 
and this was the origin of the Royal Academy, 
founded in intrigue, based on injustice, treachery and 

" Dalton seems to have been a great scoundrel, find 
he was a prime instrument. 

" Reynolds was properly and very severely punished 
after, but the art has suffered ever since. 

"2Ist. Shee objects to a constituency on the 

* The Royal Academy having been founded in 1768. 


grounds that it would produce all the evils that it did 
before. What evils ? What were the evils ? These 
were the evils: Twenty-four directors got in and 
kept in. The constituency complained, and passed a 
bye-law to make eight go out. The Attorney-General, 
Grey, gave it as his opinion that the bye-law was 
consistent with the charter. The directors had pro- 
mised to abide by the opinion of the Attorney- General, 
and then refused. Sixteen of these worthies were 
voted out, and became Academicians, and eight more 
joined them, and these formed the bulk of the Academy ; 
so that the evils complained of were not evils proceeding 
from a constituency, but because the laws of that con- 
stituency had been violated. Therefore, if the people 
who were conducting were improper people, these 
people founded the Academy, and brought all their 
improprieties into the Academy, and are the origin of 
the evils which we complain of and which Sir Martin 
fears would be revived by a constituency, though these 
very evils were produced in spite of a constituency and 
not in consequence of it. So much for Sir Martin. 

" Sir Martin knows well that he and all of his col- 
leagues are benefiting by the very evils he affects to 
apprehend, for if they were improper people who took 
the lead, he is the produce and offspring. 

"25th. Finished the fair copy of my first lecture 
and improved it much, but idle from exceeding harass 
about trifles. Lord Audley has completely deceived 
me about his resources ; after telling me he was the 
richest peer, it turns out he is the poorest. I fear his 
honour and his character. 

"29th. The artists do not know the origin of this 
Committee. All are claiming the honour. They all 
deserve to share it, Foggo, Rennie, and all. But the 
morning Lord Melbourne was sitting to me, he had 
just sent out his circular letters about municipal cor- 

46 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON". [1836. 

porations. I said, ( Why not give us a committee for 
the Academy?' He replied, e You may have one if you 
like ; ' and this is the real origin. 

"30th. Out the whole day on bitter pecuniary 
harass, and yet all trifles, 47. 10s., 87. 10s., 137. 4$., 10/., 
37. 10s., 47. 8s., and suffered all my old agonies of tor- 
ture as to probable ruin, interruption of the education 
of my dear children, loss of my property. If I could 
stick at my pictures I would not care, but Lord Audley 
has played me so shabby a trick that I fear, unless pro- 
tected by my Great Creator, in whom I trust, the con- 
sequence may be ruin. 

" These Journals testify that whenever I have been 
free, I have flown to my canvas as a relief and a bless- 
ing. The Mock Election was the fruits of the peace 
I enjoyed in 1827. The Chairing the result of George 
VI. 's purchase. In fact, if I had 5007. a-year regularly, 
never would I cease painting, morning, noon, or night, 
and never have a debt. 

"August 30th. Awoke at four with a terrific con- 
ception of Quintus Curtius, after a sublime dream. I 
dreamt I was with the Duke of Wellington near the 
sea. I stripped. It was a grand storm. I plunged in, 
and swam as I used in my youth. I saw an enormous 
wave rising, curling and black. Suddenly I found my 
Mary close to me. We were both looking at the sub- 
lime wave as it rolled towards us ; at last it came quite 
close. I told her to hold tight. She smiled, rosy red. 
At the instant it was overwhelming us, a terrific flash 
of lightning broke from its top, and it roared in bf us 
to the left without even welting us. We saw it stretch 
in its gurgling sweeping glory on the beach, and break 
harmless. I awoke, and the moment consciousness 
came over me, Quintus Curtius darted into my hemd. 
This is a true description, exactly as I dreamt it, 
not added to, nor taken from. 

1836.] IN STRAITS. 47 

" I know a storm is approaching, but I feel I shall 
weather it, under God. Success ! Amen. 

" September 6th. Worked, but in an agony ; at two 
I had a promise to keep for 87. without a farthing ; at 
four for 51 without a halfpenny. I paid away SI. on 

" I worked on till one. Lunched. Drove away in 
an omnibus, and got till Saturday for the 8/., and 
put off the 51. till Wednesday. I rushed home and 

6th. Hard at work, and succeeded in the fore- 
shortened figure. At one time of the day my anxieties 
were hideous. I had not a farthing, and taking down 
some valuable Italian books worth five guineas, I sent 
them by my 'jidus Achates ' and got 7s. In the interval 
I worked away in great torture, and succeeded. There 
is a period in working, when the result is not secure, 
that is excruciating. No wealth or honour would relieve 
or ease you. If it turns out successfully in the end no 
torture is felt, but if you miss it no happiness is re- 

e< 9th. At breakfast with the dear children a timid 
tingle of the bell made us all look anxiously. A whis- 
per in the hall, and then the servant entered with, 
f Mr. Smith, sir, wishes to see you.' I went, and was 
taken in execution. After lingering two days at 
Davis's lock-up house, Eed Lion Square, on the 12th I 
was moved again to that blessed refuge of the miserable, 
the Bench. 

" Newton, my landlord, offered to pay me out. I 
refused, and proceeded to prepare for the Court directly. 
Rather than go out to endure the horror this Journal 
gives evidence of, I'd stay here for ever. 

(t My landlord took possession and moved away 
my brushes and grinding-stone. Took the things at 
133Z. 10s., paid the difference and took the rest for his 

48 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON [1836. 

" What a fight it is ! It is wonderful how my health 
is preserved, and my dear Mary's too. But trusting in 
God and doing our utmost to please Him, I have not 
the least doubt of carrying my great object, a vote for 
money for Art, and perhaps I shall then sink without 
tasting its fruits. 

" From 14th to 30th in prison. 

" Read Wraxall's two works with very great interest. 
Relieved my mind much after the harass of lawyers, 
insults of turnkeys, and torture of suspense. My mind 
in a state of blank apathy. Oh God, in Thee I trust. 

" October 1st. I heard from Ewart yesterday, and 
I fear the report. The fact is the Whigs arrest the keen 
edge of the scalping-knife of reform which the people 
have put into their heads. They will hesitate, and be 
content with pricking the corruption which ought to be 
probed, and the humours let out. 

" Wth. The last time I was here I fell in with Dr. 
Mackay, who negotiated the commercial treaty with 
South America for Canning, and as we used to walk 
about by night in the racket-ground, he detailed to me 
the interesting particulars. 

" Now I have got acquainted with , a species the 

Continent alone produces, dissolute and impious, unprin- 
cipled and reckless, full of talent and full of diplomacy, 
speaking seven languages, just such a man as Napoleon 
would have seized, and turned to every purpose on earth. 

" He says he was chef d'escadron in the Garde du 
Corps, and private secretary to the Due d'Angouleme. 

" He is evidently possessed of state papers of great 
importance, how, he told me in a moment of drunk- 
enness. He is evidently connected with, if not first 
mover of, the Portfolio. 

" He showed me documents which prove he *was 
acquainted with Fieschi's attempt. He has shown me 
a deed signed most sacredly by three, two Spaniards 

1836.] IN THE BENCH. 49 

and one Englishman, Richard Sheridan, whereby 50007. 
sterling is guaranteed to the Spaniards for the invention 
of a shell and machine which was to destroy Don Carlos. 
He has also shown me a letter from the Carlton Club, 
offering 30007. for some letters he has. 

" I believe it. And does not this prove how cautious 
Ministers should be ! I believe him to have got by the 
means he told me the whole state papers already pub- 
lished in the Portfolio, and what he showed me (affi- 
davits about Fieschi) is coming out in the next number. 
We shall see. 

" 24:th. The faces here are horrid ; last night, all 
of a sudden, just after midnight, a roar as of fiends 
burst out from the racket-ground, and awakened me. 
Good God, on a Sunday ! swearing, fighting, cursing, 
drinking, gambling, and strumpeting ! What an offer- 
ing to the Almighty for the blessings of life ! 

"King's Bench, Oct. 26. 1836. 

"Ah, Sir Robert Peel, I told you I was convinced my 
absurd* conduct about the Napoleon had staggered me, and 
would be the seed of future embarrassment, and here I am 
again, less in debt than ever I was in my life, yet, being 
unable to meet in time the balance due, a victim to that 
cursed law of imprisonment. 

" When a man touches my property it is just, and I always 
exert my resources to pay the claim, but when he seizes my 
person, I let the law take its course, and ever will. 

"I shall begin the world again with no more property left 
after thirty-two years' struggle than the clothes on my back. 

"I appeal to you if I have been idle since my last 
troubles. I have never incurred in all my life a debt of 
vice, debauchery, or extravagance, and I have been brought 

* After naming 100Z. as his price for a whole length in answer to 
Sir Robert Peel's inquiry, he felt discontented that more was not 
paid him, and wrote to ask for an additional sum. Sir Robert paid 
him 30?., but naturally was annoyed. 


50 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON. [1836. 

to earth by a combination of circumstances. I assure you 
I calculated on receiving more from you. I could not keep 
my engagements, and then came, as usual, law costs. 

" Since 1830 I have paid, because I could not keep my 
word, 3037. 8s. 6d. in pure cash, or rather impure. On one 
debt of 71. 10^., I paid 8/. 10s. costs the son being the 
lawyer, who acknowledges the father shared all costs. So 
that, first, there was the father's just profit, and then he 
received 41. 5s. as his share of the legal spoliation. 

" While I was in confinement in Red Lion Square I saw 
them go by in their carriages. / was the dishonourable, 
they the respectable. 

" In the never closing and inexorable eye of our Maker 
who was the real dishonourable here ? 

" I am, Sir Robert Peel, 

" Your grateful servant, 


" The Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel, &c. &c." 

et 27th. An accomplished Frenchman came to my 
rooms to see my works. ' I have none.' ' Where are 
they ? ' ' My Solomon is rotting in a carpenter's shop 
my Lazarus in a kitchen.' f When I found you were 
here, I thought it was for your pleasure. It is extra- 
ordinary. Why does not Palmerston do something?' 
c He has done something.' 

" ( It is wonderful you are here.' f Not at all. May 
I ask to whom I have the honour of speaking ? ' f Nea- 
vare mind: Edmund Burke introduced me to Reynolds.' 
' Will you call again ? ' ( I will. Have you no work 
to show me r ' * Xenophon at the Russell Institution ; 
and read the report on Art.' * My friend,' said he, 
f You will neavare make this trading nation love high 
Art,' ' My friend,' said I, Til try.' 'You will run 
your head against a wall.' ( Perhaps I may knock 4he 
wall down.' He lifted up his hands and eyes, and 
looked at me as if looking through the devil. 


" 29th. One evening while I was sitting by myself 
came a knock. I opened the door, and the head turn- 
key, (who is a worthy man, for I have found him feeding 
the poor prisoners from his own table,) after making 
sundry apologies, begged a few minutes' conversation. 
He sidled in and sat down, big with something. c Per- 
haps, sir,' said he, taking out and putting across his 
knee a blue cotton handkerchief, ff you would scarcely 
suppose that from seven years old divinity and medicine 
have been my passions.' ( Certainly not, Mr. Colwell.' 
6 Ah, sir, 'tis true, and I know, I assure you, much 
more than most of the doctors or parsons. Why, sir, 
you would little think I always cured the cholera. You 
may wonder, but it is a fact. I never lost a case, and in 
twenty-four hours they were as well as ever. I do it 
all by harbs, Mr. Haydon, by harbs. You are a public 
man a man of genius, as they say, and perhaps you 
will laugh at a man like me knowing anything. But, 
sir,' said he, looking peculiarly sagacious and half know- 
ing, yet trembling lest I should quiz, *I gather my 
plants under the planets aye, and it is wonderful the 
cures I perform. Why there is Lord Wynford, he is as 
bent as an old oak, and if he 'd listen to me I 'd make 
him as straight as a poplar.' ' No, Mr. Colwell ! ' ( I 
would though,' he said in a loud voice, reassured on 
finding I did not laugh. 

" By this time he had got courage. He assured me 
that he was blessed in a wife who believed in him, and 
that he had cured her often and often, and here his 
weather-beaten face quivered. 'Ah, Mr. Colwell,' said 
I, e your wife is a good, motherly woman, It 's a com- 
fort to me to see her face among the others here. ' 
Colwell got solemn ; assured me he had out-argued 
Taylor, the atheist, before the people ; that he had 
undoubted evidence Joseph of Arimathea landed at 
Glastonbury, for at that time the sea came all up to the 

E 2 

52 MEMOIRS OF B, K. HAYDON. [1836. 

abbey, and what was to hinder him ? And,' said he, 
* Mr. Hay don, would you believe it ? ' drawing his 
chair closer, and wiping his mouth with his blue hand- 
kerchief, which he spread over his short thighs, that 
poked out, as it were, from under his belly, ' would 
you believe it, I can prove Abraham was circumcised 
the very day before Sodom and Gomorrah were burnt ! " 
" f Will you take a glass of wine, Mr. Colwell ? ' I 
replied. Colwell had no objection, and smacking his 
lips as he rose, said he would look in again, and bring 
me some books which would tell me all ; but now he 
must go to 14 in 10 to give the gentleman his chum- 
ticket. I attended my guest to my little entrance, and 
he wished me good night, looking an inch taller, per- 
fectly convinced he had made an impression and would 
certainly have a convert. 

" When he came in he seemed labouring with deep 
thoughts, and he left me as if relieved, as if he had 
done his duty. He was the first man I saw in 1823 
when I paid my fees. The hideous look of his dark 
globular eyes, one of them awry like Irving's, gave me 
a horror. He looked a perfect Schidone ; but I have 
caught him in perpetual acts of benevolence, where he 
little thought any eye would find him out. 

" There is not a worthier heart, and never was a 
rougher case for it. Strange to find such sensibilities 
in a gaol. 

"30th. My dearest love came in nervous dejection, 
and left me to-day affected like herself. This is one of 
those occasional variations in the feelings of those Jvho 
love with all their hearts. 

" November 2nd. Did not do much, but thought 
deeply. The quiet I have enjoyed here has done my 
brain great good. 

" November llth. A poor gentleman, called Phillips, 
a writer to the signet, a prisoner in consequence of Lorc[ 


's irregularity, as much as I am from Lord Audley's, 

dropped dead in his room last night. He had a mild, 
benevolent countenance, and was detained by a rich man 
from mere vindictiveness. 

"It might have been thought that such an awful 
event would have stopped the levity of the vicious and 
thoughtless: not it. Gambling, swearing, and drinking 
went on as usual, and last night, when I was musing 
(like Byron after the assassination of the Austrian com- 
mander) on life and death, the bloods and blackguards 
of the place were singing duets outside my doors at 

"A prison is a perfect world compressed into a nar- 
row space. 

"'In the midst of life we are in death.' 

" 12th. Read Byron's Life by Moore. To-day was 
the last day for opposition, and when the books closed 
at four there was none. God be thanked ; and God of 
his mercy restore me to my glorious pursuit, and my 
dearest Mary and children before the week is out ; 
with deep gratitude for the unexpected mercies to my 
dear family and myself during my imprisonment. 

" 14^. Lord came in prisoner, and brought a 

beautiful boy with him. There he was in the coffee- 
house, sinless and innocent, watching his papa smoking 
and sipping brandy-and-water, up at eleven o'clock, 
when the dear ought to have been sleeping in bed. I 
watched him with the feelings of a father. That child 
will have his horror of a gaol weakened for ever. Yet 
there was something interesting in seeing a fine young 
man keeping his dear boy close to him. He would 
have him sleep by his side. There was something pe- 
culiarly innocent in the look of the boy with his white 

" On Saturday, an old man dies and is opened ; on 
E 3 

54 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1836. 

Monday comes in the son of a noble Lord with his 
innocent boy. 

"16th. The English are base-minded, where money 
is wanted or rank concerned. They reverence rank 
from the belief that wealth is the consequence of it. 
But when they have evidence wealth is wanting, away 
goes at once all respect for my Lord. 

" Last night, Lord set all the prisoners agape. 

One must go out of his room, for my Lord wanted three 
beds ; another was applied to for one thing, a third for 
another. This morning the bill was presented as usual, 
for all bills are paid here daily. His Lordship looked 
astonished, said a bill was a nuisance, and as soon as his 
friend came again he would leave 51. with the landlord, 
and when it was out he must tell him. 

" The evidence that my Lord had no money was pal- 
pable, and immediately my Lord fell 50 per cent. 

" 17th. I went up to Court to-day, and was treated 
with the greatest humanity. Commissioner Law seemed 
by his face to have the greatest sympathy. He looked 
feeling all over. He never asked me a single question, 
and the whole Court hastened my discharge with the 
rapidity of lightning. 

" I trust in God this will be the last time I shall ever 
need such protection again. 

" 18th. Returned once more to my dear home. I 
opened the Bible, which I found on the chimney-piece, 
and at once came to that wonderful blessing and cursing 
in the 28th chapter of Deuteronomy. f 

"20th. Went to church, and returned thanks with 
all my heart and all my soul for the great mercies of 
God to me and my family during my imprisonment. 

"2lst. Routed out all my plaster figures, to h|ive 
the room cleaned, which has not been done for two years. 
Hope to be ready by to-morrow night, Wrote Law, 
nd thanked him for his sympathy and firmness. 


"22nd. Got all ready in the plaster-room. Now 
for the painting room. 

"23rd. Cleared out and re-arranged my desert room. 

" 24th. My landlord returned my brushes and grind- 
ing-stone. Picked up a second-hand carpet to cover 
the room. Ordered a canvas, sent half the money for 
it to Brown, a worthy fellow, who abused me to my 
man for not settling 4?. 15s. (the last balance). Fitz 
quieted him, and he promised canvas Saturday night. 
Poor Brown, he shall have his money as soon as I begin 
to get on. Brown and I have been connected for thirty 
years, and have had about forty regular quarrels. He 
is sulky and coarse, I am violent and unflinching. It 
ends by his trying to smile through the sulkiness of his 
honest face. 

"28th.* Did a great deal of preparatory business. 
Paid off a scoundrel of a lawyer. 

* The following advertisement refers to his affairs at the time of 
this imprisonment. 

" Mr. Haydon begs leave to inform his creditors, that, out of the 
1220/. 6s. 6d. correctly stated as the amount of debt incurred since 
1830, 550L must be deducted as renewed liabilities from before 
1830, and, again, 841. 14s. 6d. must be further deducted for the 
fictitious debt of law cost : the real balance is thus brought to 
586/. 14*. 6c?., all of which could have been cleared off in another 
year, as Mr. Haydon had paid off more than that sum during the 
previous year. It has been a matter of astonishment to Mr. Hay- 
don why he should never have been persecuted with law from 
eighteen years of age to thirty-four, a period of greater struggle 
than any since, and he attributes it to a suspicion among London 
tradesmen that he saved and secured a large sum of money from 
the great receipts of his Entry into Jerusalem. There never was 
a more absurd belief the receipts were nearly 3000Z., the expenses 
of the exhibition were 1100Z.; the picture had taken six years, and 
the painter was supported through it entirely by loans ; the balance 
of receipts was paid away, and did not liquidate one-half of them. 
Mr. Haydon has been told this idea got abroad ; there is certainly 
no other way of accounting for that immediate rush of law cost 

E 4 

56 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1836. 

"29th. Set my palette to-day, the first time these 
eleven weeks and three days. I relished the oil ; could 
have tasted the colour; rubbed my cheeks with the 
brushes, and kissed the palette. Ah! could I be let 
loose in the House of Lords ! 

" I hope to return to my pursuits under the blessing 
of my Creator. My conscience will never be clear till 
I have paid all I owe, for though the law protects me, 
the debts are still debts of honour." 

During the beginning of December, he was working 
at the heroine of Saragossa and Falstaff reproving Prince 
Hal, for Mr. Hope. 

I insert the following letter, because I think it really 
throws light on the writer's character. It should be 
remembered, in reading it, that it was addressed by 
Haydon to his landlord, W. Newton, from whom he was 
in the constant receipt of singular kindnesses, who for- 
bore to press him for heavy arrears of rent, who was 
always ready to advance him money in his worst emer- 
gencies, and who was not to be provoked into harshness 

which has brought him four times to the earth, for the first pro- 
ceeding took place at this time. Mr. Haydon incurred 

From 1820 to 1823, law costs - - - 377 
From 1823 to 1830, ditto ... 450 
From 1830 to 1836, ditto - - - 303 8 6 

Altogether 1130 8 6 
(An actual independence.) 

" London tradesmen are generous men if they think they are not 
imposed on. Mr. Haydon appeals to them if they consider itfwas 
a reasonable way of enabling him to earn the means of paying his 
debts to suddenly lock him up, and keep him useless to himself and 
family for ten weeks, and all for a debt of 301 15s. 6d. ? after, 
too, he had paid all of 9471. received this year, but 4s. 6d., the 
actual sum he possessed in the world when arrested. Mr. Haydon 
is now beginning the world again after thirty-two years of struggle, 
but he does not despair of doing all he ought, if treated in future 
with more common sense and common discretion." 


even by this letter. Nay, he did not even jump at this 
notice to quit ! 

The letter appears to me to be one which could not 
have come from a man with the views usually prevalent 
about money obligations. Such a tone taken by a 
debtor to his creditor indicates altogether peculiar 
notions of these relations, and explains to me many 
passages in Haydon's life into which money transactions 

"London, 21st December, 1836. 
" My dear Newton, 

" Mary came home last night with the usual quantity of 
gossip and scandal, of which you possess so abundant a fund. 

" It seems it is who has told you that falsehood of 

my having given six lectures at the Milton and received 20 
guineas, whereas I only gave three lectures and received 10 
guineas, Wl. of which I brought you next day, explaining I 
had only received half, though given to understand it would 
be all which 101. I borrowed of you again, 51. at a time. 

" And this is the way to excuse your own abominable 
cruelty in doing your best to add to the weight of degrada- 
tion and misery I have suffered by insinuating to my wife 
these abominable lies. 

" I am ashamed to use so gross a word, but your forget- 
fulness, your confusion of memory, your jumbling one thing 
with another, your making me write notes when harassed 
with want, which I forgot to reclaim, and then your bring- 
ing them forward again when it suits your convenience, 
provoke me to it. 

" Don't talk to me of your affection. Pooh ! To let a 
friend come out of prison aften ten weeks locking up de- 
graded in character calumniated and tortured in mind 
to let him come to what had hitherto been the solace of all 
his distresses (his painting-room) stripped of all that ren- 
dered it delightful, and stripped, too, under the smiling pre- 
tences of friendship, and under the most solemn assurances 
that everything would be returned, and then, on the very 
morning I came home, when one would have thought all 

58 MEMOIRS OF 13. K. HAYDON. [1836. 

beastly feelings of interest would have been buried in the 
pleasure of welcoming me back, at such a moment to break 
your word, and to add to my forlorn wretchedness, by re- 
fusing to keep it, is a disgrace to your heart and understand- 
ing, and will be even after you are dead, as well as while 
you are living. Had I known the extent of what you had 
been guilty of, I would have scorned to receive the balance 
of Sampson. It was only when I came home I saw what 
you had done. 

"However, Mrs. Haydon says, if I will only say you shall 
not be a loser, the pictures and sketches shall come back 
directly. I told you so in prison, and still tell you so now. 
You know that : but your delight is the delight of the tiger 
over his prey, not to kill at once, but to play with your 
victim. I tell you again you shall not be a loser. Now 
keep your word with Mrs. Haydon and send back the things. 
I did not intend to say a word more, but as this proposition 
to Mrs. Haydon is not unreasonable, to oblige her I say you 
shall not be a loser. 

" Put this among your collection and bind them up. Now 
you have made a step and I have made a step. I'll be frank ; 
a threat is always the last refuge of a coward. I do not 
threaten, but if the things (pictures and sketches) are not 
all in my painting-room by Friday night (I allude only to 
those you took away with the last books you returned), 
without any asperity, or any ungrateful impertinence, or any 
wish to wound a kind-hearted (at bottom) old friend, but 
solely on the principle of justice to myself and family, with 
a wish still to retain our affection, on Saturday I shall be 
guilty of the violence to my own heart of giving you notice 
to quit, according to the terms of our lease, at Midsummer 
next, but as soon as possible before. { 

" I am, dear Newton, 
" Yours truly and affectionately, 

" B. R. HAYDON. 

" Mr. Newton." 


The kind Newton, (though he made show of sending 
a notice on his part,) did not accept this notice to quits 


He sends two notes in answer, written not with ink but 
with very milk of human kindness. Was ever reminder 
more gently conveyed, passion more effectually disarmed, 
or undeserved reproach more completely turned back 
upon the reproacher, than by these short replies ? 

" < Dear Haydon, 

" ' I shall send the pictures and sketches to you to-day, if 

" ' Mrs. Haydon spoke of the sketch of the Widow's Son 
as though it had been received with the last things brought 
away. I referred to your note that came with it, and others, 
to assure Mrs. Haydon how it came into my possession, and 
the only convenience your note can be of to me is to bring 
them forward to rectify any misunderstanding. This, and 
your promissory notes (stamped and unstamped) being un- 
pleasant truths, I suppose you call scandal : of them I have 
an abundant fund. 

" ' I will write you about the lease. 

" ' Yours truly, 

" ' W. F. NEWTON. 
" ' 22d December, 1836.' 

" c Dear Haydon, 

" ' The old fashion compliments of the season. A merry 
Christmas and a happy new year and many of them is my 
sincere wish to you and yours, and I hope you are as free 
from ill-will to any one as I am. 

" f I have yet to learn what act of mine is considered an 
insult to yourself, but as I am certain I am incapable of 
offering one, I give myself little trouble about it. 

" ' Thanks for your good wishes, and the ticket for the 
lectures, of which I have omitted to acknowledge the 

" ' Yours truly, 

" ' W. F. NEWTON.' 

" December 22nd. Called on Wilkie after a long 
absence. He seemed much annoyed at my saying in 

60 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON". [1836. 

my evidence, that he had been frightened at being seen 
with me in the streets after my attack on the Academy. 
I told him it was true, which he did not deny, because 
it was, We had breakfasted on a Sunday with Seguier 
after the attack, and on coming out he said, ( It will not 
be right to be seen with you,' and he went away. I 
explained to him, that I mentioned the fact to illustrate 
the condition of abjectness to which English art had 
been reduced by such a man as he being terrified by 
my attack. 

" The fact is, he is sore, for since the appearance of 
my evidence he has been quizzed. 

" He was occupied with several interesting subjects 
Sir David Baird finding Tippoo, Mary Queen of 
Scots' escape, Cotter's Saturday Night, and an English 
Bridal Morning all of which he is as fit for as his 
footman. What a pity it is he has left the style for 
which he is eminently qualified. He seemed bitterly to 
lament my attacks on the Academy. He said, ' Ah, 
you would have been an old Academician years ago, had 
all your pictures well hung, and there would have been 
no disputes." Poor dear Wilkie ! * 

" I asked him about his knighthood. He said the 
King said to him, ( Is your name David ? ' ' Yes, your 
Majesty.' ' Are you sure it is not Saul ? ' said the 
King. This was very well. 

" Wilkie described his feelings after like a child. We 
had a very interesting conversation. In the middle of 
all sorts of groans at my rebel apostacy suddenly| he 
would say, of something in his picture, in the exact tone 
of former days, 'Haydon, I think that ought to be 
dark.' I then would put up my finger, as we used to 
do, and say, f Certainly it wants deepening.' Then at 
it we would go again, and I would say, ' You want 
blue, as a bit of relief.' 'Ah, but wouldn't that 
destroy candle-light?' ( No, it would add.' I therf 

1836.] WILKIE : MY LANDLORD. 61 

told him I was painting Saragossa, and wanted Spanish 
dresses. He rang the bell, and got me all I wanted. 
To show the villany of print-sellers, he had never 
seen the heroine of Saragossa, though she was advertised 
as having sat to him for his picture of the same subject. 
" I reproached Wilkie with his utter neglect of me in 
my misfortunes, his never calling to see me in prison, or 
to chat with or console my wife. These are unpardon- 
able things, but a result of the same timidity of charac- 
ter. I said, in allusion to something, ( Would you bear 
this ? ' 'Of course,' said he. ' Why,' said I, ' what a 
deal you must bear.' ' To be sure,' said Wilkie. He 
then lamented I had not consulted him before attacking 
the Academy bitterly as if he would have stopped 

" We parted good friends as ever, and I was much 
interested. In his art he has certainly gone back ; in 
colour he is yellow and heavy, and Frenchy in his life 

" He seemed croaking as to the little prospect of 
public encouragement. But as I know the King ap- 
proved of designs in the House of Lords, I shrewdly 
suspect master David has an eye that way. 

" 23rd, 24M. Lectured last night with the greatest 
applause. Was heartily welcomed. My dear landlord 
and I will separate I fear. Nettled at my perseverance 
in resenting his insult, he has given me notice to quit*, 
which I shall do ; for I had become a slave to his caprice, 
from suffering myself to become too dependent on his 
assistance. I shall feel his want, and he is the last man 
I shall ever allow myself to be attached to. 

" Poor Newton ! I shall miss your kind heart and 
honest face. He never would have acted so if his friends 
had not become jealous. 

" 31st. The last day of 1836. A year of bitter 

* This was mere "brutwnfulmen" and never enforced. Hay don 
died in the house in 1846. 

62 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1836-7. 

sorrow, great promise, great mercy, shocking dis- 
appointment, but a glorious > victory. 

u I have lost more time in this year than in any before 
during my life from eighteen years old. I began several 
pictures, and have finished none. I have never had so 
many unfinished pictures at once in all my life. 

" In all my troubles I have had reason to be deeply 
grateful. My children are improved and good. My 
eldest boy has undoubted and high genius, and my dear 
Mary is spared to me in health and happiness. In fact 
I can't be low-spirited. I can't complain. I have a 
tendency to feel my heart warm towards my good 
Creator under all circumstances, and think life a blessing 
even in a prison." 


There was little in this year of Haydon's history to 
call for particular remark, if it be not the unusual 
absence of money cares and embarrassments. This was 
owing to his lectures, the delivery of which in London, 
Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Hull, and 
other of our large towns, brought him in the means of 
supporting his family, while it gratified his strong 
craving for personal display, and for assertion of his 
views about Art. 

As I have said before, these lectures have been pub- 
lished; and any elaborate account of them therefore 
would be out of place here. The published one^are 
twelve in number; on the state and prospects of British 
Art ; on the skeleton ; on the muscles ; on the standard 
figure of the Greeks ; on composition ; on colour ; on 
invention in Art ; on Fuseli ; on Wilkie ; on the effect 
of societies of literature and Art on public taste ; oti a 
competent tribunal in Art ; on fresco painting ; on the 
Elgin marbles ; on the theory of the beautiful. 


In the course of his lecturings Haydon gained many 
acquaintances and friends. His strong enthusiasms and 
his passionate and picturesque expression of them had 
commanded attention at all times of his life, and now 
drew about him many of the more ardent natures in each 
town. It was thus that he obtained this year at Liver- 
pool, through the recommendation of his friend Lowndes^ 
a commission to paint a picture of Christ blessing little 
Children, for the church of the Blind Asylum. 

" January 2nd. Spent yesterday at Hamilton's. 
Read a lecture to-night to some society at 16. Tower 
Street to my infinite amusement at the intense atten- 
tion paid to me by a set of dirty-faced journeymen and 
two servant girls. I had promised a young attorney 
to do so, and kept my word. It is extraordinary to 
think of. 

" When I really made a good hit, I saw all the room 
nodding. It was an eating-house till six, when the 
master (a member) cleared out for a lecture, and lent it 
for nothing. The company filled the boxes, and I was 
placed at the head on two or three boards. 

" I was shown up into a library where was a likeness 
of Tom Paine. I saw I was in a scrape. If that had 
been the room, I would have insisted that the fiend 
should be taken down, or I would have left the room. 
This comes of promising young attornies, to soften costs, 
without inquiring character. 

" 3rd, 4th, and 5th. Finished my tenth lecture. To- 
morrow I read it. 

" 6th. Delivered it with great applause. 

" Met Ewart yesterday in the streets. He told me 
all was going wrong with the School of Design. Poulett 
Thomson had made the Council exclusively academical. 
Chantrey took the lead, and had utterly ruined it. To- 
day I called on Rennie and had all the particulars. 

" The Council has resolved, first, that the figure shall 

64 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1837. 

not be the basis of the education ; secondly, that every 
student who enters the School of Design shall be 
obliged to sign a declaration not to practise either as 
historical painter, portrait painter, or landscape painter! 

" IQth. In very great irritation about this perversion 
of the School of Design, and was going to give Chantrey 
a thorough dressing. But now comes the question. 
Shall I do good ? Will it be right for me to stop, or 
ought I to go on ? If a blow be struck, their proceed- 
ings will he checked at the beginning. If not checked 
they'll take root. Burke said to Barry, f You will 
find the same contests in London and in Paris, and if 
they have the same effect on your temper, they will 
have the same effect on your interest.' 

" It keeps one in such continual hot water. I complain 
that writing my lectures hurts my pictorial mind, and I 
really would give the world never to be disturbed again, 
but to keep myself in tranquillity and peace, pursuing 
my delightful art. 

" llth. Worked slightly, but advanced. Wrote 
Lord Melbourne, telling him the whole conduct of 
Poulett Thomson. 

" 14th. Saw Poulett Thomson to day. I told him 
that I had heard that a resolution had been passed that 
no student of the School of Design would be admitted 
unless he signed a declaration that he would not practise 
history, portrait, or landscape. He denied it, and said, 
' Who has been telling you these stories ? ' ( But has it 
been passed ? ' No reply. I told him I had heard it 
was resolved that the study of the figure was not rices- 
sary. ' And is it,' he said, < to fellows who design 
screens ? ' My God ! what would Aristotle have said 
to this, after declaring the study of design increases the 
perceptions of beauty ? I did not say ' You ought to 
know it is,' as he ought. 

" I then burst out and told him the fiure was te 


basis of all design, of which he seemed totally incre- 
dulous. He said he would consult Eastlake and Cockerell. 
I told him Eastlake and Cockerell were good men and 
true, but timid. I told him he had selected Chantrey, 
the greatest bust-maker on earth, but the most incom- 
petent person to judge of principles of Art. He had no 
invention, no knowledge of principles ; and I understood 
that when Mr. Bellenden Ker said, e We must first 
settle the principle of the thing,' he said, ' As to prin- 
ciple, I have been thirty years in the art, and have 
never got hold of a principle yet.' 

" e lt is very improper,' said Thomson, e for gentlemen 
to talk thus to you of the Council.' ' I tell you,' said I, 
' no gentleman has talked to me : I have seen none.' 

" I said, ( Is it consistent with the principles of Lord 
Melbourne's Government to make a Council wholly 
academical ? ' e I selected the best artists ; Calcott is 
the best landscape-painter, and Chantrey, surely, at the 
head of his profession.' 'No; he is not,' I replied. 
( Who is higher ? ' ' Surely Westmacott has done more 
poetical things than Chantrey, and so has Bailey ; and 
why are not Martin and Rennie on the Council ? ' 
f What pretensions has Rennie ? ' * He does the naked, 
and is a judge of what is necessary for a school of design.' 
* Why is he against the Academy ? ' e On principle.' 
f But he has no subject of complaint.' ' That is the very 
reason his opinion is valuable, because his objections are 
on the broad principles of things.' 

" ( Depend on it, if the figure be not the basis of in- 
struction it will all end in smoke. The Government 
will be disgusted, and it will be given up.' I said, ' I 
have no ultimate object: I have no wish. There are 
delicacies connected with my misfortunes that make rne 
shy of intruding ; but I do think that if you put only 
Academicians on the Council you will become their 
tool.' We then parted. 


66 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1837. 

" I startled, worrited and plagued him. He flattered 
me, but it would not do ; I stuck to my point. 

" He, like all Whigs, seemed inclined to soften and 
oil, in order that they might keep their places. 

(( \7th. I made a clear statement to Poulett Thom- 
son, proving that the figure was the basis; that the same 
principle regulated the milk-jug and the heroic limb ; 
that the ellipsis was the basis of Greek Art, and the 
circle of the Roman ; that if the figure was not the 
basis, the Government money would be thrown away, 
and the public disappointed. He returned my state- 
ments with his compliments. I '11 state the same thing 
on Saturday to the Mechanics, and we shall see. I 
offered Thomson my Lecture ' On a Competent Tri- 
bunal and the Taste of the Upper Classes/ but he did 
not take the hint. 

Went to the Bench to-day, and saw 

brother, who is a complete character, affecting the diplo- 
matist : he has always ( a letter to write,' and ( Pal- 
merston is a man that must not be hurried.' The facts 
are, he is in debt ; can't pay it ; asserts the Government 
owes him a great deal, and pretends it will pay him. I 
said to him, ( I hope you'll soon be at work and with 
your family.' ( Yes,' said he, with an air of supreme 
mystery ; ( I dare say it will be settled this session.' I 
had a great mind to say, ( Does it precede the reform of 
the Lords ? ' I was amazingly struck at the squalidness 
of the place after being at home arid at work in comfort. 
It was shocking, yet I did not think so when there. 
After being long there they seem to suffer bitter ne- 
cessity ; after a certain time prisoners are forgotten ; 
poor fellows, they looked like moulting birds. 

" Poor Lord Audley is dead. He was more the dupe 
of villains than a villain himself. He died of apoj^exy 
on the 14th inst. I should think the late exposure must 
have shaken him much. 

1837.] AT THE MECHANICS*. 67 

f( 20th. Lectured at the Mechanics' extempore, and 
with complete success. The audience seemed amazingly 
impressed with the description of the eagle in Prome- 

"25th. This is my birthday born 1786 fifty- 
one years old to-day. At eighteen I surveyed my state 
of mind for the first time in my life, and have never 
ceased doing so every year since. 

" I find now my judgment matured. A conviction 
at last has arrived that the Deity cannot eradicate evil, 
and that the mortal can only make a compromise with 
it. But this is no reason it should not be opposed or 
checked ; resisted or turned aside, if possible. 

" I find after thirty-three years' struggle the state of 
Art certainly with a better prospect; the Academy 
completely exposed ; the people getting more en- 
lightened ; a School of Design begun ; and I more 
than hope the House of Lords will be adorned with 

" O God ! spare my intellect my eyes my health 
my life to see that accomplished; to see my devotion, 
my sincerity, my perseverance rewarded and acknow- 
ledged ; to see my honour proved by the payment of 
my debts, and my dear family established in virtue and 
credit, and I will yield my breath with cheering. Amen, 
with all my soul. 

"February I5th. Worked hard. At the Mecha- 
nics' Institute last night to instruct a class. I thought 
they would have smothered me, they crowded round so 
with their drawings ; the horrors I have suffered come 
across my mind, when a blaze of anticipated glory swells 
my soul, just as it did when I began Solomon at twenty- 
six years old without a guinea. 

" Dear Hamilton called, and seemed much pleased." 

In April this year Haydon visited Edinburgh, where 
he lectured with great success, and received from the 

68 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1837. 

directors of the Edinburgh Philosophical Association 
the honour of a public dinner on the 22nd of that 

The following entries in the Journal refer to this 

visit : 

" April 6th. I left town in the Clarence steamer. 
Had a furious gale off Flainborough Head ; saw many 
a dandy's dignity prostrated by sickness ; was sick my- 
self, but contrived to keep it secret, and was amazingly 
impressed by the black and foaming wave the watery 
and lowering sky the screaming gulls, and creaking 
rigging while the persevering energy of the steam- 
paddles, which nothing stopped, gave me a tremendous 
idea of the power of science contending, as it were, 
with defying contempt against the elements of God. 

" The gale lulled about noon, and by sunset we were 
clear, and making way in style. The old piper came 
on deck, ready to strike up at the first sight of Scot- 
land. We just got a view of the Cheviot Hills as the 
sun gleamed out, and up screeched the piper, as if all 
the devils of Hades were trying to sing through their 
noses, while squeezing them with their fingers and 
thumbs and yet the sound was original and poetical. 

<f I had not been in Edinburgh for seventeen years. 
The town was much altered and improved Sir Walter 
and many friends were dead all grown older some 
scattered by disease, and others distressed by poverty. 
Such is life, or, rather, such is the road that leads to 

" I began my lectures on the 20th, and was very suc- 
cessful. I brought forward a naked model, and was 
received with enthusiasm. I have got more hold of the 
upper classes, because they are concentrated here ; and 
I think I have had a very great effect. 

" 13th. Went to Holyrood, and bargained with the 
housekeeper to let me come back by candle-light, and 


see and walk up the very staircase which Ruthven and 
Darnley stole up on the night of the murder of Rizzio. 
It is extraordinary this desire to feel a grand and new 

" 15th. Lectured, and the audience endorsed with 
applause my attack on the Academy, which was severe. 
I brought them to this last assault by degrees. 

iQth. Breakfasted with Mr. and Mrs. Ireland, a 
friend of Campbell's (the poet), who knew him in his 
boyhood spoke highly of him, and said he supported 
two sisters. He feared he (Campbell) had driven his 
only son mad by too eager desire to advance him 
very likely. Men of genius are bad teachers too 
quick, too eager, and too violent, if not comprehended." 

From Scotland Haydon proceeded by sea to Liver- 
pool, and thence to Leicester, where he lectured to 
crowded and enthusiastic audiences. 

On these occasions Haydon rushed about with his 
usual impetuosity. The characters he met, the objects 
of antiquity or historical interest he saw, the manufac- 
tories he visited, are always referred to in the Journals, 
and he never quitted a place without leaving a strong 
impression behind him. His lectures seem to have been 
uniformly successful, though the fierceness of his attacks 
on the Academy, as might be expected, was not always 
approved, and the tone of his criticism upon contem- 
porary painters was often complained of as unduly 

After lecturing at Leicester he returned to town, and 
thence, on the 16th of May, proceeded to Manchester, 
of which he says on the 26th : 

" I find Manchester in a dreadful condition as to Art. 
No School of Design. The young men drawing without 
instruction. A fine anatomical figure shut up in a box ; 
the housekeeper obliged to hunt for the key. I'll give 
it to them before I go. 

r 3 

70 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDOtf. [1837. 

" Before I came up I was threatened with vengeance 
if I alluded to the Academy. I began the first lec- 
ture. No hisses. I proceeded last night and got 

In Manchester he not only lectured, but agitated for 
the establishment of a School of Design, which was 
founded the year after. 

"June 1st 5th. Lecturing till I am sick. lam 
not happy in Manchester. The associations of these 
hideous mill-prisons for children destroy my enjoyment 
in society. The people are quite insensible to it ; but 
how they can go on as they do in all their luxurious 
enjoyments with those huge factories overhanging them, 
is most extraordinary. 

"17^, ISth. This was imagination, I have since 
examined large factories 2,000 in one room, and found 
the children healthy and strong, and the room well aired 
and wholesome." 

The month of July he spent quietly at Broadstairs 
with his family, principally for the benefit of his wife's 
health, which was now much shaken. 

" July 6th. Not being able to pay up my rates in 
the approaching struggle, and keep my love here too, I 
wrote the Duke of Sutherland, and stated the case. 
Directly, like a fine fellow as he is, he took two more 
shares in my Saragossa, which will enable me to do it. 

This year her present Majesty came to the throne. 
Haydon applied, unsuccessfully, as might have been ex- 
pected, for the appointment of her historical painter. It 
is amusing to see his affected struggles and doubts, after 
he had taken this step : 

" 9th. Felt degraded in my own estimation in con- 
descending to ask the Duchess of Sutherland to in- 
terfere with the Queen to appoint me her historical 
painter, with an income like West. If I succeed, what 


will become of my liberty? I do it for dear Mary's 
sake, as her health is feeble, and any more shocks would 
endanger her life. 

" If the Queen were to say, ' Will he promise to cease 
assaulting the Academy ? ' I would reply, ' If Her 
Majesty would offer me the alternative of the block, or 
to cease assaulting, I would choose the block.' Nous 
verrons. Nothing will come of it, and secretly I hope 
nothing may. I have not played my cards well with 
the Duchess and the Queen. I had a fine moment 
which I did not press. 

" Went up at one Sunday with 800 people. 
Paid my rates and taxes before nine on Monday, and 
was at Broadstairs at seven the same evening. 

" The utter recklessness of the Sabbath by the people 
on board was dreadful betting, drinking, smoking. 

" I was known on board, and addressed ; when they 
knew who I was they began to be profound, which was 
interesting, considering they were half drunk." 

On his return to town at the end of July Haydon 
got a large canvas on his easel, and began a picture on 
the subject of the Maid of Saragossa cheering on the 
besieged in an attack. Wilkie lent him his Spanish 
costumes for the picture (the subject of which he had 
himself painted before this), but he could not set to 
work very cheerfully, for his resources were well nigh 
exhausted. Lecturing furnished just enough to keep 
the wolf from the door, and, as we have seen, it was 
only by the kindness of his staunch friend the Duke of 
Sutherland in taking two shares in this picture that he 
had been enabled to pay his rates and taxes the month 

" August 6th. Called on Hamilton. He seems de- 
sirous I should leave London if I can get advantageous 
offers. Never. I say, as Johnson says, ( Give me the 
full tide of human life at Charing Cross.' 

F 4 

72 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1837. 

" 1th. Made an oil study for my heroine. She must 
be a Spanish beauty. After all my success this year I 
have returned to my winter studies with only three 
sovereigns left. One my wife got to-day for the house, 
and thus I started the heroine's head with 27. Is*, (yd. 

" This is always the way. If the Queen would but 
grant me a pension something to rest upon I should 
feel a security of escaping the workhouse. Now I do 
not. I am nearly fifty-two. I can hardly last eighteen 
years more, with all I have gone through. 

" In composition, telling a story, form and expression, 
I know myself equal to the great men. But in indi- 
vidual painting of heads I am vastly inferior. 

s< This I have yet to accomplish, and accomplish it I 
will by God's blessing. 

" 9th. Never disregard what your enemies say. 
They may be severe; they may be prejudiced ; they may 
be determined to see only in one direction : but still in 
that direction they see clearly. They do not speak all 
the truth, but they generally speak the truth from one 
point of view, as far as that goes : attend to them. 

" They sneer at my success in lecturing, and say, c It 
is a pity he does not paint more.' Of course it is a great 
pity, considering my deficiencies. That is a sneer I can 
and will profit by. 

" 10th. Mr. Meek, former secretary to Lord Keith, 
passed the evening with us, and amused us. He went 
to Napoleon with Lord Keith when it was announced 
to him he was to go to St. Helena. He said Napoleon 
kept them standing. His face had a dead marble look, 
but became interesting when speaking. He said it was 
true a man came from London to summon Napoleon to 
a trial, and chased Lord Keith all day. 

He said, when Napoleon came on board he kept 


asking everybody whether they were going to St. 

"I7th. Studied the whole morning at the British 
Gallery; Guercino hung between Titian and Tinto- 
retto. It was curious and interesting to study why 
Guercino was not so high as Titian or Tintoretto. 
Guercino was of the second crop of Italian genius. He 
is intrusive, hard, vulgar and gross. Nothing could 
exceed Titian's Philip II. It was perfect in drawing, 
colour and execution ; just real enough, without being 
hard ; just execution enough to save it from high finish, 
and colour enough to prevent its being dull. Nature 
nature itself. The ground on which he stands might 
have been a little lighter to advantage, but if it have not 
got darker Titian thought otherwise. 

" 30th. In the city to raise money to pay my dear 
Frank's schooling. I succeeded, returned fagged, and 
to work on Mr. Hope's Falstaff and Prince Hal. 

" Thus ends August. Seventeen and a half days I 
have worked. Saragossa settled. Now what shall I 
proceed to finish? Poictiers or Saragossa?" 

During this month Haydon was writing letters in the 
Spectator, addressed to Lord John Russell, commenting 
on the evidence given before Mr. E wart's Committee, 
with especial reference to that of the President of the 
Academy. It appears to me unnecessary to refer more 
particularly to these letters, for they contain little but 
amplifications of topics of attack with which the readers 
of these Memoirs must be already familiar, and much 
of the reasoning, even if sound then, has ceased to be 
applicable to the Academy now. Besides there intrudes 
in all Hay don's attacks a personality so bitter as almost 
to neutralise the truths they contain, and his quarrel 
with Sir Martin A. Shee has now lost such interest as 
it may have had at the time. 

In September Haydon had the great gratification of 

74 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON. [1837. 

receiving from the committee of the Asylum for the 
Blind at Liverpool a commission for a picture on the 
subject of Christ blessing little Children, for 400 guineas, 
as a companion to Hilton's picture already in the church 
of the Asylum. The offer came in a letter from Mr. 
Lowndes, a munificent patron of the arts in Liverpool, 
and it was mainly owing, no doubt, to his exertions and 
those of Mr. Winstanley that the commission was 

"September 1.2th, \Zth.< Let me survey. I came 
home with my family from Broadstairs, July 31st. In 
August I got 10Z. 105. from the Duke of Devonshire 
for a share in Saragossa, and that is all professional 
receipts for six weeks ! Since then I have received a 
commission for 400 guineas, but the above is all I have 
actually received to this time. 

" The interval between my employments as I have 
a family that must be fed and educated generally pro- 
duces debts, and that produces embarrassment. 

"I had to pay 121. 10s. for my boy, and borrowed it 
at 2s. in the pound for two months. I borrowed 51. 
more to that 10Z. ; so that I have incurred a debt of 
327. 10s. before I begin my commission, and this again 
is a nucleus formed for future embarrassment. Half the 
month is gone. Falstaff is done. The sketch for 
Liverpool done. Saragossa quite ready to do, and 
Poictiers nearly done. I am waiting for another reply, 
and then I fly to my canvas." 

On the 23rd the Liverpool picture was begun (with 
the usual prayer fur a blessing on it), and on the 5th of 
October he visited Liverpool to determine the place it 
should occupy in the church, and to see Hilton's work, 
to which it was to serve as companion. He says of 
Hilton's picture that it is " broad, though chilly in 
colour, but a good picture and creditable to his talent." 


Before the end of October the composition of the 
picture was settled.* 

Haydon was now busy with his Liverpool commission, 
and preparing for a fresh round of the great northern 
manufacturing towns, where he never failed to find warm 
friends and applauding audiences. He took occasion in 
these tours, wherever he could, to urge the formation of 
Schools of Design ; and such a school was founded at 
Manchester in this year. Probably no previous attempts 
of Haydon's to disseminate an interest in Art were so 
useful or successful as these lectures, and what con- 
nected itself with them, or followed from them. Most 
of his efforts in this way, hitherto, had flowed too directly 
from his feud with the Academy, or were too much 
mixed up with his own quarrels, distresses and disasters, 
for the truths of Art which they asserted ever to have 
full effect. But in several of his lectures he got rid of 
such disturbing elements, and when he did his views 
were sound and ennobling. But " self " with him always 
so distorted judgments and estimates as to provoke in 
many readers and hearers opposition or indifference to 
the best and truest things he could say or write about 
his art. 

" October 29^.f Began this day this new Journal. 
What after so many years are the prospects of Art and 
the country ? The art has decidedly advanced in 
public opinion. Amongst the upper classes the feeling 

* I regret that in a recent visit to Liverpool (in 1852) I was 
unsuccessful in my attempt to see the pictures, as they were, for 
the time, rolled up and put away in consequence of the damp of 
the new church, where they should be hung. ED. 

f The Twenty-second Volume of the Journals opens at this date 
with the motto, from Ecclesiastes, xxiii. 24. : " Fear not to be 
strong in the Lord that He may confirm you : cleave unto Him, 
for the Lord Almighty is God alone, and beside Him there is no 
other Saviour." 

76 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1837. 

for it has decreased. The Court and the nobility are 
just in the same state of infantine passion for portrait ; 
and by portrait, and by portrait alone, will any man make 
his way to high places here. 

"30^. Worked hard, and at the head of Christ, 
which is the best I have done, in promise. When I 
remember the anxiety about the head of Christ in Jeru- 
salem in the art and in fashionable life, and reflect on the 
utter apathy now, it is shocking. 

"31 st. Last day, and a very bustling, idle month I 
have passed. I have lectured with great success, and 
to overwhelming audiences ; especially on Friday, when 
I had two of the Blues, wonderful men, the one a 
Theseus, the other a Gladiator, and they were received 
con furore. 

" November 4th. Met Rogers in the park. People 
are beginning to peep about, and heave in sight for the 
season. I told him I had just been to the Duke of 
Sutherland's to see Delaroche's picture of Strafford. I 
said it was a fine work, but still a French work. In 
looking round at the Murillos, the difference of what was 
and what is raises interesting questions. There is no life 
in French pictures. The basis of all French Art is the 
theatre and the lay-figure. The flesh is smooth and 
bloodless. Rogers touched me in the side, and said, 
' Give us something better of the same sort; you could.' 
I went to the Velasquez afterwards. It was a ripe peach 
after curriers' leather. The Duke has given a high 
price. It is large, and yet such is the perversity that, 
like Thomas Hope, he objects to my painting large. 
Thomas Hope objected to my doing Solomon the size of 
life, and yet gave a French painter at the very same time 
800 guineas for Damocles, full size. 

" I ask any impartial person if my Solomon, Jeru- 
salem and Lazarus are not greater works than Dela- 
roche has ever done. Yet where are they all ? Solomon 


in a hayloft, Lazarus in a bazaar, and Jerusalem out of 
the country. 

" 5th. Sat for my portrait-bust to Park. Sent my 
children to church, but did not read prayers to myself, 
which is wicked and ungrateful. The reason is, I am in 
no danger pecuniarily, feel no want of God's protection, 
and forget his past mercies. This shows what human 
gratitude is. 

" 9th. This day the Queen (who will never forgive 
me for sending her a ticket of admission to the raffle of 
Xenophon) goes to dine in the city. The day has 
opened, as all such days do, in nubibus. When Napoleon 
appeared the day always brightened, and I sincerely 
hope her young feelings will not have the chill a bad day 
always gives. God bless her ! As the Committee 
won't let me into the hall, my dignity won't let rne 
stand in the streets ; so I shall finish my drapery, which 
looks gloriously this morning. 

" God protect the dear little Queen through all the 
perils of fog and feasting, and bring her home safely, 
and make her reign over us long and lasting. 

" I4:th. Lord Egremont is dead ; a great loss to all, 
especially artists. He was an extraordinary man, 
manly, straight-forward, tender-hearted, a noble patron, 
an attached friend and an affectionate and indulgent 
parent. His great pleasure was in sharing with the 
highest and humblest the advantages and luxuries of his 
vast income. The very animals at Petworth seemed 
happier than in any other spot on earth, better fed, 
and their dumbness and helpless dependence on man 
more humanely felt for. He was one of those left of 
the old school who considered a great artist as fit society 
for any man, however high his rank, and at his table, as 
at Sir George Beaumont's, Lord Mulgrave's, or Sir 
Robert Peel's, painter and sculptor, poet and minister 
and soldier, all were as equals. 

78 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1838. 

At Hamilton's till four. He had been to 
Drayton and saw Napoleon in the dining-room. Sir 
Robert broached the subject about the charge after 
dinner ; Lord de Grey and others present. He said I 
could not expect to keep my friends if I raised my 
charges in that way. This was not fair, as Hamilton 
said ; he got the picture for 100 guineas owing to a 
mistake. I told him it ought at least to have been 200/., 
and after all the fair price was 3007." 

With this explanation it has a very different air. 

" 20th. Saw the Queen pass the gallery to the 
Lords. Her appearance was singular. Her large eye, 
open nostril, closed mouth, small form, grave demeanour 
and intellectual look, surrounded by nobles, ministers, 
ambassadors, peeresses, statesmen and guards, had some- 
thing awful and peculiar. 

" 22nd. At the British Museum all day, writing 
hard for my History of Art. 

" 23rd. At the British Museum again. Copied 
materials for my history." 

And then follow many pages of a summary History 
of Art, which need not detain us here, and which oc- 
cupied him to the close of the month. 

In December of this year his pictures of the Black 
Prince and the Lord Audley at Poictiers, and of 
Falstaff and Prince Hal, were sent to the exhibition of 
the Edinburgh Society of Artists. 


" January 25th. Manchester. Up to this very day 
I have neglected my Journal. I left town, and arrived 
here after a rapid journey by train from Birmingham, 
and' was received with the same enthusiasm as before. 
To-day is my birth-day, when I complete my fifty-second 
year. A meeting took place in the committee-room of 

1838.] AT MANCHESTER. 79 

the Mechanics', to consider the propriety of founding a 
School of Design. I read my proposition, which was 
received with cheers; Mr. James Frazer in the chair. 
Mr. Heywood was present. Some one wished an ele- 
mentary school to be added before beginning the figure, 
but I urged the necessity of uniting the artist and the 
mechanic, as in Greece and Italy, and I think I im- 
pressed the audience. Finally an active committee was 
formed to take the matter into consideration, preparatory 
to calling a public meeting. This I consider the first 
serious move. Thanks were voted me, and inwardly I 
thank God I have lived to see this day.* 

" 28th. Dined out with a very fine fellow, Darby- 
shire, and Heywood (banker), Fairbairn (engineer), and 
others, with some nice women, one with a fine head, 
who sat opposite me at table. We talked of the School 
of Design. Heywood said, ' It was astonishing how it 
would get on if men had shares bearing interest; not 
but what,' he added, ' I prefer donations.' This was a 
regular hint for starting a ' School of Design Company,' 
and after all, perhaps, this must be the way in England. 
We shall see. Bankers are shrewd ones. Liked Fair- 
bairn much ; a good iron steam-engine head. To see 
his expression when they talked of f Ernest Maltravers ' 
made me inwardly rejoice. ( I cannot get through 
novels,' said he. It showed his good sense. He has 
risen from a foundry labourer to be master of as great 
a manufactory as any in the world. 

" 29th. Got a Celsus, and was struck more strongly 
than ever with the evidence of the dissection of the 
Greeks. It was lent me by a young surgeon in the 

* It is in favour of the soundness of Haydon's views as to Schools 
of Design that this very Manchester school, after some years' lan- 
guishing under a system the opposite to that here indicated, has 
lately seen and acknowledged the necessity of coming to Haydon's 

80 MEMOIRS OP B. R. HAYDON. [1838. 

house. He refers to the Greeks about the diaphragm, 
which the Greeks call id$>pa>yiia ; <f)pdy/jLa is ' a 
fence.' How came they to call it so, but from internal 
examination ? 

" Lectured at Royal Institution and Mechanics'. Au- 
diences stuffed. Laid the subject of a School of Design 
before them. Enthusiastically received. Committee 
met to-day. All goes right. Monied men must not 
be bullied. Great effort to keep the mechanics tempe- 

" February 3rd. Dined at Fairbairn's, after passing 
the morning at his vast engine works. Boilers for 400 
horse power engines ; iron melting by fire that would 
have astonished the devils, roaring like thunder, dark 
with brightness, red with heat and liquid like lava. 
"We had a pleasant party, but the conversation in all 
country towns is on domestic politics. On any broad 
question they get spitish, and you see the aim is to rival 
another establishment, or mortify a political opponent. 
Turner, the surgeon, Frazer, the connoisseur, and Dar- 
byshire, the attorney, see things broadly. 

"5th. Left Manchester yesterday, (Sunday,) and 
arrived here (Leeds) at five. After the spirit of London 
and Manchester, Leeds seems stupid. Nous verrons. 

" 6th. Lectured last night. . They seem High Church 
and bigoted. I was asked after if I meant to attack the 
Church, because I said the Reformation had ruined High 
Art. Hamilton has given me a letter to Theodore 
Hook's relative, Dr. Hook. 

" lO^A. Dined with Mr. Bankes, and had a very 
pleasant evening. Spent the morning with Miss Bankes 
in looking over her collection of shells, according to La 
Marque. I gained immense knowledge, as I went 
through every species from the earliest formation to the 
last. The people here think her cracked. How evi- 

1838.] A VISIT TO DKAYTON. 81 

dent is the cause of learned people being thought magi- 
cians in an earlier state of society ! 

" 18th. Left Leeds, where I have met a kind re- 
ception and great enthusiasm, for Manchester. Attended 
to-day the first considerable meeting for a School of 
Design. There was a decent muster, and everybody 
sincere. I seconded the last resolution, and the debate 
concluded. I then ran to the train, and was at Bir- 
mingham in four hours and a half. On Tuesday, 20th, 
I went to Tamworth, and thence to Drayton, having 
found Sir Robert Peel's servant waiting to conduct me. 
My Napoleon looked admirably. Sir Robert had placed 
it in the centre of his drawing-room, in the place of 
honour. Lawrence's Lady Peel looked really exquisite 
as far as head and neck. The Teniers and Vandyke 
were beautiful. The old masters ground their colours 
purer than modern men. All the modern pictures looked 
coarse and gritty. The house is splendidly comfortable, 
and a noble consequence of integrity and trade. 

" 2lst. Set off for town, where I arrived after 
being thirteen hours outside, and after having accom- 
plished all I left town to do the establishment of a 
School of Design at Manchester, and the excitement of 
the people. If God spares my life I will raise such a 
commotion about the Court that shall make it ashamed 
of its miniature trash and patronage. It is quite dis- 

" 26th, 27th, 28th. Did business to get clear for de- 
voting myself for finishing Christ blessing little Chil- 
dren. Called in at the School of Design, Somerset 
House. My Heavens what a scene! Eight or nine 
poor boys drawing paltry patterns ; no figures, no 
beautiful forms. 

"March 18 th. Went to church; but prosperity, 
though it makes me grateful, does not cause me such 


82 MEMOIRS OF B, R. HAYDON. [1838. 

perpetual religious musings as adversity. When on a 
precipice where nothing but God's protection can save 
me, then I delight in religious hope, but I am sorry to 
say my ambition ever dwindles unless kept alive by risk 
of ruin. My piety is never so intense as when in a 
prison, and my gratitude never so much alive as when 
I have just escaped from one. 

" 22nd. Out the whole day. Lectured in the even- 
ing on the School of Design. Wyse and Ewart were 
present. Wyse made a capital speech, carrying out my 
principles, the principles of my early enthusiasm. It 
was a complete victory, and now it will get into the 
House effectually. They both said I stirred up the 
people in the country. It was curious to find Elmes, 
my old friend, the editor of the Annals, vice-president 
after so many years. God grant us victory. 

" 25t/i. My picture is well advanced, and I have 
been blessed throughout so far. God bless me to the 
end. This last year a good deal of money has passed 
through my hands, 'out of which I cannot save, my 
boys are so expensive. If I think what is to become of 
me in my old age, something whispers me, 'Trust in 
God, as usual.'" 

An agitation was about this time started for a monu- 
ment to Nelson. Haydon took a deep interest in the 
proposal, and contributed a design to the competition, 
which resulted in the selection of the Trafalgar Square 
column and statue. 

Haydon's original design was a Greek temple with a 
simple statue of Nelson in the cella, and on the walls 
pictures of four of the most remarkable incidents in his 
career : 

1. The receiving the sword of the Spanish officers on 
the quarter-deck of the San Josef. 

2. The explosion of L'Orient at the battle of the 

1838.] DIFFICULTIES. 83 

3. His signing of the letter to the Crown Prince at 
the bombardment of Copenhagen. 

4. The death at Trafalgar. 

This design he communicated on the 9th of April to 
Sir George Cockburn in a letter, but did not then ap- 
parently propose to enter regularly into the competition. 

"April llth. Out the whole day. Spent two 
hours at Sir Robert Peel's. Studied the magnificent 
Silenus. Good God, what a scale ! Studied the Cha- 
peau de Faille ; model of painting hands and head ; 
bosom not beautiful ; hat badly put on. Miss Peel was 
with her French governess, a beautiful, domestic and 
interesting girl. She came out into the gallery and re- 
ceived me most kindly, so that I hope Sir Robert and I 
will be reconciled. I pursued wrong under the impres- 
sion of right, and he opposed me, convinced he was 
right.* When I found amongst my papers indisputable 
evidence of my feelings at the time, which proved I was 
wrong, I told him so at once. I could do no more, and 
he seems to think so. 

" Lady Peel's portrait with her bonnet was very sweet, 
but bordering on manner. Yet it was tender, and 
suited the nature of Lawrence: whenever Lawrence 
painted the Duchess of Sutherland or Lady Peel, he 
seemed to forget all his coquettish expressions." 

By an accident, the committee of his Liverpool em- 
ployers delayed a remittance, and at once the old diffi- 
culties recommenced. 

" 16th. Advanced by finishing last week, everything 
now being settled, but the Liverpool committee not 
keeping their engagement with me I begin to be 
harassed. They promised me my 507. on the 8th. I 
promised landlord and collector of rates and taxes. I 
have broken my word with all of them. I feel lowered 

* In allusion to the difference touching the price of the Napo- 
leon picture. 

G 2 

84 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON". [1838. 

again, and after ten months of prosperity I begin to 
feel the usual blessings of devoting one's self to a large 
picture on contingencies. I raised 57. on my prints. 
To-day I have got 9s. in my pocket, and out go my 
anatomical studies for the wants of the week. 

"18^. Heard yesterday from Liverpool, but no 
cash. This is careless, and unlike men of business. The 
consequence was, I sent out my dinner suit to-day for 
II. 10s. The Manchester men told me that the Liver- 
pool people were all show, and at Leeds Dr. Hook said, 
We give a Liverpool man ten years.' Nous verrons. 
Hard at work, and finished the legs, but not satisfied. 
After lunch I got into an omnibus and drove down to 
the National Gallery, and studied Coreggio's, Rubens's 
and Reynolds's children, Of the three Rubens's were 
best, Coreggio's beautiful too. I came back like a lion, 
kept down the off leg, softened both, and greatly im- 
proved them. The day has been one of real ecstasy. I 
had a beautiful baby in the morning. Studied gkrious 
works, and succeeded. Laus- deo. Now, if the 50Z. 
-comes, I defy mortality. 

" Really, looking at Reynolds, I thought the head of 
the Infant Jesus as finely painted as anything in the 
world, but on coming to him again from Titian and 
Coreggio the material was too apparent. But for manly 
breadth nothing could be finer. 

" Those three ladies, too*, are exquisite. He was a 
great man, and I think Reynolds, Hogarth, Wilson, 
Gainsborough and Wilkie keep ground. The English 
school will rise now they are fairly hung. 

" 26th. Lectured last night with great success, 
going into the whole Academy question. It was con- 
sidered I had proved my position. Took out my great 
coat to go to the lecture. I sent it back again by my 

* Reynolds's Graces. 

1838.] DEATH OF A STEP-SON. 85 

old Fidus Achates for 12s. this morning, to furnish us 
for the day. 

" 28th. Aujourd* hui fai regu cent guindes sterling; 
hier au soir actuellement sans quatre schellings ! Telle est 
ma vie : un jour au sommet, pendant le jour suivant au 
bout de besoin et misere ! 

" Grace a Dieu pour sa bonte de ce matin ! (Half 
past one.) Was there ever anything like it? This 
moment J'ai regu de Liverpool Vautre 50Z. Cent cin- 
quante cinq livres dans un jour, apres la plus grande 
necessite ! Grace a Dieu encore. 

" All this can be traced to human causes. The trea- 
surer was ill and forgot me. He returned and sent the 
money. It "was inclosed by post. In the meanwhile a 
young lady wished to be a pupil. I dine there; the 
father makes me an offer. I propose another. He 
accepts and appoints. Because the treasurer was ill, 
because he came back, because he sent the money, be- 
cause it was put in the post, because the train met with 
no accident, because the postman did not break his neck, 
was not a thief, because my servant went to the door 
when he knocked, and because I went into the city for 
similar progressive reasons, I got 100/. first, and the 50/. 
came after." 

But now came a heavy blow the death of his second 
step-son, Simon Hyman, by the bite of a serpent in 
Madras Roads, thus announced to him by the lad's 
captain : 

" Her Majesty's sloop Wolf, 
" Trincomalee, December 31st, 1837. 
" My dear Sir, 

" I regret much indeed the painful task I am about to 
take, the communication to you of the melancholy demise 
of your son S. Hyman, which took place in consequence of 
the bite of a reptile on board Her Majesty's brig Algerine, 
at anchor in Madras Roads, when a sea-serpent came on 

G 3 

86 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1838. 

board, having been hooked by a marine. The late Mr. S. 
Hyman took it in his hand, and the animal, when irritated, 
seized hold of his hand over the metacarpal bone of the 
forefinger, and held the doubled-up skin firmly between his 
jaws until he was forced to let go his hold. This occurred 
at 7 30 A. M. Mr. Hyman<held the occurrence lightly, went 
down to his breakfast, and soon after felt some uneasiness in 
his throat, which quickly began to swell : the patient fell 
giddy, not long after insensible, and died exactly at 10 30 A.M., 
three hours after the accident. A few exceedingly small 
punctures were seen where the animal bit the hand. Soon 
after death the throat was discoloured, the body spotted, 
which in a few hours became offensive, and it was found 
necessary to bury it at 4 P. M. the same evening. There 
were two medical men, who did all they could and all that 
was possible on the occasion, but so very rapid and deadly 
was the poison that no good arose from any remedies, and 
the first hour was necessarily lost by the patient himself 
treating the thing lightly, and as of no material consequence. 

" The snake was preserved, and examined by Mr. Bland, 
surgeon of Her Majesty's sloop Wolf, under my command, 
and found to be six feet six inches in length, general colour 
yellow, with forty-three black rings nearly equidistant. Its 
thickness about six inches near the vent, from which the 
tail projected vertically, flat or compressed. Upper jaw two 
rows of small teeth, the inner row indented in the inter- 
maxillary bones like the common adder, but no fang teeth 
could be detected, nor could it be seen whether the snake 
had hollow or tubed teeth from want of a powerful lens. 
Under jaw had one row of teeth, many broken and worn 
from age. In the above account 1 have given you every in- 
formation in my power (at present). And as for his effects 
(according to his verbal wish) they are strictly kept, and 
will be sent to you. His clothes (naval) may come in for 
his brother, as my poor unfortunate shipwrecked brother's 
did for me. 

" In concluding this melancholy detail, I beg, my dear 
Sir, to acquaint you that your late son-in-law was very 
much respected, and in fact beloved by all. He bid fair for 


a fine officer, and there exists no doubt, had he survived the 
melancholy catastrophe, he would have done honour to the 
British navy. We who knew him shall ever feel most deeply 
impressed at the loss, and his memory will ever be much 
respected by all. 

" Wishing you will be in time reconciled to the will of 
One who calls the best first to His presence, 
" I remain, my dear Sir, 

" Yours much concerned, 


" May \3th. Read prayers, and passed the day in 
doing nothing but moving about, then looking at my 
pictures and studying effect. It is extraordinary the in- 
disposition of children for church. Surely I had no such 
indisposition. I remember going to prayers, and listen- 
ing to Gandy with absolute pleasure. I remember 
always listening to his sublime reading of the Litany 
with delight. Not one of my children has the least of 
it. They in reality hate going to public worship. 
Frank says he hates to pray with a parcel of fools who 
come to be looked at. Frederic says he likes it, all but 
the sermon, and my little girl says she goes to please me. 
Thus it is. If I read prayers and a Blair's sermon they 
all join, because they know they are released in an hour, 
but Church is always matter of discontent. 

" 20th. My poor Hyman haunts us all. His death 
is afflicting, dreadfully so. To be hurried to the grave 
in full health and spirits in three hours. Poor fellow ! 
He never lived to receive his mother's and sister's 
letters. Thank God he got mine, and his last breath, 
as it were, was a blessing on me. I loved him like my 
own boy. 

"21 st. Hard at work and finished the other hand. 
Now for the back figure, and then, huzza for the con- 
clusion ! 

" I think I am less satisfied now than ever with my 

G 4 

88 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDOX. [1838. 

own efforts. Surely I must be on the eve of some grand 
attempt. I am dying for daring foreshortenings and 
desperate actions. 

"22nd. Dreadfully anxious and hard at work. I 
rubbed out and rubbed in endlessly; but feeling the 
benefit of admitting all classes while the work is in pro- 
gress, and all classes having pronounced judgment on 
the muscular beggar, I took him out, after engaging a 
horseguard, and sending for a female model put in a 
sweet girl looking over an infant. This kept up the 
feeling, and this morning (23rd) I see it will do ; so I 
shall finish it, and this is an immense anxiety eased. 

" 24:th. Put in the head of a young girl. It is a 
great improvement. My dear Mary still continues very 
low about poor Hyman. 

" 25th. Studied the effect, and lectured. Ewart 
proposed a petition to bring up the Cartoons to be pre- 
sented by Wyse. Success to it. 

" 27th. Walked and looked at the grand entrance 
to the railway. It is extraordinary how decidedly the 
public has adopted Greek architecture. Its simplicity, 
I take it, is suitable to English decision. 

" June 1st. Called on Ewart, and told him strongly 
they were hurrying on the art too fast ; that they were 
going to petition to have the Cartoons when they had 
no place to put them in. f Turn out the Academy,' 
said Ewart. e What is to become of the Cartoons in the 
mean time ? You can't turn them out.' ' The Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer said they would be ready to go 
if the public wished.' This is a radical. All they want 
is movement. Here is a man who proposes to move the 
Cartoons, and before they can be lodged must get out 
an Academy which has just got in. I told him false 
movements ruined battles. 

"4:th. Went out early on business. Winstanley 
called from Liverpool. Called on Beechey, who was 


full of a new vehicle. He amused me excessively by 
reading extracts* from copies he had made from a me- 
morandum book of Reynolds' in the possession of Mr. 
Gwatkin, who married his niece. It was most enter- 
taining. At the end of a day's work and a new portrait, 
he put down, ' Sono stabilito in maniere di dipingere? 
and would paint the very next portrait in a totally dif- 
ferent way. In the same work, wax, gum copaiva, oil, 
Venice turpentine, were all used in turn. Often first 
he put e cerata ; ' that is, waxed the ground before he 
painted. Often prepared with black, white and blue, 
and glazed with yellow lake, and then painted warm and 
cooled with ultramarine by glazes. I never saw a man 
so uncertain ; and the beautiful delusion of fancying his 
manner of painting was fixed! just like a man of great 
genius who has a peculiar weakness. 

"fth. Lord and Lady Burghersh called yesterday 
and suggested removing the column, and the improve- 
ment is enormous. Too much cannot be said to them 
for their thought and taste. To-day I cleared the 
picture ; threw the whole background into sky and 
landscape, and the flatness gave double value to the 
foreground. Every day one learns something from 
one's self and others. 

" Duke of Sutherland called to-day, and said he was 
much pleased with the character and head of Christ. 
He thought the children not Jewish enough. This 
was a sound remark; so that if I get the child done to- 
morrow, this week will have been well passed. 

" If a foreground be flat, let a background be compli- 
cated ; if a foreground be complicated, let a background 
be flat. 

8th. Painted in a head. Is it equal to Titian or 
Reynolds, Vandyke or Rubens ? No : disgrace that it 

* See these extracts in the Appendix to this volume. 

90 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON. [1838. 

is not. My mind is teeming with improvement, and 
something will come of it. The first symptom is disgust 
at what I do. 

Qth. Much fatigued. Worked hard, and got the 
boy nearly done. This week advanced well, but not 

" 10th. Eead prayers. Sent the children to church, 
and Frank and I walked after. My eyes irritable from 
having had no rest Friday or Saturday. I am convinced 
that on Friday and Saturday, what with reading, 
writing, painting and lecturing, thirty out of the forty- 
eight hours were constantly employed. Sometimes such 
is the extreme activity of my brain that I fall dead asleep 
like Napoleon, and from the same cause, wake refreshed 
and at it again. When I come to dinner my dear Mary 
says I have been a great deal alone. Such a sensation 
never enters my head. I never feel alone. With 
visions of ancient heroes, pictures of Christ, principles 
of ancient Art, humorous subjects, deductions, sarcasms 
against the Academy, piercing remembrance of my dear 
children all crowding upon me, I paint, write, conceive 
and fall asleep, start up refreshed, eat my lunch with the 
fierceness of Polyphemus, return to my room, go on till 
near dinner, walk, dine, read the paper, return to my 
study, complete what I have been doing, or muse till 
dusk, then to bed, lamenting my mortality at being 
fatigued. I never rest, I talk all night in my sleep, 
start up : I scarce know whether I did not even relish 
ruin, as a source of increased activity. ' Rest, rest, per- 
turbed spirit ! ' 

" 1 5th. Got up so wretched in my eyes from over- 
work that I sallied forth to seek my fortunes, like Cain 
with his family, and got into the Great Western. The 
instant the engine moved I felt something was wrong. 
It laboured and jerked, and after going at a snail's pace 
made a dead stop at four miles. After a great deal of 

1838.] AN IGNOBLE HIDE. 91 

time it proceeded, and arrived at West Drayton at one, 
thirteen miles an hour. This was the first hour of an 
intended day of pleasure. Weary of the idea of remain- 
ing at a station till four, I determined to walk to 
Hounslow, but rain set in ; so I hailed a tax-cart, in fact 
a butcher's, and asked him if he would take me to 
Hounslow. He said he would, and as it was all by by- 
paths I jumped in. He lent me a sack to cover my 
knees, and by wiping myself continually I kept the rain 
from soaking in. We got on very well. He told me 
the winter had been 101. out of his way. All his 
potatoes, turnips and cabbages had been ruined. He 
said he was married and had two children. He said, 
' You have a queer coachman, sir, haven't ye ? ' ( Never 
mind, my hero, bring me to Hounslow.' After a long 
trot he plunged into the open road Hounslow two 
miles. I thought it would be rather awkward to meet 
the Duke of Sutherland. Trusting in Providence I 
should escape, I did not get out ; and while I was 
thinking if my noble friends should see me what a job 
it would be, suddenly the butcher bawled out, ' The 
Queen ! the Queen ! ' I jerked off my spectacles, pressed 
my hat over my head, hid half my face and waited. 
First came the Lancers, then outriders, then the Queen, 
then a carriage with Prince George (I think), who 
looked at me. The Queen's eye I escaped, and he did 
not know me. 

ff At Hounslow I fell in with a stage, and got to town 
at five. 

" 1 8th. At the Gallery at night. Sir George, 
Lord Mulgrave, Duke of Sutherland, all gone ! and the 
glory of the Gallery gone with them. There was not 
one beautiful head in the room. 

" Studied a Bassano till I smelt its colour, and to- 
day clashed into my sketch what I imbibed. Oh, what 
they lose who do not glory in the old painters ! What 

92 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1838. 

an eye ! What a nerve for colour ! How I sucked it 
in, how I tasted it on the tip of my tongue ! how 
fiery were the crimsons ! how delicious the surface ! how 
deep the tone ! Delaroche made me sick. His dirty 
browns, his reds, his filthy leathery bricky flesh, Yah ! 

" I am the same man as ever. Thirty years ago I had 
just the same feelings, the same delusions. 

" Last night, as 1 was looking at Delaroche's picture 
of Charles, which is not equal to the Duke's Strafford, 

P was standing by me. He said, ( The French are 

approaching us.' I replied, ( The French have decided 
merits we have not.' He turned away in a rage. 

f ' I could not help admiring the thorough-bred imper- 
tinence of R. A.'s. They are never at a loss to keep 
up their dignity. ' Approaching us,' ' Us f ' The 
immaculate exquisite ! They are clever fellows. 

" 19th. What I find fault with is my tendency to 
intellectual deduction. I have as much pleasure in that 
as painting. It comes on in spite of Titian, Nature 
and the Elgin Marbles. 

"19^. Hard at work, and did half the baby. 
Titian's flesh in children is exactly the milky tint 
Rubens not so. In the Three Ages* at Bridgewater 
House the three little children are perfection. The flesh 
in my baby being near a red cap, the reflections are 
red. Mary came in, and said, f Children who suck are 
not red, but milky.' This was the sound criticism of a 

fe 24:th. Dined at Mackenzie's (an old friend), and 

met Lord Paulet, O , Matthews (the brother of 

Lord Byron's Matthews), Mr. Coulton, and two others. 
A very delightful evening we had, because we got on 

the Spanish war. O (though one of the Duke's 

croakers evidently) said capital things. He said magis- 

* By some attributed to Titian, by others to Giorgione. 


trates, priests, people and nobility were all with the 
Duke, and the French could not move without the 
Duke immediately knowing every movement. He said 
the French never fought much after Salamanca and 
Albuera. He said he knew that the Duke, before 
going to Waterloo, when ministers asked whom they 
should send out if any accident should happen to him, 
replied, ( Beresford ; ' but like many old officers, he 
ascribed more to circumstances than to Wellington's 
genius. Absurd. 

" Lord Paulet told some interesting things. Among 
a parcel of aides-de-camp he heard one say, ' They ran 
away.' The Duke, who was near, turned round 
' Ran away ! to be sure. I saw a whole regiment, 
officers and all, run like the devil in the Pyrenees till 
they were up to their shoulders in furze.' Lord Paulet 
said it was one of the fifties. The Duke said directly 
after he saw the same regiment distinguishing themselves 
highly. He was supposed not to have seen the first 
scene, but he saw the last, and noticed their gallantry in 

" Lord Paulet said, one night in Paris, at the Varietes, 
he and the Duke found in their box a dirty-looking fellow 
marked with the smallpox. He was going to say the 
box was taken, when to his astonishment the Duke 
spoke freely to the stranger, and they got into a deep 
conversation. When the Duke came out he said, ( Do 
you know who that is ? That 's Rostopchin, a devilish 
good fellow.' Mackenzie then said, in reply to some 
question, Rostopchin did not set fire to Moscow. That 
he heard him declare after dinner, upon his word of 
honour as a gentleman, that he had nothing to do with 
it. He burned his own villa before the city was burnt, 
thus setting the example, but he says it was set fire to 
by thieves, who hoped to plunder. Mackenzie said the 
question with Russians was, Moscow was the head- 

94 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1838. 

quarters of the nobility, who were too powerful for 
Alexander's independence. It was suspected the burning 
was not disagreeable to him. The nobles were very 
angry at the Tilsit scene, and remonstrated ; in fact 
little less than ordered Alexander to have nothing to do 
again with the French army, or even to see Napoleon. 

" O then returned to the running away, and 

said, unless keeping the ground was an object, officers 
and all often took shelter. But if the orders were, 
' Keep that ground while alive,' every man would drop 
at his post. 

" Mackenzie said he was present when a French 
officer of artillery was taken and brought to Schwart- 
zenburg. Among other questions he was asked what 
they were doing in the South. ( Don't you know ? 
We have been fighting a man who if he had your army 
would have been in Paris a month ago.' He told us he 
heard the Duke say Massena was equal to 120,000, 
Ney to 20,000, but that Soult combined the talents of 

"He said the llth volume of the Despatches was 
delayed till Soult was gone, lest it might have injured 
him with English people. 

" O thought nothing of Vittoria because there 

was no fighting. I asked him if taking 150 pieces of 
cannon and Lord Hill's flank movement were nothing. 
He admitted, unwillingly, that was something. Yittoria 
was the greatest because there was no fighting. O 
said the army was sick of it before the battle. I dare 
say all the croakers were. 

" O was exactly the sort of man to hit short- 
sighted prejudices between wind and water; to attribute 
the success of a great genius to circumstances, to in- 
formation and second-rate causes, instead of seeing that 
but for the innate power of mind to wield the circum- 
stances nothing could have come. 


" What Wellington must have had to contend with ! 
I came away with Matthews, to whom, as we came out, 
I complained of the disposition of old military characters 

to underrate the Duke. I told O that I heard 

from Colonel Aicheson of the Guards a saying of the 
Duke's, f No man who is not an ass fights a general battle 
unless he is sure of getting it.' 

" July 21th. Had a long chat with Wilkie. He had 
a lady on canvas which was very fair, but his large 
work, the Discovery of Tippoo's Body, is beneath notice. 
He has no notion of grace. He has put Baird with his 
head the wrong way for ease, just like his George IV. 
It is dreadful to see such a genius so encumbering 
himself. I suspect from his tone he is suffering from 
want of commissions. How can he expect otherwise 
when for ten years he has palmed off such trash as he 
has been painting ? I asked him if he had read my 
treatise on painting. He said he had begun it, but it 
was very learned. 

(f I think he is going to get married. Just as I was 
going he showed me a small picture of the Pope and 
Benvenuto Cellini, as exquisite as anything he ever 
painted superior, in fact. It had all the surface Sir 
George used to wish for in him. If he completes it as 
he has begun it, he will hit what he has been floundering 
after for years. 

"3lst. I have got through all the figures ; painted 
ten this month. I am grateful I have accomplished it. 

" Now for improvements and alterations. About 
seven D'Orsay called whom I had not seen for long. 
He was much improved, and looking 'the glass of 
fashion and the mould of form,' really a complete 
Adonis not made up at all. He made some capital 
remarks, all of which must be attended to. They were 
first impressions and sound. He bounded into his 
cab, and drove off like a young Apollo with a fiery 

96 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1838. 

Pegasus. I looked after him. I like to see such spe- 

" August 4th. Wilkie called and is looking very old. 
His mind is certainly growing feeble. We had a regular 
discussion about effects, lights, &c., but he was weak 
and fat. He was annoyed at my saying that he refused 
to walk with me in the streets after my attack on the 
Academy. It was truth and he knows it. He said, 
' My object was to bring you right, as it is now.' He 
actually said this to-day, as if he was sounding me. 
e You have kept yourself aloof from all societies,' said 
he, f very properly.' By heavens here is an advance ! " 

At this time the subject of a statue to the Duke of 
Wellington was under consideration, and a model of 
Wyatt's equestrian figure was erected, without the 
artist's knowledge, on the arch where the statue itself 
now stands. Struck with the ungraceful effect of the 
whole, Haydon wrote to the Duke, enclosing a sketch 
in which he showed the disproportion between statue 
and pedestal and the improvement that might be effected 
by adopting a figure of different size placed parallel with 
the roadway instead of athwart it. The Duke acknow- 
ledged the note and sketch in his usual incisive style: 

"London, August llth, 1838. 

"The Duke of Wellington presents his compliments to 
Mr. Haydon, and returns the drawing enclosed in his note of 
the 10th. 

" The Duke is the man of all men in England who has 
the least to do with the affair which is the subject of Mr. 
Haydon's letter to him." 

" 17 th. The session has ended, and nothing has 
been done for High Art, or even thought of. But the 
law which enabled a reptile to enter your house without 
notice and drag you even from your bed is abolished. 


This is only a step to the final abolishment of arrest 
even in execution. 

" I have helped to this desired object. 

" Hume read my Catalogue on the Mock Election at 
the House, which was a feather in the scale. 

"29th. Hard and anxiously at work. Nothing now 
left to finish but the feet and legs of an alteration, and 
to have three boy models together, so that I may make 
my own more separate and solid in light and shadow 
from nature. 

" Always group up your models. No ideal light and 
shadow is equal to the truth of life. 

" 31st. I have fairly got through my picture, for 
which mercy I offer God my grateful thanks. I began 
8th October, went out of town in January, recommenced 
in April, and got through it in August. It has taken 
me six months' fair hard work. I faddled two, was 
absent six weeks, altered and rubbed in in March and 
began to finish in April. For the health, for the hap- 
piness, for the supply of money, for all the blessings I 
have enjoyed, on my knees I bless God, the cause, the 
fountain, of all. 

" September 6th. When the vehicle which conveys 
the thought is such as not to detract from the full value 
of the thought by its imperfection of resemblance, but 
not such as to attract by its mere splendour of execu- 
tion, but such as solely to convey the thought, so that 
the thought alone shall predominate that is perfection 
of Art. Subsequent examination may bring fresh 
delight at finding out how this has been done. 

" Titian and Apelles, Claude and Vandervelde, Wii- 
kie in his Blind Fiddler, and Landseer in his dogs, 
why are these men not the greatest in their art ? Be- 
cause invention requires a higher power of mind than 

" IQth. I bless God with all my heart that I have 


98 MEMOIES OF B. R. HAYDON. [1838. 

paid my rent, rates, taxes, laid in my coals for winter, 
and have enjoyed health, happiness and freedom from 
debt ever since this commission. If, before I die, I can 
satisfy my old creditors (those who did not put me to 
law costs, though there is something of revenge in this 
I believe and fear) I shall die unloaded. 

" October 9th. Worked hard, and finished my sketch, 
and thus I conclude ' my first Liverpool commission,' as 
my friend Lowndes said. 

"19th. Left town in the train, and arrived at Liver- 
pool at half-past seven nine and a half hours 210 
miles. A young American sat with me in the coupte, 
and I was heartily amused. All the characteristics of 
his countrymen came out in perfection. He carelessly 
tumbled about bills to a considerable amount boasted 
of the battle of Pittsburgh, which I had forgotten, till 
I was obliged to pull him down a little, tenderly, about 
the Chesapeake and the Capitol. His face altered 

" He said he could animal- magnetise. I defied him : 
he began with all his antics, but I looked him sternly in 
the face and shook him. He pretended he was ill, and 
finding me broad awake said, ( Mayhap, you are a strong 
mind.' ' So they say/ said I. 

" At lunch he went and found out who I was, when 
his altered tone amused me. He drove up to the same 
hotel and announced my coming (which was a cursed 
liberty). After that I took care. 

" On Tuesday I met him and said, ( Well, you did 
not put me to sleep.' s Ah,' said he, ' I did not do it. 
I was too ill-' I found the picture arrived. 

" 2lst. Went to church at the asylum. 

" 22nd. Put up the picture. 

" 23rd It looked capitally. 
. Worked at it. 


" 25th. Finished. Thus it is one year and seven- 
teen days since I began the picture. Laus Deo. 

" 27th, 28th and 29th. Spent at Liverpool amongst 
a spirited set, but more idle than Manchester men. 
Dined on 27th with Lowndes, who seemed quite happy. 
I had in spite of calumny honoured his election. 

" 30th. Set off for Manchester, where I stayed for 
two days arranging with Fairbairn about my dear boy, 
Frank, who will be an engineer. 

" November 1st. Arrived safely at Leeds, where I 
was heartily and sincerely welcomed. The Liverpool 
men are speculators and spirited ; the Leeds men, steady 
and persevering ; the Manchester men, industrious and 

19th. Left dear old steady Leeds at eleven. Got 
to Manchester and dined. Set off by train and came 
back like mad in the hour to Liverpool. Had a letter 
from my darling Mary which charmed me. 

<f 21 st. Went to the Mechanics' and got all right. It 
is a magnificent establishment. 

" 22nd. Lectured last night to a large audience. 
The room is too large. You feel pained to fill it. 
There are too many boys belonging to the schools, and 
the savage brutality behind is dreadful. No attention 
or common civility. I was astonished. They are ac- 
customed to so many teachers they look on a lecturer as 
on a porter. I'll teach them differently. I had hard 
work to get a glass of water. 

" December 5th. Lowndes came the other night and 
proposed to me to paint a grand historical picture of the 
Duke. The very thing I have been thinking of for two 
years. How extraordinary ! O God, grant me life and 
health to do this thing as the glorious town of Liverpool 
deserves it should be done ! 

" 4th, 5th, 6th, *lih and 8th. Sketched* The scheme 
for the Duke goes on capitally. 

ii 2 

100 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1838, 

" Brought forward a boy at the Mechanics' to-night 
who is a great genius Huxley. He will, if ever pro- 
perly assisted, be an honour to English Art. I offered 
to educate him if they would maintain him. 

" He has sketched a Rape of Proserpine as fine as 
anything I ever saw Ceres demanding her Daughter 
Three Fates Three Furies not a figure more than 
wanted. He is full of invention and no manner. 

" He sees the principal figure at once. I cannot ex- 
press my pleasure. 

" His father is a cabinet-maker. 

" 14th, 15th. Dined out, and gave my last lecture 
to a crowded and elegant audience. On the Thursday 
I lectured on a fine living model called Hickman, six 
feet two and a half. When I put him like the Theseus 
and Ilissus the whole audience felt his superb look. He 
had been a horse-guardsman. The success of these 
lectures at Liverpool, and the success of the Asylum 
picture, and the victory of a public commission, are 
really so glorious that no gratitude to God can be great 
enough. I prayed sincerely for a successful end of this 
labour and it has ended successfully. Gratitude to Him, 
the protector of all his creatures. I now pray to Him 
to bless this new commission of the Duke, that Liver- 
pool may possess the best historical picture and my 
grandest effort of the pencil in portrait. Inspired by 
history I fear not making it the grandest thing." 

This commission for the picture of the Duke musing 
at Waterloo twenty years after the battle was a great 
triumph for Haydon, who, as has been mentioned, had 
conceived the subject in 1836, and had begun a picture 
for Messrs. Boys, the publishers, which was not pro- 
ceeded with in consequence of the difficulty already re- 
corded about the Duke's clothes. 

A commission from a body of gentlemen at Liverpool 
was a very different thing from a publisher's speculation, 


and so the picture was rubbed in, with great exultation, 
before the close of the year, with a prayer (in allusion 
to the picture painted for Sir R. Peel) that the artist 
might beat Napoleon as much as ever the Duke did. 

"31s*. The last day of 1838. A year of compe- 
tence, work and prosperity comparatively. Blessings 
and gratitude to that benevolent Creator under whose 
merciful dispensation this has happened. It has not 
made me ungrateful or vicious ; but I have less crime 
to answer for than any other previous year of my past 

" Gratitude for ever and ever. Amen. 

" The people are more alive to Art than ever. 
Everywhere have I been received with enthusiasm, and 
the importance of High Art is no longer a matter of 
doubt with them. 

" Thus ends 1838. Could I hope that every year 
would be equally blessed by employment and compe- 
tence every wish would be gratified. May I deserve it. 


This year presented but few vicissitudes. The artist 
was kept above embarrassment throughout, partly by 
his Liverpool commission for the Duke's picture and 
partly by his lectures. The one great incident of the 
twelvemonth was the visit to Walmer, where he had at 
length his long-wished-for opportunity of sittings from 
the Duke. 

Now that Wellington has passed away, details which 
illustrate his character and habits possess an interest, 
however trivial apart from the man. I have therefore 
given the Journal of this visit in full. But before this 
there had been much correspondence between the Duke 

H 3 

102 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1839. 

and the painter, characteristic on both sides, of which I 
have suppressed very little. 

Haydon's admiration of the Duke was unbounded, 
and the pains he took with this commission were in 
proportion to his enthusiasm for the subject of it. The 
sketches in the Journal are evidence of the thought he 
gave to the arrangement of the picture, and I have had 
placed in my hands (while this book was in progress) a 
collection of elaborate chalk studies * for all the details, 
from the head and hands of the Duke, down to his spurs 
and the minutest parts of the trappings of Copenhagen, 
partly from Haydon's own hand, and partly from that 
of his Liverpool pupil Huxley. The picture seems to 
have been, in every sense of the word, a conscientious 
work. It is well known at this time, from the re-ap- 
pearance of the print on the death of the Duke last 

" January 1st. I arose at daylight, dressed, and 
going into the parlour as usual opened the Bible almost 
in the dark, turned it on its face, and waited for light. 
I then, getting impatient, lighted a candle, and read, 
4 Let thy mercy, O Lord, be upon us, according as we 
hope in Thee.' 

" And now to set my palette, and to work. Half 
past eight." 

Wishing to consult existing portraits, he applied to 
Sir Robert Peel for access to that by Lawrence in his 

" Dray ton Manor, January 9th. 
" Sir, 

" I found your letter on my return home last night. 
" I shall have great pleasure in acceding to your wish to 
see Lawrence's portrait of the Duke of Wellington, and 
enclose an order to my servant to admit you. 

" I am glad to hear from you that the main object which 

* In the possession of Mr. Spiers of Oxford. 

1839.] PICTURE OF MILTON. 103 

I had in giving you a commission for the Napoleon, and in 
placing it in a conspicuous and favourable light, viz. to serve 
you, by encouraging other patrons of the art to follow my 
example, has been answered. 

" The little sketch of your general conception for your in- 
tended picture appears to me very good. The only remark 
I would make is upon the action of the horse. Neither the 
eye nor the thoughts of the spectator should be diverted from 
the main object of the picture by any vehemence in the 
action of the horse, or even any peculiarity in his position. 

" I am, Sir, 
" Your obedient and humble servant, 


" llth. Went to Sir Robert's and saw Lawrence's 
Wellington. Whilst Charles, the porter, was in attend- 
ance, he said, ' The Duke is getting old, sir, but he 
won't allow it. The valet says he thinks he can do as 
well as ever, but he cannot. He says, " Not at all 
old ! " This amused me. I hope he will sit before he 
gets too old." 

In the intervals of work on the Duke Haydon painted 
small pictures one of Milton at the Organ with his 
Daughters, and also made sketches for his design for a 
monument to Nelson. 

" 12th. Drew the whole day filled in the Nelson 
series with slight water-colour sketches. How wretchedly 
imperfect is water-colour drawing! 

" 14th. Put in Milton's head successfully. 

" 1 5th. Put in the daughters. Little pictures tire 
my eyes. Hang them ! Milton's daughter was not 
handsome ; but I must make her so. 

" 17 th. Worked very hard at Nelson's monument. 

"18th. Worked hard without breathing almost, 
and got on with the monument. 

"19th. Worked gloriously hard, and finished the 
H 4 

104 MEMOIRS OF B. R. IIAYDON". [1830. 

sketches. Oh, if my mind was always as easy I should 
always so apply myself. 

" A pupil told me I said to him, * In background 
heads the leading points and the leading details in the 
lights ; but in the shadows, the leading points only,' 
which is capital, but I had forgot it. 

" 3lst. Last day of January, 1839, in which I have 
exerted myself well, but not to perfection. 

f e I have rubbed in the Duke, advanced two other 
commissions and finished the Nelson design. 

< ( Feb 2nd. The Duchess of Sutherland is dead. In 
her I lose a very old and a very kind friend. To her 
energy and decision I owe the matriculation of Hyman, 
my son-in-law, at Oxford, and my commission for Cas- 
sandra. Once after trouble she called when I was 
out. I told her if she called again to come in state 
almost. She drove up the next day with all the para- 
phernalia of servants and equipage, on purpose to have 
a dashing effect on the neighbourhood and be of service. 

" 1th. Worked hard, and got in the other Milton's 
daughter. Wilkie called in the afternoon. I was glad 
to see his old wizened face. He looked old and wrinkled. 
I asked if what the present Sir Robert Sinclair told me 
was true that the print of a Highlander first turned 
his thoughts to painting. Wilkie said the fact was the 
late Sir John Sinclair during the war was intending to 
raise a regiment. He sent a print of a Highlander, by 
Dighton, to several of the clergy, and amongst others 
to his father. Wilkie regarded it with awe. It was 
framed, and made a deep impression. It increased his 
love for his art, but did not turn his mind to it in the 
first instance." 

This month Haydon lectured at Bath, of which place 
he remarks that it is amazingly behind the manufac- 
turing towns in knowledge and intelligence. 

"Up to March 14th occupied in busy stuff about the 


Nelson memorial. Saw Sir George Cockburn. Had 
a long argument. He stuck to the column, but was 
open to conviction. 1 told him height alone would not 
do ; breadth was essential. He is a fine fellow. I said, 
f I hope you won 't delay it beyond this session ; if 
you do, the Government will be afraid of offending 

" I asked him to call. He said he would go in to 
give judgment uninfluenced in any way. 

" One always feels curiously in his presence. I look 
at him and think, That's the man that said " General " 
to Napoleon.' 

" I'll ask him some day to lend me his Journal. 

"25th. Left town with my dear innocent boy 
Frank, for Manchester, by train. Arrived in little 
more than ten hours. Called next day on Fairbairn, 
who was going to Ireland. Took lodgings at 99, Mill 
Street, and was much interested at Frank's utter 
ignorance and inexperience. Though I have educated 
him religiously and classically, I almost fear the vice 
of a manufacturing town. It is a complete sacrifice, 
though his passion for engineering is invincible ; but it 
was a pity to leave his handsome and refined face, so fit 
for poetry and abstract thought. I suffered so much 
from the opposition of my parents, I resolved he should 
have none in any pursuit wherein he showed direct and 
positive evidence of talent. 

" April 1st. Lectured last night at Newcastle, and 
was received with great enthusiasm. The fair was 
going on. 

" The Chartists had a meeting and tea party ; but 
the people to see the wild beasts and swing beat them hol- 
low as to numbers. 

tf I visited their room, ornamented with laurel and 
flags, with inscriptions of f Liberty,' ( The labouring 
man the true nobility,' &c. &c., as if the power of saying 
that was not evidence of independence. 

106 MEMOIRS OF B. R. IIAYDON. [1839. 

c ' I believe in my conscience politics are but a portion 
of the amusements of the time. 

" On leaving Newcastle I came to Hull, and found it 
very far behind Newcastle. The first night the audience, 
though respectable, was scanty. The lecture made a 
hit as usual, and the attendance at the two latter in- 
creased prodigiously. All over the country there is a 
desire for instruction. 

" A confederation of the leading towns to join in a 
petition for Schools of Design and state patronage for 
Art would make a move. After going through with 
lectures I'll try. 

May 3rd. The last night at Hull. I never wit- 
nessed more enthusiasm anywhere than at Hull, the last 
night. The people are slow, but feel deeply. A 
School of Design was begun, and I do not doubt its 
complete establishment. 

" 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th. Lectured at Warrington. 
Enthusiasm just the same. 

" llth. Finished with the study of Copenhagen 
(done 1824 by Webb), and sent it home to Lord 
Fitzroy. Worked 7 hours. 

" The superb rapidity of steam travelling was exqui- 
site. On Monday I left Warrington for Liverpool 
was there in forty minutes settled my business, re- 
ceived my second instalment, heard the resolution of 
the committee about writing to the Duke and flew off 
to Manchester. Saw my dear boy, paid up his affairs, 
dined and was off again to Warrington. On Tuesday 
night I lectured till near ten ; and at three on Wednes- 
day morning was off for town, where I arrived by half- 
past two. Here I arranged for beginning on Thursday, 
and set to work next day, and to-night have accom- 
plished what I said I would. There is no higher plea- 
sure than a duty successfully achieved. Laus Deo" 

The Liverpool committee wrote to the Duke, through 


Mr. Lowndes, stating the subject of the commission 
they had given to Hay don, and asking the Duke to 
grant him sittings for it. 
The Duke replied : 

"London, llth May, 1839. 
" Sir, 

*' I have this day received your letter of the 7th inst. 
" I am much flattered by the desire of the gentlemen of 
Liverpool to possess a picture of me by Mr. Haydon. 

" I will, with great pleasure, see Mr. Haydon, and will 
endeavour to fix a time at which it will be in my power to 
give him sittings to enable him to finish the picture. 
" It is not in my power at the present moment. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, 
" Your obedient and humble servant, 


<f I wrote, asking the Duke for an hour and a half. 
This is his answer : 

"'London, 17th May, 1839. 

" ' The Duke of Wellington presents his compliments to 
Mr. Haydon, and has received his letter. 

" ' Mr. Haydon shall have the Duke's attendance as soon 
as he is able to give it. 

" ' He might as well ask him to sit for ten days at present 
as for a sitting of an hour and a half.' 

" You deceitful Dukey ! At this very time you went 
to Wyatt's, and gave him an hour at his o\\ n room, 
while you tell me I may as well ask you for ten days. 
Wyatt called and told me so." 

Not satisfied with carrying on a correspondence with 
the Duke on the subject of his own picture, Haydon 
(May 23rd) wrote to him on the subject of the Nelson 
monument, proposing for the committee of selection the 
plan of gradual elimination adopted in Paris on the oc- 

108 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1839. 

casion of the competition for a monument to General 
Foy. Next day the Duke answered : 

"London, 24th May, 1839. 

" The Duke of Wellington presents his compliments to 
Mr. Haydon. The Duke is a member of the committee for 
the execution of the plan for the erecting a monument to 
the memory of the late Lord Nelson. He is not the com- 
mittee, nor the secretary to the committee; and above all, 
not the corresponding secretary" 

"June 1st The Duke's picture is decidedly and 
well advanced this week. In spite of all my troubles 
I have had great happiness in life. I am convinced 
existence is a blessing, and, as Parr said, if men were 
better would be felt as a blessing. 

" 5th. Worked hard at Copenhagen's head. I hope 
I succeeded. I wrote to the Duke to lend me his ac- 
coutrements. As yet no answer. 

" 6th. Moved all my books upstairs to a small room 
out of my painting-room, as they seduced me to read 
at wrong times. I felt pain at the separation, but it is 
right I can now retire, read and write after due labour ; 
but I miss my books, and felt melancholy all day. 

"'London, June 6th, 1839. 

" * The Duke of Wellington presents his compliments to 
Mr. Haydon, and regrets much that it is absolutely im- 
possible for him to do what he desires in his note of the 
3rd inst.' 

" I sallied forth, and calling on Lord Fitzroy Somerset 
(who came out in his morning coat to see me) explained 
to him my position. He told me both his saddle and the 
Duke's cloth and all were eaten by moths. He ex- 
plained to me the nature of everything, authorised me 
to use his name at Whippey's, and away I went. 

f( Whippey was a blood saddler, thorough-bred, an d 


made all the Duke's saddles from Salamanca to "Waterloo, 
and, like a fine fellow, said he would fit up everything 
as the Duke wore it at Waterloo, put it on a horse, and 
let me paint from the real thing. He walked home with 
me to see the picture, abused Lord Melbourne as he 
came along for making a sneaking speech and contrasted 
it with the Duke's, which, he said, was common-sense 
and honour, in which I most cordially joined. He swore 
the Duke was the greatest man in the world, and that 
he had made all his saddles, which so increased my re- 
verence I offered him my arm. He took it, and so we 
walked home. His dress, manners and behaviour were 
those of a gentleman tradesman. 

" He found fault with the bit, and gave good reasons. 
He thought the head of Copenhagen capital, and like 
the horse. 

" In fact Lord Fitzroy has made my fortune. 
" Lord Fitzroy said the Duke had a daughter of 
Copenhagen, but not of the same colour. 

" Thus from the depths of misery and despair I am 
again on the top, with a distinct view of my glory. 

ft Such great things are in the power of little men. 
For who would have believed what, to the great Wel- 
lington, was impossible, has been achieved, or will be, 
by his saddler, Whippey, with the greatest ease ? 

" I do not feel at home in my painting-room with- 
out my books. I used to look up, and see the books, 
and imagine (as each name came on my sight) I saw 
the author : Dante, Petrarch, Homer, Shakespeare, 
Milton, Spenser and Tasso, with Vasari, smiled vividly 
like phantasmagoric visions, and my brain teemed with 
associations of their sublimity or charm. I look now 
and see a blank wall. 

ff I mused first on my picture, and then on my books, 
and each helped the conceptions of the other. 

(( Such is habit. By degrees down again they come, 

110 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1839. 

but I feel ashamed to do it after such an expensive re- 
moval. What folly to do it at all. 

" June 10th. Worked, and certainly with more ab- 
stracted devotion to my art than when my books were 
near ; I have stuck at it all day, and in the evening 
walked up into my book-room. There they were, silent, 
yet teeming with thoughts, bursting with sublimity. 
Milton Satan and all his rebel host filled my mind. 
Shakespeare Hamlet, Lear, Falstaff, Cordelia, Imogen, 
Macbeth and Puck, crowded my imagination. I walked 
about in ecstacy, but read nothing ; dwelt on what I had 
read, and was content. 

"llth. Had bridle and saddle sent by Whippey, 
and put them on an old hack. Painted a study in the 
sun, and got the sketch and picture right. Was dread- 
fully fatigued at night. Whilst I was hard at work, 
just as I used to be, who should call, after a long ab- 
sence, but David Wilkie, looking old and feeble ! 

" His total failure this year seems to have shaken 
him a little, and the neglect of the Court has brought 
him more to the feelings of former times. I persuaded 
him to drink tea, and when David Wilkie stays to tea 
with B. R. Hay don B. K. Hay don must be considered 
on the safe side of the question. It is ten years since 
he did this. He was amiable and entertaining, as he 
always used to be. 

(( He did not like to be reminded that it was thirty 
years ago since we were in Devonshire. He shrank 
from his age. I never do ; and it is not absurdity to 
say I feel stronger, after nine hours' solid painting yester- 
day, than I did at twenty-seven years of* age. We 
talked of Merimee's work. He knew him, and consi- 
dered him a man of theory. I said it would set the 
young men losing their time instead of studying the 
figure. He said young men were too lazy ever to read. 
We talked of the effect of time, and both agreed Titian 


painted his pictures to look well to his eye, and never 
considered how they would look one hundred years 
hence. He told me Northcote said * If Sir Joshua had 
known the effect of time he would have painted dif- 
ferently.' I do not think so, nor did he. 

" Sir Joshua could not have painted otherwise. Was 
not his Heathfield as fine when it was done, as now ? 
Wilkie did not know oil was used in England before 

" 19th. Notwithstanding the seclusion and quiet of 
my little room, I do not read with such comfort as in 
my painting-room, smelling of paint as it does. I have 
brought down my writing-desk, and shall have about 
half a dozen favourites on the top Milton, Shake- 
speare, Dante, Tasso, Homer, Vasari, and, above all, 
the Bible and Testament always to refer to, and 

" 20th. Sketched the plan of the ground from the 
model at the Egyptian Hall, and finished the horse's 
head. Wyatt, who has succeeded in making a capital 
head of the Duke, told the Duke of my picture, and he 
seemed pleased. 

" Lord and Lady Bnrghersh called on the 18th, and 
gave me joy of my picture. 

" 22nd. The Nelson monument is decided, and not 
in my favour, though my belief is, had I been able to 
devote myself to make a series of oil sketches of the 
pictures, with a grand external view a la Canaletti, the 
decision would have been in my favour. 

" A man should never contest for anything with half 
his strength ; do it effectually or not at all. I could 
not afford the time to do it well, and the time I did 
afford was thrown to the dogs ; so I did it ill, lost my 
time and did not get it ; a very proper punishment. 

" Westmacott told Hamilton my design was the only 
reasonable one. The public, when admitted, decidedly 

112 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAY DON. [1839. 

approved, and had it been left to the public, I think I 
should have had a strong support. It could not be 
done for the estimate, and the Duke warned everybody 
30,0007. was the extent. My estimate was 70,0007. 

" So ends my Nelson affair. What a grand series of 
pictures I could have made ! 

" 'London, June 24th, 1839. 

" ' The Duke of Wellington presents his compliments to 
Mr. Haydon. 

" ' He begs that Mr. Haydon will write his commands. 

" ' The Duke will be engaged all to-morrow and next day 
in attendance upon the Naval and Military Commission. 

" ' The Duke must beg leave to decline to have the honour 
of receiving Mr. Haydon till he will have some leisure.' 

. Saw Lady Burghersh's Alcestis. It is 
really beautifully conceived. In looking at a sketch of 
the Duke, she said, ' Whilst that was sketching he took 
this little girl on his lap. He is very fond of children. 
Don't you recollect, my love, when Dukey took you in 
his lap?' 

" The terror of Napoleon Dukey to his niece! 

" ' We call him Dukey,' said she, ( here, Mr. Haydon.' 
It was exceedingly interesting. 

" 29th. Felt very ill from over-strain; so I only 
sketched Barren, the Irish member, and went to see a 
fine Guido, brought by Buchanan, and a superb Van- 
dyke and Paul Veronese. The Vandyke was exquisite. 
What tone ! what colour ! what handling ! Oh, they 
were divinely inspired men. I know and feel their 
superb genius. It is St. Jerome. 

" In the evening I lectured at the Mechanics', and 
had three fine young models from 2nd Life Guards, who 
went through the sword exercise to perfection. The 
room was crowded. 

" 30th. Last day of the month. Let me look back. 


I have worked well and got the horse accomplished. 
Now for the Duke, who won't lend me his clothes. I 
can do without them, for I have already drawings of all. 
He has not seen the picture. He knows not if it be 
good or bad. Till he sees his way, he declines. The 
same man in peace or war. But I'll beat him. 

" Completed my horse, but not satisfied with his hind 
quarters ; however, I have got through it, and when dry 
can alter it. 

'"London, June 27th, 1839. 

" * The Duke of Wellington presents his compliments to 
Mr. Haydon. He hopes that he will have some cessation of 
note-writing about pictures. 

" c The Duke knows nothing about the picture Mr. Haydon 
proposes to paint. 

" ' At all events, he must decline to lend to anybody his 
clothes, arms and equipments.' 

" July 4^. Went to Wilkie, and said, ( How did 
you manage with the Duke ? ' ' Let him have his own 
way,' was the reply. ( He is fidgetty about lending his 
things. I never got them but just a day before he came, 
and he preferred coming in the regimentals to lending 
them to be painted.' These were Wilkie's very words, 
without my informing him of what had passed. So here 
is the man. We had a very interesting conversation. 
He advised me to make a drawing of his figure and dress, 
when I had him. 

" He told me the Duke complained of the loss of time 
sitting occasioned. ' Yes,' said Wilkie ; ' but he would 
be mortified if he was not asked to sit. He complains 
of dining out so much and making speeches ; but he 
would be more mortified if he was not asked, and if he 
did not make speeches.' 

" e Has he promised your committee ? ' ( He has.' 
( Then he will keep his word,' said Wilkie. 


114 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1839. 

" Wilkie said he had always the greatest trouble with 
him. The Duke told Wyatt he had sat a hundred and 
fifty times, and it was almost time to leave off. I hope 
not before he has sat to me. 

" Went into the city to Merchant Tailors' Hall, and 
saw Wilkie's portrait of him with the daughter of Copen- 
hagen. Very fine indeed. It is unlike the common 
English portrait, but it is very fine. 

" 8th. Lord Fitzroy called yesterday with his 
daughter. She is a judge of a horse as well. They 
both thought Copenhagen leggy, and too big in the body, 
which gave him a heavy look. 

" They seemed both to understand the Duke. They 
asked me if I had had his clothes. I said, ' No : he 
won't lend them,' at which they looked at each other. 

" I said, ' Wilkie says the only way to manage him is 
to let him have his own way, and that he prefers coining 
in his clothes to sit to lending them.' 

" Lord Fitzroy said, f The Duke never holds his own 
horse : Copenhagen came out with Lord Londonderry, 
and the Duke bought him for 200 or 250 guineas.' He 
hated other horses, and Lord Fitzroy said he had seen 
him give a horse l a broadside of kicks.' 

fe Lord Fitzroy said the Duke never came into the 
field but with an orderly dragoon, and never with a 
servant. At Waterloo the dragoon was killed, and Major 
Canning said, ( I have got the Duke's little desk. What 
shall I do with it, as the orderly is killed ? ' ' Keep it 
yourself,' said Lord Fitzroy. Canning was killed, and 
the desk lost, but found next morning with the lock 
broken open.* 

" Every time you meet a Waterloo hero, pump him. 

* This, I presume, was the rough wooden desk which attracted 
so much notice at Apsley House when it was opened to the public 
at the beginning of this year. ED. 

1839.] A VISIT FROM D'ORSAY. 115 

In a few years they will all be gone Duke and the 

" Wth. Worked irregularly. Saw Hume, who 
handed me a petition from the Royal Academy to re- 
scind the order for a return of the monies received and 
expended in 1836-37-38. 

" So my Academy are come at last to know the power 
of the House. 

" He wants me to petition. 

" D'Orsay called, and pointed out several things to 
correct in the horse, verifying Lord Fitzroy's criticism 
of Sunday last. I did them, and he took my brush in 
his dandy gloves, which made my heart ache, and low- 
ered the hind quarters by bringing over a bit of the 
sky. Such a dress! white great coat, blue satin cravat, 
hair oiled and curling, hat of the primest curve and 
purest water, gloves scented with eau de Cologne or eau 
de jasmin, primrose in tint, skin in tightness. In this 
prime of dandyism he took up a nasty, oily, dirty, hog- 
tool, and immortalised Copenhagen by touching the 

" I thought, after he was gone, This won't do, a 
Frenchman touch Copenhagen ! So out I rubbed all 
he had touched, and modified his hints myself. 

" llth. Saw Hume yesterday, who put into my 
hands the most extraordinary petition that ever was 
presented to the House, from the Royal Academy, 
praying the House to rescind an order for the return of 
their receipts for 1836-37-38. Hume promised to 
present mine if I would write one. I returned home, 
and have written one ; I won't let it drop. 

" At last they feel the voice of the people, do they ? 
This is coming down. 

" Worked hard, and advanced the Duke. 

" 12th. Ordered a pair of trowsers of the Duke's 
tailor, exactly like his own, but to fit me; so that I 

i 2 

116 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1839. 

shall kill two birds with one stone, wear 'em and 
paint 'em. So, my Duke, I do you in spite of you. 

" One of the artists got his trowsers. I told him he 
had better take care ; it turned out he had got them 
from the valet. In a fright he sent them back. 

" Didn't work. 

<f 15th. 1 wish they would let my mind rest. I have 
no confidence in Hume, or any of them. They want to 
make me a political tool. There is no happiness but 
with a brush and nature before you. I hate petitions 
and excitement, and I shall go to work again with a 
relish. These sunny days have been murdered by re- 
viving in my mind the hatred of the Academy. 

"16^. Why will they do it? After the Com- 
mittee they messed the question, and now they want 
me to keep them out of the mud. 

" Saw a perfect stallion, Sir Hercules. I thought his 
neck puffy, hind quarters fine. 

" I have sent the petition, and I have done. I wrote 
to Sir Robert Peel and begged him not to sanction the 
rescinding the order. I wrote to Lord Melbourne, and 
begged him likewise. A week has gone since Hume 
asked me to petition, and my mind has been called off 
from my art ever since. It is shocking. My con- 
science has deeply wounded me. Mr. Miller and my 
Liverpool friend called to-day, in my absence, to look 
at this stallion. 

" \lth. Wilkie said to me after my first attack, ( Is 
this the way an artist ought to be employed ? ' I reply, 
f Certainly not.' These irritations may suit the radical, 
but do not help to the tranquillity of mind Sir George 
used to talk of. I have 'made up my mind to inter- 
fere no more after this. 

" 18th. Thank God! the House granted leave to 
print my petition, though against the standing orders 
regarding single ones. Hume presented it last night." 

1839.] A RUN TO WATERLOO, 117 

Mr. Hume's motion for an order of the House that 
the return which he had moved for of the receipts and 
expenditure of the Koyal Academy for 1836-37-38 
should be made forthwith, was defeated by 38 to 33, 
those who opposed it, however, admitting that the House 
had a right to require the return, but considering the 
case one for the exercise of a discretion. 

"Notwithstanding this defeat," says Haydon, "the 
rights of the Academy and the House are defined for 
ever. The Academy has no right of property, legally, 
in the rooms it occupies. The House has a right to 
call for returns, and to turn them out at a moment's 

The pressure of public business rendering the Duke's 
sitting out of the question at this time, Haydon seized 
the opportunity of visiting the field of Waterloo. 

" August 16th. Thirty pounds having unexpectedly 
come in, and Lady Burghersh having told me that at 
that moment I had no hopes of the Duke, I determined 
to start for Waterloo. My dear Mary, who is a heroine, 
agreed to endure the rapidity of my journey ; so we 
packed up and got on board the Ostend packet by seven 
o'clock on the 7th inst., and after the usual miseries of 
a wet, stormy passage got into Ostend at nine. In the 
bustle of landing, to our infinite delight, we heard a 
voice roaring out, ' Monsieur Hay done, Hotel des 
Bains ! ' I had happened to express a desire to my 
neighbour for a good hotel. He promised, if he could, 
to secure me a room at the Hotel des Bains. He saw 
the commissioner, told him my wants, and this fellow 
thundered out my name. My vanity was tickled ; I 
landed as if under a salute from the batteries. 

" We were delighted with Brussels, and on the 10th 
went to the field of Waterloo. I examined Hougou- 
mont, recognised the locale of the last charge of the 
Guards, and made my sketch from Picton's position. I 

118 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1839. 

then drove to La Belle Alliance, and halted at Lecoste's 
cottage. He was dead, but his sister was living, and 
had the house. She let us lay our cloth there. We 
dined ; and she gave us coffee. I then returned through 
Planchenoit, by La Belle Alliance, to Mont St. Jean 
and Waterloo, stopping at the church and the tomb of 
Lord Anglesey's leg, and home. I shall go again and 
spend a week, and indulge my poetry of imagination. 

" We went to Antwerp, and were amazingly im- 
pressed with Rubens's great works, the Elevation of 
the Cross, Descent, and Crucifixion. 

" Sir Joshua is too laudatory, perhaps, for a safe 
guide. For execution of the brush they are perfect. 
Nothing ever exceeded the touching of Mary Magda- 
lene's yellow drapery against the ladder for vast insight 
into the bearings of one thing against another. His 
master, Otto Venius, by his side, though possessing 
more sense of beauty, not having the same understand- 
ing of the effect of a whole, never will or can rank so 
high. We returned the day week after leaving Antwerp, 
at three, by train for Ostend, and arrived in town at a 
quarter to five next day. 

" I shall make a longer tour. My object now was 
solely a background for the Duke, and I succeeded. 

" 20th. Worked decently, but I regret to say my 
mind is uneasy about the Academy question. I wish I 
could get rid of it. I fear it will fix itself too deeply, 
and destroy that peace which ought to be the state of 
an artist's brain. 

" I could weep at the time which has been wasted 
over this question, which should have been so much 
better employed. 

" I was pursuing my studies happily when this motion 
came on. Why did I interfere ? Because if I had not 
it would have been weakly done. But see how many 
sketches I could have done how many conceptions I 


could have realised how many pictures I could have 
painted how many friends I could have made. 

" The sight of Rubens's abode the quiet seclusion 
of his summer-house the silence of Antwerp the 
golden splendour of its altars the power of its pictures, 
affected me deeply. I think I will settle there. I begin 
to feel a yearning for the Continent, with all its risks of 

te 22nd. If I once escape from this subject, catch me 
at it again. I am never let alone. The party, when 
they want me, apply ; and when they think they can do 
without me I never hear a word. I hate it hate it 
hate it. My disgust at this moment is not to be 
credited ; and yet I am pointing another attack in my 
thirteenth lecture; the Devil nothing but the Devil. 

" ' Walmer Castle, Sept. 26. 1839. 

" ' The Duke of Wellington presents his compliments to 
Mr. Haydon. He will, according to what he stated to the 
committee at Liverpool, sit to Mr. Hay don for his picture. 

" ' The composition of the picture is the business of the 
artist ; of the committee of gentlemen who asked its execu- 
tion ; of the gentlemen for whom it is intended ; of any- 
body excepting the person who is to sit for it. 

" 'The Duke begs leave to decline not only being respon- 
sible for the composition, but even to have a knowledge of 
the subject. When he will be able to receive Mr. Hay don 
he will write to him, but he begs leave to be clearly under- 
stood as having no knowledge whatever of the composition 
or subject of the picture for which he is to sit, excepting 
that it is for the committee of gentlemen at Liverpool, who 
have desired that he should sit to Mr. Haydon.' 

" Sept. 30th. The Duke done, except a little to do 
at one glove hand. Wyatt called, and we revelled in 
His Grace's peculiarities. He never lends his clothes, 
but always comes in them. He promised Wyatt his 
hat, and never sent it. The next time he came Wyatt 

i 4 

120 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1839. 

said, e Your Grace forgot the hat.' He replied, f I '11 come 
in it ; for I have only got one, and I can't spare it.' 

" Wyatt informed me he always said when people 
tried to persuade him to do what he had made up his 
mind not to do, ( The rat has got into the bottle the 
rat has got into the bottle.'* 

" I told Wyatt I had got his tailor to make me what 
I wanted in clothes. I had sketched his boots, hat 
and coat in oil, and was quite ready for him. 

" All the artists who get his clothes get them from 
his valet. If he knew that, there would be the devil to 

" Walmer Castle, October 9th, 1839. 

" The Duke of Wellington presents his compliments to 
Mr. Haydon. If Mr. Haydon will be so kind as to come to 
Walmer Castle, whenever it may suit him, the Duke will 
have it in his power to sit to him for a picture for certain 
gentlemen at Liverpool." 

This invitation was eagerly accepted, and the Journal 
which follows contains this very full account of it : 

" October \lth. Left town by steam for Ramsgate. 
Got in at half past six, dined and set off in a chaise for 
Walmer, where I arrived safely in hard rain. A great 
bell was rung on my arrival ; and after taking tea and 
dressing I was ushered into the drawing-room, where 
sat his Grace with Sir Astley Cooper, Mr. Arbuthnot 
and Mr. Booth, who had served with his Grace in 
Spain. His Grace welcomed me heartily, asked how I 

* This not very intelligible expression may refer to an anecdote 
I have heard of the Duke's once telling in his later days how the 
musk rats in India got into bottles, which ever after retained the 
odour of musk. " Either the rats must be very small," said a lady 
who heard him, " or the bottles very large." " On the contrary, 
madam," was the Duke's reply, " very small bottles, and very large 
rats." " That is the style of logic we have to deal with at the 
War Office," whispered Lord . ED. 


came down and fell again into general conversation. 

They talked of , who kept the Ship. He married 

an actress from Astley's. She was a fine lady, and the 
Duke said, ( I soon saw all would go wrong one day ; 
for whilst I was there, somebody said he wanted some- 
thing, and madam, with the air of a duchess, replied, 
" She would send the housemaid." That wouldn't do. 
became bankrupt, and there were trinkets be- 
longing to her ; but she preferred her trinkets to her 
honour, and swore she was not his wife.' The Duke 
talked of the sea encroaching at Dover, and of the 
various plans to stop it, e What ! there are plans ? ' 
said Sir Astley. ( Yes, yes, there are as many Dover 
doctors as other doctors,' said he ; and we all laughed. 

" The Duke talked of Buonaparte and the Abbe de 
Pradt, and said, c There was nothing like hearing both 
sides.' De Pradt, in his book, (he was a fureur de 
memoir es,) says, that whilst a certain conversation took 
place at Warsaw between him and Napoleon the Em- 
peror was taking notes. At Elba, Napoleon told 
Douglas, who told the Duke, that the note he was 
taking was a note to Maret (Duke of Bassano) as fol- 
lows : ' Renvoyez ce coquin-la a son archeveche? ( So,' 
said the Duke, ' always hear both sides.' 

"The Duke said, when he came through Paris in 
1814, Madame de Stael had a grand party to meet him. 
De Pradt was there. In conversation he said, ' Europe 
owes her salvation to one man.' ( But before he gave 
me time to look foolish,' added the Duke, ' De Pradt 
put his hand on his own breast, and said, u C'est moi? ' * 

" He then talked of Buonaparte's system. Sir Astley 
used the old cant ( It was selfish.' f It was,' said the 
Duke, ( bullying and driving.' Of France he said, e They 

* The Quarterly Reviewer doubts the accuracy of these anecdotes, 
but I do not feel the force of the reasons he gives for questioning 

122 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1839. 

robbed each other, and then poured out on Europe to 
fill their stomachs and pockets by robbing others.' 

" He spoke of Don Carlos said he was a poor crea- 
ture. He saw him at Dorchester House two days before 
he escaped. He advised him not to think of it. He told 
him 'All we are now saying will be in Downing Street 
in two hours. You have no post.' Carlos said, ' Zuma- 
lacarragui will take me on.' f Before you move/ replied 
his Grace, 'be sure he has got one.' (Here was the 
man.) The Duke said Carlos affected sickness some- 
body got into his becl, and kept the farce up that 
medicine came that the French ambassador behaved 
like a noodle. Instead of telegraphing up to Bajonne, 
which would have carried the news there in two hours, 
he set off in his post carriage and four after Don Carlos, 
when he must have got to Bayonne, or near it. 

" The Duke talked of the want of fuel in Spain of 
what the troops suffered, and how whole houses, so many 
to a division, were pulled down regularly and paid for 
to serve as fuel. He said every Englishman who has a 
home goes to-bed at night. He found bivouacking was 
not suitable to the character of the English soldier. He 
got drunk, and lay down under any hedge. Discipline 
was destroyed. But when he introduced tents every 
soldier belonged to his tent, and, drunk or sober, he got 
to it before he went to sleep. I said, f Your Grace, 
the French always bivouac.' ' Yes,' he replied, ' because 
French, Spanish and all other nations lie anywhere. 
It is their habit. They have no homes.' 

" The Duke said the natural state of man was 
plunder. Society was based on security of property 
alone. It was for that object men associated ; and he 
thought we were coming to the natural state of society 
very fast. 

" I studied his fine head intensely. Arbuthnot had 
begun to doze. I -was like a lamp newly trimmed, and 


could have listened all night. The Duke gave a tre- 
mendous yawn, and said, ( It is time to go to bed.' 
Candles were rung for. He took two, and lighted them 
himself. The rest lighted their own. The Duke took 
one and gave me (being the stranger) the other, and 
led the way. At an old view of Dover, in the hall, he 
stopped and explained about the encroachments of the 
sea. I studied him again we all held up our candles. 
Sir Astley went to Mr. Pitt's bed-room, and said, ' God 
bless your Grace.' They dropped off his Grace, I 
and the valet going on. I came to my room, and said, 
( God bless your Grace.' I saw him go into his. 
When I got to bed I could not sleep. Good God, I 
thought, here am I tete-a-tete with the greatest man on 
earth, and the noblest the conqueror of Napoleon 
sitting with him, talking to him, sleeping near him ! 
His mind is unimpaired ; his conversation powerful, 
humorous, witty, argumentative, sound, moral. Would 
he throw his stories, fresh from nature, into his speeches, 
the effect would be prodigious. He would double their 
impression, I am deeply interested, and passionately 
affected. God bless his Grace, I repeat. 

" ]2th. At ten we breakfasted the Duke, Sir 
Astley, Mr. Booth and myself. He put me on his 
right. ( Which will ye have, black tea or green?' 
' Black, your Grace.' f Bring black.' Black was 
brought, and I ate a hearty breakfast. In the midst six 
dear healthy, noisy children were brought to the windows. 
( Let them in,' said the Duke, and in they came, and 
rushed over to him, saying, ' How d'ye do, Duke? how 
d'ye do, Duke?' One boy, young Gray, roared, f I 
want some tea, Duke.' s You shall have it, if you pro- 
mise not to slop it over me, as you did yesterday.' 
Toast and tea were then in demand. Three got on one 
side and three on the other, and he hugged 'em all. 
Tea was poured out, and I saw little Gray try to slop 

124 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDOX. [1839. 

it over the Duke's frock coat. Sir Astley said, f You 
did not expect to see this.' They all then rushed out 
on the leads, by the cannon, and after breakfast I saw 
the Duke romping with the whole of them, and one of 
them gave his Grace a devil of a thump. I went round 
to my bed-room. The children came to the window, 
and a dear little black-eyed girl began romping. I put 
my head out and said, ' I'll catch you.' Just as I did 
this, the Duke, who did not see me, put his head out at 
the door close to my room, No. 10., which leads to the 
leads, and said, e I'll catch ye ! ha, ha, I've got ye !' at 
which they all ran away. He looked at them and 
laughed and went in. 

" He then told me to choose my room and get my 
light in order, and after hunting he would sit. I did 
so, and about two he gave me an hour and a half. I 
hit his grand, upright, manly expression. He looked 
like an eagle of the gods who had put on human shape, 
and had got silvery with age and service. At first I 
was a little affected, but I hit his features, and all went 
off. Riding hard made him rosy and dozy. His colour 
was fresh. All the portraits are too pale. I found that 
to imagine he could not go through any duty raised the 
lion. ( Does the light hurt your Grace's eyes ? ' { Not 
at all : ' and he stared at the light as much as to say, 
* I'll see if you shall make me give in, Signor Light.' 

" 'Twas a noble head. I saw nothing of that peculiar 
expression of mouth the sculptors give him, bordering 
on simpering. His colour was beautiful and fleshy, his 
lips compressed and energetic. I foolishly said, e Don't 
let me fatigue your Grace.' 'Well, sir,' he said, 'I'll 
give you an hour and a half. To-morrow is Sunday. 
Monday I'll sit again.' I was delighted to see him pay 
his duty to Sunday. Up he rose. I opened the door, 
and hold this as the highest distinction of my life. He 
bowed and said, ' We dine at seven.' 


" At seven we dined. His Grace took half a glass of 
sherry and put it in water. I drank three glasses, Mr. 
Arbuthnot one. We then went to the drawing-room, 
where, putting a candle on each side of him, he read the 
Standard whilst I talked to Mr. Arbuthnot, who said it 
was not true Copenhagen ran away on the field. He 
ran to his stable when the Duke came to Waterloo after 
the battle, and kicked out and gambolled. 

" I did not stay up to-night. I was tired, went to 
bed and slept heartily. It was most interesting to see 
him reading away. I believe he read every iota. We 
talked of Lord Mulgrave, whom his Grace esteemed. 
Sir Astley had left in the morning, and, in talking of 
the Duke's power of conversation, related that when 
some one said, ' Habit is second nature,' the Duke re- 
marked, ( It is ten times nature.' 

" I asked the Duke if Ca?sar did not land hereabouts. 
He said he believed near Blchborough Castle. 

" Thus ends the second immortal day. 

" Sunday. I found the Duke on the leads. After 
breakfast Mr. Arbuthnot told me to go to the village 
church and ask for the Duke's pew. I walked, and was 
shown into a large pew near the pulpit. 

" A few moments after the service had begun the 
Duke and Mr. Arbuthnot came up no pomp, no ser- 
vants in livery with a pile of books. The Duke came 
into the presence of his Maker without cant, without 
affectation, a simple human being. 

" From the bare wainscot, the absence of curtains, 
the dirty green footstools, and common chairs, I feared I 
was in the wrong pew, and very quietly sat myself down 
in the Duke's place. Mr. Arbuthnot squeezed my arm 
before it was too late, and I crossed in an instant. The 
Duke pulled out his prayer-book, and followed the 
clergyman in the simplest way. I got deeply affected. 
Here was the greatest hero in the world, who had con- 

126 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1839. 

quered the greatest genius, prostrating his heart and 
being before his God in his venerable age, and praying 
for his mercy. However high his destiny above my 
own, here we were at least equal before our Creator. 
Here we were stripped of extrinsic distinctions ; and I 
looked at this wonderful man with an interest and feeling 
that touched my imagination beyond belief. The silence 
and embosomed solitude of the village church, the sim- 
plicity of its architecture, rather deepened than decreased 
the depth of my sensibilities. At the name of Jesus 
Christ the Duke bowed his silvery hairs like the hum- 
blest labourer, and yet not more than others, but to the 
same degree. He seemed to wish for no distinction. 
At the epistle he stood upright, like a soldier, and when 
the blessing was pronounced he buried his head in one 
hand and uttered his prayer as if it came from his heart 
in humbleness. 

" Arthur Wellesley in the village church of Walmer 
this day was more interesting to me than at the last 
charge of the Guards at Waterloo, or in all the glory 
and paraphernalia of his entry into Paris. I would not 
have missed seeing him, for this will be the germ of 
some interesting work of Art perhaps his youth, his 
manhood and his age in a series. 

" The Duke after dinner retired, and we all followed 
him. He then took the Spectator, and placing a candle 
on each side of his venerable head read it through. I 
watched him the whole time. Young Lucas had ar- 
rived, a very nice fellow, and we both watched him. I 
took Lardner's life of him, in one part of which he says, 
' He rode in front of fifty pieces of artillery, but God 
protected his head.' I looked up and studied the vene- 
rable white head that God still protected. There he was, 
contented, happy, aged, but vigorous, enjoying his leisure 
in dignity ; God knows as he deserves. After reading 
till his eyes were tired he put down the paper, and said, 
( There are a great many curious things in it, I assure 


you.' He then yawned, as he always did before retiring, 
and said, 'I'll give you an early sitting to-morrow, at 
nine.' I wished his Grace a good night, and went to 
bed. At half past five I was up, set my palette, got all 
ready and went to work to get the head in from the 
drawing. By nine the door opened, and in he walked, 
looking extremely worn ; his skin drawn tight over his 
face ; his eye was watery and aged ; his head nodded a 
little. I put the chair ; he mumbled, ' I 'd as soon stand. 
I thought, 'You will get tired,' but I said nothing; 
down he sat, how altered from the fresh old man after 
Saturday's hunting ! It affected me. He looked like 
an aged eagle beginning to totter from his perch. He 
took out his watch three times, and at ten up he got, 
and said, ' It 's ten ; ' I opened the door, and he went out 
He had been impatient all the time. At breakfast he 
brightened at the sight of the children, and after distri- 
buting toast and tea to them I got him on Art. He talked 
of a picture of Copenhagen by WarJ, which the Duke 
of Northumberland bought, and which he wanted, and 
suddenly looking up at me, said, 'D'ye want another 
sitting?' I replied, e If you please, your Grace.' 'Very 
well ; after hunting, I'll come.' Just as he was going 
hunting, or whilst he was out, came Count Brunow, the 
locum tenens of Pozzo di Borgo, the Russian ambassador. 
Lady Burghersh came in and Mr. Arbuthnot wanted 
her to go and talk to Brunow, but she declined. All 
of a sudden I heard a great clatter, and the servants 
came in to move the great table for lunch. At lunch 
I was called in. The Duke, Count Brunow and my- 
self lunched. At three he came in to sit, having sent 
Brunow with Arbuthnot pour faire un tour. Lady 
Burghersh came in also, and again he was fresher, but 
the feebleness of the morning still affected my heart. 
It is evident, at times, he is beginning to sink, though 
the sea air at Walmer keeps him up, and he is better 
than he was. 

128 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDOX. [1839. 

" Lady Burghersh kept him talking, but the expres- 
sion I had already hit was much finer than the present, 
and I resolved not to endanger what I had secured. I 
therefore corrected the figure and shoulders, and told 
Lady Burghersh I had done. ' He has done,' said she, 
and it's very fine.' 'Is it though?' said the Duke; 
'I'm very glad.' ' And now,' said she, c you must stand. 
So up he got, and I sketched two views of his back, his 
hands, legs, &c. &c. I did him so instantaneously that 
his eagle eyes looked me right through several times, 
when he thought I was not looking. As it was a point 
of honour with him not to see any sketch connected with 
my picture, he never glanced that way. He looked at 
the designs for the House of Lords on the chimney- 
piece, but said nothing. He then retired, and appeared 
gay and better. He had put on a fine dashing waistcoat 
for the Russian ambassador. 

" At lunch the Duke said in the churches of Russia 
he never heard a single cough in the coldest weather. 

" At dinner there was a party, Lord and Lady 

Mahon, Colonel D , a captain of horse artillery, 

Brunow, Captain Y , and several others* Colonel 

D had the Waterloo medal and legion of Honour. 

He was a spirited fellow, but had too much of the mess 
table, which is all affected sentiment, boasting justice to 
the enemies of England, and in fact unideaed chatter 

over claret and champagne. Captain ^ was an 

honest old boy. 

<( The Duke looked well, and told some stories. As 
Lady Stuart was coming from the tournament with a 
friend they got into a railway carriage, where sat a man 
who did not move, so they sat down beside him. At 
last in came another, who begged one of the ladies to 
get up because he must sit ( by his convict.' 

" At night, as I took leave of the Duke, he said, * I 
hope you are satisfied. Good-bye.' I heard him go to 



bed after me, laughing, and he roared out to Arbuthnot, 
( Good night.' I then heard him slam the door of his 
room, No. 11., next to mine, No. 10., but on the oppo- 
site side, and a little further on. I soon fell asleep ; 
was off at six for Ramsgate, and dined at home at five : 
found all right. 

" My impression is that the Duke has begun to sink, 
though he will hold out for years. His memory is 
healthy; his intellect unimpaired; but his physical 
vigour, I fear, is breaking now and then. 

" It is curious to have known thus the two great 
heads of the two great parties, the Duke and Lord Grey. 
I prefer the Duke infinitely. He is more manly, has no 
vanity, is not deluded by any flattery or humbug, and 
is, in every way, much as I admire Lord Grey, a grander 
character, though Lord Grey is a fine, amiable, vene- 
rable, vain man. 

"22nd. Improved the Duke's head, and called on 
Wilkie. After a chat we got on the old story, Hume, 
the Academy and God knows what : the end was, that 
we had a long agitated talk, from which it was evident 
the Academicians felt themselves in a stew. I never 
saw Wilkie so much excited. 

"He blamed me for not going abroad, for doing 
everything I had done and not doing anything he 
wished me to do. He grumbled, scolded. I was as 
cool as a cucumber, and we parted capital friends. 

"24th. The Duke of Bedford is dead a good, 
kind friend to me and all artists. It is singular that 
almost his last letter should be to me, and that he should 
have explained to me he was the originator of exhibiting 
old pictures at the Gallery. He was one of the old set, 
and felt for artists. Hail to his memory ! 

"November 7th. Wrote hard at my new lectures. 
Colonel Wyndham called, and thought the Duke's head 
beautiful in expression ; so do I simplicity without 


130 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1839. 

weakness, and energy without caricature. I think it is 
a complete hit. 

"Stfi. Lectured with great success at the Mechanics'. 

$th. Though not a man of any peculiar modesty 
of character (as Canning said apropos of the House of 
Commons), I never begin a lecture without fearing 
I shall not be interesting. 

a 10th 16th. Worked and wrote at the Museum. 
Colonel Gurwood called to-day, and mentioned two or 
three corrections necessary, but thought it a very fine 

" I said it was only necessary for the Duke's system 
to come in contact with Napoleon's to split it. Colonel 
Gurwood said he saw that a long way off. 

" 22nd. Rogers called, and was pleased with the 
Duke. He said it was the man. He said he wished I 
would paint Napoleon musing at St. Helena, not so fat 
as he really was ; that that was the only thing Talley- 
rand and the Duchess de Dino objected to in my pic- 
ture at Sir Robert Peel's. I asked him what they thought 
of the picture. He said most highly, but that the fatness 
always pained them, as they never saw him so. He said 
he saw him with Mr. Fox in 1802, and nothing could 
be handsomer than his smile. Rogers is a Whig ; he 
lingers about Napoleon, and did not seem to think the 
Duke half so interesting. He told me I was a great 
poet, &c. and went away. 

" 23rd. Hard at work again and improved the 
Duke, as I should go on doing to the last. 

" Wrote the Duke (who has had a severe attack) 
a frank letter expressing my joy at his recovery, and 
sorrow at his illness, but telling his Grace he went too 
long without his food. I said I observed it at Walmer, 
and that from ten to half-past seven was too long with- 
out intervening sustenance. I begged him to consider 
the value of his life, and that we who had looked on 
him for forty years as the only shield from France 


would feel wretched and at a loss if anything happened 
to him. 

"25th. Depending on ray balance at the conclusion 
of the Duke's picture, at the end of October, and not 
getting it, owing to the pressure of the times, has 
obliged me to incur expense to delay payments, and 
make arrangements which have embarrassed me. Under 
the blessing of God I may escape ruin, but it may lead 
to it. 

" Twice out of three times this is my fate. Sanguine 
in my wishes, sincere in my intentions, I fling myself 
at a picture with all my heart and soul, and thus I am 

" It is not altogether my employers' fault, but they 
might have managed better. 

" 26th. Lady Burghersh, Mr. Arbuthnot and 
Colonel Gurwood called and were much delighted. 
Lady Burghersh authorised me to say the likeness of 
the Duke was admirable, and so said Arbuthnot. 
Gurwood left word he was pleased. So far good. 

"29th. Finished my lecture for Leeds on the his- 
tory of the arts. 

" I think this taste of the Queen for historical por- 
traits in composition is an advance in taste, and will 
lead to sound Art in the end. 

"30th. Last day of November* The Duke is 
fairly done, and I return thanks to God for enabling 
me to carry it through gloriously. I began it, and 
prayed for its success as I always do, and therefore 
I am grateful. 

" I have only done two pictures this year, Milton 
and the Duke, but lectured much. I have not worked 
as I ought. Then that cursed Academy business called 
me off. Curse the affair. 

" On the whole I am pleased. At Court there is a 
tendency to portrait history, which is an advance upon 

K 2 

132 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1839. 

the vulgarity of the Wilkie taste ; and though pictures 
are small as yet and petty, yet it is generating a better 
and higher feeling. 

" A feeling of the truth is spreading in the country. 
To-day I have been requested to get casts of the The- 
seus and Ilissus for Hull. At Leeds a strong feeling 
is roused. All this will gradually fit the next genera- 
ration for expecting and being able to relish better 

" December 2nd. It is now twenty-seven years since 
I ordered my Solomon canvas. I was young (twenty- 
six). Sir George had treated me cruelly. I had at- 
tacked the Academy. The world was against me. I 
had not a farthing. Yet how I remember the delight 
with which I mounted my deal table and dashed it in, 
singing and trusting in God, as I always do. When 
one is once imbued with that clear, heavenly confidence, 
there is nothing like it. It has carried me through 

" I think my dearest Mary has not got it. I do not 
think women have in general. Two years ago, after I 
returned from Broadstairs, I had not a farthing, having 
spent it all to recover her health. She said to me, 
' What are we to do, my dear ? ' I replied, s Trust in 

" There was something like a smile on her face. The 
very next day or the day after came the order for 400 
guineas from Liverpool, and ever since I have been em- 
ployed. I say so now I have no grand commission, 
now the Duke is gone. But I trust in God with all 
my heart and all my soul. 

" It is extraordinary that with a large canvas in the 
house I always feel as if Satan crossing Chaos was no 
match for me. My heart beats ; my breast broadens ; 
my height rises ; my cheek warms. How I would 
swell in a Vatican or dome of St. Paul's ! O God bless 
me before I die. 

1840. ] OPENING OF THE YEAR. 133 

" Why such talents, why such desires, such long- 
ings, if to pine in hopeless ambition and endless Agonies? 
In Thee I trust, O God." 


At the beginning of this year Haydon was delivering 
a fresh course of lectures in the North, and mentions 
that in five weeks so occupied he earned 811. 17 s. 

"January 27th. Rubbed in for Rogers a small 
Napoleon Musing. He wishes him thinner than the 
Emperor, who was fat and broad in his latter days, be- 
cause Talleyrand and the Duchess de Dino did not 
relish him fat, as I have made him at Drayton. 

"29th. Studied at the National Gallery. I would 
rather be the painter of Lord Heathfield than of Gevar- 
tius. The massy breadth the deep colour the 
bronze vigour of his expression and air are glorious. 
Called on Rogers. 

" Well might the Duke say, ' Habit is ten times 
nature.' I am sure the difficulty I have to resume my 
brush is laughable; it is ridiculous; it. is shameful; it 
is abominable! I march about; look at all my pic- 
tures, sure of my commissions ; put my hands in my 
pockets; talk to .myself; quote Shakespeare; read 
Hamlet, Burke, Vasari ; make a great fuss about 
nothing, and curse my being obliged to lecture for my 
family's sake; change my bed till I am sick; then 
write an attack on the Whigs; long at the 
Academy ; and then get wretched at not painting. I 
shall have a burst, and away will go evil spirits. 

"31s. The last day of January. I called on 
Wilkie, and we had a regular set-to. I asked him who 
was to be Keeper. I told him they were putting men 
forward who were supposed to be likely to stand, whilst 
the real man was concealed, and I said if he were elected 

K 3 

134 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1840. 

I'd be at the Academy again. 'Now don't,' said 

Wilkie, ( interfere in the elections.' ' If be elected 

I will.' ' Don't,' said he, with an intreating air. 

"No man is fit for it but Eastlake, and he is too 
timid. He is the only man to keep up the high feel- 
ing. If you elect a mere drawing-master he will keep 
the boys down ; if a man of poetic views he will elevate 
them. The feelings in the country are high, and 
whether the young men are fitted to meet the feeling 
fast growing will depend on the instructor chosen. If 
the Academy do not elect a fit and proper person they 
will betray their trust. I alarmed Wilkie. 

"February 3rd. Went to the British Institution, 
and Catlin's exhibition of Indians. The Institution is 
become the common sewer of the Royal Academy. It 
is lamentable. 

"5th. Met Leigh Hunt after an interval of many 
years, looking hearty, grey and a veteran. We hailed 
each other. 'Haydon,' said Hunt, 'when I see you 
hosts of household remembrances crowd my fancy.' 
6 Hunt,' said I, 'I am going to write my life, and I'll 
do you justice. You would have been burnt at the 
stake for a principle, and would have feared to put your 
foot in the mud.' Hunt was affected. 

" Hunt. f Will you come and see my play?'* 

" Hay don. ' I will; when?' 

" Hunt. ( Friday.' 

" Hay don. ( I '11 applaud you to the skies.' 

" Hunt. ( Bring your wife; I'll put your names 

" Haydon. < I will.' 

" < God bless ye.' Good bye.' We parted. 

" Sth. Went to Leigh Hunt's play, and was highly 
pleased. The audience was enthusiastic. At the con- 

* The Legend of Florence. 


elusion he was brought on the stage grey, sturdy, 
worn and timid. I was much affected. Think of poor 
Hunt being ruined for telling mankind what George IV. 
was ashamed they should know, but was not ashamed 
to do before his Maker provided it was unknown to his 

({ There must be justice hereafter, and to this man 
justice is due." 

As an example of the political lucubrations of Haydon, 
which occupy a large place in this Journal, I insert what 
follows : 

" 13th. I wish I had put down everything that 
had passed through my mind, because most extraordinary 
coincidences would have been seen, such as are almost 
incredible to myself, and such musings as one rejects as 
ridiculous at the time they occur. Every Minister of 
England should base his whole proceedings on the in- 
stinctive ambition of France. In dancing and cookery 
they have conquered the world, and they believe, from 
the first moment of perception to the last gasp of exist- 
ence, their conquest of the world in all other matters 
is only delayed and obstructed by England. 

" This was Napoleon's belief, and this is the belief of 
the whole French nation. This is the true key of their 
policy towards us, and after having in vain struggled to 
conquer us as enemies they have, by the skill of Talley- 
rand, turned their whole attention to compassing the 
same end under the guise of friends. 

" In the Mediterranean the affairs of England are so 
complicated by the treachery of France, that there is 
really no seeing the end ; and in case of a rupture I will 
bet my existence France would join Mehemet Ali, and 
then, against the two fleets, what could we do with our 
eight or ten sail of the line ? 

" I have no doubt there may even be a secret under- 
standing with Russia to expel us from the Mediterranean, 

K 4 

136 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1840. 

because whilst we are in any power there spoliation or 
division can never effectually take place as a counter- 
poise to our empire in India. The only chance is from 
the age of Mehemet. He may die, but then his genius 
would die with him. 

" Good God ! that the affairs of England at such a 
crisis should be in such hands as Lord Melbourne's, 
with his apathy, his belief in the irresponsibility of man, 
his ' natural course of things,' his roosting after dinner. 
God knows I should not be astonished at Mehemet 
making a dash at Constantinople. If Nelson met him 
with the Turkish fleet and his own, it may be conjec- 
tured what he would do, with or without the French. 
What a period of complication for such a genius as 

" After the investigation of the Convention of Cintra, 
and when the Duke had proved his genius to my mind, 
I lay in bed one morning, and clearly saw in my mind's 
eye his triumph in Spain and his crossing the French 
frontier. I got up, and determined, young as I was, to 
write to him, to tell him my conviction, and to add that 
if it turned out as I said, as my views in Art were as 
grand as his in military matters, I hoped he would allow 
me in the hour of victory to remind him of my pro- 

" Subsequent reasoning made me believe this to be 
absurd, and to the regret of my whole after life I gave 
up the notion. 

" This morning I had similar foreshadow ings about 
the affairs of the East, the complication of which I 
clearly unravelled. 

" 13th. News to-day that twenty-nine Chinese junks 
attacked the Volage and Hyacinth, when our boys beat 
off the whole and sunk and blew up five, sparing the 
rest. This gladdens my heart, and I hope may show 
master Monsieur what he may expect if he is impudent. 


" 16th. This Volage business has given me a greater 
appetite for my food. This is doing things in the old 
style. I trust I shall live to see the French licked once 
more, and I shall really be happy, so deeply and so in- 
tensely are early associations rooted in me, from cheering 
at battered frigates, and huzzaing at victorious crews. 
God protect the British navy ! " 

Now, at length, came an opportunity which he had 
long sighed for of lecturing at Oxford. 

" 23rd. Returned from Bath yesterday, after a very 
enthusiastic reception, and not numerous. Had great 
pleasure in forming the acquaintance of Mr. Duncan, an 
old Fellow of one of the Colleges at Oxford, who gave 
me valuable letters. 

" 26th. Started for Oxford; a day-dream of my 

" 2 9th. Received by the Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Shut- 
tleworth, and Wardens, with every kindness. Leave 
was granted me to lecture in the Radcliffe great room, 
but this could not be done without a meeting of trustees. 
Dr. Shuttleworth then sent me to the Ashmolean, 
where I began on Tuesday. God grant me success. I 
make no charge. My object is the art. I admit all 
members free. If I succeed, what a glorious thing it 
will be ! My introduction has been singular. I met Mr. 
Duncan, a great favourite at Bath. He gave me two 
important letters, which have opened the door. Success ! 

"2Sth. Met at Parker's < Dr. Wells on adorning 
Churches,' and the journal of Dowsing, one of a 
Committee appointed to destroy pictures, 1643-44, 
appointed by the Earl of Manchester ; by his own ac- 
count they destroyed, in Suffolk, 4560 pictures in little 
more than a year and a half. 

" 29th. Got on well. Oxford affects my imagination 
vastly; such silence, and solitude, and poetry ; such 
unquestionable antiquity, such learning, and means of 
acquiring it. 

133 MEMOIRS OP B. R. HATDON. [1840. 

"March 1st. Dined with Dr. Shuttleworth en 
famitte at New College, and spent a delightful time. 
We went to chapel, where is Reynolds's picture of The 

" We got on the Duke, and he said he had one sin- 
gular tiait, that he was mean in money matters, and 
that he actually suffered himself to be sued for the 
amount of his silk gown before he paid the money. It 
was near an execution. The Duke has some property 
at Strathfieldsaye connected with the University. The 
Warden said the trouble they had to get the money was 
dreadful. It was years first. His Grace's agent was so 
convinced the University was right, that he gave it in 
their favour. Even then it could not be got. At last 
Dr. Shuttleworth wrote a plain statement of facts to the 
Duke himself. He (the Duke) sent for Parkinson, and 
asked if it was correct. Parkinson said * Yes.' ' Then,' 
said he, 'pay the money.' A cheque was sent with 
interest from the time it ought to have been paid. Per- 
haps this may account for his indisposition to lend his 
clothes to artists. 

" 3rd. I began to-day at the Ashmolean Museum, 
and had complete success. All are alive to common 
sense and nature the refined scholar and the humble 
mechanic alike. It was beautiful and triumphant. And, 
O God ! how grateful ought I to be to be permitted the 
distinction of thus being the first to break down the bar- 
rier which has kept Art begging to be heard and attended 
to at the Universities." 

In his delight he wrote to Wordsworth : 

" My dear Wordsworth, 

" At last I have accomplished one of the day-dreams of 
my earliest youth, viz., lecturing at the University. 

" I have been received with distinction by the Vice- 
Chancellor and the heads of colleges, granted the Ashmo- 
lean Museum, and gave my first lecture yesterday, which 
was positively hailed. 


" There are four honours in my life, first, the sonnet of 
Wordsworth, second, the freedom of my native town for 
Solomon, third, the public dinner in Edinburgh, and fourth, 
my reception at Oxford. 

" The first and the last are the greatest. But the first is 
the first, and will ever remain so, whilst a vibration of my 
heart continues to quiver. 

" Who said ' High is our calling' when all the world was 
adverse to desert ? There was the foresight there the 
manliness there the energy and the affection which have 
marked the poet's career from beginning to conclusion. 

" You are a glorious creature, and is not our calling high ? 
Would all the crowns, and kingdoms and jewels on earth 
have bribed you to say that of a man if you had not felt it ? 
And why did you feel it ? Because you saw it. 

" You have lived to your complete victory on earth ; you 
have nothing now to expect but ' Well done, thou good and 
faithful servant.' May that hour, for the sake of your 
friends here, be long deferred ; but it will not the less come. 

" After the distinction of yesterday my mind instinctively 
turned to you. Fancy my reception here, and fancy those 
fellows at the London University conceiving a man of my 
misfortunes would have injured the religious and moral 
purity of their character, if I had lectured there. 'An 
ounce and three quarters of civet,' or rather a couple of 

" If I was to die this moment, my dear friend, I would 
thank God with my last breath for this great opportunity of 
doing my duty. Hurrah, with all my soul. 

" Your affectionate old friend, 

" B. E. HAYDON." 

Wordsworth answered, 

"Rydal Mount, Ambleside, March 12th, 1840. 
" My dear Haydon, 

" Though I have nothing to say but merely words of 
congratulation, hearty congratulation, I cannot forbear to 
thank you for your letter. You write in high spirits, and 
I am glad of it : it is only fair that, having had so many 

140 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON [1840. 

difficulties to encounter, you should have a large share of 
triumph. Nevertheless, though I partake most cordially of 
your pleasure, I should have been still more delighted to 
learn that your pencil (for that, after all, is the tool you were 
made for) met with the encouragement it so well deserves. 

" I should have liked to have been among your auditors, 
particularly so as I have seen not long ago so many first-rate 
pictures on the continent, and to have heard you at Oxford 
would have added largely to my gratification. I love and 
honour that place for abundant reasons, nor can I ever forget 
the distinction bestowed upon myself last summer by that 
noble-minded University. 

" Allow me to mention one thing on which, if I were 
qualified to lecture upon your art, I should dwell with more 
attention than, so far as I know, has been bestowed upon it 
I mean perfection in each kind as far as it is attainable. 
This in widely different minds has been shown by the 
Italians, by the Flemings, the Dutch, the Spaniards, the 
Germans, and why should I exclude the English ? 

" Now, as a masterly, a first-rate ode or elegy, or piece 
of humour even, is better than a poorly or feebly executed 
epic poem, so is the picture, though in point of subject the 
humblest that ever came from an easel, better than a work 
after Michel Angelo or Raffaele in choice of subject, or aim 
of style, if moderately performed. All styles, down to the 
humblest, are good, if there be thrown into the choosing 
all that the subject is capable of, and this truth applies not 
only to painting, but in degree to every other fine art. 
Now it is well worth a lecturer's while who sees the matter 
in this light, first to point out through the whole scale of 
Art what stands highest, and then to show what constitutes 
the appropriate perfection of all, down to the lowest. 

" Ever, my dear Haydon, faithfully yours, 


"March 6th and 1th. Lectured again to increased 

audiences. I dined last night with Mr. , Tutor of 

Exeter, and the Fellows. It was pretty to see the hall 
rise at our retiring to the common room, and the Tutor, 

1840.] AT OXFOKD. 141" 

Fellows and myself bow on reaching the door. I spent 
a very delightful evening with Mr. T , of Magda- 
len, and S , at our little table. S is full of 

Plato. T had travelled in Greece a mild, intelli- 
gent and gentlemanly man. We talked of the Aga- 
memnon gloriously. I knew it well. To-day I dine at 

Magdalen, to-morrow with Mr. S at Exeter. Thank 

God at last I have made my way to society where I am 
happy. Though evidently not a classical scholar, the 
scholars here see I seize the thoughts and value the 

beauties of the great classical writers. S said the 

Athenians were a corrupt and vicious people, and that 
all their great men were great in spite .of their tyranny 
and oppression, and devoted their lives to elevate and 
improve them. He said it was curious that hardly any 
boast of the Parthenon or other buildings occurs from 
authors about this time. Thucydides once, in alluding 
to Lacedaemon, says, * They have not buildings like our- 
selves,' and that's all. This is odd. T drank tea 

with me, and passed the evening in looking over my 

" Sunday, 8th Dined with Professor D at Mag- 
dalen, and spent a very pleasant evening with the 
Fellows; surely they are not the Fellows of Gibbon. 
I saw e no deep and dark potations,' but a very pleasant 
quantity, neither deep nor dark ; and even if they were 
so then, it was not quite fair in Gibbon, after sharing 
their darkness, to betray their deepness. 

" 10^. Lectured. The Vice-Chancellor Gilbert 
came, and gave authority to the audience. 

" Dined with Sir Anthony Croke, near Oxford, and 
had a great deal of fun. He took me out in a close 
carriage, and telling some young Oxford bucks they 
must take me back sent the carriage away to Oxford. 
I did not reflect I was then at their mercy, and when I 
wanted to go the young girls and boys, heated by 

142 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1840. 

waltzing, began to think it a good joke to keep the 
painter late. ' Never mind, my dear Mr. Haydon,' said 
one young dog, ( we'll secure you a breakfast, 1 and we 
all laughed. As this was rebellion against my own will, 
I determined to bolt quietly, and though I did not 
know an inch of the road to walk it I remembered Sir 
Anthony drove along the great road and turned to the left. 
So watching my opportunity I bolted out, hurried on my 
great coat, and putting my finger to my lips to a servant 
jumped the park gate, and was through the village like 
a race horse. 

" After walking two miles in dinner shoes I listened, 
but heard no wheels ; so going on I got into the main 
road, and all was safe ; about a mile from Oxford I heard 
distant galloping and wheels. I knew the young dogs 
would glory in catching me ; so I slipped behind a tree, 
and they passed me at a devil of a pace, laughing ready 
to kill themselves. I entered triumphantly about twelve, 
having had my own way, the greatest of all blessings. 

" March 13th. Last lecture of the six; audience 
quadrupled. Dined at Dr. Shuttleworth's, and spent a 
very pleasant evening. 

" Took my leave, and left Oxford with deep gratitude 
for my great success. I came to try a new ground. It 
was neck or nothing, and all classes rushed to hear me 
till the mania became extraordinary. 

" 14th. Arrived home full of enthusiasm, and ex- 
pecting to find (like the Vicar of Wakefield) every 
blessing ; expecting my dear Mary to hang about my 
neck, and welcome me at my victory ; when I found 
her out, not calculating I should be home till dinner. 
I then walked into town after unstripping : when I re- 
turned she was home, and was hurt I did not wait ; so 
this begat mutual allusions which were anything but 
loving or happy. So much for anticipations of human 
happiness ! 


" Perhaps this necessary bit of evil was a proper 
check on my vanity. 

17 th. Went to see my Samson at the Suffolk- 
street Gallery. Met Colonel Sibthorp : I asked in the 
course of conversation what was the principal cause of 
being successful as a speaker in the House of Commons. 
* Never let your points be deferred till the dinner hour, 
said he : ' always finish a little before.' 

" 2lst. Went to church at George Street, Hanover 
Square. Afterwards called on Hamilton, and found 
Chevalier Bronstedt. Had a most interesting conver- 
sation about the Greeks. He agreed with me as to the 
painting of the Greeks, that it was quite equal to their 
sculpture. He seems to have new theories about Theseus 
being Cephalus. He told us by calculation the gold on 
the statue of Minerva was 150,0007. sterling in worth. 
" I never knew that water was kept as in a well 
under the great ivory statues, and a trench full went 
round them to prevent their cracking. 

" He thought the Minerva might have been moved 
by Constantine. We talked of the French revolution 
and of the bloody horrors of it. Hamilton said a French 
bishop offered some books to him once, and in recom- 
mendation of them said one was bound in a man's skin. 
" 22nd. Called on Wilkie. He kept me so long 
waiting that I rang the bell and asked the servant if he 
was up. She said he was at breakfast. I said, ' Have 
you a fire anywhere? I am cold and will take a walk,' 
and I marched off. 

fi This was nothing but his want of manner. Just as 
I was sitting down to dinner a knock came to the door. 
I said, ' That's Wilkie.' Mary said, <IS T o, no.' In came 
the servant, and said, e Sir David Wilkie.' I went up 
and rowed him well for keeping me in the cold. He 
said * I was breakfasting.' I said, * That 's no matter, 
you should have come out.' 

144 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1840. 

" He came down and chatted. I asked him before 
Mrs. Haydon, if he remembered my lending him an 
old black coat to go to Barry's lying-in-state, which 
was too short for his long arms. He did, and seemed 
to relish it. I asked him if he recollected dancing round 
the table with Jackson when I read his name for the 
first time in a paper, the News. He said he did. I 
asked him if he remembered my breakfasting with him 
the first time in Norton Street front parlour. He 
did. He told some capital things. When Sir Walter 
was a child his mother and family were all dressed one 
evening to go out. There was a long discussion. Sir 
Walter remembered his mother saying, f No, no. Watty 
canna understand the great Mr. Garrick.' Scott used 
to tell this, and always was indignant at the suppo- 

" He told us in the rebellion of 1 745 a lady from the 
Highlands came to his father's house for shelter. She 
brought a herb in paper, which she put in hot water and 
boiled, and gave all the family a little, and they were 
delighted. This was tea the year it was introduced, 

" 25th. Finished Rogers's Napoleon. Worked hard. 

" 26th. Saw Faraday about lecturing at the Royal 
Institution. Found him frank, lively and kind. 

" 29f/i. Went to church with my dear old landlord, 
Newton. When we were in, I was affected at all the 
disputes, kindnesses and fights we had had. He has 
been to me and my family an everlasting friend, a pivot 
to work on, an anchor to trust to, such as I believe no 
other human being ever had before. 

" I thank God for it with my heart. He does not 
look so well as .he ought. If I lose him I shall lose a 
man indeed. 

" On reviewing this week I have done well. I have 
worked hard, finished Rogers's Napoleon, and ad- 

1840.] MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS. 145 

vancecl the picture for Miller of Liverpool, and made 
the sketch for my Leeds commission. 

"30th. Breakfasted with Chevalier Bronstedt at 
the Sabloniere. He explained to me his views of the 
pediments of the Parthenon, and they appeared to me 
excellent. I am not quite sure about the Cephalus, 
though what he said was very just, that there was a 
mythological chronology, and an historical chronology, 
and that at the birth of Minerva Theseus was never in 
existence, whereas Cephalus was, being taken to heaven 
by Eos, and made keeper of heaven's gates. 

" He told me the creed of the Athenians was different 
from Homer's and from the belief of Asia Minor. He 
is an intelligent and amiable man. He did Napoleon 
when musing on parade for me capitally, his taking 
snuff, his walk, his looking round, &c. I took him to 
see my Lazarus and Xenophon." 

On the 10th of April Haydon had begun a picture of 
Mary Queen of Scots showing her infant (afterwards 
our James the First) to Sir Ralph Sadleir, the English 
ambassador, a subject which had been suggested to 
him in the course of his reading while in Scotland in 

" 1 5th. The King's College Council has appointed 
a professor of Fine Art, huzza! This is a great 
point, and must be attributed to the influence of my 
success at Oxford. Have I not struggled to attain this ? 
These journals will show it. Worked hard. 

" I6th. Lectured at Islington with great success. 
Worked hard. The Scotch picture nearly clone. I am 
not satisfied with my mode of painting a head, not at 
all. It has not the system of a practised artist, but I 
will conquer it. I see character so soon, I dash at it 
before my surface and colour are impastoed enough, and 
get the expression before my preparation is ready to 
receive it, and then don't like to meddle. 


146 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1840. 

" This is for want of perpetual head-painting, as in 

" ISth. Hard at work, and finished, except a little 
to a hand, the picture of the Highland Lovers for Miller 
of Liverpool. 

" Now for Romeo and Juliet, for at Hull. 

" 26th. I awoke early with a singular bland light 
on the truth of Christianity. It spread over my soul as 
if ready to depart. Had the angel of death appeared, I 
would have hailed him ; but years of struggle are yet to 
come before I shall be called hence. 

<f The past week has been well passed. I have 
worked beautifully, been rewarded well, and bow in 

The sale of West's picture of the Annunciation, under 
the circumstances detailed in the note *, produced this 

* "Sale extraordinary. On Wednesday last, the grand picture 
of the Annunciation, painted by the late Benjamin West, President 
of the Royal Academy, was brought to the hammer, by Mr. Graves, 
of Mortimer- street. This picture, which is of very large dimen- 
sions, originally cost 800Z. It occupied, from the year 1 817 to 1826, 
a large space in the centre of the splendid organ in Marylebone 
new church. It was subsequently placed in the Queen's bazaar ; 
but for nearly fourteen years past it has been lying in its case, 
useless, in a lumber-room of St. Marylebone court-house. The 
auctioneer read the following extract from the vestry minutes of 
St. Marylebone, in reference to the picture, dated Feb. 15th, 1817: 
' I have always regulated my charge for historical paintings ; 
and under these regulations I charge the parish 800/. for the picture 
now in the new church of St. Marylebone. Were I a man of in- 
dependent property, I would request the vestry to honour me by 
accepting this picture as a gratuitous mark of my profound respect 
for the parish. Signed, Benj. West, Newman -street, Feb. 14th, 
1817.' Whereupon it was moved and seconded that 8007. be paid 
to Mr. West, which was done accordingly. After reading this 
document, the auctioneer proceeded to expatiate on the great 
merits of the picture, and the fame of the artist by whom it was 
painted. A considerable time elapsed before a bidding could be 

1840.] BENJAMIN WEST. 147 

{l It speaks a great deal. Had the picture fetched 
800 guineas, it would have been worthy of the blindness 
of 1 8 1 7. It was a disgrace to Mr. West to have charged 
800. West was a man of no deep genius, no profound 
feeling, no refined drawing, no radical knowledge, no 
colour, no expression. His Wolfe and La Hogue are 
his greatest works. His attempts at high Art are 
without elevation ; his characters beggarly. He was as 
incapable of conceiving or executing the character of 
Christ as he was of performing his miracles. Exactly 
as the nation gets enlightened will West sink. He could 
no more conceive an angel than he could execute an 
apostle ; and this is the man Shee said was the greatest 
man since Domenichino, Rubens and Rembrandt inter- 
vening ! 

" This is a specimen of what I call the imposture of 
Academies. Had there been no Academicians to en- 
cumber the school of Art, Reynolds, Hogarth, Wilson, 

got. At length the sum of ten guineas was offered, and notwith- 
standing the auctioneer had promised the receipt with the auto- 
graph of the late Benjamin West should be given to the purchaser, 
not a bidding could be obtained above the first sum offered. Thus, 
that picture which cost the sum of 800Z. finally sold for the 80th 
part of its original cost. It is understood that during the time the 
picture stood in the Queen's bazaar, the sum of 100/. was offered 
for it and refused. The purchaser is Mr. John Wilson, of Charles- 
street, Middlesex Hospital, who we believe contemplates trans- 
mitting the picture to America, the native land of the artist, and 
where his works seem to be better appreciated than in our own 
country. Surely, while so many new churches are in progress of 
erection here, such a work should not be suffered to be taken from 
England. It speaks but little for the state of the Fine Arts, that 
such a chef-d'oeuvre as the Annunciation could be purchased at a 
sum so ridiculously beneath its value. 

" We understand the picture was originally removed from the 
church of St. Marylebone, at the instigation of the then rector and 
several of the congregation, as giving the church a Popish appear- 

L 2 

148 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1840. 

Wilkie, and Landseer would have been as great as ever, 
but West would never have been considered a great man, 
or Shee a man at all. 

" Mi ay \\th. Little or nothing in painting. Sent 
off the Highland Lovers to Miller of Liverpool by train. 
' On ne fait bien que ce qtfon fait soi meme? I went to 
see it weighed and safe, and lost a morning. 

s( 12th. Worked fairly, but not furiously; I can't 
on a small picture. Life is really not long enough for 
Art. I feel with small pictures as if I had nothing on 
my shoulders, which I always like to have. I'll soon be 
at my large canvas. 

"2] st. Worked and finished the Juliet, and hope to 
conclude to-morrow. 100 guineas in five weeks is twenty 
guineas a week ; not enough to save out of, though I am 

" 24th. Sunday. Went to church and prayed very 

" Called on Wilkie, who was much annoyed at the 
press saying he could not paint portraits, in consequence 
of his villanous portrait of the Queen. Wilkie is un- 
fairly treated. Surely his Lord Kellie, the Duke of 
Sussex, and George the Fourth, are fine portraits ; yet 
the public voice has loudly affirmed he cannot paint 
portraits. How differently John Bull treats him and me. 
I have no rank or station; he has. I am overwhelmed 
with abuse ; he dandled till his feet touch the ground, 
and then put down on velvet. 

"26th. Finished my Romeo and Juliet, and now 
my employer (a Hull dealer) won't pay me my balance, 
457., till I deliver the work, and I won't deliver it till 
I get the balance How unlike the nobility. Everything 
with Lords Mulgrave, Egremont, Sutherland and Grey, 
with Peel and all of that class, was honour and faith. 
All paid me long before the work went home. I told 
this noodle it must dry hard before I glazed it, or it 


would crack ; and for this bit of honesty he won't pay 
first. A bill of 391 10s., due the 28th, I can't pay, and 
now begin again illegal interest and all the distractions 
of pecuniary want. The Liverpool men are twice as 
liberal, and the Leeds men too ; but at Hull they are a 
fierce democratic race, and mistrust their own fathers. 

" Mr. Rogers called, and brought home his Napoleon 
to be glazed. He paid me at once, and waited my time 
of toning, like a man. 

" 29th. The Queen Dowager has headed my list for 
the Duke. I admire her character, so I feel much 

"Lectured at the Mechanics, and exhibited two power- 
ful young wrestlers stripped above and below. The 
effect was prodigious, the grouping exquisite, the 
tumbling rapturously applauded; it did immense good. 

" 3lst. Saw Bewicke's (my pupil's) copy of the 
Sibyls and Prophets of Michel Angelo very finely 
drawn and copied ; but it is wonderful how little a man 
who copies so well can do for himself. The style of 
Michel Angelo belongs to the place he painted in, and 
was necessary to render his designs visible or effective. 
This seen in rooms seems exaggeration. In the naked 
he was not as deep as the Greeks, and all my assertions 
are confirmed. But the Erythrasa and Lybica are very 
fine in expression. 

f< June 1st. Went again to see Bewicke's copies 
from Michel Angelo the giant barbarian of European 
Art the Attila. 

" And this is the grand style, figures painted to be 
looked at sixty feet off brought into a drawing-room to 
be studied at six, and recommended to the students. 

" 2nd. Corrected the etching of the Duke. The 
effect of these copies of Michel Angelo is enervating. 
You sit and muse ; such a glorious opportunity for size, 
such a patron, such a combination of genius and 

L 3 

150 MEMOIES OF B. R. HAYDON. [1840. 

opportunity rarely happens on earth; and it is altogether 
so much out of the reach of ordinary opportunity, that 
I think it rather overpowers than stimulates. 

" I can account for feeble minds becoming feebler from 
going to Italy. The gap between their humbler notions 
and what they see is so great that the imagination 
crushes their hopes, their energies, their ambition. They 
become copyists, imitators, connoisseurs, dealers, or slaves, 
and the remainder of their days is a nervous chatter about 
the grand style. Such were Otley, Prince Hoare, and 
hundreds of others, Wilkie too. God save me from 
such a disease from such a horror. Italy was Wilkie's 

" 3rd. Went to the drawings from Michel Angelo ; 
staid an hour, and full of their style went to my own 
Lazarus. The drawing in the Lazarus, and the hands 
and feet, is decidedly more correct. The head of 
Lazarus was equal in its way to the Delphic Sibyl's ; 
but though broad, it had not that overpowering breadth 
of effect which I saw in the one of Jeremiah, full size, 
at Mr. Thompson's, Belgrave Street, who bought it at 
Lawrence's sale. That figure proves Michel Angelo 
had an eye for colour. 

" But what absurdity to pull things from dark recesses 
sixty feet high things which were obliged to be painted 
lighter, drawn fuller, and coloured harder than nature 
warrants, to look like life at the distance and to bring 
them down to the level of the eye in a drawing-room, 
and adore them as the purest examples of form, colour, 
expression and character. They were never meant to 
be seen at that distance, or in that space. 

" Thus the student is perplexed, and seduced, and cor- 
rupted with ridiculous notions of what is truly grand. 
The works of this wonderful man have ruined a thousand 
artists to one they have educated and improved. 

" In drawing they are grossly defective. Daniel's 

1840.] SIBYL: HIS SCHOOL. 151 

left foot and leg would have disgraced Bewick e before he 
ran from my tuition to the shelter of Academical wings. 
Had he, in the position of Daniel's left arm, made the 
biceps with that contour, he would have been quizzed by 
the Landseers, by Lance, by Harvey, by Chatfield, and 
by Prentice, his brother pupils. Had he put that undu- 
lation below the supinator in the left fore arm of the 
Cuma3an Sibyl two inches higher than it ought to be, 
he would have been laughed at by the public. Had 
he marked the elbow of the Erythraean so, my old life- 
guardsman, Sammons, would have told him he was 
wrong, and made him alter it. 

"It was in 1816, now twenty-four years ago, during 
the Elgin Marble controversy, I strolled to Burlington 
House to study the beauty of the marbles for an hour 
before painting, when I found a young man drawing 
amidst the fragments with great truth. I asked him if 
he were an artist. He replied he wished to be. I told 
him to bring me his drawings. Next day at breakfast 
he did. I was so pleased, I told him if he would place 
himself under my tuition I would instruct him. He did 
so. I educated him for three years without payment, 
superintended his dissections at Sir C. Bell's, gave up 
my time to him ; and when he was ready, sent him and 
the Landseers to the British Museum, where they made 
from the Elgin Marbles those celebrated drawings, the 
size of the originals, which gave them so much reputa- 
tion, that Goethe ordered a set for Weimar, where they 
are still shown in his house, and to which, just before 
his death, he alluded in a letter to me. Finding my 
pupils, and Bewicke especially, doing such justice to the 
Elgin Marbles, I resolved to endeavour to get at the 
Cartoons ; and stating my object to a friend, he induced 
Lords Stafford and Farnborough to go to George IV. 5 
and ask leave to have two at a time at the British Gallery 
which they did, and got it. 

i, 4 

152 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1840. 

" I then sent my whole school to the Gallery, and 
there they drew from the Cartoons the size of the 
originals, and I led the way. When done, the rush to 
see the copies was so great the doors were closed for fear 
of injury. 

" I then exhibited the drawings in St. James's Street ; 
here the people of fashion crowded for days. The next 
year I followed up the hit with Jerusalem, but the 
picture not being bought, though the receipts were vast, 
I began to get embarrassed. During Jerusalem Lord 
de Tabley gave me a commission. I begged him to 
transfer it to Bewicke, as he was a young man of promise. 
He did so ; and he was paid sixty guineas for his first 
picture. His second Sir William Chaytor bought, and 
during his third, his landlord refused to let him proceed 
unless I became security for his rent. I did so. In the 
meantime I was becoming rapidly involved, and having 
helped Bewicke in his difficulties, I thoughtlessly asked 
him to help me by the usual iniquities of a struggling 
man, namely, accommodation bills. Bewicke and Harvey 
both did so ; these were not accommodation bills to raise 
money on, but accommodation bills to get time extended 
for money already owing. When in the hands of a 
lawyer, if I wanted time, ( Get another name ' was the 
reply. As I wished for secresy I asked these young 
men, into whose hands I had put the means of getting a 
living without charging a farthing. As the father of a 
family I now see the indelicacy and wickedness of this 
conduct. But at that time I was young, a bachelor, at 
the head of a forlorn hope, and I relied on the honour 
and enthusiasm of my pupils. I had reduced Bewicke's 
liabilities from 236Z. to 1367., and Harvey's from 2841 to 
184/., and whilst in the act of extricating them I got 
through the Lazarus and was ruined. There is no 
excuse for my inducing my pupils to lend their names 


as security for bills, but I was in such a state of despe- 
ration that I wonder at nothing. 

" Bewicke hoisted the enemies' colour at once ; not 
so Lance, Chatfield, Tatham, or the Landseers. Lance's 
friends advanced 1251, Landseer's father 70Z., Say50/., 
Chatfield paid up his premium, 2107. They all rallied, 
but too late. In proportion to the greatness of my effort, 
so was my fall, and the boys, who, if I had been em- 
ployed, would have been right hands, branched off into 
different pursuits to get a living. Lance I advised to 
take to fruit ; Chatfield painted portraits ; Say always 
meant to do so ; but they never recovered the shock. 
Chatfield, just before he died, dined with me and talked 
of it as a glorious dream passed by. But had there 
been no Royal Academy to calumniate, oppose, and tor- 
ment us, had the Art been as clear in our time as in 
that of Reynolds, our fate would have been different 

" 4th. Worked, and finished the robe of Mary of 

" 5th. Put en effectually the second layer of colour. 
Rubens's method is the best for rapid work : Titian's for 
slow and progressive. Rubens washed in over a white 

" 6th. Wrote my life all day. No money came, and 
I have bills all next week. 

" 7th. Went to church, and returned in a better 
state of mind than I went. The prospect of pecuniary 
trouble again harassed me, but I threw myself on the 
mercy of God. I don't deserve it. I have worked hard 
for it, and cannot get my money, on which I depended, 
but I do not despair. 

" I shall get rid of my paltry little pictures, and then 
at a large canvas, which is always a blessing and a 
support. God bless me. 

" Sth. Reader, you see I always trusted in God. 

154 MEMOIRS OP B. R. HAYDON. [1840. 

This day I received 75Z. from Miller, the Liverpool 
merchant, the balance for the Duke, and this has saved 
me, as it is the link between two sums : but for this an 
execution would have entered my house, and the old 
scenes of horror would have come over again. Began 
the Poictiers for dear old Billy (Newton). 

" 12th, 13th. Exceedingly excited and exhausted. 
I attended the great convention of the Anti- Slavery 
Society at Freemasons Hall. Last Wednesday a depu- 
tation called on me from the committee, saying they 
wished a sketch of the scene. The meeting was very 
affecting. Poor old Clarkson was present, with delegates 
from America, and other parts of the world. I returned 
after making various sketches, and put in an oil one. 

" 13th. I breakfasted with Clarkson, and sketched 
him and his dear grandson, and his daughter, as the 
most beautiful of the group. 

" John Beaumont said, ( We will guarantee thee from 
loss for the sketch.' 

" I5th. Breakfasted with Clarkson, and made 
another and a more aged sketch, though a friend said 
of the other, f It had an indignant humanity.' I said, 
( Mr. Clarkson, those who have a great national object 
should be virtuous, and see God daily, "enduring, as 
seeing one who is invisible." ' ( They should indeed ,' 
said Clarkson, s it supported me ; I have worked day and 
night, and I have awoke in convulsions after reading 
the evidence of the horrors of the slave trade.' e Chris- 
tianity,' said I, f is the power of God unto salvation. It 
is of heart and internal conviction, not of evidence and 
external proof.' e Ah, ''said Clarkson, ' what a blessing 
is the religious feeling. The natural man sees flowers 
and hears birds, and is pleased ; the religious man attri- 
butes all to God.' 

" He looks like a man whose nerves had been strained. 
I said, ' I have a cause at my heart, though not of so 


much interest to mankind as yours. I hope God will 
bless it.' 

" From him I went to the committee, and arranged for 
four sitters to-morrow, and then returned home to re- 
ceive Lord Burghersh. From Poictiers we got on the 
Duke. He told me the Duke says, f They blame me 
for having a defile in my rear, the forest of Soignies. 
With 10,000 for a rear-guard in that wood, I would 
have defied Buonaparte or any army on earth. If they 
blame me, what do they say of Buonaparte, who fought 
a battle with three defiles in his rear, which were the 
ruin of his army ? ' Capital sense ! The three defiles 
were Charleroi, Gemappes, and Quatre Bras. 

" 16th. Went to the slavery convention at seven, 
and drew till four; breakfasted with them. 

(< l7th. Went to the convention again at seven. 
Drew till four. Made fourteen sketches of heads in 
one day till my brain got dazzled. I have made thirty 
sketches in three days. Whilst I was sketching Mr. 
Scobell, M. Cordier, the French avocat, came to arrange. 
' Monsieur, est-il ndcessaire de venir dans mes regimentaux 
de pair de France ? ' I ought to have said, ( Oui, vous 
rfavez pas emancipe les esclaves ; mais les regimentaux de 
pair de France V equivalent.* 

(( Good God ! In such a cause to think of his costume 
as a { pair de France* I only ask you, reader, if that 
fact is not enough ? 

" The other Frenchman (M. Cremieux) made an ap- 
pointment at nine, at 44. Piccadilly. I drove up and 
he was out. Down came Madame in her dishabille. 
She assured me, f Que monsieur dtait sorti touchant les 
affaires les plus importantes du monde, mais a dix 
heures, monsieur,' and I took my leave. 

f( ~17th to 20th. All passed sketching heads at the 
convention. I did fifty-two in five days. 

" 25th. Colonel Gurwood sat to me for my Water- 

156 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1840. 

loo Gallery. He said the Duke never liked solicitation 
for others. He liked every man to speak for him- 
self. Gurwood said he lived two years in the same house 
with the Duke ; and he always stated whatever he 
wanted in a letter. 

" The Duke complained to Gurwood that liberties 
were taken with him. He said, when he went to Court 
after William IV. 's death, the Duke of Cambridge said, 
' Why, Duke, why d'ye have your hair so short ? ' 
Directly after, the Duke of Sussex said, ' Why you are 
not in mourning, Duke ? ' The Duke said I ordered 
black, your Royal Highness.' * Ah,' said he, ' it is not 
black. It is what the French call tete-de-negre.' { The 
Duke of Marlborough,' said the Duke to Gurwood,' 
( because he was an old man, was treated like an old 
woman. 1 won't be. And the reason why I have a 
right never to have a liberty taken with me, is because 
I never take a liberty with any man.' Colonel Gurwood 
said that the Duke, although he had known Lord 
Fitzroy Somerset from a boy, always called him Lord 

" He told me the Duke keeps the key of the glass of 
his Correggio, and when the glass is foul, dusts it himself 
with his handkerchief. He asked him once for this 
key, and he replied, ' No I won't.' 

" He asked him once for a cloak to paint from, and 
he refused, saying he would not lend his clothes ; thus 
confirming Wilkie, Wyatt, and myself. 

" Upon the whole the Duke has been made too much 
of at the wrong period of his life, and too little of at the 
fine time. He fears insult at every breeze. Because 
he knows himself old, he fears people take liberties with 
him. Poor dear old man. 

" Gurwood said he told him he gave 10007. a year 
away because the Government would not put the de- 


mands relating to his Wardenship of the Cinque Ports 
on the estimates. 

" Gurwood said that in the year when Alexander's 
house failed the Duke gave away at least 6000Z. One 
day he found the Duke sealing up bank notes, and 
sending off envelope after envelope, and the Duke said he 
ought to be as rich as Croesus, and have mines without 

"29th. Lucretia Mott, the leader of the delegate 
women from America, sat. I found her out to have 
infidel notions, and resolved at once, narrow-minded or 
not, not to give her the prominent place I first intended. 
I will reserve that for a beautiful believer in the Divinity 
of Christ. 

" 30^. Scobell called. I said, < I shall place you, 
Thompson, and the negro together.' Now an aboli- 
tionist on thorough principle would have gloried in 
being so placed. This was the touchstone. He sophis- 
ticated immediately on the propriety of placing the 
negro in the distance, as it would have much greater 

" Now I, who have never troubled myself in this 
cause, gloried in the imagination of placing the negro 
close by his emancipator. The emancipator shrank. 
I'll do it though. If I do not, d me. 

" Scobell is a fine fellow, but he and Tredgold felt a 
little touched at the idea. If he has suffered for the 
cause, why object ? 

"Lloyd Garrison comes to-day. I'll try him, and 
this shall be my method of ascertaining the real heart. 

" Garrison sat and I succeeded, and hit him. I 
asked him, and he met me at once directly. George 
Thompson said he saw no objection. But that was not 
enough. A man who wishes to place the negro on a 
level must no longer regard him as having been a slave 
and feel annoyed at sitting by his side. 

158 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1840. 

"July 3rd. Put in the negro's head, and the head 
of delegate from Hayti. Sketched Lady Byron and 
Lucretia Mott. 

" With Lady Byron I was deeply interested. There 
is a lambent sorrow about her, bland and touching, 
but she was no more fit for him than a dove for a 
volcano. Poor Lady Byron ! She looks as if she saw 
an inward sorrow. Perhaps his sublime head is always 
haunting her imagination, like the ' Dira facies ' in 

"14^. Put in Lady Byron. She brought Mrs. 
Jameson and wished me to show her the drawings. I 
was anxious to do the head first, which was thoughtless. 
Mrs. Jameson seemed annoyed, and found fault with 
the head. I thought I saw Lady Byron look knowing 
at Mrs. Jameson. I said, ' Come, don't look criticism,' 
which annoyed her more. She took her leave, and 
thus with the most earnest desire to please her, I dis- 
pleased her. Lady Byron was fidgety, I got fidgety, 
and the head turned out bad. Made a drawing of 
Garrison for the Duchess of Sutherland, and sketched 
Miss Knight. 

" 19th. Hard at work and well advanced. The 
Americans are intruding and inquisitive. I have great 
trouble to parry them, except Garrison. Garrison sat 
to-day after calling and seeing the Duchess of Suther- 
land with whom he was delighted. Household and 
Duchess bewildered his republican faculties. 

" 10th. Very hard at work. How delightful it is 
to have health, employers, and to work hard. I hope 
Hume won't bother me about the Academy question. 
If he do, I will not be distracted. O God, for Thy 
mercies accept my gratitude from my heart. 

(f llth. Hard at work, and succeeded in Gurney's 
head. I perfectly agree that such a number of honest 


heads were never seen before. So said the Duchess of 
Sutherland, and so say I. 

" 14th. Hard at work. Birney and Alexander, 
both fine heads, all good hearts. Birney said negro 
children are equal to whites till seven, when, perceiving 
the degradation of their parents, they felt degraded and 
cowed. Dreadful. Birney had discharged all his own 
slaves. These delegates are extraordinary men in head, 
feature and principle. 

"31st. Worked hard after I began, but did not set 
my palette till after breakfast ; did not begin till twelve. 
Bead Rubens' s life by Waagen. 

ee Amelia Opie sat, and a very pleasant hour and a 
half we had. Mr. Burritt, a keen clever fellow, sat too. 
" Only one day's rest since the 12th June. 
"August 1st. Battle of the Nile, forty-two years 

" Amelia Opie sat, a delightful creature : she told 
me she heard Fuseli say of Northcote, ( He looks like a 
rat who has seen a cat.' 

" 22d. Excessively and gloriously hard at work. 
Finished a head, hand, and figure in two days. 

e( Nothing astonishes me so much as my rapidity with 
this picture ; it is truly the result of all my previous 
fagging for years. 

"28th. Saw the three Giustiniani Caracci to-day. 
I was much struck by them, though it is extraordinary 
how little they understood the nature of Christ's cha- 
racter and expression. The idea of giving Christ such 
a skull is dreadful ; none of the Italian painters except 
KafFaele had any notion of the right phrenological de- 
velopement for such a being. But they are carefully 
executed, and very proper examples for young men. 
They ought to be bought ; but I prefer, in my Widow's 
Son, my conception of the mother falling on the neck of 
her boy, and forgetting Christ in her maternal feelings. 

160 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON". [1840. 

Cf I am quite convinced the art of painting for great 
distance is curious. 

" Domenichino's St. Cecilia, near, is preposterous ; 
afar off, it is the thing, and the manner of painting is 
expressly like Correggio's ceilings, holes for eyes, 
holes for nostrils, holes for all the dark parts of the 

" September 4th. Hard at work, and heard from 
dear Wordsworth, with a glorious sonnet on the Duke 
and Copenhagen. It is very fine, so I began a new 
journal directly, and put in the sonnet. God bless him. 

" ' My dear Hay don, 

" ' We are all charmed with your etching. It is both 
poetically and pictorially conceived and finely executed. I 
should have written immediately to thank you for it and for 
your letter and the enclosed one, which is interesting, but I 
wished to gratify you by writing a sonnet. I now send it, 
but with an earnest request that it may not be put into cir- 
culation for some little time, as it is warm from the brain, 
and may require, in consequence, some little retouching. It 
has this, at least, remarkable attached to it, which will add 
to its value in your eyes, that it was actually composed 
while I was climbing Helvellyn last Monday. My daughter 
and Mr. Quillinan were with me ; and she, which I believe 
had scarcely ever been done before, rode every inch of the 
way to the summit, and a magnificent day we had. 

" Sonnet suggested by Haydon's Picture of the Duke of 
Wellington upon the Field of Waterloo Twenty Years 
after the Battle. 

" First reading, 

"'By art's bold privilege, warrior and war-horse stand 
On ground yet strewn with their last battle's wreck. 
Let the steed glory, while his master's hand 
Lies, fixed for ages, on his conscious neck. 
But, by the chieftain's look, tho' at his side 
Hangs that day's treasured sword, how firm a check 


Is given to triumph, and all human pride ! 
Yon trophied mound shrinks to a shadowy speck 
In his calm presence. Since the mighty deed 
Him years have brought far nearer the grave's rest, 
As shows that face time-worn. But he such seed 
Has sowed that bears, we trust, the fruit of fame 
In heaven ; hence no one blushes for thy name, 
Conqueror ! 'mid some sad thoughts divinely blest.' 

" Composed while ascending Helvellyn, Monday, August 31st, 1840. 


" My dear Mr. Haydon, 

" Correct thus the two last lines towards the close of the 

'"As shows that time-worn face. But he such seed 
Hath sown, as yields, we trust, the fruit of fame 
In heaven,' &c, 

" You will see the reason of this alteration. It applies 
now to his life in general, and not to that particular act as 
before. You may print the sonnet where and when you 
will, if you think it will serve you ; only it may be well that 
I should hear from you first, as you may have something to 
suggest either as to the letter or the lines. 

" Yours in haste, 


" Friday, Sept. 4th." 

" I am quite ashamed to trouble you again, but after con- 
sidering and reconsidering, changing and rechanging, it has 
been resolved that the troublesome passage shall stand 
thus : 

"'In his calm presence. Him the mighty deed 
Elates not, brought far nearer the grave's rest, 
As shows that time-worn face. But* he such seed 
Hath sown as yields, we trust,' &c. 

" Faithfully yours, 

" Rydal Mount, 
" Monday, Sept. 7th, 1840." 

* " For," in printed version of the sonnet. ED. 

162 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. |~ 1840. 

" My dear Haydon, 

" I could not otherwise get rid of the prosaic declaration 
of the matter of fact that the hero was so much older. You 
will recollect that it at first stood, 

" ' Since the mighty deed 
Him years,' &c. 

" I know not what to do with the passage if it be not well 
corrected as follows : 

" ' Him the mighty deed 
Elates not : neither doth a cloud find rest 
Upon that time-worn face : for he such seed 
Hath sown,' &c. 

" I sent the sonnet as it was before corrected to Mr. 
Lowndes, as you desired. "When you print it, if it be in 
course of next week, pray send a copy to this house and 
another to me at Lowther Castle, whither I am going to- 

"Very faithfully yours, 

" Rydal Mount, 
"Sept. llth.* 

" The space for alteration in this troublesome passage, you 
will observe, was very confined, as it was necessary to advert 
to the Duke being much older, which is yet done in the 
words ' time-worn face/ but not so strongly as before. 

"W. W." 

These successive corrections, showing the poet's ar- 
tistlike reverence for his work, suggest to Haydon the 
remark that he seems anxious to make the sonnet worthy 
of himself, the Duke and the painter (this last followed 
by a " hem ! " of mock-humility). 

All this while he was working away at the Anti- 
Slavery Convention picture. I find among the heads 
painted those of Knibb, Turnbull, Moorsom, Sir Eardly 
Wilmot, Dr. Lushington and a Mr. Crewdson, who 

* For an intermediate letter of the 10th of September, see 
Note at the end of the Memoirs. 


came from Birmingham to sit three hours and go back 
the same day. 

On the 1 Oth of October, the anniversary of his wed- 
ding day, he writes : " Nineteen years this day I have 
been married, and I love my dear Mary better than ever. 
She has had great trouble and affliction, and I fear her 
health is now suffering. She has been to me a solace, 
a blessing, a salvation. 

" I hope God will restore her to health, that we may 
both descend to the grave together, that we may see 
our children married and settled, and that we may keep 
our intellects and eyes to the last moment of life. Amen. 

"22nd. The Theseus and Fates are the true grand 
style ; the Moses of Michel Angelo, the Gog style. 

" 24th. I worked yesterday from half-past seven 
till ten at night : with half an hour at lunch, two hours' 
reading, five to seven, including dinner fifteen hours ; 
in reality, I had but half an hour's rest, for I never am 
more than ten minutes or a quarter of an hour dining. 
I then read while dear Mary finishes, because it makes 
her ill to eat, as I do, at a gallop. Had my eyes lasted 
I could have gone on all night. 

"November 3rd. I saw to-day at the Duke of Suthe - 
land's the original sketch for the crowning of Mary of 
Medici, the first thought before the introduction of 
the Genii, and side group above the heads of the prin- 
cesses. This shows the complete progress of the con- 

" 5th. A sixth part of the month gone. Two days' 
work; two idle. Worked hard, and was perpetually in- 
terrupted, but stuck at it. Nothing but visitors; M 

called, fresh from Mehemet Ali. He told me Mehe- 
met Ali could not get sleep, and would soon go. He 
said the French ships were ill manned, and could not 
stand before ours, which delighted my soul. He spoke 
disrespectfully of Cremieux. M is of that Colonia 

164 MEMOIRS OP B. K. HAYDON. [1840. 

Office class ready to go anywhere, in any way. What 
a peculiar class they are ! I never go clown near the 
Colonial Office but I meet anxious cadaverous faces 
fresh from the secretary's writing room, victims pre- 
paring for the Cape, Sierra Leone, Cuba, West or 
East, North or South, not happy at home, not happy 
abroad, carrying English notions into military govern- 
ments, provoking governors, exasperating colonial 
notions, sent home, sent out, and dying at last to the 
great relief of Lord John, or Lord Dick, or whoever 
happens to be the bored. 

"9th. Awoke with 397. to pay, and only eight sove- 
reigns in my snuff-box, where I keep my money, never 
taking snuff. I trusted and prayed. Before twelve I 
received 20/. ; then 15/. 15s. more on a commission from 
Sir John Hanmer, and 4Z. 4s. carne by post from Bath, 
for a proof after letters, making up the money. 

" Wth. Had my picture extended on a new frame. 
As I walked along the streets to-day, and saw the 
general effect of objects, I could not help reflecting, 
how Art was true Art only when the leading objects 
were chosen. 

" Supposing all nature open to us instead of the 
general effect only* we should not, and could not, bear 
existence ; but Providence has wisely adapted our eyes 
to see nothing but what is necessary for comprehension 
and the purposes of life. Could we perceive we breathed 
nothing but animalculae, drank snaky monsters in the 
purest water, and eat living masses in the freshest flesh, 
life would be insufferable : but see how wisely our 
powers of vision are limited. We see and recognise 
objects by the leading characteristics. The great painter 
does the same. And you recognise the nature of the 
things he paints on such principles better than if he laid 
pen pores, hairs, dimples, pimples and wrinkles. 
. ft l3th. Rubbed in a Napoleon for Sir John Hanmer, 


and worked at the Anti-Slavery picture. Their bring- 
ing me thirty-one heads more, after arranging for one 
hundred and three, is rather a joke ; but if they like, 
they shall have heads all over, like a peacock's tail. 

<l l7th. Looked at, cleaned and put in order the 
Solomon. It has now been painted twenty- seven years. 
It has lately been in a warehouse where there was no 
fire, and the damp had seized on the robe and the crown 
on his head. 

" The drapery was painted in oil luckily, but being 
lake, an animal substance, the damp had fixed on and 
mildewed it ; so on the crown, painted in Indian yellow, 
a vegetable. All the rest of the picture being in earths 
or minerals was not in the least affected, and Solomon's 
face was quite pure in the midst of the mildew. Had 
the drapery been painted in gum or rosin, the whole 
would have run or dissolved. 

" In looking again, after a long absence, at this won- 
derful picture, painted at twenty-six and twenty-seven, 
and brought out at twenty-eight, I candidly acknow- 
ledge I am astonished. Turner said to a friend, f Tell 
Haydon I am astonished ; ' and so he well might be. 
Taking into account all my difficulties, necessities, want 
of instruction from any master, my youth and the fact 
that I had only painted three pictures before, when I 
look at the execution, the manner and firmness of the 
touch, I no longer wonder at the uproar . it made at its 
appearance. Good God ! Ought I to fear comparison 
of it with the Duke of Sutherland's Murillo or any 
other picture ? Certainly not. But I want humility, 
and it pleases God to humble my mind by neglect and 
obscurity and so fit me for another world. His will be 
done. In Him I trust, with all my heart and soul, and 
know it will please Him one day, that when I am dead 
it shall have fair play for the honour of my country. I 
await in patience and submit. Amen. 

M 3 

166 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1840. 

" 23rd. Gave my first lecture at Birmingham. - 
Genteelly but not numerously attended, and coldly 
welcomed. In fact, no welcome at all. I was perfectly 
cool, and at last warmed them up, and made my bo\v 
amidst hearty applause. 

" 24th. Dined at dear, honest John Sturge's, and 
spent a very pleasant evening. They were all teeto- 
tallers except me and John Sturge. We took a glass of 
sherry together; and after dinner, with fruit as usual, 
we chatted away so pleasantly, and the Quakers seemed 
to enjoy my stories so heartily, that in spite of their 
gravity they burst into roars of laughter. I could not 
have believed so pleasant a dessert could have passed 
without a glass of port. At the conclusion I took one 
glass, and that was all. How completely it is habit ; 
but I felt weak on arriving home, and ordered my negus. 
I have no time to feel weak. If I was sure the feeling 
would go off I would try abstinence, but I fear the 
weakness of my eyes proceeds from scrofula, and alcohol 
is a necessary stimulus. 

" 25th to 30th. Lecturing and visiting manufactories. 
If ever any town needed a School of Design, and if there 
is one where it would be more useful than another, it is 

From Birmingham he proceeded to Liverpool, where 
his lectures were again attended by large and enthu- 
siastic audiences. 

The diplomatic out-generalling of the French by the 
Foreign Secretary in the Eastern entanglement this 
year delighted Haydon so, that he expressed his satis- 
faction in a long letter to Lord Palmerston, remarking, 
however, " The two great pivots of Whig policy were 
friendship with France and toleration of the Catholics, 
I disbelieve the character of the one and the instinct of 
the other. In the friendship with France they have 
been proved wrong, and so they will in their reliance on 
the changed character of Catholics." 

184 i.j REVIEW or 1840. 167 

At the close of the year he was at Manchester, whence 
he dates his usual summary of the twelvemonth. 

" December 31^. The last day of 1840. A year to 
me of great blessings, with bitter sorrow, because my 
dearest Mary, with her noble heart, tender nature and 
devoted love, has been prostrated in health. How grate- 
ful we ought to be that our daughter has been well and 
soundly educated, that our eldest youth is good and in- 
nocent, and our youngest boy unstained and religious, 
and that my step-son, Hyman, has ample provision by 
his classical talents and application at Wadham. In 
concluding the year I have indeed great mercies to be 
grateful for. 

" With respect to the prospects of Art, my lectures 
continue to excite as much attention as ever. Fresh 
engagements pour in, and wherever I go the same 
enthusiasm is roused. 

(( I have lectured on the naked model in London, in 
Edinburgh and Manchester, and lately had wrestlers to 
struggle before 1,500 people at Liverpool, with immense 
approbation. Fifty years ago such a thing would not 
have been possible. It is said Cornelius is coming to 
adorn the Lords. I shall feel it if I am not selected 
after what has passed with the Duke and Lord Mel- 
bourne and Mr. Canning. But I am become a thorough 
Christian ; and if this darling object of a long life be 
missed I shall consider it a proper check to my pride, 
and bow my head in submission. Let the will of my 
Creator be done. I shall not the less continue to do my 
duty to advance the taste of my country." 


During this year he brought his picture of the Anti- 
Slavery Convention to an end and exhibited it without 
much success. His lectures, too, went on, and sufficed, 

M 4 

168 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [l841. 

with his commissions from Sir John Hanmer and Mr. 
Rogers, to keep him free from any great pecuniary 

This year, too, the Fine Arts Committee for the de- 
coration of the New Houses of Parliament sat and exa- 
mined witnesses ; but Haydon was not summoned. He 
felt this severely, and it gave him, as it were, a presenti- 
ment of what was to follow on the appointment of the 
Fine Arts Commission. He set about experiments in 
fresco, trying all the while to make up his mind before- 
hand that he was not to be allowed to reap of the harvest 
which he had certainly done more than any of his 
brethren to sow. But it was hardly in human nature, 
certainly it was not in Haydon's, to console himself for 
the exclusion he foresaw, by the thought that at last the 
public claims of Art were recognised. A still severer 
blow this year was the death of David Wilkie, to whom, 
notwithstanding their complete antagonism of tempera- 
ment, Haydon was warmly attached. When the year 
opened he was concluding his lectures at Liverpool. 

" January 1st. Lectured at the Royal Institution, 
and took my leave. Congratulated them on the success 
of the School of Design. The advance is extraordinary, 
and yet the prejudices in the manufacturers and society 
are not yet got rid of. Families reject drawing-masters 
because they, to improve themselves, attend the school ; 
whereas they ought to employ no drawing-master who 
does not. 

" 2nd. Arrived at Sheffield by coach, and was more 
tired with this paltry forty miles than the thousand I 
have travelled by rail. But I saw the country, which is 
peculiarly Scotch and romantic after Staley Bridge. 

" 4cth. Heavy snow. The air is sharp and cutting 
at Sheffield. No wonder they are celebrated for knives. 
Lectured, but the audience the dullest I ever knew. 

" 5th. Dined at Manchester with Turner, a pupil 

1841.] SKETCHING o'CONNELL. 169 

of Sir Astley Cooper. Cooper told him he had retired ; 
but after two months, being miserable, he asked himself, 
f What do I like best in the world ?' ' My profession,' 
was the answer. f Then,' said he, ' why the deuce 
should I leave off that employment which gives me the 
greatest delight ? ' and so he returned to practice. 

" 6th. Lectured again. Audience impressed, but 
dull. I told them I had seen no casts in Sheffield, and 
they looked at each other." 

On his return to town he resumed work on his Anti- 
Slavery picture, new heads presenting themselves every 
day, until at last the picture threatened to become 
nothing but heads, without room for bodies. 

"February 2nd. Worked fairly, after being out again 
in the morning on money matters. My dear landlord 
helped me as usual. What should I do without him ? 
I have no right to complain of my employers, but they 
should prevent my losing my time about trifles when 
100/. would clear me, 

" 3rd. If Providence always interfered free-will 
would be over. But if required, or prayed to, He 
always interferes. If asked, He grants ; if you knock, 
He opens, and He punishes. But He lets men act and 
often whispers to save them. Would men could all 
believe this as /do. 

" 9th. Sketched O'Connell. I came at ten and he 
was asleep. I went at eleven and he came out as usual 
rolling and good-natured. I went up to his breakfast 
room ; as he read his letters I sketched him. He then 
sat regularly, and when I said I was sorry to keep him 
so long, he said, f I have used you so ill by lying a-bed, 
rny conscience obliges me to give you a good sitting.' 
We talked of the Catholics and Protestants. He said, 
s If you apply to a man's reason, you only apply to 
half of him, and the smallest half.' 

" f You English,' said he, { don't know what is going 

170 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1840. 

On in Ireland. Repeal will triumph.' He is grown 
older, considerably, but there is in his look inexpressible 
good-nature. He told me he sat to Wilkie for his 
portrait, at the same time as the Duke, and he said such 
was the Duke's determination to be in proper costume, 
that he used to come for the Queen's picture of her First 
Council, to Kensington, in the coldest weather, in white 
duck trowsers. 

" Felt unhappy in bed at my approaching diffi- 
culties. Just like the Jews, mistrusting my good 
Creator who had delivered me so often. I fell asleep, 
and awoke about three. Something whispered me, 
' How can you despond ? Did I not support thee in 
early life ? Did I not say to thee (( Fear not, I am with 
thee ? Be not dismayed, for I am thy God ! " I replied 
' Thou didst ; I will despond no more.' My low spirits 
went. I arose confiding, and by post came a remittance 
from Sir John Hanmer, which prevented my being 
penniless, after matriculating my dear Frank at Caius. 
Gratitude gratitude gratitude ! f Knock and it 
shall be opened ; ask and ye shall have.' Amen." 

The most interesting circumstance in connection with 
the Anti- slavery Convention picture was the visit the 
painter paid to the venerable Thomas Clarkson, at 
Playford Hall. 

" April 8th. Left town on the 6th by steam: ar- 
rived at Ipswich at seven, and found Clarkson's car- 
riage waiting. Got to Playford Hall at eight. Found 
the dear old man at tea with his niece and wife, looking 
much better than when in town. Playford is a fine old 
building: 1593 the last date, but must be much older, 
they say. It is surrounded by a moat with running 
water. Clarkson has a head like a patriarch, and in his 
prime must have been a noble figure. He was very 
happy to see me, but there is a nervous irritability which 
is peculiar. He lives too much with adorers, especially 


" As he seemed impatient at my staying beyond a 
certain time I went to bed, and wished him good night. 
I slept well, and the next morning walked in the garden 
and fields. He breakfasted on milk and bread (alone), 
and I breakfasted with Mrs. T. Clarkson up stairs. I 
promised to sketch him at ten, and at ten I was ready* 

" He seemed much pleased by a letter from Guizot, 
wherein he had said Soult and he meant to bring in 
Abolition next year. Dear old man ! no praise seemed 
lost on him. He wanted to show me other letters, 
which I had not time to read. 

" When all was ready, the windows fitted, he said. 
' Call in the maids.' In came six servant girls, and 
washerwomen (it being washing day). ( I am determined 
they shall see the first stroke.' In they all crowded, 
timidly wondering. Clarkson said, f There now, that is 
the first stroke ; come again in an hour, and you shall 
see the last ! ' 

" We now began to talk : he said, s When Chris- 
tophe's wife and daughters, all accomplished women, 
were brought or introduced by him to Wilberforce, 
and others in high life, there was a sort of shrink at ad- 
mitting them into society.' I told him I believed it, 
because when I resolved to place the African in front 
of the picture on the same level as the Europeans there 
was the same delicacy, but I got him and put him in at 
once. Shame prevented remonstrance. 

te Clarkson showed no envy. He spoke of Granville 
Sharpe and Wilberforce with affection and respect; 
( But,' said the patriarch, 'they thought of the slave, I of 
the slave traded I admired this distinction. 

" I think Clarkson's intellects are unimpaired, and 
shine through his infirmities. He told the whole story 
of his vision. He said he was sleeping when a voice 
awoke him, and he heard distinctly the words, ( You 
have not done all your work. There is America. 3 

172 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDOX. [!841. 

Clarkson said it was vivid. He sat upright in his bed ; 
he listened and heard no more. Then the whole subject 
of his last pamphlet came to his mind. Texts without 
end crowded in, and he got up in the morning, and began 
it, and worked eight hours a day till it was done, 
till he hoped he had not left the Americans a leg to 
stand on. 

" Now come the causes of this belief. There is no 
doubt all men who devote their lives from boyhood to a 
great cause have the impression of being called or led 
by the Deity. Does this impression come from the 
mere physical exercise of the brain in one direction, so 
that imagination is excited, or does perpetual solitude 
engender the notion that what is merely imagined is 
actual ? Clarkson says he was sleeping. Might he not 
have dreamt strongly ? He heard a voice, and sat up- 
right, neither asleep nor awake, and still heard the 
imagined sounds of the dream before his reason returned 
with his waking. This is the physical explanation, and 
is always more gratifying to the world than the suppo- 
sition that any being is so favoured by God as to be 
called and selected. On the other hand, Clarkson has 
evidently been a great instrument for the abolition of a 
great curse. A whole species who have suffered for 
centuries have by his exertions, and those of others, been 
advanced in the scale of human beings, to liberty and 
protection. Is such a cause unworthy the interference of 
the Deity ? If not, is it improbable he would select for 
such a benevolent purpose a human being as his instru- 
ment ? The men who do these great things universally 
have the impression they are so impelled. For instance, 
Columbus believed he heard a voice in the storm, en- 
couraging him to persevere. Socrates believed in his 
attendant spirit ; and, if it be allowed to refer to Christ, 
the Saviour always talked as of an immediate communi- 
cation. I myself have .believed in such impressions all 


my life. I believe I have been so acted on from seven- 
teen to fifty-five, for the purpose of reforming and re- 
fining my great country in Art. I believe that my 
sufferings were meant, first, to correct me, and then, by 
rousing attention, to interest my nation. I know that 
I am corrected and a better man, and I know there 
exists a sympathy for me, and, by reflection, for my 
style and object, which, without such causes, would not 
have operated so soon. At seventeen, I could not write 
a word intelligibly : who gave me the power to thunder 
out in one night, as if by inspiration, my thoughts on 
the Academic question ? Who guided me as to the only 
sound system of education in an artist, in opposition to 
all the existing practice of the day in England ? Who 
cheered me when all the world seemed adverse to desert ? 
God, my great, my benevolent, my blessed Creator, by 
the influence and the influence only, of His holy, 
holy, holy Spirit ! 

" Perhaps this is insanity as well as Clarkson's, Co- 
lumbus's, Milton's, and others'. Perhaps we are all 
f drunk with new wine.' No, no. We are all more 
alive to the supernatural and spiritual than the rest of 
our fellow creatures. Where could I see the prototype 
of the head of Lazarus ? I had never seen a man raised 
from the dead. Who was my inspirer? God, my 
blessed Creator. 

" How often in prison, in want, in distress, in blind- 
ness, have I knelt in agony before Him, my forehead 
touching the ground, and prayed for His mercy. How 
often have I arisen with ' Go on? so loud in my brain 
as to make me start. How often have I, in despair, 
opened the Scriptures, and seen, as if in letters of fire, 
* Fear thou not. I am with thee.' And have I ever 
had occasion but once to find the result did not answer 
the promises ? And that one result will yet be accom- 

174 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDOX. [1841. 

" I believe Clarkson did hear a voice, like other se- 
lected beings before he was born. 

" After finishing my drawing I started by mail, and 
was in town by eight the next morning. 

Why was I riot so impressed as when I visited the 
Duke ? Here was a man who in his Christian and 
peaceable object had shown equal perseverance, equal 
skill, equal courage, and yet I was not so affected. 

' ' Clarkson has more weaknesses than the Duke, He 
is not so high bred. He makes a pride of his debilities. 
He boasts of his swollen legs, and his pills, as if they 
were so many claims to distinction. The Duke did not 
let you see him in his infirmities. He was deaf, but he 
would not have let you see it if possible : he dined like 
others, ate like others and did everything like others ; 
and what he did not do like others he did not do before 

" Lord Grey and Clarkson have both that infirmity 
of asking questions about themselves, as if they had 
forgot the answers, that they may elicit again the 
answers, for the pleasure of hearing the repetition. The 
Duke never. He is too much a man. Himself seems 
the last thing he remembers, except when others presume 
on his modesty. He never obtruded Waterloo, unless 
it was forced on him, or arose out of the conversation, 
nor did he shrink if the company seemed to press it. 

" In fact, the Duke was a high-bred man. The want 
of this is never compensated for. Never. 

(< Though Clarkson is a gentleman by birth, and was 
educated like one, he is too natural for any artifice. 
He says what he thinks, does what he feels inclined, is 
impatient, childish, simple : hungry, and will eat ; rest- 
less, and will let you see it ; punctual, and will hurry ; 
nervous, and won't be hurried ; positive, and hates con- 
tradiction ; charitable ; speaks affectionately of all, even 
of Wilberforce's sons, whose conduct he lamented, more 


as if it cast a shadow over the father's tomb, than as if 
he felt wounded from what they had said of himself. 

" Of the three venerable patriarchs of great causes, 
the Duke, Lord Grey and Clarkson, the Duke is the 
greatest character by far. 

"27^. There is always something to do. I in- 
scribed the names of Wilberforce, Sharpe and Toussaint 
to-day, and that completes the undertaking. 

" The moment a great canvas goes from my house I 
dread to look at my painting-room. When a great 
canvas is up I feel sheltered, though I have not one 
farthing in my pocket. How extraordinary is habit I 
Grant me, O God, a long life. The more pictures I 
paint, the more worthy my mind will be of another 
world. I know and feel it. But Thou knowest best. 
I humbly submit to Thy will, and will try to be always 

"'27, New Bond Street. 

"'28th, 1841. 
" Dear Haydon, 

" * I have just received thy note saying that, "Wilberforce, 
Sharpe and Toussaint " are inscribed on the curtains. I am 
exceedingly sorry to hear it. They had nothing whatever to 
do with the Convention, and must come out. I shall be in 
Piccadilly at three o'clock. 

" < Thine truly, 


" The gratitude of posterity ! Without Wilberforce, 
Toussaint or Sharpe, no Convention would have been 
held on the subject. And here is my friend Beaumont 
insisting on their names (introduced merely in allusion 
to their services) being struck out. 

30/i. The last day of April. I have finished my 
great work, and this day ends the month. 

" The delight I had in turning to one of my historical 

176 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON. [1841. 

compositions after I had got rid of that dreadful collec- 
tion of faces, is not to be described." 

On the 13th of May he records the failure of the 
Exhibition of this picture of the Anti- Slavery Con- 

" May 5th. After the bustle of a work of portraits, 
the lassitude of mind which seizes one is extraordinary. 
Johnson, after completing his dictionary, passed two 
years doing little. Sir Joshua thought his mind would 
not recover. This was nothing but the over-relaxation 
of the string after constant tension. 

" To a man like me, used to solitude, the worry of 
such a picture is dreadful, and nothing could keep an 
artist from being torn to pieces by 138 sitters, but the 
utmost decision, by which they are made to perceive he 
is not to be trifled with. 

" Spent the morning in studying my darling cartoons. 
Oh, what a blessing ! 

" The criticism of this picture has been absurd. Be- 
cause it looks like mere nature, the critics think the art 
has been overlooked ; whereas, there is as much, or more 
art, in this artless look than in many compositions of 
more profundity." 

It was at this time that the news of Wilkie's death 
reached England. Haydon was deeply shaken by the 
loss of his old friend, for, despite rooted differences of 
character, and long estrangements, he had a true and 
deep regard for Wilkie, as I believe Wilkie had for him. 
The thought of this death dwelt in Haydon's mind for 
months, and hardly any entry of his Journal for the rest 
of the year but contains some allusion to it. 

" I2th. Read prayers, and prayed for the soul of 
my dear old friend David Wilkie. The last week I 
have been at Dover, and one evening, at Warren's 
library, in the Chronicle, I read an accoumV of the 
Oriental's arrival. I rapidly ran over the names, and did 

1841.] DEATH OF WILKIE. 1?7 

not see Wilkie's ; I read on, my heart literally thumping 
against my side, till I came to ( Sir David Wilkie ex- 
pired in the bay of Gibraltar.' A painful trembling 
seized me. I had begged and intreated him before he 
went to be cautious of such a journey. I begged him 
to read Madden, to understand the nature of the diseases, 
and consider his weakness of constitution. In fact, I 
all but predicted his death. In my mind, privately, I 
felt convinced he would not return, and said so to my 

" Poor dear Wilkie ! with all thy heartless timidities 
of character, with thy shrinking, cowardly want of re- 
solution, looking as if thou hadst sneaked through life 
pursued by the ghosts of forty Academicians, thy 
great genius, our early friendship, our long attachment 
through thirty-six years, thy touching death and ro 
mantic burial, brought thy loss bitterly to my heart. 

" 15th. I dreamt I was sleeping in the tombs of the 
Kings at Jerusalem, and awoke in a wild confusion, and 
thought, in the dim twilight of daybreak, the arch of my 
bed was the cold cave. Poor Wilkie ! he seemed to 
look on me and to say, ' Did I ever give you cause of 
offence? Did I not bear and forbear? Did I not 
assist you with money ? Was not our friendship un- 
alloyed till you tried to destroy the Institution in which 
you where brought up ? Then did I leave you ? Did 
I not enjoy your genius, bear testimony to your great 
talents ? My character was different from yours. You 
have no right to reproach me for not being willing to go 
to the extremes of your hatred, and involve myself in 
suspicions which I did not deserve. No, my dear Hay- 
don, I loved you as much as, nay more than any man ; 
and while we entertained the same views, saw each other 
daily, and pursued the same objects, nothing disturbed 
our happiness. When you did not fear ill-usage as I did ; 
when worse treatment afflicted and nearly destroyed me, 


178 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1841. 

you ought not to blame me for wishing for that peace so 
natural to my nature.' 

" This passed through my imagination as I lay dozing ; 
and I hugged my pillow and seemed to wish never again 
to wake. 

" ' But,' I replied, ' you were a slave to the great and 
the world. You feared to show regard for a man the 
world had deserted. You shrank from an ardent heart, 
whose only fault was its excess of affection. You were 
not a Christian when the applause of men was concerned, 
and fell a victim to dissappointment at Court, which you 
pursued with a mean adulation, till you were driven 
from its precincts. I acknowledge you bore and forbore 

not from Christian duty, but because it was to your 
interests the less dangerous course of the two. You 
lent me money, but you talked of it with a gross want 
of delicacy. When the world complained, you abused 
me. You ridiculed the school I formed. You envied 
me in all my great successes Jerusalem, Lazarus, 
Mock Election, pupils, drawings, lectures ; and at all 
times tried to prove they were not successes, with a pale 
face and quivering lip more pale and more quivering 
than usual. There was no occasion to join in the cry to 
prove you had no connection with me; our known 
friendship would have induced my bitterest enemies to 
pardon in you a delicate and affectionate silence. 

" * These were frailties. Your virtues were great, 
your love of art a passion, your industry unexampled, 

your decorum deserving imitation; but you might 
have had virtues ; you might have loved your art ; you 
might have been industrious ; you might have been 
decorous ; and yet not have deserted your sincere and 
affectionate old friend in the time of his sorrow sorrow 
brought on by his disgust at your treatment by men 
whom you tried to conciliate, afterwards, by calum- 
niating the man who defended you.' 


" This is the way I went on till daybreak, and sprang 
up to dress, saying, ' Poor Wilkie I ' 

"Yesterday I called on our old friend, Collins. 
Collins was an humble adorer. In his presence Wilkie 
felt all he said was listened to ; with me it was con- 
tested. Collins was affected, and so was I. He came 
to the Academy in 1806, we in 1805; but he was one 
of the set who became a leader in his department. 
Collins, and Jackson, and Wilkie were all more violent 
against the Academy than I was ; but all deserted me 
to suit their interest. Perhaps they got wiser ; but at 
any rate I was firm, and suffered. 

" Collins said, ( If it were not for the Academy 
depend upon it artists would be treated like carpenters/ 
There was some truth in that, but I fear they treat 
artists like carpenters, and keep all the respect paid to 
themselves. Wilkie is a loss indeed to me. His mild- 
ness soothed anger, checked violence, and rendered sar- 
casm a cruelty. I feel as if a part of my head had 
fallen from my shoulders ; I miss something intellectual 
that I used to consult. Hail, and farewell ! 

" Poor fellow ! He was coming home with new 
views, and a new style for sacred subjects, for which he 
was not fit. He could no more have painted Christ 
than he could have raised Lazarus. 

" I offered Murray my own life, with all Wilkie's and 
Sir George's correspondence with me. Wilkie's life I 
could not write. 

" 16th. Another dear old friend gone Thomas 
Kearsey, for whom I painted the first Napoleon. He 
died characteristically. He came to town to attend a 
meeting of directors of the Regent Canal ; blew up the 
directors ; dined with them ; eat twice as much as he 
could digest, as usual ; was seized with a vomiting of 
blood ; died, and was buried in the corner of a field on 

N 2 

180 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1841. 

his own farm, detesting the being herded with his own 
species after death. 

" Poor Wilkie ! I miss the consciousness of his exist- 
ence. Our friendship began in a dispute, continued in 
long arguments, and ended in a sarcasm. Yet we were 
attached to each other. 

" \lth. Nothing can compensate me for the loss of 
Wilkie in the art, though latterly, owing to my views 
about the Academy, we were not together so much. 
We never met but we lingered, unwilling to separate. 

" Old associations crowded on us. While he lived, 
there was always something natural, sound, and solid in 
the art. Now there is nothing nobody. The loss to 
the Academy is irreparable. 

<f It comes over me fifty times a day. 

" I feel as if marriage, children, all had inter- 
rupted a series of feelings on art. I feel as if there was 
now no one to talk to, to consult : he was so pure, 
though so totally different in style. 

" Poor Wilkie ! Poor fellow ! I looked over my 
prints, and remembered his doing so hundreds of times. 
I remember his remarks on many figures in Kaffaele. 
He relished Raffaele as much as any man. I read some 
of his early letters, with his allusions to our pleasant 
fortnight at Sir George's, his remarks on various things ; 
all of which brought crowds of thoughts to my mind. 

"Poor Wilkie! Poor fellow! Could one have im- 
agined he would have been flung in the depths of the 
ocean! When I think of his long illness in 1810; his 
patience, his meekness, and submission, it is impossible 
not to forgive his frailties. 

" 18th. My only regret is that the thirty-nine Aca- 
demicians were not flung after him, as they ought to 
have been, on the ancient principle of sacrificing to the 
names of a distinguished man ! 

" Poor Wilkie ! I don 't feel my heart beat so much 

1841.] ON WILKIE. 181 

to-day ; I was frightened at its continuance yesterday, 
and last night. But now it's gone. Let me think of 
his virtues, and forget all his abject slavery to the world. 

" Peace to his spirit ! 

"May we meet hereafter, cleansed of our earthly 
frailties ; never to separate more ! 

" Wrote to Sir Robert Peel to relieve my thoughts. 

"Every word Wilkie said on composition should be 
treasured up. Young men may study his rustic groups 
with as much certainty as Raffaele's. 

" Poor fellow ! 1 wonder what the fish think of him, 
with their large glassy eyes, in the gurgling deep. 

" It is extraordinary the impression the man has made 
on my mind. His presence haunts me. I hear his 
voice fifty times a day. I kept a journal of our voyage 
into Devonshire, 1809, which I shall look out. 

" Yet taking him as a man, he was not worthy of such 

et I9th. Declined signing the Address to Mrs. 
Wilkie ; as coming through the President and Council, 
it would, on my part, be acknowledging an authority I 

" This was cunning. They thought my feelings 
would hurry me away to sign it without reflection or 
reading, and then they would have turned round and 
said, ' See I he acknowledges our authority.' 

" A well known model came to me, followed me, and 
said, e Have you signed the paper ? I advise you, sir, 
to make haste, as it will only lie this day.' 

" A whole month have I been squandering my time : 
I could have painted a hundred guinea picture. I could 
have earned five guineas a day. Wilkie's death and 
Mary's illness have fretted me, but those horrid fits of 
having no sense of duty sometimes lay hold of me. 

" To church to-morrow. To the launch of the Tra- 
falgar, Monday,- and then to work. 

N 3 

182 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1841. 

" Like Johnson in hypochondria, there I sit, sluggish, 
staring, idle, gaping, with not one idea. Several times 
do these journals record this condition of brain. 

" Wilkie was as fine an example as I ever witnessed 
of love of art. Wherever he was it never left him. 
When a boy, the parishioners complained of Master 
David sketching them in church ; as when I was at 
Honiton, the clerk complained to Haynes of my 
sketching him. When on intimate terms we used to 
excite each other. We used to go to church together 
for two years to hear Sydney Smith at London-street 
chapel. I used to call on him at 72 or 74 Great Port- 
land Street on the way. 

" The want now in the press is of editors independent 
of society. The Hunts on that point were noble cha- 
racters. I should like to know the amount of the bribe 
which could have made them say what they did not 
think, or omit to say what they knew ought to have 
been said. 

"There is not a journal now existing would have 
published my attack on the Academy, as first written, 
for fear of society. This was a paltry fear the Hunts 
disdained where truth was the object. And this is a 
tribute they deserve most heartily, though it would have 
been better for my worldly interest if I had never met 
them. Noble fellows ! 

" When Wilkie was alive there was always something 
existing stirring, sound, of high repute. 

e( There is now nothing sound or of high repute. He 
was as a guarantee in the Academy. There is now 
none, and every year they will get worse and worse. 
They must. 

" He kept them right as far as he could. He had all 
the novelty and originality of genius. With a man of 
real genius, you know not what he is going to come out 
with next. He does not know himself. But with a 

1841.] ON WILKIE. 183 

man of no genius nothing comes. There is not a man 
of real genius left in the Academy. 

"The perfection of Wilkie's early compositions can 
only be accounted for by his careful study of the 
Cartoons, or some such standard works. The principles 
of repetition of line, of quantity, of groups, of action and 
repose, of light and dark, show deep reflection. But 
Graham must have been an excellent master to have 
sent a pupil abroad so admirably grounded. 

"I never saw the picture he won the ten guineas 
prize with at Graham's. It was Macduff, I think. I 
wonder who has it. From his own description of it, it 
must have been quite original. He entered his name as 
student, November 1805, twenty-one. I was entered 
March 9th, 1805, nineteen. I saw the book yesterday. 
If twenty-one was correct he was in his fifty-eighth year. 
I have written to Cults to know. 

t( Wilfully he would not make such a mistake, and 
yet he told me he was a month older than I." 

Haydon now began his autobiography, in the intervals 
his working at the picture of Mary Queen of Scots 
showing her infant son to the English ambassador. 

" June 24ith. Wrote all the morning, and concluded 
the first chapter of my intended memoirs of myself, 
interleaving Wilkie's and Jackson's memoirs. Sent it 
to Murray as a specimen, and my messenger lost it in 
Port man Square. So much for the beginning, what 
will be the end, Heaven knows. 

" 25th. My object will not be to paint us en beau. 
Of the three, Jackson, Wilkie, and myself, Wilkie's 
conduct is the safest to hold up as an example to the 
modest student, mine the noblest to the aspiring, and 
Jackson's the most warning to the patronised. 

" I sent Murray the introductory chapter of my life, 
which the wife of my poor old Irishman Fitz, lost in 
Portman Square. Some fellow picked it up and carried 

N 4 

184 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAY DON. [1841. 

it to Murray. This was a romantic beginning. Suc- 
cess! Worked five hours and a half, pretty well. 
Dearest Mary sat. 

" 30^/i. The last day of June, and only to-day have 
I worked as I ought since the great picture went. It 
has required all my energy to get over a dulness and 
lassitude I can only account for from the reaction after 
a picture of that sort, which has caused eight or ten 
months' perpetual excitement. 

" Put in the Queen's two hands well ; worked nearly 
seven hours heartily, but it ought to be eight. 

" I have not recovered Wilkie's death. 

Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit 

Nulli flebilior quam tibi. B. R. HAYDON. 

" July 2nd. As I painted all day I thought how we 
used to anticipate each seeing the other's work at con- 
clusion ; how we used to dine, drink tea, and talk to- 
gether for hours. Called on Hamilton, who gave me a 
letter to Barry. 

"He said Eastlake had been examined, and that I 
had no chance of being employed to adorn either House. 

" That if I had gone twenty years ago to Italy, it 
would have made all the difference. 

"Where did Shakspeare go? Where Kaffaele, Phi- 
dias, Michel Angelo? What absurdity! 

" These journals sho^v I first proposed in the House 
schools of design. I petitioned the Committee to adorn 
the House. Lord Morpeth presented that petition. It 
was seconded by T. Duncombe, and sent up to the Com- 
mittee ; and now, at the instigation of the Academy, 
Eastlake, my pupil, is to be chosen, because being my 
pupil it may be more mortifying to my feelings. Good 
God! Such is irritated power. However, they know 
not the resting place of my mind. 

" I have nearly passed three twenties of my life. The 


life of man is but three score and ten, so fifteen years 
more may finish me. I have sacrificed myself always 
for the art and this is my reward. Thou, O Lord, 
knowest my heart, and that rather than the thing should 
not be done, I would grind the colours of others. 

" But I foresee it will be a job, like the National 

" They are now talking of giving every artist a 
chance. A pretty meUe of absurdity it will be, unless 
one mind has the entire lead. Nous verrons. I am 
prepared for every disgrace, and bow humbly to that 
Creator who seems to think I am not yet endowed with 
humility sufficient. 

" 8th. Worked and advanced. Called on Napier, 
and was amazingly pleased with him. He put my boy's 
name third on his list, and said, * You are bringing him 
up to a bad trade.' ' Never mind,' said I, 'if he be as 
distinguished as you are.' Heard last night from Lord 
Minto. Wrote to Lord John, Lord Palmerston, and 
William Cowper. Innes and Barrow are trying too. 
The deuce is in it if we do not get him off. Wrote to 
Sir C. Adam and Sir George Cockburn. Sir George's 
letter was straightforward. 

9th. It may be laid down that self-destruction is the 
physical mode of relieving a diseased brain, because the 
first impression on a brain diseased, or diseased for a 
time, is the necessity for this horrid crime. There is no 
doubt of it. 

" 10th. My eyes strained. Saw Barry on Thursday, 
with a letter from Hamilton. Am to see him to-day, 
and he promised me sections and plans of the Houses of 
Lords and Commons. We talked of it. He said 
whether anything were done or no, he would leave the 
Hall and House of Lords, so that they would be in a 
mess if painting was not introduced. 

" It seems he travelled with Eastlake. I said, * I hope 

186 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1841. 

you won't forget me, Mr. Barry.' ' It will be a great 
shame if they do, Mr. Haydon.' 'I hope you won't 
forget me, Mr. Barry.' He blushed I 

"27^. Called on Macdonald, Wilkie's old friend, 
and got three valuable letters of Wilkie's to him (1804 
and 1805), written just before he came to town. Went 
to church at the New Church* after twenty -seven years. 
I went there when first I came to town and prayed for 
all that has happened, and now went and thanked God. 
I felt as if I had opened the way for others, and might 
soon be done with : God knows. I was affected ; 
Wilkie's death has broken a link in iny life. 

" Called on my dear old pupil Eastlake. He was 
affected at seeing me ; he showed me a passage from a 
German author f, referring to my brochure twenty years 
ago on the Ilissus and Horse's head, which Goethe 
alluded to. 

" We talked of the Houses of Commons and Lords, 
and of their probable ornament. He spoke of his evi- 
dence, and I told him that if I was not consulted I 
should come out as on the Elgin Marble question. The 
evidence is printing. 

" 28th. Worked heartily, and nearly finished Agave 
for Sir John Hanmer. I hope I shall be able to keep 
from attacking or writing, though the Exhibition just 
closed, above the line, is a disgrace to the country. 

" My mind is in such a beautiful tone I I work so 
delightfully : colours ideas brushes, flow like a river. 
How grateful I am. 

" August 4tth. Worked hard ; went to the Gallery 
to see Correggio, Reynolds and Rubens. I studied 
well and saw my own defects when I came home. No 
boy of eighteen is more eager to attain excellence than 
I am, or more alive to and desirous of discovering my 

* St. Clement's, in the Strand. 
j~ Rumohr's Italienische Forschurtgen, vol. i. p. 29. 


own errors : I trust I shall always be so to the day of 
my death. I want to get that broad style of imitating 
nature I see in the great masters, not in Vandyke, but 
in Titian, Correggio, Angelo, Tintoretto, Rembrandt, 
and Reynolds. Founded as I am I know I could im- 
prove on it ; I '11 try. 

" 2nd. My boy's head looks little and very bad. 
How inferior to Correggio and Reynolds. God! I'll 
remedy this. 

" Saw a Giorgione; deep-toned gorgeous glitter- 
ing. What a lesson ! 

"I nauseate my own fresh-complexioned English look. 
Why ? Is not the blooming fraicheur of England 
as beautiful, in its way, as the embruno tint of Italy, or 
Spain, or Egypt? Sir Joshua looked by his side like 
milk and cream, but wushy and faint. 

" I had a delightful lesson, and I will try to profit by 
it. I flew at the arrangement of my picture and im- 
proved it wonderfully. 

" The glazing of Giorgione is rich and gemmy, not 
liquid and yet not dry. In the head of a man with a 
helmet, the flesh is wonderfully kept down, to give effect 
to the armour, and yet not overdone. The subject is 
the Woman taken in Adultery. 

" llth. Wrote on adorning the House of Lords. 

" English Art never stood higher than at the end of 
the war. Foreigners were astonished at our condition, 
and might well be. The reason was, blockading kept 
the rich from running over the Continent; our energies 
were compressed and devoted to ourselves, and we 
flourished accordingly. Wilkie was in his zenith ; so 
was Lawrence ; so was Flaxman ; so were our water- 
colour painters ; and so was I, for my Solomon was an 
English triumph and Landseer was beginning to bud. 

"We escaped the contagion of David's brickdust 
which infected the Continent, and the frescoes are but 

188 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1841. 

a branch of the same Upas root grafted upon Albert 
Durer's hardness, Cimabue's Gothicism, and the gilt 
ground inanity of the middle age. All the vast com- 
prehensiveness of Velasquez, Rubens, and Titian are to 
be set aside, and we are not to go on where they left off, 
but to begin where their predecessors began 300 years 

" The great cause of this probable change is the per- 
nicious popularity of an eminent and victorious painter, 
the exact sort of genius the Academy should have con- 

" It is too late now ; the evil is done ; but the young 
student should be eternally cautioned to beware. Yet 
what a state the schools are in ! The keeper is so 
amiable in private life that one dreads to find fault. A 
keeper so totally inadequate to his situation will throw 
the student back an age, now of all other times, when 
he ought to be advanced. 

" If Government placed me at the head of a school, I 
would soon produce a race capable of meeting the emer- 
gency ; but then comes the pride of the Academy, and 
the honour of England is not to be compared to that. 
Had I been perfectly supported, would this have been 
the condition of Art ? 

" Here are the Patrons, after having for fifty years 
suffered Barry to live in poverty and allowing me to go 
to prison four times ; who permitted me to be for years 
without an order ; who deserted me because I told them 
large works ought to be executed for the honour of the 
country ; who have pressed down genius by buying 
nothing but small works ; and who allowed my school, 
which they applauded me for founding, to be destroyed 
for fear of the Academy, now in a great emergency 
turn round and say, f We want great works, but you 

* I presume, from other passages, the allusion here is to M'Clise. 


can't draw; we must call in the Germans/ who for 
twenty years have been patronised by the King and 
kept at work, and you wish to bring them at once into 
a contest with us who have never painted fresco, and 
put us in competition with them out of our element, 
instead of employing us in our own ! 

f( Shame on you, to trample down and desert, and 
calumniate, and ridicule a nature that f loved not wisely, 
but too well ! ' Shame on you ! And now you will 
reap the reward of your folly. To whom do I owe my 
salvation ? To the people, who believed in my truth, 
sympathised with my sufferings, and gave my genius 
that fair play which you, with mortified pride, refused. 

"We shall all meet hereafter stripped and without 
disguise. May you be able in the presence of your 
God to say you have done your duty as I have done 

" What youth did I ever turn away that wanted in- 
struction ? When did self-love stand in the way of my 
duty to art ? 

" Who would like to paint in fresco ? ' says Eastlake. 
I do not know who would like. I know who would not. 

" The fashionable portrait-painter in silk stockings, 
and the president in cocked hat, how would they feel 
in mortar and lime ? How would they like to exchange 
a cocked hat for a paper bonnet, and to stand up like 

"I3th. Wrote Mr. Labouchere my report on the 
report, in which I pointed out the necessity for a wall 
being devoted to fresco in the school of design at 
Somerset House. 

" I8th. Got my first lesson in fresco from Latilla, a 
good-natured fellow. I saw him put in a head, and now 
I fear not. God bless my efforts. 

"19th. Prepared for my own attempt. Latilla's 

190 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1841. 

cracked from his being in too great a hurry to begin, 
and not giving the lime time to mature. 

(f 20th. I began fresco to-day and have succeeded, 
and taken off all apprehension as to the process. I'll 
take to it. God bless me in it. Amen. 

fl Latilla painted a head and mixed some cement, 
only one third sand and two thirds lime. I said, I 
have painted always in the old way in oil, and it 
never cracked. I let him do as he liked, and it began 
to crack before he was half through, and in the morning 
was blistered to atoms. 

" To-day I followed. 

"Where the other head had been no suction took 
place, and the intonaco remained soft, nor did it set till 
it was scraped off, and renewed with plaster. 

" 2lst. Eastlake called, and thought my fresco suc- 

" It was interesting. I knelt down yesterday morning 
and prayed God with all my heart to bless my beginning 
and progression in fresco with all the ardour with which 
I knelt down on my arrival in London in 1804. 

" 25th. Sir Robert Inglis called, and was much 
pleased with my fresco. Mr. Bankes called with Lady 
Spencer, his- niece, and they were much pleased too. 
This is an advance. This is the genuine fresco on the 
wet mortar. 

" What I suffered at first, lest some artist might get 
the start of me I My excitement has completely 
knocked me up, taken away my voice. 

" 26th, Mr. Ha wes called, and was much pleased. 
He said, f If they ask about fresco there it is.' I 
wrote him to-night, and offered to give up my whole 
time to fresco for ten years for a certain income. That 
I would. 

f( 27th. The fresco is nearly dry; has got whiter, 
brighter, and more unearthly. Sir John Hanmer called, 


and spent an hour, and I showed him the whole system 
of study from dissection onwards. He made many in- 
quiries. He was amazingly pleased with the fresco, 
and begged me to go on. I showed him the system, 
and painted an eye on the wet mortar before him. 

D called with the air of a master of the practice, saw 

and felt nothing of the poetry, but pointed out the 
colour of the lips, and said it would not stand, and that 
I had too much impasto, and that the colours ought to 
be like stained drawing, hatched, glazed, and thin. He 
said it was like Michel Angelo's style of fresco, and not 
like Raffaele's, and that he was a bungler with his tools. 
I replied that to be like him was at least something in a 
first attempt. 

" This is the comfort of professional judgment. 

" The upper part of the face is improved enormously. 

" 3rd. Nothing could be better hit than the fresco. 
I took all the Committee before the division, so that 
every member was in town, and up they came, and were 
convinced it could be done. And now they are off into 
the country, where they will spread it. 

" I have been compelled to sell the copyright of the 
Duke to fit out my boys, one for the navy, and the 
other for Cambridge. To be sure it is hard. I took 
several months about the picture when a portrait-painter 
would have taken one. I went to Waterloo to be 
correct, which the portrait-man never would have 
undertaken. It has been one year and a half engraving, 
and I can only get 200/. for the result. 

" I was .engaged to paint the picture for 600 guineas, 
and they only could raise 400. 

" And the publisher will make thousands. But then 
is it nothing to be able to do it ? Are the repute, the 
delight, the sonnet of Wordsworth, nothing ? They are 
an equivalent ; but still I have thrown away a trump 
that might have been a property for life. 


et 4th. Received the first 100/., and made up my 
mind to the loss philosophically. At the beginning of 
this week I had hardly a shilling. I end it having 
received 17 II. Such is the result of ' seeing One who is 
invisible.' I close the week in gratitude. 

" London, Sept. 20th, 1841. 
" Sir, 

" A great era in Art is coming which I always foresaw. 
Pray, pray, Sir Robert Peel, put yourself at the head of it. 
That which I begged Lord Liverpool, Canning, Lord Ripon, 
Lord Grey, Lord Melbourne to begin is beginning. Let the 
glory be yours. Will you let it escape ? Fear not the 
people. They will back you in everything. When the 
cartoons were moved up, twenty-five years ago, what was 
the universal insinuation ? This. ( The people care nothing 
for the cartoons ; ' and yet the people crowded to such excess 
to see the cartoons and the copies of my pupils, that the doors 
of the gallery were obliged to be closed for fear of injury. 

" Only do justice to the English people or the House. 
Their taste is in advance of our production. I know it. 
Was I not told if I exhibited the naked figure I should be 
hooted. I did, and was overwhelmed with shouts of applause. 

" I again brought in two wrestlers, stripped above and 
below, and put them to wrestle. Nothing could exceed the 
enthusiasm in London, in Liverpool, in Edinburgh. 

"Do not have any doubt, Sir Robert Peel. Seize this 
great moment and carry it through. For my part, all my 
agitation and complaints are over. A great opportunity is 
come, and complaints must cease. I give all mine to the 
winds for ever." 

" Oct. 30th. Called on Eastlake, and spent a delight- 
ful half hour : he showed me a report by a pupil of Ma- 
ratti on the state of the frescoes before he cleaned them. 
All the lower part of the school of Athens was invisible 
from scratches and dust. Eastlake saw Cornelius, who 
told him that lime of less than three years' slaking would 


fail, and that the lime for his Last Judgment was twelve 
years old. 

" He told Eastlake that you should put lime in a bag 
and dip it in water, and if the lime dried instantly to 
dust, that was the lime fit for fresco. 

({ 3lst. Called on Hamilton, who said it is not true 
that the Germans revived fresco. That it was never 
extinct, but always practised in Italy, more or less. He 
said there was no intention of employing the Germans. 

" Cornelius said to Eastlake, ' Titian and Rubens must 
be put aside ! ' Eastlake showed me the receipt of 
Michel Aiigelo for 500 gold crowns or ducats, paid to 
him for beginning the Sistine ceiling that day (oggi) in 
the June (I believe) of 1508. 

" Thus ends October. I finished the Quaker picture 
in April ; June and July I finished Infant and Mary 
Queen of Scots ; August was passed in fresco ; Sep- 
tember in putting my boy to sea, and my eldest son to 
Caius College ; and this month in writing Wilkie's life, 
and lecturing at Sheffield. 

" November 1st. Worked four hours ; much inter- 
rupted, but got on. The calls to-day were incessant. 
The letters endless. It is extraordinary what people, of 
all descriptions, come to me for advice and information 
in Art. I care for nothing if Art is talked of; but when 
asses call, and waste my time, I get despotic. 

" 6th. Dear Jeremiah Harman advanced me 1,OOOZ. 
to carry me through Jerusalem and Lazarus. * I was 
ruined and he lost his money. He was angry with me, 
and it was just ; but the moment he heard I was ruined, 
he sent over to Kearsey and Spurr, my solicitors, and 
released me from the debt. This is now twenty years 
ago. Eastlake told me he had a fresco. I wrote to him 
to see it, and concluded by saying, * Are we to descend 
into the grave, my dear Mr. Harman, without explana- 

* See vol. i. p. 373, where, however, only 300Z. is mentioned. 

194 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1841. 

tion, when I can give it ? ' He wrote to me immediately 
to come. I went ; and on entering his library he held 
out his hand, and said, ' Haydon, I am glad to see you.' 
I was very much affected ; he would not allow anything 
to be said, but remarked, ( It is twenty years ago. I 
believe you meant honourably, but you were ruined.' I 
replied, ' My dear Mr. Harman, I did, and now you say 
that, I can leave my name to my children with the only 
questionable thing of my whole life cleared up.' 

" He showed me his exquisite collection. I never saw 
such gems. The Correggio, and Perino del Vaga, were 
of the most essential service ; and after lunching, I took 
my leave of this dear and venerable man, so relieved 
of the burthen on my mind as cannot be expressed. 

" 25th. I mixed to-day lime and marble-dust, and 
lime and sand equal parts. The marble-dust and lime 
became beautifully smooth. I then mixed cement and 
marble-dust, and cement alone, and placed all experi- 
ments on the wall against my next attempt, to see which 
cracks and which does not. 

" 21th. November is nearly gone. I have done a 
good deal. Nearly finished Poictiers, and sketched, and 
invented, and lectured. To-morrow I go to Liverpool, 
and on the 6th to Birmingham. 

" December 3rd. Went to Liverpool, and was much 
delighted with my reception. Gave the lecture on 

" 4th. Selected drawings and papers for Birming- 
ham. Charles Eastlake elected Secretary to the Com- 
mission. No one living so fit. 

" 10th. Eastlake's kindness, as can be seen, is great. 
He frankly writes me his continuous knowledge about 
fresco, as he gains it, as I communicated with him in 
early life about art. Now Wilkie is gone, his mind is 
the only one I think of. 

. Walked to see Watt's monument at Wands- 

1841.] RETROSPECT OP 1841. 195 

worth church. Bolton's was close to it. It is Chantrey's 
chef-d'ceuvre. As I came home, the booming rattle of 
the train seemed like the spirit of Watt still animating 
inert matter. 

" The statue is very fine, and contains the essence of 
Chantrey's peculiar power. 

" 31st. Last day of 1841. I have had great pros- 
perity and constant employment. The health of my 
dear love is much improved. I have planted one boy in 
the service, who promises well, and has obtained the 
approbation of his officers and captain. I have placed 
the other at Cambridge; he has got through his first 
term. I have paid for all with my own earnings. For 
all which blessings I thank God. For the watching over 
the well being of human creatures who depend on you, 
and have been brought into the world by you, is after 
all the most important duty of man. Every boy I have 
educated (and I have brought out four and educated 
seven) was brought up in the fear of God, the love of 
truth, and the adoration of a stern morality. For all 
these blessings I thank God with all my heart, and I 
pray Him humbly that by this time twelvemonths I 
may be able to thank Him for a continuance of such 
mercies. Amen. 

" As to the state of Art, it is dangerous. A great 
moment is come ; and I do not believe any one so capable 
of wielding it as myself, when, from circumstances, and 
the prejudices of all men, I have the least chance of any. 
Because : 

" 1st. I have loved my Art always better than myself. 

" 2nd. I dissected and drew two years before I 

"3rd. My pictures of Solomon, Jerusalem, and Laza- 
rus are indisputable evidences of genius. 

"4th. I educated Eastlake, the Landseers, Harvey, 
Bewicke, Chatfield, Lance, and founded a school, the 

o 2 

196 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1841. 

shattered fragments of which have reformed Art in Eng- 
land. Therefore I have no claim. 

" 5th. I stood forth and defended the Elgin Marbles 
and demolished Knight. 

<f 6th. I have been imprisoned four times for perse- 
vering to improve the people. 

" 7th. I first proposed to adorn the House of Lords. 

" 8th. I have had a plan before every Ministry for 
twenty-five years. 

" 9th. I first petitioned the House by Lord Brougham, 
1823; by Lord Durham, 1824; by Lord Colborne, 
1826 ; by Lord Dover, 1827 ; by Lord Morpeth, 1833 
or '34, in favour of High Art, and the Building Com- 
mittee in specific favour of this very object the deco- 
ration of the House of Lords. 

" 1 Oth. I have lost all my property ; have been re- 
fused the honours of my country ; have had my talents 
denied, my character defamed, my property dissipated, 
my health injured, my mind distracted, for my invincible 
devotion to the great object now about to be carried. 
And therefore I cannot be, ought not to be, and have 
not any right to hope to be rewarded by having a share 
in its emolument, its honour, or its glory. 

" But still I trust my merciful Creator will not let 
me leave this world without an opportunity to put forth, 
to the full extent of their capability, the talents with 
which He has blessed me, to promote by Art the cause 
of virtue, morality, patriotism, or religion. In Him I 
trust, as I have always done, and am sure these jour- 
nals, which have so often recorded His mercies, will not 
cease continuance till I have recorded in them the real- 
isation, under His merciful blessing, of the great object 
of my being. 

" I feel I shall realise this instinct in gratitude and 
shouts ! 

" Oh Lord, let not this be the presumption of imbe- 

1842.] HIS HOPES AND FEARS IN 1842. 197 

cility, but the just confidence of anticipating inspi- 

" Amen with all ray soul. 

" This year 1841 will be remembered in English 
Art as the year of Wilkie's death. Poor Wilkie ! His 
loss is irreparable. 

"I close 1841 in gratitude for the mercies bestowed 
during its progress, in hopes for their continuance in 
1842, and in earnest prayer for that national employ- 
ment which I am now again utterly without ; so that I 
may be spared from a recurrence to those dreadful dis- 
tresses which have before so often distracted my mind, 
harassed my spirit, and rendered life a struggle of sorrow, 
degradation, and pain. 

" Oh Lord, I earnestly call on Thee to avert so shock- 
ing an anticipation. For Jesus Christ's sake. Amen. 


The Fine Arts Commission was sitting through this 
year, and towards the end of April issued a notice of the 
conditions for the cartoon-competition, intended to test 
the capacity of English artists for the style of Art suited 
to the decoration of the New Houses of Parliament. 
The delight with which Haydon welcomed this first step 
towards achievement of the great effort of his life, was 
damped by painful forebodings that he was not destined 
to share the fruits of the victory, after having so bravely 
borne the brunt of the battle. This fear, which had 
been working on him all the last year, seems to grow 
stronger and stronger through this. Still he continued 
to pursue his researches and experiments in fresco paint- 
ing, seeking information in all quarters, from students 
of the old frescoes in Italy, and workers in modern ones 
at Munich, and protesting all the while, with his usual 
vehemence, against any infection of English Art with 
Germanism. He also carried on this year a correspond- 

o 3 

198 MEMOIKS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1842. 

ence, of considerable interest, with Rumohr, the author 
of the Italienische Forschungen, one of the soundest con- 
temporary German critics of Italian Art, from whose 
letters I have extracted freely, as they seem to me to 
convey in their quaint English theories and opinions 
upon Art in every way deserving of attention. 

During the year he finished his pictures of Mary of 
Guise, and of the Battle of Poictiers, both of which he 
sent to the Academy Exhibition, besides painting a 
picture of the Maid of Saragossa, another of Curtius 
leaping into the Gulf, and another of a subject conceived 
many years before, Alexander the Great encountering 
and killing a Lion. He had also, before the year ended, 
finished a cartoon of the Curse pronounced against Adam 
and Eve for the Westminster Hall competition, and had 
begun another of The Black Prince entering London in 
triumph with the French King prisoner. I think that 
even those who, up to this point, have felt little admir- 
ation for either the man or the painter Haydon, will 
hardly refuse him some sympathy at this moment of his 
life, when the goal was appearing, just as his failing 
strength, which he too felt to be failing, in spite of 
his vehement assertion of unimpaired powers, whis- 
pered to him that the race was not to be for his winning; 
that he would have to stand by, while younger and 
fresher runners passed him to take the crown. Already, 
the anticipation of this fate was working in his mind, 
let him strive as he might to keep it down ; and his 
assurance that he bears a heart made up for either 
fortune will impose as little on those who read his jour- 
nals, as I believe it did on himself. 

" January 2nd. Went to Hanover Square. Heard 
Dean of Carlisle, who is always earnest. 

" Evans called, who made distemper copies of the 
Loggie for Nash, and he told me many useful things of 


" 1st. Raffaele's heads are impastoed like oil. 

" 2nd. Tints are mixed. 

" 3rd. It is not perpetual glazing. 

" 4th. Raffaele's lights in foreheads are loaded. 

" 5th. Fresco never extinct in Italy. Always prac- 

"6th. Students given a lunette in the Vatican to 
paint after they have got a medal. 

" 7th. Benvenuti mixed pots of tints, as I do in oil 
on my palette. 

" 4th. Went to the Adelphi, and looked at Barry's 
pictures. Miss Corkings, the housekeeper, was a girl 
of twelve years old when Barry painted the work. She 
told me many anecdotes. She said his violence was 
dreadful, his oaths horrid, and his temper like insanity. 
She said he carried virtue to a vice. His hatred of ob- 
ligation was such he would accept nothing. Wherever 
he dined he left Is. 2d. in the plate, and gentlemen in- 
dulged him. The servants were afraid to go near him ; 
in summer he came to work at five, and worked till 
dark, when a lamp was lighted, and he went on etching 
till eleven at night. 

ee She said, when coaxed to talk, his conversation was 
sublime. She thought the want of early discipline was 
the cause of his defects. He began his work in 1780, 
and was seven years before he concluded it. She re- 
membered Burke and Johnson calling once, but no 
artist. She really believed he would have shot any one 
who had dared. He had tea boiled in a quart pot, and 
a penny roll for breakfast, dined in Porridge island, and 
had milk for supper, which was prepared in the house. 

" There is a grasp of mind there nowhere else to be 
found, as Johnson said, but no colour, no surface, beauty, 
or correct drawing, Still, as the only work of the kind, 
it is an honour to the country. 

"6th. The obstructions in fresco do not deserve the 
o 4 

200 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1842. 

name of difficulties. They are useless and petty annoy- 
ances. It is a nuisance to have a colour dry one thing 
when you mean it for another. It is a nuisance to have 
a seam in the flesh, and to have no depth in the shadow. 
It is a bore to copy your own cartoon when the fire of 
invention is over, and can never be recalled. If the 
difficulties be conquered, it is by luck, not by Art, or 
science, or skill. 

"But I do not see they entitle fresco to any supe- 
riority over oil. 

" The execution of the great Venetian works in the 
Louvre was quite equal in power to any fresco, and 
they were a million times superior in tone. 

" Called on D , who is very amiable, and had an 

interesting conversation. 

" He said the early frescoes were stained drawings, 
having the ground for the lights. (Not true. B. R. H.) 

" After Giorgione the impasto of oil was copied in 
fresco, and that began the modern system of Raffaele. 
Massaccio and Pinturichio stained. 

" I then saw Barry. He laid before me plans and 
sections, and the spaces where pictures could be intro- 
duced. He said nothing was fixed on, but as soon as 
the Committee met, the first question would be fresco 
or no fresco, and that then he would house lime in two 
or three vaults. He asked which lime I liked best. I 
said, chalk. He agreed with me. 

" 7th. Lectured on the Elgin Marbles at Mechanics. 
Wrote my Memoirs hard. What a lesson they will 
be to young men ! 

ff Barry procured me sections and tracings. I fear 
the spaces will not be large enough for fresco, the great 
beauty of which is light and space. Oil and fresco 
should not be mixed. 

<f Fresco will make oil look heavy, and oil will make 
fresco look mealy. 


" 9th. I called on poor little Macdonald, Wilkie's 
early patron and friend, for he first gave him a com- 
mission, in Edinburgh, for the first Village Politicians. 
I found him ill and in poverty, with an early picture of 
Wilkie's to sell.* 

" There certainly seems at this moment a general 
conspiracy against British art, at the very time it re- 
quires all encouragement. I suppose foreigners are at 
the bottom of it, who want a piece of the cake now 

" When Englishmen go abroad, they not only lose 
their heart and feeling for England, but they lose their 
common perception. 

" Hezekiah was dying. He prayed, with tears, to 
live, and fifteen years were added to his life. There- 
fore prayer is available, and can alter the apparent 
destiny of a man. 

f( 12th. Wrote hard at my lecture on Fresco for 
the Royal Institution. 

" 13th. No young man who is not independent 
should treat his superiors in rank, wealth, and station as 
if they were his equals. 

"Men are all equal in the eye of the law and of 
God, but by the gift of God men are most unequal. 
Honesty, diligence, talent will accumulate wealth. A 
man's children enjoy it. Men of honourable station 
have a right to deference, and even if ignorant, are en- 
titled further to respectful expostulation, and not sar- 
castic exposure. Such deference to superiors in age 
and station is not servility, but good sense, and proceeds 
from a just modesty in your own pretensions. I might 

* This early picture of Wilkie's is now in the possession of Dr. 
Darling. Though clumsy in drawing, it is admirable in composi- 
tion and colour finer, perhaps, indeed, in this last quality than 
any of his later works. ED. 

202 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON. [1842. 

have saved myself much pain had this been inculcated 
on me. 

" I passed an hour and a half with . 

" It is extraordinary the eternal disposition of the 
Academicians to see nothing in my character but what 
is wrong. It amounts to a morbid insanity, and is 
caused by the conscious conviction that all my calamities 
in life have arisen from their injustice. I press upon 
their imagination and disturb their tranquillity. My 
name is never even spoken in their presence but a sneer 

" People are never charitable enough to think of my 
neglect of my own interests. They dwell only on the 
result ; viz. my incapacity to attend to the interests of 
others. Is there anything worse than not to pay a 
tradesman? Yes, (I did not reply), to take half 
price from a Duke, and never begin his picture. This 
is the tone of society adopted towards me; and it is 
never told how many tradesmen I have paid off since 
my troubles, of the dividends I have shared on the 
receipt of any large sum. It is shocking ! 

" Whilst the Academy exists as the Royal Institu- 
tion, whilst the President is by right a Trustee of the 
Museum and National Gallery, their influence will 
ever be in opposition to any plan which will endanger 
their supremacy ; and no plan, however beneficial, will 
or can ever be adopted which, by giving a chance to 
the genius of the people, will piace their portrait iniquity 
on the right ground. This scheme of Fresco will end 
in air, through their insinuations. 

" ( How many wish to paint in fresco ? ' said . It 

is not what the artists wish. It is what the state wants. 
That is the question. In the press, now, I have hardly 
a friend, except the Chronicle and the Spectator. I have 
only to show a work to set the whole press in an uproar 
of abuse. I attribute this entirely to the students of 


the last twenty-five years having grown up with literary 
men of their own age ; and the general tone the students 
imbibed at the Academy, as a pupil told me, was to con- 
sider me a monster. Their literary friends have issued 
out to their duties as reporters or critics, as editors 
or purveyors, and the moment Haydon comes before 
them, he is denounced before the pen is dipped in ink. 
The last picture I exhibited was the Samson. All the 
sound principles of its composition, its colour, its story, 
its drawing, its light and shadow were utterly unnoticed, 
and the picture was held up as an abortion not to be 

" Had the student gone to it with modesty, and tried 
to find out what is good, his mind, his practice, and his 
hand would have been improved. The object was clear. 
I was beginning to get commissions in the country, and 
the Christians hoped to put a stop to them. They 
boasted, in fact, they would do so. All the principles I 
have advocated for thirty-eight years are now beginning 
to bud. They know I have been the most prominent 
man, and they cannot bear to dwell on the fact that, 
when the plant bursts into flower, the credit of watering 
the germ through frost and snow, and wind and rain, 
belongs to Haydon. 

" Many years ago, on my knees, in an agony of pain, 
I prayed I might live to see the great principles of Art 
acknowledged, I cared not for tasting the fruits; 
and that I might not leave the world with the talents 
with which God had blessed me, cruelly ruined or 
wasted. Perhaps I shall be taken at my word. 

" ' Thy will, not mine, be done.' 

" 1 5th. Half the month gone wholly occupied in 
lecturing and writing a new lecture on Fresco, for the 
Royal Institution. 

" 16th. After my mind exhausts itself in one direc- 
tion, it flies off in another. I seized chalk all of a sudden 

204 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1842. 

as I was writing, and placed the leg and thigh of the 
angel Gabriel rightly, and immediately my mind teemed 
with thoughts of new subjects. Went to the National 
Gallery, and came back disgusted with the horny, oily, 
heavy, dull look of the finest works after fresco. 

" 17 th. My soul begins to yearn for something else. 
My attempt in fresco has opened my eyes so completely 
to a power I knew nothing of, that all Art here palls on 
my senses. Great and good arid merciful Creator, spare 
me till I have realised what I now foresee I can do. 

" 20th. There is no desire in the English for High 
Art. Fresco being immovable, is no property ; arid the 
commercial feeling connected with the aristocratical ren- 
ders them insensible to any feeling for characters higher 
than themselves. I am very discontented all of a sud- 
den, and cannot tell why. It is the agony of ungratified 
ambition ; that is the reason. I could execute now a 
series of fresco foreshortenings with terrific power. Why 
don't you ? No money. 

" 21 st. Set my palette. Then came on darkness 
visible, which lasted all day. Eastlake shall be my safety- 
valve. I told him he and Sir Robert would be baffled 
by the portrait influence, and that fresco would be 
turned to the right-about, and that the people, at last, 
disgusted with being the ridicule of the Continent for 
want of talent, would spontaneously get rid of the 

" As the time approached, the cowards shrink from 
fresco. I'll give it to them if they do. I shall make 
it a strong point against them ; but for the present, as 
Eastlake says, mum. My large canvas is home, and up 
to-morrow. There is nothing like a large canvas. Let 
me be penniless, helpless, hungry, thirsty, croaking or 
fierce, the blank, even space of a large canvas restores 
me to happiness, to anticipations of glory, difficulty, 
danger, ruin or victory. My heart expands, and I stride 
my room like a Hercules. 


" Three commissions are deferred, and I am again 
left penniless for the present ; but I despair not. He 
who carried me through so many trials will carry me 
gloriously through this. I know it, I feel it, and rejoice 
at the trial. I glory in being tried. Amen. 

" 23rd. Wrote my life all day. Did not go to 
church. Eastlake called. Hall of the Athenaeum called. 
Eastlake was kind and affectionate, and begged me to be 
quiet. He said all my friends were in alarm, as it was 
a great moment in my life. I told him he need not fear. 

" 2th. Oh Almighty God ! It is now thirty years 
since I commenced my picture of Solomon ; though 
deserted by the world, my family, father, friends, Thou 
knowest well that I trusted in Thee ; that Thou didst 
inspire my spirit with a fiery confidence; that Thou 
didst whisper me to endure as seeing One who is invi- 
sible : Thou knowest I never doubted, though without 
money, though in debt, though oppressed. 

" I prayed for thy blessing on my commencing la- 
bours. Thou carriedst me through to victory, and 
triumph, and exultation. 

" I am at this moment going to begin a grand work 
of Alexander and the Lion ; bless its commencement, 
progression, and conclusion as thou blessedst Solomon. 
Grant, in spite of whatever obstruction, I may bring it 
to a grand and triumphant conclusion. Spare my intel- 
lect, my eyes, my health, my head, my strength. Con- 
firm my piety, and grant, O Lord, that this work may 
advance the feeling of my great country for high and 
moral Art, and that I may not be taken till Art be 
on a firm foundation, never to recede, and that I may 
realise all my imagination hoped in my early youth, for 
Jesus Christ's sake. Amen. 

26th. -The mysterious influence under which I al- 
ways begin a great work, is hardly to be credited, in 
my circumstances of necessity. Here was I with hardly 

206 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1842. 

money for the week, with commissions deferred, 
with a boy at Cambridge in want of money I could not 

send him, and a boy on board the still owed 31. 

of his quarter (107.) seized at daybreak with an irre- 
sistible impulse, a whisper audible, loud, startling, 
to begin a great work. The canvas was lying at the 
colourman's to be kept till paid for. I could not pay. 
I wrote him and offered a bill at six months. He con- 
sented; the canvas comes home, and after prayer ar- 
dent and sincere I fly at it, and get the whole in, 
capitally arranged, in two days, about twelve hours' 
work, owing to the season of the year. Good and 
merciful God, am I not reserved for great things? 
Surely I am. Surely at fifty- six to be more active than 
at twenty-six is extraordinary. Continue Thy bless- 
ings, and grant I may finish both Alexander and the 

"27th. I rub in Curtius to-day. Oh God, bless 
me at beginning, progression, and conclusion. 

" February 1st. Sluggish, always, after ^lectur- 
ing. I really am tired of lecturing. Nothing but the 
wants of my boys induce me. When I am in that in- 
fernal humour, I feel disposed to stand still, think of 
nothing, do nothing, see nothing, speak nothing, hear 
nothing, and listen to nothing for hours. It is a sort of 
catalepsy of brain. 

" Lord Melbourne was dining where Eastlake was 
present, when, after dinner, as Lord Melbourne was 
roosting, they began to discuss fresco. They thought 
he was asleep, when suddenly he said, * Which is the 
lightest?' 'Fresco, my Lord.' 'Then, damme, I'm for 
fresco,' said Lord Melbourne. 

" 10th. Worked hard, and painted hands right 
heartily from nature, better than I ever did. When 
Wilkie and I were young, after such a clay of hands we 


should have had long discussions ; holding the candle 
close, looking in, talking of touches, surface, tones, 
how to touch in, and take a body at the right time, 
and then drink tea with all our souls. These were the 
days of real delight. Poor Wilkie ! 

" llth. My hands look capitally to-day. I declare 
my feelings about Art are as fresh as at sixteen. 

sf 20th. Lectured on Invention, at London Institu- 
tion. Painted in the morning with facility a boy's head, 
and, I think, finished the Poictiers. 

" 24th. Awoke at four, with two sublime concep- 
tions. One of Nebuchadnezzar walking on the terrace, 
and saying, ' Is not this Great Babylon ? ' and the other 
of his spirit visiting the Euphrates now, e Was not this 
Great Babylon?' 

" 2Sth. Last day of the month ; not properly oc- 
cupied, so as to make my conscience easy. Lecturing, 
travelling, want of money, losing commissions from 
manufacturing distress, have all in turns harassed and 
distressed me, and kept me running the gauntlet for 
money. I have worked, but how ? By snatches as 
before. The reign of the Tories has always been a 
curse to me. I never get employed when they are 
uppermost. What I have done shows improvement 
and power of hand and mind, which will come out yet 
greater than ever. 

" March 6th. I got up yesterday, after lying awake 
for several hours with all the old feelings of torture at 
want of money. My boy Frederick was unhappy on 

board the . A bill coming due of 447. 13$. for my 

boy Frank, at Caius (half of a tutor's bill). Three 
commissions for 7001. put off till next year. My Poictiers 
half glazed. My dear Mary's health broken up. Good 
God ! I thought, what are my hopes ? A voice within 
said, God. I turned round in perfect confidence and 

208 MEMOIKS OF B. K. HAYDOtf. [1842. 

fell asleep. I awoke and dressed at my usual time. 
Rushed out, longing to paint. Went to a man who 
held a bill for 7/. 10s. 1 could not pay, and got a week. 
To another for 10/., and got another. Called at the 
Admiralty, and stated my uneasiness at my son's being 
on board a ship in such a state, without schoolmaster, 
chaplain, and the captain a veteran lubber. Young 
Barrow immediately took particulars. Ascertained 
there were two vacancies in the Impregnable. Mr. Innes 
came in, and both joined, and sent up a letter to Sir 
W. Gage, who before five appointed him to the Impreg- 
nable, and ordered him to go out in the Formidable. So 
that anxiety was over. I rushed home, and nearly glazed 
Poictiers. Yesterday, Sunday, I went to church, (I 
seem, when I do not, to lose the countenance of my 
Creator), and prayed with all my heart and my all soul 
for relief. I knew if my debt to the Tutor of Caius was 
not paid, the mind of my son Frank would be destroyed, 
from his sensitiveness to honour and right. As he was 
now beating third year men, I dreaded any check, and 
I got up in a state of perfect reliance I should not be 

" 7th. To-day I went early to John Beaumont the 
Quaker, and laid before him my situation. I offered the 
drawings of the Anti- Slavery meeting for 501, though 
100Z. is less than their value. He gave faint hopes. I 
called on my publisher of the Duke, and requested an 
advance, as I had 2007. coming in as soon as the print 
was out, which his delay retarded. He looked as pub- 
lishers do when you want money. I came home without 
despair, hearing and believing the voice * Trust in God.' 

At home I found 501. from . I had written a rich 

banker, a manufacturer, and a Duke ; who assisted 
me ? The Duke of course. I'd lay my head on the block 
if I was sure a race of fearless designers would spring 
up from my blood, as the giants from the iron teeth of 


Cadmus ; though, like them, I fear my progeny would 
cut each other's throats directly. 

" 22nd. Out on business, and my dear old landlord 
Newton took the Poictiers, and struck off 5251. of debt, 
reducing my balance, so now I hope to get clear, and 
give him equivalents, so that in case of death he might 
not be a loser. What landlords I have had ! Why ? 
Because they knew my objects were public and honour- 
able. But for my landlord Solomon would not have 
been done, But for my landlord I could not have been 
preserved through all my latter troubles. God has 
indeed blessed me. 

" Painted two hours ; finished musket and bayonet. 
The musket fell down. I did not see it, and struck my 
foot against it, and ran the bayonet half an inch into 
my left foot. It bled copiously. As I wanted blood, I 
painted away on the ground of my Saragossa, whilst the 
surgeon was coming. Never lose an opportunity. Lord 
Lansdowne called soon after to see my pictures." 

The following is from Rumohr's first letter of March 

" ' You offer to send me your excellent treatise on the 
two horses, which, if I remember exactly, embraced like- 
wise an analysis of the superior beauties of the statue 
believed to be the River God, Ilissus.* Nothing would or 
could be more agreeable to my wishes but (than) to read 
again a book, of whicli I had lost the notes I took in read- 
ing it many years ago at Florence. I was in quest of it 
everywhere, but wanting the exact copy of the title, nobody, 
neither the booksellers, neither the bibliothecaries (librarians), 
felt inclined to give themselves the trouble of finding it out. 
Yes, my dear sir, as you will give me leave to address you, 
it was in your work I first and perhaps lastly found out 
a striking likeness of my own way to look at objects of the 

* See a note referring to the Tracts of Hay don, p. '29. vol. i. of 
Rumohr's Italienische Forschungen. 

210 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON. [1842. 

fine arts, which are (with the only exception of architec- 
tonical decoration, whose principle is the style of geometrical 
harmony) nothing else but the expression of some inspired 
mind by way of the means and types of natural forms and 
combinations. The artist who knows nature the best will 
show the greatest ability in representing every object which 
strikes his mind or rises out of its depth or abundance. If 
the more ancient painters of the fourteenth century please, it is 
not for their ignorance of osteology and anatomy, nor for their 
want of a profound observation of the limbs usually covered 
in modern times. They please only because their ideas were 
extremely simple ; such as might be made perceptible to 
others by the most simple kind of drawing, which, notwith- 
standing, rose out of a great attention to natural attitudes, 
and to the character and expression of human features. 
But a mind equally rich and deep like (as) Raffaele's would 
have been at a loss being confined to that simplest kind 
of study and observation of human nature peculiar to the 
early painters. 

" 'I admit likewise all inspiration rising out of the beauty 
and interest of wholly natural apparitions (objects), and 
I doubt if Art in our times be capable to be inspired by any 
other way. Even the love of our own country and its olden 
times, as far as I see, is unable to move the soul of a modern 
artist. Church picture (religious painting), is equally bad 
in the southern and Catholic countries as it would be and 
is in Protestant, where it is occasionally admitted. -But in 
imitating natural visions (objects) modern Art, especially 
in drawing, often is excellent and surpasses many of the best 
paintings of better epochas. Modern portrait-painting I 
cannot ascribe to the enthusiastic imitations of nature.' " 

From Rumohr's second letter of March 24th: 
" ' If there be no misunderstanding on my side there is a 
great deal of real analogy between your principles and 
mine. In the two treatises, On the Horseheads and Ilissus, 
if you hold nature in form was no objection to ideal con- 
ception, and tasteful arrangement or high style, then must 
I conclude you seem to be in my way of thinking, and that 


Art is the expression of human mind through the means 
which nature offers to genius, breathing (inspiring) an 
infinity of types whose signification is clear and open to 
most men, and even to many animals, partly at least, as 
the temper and state of mind of their masters to dogs. I 
speak not here of decorative art, which is a mer-e subsidiary 
to architecture, and submits to its laws of tasteful linear 
disposition, but of representing (representative) art. So I 
think that the conceptions may be free, or if dependent 
at all, dependent only on the general impulse given to 
human mind by the spirit of nations and epochs : but that 
the forms, which in representing them are made use of by 
the artist, are positive, and predestined by law of nature, 
and any form beyond nature hideous, and without the least 
intelligible sense or expression. Beauty is not the source 
but the inevitable consequence of true Art ; hence the fine 
arts have a nobler object than that principle of all mannered 
and insufferable modern schools, to refine and polish the 
shape and forms of natural things. Natural forms well 
disposed geometrically, and well adapted to the conceptions 
of a noble and elevated mind, may appear to be somewhat 
superior to nature, but they are not so by themselves. If 
I was in possession of the whole treasure of your lively 
language, I should propose here many things in order to 
have them answered. 

" * Since your last I understand your letter as far as your 
humorous disposition against portrait-painting. I like the 
portraits of the great historical painters, and I believe a 
portrait or two a year to be an excellent exercise for them, 
especially for colour's sake. But that manufactured kind in 
use is detestable, and as you tell me has become in your 
country a public nuisance. Your perseverance to maintain 
the right tone of Art does you great honour. I am of your 
opinion that local obstructions have the greatest share in 
what appears to the common observer a want of genius. 
But between (among) these local obstructions I am disposed to 
place the political greatness, the vast extent of the British 
Empire, the exertions of the British nation to obtain 
its present superiority, which begun so early as the reign of 

p 2 

212 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1842. 

Elizabeth. Never so far as historical knowledge reaches 
hath the thirst of wealth and power combined with the 
fine arts. Power more than once hath conquered them, 
made use of them, giving in every instance a false decli- 
nation (direction) to talent as well as to genius. But to 
foster them in their youthful state, to give them a proper 
occupation in their upper stages, hath never been the merit 
of mighty peoples or sovereigns. Look at the Macedonian 
kings or to imperial Rome, or to the Popes, especially 
Leo X., who absorbed in a few years what had been created 
in two centuries by Florence and Assisi. 

"'British Art must be public and authoritative, and perhaps 
your New House might produce a new era.' 

" April 4th. To-day I have sent Poictiers and Mary 
of Guise to the Academy. I do it on the principle that 
at such a crisis it is the duty of all to burke local differ- 
ences, to support and stand by each other, or we shall 
be invaded by foreign troops. How far this is on my 
part a dereliction of duty, God only knows. I meant it 
not as such. I meant it to help and keep up an histo- 
rical air in the Exhibition, and prevent the sneers of 
foreigners. It will be, and may be called succumbing, 
but my opinion of Academies as nuisances is the same." 

From Rumohr's third letter of April 9th : 

" * I shall not deny that perfection of shape and form, or as 
you call it nature elevated, can be, and hath been effectually 
in the instance of true Greek Art, the very object of repre- 
sentation in Art. But even in that justly advanced work, in 
my opinion perfection of shape was an inevitable consequence 
of far-spread ideas, of a general turn of mind, of morals and 
habits far distant from ours. There existed in those happy 
times a general admiration of nature's most accomplished 
forms combined with multiplied occasions (opportunities) to 
look on them, to enjoy them, to notice them. Now, even 
a superficial acquaintance with the human frame is re- 
stricted to artists, and a very few dilettanti. Men who like 
yourself combine a natural genius with a scholar-like 


breeding may understand the immense superiority of Greek 
Art, and make it an object of general or partial represen- 
tation, or may represent Greek objects to high-bred gentle- 
men. But such an art will never be a popular one, will 
never be deservedly appreciated by the great mass of the 
people, so as Art once hath been in Greece, and Catholic 
Christian Art in Italy, and in whole Europe. And so I beg 
your leave to conclude that perception of shape in our time, 
and perhaps for ever, hath ceased to be the prevalent 
object of representation. The head, the face, hath become 
more essential than what the Italian calls the "ignudo," and 
I feel some tendency to defend Cornelius so far as he denies 
that excellence of form in the sense of true Greek Art ever 
was to be combined with modern subjects, but his own 
forms are perhaps less able than Greek ones to express the 
noble conceptions of his own mind. lie knows not an iota 
of nature. He wanted occasion (opportunity) in his youth 
and leisure in his advanced age to acquire a profound 
knowledge of the human frame, and he neglected, perhaps 
by a false principle, the study and constant observation of 
heads and characters, essential to a painter of Christian 
subjects. He is my friend, and I shall never cease to admire 
his superior intellect and the vast capacity of his mind. 
Overbeck at Rome hath less energy and invention, but far 
more acquired knowledge of the human frame. I saw a 
number of years past a transparent picture, poetry with 
many accessories; the invention was Cornelius's, the 
picture and the drawing on a larger scale executed by 
Overbeck. It was far the finest production of modern Art 
I ever saw in my life. The energy of the one was softened 
by the sober reflection of the other. 

" * Our German painters surely, at least those pretended 
admirers of the middle age, understand not the true merit 
of the old painters. They notice them superficially and 
have used them only to excuse and cover their own defici- 
encies. I have passed great part of my life in Italy, and 
have known some hundreds of that numerous class, but none 
of them spent much time in observing or studying the older 
pictures as they might have done, and pretend to do. I 

p 3 

214 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1842. 

flatter myself that I know them somewhat better, and I have 
done my best to show their merits and their faults to my 
readers. I cannot help to continue an admirer of your 
nation, and perhaps its last misfortunes in the East may 
rouse a new set of feelings, and even a stronger feeling of 
the moral value of Art, which in a country like yours, will 
take a political or no turn at all. Your navy, your army, 
part of your statesmen are somewhat beyond the line of com- 
mon merit. I cannot read the clear and intelligent speeches 
of Sir R. Peel in the present difficulties without emotion. He 
feels what he thinks, and thinks what he feels. And so did 
your great patron the Duke of Wellington in his glorious 
mid-career. I hope yet to expose to you what may be 
called my system, but leave it to my next.' " 

"22?id. Finally succeeded in composition of Sara- 
gossa, balancing both sides. Good heavens ! when I 
think how my pictures are abused, and know the deep 
principles on which I arrange and paint every iota in 
them. The young men little know what they 'might 
learn if they would as they will bye-and-bye study 

On the 25th of April appeared the notice of the Fine 
Arts Commission, setting out the conditions of the com- 
petition for cartoons intended as trial works of candidates 
for employment in the decorations of the New Houses 
of Parliament. Haydon naturally exulted in this con- 
summation of hopes cherished for so many years. 

"25th. This is indeed a glorious Report for me. 
Here is my pupil, Eastlake, whom I instructed, whose 
dissections I superintended, whose ambition I excited, 
whose principles of Art I formed, putting forth a code 
by my influence and the influence of his own sound un- 
derstanding, which will entirely change the whole system 
of British Art. 

" The whole of these journals, petitions, and prayers 
and confidences will show how this Report must make 
my heart leap with gratitude and joy to the good and 


great Creator, who has blessed me through every variety 
of fortune to this first great accomplishment of my ar- 
dent hopes. 

" O God ! Bless me with life, and health, and intel- 
lect, and eyes to realise the wishes of the Commissioners. 
Bless my pupil Eastlake also, and grant we may both 
live to see the English school on a basis never to be 
shaken, and no longer liable to the unjust suspicion of 
some alive. 

" Amen, O Almighty God ; with all my heart and 
all my soul, Amen. 

ee May 1st. Cartoons are a means and not an end, 
and wherever they have become an end instead of a 
means, they have been the ruin of the Art of a country. 

" The German school at this moment makes them 
too much an end, so does the Italian ; and the art, as 
an art of imitating nature by painting, may be said to 
be ruined in both countries. 

" The great Italians always treated cartoon drawing 
as a means. The model of all cartoons is the one for 
'The School of Athens' at Milan, which I saw in the 

ef From laziness, from want of genius, from incompe- 
tence of colour, lack of power of imitation, or ignorance 
of light and shadow, the modern Italians dwell for days, 
and months, and years over finished cartoons. There is 
nothing so delusive as this sleepy practice, and after all 
this 'trouble, this learned trouble,' said Lawrence, 'there 
comes a d d bad picture.' " 

From Rumohr's letter of April 23rd : 

" I looked to Art and knew artists from my first youth, and 
I knew in that time many hundreds of fine talents, especially 
among the Germans of every part of that vast country. But 
nobody of them will fix much attention after a fifty years. 
Talent is not enough if not sustained by true enthusiasm and 

p 4 

216 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1842. 

of a decided kind. I knew them Grecians in my first days, 
afterwards Michel Angelos, then Romanists and imitators of 
the second, and finally of the first period of the Italian middle- 
age picture (Art), and now-a-days there is a new tendency 
in vogue, very flat, very sentimental. Wherefore are there 
so many talents lost, so many pictures which are merely 
toys for children fashionable amusements? The only rea- 
son to be adduced is, the want of a decided tendency in the 
nation as such. The artists in modern Germany are obliged 
to invent first of all an object of representation,- and such a 
one as may impose as new, or as in the fashion. Patriotic 
feelings are but feeble, where a universal interest*, histo- 
rical as well as geographical, hath subdued them more than 
even persecution. In England it is quite the contrary. To 
love your country is a merit not subject to suspicion. You 
may, more than ourselves, avoid that dangerous shallow and 
hidden shoal of the artists, learned distraction. And I 
cannot but applaud your country taking up the most memor- 
able points of modern history." 

"Sunday, May 8th. Read prayers; but I am not 
content. I feel as if I had been slighted. After so 
many years of devotion as these Journals exhibit, never 
to be thought of in the examination, or given any status 
by official consultation, pains my heart. 

" Perhaps it may be a proper punishment for having 
made Art so great a god of my idolatry. Perhaps God 
may bring me to a right appreciation of human fame by 
mortifying my pride and ambition. I bow ; but I am 

" The press too exactly as all my early aspirations 
are realising turns round, and by the grossest abuse, 
and most unjust criticisms, endeavours to deny my pre- 
tensions and prevent my employment. One would think 
the press would congratulate the man they have sup- 

* Where an interest in all countries has weakened the feeling 
for Germany in particular. 


ported all their lives. No ; they are jealous of the very 
rank to which they helped to raise me. They now turn 
round, and blacken my fair repute. 

" 13th. I begin to feel right. Finish Saragossa, 
and then to fresco and cartoons for the remainder of the 
year ; and God bless me through them. Amen. 

" In truth I have been much hurt that my services 
have not been acknowledged in the evidence, or other- 
wise. But I have recovered the balance of my mind 
again, and feel I am born for whatever is arduous, and 
that I must be actuated by higher feelings than trust in 
human gratitude. 

6( \lth. Worked gloriously at Saragossa, and fi- 
nished the dead chasseur in six hours outright. My 
model knocked up. I felt the old divine spark as 
powerfully as in 1822, in Lazarus. God be thanked 
for this happy day. I have 33/. lls. to pay Newton 
157. for schooling, II. Is. 8d. s 101. and 61. ; and have 
only one sovereign. A lawyer has offered for 60 per 
cent, to help me ! Good God ! 

\Sth. Borrowed 50/. on 70/. worth of chalk stu- 
dies, framed and glazed, and paid 71. for three months 
60 per cent. Was forced to do it. The reptile's mouth 
watered as he drawled over the sketches, longing for me 
not to pay, that he might keep them. 

" Engaged a model for to-morrow, and at it again. 
Huzza ! 

" After thirty-eight years of bitter suffering, perpetual 
struggle, incessant industry, undaunted perseverance, 
four imprisonments, three ruins, and five petitions to the 
House, never letting the subject of state support rest, 
night or day, in prison or out ; turning everything be- 
fore the public, and hanging it on this necessity, the 
wants of his family, the agonies of his wife, the oppres- 
sion of the Academy, directing all to the great cause, it 
is curious to see that the man who has got hold of the 

218 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1842. 

public heart, who is listened to and hailed by the 
masses, who has been mainly instrumental in founding 
Schools of Design, and whose evidence before the Com- 
mittee was followed by the institution of a head school 
in London, who fought the battle of the necessity of 
the figure to the mechanics as well as to the artist, it 
is curious as a bit of human justice, to find chairman, 
committee, witnesses, pupils, avoid throughout the whole 
inquiry any thought, word or deed, which could convey 
to a foreign nation or a native artist, a noble lord or an 
honourable member, that there was such a creature as 
Haydon on earth ! 

" And do they suppose that their unjust omission of 
me will make the British people forget me ? No, no. 
I defy them. I am too deep in the hearts of the public, 
and the very omission will in all reason bring me more 
ardently to their minds. 

" 22nd. Wordsworth called to-day, and we went to 
church together. There was no seat to be got at the 
chapel near us, belonging to the rectory of Paddington, 
and we sat among publicans and sinners. I determined 
to try him, so advised our staying, as we could hear 
more easily. He agreed like a Christian ; and I was 
much interested in seeing his venerable white head 
close to a servant in livery, and on the same level. 
The servant in livery fell asleep, and so did Words- 
worth. I jogged him at the Gospel, and he opened his 
eyes and read well. A preacher preached when we 
expected another, so it was a disappointment. We 
afterwards walked to Rogers's across the park. He 
had a party to lunch, so I went into the pictures, and 
sucked Rembrandt, Reynolds, Veronese, Raffaele, Bas- 
san, and Tintoretto. Wordsworth said, ' Haydon is 
down stairs.' e Ah,' said Rogers, ( he is better em- 
ployed than chattering nonsense upstairs.' As Words- 
worth and I crossed the park, we said ' Scott, Wilkie, 


Keats, Hazlitt, Beaumont, Jackson, Charles Lamb are 
all gone; we only are left.' He said, ' How old are 
you ? ' ' Fifty-six,' I replied. ' How old are you ? ' 
( Seventy- three ; ' he said ; 'in my seventy-third year. 
I was born in 1770.' < And T in 1786.' 'You have 
many years before you.' f I trust I have ; and you, 
too, I hope. Let us cut out Titian, who was ninety- 
nine.' ( Was he ninety-nine ? ' said Wordsworth. 
' Yes,' said I, ' and his death was a moral ; for as he 
lay dying of the plague, he was plundered, and could 
not help himself.' We got on Wakley's abuse. We 
laughed at him. I quoted his own beautiful address to 
the stock dove. He said, once in a wood, Mrs. Words- 
worth and a lady were walking, when the stock dove 
was cooing. A farmer's wife coming by said to herself, 
e Oh, I do like stock doves ! ' Mrs, Wordsworth, in all 
her enthusiasm for Wordsworth's poetry, took the old 
woman to her heart ; ' but,' continued the old woman, 
f Some like them in a pie ; for my part there's nothing 
like 'em stewed in onions.' " 

Wanting real cannon, shot, shell, &c. for nis Sara- 
gossa, he goes to Woolwich. 

" 23rd. Saw Colonel Cockburn, who gave me a 
letter to Colonel Paterson, at the Rotunda, and there 
I was provided with twenty-four pounders, shells, 
screws, ramrods, matches, and everything. Made most 
useful sketches, and returned ready for to-morrow. I 
flew about with all the vigour of my youth, and much 
more strength. 

" How the real object clears your head. Some stu- 
dents said Wilkie had no imagination, because he could 
not do a particular thing without seeing it. What 
stuff ! Imagination is not shown in a brass pan ; a 
brass pan must be seen to be painted ; and if painted 
without being seen, cannot be true. An artist may 
imagine everything, but will it be true ? will it be like ? 

220 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDOX. [1842. 

Truth of imitation is the basis of all Art imaginative 
or imitative. How untrue was my cannon before I 
went to Woolwich, and studied one, and drew one, and 
questioned artillery men and officers, and got at the ana- 
tomy of the thing. 

" I could now fire one myself, and direct the men." 
From Rumohr's letter of May 12th. : 

" I am of your opinion in all that concerneth the pictures 
for the great Hall in your Parliament House. I hope, how- 
ever, the subjects you indicated will be chosen in your own 
history, the richest in the world in picturesque, striking, and 
decisive facts. Examples and not allegories. Symbolic and 
allegorical figures may be disposed in the accessories and 
subordinated to the general disposition merely of architec- 
tonical facts, but fill not large spaces with cold reasoning. 
Allegories would be tedious even to those few able to under- 
stand their sense, if there be any. Allegory being a kind 
of writing by emblems is an agreeable thing interwoven in 
the architectonical divisions of large walls or ceilings. 
But the human mind likes not to read mere thought in cha- 
racters of immense length or breadth ; what is written to 
be understood abstractedly can be written down with a few 
tokens and signs sufficient for the intellect, and is graceful 
because subordinated. How amiable was Raffaele in any 
thing of that kind. But as the most interesting and result- 
ing (important in results) parts of your history are very 
modern facts, with broad and picturesque, not statuesque 
costumes, so I wish to know you free, in the execution, from 
any kind of middle-age, or Greek or Roman style. The 
Flemish or the Spanish school in their large picturesque 
way should be the models of the style. But of the style 
not of the cold mannerism of Rubens, nor of the extrava- 
gancy of Murillo and some pictures of Velasquez." 

May 29th. Went to church with dear Wordsworth, 
who is dearer than ever and more venerable, to hear a 
sermon by Mr. Boone. He was much pleased. He 
had breakfasted with us. We afterwards called on 

1842.] WORDSWORTH. 221 

L . L is lively, handsome, malicious, and 

melancholy. He took us to the Zoological Gardens. 
During the walk we talked of some great defects in 
Cunningham's Lives of the Painters. Wordsworth 
said, ' I could have told him of Gainsborough.' He 
then sat down and looked up like an apostle, and said, 
' Gainsborough was at the house of a friend in Bath 
who was ill and very fond of his daughter; she was 
going to school. Gainsborough said to the child, " Can 
you keep a secret?" " I don't know," said the little 
dear, t( but I will try." Said he, " You are going to 
school. Your father loves you ; I will paint your por- 
trait." The child sat. When she was gone, the por- 
trait was placed at the bottom of the bed of the sick 
father, who was affected and delighted.' 

" Wordsworth told this in so beautiful and poetical 

a way that L for a moment forgot his sarcasm and 

his melancholy, his evil and his mischief, and in casting 
my eye I saw him leaning and looking at Wordsworth, 
and smiling at the purity of his nature with something 

like the look of the Devil at Adam and Eve. C 

N 's eyes, L 's melancholy, Byron's volup- 
tuousness, Napoleon's mouth, Hay don's forehead, and 
Hazlitt's brows, will make a very fine devil. 

"SOth. L told us Sydney Smith said he had 

got rid of the two great bores of society, invitation and 
introduction, and that he literally went to routs without 

"31^. End of May, 1842. The great cause is 
advanced. State support has been decided on. My 
dear pupil has been the manager, following my foot- 
steps with more temper and prudence. There can be 
no doubt that my perpetual agitation of the principle 
kept it alive, but these journals bear testimony I have 
never shrunk, and will, if not burned, bear evidence of 
my tenacity. 

222 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1842, 

"June 1st. O God, bless me through this month, 
and extricate me from its coming difficulties. Grant 
by the end my Saragossa may be nearly done, in spite 
of any obstruction, and relieve me in mercy from my 
pressure and the miseries which must come if I do not 
keep my pecuniary engagements. O Lord, Amen. 

" 9th. Painted a Napoleon musing (front), and sold 
it for twenty guineas, all in six hours. A blessing. 
How I have struggled up under difficulties ! I was out 
to-day to beg mercy of a lawyer for 87. 2s. 6d., who 
gave me till ten to-morrow. I then came home, and 
touched at Napoleon and completed it, ignorant how I 
was to keep the promise. At four I was out again to 
defer 257. Came home to dine. Dined; as I was 
promised peace to-morrow till half-past eight in the 

" My friend came in the evening, and paid me 107., 
half for Napoleon. Thus I clear off 87. 2s. 6d. How 
I am to manage the 257., or 567. 3s. 8d., for Frank's 
College bill, I know not. 

" Lord Brougham has helped me for the last with 
half, 167. the balance of 877. Dear Mary raised 107. 
on her watch for Frank, and I 107. more, so we 
brought him clear home, crowned as first prize man in 
mathematics at Jesus, first year, but were drained. 

(( \\th. Worked well and successfully till one, 
four hours. I then started on business to a money- 
lending old dog, to get renewals. Succeeded at the 
cost of 57. in getting peace for three months ; I consider 
it well spent. Wrote Hope and Sir John Hanmer for 
help. College bills are coming in, The Duke of 
Sutherland helped me with one, Lord Brougham with 
the other ; and all this is owing to putting out both 
boys relying on three commissions which were deferred. 
In God I trust by hard work and good conduct to 
get through. Saragossa nearly done through all of it. 


" 14th. Out on business. Saw dear Wordsworth, 
who promised to sit at three. Wordsworth sat and 
looked venerable, but I was tired with the heat and 
very heavy, and he had an inflamed lid and could only 
sit in one light, a light I detest, for it hurts my 
eyes. I made a successful sketch. He comes again to- 

" We talked of our merry dinner with C. Lamb and 
John Keats. He then fell asleep, and so did I nearly, 
it was so hot ; but I suppose we are getting dozy. 

"16th. Wordsworth breakfasted early with me, 
and we had a good sitting. He was remarkably well, 
and in better spirits, and we had a good set-to. 

" I had told him Canova said of Fuseli, ' Ve ne sono 
in gli arte due cose, il fuoco e la fiamma? f He forgot 
the third,' said Wordsworth, f and that is il fumo, of 
which Fuseli had plenty.' 

" His knowledge of Art is extraordinary. He detects 
errors in hands like a connoisseur or artist. We spent 
a very pleasant morning. We talked again of our old 
friends, and to ascertain his real height I measured him, 
and found him, to my wonder, eight heads high, or 
5 ft. 9J in., and of very fine, heroic proportions. He 
made me write them down, in order, he said, to show 
Mrs. Wordsworth my opinion of his proportions. 

" The time came and he went, wishing me prosperity, 
and blessing me with all his honest heart. 

" Perhaps I may never see him again. God bless 
him ! 

" 21 st. Longest day ; and thus ends the first half 
of 1842. I have worked well and advanced, and I 
think that my exhibiting again has not done harm but 

" The Commissioners are a long time making their 
report. I hope it will be a gox>d one. At present all 
is mystery, but I will not be trifled with, and I keep 

224 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDOK. [1842. 

myself quiet to be effective at the right time, only 
when it arrives ! 

" Went to Windsor Castle ; a fine, gloomy, old 
Gothic palace, but I was disappointed with the inside. 

" The Waterloo Gallery, from not being arranged 
as a gallery, is a disjointed failure. No one portrait 
has reference to any other; there is no composition 
as a whole; they are separate pictures, painted as 
separate pictures, and it is melancholy to see so total 
an absence in king and painter of all comprehension of 

" The rapidity of railroad communication destroys 
the poetry and mystery of distant places. You went 
to Windsor as an exploit for two days. Now, down 
you go in an hour, see it in another, and home in a 
third. It is painfully attainable, and therefore to be 

" The way to visit a palace is to take a Testament, 
and read the Epistles as you walk about. Never does 
the insignificance of all human splendour diminish to 
such a degree as at such a time. 

" The view over Eton is splendid, and the whole 
Castle has a fine gloomy barbarism ; but the public 
rooms disappointed me. The ceilings by Yerrio, the 
Gobelin Tapestry from Coy pel, and the paltry ceilings 
with gilt tridents are ludicrous. The finest portrait is 
Wilkie's William IV., in the Waterloo Room. 

"26th. They must not, they cannot, do justice to 
me. I offended, assaulted, and refuted the aristocratical 
principle in my Art, and the aristocracy out of the Art 
feel it a duty to withhold all support from me. This is 
the secret of all the neglect and opposition I have met 
with ; added to this, that the aristocracy have no judg- 
ment, and are always putting off making a selection or 
coming to a judgment. It is all ' prizes next year,' or 
' competition the year after.' " 


From Rumohr's letter, 8th June : 

" I am in opposition to the artists of these modern times 
in that one and single point that whatever may be the taste, 
manner, opinions of the different schools prevailing actually, 
there is no artist in the present world who does not hope to 
acquire that divine and primitive inspiration, which conduces 
to what you call High Art, by imitation of some period of 
ancient and old Art. Yourself, you hope in the true Greek 
Art (your pure feeling of its excellence hath been, to my 
great advantage, the origin of our warm and frequent active 
correspondence) ; others in the Dutch or the mediaeval Art. 
It is all the same : artists may form their tastes, clear up 
their ideas, acquire many technical accomplishments by ad- 
miring, observing, studying excellent works of any kind. 
But that mental principle, that genuine inspiration not 
personal, but natural and coeval, cannot be acquired in- 
tentionally, and without it there is but one kind possible, the 
imitation of nature's infinite beauties ; and I fear that in our 
times, and in every part of the world, there is (with very 
few exceptions) not much inspiration left, besides that strong 
feeling for nature characterising our epoch. 

" One of these exceptions may be found in the strong sen- 
sation of a British heart for political and patriotic subjects." 

" 29th. Nearly the last day. For the last fortnight 
it is extraordinary how harass, anxieties, and distractions 
have interrupted my studies. Saturday week was the 
last day I put a touch to Saragossa ; since then all has 
been begging friends for help, dwelling in agony (when 
my family thought I was sleeping) on the certainty of 
ruin at the end of my great cartoon, and yet, with that 
pertinacity, which has been the characteristic of my 
whole life, ordering the paper, canvas, frame 13 feet by 
10, to begin as soon as possible, though ruin will 

"I confess I feel it cruel, after thirty-eight years of 
devotion, to be tried again before I am employed. 


226 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1842. 

" Burke said, there was hardly a point of pride which 
was not injurious to a man's interests. 

" I say there is no point of pride which is not whis- 
pered by the devil. 

" July 1st. Worked in great anxiety. Three bills 
due this month and no funds. Called on William Wood- 
burn, and, as the subject was comparatively new, he 
gave me a touching account of Wilkie's last journey and 
death. Poor fellow ! Woodburn said he quacked himself 
to death ; his only anxiety wherever he went was, if 
there were a medical man in the town ; and if there 
were none, he bought medicines of his own. 

" At Jerusalem he was delighted like a child, believ- 
ing everything told him. They embarked at Jaffa on 
board a Greek vessel laden with soap, and encountered 
a terrific gale. Neither of them spoke to each other the 
whole night : however, they got safe to Damietta and 
to Alexandria. 

"Mehemet Ali Woodburn spoke of with a sort of 
pleasure and respect : he appointed them at eight in the 
morning ; they went and had pipes and coffee. Wood- 
burn told him, through his dragoman, it was early for 
European manners. He said, ( I have been an early 
riser all my life, and shall be ever so.' 

" When they embarked on board the Oriental, Wood- 
burn said, ' Now, my dear Wilkie, I consider you safe 
in England ; I will go to Cairo.' Wilkie became so 
alarmed at being left alone, and begged so hard, that 
Woodburn agreed to go home with him. Woodburn 
said he often talked of me, and alluded to our journey 
to Paris, 1814. 

" As they entered the bay Woodburn went down to 
call him, and found him up with his pantaloons on. 
Woodburn said, * It is a beautiful morning; join us at 
breakfast ? ' He replied, ( I should wish to see the 
doctor first.' 


" The doctor was sent for, and shortly came up to 
Woodburn, and said, ' Your friend is in considerable 
danger.' They then resolved to call up the medical at- 
tendant of Sir James Carnac (I think), arid after going 
in he came out, and said, f Has your friend made his will ?' 

" Woodburn said he lost his faculties ; he went in and 
found Wilkie stretched on his back, his eyes fixed, his 
hand hanging by his side. The medical man put a towel 
on his breast, leant down and listened to his heart, and 
after a minute or two said, ( Your friend is gone,' Wood- 
burn said he looked at his hand, and thought, e Good 
God ! what that hand has done ! ' 

"Poor Wilkie! 

" Woodburn then went to the captain, after trying to 
get the body ashore and delaying a few hours, and begged 
a coffin might be made. He replied that one was nearly 
done. The body was stripped and placed in the coffin 
in a clean sheet ; iron and weights were placed in ; a 
clergyman read the service, and David Wilkie was 
lowered to his last refuge from worldly anxiety in the 
depths of Trafalgar Bay. 

" I envy him his entombment, and I hope I may 
follow him in some way equally extraordinary and ro- 
mantic. Peace to his spirit ! 

" He had endeared himself to the crew, the captain, 
and passengers. 

" 6th. Called in to see my dear old painting-room, 
at 41. Great Marlborough Street, where I painted my 
Dentatus, Macbeth, Solomon, and a part of Jerusalem. 
Perkins, my dear old landlord (who behaved so nobly 
through Solomon, and whom I paid off after, but who 
lost in the end) was dead. 

(( The house was bought and undergoing repair; the 
rooms stripped and desolate ; the cupboard, the little 
room where I slept, and the plaster room, with all their 
associations, crowded on me. Watson Taylor lodged 

Q 2 

228 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1842. 

there before me, with his mother. Farquhar lived near. 
I thought once of putting up a brass plate, f Here Hay- 
don painted his Solomon, 1813.' For want of engraving, 
the picture is now forgotten, and the surgeon who has 
bought the house would perhaps have papered it up. So 
much for the brass plate. 

" Just as I had really brought the whole country to 
see the value of the figure, come these Gothic ferocities, 
which stop the whole, but I hope not. 

9^. How delightfully time flies when one paints. 
Delicious art the bane and blessing of my life ! 

" Painted in delicious and exquisite misery. A bill 
due and no money. Went out for it last night, and 
came home wet, weary, and disappointed. Succeeded 
in the head of the Heroine of Saragossa. I made it a 
splendid head. 

" The greatest curse that can befall a father in Eng- 
land is to have a son gifted with a passion and a genius 
for High Art. Thfink God with all my soul and all my 
nature, my children have witnessed the harassing agonies 
under which I have ever painted ; and the very name of 
painting, the very name of High Art, the very thought 
of a picture, gives them a hideous and disgusting taste 
in their mouths. Thank God, not one of my boys, nor 
my girl, can draw a straight line, even with a ruler, 
much less without one. And I pray God, on my knees, 
with my forehead bent to the earth, and my lips to the 
dust, that he will, in his mercy, afflict them with every 
other passion, appetite, or misery, with wretchedness, 
disease, insanity, or gabbling idiotism, rather than a 
longing for painting, that scorned, miserable art, 
that greater imposture than the human species it imi- 

" 10th. At church, and prayed from my heart. As 
I prayed, 1 felt uneasy at risking labour on a cartoon, 
with the uncertainty of reward and with my family, 


however much my duty may involve my executing such 
a cartoon ; when suddenly a ray of light seemed to pass 
into my heart, and I felt inexpressible joy and encourage- 
ment to go on. Go on I will, and from this instant all 
doubt has vanished. I shall proceed with the certainty 
of success; reward and employment will follow, as 
surely as if it .were announced. 

" I put this impression down to judge of results, be- 
lieving and trusting in God with all my heart. 

" llt/i. I finished the Saragossa as far as figures go 
on Saturday. Thus I have painted it in four months, 
deducting one for my foot and its consequences, leaving 
three for actual work ; and grateful I ought to be, and 
grateful I arn. Now for my cartoon. Edward the 
Black Prince entering London with John Conqueror 
and Captive or the Curse ; which ? The one is suit* 
able to the building, the other is interesting to the 

ef 13th. Huzza huzza huzza; and one cheer 
more ! 

" My cartoon is up, and makes my heart beat, as all 
large bare spaces do, and ever have done. Difficulties 
to conquer. Victories to win. Enemies to beat. The 
nation to please. The honour of England to be kept 

" Huzza huzza huzza ; and one cheer more ! 

" 22nd. Began my cartoon in reality. Tried a bit 
first, and steamed at it most successfully, so that the 
sized part is all right. I got the whole in, feeling 
extreme agony of mind at my necessities at intervals. 
I sent out my portrait of Raffaele and poor dear Wilkie, 
to raise something for the day. It is dreadful ; but it 
can't be helped. After what I have suffered, it is cruel 

of and Sir Robert Peel thus to put me to the test 

again. Darling called (one of my oldest friends) and 
lent me 51. 

230 MEMOIRS OF B. K. IIATDON. [1842. 

" 25th. Began Adam's head to-day. I hope God 
will bless me through it, and through the week. Amen. 

" I have a 157. 8s 8d. bill I promised on Saturday 
and could not pay it; and 7/. due to-day at four. Can't 
pay it. And these are the agreeable sensations I must 
abstract my mind from before I can invent and execute 
the grandest and weakest of human beings. Yet, under 
God's blessing, I'll succeed. 

" Eight o'clock. Got on capitally, and arranged the 
7/. by paying 5s. for a month's renewal, after drawing 
six hours and three quarters, and allowing a quarter for 

" 29th. Lockhart liked my Adam, and I think it 
good. In how extraordinary a way was it produced. 
Good heavens ! But I conscientiously believe, under 
the blessing of God, that all this row about Art will 
be a working up of glory for me. I feel it, and know it. 
In Him I trust. 

" August 1st. Worked hard and well advanced. 
Tortured by having only 7s. in my pocket, and 4s. of 
that raised on one of my two pair of spectacles. Lord 
Grey says he can't help me. Lord Colborne won't 
double his raffle money. Leader has not replied. 
Under all these torments my landlord forbears and 
helps; but it is painful to be in such a situation again. 
However, let God grant me health, intellect, and eyes, 
and eight hours free, and I'll do it. 

" 4th. My eyes strained dreadfully. In great distress 
of mind, having only 10s. Called on an old friend, and 
told him the truth, that owing to the quarrel of en- 
graver and publisher I was kept out of my money for 
the Duke's print. He was distressed, but he and his 
wife squeezed out 51. for a month. His name is Illidge 
a good mild creature. I hope I shall be able to repay 
it. My bill of 15/. 8s. 8d. went back. As I came 
along in anxiety, I thought it would improve my com- 


position to lower Christ in the design. But for this in- 
ternal delight I should have gone mad long ago. 

5th. Having finished, steamed, and settled Adam, 
my principal figure, I see my way in cartoons. And 
I now see why Europe has produced no colourist or 
great executor with the brush since the great Flemish 
eras of Rubens and Kembrandt. 

" Cartoon pictures in chalk are the abuse of a noble 
principle, a modern lassitude. 

" Cartoons are a means, and not an end. When they 
become an end they ruin the artist and the art, and the 
great cartoon drawer becomes a helpless infant with the 

"To-morrow a rowing letter about my bill, 15/. Ss. Sd. 
In the meanwhile I have finished Adam, and placed 
Eve in a better position, and improved the whole thing. 
I never answer letters till four. I will work seven 
hours in delight, and then answer about my bill. Pay 
it I shall as a point of honour, as it is my last bill of 
education (a sacred debt) for dear Fred. But I must 
and will have time. All this would make a bill-broker 
(S. Gurney for instance) look grave. It is irregular; 
but what is a man to do who has 700 guineas deferred 
till next year, and owing to the squabbling of publisher 
and engraver can't touch 1 25 1, due on the Duke's print? 

9th. Put in the head of Eve; but instead of shut- 
ting the eyes as I first conceived, I opened them to show 
her beauty, and made a common ad captandum vulgus 
thing. Obliged to go out as I put in the eyes to arrange 
about a 50/. bill. Come home in the heat, and finished 
the head, my model, a sweet girl, wondering what I 
was doing. 

" In the midst of the grossest misery my landlord 
called and gave me 37. II. 15s. lOd. I paid my rates 
with in the evening ; the rest left for necessaries, 

Q 4 

232 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1842. 

" 20th. Completed Adam and Eve. Now for Satan 
on Monday, with only Is. 6d. in my pocket. Huzza! 

"22nd. My want of money, and want of means of 
raising money, is dreadful. I have now got Satan's 
head to do. In the middle of the night I saw his large, 
fiery, cruel, rimmed eye, and kept staring at the dark, 
where nothing was, for an hour. 

"24th. Worked very hard, and got the Devil's 
figure in. Wrote the Dukes of Devonshire and Rich- 
mond about my necessities. Made an accurate study 
first from life. 

"27th. Yery hard run for cash, so I sent out to 
Woodburn's a frame containing the first sketch in chalk 
of Rent-day, Distraining for Rent, and two more. I 
asked him fifteen guineas, but he would only give me 
five, so relieved at any rate for a day, I hurried away to 
Wilkie's Exhibition, and spent three hours. This is the 
last time we shall ever see Wilkie's works together 
again. Hail and farewell, the only friend of my youth ! 
A higher and deeper Art is breeding in England, but 
full justice has been done to thee. 

"31st. Woodburn had just received 70007. from 
Oxford for Raffaele's drawings. Last day of August. 
I have worked not as I ought, but as well as I could, 
considering my dreadful necessities. I borrowed 47. last 
night of my landlord to pay a servant, 107. to-day of my 
butterman, Webb, an old pupil, recommended me by 
Sir George Beaumont twenty-five years ago, but who 
wisely, after drawing hands, set up a butter-shop, and 
was enabled to send his master 107. in his necessities. 

" ' Webb,' said I, f when you were a poor youth I 
gave my time to you for nothing.' e You did.' ' I want 
107.' 'You shall have it, Mr. Haydon. I shall ever 
feel grateful.' 

"I paid 77. out of the 107., and borrowed 107. of the 
man I paid 77. to, to meet my son's bill on board Im- 


pregnable, due at Coutts' to-morrow. Came home, 
took out our Saviour, and tried him walking in the 
garden. He would not do, so put him in again sitting 
and reposing. Better than ever. Satan looked power- 
fully, It is a blessing to get ease for twenty-four hours, 
which Webb's 10Z. has caused to my mind. 

" Thus ends August." 

From Rumour's letter of August 22nd : 

" I have been struck by what you observe on the conse- 
quences of cartoons, and find it just, in as far as the last and 
present century are concerned in the question ; modern car- 
toons with few exceptions are licked (smoothed) and polished 
intentionally, and modern artists would rather subject them- 
selves to some heavy fine than to stray one line of (from) 
their precious and beloved "preparations on paper or cartoon. 
Their tenderness for paper drawings, or rather paper itself, 
is in great part the occasion of certain distortions peculiar to 
modern Art. They fear to become unclean, to miss that de- 
licious Chinese neatness, by correcting any line of chalk (?) 
most evidently incorrect, ugly, detestable. Wherefore should 
they swerve in painting from such perfectly clean and neat 
models ? 

" Notwithstanding this coincidence, I must needs object to 
the application you made of that remark to objects of the 
noble period of Raifaele, and especially on that celebrated 
piece of cartoon containing the middle group of the school 
of Athens. You did not observe, or forgot after so many 
years past, that yonder admirable piece of masterly hand 
(handiwork) arrived at Paris in but indifferent state of pre- 
servation, and truly unfit to be exposed to a northern eye, 
inasmuch as (insomuch that) the judicious French found it 
convenient to be retouched by some clever Academicians, 
who had appropriated to themselves that wondrously perfect 
kind of drawing with prolonged large parallel strokes, imi- 
tated from the fine metallic-lustre-looking manner of the 
best modern engravers. To arrive at perfection they chose 
to recopy some of the numerous copies existing at Paris of 
the original picture at Rome, and in that way the cartoon 

234 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON. [1842. 

was made to look like the picture, and the. picture might 
appear to yourself to be a mere copy of the cartoon, viz., in 
its present adulterated state. 

" I have seen a great deal'of ancient studies, drawings, 
cartoons, and sketches of such. The outline and the masses 
of light were everywhere defined with great exactitude, viz., 
if predestined for the fresco execution ; but there was left in 
the spaces between the outlines and masses an infinity of 
points still to decide (open for decision), with exception of 
such cartoons as were worked to guide the hand of scholars 
and manuals (handicraftsmen). The great painters in Raf- 
faele's period chose when drawing everywhere the materials 
and the manner that suited best their ends. They were 
wild or collected, rough or delicate. Since a century draw- 
ing is become a manner"; intelligence, beauty, sense, vivacity 
of conception have been subjected to that idle and tedious, 
neat and soft manner. And so no doubt what hath become 
insipid in the cartoon ought to become intolerable in its 
pictorial copy. 

" The most perfect painter of fresco (though not the best 
of all painters) hath been Domenico Ghirlandajo, a Flo- 
rentine. He used to light up his pictures in the afternoon, 
when the local tints began to dry, being still wet enough to 
assimilate those last pastose (fat) touches, somewhat like to 
the oil manner of Paolo Veronese. But Raffaele, in his 
Mass of Bolsena and in some parts of the Heliodorus, was 
likewise admirable by the intelligence, hardihood and taste 
of his colouring in fresco." 

"September 13th. Called in Lombard Street on 
Gurney, who broke his word after giving me an order. 
I told him I wanted 567. 2s. I0d. } to pay my son's bill 
at Cambridge. I asked his help. He refused. I asked 
Lord Melbourne. I asked Lords Shrewsbury, Digby, 
and Carlisle to take shares in Saragossa. Lord Carlisle 
only did. I was harassed to death, and came home ex- 
hausted. I then set my drapery for Christ by putting 
up two plaster legs, my lay figure being in pawn, and 

18,2.] AT HIS CARTOONS. 235 

sallied forth again to put off III. 10s., which I could 
not pay. Yet I will finish Christ this week, and I 
trust in God pay my dear Frank's bill too. The 
moment a disappointment takes place, my mind springs 
to a new hope. It is this elasticity which supports me. 
In God I know I shall not trust in vain, as this week 
will show. 

(( ( Then they cried unto the Lord in their trouble, 
and he saved them out of their distresses.' 

<s Most cordially do I believe it. 

"17th. Thus I have, by the blessing of God, ac- 
complished my cartoon figures, four in two months. 
Had my mind been at rest I could have done all four in 
a month, or had I wanted them, in less time. When I 
look back and think under what miseries and distress I 
began the cartoon, without money or employment, I 
must believe nothing but the Almighty blessing me 
throughout, with friends to help and aid me, could have 
accomplished it. 

" Grateful I am beyond expression, and I trust to go 
on to a triumphant conclusion, and that I may be ulti- 
mately victorious in my great object, which has been so 
long my hope and prayer. 

" Think of my influence with my species to induce 
them to trust me for papers, canvass, chalk, labour, rent, 
models, to get collectors to pay my taxes, and landlords 
to abstain from rent ; but I always show them my work, 
and they acquiesce. I then work away in ecstasy till 
some other dun comes, who is shown in, and equally 
vanquished. A woman came, and on seeing the cartoon, 
lifted up her hands and eyes, and said, f Oh ! what a 
sublime genus.' 

" But it is not my influence. It is not human. 

"23rd. Worked, steamed, and splashed oil colour 
over Adam's leg. It was evidently too short, and being 
nicely worked, I hesitated, with that lazy apathy which 

236 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDOtf. [1842. 

comes over one, to alter it as I ought. The splash of 
oil decided it, so I pasted paper over it, and on Monday 
a new leg. Now the short one is gone, the figure looks 

"21th. Worked hard, and put in the new leg, and 
the whole figure fell into proportion and fitness ; but for 
the oil splash I should perhaps have sullenly risked 
public disapprobation of a short leg. It was out of per- 
spective. Is it not extraordinary a man of my expe- 
rience should conceitedly suspect he need not take so 
much trouble as when young, and is it not proper to 
find he requires it as much as ever ? Why did I not 
put my model thirty feet off, as I did in Lazarus when 
I made my first drawing ? I did it yesterday, but why 
did I not do it at first ? Impudent conceit. And the 
oil splash brought me to my senses. 

" October 2nd. Finished my letter to the Sheffield 
Mercury, on a school of design. It is my conviction, 
if sound Art be not combined with practical science at 
the schools of design, from the facilities given by them 
both to artists and mechanics, the art will be seriously 
injured in the next three years, which I hope to 

" 5th. The cartoon is laid aside, and now my mind 
begins to fret. I can't sleep for want of another over- 
whelming subject. Which shall I fly at Alexander 
killing an enormous Lion, or Curtius ? A single head 
is misery to me. I get sick. My imagination aches. 
Worked at a head a sketch all trifles. 

" llth. Collins called to-day, and in course of con- 
versation, said, ( I really think you ought to join us! ' I 
said nothing. 

" The state of the question is this. All the objects 
I have fought for are coming. If they are realised 
without the Academy claiming me as a member, I am 
victorious, isolated, unsanctioned by rank or station. If 


they induce me to join them, and the victory comes 
after, they will claim a share in the honour of an 
achievement they have always tried to oppose. So if I 
am quiet, and let things take their course, whether I 
benefit or not individually, my character is consistent 
before the country. I would not lose that character in 
dear old England for all the treasures of the earth. 

" My dear old friend and fellow student Collins is 
anxious for me to join the Academy. But how can I ? 
It is too late. After having brought up my family 
through every species of misery to distinction and 
honour, am I now to show that, after all, their honours 
were necessary ? Oh no, no, the compromise of prin- 
ciple would be dreadful. Let me die as I have lived, 
O God, and give me strength of mind to resist temp- 
tation, for I see it's coming. And let me live in the 
hearts of my countrymen, like John Milton and William 
Shakspeare ! Ah ! may I be worthy ! May I be worthy \ 

His first cartoon being now complete, he next began 
his picture of Curtius leaping into the Gulf.* He sent 
his sketch for the picture, at the request, I presume, of 
Miss Mitford, to her friend Miss E. B. Barrett (now 
Mrs. Browning), together with the portrait of Words- 
worth on Helvellyn, painted this year. The portrait 
inspired this sonnet : 

" Wordsworth upon Helvellyn ! Let the cloud 
Ebb audibly along the mountain wind, 
Then break against the rock, and show behind 
The lowland valleys floating up to crowd 
The sense with beauty. He with forehead bowed 
And humble-lidded eyes, as one inclined 
Before the sovran thoughts of his own mind, 
And very meek with inspirations proud, 
Takes here his rightful place, as poet-priest, 

* This picture is now in the possession of Mr. Barrett, a dealer, 
in the Strand. 

238 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON* [1842. 

By the high altar, singing praise and prayer 
To the yet higher heavens. A vision free 
And noble, Haydon, hath thine art released. 
No portrait this with academic air, 
This is the poet and his poetry." 

" October 25th. Out to National Gallery. After 
dwelling on the rawness of fresco, the tone of Titian 
went into my soul like the tone of an organ. How I 
gloried in the Bacchus and Ariadne ! How I tasted the 
Ganymede with its fleshiness, its black eagle against a 
clear sky. Nothing in fresco can equal these their 
juicy richness, their delicious harmony. Oh I shall get 
sick of lime, but duty calls." 

From Rumohr's letter of December 4th : 

" Germany is a terra incognita to you as to most of your 
countrymen. You have lived so many centuries in a com- 
pact political union, you will, even when present, find it 
difficult to think clearly of German things. Here is no cen- 
tralisation of any but an ideal kind, not existing in reality, 
but merely in mind. There are epidemical infections of 
errors which appear to become tolerably universal, but not 
so much as to destroy every particular turn of mind. I have 
outlived in Art at least five different periods of that kind. 
Firstly, the passage of (from) Winckelman's and Mengs* 
theory to a determined predilection for old Grecian things, 
which then, in want of the Athenian Marbles, not yet known 
or brought into a European place, were chosen amongst the 
ancient vases and potteries. Then they went admiring 
Leonardo and Raflfaele, doing their best to imitate them. 
After these models a passage to the elder Italian, and finally 
to the Germans, until Durer. Artists generally spoke much 
of ancient painters ; I observed mostly a singular aversion 
from studying and observing them with some attention ; all 
this ended with the superficiality of the new, pleasing, 
Dusseldorf school manner. But neither sculpture nor land- 
scape nor Genre-painting shared all these passages. So that 
you may find in every corner of Germany individuals of 
great merit in their way who acquired their art and know- 


ledge in perfect independence of the prevailing epidemic. 
These very generally will preserve their credit in a future 
period: their studies after natural subjects are truly inter- 
esting, and superior perhaps to everything produced witli an 
ideal tendency. 

" The reason of that (this) superiority of naturalism is 
this. There hath not been existing in Germany during the 
last thirty-five years, neither a patriotic, nor a religious, nor 
even an intellectual want of pictures and statues ; there hath 
not been, for the same reason, any uninterrupted flow of a 
rich and irresistible inspiration among artists. Your British 
artists, beginning a new era in the new Parliament House, 
might obtain such a flow of inspiration, by their object being 
a patriotical one, and their minds susceptible, so I hope, of 
an exalted feeling for their country and for its history, for 
its polish, its importance, and avenir. I cannot endure the 
thought of such a work executed by foreigners, even if 
Eaffaeles and Leonardos were to be procured. Notwith- 
standing, I must acknowledge the modern German painters, 
and especially Cornelius, to have had the first hand in his- 
torical and monumental fresco painting, to have acquired 
a vast deal of experience in conception, disposition, and 
execution of such things, not to be neglected by your coun- 
trymen. You may learn even by their errors." 

" December 15th. I have this moment completed 
Curtius before I put out and proceed with Alexander. 
I humbly and gratefully return thanks to Almighty God 
for enabling me to bring another picture to conclusion ; 
that He hath blessed me with eyes, intellect, health, 
strength, and piety to get through with it in spite of 
many pecuniary difficulties deep and harassing. Grant, 
O Lord, it may be purchased and add to the fame of 
my great country, and help me to discharge the debts 
incurred during its progress, and to maintain my dear 
family in respectability and virtue. Amen. 

"25th. In the middle of the night I awoke rather 
depressed from the multiplicity of anxieties. I put my 

240 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDOtf. [1842. 

hand on the Testament I always sleep with, and opened 
a passage in the dark, folded down the leaf, and at day- 
light found this blessed consolation : " and our hope of 
you is steadfast, knowing that as ye are partakers of the 
sufferings so shall ye be also of the consolation.'' 

"29th. My canvas up for my new cartoon. O 
God, bless its beginning, progression, and conclusion. 
O God, enable me, aided but by Thee, to bring it to a 
grand and triumphant conclusion, that it may elevate 
the honour of the country, and enable me to support 
my family with honour. Grant that no difficulties may 
daunt or obstruct me, but that under Thy blessing, I 
may vanquish them all ; and grant these things, and 
above all health of body and mind, for Jesus Christ's 
sake. Amen. 

"31.<tf. On reviewing the past year it is wonderful 
to think how I have been assisted by my Creator in the 
most trying situations January, I wrote my lecture 
on Fresco. February, I began to prepare to do some- 
thing, having had three commissions deferred amounting 
to 700 guineas. I plunged at the Saragossa and got it 
done. I then in July began a cartoon in appalling ne- 
cessities, and by His blessing who always blesses me I 
got through that. I flew at Curtius and finished that, 
and this day began to sketch the arrangement of a 
second cartoon ; so that I have worked well, happily, 
and gloriously. 

"I have finished two great works, one cartoon, one 
small picture of the Duke, half done a humorous picture 
of The First Child, and sketched in The Black Prince. 

" I have lived to see a vote by the State for High 
Art, for which I have laboured. I have lived to find 
myself, though the very cause of the movement, utterly 
forgotten, as if I had never existed at all. Such is 
human gratitude. The first victim in all revolutions is 
he who caused them. 

1843. J A NEW YEAR. 241 

" In Him I trust who has always blessed me when I 
deserved it, and who has punished me when I wanted 

"For all the mercies of the year past accept my 
deepest gratitude, O God ! and grant in concluding the 
year 1843, I may have less to complain of, more to be 
grateful for, and in every way have proved myself 
worthy of the continuance of thy advice, protection and 
help. Amen," 


In no year of Hay don's life had he severer distresses 
to encounter than in this of 1843. It brought the con- 
summation of what he had so earnestly fought for, a 
competition of native artists to prove their capability of 
executing great monumental and decorative works, but 
with this came his own bitter disappointment at not 
being among the successful competitors. 

In all his struggles up to this point Haydon had the 
consolation of hope that better times were coming. But 
now the good time for Art was come, and he was passed 
over. The blow fell heavily, indeed, I may say, was 
mortal. He tried to cheat himself into the belief that 
the old hostile influences to which he attributed all his 
misfortunes and difficulties had been working here also, 
and that he should yet rise superior to their malice. 
But the anticipation that had led him on thus far was, 
in truth, henceforth impossible. He would not admit 
to himself that his powers were impaired, that he was 
less fit for great achievements in his art now than when 
he painted Solomon and Lazarus. But if he held this 
opinion himself he held it alone. It was apparent to 
all, and to none more than to his warmest and truest 
friends, that years of harass, humiliation, distraction, and 
conflict had enfeebled his energies, and led him to seek 


242 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1843. 

in exaggeration (to which even in his best days he had 
been prone) the effect he could no longer attain by well- 
measured force. His restless desire to have a hand in 
all that was projected for Art had wearied those in au- 
thority, and even his old and sincere friend, the secretary 
of the commission, was unable to put forward his name 
without the chance of doing him more injury than service. 
He had shown himself too intractable to follow, and he 
had not inspired that confidence which might have given 
him a right to lead. 

And thus the cloud settled about him, and grew 
darker and denser every month of his few remaining 
years of life. It is so painful to follow day by day his 
struggles with disappointment, despondency, and em- 
barrassment that I feel it due to the reader to be as brief, 
in my extracts from the Journals of these last years, as 
I can be, consistently with distinctness. The last two 
volumes of the Journals are little more than a record of 
desperate struggles, alternating with despondency and 
angry protestations, all pointing to the sad catastrophe 
which brought this stormy career to a close. 

He began with the year his second cartoon of The 
Black Prince entering London with the French King 

" January 4th. Full of anxiety on money. Two- 
thirds of my income diminished. Last year, no com- 
mission. Curtius, Saragossa, and cartoon done without 
order or return, except four or five shares, and now I 
have prepared a fresh cartoon, and am to begin it to- 
morrow, as I began Solomon, without a shilling. 
Fifty-seven years old on the 25th. 

" In God I trust as before. Amen. 

" 5th. Got my cartoon in, grumbling all the time at 
what I consider the loss of brush power which must 
accrue, but yet going on, as I always do, trusting in my 


" I had exactly 13s. 6d. all the ready money I have 
in the world in my pocket. So I was 13s. 6d. better 
than when I began Solomon thirty years ago. 

" 9th. What I fear is that my thinking always under 
the harrow of pecuniary necessity will at last affect my 
understanding. I trust in God ; but to-day I had a 
dulness of brain and torpor of thought quite frightful. 

" 10th. What is High Art in England but a long 
Khyber Pass, with the misery of a passage in, but no 
passage out ? Thirty-nine years have I struggled to 
raise my country's tastes, and thirty-two have I been 
utterly without employment- 
Went to the Tower to get armour, which I selected, 
but when (after an order from the Ordnance had been 
issued) I was told I must deposit the amount, I refused 
to do so. After having had armour from the Tower for 
thirty-five years, and always returned it, I considered 
this a dirty resolution as applicable to myself. I had no 
objection, had I been informed of it ; but to come down 
and be taken by surprise was disgusting. I told them 
it was worthy of a nation of shopkeepers. I was in a 
passion and poured forth. 

" llth. Got my order from the Ordnance to get my 
armour, and I go down to-morrow and bully the store- 

"12th. Went and got my armour, and brought it 
home in victory. I asked them if it was the last act of 
the Whigs, or the first of the Tories. They were as 
polite as before they were insolent. Mr. Byam of the 
Ordnance, who has known me thirty-five years, brought 
it before the Board, and they accepted me and granted 
my wish. Lord Colborne took a second share in Sara- 
gossa and my dear Talfourd sent me effective help ; 
so I return thanks to God I have escaped ruin at 

" 28th. Worked very hard and got on powerfully. 
B 2 

244 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1843. 

Worked the whole week gloriously, with all the fury, 
constancy, and vigour of earlier days, and to-morrow 
must pay the penalty of having deferred all pecuniary 
matters till I have not 2s. 6d. in the house. My dearest 
Mary bears it pretty well, very well, but it tries 
her. I only hope she will hold out like me." 

He exhibited his Curtius at the British Institution. 

" February 3rd. Out early in the morning to glaze 
my picture of Curtius. Found Etty in the hall waiting 
like myself to go up. Chatted with Etty, who said my 
example and Hilton's, in early life, had greatly influenced 
him. At the time I mounted to go up and was looking 
at the Curtius, I felt somebody pat my shoulder, saying, 
( Well done.' I turned round and found Etty. I toned 
the picture like lightning. In one hour and a half I had 
107. to pay upon my honour and only 27. 155. in my 
pocket. I drove away to Newton, paid him 27. 15s., 
and borrowed 107. I then drove away to my friend, and 
paid him the 107., and borrowed 67. more, but felt re- 
lieved I had not broke rny honour. Then home, took 
out all my proofs, called on my subscribers, and saw 
them left. 

" Thus I have done my duty to everybody to-day ; 
and what is life but a struggle of duty to your God, 
your country, and your species, day and night, till death?" 

"March 1st.* Bless me, O Lord, through this 
month, in spite of its awful pecuniary necessities. But 
I trust in Thee. Grant I may get through my cartoon, 
and fit Saragossa for the public, and keep my health, 
and never lose my confidence in Thee, Thou great and 
beneficent Creator. Amen. 

* The Twenty-fifth volume of the Journal begins at February 
15th, 1843, *with motto from Amos ix. v. 15., and from the 78th 
Psalm : " But He being full of compassion, forgave their iniquity, 
and destroyed them not : yea, many a time turned he his anger 
away, and did not stir up all his wrath." 


" Wth. Went out and paid in 107. for Coutts for 
my dear Fred. Came home and flew at the Saragossa. 
Glazed it beautifully. At one flew out and raised 15/. 
of a draper whom I dealt with (taking 4/. in goods). 
Drove home, and by three Saragossa was done. Rushed 
up and paid my rates ; a warrant would have been 
issued to-morrow. This is the life of High Art in 
England. Refused by my Prince*, to whose income I 
contribute, threatened by a collector, helped by a draper, 
and two judge's orders to pay on Saturday, with only 
2s. to meet 32Z. Yet do I cheerfully rely it will be 
done, and this book will prove it." 

From a letter to Eastlake, March 13th : 

" My dear Eastlake, 

" I am delighted, because being a permanent plan it has 
broken the ice, and will ultimately end in decoration. I de- 
pend on your's and the commissioners' judgments ; it was 
doing the thing rightly and with energy ; no mincing the 
matter. Go on, and God prosper us all. 

" I appeal to the Royal Commission, to the First Lord, to 
you the secretary, to Barry the architect, if I ought not to 
be indulged in my hereditary right to do this, viz.^ that when 
the houses are ready, cartoons done, colours mixed, and all 
at their posts, I shall be allowed, employed or not employ 'ed, 
to take the first brush and dip into the first colour, and put 
the first touch on the first intonaco. If that is not granted 
I'll haunt every noble Lord and you, till you join my dis- 
turbed spirit on the banks of the Styx. Keep that in view 
if you regard my peace of mind, my ambition, my pride and 
my glory. 

" Ever yours, 

"B. R. HAYDON." 

" 1 5th. Hard at work, and got through my second 
cartoon. O God, I bless Thee with all my heart and 

* Alluding to an unsuccessful application to H. R. H. Prince 
Albert just before. 

B 3 

246 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1843. 

soul for Thy mercies in thus bringing me through the 
difficulties and troubles which have pursued me up to 
this moment. O God, still protect and support me, and 
carry me through to the full realization of all the conse- 
quences of these attempts. O God, spare, protect, and 
bless me to the end, and accept my deepest gratitude. 

" 2th. Dined at Lupton's with Carew and Clint, 
and had a very pleasant night. Carew told us a capital 
story of the Duke. The Duke was at the Marchioness 
of Downshire's, and the ladies plagued him for some of 
his stories. For some time he declared all his stories 
were in print. At last he said, ' Well, I'll tell you one 
that has not been printed.' In the middle of the battle 
of Waterloo he saw a man in plain clothes riding about 
on a cob in the thickest fire. During a temporary lull 
the Duke beckoned him, and he rode over. He asked 
him who he was, and what business he had there. He 
replied he was an Englishman accidentally at Brussels, 
that he had never seen a fight and wanted to see one. 
The Duke told him he was in instant danger of his life; 
he said f Not more than your Grace,' and they parted. 
But every now and then he saw the Cob-man riding 
about in the smoke, and at last having nobody to send 
to a regiment, he again beckoned to this little fellow, 
and told him to go up to that regiment and order them 
to charge, giving him some mark of authority the 
colonel would recognise. Away he galloped, and in a 
few minutes the Duke saw his order obeyed. The 
Duke asked him for his card, and found in the evening, 
when the card fell out of his sash, that he lived at 
Birmingham, and was a button manufacturer ! When 
at Birmingham the Duke inquired of the firm and 
found he was their traveller and then in Ireland. When 
he returned, at the Duke's request he called on him in 
London. The Duke was happy to see him and said he 
had a vacancy in the Mint of 800/. a-year, where ac- 


counts were wanted. The little Cob-man said it would 
be exactly the thing and the Duke installed him. 

" I will ascertain if the facts are correct. If true, it 
redounds much to his Grace's honour. 

"25th. Two months more would not keep me too 
long from painting ; so to-day, under that mysterious 
influence, I took out my cartoon, and before I was 
aware had got in a Virgin and Child. So I have be- 
gun ; but I was in miserable want of money, as usual. 
I had money to send to my son at Cambridge, and out 
I went, feeling a culprit. Is it not better to paint 
things of five guineas a head than go on in this condi- 
tion ? It is certainly ; and if this stake fail, I'll astonish 
my friends at the ease with which I '11 come to do things 
for subsistence and to save a competence for old age. 

"27th. The moment I touch a great canvas I think 
I see my Creator smiling on all my efforts. The mo- 
ment I do mean things for subsistence I feel as if He 
had turned His back, and what's more, I believe it. 

"3lst. Last day of March. I have worked well, 
have suffered great necessity, but here I am by God's 
blessing, with my cartoons both done, and effectually 
done. I am now preparing for a new work, but have 
not yet decided whether it shall be fresco or not. I 
hanker after lime and have begun my third cartoon for 
it, and have to-day been busy preparing lime. 

" If ever artist was fit for fresco I am. I have 
always done everything at once. For all Thy mercies 
and trials this month I bless Thee, O God, with all my 
soul. Amen. 

" April 14th, Good Friday. After thirty-one years 
I this day received the Sacrament, sincerely asked par- 
don and promised a new life. The Dean of Carlisle 
administered, an old friend and admirer, after an 
admirable, nay, beautiful sermon. It was interesting, 
because to him I wrote, years since, in an agony of 

B 4 

248 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1843. 

doubt and apprehension. I had one sovereign (all in 
money I possess), and no silver, when the churchwarden 
(an old friend, Stanley) held out the plate : % I gave 
nothing ; ought I not to have given all, and have 
trusted in God ? Surely. But in the dread of being 
without any at all, and in the belief that a sovereign 
was more than my necessitous condition warranted, I 
gave nothing. This tormented me. It proved the 
devil had power yet. I will make amends. I reviewed 
my life for thirty-one years. I had married and brought 
up a family. I had been four times in prison. I had 
injured friends by not paying their loans. I had been 
swallowed up by ambition, but not on selfish principles. 
All these things were crimes, and I repented. 

" I had educated and planted four boys, and will edu- 
cate a dear girl. I had not made an improper use of the 
money borrowed; but what right had I to borrow at all, 
if not to repay ? I had paid 1000/., but there was more 
yet, and one good man had lost some hundreds. 

" All these things came across me, and I felt as if my 
soul was blackened ; but a ray of brilliant hope sup- 
ported me, and I went up in quiet self-possession, be- 
lieving that if I believed, the atonement would reconcile 
ine to God, and I trust it may. I never wilfully in- 
jured either man or woman, 

" This day is a remarkable day in my life, and on this 
great sacrificial day I will, as long as I live, repeat this 
act. God bless my resolution. Amen." 

Wilkie's Life by Allan Cunningham appeared about 
this time. 

ee 16th. Prayed in private, and arranged papers to 
collect my life, as Wilkie's memoirs have roused me 

" 17th. Made a study for Alexander's head from 
life. Borne down by necessity apprehensive of an ex- 
ecution for II. lls. 6d. and 5s. 6d. costs. Wrote ten 
pages of my Life and copied two letters of Wilkie's. 

1843.] MISERY AND RELIEF. 249 

"18th. In the city and deferred a payment, but 
suffered excruciating agony for want of money. 

" 20th. Went out in great misery to raise 6/. 10s., 
the balance of a judge's order. Dr. Darling, my old 
friend, helped me. Just as I was going to set my palette 
I was served with a copy of a writ for another debt. I 
came home and corrected my figure, and prepared for 
the model to-morrow. 

" 2\.st. Awoke in the night, my heart beating and 
my head aching from my anxieties ; but in God I trust, 
as I have always done and always will ; and this Journal 
will again bear testimony I do not trust in vain. 

f( 22nd. Now reader, whoever thou art, young 
and thoughtless, or old and reflecting, was I not right 
to trust in God ? Was it vanity ? Was it presumption ? 
Was it weakness ? To-day, this very day, I have 
sold my Curtius, when only yesterday I had no hope ; 
and my heart beat, and my head whirled, and my hand 
shook at my distress. I had taken the butter knife off 
the table to raise 3s. 

" ( Then they cried unto the Lord in their trouble, 
and he saved them out of their distresses.' Ps. cvii. 
v. 17. 

" How often have I occasion to write this ! 

" 27th. Would any man believe that for the thirty- 
five years I was intimate with Wilkie, for twenty of 
them most intimate, I never knew he kept a journal of 
the weaknesses, follies, and habits of his friends ? 

" May 3rd. Out the whole day on money. Sold 
Curtius, but got a bill at six months, which in the city is 
awful. Came home, weary, hot, penniless ; lunched and 
fell asleep: awoke by the servants fighting in the kitchen; 
went to my painting-room and looked at Alexander, 
and remembered a beautiful day lost. Brunskill, my 
model, obliged to go, as I could not attend to him. 
Called on a lawyer and begged for mercy for 27/. till 
Saturday ; refused. At dinner, Bishop came and 

250 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON. [1843. 

sent in a note. I came out and was served with a writ. 
As I came down Chancery Lane, a cab wheel came off 
and down came horse. The horse, in his struggles, put 
himself in the action of Bucephalus. I studied him 
gloriously. The very thing, and shall try it at once. 

" 8th. Monday, Exhibition opened. Went down, 
and found Saragossa placed so disgracefully high that 
its execution, expression and tone were utterly lost. 
This will be the last malicious bite of my bitter enemies, 
early and late, even to the grave. Felt great agony at 
my necessities. I have every chance of my cartoons 
being laid hold of after all my necessities and struggles. 

" 10th. Called on Leslie to-day and was much 
amused at his accounts of Wilkie. Leslie said capitally, 
e Wilkie was so anxious to do everything exactly like 
other people, he made himself odd in trying to be 
natural.' At Lawrence's funeral Constable was his 
pendant. Cope, the city marshal, stood before them in 
a splendid cocked hat and black scarf. Wilkie was 
fond of painting cocked hats ; and while looking down 
with all the semblance of woe said to Constable, f Just 
look at that cocked hat. It 's grand ! ' 

" 18th. A young pupil came to-day and paid me 
100/. part of 2007. premium. lo Pasan ! was I not right 
to endure as seeing One who is invisible ? 

" Made a capital sketch of Nelson at Copenhagen. 

" 20th. Laid up with a burnt foot from steaming 
the cartoons the last time. Another blessing attending 
on 100/. Could not stand to paint, so I wrote my 
memoirs, eight hours. 

" 22nd. Laid up; wrote all day. I really am 
astonished at my thinking at twenty-six, now I extract 
from my Journal. 

" June 1st. O God, I thank Thee that this day I 
have safely placed my cartoons in Westminster Hall. 
Prosper them ! It is a great day on my mind and soul. 


I bless thee I have lived to see this day. Spare my 
life, O Lord, until I have shown thy strength unto 
this generation, and thy power unto that which is 
to come. Am in deep gratitude to have lived to such 
a day. 

" I found Eastlake, my pupil, walking about. He 
was most happy to see me. I said, ( Do you recollect 
drinking tea with me in 1808, and telling me my con- 
versation had made you a painter?' e I do,' said he, 
' and there is no doubt of it.' And ' Do you remember,' 
said he, ' coming with me into Westminster Hall, and 
drawing a gigantic limb on the wall with the end of 
your umbrella, saying, " This is the place for Art"?' I 
did not. He said I actually did so, thirty years ago ; 
and he remembered my jumping up to reach high. 
Now here we were, master and pupil, marching about, 
and the first act of this great drama of Art just be- 
ginning. O God ! when I reflect on thy leading me on 
so many years from the beginning, I must believe I 
ever have been, and ever shall be, protected by Thee. 

" How interesting that we were both from Devon ; 
both having finished our schooling at Plympton Gram- 
mar School, where Reynolds was educated. 

" 7th. Wrote my Life vol. ii. Three weeks of 
nothing but thinking. Dead thinking without the 
excitement of painting fatigues me. I hope soon to 
get to work ; painting is such a delight. Since 
March 15th, when I finished my cartoon, I have ad- 
vanced and rubbed in Alexander and prepared for my 
fresco, but have not done much else. My foot better." 

The day for the opening of the Cartoon Exhibition 
was now approaching. 

" 10th. Wyse said the exhibition (at Westminster 
Hall) would honour the school. I thank God for it. 
These Journals bear testimony to my belief in British 
genius. I have never spared any instruction or expensQ 

252 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1843. 

to advance it. Another pupil for a short time paid 257. 
to-day. God be thanked for it ! Things are looking 
well, and I shall live to see my dear country's glory yet, 
as I always predicted. 

" 15th. Six months of the year gone ! I have done 
one cartoon, one sketch of Curtius, one sketch of Nelson, 
advanced Alexander, which ought to have been done ; 
and have finished my first volume of memoirs. For 
three months, since March 15th, I have not ex- 
erted myself as I ought, and for the last month I have 
been lame. Truly have I been wounded in the service. 
Last year I ran a bayonet through my foot while 
painting Saragossa; and this, I burnt my other foot 
while steaming my cartoon. 

"\^th. Perhaps God may punish me, as he did 
Napoleon, as an example, for pursuing a great object 
with less regard to moral principle than became a 
Christian, that is, raising money to get through, 
careless of the means of repaying, though I had reason 
to hope the aristocracy would have helped me by pur- 
chase to keep my word. The decision will take place 
in a few days. What ought I to have done? Kept 
my cartoons, and showed them alone ? It would have 
been a wiser plan ; but it would have been shrinking 
from a contest with my brothers, which might have 
turned to my disadvantage. It is my policy to go 
through without complaint all the steps degradation 
points to, to give them no excuse for not employing 
me, and what then? Shall I be employed? No, 
indeed ; but have the door slammed in my face, while 
my enemies will chuckle at my degradation and sub- 

" This is the last time, I think, I will compete. 

" I have made up my mind to a reverse. Though I 
trust in God with confidence, yet I am not sure I am 
yet sufficiently cleansed by adversity not to need more 

1843 ] NOT SUCCESSFUL. 253 

of it. For the sake of my boys, and only daughter, 
and, above all, for the sake of my dear Mary, I hope 
not. To have exhibited cartoons alone would have 
been an act of defiance to the Royal Commission and 
of mistrust. But would I not have been justified when 
there were Academicians amongst the judges, though 
the Prince has the casting vote ? 

" 18th. Went to church at St. George's, Hanover 
Square, and felt the most refreshing assurance of pro- 
tection and victory. The last time I was there I received 
the Sacrament and did not give my only sovereign in 
charity as I ought, which gave me great pain. To-day, 
when the Dean of Carlisle implored assistance for the 
Church Fund, saying 550,000 persons by it had been 
provided with seats where none had been erected before, 
I thought I'd give Is., then 2s. 6d., 10s. 6d. At last 
said a voice within me, ' That sovereign you ought to 
have given.' ' I will,' I felt, and took it out and gave 
it to the plate with as pure a feeling as ever animated a 
human breast. O God, prosper it ! Thus have I ex- 
piated my neglect. 

(( 26th. In great money distress, having paid away 
all my receipts, 1257. in five weeks. I have now 
21/., 11Z. 3s., 107. to pay this week, and not a pound. 
How I am neglected in employment large or small !" 

The opening of the Cartoon Exhibition was fixed for 
the 3rd of July. On the 27th of June Haydon received 
intelligence from Eastlake that his cartoons were not 
included among those selected for reward ! 

The next entry in the Journal is three days later: 

"30^. I went to bed in a decent state of anxiety. 
It has given a great shock to my family, especially to 
my dear boy, Frank, and revived all the old horrors of 
arrest, execution, and debt. It is exactly what I pre- 
dicted, and it is, I think, intentional. I called on 
William Hamilton, and found he had adopted, with ex- 

254 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1843. 

quisite tact, the tone of society. He told me Sir Robert 
felt annoyed at my restless activity about the arts ; that 
I interfered in everything I had no business to do. I 
said, I had ; that the School of Design had gone to ruin 
as I predicted, and that they had been obliged to adopt 
the figure, which they never would have done but for 
my repeated interference. He said, You wrote about 
the Arabesques : now we had settled to buy them before; 
and it was intrusion ! ' Good heavens ! no feeling for 
rny enthusiasm for Art ; but such is Sir Robert's 
dignity a natural impulse is an offence. Hamilton said, 
if he mentioned my name it was an insult. He really 
gives me up. He stuck to me to the last, but this de- 
cision has proved to him the hopelessness of defending 
me any longer. Hamilton had no objection to my in- 
trusion on the Elgin Marble question, and gave me the 
motto. He said, ' You should write to Sir Robert 
Peel.' Yes ( We did not give him a prize, but, poor 
fellow, we relieved him.' That won't do. 

" I am wounded, and being ill from confinement it 
shook me ; but not more than the decision of the Gallery 
at twenty-six (in 1812). 

"July 1st. A day of great misery. I said to my 
dear love, ' I am not included.' Her expression was a 
study. She said, ( We shall be ruined.' I looked up 
my lectures, papers and journals, and sent them fco my 
dear ^schylus Barrett, with two jars of oil (1816), 
twenty-seven years old. I burnt loads of private letters, 
and prepared for executions. Lords Alford and North- 
ampton and William Hamilton took additional shares 
in Saragossa. 7/. was raised on my daughter's and 
Mary's dresses. 

" On Monday I went down and was astonished at 
the power displayed. There are cartoons equal to any 
school. My own looked grand, like the effusion of a 
master, soft and natural, but not hard and definite; 


too much shadow for fresco; fit for oil; but there were 
disproportions. I gained great knowledge. The Death 
of Lear, Alfred in the Danish Camp, Constance, were 
never exceeded. But the great mistake and it has 
been a tremendous one is the selection of a pupil of 
De la Roche's for the prize.* The injury it will do is 
incalculable, for, instead of destroying the prejudices 
against British genius it will root them deeper than 
ever. For what has the Commission done? It has unjustly 
preferred a foreign production to the splendid produc- 
tions of natives, and thus excited the power of Britain 
only to mock it and expose it to more ridicule than 
ever insulted it before. Thus this Royal Commission 
has backed Winkleman and Du Bos, and done more 
injury than was ever done by the bitterest enemy. I 
was introduced to the young artist and his father, and 
had a long and interesting talk. I found out the system 
of De la Roche and do not wonder at the bad drawing 
of his school. 

" I3th. Worked a little ; the only day I have been 
able to stand for two months. Began Nelson Sealing 
the Letter at Copenhagen and improved Alexander. 
God be thanked ! 

" 15th. Worked, but unhappily. I am ashamed to 
own how the attacks of the press wound me. Curious 
that now the press sees all that I fought for is coming 
to pass, they seem to have particular pleasure in pre- 
venting my tasting any of its fruits. How cruel it is I 
What a pleasure they seem to take in preventing people 
from accomplishing the darling object of their existence. 

" 1 6th. Prayed, but felt harassed, One struggles 
still to trust in God, but I am afraid to do so any longer, 

* This is an error. Mr. Armitage, who is here referred to, ob- 
tained one of the highest premiums, Mr. Cope and Mr. Watts car- 
rying off the others, and all three being equal. 

256 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1843. 

from my own un worthiness. ( Ask,' Christ has said, ( it 
shall be given ; knock and it shall be opened.' 

" < If a child asked a father for food, would he give 
him a serpent ? How much more would your heavenly 

f( I ask from my heart, Thou good Being, to be 
saved, with my family, from the fatal ruin which must 
overwhelm me and them without Thy interference, pro- 
mising repentance sincere and intense. 

" 22nd. ' I sought the Lord, and He helped me, and 
delivered me from all my fears.' It is indeed cruel of 
Sir Robert Peel to have sanctioned such decisions, and 
to have left out my cartoons, deserving as they are, after 
the battle I have fought for so many years. It is a blow 
at me, and a warning to others how they presume to tell 
truth, to fight for truth, or persevere for truth's sake. 

" 23rd. ~ I knelt down and thanked God for His 
merciful blessing this week. I have got through its 
difficulties up to this instant, eleven o'clock, Saturday, 
as I prayed. Ought I not to be grateful ? Indeed I 
am. 251. I received from a pupil, 157. was lent me, 
and 13/. to-day our dear Mary had from our sons, 
53Z. ; 48 1. of which I have paid away, and saved myself 
up to to-night. O God ! accept my gratitude. Amen. 

" 28th. With my experience of the world, with my 
knowledge of the aristocracy, connoisseurs, and Acade- 
micians ; the aristocracy angry because I told them at 
Oxford they went out knowing as little of Art as they 
came in ; the connoisseurs angry because I proved 
them fools on the Elgin Marbles; the Academicians 
thirsty for revenge because I brought them before a 
committee, how could I be so weak as to give these 
three classes an opportunity of inflicting a blow, in hopes 
that my age would not be able to bear it so well as at 
twenty-six ? O Haydon, Haydon ! Your love of Art 
and your willingness at fifty-seven to think better than 


you knew of your species, got the better of your com- 
mon sense. I imagined at such a bright epoch all 
hearts would unite, all hearts rejoice, all hearts forget 
and forgive for the sake of the great object of advancing 
the standard taste of the country. What was there to 
forgive ? A too ardent zeal and over-anxious ardour 
for the principles of High Art, offensive to the autho- 
rities who wished to check it. Shocking, but true ! 
Three times did Sir Charles Bell struggle to get ap- 
pointed lecturer to the Academy, and failed ; three 
times did I, and failed likewise. Bell said he was con- 
vinced the old members wished to obstruct. 

" Made a sketch of Lord Willoughby's head for ten 
guineas, and got another order for 207. ; so that I have 
escaped, so far, the executions I dreaded. I have been 
blessed this week : God be thanked heartily. Amen. 
I have been humiliated by this disappointment, but cor- 
rected. We were all too high. I bow. 

" Aug. 5th. Finished my lecture, but much harassed 
in money matters. Went out in all the horrors of an 
execution, which I got delayed till Tuesday. Came 
home and finished my lecture. Yet I trust in God. 
He will carry me through. 

" 1th. Occupied all day with preparations for lec- 
ture,- God grant it success. Heard of Rumohr's 

" 8th. Thank God, my lecture was the most brilliant 
success. How mysteriously am I influenced ! O God, 
accept my deepest gratitude. Amen. Many members 
were there and cheered me much. It was the com- 
pletest success in a lecture I ever had. 

f( \\tft. Hankered after my divine art, but feel op- 
pressed by my ill-treatment. I hope in God I shall 
recover my enthusiasm, but at present I am exceedingly 
shocked, though my lecture proved I still stood in the 
public feeling higher than ever. 


258 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1843. 

. Another day to go through. Stale, flat 
and unprofitable are days to me. I want change. A 
fortnight by the sea would restore me. My wife and 
daughter want it too ; but we have little hope. I am 
waiting for sitters I detest, and could vomit over. As 
poor Ingres said, ( Je vomirais pour trois jours, I say, 
' Pour toujoursS All this is wicked, for I trust in God. 
My sitters came, but I was so nervously disgusted I 
told them frankly it was not my forte. I presented 
them with a drawing, and begged them to let me off. 
They were so kind, they saw the propriety. They 
shook hands ; and when they were gone I hurried away 
throne and chairs, and felt as if I had got out of a 
thunder-cloud that oppressed me. I breathed and looked 
up at Alexander with glory. Huzza I huzza ! 

" 15th. I went to Southwell to-day to get lodgings 
at a farm-house for my daughter, and was so delighted 
with the air and freshness I sucked it in like nectar. 

" It was a long time before the turbulent ambition 
of my mind could relish it ; but at last I was fairly 
vanquished, and this day's air has completely revived 
me. The buds, the sun, the meadows, all have sunk 
deep into my nature, and made me a new being. 
Thanks to God ! 

" 16th. I felt yesterday exactly as Satan felt when 
he entered Paradise ' Saw undelighted all delight.' 

" 31st. Last day of August. Sir George Cockburn 
sat three quarters of an hour at the Admiralty. I was 
determined to bring him out about Napoleon ; so, after 
a little preliminary chat, I said, ( Sir George, this is an 
opportunity which may never occur again. May I ask 
you one or two questions?' ' You may.' f Why did 
you think meanly of Napoleon?' ' I'll tell you,' said 
he. ' When I went to him with Lord Keith, I went 
prepared to admire him. He behaved violently ; said I 
should pass over his cadavre, that he would not go to 


St. Helena, and so forth. Not caring for all this, I 
said, " At what hour shall I send the boat?" : I forget 
Sir George's continuation, for the servant came in. 
After answering the servant, rather nettled at the in- 
terruption, he went on to say, ' I came at the hour next 
day to take him on board the Bellerophon, prepared to 
use force and ready even for bloodshed. To my utter 
wonder he skipped away, and went on board without a 
word. After all those threats, what do you think of 
that ? At dinner he talked indecently before women, 
and burst forth and gave me a whole history of his 
Egyptian campaign, puffing himself grossly, in fact, 
he would talk of nothing but himself. When we got 
to St. Helena we rode out to choose a situation. He 
wished to have the house in which a family were, in- 
stantly. I explained that a week's notice was only 
decent. He said he could sleep under a tent. As they 
rode down the hill I showed him the room I meant to 
occupy. Napoleon said, " That is the very room I should 
like ; " so it was given up to him. Then he complained 
of the sentries. They were withdrawn, and Serjeants 
put instead. Then he complained of them, and gave his 
honour, if they were removed, he would never violate 
his limits. I yielded, and that very night he went into 
the town. He then asked for the 4,000 napoleons 
taken from him, which was granted ; and he bought up 
all the gold lace and green baize in the town to dress 
up his suite, and spent days in carving and arranging 
this gold lace. Now, these are my reasons for thinking 
meanly of him. He told me lies repeatedly ; and after 
granting him my own room at his own request, he 
wrote the Government that he had been forced into one 

" September 1st. Sir George sat again to-day. He 
said, of the three (Nelson, Collingwood and St. Vincent) 
Collingwood was the best seaman. He said Nelson's 

s 2 

260 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1843. 

Agamemnon was not in the best order. He knew Sir 
Sidney Smith well ; admired him ; but would not have 
entrusted him with a fleet. He said Acre was the very 
place for him. He was not of that high order of mind 
the others were. 

(f 4ith. Went and removed my cartoons. Thus ends 
the cartoon contest ; and as the very first inventor and 
beginner of this mode of rousing the people when they 
were pronounced incapable of relishing refined works of 
Art without colour, I am deeply wounded at the insult 
inflicted. These Journals witness under what trials I 
began them, how I called on my Creator for His 
blessing, how I trusted in Him, and how I have been 
degraded, insulted and harassed. O, Lord ! Thou 
knowest best. I submit. Amen. 

"5th. Awoke severely pained at the insult. Went 
out of town to see Mary. The air and peace relieved 

"6th. Awoke again physically depressed. I got up, 
saying, 'Is this Benjamin Robert Haydon? I'll see if 
I'll be conquered by cartoons.' I resolved to do some 
violent bodily exercise ; so I moved out all my plasters, 
cleaned the windows myself, (I don't wonder servants 
have good appetites), dusted, and got smothered ; 
lifted till my back creaked, and rowed the servant for 
not cleaning my plate (2 forks, 1 table-spoon, and 6 tea- 
spoons; 1 pepper-box and 1 salt-spoon). In fact, by 
perspiration and violent effort I cleared out the cobwebs 
and felt my dignity revive. Now I am safe. 

" 19th. Perhaps I have presumed too much on the 
goodness of my Creator, appealed to Him too much 
and too freely. 

" People wonder why I have been so treated ; but a 
moment's reflection would explain it. Authority, pro- 
perty and law have been so long established in England, 
and such great results have been the consequence of 
their security, that it is considered better to put up with 

1843.] ON HIS ILL-SUCCESS. 261 

any oppressions from authority, however infamous, than 
to endanger its dignity by any resistance, however just. 
I was oppressed by authority ; I revenged it successfully, 
and exposed my oppressors before a committee of the 
House. It was necessary that I should be punished as 
a warning to others. My oppressors are acute and 
talented, malignant and envious men. They are ever 
on the watch to see that I am not patronised or employed 
or distinguished, because I am as acute and talented as 
they are, without their envy ; and inasmuch as they are 
determined to prevent any appearance of my being 
sanctioned, however indirectly, by commission or reward, 
I am determined to give every reward a tendency as if 
it were a sanction against them. Though I first planned 
the decoration of the Lords (1812),made sketches (1819), 
and put them on canvas (1835), and laid them before 
all the Ministries in succession, down to Sir Robert 
Peel, though in my evidence I first planned a central 
school of design and branch schools, and first mentioned 
the Lords' decoration, the Academy, the Government 
and the Commission thoroughly understand each other. 
They have all made up their minds that I must be 
sacrificed as a successful rebel, because I have succeeded 
in spite of four ruins, and will keep my ground in spite 
of four more. My cartoons, therefore, it was clearly 
predetermined, were not to be rewarded, on the principle 
of authority being supported at all hazards. Every 
artist of any feeling saw, whatever merit there might be 
in my cartoons, 1st., that they were the cartoons of a 
painter who could execute them with the brush ; 2nd, 
that no principle of Art had been neglected, as applicable 
in them ; and 3dly, that though there were two or three 
disproportions, from the smallness of the room in which 
they were executed, a day's labour would have remedied 
them: and because a shoulder might be a trifle too 
heavy, or a calf a trifle too large, to deny reward to 

s 3 

262 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1843. 

works whose character, expression and knowledge of 
construction were self-evident, was unjust, tyrannical ; 
particularly taking into consideration that they were 
known to be by a man who made the very first cartoon- 
display ever made, and who, wherever the art was in 
danger from any cause, has shown fight, whatever were 
or might be the consequences. 

ee If among the English nobility there had ever ex- 
isted a desire for High Art, why did no commission 
follow Reynolds's Hercules strangling the Serpents, 
Flaxman's Designs, Hilton's Christ Rejected, Etty's 
Holofernes, my Solomon, and Lazarus, and Xenophon, 
or West's Lear ? ( We have no houses,' said the Duke 
to me ; I could have said to him, ( How comes it your 
Grace hangs up, in your staircase at Strathfieldsaye, 
ITuseli's conception of Satan calling up the Rebel Angels, 
a picture of gigantic size, which you bought for a trifle 
at his sale ? ' It is not that there is no genius. It is 
not that there is no room. It is not that there are no 
houses. It is that you have no desire no taste no 
sensibility to the honour of your great country, where 
Art is concerned. Your Lordships throw the blame on 
the artists where you alone are concerned and to blame. 
You subscribe to British Galleries, to societies, to raffles, 
and to benevolent funds, as you would to Grisi's benefit 
or Lablache's concert, because it is a part of your 
duty, as men of fashion, to keep up your splendour 
during the season ; but you have no love of Art further 
than as it ministers to your vanities, or transcribes, for 
the admiration of posterity, the grace and beauty of 
your wives and children. 

" The whole effervescence will be allowed to die away 
again, and nothing will do but the people taking Art in 
their own hands, and commissioning artists to execute 
great works for great public places.* At present, with 

* See on this subject the remarks of Mr. Watts towards the 
close of this volume. 


all their enthusiasm, they are not educated enough to 
prevent their becoming the victims of jobbers ; and 
therefore I fear to push such a principle yet (though it 
is the only plan to be effected), from the condition of 
the aristocracy, who are totally unfit to conduct such a 

"20th. Spent the whole day with a lion, and came 
home with a contempt for the human species. Before 
the day was over we got intimate. He showed me his 
hideous teeth, and affectionately leaned his head aside 
as I patted him, suffered me to touch his paw and 
smooth his mane. The lioness was in heat, and as 
playful as a kitten, and on my stooping down to get my 
port crayon gave me an affectionate pat on the head 
like the blow of a sledge hammer, but I luckily had my 
hat on. The lion and lioness were kept separate. I 
made most useful studies, and came home rich in know- 
ledge and ready to begin. 

" 30^. Last day of the month. During a few 
days at the latter end I have worked well, but since 
15th April I have never done my duty. Two months 
laid up, and the rest harassed, disappointed and tor- 
mented. But I have now recovered from the pain and 
shock of being so badly treated, and am fairly at work, 
Did Bucephalus to-day by completing the head. For the 
blessings of this month accept my thanks, O God, and 
may I remedy soon the evil. Amen with all my soul." 

From a letter to the Duke of Sutherland (October 

" Be assured I have broken a hard shell, and found more 
ashes than fruit. 

" Different treatment when I was a diligent and obedient 
student would have made me a different man. 

" My education was imperfect : I was never taught the 
properties of self-command, and I flung myself from my 
home on the world ready to revenge insult and keenly alive 
to oppression. 

s 4 

264 MEMOIRS OP B. R. HAYDON. [lS43. 

" Oppression is always more likely to elicit the vices than 
the virtues of the most gentle. 

" I am now hard at work on Alexander killing a Lion, as 
the only subject likely to make me bear up under a cloud of 
mental tortures which make me wonder my faculties remain 
clear. I believe I am meant to try the experiment how 
much a human brain can bear without insanity, or a human 
constitution without death." 

" 4th. Finished my sketch. As I wanted advice, I 
wrote to Collins to come and see the picture, as I al- 
ways considered Collins one of us, Wilkie, Jackson 
and myself, and sound in imitation. He called, and 
we talked as usual about the Academy. Whenever 
Wilkie, Jackson and I met, that was the first question. 
An Academician comes to me ; or I ask him to come ; 
he immediately supposes I have an ulterior view. I 
may regret and do regret the loss of early friendships, 
which my advocacy of my principles occasioned ; but I 
never regret, and never will, the impulses which inspired 
it. They always mistake my private regrets for public. 
I would do exactly as I did if I had to act over again, 
but I regret the position which obliged me to do it. I 
should like to have kept my position in private friend- 
ship, but I would sacrifice it again, as I have done, on 
a principle of public duty, if it were required. 

" If, therefore, I say to Collins or to any old friend, 
* I regret our separation,' it is not that I regret the 
cause, but that separation was the consequence of the 

" 17th. Went to Brighton to sketch Nelson's secre- 
tary, Wallis, who wrote and sealed Lord Nelson's cele- 
brated letter to the Crown Prince at Copenhagen. I 
sketched him. He has a fine head. I returned to 
dinner; so much for steam. 

" 1 9th. Lectured at Greenwich on the Elgin 
Marbles. The people exceedingly enthusiastic. The 


people of this great country are more fit to receive 
Grand Art than the aristocracy are to grant it. 

" 30th. Out the whole day on money, as I have to 
pay Frank's term money, or he loses it. 

" The last day of the month. In September I did 
the Lion. In October I have done Bucephalus, and 
ought to have concluded Alexander, but money dis- 
tresses have hindered me. I conclude the month in 
gratitude to God for still having food, clothing, a bed, a 
house, a love and a brain. 

" November 6th. O God, bless me this day. Amen. 

" A day lost. I went into the city to get time as 
usual, and returned in doubt. Worked at my picture 
in sorrow, set my drapery for to-morrow, and under 
God's blessing will paint, if the Lord Chancellor and 
all his host knocked the door down. 

" 7th. Worked delightfully hard. Threatened with 
a writ at one ; begged till to-morrow ; worked away, 
and got Alexander nearly complete. The writ came at 
eight. The delight I had to-day is almost a com- 
pensation for months of sorrow. At it again to-morrow 
morning at eight, with God's blessing. 

" ISth. The Alexander is nearly done. How grate- 
ful I feel to God for all his mercies during its progress. 

"Put in Alexander's head 19th April; worked till 
middle of May ; then burnt my foot ; laid up and wrote 
till July. The Cartoon decision (being ill from long 
confinement) shook me by its injustice ; began again 
September, till now, altogether four months at the 
picture. July and August out of town, now and then. 
Painted several sketches ; rubbed in Nelson. 

" 28th. Painted a little Napoleon in four hours; 
wetted a little wax in oil, but I don't like it. Alexander 
still laid aside till I fly at the ground in a day or two ; 
I have every prospect of getting through my weekly 
payments. I trust in God with all my heart. Did He 

266 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDOX. [1843. 

ever fail me except when I angered him by sin ? Never. 
I got two orders last night, cheap ; but it is better 
to work for small payment, and to get out of debt, 
than to stand on your pride, and then be obliged to 
borrow after doing the Grand Seigneur. 

" December 6th. Nearly finished another Napoleon 
in four hours, nine to one. 

" 13th. Worked hard, and finished another Napo- 
leon, * Haydon, patent for rapid manufacture of Na- 
poleons Musing.' This is the eighth : Kearsey's, from 
which the engraving is made, the first ; Sir Robert's, 
second ; Duke of Sutherland's, third ; Rogers', fourth ; 
Sir John Hanmer's, fifth ; Bennoch's, Twentyman's 
and Hardy's, three city friends, sixth, seventh and 

" 16th. Worked furiously for seven hours, and 
nearly did a repetition in small of Curtius. Sent home 
two Napoleons, in small, seventh and eighth. I have 
resolved to paint cheap and small, rather than borrow ; 
so far it succeeds, and I hope God will bless it, and that 
I may get out of debt. This week I have been blessed, 
and have worked hard. 

" 19th. Worked and finished a small Curtius, and 
rubbed in a Napoleon ; the ninth. 

"22nd. ( How to paint a Historical Picture,' and 
f How to make use of ancient sculpture applied to the 
forms of High Art,' would be two capital subjects for new 
lectures. Composed a letter on professors of Art at 
Oxford and Cambridge before going to sleep, between 
four and five, and awoke again at seven, brimming. 
Worked and finished Napoleon ; got in another Napo- 
leon. Met a friend in Pall Mall who possesses that 
head of Lorenzo di Medici ; I collared him, and said, 
* Your life or a Napoleon ? ' He burst out a-laughing, 
and said, ( A Napoleon, of course ; ' so I went home and 
got it in before four. 


< 30M. Finished Alexander to-day at the British 
Institution, by toning down the sky, and the whole 
looked strong and rich ; how Sir George would have 
relished its mode of colour and touch ! I thank God 
for all his mercies during the whole thing. Had I not 
had a great picture to fly to, I could not have stood my 
ground. I have Macbeth and Napoleon rubbed in for 
instant application ; I carried my lunch with me, and 
did what no mortal ever did before in that room, broiled 
it on the coals, and with a pint of the coldest pump 
water lunched heartier than the Queen. It was the 
south room, where all that were illustrious and great 
have walked on those splendid nights we used to have : 
Davy, Wilkie, Talma, Lamb, Hazlitt, Beaumont, 
Madame de Stael, Talleyrand, Canning, Wellington, 
Lady Jersey, and my own love, Mary. Such is human 
destiny! Alexander the Great was before me, a 
mutton chop on the coals. I had just written to Words- 
worth, full of poetry on my reflections at being alone 
in a gallery where I had seen such splendid scenes, and 
such illustrious people. My chop was cooked to a tee ; 
I ate it like a Red Indian, and drank the cool trans- 
lucent with a gusto a wine-connoisseur knows not. I 
then thought the distant cloud was too much advanced ; 
so toning it down with black I hit the mark, and pro- 
nounced the work done. lo Paean! and I fell on 
my knees and thanked God, and bowed my forehead, 
and touched the ground, and sprung up, my heart beat- 
ing at the anticipation of a greater work, and a more 
terrific struggle. 

"This is B. R. Hay don the real man may he 
live a thousand years ! and here he sneezed lucky ! 

"30J/4. It is past two, and lam retiring to rest. 
In less than sixty minutes 1843 will be swallowed up in 
the gulph of time; 1823 was my first ruin; 1843 
nearly brought me again to prison ; but I never was 

268 MEMOIRS OP B. R. HAYDON. [1844. 

better, and have got through. I have lived to carry 
the great principle of state support, and, as Wilkie said, 
to be convinced I shall be the least likely to taste its 
fruits. Such is the gratitude of mankind to those who 
tell them the truth, and devote themselves to their ser- 
vice. My sons are doing well ; my Mary is as lovely 
as ever ; my own health stronger than at eighteen ; my 
faith in God now become an instinct, and my want of 
money the same; I have got through another great 
work, if not the greatest, Alexander, and am now fit 
for others. O God ! bless the beginning, progression 
and conclusion of 1844; and though I have less sin to 
repent of than ever I had before, let me at its conclusion 
have conquered even that ! 

" Amen, in gratitude and peace, amen. 


" January 1st. Worked and nearly did a large 
Napoleon's head ; had a rough canvas with a delicious 

" 2nd. Finished the body of Napoleon ; went out 
on business in snow and sleet. The head and hat looked 

" 3rd. Finished the Napoleon figure in three days ; 
I could do it in one summer day ; to-morrow for the 
sea, the next for the sky. 

" th. Another day of work ; God be thanked ! 
Put in the sea, a delicious tint. How exquisite is a 
bare canvas, sized alone, to paint on ; how the colour 
drags over; how the slightest colour, thin as water, 
tells ; how it glitters in body ; how the brush flies, 
now here now there; it seems as if face, hands, sky, 
thought, poetry and expression were hid in the handle, 
and streamed out as it touched the canvas. What 
magic ! what fire ! what unerring hand and eye ! what 
fancy ! what power ! what a gift of God ! I bow and 
am grateful. 


" 10th. It is extraordinary what a guard I am 
obliged to keep on myself. The moment the excite- 
ment of a great work is over, if I do riot go at another, 
I am sure to burst out in writing. My brain seems to 
require constant pressure to be easy, and my body in- 
cessant activity. In a great public work alone I shall 
ever find rest, which will never be afforded me. 

" Moved the Napoleon to the Gallery ; it looked well. 

" 14th. Half the month is gone, and I have done 
my duty: carry me through the remainder, O thou 
most merciful Being! Amen. I have income-tax and 
Heaven knows what to pay ; but I trust where I have 
trusted so often before. These first fourteen days I 
have done my duty well ; I have prepared two pictures 
for completion, and I hope to get successfully through 
them. I am convinced my mind would have sunk had 
I not had Solomon in early life, and Alexander last 
June, to contend with and fly to : a great work under 
all circumstances is a stimulus to exertion." 

The question of Sir Joshua Reynolds's authorship of 
his Discourses was revived this year by an assertion of 
the Times reviewer of Wilkie's life, that Burke " had 
touched up and revised, if he did not altogether write, 
Sir Joshua's Discourses." The subject had before this 
occupied Haydon's attention, but he was now lucky 
enough to obtain, through Sir Joshua's surviving niece, 
Mrs. G watkin, conclusive evidence that the Discourses 
were entirely of Sir Joshua's own composition, written 
indeed, in great part, in his niece's presence, and with- 
out any assistance from Burke. Mrs. Gwatkin, then 
living at Plymouth, and in her eighty-ninth year, writes 
(on the llth of January) : 

*' Intimately associated as I was with my uncle Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, and conversant as I was both with his occupations 
and habits, I can take upon myself positively to assert that 

270 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1844. 

he was the author, the unassisted author, of the Discourses 
on Painting. The numerous MSS. that I have in my 
possession penned by my uncle on various subjects, and 
often in my presence and that of my sister, the Marchioness 
of Thomond, when it was his habit to walk up and down 
the room in which we were sitting, and as the thought 
occurred commit it to paper, and the subject of those 
thoughts, is a convincing proof, and would furnish such 
proof to any person of literary talent, that Sir Joshua 
possessed a mind of original conception and considerable 
power, needing no assistance from Burke either in com- 
position, or 'retouching' of his discourses; and as Burke 
and my uncle were men of dissimilar and characteristic 
talent, and Burke had not that conception of idea as to the 
art of painting which must have originated in my uncle's 
mind, the unfair calumny on his fame can have no credible 
foundation with those who either knew him or Burke. 

" Northcote in his preface to the life of Sir J. K. says, 
' Another motive to my undertaking this subject was that 
some of the circumstances which I had to relate might help 
to clear Sir Joshua in respect to the unwarrantable ideas 
many persons have entertained, that he was not the author 
of his own Discourses.' 

" In regard to Farringdon I know not that he was the 
immediate cause of my uncle's resignation, as Sir J. R. does 
not mention his name in his account of that transaction ; 
but I will give you a little extract I have just made from 
the MS. I have relative to it, without being able to throw 
any light upon who the spokesman is meant to be : ' An 
Academician, who has long been considered as the spokes- 
man of the party, demanded who ordered those drawings to 
be sent to the Academy? President answered it was by 
his order. Asked a second time in a still more peremptory 
tone, and the president said, " I did." " I move that they be 
turned out, or sent out of the room. Does any one second 
my motion?"' I have to apologise for being so long in 
answering your note, and am 

"Yours, &c. 

1844.] AT WORK. 271 

" 25th. My birthday fifty-eight. Good heavens ! 
Forty years ago I surveyed my acquirements and life, 
and planned a course of study. The course of study I 
have pursued was in French, Italian, Latin and Greek. 
I think I do not know an atom more than I did at 
eighteen. Worked, but not pleased with the Duke's 
head. I was warming some oil when it caught fire, and 
roared up the chimney ; a good omen on my birthday. 
I shall yet make a blaze in the world more than ever." 

Painting Napoleons, in all manners of musings, had 
now become regular bread and cheese work with Haydon. 

"February 1st. Worked, and finished a sketch of 
Curtius, and began to finish another of Romeo and 
Juliet. Alexander they have not hung up at the Gal- 
lery. I fear some prejudice. They took Napoleon 
and Saragossa, which are old pictures, but declined 
hanging Alexander. This is the first time such an in- 
sult occurred to me. As I get older, I fear it will be 

" I5th. Worked well, and finished a small sketch 
of Napoleon in his bedroom the night before his abdi- 
cation, 1814. 

"16^. Thank the Duke of Sutherland who sent 
me 25/., and ordered me to send my cartoon of Edward 
the Black Prince to Stafford House. I hope he means 
to buy it. I felt such agony at my want of money, 
while I had legal securities coming due, that in the 
middle of the night I awoke and felt as if the Lord had 
quite deserted me. I turned over my late actions, and 
found as little sin as might be expected, perhaps less. I 
appealed to God for mercy. 

" 20th. Worked gloriously, and got in Napoleon in 
Fontainebleau Garden. Three musings Fontaine- 
bleau, Bedroom, Ocean. 

" 2lst. Went to poor Yon Hoist's funeral, a 
young man of considerable genius, who died from disap- 

272 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1844, 

pointment in the prime of life, who felt his want of nature 
and candidly told me so, but said it was too late, which 
was a mistake. As his sister stood lingering at the 
brink of the grave, I thought what a touching subject 
it would make f The last look,' and when the ser- 
vice was reading in the dim chapel, the Resurrection 
and Judgment on each side in fresco entered into my 
head. Oh, if I am not let loose before I die, what a 
pity it will be ! 

" One of the women said to me with the greatest 
simplicity, ' We are all so delighted at this mark of re- 
spect to poor Theodore and he will be delighted too.' 

"23rd. Worked hard, and got another Napoleon 
done, musing the night before his abdication, 1814. 

" 29th. End of February. I thank God for all his 
mercies, and they have been great. I have painted a 
dozen Napoleon sketches, finished Alexander, painted a 
large Napoleon. Surely I have done my duty. I could 
not have done more. 

" March 4th. Worked well, and finished Napoleon 
meditating at Marengo. 

" 5th. Worked con furore, and finished Napoleon 
in Egypt, musing on the Pyramids at sunrise. Collins 

" 6th. Got in and sketched the Duke and Copen- 

" 1th. Nearly finished the Duke and Copenhagen. 
I have painted nineteen Napoleons. Thirteen musings 
at St. Helena, and six other musings, and three Dukes 
and Copenhagens. By heavens ! how many more ? 

" It is impossible to get that equality of gemmy 
surface Reynolds and the old masters got but by impas- 
ting the whole canvas before you begin, and painting 
into it. Equal quantities of mastic varnish and old raw 
linseed oil (half a pint each), a bit of pure wax as big 
as your thumb, and without spermaceti (be sure), makes 


a divine vehicle, simmered ten minutes over a chafing 
dish, not over the fire in the grate, for I upset the whole 
and it went roaring up the chimney. Engines came, and 
I was forced to pay 17. lls. Sir Joshua paid 51. 5s. for 
the same thing. 

" 9th. Worked at the Duke. Sent home six Na- 
poleons Musing, five guineas a-piece. What would Sir 
George, Lord Mulgrave and Wilkie say to this ? Got 
orders for three more at six guineas. At any rate this 
is rising. 

" e You will be compelled,' said Burke to Barry, ' to 
do anything for anybody, and you will go out of the 
world fretted, disappointed and ruined.' If I do, may 
I be d d. Hem I " 

Mention has often been made in the Journals of Hay- 
don's anxiety to see Art professorships at the Univer- 
sities. This idea had found a distinguished supporter 
in Mr. Greswell of Worcester College, Oxford. But 
the Oxford man thought, of course, of working with the 
aid of the established authorities, the Academy and 
the Minister. This would not do, in Haydon's opinion. 

" 20th. Wrote all day and finished my lecture on 
English High Art. Blazed gloriously at the latter part. 
The simplicity of Oxford professors is delightful. Gres- 
well, at Worcester, read a lecture on professors of Art, 
which I proposed, 1840. It was received, as my offer 
was, with pleasure : up comes the simple man, never 
comes to me, but goes to the Academy. They invite 
him to dine, pump him of his intentions, find he means 
to write Peel. They prepare Peel for the applica- 
tion and sneer at the whole thing. Greswell falls into 
the snare, writes Sir Robert, gets the usual official reply 
and is thunderstruck at his apathy. Back he goes, finds 
the dons entirely altered now the minister is cool, and 
the plan is thrown back two degrees." 

This month Haydon visited and lectured again at 


274 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1844. 

Liverpool and Manchester, painting a brace of Napo- 
leons first, I suppose to raise funds for his journey. 

" 23rd. Came down to Liverpool by train with a 
young blood, who talked away about the House, till the 
awful and usual question from me, ( Are you a member ? ' 
quieted him. 

" 24th. Took a hot sea-bath. Awoke this morning 
with that sort of audible whisper Socrates, Columbus 
and Tasso heard : ' Why do you not paint your own 
six designs for the House on your own foundation, and 
exhibit them ? ' I felt as if there was no chance of my 
ever being permitted to do them else, without control 
also. I knelt up in my bed and prayed heartily to ac- 
complish them, whatever might be the obstruction, as I 
had got through my other works. I will begin them 
as my next great works ; I feel as if they will be my 
last, and I think I shall then have done my duty. O 
God ! bless the beginning, progression and conclusion 
of these six great designs, to illustrate the best govern- 
ment to regulate without cramping the energies of 
mankind. Grant me health of mind and body, vigour, 
perseverance and undaunted courage ; let no difficulty 
or want obstruct me ; but let me put forth to their full 
intensity the powers of mind with which thou hast 
blessed me, to thy glory, and the elevation and innocent 
pleasure of my country ; and grant the moral duties due 
to my dear children and wife may not be neglected, 
whatever may be my ambition, my delight, my rapture 
in my art. Above all, let me daily implore Thy bles- 
sing, and fearlessly believe in Thy aid till the great 
work be accomplished, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

<f One of the most remarkable days and nights of my 
life. I slept at the Adelphi last night, high up, and 
just at break of day I awoke, and felt as if a heavenly 
choir was leaving my slumbers as day dawned, and had 
been hanging over and inspiring me whilst I slept. I 


had not dreamt, but heard the inspiration. When I was 
awake I saw the creeping light. If this be delusion, 
so was Columbus's voice in the roaring of the Atlantic 
\vinds ; but neither was, and under the blessing of God 
the result shall show it as to myself, but only under 
His blessing. 

" April 1 6th. I this day lectured at the Royal In- 
stitution, Albemarle Street, where Davy, Coleridge 
and Campbell had lectured before me. I have been 
kept from this for nine years by the apprehensions the 
Academicians contrived to excite in the minds of the 
managers. Hamilton proposed me two years ago, and 
every one voted against me. This year the managers 
appealed to him to apply to me. He said, ( No : apply 
yourselves. You refused me; to you belongs the gau- 
cherie of asking him.' They did so; and I, seeing the 
great advantage of the hit, Burked my pride (as Burke ad- 
vised) and closed. There was a stir in fashion about my 
lectures, as if my style was not adapted to this audience ; 
but I am happy to say it was a complete hit. I read 
them the same lecture I read at the Mechanics', at 
Oxford, and at Liverpool, and thus have made a hit 
amongst all classes of society. 

" 18th. Occupied and harassed in a just distribution 
of my gains. Obliged to leave out the good-natured to 
get rid of the ill-natured. Not just." 

The following letter from Haydon's life-long friend 
Seymour Kirk up a name familiar to all English lovers 
of Art who know Florence, and to whom we owe the 
discovery of Giotto's portrait of Dante in the Bargello 
of that city gives a graceful and interesting detail of 
the fete of the Buonarroti family, in the Palazzo where 
their great ancestor lived and worked : 

" I thought of you the other night. I received a kind 
note from the Chevalier Cosimo Buonarroti to come to their 
fete, the birthday of M. A. There I met young Michelag- 

T 2 

276 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1844. 

nolo, the painter (very like the Yecchio in the face before 
he let his beard grow to a fashionable point), and Faustina, 
the lady you formerly heard of, now grown grey, but a very 
nice English-looking gentlewoman. Her daughter is lately 
married. Ugly but attractive. Well. There was the house 
full of company, nobility, arts, sciences, and all the talents 
music a grand cantata written for the occasion by a first- 
rate maestro, and sung by a niece of Cosimo's, a first-rate 
private singer, the famous Testa, and the famous gallery 
lighted up and turned into a buffet for tea and ices, all bril- 
liant and happy. At the top of the gallery, in his niche, sits 
the hero himself ; a fine statue with much of the style of 
Lorenzo in the chapel, only not so gloomy. I never saw it 
well before, for it is between the windows. It is very alive 
and noble, and he was crowned for the occasion with a 
massive gold wreath, that agreed so with the action that he 
seemed to feel it and exult. I am no sniveller, but I should 
have wept outright with an unaccountable pleasure if I had 
been alone. I could hardly master it as it was. The gal- 
lery was built by his nephew Leonardo (several of whose 
books I have with his name in them), and he employed the, 
best painters of his school. It is about forty feet long and 
fifteen broad. On each side are four large pictures, life size, 
divided by pilasters and two doors. The subjects are scenes 
in the life of M. A. in Rome, with different Popes, in Flo- 
rence, at the siege, &c. ; of course the costumes and like- 
nesses are authentic. At the bottom is one large unfinished 
fresco by his own hand, between two doors. The ceiling is 
divided into a number of compartments by richly gilt cross 
beams, and each contains a painting relating to him. 

" The family are poor, but Cosimo has got on in the law. 
He is a judge; a mild, weak sort of man, and he speaks 
very good English, as his sister Faustina does likewise. 
Michelagnolo is their first cousin. He is younger, and a 
painter, and not so well off. He possesses a villa with some 
chalk sketches on the wall by the great one. 

" N. B. I have a bas-relief sketch in terracotta which I 
had from the walls of the Grotti Palace in Venice. (Andrea 
was his friend.) A Jupiter and Antiope, first-rate. 


" They (the B.'s) possess quantities of letters and a thick 
volume of inedited MS. in his own hands, which there is no 
mistaking. The most extraordinary of all his successors 
was the father of Cosimo, Filippo, who died in Paris long 
ago. He wrote an account of the conspiracy of Babceuf, of 
which he was himself a magna pars. You may see it at any 
library. The title, Conspiration pour fegalite, dite de 
Babceuf \ par Ph. Buonarroti. Bruxelles, 1828, 2 vols. 
in 8vo." 

"22nd. Called on Mrs. Stewart Mackenzie at Old 
Palace, Richmond. Breakfasted and had a delightful 
talk. Colonel Fraser, latterly of the Guards, who lost 
his leg at Burgos, was there, and set me down on his 
return. We had a most delightful chat about the 

" He told me the men always knew when the Duke 
was at headquarters because they got their sleep as well 
as he his. When the Duke was absent the men were 
always harassed, from the anxiety of the officer in com- 

" He said the Duke, as soon as he had foreseen and 
prepared everything, slept like a top, or sat down quietly 
and wrote a long letter about anything but military 

" Colonel Fraser said it was curious to see the se 
curity of everybody if they knew or saw the Duke 
was present. 

"30th. Lectured at the Royal Institution and 
finished the introductory lectures three. It is a 
great triumph indeed to have made people of fashion go 
through the process of an artist, and I hope it will have 
its effect. 

" Several men of fashion were present, and took an 
interest in the proceedings, and many women of fashion 
and beauty. 

" These principles must sink deeper, and having gone 

278 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1844. 

through all classes of society I trust in God I have laid 
the foundation of a thorough reform. 

" Thus ends April, and I have not painted the whole 
month; but I really wanted repose. 

"May 1st. I this day again (after lecturing till I 
am exhausted, twenty-two lectures in sixteen days, 
and beginning again the instant I came to town) have 
reset my palette. It pains me even to leave it. O 
God ! bless my recommencement, progression and con- 
clusion till the end of the year, and whilst I live. 

" 1th. Lectured at the Royal Institution. 

" There is a picture at the Academy by Mulready, 
which is as great an epoch in the colour of our do- 
mestic school as was Wilkie's Blind Fiddler in com- 
position, The Whistonian Controversy. 

" 10th. O God! bless the conception, execution 
and conclusion of my new work begun this day. Let 
me bring it to a successful conclusion, and bless it with 
sale and success. Let no necessity or difficulty deter, 
nor ill-health injure or delay me. Amen. 

" Rubbed in Uriel and Satan. 

" Wrote Tite, the architect of the Royal Exchange, 
pointing out the opportunity which the flats on the 
Royal Exchange offered for a series of designs illus- 
trating the rise and progress of our commercial great- 

This year the competition in fresco, supplementary 
to that in cartoons, was opened in Westminster Hall, to 
which Haydon, disheartened by his previous ill-success, 
did not send anything. 

"18th. At my dear Harman's sale Sir Joshua's 
Age of Innocence fetched 1596Z. ; Hobbima (Smith's 
Catalogue, 118.), 1942/. 105. ; Le Bonnet Vert, 693/. ; 
Jan Stein (No. 43. S. Cat.), 630Z. ; Ostade (S. Cat. 
114.), 1386J. (1320 guineas); Vandevelde (S. Cat. 
21.), 1399Z. 'Le Coup de Canon.' The National 


Gallery bid 1510 guineas for the Sir Joshua. I met 
Sir John Hanmer yesterday. He said, ( Do you com- 
pete for this fresco ? ' ( No, certainly ; I Ve had enough 
of competition.' ( The fortune of war,' said he. * No, 
Sir John,' said I; 'the treachery of the enemy.' 

" These sales are melancholy ; Sir George Young's, 
Lord Lansdowne's, Sir Joshua's, Wilkie's, and now 

" 19th. As I sit looking at my picture, Uriel and 
Satan, I cannot help remembering the friends now gone, 
who used to call in on a Sunday and talk, and criticise, 
and cheer up Lord Mulgrave, Sir George, Wilkie, 
Jackson, General and Augustus Phipps. How all was 
hope, and novelty, and anticipation ! And after forty 
years of most anxious study I am again at it in just as 
much necessity, or more, as when I painted my first 
picture in 1806, thirty-eight years ago. Hardly any 
one now feels an interest in my proceedings ; yet my 
proceedings always do excite an interest, and my fate is 
not fulfilled. My dear old friends are passed, and have led 
the way. After a few years I must follow them. The 
state of things is melancholy. I anticipate nothing from 
the promised opportunity for fresco, the spaces are 
contemptibly small. The nature of fresco decoration 
does not seem understood. 

" The sale of small pictures yesterday has made a 
deeper impression on me than all advice. It is only by 
moderate-sized works a reputation gets into possession 
of foreign nations. The size of life, or small canvases, 
will secure reward, and not lose reputation. The gems 
of Sir Joshua are as broad as Michael Angelo's execu- 
tion. They are in the true grand style of execution 
for any size, and yet by the moderation of his canvas he 
is admissible anywhere. My object has been to create 
and rouse up a high feeling for Art, which full-sized 
works only give ; but I ought not to be accused of 

T 4 

280 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1844. 

shrinking if I more frequently now suit the capacities of 
my purchasers. I shall write all this, and then order a 
canvas 12 by 10. I'll combine the two more than I 
have ever done, and see the result. Perhaps it will be 
the same, without the same support from conscience 
which a great work always gives, sale or no sale. 

23rd. Raffled Saragossa to-day : J. G. Lockhart, 
Esq., in the chair; Lord Colborne threw 30, Lord 
Northampton 30, Duke of Sutherland 26, and Webb, 
my old pupil, 11, 11, 10 (32), winning. He was an old 
pupil, introduced to me by Sir George Beaumont, 1819. 
He became disgusted ; set up butter shops ; has 
three in the town ; has made property, and patronises 
his old master ; poor Webb ! There were thirty sub- 
scribers ; the Duke had six shares. Eucles, Xenophon, 
and now Saragossa, were all raffled. Newman Smith 
won Eucles, Duke of Bedford Xenophon, and Webb 

" June 4th. I am tormented with hypochondria and 
melancholy. The thought of the Emperor of Russia's 
arrival, to whom I was presented twenty-eight years 
ago, and of the humiliations I have undergone since I 
saw him, is literally shocking. 

u 9th. Horace Yernet called when I was out. I 
regret it much. Since the Emperor has been here, I 
have not had a quiet thought. He went to-day and I 
am glad of it, because I was not in the position I was in 
twenty-eight years ago ; and I should have felt pain to 
have met him again. 

" IQth. Horace Vernet called to-day after I called 
on him, and we had a regular burst. I called him ' Le 
Paixhan de PeintresJ at which he laughed, and ' Le 
soldat de VArt? I showed him Napoleon Musing, and 
he immediately sketched for me his two uniforms, 
chasseur's and grenadier's, which I framed and kept, 
because they are correct. He wished a hearty farewell, 

1844.] THE DUKE IN A PASSION. 281 

said my Uriel was ( Michel AngelesqueJ but found fault 
with the right knee. He asked for ray other pictures, 
and told me on his return with the King he would see 
them and spend longer time with me. 

" 19th. I went to the cartoons, and dined with a 
pupil at Richmond, at the Star and Garter. I met 
Bailey the sculptor who told me his rencontre with the 
Duke of Wellington. The Duke had written Storr 
and Mortimer he would see Bailey on Wednesday ; 
they told him nothing of it till Wednesday afternoon. 
Off he set on Thursday, and came on the Duke when 
he was deeply studying some papers and details con- 
nected with India (I suspect the Afghanistan affair), 
and after keeping him waiting a whole day, which he 
had set aside. 

(f The Duke came down as soon as Bailey was an- 
nounced, and on entering flew at him in a fury. Bailey 
told me he included in the most violent imprecations 
himself, with all other artists, for what he called ( tor- 
menting him,' adding that his career was over at forty- 
seven, and asking why they could not be content with 
what they had done already. Bailey said he bent his 
fist to knock the clay model to pieces ; but the Duke 
got up on the horse, and Bailey modelled away. 

" When he had done sitting he withdrew, and Bailey 
took his bag up to the steward, and was about to retire 
to the inn to dine. The steward said, 6 Sir, the Duke 
expects you at dinner, and to sleep here.' ( Tell the 
Duke,' said Bailey, 'I'll be hanged if I dine at the table 
of any man who uses me as he has done.' 

" Bailey went to the inn, and was drinking his wine 
when he saw a groom galloping towards the house. He 
inquired for Mr. Bailey. He was shown in. Bailey 
said, ' Tell the Duke I'll neither dine at his table nor 
sleep at his house.' 

" The next day he went again. The Duke came in, 
in a very bad temper, and said, f I suppose I may read 

282 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1844. 

my letters.' He sat and read, and tore open his letters 
in a fury ; Bailey finished. The Duke began to melt 
and excuse himself, and offered to sit again, but Bailey 
declined. Since then the Duke told Mortimer the 
silversmith, he would sit again. I like this, as it is 
amiable ; but Bailey would not accept it. 

" I like this burst of character ; and thank God ! he 
is like ourselves. Bailey assured me he had exaggerated 

" I5th> Altered Napoleon's coat according to Horace 
Vernet's correction. My children's French master, who 
directed me in having a coat made for Sir Robert's 
picture, must have been an impostor. 

" 21th. I spent the morning in the Exhibition, and 
narrowly scrutinised every picture. Macready by Briggs, 
and the President of the Pharmaceutical Society by poor 
William Allen, are fine and powerful. There is not 
besides a really fine picture in the rooms, besides Mul- 
ready's Whistonian Controversy, which is exquisite. 
Creswick's scenery and Danby's Artist's Holiday are ex- 
quisite in their way ; but there is not a single picture in 
the whole place which gives evidence of power to manage 
a great public work." 

In July came a gleam of hope of work in which Hay- 
don would have gloried. The Commission for building 
the Royal Exchange inquired of Mr. Tite, their archi- 
tect, as to the cost of decorating the panels of the 
merchants' area with frescos. The architect immedi- 
ately wrote to make the inquiry of Haydon, who at once 
answered : 

"July 11. 
" Dear Sir, 

" I was honoured by your question, and I am most happy 
to answer it, as you know I have always entertained a con- 
viction that historical fresco decoration was essential to the 
completion of the new Royal Exchange. 

" There are twenty-four large spaces and eight small ones. 


The large ones might be filled with a series of beautiful 
fresco illustrations of our rise, from the earliest to the latest 
period of commercial greatness. The small might contain, 
in chiaroscuro, portraits of the greatest men who have con- 
tributed to that rise. The whole series might be, like the 
ceiling and the building, under the direction of one man and 
his assistants, as abroad : but if other artists have to share, 
they should be constrained in their respective sides to carry 
out their part only of one great consistent object ; and every 
subject they paint in that side should first be approved by 
Committee and Architect, as part of the original plan. 

" Unless this be a positive law, confusion and failure will 
be the result. 

" With respect to the estimate it may be impossible to be 
quite correct to 100?. ; but if one man only has the direc- 
tion, he could certainly accomplish the whole without loss, 
for 3500?. the Architect supplying the two first coats of 
mortar before his last intonaco. 

" Perhaps the safest way would be to make an experiment. 
A fine fresco might be painted on the right side of the prin- 
cipal entrance, developing the earliest mode of commerce. 
For one only 300?. is not too much. 

" Or two might be painted each side ; the first, commerce 
at its least the second, at its greatest ; the earliest, the one 
at the right, being the beginning ; the one at the left, the 
end. Both could be done for 400?. 

" Or the whole west end might be done as an experiment, 
but still to be part of the great whole (when the whole was 
done), for 1000?. 

" To conclude, my dear Sir, 3500?. would prevent any 
man who undertook the whole from losing ; 4000?. would 
put 500?. in his pocket ; and 5000?. would enable him to lay 
by in the funds for old age and decrepitude. 

" I respectfully, without presuming to suppose your letter 
had any reference to myself, offer to undertake one, or two, 
or a whole end as experiments ; or I respectfully offer myself 
perfectly delighted to do so to undertake the whole for 

" I am, my dear Sir, yours, &c. 


284 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1844. 

This estimate staggered the Commission, and the idea 
was abandoned. 

Here is a criticism on the frescos exhibited this year 
in Westminster Hall, with a justification of his own 
withdrawal from the competition : 

e< 2lst. The frescos are by no means what they ought 
to be. Instead of carrying the beauties of oil into 
fresco, they seem delighted to carry the horrors of fresco 
into oil. 

" All the flesh of their frescos looks as if dipped in 
a tan pit, so utterly are they without cool tones. If 
they can put blue into the sky, surely they can put a 
due mixture of it into the flesh. There are also no re- 
flections, and the effect is hot and offensive, and dirty ; 
black, sooty as if painted with boiled fish-eyes. 

" They say any established artist ought to try again, 
although unjustly dishonoured. Surely not. Were he 
certain of justice, he would try ; but he may have able 
and influential enemies who will seize the chance to give 
him a final gripe. 

" After the cartoon affair of 1843, many of them, 
on meeting me, expressed astonishment I had kept my 
health, and concluded, { What is the reason of this extra- 
ordinary stamina? Is it here?' (laying their hands on 
my chest). Their air was exactly as if they had been 
looking out for my deatli. 

" I have no objection to compete, if employed to do 
so ; but we all know the lurking disposition which exists 
to lower established repute by pushing forward youth- 
ful promise. Is it prudent, would it be wise, even if 
there were no prejudices against me, to risk fame by 
contact with boys who have no fame to lose ? I say, no. 
Excite the young by the hopes competition generates ; 
but do not accuse established artists of shrinking, if they 
refuse to enter the lists when all the bad passions are 
their opponents, and when all that is amiable is sure to 


be enlisted on the side of those who have a name to 

" On this principle I will not again compete, until 

Six artists were commissioned, in July, to execute 
frescos, Maclise, Redgrave, Dyce, Cope, Horsley and 
Thomas. Of these, the second and last did not execute 
frescos. The frescos now in the House of Lords are 
the work of the remaining four. 

" 23rd. In thus again being left out from the artists 
employed to decorate the Lords, I am justified in con- 
cluding there exists a determination to exclude me for 
ever from all employment in that direction. 

" 26th. By the blessing of God, to whose mercy I 
bow, I this day, by an advance of 100Z. from a pupil, 
have been saved from ruin. Could I be but employed, 
I should be placed on a footing of security ; but in Him 
I trust, and doubt not He will protect me. How 
merciful have been my extrications I I am brimming 
with gratitude. May I deserve protection ! " 

" August 14.* Began a new Journal God bless 
me at the beginning, in the progression and to the end. 
' Let thine ear be attentive, and thine eyes open, that 
Thou mayst hear the prayer of thy servant, which I 
pray before thee now, day and night.' 

" Wrote my Life, second volume. Copied a magni- 
ficent letter of Keats. 

" 15th. Worked and finished the head-tackling of 
the Duke's horse,, in George the Fourth and the Duke 
visiting Waterloo, but worked lazily. 

" 26th. Wandering, misery, thinking, con- 

* The Twenty-sixth and last volume of the Journals opens at 
this date with the mottoes, " Nil magnum absque labore ; " and 
" Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. If 
any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him." 
1 John, ii. 15. 

286 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1844. 

eluding. Came home more fatigued than the hardest 
day's work makes me. Impulse is but a quicker per- 
ception of reasons that prove the truth. Bought the 
Report on the Decoration of the House. The two most 
important papers are Hallam's and Mahon's, on the 
principle of decorating the Houses of Parliament. 
Hallam judiciously maintains the subjects should not be 
confined to England, Mahon the reverse. Yet Mahon 
refutes himself when he very sensibly says, e The English 
people have known how to combine the greatest security 
to property with the greatest freedom of action.' Un- 
doubtedly. And in decorating the Houses of Parliament, 
this great doctrine, and this alone, ought to be the basis, 
for the illustration of which all subjects to be painted 
ought to be selected. 

" This is but another view of what I have laid down 
at Edinburgh, Oxford, Liverpool and London; viz., 
e The best Government to regulate without cramping 
the energies of man,' abstractedly. Lord Mahon applies 
this to England particularly, and wishes it to be illus- 
trated by English subjects alone. I maintain it cannot, 
and so does Mr. Hallam ; and Lord Mahon, in this 
choice of subjects to illustrate this great doctrine, brings 
forward subjects which have no reference to it at all, as 
a principle, and shows the insufficiency of English 
history alone to do it. 

" Yet Anarchy Democracy Despotism Revo- 
lution Jury and Monarchy can be illustrated by 
English history. 

" September 2nd. Made a study of Uriel from nature. 
Always make an actual study from a head never mind 
how ugly to get the look of nature ; then adapt, but 
always with actual nature as the basis. 

" 3rd. I should be happy, if it pleased God, to die 
in my painting-room, after the successful completion of 
some grand head. In truth, I have no other real de- 


light ; but I should be happier if my mind did not over- 
run in writing and deductions. 

" After painting, I always look back at the time I 
have lost in writing ; but still I go on writing. 

<( Jth. Out and superintended the restretching of 
Solomon, began 1812, finished 1813, thirty-two years 
ago. I really am astonished at the picture, and so will 
the country be by and by. When one thinks of the 
trash now exhibited, good God ! I had it put on a new 
frame, and hope to preserve it. I think it is the varnish 
which makes pictures so brittle. This was only varnished 
once. It was painted in oil, glazed in oil, varnished, 
and then I rubbed in oil to prevent chill. I do not 
wonder at the enthusiasm of the people at seeing such a 
work come out from a young man of twenty-six, in the 
midst of the hootings of the world. 

" 9th. My son Frank ill ; very anxious. Rubbed 
in a Napoleon, and settled Uriel. Worked con furore^ 
and with effect. Frank better ; he has knocked himself 
up with hard work. All in this house work hard. 

" 10th. Exceedingly harassed about my son. Set 
my palette. Bored by incessant calls. My Uriel is 
making a sensation already ; I am very proud of it. I 
think the head of Uriel the finest thing I ever did, 
except the head of Lazarus. Now for anxiety, gossip, 
calls and young artists. I never had a moment's rest, 
and the day passed in folly. Dennys, my employer, 
called, and was pleaded beyond expression. I exult at 
Uriel's head, but I ought to humble myself in gratitude 
to God for such a mercy. 

"20th. Out the whole day on money. The Tutor 
having resigned at Jesus', requires the balance of my 
son's college account, 14.01. 4.9. 6d., at four days' notice. 
The trouble and anxiety are dreadful. Frank is quite 
recovered from a nervous fever, and I dared not tell 
him ; and the dread of having him degraded, if I were 

288 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1844. 

not punctual, was agonising, Bennoch and Twentyman 
advanced 1007. on my sketch of George IV. visiting 
Waterloo ; so I have got 40/. 4s. 6d. to make up. I 
trust where I have always trusted, and shall never trust 
in vain. How grateful I am ! 

" 2lst. Three whole days have I been racing to 
raise the money to save my dear boy at Cambridge, and 
succeeded. God be thanked ! His mercies have been 
great indeed. 

" Thus ends the week, in which I ought to fall down 
on my knees, and bow my head to the earth for raising 
up such friends to me as Bennoch and Twentyman." 

A bequest of 500/. having been left to the trustees of 
St. James's Church, Bermondsey, for the purchase of 
an altar-piece, the trustees invited artists to send in 
sketches, the sketch selected to be executed by midsum- 
mer 1846, to the satisfaction of two persons of compe- 
tent judgment, and the sketches to be sent in by the 4th 
of December. 

Haydon and Eastlake were ultimately selected as 
judges, and their choice fell on a sketch by Mr. John 
Wood, who afterwards executed the picture, though not 
to the satisfaction of Haydon, who offended the young 
man mortally by the bluntness of his criticism. 

There is little worth extracting in the Journals till 
the end of October, during all which time Haydon was 
hard at work on his Uriel and Satan. He notes this 
lack of thought in his Journals himself, and attributes 
it to his having fallen from " the solitary grandeur of 
High Art." 

" Oct 4th.- The art with me is becoming a beastly 
vulgarity. The solitary grandeur of historical paint- 
ing is gone. There was something grand, something 
poetical, something touching, something inspiring, some- 
thing heroic, something mysterious, something awful, in 
pacing your quiet painting-room after midnight, with a 


work lifted up on a gigantic easel, glimmering by the 
trembling light of a solitary candle, < when the whole 
world seemed adverse to desert.' There was something 
truly poetical in devoting yourself to what the vulgar 
dared not touch, holding converse with the Great 
Spirit ; your heart swelling, your imagination teeming, 
your being rising." 

On competition I find : 

" 15th. The whole system of competition will be a 
failure. It is not the way. It was not the way great 
men of former days were selected. It may do for young 
men, but selection among the established is the prin- 
ciple, and they will then form the youth. One com- 
mission to an established man is worth all the competition 
that ever was, and ever will be." 

Now appeared the first volume of his Lectures. 

" 26th. Hard at work, and finished a fourth Curtius. 
How grateful to God I am that I have lived to bring 
out my first volume of Lectures ! I pray God it may 
be successful ! " 

The following extract has an interest at this moment, 
in connection with the cleaning of the pictures at the 
National Gallery. 

" Nov. 6th. Went to the National Gallery, and 
found the Moses of Rubens's Brazen Serpent ut- 
terly ruined during the vacation, the whole of the 
tone and superb glazing rubbed off. It is one of his 
Italian pictures painted at Genoa. What would Sir 
George and Sir Joshua say ? 

" Worked. My Journal seems to have lost all its 
copiousness and inspiration. 

" 16 th. They may talk as they please of the suf- 
ferings of humanity, but there is nothing so excites my 
sympathy as the helpless sufferings of a fine old oil pic- 
ture of a great genius. Unable to speak or remonstrate, 
touching all hearts by its dumb beauty, appealing to all 


290 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1844. 

sympathies by its silent splendour, laid on its back in 
spite of its lustrous and pathetic looks, taken out of its 
frame, stripped of its splendid encasement, fixed to its 
rack to be scraped, skinned, burnt, and then varnished 
in mockery of its tortures, its lost purity, its beautiful 
harmony, and hung up again, castrated and unmanned, 
for living envy to chuckle over, whilst the shade of the 
mighty dead is allowed to visit and rest about his former 
glory, as a pang for sins not yet atoned for. 

"24th. This day another large canvas was put up 
for one of my series of six pictures, my original designs 
for the House of Lords. I see they are resolved that I, 
the originator of the whole scheme, shall have nothing 
whatever to do with it ; so I will (trusting in the great 
God who has brought me thus far, and through so many 
troubles) begin on my own inventions without employ- 

e< It is now thirty-two years ago since I began 
Solomon ; my resources are more abundant, but my 
wants are greater. Still I am a name in the world. I 
am more adequate, more experienced, more versed in 
my divine art ; but I knew almost as much then as 

" The very theories I started then, and was con- 
sidered impudent for starting at such an age, the world 
now listens to, on publication. 

" 30^. Worked, and it was hard work to work, 
from eternal calls. I heard yesterday, from Kendal, 
the Duke^s valet, he had a hat ready for me, so down I 
went, and tipping a sovereign, carried off a genuine 
hat, the glorious hat which had encircled the laurelled 
head of Wellington ! I trusted it to nobody ; I took it 
in the hat-box, called a cab, and gloried in it. I set to 
work instantly, and before Kendal called had finished 
the hat in the picture. Kendal brought a pair of boots ; 
I told him I must have a whole suit, cravat, and all, 
and I am promised. 


" Kendal was present at the Duke's rage with Bailey 
in the hall at Strathfieldsaye. He said the Duke 
lifted both his hands above his white head, and cursed 
all sculptors and painters, declaring he had sat 400,000 
times to artists. 

"December 1st. The last month I have not done 
all I ought to have done, or might have done. I have 
had no excuse from bad health, for I have never been 
better. January, February, to the end of March I did 
well ; April and May I was interrupted by lecturing, 
but ought not to have been ; June, my daughter's 
health took us to Dover. I have rubbed in and made 
studies of Uriel, advanced George IV., and painted 
Napoleons and Curtiuses at so much the dozen, and 
here I am at the last month. My Lectures are pub- 
lished, and have had success; it is a great thing to have 
lived to witness that. They are considered a manual 
for students, as they are. 

" 17 th. Strange the action of the faculty called 
genius ! No circumstances of pecuniary difficulty, no 
depression of animal spirits, no danger, want, ill- 
health, or occupation seem to check it. 

" I sketched Aristides, the populace hooting him. 
On Sunday I looked at it without thought or reflection. 
In flowed a brilliant flash of placing him in the middle ; 
the gateways, the Acropolis, the Temple of Theseus, 
the expression of the Democrats, of Themistocles, of 
Aristides' wife, of his child! for five minutes I was 
lost to external objects; I saw the whole, never 
clearer, never stronger, never finer. Thank God! 
Thank God ! 

" 19th. The year is nearly over. I have painted a 
large Napoleon in four days and a half, six smaller dif- 
ferent objects, three Curtiuses, five Napoleons musing, 
three Dukes and Copenhagens, George IY. and the 
Duke at Waterloo (1821), half done Uriel, pub- 

u 2 

292 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1844. 

lished my Lectures, and settled composition of Aris- 
tides. I gave lectures every clay at Liverpool, some- 
times twice a-day ; lectured at Royal Institution. I 
have not been idle, but how much more might I have 

" 26th. Began Aristides, and prayed for success, 
for health, for intellect, for eyes, for energy, for virtue, 
for purity, for success to bring the whole series of six to 
a glorious and triumphant conclusion, for the honour of 
my country and the purifying of my species. 

e< O God ! whom have I in heaven but Thee ? and 
there is none upon earth that I desire beside Thee ! 

" 29th. Duke of Devonshire called ; and to help me 
to pay expenses before my dear Frank took his degree, 
gave me an order to paint two sketches for two panels 
for a window at Chatsworth. I said, ' Napoleon musing 
at St. Helena, and the Duke at Waterloo.' He replied, 
( Capital idea ! ' so at it I go. He paid me half by a 
cheque for 201. 14s. \\d. How kind! and I despatched 
it by P. O. to Mortlock's, Cambridge, for Frank's college 
bill. How grateful to God I am ! 

" Got in Aristides gloriously. The Duke admired it 
much, and the Uriel ; Aristides has brought me good 
luck. The Duke looked well, and was very strong and 
hearty, more so than ten years ago. 

" 30^. Began and finished a Napoleon in two 
hours and a half; the quickest I ever did, and the 

At the end of December he thus reviews his circum- 
stances for the year, in his summary of the twelve- 
months : " This year, at the beginning, I received a 
blow by the Directors not taking Alexander and the 
Lion. I was obliged to dash it before the public at once 
at the Pantheon; it did not sell, so the dreadful struggle, 
through this picture not bringing me reward after my 
being disappointed in a prize for the cartoons, was another 

1845.] REVIEW OF 1844. 293 

blow. My landlord's forbearance, and the kindness of 
my friends Bennoch and Twentyman, of 78, Wood 
Street, in getting me several orders at ten guineas each 
(for which in my palmy days I got fifty), carried me on. 
Uriel was prepared ; George IV. finished. Dennys, a 
cotton printer, ordered Uriel for 200 guineas, 100 of 
which was paid to Jesus' College; so that with two 
sons, one at sea the other at Cambridge, I continued by 
trusting in God, and praying to Him day and night, to 
bear up. Blessed by the energy of dear Mary, I worked 
away, and have come to the end of the year, in great 
difficulty, yet alive ; for with eyesight, brains, health, 
love, and reliance on his Maker, what need a man fear? 
If I can only now carry my dear Frank through his 
degree, finish Uriel, Aristides, and the five other great 
works, my original designs, I will resign my spirit 
into his hands from whom I received it. 

" My position still is solitary and glorious. In me 
the solitary sublimity of High Art is not gone. I still 
pursue my course, neglected, little employed, too happy 
if the approval of my own conscience is the only reward 
I get for my labours, under the blessing of God. 

" Thus then, O most merciful Creator, I conclude 
this year 1844, and approach my fifty-ninth year. I 
have been blessed through twenty-five or thirty years of 
my life with uninterrupted health and a beautiful wife 
and family ; for all the blessings of this year accept my 
deep gratitude, and may I be more deserving a con- 
tinuance of such blessings in 1845 than in 1844! 


"January 2nd. Worked hard, and finished the 
Duke of Devonshire's sketches of Napoleon and Welling- 
ton for Chatsworth. I hope he will be pleased. I have 
painted them with great gusto. 

u 3 

294 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1845. 

" 4th. If any man wishes to learn how to suppress 
his feelings of exultation in success, and of despondency 
in failure ; how to be modest in elevation, and peaceful 
in disappointment ; how to exercise power with hu- 
manity, and resist injustice when power is abused by 
others ; how to command inferiors without pride, and to 
be obedient, without servility, to the commands of 
others ; let him read day and night the Despatches of 
the Duke of Wellington. 

" 4th. I have cleared dear Frank from all but his 
Christmas bill, 30/. 17s. lid. God grant I may accom- 
plish that, or his degree will not be granted ; in Him I 

" 6th. Mackenzie gave me an order for a small re- 
petition of George IV. and the Duke ; so dear Frank 
is safe. Gratitude indeed is due. Lord Carlisle sent 
me 51. ; Stanley refused ; Peel declined ; the Queen 
Dowager declined ; the Duchess of Kent never replied ; 
the Duke of Devonshire called, and gave me a commis- 
sion ; and now C. A. Mackenzie, an old friend of thirty- 
six years, by no means a man of fortune, helps me, and 
thus my dear boy is carried through. 

" Is it not extraordinary that the enormous conse- 
quences of assisting a talented youth in such a crisis did 
not, in the minds of the nobility, outweigh every other 
feeling ? 

" llth. Heard from the Duke of Devonshire most 
satisfactorily. He is pleased with the sketches, and sent 
me a cheque, which made out 501. for the two, 251 
a-day, not bad. 

"14th to 22nd. Eight days I have lost. Frank 
was taken ill. I feared for his examination. I rushed 
down and cheered him up, and brought him through. 
On my return I started for Bristol to give two lectures, 
and am come home this day truly fatigued. 

" 24th. Returned to my dear painting room again 


after ten days of anxiety, whirl, lecture, and public en- 

" O God, bless my labours this day and throughout 
the year, and carry me through all difficulties. Accept 
my gratitude for enabling my dear son to come through 
with honour. 

25th. My birth-day, fifty-nine. This day forty- 
one years ago I first looked into my prospects in life. I 
was then copying Albinus, and had made up my mind 
to be an artist. What a life has passed in forty-one 
years ! 

" February 8th. At the Gallery. Private day. Saw 
young Phipps. He said Lady Mulgrave was living and 
well, that the other day in looking over several letters 
of Sir George's, he found his great anxiety was about 
Wilkie, Jackson, and myself. 

" 10th. Very severe day. Went to Rochester to 
see a picture. I was told at dinner Wilkie copied his 
Blind Fiddler from a picture in the possession of a 
Lieutenant Higginson, a very fine fellow, a thorough 
sailor, hearty and hospitable. I saw the picture ; it was 
bad, but there was a resemblance to the position and 
action of the fiddler. That was all. Wilkie might 
have seen it. It detracted nothing from his invention, 
and it may have suggested the subject to him. 

"2\.st. Lieutenant Higginson wrote to me that 
Wilkie knew his father in 1799, and saw this fiddler 
then. In that case I really think there is something in 
the suspicion. 

" 29th. The Conservative Club is decorated; but 
what flowers and griffins have to do with Conservatism, 
Heaven knows ! 

" To decorate a public building, means to illustrate 
by design the principles for which the building is erected. 

" In the Vatican, the palace of the Pope is decorated 
with illustrations of the connection of religion with man, 

u 4 

296 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDOtf. [1845. 

and the power of the Catholic Church, as the engine of 
God, to lead him by religion to salvation. 

" The Royal Exchange has equally an object. It was 
built for the convenience of commerce. The decoration 
of it, therefore, should have had reference to the origin 
and progress of commerce as the basis, not only of wealth, 
but of the intellectual and religious advance of nations. 
For nations are refined by their commerce with a superior 
nation, as much as by their conquests. 

" The Conservative Club should have shown the pro- 
gress of Conservatism, how all young men without a 
shilling are generally Radicals, because they have no- 
thing to conserve, and end by being furious Conserva- 
tives when they have made their fortunes. 

" March 1st. O God bless me through this month ! 
Amen. Grant I may bring Uriel to a glorious conclu- 
sion ! Amen. How grateful I am I have brought it so 
near, beginning it trusting in Thee, as I have always 
done, and always shall do. 

" Worked well, and got through the Cherub Devil, 

" 2nd. Read prayers, and thanked God with all my 
soul. Contemplated my week's labour with all the de- 
light, enthusiasm, and criticism of my youth. Is not 
life a blessing with such feelings ? 

"10th. "Worked hard, and finished Uriel except 
trifles. When I began this picture whom did I trust 
in? God. A commission followed. I shall proceed to 
Aristides, and in God I trust for that too. Coulton 
dined here. A very clever fellow. 

" 1 "! th. Got up as full of fire and high calling as in 
the most furious days of my youth. All this will be for 
a final working up of my glory ! 

"25th. Worked like old times, like a hero. I 
had got the flesh of my Uriel in that state of all the 
most trying, nearly done, and not done, when you may 
spoil what you have done, and have to do it all over 


again ; however I improved it. My heroic model, 
Brunskill of the Blues, had beat all the wrestlers last 
week in a match ; won eight pounds, and a belt of 
glory. He floored two of the 2nd Regiment of Life 
Guards. He was in high glee. 

" Thank God for this glorious day's work ! 

"29th. Worked and added trifles of completion. 
Lunched with my dear friends Bennoch and Twenty- 
man, who advanced me 207. as usual. I lectured last 
night at the Mechanics' ; and when I told them I would 
paint my own designs for the Lords, there was a roar 
of approbation and applause. 

' ( April 3rd. Moved the Aristides round this day 
for beginning to complete. O God have mercy on me 
and bless me with eyes, piety, health, intellect, and 
energy to get triumphantly through this and the other 
five of my original series for the old House of Lords, so 
applicable to the new I 

" Let me not die, or become inferior, or crippled, or 
lose my eyes or faculties. O Lord prosper me through 
this great series, as Thou savedst me through my Solo- 
mon, in the midst of much more obscurity, and disease, 
and necessity than I now suffer. 

" ' Rejoice always in the Lord.' Thou knowest that 
I do. O Lord, from the first hour of my arrival in 
London, forty-one years ago nearly, to the present 
hour, Thou knowest I never lost sight of my great 
object, the reform, under Thy blessing, of the taste 
of the nation. Thou knowest, always praying to Thee, 
I have devoted my life to its accomplishment, and 
will, under Thy blessing, devote the remainder. Grant 
me before I die complete success. Thy mercies and 
protection have not been in vain; and, O Lord, if 
competence for my wife and children be not incom- 
patible with the realisation of this just ambition, grant 
I may be able, if I die first, to leave them sufficiently 

298 MEMOIRS OF B. E. HAYDON. [1845. 

protected, that they may descend to the grave blessing 
Thy holy name, or submissive to Thy holy will, if 
suffering still be their lot, for Jesus Christ's sake. 
Grant no obstruction on earth, no difficulty, no want, 
no necessity, no opposition, though greater than any 
human being ever encountered, may render me for one 
instant timid, or delay the accomplishment of these six 
great pictures for the honour of my great country, and 
for the glory of Thy immortal, innate, and unacquirable 

" Amen ! Amen ! Amen ! with all my burning soul. 
In awe, confidence, and enthusiasm, Amen ! 

" Dennys, my employer, is boring me to send Uriel 
to the Academy. Why should I hurry a work on for a 
spring season? I love my own silent, studious, mid- 
night ways. I hate the glare, the vulgarity and the 
herd. The solitary majesty of High Art is gone now. 
There was a time when its dangerous glories frightened 
the coward and alarmed the conceited. Then it was 
a single and a solitary flame. Now the paltry flicker 
of farthing candles dims its steady fire and obscures its 

" 4th. Higginson lunched with me. He sailed with 
Napoleon in the Bellerophon. He said his influence 
on the men was fascinating, and he really feared they 
would have let him go if an enemy's ship had hove in 
sight. He used to borrow sixpences of the men, pinch 
the ears of the officers, and bewitch them without the 
least familiarity, in a manner that was unaccountable. 
Even Sir George was affected by the end of the voyage. 
Higginson said, when he was caught watching you, he 
put on an expression of silliness to disguise his thoughts. 
(So too said Madame de Stael.) 

" Higginson said the ( parole d'honneur' did not seem 
so sacred to Frenchmen as to us, and therefore Sir 
George was too severe in judging Napoleon by the 
same standard as an Englishman. 


" 1th. Moved in Uriel to the Academy, much against 
the grain. But my employer, Dennys (who must be a 
bye-blow of Lorenzo), seemed anxious, and I agreed, 
though it is an insult to them and a disgrace to me. I 
wash my hands. I regret to lose such a picture ; it 
was a consolation to look at and dwell on. It gene- 
rated higher feelings and nobler thoughts." 

Before beginning a new design of Satan and Uriel, 
from another passage of the Paradise Lost *, he naively 
avers certain touches of remorse about these frequent 
paintings of the Evil One. 

" I4:th. I have same remorse in painting the Devil. 
I may excite admiration by encasing evil in beauty, but 
I wish to excite pity by showing the fatal consequences 
of the fall on what would have been a cause of delight 
had he kept to his allegiance. 

f< O God, if I deserve not to succeed, if danger to 
virtue would accrue from complete success in developing 
such a character, let me fail ; but if I can promote 
piety by exhibiting the fatal consequences of impiety on 
a face and figure almost next to the Creator at one 
time, let me, as Milton has done, succeed. 

" My object in painting him is not admiration but 
terror, and I have a sublime delight in dwelling on and 
developing such sensations. 

" Got in Satan, covered the canvas, worked furiously. 
Dined with William Longman, in a splendid house, 
where used to be two hayricks where my dear children 
played twenty-one years ago. Such is the progress of 
things. The hayricks disappear; two young people 
are married, who were then scarce born. 

" 18th. Worked with such intense abstraction and 

* V. 736. Book iii. Where Satan, 

" Toward the coast of earth beneath 
Down from the ecliptic, sped with hoped success, 
Throws his steep flight in many an airy wheel," 

300 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1845. 

delight for eight hours, with five minutes only for 
lunch, that though living in the noisiest quarter of all 
London, I never remember hearing all day a single 
cart, carriage, knock, cry, bark, of man, woman, dog, 
or child. 

" I washed, dressed and walked, and when I came 
out into the sunshine and the road said to myself, 
f Why, what is all this driving about ? ' though it has 
always been so for the last twenty-two years, so per- 
fectly, delightfully, and intensely, had I been abstracted. 
If that be not happiness, what is ? 

" My notion of supreme happiness is a splendid lot 
of drapery splendidly set on your lay figure ; a large 
picture which shuts you in, just close enough to leave 
room to paint it ; a delicious light, and conscious power 
of imitation. You go on like a god, spreading your 
half tint, touching in your lights and your darks. 
There is hardly an effort, no anxiety, no fear, no 

" I cannot have many years to live, and, O God, 
grant I may amply employ every hour. 

ff This is a sunny day in my life. 

" 26th. Did not begin till one, owing to want of 
money, and being out on business, but set-to with a 
model at one, and by five had finally blocked in Aris- 
tides, left and right. Two pictures are now ready 
mapped and composed Satan, and Aristides; success 
to them. 

" Alexander, Curtius, Adam and Eve, Duke and 
George IV., have not sold ; nearly 1000/. I have now 
begun the first of my six pictures with hardly 105. to 
meet other expenses, just as I began Solomon, only 
with more repute and established fame. 

" What a pity it is that a man of my order, sin- 
cerity, perhaps genius*, is not employed. What 

* In Journal marked "private, not perhaps." 


honour, what distinction, would I not confer on ray 
great country ! However, it is my destiny to perform 
great things, not in consequence of encouragement, but 
in spite of opposition, and so let it be. In fact, God 
knows best, and He knows what suits every man He 
gives. He knows that luxury, even competence, would 
dull my mind. 

"21th. A man who defers working because he 
wants tranquillity of mind will have lost the habit when 
tranquillity comes. Work under any circumstances, 
all circumstances. I used to carry my sketch when 
arrested, and sketch and compose as I sat by the officer's 
side. The consequence \vas I was always ready, never 
depressed, and returned to my work with a new thought 
or an additional improvement, as if I had been all the 
time at home. 

" 28^. I fear the squabbles in the School of Design 
will destroy it ; unless instruction in design for manufac- 
tures be grafted on that for the fine arts, and under its 
control, it will never be effectual. 

" I would propose that the National Gallery be given 
up entirely to the Academy, and that the right wing be 
a school of design for manufacture, attached to the 
School of Art, and under its direction. 

" I would propose a permanent salary of 5007. to the 
president, and a retiring pension after twenty years ; 
4007. to a keeper, and ditto. I would place the Life 
and Antique Schools under one keeper ; abolish visitor- 
ships; and I would have a master for manufacturing 
design subservient to the keeper of fine art. Every 
student of design for manufacture should be obliged to 
draw one year on the antique before going to manufac- 
ture, and no more. If at the end he choose to pursue 
fine art, let him ; if manufacture, send him on ; but a 
genius thus developed is an acquisition, and if others 
mistake their powers by pursuing art instead of manu- 

302 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1845. 

facture, the results will be the check. I would keep 
the acting body still at forty, but I would abolish asso- 
ciateships and establish forty more academicians elect, 
who should have no more privileges than associates, 
and from whom the forty acting should be filled up. 
This would gratify the vanity of the profession, and not 
impair the efficiency of the institution. I would abolish 
the right of sending eight pictures and limit the num- 
ber to four. 

" This is a rough sketch in consequence of Eastlake 
saying he would ask my advice, and that there was no 
doubt the Academy might be carried further. A pretty 
broad hint from that quarter. 

" Extract from Lorenzo Ghiberti's manuscript (in al- 
lusion to Giotto) : 

" ' Quando la natura vuole concedere alcuna cosa la con- 
cede senza veruna avarizia. Costui fu copio in tutte le cose, 
lavoro in muro, lavoro in olio, lavorb in tavola, lavoro di 
mosa'ico la nave di Sto. Piero in Roma,' &c. 

<e This settles the question as to oil-painting having 
existed in Giotto's time, though Raspe, and Lanzi, and 
Walpole, and myself, had proved it before, 

" Lord Palmerston took the chair at the Artist's In- 
stitute, and made an allusion to the decoration of town 
halls in fresco or oil. 

" May 3rd. Dear old Wordsworth called, looking 
hearty and strong. ( I came up to go to the state ball,' 
said he, e and the Lord Chancellor (gucere Lord Cham- 
berlain?) told me at the ball I ought to go to the levee.' 
f And will you put on a court dress ? ' said I. ' Why ? ' 
* Let me see you and I'll write you a sonnet.' Words- 
worth did not like this. 

"When Wilkieand I were at Coleorton in 1809, Sir 
George said e Wordsworth may walk in, but I caution 
you against his democratic principles.' What would 

1845.] PRAISE FROM " THE TIMES." 303 

Hazlitt say now ? The poet of the lakes and moun- 
tains in bag-wig, sword, and ruffles! 

" I have never protested against any of these things, 
but I have never submitted to them but once, at 
George IV.'s coronation. 

" 4M. The first day of the forty-first exhibition of 
my time. For the first time these forty-one years, I 
did not go myself, though I have two pictures there. 
Wilkie, Jackson, Geddes, Seguier (who used always to 
accompany me) are dead. I felt a repugnance to go, 
I couldn't tell why, but I staid at home, and improved 
and advanced Aristides. 

"Oh! heartily I prayed to God yesterday to bless 
me through these six pictures." 

To his great delight, the Times critic, " after twenty- 
two years of abuse," noticed his Uriel in the following 
agreeable terms : 

" There is one picture which makes us depart from our 
design of adhering to the great room exclusively on this 
occasion ; that is, Haydon's large painting of * Uriel and 
Satan ' (605), which must arrest even those who are hasten- 
ing to depart from the Exhibition as a most remarkable 
work. A striking contrast to the gaudy colouring on which 
the eye has been feasted, it appears with a subdued tone, re- 
minding one of a fresco. The figure of the angel is drawn 
with a boldness which some might call exaggerated, but with 
the simplicity and anatomical effect of sculpture, every 
muscle looking hard and unyielding as iron. The face is 
noble and ideal, and a fine effect is produced by the golden 
colour of the hair. This huge commanding figure is backed 
by limitless space, represented by a very dark positive blue, 
and the whole conveys the impression of a simple vastness. 
There is a certain crudity about the picture, but the impress 
of genius is unmistakeable." 

" 7th. This day, forty-one years ago, I left my 
home for life. Ah ! with what sensations did I enter 

304 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1845. 

the great arena ! But I have accomplished a name, and 
may I say a great one ? 

" I have advanced the Art. I am still, in spite of all 
my misfortunes, considered the leader, and I believe in 
my conscience I shall die at the head of the Art of my 
glorious country." 

For the last two months the subject of schools of 
design had much occupied Haydon's mind. The London 
school was now split by the feud both among masters 
and scholars, of those who were for making the study of 
the figure the basis of the designer's training, and those 
who were for drawing the widest distinction between 
the instruction of artist and manufacturing designer. 
Haydon ranked himself with the former, and was inde- 
fatigable in urging on the President of the Board of 
Trade (with which department the school was con- 
nected), and on the public by letters in the newspapers, 
the doctrine of the Lyons school, that all decorative art 
not based on fine art is, and ever will be, unworthy 
the name of art altogether. Here again it must, I 
think, be admitted, that his reasoning was sound, and 
his advice that which facts have best borne out. 

" May I5th. Hallam called to-day before going to 
the Committee. He said, Barry had so bescutcheoued 
and encrusted the houses, there was little room for 
fresco. What little there was would, he believed, be 
filled up with English history.' 

"I said, f On what principle?' He said, 'In the 
House of Lords, to explain its functions.' I said, 
'What for the Commons?' ' There would be nothing.' 
' Is that just ? If the House of Lords be illustrated by 
pictures in fresco, why not the House of Commons, 
equally a functional part of the monarchy?' I then 
explained to him my principle, to show the best Go- 
vernment to regulate the species, man, by exhibiting 
the consequences of the worst. He admitted the extcn- 


sion of the plan, and said the pictures need not be con- 
fined to six. Certainly not : only a definite object must 
be laid down, to explain which subjects must be selected, 
and, as the whole development could not be accom- 
plished in our lives, at least we might lay down the plan, 
do as much as we can, and let the rest be done by those 
who succeed us. 

" Hallam seemed to be impressed by the plan. I said, 
' Don't do the whole thing by contract.' He replied, 
* There's the fear; but I don't think at present they 
are hurrying.' I said, I hope not. 

" I showed him the fresco ebauche ; and after I had 
begged and entreated him to impress on the Commission 
the utility of a definite plan and definite object, to illus- 
trate which all subjects should be selected, he took his 

" 16th. Very anxious about the future indeed. In 
going to the Exhibition and listening to the people, I 
don't think they are advanced one jot. Dined with my 
dear friend Serjeant Talfourd. He said Wordsworth 
went to court in Rogers's clothes *, buckles and 
stockings, and wore Davy's sword. Moxon had hard 
work to make the dress fit. It was a squeeze, but by 
pulling and hauling they got him in. Fancy the high 
priest of mountain and of flood on his knees in a court, 
the quiz of courtiers, in a dress that did not belong to 
him, with a sword that was not his own and a coat 
which he borrowed. 

"'London, 22nd May, 1845. 
' My dear Wordsworth, 

" ' I wish you had not gone to court. Your climax was 
the shout of the Oxford senate house. Why not rest on 
that ? I think of you as Nature's high priest. I can't bear 

* The present poet-laureate has since worn the same suit on a 
like occasion. ED. 


306 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1845. 

to associate a bag-wig and sword, ruffles arid buckles, with 
Helvellyn and the mountain solitudes. 

" ' This is my feeling, and I regret if I have rubbed yours 
the wrong way. 

" ' Talfourd thinks it was a glory to have compelled the 
court to send for you, but would it not have been a greater 
for you to have declined it ? Perhaps he is right however. 
I have not been able to suppress my feelings. 

" ' Believe me ever your old friend, 

" ' B. K. HAYDON.' 

"2Ist. Called on Hallam, and had a long talk. I 
asked him about the old chronicles. He showed me Hall, 
beginning at Henry IV., but I wanted the fabulous 
heroes, and when I mentioned Geoffrey of Mcnmoutb, 
Hallam stared at me with wonder as at a madman. 

" Mr. Hallam said the selection of subjects for the 
Houses, in sculpture and painting, will be more com- 
memorative of facts and persons than poetical or pictorial. 

" ' No naked ?' said I. No,' said he ; < Lord Mel- 
bourne thinks the only naked subject he knows is Peeping 
Tom.' That's capital. I would select subjects from the 
fabulous, the authenticated and the modern. 

" Commissions had been given to Bell, Marshall and 
Foley. They all deserve them. I then walked down 
to the Palace summer-house, which is approaching con- 
clusion. Dyce had superseded Etty, and most effectively. 
His fresco, though in parts ferociously German, is the 
best. Eastlake's was, but Dyce has fairly beat him. 
E. Landseer's I do not like. The latter ones are 
painted at home, and put in, which is not manly fresco. 

"25th. O God ! I am again without any resource 
but in Thy mercy. Enable me to bear up, and vanquish, 
as I have done, all difficulties. Let nothing, however 
desperate or overwhelming, stop me from the comple- 
tion of my six designs. On these my country's honour 
rests, and my own fame on earth. Thou knowest how 

1845.] HARASS. 307 

for forty-one years I have struggled and resisted. 
Enable me to do so to the last gasp of my life. 

" Wrote my second volume of Life and Correspond- 
ence. In reading over my Journals of 1818, I glory 
to see how I suffered, how I prayed, how 1 pushed, 
how I vanquished. It made me swell with gratitude 
to God. 

"28th. Met Lady Westmorland yesterday at the 
Exhibition. She had arrived from Berlin a few days 
ago. She said Lord Westmorland had spoken so highly 
to the King of Hanover of the Napoleon, that he said 
he could not buy it without seeing it, and that Lord 
Westmorland had had it rolled up and sent off, and she 
had no doubt His Majesty would buy it. Heaven bless 
the wish ! 

" June 12th. Nothing I do now equals the burning 
impression of my longing imagination. I want to paint 
a picture as if out of Perkin's steam-gun, as Rubens 
and Tintoretto did ; and I will, if I live. In the foot of 
the mother, yesterday, I realised my feeling in a part of 
a great whole. 

" 24th. Another day of pecuniary difficulty and 
harass, lost. Paid 287. 12s. 6d., and have 217. and 307. 
to pay to-morrow, with only 57. to meet it. 

" I wish His Majesty of Hanover would buy my 
Napoleon. The King of Prussia would not, nor would 
the Emperor of Russia. The King of Hanover is our 
last hope. Lord Westmorland has done everything a 
kind friend could do, and Lady Westmorland too. 

" 2 6th. Exceedingly harassed for money. The 
Uriel has not produced a single commission. In great 
anxiety I glazed the drapery of Aristides, and was served 
with a writ for 217. in the midst of doing it, by a man 
to whom I had given two sketches. I told the clerk I 
must finish the glazing if the Lord Chancellor brought 
a writ, and so I did ; then went to the lawyer and ar- 

x 2 

308 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1845. 

ranged it, and blew him up ; but what a state of mind 
to paint in ! The reason is clear enough. I have never 
suited my labour to the existing tastes. I know what 
is right and do it. So did the early Christians, and so 
do all great men. Suffering is the consequence; but 
it must be borne. Should I have shaken the nation if I 
had not ? 

" 27th. Out the whole day on money matters- Got 
a promise of 30/. and came home with 51 All the 
young men have got commissions, Bell, Marshall, 
Foley, Maclise and others. I am totally left out after 
forty-one years' suffering and hard work, with my La- 
zarus and Curtius and Uriel before their eyes; and 
being too the whole and sole designer for the House 
of Lords in the first instance and the cause of the thing 
being done at all. Backed by encouragement I have 
never known, how steadily would my powers develope ! 

" I shall never know it. I only trust in God I shall 
get through my six works, under any circumstances, 
and die brush in hand. 

" Had I been employed, the sense of a duty to be 
done would have banked up my mind and kept it run- 
ning in one channel, deep and constant. Now it has 
spread out into a thousand irritable little rivulets, water- 
ing the ground and exhausting the fountain-head. 

" 28^. My visit to the cartoons to-day occupied 
the whole day from ten till four. 

" There are not so many bad things as at first, but 
there are not so many fine ones. The error is apparent, 
ignorance of what is the essence of a cartoon to be 
adapted for fresco. Instead of large parts, with breadth 
and simplicity, the greater proportion are marked by no 
breadth, no simplicity, and so great a number of small 
parts it would be absolutely impossible to execute them 
in fresco at all. 
, " Thank God, the week is ended, I have had hard 


work on money matters ; but I trusted in God, and 
never in vain. I close it in gratitude. I think my six 
designs by far better than any at the Hall, and so will 
the public think when they see them. I hope God will 
bless me with life to get through them. 

" July 3rd. Passed the morning in Westminster 
Hall. The only bit of fresco fit to look at is by Ford 
Brown. It is a figure of Justice, and exquisite as far 
as that figure goes. 

" 8th. Eight days have passed, and it is a fact I 
have only worked two. I wonder the earth does not 
open ! 

" In the city all day. An execution certain. Ben- 
nock and Twentyman, as usual, saved me. But what a 
condition to paint in after forty-one years' practice ! 

" 23rd. Colonel Leake called to-day. Much older 
than I expected. He admired Aristides very much 
indeed. He said the Hecatompedon had a pediment, 
with six columns. He did not know the dress of the 
archons. We talked of various things connected with 
Athens the walls, roads, monuments, hills, climate, 
the family of Aristides. I was much pleased with 
Colonel Leake. 

" Allegory should be avoided as much as possible. 
Illustrate a principle by facts, but do not personify by 
figures the principle itself, without reference to facts. 

" August 9th. Worked hard, and painted my blind 
mocking boy from two blind heads I got at the Blind 
School, St. George's Fields. I gave them a good dinner, 
and sent the poor fellows home contented. They both 
lost their eyes from violent inflammation. The blind 
mocker in the corner of my picture is successful. On 
Friday I failed because I made my son shut his eyes, 
and used him for my model. But the ball of the eye 

being perfect, he looked not blind, but asleep. In 

x 3 

310 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1845. 

the blind the ball is shrunk and the eye fallen in con- 

"18th. Went with the boys to the Old Ship 
Tavern, Greenwich, to eat white bait, and spent the day 
in the park, inhaling the pure air, and enjoying myself 

" Coming home there was an enormous fire, which I 
studied thoroughly for my next picture in the series. 
It was in Bucklersbury. How a working man like me 
enjoys t\\Q/ar niente once in a lifetime ! Though it was 
a far niente day, yet everything was a study. The sails 
of the barges against the background and sky, the 
distant view of London, the chesnut trees, the dells 
and bournes, where nymphs and satyrs might have toyed 
and loved, and, lastly, the fire, so that I returned 
home a better painter than when I went out. 

" I9t/i. Called on ~, once the favourite portrait- 
painter of royalty and fashion, and now almost deserted, 
except by a stray lord and lady. 

" He said a noble duke whom he is now painting told 
him the aristocracy did not want High Art. Nothing 
pleased them but first-rate specimens, and those they 
had of the old masters. This is exactly what I have 
always said. They do not want it. They don't care 
about it, and laugh at all who do. I do care about it ; 
and the public voice will force, at last, justice and 

During the whole of these three months, and ever 
since the third exhibition of cartoons, frescos and oil 
sketches, in Westminster Hall, which opened this year, 
Haydon had been a constant writer in the Times and 
Morning Chronicle, urging at considerable length and 
with much animation the danger of the Fine Arts' 
Commission being led away in the direction of modern 
German Art. Kaulbach, Cornelius, Hess and Overbeck 
are all brought under censure, and their minute atten- 

1845.] A NEW PUPIL. 311 

tion to detail, sharpness of outline, flatness and fault of 
colour are dwelt on, without fair recognition of the purity 
of their line, the carefulness of their drawing, and their 
frequent dignity and sweetness of expression. 

Haydon had now finished the first picture of his series 
of six, the Ostracism of Aristides, and was about 
to begin his second, Nero playing on the lyre, with 
Rome burning in the background. 

" September Wth. O God ! whilst I bless Thee with 
deep gratitude that I have nearly brought the first 
picture in my great series to a conclusion, permit me to 
ask Thy blessing on the second, the sketch of which I 
begin this instant. 

" 19th. This day I took a pupil, a very interesting 
youth. His mother, a woman of great energy, and his 
guardian came with him ; and the boy was quiet, timid, 
modest and believing. 

" Good heavens ! the premium was a blessing to me 
after fagging through Aristides, and the boy seemed de- 

" It really has saved me. Was I not right to trust 
in the Lord ? The guardian said to me as if half fright- 
ened, * Will you believe I prayed to the Lord you might 
encourage him, if he ought to be encouraged ? You did 
encourage him, and it was right.' 

" How curious. Here was I, praying in the depths 
of midnight that no accident might prevent the youth 
coming to me, and here was the guardian praying I 
might think he had talent. Innocent people ! How 
much religious feeling there is in the world ! If the 
people did not fear the ridicule of scepticism, how much 
would be known. 

" A remark Johnson would have relished. 

"'Do you take him,' says Conscience, 'because you 
think he has talent?' 'Yes. Ten thousand pounds 

x 4 

312 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1845. 

should not have induced me to take him if he had not.' 
' Would you have taken him if he had been deficient, 
for the sake of the money?' Ask my bitterest enemy. 

" 23rd. Another day of victory and blessing. 
' Troubles,' Shakespeare says, * never come in single 
files,' nor blessings either. 

" The King of Hanover has bought Napoleon Musing, 
a repetition of the one belonging to Sir Robert Peel. 

" Thus I have received by the blessing of God 410/ 
in five days, after painting the whole of Aristides 
(except 60/.) on borrowed money. Good God ! how 
grateful I ought to be ! 

" On receiving my dear Lord Westmorland's letter, I 
knelt down and prayed that if it were successful I might 
be humble and grateful. 

"I once earned 607. in six hours. Now I have 
earned 2007. in five days ; for I painted this Napoleon in 
five days in the beginning of 1844. 

" I really fear one is not good enough to deserve such 

" I am so surrounded with family matters, money 
matters, that I have not touched palette or brush 
since Friday, the day my pupil came, to my daily pain 
of conscience. 

" 24th. Saw my son Frederic off by train for the 
flag ship, till he goes to South America. In the city 
all the morning before he went. 

" I declare my anxiety to dispose of my money dis- 
turbs me more than my anxiety when I wanted it. 

" 29th. O Almighty God ! accept my profound gra- 
titude for Thy mercies in blessing me with health of 
mind and body to get through the first of my great 
series, Aristides ; and for Thy infinite mercy in reward- 
ing me by ample means at the conclusion. O God I I 
am this day about to begin the second (the third in the 
series) to show the horrors of despotism. Bless its com- 


mencement, progression and conclusion. Grant me 
piety, health and energy. Grant I may impress the 
world with a detestation of tyranny, and advance the 
great character of the British nation in High Art. Grant 
these things I humbly ask, O Lord ! to whom alone be- 
longs success, either for great nations or individuals, 
humble and confiding. 

" 30th. Nero rubbed in. As I approached the con- 
clusion and foresaw the effect corning, it was so terrific, 
I fluttered, trembled and perspired like a woman and 
was obliged to sit down. 

" Oct. I3th.On the 7th I left town by express 
train to visit Mrs. Gwatkin at Plymouth, to examine 
Sir Joshua's private memoranda concerning the Academy 
quarrel. Mrs. Gwatkin was Miss Palmer, sister to the 
Marchioness of Thomond, and niece to Sir Joshua. As 
soon as I arrived I wrote to her to say I was come, and 
would wait on her next day ; to which note I received 
the following reply from her grandson : 

" ' Dear Sir, 

" ' My grandmother has directed me to answer your note? 
and say that she will be happy, should her health permit 
her, to have an interview with you to-morrow, at or about 
twelve o'clock. 

" ' Yours truly, 


" On the 8th, after calling on many old friends of my 
youth, I waited on this last relic left us of the John- 
sonian Burkeian period. She is in her eighty-ninth 
year. At twelve I called. Mr. Reynolds Gwatkin 
came down and introduced me. I went up with him, 
and found on a sofa, leaning on pillows, a venerable 
aged lady, holding an ear-trumpet like Sir Joshua, 
showing in her face great remains of regular beauty, and 
evidently the model of Sir Joshua in his Christian 

314 MEMOIRS OF B. B. HAYDON. [1845. 

Virtues* (a notion of mine which she afterwards con- 
firmed). After a few minutes' chat we entered on the 
purport of my visit, which was to examine Sir Joshua's 
private papers relating to the Academy dispute which 
produced his resignation. 

Mrs. Gwatkin rose to give orders ; her figure was 
fine and elastic, upright as a dart, with nothing of de- 
crepitude ; certainly extraordinary for a woman in her 
eighty-ninth year. 

" Mr. Gwatkin, her grandson, obeyed her directions, 
and brought down a bundle of arranged papers, and on 
the very first bundle was ( Private papers relative to my 
resignation of the presidency.' 

" The first was a letter to Sir "W. Chambers, refusing 
to resume the chair. The latter part bearing on my 
object, I extracted. Mr. Gwatkin getting interested 
at my anxiety, offered his services, and giving him part 
of the papers we worked away. 

" The dear old lady was soon in a bustle, for she did 
not seem to know the value of what she possessed, and 
said she had a trunk full, and down. Then 
there was no key ; and then her eldest daughter, about 
fifty, was dispatched, and her niece, a little spirited thing, 
hunted ; and Mrs. Gwatkin herself bustled about, stoop- 
ing for this and that, as if she was thirty instead of 
eighty-nine. The key was found, but I turned a deaf 
ear to excursions from the main point. I had got what 
I wanted, and must keep at that. In about two hours I 
finished. Mr. Gwatkin had most to do.f 

"I then joined her, and we had a delightful chat 
about Burke, Johnson, Goldsmith, Garrick and Rey- 
nolds. She said she came to Sir Joshua quite a little 
girl, and at the first grand party Dr. Johnson staid, as 
he always did, after all were gone ; and that she being 

* At Oxford. 

| See some of these papers, Appendix IV. ED. 


afraid of hurting her new frock, went upstairs and put 
on another, and came down to sit with Dr. J. and Sir 
Joshua, Johnson thundered out at her, scolded her for 
her disrespect to him, in supposing he was not as worthy 
of her best frock as fine folks. He sent her crying to 
bed and took a dislike to her ever after. 

" She had a goldfinch which she had left at home. 
Her brother and sister dropped water on it from a great 
height, for fun. The bird died from fright and turned 

" She told Goldsmith who was writing his e Animated 
Nature.' Goldsmith begged her to get the facts and 
he would allude to it. ' Sir,' roared out Johnson, 'if 
you do you '11 ruin your work ; for depend upon it it 's a 

" She said that after Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. So- 
lander came from their voyage, at a grand dinner at Sir 
Joshua's, Solander was relating that in Iceland he had 
seen a fowl boiled in a few minutes in the hot springs. 
Johnson broke up the whole party by roaring out, s Sir, 
unless I saw it with my own eyes I would not believe 
it.' Nobody spoke after, and Banks and Solander rose 
and left the dining-room. 

" The most delightful man was Goldsmith. She saw 
him and Garrick keep an immense party laughing till 
they shrieked. Garrick sat on Goldsmith's knee ; a 
tablecloth was pinned under Garrick's chin and brought 
behind Goldsmith, hiding both their figures. Garrick 
then spoke, in his finest style, Hamlet's speech to his 
father's ghost. Goldsmith put out his hands on each 
side of the cloth and made burlesque action, tapping 
his heart and putting his hand to Garrick's head and 
nose, all at the wrong time. 

" She said she and her sister always went daily into 
Sir Joshua's painting-room after dinner, whilst he was 
taking his wine, to see how he got on ; and he generally 

316 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1845. 

took his nap. s Ho, ho ! ' said I, e did he take his nap? ' 
* To be sure,' said Mrs. Gwatkin, e don't you ? After 
the fatigue of his brain he liked quiet, and we always 
let him alone.' ( You are a dear creature,' I told her ; 
( so does my wife with me ; but,' I replied, ' he kept a 
great deal of company and dined out too.' She said, 
( Not a great deal, nothing regular. He was at home 
and with his family oftener than out. Now and then, 
during parliament, he had large parties.' She remem- 
bered that first party with Fanny Burney. She said 
she and her sister plagued Miss B. in the garden at 
Streatham to know who was the author of Evelina, 
never suspecting her. As they rode home Sir Joshua 
said, f Now you have dined with the author, guess 
which of the party.' They could not guess, when Sir 
Joshua said, ' Miss Burney.' Sir Joshua often walked 
round the park with her before breakfast ; always took 
her to sales. Everybody in the house painted. Lady 
Thomond and herself, the coachman, the man-servant 
Ralph and his daughter, all painted, copied and talked 
about pictures. 

" She told me Northcote never in his life dined at 
Sir Joshua's table when there was a grand party. She 
showed me a rough copy of Burke's character of Rey- 
nolds, written in the drawing-room within a few minutes 
of his death, Mrs. Gwatkin sitting by the side of Burke 
as he wrote it. 

" Lunch was now announced, and we had all got so 
intimate that they made me promise to stay the day. 
At lunch down came young Mrs. Gwatkin, with a fine 
dear little boy of the fourth generation. She was the 
wife of the handsome young man : so there were grand- 
mamma and her daughter, and Mr. Gwatkin, grandson, 
and his little boy, great-grandson. It was quite a 
patriarchal party. I dined and retired at ten to my inn. 


As I took her venerable hand I kissed it, which brought 
a tear into her eye. 

" 16th. I visited Ide, where I buried my dear mother, 
and was shocked to find a new church, the aisle paved, 
and no traces of her grave. I rode away shocked and 
wrote the vicar, from whom I received a kind answer 
which is a credit to his heart. 

" November 1st. Blocked in a small Aristides, thank 
God, and began my other four sketches. The smell of 
the paint was incense to my nostrils. Why do I ever 
leave my palette ? It is my only real source of happi- 

" 5th. Made a study of my daughter Mary. In the 
evening lectured, but very hoarsely. I never feel 
inspired but before a large canvas. Let me want what 
I will, I am then in my element ; nor shall I feel happy 
till again at Nero. My money obligations, to finish 
small works for those who nobly advanced the prices to 
enable me to finish Aristides, must be attended to first. 

" 8th. I have always said of Peel he had a tender 
heart. In 1830 he gave credence to me, and now, after 
all our row about Napoleon (and I said bitter things to 
him), my dear son Frank, shrinking from the display of 
the pulpit, after 860/. 105. expense for a college educa- 
tion, in anguish of mind I wrote Sir Robert and told 
him my distress. He answered 

" 'Whitehall, 4th November, 1845. 

" ' Sir Robert Peel presents his compliments to Mr. Haydon, 
and must decline making any application to Lord Hadding- 
ton on the subject of an appointment for Mr. Haydon's son. 

" ' Sir Robert Peel will, however, avail himself of an early 
opportunity of nominating Mr. Haydon's son to a clerkship 
in one of the public departments under the control of the 
Treasury, if such an appointment would be acceptable to 

318 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1845. 

" ' 7th November, 1845. 
" < Sir, 

" < I am directed by Sir Robert Peel to inform you that 
there is a vacancy for a clerk in the Record Office, salary 
80/. a-year, with the usual prospects of promotion, to which 
he will be happy to appoint your son if it meets your 

" Sir Robert Peel was induced to select this clerkship for 
him as from your description of him as a young man of re- 
tiring and literary habits he thinks it will suit him. If your 
son will present himself at the Record Office, Rolls Yard, 
Chancery Lane, he will be examined as to his qualifications. 
" ' Your obedient servant, 


" 30^. A very good month upon the whole. Nero, 
my second in the series, advanced. 

tf By bringing in such a monster as principal figure, 
I gain the object of exposing despotism more than if I 
had brought the effects forward by showing a family in 
distress and putting the monster in the background. It 
is offensive to endeavour to hit the characteristics of 
such a wretch, but the object is to show, in the most 
powerful way I can, the evil of a sovereign without 
popular check. It might be any other fire with a mere 
family, even though Nero might be perceived. Nero 
must be the prominent object, the fire the secondary. 

"December 2nd. Awoke in very great anxiety, yet 
trusting. My city friends, pressed by the times and 
panic, want payment. I went out, my heart bursting 
to proceed with Nero, but obliged to go. I was ruined 
in 1823 by putting on my jacket to fly at the Cruci- 
fixion instead of keeping a money appointment in the 
city ; so, remembering this, I sallied forth, and my pre- 
sence did everything. By going I kept things floating 
on, and returned, losing a beautiful day, as light as 

1845.] AT WORK ON NERO. 319 

summer. I looked at Nero and his glorious background 
with sorrow. So it is. It is my destiny to thirst for 
great works without calculating the impossibilities, with- 
out resources ; but it is also my destiny to conquer the 
impossibilities, and do my great work. 

" It is what I am fit for. An anxiety is a necessary 
sweater, or I should be too buoyant. Danger keeps me 
remembering my trust in Him whom I might but lan- 
guidly remember in prosperity. I am content if my 
health and eyes last, as I trust in God they will. 

"10th. Worked hard. Talfourd said he intro- 
duced Dickens to Lady Holland. She hated the Ame- 
ricans, and did not want Dickens to go. She said, 
* Why cannot you go down to Bristol and see some of 
the third or fourth class people, and they '11 do just as 
well ? ' 

" 27th. My picture in a glorious state. I hope to 
get it all settled for completing by the 31st. I have 
painted Uriel, Aristides, and nearly done Nero, besides 
a repetition of Aristides, several heads and sketches, &c. 
The year has not been unprofitable ; but Aristides, 
which took four months, and Nero two, have not 
brought me a shilling yet. The 2001. from the King 
of Hanover was for the work of 1 844, and the premium 
from a pupil was the other 200/. 

" I trust I shall live to get through my six. What 
pains me is the repeated worry such great works entail 
on my tradesmen. I am never ready. This week a 
respectable young tradesman wanted 167. I could not 
pay him yet, and I know he will be put to the greatest 
misery from my incapacity. 

"29th. On the 14th instant (I believe) I wrote 
' Peel's move out is like Lord Grey's in 1832 to come 
back with greater poiuer' 

" I have a vast notion of my own political sagacity. 

320 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON, [1845. 

Peel is back again, with double power, and he is the 
only man now for the difficulty. 

" However, my political furor is waning. Next 
month I am sixty years of age, and begin to feel there 
are many beauties in Art I have yet to mark, and my 
time of seeing and painting must have turned the corner. 
In God I trust. Amen. 

" I hope I may yet last twenty years ; if I do, I'll do 
greater things than I have ever done. I feel I shall. 
In God I trust. Amen. 

30th. Last day but one of 1845. Well; I have 
not been perfect, but I have struggled to be so, and I 
have less vice to lament than any previous year since I 
was fourteen. The first step towards fitting the soul to 
stand before its Maker is a conviction of its unworthiness. 

" I have been deeply touched by St. Augustin's Con- 
fessions ; they are grander than Rousseau's, because 
founded on the religious estimation of Creator and 
created. Dr. Hook gave me an inestimable blessing 
in presenting them to me. They show me the corrup- 
tion of the greatest saints ; he shows the same belief in 
the opening of the Bible at hazard and applying the 
first passage to yourself as I have always done. 

" Good heavens I Gurwood has cut his throat. The 
man who had headed the forlorn hope at Ciudad Ro- 
drigo, the rigid soldier^ the iron-nerved hero, had 
not morale to resist the relaxation of nerve brought on 
by his over-anxiety about the Duke's Despatches ! 

" Where is the responsibility of a man with mind so 
easily affected by body? Romilly, Castlereagh and 
Gurwood ! 

"I ordered the third canvas immediately, as I now 
foresaw the conclusion of Nero. I knelt down and 
prayed God to bless my third in the series, as he had 
blessed my two first. 


" 31 st The end of 1845 is approaching rapidly ; 
ten minutes after nine. I prayed at the end of 1844 
that I might get through the great works in hand. I 
have accomplished (all but) Aristides and Nero, of the 
six contemplated. O God ! grant that no difficulty, 
however apparently insurmountable, may conquer my 
spirit, or prevent me from bringing to a triumphant 
conclusion my six works originally designed for the old 

" I prayed in 1844 that my son might be brought 
through his degree. It was by Thy mercy completed, 
and yet at the time I prayed I had not a guinea. 

" I prayed to accomplish Aristides and Nero ; I have 
attained, by Thy blessing, my desire, I prayed for 
health ; I have had it. I prayed for blessings on my 
family ; they have been blessed. Can I feel grateful 
enough ? Never. 

" I now pray, O Almighty, surrounded with dif- 
ficulties, and in great necessity, that I may accomplish 
two more of my six, that I may sell the two I have 
done, and be employed for the remaining four ! 

" O God ! not mine, but Thy will be done ! Give 
me eyes and intellect, and energy and health, till the 
last gush of existence, and I'll bear up, and get through, 
under <Thy blessing, my six works to illustrate the best 
government for mankind. 

" O Lord ! let not this be presumption, but that just 
confidence inspired by Thee, O God ! This year is 
closing rapidly. I almost hear the rush and roar of 
the mighty wave from eternity that will overwhelm it 
for ever ! O Lord, accept my deep, deep gratitude for 
all Thy mercies this last year ; and grant I may deserve 
a continuance of such mercies, and conclude by the 
end of 1846 two more great works of my series | 
Amen, Amen, Amen. 


322 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 


"January \st. O God, bless the beginning, pro- 
gression, and conclusion of this year, for Jesus Christ's 
sake, my dear family, my art, and myself! 

" The Nero to-day looks well ; but I am very uneasy. 
I cannot keep my word for want of means. I paid 
away too rapidly, and left myself bare ; and have now to 
struggle paint conceive borrow promise and 
fly at my picture, get enchanted, and awake out 
of a delicious dream, to think of the butcher. But in 
God I trust. At sixty, men are not so bold as at 
twenty-five ; but why not ? If Napoleon had behaved 
with the same spirit in 1815 as on the 18th Brumaire, 
he would not have died at St. Helena. 

" There is no competition till next year. If I lose 
this moment for showing all my works, it can never 
occur again. My heart beat, my imagination fired. 
I thought on Him on whom alone I rest ; Lord, bless 
my decision ! Amen. 

" 3rd. Went out on various matters connected 
with my Nero, to get various things to paint from, 
and succeeded. Called in at Christie's by accident, and 
saw a fine copy of the head of the Sybil in the Pace, by 
Raffaele. Waited, and got it for 1 9s. ; paid for it, and 
marched off with it in a cab, and drove home, glorying. 
Such heads are worth all Vandyke's, Velasquez', or 
Keynolds's, in style. They keep your eye in trim for 
greai public buildings, as to largeness, and breadth, and 
style. As I was walking out Wyatt hailed me, and 
asked me to come and lunch in the belly of Copen- 
hagen*, before it was put together ! I went, and 
squeezed in with women, Sir John Campbell, &c., and 

* For the colossal statue of Wellington on the gate at Constitu- 
tion Hill. 


a jolly party, and a great deal of fun we had. Drank 
the health of the sculptor, and the horse, and his rider. 
I was invited to dine, Tuesday, but could not go. 

f( It will be something to say, some time hence, when 
the statue is up, I dined in the horse's belly ! 

" 7th. Called on Hart, who told me that near 
St. Miniato, in Florence, he took shelter in a shower 
of rain under a portico, where in the dark was a fresco 
by Masaccio of a figure, the origin of Kaffaele's Christ 
in the Transfiguration. 

(i Thus of the Christ in Transfiguration, the Paul 
in Elymas, and one of the men in Paul at Athens, 
Masaccio is the origin. 

" Hart seemed lounging and overwhelmed. Italy 
begets a lazy bewilderment. In the Vatican, he says, 
there is a whole suite of rooms painted by Pinturicchio, 
and a chapel of Fra Beato never seen unless asked for. 

" St/i. Anxious about the next three months. My 
fate hangs on doing as I ought and seizing moments 
with energy. 

" I shall never have an opportunity again of connect- 
ing myself with a great public commission by opposition 
and interesting the public by the contrast. If I miss it 
it will be a tide not taken at its flood. 

" O God, bless me with energy and vigour to seize 
the moment and make the most of it. Amen, Amen. 

"\\tli. Read prayers and rendered thanks with 
true feeling. 

" As there is great anxiety in my family about exhi- 
biting, the following is curious : 

Y 2 




f|Profits from various Exhibi- 

Loss on various Exhibitions 

tions since 1820. 

since 1820. 

s. d. 

s. d. 

Net Profit of Je- 

Loss on Exhibition 

rusalem - - 1453 19 10 

of Solomon - 99 

9 10 

Net Profit of Mock 

Loss on Exhibition 

Election - - 190 7 

of Xenophon - 27 

Net Profit of Chair- 

Loss on Exhibition 

ing - - - 9 16 10 

of Eucles - - 46 

T "T^ 1 "1_*j.* ' 

1654 3 8 
Loss on others - 629 10 8 

Loss on Exhibition 
of Napoleon - 20 
Loss on Exhibition 

1024 13 

of Passion - - 22 


Profit on Lazarus 441 8 6 

Loss on Exhibition 

Net Profit on Ex- 

of Reform Ban- 

hibition since 

quet - - - 248 

16 8 

1820 - - 1466 1 6 


10 6 

s. d. 

Net Profit on Exhibition - 1466 1 6 

Sale of Agony - - - 525 

Mock Election - - 525 

Eucles - - 525 

Xenophon - - 840 

Napoleon - - - 136100 

Passover - 525 

Banquet - - - 525 

Net Profit and Sale - - 5067 11 6 

" I2th. O God! bless the beginning, progression 
and conclusion of my taking my rooms for exhibition of 
my pictures this day. Amen. 

" Took my rooms : so the die is cast ! 

" 16th. There surely is in human nature an inherent 
propensity to extract all the good out of the evil. 

" One case. Out of what a mass of indigestion, fog, 
debt,- discontent, opposition, vice, temptation and trial, 
is every work of intellect accomplished. 

" Oh, it is a fearful struggle, which nothing but the 
assistance of God could support me through. 

" Worked hard and got well on. 


" 22nd. I will not continue to record my prayers 
daily. I. feel them, but it is too familiar to write them 
down and bring them in contact with daily expression 
of worldly matters. 

" 23rd. Worked moderately. At the conclusion of 
a picture beware of the freaks of invention. The mind, 
long dwelling on one idea, gets weary and starts altera- 
tions. Immediately that begins fly to a new subject. 

" 24ith. Sent my opening advertisement.* Success I 

* Haydon's New Pictures. On Easter Monday next will open 
for exhibition, at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly (admission Is., 
catalogues 66?.), two large pictures, viz. 1. " The Banishment of 
Aristides with his Wife and Children," to show the Injustice of 
Democracy. 2. " Nero playing his Lyre whilst Home is burning," 
to prove the Heartlessness of Despotism. These works are parts 
of a series of six designs, made thirty-four years ago for the old 
House of Lords, and laid before every minister to the present day. 
The plan was to illustrate what was the best Government, by show- 
ing from historic facts what was proved had been the worst. The 
third and fourth will exhibit the consequences of Anarchy and 
Cruelties of Revolution, and the fifth and sixth the Blessings of 
Justice and Freedom under a limited Monarchy. This exhibition 
will open in no spirit of opposition to the Government plan about 
to be put in force, but with the view of letting the public see that 
works endeavoured to be executed on the principles of the great 
masters of the British school, founded on those established by the 
greater men of other schools, are perfectly consistent with the 
decoration of any building, Grecian or Gothic, and that there is no 
necessity for endangering the practice of the British school by the 
adoption of the wild theories of a sect of foreigners, who have 
considered the accidental ignorance of an early age as a principle 
fit to guide an enlightened one. The British school was progress- 
ing to excellence five years ago, and would have attained it had 
not the weak recommendation of absurd fancies thrown the young 
men off the right road, and the whole school into confusion. Back- 
grounds are now considered a vulgarity, rotundity of imitation 
the proofs of a debased mind ; nature a nuisance, and the neces- 
sity of models evidence of no poetry of soul ; portraits are begin- 
ning to appear with coats of arms sticking to their noses ; the 
petty details of decoration and patterns of borders take place of 
expression and features ; and all those great doctrines, which the 

Y 3 

326 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

merciful Protector, without Thy blessing who can 
succeed ? Thou knowest the purity of my motives. In 
Thee I trust, 

ff The absurd principle now set afloat by the Commis- 
sion of allegorizing everything is ridiculous. Every- 
thing is now spiritualised in the art, the basis of which 
is matter. The spirit of this, and spirit of that, when 
the absolute flesh and blood which represents the spirit 
is so completely in opposition to all spiritual notions. 

" Instead of the old thoroughbred English notion of 
domestic happiness in a tea-party, we shall have the 
spirit of domestic felicity pouring out the tea, the spirit 
of benevolence putting in the sugar, while the milk will 
be poured by the genial spirit of agricultural protection, 
and the spirit of manufacture will spread the table- 

" 25th. My birthday, sixty years old! O God! 
continue my eyes and faculties to the last hour of my 
existence. Bless me through my ensuing years. Grant 

1 may live to accomplish my six great works, and leave 

experience of centuries established, are now questioned with the 
dandy air of infinite superiority to Titian, Rubens, Velasquez, 
Reynolds, Vandyke, Michael Angelo's Prophets, or Raffaele's 
Cartoons. The end of such a state of things may easily be pre- 
dicted; and Mr. Haydon respectfully hopes his humble attempt to 
prove there is no occasion to change the principles of the school 
for the purpose of decoration will be supported by the sound sense 
of the people. He was the first to petition the House for State 
support to High Art he was the first to petition for schools of 
design he was the first to plan the decoration of the old House of 
Lords, and to keep up the excitement, till it was resolved to deco- 
rate the new he has devoted forty-two years, without omission 
of a day, to simplify the principles of the art for the instruction of 
the people ; and having been utterly neglected when all his plans 
have been adopted, he appeals to the public to support his exhibi- 
tion, that he may be able to complete the series he has planned. 
The private day will take place on Saturday, April 11., and will 
open at 10 o'clock on Easter Monday, April 13-, to the public. 


my family in competence. Accept my gratitude for 
Thy mercies up to this moment, and grant I may so 
exercise the gifts with which Thou hast blessed me, 
that I may merit eternal life, and Thy approbation, 
through Christ, my Lord and Saviour. Amen. 

" Rydal Mount, Jan. 24th, 1846. 
" ' My dear Haydon, 

" ' I was sorry that I could not give you a more satis- 
factory answer to your request for a motto to the engraving 
of your admirable portrait of my ascent towards the top of 
Helvellyn. My son William, who is here, has just been 
with me to look at the impression of the print in the 
unfinished state as we have it. But from the first he has 
been exceedingly pleased with it ; so much so that he would 
be truly happy to be put into possession of it as it then was, 
if an impression could be procured for him, and would 
readily pay for it if purchased. Pray let me have a few 
impressions when it is finished sent to Moxon, as I myself 
think that it is the best likeness, that is, the most charac- 
teristic, that has been done of me. I wish to send one 
also to America according to directions, which will be here- 
after given. I hope you get on with your labours to your 

" * Believe me, dear Haydon, faithfully, 

" ' Your obliged friend, 
k " * W. WORDSWORTH, j 

" 27th. I went out in misery. There is nothing 
like the forlornness of feeling of knowing you have not 
a pound to meet the bill of a rascal who is hoping you 
may fail that he may make property of the costs. 
Coutts and Co. had written to say it was against their 
rules to help me, still, personally, I had hopes. I 
went to-day. The bill would be in by twelve (28Z. 10s.). 
I saw Mr. Majoribanks ; I said, ( Sir, do help me.' He 
is humane. f You know it is against all rule. I regret 
to see a man of your eminence so hard run, Shall it 

Y 4 

328 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

be the last time ? ' I gave him my honour. He begged 
me to sit down, feeling as if I had been held by a 
prong over the burning pit and saw a reprieve. I 
signed a promissory note for two months, and he placed 
the amount to my account. He was looking much 
older than I. His head trembled a little and his hand 
shook. He said, ( I am fifty to-morrow.' ( Why, sir, 
I am sixty.' ( Sixty?' says he; 'no!' ' It is twenty- 
nine years ago since I opened my account. Mr. Harman 
paid me 300/., and I came to your house.' ( Time 
passes,' said he. Sir Edward Antrobus was looking 
old and wrinkled. I declare I feel as young as ever. 
These rich men always look older than we struggling 
men of talent. 

" I fear nothing on earth but my banker, when I 
have not five shillings on account, and have a bill 
coming due, and want help. The awful and steady 
look of his searching eyes ; the quiet and investigating 
point of his simple questions; the ( hm,' when he 
holds down his head, as if he had Atlas on his shoulders, 
and the solemn tone when he declares it is against the 
rules of the house ; the reprieve one feels as the tones 
of the voice begin to melt and give symptoms of an 
opening to let in light to the heart, are not to be de- 
scribed, and can only be understood by those who have 
been in such predicaments. Majoribanks is always 
kind at last. The clerks seem to be wonder-struck at 
the charm I seem to possess in the house amongst the 

" The fact is, Coutts' house have always had a great 
deal to do with men of genius, and they have a feeling 
for them, and seem to think it is a credit to the firm to 
have one or two to scold, assist, blow up, and then 
forgive. This is the way I have gone on with them 
for twenty-nine years. 

" Once my trustee overdrew 2 \L By degrees I 


repaid it, 51., 81 at a time, and I always kept my 
word with them, and once they spoke highly of me in 
my misfortunes, and once they paid 100Z. when I had 
not a shilling on account. This was in my palmy 

" How grateful I am, God be thanked. ( He who 
trusteth in the Lord shall be even as Mount Sion ; ' I 
have found it so. 

" 29th. The artists of the world are divided into 
Touchers and Polishers. The Touchers Michel An- 
gelo, Raffaele in his cartoons, Titian, Bartolomeo, Gior- 
gione, Tintoretto, Veronese, Rubens, Velasquez, David 
Teniers, Rembrandt, Reynolds, Wilson, Wilkie, Gains- 
borough, Vandyke, are the great men who had dis- 
covered the optical principles of imitating nature to 
convey thought. The Polishers are the little men who 
did not see a whole at a time, but only parts of a whole, 
and thus make up the whole by a smooth union of 
parts. Whereas the great men see the whole by the 
leading points which make up the whole, and conscious 
on optical principles of the power of distance to unite 
the leading points into a whole, leave the intermediate 
parts to be united by distance. 

" February 4th. In the greatest anxiety about 
money matters. Accommodation in the city out of the 
question. My friends with faces longer than my arm, 
croaking and foreboding. 

" I have lost three glorious days, painted hardly at 
all, and have not succeeded in getting 5/., with 62/. to 
pay. I must up with my new canvas, because without 
a new large picture to lean on I feel as if deserted by 
the world. 

" The reason of these perpetual failures in matters of 
decoration in England, whether in architecture, sculp- 
ture, or painting, is, that the management is left to 
commissioners and committees, which is all very well 

330 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

when the subjects to be settled are commercial or poli- 
tical and every member knows something of what he is 
to discuss, but is perfectly ludicrous where Art is con- 
cerned and nobody but the professional man knows one 
iota about the matter. 

" Committees are composed generally of men of rank 
and station, who have little to do, while each has a 
crotchet of his own. Crotchet after crotchet is pro- 
posed, till some day, after endless discussion, on a slack 
attendance, with hardly a quorum, up gets a persevering 
member, proposes his own crotchet, which is carried by 
a majority of one out of five, and this is called the 
prevailing sense of the committee. 

"5th. 0, 0,0! I sat all day and looked into the 
fire. I must get up my third canvas, or I shall go 
cracked ; I have ordered it up on Saturday, and then 
I'll be at it. 

" Perhaps this paralysis was nature's repose. I stared 
like a baby, and felt like one. A man who has had 
so many misfortunes as I have had gets frightened at 
leaving his family for a day. 

" 6th. Thus ends the week ; by borrowing 107. of 
Talfourd, 10/. of Twentyman, 51 10s. of my hatter, I 
contrived to satisfy claims for 627., but next week I 
must be at it again. Though I have Wordsworth's and 
the Duke's head engraving I can sell neither, and though 
I have not had a farthing on my lectures yet, I am now 
revising a second volume. 

" My two works are done, a third ca'nvas is ready, 
and, as if under trial, I have yet to begin, cheerfully 
trusting in God, and believing my life conducted by 
Him, so that from trials inflicted my genius is elevated 
more powerfully than from sunshine and luxury. 

Qth. Jerdan and Bell dined with me yesterday, 
and we had a pleasant evening. 

" Laid up with an inflamed lid ; always get ill in the 


interval of great works. Did nothing. Considered 
deeply my next subject. They advised me to paint 
The last Charette at the Kevolution. I prefer now the 
quiet beauty of Alfred. My heart is fixed on fine 
English heads ; I have a great many in my eye, ready 
models, who will be proud to sit. 

te IQth. My dear mother's birthday. 

" Twenty-five minutes past eleven, began on the 
canvas of my third picture. O God, I pray Thee, on 
my knees, bless me through this third picture, as Thou 
hast blessed me through the last. Amen. 

" As I and my pupil, Fisher, were embruning my 
white ground with raw umber before sketching in, who 
should call but Sir Robert Inglis. 

"Up he came; saw all my series. I said, 'Now, 
Sir Robert, what chance have I in the House of Lords?' 
' Do you wish me to answer as commissioner, or as 
gentleman to gentleman ? ' f As both.' ' Then you 
are too late.' 

" When I took my sketch to Walmer and spoke to 
the Duke, he said ' it was too early.' When I laid it 
before Sir Robert Peel, he replied, ' He left all to the 
Commission.' In fact, they are determined I shall 
have nothing to do with it. I am always too late, too 
early, or too importunate, 

" Well, I say again, as I said to my wife in 1837, 
after our release from Broadstairs, where for her health 
I had spent all, and we returned without a shilling : 
'What shall we do, my love?' 6 Trust in God,' said 
I, and suddenly came the Liverpool Commission. So 
say I now, ' I trust in God,' and we shall see who is 
most powerful, He or the Royal Commission. We 
shall see. 

" A great many extraordinary things have happened 
where I am concerned, and so will a great many more- 

" \lth. Settled everything before leaving town for 

332 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1846. 

dear Auld Reekie. God bless my arrival there, and 
grant success and safe return. God protect ray dear 
Family till I come back, and my pictures and property. 

" In case of accident I hope my dear friends Dr. Dar- 
ling, 6, Russell Square, and Mr. Serjeant Talfourd, 
will act as executors. In God I trust. Amen. 

" 18th. Newcastle. Came in 10} hours, 303 miles. 
Curious twenty-six years ago I called on poor Be- 
wick, the wood engraver. I have lectured here since ; 
and now I pass to lecture in Edinburgh once more. 

" Thank God with all my heart I came safe. 

" Old Bewick, who was eighty years old, on dit, was 
very proud of my calling, and used to couple the call of 
the Grand Duke Michael and myself as high honours, 
and talk of it in his boozings. 

" 20th. Arrived at Edinbro' from Newcastle, after 
a delightful journey by Melrose, glimpsing Abbotsford, 
after which the Tweed became classical. Poor dear 
Sir Walter ! he came into my mind incessantly. 

" 23rd. Lectured on Fuseli, and was heroically re^ 
ceived by a brilliant audience. Ah, Auld Reekie I I 
smile then again to my heart, joy I 

" 25th. Lectured on Wilkie. They listened as if 
entranced ; not a breath, or a whisper, or a hum. 

" 26th. Heard from Jeffrey. To his horror, I asked 
him to head the list for Wordsworth. 

<c ' Dear Mr. Haydon, 

" ' I shall go on your subscription list with pleasure, but 
do not feel that I have any right to be at the head of it ; and 
doubt indeed whether the distinguished poet whom it chiefly 
concerns (and whose genius I love more than I am afraid he 
believes) would quite like to see me there. I shall be glad 
to be put down for a proof. 

" ' My health has for some years been a good deal broken, 
so as to prevent me from going out into society, or even to 
lectures. But I am still permitted to see a few friends at 

1846.] IN EDINBURGH. 333 

home, and they are kind enough, through the winter, to come 
and see me on Tuesday and Friday evenings, so that if you 
should be at leisure on any of these days, from nine to half- 
past eleven, it will give me great pleasure to see you. 
" ' In the meantime, with all good wishes, 

" ' Believe me always, very faithfully yours, 

" ' J. JEFFREY.' 

" 28 fli. Dined with the worthy president of the 
Philosophical Association, Lothian. The lecturer on 
chemistry, Wilson, told me a young artist was so enthu- 
siastic about me, when I was here in 1837, that he stood 
for hours close to my door to see me, and at last heard 
me cough, which he ever after used to relate with en- 

" March 3rd. Dined with Cadell, and examined all 
Sir Walter's manuscripts of the novels, and was aston- 
ished at the purity of the writing; like Shakespeare's, 
without a blot. 

" Cadell said he thought the anxieties and harass of 
such eternal visitors at Abbotsford during his embarrass- 
ments greatly contributed to his death. He has a capital 
portrait by Gordon ; the very simple man. 

" Went to Lord Jeffrey's in the evening. Sat by a 
very sweet and beautiful woman. Jeffrey looks as sharp 
as ever ; but having been a severe critic in early life, is 
doing the amiable now. He must be seventy, but he is 
a very dear friend, and has an affectionate heart. 

" 6th. What is the reason of this early publication 
of the 5th report of the Fine Arts Commission ? It has 
always been published hitherto on the end of a session. 
Why now at the beginning? Are the secretary and 
his masters afraid of the probable consequences of 
Haydon's exhibition, with his two pictures, showing the 
consequences of democracy and despotism, part of a 
series to illustrate the best government to regulate, with- 
out cramping, the energy of man, laid before every 

334 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

minister for thirty-six years, and the cause of the present 
move ? 

" Called on George Combe. We were talking of the 
punctuality of the Duke of Wellington, when he said, a 
Mr. Peale, son of Mr. Peale an American portrait-painter, 
told him Washington said to his father he would come 
early, and was seen walking backwards and forwards, 
looking at his watch. As the clock began to strike, 
Washington came to the door, and was in the painting- 
room before the clock had done. Whilst sitting, a de- 
spatch was brought ; he begged leave to look at it, read 
it quietly, and putting it down said, ' I am happy to 
tell you Burgoyne has surrendered to the army.' I re- 
plied, ' Remember that was good news, which made 
all the difference.' e In good news,' said Napoleon, 
( never hurry ; but in bad news, not a moment is to be 

" Ith.r-* Dined with the Philosophical Society. Mac- 
kenzie, Lord Mackenzie's brother, was there, who was 
also at the dinner given in Rome by the Duke of Hamil- 
ton and the Scotch and English to Wilkie. 

" The whole evening passed off most agreeably, and 
all were full of heart. 

" 13th. Left Edinburgh at seven. Came to Mel- 
rose, and to Abbotsford (playing at feudal castles). 
Went to Dryburgh; much affected. 

" I4ith. Started from Newcastle, and arrived in 
London by train at eight. Thank God for the safety 
of my family and self! 

" IQth. Filled up my lecture on Elgin Marbles for 
the press. Recovering my fatigue. 

" 17 th. Recovered. Read Mrs. Merrifield's Fresco. 
Pounced on Pontormo's Journal with delight. From 
my own instinct, I have always practised in oil the 
habits of fresco. My enemies know that, and will give 
me no opportunity, till a race of young fresco painters 


are raised. Entered my painting-room again. God bless 
me in it I 

" 18th and 19th. Occupied preparing for my exhi- 
bition ; but the pain of mind I feel when not painting 
is excruciating. I wish it was over. 

" 20th. My dear friend Kemp advanced me 100/. 
on the anti-slavery drawings, which will give me a 
spring towards my exhibition. 

"2lst. Saw Kemp, and arranged. Corrected the 
sheets of my second volume, and my Catalogue. Ex- 
ceedingly fatigued. I shall be glad when my pictures 
are gone. 

" 23rd. O God, Thou hast blessed me, I am sure. 
Accept my gratitude. Everything proceeds so far well. 
Think of my anxiety at Edinburgh how to get the means 
to open my exhibition. All was black, yet I felt trust 
in God. Home I came. The day approaches ; my 
little money dwindled away ; I was reduced to a few 
shillings. My imagination fired up. I wrote to four 
men, Kemp of Spitalfields, Miller of Liverpool, Lo- 
thian of Edinburgh, and James the traveller (?) to buy 
my drawings. Miller is too poor ; James and Lothian 
have not replied. Kemp came with his good face, and 
advanced 100Z. on the drawings. Here am I as ever 
as if that condition kept me depending on God again 
before the wind. Saw carpenters, &c. and set all in 
motion. ' Now,' as Napoleon said, ' I can sleep, whilst 
my employes are getting ready for my orders.' 

" 26th. Directed 224 envelopes for private day, 
with the tickets, and signed in the corner. Kept the 
men at work all day nearly closed in the place. 
Pictures framed ; all alive, as I relish. 

" My dearest love, who has never left me for twenty- 
five years, is going by herself to Brighton, for her dear 
health. We were touched last night, as I tied up her 
trunk. I hope God will bless her with recovery. 

336 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

ee 29th. Saw my dearest love off. I hope she 
arrived safely. Got all covered in nearly. In driving 
along, the cab-horse fell. Would any man believe this 
annoyed me ? As an omen, the same thing happened 
before the Cartoon contest. Such are human beings. 

" Napoleon's coach broke down on his return from 
Elba. Well, it is glorious to be able to fight a last. 
battle ; nous verrons. In God I trust. Amen. 

" 3 1st. Last day of March ; April-fool day to-morrow. 
In putting in my letters for the private day, I let three 
parts fall on the pavement about 300. Another fall ! 
Now for the truth of omens. 

"April 1st. Hung up all my remaining drawings, 
and finally arranged the exhibition. My pictures looked 
well. God bless it with success ! 

" 4th. It rained the whole day. Nobody came 
except Jerrold, Bowring, Fox Maule, and Hobhouse. 
Twenty-six years ago, the rain would not have pre- 
vented them. But now it is not so. However I do 
not despair. 


" ' Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly (upstairs to the right). 
" ' Admit Noodle, Doodle, and their numerous Friends 
to the private view of Hay 'don 's Two New Pictures > l The 
Banishment of Aristides ' and < The Burning of Rome,' part 
of a Series for the Decoration of the old House of Lords. 
" f On Saturday the 4th instant, from twelve till six. 

" ' B. R. HAYDON.' 

" Omens of failure in this exhibition. 

" 1st. The cab-horse slipped on the wood,and tumbled. 

" 2nd. I let all the letters tumble for the private day, 
and to-day, in trying to put up Wordsworth, he tumbled, 
knocked down Lord Althorp, broke the frame, and 
played the devil. 

" After this what success can come ? 


"Do I believe this, or don't I? Half inclined. 
6t/i. Receipts 1846, 11. Is. 6d.: ARISTIDES. 
Receipts 1820, 19/. 165.: JERUSALEM. 
" In God I trust. Amen. 
7th. Rain. 17. 85. 6d. 

" St/i. Fine. Receipts worse, 17. 65. 6d. Is it not 
funny, my writing down those omens? They have 
turned out so correctly forerunners of evil. 

" 9th. Fine weather. Things begin to turn, I think. 
I dare say I was overstrained with hard work, and my 
mental and intellectual being partook of it. Once more 
I begin to trust in my Merciful Creator, and have no 
doubt He will carry me through. 

" 13 th. Easter Monday.* O God, bless my receipts 
this day, for the sake of my creditors, my family, and 
my art. Amen. 

s. d. 

"Receipts, 22 - - 1 2 

" Catalogues, 3 - - - 1 6 

"1 3 6~ 

" An advertisement, of a finer description to catch the 
profanum vulgus, could not be written, yet not a shilling 
more was added to the receipts. 

* Haydon's new pictures are now open at the Egyptian Hall, 
upstairs to the right. Admission Is.; catalogue 6d. In these two 
magnificent pictures of the Burning of Rome by Nero, and Banish- 
ment of Aristides, " the drawing is grand, and characters most feli- 
citous, and we hope the artist will reap the reward he merits," says 
the Times, April 6th. " These are Haydon's best works," says the 
Herald, same day. N.B. Visitors are requested to go up into the 
gallery of the room, in order to see the full effect of the flame of 
the burning city. Nero accused the Christians of this cruel act, 
covered hundreds of them with combustible materials, and burnt 
them for the amusement of the savage Romans. (See Tacitus.) 
Haydon has devoted forty-two years to improve the taste of the 
people ; and let every Briton who has pluck in his bosom, and a 
shilling in his pocket, crowd to his works during the Easter week 


338 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDOtf. [1846. 

" They rush by thousands to see Tom Thumb. They 
push, they fight, they scream, they faint, they cry help 
and murder ! and oh ! and ah I They see my bills, my 
boards, my caravans, and don't read them. Their eyes 
are open, but their sense is shut. It is an insanity, a 
rabies, a madness, & furor, a dream. 

" I would not have believed it of the English people. 

"14th. Keceipts doubled to-day. Thank God. 

"15th. Half the month gone. God bless me this 
day. Amen. Sent dear Mary 27. to keep on her 
bathing; left 4s. 6d. only in my pocket, with a hundred 
or two to pay. 

" 16^7?. My situation is now of more extreme peril 
than even when I began Solomon, thirty-three years 
ago. Involved in debt, mortified by the little sympathy 
the public display towards my best pictures, with several 
private engagements yet to fulfil, I awoke this morning 
at four, as usual, filled with the next in my Series 
Alfred and the Jury. I felt, * Is it the whisper of an 
evil or a good spirit?' but I believe it to be that of a 
good spirit. 

" I call on my Creator still to support me through 
trials severer than I have ever gone through, to the ac- 
complishment of my remaining four. I call on Him 
who has led me through the wilderness for forty-two 
years, under every depression and every excitement, to 
sixty years of age, not to desert me in this the eleventh 
hour. O God, on my knees I ask for Thy blessing on 
this the third of my Series, to grant that I may bring 
it to a glorious and triumphant conclusion, in spite of 
any difficulty, any obstruction, earth can oppose. Grant 
me eyes, intellect and health ; and under Thy blessing 
leave the rest to me. O God, how often have I wea- 
ried Thy Invisibility with entreaty ! and I have always 
finished the works I began, when I have earnestly prayed 

1846.] AT BAY. 339 

for Thy blessing. Bless my exertions, O Lord, now. 
Bless the beginning, progression and conclusion, not 
only of Alfred, but the remaining three ; and grant I 
may accomplish the whole four remaining, with glory to 
Thy gifts, honour to my country and blessings to my 

" Grant all these things, for Jesus Christ's sake. 
Amen ! Amen ! Amen ! 

" 17th. Worked hard, and got on with Alfred glo- 
riously; made a small sketch, in a few minutes, of light, 
colour and shadow, and then rubbed in the whole 
picture another stage. 

" It had a splendid effect. God be thanked ! How 
mysterious is the whisper which, in such anxieties? 
impels to paint, conceive and invent ! How mysterious ! 

"But why such anxieties? Why not allow the gift 
to work without the stumblings of affliction ? 

" 18th. God bless me through my daily trouble this 
day, as Thou didst bless me yesterday. Amen. 

" By the kindness of my dear friend Kemp I am able 
to send my dear love 27. to Brighton, and pay my wages 
at the exhibition. Thus far I have got over the troubles 
of the day. God be praised ! 

" Sunday, 19th. O God ! enable me to do my reli- 
gious duties this day, in tranquillity and faith, filling 
my mind for a successful conquest over the struggles of 
the coming week. Amen. 

"2lsf. Tom Thumb had 12,000 people last week; 
B. K. Hay don, 133| (the a little girl). Exquisite 
taste of the English people ! 

" O God ! bless me through the evils of this day. 

" I thank Thee. Thou hast done so. Amen. 

"22nd. Bless me, O God, through the evils of this 
day. Amen. 

" God has blessed me. Thanks. Amen. 
z 2 

340 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

"24th. Advanced Alfred gloriously. Borne down 
at first in misery. Six hours at work. 

" 25th. Made a chalk sketch of my dear old friend 
Caroline Innes, a daughter of Beechey's. 

" 26th. Read prayers with all my heart, and then 
went to my friend Dennys, who bought Uriel, and had 
built a gallery for it. It was hung, and looked excel- 
lently. How grateful I am that, beginning it trusting 
in God alone, He raised me up a patron who bought it 
and valued it! 

" 30th. End of the month. One of variety of 

" For the blessings gratitude. For the evils 
submission. I made this appeal again, despising Napo- 
leon for not trying the 18th Brumaire after Waterloo. 
But he was right. He showed greater sagacity. You 
can never repeat the cause of a success, without its pro- 
ducing a failure. You cannot do anything twice in life 
with the same effect on the world. I find it so ; but in 
my ambition perhaps vanity, pride, conceit I be- 
lieved I was destined to prove the reverse. Et void 
le result at. 

" My dangers are great. 

" May 1st. Every spring time presses; money flies; 
the butcher, the baker, the tax-collector, the landlord, 
give louder knocks than before ; away goes the only 
hope to the exhibition ; for artists, like the evil spirits of 
hell, doubt and tremble, and yet abhor and do. 

" 3rd. I put down in my Journal everything which 
passes through a human mind, that its weaknesses, its 
follies, its superstitions, may be balanced against its 
vigour, propriety and sound convictions. 

" 5th. Came home in excruciating anxiety, not 
being able to raise the money for my rent for the Hall, 
and found a notice from a broker for a quarter's rent 
from Newton, my old landlord for twenty-two years. 

1846.] AT BAY. 341 

For a moment my brain was confused. I had paid him 
half; and, therefore, there was only 107. left. I went 
into the painting-room in great misery of mind. That 
so old a friend should have chosen such a moment to do 
such a thing, is painful. After an hour's dulness, my 
mind suddenly fired up, with a new background for 
Alfred. I dashed at it, and at dinner it was enormously 
improved. I make a sketch to-morrow ; then begin to 
finish with the Saxon noble. 

" 6th. I went out yesterday to look for my em- 
ployer, to make him pay me 377. 10s. I had just re- 
ceived a lawyer's letter, the first for a long time. I 
called on the lawyer, an amiable man. He promised to 
try to get me time. I came home; my exhibition 
bringing nothing; a lawyer's letter; my landlady's 
307. for rent at the Hall unpaid : I came home with 
great pain of mind ; yet would any man believe, as I 
waited in the lawyer's chambers, the whole background 
of Alfred flashed into my head ? I dwelt on it, foresaw 
its effects and came home in sorrow, delight, anxiety 
and anticipation. I set my palette with a disgust, and 
yet under irresistible impulse. In coming into the par- 
lour, the cook, whose wages I had not been able to pay, 
handed me a card from a broker, saying he called for 
a quarter's rent from Mr. Newton. I felt my heart 
sink, my brain confused, as I foresaw ruin, misery and 
a prison ! It was hoisting the standard ! 

" This is temper. I went on with my palette in a 
giddy fidget. I brought it out, and looking at my great 
work rejoiced inwardly at the coming background. 
But my brain, harassed and confused, fell into a deep 
slumber, from which I did not awake for an hour* I 
awoke cold, the fire out ; but I flew at my picture, and 
dashing about like an inspired devil by three had 
arranged and put in the alteration. 

" I dined, expecting an execution every moment, and 
z 3 

342 MEMOIRS OF B. K. HAYDON. [1846. 

retired to rest in misery. I awoke continually ; and 
this morning went off to Fairbairn of Leeds to ask him 
to pay me for his brother. He could not. I drove 
back, finding his brother was in town. He was out, 
and I flew up to my landlord Newton. He was irri- 
table, and in bad health. He said I was in a bad temper. 
I promised him payment this day week. He promised 
to let me alone. Home I came, and made a complete 
sketch ; and this moment comes a cheque from my 
dear friend Kemp, which has really saved me for the 

" This is historical painting in England ! 

" 16th. The unexpected assistance I have received, 
the dangers I have escaped, the art I have accomplished, 
the health I enjoy, the objects I have in view, and the 
ruin I may endure with my dear Mary, agitate my 
brain and heart ; but in God's blessing I am firm. I 
see f One that is Invisible ' who will bring me through. 
Amen. I certainly feel more than ever the value of 
minutes, the importance of my mission, and the over- 
whelming duty upon my heart of completing my six 

" The struggle is severe ; for myself I care not, but 
for her so dear to me I feel. It presses on her mind ; 
and in a moment of pain she wrote the following simple 
bit of feeling to Frederic, who is in South America, 
on board the Grecian a Middy. It shows the inmost 
state of her soul, and what she really feels as to the 
danger of our position. 


This is thy natal day, my child ; 

And where art thou so dear ? 
My heart is sad, and yet 'tis glad 

To know thou art not here. 

1846.] AT BAY. 343 


Oh ! tarry thou in sunny isles, 
Where winds and waves have borne thee ; 

And return no more, to thy native shore, 
Where the care of years has worn thee. 


There is a pain upon thy brow, 

And thy face is pale with care ; 
Then coine no more to thy native shore, 

For trial awaits thee there. 


There is a curl upon thy lip, 

Which speaks of pride and sorrow ; 
And a weight upon thy gay young heart, 

Which dulls the hope of to-morrow. 

Then tarry thou in sunny isles, 

Bright as thy own blue eye; 
And come no more to thy native shore, 

Where toil and care do vie. 


Oh ! could I waft me to those bright isles, 

And dwell with thee, so dear ! 
Should I sigh for this land of oppression and toil, 

Where each morn is expected with fear ? 


Then, pray for the day when we may dwell 

In that sunny land together, 
With those on earth we love so well, 

And never again come hither. 


" 1 3th. Captain Waller told Lucas that Alava, who 
acted as the Duke's aide-de-camp at Waterloo, told 
Waller that, as he was joining the Duke early on the field, 
he thought to himself, ' I wonder how he feels and looks 

z 4 

344 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

with Napoleon opposite. ' The duke shortly joined, and 
called out in his bluff manner, ' Well how did you 
like the ball, last night ? ' Putting up his glass, and 
sweeping the enemy's ground, he then said to Alava, 
' That fellow little thinks what a confounded licking 
he '11 get, before the day is over.' * 

" I4th. This day forty-two years I left my native 
Plymouth for London and life O God! bless me 
through the numerous anxieties of this day satisfac- 

" I8th. I closed my exhibition this day, and have 
lost 111/. Ss. IQd. No man can accuse me of showing 
less energy, less spirit, less genius, than I did twenty- 
six years ago. I have not decayed, but the people have 
been corrupted. I am the same, they are not ; and I 
have suffered in consequence. 

" I used to accuse Napoleon of want of energy in not 
driving out the senate after Waterloo, as he did on the 
18th Brumaire. But he knew men better than I. 
It would have been useless ; he was not altered, they 

" It becomes me now, in all humility, to pray God 
yet for health to complete my remaining four. Amen. 

" 19 th. Cleared out my exhibition. [Removed 
Aristides and Themistocles, and all my drawings. Next 
to a victory is a skilful retreat ; and I marched out 
before General Thumb, a beaten but not conquered 

" 23rd. Awoke at three, in very great agony of 
mind ; and lay awake till long after five, affected by my 
position. Prayed God, as David did, and fell asleep 
happier, but still fearing. 

* The Quarterly Reviewer points out that there must be some 
confusion here between Quatre Bras and Waterloo, as the ball was 
on the night before the former and not the latter battle. 

1846.] AT BAY. 345 

I took the original sketch of Uriel, and went to my 
landlord and asked him to buy it ; in vain. At last, I 
offered it to him if he would lend me IL to pay an in- 
stalment, where failure would have been certain ruin. 
Pie assented, and I left a beautiful sketch. I then came 
home and darted at my picture. I have done a great 
deal tins week under all circumstances, and advanced 
the masses of drapery for my Jury. There lie Aristides 
and Nero, unasked for, unfelt for, rolled up ; Aristides, 
a subject Kaffaele would have praised and complimented 
me on ! Good God ! and 111/. 11 s. 5d. loss by show- 
ing it. 

" God be praised ! I have got through this week. 

" 30^. Worked gloriously hard, and finished the 
Saxon lord. If I can manage Alfred and the left corner 
of head by 30th June, that will do. God be thanked 
for His blessings this week and this day. 

" 31 st. Alfred is well on, in spite of dreadful need. 
O Lord ! carry me through the next and the dangerous 
month. Amen. 

"June 1st. O God I begin this month, June, in 
fear and submission. Thy will, not mine, be done. 
Carry me through, in spite of all appearances and 
realities of danger, for Jesus Christ's sake ; and enable 
me to keep my health in eyes and mind, and to bear up 
and get through my six great works in spite of all the 
difficulties, calamities or obstructions which ever af- 
flicted humanity. 

" Zrd. Bless me, O Lord ! * Some trust in chariots, 
and some in horses ; but we trust in the name of the 
Lord our God.' 

t( In proportion as you refine the virtues, so you do the 
vices, of mankind. 

" Worked very hard. Went to Christie's to see the 
Saltmarsh Collection. 

346 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

" The Rubens I recollect, thirty years ago, at De la 
Hant's. I remember it used to be a wonder to me, but 
I saw through it at once now. 

" 4th. I felt every touch from experience. I know 
what feelings he must have had when he touched so 
and so. 

" 5th. Called on my dear friend Kemp, who helped 
me to get over the difficulties which harassed me. 
Thank God ! 

" By the time the six are done they will all be mort- 
gaged ; but never mind, so long as I get them done. 
The great thing is to get them done. 

" 6th. Worked hard till half-past two. Then went 
to Saltmarsh Collection. Finished Alfred. Something 
to do to the head, and Saxon lord. If I can but finish 
the left hand corner and Alfred by 30th June, I'll do. 
If I had no pecuniary wants, I could. It is that which 
occupies my time. 

e< Sunday, 7th. Read prayers, and poured out thanks- 
givings, and then went to see my Uriel at Dennys's, 
Addison Terrace. Dennys was dressed in black velvet, 
with slashed sleeves ; and his fine head, fine gallery and 
fine pictures really carried me back to the cinque cento. 
Uriel looked well, and I said it would be honoured in 

" II th. I have 157. to pay to-morrow, without a 
shilling. How I shall manage to get seven hours' peace 
for work, and yet satisfy my creditors, Heaven only 

" 307. Newton, on the 25th. 317. 17s. 6d. Newman, 
same day. 261. 10s. Coutts, on the 24th. 297. 16s. 9d. 
Gillots, on the 29th. 177. 10s. 6d. to baker, in all 
1367. 14s. 10^7. this month, with only 18s. in the house ; 
nothing coming in, all received ; one large picture paint- 
ing and three more getting ready, and Alfred's head to 
do. In God alone I trust, in humility. 

1846.] AT BAY. 347 

" \2th. O God ! carry me through the evils of this 
day. Amen. 

" 13th. Picture much advanced ; but my necessities 
are dreadful, owing to my failure at the Hall. In God 
alone I trust, to bring me through, and extricate me 
safe and capable of paying my way. O God ! It is 
hard, this struggle of forty-two years ; but Thy will, 
and not mine, be done, if it save the art in the end. O 
God, bless me through all my pictures, the four remain- 
ing, and grant nothing on earth may stop the completion 
of the six. 

" Sunday, 14th. O God ! Let it not be presump- 
tion in calling for Thy blessing on my six works. Let 
no difficulty on earth stop or impede their progression, 
for one moment. Out of nothing Thou couldst create 
worlds. O God ! bless me this week with Thy divine 
aid. From sources invisible to us raise up friends, save 
me from the embarrassments want of money must bring 
on. O God ! grant this day week I may be able to 
thank Thee from my soul for extrication, and preserve 
my health and head, and spirit and piety to bear up and 
vanquish all obstructions. Amen. Amen. 

" 15th. Passed in great anxiety ; finally painted the 
background in the sketch, after harassing about to no 
purpose in the heat. 

" 16th. I sat from two till five staring at my picture 
like an idiot. My brain pressed down by anxiety and 
anxious looks of my dear Mary and children, whom I was 
compelled to inform. I dined, after having raised money 
on all our silver, to keep us from want in case of acci- 
dents ; and Rochfort, the respectable old man in Brewer 
Street, having expressed great sympathy for my mis- 
fortunes, as I saw white locks under his cap, I said, 
'Rochfort, take off your cap.' He took it off, and 
showed a fine head of silvery hair. ( This is the very 
thing I want : come and sit.' He smiled, and looked 

348 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

through me. e When ? ' < Saturday, at nine.' ' I will, 
sir ; ' and would any man believe, I went home with a 
lighter heart at having found a model for the hair of the 
kneeling figure in Alfred ? This is as good as anything 
I remember of Wilkie in my early days. I came home, 
and sat as I describe. I had written to Sir R. Peel, 
Duke of Beaufort and Lord Brougham, saying I had a 
heavy sum to pay. I offered the Duke's Study to the 
Duke of Beaufort for 507. 

" Who answered first ? Tormented by Disraeli, ha- 
rassed by public business, up came the following letter: 

" ' Sir, 

" ' I am sorry to hear of your continual embarrassments. 
From a limited fund which is at my disposal, I send as a 
contribution towards your relief from those embarrassments 
the sum of 50/. 

<Iam, Sir, 

" ' Your obedient servant, 


" ' Be so good as to sign and return the accompanying 

ee And this Peel is the man who has no heart ! 

"I7th. Dearest Mary, with a woman's passion, 
wishes me at once to stop payment, and close the whole 
thing. I will not. I will finish my six, under the 
blessing of God ; reduce my expenses ; and hope His 
mercy will not desert me, but bring me through in 
health and vigour, gratitude and grandeur of soul, to 
the end. In Him alone I trust. Let my imagination 
keep Columbus before my mind for ever. O God, bless 
my efforts with success, through every variety of for- 
tune, and support my dear Mary and family. Amen. 

" In the morning, fearing I should be involved, I 
took down books I had not paid for to a young book- 
seller with a family, to return them. As I drove along, 

1846.] THE END. 349 

I thought I might get money on them. I felt disgusted 
at such a thought, and stopped and told him I feared I 
was in danger ; and as he might lose, I begged him to 
keep them for a few days. He was grateful, and in the 
evening came this 507. / know what I believe. 

"l&th. O God, bless me through the evils of this 
day. Great anxiety. My landlord, Newton, called. I 
said, ' I see a quarter's rent in thy face ; but none from 
me.' I appointed to-morrow night to see him, and lay 
before him every iota of my position. ' Good-hearted 
Newton!' I said, ( don't put in an execution.' ' Nothing 
of the sort," he replied, half hurt. 

"I sent the Duke, Wordsworth, dear Fred's and 
Mary's heads, to Miss Barrett to protect. I have the 
Duke's boots and hat, and Lord Grey's coat, and some 
more heads. 

" 20th. O God, bless us all through the evils of this 
day. Amen. 

" 21st. Slept horribly. Prayed in sorrow, and got 
up in agitation. 

" 22nd. God forgive me. Amen. 

B. E. Haydon. 

" * Stretch me no longer on this rough world.' Lear. 
End of Twenty-sixth Volume." 

This closing entry was made between half-past ten 
and a quarter to eleven o'clock, on the morning of Mon- 
day the 22nd of June. Before eleven the hand that 
wrote it was stiff and cold in self-inflicted death. On 
the morning of that Monday Haydon rose early, and 
went out, returning, apparently fatigued, at nine. He 
then wrote. At ten he entered his painting-room, and 

350 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

soon after saw his wife, then dressing to visit a friend 
at Brixton, by her husband's special desire. He em- 
braced her fervently, and returned to his painting- room. 
About a quarter to eleven his wife and daughter heard 
the report of fire-arms ; but took little notice of it, as 
they supposed it to proceed from the troops then exer- 
cising in the Park. Mrs. Haydon went out. About an 
hour after Miss Haydon entered the painting-room, and 
found her father stretched out dead, before the easel on 
which stood, blood-sprinkled, his unfinished picture of 
Alfred and the first British Jury his white hairs 
dabbled in blood ; a half-open razor smeared with blood 
at his side; near it, a small pistol recently discharged; 
in his throat two frightful gashes, and a bullet-wound 
in his skull. A portrait of his wife stood on a smaller 
easel facing his large picture. On a table near was his 
Diary open at the page of that last entry, his watch, a 
Prayer-book open at the Gospel for the Sixth Sunday 
after the Epiphany, letters addressed to his wife and 
children, and this paper, headed " Last thoughts of 
B. R. Haydon, half-past ten": 

" No man should use certain evil for probable good, 
however great the object. Evil is the prerogative of 
the Deity. 

" I create good, I create, I the Lord do these 

" Wellington never used evil if the good was not cer- 
tain. Napoleon had no such scruples, and I fear the 
glitter of his genius rather dazzled me ; but had I been 
encouraged nothing but good would have come from me, 
because when encouraged I paid every body. God 
forgive the evil for the sake of the good. Amen." 

Beside this paper was another, his will, as follows: 

" In the name of Jesus Christ our Saviour, in the 
efficacy of whose atonement I firmly and conscientiously 
believe, I make my last will this day, June 22nd, 1846, 


1846.] HIS WILL. 351 

being clear in my intellect, and decided in my resolu- 
tion of purpose. 

" I request that my dear friends, Serjeant Talfourd, 
Dr. Darling, both of Russell Square, and David Trevena 
Coulton, of No. 1, Claremont Place, Brixton, will 
undertake the duties of executors, see a fair and just 
distribution of my assets, and protect and assist by their 
advice my dearest Mary, and my daughter and sons, 
Frank and Frederic. 

" My dearest wife, Mary Haydon, has been a good, 
dear, and affectionate wife to me a heroine in adversity 
and an angel in peace. 

" The property available is as follows : 

" 1st. My Curtius at the Pantheon, on which there 
is a lien of 80Z. to my landlord, Newton; 200 guineas. 

" 2nd. My picture of Alexander and a Lion is free, (at 
the Pantheon) ; 300 guineas. 

" 3rd. My picture of Aristides ( Pantheon), on which 
there is a lien of 3007. to Messrs. Bennoch and Twenty- 
man of 78, Wood Street, Cheapside ; 800 guineas. 

"4th. My picture of Nero, on which there is a 
lien of 307. for rent due to Mrs. Lackington of Egyptian 
Hall (Pantheon) ; 400 guineas. 

" 5th. Lupton has a portrait of Wordsworth, my pro- 
perty, engraved. He is to be paid 80 guineas. 

" 6. Wagstaff has a print of the Duke in profile, my 
property. Due to him 100 guineas. 

"7. I owe a great sum to my landlord, William 
Newton, of 13, Cavendish Road, Regent's Park. He 
holds pictures and books and prints, and the Judgment 
of Solomon, which is the property of the assignees of 
the late Mr. Prideaux of Plymouth, bankrupt ; he 
took possession of the picture at the Western Exchange, 
and paid the rent due, on my insolvency in 1830. His 
claim is for warehouse-room, for which he paid. He has 
been a good landlord to me. 

352 MEMOIRS OF B. R. HAYDON. [1846. 

ff 8th. The furniture in my house was three times 
seized by him, and released, and I gave him a power to 
enter again in 1836 for the same claims. Great addi- 
tions have been made since. 

" 9th. I am nearly 3000/. in debt from renewed claims 
and from my resolution to carry on High Art to the last 
gasp, till felt and acknowledged by the nation. 

" 10th. I have pressed heavily on all friends ; but I 
have been generously supported. Jeremiah Harman, 
Thomas Coutts, Ed. Majoribanks, Thomas Hope, Watson 
Taylor, Lord Mulgrave, Honourable Augustus Phipps, 
Sir George Phillips, William Newton, Henry Perkins, 
J. P. Bell, Bennoch and Twentyman, G. J. Kemp, the 
Misses Robinson and Poyntz advanced money to help 
me through my works. 

" 1 1. The Duke of Sutherland, Lord Egremont, 
Lord Mulgrave, Sir George Beaumont, Sir Robert 
Peel, the late Thomas Kearsey, &c. &c., employed and 
helped me, and William Hamilton. God reward them ! 
" 12. Morally I fear it was wrong to incur debts 
on the risk of payment; but when one considers the 
precarious nature of the profession, pardon may be 

"13. I have manuscripts and my memoirs in the 
possession of Miss Barrett, 50, Wimpole Street, in a 
chest, which I wish Longman to be consulted about. My 
memoirs are to 1820; my journals will supply the rest. 
The style, the individuality of Richardson, which I wish 
not curtailed by an editor. Correspondence and jour- 
nals for the rest. 

" 14. I return my gratitude to Sir Robert Peel, 
always a kind friend in emergencies. I hope he will 
consider the talents and virtues of my son, Frank, and 
Sir George Cockburn will not forget my son Frederic. 

" 15. I have done my duty to my children educated 
them thoroughly. They are good members of society, 

1846.] HIS WILL. 353 

and I hope will remain so, if, for no purpose of ambi- 
tion, they never become borrowers or lenders. 

"16. I have done my duty to the art educated the 
greatest artists of the day, Eastlake, the Landseers, 
and Lance, and I hope advanced the whole feeling of 
the country. I hope my dear friend Sir Robert Peel 
will not forget my widow and family. 

" 17. In the name of my God I hope for forgiveness 
for the step I am about to take a crime, no doubt ; 
but if I am judged immediately hereafter, I have done 
nothing all my life that will render me fearful of appear- 
ing before the awful consciousness of my invisible God, 
or hesitate to explain my actions. 

"18. I know my innate sin, my innate tendencies 
to evil as a human being ; but I have tried hard to sub- 
due it, and I am sure He will be just, however awfully 
displeased, at the wickedness of my conclusion. 

"19. I forgive my enemies and slanderers from my 
heart, and hope my worthy and unworthy creditors will 
forgive me. I meant all in honour. God knows I have 
paid off vast sums of former troubles ; and all the money 
advanced has been properly used in virtuous purposes, 
and not in vanity and vice. 

" God Almighty forgive us all. I die in peace with 
all men, and pray Him not to punish, for the sake of 
the father, the innocent widow and children he leaves 

"I ask her pardon and my children's for the addi- 
tional pang, but it will be the last, and released from 
the burthen of my ambition they will be happier and 
suffer less. 

" Hoping through the merits of Christ forgiveness. 

" B. K. HAYDON. 
" To my Executors." 

The coroner's jury found that the suicide was in 



an unsound state of mind when he committed the 

Haydon's debts at his death amounted to about 3000/. 
The assets were inconsiderable. 

Sir Robert Peel's kindness did not close with the 
painter's life. Liberal and immediate assistance was 
extended to the bereaved widow and family, and such 
comfort as the sympathy and help of friends could give 
was not wanting to those whom this unhappy and un- 
fortunate man left behind him. 

Thus died Haydon, by his own hand, in the sixty- 
first year of his age, after forty-two years of studies, 
strivings, conflicts, successes, imprisonments, appeals to 
ministers, to Parliament, to patrons, to the public, self- 
illusions, and disappointments. 

His life carries its moral and lesson with it, or these 
memoirs are now given to the world to little purpose, 

My object, up to this point, has been to give Haydon's 
own portraiture of himself. This is the aim which I 
have kept in view in selecting from and compressing his 
Journals. I have not tried either to raise him into a 
hero or to depress him below the level at which, on a 
review of all the circumstances of his life, he seems fairly 
entitled to stand. 

In the preceding part of my work, having this con- 
ception of my duty as editor of his autobiography and 
memoirs, I have refrained, as far as possible, from the 
expression of my own judgment of the man and his 
conduct, and from any general estimate of his merits as 
a painter. I have done this advisedly, and at the cost 
of considerable self-restraint. But my work might, 
I think, properly be regarded as incomplete, if I did 
not, now that the editorial part of my duty is com- 

* For the medical conclusions on the post mortem examination, 
and some additional facts as to the death, see Appendix I. 


pleted, give the reader, as briefly as may be, my own 
conclusions as to the man and painter, founded on the 
records of him which have passed through my hands, 
and on such of his pictures as I have been able to find 
access to. 


There can be little difficulty in decyphering this, if 
ever record of thoughts and acts can be trusted for 
indicia of character. 

Haydon was self-willed to obstinacy. He rarely 
asked advice, and never took it unless it approved itself 
to him, without reference to the sagacity or information 
of the adviser. He was indefatigable in labour during 
his periods of application, but he was often diverted 
from his art by professional polemics, by fits of reading, 
by moods of discomfort and disgust, and other dis- 
tractions which are explained by his circumstances. 
What he undertook he generally mastered, and he 
shows a rare "thoroughness" in the manner of his in- 
quiries and studies, and a pertinacity not often asso- 
ciated with so much vehemence and passion as belonged 
to him. 

His judgment was essentially unsound in all matters 
where he was personally interested. His inordinate 
vanity (which is sometimes ludicrously exhibited) 
blinded him throughout to the quality of his own 
works, the amount of influence he could wield, and 
the extent of sympathy he excited. 

He was unscrupulous in conduct, but not unprin- 
cipled, and, I believe, though many will question it, 
that he seldom contracted obligations without the in- 
tention and expectation of meeting them. But when a 
man once becomes embarrassed, it is hardly possible to 
estimate the value, or no-value rather, of such inten- 

AA 2 


tions. His conduct in inducing his pupils to accept 
bills for his accommodation admits of no defence, and 
I cannot offer any palliation for his habits of begging 
and borrowing beyond those which these memoirs must 
suggest to all fairly-judging readers, I mean his 
necessities, his sanguine temperament, his occasional 
extraordinary successes, and his pervading conviction 
that he was the apostle and martyr of High Art, and, 
as such, had a sort of right to support from those who 
would not find him the employment he was always 
craving. His constant demand was for work and wages, 
and in default of these he asked for subsistence while 
he worked, in the hope that sooner or later the wages 
must come. 

His religiousness is puzzling. Few men have lived 
in a more continuous practice of prayer ; and though 
his are little more than requests for what he most 
desired, addressed to the Being in whose power he 
believed it to be to grant them, begging-letters, in 
fact, dispatched to the Almighty, it must not be 
forgotten that the prayers of many " eminently pious" 
people, and indeed of whole churches and sects, are 
little more than this. His faith in an overruling 
power was not strong enough to induce a calm and 
steadfast waiting upon God's will, but neither, as it 
seems to me, is the faith of the most prayerful persons 
of this character. One thing I may say, that he seems 
to have lived in the habitual belief of a personal, over- 
ruling, and merciful Deity, and that this belief in- 
fluenced his inward life, his relations with his family, 
and, so far as his necessities did not interfere, with the 

His love of his art is, to my mind, inextricable from his 
belief in himself; and his struggle to advance the art 
was never without reference to the glorification of him- 
self as the artist. 


In taste he was as deficient as in judgment, if 
indeed the two be not different phases of the same 
element in character. This want of taste shows itself 
in the tone of his letters to men of rank, in which an 
unbecoming familiarity alternates with a gross servility 
of expression. The style of his appeals to the public, in 
his advertisements and catalogues, is equally offensive 
in a different way, from the turgid and undisguised 
expression of his own exaggerated estimate of himself 
and his works. But he seems really to have believed 
that the public eye was fixed on him, and struggled 
against facts to maintain this delusion to the last. I 
may regret, but I cannot wonder, that he did not meet 
with more sympathy. Considering how very boisterous 
and combative a martyr he was, I am rather astonished 
that he found so much. I believe that he died a victim 
to disappointment ; that his exclusion from all share in 
the decoration of the New Houses of Parliament broke 
his heart ; and that all his subsequent efforts to reassert 
his claims, through the Public, instead of the Fine Arts 
Commission, were void of true hope, a frantic "lashing 
the sides of his intent" to approve himself a great artist, 
when he had really more than begun to doubt it. 

As a husband and a father I have nothing for him 
but praise. His love for his wife was unabated to the 
last, and he did his duty manfully by his children. 


In judging a man, one is bound to consider the 
times he lived in with reference to the nature of his 

All evil, it has been said, results from the non- 
A A 3 


adaptation of constitution to conditions. * When we 
say that Haydon's failure and sufferings were his own 
fault, we only state half the truth. In different times 
his faults would not have wrought the same effects, and 
his better qualities would have had fairer play. The 
conditions in which he was placed were unfavourable, 
not only to turbulent natures like his, but to every 
artist with a high conception of his art. Things are so 
much altered for the better in this particular, however 
unsatisfactory they still may be, that it is difficult for 
us to appreciate the obstacles and stumbling-blocks 
which an artist, bent on employing his skill in public 
edifices, and for national or municipal purposes, must 
have found in his way forty years ago. It is very 
much to Haydon's pertinacity that we owe such im- 
provement as there is, in this respect, now-a-days. At 
that time the dominant form of Art was, undoubtedly, 
portraiture. West and Fuseli, Northcote and Opie, 
did, it is true, paint historical pictures; but the first 
owed his position mainly to a royal employer ; Fuseli 
lived more by the printsellers and publishers than by 
his patrons, and Northcote and Opie combined portrait- 
painting with history, and were supported mainly by 

The class of pictures which now employs the largest 
number of artists, and is most sought after and best 
paid, combining some of the qualities of historical paint- 
ing with still life, what is called ^ewre-painting 
may almost be said to have been founded by Wilkie, and 
to have grown up since Haydon first exhibited. This 
style affords a loophole through which to escape from 
the sole dominion of the portrait-painter, in a time 
when the public functions of Art are still little appre- 
ciated. In works of this kind may be exhibited the 

* Spencer, " Social Statics." 



highest qualities of invention and expression, though 
they give no scope for that largeness of treatment, that 
force and sweep of hand, for which great spaces and 
wide distances are essential- 
Failing this, there was very little resource forty years 
ago for the painter who did not feel inclined to paint 
portraits. Hilton lived in narrow circumstances, which 
would have been indigent but for some private fortune 
and his income as Keeper of the Royal Academy. The 
encouragement he found may give us a measure of what 
was to be hoped for by even the most gentle and inof- 
fensive being who took to the higher range of Art. Etty 
amassed a fortune after he abandoned such large can- 
vases as his Judith and Holofernes series, and his 
other pictures of that size and time, for attractive 
nudities and rich scraps of colour, of cabinet size. If 
ever Art was lowered by the conditions of a time, surely 
Etty's was. Haydon would not pine in neglect and 
silence like Hilton, nor condescend to small and sensual 
nudities or luscious bits of mere colour-painting like 

He would paint large pictures with a high aim. The 
patrons did not want such pictures, the Academy did 
not favour them, the public could not buy them. They 
flocked to see them exhibited, but that was all. 

The private patronage of that day was petty and mean, 
though there was no lack of rich and very kind friends 
of artist?. Never did a painter receive more help 
than Haydon in all ways but the right one. Whether 
he was qualified to have done justice to any public em- 
ployment that might have offered itself, especially in 
the latter half of his artistic life, may be doubtful ; but 
between 1812 and 1823, I believe he was capable of 
producing works which, displayed under proper condi- 
tions, would have been nobly decorative or commemo- 
rative. But this chance he never had, for no single 

A A4 


statesman or influential patron of his times seems to 
have admitted his doctrine that Art has a public func- 
tion ; and that if it is ever to be great in our day, it 
must be by being employed nationally and politically, 
the collective nation, through its public bodies, re- 
placing the princes and popes of the great eras of Italian 

What private patronage can do to found a style and 
schools of Art has been best shown in Holland and Flan- 
ders. It is not to it that we can ever owe a Campo 
Santo, a Ducal Palace, a Sistine Chapel, or the Stanze 
of the Vatican. 

Without at all shutting my eyes to Haydon's defi- 
ciencies in both the conceptual and technical parts of 
his art, I cannot but sympathise in his prayers for a 
great national Council Hall, or a dome of St. Paul's, 
wherein to show the grasp of his mind and the mastery 
of his hand. 

The New Houses of Parliament are as yet (after the 
great room at the Society of Arts) the only arena that 
England has opened for any of her painters who may 
indulge in aspirations like Haydon's. 


No part of my work, in connection with ,Haydon, 
has cost me more pains, with less profit, than this of 
settling and putting into words my judgment of him as 
a painter. 

Yet I am, in many respects, favourably placed for 
forming a fair estimate, as being free from partisanship 
and a stranger to the heats which gathered about Hay- 
don and his works in his lifetime and among his contem- 
poraries. The difficulty I have felt arises from the 


works themselves, considered without reference to the 
feuds and struggles of their author. 

I have taken advantage of all opportunities within my 
reach for acquiring a knowledge of Haydon's pictures. 
The Dentatus I only know from Harvey's masterly 
woodcut. The Macbeth, and Christ's Entry into Jeru- 
salem, I have not seen. But I have been able to ex- 
amine, at leisure, the Solomon, Lazarus, Xenophon, 
May-day or Punch, the Mock Election, the English- 
man's Breakfast, Christ's Agony in the Garden, the 
Poictiers, and the Curtius, some portraits, the Spanish 
Nun, and a small head of the Gipsy Model. The Wait- 
ing for the Times, the Statesman Musing, the Napoleon 
at St. Helena, and the Duke at Waterloo, I am ac- 
quainted with only from engravings. I find in all these 
pictures, in varying degrees, the same beauties and the 
same defects. In the earliest the defects are least visible 
and the beauties greatest. 

The Judgment of Solomon * seems to me, as a whole, 
beyond dispute the finest work Haydon ever executed, 
though there is nothing in it equal, in power of concep- 
tion and execution, to the head of Lazarus. 

I was fortunate enough, in some of my examinations 
of Haydon's pictures, to be accompanied by a friend f, 
who combines the artist's knowledge of technical means 
and eye for imitative detail, with that large appreciation 
of aims and intentions in which the criticism of artists 
is often deficient. His judgment, moreover, is that of 
one sympathising in many respects with Haydon, and 
cheerfully recognising his services as an earnest and 
eloquent advocate of the claims of High Art on the 

* Now exhibiting at the British Institution (June, 1853). 

f Mr. G. F. Watts, the designer of the Cartoon of Caractacus, 
and the painter of Alfred Encouraging the Saxons to pursue the 
Danes, which respectively gained premiums of the first class in the 
Westminster Hall competitions of 1843 and 1847. 


Government and the public. I claim, therefore, all 
respect for the opinions of one whom I know to be con- 
scientious, as I believe him to be competent, and to 
whom I wish here to express my thanks for the use he 
has allowed me to make of his communication, which 
expresses, in the main, what I myself feel on the subject. 
" I am afraid," Mr. Watts writes, " you will think I 
have forgotten the promise I made to give you my 
opinion on the characteristics of Hay don's art. But the 
fact is, I find it very difficult to arrive at a definite con- 
clusion. Sympathising sincerely with him in his views 
upon Art, to their utmost extent, naturally inclined to 
appreciate the qualities he aims at, and doing full justice 
to the power and amount of knowledge displayed, I am 
surprised to find how little I am really affected at his 
works, and how difficult it is to retain any very distinct 
impression of them. This corroboration of public 
opinion in my own feelings I have been endeavouring 
to account for. When any qualities beyond common 
experience and knowledge, and above the most ordinary 
comprehension, are aimed at, the public estimate can 
only be valuable when it has received the fiat of time ; 
but when the first difficulty has been got over, and the 
public interested, it is rare that what is really good has 
failed to maintain its place. 

"I think we shall find, upon examination, that all 
Art which has been really and permanently successful 
has been the exponent of some great principle of mind 
or matter, the illustration of some great truth, the 
translations of some paragraph out of the book of nature. 
If Hay don read therein and strove to expound the lesson, 
he read too hastily to understand fully, and did not, like 
Demosthenes, take pains to perfect a defective utterance. 
His art is defective in principle and wanting in attrac- 
tiveness, not sufficiently beautiful to please, not pos- 
sessing those qualities of exact imitation which attract, 


amuse, give confidence, and even flatter, because they, 
in a manner, take the spectator into partnership, and 
nmke him feel as if they were almost suggestions of his 
own. f This is what I have seen, and what I would do, 
if I had time to paint ; ancft io son pittore.'' 

" The characteristics of Haydon's art appear to me to 
be great determination and power, knowledge and 
effrontery. I cannot find that he strikes upon any 
chord that is the basis of a true harmony. The art of 
Phidias translated and expressed perfection of form in 
its full dignity and beauty ; that of Angelico, Perugino, 
Francia and Raffaele, religion ; that of Michel Angelo 
the might of imagination ; the greater of the Venetians 
were the exponents of the power of nature in its rich 
harmony of colour; Correggio is all sweetness; Tinto- 
retto is the Michel Angelo of colour and effect ; Rubens 
is profuse and generous as autumn; and, if he is some- 
times slovenly, he is so jovial and high-spirited that one 
forgives everything. 

" All these, and many others, worked with earnestness 
and conscientiousness. Absolute truth, in combination 
with abstract qualities, or without them, will always suc- 
cessfully appeal to the spectator's intelligence. Haydon 
seems to me to have succeeded as often as he displays 
any real anxiety to do so ; but one is struck with the 
extraordinary discrepancy of different parts of his work, 
as though, bored by a fixed attention that had taken 
him out of himself, yet highly applauding the result, he 
had daubed and scrawled his brush about in a sort of 
intoxication of self-glory. 

" Indeed his pictures are himself, and fail as he failed. 
Whatever a man may suffer or lose in a cause, he will 
never arrive at the dignity of martyrdom unless he can 
persuade people that he has embraced the cause with 
views and aspirations unconnected with his personal 
gratification and advancement. In Haydon's work there 



is not sufficient forgetfulness of self to disarm criticism 
of personality. His pictures are themselves autobio- 
graphical notes of the most interesting kind ; but their 
want of beauty repels, and their want of modesty exas- 
perates. Perhaps their principal characteristic is want 
of delicacy of perception and refinement of execution. 
In these respects I have seen no work of his that is 
not more than incomplete. Pathos also is lacking. The 
good man, with his family, in the Mock Election, is in 
many respects an admirable bit of composition and 
painting ; yet it appears to me that he is too much iden- 
tified with the crowd, and almost looks as if he were 
following the fop to take an oath at the same table. In 
Punch the apple-woman is too rosy and too clean to 
sleep from any reason but health and enjoyment. He 
could give an idea of foolish pleasure and coarse delight ; 
but while there is bitter satire there is no touch of feeling. 
Hogarth would have given you some wretched child, 
made indifferent to the humour of Punch by sickness 
and hunger, made old by misery. 

" In the Retreat of the Ten Thousand he has missed 
making the principal incident the most affecting ; in 
Lazarus he has lost all by the general vulgarity of the 

"To particularise I should say that his touch is 
generally woolly, and his surface disagreeable ; that 
the dabs of white on the lights and the dabs of red in 
the shadows are untrue and unpleasing ; that his dra- 
peries are deficient in richness and dignity, and his 
general effect much less good than one would expect 
from the goodness of parts, which I think arises prin- 
cipally from the coarseness of the handling ; that his 
expressions of anatomy and general perception of form 
are the best by far that can be found in the English 
school ; and I feel even a direction towards something 
that is only to be found in Phidias. But this is not 



true invariably : his proportion is very often defective, 
especially in the arms of his figures, and his hands and 
feet, though well understood, are often dandified and 

" 1 have pointed out all the things that strike me as 
errors, because I know that you fully appreciate the 
greater qualities as I do, and because many of these 
defects you will fairly ascribe to the unfavourable con- 
ditions of his life. His first great work, the Solomon, 
appears to me to be, beyond all comparison, his best. 
It is far more equal than anything else I have seen, very 
powerful in execution, and fine in colour. I think he 
has lowered the character of Solomon by making him a 
half joker, but the whole has, at least, the dignity of 
power. Too much praise cannot, I think, be bestowed 
on the head of Lazarus ; and in the absence of such im- 
portant evidence as the Entry into Jerusalem would 
afford, it is hardly fair to pass judgment. 

" It is somewhat remarkable that the only man who 
can be said to have formed a school in England after 
the manner of the Italian artists, is perhaps the only 
artist of any eminence who has had no imitators." 

I believe that this criticism points out, honestly and 
accurately, the defects of Hay don's art, taking for granted, 
rather than expressing, its countervailing beauties. These 
appear to me, besides the general power in drawing and 
action, to be a fine feeling for colour in draperies and 
backgrounds, vigorous and pregnant conception, both of 
single heads, figures and groups, great occasional truth 
of expression, such as I have noticed in the Punch, and 
such as is strikingly exhibited in particular parts of 
the Mock Election, (as in the head of the nurse behind 
the good man), and, in the earlier pictures at least, a 
large and noble arrangement of the composition. Besides 
these merits, there is a lower one even more distinctly 
shown, that of great power of truthful imitation. The 


still life of Haydon's pictures is admirable, wherever he 
gave himself the trouble to elaborate it, so excellent, 
indeed, as to make even more apparent his unaccountable 
carelessness in parts of greater importance. This care- 
lessness I attribute to the joint intoxication of an impe- 
tuous conception and an inordinate vanity. Physical 
defects of sight may also have had much to do with this 

Throughout his pictures, as in his autobiographical 
painting of himself, I see the want of that delicacy which 
is equally required for the refined appreciation of the 
chastened and tender in form and expression, as of the 
self-denying, unobtrusive, and retiring in character. The 
absence of the former qualities I feel as painfully in 
Haydon's art, as the lack of the latter in his conduct. 
The want of calm is alike apparent in his pictures and in 
his life, and both, while they contain much to command 
admiration and sympathy, fail of that true dignity before 
which the mind bows, so to speak, involuntarily, and to 
which calm is essential. 

Haydon will be remembered less as a painter than as 
a theorist and lecturer about his calling. He was the 
first artist who got a hearing in his insisting to the 
Government and public of England that Art is a matter 
of national concern. Before his time no one had urged 
this truth except the passionate and cynical Barry. 

I have said elsewhere that it is difficult to assign the 
exact effect due to the constant and energetic pressing of 
this doctrine by Haydon. The doctrine itself is now 
admitted in theory, and a beginning has even been made 
of realising it in practice. It is undeniable that Haydon 
preached it for forty years ; that he lived to see it 
triumph, and to die, by his own hand, under the heart- 
break of disappointment, when the triumph of his 
cherished principle brought no employment for him. 

By his assertion of the real value of the Elgin Marbles, 
in the teeth of dil ttautism, Haydon has earned a title 


to the gratitude of artists and lovers of Art which is 
less likely to be contested. No one had so thoroughly 
mastered the secret of these great fragments as Haydon, 
and no artist of his day was so well qualified to do so, 
or so gifted with the power of making their beauties 
palpable by description. 

In doing the world this service, he used many channels 
his letters to the newspapers, his pamphlets, his 
conversations, the training and drawings of his pupils, 
and above all, his lectures. In all these ways he 
poured upon the public ear a vast amount of sound 
theory touching painting and sculpture. And as a popu- 
lariser of Art his name stands without a rival among his 

This merit, which I fearlessly claim for Haydon, is no 
mean one. Let the admission of it close gently and 
compassionately this record of a life, begun in high aspi- 
ration, urged through great varieties of fortune, reduced 
often to the deepest humiliation, and not always con- 
tained within the metes and bounds of right, embittered 
by perpetual conflict, cheered by the most buoyant self- 
confidence, misled in most points by a ludicrous vanity, 
and closed by a catastrophe, to which inveterate self- 
assertion and the love of effect concurred strangely with 
the distraction of pecuniary troubles and the sickening 
of hope deferred. 


Since the First Edition of these Memoirs appeared, 
I have received from Mr. Watts the following remarks, 
which have a close bearing on the subject of Haydon's 
relations to the public men of his time, and the question 
with which he was so possessed, the employment of 
artists on works of Art at the public expense. The 
remarks of Mr. Watts are so full of matter for thought, 
and state so fairly and guardedly the obstacles in the way 
of any artist desirous of working in the most imaginative 


and elevated paths of his art, that I insert them with- 
out abbreviation. They contain answers to questions 
which can hardly fail to have been suggested to many 
by perusal of the Memoirs of Haydon, and they furnish 
a practical suggestion on a subject which every day is 
becoming one of more interest the function of A rt in 
popular education, and the means of employing it for the 
purpose of national teaching : 

" Whilst the defects of Haydon's style may be more or less 
obvious to all, it must also be obvious that in him was wasted 
an enormous amount of working power ; and in connection 
with this point it may well be permitted us at least to regret 
that practical England feels no natural love of Art excepting 
that of the imitative kind. It may be true that good excise 
laws and a good police are more necessary to the welfare of 
the nation than painting and sculpture, but patriots and 
statesmen alike forget that the time will come when the want 
of Great Art in England will produce a gap sadly defacing 
the beauty of our whole national structure. Setting aside 
the present practical value of Art as a means of general in- 
struction and improvement, when all shall he a question of 
history, every possession and every want of our country will 
become matter of national perfection or national deformity. 
Pendants in Art to the great names in Literature will be 
sparingly found ; nor is this to be attributed to want of 
talent, but want of opportunity. It was not, perhaps, to be 
expected that either Lord Grey or Lord Melbourne could 
make any serious attempts to carry out Haydon's views ; yet 
had they shown themselves more sensible of the general rea- 
sonableness of the broad principle, their claims to respect for 
comprehensiveness of mind would have been increased. 
First-rate materials were certainly in Haydon's case ne- 
glected, and one cannot help thinking that means of employ- 
ing them might have been found. Working, for example, 
as an historian to record England's battles, he would, no 
doubt, have produced a series of mighty and instructive 
pictures, being a powerful draughtsman and a conscientious 
student of costume and historical details. The heroic, the 


indomitable and the enthusiastic would have found in him'a 
congenial illustrator. Certainly that success which is to be 
achieved by audacity must have been his ; and the greatness 
of the undertaking, satisfying a mind that was always craving 
after the important, would have purged it of its vanity and 
left it free to its sounder workings. Self must have been 
forgotten if only for want of time to remember it. 

" The modern artist may justly lay claim to all the advan- 
tages that can possibly be afforded him in the production of 
works that from their character and aim will be compared, 
both unconsciously and intentionally, with the splendid cre- 
ations of the old masters. With reference to the things 
themselves there is no unfairness in such comparison ; but 
in transferring praise or blame from the work to the work- 
man, it should be remembered that the conditions of modern 
times and northern climates are eminently unfavourable to 
the artist, not to lay stress upon the most important fact, 
that such works must in this country grow entirely out of 
the artist's desire to do something great, a stimulus that 
even in the most ardent mind may be weakened by difficulty, 
and destroyed by want of sympathy and inconsiderate criti- 
cism. Under the influence of these the working out of his 
designs will demand in the English artist of our own day an 
amount of exertion unknown to the old masters ; and in place 
of which they had but the delightful, and to the dexterous 
artist easy, task of imitation. In the nineteenth century and 
in the grey North, he who would paint an ancient subject or 
treat grandly an abstract one finds himself entirely without 
artistic materials ; and he must either invent or imitate what 
he has seen done by others. Even the human form is so 
shut up and hidden on ordinary occasions that it is only 
displayed to the artist under false conditions, and seems to 
him, and is in fact, unnatural in its appearance. In Italy to 
this day, though gorgeous costume no longer contributes its 
magnificence to the general splendour, one constantly sees 
forms and combinations that might be adopted, without al- 
teration, in the grandest composition. That the harmonious 
and glowing effects produced by the old masters possess a 
degree of truth and power rarely or never found in modern 



Art is not surprising, as they were in fact copies of reality, 
not seen now and then and upon great occasions, but as often 
as the artist left his painting-room. No doubt nature is 
always the same : similar impulses have actuated mankind 
for good and evil from the earliest times until now, and the 
laws which regulate the outward indications of that which is 
within, are alike general and invariable. But as Art, whose 
means of expression are combinations of line, colour and 
contrast, cannot be independent of the beautiful, the splendid 
and the various, the whole range of conditions in modern 
England presents to the artist who would produce the 
gorgeous, the splendid and the impressive (in effect) about 
as much the aspect of nature as does the Dutch garden 
with trees dipt into the forms of peacocks and vases. To 
the painter of actualities the materials are ever available 
and good. There is nothing to prevent the perfect success 
of another Hogarth. The details of every-day life and the 
police courts, looked at from a philosophical point of view, 
furnish subjects perhaps superior, certainly more affecting, 
than the majority of those treated by the earlier painters. 
But still the beautiful, the dignified and the glowing form 
part of our natural wants, and cannot be given up without 
regret. As long as painting shall be practised we shall find 
men like Haydon pining after something which they know of 
and feel, but do not see. A visit to sunny climates would 
have afforded Haydon many a valuable lesson. There he 
would have seen the unrestrained form acquiring that deve- 
lopment he could but imagine and might be excused for ex- 
aggerating, the rich colour of the flesh that gives at once 
the key-note of the picture, the out-of-door life so sug- 
gestive of breadth and brilliancy. 

Tired with conventionality, a more healthy state of feeling 
is doubtless leading us back to nature in Art ; but there is 
some danger of falling into the extremes ever consequent 
upon revolution. There is now a tendency to imagine that 
truth consists solely in the imitation of details, forgetting 
that many such details are natural only in a secondary degree. 
Deformities, pimples, warts, &c. are natural inasmuch as they 
are formed in existing circumstances as natural consequences 


of certain conditions ; but they have nothing whatever to 
do with the primary, sublime principles of nature that are 
based upon perfection and beauty. Reality is not always 
nature ; but a desire to be true will always, if earnestly acted 
upon, lead to great things and receive sympathy. With the 
principles of Pre-Raffaelitism Haydon would probably have 
had little fellow-feeling, even whilst appreciating, as he was 
fully capable of doing, the merits of its productions. His 
mind was thoroughly imbued with the spirit of the decorative 
and the comprehensive, and had an impression of something 
the imitation of every-day nature could not give him, and 
which often produced unreality when he wished to be truthful. 
He could paint a pewter pot and a bottle admirably, because 
he had no impressions of them at variance with the actual 
appearance ; but he usually failed utterly in modern costume, 
preconceived notions of flowing drapery interfering with his 
perception of reality. Yet his theory is almost invariably 
admirable, and his remarks upon nature acute and just : nor 
can it be doubted that, though perhaps over-anxious to be 
the prophet of a new creed respecting the application of Art 
to public purposes, he was sincere in his desire to bring 
about this important object ; nor is there reason to believe, 
had his own love of fame been gratified by success, that he 
would have grudged employment and success to others. On 
the contrary, his Journal proves that he was capable, not 
only of appreciating the merit of a contemporary, but also 
of active personal exertion to bring that merit before the 
public ; and it must unfortunately be confessed that such 
generosity is rare, and should receive its meed of applause. 
Whether in his badgering of ministers, appeals to the public 
and attacks upon institutions, he mistook the means only as 
far as his own conduct was concerned, or whether the mis- 
takes extended down to and through his principles (always 
admitting the justness of his opinion that Art should be in- 
troduced into public buildings), may be fairly questioned. 
Under the auspices of one whose remarkable desire to pro- 
mote the arts and sciences, and indeed the public welfare in 
every direction, and whose active personal exertions, fully 
seconding his good intentions, call for national admiration 

B B 2 


and confidence, many of Haydon's views are now being 
carried out in the New Houses of ^Parliament. But it is by 
no means clear, although many opportunities may be given 
to individuals, and many excellent works produced, that 
Art itself will thus receive any very great impulse. The work 
must progress slowly ; the public will seldom see it when 
completed ; no artist who has not conquered a certain 
amount of public estimation, and who consequently is not 
confirmed in his style, views, manner, &c., can hope to be 
employed. Now, as one avowed intention of those who 
promote the work is the creation of a national school of 
Art, and the awakening of a national sense of Art, it may 
not be impertinent to inquire whether the object would not 
be more rapidly and effectually attained by familiarising the 
public with works of Art in such a manner that their absence 
would be felt as a want, so that a bare wall would become 
an unsightly object ? A desire to return to the earnestness 
of the artists of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries has 
already done much ; and we might carry the principle still 
further, not by affecting the artistic ignorance of those 
periods, but by encouraging a race of workmen who, grow- 
ing up in happy indifference to the critic, and in ignorance 
of the consuming desire to astonish, might become great 
unconsciously. Such a state of things, though no longer 
existing naturally, might perhaps be stimulated and engrafted 
upon actual conditions. Why should not the Government 
of a mighty country undertake the decoration of all the 
public buildings, such as town halls, national schools and 
even railway stations ? The trustees and officers of such 
buildings would, no doubt, readily consent, provided it were 
understood they were to incur no expense ; and the Schools 
of Design and Royal Academy could furnish numbers of 
young men sufficiently advanced and sufficiently unspoilt to 
carry out, under direction, simply and impressively, designs 
that might be supplied by competition or taken from standard 
works. The honoured name of Flaxman might be invoked, 
a name much more honoured by strangers than by his own 
countrymen, who have so much reason to be proud of him : 
his exquisite designs, painted on a large scale, either in 


chiaroscuro or in a monochromatic style, would do more to 
form a pure taste and correct judgment than any works 
perhaps that have ever appeared. Or, regarding the project 
merely as a means of bringing out latent talent and improv- 
ing taste, and considering walls as slates whereon the 
schoolboy writes his figures, the great productions of other 
times might be reproduced, if but to be rubbed out when 
fine originals could be procured : for the expense would, in 
reality, if the thing were properly managed, very little ex- 
ceed that -of whitewashing. It would be a good deed to 
rescue from oblivion many great works that may soon cease 
to exist. There are many noble efforts of human genius 
that are fast going to destruction under the inevitable effects 
of damp and years, and many which any day may be de- 
stroyed by convulsions and revolutions, even though time 
could spare. No engraving can adequately render the effect 
of a large and magnificently coloured composition. Why 
should not the works of great artists be thus republished ? 
No one will seriously attempt to urge that the reproduction 
of such works will be sufficient to form great artists, any 
more than the reprinting of the Iliad or Paradise Lost will 
make poets. But, besides the object of making these grand 
creations known to the public in something like their ori- 
ginal power and splendour, the effort would demand of the 
workman an exercise of his faculties in a very different form 
from any which is required in mere copying, and would act 
very much like the training that produced the results in 
other countries and times still so deservedly admired. 
Before the artist can express his ideas he must perfect him- 
self in the language he uses. It is a natural language a 
mother-tongue to him, it is true, and only presents great 
difficulties because his means of study are so dependent 
upon, and so much influenced by, external circumstances. 
These external conditions, commencing with a more intel- 
lectual character in the demand for Art, are exactly what the 
modern artist wants. It would be remarkable indeed if 2 
nation so distinguished in other branches of intellectual ex- 
pression should be deficient in one which is so nearly related 
both to Literature and Science. 


" If the existence of such a deficiency be asserted, the 
singular amount of talent displayed by English amateurs 
would prove the contrary. Whatever shortcomings may be 
fairly alleged must therefore be otherwise accounted for, 
and may be ascribed to certain evident reasons, such 
as the early necessity of making an effect by superficial 
qualities, precluding in the young artist attention to his 
general cultivation and improvement, the absence of de- 
mand for works, of grave intellectual character on a large 
scale; for practice on a large scale is necessary to give 
comprehensiveness of thought and power of hand, until the 
mind be familiarised with such undertakings completed and 
in progress, the habit of painting to catch the public eye, 
and consequently following the fashion and taste instead of 
rising above the one, and improving the other, and last, 
not least, the influence of bad criticism. From these un- 
favourable influences the rising race of artists might be 
rescued by giving such of the most promising students of Art 
as might be willing to engage themselves as workmen 
missions as historians and public instructors. There is no 
reason the young artist should not paint pictures for exhi- 
bition and sale on the walls of the Royal Academy ; but 
there is every reason he should be emancipated from uncon- 
ditional dependence upon the incongruous competition and 
hasty judgment to which the annual exhibition subjects him. 
The demand for pictorial instructors is evident, from the 
enormous number of illustrated publications that daily issue 
from the press, and the avidity with which they are purchased. 
Could the experiment of instructing by means of Art be tried 
on an impressive scale, the popularity and success would 
probably exceed all expectation. If, for example, on some 
convenient wall the whole line of British sovereigns were 
painted mere monumental effigies, well and correctly drawn, 
with strict regard to costume and details, careful avoidance 
of meretricious effect and everything that would destroy 
simplicity and intelligibility and corrupt taste, with date, 
length of reign, remarkable events, &c. written at the side 
or underneath, three worthy objects at least would be at- 
tained, valuable and intellectual exercise to the artist, highly 


interesting decoration to the space, and instruction to the 
public. Subjects of the noblest kind and infinite in variety 
will readily suggest themselves. 

A national school of Art must be the result of a national 
want and a national taste. Both may be created by accus- 
toming the mind and eye to the short road to knowledge and 
the interest of the method of instruction. It would, therefore 
be most advisable to begin at the beginning, and that designs 
intended for public instruction and artistic training should be 
of that purely historical and simple monumental character 
before suggested. It is unreasonable to expect that men 
already in possession of distinction will consent to become the 
mere workmen wanted, or that they can give up the com- 
mercial advantages of reputation ; besides, habits of mind and 
manners of seeing things become confirmed quite as much as 
bones and muscles, and after a certain time of life cannot be 
successfully called upon to perform unusual operations. 

" Young minds and young hands are required, especially 
for fresco, the material unquestionably best adapted to mural 
decoration and most important as a discipline. Granted that 
the most beautiful and various effects can only be represented 
in oil, the fresco painter is always able to use the medium, 
and all the better for the course of study absolutely neces- 
sary to enable him to paint in fresco, which demands a 
thorough knowledge of his profession in its widest range. As 
the effects to be obtained are few and simple, the work must 
depend for success more upon the intellectual and less upon 
the sensuous. As the painter cannot depend upon successive 
repaintings, accidental effects, and working up, as errors 
cannot be disguised by smartness and defects smudged into the 
vagueness of the background, all must be honest and true. 
He must know exactly what he intends to do ; his picture 
must be, so to speak, completed before he begins to paint ; 
and such a picture, being the result of calculation, becomes 
scientific in its nature, demanding habits of thought greatly 
to the improvement, as must be obvious, of the intellect. 
No system that could be invented would be so calculated 
to counteract the peculiar errors always laid to the charge of 
the English School. Fresco is also inexpensive with regard 


to the materials, and must be rapid of execution. A few 
isolated works of Art, however excellent, and whether on 
wall or canvas, cannot be expected to create a public want 
or public taste. In order to bring about an extended improve- 
ment and increase desire for it. Art must find its way 
everywhere. All who go to Italy must be struck with evi- 
dence how entirely it entered into all the ordinary require- 
ments of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
The naturally favourable conditions of those and earlier 
periods might be artificially produced to a very great extent ; 
and the results, taking root, might hereafter flourish with na- 
tural vigour. Under judicious management, and with an army 
of workmen, there would be no great difficulty in bringing 
about such a consummation ; and certainly larger sums than 
would be required have been expended, and are still likely 
to be expended, upon objects far less national and important. 
These ideas, though crude and submitted with all deference, 
may not be entirely out of place at the end of this Autobio- 
graphy, embodying in many respects similar views to those so 
often advocated in it. With regard to the letter printed in the 
first edition, and of which these remarks are a continuation, 
should any observations appear, considering the peculiar cir- 
cumstances, wanting in delicacy and little indulgent as 
criticisms, the writer begs to explain that they were but in- 
tended by him for private suggestions of points for the 
critics' consideration ; and that, expressing his willingness to 
be quoted, he did not contemplate appearing in public in the 
character of a critic. If in that character any of his remarks 
should have annoyed friends or relations of the late Mr. 
Hay don, he desires hereby to express his sincere regret." 


The following letter should be interposed between 
the second and third of Wordsworth's letters, at pages 

161, 162.: 

"Kydal, Sept. 10. 

" By is certainly a better word than through ; but I fear it 
cannot be employed on account of the subsequent line : 

'"But by the chieftain's look.' 

To me the two 'bys' clash both to the ear and understanding, 
and it was on that account that I changed the word. I have 
also a slight objection to the alliteration 'by bold' occurring 
so soon. I am glad you like ' Elates not.' As the passage 
first stood : 

" Since the mighty deed," 

there was a transfer of the thought from the picture to the 
living man, which divided the sonnet into two parts. The 
presence of the portrait is now carried through till the last 
line, when the man is taken up. To prevent the possibility 
of a mistake I will repeat the passage as last sent, and in 
which state I consider it finished ; and you will do what you 
like with it : 

" Him the mighty deed 

Elates not, brought far nearer the grave's resf, 
As shows that time-worn face. But he such seed 
Hath sown as fields," &c. 

"I hope you are right in thinking this the best of the three. 
I forget whether I thanked you for your sketch of the Slave 
Trade picture. Your friendship has misled you. I must on 
no account be introduced. I was not present at the meeting, 
as matter of fact ; and, though from the first I took a lively 
interest in the abolition of slavery, except joining with 
those who petitioned Parliament I was too little of a man of 
business to have an active part in the work. Besides, my 
place of abode would have prevented it, had I been so inclined. 
The only public act of mine connected with the event was 
sending forth that sonnet which I addressed to Mr. Clarkson 


upon the success of the undertaking. Thank you for you 
last letter. I am this moment, (while dictating this letter,) 
sitting to Mr. Pickersgill, who has kindly come down to paint 
me at leisure, for Sir Robert Peel, in whose gallery at 
Drayton the portrait will probably be hung by that of my 
poor friend Southey. 

" I am, dear Haydon, 

" Faithfully yours, 


"P.S. Your suggestion about the engraver is very candid ; 
but, the verses taking so high a flight, and particularly in the 
line ' lies fixed for ages,' it would be injurious to put forward 
the cold matter of fact, and the sense and spirit of the sonnet 
both demand that it should be suggested at the sight of the 



Medical testimony as to Haydon's health and habits. Par- 
ticulars as to his suicide. Mr. Bewick's account of the 
painting of Lazarus. 

Since the first edition of these Memoirs appeared, I have 
received from Dr. Elliotson and Mr. Walter J. Bryant, the 
medical gentlemen who made a post-mortem examination of 
Haydon's head, an account of the results of that examination, 
which, in their opinion, showed conclusively the existence of 
disease in the brain. Any constitutional tendency to this 
must have been increased, in their opinion, by the painter's 
habits of life, no less than by the embarrassments and 
contests in which most of his career was passed, and the 
crowning disappointments which clouded its close. 

He suffered from suppressed gout, habitually drank port 
wine negus, and ate heartily and fast. He worked long and 
irregularly, and always in an excited state. Though a most 
affectionate husband and father, he was irritable and impe- 
rious with his family and servants, and, when not painting, 
spent much time alone, and often in a darkened chamber. 

On examining the wound made by the pistol-shot (which 
had produced fracture of both tables of the skull and lacerated 
the brain, though the ball had not pierced the substance of 
the brain itself, lodging under the skin three or four inches 
from where it struck), the bones of the head were found to 
be very thick and dense; the dura mater was thickened 
and adherent. There were innumerable bloody points 
through the brain, and in the basilar artery were osseous 
and atheromatous particles to a great amount, while the 
arteries could be easily pulled away. Dr. Elliotson con- 

382 APPENDIX 1. 

siders these appearances to indicate long-standing irritation 
of the brain itself. Mr. Bryant considers that, though the 
thickened state of the vessels of the brain was of long-stand- 
ing, the inflammation of the brain itself was comparatively 
recent. It is conceived by his family that Haydon's fatal 
determination was immediately due to a disappointment 
sustained about a fortnight before his death. He had been 
promised an advance of money by a friend, to liquidate his 
debts ; while dining with him he was suddenly informed that 
this advance, owing to a change in his friend's circumstances, 
could not be made. He drank deeply, came home intoxicated 
for the first time in his wife's recollection, was never well 
afterwards (though he became calm, subdued and affectionate 
in his manner), and often complained of headache. 

On the morning of the suicide, his wife and daughter, on 
their way up stairs, trying the door of the painting-room, 
found it locked, when Haydon sharply exclaimed "Who's 
there?" In a few minutes after he came up stairs to 
his wife and daughter, expressed regret at his hasty excla- 
mation, kissed them both, returned to his painting-room, and 
in a few minutes after the report was heard. It was not his 
practice to keep razors in his painting-room, and it may 
probably be fairly inferred that he provided them that 
morning for a fatal purpose. 

After firing the shot, finding that death did not follow, he 
appeared, from the traces of blood, to have gone from before 
the easel (the painting on which was covered with blood) to 
the door, where with his right hand on the door-handle he 
inflicted a fearful and determined gash in his throat with 
the razor from right to left, and then to have returned to the 
easel and made a similar cut from left to right. Both cuts 
wounded the jugular, but neither severed the carotid artery, 
each cut coming to a fine point and just laying bare the 
trachea. There was characteristic determination even in 
this final and fatal act. It is Mr. Bryant's opinion, in 
which Dr. Elliotson concurs, that Haydon's manner of 
painting accounts for the disproportions and irregularities 
observable in his pictures and so difficult to explain in one 
of his undoubted knowledge of anatomical construction. 

He wore concave glasses, so concave as greatly to diminish 


objects. Through these glasses he used to contemplate his 
model and picture from a distance. He would then run up 
to his picture, raise his glasses, and paint, using the naked 
eye. He would then run to a mirror and examine the re- 
flection of his picture, often through two pairs of such 
concave spectacles, and then would return again as before, 
raising the spectacles to work on his picture. Such a mode 
of painting does really appear quite sufficient to account for 
disproportions, and it is difficult to understand how it could 
have been followed with such success as Haydon, on many 
occasions, unquestionably attained. 

I have also received, while these pages were passing 
through the press, an interesting letter from Mr. Bewick, 
Haydon's pupil and the model of Lazarus, which I append 
entire, as it gives characteristic traits of the painter, and 
shows, moreover, the estimation in which Sir Walter Scott 
held the head of Lazarus. Why does not some admirer of 
the British school of painting purchase the picture, if it be 
only to cut out the head of Lazarus and present it to the 
National Gallery, where this much at least of Haydon's 
picture might hang without discredit by the side of the 
Lazarus of Sebastiano del Piombo ? 

" Haughton House, near Darlington, 

"Nov. 8, 1853. 
" Sir, 

" In perusing your exciting Memoirs of Haydon, I was 
struck and interested by the description of my sitting to him 
for the head, &c. of Lazarus (vol. ii. p. 30.), and I beg to 
corroborate the truth of the circumstances therein stated. I 
remember well that I was seated upon a box, placed upon a 
chair upon a table, mounted up as high as the head in the 
picture, and a very tottering insecure seat it was, and pain- 
ful, to be pinned to a confined spot for so many hours ; for 
the head, two hands and drapery of the figure were all painted 
at once, in one day, and never touched afterwards, 
but left as struck off, and any one looking close to the 
painting will perceive that the head has never been even ' sof- 
tened,' so successful and impressive it appeared to both painter 
and model, and so much was it the emanation of a wonderful 


conception executed with a rapidity and precision of touch 
truly astonishing. And when it is considered that the mind 
of the painter was harassed and deeply anxious by the circum- 
stances of his arrest at the beginning of his work, when 
concentrating his thoughts on the character and expression 
to be represented, any one at all acquainted with the dif- 
ficulties of the art of painting will readily concede this 
portion of so difficult a subject to be a feat of marvellous 
dexterity and power in the art. I think I see the painter 
before me, his pallette and brushes in his left hand, re- 
turning from the sheriff's officer in the adjoining room, pale, 
calm and serious; no agitation, mounting his high steps and 
continuing his arduous task; and, as he looks round to his pallid 
model, half breathingly whispering, 'Egad Bewick! I have just 
been arrested : that is the third time ; if they come again, I 
shall not be able to go on.' He soon seemed absorbed in his 
subject and to forget his arrest in the intensity of the effort 
to create so extraordinary an embodiment. After he had 
worked in the head he stood aghast before it, exclaiming, 
'I've hit it now! I've hit it ! ' By the time the two hands 
and figure were completed he was exhausted ; and, for myself, 
I seemed as dead as Lazarus was, no circulation, stiff as 
death. He laughed and joked, and helped me down from my 
high estate ;' and a cup of warm tea refreshed and resus- 
citated as cadaverous a Lazarus as the painter could have 
wished for. 

" The reason of my writing to you is partly to mention the 
coincidence or resemblance of your remarks upon the ex- 
pression of Lazarus, with the exclamation of Sir Walter Scott 
when he saw the picture in Edinburgh, as I happened to be 
present with him. Sir Walter seemed awe-struck ; his at- 
tention was rivetted to this remarkable figure in the picture, 
and he said to me "I never saw so extraordinary a con- 
ception realised on canvas before ; it is truly wonderful 
appalling it takes one's breath away,' &c. 

" I sat to Mr. Haydon for many of the heads in his pictures 
of 'Christ's Triumphant Entry' and 'Lazarus,' and my portrait 
is in the former picture between Hazlitt's and Keats's, near 
that of Wordsworth. 

"As a Second Edition of your work is preparing, I beg to 


call your attention to that part, at p. 295. vol. ii., where it is 
stated the poet Goethe writes, that his soul is elevated by 
the contemplation of the drawings of Hay don's pupils from the 
Elgin Marbles.' And I ask you, Sir, to do me the justice to 
state that it was myself alone who was employed to execute 
these works for the poet, and who received his acknowledg- 
ment and remuneration through the Consul. 

" In some part of the work, where Mr. Haydon enumerates 
his pupils, I perceive that the names of Mr. Chatfield and 
myself are omitted. This need not be so ; and if this omis- 
sion has reference to the circumstance of the difference that 
latterly existed between Mr. Haydon and myself, I can only 
allude to the estrangement at present by observing that it 
was inevitable. 

" I may mention that many of your readers of the Memoirs 
feel a disappointment that a characteristic portrait does not 
embellish the work ; and the only likeness that I remember 
as coming up to the mark, was one done by himself in chalk 
before his marriage, and I believe sent to the country to 
his intended beautiful wife, with 'Do you know me?' 
written below it. It was characteristic and spirited, at his 
best time, and favourable in expression. 

" I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 


" Tom Taylor, Esq." 




The following documents throw a light on the amount 
of Haydon's professional income at various periods. 

Extract from Balance- Sheet filed in Insolvency in the 
Year 1830. 

s. d. 
1810. Received premium voted by the British 

Gallery for the picture of Dentatus - 105 

1814. Sold Judgment of Solomon for - 735 
Received premium for same from 

British Gallery - 105 

Sold picture of Romeo and Juliet for - 52 10 
Received for sketch of the Entry into 

Jerusalem - - - 30 

1815. Received by anticipation of Mr. Phillips 

for picture of Christ's Agony in the 

Garden - 300 

Received for picture of Macbeth - 50 

1816. Do. do. do. - 60 
From friends - - 350 
Premium with pupil, Mr. Robertson - 210 

1820. Receipts for Entry into Jeru- 
salem - 1800 
Expenses - - 664 


Received premium with pupil, Mr. 

Prentice - - 181 13 

Received from friends - 200 

Received for Entry into Jeru- 
salem - 956 8 6 
Expenses of same - - 521 6 8 

435 1 10 

Received premium with Mr. Major, a pupil - 210 
Ditto Mr. Jones - - 210 



1823. Receipts from Lazarus - 651 10 6 

Expenses of same - - 210 2 

1826 and 
to July 

July to 


Received from friends 

By cash received for Portrait - 
Do. Silenus - 

Do. Portraits - 

Do. Pharaoh - 



s. d. 

-441 8 6 






- 525 

Subscriptions for Eucles - 

- 338 17 

Exhibition of Mock Election - 
A commission - 

Three portraits - 

Purchase of Mock Election by his Ma- 

Sketch - _ . _ 

July ~j Remainder of subscriptions to Eucles 

1828 I Exhibition of Pharaoh 

to July [ Do. Chairing Members 

1829, J Sale of studies for Mock Election 

Do. Chairing 

July ~\ Do. of sketches - 

1829 I Two small pictures - 
to Jan. I Do. of sketch - 

1830. J The Eucles Exhibition up to 29th May 

Subscriptions to Punch received 
19th ~\ Received of Mr. Kearsey for a small 
Jan., I painting 

23rd I Received of Mr. Strutt for sketch 
Feb. J Parties unknown 

Feb., -^ For exhibition of Punch and Eucles 
March, at Western Exchange 
April, - Subscription for the purchase of Punch 
and Subscription of Mr. Clark 
May. J Parties unknown 

c c 2 

321 11 6 




8 14 

191 3 

61 7 
168 8 














s. d. 

Feb., ") Subscription of Mr. Bowden (loan) 30 o 
March, Mr. Carlon to take 

April, and f up bill - - 28 10 6 

May, J Mr. Wilkie (loan) - 12 

Since my marriage I have been in the receipt 
of 521. Ws. per annum, the interest of 10001. 
settled upon her by the will of her first husband, 
Mr. Hyman, of Plymouth. He became bank- 
rupt, and his assignees paid the WOOL to Mr. 
Boyer, a solicitor, then of Devonport, for the 
trustees of my wife, and the money is lost by 
their permitting him to retain it until his in- 
solvency - - - - - 420 

10,746 4 6 
Causes of Insolvency. 

Heavy rent ; want of adequate employment ; law ex- 
penses, and a large family. 

Extract from Balance- Sheet filed on Insolvency in 1836. 

s. d. 

1831. Received from profits of profession in 

this year - - - 637 10 

1832. the like - 798 6 3 

1833. the like - 631 10 

1834. the like - 675 16 

1835. the like - 927 
J836. the like, including sub- 
scriptions at various times to the picture 

of Xenophon - - 947 

4,617 2 3 

Insolvency attributed to heavy law costs, to the loss sus- 
tained by the exhibition of Earl Grey's picture, and to 
having been attacked by Fraser's Magazine. 



Extracts from Sir Joshua Reynolds' s Private Memorandum 
Book, copied by Beechey, and by Haydon from him, 1st 
April, 1840, with Notes of Beechey' s and Hay don's.* 

Mr. Pelham. Painted in lake and white, and black and 

Varnished with gum mastich dissolved in oil, with sal. sa- 
turnin. and rock alum. Col. (colour) yellow, lake, and Naples 
and black, mixed with varnish. July 7, 1766. 

Miss Kitty Fisher. Face cerata (I suppose varnished. 
Beechey.) (Of course not : rubbed with wax first. B. R. H.) 
Drapery painted con cera e poi v (varnished). 

Lord Villiers. Given to Dr. Barnard. Painted with 
vernice, fatto di cera and Venice turpentine mesticato 
con gli colori, macerato in olio ; carmine in lieu de lacca. 

1767. Count Lippe. Senza olio in finishing. 

(Exhibited at the British Institution since: had stood 
well. B. R. H.) 

My own, Do. Mrs. Goddard, Do. 

Miss Cholmondeley. Con olio e vernice. Con Yeo's 
lake and magilp. 

(Note of Beechey's ' Yeo's lake.' Mr. Yeo was one of 

* These memoranda of Reynolds have been already published, 
some of them in Northcote's Life, and others by Sir C. L. East- 
lake, in his Materials for a History of Oil-painting. I thought 
it best, however, to reprint them here, for the sake of Beechey's 
and Haydon's remarks, and also as this copy seems more literal and 
fuller than that given by Sir C. L. Eastlake. ED. 

cc 3 


the original members of the Royal Academy, and made co- 
lours for his amusement.) 

1767. Lord Townsend. Prima con magylp, poi olio, 
poi mag. (magylp) senza olio ; lacca ; poi verniciato con ver- 

Doctor Armstrong. Painted first in olio poi verniciato 
poi cera solo, poi cera e vernice. 

Speaker. The face colori in olio mesticato con macgylp 
poi verniciato ; cielo* macgylp e poi per tutto verniciato con 
colori in pulvere senza olio o maglip (* cielo the back- 
ground). (In fact, a dry scumble B. R. H.) 

(Some soot fell on a picture of Sir Joshua's drying by the 
fire. Sir Joshua took it up and said, l A fine cool tint,' and 
actually scumbled it beautifully into the flesh. From 
Jackson who had it from Sir George Beaumont. B. R. H.) 

Master Burke finito con ver (vernice) senza olio o cera ; 

Duchess of Ancaster. Prima magylp secunda olio 
terza olio. 

Lady Almeria Carpenter. Mrs. Cholmondeley. Mag. 
senza olio. 

Mioproprio. Given to Mr. Burke. Con cera finito quasi, 
poi con mast, ver, finito interamente, poi cerata senza colori. 

" Offe's f picture painted with cera et cop. (copaiva) solo ; 
cinabro. (Varnished with a little vermilion used as a stain 
over all. Note by Beechey.) 

Glazing. Senza olio; varnish of mastic solo, Yeo's yellow, 
verm, and blue. 

Sir Charles and Master Bunbury, 1768, July 29. In 
vece di nero si puo servirse di turchino e cinabro e lacca 
giallo (probatum est, Nov. 20th, 1768) (i. e. It has stood. 
B. R. H.) Second sitting too yellow. 

The glazing di cinabro e turchino. 

Senza cera. (Note. Instead of black, he made use of 
Pr. blue and vermilion. Beechey.) 

April 3rd, 1 769. Per gli colori cinabro, lacca, ultramarin 
e nero, senza giallo. 

f His niece, Theophila Palmer. See subsequent note of 
Beechey's, 1832. 


Prima in olio, ultimo con vernice solo e giallo. 

May 17th, 1769. On a grey ground. 

First sitting, vermilion, lake, white, black. 

Second do., 3rd do., ultramarine last senza olio, yellow 
oker *, black, lake, verm, touched upon with white. (* Here 
is evidence Sir Joshua used yellow in flesh, in opposition to 
Northcote's assertion. B, R. H. 1st April, 1840.) 

Mrs. Bouverie. The face senza olio and the boy's head ; 
the rest painted con olio, and afterwards glazed with varnish 
and colour, except the green, which was glazed with oil and 
then varnished. The vail (sic.) and white linnen (sic.) 
finished senza (without oil ?) 

July 10th, 1769. My own picture painted first with oil ; 
painted with lake, yellow oker, blue and black, cop. e cera 

Doctor Johnson and Goldsmith. First olio, after with 
copaiva with colour, but without white. The head of Gold- 
smith with cop. and with white. 

Mrs. Horton. Con copaiva senza giallo : giallo quando 
era finito de pingere, con lacca, e giallo quasi solo, e poi 
glaze with ultramarine. 

June 22nd, 1770. Sono stabilito in maniera di dipingere. 
Primo e secundo o con olio o copivi, gli colori solo nero, 
ultram. et biacca. Secondo medesimo. Ultimo con giallo 
okero e lacca e nero e ultramarine e senza biacca ritoccato 
con poca biacca e gli altri colori. My own given to Mrs. 
Burke (fine proceeding. B. R. H.) 

(This it seems was "his most approved method" no 
yellow till the last colouring. W. Beechey.) 

Olio primo biacca e nero. 

2nd. Biacca e lacca terzo lacca e giallo e nero senza 
biacca in copivi or copaiva. 

(These are all glazing colours. Beechey.) 

Beechey 's note, 1832. 

" Offe^ Theophila Palmer, his niece, sister of the Mar- 
chioness of Thomond, who was (so ?) called by Sir Joshua 
and Dr. Johnson. She is now Mrs. Gwatkin. 

c c 4 


" Sono stabilito, &c. &c." 

His vehicle was oil or balsam of copaiva. His colours 
were only black, ultramarine, and white, so that he finished 
his picture entirely in black and white, all but glazing no 
red or yellow till the last, which was used in glazing, and 
that was mixed with Venice turp. and wax as a varnish. 
Take off that, and his pictures return to black and white. 
(Excellent. B. R. H.) 

May, 1770. My own picture. Canvas imprimed ; cera 
finito con vernicio. 

June 12th, 1770. Paese* senza rosso, con giallo nero e 
turchino e biacca. Cera. 

* (Note. This is a landscape of his in possession of Sir 
George Phillips, which appears to be painted without red. 
I suppose from Richmond Hill, a landscape without red, 
with yellow, black, blue, and white lead. Beechey.) (Tur- 
chino is Prussian blue. I remember Sir George Phillips 
buying the landscape in the last great sale of Sir Joshua's 
works, at Christie's, where he also bought the Piping Boy 
for 430 guineas I pulling his coat to go on, at which Lady 
Phillips was very angry, because she thought it too much. 
B. R. H.) 

The Nicean Nymph with Bacchus. Principiato con cera 
sola, finito con cera e copaiva, per causa it cracked. Do. St. 
John. (Of course. B. R. H.) 

" Off 6 " f atto (fatta) interamente con copaiva e cera. La 
testa sopra un fondo preparato con olio e biacca. 

Lady Melbourne. Do. sopra una * Tela di fondo. (Note. 
Balsam of copaiva and wax upon an oil ground ; it must 
crack, and peel off in time. Beechey, 1832.) (Of course. 
B.R. H. 1840.) 

(*Tela di fondo. Prepared cloth to paint on, or a raw 
cloth ? B.) (N. B. " A raw cloth/' B. R. H.) 

Hicky Vernice : carmine, azurro, Venice turp. e cera ; sta- 
bilito in maniera di servirsi di Jews pitch. Lake, verm, 
carmine azurro e nero ( Vernice, Ven. turp. e cera.*} 

(*Note. " Varnish, Venice turp. and wax," a comical 
varnish. Beechey.) 

My own, April 27, 1772. First acqua and gomma 


dragon.* verm, (vermilion), lake, black, without yellow, 
varnished with egg after Venice turpentine. 

(Heavens murder! murder! It must have cracked 
under the brush. B. R. H.) 

(* Note. I rather think gum tragacanth, for that is a 
gum which mixes well with water, and makes a mucilage. 
That and powdered mastic dry hard. 

This wax was thus prepared : pure white wax scraped 
into very thin slices, and covered with spirit of turpentine, 
cold. In twelve hours it becomes a paste. With this and 
sugar of lead he mixed Venice turpentine or copaiva, or any 
balsam. His egg varnish alone would in a short time tear 
any picture to pieces painted with such materials as he made 
use of. Beechey.) (Indisputably true. B. R. H.) 

29th April, 111 G. -Mrs. Basset. 

Asphaltum and verm. - 

solo, glazed and re- 

V ? Crossed out 

touched. J- 

May 3rd. Naples cinnabar, red lead, D * Ke y n 
Cologne earth and black. . 

June, 1776. Blue, light red, verm., white, perhaps black. 

Duke of Dorset. Finito con cera solamente, poi vernicata 
con cera e turp. Venetia. 

Hope (for New College, Oxon). Cera solamente. 

October, 1788. La meglia maniera con cera rnesticato (a) 
con turp. de Venetia. (Justitia f) ma di panni, cera sol. 

Strawberry Girl. Cera sol. 

Doctor Barnard. 1st. Black and whita 

2nd. Verm, and white dry. 
3rd. Varnished and retouched. 

October, 1772. Miss Kirk. Gum Dr. (gum tragacanth ?) 
and whiting : poi cerata, poi ovata, poi verniciata e ritoccata. 


(Beechey says, " This manner is the MOST extraordinary." 
It is insanity. He had at his elbow a mocking fiend ! 
gum and whiting ! then waxed, then egged, then varnished, 
and then retouched! 

f One of his Christian Virtues at New College, Oxon. ED. 


In November, 1844, Mrs. Gwatkin sent me up a leaf 
from Sir Joshua's book as a document to refute Sir Martin 
Shee's assertion that no such book existed, and on the leaf 
was this very part. B. R. H.) 

August 15th, 1774. White, blue, asphaltum, verm, senza 
nero. Miss Foley, Sir R. Fletcher, Mr. Hare. 

August 26th. White, asphaltum, verm., minio (red lead), 
principalmente giallo di Napoli, ni nero, ni turchino. Ra- 
gazzo con sorella. Glaze con asphaltum and lake. 

Sir M. Fletcher. Biacca, nero, ultramarine, verm, sed 
principalmente minio*, senza giallo 1'ultima volta; oiled out 
and painted all over. 

(* Red lead won't stand. It becomes green. Beechey.) 

Dr. Hare. Except glazed with varnish e giallo di Na- 
poli, finito quasi con asphaltum, minio, verm. ; poi in poco 
di ultramarine qua e la, senza giallo. 

Mr. Whiteford. Asphal. verm., minio, principalmente, 
senza giallo. 

Blackguard (?) Mercury and Cupid. Black and verm., 
afterwards glazed. 

Sir John Pringle. Verm, minio, giallo di Napoli e nero. 

Mrs. Joddrel. Head oil, cerata, varnisht with ovo poi 
varn con wolf, panni cera senza olio, verniciato con ovo 
poi con wolf. 

Prima. Umbra e biacca., poco de olio. 

Secundo. Umbra, verm, e biacca, thick, occasionally 
thinned with turpentine. 

Nero, cinnabro, minio, e azzuro, thick. My own Flo- 
rence * upon a raw cloth, cera solamente. 

(* Perhaps his own head in Florence Gallery. B. R. H.) 

The children of Mrs. Sheridan. Poi cerata. 

Mrs. Sheridan. The face in olio, poi cerata ; panni in 
olio, poi con cera senza olio, poi olio e cera. 

(O Reynolds Reynolds I The drapery first with oil, 
then wax without oil, then oil and wax. 

Beechey says the colours in this picture leave the canvas 
in masses, except the head, which is perfect.) 

Mrs. Montague. Olio e cera, asphaltum, nero e cinnabro. 


Lady Dysart. Primo olio, poi cera solamente pour il 

My own picture marked F behind. 

Finished con vernicio de Berming. (copal varnish from 
Birmingham) senza olio. 

Lord Althorp. Minio e nero sol. ; poi giallo e verm. 
senza biacca, olio. 

Mrs. Montague. Olio, poi cerata ; ritoccato con biacca. 

Samuel. Flesh glazed with gamb. (gamboge) and verm. 
Drap. gamb. and lake. Sky retouched with orpim. 

(All faders except verm. B. R. H.) 

Appresso Perino del Vaga. Saint Joseph dipinto con 
verm, e nero, velato (glazed) con gambog. e lacca e asphal- 
tum, poco de turchino nella barba ; panni turchino e lacca. 

My own picture sent to Plympton. Cera, poi vernissata 
senza olio. Colori, Cologne earth, verm., and white, and 
blue, on a common colourman's cloth, first varnished over 
with copal varnish. 

My own., painted at the same time on a raiu cloth, do. 

(Beechey has written, " Good heavens ! " ) 

(Wilkie in 1809 saw this picture at Plympton. It was in 
perfect preservation. The corporation have since sold it. 
It was offered to the National Gallery, and ignorantly re- 
fused. Who has it now I know not. B. R. H.) 

Miss Molesworth. Drapery painted with oil colour first, 
after, cera alone. 

Miss Ridge. Do. 

Lady Grariby. Do. 

Prcesepe. (Nativity or birth of Christ. Beechey.) 
(Burnt at Belvoir Castle.) 

A raw cloth senza olio ; Venice turp. and cera. 

(Sir George Beaumont wrote me he saw it the summer 
before it was burnt, and it was perfect. B. R. H.) 

Hope, August, 1779. My own copy. First oil, then 
Venice turp. e cera ; verm., white and black, poi varnisht 
with Venice e cera; light red and black, varnisht. 

1781. Dido, oil. 

Manner. Colours to be used. Indian red, light red, do. 


blue and black, finisbt vvitb varnish without oil, poi ritocc. 
con giallo. 

(Bought by Lord Farnborough for George IV. at the great 
sale 900 guineas perfect preservation. B. R. H.) 

(Finis of extracts from Reynolds, 

which I, B. R. Haydon, have copied faithfully, correctly, and, 
without addition or alteration. 

So help me God, 

this day, April 1st, 1840.) 

Beechey's Notes on Reynolds' Practice. 

First and second time of painting in oil or copaiva ; the 
colours only black and white and ultramarine ; lastly, with 
yellow oker, lake, black, and blue without white lead, but re- 
touched with a little white. This it seems was his most ap- 
proved method. 

No yellow till the last colouring. 

3rd. These were all glazing colours. 

" Offe " * painted entirely with balsam of copaiva and wax 
upon an oil ground. It must crack and peel off in time. 

Lady M on the same kind of ground, and I imagine 

treated in the same kind of way. 

On lackey's Varnish. 

I am settled in my manner of using asphaltum. His 
(Hickey's) varnish, Venice turpentine and wax, a comical 
varnish. It must be removed the first time of cleaning, and 
the glazing with it. Venice turp. only. It was, I suppose, 
thinned with spirit of turp. 

I once painted a picture on wood primed with wax, which 
cracked all over before it was finished. 

The oil softens the ground in drying ; so the ground be- 
comes softer every day, whilst the surface gets harder. It 
must crack. 

Sir Joshua (Beechey adds) never studied chemistry much. 

(Not much chemistry was wanted here. B. R. H.) 

I dissolved mastic in alcohol, then mixed it with sugar of 

* The portrait of his niece Theophila. 


lead water, and strained it through a linen cloth, then mixed 
it in clear drying oil. It dried dead and hard, very like 
Rembrandt ; by adding more oil it became a butter without 

One drop of copaiva made it better. 

Frankincense and elame are the best gums for mixtures of 
every kind, and will not deceive you like resin, who is a de- 
ceitful fellow, and cannot be depended on. 
They both dry without a skin. 

Neither Rembrandt or Cuyp can be imitated with our com- 
mon materials. (This is prejudice. B. R. H.) 

There is no Venice turpentine in this country. They make 
a substitute with common white resin dissolved in spirit of 

I have now got some real Venice turpentine, and have made 
many mixtures with it. It is what Wilson always used, but 
how he made his vehicle he would never say. When it dries, 
it does not dry with a skin, but dries from the bottom, all 

I shall mention some of the best. 

Dissolve sugar of lead in as much alcohol as will just cover 
it, over a gentle fire, or place your bottle near the fire, and 
it will soon melt and become a perfect fluid. While it is hot 
pour some of it on a small quantity of the Venice turpentine, 
and mix them well together with a knife, and then thin it 
with oil or spirit as you want it. 

The same solution of lead with mastic varnish, and thinned 
with a single drop of balsam of copaiva and oil, is beautiful. 

To make a drying Oil. 

1 Ib. of alum. Heat it in a shovel till white ; powder it, 
with 1 Ib. of sugar of lead well powdered. Add a gallon of 
oil, linseed. Stir them together three or four times a- day 
for a week ; pour for use into a jar, large mouth. Covered 
with cloth, and expose it to sun. 

(Better boil the materials together. B. R. H.) 


Most excellent. 

Very fat linseed oil thinned with great deal of turp., 

Mixt with paste, and sal. sat., 

Made thinner with raw linseed. Then add mastic varnish. 

It makes a more manageable vehicle then any I ever used. 

(This is excellent, and true. 

The first coat must be hard before another is put on, or 
it cracks ; the atmosphere hardening the last coat, and the 
under coat struggling for light and air splits the covering. 
B. R. H.) 

Wilson told me his varnish was white of egcr, which he 
lamented he had ever made use of ; nothing could be worse 
for a fresh-painted picture. 

The background of Sir Joshua's pictures, the furniture and 
accompaniments, &c., were often painted by Northcote or 
March! in oil, and do not crack or peel off; but Sir Joshua's 
vehicle being composed of wax and varnish (generally copal 
from Birmingham) dried very hard, and whenever he had 
occasion to pass over their work, which he frequently did 
before it dried hard, it is always found to crack more than 
those parts which he painted himself, *. e. which he painted 
entirely from beginning. But his canvas was generally 
primed in oil : however his colours might adhere to it at first, 
as soon as they became hard and dry they cracked and left 
the canvas. 

Serres Varnish. 

Put in an earthen pipkin glazed on inside sixteen ounces 
of rectified spirits of wine ; one ounce of picked gum mastich 
in its natural state ; four drachms (?) of gum sandarach, and 
half an ounce of gum elame. 

When these gums are dissolved and incorporated, add to 
them two ounces of genuine Venice turpentine. 

The gum elame gives a consistence to the varnish, and 
prevents it from chilling. 

(Beechy adds, that this is a literal receipt from Mr. Serres ; 
but I suppose it is made by a slow heat like other wine 
varnishes, and should be often shook up, B. R. H.) 


Query whether any spirit of wine varnish is a safe one for 
oil pictures, as it may dissolve the colours in using. 
Sacc. sat. dissolved in alcohol 
Cera diss. in turpentine 

And Venice turpentine dissolved in alchol, mixed cold. 
Ditto, in drying oil instead of turpentine. Both excellent. 
Venice turpentine creeps in drying so do all resins with 
too much oil. 

Paste thinned with drying oil, or linseed oil mixed with 
Ashburner's varnish and turps, dries hard and dead and works 

Paste is common brown turpentine soap sliced very thin 
in a jug or any other open vessel, covered with water, and 
placed either in a cool oven, or near a fire, till it is perfectly 
dissolved, making a tender jelly when cold. March 30th, 

Dissolve sugar of lead in warm water, very strong ; add 
this to the soap cold, stir them well together, then add spirit 
of turpentine, and separate the paste by squeezing it together 
with a knife, and adding more turpentine. 

Dissolve saccharum sat. in alcohol over the fire, and let it 
cool, (quantity immaterial), pour it on linseed oil, about twice 
the quantity of spirit, stirred well together. Then add 
mastic varnish, about equal quantities, half the quantity or 
less with the mixture. 

An excellent vehicle, dries well, the best I ever had, to be 
kept under water. 

Used to pour oil on it while hot ; it appeared to do well. 
Mastic, sacc. sat. and spirit of wine dries hard. 
Excellent vehicles and dryer. 

Discovered by me by an accident. W. B., March, 1832. 
Dissolve sugar of lead in spirits of wine, as much as will 
cover it. When, dissolved mix it with linseed oil. Then 
add mastic v. If wanted more coagulated, add mastic 

Ohio turpentine dissolved in alcohol ; then add sac. ground 
in oil and turpentine no oil mixed with oil it makes a 
tender, melting kind of vehicle and dries solid. June 24th, 


Experiment on the back of an old canvas rubbed out por- 
trait. Gum sandrac, ground with sacc. sat. in spirits of wine, 
turpentine, and then mixed with a little oil. 

It mixes with mastic varnish or resin, ground with sugar 
of lead in oil. 

This resembles the Venetian more than anything I ever 
tried. It dries solid, and not sticky. 

The frankincense is the best of all resins. You may 
always depend on it. It is beautiful ; first dissolved in 
alcohol, &c. It mixes with oil and turpentine like the pulp 
of a grape. 

(This is the climax. B. R. H.) 

Lime newly burnt, slaked with warm water till it becomes 
as thick as dough. Then take the curds of milk of the same 
quantity as the dough of lime, and mix them together. This 
makes a vehicle in which you may mix oil. 

Green colour. Whiting put in a pipkin over a fire, and 
oil of blue vitriol poured on it till it is absorbed. Then 
grind it in oil. 

(Finis of Beechey's notes. B. R. H.) 

Having thus gone through the experiments of Reynolds, 
and the notes of my dear, old, good-hearted friend Beechey, 
I conclude with my astonishment at the childishness of many 
of them. 

Reynolds was always pursuing a surface ; was willing to 
get at once what the old masters did with the simplest ma- 
terials, and left time and drying to enamel. That enamelled 
look, the result of thorough drying hard and time, must not 
be attempted at once. It can only be done, as Reynolds did 
it, by artificial mixtures, which the old masters never thought 
of. And, therefore, the great part of Reynolds's works are 
split to pieces from their inconsistent unions. 

To wax a head, then egg a head, then paint in oil on these 
two contracting substances, then varnish it, then wax, oil, 
then paint again all and each still half dry beneath, could 
end only in ruin, however exquisite at the time. 

Whilst West's detestable surface has stood from the sim- 
plicity of his vehicle, half of Sir Joshua's heads are gone, 


though what remain are so exquisite, one is willing to sacri- 
fice them for the works we see. 

Reynolds said once, " Northcote, you don't clean my 
brushes well." " How can I ? " said Northcote ; " they are 
so sticky and gummy." 

This is confirmed by these receipts. They must have been 

A gentleman told Wilkie he sat to Sir Joshua. Sir Joshua 
dabbled in a quantity of stuff, laid the picture on its back, 
shook it about till it settled like a batter pudding, and then 
painted away. 

ADDENDA (Beechey) 

Sir Joshua having made use of Ven. turp. and wax as a 
varnish accounts, in a great measure, for the pale and raw 
appearance of his pictures after cleaning. 

Rubbed ever so lightly with spirits of turpentine the 
glazing colours must inevitably be removed. 

Venetian turpentine and wax must in time also become 
opaque, and if it dries hard (which I doubt) it must crack 
and turn yellow, if not leave the canvas altogether. 

A most extraordinary practice for so sensible a man. 
Every one could have told him carmine would not stand iii 
oil, or his varnish be permanent. 

Those pictures which he painted on unprimed wood, or 
unprimed cloth, remain fixed, because his first colouring is 
partly absorbed ; but painted on a ground prepared in oil, the 
wax and varnish separate as soon as it becomes dry and 
hard, having nothing for these materials to adhere to, and 
the paste used in lining cannot penetrate through the oil 
priming, so as to come in contact with the painting in order 
to secure it. The picture-cleaners take off what Sir Joshua 
thought the most precious part of his colouring, . e. what he 
finished with, which produced what he called " a deep-toned 
brightness." The practice was good, but the means de- 

Hoppner used wax and mastic varnish with his oil colours, 


in a moderate degree, and his pictures stand well.* But 
Sir Joshua loaded his pictures with that mixture without oil, 
and seemed delighted to dabble in it without considering the 
consequences. It is, however, a most delicious vehicle to use, 
and gives the power of doing such things and producing such 
effects as cannot be approached by anything else, while the 
pictures are fresh, but time seems to have envied his fame, 
and to delight in the destruction of his most beautiful works. 

Rembrandt followed the same mode of practice, but em- 
ployed other materials materials which were permanent. 
Rembrandt only painted his lights with a full body of 
colour ; his shadows were always smooth and thin, but very 

Sir Joshua loaded his shadows as much as his lights. 
There is a binding quality in white, which always dries 
hard like cement. Dark colours the reverse, and if thickly 
painted, crack with any vehicle except oil. 

Vandyke's vehicle was principally oil mixed with a little 
varnish. The head of Gevartius seems to have been painted 
with it only, and that is bright enough for anything. 

I think Rembrandt seduced Sir Joshua, for he seems to 
have used something of the consistence of butter, which is 
a most bewitching vehicle certainly. 

He also produced his extraordinary effects by glazing, 
which the picture-restorer easily removes, and which, in 
many instances, has been removed, and the possessor 
thought his picture the better for it. 

Sir Joshua, in his notes, has remarked, he saw one picture 
by Vandyke which had not suffered by, cleaning, in 

My Lord Cowper has a family picture which is perfect. 
The finest I ever saw. 

* They do not stand. To wit, Lord Hastings (Moira) and 
another at Windsor. B. R. H. 



Account by Sir Joshua Reynolds of his Resignation of the 
Presidency of the Royal Academy. 

(The following was among the extracts copied for 
liaydon from Sir Joshua's original memoranda, in the 
possession of Mrs. Gwatkin. There are other papers 
among Haydon's MSS. which have formed part of the 
same collection, but they are so fragmentary that I 
have been unable to give them a coherent form. The 
style of this statement rather gives colour to the notion 
that Sir Joshua had some literary aid in his Discourses. 

The consequence which every man is to himself, and the 
imaginary interest he vainly supposes the public take in 
what concerns him or his private affairs, may reasonably he 
supposed to be the origin of the various apologies for the life 
and conduct of very insignificant individuals. However I 
wish to avoid the ridicule that attends such appeals to the 
public, yet it has been suggested to me by my friends, that 
as the public appear to have already interested themselves 
from the daily account in the newspapers, and the statement 
of the dissensions in the Academy in those papers and other 
publications not very advantageous to the President, it is 
proper that a fair account ought to be laid before the public, 
that the ridicule that might otherwise attend it was obviated 
by having presided in a public office, of however comparative 
inferior rank that office was it is still such as the world 
has thought proper to interest themselves about its success 
or miscarriage. That if you can show that the opposition you 

D D 2 


met with in the Academy was in the prosecution of your 
duty, and the insult which you lately received was unpro- 
voked and unmerited, it is a duty you owe yourself and your 
character so to do, and at once clear yourself from the clan- 
destine, as well as public, insinuations that are now circu- 
lating in the world. To do this it is necessary to go back a 
few years, to get at the original cause of this dissension 
amongst the Academicians. 

Years ago the Academy lost its Professor of Perspective, 
Mr. Wale. To fill this office, no'candidate voluntarily ap- 
pearing, the President personally applied to those Acade- 
micians whom he thought qualified, and particularly to Mr. 
P. Sandby and Mr. Richards, begging them to accept the 
place, and save the Academy from the disgraceful appear- 
ance of there not being a member in it capable of filling 
this office, or that they were too indolent to undertake its 
duty. My solicitations were in vain. A Council was then 
called to deliberate what was to be done. Sir William 
Chambers proposed that as from the orders in our insti- 
tution the Professor must be an Academician, he recom- 
mended that we should endeavour to find out some person, 
out of the Academy, properly qualified, and elect him an 
Academician expressly for that purpose, and I remember his 
adding that it was the custom so to do in the French Aca- 
demy. This method of proceeding was adopted, but, no 
person so qualified occurring to the Council, nothing more 
was done for the present. At a succeeding Council I pro- 
posed Mr. Bonomi. Mr. Edwards, an Associate, was like- 
wise proposed. 

It was then hinted with great propriety by our late Secre- 
tary, Mr. Newton, that he apprehended we should think it 
necessary that the candidates should produce specimens of 
their abilities. We all acquiesced in this opinion. I ac- 
quainted Mr. Bonomi what the Council required, and Mr. 
Edwards's friend gave the same information to him. The 
President soon after received a letter from Mr. Edwards, in 
which he proposes himself as a candidate, but that, if speci- 
mens are required, he is past being a boy and shall produce 
none. Mr. Bonomi sent his specimen to the Exhibition, 


which was a perspective drawing of his own invention of 
Lord Lansdowne's library. At the following general meet- 
ing for the election of an Associate, the President reminded 
the Academy that the Professorship of Perspective was still 
vacant, and that Mr. Bonomi was on the list of candidates 
to be an Associate, with a view particularly to fill that office ; 
that as they had seen his specimen at the Exhibition, they 
were to judge whether or not he was qualified for the place 
he solicited, he carefully avoiding to utter a single word in 
his commendation. When the President sat down Mr. T. 
Sandby, the Professor of Architecture, without being called 
upon by the President or any one else, rose and said he did 
not know Mr. Bonomi, having never seen him in his life, 
but, judging from the drawing at the Exhibition, he thought 
him eminently qualified to be Professor of Perspective to the 

Notwithstanding this high authority in his favour Mr. 
Bonomi was not elected an Academician. At a succeeding 
election of Associates Mr. Bonomi wished to decline being 
any longer a candidate. I pressed him to continue his name 
on the list, that I would speak more fully upon the business 
at the next election than I had hitherto done, and that if I 
failed I never would ask him again. Accordingly, at the 
next election following, the President, after mentioning that 
Mr. Bonomi was again a candidate, complained of the little 
attention that had been hitherto paid to filling the chair of 
Professor of Perspective. That it was full as disagreeable 
to him to drop counsel in unwilling ears, as it was irksome 
to them to hear it. That nothing but a sense of duty could 
make him persevere as he had done for these five years past 
at every election, continually recommending them to fill this 
place, that it would continue to be his duty at every future 
election, and begged them to relieve him from this dis- 
agreeable task, and for once to set aside their friends, or even 
candidates of the greatest merit in other respects, and give 
their vote to the general interest and honour of the Academy : 
in short, to make the Academy itself whole and complete 
before they thought of its ornaments. That it could not be 
questioned that it was as much his duty as President and 

D D 3 


general superintendent to preserve and keep the Academy 
in repair, as it would be the duty of Sir William Chambers, 
when a pillar of the Academy was decayed, to supply the 
deficiency with a new one. Sir William, he acknowledged, 
had one great advantage ; by his fiat the business was done 
at once, whereas the President had been five years ineffec- 
tually recommending the Academy to do what was certainly 
as much their duty to support, as it was the duty of the 
President to propose. He concluded this part of his dis- 
course by exhorting them to save an infant Academy from 
the disgraceful appearance of expiring with the decrepitude 
of neglected old age. It is necessary here to mention that 
the President having been informed that there was a party 
in the Academy who had resolved that Mr. Edwards, who 
was already an Associate, should be the Professor, whether 
he did or did not produce a specimen, and that they were 
resolved to unite in their votes in favour of any one of the 
candidates, to prevent Bonomi from standing upon the same 
ground with Mr. Edwards ; for this end they fixed their 
eyes on Mr. Gilpin, an artist of acknowledged merit and 
certainly deserving their suffrages, but it may be suspected 
that it was not to his merit at present but to a faction (in 
which he most certainly had no concern) he was indebted to 
an equal number of votes with Mr. Bonomi. It became then 
a very irksome task for the President to be obliged to give 
the casting vote against him, whom he would be glad to have 
favoured upon any other occasion. 

The President therefore took this opportunity of expatia- 
ting on the propriety and even the necessity of the can- 
didates, whoever they were, producing specimens of their 
abilities, and when those were before them that they would 
give their vote in favour of the most able artist, uninfluenced 
by friendship, country, or any other motive, but merit ; that 
the honour of the Academy depended upon the reputation of 
its members for genius and abilities, and reprobated the idea, 
which had been adopted, as he had been informed, by many 
Academicians, that great abilities or being able to produce 
splendid drawings were not necessary. Such sentiments, he 
said, might be excused if we were electing a person to teach 


perspective in one of those boarding-schools about London, 
which are dignified with the name of Academies, but to be 
able to do well enough was not the character of a Professor 
to a Royal Academy, which required its ornaments and 
decorations as well as what was merely necessary ; that the 
highly ornamented ceiling of the room in which we were 
then assembled sufficiently shows that Sir William Chambers 
thought (and he thought justly,) that something more than 
merely what was necessary was required to a Royal Academy. 

Having now finished my relation of the causes that in- 
duced me to take this step, I cannot conclude without 
obviating a suspicion that I think will naturally arise in 
every reader's mind, that something is still concealed, and 
that an implicit confidence ought not to be granted to him, 
who tells his own story. 

I shall only state what I have heard myself openly given 
-or informed by letters as reasons against Bonomi : if there 
are other causes, let the person whom the party have chosen 
for their leader and spokesman stand forth and convince the 
world that his insulting the President in his chair was rea- 
sonable and proper, and no more than what his conduct 
deserved, as appears from the great support that motion 

The whole appearance was new to me. Instead of the 
members as usual straggling about the room, they were 
already seated in perfect order and with the most profound 
silence. I went directly to the chair, and looking round for 
the candidates' drawings, I at last spied those of Mr. Bonomi 
thrust in the darkest corner at the farthest end of the room. 
I then desired the Secretary to place them on the side table, 
where they might be seen. He at first appeared not to hear 
me : I repeated my request ; he then rose, and in a sluggish 
manner walked to the other end of the room (passing the 
drawings), rung the bell, and then stood with his folded arms, 
in the middle of the room. Observing this extraordinary 
conduct of the Secretary, I took one of the drawings in my 

hand, and took the other and placed them on the 

tables ; the Secretary, who has thought proper to join the 
party, which in reality may be called in regard to him rebel- 

D D 4 


lion, not deigning to touch them ; he only said he had rung 
the bell for the servant, which servant, it is curious to 
remark (as it shows the rude spirit and gross manner of 
this Cabal) was to mount that long flight of steps in order to 
move two drawings from one side of the room to the other. 

The drawings were now placed where they could be seen, 
though no Academician but Mr. P. Sandby deigned to rise 
from the seat to look at them. 

The President having resumed his seat opened the business 
of their meeting that it was to choose an Academician in 
the room of Mr. Meyers ; that he should not now take up 
their time by repeating what he had so often recommended, 
that they would put aside every candidate and turn their 
eyes on him who was qualified and willing to accept of the 
office of Professor of Perspective, which had been vacant so 
many years to the great disgrace of the Academy ; that as 
Mr. Bonomi's rival, by not sending to the Academy a spe- 
cimen of his abilities, appeared to have declined the contest, 
he hoped, hoped he confessed rather than expected, that 
the votes for the honour of the Academy would be unanimous 
on this occasion ; that they would consider the question 
before them as ay, or no, is the author of those drawings 
which are on the table qualified or not qualified for the office 
he solicits. 

As soon as the President sat down, an Academician who 
is and has been long considered as the spokesman of the party, 
demanded who ordered those drawings to be sent to the 
Academy. President answered, it was by his order. He 
asked a second time in a more peremptory tone. The Pre- 
sident said, " I did." " I move that they be sent over or 
turned out of the room. Does any one second this motion ? " 
Mr. Barry rose with great indignation. " No," says he, 
" nobody can be found so lost to shame as to dare to second 
so infamous a motion drawings that would do honour to the 
greatest Academy that ever existed in the world ! " Mr. 
Banks with great quietness seconded the motion. On the 
show of hands a great majority appeared for the expulsion. 
The President then rose to explain to them the propriety of 
Mr. Bonomi's drawings being there to oppose with Mr- 


Edwards 's, which were expected and ordered by the Council, 
but he was interrupted from various quarters, that the busi- 
ness was over : they would hear no explanation ; that it was 
irregular, (Mr. Copley said,) to talk upon business that was 
past and determined. The President acquiesced, and they 
proceeded in the election, when Mr. Fuseli, a very ingenious 
artist, but no candidate for the Professor's chair, was 
elected an Academician by a majority of twenty-two against 

The next morning the President resigned by letter to the 
Secretary both his Presidency and his seat as Academician. 

(Copied for me by Joshua Eeynolds Gwatkin, by 
leave of Mrs. Gwatkin, Sir Joshua's niece, aged 
eighty-nine, at Plymouth, October 8. 1845, from 
Sir Joshua's original manuscript. 



ABERCOUN, Marquis of, his hospitality, iii. 
17 ; his reception of the Misses Porter, 18. 

Aberdeen, Earl of, underrates the Elgin Mar- 
bles, i. 328, 329 ; Essay on Greek Architec- 
ture, ii. 86. 

Abolitionists, portraits by Haydon of, iii. 155 

Academicians, the Royal, their feeling to- 
wards the old masters, i. 292 ; unfair treat- 
ment of Dentatus, 125 ; Haydon's attacks 
on, in the Examiner, 178 ; and in the An- 
nals of Art, 356 ; theirs upon him, 367 ; his 
overtures of reconciliation, ii. 138 ; their 
conduct as to the proposed Waterloo monu- 
ment, i. 305 ; inquiry into their accounts, 

Academies of Art, Haydon's opinion of, i. 127. 
213 ; summary of history of, iii. 39. 

Actresses, Haydon's opinion of, i. 288. 

Adam and Eve, Haydon's cartoon, com- 
menced, iii. 230 ; progress, 235, 

Albinus, his work on Anatomy, i. 16. 

Alexander and Bucephalus, Haydon's picture 
of, commenced, ii. 129 ; finished, 164 ; cri- 
ticisms on, by C. Lamb, 155 ; by Lawrence, 

Alexander and the Lion, Haydon's picture, 
commenced, iii. 205 ; progress, 265 ; finished, 

Alfred, Haydon's picture, commenced, iii. 
339 ; progress, 341. 345. 

Allan, Sir William, i. 75. 

Althorp, Lord, sits to Haydon, ii. 355 ; re- 
marks on Art and the Academy, 363 ; re- 
ception of Jeffrey's description of, after the 
resignation, 371 ; his goodness of heart, 380 ; 
remarks on Canning, 384. 

Angelo, Michel, criticism on, i. 231. 

Angerstein, Mr., purchase of his gallery by 
government, ii. 79. 

Annals of Art, Haydon's contributions to the, 
i. 356. 

Anti-slavery Convention, Haydon's picture, 
iii. 154 ; he sketches the leading members, 
155159 ; exhibited, 167. 

Antrobus, Sir Edmund, assists Haydon, i. 401 . 

Armitage, his prize cartoon, iii. 255. 

Aristides, Haydon's picture, sketched, iii. 291; 
prayer for its success, 297; finished, 3)1 ; 
exhibited, 336. 

Ash burn ham's, Lord, present to Haydon, i. 

Auckland, Lord, sits to Haydon, ii. 366. 

Audley, Lord, his eccentric behaviour, iii. 31. 

Augustin, St., his Confessions, iii. 320. 

Bailey, E. H., angry interview with Welling- 
ton, iii. 281. 

Baillie, Joanna, letter to Haydon, ii. 12. 

Bankes, Miss, a conchologist, iii. 80. 

Bannister, J.,ii. 153. 

Barry, James, his lying in state, i. 43 ; vio- 
lence of his temper, iii. 199. 

Barry, Sir C., i. 397. 

Baskerville, Mary, Haydon's grandmother; 
her hatred of Americans, i. 4. 

Bassano, criticism on, iii. 91. 

Beaumont, Sir G., commissions Wilkie to 
paint the Blind Fiddler, i. 46 ; visits Hay- 
don, 57 ; Haydon and Wilkie dine with him, 
59 ; advises Haydon not to exhibit his first 
picture, 61 ; his letter to him on the study 
of art, 64; on painting from poets, 66; 
Haydon visits him at Coleorton, 133 ; paints 
Macbeth for him, 136 ; their disagreement 
thereon, 136145. 176; he warns Haydon 
against writing, 307 ; assists him with money 
and advice, 3fi8; his kindness, 400: polish 
of his manners, ii. 148 ; his death, 161 ; 
Haydon's remarks on his character, 162. 

Beaumont, J., an abolitionist, iii., 175. 

Bedford, Duke of, his death, iii. 129. 

Bell, Sir C., his lectures, i. 43 ; letter to Hay- 
don, 190. 

Belzoni, Giovanni, Haydon's remarks on, ii. 
14 ; his widow's destitution, 111. 

Bentham, Jeremy, Leigh Hunt's admiration 
of, i. 242. 

Bewick, the wood engraver, iii. 332. 

Bewicke, one of Haydon's pupils, i. 355 ; his 
picture, ii. 30. 34 ; copies from Michel An- 
gelo, iii. 149 ; Haydon's account of, 151. 

Bidlake, Rev. Dr., description of, i. 3. 154. 

Bird, of Bristol, set up as Wilkie's rival, i. 

Birney, Mr., an abolitionist, iii. 159. 

Black Prince, Haydon's cartoon of the, iii. 

Blackwood's Magazine attacks Leigh Hunt, 

Plessington, Lady, iii. 12. 17. 

Blind Fiddler, Wilkie's picture, i. 51, 52 ; its 
price, 53. 

Blucher, Field-Marshal, i. 282. 

Bone, Henry, R. A., Haydon's visit to, ii. 145. 

Boringdon, Lady, i. 80. 

Boswell's Johnson, Haydon's remarks on, i. 
Q7 98 

Bridges', David, remarks on Haydon, i. 415. 

British Institution, the, prize awarded to 
Haydon by the directors of, i. 146 ; their 
treatment of his Macbeth, 190 ; their appre- 
ciation of his Solomon, 284; exhibition of 
works of the old masters at, 292; Haydon'& 
plan for premiums, 349. 



Bronstedt, Chevalier, conversation on Greek 
art, iii. 143. 145. 

Brougham, Lord. Haydon's visit to, ii. 195 ; 
description of, 370. 

Brown, Ford, his fresco, iii. 309. 

Browning, Mrs., sonnet by, iii. 237. 

Buonaparte, Lucien, his poem, i. 298. 

Buonaparte, Napoleon, anecdotes of, i. 165, 
166 ; iii 72. ; Haydon's remarks on him, i. 
299 ; on his system, 304 ; on his death, ii. 
26 ; his portrait, by Gerard, i. 271 ; his fasci- 
nation, iii. 298 ; conduct at St. Helena, 259 ; 
Haydon's picture of, commenced, ii. 297 ; 
his description of it, 301 ; copies of it by 
himself, iii. 265,272. 

Buonarroti family, their fete, iii. 275. 

Burdett, Sir F., description of, ii. 373. 

Burghest, Lady, iii. 89; her Alcestis, 112. 

Byron, Lady, Haydon's sketch of, iii. 158. 

Byron, Lord, his Memoirs, ii. 313. 

Calcott, Sir A., Havdon's visit to, ii. 139. 
Campbell, Thomas, intention of, iii. 69. 
Canning, G., Haydon's letters to, i. 391 ; ii. 

Canova, his opinion of the Elgin Marbles, i. 

319 ; his admiration of Haydon's picture of 

Jairus' daughter, 319 ; criticism on art, 320. 
Caracci, Giustiniani, criticism on, iii. 159. 
Carlos, Don, mention of, by Wellington, iii. 

Cartoons, Haydon's, commenced, iii. 229.242; 

sent to Westminster, 251. 
Cartoon's Rafaelle's, copies of, exhibited by 

Haydon, i. 366. 

Cassandra, Haydon's picture, ii. 391. 405. 
Catalogue Raisonnee, i. 375 ; Hazlitt's opinion 

of, 376. 
Chairing the Member, Haydon's picture, ii. 

196 ; its progress, 211 ; exhibited, 224. 
Chantrey, Sir F., his success compared with 

Stothard's, ii. 107 ; Haydon's visit to, 142 ; 

remarks on, 161 ; his statue of Watt, iii. 195. 
Chatfield, Edwin, Haydon's pupil, i. 355. 
Chapman, W., a guardsman, his Waterloo 

letter, i. 310. 

Christie, Mr., Duel with Mr. Scott, ii. 7. 
Clarkson, Thomas, Haydon's sketch of, iii. 

154 ; visit to, 170; his character 171. 
Cleaning of pictures, Wilkie on, i. 353. 
Cleghorn, Peter, kindness to Haydon, i. 153. 
Cobley, Mr., Haydon's uncle, his imprudence, 

i. 18. 
Cobley, Thomas, his feat at Ismailhoff, i. 5, 


Cockburn, Sir G., argument on Nelson Monu- 
ment, iii. 105. 

Coke, Mr., anecdote of Fox, ii. 376 379. 
Colbourne, Ridley, presents Haydon's petition 

to the Commons, ii. 124 ; conversation with 

him, iii. 19., 
Collins, William, R.A., his admiration of 

Wilkie, iii. 179. 

Colwell, , a turnkey, his learning, iii. 51. 
Colman, G., the younger, i. 109. 
Conde, Prince de, ii. 263. 
Cooper, Mr., R.A., Haydon's visit to, ii. 149. 
Cooper, Sir Astley, at Walmer, iii. 121 ; love 

of his profession, 169 
Copenhagen expedition, anecdote of the, i. 


Coppard, Mrs., kindness to Wilkie, i. 155. 
Cornelius, the German artist, his remarks on 

fresco-painting, iii. 193. 

Coronation of George IV., Haydon's account 

of it, ii. 27. 

Cordier, M., an abolitionist, iii. 155. 
Coutts, Mr., assists Haydon, i. 382 ; Haydon's 

visit to his house, i. 383. 
Coutts, Mrs., i. 383. 
Cremieux, M., an abolitionist, iii. 155. 
Cross, Mr., his meeting with Mrs. Haydon at 

Exeter, i. 82. 

Crucifixion, Haydon's picture, ii. 53. 
Cunningham, A., Lives of the Painters, ii. 

Curtius, Haydon's picture of, commenced, iii. 

206 ; exhibited, 244 ; sold, 249. 

Dakin, a guardsman at Waterloo, i. 311. 
Danby, F., his Red Sea, ii. 104 ; criticism on, 


David, J. Louis, maxim of, iii. 4. 
Davy, Sir H., his Napoleon prophecy, i. 59. 
Delaroche, Paul, Haydon's criticism on, iii. 

D'Embden, M. anecdotes of the French army , 

ii. 250. 

Dennys Mr., iii. 346. 
Demon, Baron, Conversation with Haydon, i. 

Dentatus, Haydon's picture commenced, i* 

79 ; its progress, 89, 108, 113 ; finished, 121 ; 

his opinion of it, 121 ; Fuseli's criticism 

109; exhibited, 123; obtains the Institu- 
tion's prize, 146. 

De Pradt, Abbe, anecdotes of, iii. 121. 
Design, Schools of, discussion on, iii. 64 ; 

Manchester Meeting on, 79; Haydon's 

opinion of, 304. 

Dickens, C., Lady Holland's advice to, iii. 319. 
Dieppe, Haydon's description of, i. 245. 
Domenichino, his St. Cecilia, iii. 160. 
D'Orsay, Count, Haydon's description of, iii. 

95, 1 15. 

Douglas, Rev. Mr., his antiquarian taste, i. 314. 
Douglas, Lady, her reply to the Lord Mayor, 

iii. 4. 

Drayton, Haydon's visit to, iii. 81. 
Ducis, , his translation of Hamlet, i. 266. 
Du Fresne, Mrs., i. 74 ; her marriage, i. 76. . 
Du Fresne, Mr., i. 75, 77. 
Dyce, W., his fresco, iii. 306. 

Eastlake, Sir C., his early pictures, i. 117, 22.5 ; 
portrait of Napoleon, 313 ; letter to Hay- 
don, ii. 96 ; elected Secretary to the Fine 
Arts Commission, iii. 194 ; conversation 
with. Haydon in Westminster Hall, 251. 

Ebrington, Lord, anecdotes of public men by, 
ii. 370, 

Edinburgh, Haydon's impressions of, i. 416. 

Edgeworth, Miss, critici&m on her stories, i. 

Egremont, Lord, Alexander painted for him, 
ii. 130 ; aids Haydon, 137 ; his purchase of 
Bannister's picture, 153; his page, 154; 
Haydon's visit to him at Petworth, 150 ; 

S'ves Haydon a commission for Eucles, 167 ; 
aydon's remarks on him, iii. 77. 
Elford, Sir W., anecdote of Reynolds, i. 132. 
Elmes, Mr., publisher of "Annals of Art," i. 

Elgin, Lord, removal of the Marbles from 

Athens by. i. 293 ; his anxiety about the 

Marbles, 331 ; expense incurred by him, 341. 
Elgin Marbles, Haydon's first sight of them, 

i. 91; their effect upon Haydon, 92, 167 ; 

upon Fuseli, 93 ; and upon West, 94; copied 



by Haydon, 95, 115 ; their appearance by 
night, 150; Wilkie's non-appreciation of 
them, 151 ; Haydon's casts, 317 ; Canova's 
admiration of them, 319; depreciated by 
Payne Knight, 295 ; their inspection by a 
Committee of the House of Commons, 331 ; 
Haydon's letter about them in the Ex- 
aminer, 332. 340 ; their purchase by Govern- 
ment, 341 ; copied by Haydon's pupils, 378 ; 
visited by the Grand Duke Nicholas, 369; 
Haydon commissioned to procure casts of 
them I'or the Russian Academy, 389. 

Eucles, Haydon's picture, commenced, ii. 157. 
1G7 ; his description of it, 225; raffled, 266. 

Ewart, Mr., M. P., obtains his Select Com- 
mittee on Art, iii. 20 ; its sittings, 3644;; 
conversations about the cartoons, 88. 

Examiner, Haydon's article on the Elgin 
Marbles, i. 332. 

Fairbairn, Mr., his engine works at Manches- 
ter, iii. 80. 

Falstaff, Haydon's picture, iii. 33. 

Fenzi, i. 9. 

Flaxman, J, Haydon's visit to, ii. 143. 

Flemish School, ii. 69. 

Fontainebleau, Haydon's visit to, i. 276. 

Forster's Essay on Decision of Character, i. 

Fox, Charles, anecdote of, ii. 376379. 

Freeling. Sir F., ii. 159. 

French nation, description of the, i. 304. 

Fresco painting, hints on. iii. 199 ; its difficul- 
ties, 200. 

Fuseli, Haydon calls upon him, i. 27 ; he be- 
comes keeper of the Academy, 29 ; Hay- 
don's criticism on his style, 32; and de- 
scription of his appearance and habits, 33; 
letter to Haydon, 36 ; his remark on the 
smokfe of London, 55; attends to the 
hanging of Haydon's first picture, 63 ; 
testimonial presented to him by the students, 
72; argument on Christianity, 9f>; criti- 
cises Dentatus, 109. 114; Canova's criti- 
cism on, 322 ; Wordsworth's remark on it, 
iii. 223; his death, ii. 100; Haydon's criti- 
cism on him, 101. 

Gainsborough, T., Wordsworth's anecdote of, 
iii. 221. 

Gait, J., his conduct when editor of the Cou- 
rier, ii. 358. 

Garrison, Lloyd, an abolitionist, iii. 157. 

Gerard, Baron, his portrait of Napoleon ; 
Haydon's criticism on his works, i. 271. 

Gifford, W., his critique on Endymion, i. 360. 

Giorgione, his colouring, iii. 187. 

Giotto, oil painting in his time, iii. 302. 

Goderich, Lord, sits to Haydon, ii. 359; opi- 
nion on art patronage, 360. 

Godwin, W., his pecuniary difficulties, ii. 41. 

Goethe orders a set of Elgin Marble casts, i. 
378 ; his letter to Haydon, ii. 327. 

Goldsmith, Oliver, anecdote of, iii. 315. 

Greswell, Mr., his views as to Oxford art pro- 
fessorships, iii. 273. 

Grey, Earl, commissions Haydon to paint the 
Reform Banquet, ii. 345 ; Haydon's sketch 
of him, 347. 362 ; picture of him musing, 
365; his amiability, '385; his opinion on art, 
386; on pictures for the House of Lords, 891. 

Grand Duke of Russia, Haydon's interview 
with the, i. 369. 

Greenwich Hospital, the Painted Hall, ii. 248. 

Guercino, criticism on, iii. 73. 

Gurwood, Colonel, anecdotes of Wellington 

by him, iii. 156; his death, 320. 
Gwatkin, Mrs., Sir J. Reynolds's niece ; letter 
. on his Discourses, iii. 269; Haydon's visit 

to, 313; her reminiscences, 314. 
Gwilt, Mr., his Summary of the History of 

Art Academies, iii. 39. 

Hallam, Mr., conversation with Haydon on 
the frescos, iii. 304. 3f6; his opinion on the 
decorations of the Houses of Parliament, 

Hamel, Dr., physician to the Grand Duke of 
Russia, i. 398. 

Hammond, Sir T., his anecdotes of George IV., 
ii. 261. 263. 332. 

Harman, Mr., his generosity to Haydon ; 
their quarrel and reconciliation, iii. 194. 

Hart, S. A , iii. 323. 

Harvey, W., a pupil of Haydon, i. 354. 

H. B., Haydon's criticism on, ii. 323. 

Haydon, Benjamin Robert: birth, i.3; family, 
46; childhood, 7 ; his first attempts at 
drawing, 8; he is sent to the Plymouth 
Grammar School his first drawing from 
nature, 10; his description of the Plymouth 
volunteers, 11; is sent to the Plymptun 
Grammar School, 12; his drawings there, 
13; is sent to Exeter returns to Plymouth 
is apprenticed to his father his dislike for 
his occupation, 14; determines to become 
an artist his illness and loss of sight, 15 ; 
he reads Reynolds's Discourses, 16; over- 
comes his father's opposition and goes to 
London, 21 ; his studies there, 22 ; he is 
introduced to Prince Hoare, 23 ; to North- 
cote, 24: to Opie, 25; to Smirke, 26; and 
to Fuseli, 27. ; his drawing from the Dis. 
cobolas, 34 ; is summoned to Plymouth. 35 ; 
Fuseli's letter to him, 36 ; returns to Lon - 
don, 33; remarks on Nelson's character, 40 ; 
visits Wilkie, 41 ; attends Bell's Lectures on 
Anatomy, 43; account of Wilkie's success, 
4548; anecdotes of Wilkie, 4952; he 
falls in love, 52 ; letter to him from Wilkie, 
53 ; receives a commission for a historical 
picture from Lord Mulgrave, 53 ; com- 
mences " Joseph and Mary," 55 ; his earnest- 
ness of feeling, 56; he is visited by Sir G. 
Beaumont, 57 ; his delight and that of his 
family, 58 ; dines with Sir G. Beaumont, 59; 
is advised not to exhibit his picture, 61 ; his 
anxiety as to its fate, 62; its success, 63; 
Sir G. Beaumont's letters to him, 64. 66; 
account of the testimonial presented to 
Fuseli, 6973; his friends in Rathbone 


don, 88 ; his opinion of portrait painting, 88 ; 
engaged in painting Dentatus, 88; his diffi- 
culties, 89; his first sight of the Elgin 
Marbles, 91 ; his drawings from them, 95, 
96; reads Homer and Virgil, 99; his re- 
marks on his journals, 107 ; works at Den- 
tatus, 108, 109; his anxiety, 113; writes 
upon art, 111. 113; his advance in society, 
119; finishes Dentatus, 121 ; it is exhibited, 
123; its unfair treatment, 127; goes to 
Devonshire with Wilkie, K8; visit to Sir 
G. Beaumont, 133; his picture of Macbeth 
commenced, 136; dispute with Sir G. Beau- 
mont, ;136 145 ; Dentatus gains the prize 
at the British Institution, 146; dissection o 
a lioness, 147 ; mould of a negro, 149 ; be. 



gins to incur debts, 152 ; difficulties, 153 ; is a 
candidate for admission to the Academy, 157 ; 
his literary controversy with Leigh Hunt, 
172 ; finishes his Macbeth, 175 ; his liabili- 
ties, 175 ; he attacks Payne Knight and the 
Academy, 178 ; commences Solomon's Judg- 
ment, 184; his treatment by the directors 
of the British Gallery, 190 ; his pecuniary 
difficulties, 193; he visits Cheddar, 198; 
studies Italian, 200; his designs for the 
House of Lords, 207 ; remarks on public 
encouragement of art, 209 ; on beauty, 213 ; 
letter to Wilkie, 219; death of his father, 
232; his health gives way, 233; success of 
his Judgment of Solomon, 237 ; he goes to 
Paris witli Wilkie, 243 ; his impressions of 
France, 243283 ; returns to England, 284 ; 
is voted a hundred guineas by the British 
Institution, 284 : is presented with the free- 
dom of Plymouth, 285 ; commences the 
Entry into Jerusalem, 289; receives a com- 
mission from Sir George Beaumont, 306; 
and another from Mr. G. Philipps, 308: 
visits Brighton, 314; his despondency, 317 ; 
employed in taking casts from the Elgin 
Marbles, 317 ; meets Canova, 319; his tri- 
umph over the depredators of the Elgin 
Marbles, 323; his arguments in favour of 
borrowing, 324 ; receives Wordsworth's 
sonnets, 325; his reply to Payne Knight's 
Critique on the Phygaleian Marbles, 330 ; his 
letter " On the Judgment of Connoisseurs," 
&c., attacking Payne Knight, 332. 340. ; 
its effect, 340 ; he falls in love, 343 ; his first 
visit to a money-lender, 345; he becomes 
involved in debts, 347 ; his proposal to the 
directors of the British Institution of a plan 
for premiums, 348 ; he sells Macbeth to Sir 
G. Beaumont, 349 ; notice of his pupils, 354 ; 
he writes in Elrnes' "Annals of Art," 356 ; 
becomes acquainted with Keats, 359 ; argu- 
ment with Shelley on Christianity, 362 ; his 
abhorrence of scepticism, 364; copies by 
him and his pupils of the Cartoons, 365 ; 
receives advice and pecuniary aid from Sir 
G. Beaumont, 368 ; is introduced to the 
Grand Duke of Russia, 369; Mr. Harman's 
kindness to him, 373 ; visits Oxford, 377 ; 
his pupils copy the Elgin Marbles, 379 ; he 
is attacked in the " Catalogue Raisonn^e," 
375 ; and in Blackwood, 379; is assisted by Mr. 
Coutts, 382 ; Wordsworth meets Keats at 
his house, 384: their dinner party, 385; 
he receives a commission from Russia, 389 ; 
his pamphlet and arguments as to altar- 
pieces, 390 ; writes to Canning on the sub- 
ject, 391 ; correspondence with Keats, S92 ; 
refuses the offer of a free passage to Italy, 
398 : finishes his Jerusalem, 399 ; it is exhi- 
bited, 403 ; his introduction to Scott, 407 ; 
sends his Jerusalem to Scotland, 411 ; visits 
Edinburgh, 412 ; results of the Exhibition, 
416; paints Christ in the Garden for Sir G. 
Phillips, 418 ; commences his Lazarus,419 ; 
reflections on suicide, ii. 17 ; his idleness, 
20. 22. ; he is arrested, 23; his description of 
the Coronation, 27 ; his marriage, 29 ; fresh 
difficulties, 33 ; progress of his Lazarus, 34 ; 
an execution in his house, 42 ; birth of a 
hild, 43 ; completion of Lazarus, 43 ; pre- 
pares to exhibit it, 49; its glazing, 50; the 
exhibition, 52; commences the Crucifixion, 
53 ; is again arrested, 55 ; elected a member 
of the Russian Academy, 57 ; his petition to 
the Commons, 57 ; he passes through the 

Insolvent Court, 64; his appeals to publi 
men, 65 ; he paints portraits, 67 ; parts with 
his books, 72 ; his picture -of Silenus, 74 ; 
another distraint for rent, 75 ; fresh efforts 
with Statesmen 77 ; his impression of Moore, 
81 ; his hatred of portrait-painting, 84 ; 
thoughts on Homer, 86; his dejection, 88; 
he is assisted by Mr. Kearsey, on conditions, 
91 ; his portraits criticised, 96 ; he receives 
a commission for Pharaoh, 98 ; contest be- 
tween portraits and history, 99; criticism 
on Martin's paintings, 100; recollections of 
Fuseli, 101 ; exhibits Solomon at the Bri- 
tish Institution, 104; reflections on rank 
and genius, 107 ; on conversation with 
a patron, 110 ; progress of his Pharaoh, 111 ; 
his opinion of Sheridan, 114 ; finishes Pha- 
raoh, 119; application to Canning, 121'; 
petitions the Commons, 124 ; finishes Venus 
and Anchises, 127 ; his unwillingness to 
exhibit it, 128 ; he begins Alexander taming 
Bucephalus, 129; its progress, 132; kind- 
ness of Lord Egremont, 130. 137. ; change 
of his feelings towards the Academy, 135 : 
his desire for a reconciliation, 138 ; he visits 
the Academicians, 139; fresh difficulties, 
151 ; conversation with Reinagle on the 
fate of his pictures, 152; his visit to 
Petworth, 154; concludes Alexander, 157; 
begins Eucles, 157; law expenses, 160; 
finishes Alexander, 164; commissioned to 
paint Eucles for Lord Egremont, 167; ano- 
ther execution, 168; his kindness to 
Lough, 174; arrested for debt, 174; state- 
ment of his affairs, 176 ; a public meet- 
ing in his behalf, 179 ; anecdotes of the 
Queen's Bench, 180187 ; picture of The 
Mock Election, 184 ; visit to Lord Brougham, 
195 ; picture of Chairing the Member, 197 ; 
purchased by the King, 204 ; visit to Strat- 
ford-on- Avon, 215; exhibition of his Chair- 
ing the Member, 224 ; correspondence with 
the Duke of Wellington, 226 ; conversations 
with Wilkie, 232; commences Punch, 237; 
its completion, 243; his visit to Plymouth, 
249 ; anecdotes of Napoleon's army, 250 ; 
his maxims for his step-son, 252; criticism 
on Sir J. Lawrence, 255 ; his remarks on 
the election of President of the Academy, 
259 ; he commences his picture of Xenophon, 
264; his Eucles raffled for, 266; statement 
of his affairs, 267 ; he is arrested again, 269 ; 
applies to Sir R. Peel, 270; King's Bench 
experiences, 271 ; again petitions the House 
of Commons, 274 ; again passes through the 
Insolvent Court, 280; remarks on the French 
Revolution of July, 281 ; correspondence 
with the Duke, 287 ; appeal to the directors 
of the British Institution, 292 ; receives a 
commission from Sir R. Peel, 295 ; com- 
mences Napoleon, 297 ; its completion, 303 ; 
Wordsworth's letter and sonnet to him, 307 ; 
visit to Oxford, 308 ; dejection, 313 ; letter 
to the Times on the Reform Bill, 317; his 
picture of Waiting for the Times, 319 ; death 
of his daughter, 325 ; he receives a letter 
from Goethe, 327 ; exhibition of his pictures, 
331; picture of the Newhall Hill meeting, 
341 : anecdotes of the Trades' Unions, 342 ; 
his picture of the Reform Banquet, 346 ; 
his interview with the leaders of the Reform 
party, 347387 ; death of a boy Alfred, 376 ; 
description of a debate in the Lords, 380; 
he is arrested, 381 ; death of a boy Harry, 
390 ; he begins Cassandra, 391 ; exhibition 



of the Reform Banquet, S92 ; increased diffi- 
culties, 397 ; conversations on art with Lord 
Melbourne, 398. 405 ; completes Cassandra 
for the Duke of Sutherland, 405 ; commences 
Achilles, iii. 3 ; commissioned to paint Wel- 
lington at Waterloo, 5 ; correspondence with 
the Duke, 5. 7 11; he again petitions the 
Commons, 13 ; picture of We are a lluined 
Nation, 18; death of a daughter, 19; com- 
mences Christ Raising the Widow's Son, 21 ; 
lectures on art, 22 ; pecuniary distress, 22 ; 
meeting of his creditors, 23 ; conversation 
with Lord Melbourne on decorating the 
House of Lords, 24 ; sketches for that pur- 
pose, 25 ; begins a picture of The Magi, 28 ; 
second lecture, 29 ; an execution stayed by 
Lord Melbourne's aid, 29; receives a com- 
mission from Lord Audley, 31 ; anecdotes of 
Lord Audley, 32 ; remarks on Sunday- 
working, 34 ; lectures, 34 ; Xenophon raffled 
for, 35 ; death of his youngest child, 35 ; 
his style of lecturing described, 36; examined 
before the Fine Arts Committee, 41 ; again 
arrested, 47 ; letter from the King's Bench 
to Sir R. Peel, 49, 50, 51; passes again 
through the Insolvent Court, 54 ; another 
statement to his creditors, 55; correspond- 
ence with Mr. Newton, 57; conversation 
with Wilkie, 59 ; his lectures, 62 ; argument 
with Poulett Thomson about the School of 
Design, 64; lectures at Edinburgh, 68; at 
Manchester, 70 ; applies for the appointment 
of historical painter to the Queen, 70 ; com- 
mences his Maid of Saragossa, 71 ; writes in 
The Spectator, 78; commissioned to paint 
Christ. Blessing little Children.for the Liver- 
pool Blind Asylum, 74 ; lectures at Man- 
chester, 79; his visit to Drayton, 81 ; his 
design for the Nelson Monument, 82 ; death 
of his step-son, Simon Hyman, 85 ; ride to 
Hounslow, 91 ; anecdotes of Wellington, 93; 
correspondence with the Duke on Wyatt's 
statue, 96; finishes the Liverpool picture, 
97 ; lectures at Liverpool, 99 ; commissioned 
to paint Wellington at Waterloo, 100 ; letter 
from Sir R. Peel, 102; picture of Milton, 
103 ; lecture at Newcastle ; remarks on 
Chartism, 105 : correspondence with the 
Duke, 107 ; progress of the Waterloo pic- 
ture, 109: an evening wiih Wilkie, 110; 
his design for the Nelson Monument re- 
jected, 111 ; difficulties about the Duke's 
clothes, 113; visit to Waterloo, 117; visit 
to Walmer, 120129 ; political lucubrations, 
135 ; lectures at Oxford, 137 ; correspondence 
with Wordsworth, 138 ; paints Napoleon 
Musing, for Mr. Rogers, 144 ; the Highland 
Lovers, for Mr. Miller, 146 ; remarks on 
West's pictures, 147 ; paints Romeo and 
Juliet, 148 ; account of his pupils, 151 ; ac- 
commodation bills, 152; his sketch of the 
Anti-slavery Convention, 154; the aboli- 
tionists, 157 ; Wordsworth's sonnet on his 
picture of Wellington, 160 ; lectures at Bir- 
mingham, 166; sketches O'Connell, 169; 
visits Thos. Clarkson, 179; death of Wilkie, 
176184 ; definition of suicide, 185 ; notes 
on English art, 1. 187; his first lesson in 
fresco, 189 ; first attempts, 190 ; letter to 
Sir R. Peel, 192; reconciliation with Mr. 
Harman, 194 ; engaged on fresco-paintings, 
199; lecture on fresco, 203; commences 
Alexander and Curtius.205,206; pecuniary 
difficulties, 208 ; letters from Rumohr, 209 ; 
Report of the Fine Arts Commission, 214 ; 

remarks on 'cartoons, 215 ; visit to Woolwich , 
219; to Windsor, 224; begins his cartoon, 
229 ; pecuniary wants, 230 ; progress of his 
cartoon, 236; Miss Barrett's sonnet on his 
portrait of Wordsworth, 237 ; at work on 
Curtius, 239 ; begins his cartoon of the 
Black Prince, 242 ; procures armour from 
the Tower, 243 ; exhibits Curtius, 244 ; letter 
to Eastlake, 245 ; finishes his cartoons, 247 : 
misery and relief, 249; exhibits Saragossa, 
259 ; sends in his cartoons, 251 ; he is un- 
successful, 253; his disappointment, 254; 
remarks on the prize cartoons, 255 ; com- 
mences Nelson at Copenhagen, 255; his 
remarks on his failure, 256; remarks on 
his ill success, 259; letter to the Duke 
of Sutherland, 263; pictures of Napoleon, 
266; finishes Alexander, 267; letter from 
Sir J. Reynold's niece, 269; more Na- 
poleons, 272; lectures at the Royal Institu- 
tion, 275; letter from S. Kirkup, 275; 
raffles Saragossa, 280 ; letter on decorating 
the Exchange, 283 ; criticisms on the frescos 
exhibited at Westminster, 284; at work on 
his Uriel, 286; his son's college expenses, 
287 ; remarks on competition, 289 ; pub- 
lishes a volume of lectures, 289; sketches 
Aristides, 291 ; remarks on decoration, 295; 
on Conservatism, 296; prayer for success of 
Aristides, 297 ; picture of Satan, 299 ; plan 
for the Academy, 301 ; Uriel praised in the 
Times, 303 ; conversation with Mr. Hal- 
lam on the frescos, S04; letter to Words- 
worth on his going to Court, 305 ; criticism 
on modern German art, 310 ; finishes Aris- 
tides, 311 ; a Napoleon purchased by the 
King of Hanover, 312; commences Nero, 
313; visits Mrs. Gwatkin, 313; his son 
appointed to a Government office by Sir R. 
Peel, 317 ; prayer at the end of the year, 
321 ; results of his exhibitions, 324 ; his 
advertisement, 325 ; letter from Wordsworth 
on his portrait, 327; pecuniary difficulties, 
328 ; lectures at Edinburgh, 332 ; exhibition 
of Nero and Aristides, 336 ; its failure, 344 ; 
commences Alfred, 339; prayers lor suc- 
cess, 347; assistance from Peel, 348; final 
difficulties, 3t9 ; his death, 350; his will, 
351 ; the inquest, S53 ; his character, 355 ; 
character of his times as respects art, 357 ; 
his qualities as an artist, 360; Mr. Watt's 
estimate of them, 362365, and remarks on 
the public employment of artists, 368376. 

Haynes, Rev. W., head master of Plympton 
Grammar School, i. 12. 

Hazlitt, W., i. 226. 242 ; his child's christen- 
ing, 227. ; effect produced on him by 
Napoleon's overthrow, 303; his article on 
the " Catalogue Raisonnee," 376 ; his pecu- 
niary difficulties, 411. 

Higginson, Lieut, story of Wilkie and the 
Blind Fiddler, iii. 293; anecdotes of Na- 
poleon, 298. 

Hill, Lord, his reply to Haydon about Water- 
loo, ii. 383. 

Hilton, W., his generosity, i. 232 ; his picture 
at Liverpool, iii. 74. ; his want of success, 

Hoare, Prince, notice of, i. 24 ; introduces 
Haydon to Northcote and Opie, 25; letter 
on Macbeth, 156 ; conversation with Hay- 
don, 183. 

Holland, Lady, her advice to Dickens, iii. 

Homer, i. 99. 161, 164 ; ii. 86. 



Hope, Thomas, purchases Haydon's Joseph 
and Mary, i. 61. 

Hoppner, John, R. A., his style, i. 63 ; his 
portrait of Pitt, 64. 

Hoppner, Mrs., her interview with Gifford, 
i. 360. 

Howard, Henry, R. A., Haydon's visit to, ii. 

Hume, Joseph, M.P., place-hunter's dread of 
him, ii. 122 ; feeling towards art, 368 ; in- 
quiry into the affairs of the Academy, iii. 

Hunt, J., his kindness to Haydon, i. 153. 

Hunt, Leigh, his opinions of Dentatus, i. 122 ; 
meets Haydon, 171 ; their literary contro- 
versy, 172; his imprisonment, 220. 224.; 
his opinions of Napoleon, 303 ; his meeting 
with Ha>don in 1840, iii. 13*. 

Huxley, notice of, iii. 100. 

Hyman, Orlando, Haydon's visit to him at 
Oxford, ii. 308. 

Hyman, Simon, his death, iii. 85. 

Jackson, John, R.A., account of, i. 30; anec- 
dote of his indolence, i. 31. ; Lord Mulgrave 
cuts off his income, i. 45; his portrait of 
Haydon, i. 111. 

Jameson, Mrs., iii. 158. 

Jeffrey, Lord, Haydon's description of him ; 
his account of Lord Althorp's behaviour 
after resignation, ii.37l ; his conversation, 
373; cast taken of him, 18; his opinion of 
Wordsworth, iii. 332. 

Jerusalem, the Entry into, Haydon's picture, 
i. 399; exhibited, 403; exhibited in Scot- 
land, 415 ; its success, 416 ; sold, ii. 66 ; pur- 
chased by an American, 314. 

Johns, Mr., i. 15. 

Johnson, Dr., anecdotes of, iii. 315. 

Joseph and Mary, Haydoii's picture, com- 
menced, i. 55 ; its progress, 57 ; exhibited, 
63; sold, 61; Juliet, Haydon's picture, ii. 
96 ; iii. 148. 

Kearsey, Mr., letter to Haydon, ii. 89; his 
proposal of aid, 91 ; purchases Haydon's 
Puck, 93 ; Juliet painted for him, 96 ; his 
death, iii. 179. 

Keats, John, Haydon's description of him, i. 
359; the critique on his Endymion, 360 j 
sonnets by him, 360 ; anecdotes of him, 361 ; 
attacks on him in Blackwood, 379 ; dines at 
Haydon's with Wordsworth and Lamb, 384 ; 
his letter and lines from Devon, 393 ; his 
death, ii. 9 ; Haydon's lament over him, 10. 

Kemble, J., compared with Mrs. Siddons, 
ii. 97. 

Kemp, Mr., kindness to Haydon, iii. 341, 342. 

Kirkup, Sejmour, his description of the fete 
of the Buonarroti family, iii. 275. 

Knight, Payne, Haydon's attack on, in the 
Examiner, i. 178 ; his depreciation of 
the Elgin Marbles, i. 295. ; his critique on 
the Phypaleian Marbles, i. 329 ; Haydon's 
reply, 330; Haydon's attack upon him in 
his letter on the Elgin Marbles, 352. 

Lamb, Charles, his remarks on Voltaire, i. 
.385; Haydon's dinner paity, 384; his be- 
haviour thereat, 386 ; offends a comptroller 
of taxes, 387; his Latin verses to Haydon, 
ii. 13 ; his criticism on Haydon's Alexander, 
164; on his Chairing the Member, 224. 

Lambton, Mr. (Lord Durham), views on 
public encouragement of art, ii. 77. 

Lance, , one of Haydon's pupils, iii. 153. 

Landseer, Sir E. and C., Haydon's pupils, 

Lansdowne, Lady, Wilkie's portrait of, i. 99. 
Lawrence, Sir J., i. 179; elected president, 

407; his portrait of Wellington, ii. 117; 

his criticism on Haydon's Alexander, 166; 

criticisms on him, 148. 209. 235. 264 ; his 

house after his death, 339. 
Lazarus, Haydon's picture, commenced, i. 

419; finished, ii. 43: exhibited, 52; sold, 

Lazarus, Sebastiano del Piombo's picture, 

Haydon's criticism on. L 157. 
Leake, Col. iii. 309. 
Leycester, Sir J., Haydon's commission from 

him, ii. 127. 
Lockart, Mr., his kindness to Haydon ; hia 

misunderstanding with Mr. J. Scott, ii. 7- 
London smoke, remarks of Haydon and Fuseli 

on, i. 54, 55. 
Long, Sir C., afterwards Lord Farnborough, 

addressed by Haydon on altar-pieces, i. 390 ; 

Haydon's interviews with, ii. 65. 122. 
Lough, the sculptor, his Milo, ii. 168 ; exhi- 
bited, 172; his boyhood, 169; early strug- 
gles, 172 ; his Musidora, 201. 

Macbeth, Haydon's picture, i. 136 ; finished, 
175 ; exhibited, 190 ; purchased by Sir G. 
Beaumont, 349. 

Macdonald, Mr., Wilkie's patron, iii. 201. 

Mackay, Dr., his account of the Mexican 
treaty, ii. 180. 

Maclise, Daniel, R. A., iii. 188. 

Mahon, Lord, on decorating the Houses of 
Parliament, iii. 286. 

Majoribanks, Mr., assists Haydon, iii. 327. 

Mansfield, Lord, he gives Wilkie a commis- 
sion for the Village Politicians, i. 43 ; his 
conduct about the price, 47. 49. 

Martin, J., criticisms on, ii. 91. 111. 209, 210. 

Mary, Queen of Scots, Haydon's picture, iii. 

Masaccio, copied by Raffaele, iii. 323. 

Meek, Mr., anecdotes of Napoleon, iii. 72. 

Melbourne, Lord, Haydon's sketch of him, 
ii. 353 ; his remarks on art, 354 ; Haydon's 
opinion of him, 3b'6 ; his style of speaking, 
380 ; remarks on Academies of Art, 382 ; 
his enjoyment'of a City ball, 383 ; conversa- 
tions with Haydon on art, and its claims on 
government, 398. 400. 403. 405 ; iii. 6. 13 ; 
conversation on decorating the House of 
Lords, 24 ; his criticism on Haydon's de- 
signs, 25 ; his present to Haydon, 29; ap- 
proval of fresco, 206. 

Mellon, Miss, afterwards Mrs. Coutts, i. 383. 

Michel Angelo, criticism on, iii. 150. 

Millingen, Dr., i. 75. 

Milo, Lough's statue, ii. 170 ; exhibited, 173. 

Milton, Haydon's picture of, iii. 103. 

Mitford, Miss, sonnet to Haydon by, ii. 68. 

Mock Election, Haydon's description and pic- 
ture of the, ii. 182. 184. 

Monkhouse, Mr., i. 387. 

Moore, T., Haydon's remarks on, ii. 81. 116. 

Mordwinoff, Captain, marries Haydon's aunt, 
i.5; exiled, 6. 

Morley, Lord, i 80. 

Mott, Lucretia, iii. 157. 

Mulgrave, Lord, i. 109, 110. 118; patronises 
Jackson, 30 ; gives Wilkie a commission, 
46 ; commissions Haydon to paint a histori. 
cal picture, 53; opinion of Milton, 67; be. 




comes First Lord of the Admiralty, 68; 
anecdote of the Copenhagen Expedition, 
119; remark on Wellington, 120 ; wishes to 
send Haydon to Italy, 340. 
Mulready, William, R". A., his picture of the 
Whistonian Controversy, iii. 278. 

s'elson, Lord, i. 112. 214217 ; Haydon's opi- 
nion of, 40 ; his funeral, 41 ; design for his 
monument, iii. 82 ; Haydon's picture of him 
at Copenhagen, 255. 

'Jero, Haydon's picture, commenced, iii. 313 ; 
progress, 319; exhibited, 336. 

Jewhall Hill Meeting, Haydon's picture of 
the, ii. 341. 

Vewton, Mr., his kindness to Haydon, iii. 17. 
21. 27; correspondence with Haydon, 57 

Nicholas, the Grand Duke of Russia, i. 369. 

forthcote, James, R. A., his reception of Hay. 
don, i. 25 ; conduct as Exhibition Hanger, 
63; his ill-nature, ii. 21; Haydon varnishes 
his picture, 105. 

nigent, Lord, Haydon's sketch of, ii. 351. 

J'Connell, D., Haydon's description of him, 

ii. 387; his remarks on Repeal, 388,389; 

conversation with Haydon, 390; iii. 169. 
)lenis, President of the Russian Academy, i. 


Opie, Amelia, iii. 159. 
)pie, John, R. A. ; his reception of Haydon, 

i. 25; his death, 73; Haydon's opinion of 

his lectures, 74. 

palmerston, Lord, sits to Haydon, ii. 382. 
I J aul, Sir J., his examination before the Fine 
I Arts Committee, iii. 43. 
I 'eel, Sir R., his kindness to Haydon, ii. 270. 
277; Napoleon painted for, 295; gives F. 
Haydon an appointment, iii. 317 ; assists 
Haydon, 348 ; letter to Haydon on his pic- 
ture of Wellington, 102. 

3 'erkins, Mr, Haydon's landlord; his kind- 
, ness, i. 195. 

'haraoh, Haydon's picture, commissioned, 
ii. 98 ; finished, 119. 

hillips, Sir G., Haydon's picture for, i. 308. 
418 ; at Sir J. Reynolds's sale, ii. 21. 

'hillips, Thomas, R. A., visit to, ii. 146. 

'hygaleian Marbles, arrival of the, i. 329; de- 
preciated by Payne Knight, 329 ; Haydon's 
reply, 330. 

ickersgill, H. W., ii. 268. 

'ictiire cleaning, opinion on, by Wilkie, i. 
353 ; by Haydon, iii. 289. 

'iombp, Sebastiano del, Haydon's remarks 
on his Lazarus, i. 157. 

'itt, Right Hon. W., remark of George IV. 
on his portrait, i. 64 ; Wordsworth's opinion 
of, 298. 

'lunkett, Lord, sits to Haydon, ii. 374 ; re- 
marks of, 375. 

'lymouth volunteers, i. 11. 

'lympton Grammar School, i. 12. 

'oictiers, Haydon's picture of, iii. 209. 

'orter, the Misses, their visit to Lord Aber- 
corn, iii. 18. 

'uck, Haydon's picture, ii. 93. 

'unch, Haydon's picture, commenced, ii. 
237 ; described, 243. 

laeburn, Sir H., ii. 62. 

laffaele, i. 210., ii. 15 ; his School of Athens, 
i. 275 ; the Cartoons, 186. 

Reform Banquet. Haydon's picture, ii. 346; 
exhibited, 392. 

Reinagle, conversation with Haydon, ii. 152. 

Rembrandt, remarks on, i. 301. 

Reynolds, Sir J., i. 132. 169. iii. 316 ; criticism 
on, ii. 20. iii. 84 ; effect of his Discourses 
on Haydon, i. 16 ; sale of his pictures, ii. 21 ; 
his portrait of Lord Heathfield, 79 ; irrita- 
bility of, 149 ; changes in his style, iii. 89. 
Ill ; authorship of his Discourses, 269; his 
resignation of the Presidentship, 270. 

Richmond, Duke of, remark on Waterloo, ii. 
371 ; his opinion of fagging, 372. 

Richter, i. 187. 

Rigo, M., his anecdote of Napoleon, i. 165, 

Riley, Mr., i. 119. 

Ritchie, the traveller, i. 388. 

Rogers, Mr., iii. 76; his court suit, 305; criti- 
cism on Haydon's Napoleon, 130. 

Rossi, J. C. Felix, R. A., Haydon rents his 
house, i. 374. 

Rosslyn, Lady, anecdote of, ii. 381. 

Rostopchin, Count, his account of the burning 
of Moscow, iii. 93. 

Royal Academy, examination of the presi- 
dent before the Fine Arts Committee, iii. 
41 ; remarks on its formation, 44. 

Rubens, i. 273 ; his Lion Hunt, 161 ; his Rape 
of Proserpine, 378; his Antwerp pictures, 
iii. 118. 

Rumohr, letters to Haydon, iii. 209 ; on Mo- 
dern Art, 210. 225 ; on German Art, 212. 
215 ; on Allegory, 220 ; on Cartoons, 233 ; 
on German Art, 238. 

Russell, Lord J., sits to Haydon, ii. 356. 

Sam, Academy porter, Wilkie and Haydon's 
visit to, i. 102. 

Sammons, Corporal, i. 202. 311. 

Sauerweid, a Russian artist, introduces Hay- 
don to the Grand Duke, i. 369; procures 
him a commission from Russia, 389. 

Saragossa, the Maid of, Haydon's picture, iii. 
71. 214. 217. 219 ; raffled, 280. 

Satan, Haydon's picture of, commenced, iii. 

Scobell, Mr., an abolitionist, iii. 157. 

Scott, J., editor of the Champion, his letter 
from Paris, i. 316; critique on the Elgin 
Marbles, 329; killed in a duel, ii. 7 ; his 
funeral, 8. 

Scott, Sir Walter, Haydon's introduction to, 
i. 407 ; meets him in Edinburgh, 414 ; com- 
pared with Wordsworth, ii. 12 ; assists God- 
win, 41 ; letter to Haydon, 60 ; visits him, 
207 ; his last visit to London, 321 ; anecdote 
of his childhood, iii. 144 ; his MSS. 333. 

Seguier, , i. 168. 

Shaw, the life-guardsman, i. 312. 

Sheridan, R. B., anecdotes of, ii. 115. 381. 

Shee, Sir Martin Archer, Haydon's visit to, 
ii. 139; elected president, 259 ; examined 
before the Fine Arts Committee, iii. 41. 42. 

Shelley, Percy Bysshe, argument against 
Christianity, i. 363. 

Shuttleworth, Dr., anecdotes of Wellington, 
iii. 138. 

Sibthorpe, Colonel, his advice to orators, iii. 

Siddons, Mrs., remarks on her acting, i. 100 ; 
ii. 97 ; her Shakspeare readings, ii. 7 ; her 
criticism on Haydon's Jerusalem, i. 404 ; 
Haydon's letter to, 405. 

Silenus, Haydon's picture, ii. 67. 74. 


E E 



Smirke, Robert, R.A., his kind reception of 
Haydon, i. 26 ; his election as keeper of the 
Academy annulled by George III. i. 27. 

Smith, Horace, i. 362. 378. 

Smith, Patience, the gipsy model, i. 229. 

Smith, Sydney, sermon by, i. 110 : anecdotes 
of, i. 19; iii.221. 

Soane, Sir J., his pamphlet, i. 178. 182 ; Hay- 
don's visit to, ii. 146. 

Solomon, The Judgment of, Haydon's picture, 
i. 183 ; commenced, 184 ; finished, 235 ; its 

' success, 237 ; its fate.i 285 ; re- appearance, 
iii. 165. 

Somniator's Dream, Haydon's satire on the 
Academy, i. 356. 

Somerset, Lord Fitzroy, anecdotes of Wel- 
lington, iii. 114. 

Southey, R., reviews Haydon's pamphlet, i. 

Stael, Madame de, her opinion of Coleridge, 
ii. 313. 

Stothard, Thos., R. A., compared with Chan- 
trey, ii. 107 ; Haydon's visit to, 144. 

Stratford-on-Avon, Haydon's visit to, ii. 215. 

Strutt, Jos., ii. 224. 

Sturge, J., evening at his house, iii. 166. 

Suicide, Haydon's reflections on. ii. 17: iii. 

Sussex, Duke of, description of the, ii. 365. 
375 : political remarks of, 388. 

Sutherland, Duchess of, kindness to Haydon, 
iii. 104, 

Sutherland, Duke of, assists Haydon, ii. 404. 

Talfourd, Sir T. N., aids Haydon, iii. 243. 

Talma, his Hamlet, i. 266. 

Talleyrand, anecdote of, ii. 372. 

Terry, the actor, articles in Blackwood by, i. 

Thompson, Poulett, his opinion of Schools of 
Design, iii. 64. 

Titian, criticisms on pictures of, i. 44. 273 ; iii. 
73 ; compared with Rubens, L 223 ; his co- 
louring, iii. 238. 

Turner, J. M. W., i. 356 ; Canova's admira- 
tion of his works, 322 ; his Trafalgar, ii. 78. 

Uriel, Haydon's picture of, iii. 296 j exhibited, 

Vandvke, criticism on, i. 160, 167 ; ii. 105. 

Van Hoist, Theodore, his funeral, iii. 271. 

Vansittart, Right Hon. N., his answer to Hay- 
don's suggestions on encouragement of art, 
i. 391. 

Venus and Anchises, Haydon's picture ex- 
hibited, ii. 127. 

Vernet, Horace, visits Haydon, iii/280. 

Vinci, Leonardo da, his Struggle for the 
Standard, i. 161. 

Voltaire, introduced into Haydon's Jerusalem, 
i. 359 ; Charles Lamb's definition of, 385 ; 
Haydon's remarks on, ii. 71. 

Wagen, Dr., his opinion of academies, iii. 43. 

Washington, General, anecdote of, iii. 334. 

Waterloo, news of the battle arrives, i. 301; 
description of it by the life-guardsmen, 
310, 311 ; the proposed monument, 305. 

Watts, G. F., iii. 361; his estimate of Haydon 
as an artist, 362 ; remarks on the public em- 
ployment of artists, 368. 

Webb, , an old pupil of Haydon, wins the 
Saragossa, iii. 280. 

Wellesley, Marquis of, i. 206. 

Wellington, Duke of, anecdotes of, iii. 9395, 
114, 120, 156; Lord Mulgrave's remark or 
i. 120 ; Wilkie's visit from, 351 ; his remarl 
on habit, 374 ; correspondence with Haydc 
ii. 226, 287; his style of speaking, ! 
correspondence with Haydon on his Water- 
loo picture, iii. 511. 107. Ill; on Wyatt's 1 
statue, 96 ; Haydcn's visit to him at Wal- 
mer, 120 129 ; his conduct in money 
matters, 138 ; Wordsworth's sonnet on his 
picture, 160 ; anecdote of a button-maker at 
Waterloo, 247 ; confidence of the army in, . 
277 ; scene with Bailey, 281 ; anecdote of, at 
Waterloo, 343. 

West, Benjamin, opinion on the Elgin ] 
Marbles of, i. 94 ; drawings from them by, 
117 ; letter to Lord Elgin, 170 ; kindness to 
Haydon, 234 ; Canova's remark on, 322 ; 
his funeral, 409 ; criticism on,i. 185, ii. 242 ; 
sale of his Annunciation, iii. 146. 
Westminster Hall, the Cartoon Exhibition at, 
iii. 253 ; Haydon's remarks on it, 254 ; the 
premiums adjudged; 255 ; the fresco com- 
petition, 278. 

Wilkie, Sir Davi'd, i. 41. 55. 180. 201. 218., iii. 
104 ; description of, i. 38 ; engaged to copy 
Barry's pictures, 42 ; his appearance in Hay- 
don's coat, 43; commissioned to paint theVil- 
lage Politicians, 43 ; his drawings for Bell's 
Anatomy of Expression, 44 ; hesitates about 
exhibiting the Village Politicians, 46 ; its 
success, and his delight, 47; Lord Mans- 
field's conduct towards him about the price, 
47 ; his use of the word " really," 48 ; con- 
duct after success, 50; his present to his 
family, 51 ; progress of his Blind Fiddler, 51 \ 
criticism on his colouring, 52 ; letter'to Hay- 
don, 53 ; coldness towards Haydon, 61. 125 ; 
success of his Blind Fiddler, 63 ; his friends 
in Rathbone Place 7478 ; portrait of Lady 
Lansdowne, 99; visits Devonshire with 
Haydon, 128 ; goes to Sir G. Beaumont's 
seat, 133; want of appreciation of the Elgin 
Marbles, 151 ; finds a rival in Bird of Bristol, 
154 ; withdraws his picture from the Exhi- 
bition, 155 ; his illness, 155 ; visits Sir G. 
Beaumont at Dunmow, 156 ; visits Paris 
with Haydon, 243275 ; his Distraining for 
Rent purchased by the British Institution, 
306; paints the Chelsea Pensioners,: 350, 
351 ; his opinion of picture cleaning, 353 ; 
his first speech at the Academy, ii. 6 ; Hay- 
don's opinion of his influence on English 
art, 76 ; portrait of George IV. at Holyrood, 
84; his family troubles, 104, illness, 106; 
Haydon's thoughts on seeing the Blind 
Fiddler in the National Gallery, 151 ; Hay- 
don's comparison of Wilkie with himself, 
162; returns to England, 212 ; conversations 
on art with Haydon, 232 ; change of style, 
245; proposed as President of the Academy, 
258; appointed the king's Serjeant painter, 
258 ; his account of his early quarrel with 
Haydon, 406; conversation with Haydon 
after his knighthood, iii. 60; his pictures of 
General Baird and Cellini, 95 ; spends an 
evening with Haydon, 110; recollections 
of early days, 144; his death, 176; Hay- 
don's sorrow, 177. 184 ; details as to his 
death, 227; his memoirs, 248; anecdote of 
him at Lawrence's funeral, 250; supposed 
original of the Blind Fiddler, 295. 

Wilson, Professor, of Edinburgh, i. 415. 

Wood, J., iii. 288. 

Woodburn, W., iii. 226. 



Wordsworth, W., i. 135, 297 ; Haydon's opi- 
nion of, 598 ; letter and sonnets to Haydon, 
325 ; dines at Haydon's with Keats and 
Lamb, 384 ; his official admirer, 386 ; com- 
parison with Scott, ii. 12; with Moore, 81; 
sonnet on Haydon's Napoleon, 307 ; corre- 
spondence with Haydon, Hi. 139 ; sonnet on 
Haydon's Wellington, 160. 377 j conversa- 

tion with Haydon, 219. 221 ; sits to Haydon 
223; his knowledge of art, 223; his early 
democratic bias, 302; goes to Court, 505; 
letter to Haydon on his portrait, 327. 
Wyatt, the Wellington statue, iii. 322. 

Xenophon, Haydon's picture, commenced, ii. 
264 ; raffled, Hi. 35. 





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