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L I F E 

O F 

General MONK: 

Duke o? Alhemarle^ 


I. A faidiful Account of his unparallel'd Conduft, 

j lurprizi.ig Adions, and Providential ^lUccels in accomplilh 
I ing the tl E 5 T O R A T I O N of MO N A RC H Y. 

II. A particular Relation of that moft memorable 

March from Ccldfiream to Lend n\ the Freparations tor it 
in SiCtld/uiy and the Happy Confcquences ol it in England. 

III. Many Miftakes committed by our Hiftorians, 

(particularly the tar) ot Liarendm) concerning the Gene- 
ral's Adminiltration, reftified. 

Publifh'd from an Original Manuscript of 

With a Preface in Vindication of General Monkh 

Conduit i and giving Tome Account of the Manulcript. 

By W I L L I A M Webster, M. A. 

Curate of St. Dunjlans^ in the M'cji. 

The Second Edition, corrcclcd. 


Printed f(^r J. G r a v e s in St. ';iamei's'Strtet : J. Is t e r 
and J. H o on E, in Fleet-Strtit. M.dcc.xx.iv. 




T O 

The Right Honourable the 

Countefs Granville 


'^OHN Lord GOWER, 

Baron of Sittenham in the 
County of Torh 

M A D A M^ 

H E following Life 
claims the Protccflion 
of Your Ladyship's 
Name, in Right of Ke- 
aaon and Fncndfhip ; the Loyal 
and Antient Families of the Gran- 



viLLEs and the Monks being 
nearly ally'd by Birth, and an 
Agreement in Principles. But the 
Duke of Albemarl and 
Your Great Father the Earl of 
Bath were more intimately u- 
nited by an early Acquaintance 
in their Youth; and in their riper 
Years, by a happy Concurrence 
of Counfels and Adlions, in the 
Accomplifliment of the truly 
Glorious RestoratioNo 

But, , r., y..^ 

Befides the Confrderation of 
Piety to Your deceafed Father, 
who bears fo Honourable a Part in 
the enfuing Hiftory, and AfFecfti- 
on to the Memory of an lUuftri- 
ous Relation, who is the 
chief Subjed: of it ; give me leave 
to fay, Y6tir Ladyship ap- 


pears to be under a further and 
more particular Obligation to en- 
courage a faithful Account of the 
Life and Actions of the Duke 
of Albemarle -, forafmuch 
as the Honour of Your Family 
muft necelTarily partake of the 
Injury he has fuffered from the 
Mifreprefentations of his Enemies. 

M Y Lor D, 
To the Honour of Your Lord-" 
SHI p ' s Patronage this Hiftory 
feems equally entitled, your Lord- 
SH I p being alfo defcended from the 
Granville s, and thereby relat- 
ed to the Monks : But not more 
nearly related by Blood, than by 
an Affinity of high Qualities and 
noble Endowments. The Wif- 
dom. Courage, and conftant Ad- 
herence to the Intereft of their 
A i King 


King and Country, with other 
Virtues fo confpicuous in your 
Ancestors, fhine, in their full 
Perfedtion, in Your Lordship's 
Charafter. As a good Subjedt, 
You think it Your Duty to en- 
courage JVLonarchical Jiden^ and 
Monarchical Principles^ not hav- 
ing learned the Maxims of fome 
modtrn Politicians, who fhew their 
Loyalty to his Majesty, by an 
habitual Averfion to/G'/^^/)/ Govern- 
ment, and an idultrious Zeal, up- 
on all Occafions where they can 
do it with impunity, to propagate 
Repihlican Notions : As an E n g- 
L I s H M A N, You are equally care- 
ful to preferve the invaluable Blef- 
fmgs of Liberty and Property; as 
a Member ol the Church, You 
cfteem it neither Popery nor Super- 
fiitiorij to afiert her Do^frms ^nd 


Inftitution^ to fupport her Rights^ 
and protect her Clergy. 

But bcfides thefe excellent Qual- 
ities which fliew themfelves in a 
more pubHck manner, Your Lord* 
ship's private Virtues are made 
fubfervient to the Good of Your 
Country: That eafy Addrefs 
and flowing AfFabiHty, That engag- 
ing Condcfcenfion, as well as grace- 
ful Dignity in all Your Adtions, 
have my Lord, in Your early 
Years, given You fuch a Share of the 
2:eneral Efteem and AfFedions of 
Your Countrymen, as very few have 
ever lived to attain to. Thofe 
who have the Happinefs to live 
near You, feel no other EfFecfls 
of the Man of Quality, than his 
Bounty and Hofpitahty, and a 
Readinefs to proted: them from 
the Injuries of other Men. As all 



thcfe happy Talents have been 
conduced with the moft honeft 
Skill, 'tis hoped, the World will 
learn from Your Lordship's 
Example, how unneceflary Party 
Rage, and an unneighbourly Re- 
fentment towards fuch as differ 
from You are to the carrying on 
a good Caufe fuccefstuUy. 

■ I hope, my Lord, I jQiall one 
Day fee Your Lordship in full 
Power at the Head of that Intereft 
(the Intereft oi. our Conftitution in 
church and StateJ which no Man 
has more effediually promoted. 
This, my Lord, is the proper 
Reward of the Virtues You have 
already fliewn, and in wifhing it, 
I aive a Proof of my Zeal for the 
Happinefs of my Cotmtrj^ and the 
Honour of the Crozvn^ 


I miift now humbly beg yiic 
Honours to accept of this plain 
Addrcfs, and my inconfiderable 
Share in the Perfomiance 1 here 
prefent You with. It is a great 
Advantage to the Memory of 
the Author, that his P a- 
T R o N s, are proper Judges of juft 
and elegant Writing. The Edi- 
tor has no Hopes, but in your 
wonted Candor, and Condfecenti- 
ovy, I have engaged in a good 
Caufe, and with a good Intention 
which is all I have to plead in 
Excufe for an Introduction (o much 
below the Dignity of the Subjedt. 
Had I vindicated the Condudt of 
General Monk as juftly as 
Dr. Skinner has related it 
faithfully, the Statesman, the He- 
ro^ the Tatrioty would all appear in 
their proper Luftrc, and refle(5t 



as much Honour upon the Rela- 
tions of the Duke, as can be 
derived to them from the Virtue 
and Nobility of their P r o g e n i. 


• I amy i '^ " ^ 

May it pleafe Tour Honour s^ 
- With great Efieemj 
Tours Honours mo ft ohcdimt 
'And de'votedhumhk Servant. 

William Webfter. 


ii iiiiiiiijMii iB y aHBBJ e 


1 1 iiBimiiw w— wwwi ^ 


M l -'-'-^^r^ ■- 




N this P^-efatory Difcourfe, wherein I 
propofe to make fome Reflexions upon the 
Condun 0/ General Monk, in Fin- 

dication of him from fome Afperftons of 

his Enemies^ or the lefs malicious^ hut equally 

injurious Mifiakes of thofe^ ivho would be thought 
at leafi to be fa'vourable to his Charadler-^ I Jhall 
not detain the Reader upon the common Subjeh of 
Biographers^ the delightful and profitable Nature of 
Hiflory in general^ but confine my felf dire6lly to the 
Matter and Seme of JXion be ft re us. A Scene equal' 
Jy wmderful and furprifing, in the Formation^ in 
the Conduul, in the Accomplifhment^ and happy Ef- 
fedis of it. A Scence which opened in reducing this 
Part of tbe World we inhabit^ out of the difmal 
Confufion and Anarchy, wherein, like the primitive 
ChoaSy it lay in'volv'd, into a State fo well inform' d 
und regular, that perhaps no Conflitution of Govern- 

a ment 


ii The Editor's 

ment upon Earth e'ver fuhftfled upon a more ivifcj 
equitable^ or well-tempered Model. 

In reference to foreign Hijiory^ IJloall only Dbferve^ 
that if Fa5iSy wherein the fever al Ages and Nations 
of the World would have been inter efted^ if Revolu- 
tions refpe^ing the Government o/Greece, or Rome, 
are thought nfefiil and entertaining to Men of polite 
Literature^ efpecially whenfet in a proper and good 
Light^ though we are no further affetled by them^ 
than as they difcover to us the Arts aud Errors of 
Government^ and the common Events of civil Life ^ 
certainly a Dejire of being acquainted with the Hi- 
ftory of our own Nation^ or with any momentous 
Part of ity will not only be allowed natural^ but 
highly laudable and infirutUve. 

Now if we carry our Enquiries into the Engliili 
Hiftory as high as we have any Authentick Records 
to direUus^ we fh all find no Period^ fince we were 
known to live under a regular Form of Government, 
more memorable for the Fariety of furprizing and 
important Incidents, or accompanied with more legi- 
ble Marks of a Divine Superintendency^ than what 
the Author of the following Life has undertaken to 
relate. And as it has been thought a common A£i 
of J uf ice in all Parts of the World, I may fay the 
Barbarous, as well as the more civilizd, to celebrate 
the Memory of thofe who have perform' d any ex- 
traordinary and meritorious Anions in their Service ; 
fo brave and generous a People as the Engliili mufi 
neceffarily be pleas' d with an Hlflory intending to do 
Honour to one of the greatefl Ornaments and Sup- 
ports of the ^nQ)\^i Nation ; and to whofe Merit 
it is owing nnder the good Providence of GO D, 
that we now fubfifi as a Nation, governed by our 
own Laws, under a Limited Monarchy, which is 
the mofi excellent Form of Qovermsnt^ and beft a- 


Preface. iii 

dapted to the Genius of the People j that his pre- 
fent Ma'jefty^ for his Rcyal Relation to the Family 
then reftor'dj now pojfejfjes the Crown -, avJ that 
we enjoy the Benefit of his Adminifirationy with the 
Profped of a SncccJJion of Kin^s, of his Race, to 
fit itpon his -Throne to late ft Pofierity. A Confide- 
r at ion, one would think, fuJjicient to endear the Me- 
mory of General Monk to fome of his moji 
in-vet crate lineraies ; at leafi to deter them from 
foe%ving their Malice to hn/u becaufe it will at the 
fame time difcoz^cr a Difaffedion, where they pre- 
tend the moft inflam''d Zeal. 

I do not mean that a hare Defign of honouring 
the Memory of Gfneral Monk, is fufficient to 
to recommend every Narrative of his Life. To ap- 
prove a Defign of that Nature to the Tafe of the 
prefient Age, it mufl he well and happily executed : 
And I dare prefiume to fiay, that every impartial 
Reader, allowing for fiome Variations in the Phra- 
feology of our Biographer from the modern DitHon^ 
will allow, that he has acquitted himfilf not only 
as a Man of Probity, but as a.n elegant, and cfipe- 
cially as a mofi clear and methodical JVrifer, and 
one that was as a Mafer of his Subjetl. 

Yet it cannot he denf -^ whatever "Juftice this Au- 
thor has done to the Memory of General Monk, 
or how much foever the Engliin. Nation is indebted 
to that great Alan, he has -met with mojl injurious 
Trcatement ; and, as it will appear in the ScTual of 
this Preface, fiome Authors of Credit and DifiinBi- 
on in the World, have not been altogether fo tender 
of his Reputation, as might have been expe&ed from 
the general Character of their Probity and Can* 

In Reference to feveral of his gallant A^ionfy 

the Notoriety whereof was too evident to be denfd 

a 2 ^^« 

iv The Editor's 

the Merit of them has yet been afcrWd to indireB 
and ignoble Motives , to the Dire£lion and Influence 
of a f articular Providence^ without alloiving any 
Thing to him^ as an intelligent and free Agent ^ vo- 
luntarily concurring with the Divine ff^ill > and, as 
the moft extraordinary Inflame of their Envy, even 
to the DireUion of thofe very fubordinate Perfons, 
who were manifeflly the Creatures of his Power 
and Interefl, and entirely direHed by him. I am 
fenfible, and fo was the GENERAL himfelf, how 
much was owing to the over-ruling Hand of 
GOJ)y that the wifefl of human Counfels were 
not equal to a Succefs fo very wonderful and unex- 
peciedj and that the Wifdom and Advice of thofe 
Perfons who were admitted into the Secrecy of his 
Counfels, though thofe were but very few, were of 
Ufe to him ? but I can fee no Reafon for fuppoftng 
him the Property of his Afliflants, or merely pajjive 
to an irreflflible Direction of Providence j any more 
than I can agree in Opinion with my Lord Claren- 
don, That it would be Glory enough to his Me- 
mory, to have been liich an unwilling Inftru- 

They, who have been averfe to any Impreffions to 
his Advantage, have been very forward to credit, 
and propagate the mofi groundlefs Inflnuations. Lud- 
low (whom yet I would not be thought to include a- 
mong my Authors of Probity and Candor") charges 
General Monk with making it a Condition of 
his reftoring the King, that his Majefly fljould give 
him the Lieutenancy of Irelayid. And yet in a- 
nother Place he fays. The General promis'd tore- 
ftore the King without any Conditions at all ; af- 
ftgning this extraordinary keafon for it, that he was 
in Hopes by not articling to have the better 
Terms. iPl^mas if hs had really intended to ca* 


"Preface. v 

pitulate with the Kitigy he could hardly ha'ue aslCd 
any things beftdes the Crown it felf^ or fomething 
very prejudicial to the Dignity of ity which his Ma'* 
jejiy would not have granted. 

But the moji popular and odious Charge which 
has been brought againji the General, is that of 
Difjimutation and Infincerity : And, to aggravate it^ 
nothing has been omitted which the common Places 
upon thefe Heads could fupply. T'o make good his 
Charge y /V ;Vy^/<^ he had a Iccret Intention to bring 
in the King, while he was in the Intereft of the 
Common-wealth \ but then again, to deprive him of 
the Credit and Reward of fuch an Intent ioUy they 
labour as induftrioujly to prove, that he intended 
no fuch thing. 

But though it may be thought a fufficient Anfwer 
to the Enemies of General Monk, that they 
are fo contradictory and inconftftent in their Charge 
againfl him j may there not yet be fome Difficulty 
in accounting for his ConduU, to Perfons more e^ 
qually difpos d to form a Jadgment of it ? JVhat 
Proof have we that he had a real Intention to re^ 
fiore the King ? Or, if he had fuch an Intention, 
how fJoall we reconcile his Diffembling, after the 
manner he is acknowledged to have done, to the 
firiU Rules of Honour, or Moral Vertue. 

I flmll anfwer to thefe ^icfiionSy firft, in more 
general Obfcrvations j and then particularly, in a 
Recapitulation of the mofi confiderable and impor^ 
tant Paffages of his Condu^. 

Concerning the General'^ Inclinations and In- 
tentions towards the Reftoration, the learned World 
has been very much divided in their Opinion \ more, I 
think, than they needed to have been in a Mat- 
ter where the Evidence is fo clear and ftrong. 
a 3 Some 

vi The Editor's 

Some afcrihe the Origin of his Loyal Purpofes to 
the Refentment of a Difgrare put upon him by the 
Parliament^ wherein it was woved^ and debated^ 
whether he floould anfwe'r for the Peace concluded 
hetween him and O Neal, General of the Irifh Re- 
bels, "this Opinion^ tho"" it blemijjjes his Deftgns 
with a difJoonour able Motive J yet gives them a much 
earlier Date than others are willing to allow. Mr. 
Echard fays indeffnitely^ That his Intentions to 
fettie the 2;eneral Quiet of the Land were very 
early, a)ia that he all along fram'd his Defigns 
iiiitable to the Opportunities that were given him. 
My L(9r^ Clarention reprefents him as encirely de- 
voted to the PerfoR and Fortunes of Cromwel, o- 
therwile better inciin'd to ferve the King, than 
any Man in Power of the three Kingdoms -, but 
not to have token uu any iettled Purpofe or Re- 
Iblution of reltoring aim;, till about the Time 
of the Conference bc\WTen the General and Sir 
yohn Greetivil ^ and that he was then forc'd upon 
that Hidden Refolution by the impetuous Tor- 
rent of l.oyaky , which had aimott overflow' d 
the Nation, or v/as gradually led into it by a 
Concurrence of anfo re feen i^ccidents. 

N'ow that the General did intend to reflore 
the King, and fianid his Meafures fuitable to fuch 
a Defign, tho' it has been, and is fill reprefentcd as 
a ^ueftiofi of great Uncertainty, yet^ the fever al Cir- 
cumflances of his CondiiH being diftlnUly confidcrd, 
we may collctl Evidence enough to prove it highly 
probable ; as probable as we could fuppofe it to be, if 
he did really proceed upon fuch an Intention. 

His Concurrence and Engage?nents with Oliver, 
and the Common-wealth Party, all his Arts of Con- 
cealment and Caution, which have been objeElcd a- 
gainfl his having any Intention towards the Rejlora- 


P R E F A C K. Vii 

tion^ were ahfolutely necejfary to the effeBmg it. Hs 
could never have been in any Capacity of ferving his 
Majefiy, without continuing his Power and Inter efi 
with his Enemies, nor have maintain' d himfelf in 
Power without thofe Compliances, And is it not 
very unreafonable, when he us^d all the proper and 
necejfary Meafures which could pojfihly have refiorW 
the King, to turn all thofe Meafures into Arguments 
to prove that he really did not intend it ? Is it not a 
more jujl IVay of reafoning, to conclude from his uni- 
form and regular Condu5l, in the fame manner as we 
mufi fuppofe him to have conduced himfelf, upon the 
Suppofition of his intending the Reftoration, that he 
really did intend, what he profecuted feemingly by 
fuch probable Means, and at laji really effe- 

My Lord Clarendon has obferv'd, and frequently 
repeated the Obfervation, as if he laid a great Strefs 
upon it. That they could never draw from him 
any plain and open Declaration, that he never 
gave any publick Proof of his having this End in 
View. But to make the GE'iiEKA'L fome Amends 
for this grouncUefs Obje£lion, he has himfelf mofi ef- 
fectually anfmefd it, by confefjing, that it was hap- 
py for the King he never did difcover his Inten- 
tions, becaiile luch a Dilcovcry miift neceflarily 
have deftroy'd the Defign. His Silence, where 
Silence ivas ncceffary can never be drawn into an 
Argument. And it is the fame 'Thing as to the 
other QbjcClions comfnonly urg^d, his frequent De- 
clarations both publick and private -, and above 
all, his advifing the Parliament to ule all proper 
Means to prevent the King s Kefto ration. They 
were neceffary Artifices to conceal his Defign, and 
therefore can never carry any Proof of his not ha- 
iling had fuch an Intention. The particulrr Cir- 

a 4 curajidncii 

viii The Editors 

ctimftances of his ConduSi I have referved for a di^ 
fiinB Confideration j at prefent I am arguing from 
the ConceJJions of his Enemies, who grant, that if 
the General intended to reftore the King, he 
took the moft probable, if not the only poffible 
Methods of doing it. Jnd I defire the Reader, 
as he perufe^ the Hiftory, carefully to weigh the fe- 
ijeral Steps of his Proceedings, and endeavour to con- 
trive any other more probable, or indeed poffible 
Means, I have impartially try'd the Experiment 
myfelf, and the Refult has been in favour of the 

But it may, perhaps, be more difficult to recon- 
cile fome Parts of his Condu6l to the ftri^i Rules of 
Simplicity and godly Sincerity : In particular his 
Dijfimulation with the Party whofe Interefl he 
feem^d to efpoufe, under whom he certainly fer- 

As much as I honour the Memory of General 
Monk, and as great an Inclination as I really 
have to favour his CharaBer, in pure Gratitude for 
his mofl extraordinary Services to my Country, I 
mufl have that Regard to my own CharaUer, whofe 
proper Office it is to affiert Truth as laid down in 
the mofl authentick Rule of it, the Gofpel, as not 
to dijferve the Caufe of Virtue, by favouring a 
Ipofe Morality. I willingly therefore allow, that 
Diffimulatton, efpecially Diffii,mulation info many 
repeated Inftances of it, is immoral, and unworthy 
the Dignity of a Man. But then where n Perfon 
was an Infirument of fo much Good, WL ^e there 
appeared to be a particular Dejignation of Provi- 
dence to make him that happy Infrument, and there 
was no vifible ProfpeU of effietiing our Deliverance 
by any other Hand, let us not preclude him from 
the common. Allowances, which have been ufually 


Preface. ix 

made to Heroes^ by whofe Means any great Re- 
'volutions have been wrought for the Benefit of 
Mankindy tho" every Step taken in order to ac- 
compUfl) them^ could not be perfectly jufiiffd. 

Nay, I may challenge the mofi virulent Adver- 
faries of the General, to inflame in any Revo- 
lution, how glorious foever in their oivn Judgment 
of it, where the like Arts of Difjimulation have 
not been ufed, tho* perhaps neither upon Motives 
more inconteftably good, nor for Ends more necejfa^ 
ry and beneficial to the State. 

IVhy thenflmild General Monk be fmgled 
out as the only Perfon to whom no Quarter is to 
be given, becaufe he conduced himfelf by the fame 
political Maxims which fome of the mofi celebrated 
Heroes of Antiquity, whether recorded in profane 
or facred Hiflory, would have made no Scruple of^ . 
if we may judge from the Hiflory of their Anions 
under the like Circumflances. 

I am not at all furpriz'd to find Ludlow, and 
other hot Republicans, precipitated from a height 
of Power and Greatnefs, and exposed to the jufi 
Indignation of an injured Prince, and of a long a^ 
bus'd and opprefs'd People, inclin d, at any Rate, to 
traduce the great Inflrument of their Ruin and 
Infamy. Neither are we to wonder, if we ftill 
find Men of rigid Republican Principles, equally 
violent in their ExpreJJlons of Rage and Malice a- 
gainft the Hand which pulVd down their beloved 
Idol of Anarchy and Confufion. Of theie Malig- 
nants / can only defire, that they would be confiftent 
with common Senfe, and not affcEl to recommend 
themfelves to the Favour of a King, or his Mini- 
fters, by the Defence of fuch Principles and Pra- 
ctices, as are utterly defirublive of Monarchy in 
general. But from all true Engliihmen, from the 


X The Editor's 

Friends of our happy Conflitution in Church and 
State J the Rejiorer of Religious and Civil Liber- 
ties may demand a Readinejs^ an Alacrity ^ in cele- 
brating his undoubted Virtues^ a favourable Con- 
jlruBion of what is doubtful^ arid the Forgivenefs 
of 'what is criminal in his ConduH. 

How far he is capable of being defended from the 
Charge of Hypocrify and Diffmulation, will ap- 
pear more diftinSily upon a Review of his Hifiory. 
However^ fome general Remarks may here be made 
to his Advantage. 

T'hough he was fometimes more free than Chri- 
fiian Simplicity will juflify^ {though not more than 
the Neceffity of his Affairs requird) in his Pro- 
feffions of AffeHion to their Caufe \ yet fever al of 
his Declarations and Promifes are exprefs''d in am- 
liguous I'erms^ and capable of another Senfe than 
what they under flood him in. Particularly when he 
frofefs'dy that he did not intend to fet up a fingle 
Ferfon, hut to fettle the Nation upon Common- 
wealth Principles ; it was fo far true^ that he 
did not intend immediately and direfl:ly to reftore 
the King, but to refvore a tree and full Parliament, 
and to have the Re fl oration of the King the imme- 
diate A 61 of the Nation, of the whole Nation by 
their Reprefentatlves. 

Where his ExpreJJions are too flrong and full to 
he foftened by a charitable ConflruElioUj fome Al- 
lowance ought to be made on Account of his un- 
happy Circumfianccs^ by which he was cafl among 
a Set of People^ whom he neither lov'^d, nor could 
trufty as Dr. Skinner obferves ^ and whan he loolCd 
upon as common Villains and Robbers, who had 
no manner of Right to the flri£l and rigid Obfer- 
vance of I'ruth from him. I am not now con- 
fidering whether i:e was a good Cafuifl : I only 


Preface. xi 

ohfeyve, in Vindication of his Sincerity, that he 
feenCd to aR upon Principle -, upon an Opinion^ 
which I allow to he erroneous, that he might 
take greater Liberties in impofing upon them, by 
Reafon of their halving forfeited their Right to an 
open and ingenuous 'Treatment. 

That he was not naturally of a colluji've and 
treacherous Temper, appears from the refi of his 
Behai-iour, and from undeniable Tejlimonies. My 
Lord Clarendon * confejfes. That throughout his 
whole Life he was never fiiipc£l:ed of Diflimu- 
lation. Dr. -\ Skinner takes particular Notice, up' 
on the Occafton of his going to the King at Oxford, 
to clear himfelf from a Sufpicion of Difloyalty^ 
that the Lord Hawley, then Governor of Briftol, 
took his Parole of Honour, knowing him to be 
a Perfon of Integrity, and that would not fal- 
fify his Word. Plainnefs in his Dealing, and & 
certain Franknefs in his Behaviour, were fo much 
his proper Chara^er, that he obtain d among the 
Soldiers the vulgar, but honourable Title of Ho- 
neft George. 2nd it cannot efcape the Notice of 
the mofi negligent Obferver, hoiv different his Car- 
riage was to thofe whom he thought to carry honefi 
Purpofes, and to thofe Rebels, who had ufurfd 
and tyrannically abused the Royal Authority 3 hoisj 
great and uneafy a Refiraint his Behaviour to- 
wards the latter was upon his natural Temper, 
And which, I think, is an undeniable Confirma' 
tion of his acting upon a fettled Principle, tho^ 
a mijiaken one, in his fallacious Conclude towards 

* Vol. III. %VQ. p. 700. t p- 23. Sea. 8. 


xii The E di tor's 

the Common-wealth -, though he did not fcriiple 
to make Declaratiom and Promifes repugnant 
to his real Sentiments and Intentions^ he ahfo- 
lutely refus'd ever to abjure the King or Mo- 
narchy, when the Abjuration-Oath was tender d 
to him as a T'efi of his Affe^ion ; and when the 
Refufal of it much endanger' d not only his Inte- 
refi^ his CommiJJion, and thereby his whole Scheme, 
but his Life too; an undeniable Argument, both 
of his confcientious Regard to the Sacrednefs of an 
Oath, and of his loyal Intentions. It does not in- 
deed appear that he ever took any Oath at all, 
hut the Covenant, which declared exprejly for the 
King and Monarchy. Dr. Gumble queflions whe- 
ther he took even 'That ; but an Author of ^ 
good Credit affirms it. A fcurrilous Writer with- 
out a Name, '\ pretends to give us the Copies of 
fever al Letters, wherein the General calls GOT) 
to witnefs in the fame folemn Manner as in an 
Oath. Rut Anonymous Authors have but little 
Credit in Matters of Fact, the Truth of which 
depends upon their own Veracity. He docs not tell 
us how he came by thofe Letters, where they may 
he feen, or how the M^orld is to be fatisffd of the 
Faith fulnefs of his Tranfcripts -, only that they 
were before him, whether upon the Table, or in 
his Imagination, we are left to the Liberty of a 
Conje£lure. If me judge from the CharaHer of 
the ^ fuppos d yluthor, who made no fcruple of 
falftfying the facred Writings, or from his De- 
ftgriy which was to vilify a great Man by the 
Comparifon of a perjur'd Villain, we may ima- 
gine he would form a Character to his Purpcfe. 

* Whitlock. \ The Art of Reftoring. * Tq\'M-> 


Preface. xiii 

// is certain that //:?£' General did write feveral 
Letters^ both from Coldftream to the Junfto, 
and afterwards from London to the Army and 
Garrifons^ and that in thofe Letters he did dif- 
femblc his real Intention > but that he did it in a 
mamier as folemn and [acred as an Oath^ and yet 
that in a fime of the greatefi Danger^ he fhould 
refiife an Oath^ it is the mofi ahfurd Siippofi- 

I ha-ve been -particular upon this Charge of Dif- 
fimulation^ becaufe it has been aggravated with a 
particular Indujiry^ and received with an uncom- 
mon Credulity. Neither can I yet leave it with- 
out obfervingj to the eternal Infamy of his Ac- 
cufers^ that thefe religious Pretenders to Simplici- 
ty and godly Sincerity, who reprefent GEN5R.AL 
Monk as a P erf on wholly abandon' d^ for depart- 
ing fometimes from the Jlri^ Rules of them^ 
though driven to that Necefjity by their Rebellion 
againft their King and Country, did not fcruple 
tbemfelves to falffy the moft folemn Oaths and En- 
gagements to both. Ludlow in particular had 
taken the Covenant^ which obliged him to declare 
for the King and Monarchy, and at the fame 
time was a notorious Republican^ and boafiedof 
it as the greatefi Glory of his Life^ that he was 
one of the King^s Judges. 

I have a?-gued hitherto upon the Suppofition, 
that General Monk was as deep in the Re- 
publican Schemes, as he has been malicioufly repre- 
fented by foyne, and implicity believed by other Sy to 
have been. But the Matter of FaH appeared o- 
tberwife to thofe who had the befi Oppertunities 
of knowing the "truth of it. Dr. Skinner 

* fays 

xiv The Editor's 

* fays very jnfily, that he was unlickily caft a- 
mong thofc People, rather by his ill Fate, than 
any Choice of his own, but was ftill elpecially 
careful to keep himfelf from their greater Guilts. 
Which is agreeable to what the Gene.RAL pro- 
fefs'd to Sir John Greenvil, 'That his Heart and 
Affedions were always true ^ and tho^ he had 
been paffive to Ibme of their Directions, yet he 
neither had, nor would aO: by them in Preju- 
dice to the real Intereft of the King. Dr. Gumble 
and Dr. Price, who attended him during the mo ft 
exceptionable Fart of his Condu^^ (^JJ^^'^i That he 
never aCled direClly againft any Per Ions who 
had the King's Commiflion. The King himfelf 
fo far acquitted him as to declare^ f"/?^/ General 
Monk had no Malice againft him, nor had 
done any thing but what he could eaiily for- 
give : The manner of which Exprefion at leaft im- 
ports, that he was not deep in the Projects of 
the Common-wealth J or that he was free from their 
greater Guilts. And in a Letter from Breda to 
the General, dated May 20. before the Refto- 
ration, he has this remarkable Pajfage : I muft ever 
acknowledge your extraordinary Atfeftion to me 
and your dilcreet Condufl: of this great Work, 
in which you have had to do with Perlbns of 
fuch different Humours, and contrary Affefti- 
ons, which you have wonderfully compols'd. 


My Lord Clarendon alfo, in a Letter to Dr. 
Barwick, exprcfes a different Opinion of Q^Y^^- 
RAL MoNK'i" Condu^ from what he hadenter- 

* Pag. 62. Sea. 9. 

t Life of Dr. Barvjtck, p. 438* 


Preface. xv 

taifi'd before. Says he. The ProfpeQ: of your 
Affairs looks very well towards us^ and I am 
perfuaded that Monk will appear to have aded 
like a Ibber Man "f . 'The Original of this Let^ 
ter, under my Lord^s own Hand, Mr. Bedford, 
ivho publijljed that Life in Latin, and is now pre- 
paring a Tranjlation of it, by Subfcription, has in 
his Cuftody. My Lord, in fome preceding Letters^ 
had complained of the General'^" ConduEi for 
being fo myflerious and unintelligible ; and in his 
Hijiory he [peaks of it with the fame Uncertain" 
ty and Doubt ; rather giving an Account of 
the various Reports and Imaginations of others a- 
bout the Genera lV Intention, than any fettled 
Opinion of his own. But towards the Dawn of 
the Refioration, his Purpofes began to be more 
clear and manifefi from his Proceedings, while the 
JVifdom and Regularity of his Proceedings ap- 
peal d equally clear from his Purpofes. So that I 
hope, for the future, after fo fair a Confeffon, 
upon better Information, and a clearer Infight in^ 
to General MonkV Defigns, my Lord Chren- 
donV Authority will be no longer inftfied upon. 
His Lcrdfjip has been fo juft to the General, 
as to ackyiowledge his own Convittion j and who- 
ever has been mifled by his Doubts or Mifinforma- 
tion, ought to follow his generous and ingenuous Ex- 

I come now to make fome particular Remarks up- 
on the principal Stages, and m^fi important Anions 
GenralMonKj which I belive will flill give 
a better Light into his Charatler and De- 

\ p..427» 


xvi The Editor's 

It ought in the firfi Place to be remember' d^ tho' 
it he fufficiently kno'wn^ that Genera Monk 
was of Royal Extraction^ defcended from the 
Blood of the Plantagenets, and educated in a Fa- 
mily for many Generations eminent for their Loy- 
alty to the Crowny and their yfffe^ion to the 
Church of of England j under the Influence of 
ivhofe InflruUions and Example^ he mufl needs 
have imhiVd early ^ and therefore lafiing^ Impref- 
fions of Duty and Allegiance to his King and Coun- 

M-^ith thefe inbred Sentiments and Inclinations 
he wenty at the Age of twenty onc^ into the Ser- 
'vice of the States of Holland, where he continued 
ten Tears, Which Circumjlance of his Life my 
Lord Clarendon turns to his Difadvantage^ inftnu- 
ating that he then contracted a fettled Affefti^ 
on for their Form of Government, which might 
incline him afterwards the more readily to come 
into the Plan of the Common-wealth in Eng- 
land : Notivithflanding he left their Service for 
ill Ufage^ and how tmlikely it is, that unjufi 
Adminifiration, efpecially fuch Inflames of it as 
refledl any Difloonour or Injury upon our flehes^ 
floould give a Biafls in Favour of a Govern- 

And if to the Affronts he receiv'd from the 
Com?non-wealth in Holland, ive add the Expe- 
rience he had, for feveral 7 ears, of the fatal Ef- 
fedls of that Government in England, more ex- 
penflive in its laxes, and in its Adminiflration 
more oppreflive and injurious to the Rights and 
Liberties of the People, than ever Monarchy had 
been, under the mofl arbitrary of its Kings j we 
can hardly imagine that General ^o^Yifhould 
fo far ha-'^^e defac'd the yearly Imprejflons of his 


' Preface. xvii 

Touthy fo ivholly forgot his Obligations to this 
Crown, and the mtferahk Confujions nvherein the 
Republick had involved the Nation^ as to defire 
the Continuance of it. So that I wonder my Lord 
Clarendon fJjould draw any Confequences from the 
GeneralV Reftdence in Holland, for a Proof 
of his jiffed:ion to Republican Principles, in Op- 
pofition to fo many flronger Circumftances inclining 
him to prefer Monarchy. 

Upon his Return from Holland, he was em- 
ploy'' d in the Expedition againfi the Scots, having 
been recommended to that Employment by the Earl 
^/Leicefler, as a Perfon of known AffeElion to 
the Intereji of his Majefty j and he acquitted him- 
felf therein with much Honour and Fidelity. 

A Peace being concluded with thofe infamous 
Rebels, very difjonourable to the Englifh Nation^ 
and fuch as gave Encouragement to a new Rebel' 
lion in Ireland 3 the Earl of Leicefter, who was 
nominated by the King and Parliament, to the 
Lieutenancy of that Kingdom, made him Colonel of 
his own Regiment ; in which Employment he flill 
preferved the Character of a loyal and dutiful 
Subjetf, and for his eminent Services againfi thofe 
Rebels, was thought worthy of the Government of 

Upon a Ceffation of Arms with the Irifh, his 
Majefty recalVd the Englifh Forces to his Afjl- 
fiance againfi a more dangerous Rebellion at home. 
Several Officers belonging to thefe Regiments, were 
fufpe6ied of an Inclination to ferve the Parlia- 
ment againft the King. Among the reft was Ge- 
neral Monk, who, upon his Arrival at Bri- 
ftol, by Order from the Secretary of State, was 
fecured^ and fent to the King at Oxford. 

b This 

xviii The Editor's 

l^m is I he firjl Ground of Diftruft concerning 
General MonkV Loyalty ; which my Lord 
* Clarendon, who never was thought partial to 
his Chara^er, afcribes " rather to the want of 
^* Bltternefs in his Difcourfes againji the Parlia- 
" meyi^t^ than to any hzclination towards them. " 
Dr. Skinner -f- imputes it, " to his being one of 
" the Earl of LeiceflerV own Officers, in particu- 
^' lar 7f-iifl and Confidence with him. " If L may 
be allow' d the Liberty of a ConjeBure in this Mat- 
tevy the true Reafon of his Difgrace might be this : 
^e Succe£}s of the Parliamenis Forces in Eng- 
land had obli^d the King to recall thofe Forces 
from Ireland j which was a Step, irregular in 
Stri^nefs of Law, tho'' apprehended necejfary to his 
own. Safety j he having before agreed to an A5i of 
Parliament, whereby the Commons were empow- 
er\l to profecute that War, and himfelf obliged 
not to make Peace without the Confent of Parlia- 
ment. 'The Earl therefore being nominated to the 
Lieutenancy by the iynmediate Authority of the 
Parliament, it was natural enough for the Court 
to fear the Earl and his Officers, might fiill look 
upon themfelves as the Servants of the Parliament^ 
by Virtue of the foremention^d AEl. 

But whatever were the Grounds of the King^s 
Diftruft ; upon Mr. MonkV Appearance before the 
King at Oxford, his Majefty was fo entirely fa~ 
tisffd, that he made him Major-General to the 
Iriili Brigade then commanded dozvn to Cheihire. 
A Circumft'ance wherein my Lord Clarendon * is 
miftaken j for he reprefcnts him as going thither 

* Vol. IIL pag. 69^. t Chap. 2. Seft. 7. * Vol. III. 
p. 700. 


Preface. xix 

only in Quality of a Voluntier, his own Regi- 
ment having been diJpos'd of. 

In this Expedition he was taken Prifoner, and 
committed to the Tower j where he continued till 
the Conclufton of the^Far between the King and Par- 
liament^ notwithjlanding the great HardJJoips he 
fuffer'd in his Imprifbnment^ and the many invi- 
ting Offers from the Parliament ^ if he would en- 
gage in their Caufe. My Lord ClarendonV Tejii- 
mony in this Cafe is very honourable to him : 
*' Pie was no fooner in the Tower, than the Lord 
" Lifle, who had great Kindnefs for him, and 
'' good Interefl in the Parliament, with much Im- 
" portunity endeavour'' d to perfuade him to take a 
'^ CommiJJion in that Service, and offer'' d him a 
" Command fuperior to what he had ever had be- 
*' fore ; which he pofttively and difdainfully refu- 
" fed to accept, tho' the Streights he fuffer''d in 
" Prifon were very great, and he thought himfelf 
" negle^ed, that there was no Care taken for his 
" Exchange, nor Money fent for his Support. " 

The Truth of this Account, which my Lord Cla- 
rendon here gives of the G'E^'EY.aV s hard Circum- 
fiances during his Confinement in the TowQr, and the 
great Dcfire he had to be released from it, is con- 
firmed by a Letter from the General to his 
Elder Brother : This LETTER is now in the Pof- 
feffion of Sir Nicholas Morrice, and a Friend of 
his and mine, procured me a Copy of it. 

^LETTER from General Monk to his 
Elder Brother, Thomas Monk, Efq. 

" T Wrote unto yon by Captain Bley, in which 
" X Letter, I did defire you to lend me 
^^ iome Money : I have received Eifty Pounds 

b 2 « by 

XX The Editor's 

" by your Order long lince, for which I return 
*' you many Thanks. My Neceffities are iuch, 
^' that they enforce me to intreat you to furniih 
" me with Fifty Pounds more, as ibon as pol^ 
** fible you may, and you fhall very much obHge 
" me in it. lihall intreat you to be mindRil of me, 
*' concerning my Exchange, for, I doubt, all my 
** Friends have forgotten me. I earneftly in- 
" treat you therefore, if it lies in your Power, 
«* to remember me concerning my Liberty •, and 
^' ih, in hafte, I reft, 

Frr.n? (be Tower, thh Youv Faithful Brother 
6th of November. 

i 644. 

■ and Servant y 


Does this Condu^ agree with the fame noble 
Hiflormi's Opinion in another Place, of which I 
have already taken notice^ that he contracted an 
Inclination to a Common-wealth during his Re- 
lidence in Holland ? Or rather is it not an unde- 
niable Infiance of an unfhaken and immoveable At- 
tachment to the Royal Caufe ? 

IVben the War was at an End, and the King 
htmfelf a Prifoner, the whole Power of the Na- 
tion in the Hands of the Parliament , and no Pof- 
fihility of doing his Majefly any Service in England, 
the Lord Lifle prevaiPd upon him to ferve in Ire- 
land i a JVar in which he had been engaged before ^ 
and which was agreeable to his Principles, the Irilh 
being declared Enemies to England, and to the Kingy 
as well as to the Parliament : So that by this Ex- 
pedition he did not properly ferve the Parliament 
in Oppojitlon to the King^ hut more properly the 


Preface. xxi 

Nation in Oppofition to the common Enemies of it^ 
and by CommiJJion from the Parliament^ who were 
empowered by a publick AU of the Legtflature^ to 
grant CommiJJions for that Purpofe. 

So far was the General from being confcious 
of any Dijfervice to the King from his Acceptance 
of that CommiJJion^ that befides his Declaration to 
the Bijbop of Ely, then in the Tower, he told the 
Parliament it felf That he was going to fight 
againft the Irijh Rebels, but not againft the King, 
whom he was refblv'd never to oppofe : Whence 
it appears^ that a pofitive Referve of his Allegi- 
ance was an exprefs Condition of his accepting the 
CommiJJion, and that the Parliament comply'' d with 
it. T^his remarkable Pajfage we meet with in the 
Life of Dr. Barwick, with relation to the Grounds 
of that good Man's Confidence in the Genera l'j 
Loyalty y from what he had often heard the Bijhop 
of Ely relate, as the Foundation of the fame Con- 
fidence his Lordfloip had in him too. 

'' 'that that great Many having been formerly 
'' taken Prifoner when fighting with fignal Bra- 
" very for the King, and that in no mean Poft, 
*' and after a long and fevere Confinement in the 
*' Tower with his Lordfijip, no Hopes left of 
*• recovering his Liberty, (the Kin^s Caufe grow- 
'' ing daily more defperate') when Cromwel, who 
*' knew his Courage and Experience in Military 
*' Affairs, had long courted him to come over to 
'' his Side, and at laji offered him a Command in 
*' the Irilh Service ; to obtain his Liberty, was 
" perfuaded to accept the Offer, but with this Pro- 
" teftation, that he would bear Arms againji the 
'* Irifh Rebels, but by no means againft his King; 
" and when all Matters were agreed, and he was 
'' ^w'«^ to take leave of his Friends^ he came to 

b 3 " fhis 

xxii The E d i t o r 's 

'' this Bijhop^ and throwing himfelf at his Feet^ 
'' ^sg^d the 'venerable Prelate'' s Betiedi^ion-, bin- 
*^ ding himfelf at the fame time with this folemn 
**^ Engagement^ that he never would he an Enemy 
*' to the King. 

" "^ Nempe cum in Bello olim captus fniileC 
'' vir in paucis inflgnis Regi fortidimc dimicans, 
" & fqualore vinculorum in Arce Londinenfi, 
'* juxta cum venerando Epilcopo diu maceratus 
" fuiffet, nee ulla fpes Libertatis recuperandce, 
*' (rebus Regiis inndies labentibas) ipli affulge- 
*^ ret ^ diu i Cromwello, qui hominis fortitudi- 
" nem, & rei Militaris peritiam probe noverat, 
*' in fuas partes iblicitatus eft j tandemque ut 
*' Libertate fua una cum prjeieftura in Bella Hi- 
^^ bernico frueretur periuaflis, contra Rebelles 
*' tiibernicos, minime vero contra Regem fiuimj 
" ie armaturum proteftans. Cumque, jam accep- 
'' tis conditionibus, fuis valedi^turus eflet, ad 
" hunc '\ Epifcopum acceilit, ad cujus pedes 
'* provolutus, venerandi patris benediftionem 
" petiit, hsec fanfl:e in fe recipiens, Regi liio le 
" hoftem nunquam futurum. 

vin undeniable ^eftimony of his generous and open 
Dealing with the Parliament^ and of his uncorrup- 
ted Fidelity to the King ! 

Accordingly the Writer of that Life afferts it 
**^ as a Fall 7noft wndoubted^ that the General 
f never fought either in Ireland, or Scotland, /cr 
'' his Deliverers in England, but employed all his 
*' Force againfi thofe who had formerly created the 
" King all this F'rouble and Difturhancc. * Hoc 
*' autem certillimum eft, Virum illuftrilTimum 

* Pag. 18 ^—5. \ Dr • Wrtn. * IhiAew. 

<' IJ^C« 

Preface. xxiii 

" Liberatoribus fiiis in Anglia nunquam niili- 
" taile, vel in Hibernia, vel in Scotia 5 contra 
'' Gentes eas, quce has Turbas Regi olim con- 
" citaverant, omncm operdm impendentem. 

And this I conceive was the true Reafon of tht 
Genera lV being fo averfe to any Employment 
in the Civil Wars at home^ where he miijl una* 
voidahly and dire^ly have opposed his Maje fly's Inte-^ 
refl^ contrary to his own fledfafl Refolutiony and open 
Declaration. Neither can it remain any longer a 
^jieflicn^ whether his being employ'' d afterwards ^- 
gainft the Scots, " was at his own particular De- 
" ft re and Re que ft ^ or whether his good Fortune fo 
" far befriended hini^ as to refcue him from an 
" Employment he fo much diflik'd^ that of fighting 
*' in England j " * tho' Dr. Skinner could not 
ahfolutely determine this ^ueftion. 

As a further Evidence that GENERAL MoNK 
chofe^ for his ProvinccSy the remoter Places of 
Ireland and Scotland, as judging them to be equal- 
ly the Enemies both of the King and Parliaments^ 
we find King Charles II. correfponchng with the 
General, and direHing him to thofe very MeA- 
Cures he parfuedj in relation to his ferving in 
Scotland, where the King thought him moft ca.- 
pahle of doing him effectual Service. For the Aw' 
thor before'mentioii'd faySy 

" After I had wrote thiSy his Grare, Chrlfto- 
" pher, Duke Albemarle, did me the Honour to 
^' Jhew me a Letter written by the King^ all in 
his own Hand^ to his Grace's Father command' 
ing in Scotland, at leaf four I'ears before the 
Refloration 3 in which his Majefky earmflly ad- 
vised him to take particular Care mt to fluff er 

* Chap. 5. Seft. 15. f Lifeof Dr.2<j/w//;t. p. iS6. 

b 4. "/;/?«- 

xxiv The E d 1 1 o r's 

" himfelfy hy any Jrtiflce of Cromwerj, to he 
'' drawn out 0/ Scotland, leaving him in other 
*' 'ThingS'to the Dire^ion of his own 'Judgment ^ 
" not in the leafi doubtful of his Fidelity and O- 
*' bedience^ when Opportunity fiould offer. 'This 
*' Letter he preferv'd among his mod valuable 
*' Ireafures-^ yet feems to have wrote no Anfwer 
*' to it^ thinking it much better ^ and in that dan- 
*• gerous ConjunBure by all Means fafer, to an- 
*' fwer by fome Heroick Undertaking, than by bare 
*' empty Words -, yet from this profound and per- 
'• petual Silence, thofe Doubts I have mention' d 
*' abovey without all peradventure, had their 
« Rife, 

*' Poftquam liaec Icripferam, illuftriiTimus Prin- 
*' ceps Chriftophorus Dux Albemarlis oftende- 
*' re mihi Literas dignatiis eft, ad patrem fuum, 
*' in Scotia imperantem, quadriennio faltem an- 
*' te Regnutn reftituum a Sereniflimo Rege da- 
*' tas, & Regia manu exaratas, in quibus ferio 
*' monuit, ut Vir illuftriflimus id unice curaret, 
*' ne le Cromwelli Artibus e Scotia divelli pate- 
*• retur -, cetera de ejus fide atque obfequio, qua 
'' data opportunitate, pr-^ftando minime dubius. 
*' Has ille Literas inter lectiflima Kti/UH^t/ot re- 
*' pofiiit^ Icribenti tarn en nihil refcripfiffe viHis eft \ 
^' omnino fatius, & in ifto Rerum dilcrimine 
*' omnino tutius exiftimans, Heroico aliquo faci* 
*' norc, quam niidis & jejunis verbis re^ondere. 
" Ex hac tamen alta & perpetua taciturnitate, 
*' dubia ilia, de quibus lupra diximus, procul 
^' omni dubio ortum fbrtiebantur. 

From the Tenor and Date of this Letter, there 
is no room to doubt ^ but it was the very fame which 
is publififd in the Appendix to Dr. Barwick'j Life^ 
No. I« as it was communicated to the Editor by 



Sir Hans Sloan, and had been tranfcrib'd by him 
from the Original in the Duke 0/ AlbemarleV C^- 
binet, in thefe Words: 

Colleny Aug. 12. 1655. 

ONE who believes, he knows your Nature 
and Inclinations, very well allures me, that 
notwithftanding all ill Accidents and Misfortunes, 
you retain ftillyour old Affedion to me, and re- 
Iblve to exprefs it upon the ieafonable Opportu- 
nity J which is as much as I look for from 
you. We muft all patiently wait for that Op- 
portunity, which ma'y be offer'd ibonner than 
we expeft : When it is, let it find you ready ^ 
and in the meanTime have a care to keep yourlelf 
out of their Hands, who know the Hurt you 
can do them in a good Conjun£ture -^ and can 
never but fuipeft your Aft'eftion to be, as I am 
confident it is, towards 

Toury &c. 

To return to the Connexion of our Hiftory : 
I'he General came from his laft Expedition in 
Ireland in 164^9^ and was out of all Employment 
till i6%c, when the Scots entered into a T'reaty 
with King Charles II. for refioring him to his 
Kingdom <?/" Scotland. 

In the Expedition (?/Cromwel againfi the Scots, 

General Monk accepted a Commifjion. And 

how difficult foever it may feem^ at firfi Sight y to 

reconcile his oppojing the Scots, who were endea- 

• *jjouring to reft ore the King, with his former Refo- 


xxvi The Editor's 

lutionSy That he never would oppofe the King, 
yet he might have very good Reafons to jujiify him- 
felf in that Part of his ConduSi \ at leafi his de- 
clining any further Service under the?n^ from his 
Return to England, to the breaking out of this 
JVar^ flainly fiews it to be fo in his Opinion. 

In my "Judgment neither Dr. Gamble, nor Dr. 
Skinner do Jufiice to the Ge'NErALj in giving the 
follozving Reafons for his engaging in this Expedi- 
tion : I. The Rebellion and Iniolence of the 
Scots againft King Charles I. and^ 2. Their 
perfidious treatment of himfelf in Ireland. Dr. 
Skinner had taken notice before^ that vohen the 
Scots enter'' d into this Treaty ivith his Majefiy^ it 
was concluded upan iuch Terms as Goths and 
Vandals would have been afliam'd to offer to ail 
hereditary Prince. As the Motives to their In- 
furreSiion were an Impatience under the Govern- 
ment of Independency, and an intemperate Zeal 
for the Presbyterian Model \ the Eftahliflyment of 
which both in Scotland and England, firfi indue d 
them to take up Arms againfi their Sovereign : So 
they intended to refiore their Religion, by making 
That Efiablifirment a neccjfary Condition of refio- 
fing the King. / have not I'inie to recapitulate 
the Particulars of their rcVmous Pretences, and 
'Treachery, from the firfl Tumults in the Reign of 
Charles I. to the Death of that excellent Prince : 
But a Perfon fo well acquainted with that People 
as General Monk, had too much Reafon to 
conclude, they would not refiore his Majcfly upon 
honourable Terms. My Lord ^ Clarendon tells us, 
*' They were fo careful in ?nodcU!ng this Army 

> Page 37$. Vol. III. 


Preface. xxvii 

" ivhkh they had rats' d, that they fufferW feiv or 
*' no Officers, or common Soldier s, muho had been in 
" the Engagement of Duke Hamilton, or ivhogave 
" the leafl Occafion to be fiifpetled to iviJJo ijuell to 
*' the King, to be recei'u'd into their Service. '* 
j^nd 'when they were totally defeated by Cromvvel, 
the noble Hijlorian ^ ajfurcs us, the King thought 
it a Matter of Triumph, and the greateft tlap- 
pinefs that could beHiUhim, in that h^ had there- 
by loft fb great a Body of his Enemies ; who, 
if they had prevaifd, would have ihut hiin up 
in Prilbn. In fJjort, it was an Army neither 
rats' d nor go'uern'd by the King : They were not 
properly his Subjects, but he rather fubjeSt to them^ 
being obli^d to recei-ve,i7iflead of having the Power 
to give Laws. The Rejioration they chiefly aim'd 
at was, that of their Spiritual Dominion. The 
Royal Caufe was only the Pretence, as being ap- 
prehended a Means fubfervient to it. In what 
Light this Matter will appear to the Reader, I 
know not ', to me it feems very clear, that the Scots 
would not have reflofd the King upon fuch Con- 
ditions as were conjiflent with the Dignity and Pre- 
rogative of the Crown, and the Rights and Liber- 
ties of the People j and that the Government could 
not have been fettled upon any lafiing Foundation 
by a foreign Force, 7nucb Icfs by a Nation fo ob- 
noxious to the Englifh, and fo devoted to their own 
particular Interejts, as the Scots were at that 

The Parliament having entirely reducd Scot- 
land, refov'd upon an Acl of Coalition, for uniting 
both Kingdoms into one Common-wealth. Gene- 


xxviii The Editor's 

RAL Monk iiuas one of the Com?m£ioners fent 
down to Scotland to negotiate this Bujinefs : IVhkh 
being intended as a Dcjign^ not only againji the 
King'5 perfonal Interefl^ but to extirpate Monar- 
chy out of that Kingdom^ it may hewondredat^that 
if the General carry' d any good Inclinations to- 
wards the King, or Kingly Government, hejloould 
he concern d in fo wicked a Scheme. 

It is 'very difficulty at this Diftance of T'ime^ and 
upon an imperfeEl Knozvledge of Circumfiances, to 
form a fudgment of all the Motives and Reafons 
npon which the General a^ed in every Part of 
his Condu^. The Urgency and Necefjity of certain 
critical Conjuntfures might oblige him to fome Mea- 
fures, which, for want of knowing the true Situa- 
tion Things were then in, do now carry the Ap- 
pearance of quite different Purpofes, than thofe 
whereby he really governed him/elf. This, howe- 
'ver, we may affirm with fome Certainty, that the 
Danger of refifling the Importunities of the Party 
mufi have been great \ that his Intereji among them 
would have been impair'' d, if not wholly deflroy'^d^ 
and, by that Means, all future Power of ferving 
the King, entirely lofl , that they could have ef- 
fected their Defign without his Affiftance : Very 
probably too the General might not think their 
Meafures would prove effeUual to the wicked Pur- 
pofes intended by them. But after all, we 7nuft not 
argue from one fiagle PafJ'age of a Man's Life, in 
Oppofition to the general Tenor of it, but account 
for the more ambiguous Parts whereof it is compo- 
fed, by thofe which are plain and indifputable. 
Since therefore we have found him fo very vigi- 
lant in what related to the KingV Interefis, f(f 
fiudious to avoid all Occafions of differving him, 
we ought to conclude in Favour of his good and ge- 

Preface. xxix 

Tieral Intentions^ notwithftandingthe Appearance of 
fome feiv particular Inflame s {iffiich could really be 
ajjign'd') to the contrary. 

In 1655, upon another Infurre£lion /« Scotland, 
General Monk went thither again, and in a 
little Time composed thofe Diflurhances. My Oh- 
fervations upon the lafl Expedition into that King- 
dom, will fufficiently obviate any Inferences which 
may be drawn from hence. 

From this Time to the Mejfage from the KING 
to //&^General by Mr Monk, there is little which 
requires any Animadverftons ^ only I fljall wipe off 
an Imputation of Cruelty during his Adminiflra- 
tion in Scotland. My Lord Clarendon ^ terms it 
a Rod of Iron, and a Yoke very grievous to the 
whole Nation^ an Exprefjion which implies every 
Thing that is ignoble, tyrannical, and opprefjive. But 
how fJjall we reconcile thefe Reprefentations to what 
he fays in another -^ Place, " That he, (GENERAL 
Monk) " had exercised no other Power over them 
*' than was abfolutely necejjary to reduce that Peo- 
" pie to an entire Obedience; and that in all his o- 
*' ther Carriage towards them he was friendly and 
" companionable 5 and as he was feared by the No- 
** bility, and hated by the Clergy, fo he was not 
*' unbelov^d by the common People, who received 
" more Juflice, and lefs Oppreffon fron him, than 
" they had been accuftom'd to, under their own 
'* Lords. " Dr. SkinnerV Account of this Mat- 
ter will be feen at Chap. 7. . Section 1 9. and more 
at large at Se£l. 4, 7, 8. of Chap. FII; with whom 
Dr. Giimble agrees. 

I fhall now attend Mr. Monk, the Clergyman^ 
with his Majeflfs Mejfage to the General, and 

* Pag. 467. 55$. +Page 702. 


XXX The Editor's 

fee ijuhat Difpofttion it found him in^ and what Re- 
ception is w-ct imth from him. 

My Lord Clarendon "^ fays^ " That the Gene- 
ral difmifs'd him (his Brothei;j '' without difco- 
" "vering to him any Inclination to the Buftnefs he 
'' came about. " I'be ninth Chapter of the fol- 
lowing Sheets gives a fatisfa^ory Account of this 
'J'r an faction^ and a full Confutation of my Lord 
Clarendon' j" Opinion concerning it. A Declaration 
for a free and a full Parliament was immediately 
drawn up, and fgn'd by the General and his 
Officers, (though fupprefd afterwards, upon the 
Defeat of Sir George Booth) in the fame Stik 
with that of Sir George, and the Lord P'airfax, 
without any mention 7nade of the King, or Mo- 
narchy -^ and we may as well conclude from their 
Silence and Ca.ution, as from the General'j", that 
they intended no more than they exprefy declared. 
And here it was that the Ge^ekaj. feems to have 
formed the particular Scheme for the Refloration^ 
by reducing the Military Power to the Obedience of 
the Civil, which he fo fuccefsfully executed, and 
which alone could have fucceeded. T'hey were fo 
afraid of uniting his Majeffs Enemies by an open 
Declaration for him, that in Sir George Booth' j- 
Infurreciion, the firfl Appearance was only of 
liich Peribns as had not been engag'd on the 
King'j- fide. -|- TVhereas the General was con- 
tinually filling up his Army with Perfons of known 
Affetlion to the King. And Dr. Barwick tells us, 
in his Brother s Life, p. 149. *' That in reform- 
*' ing the Officers of his Army, the GENERAL 
" chofe the rather to employ Colonel Cloberry, he- 

* Page 702. i Skinnsr, Chap, 9. ScA. i. 


Preface. xxxi 

*' caufe he kneiv him to he in the Kln^s Interefl^ 
" and that Mr. Otway (afterwards Sir John) 
'' Brother-in-Laiv to that Colonel, and moft inti- 
*' mately concerned with him in the Profecution of 
*' that Interefl, was fo well affar^d of this, that 
" when almoft every one elfe defpaifd of the Royal 
" Caufe, he had fill great Hopes in the General^ 
*' purely upon this Account. " Illud laltem unum 
judicium ab eo captabat Ocwayus animi in Re- 
gem minime malevoli, cum cxtevi fere omnes de 
rerum Himma delperarcnt \ quod Cloburii Opera 
& Confilio ad elimlnandos ab Exercitu Duces 
omnes,'de quorum fide merito dubitabat, eo liben- 
tius uteretur, quo hominem rei Regix ftudiolio- 
rem noverat. And if from this 'Time, we find 
him more frequent and warm in his Letters, his 
Conferences, his puhlick Speeches and Declarations^ 
for the Commonwealth, it was hecaufe all his AUi- 
ons and Proceedings began now to fpeak more plain- 
ly and openly for the King. 

^To prevent a Ref oration, of which the fever al 
Enemies to it were apprehenfive, from the Temper 
and Difpofition of the Body of the Nation, and 
from the manifef Tendency o/General MonkV 
Proceedings, not with flanding his artful Difguifes to 
conceal it-, among other Stratagems employ'' d by 
them to fruflrate his Purpofes, they made him an 
^ff^^-> fi^fii ^f ^^^^ Palace and Ejtate of Hamp- 
ton-Court, and then of the Government itfelf. Dr. 
Skinner feems * to think they were not in earneji 
in their Compliment, but w.eant it only as a fecret 
Contrivance to ruin the Generalj for which O- 
pinion the Do^or does not affign any Reafon^ nei' 

* Pag. 277. Seft. S. 


xxxii The E d i tor's 

ther am I capable of ■propoftng a fatisfaElory one* 
For however higotted they might be to their Re- 
publican Schemes^ which I am apt to think was 
owing to the Conftderation of their own Safety^ 
more than to the Convitiion of their Judgment ; or 
how averfe foever they might be to the perfonal 
Inter efi of the General j the main Point they 
then aim^d at waSy to prevent the Reftoration of a 
Family they had fo much injufd and provoked , and 
from whom their own guilty Confcience could expeU 
nothing but a juji Revenge. "The King was to he 
kept out upon any 'Terms > the fever al Inter efi s and 
Factions among themfelves^ and the united IVifhes 
of the reji of the Nation were fuchj that they could 
not think of any probable Means of excluding him^ 
but by the Advancement 0/ GENERAL MoNK. 
Upon this VieWy which was truly the State of the 
Cafe, it was necejjary to their Interefi, (the Prin- 
ciple which actuated and govern'' d all their Mea- 
fures^ to augment his Power. No doubt Sir Ar- 
thur Hazier ig knew the Sentiments of the Party, 
when he offer d to procure a hundred thoufand 
Hands that Jhould fubfcribe to his Title. So ter- 
rifying were the Apprehenfions of another Perfon \ 
fo great the General '5 Inter efi, that, had he 
not been fo faithful a Subjetl, he might, to all hu- 
man Appearance, with very little Difficulty, have 
affumed the Name and Power of a King. Concern- 
ing the Time of this Offer to /Z;^ General, there 
is a Difagreement between my Lord Clarendon and 
the refi of our Hiftorians 5 the one making it antece- 
dent, the other fubfequent to Sir John GreenvilV 
Application to him. ^ But the common Account, as 
it is the trueji, fo it feems to be moft to the //o- 
nour of the GEi^iEKAL^s Refufal. My Lord Ch- 

* Clar. p. 734, 5- 


Preface. xxxiii 

Tendon is alfo mlflakm in a material Circumflance 
relating to the Conference between Sir John and the 
General -, who, when Sir John came to him, 
after he had Iblemnly conjur'd him to Secrecy, 
upon the Peril of his Life, told him, he meant 
to lend him to the King *. The General is 
here reprefented as firjl propofmg the Bufinefs to 
Sir John i whereas Sir John with great Difficulty y 
by the Inter efl of Mr. Mortice, gained Acccfs to 
the General, and boldly declared his Commiffiony 
without any other Encouragement to ufe that Free^ 
dom, than what he had drawn from the Gene- 
RAl'j MeafureSy ivhofe Caution was fo great that 
he did not think it fafe to reveal a Secret of fo 
much Danger to himfelf, and to the Succefs of his 
Deftgns, till Sir John had fliewn himfelfy by an 
extraordinary Inflame of Prudence and Courage, a 
Perfon fit to be trujled with fuch a Secret. A Mi- 
ftake which diminifhes the Glory due to the Chara- 
Eler of that Excellent Perfon, and the noble Part 
he a^cd'j and gives my Lord Clarendon an Occa- 
fion to make an Obfervation equally injurious to the 
Mode fly and Humility of the General 5 /te, 
as ibon as he determin'd to advance the Deftgn, 
he confulted how he might manage it in fuch 
a manner, before the Meeting of the Parliament, 
that what followed miglit be imputed to his Coun- 
lels and Contrivance -f-. My Lord Clarendon in- 
deed has related the Conduct of General 
Monk, throughout the whole Affair of the Re- 
Jl oration, with lefs Accuracy and Clear nefs than was 
n'^ual with that noble and excellent Hiflorian, 
The Reafon of which I hinted at before; that here 

P-755- tPag. 734. 

c hi 

xxxiv The Editor's 

he wrote at a Diflnyicefrom the Scene of Aiilon^ and 
fro?n the confused Informations, if not arbitrary 
Conjediures of other People, and upon 'Things where- 
in the Perfon, who is the SuhjeU of the Narra- 
tion, jludioufly conceaTd his Proceedings, and Mo- 
tives from the Knowledge of the TVorld. I have 
lately feen a memorable Pajfage in fome Remarks 
upon our Englifh Hijlory, That when Sir John 
Greenvil returned to the King with General 
Monk'^- Anfwer to his Majefifs Letter-, the 
General enjoin' d him to conceal the Know* 
ledge of their Conference from Chancellor HydQ. 

Having mention'' d GENERAL MonkV Refufal 
of fuch great Offers, it gives me a proper Occafi- 
on to take notice of the Malice, or Ignorance of 
thofe, who refolve his Part in the Refioration in* 
to Self-interefl, or Self-prelervation. 

He was in Jo much Credit with all Parties, by 
the Reputation of his extraordinary IVifdom and 
Courage, and the Command of an Army affe^iio" 
nately devoted to him, that he could at any Tims 
have united himfelf to either of them upon his own 
Terms, whether in refpedt to Honour, to Power^ 
or Riches. By Overtures of this kind, which he 
was continually foUicited to accept, he might have 
been fecure of greater Advantages, than were even 
pofjlble for the King to grant. Could he expeB 
the Royal Palace and Eftate of Hampton-Court, 
the Authority which Cromwel enjoyed, the Title of 
King from the KiNG ? And yet all thefe were 
ofere'd him, and offer'' d dire^ly, to prevent his ad- 
hering to the King^' Intcrefl, 

But if he went over to the ]L\n^, astheyreprefenty 

upon the ProfpeH of a better Bargain, how did he fo 

refohitcly decline any Bargain at all ? If Intcreji was 

■- -^ . thit 

Preface.' xxxv 

the Motive to his Loyalty^ undoubtedly Uwas his Tnte* 
reji to fecure to himfclfand Friends the Advantages he 
proposed J by an cxprefs Stipulation. Is it natural or cu- 
Jlomaryfor (clfijloMcn to prefer a precarious anduncet' 
tain Reward^ to one that is determinate and fecure ? 
Efpecially confidering^ that Services have general- 
ly a larger Value fet upon them^ when wanted^ 
than after they are effetled. Nothing carube con- 
ceiv'^d more generous and difintercfied than the Ge- 
JSIERAlV entire Confidence in the Honour and 
Goodnefs of the Kingj nothing a greater Argu- 
ment of Innocence J and a real and habitual Af- 
fection to the King'; Service. Guilt is always dif- 
trufiful; and if the GeneralV own Confcience 
had accused him as much as fome others have done^ 
he would have been more careful, upon the Return 
to his Duty, to have fccur'^d the Pardon of his 
former Dijloyalty, or at leafi, the Reward of his 
growing Services. 

And for the Motive of Self-prefervation j this 
Pretence, if pofjible, is fill more unreafonable than 
the former, having indeed no manner of Fowada-* 
tion. For the GENERAL always had it in his 
Power to prevent the Refloration, without any 
Danger or Difficulty. When he modelled his Ar^ 
my in Scotland, inftead of giving Umbrage tc their 
"Jealoufy of him, by putting in Perfons, in their 
Language, difaffe^ed, could he not as eafily have 
found others of different Inclinations? JVhen he 
was at Coldftream, and Lambert marchi'ng d" 
gainfi him with a much fuperior Force, could he 
not have concluded a fafe and Advantageous Peace^ 
infiead of running the Hazard of a total Defeat ? 
And after he came to London, infiead of diffohing 
the Jiinfto, and calling a new Parliament, the 
c a Inclinations 

xxxvi The E D I T o r's 

Inclinatiom of which he could eafdy guefs at^ could 
he not have removed their Sufpicions^ and prevent- 
ed their Attempts upon his Life^ by joining ivith 
them^ and the Forces connnanded by Fleetwood? 
The Difficulty and Danger of attempting the Re- 
fiorationy is urged as an Argument againfi GENE- 
RAL Monk 'J intending ity while they make 
the Refioration the fafe/i thing he could think 
of. But how to make out the Necefjity of doing 
a thing in order to our Prefervation, which is 
attended with the gtcatef Difficulties ^ and th<: 
moji imminent Dangers^ does not^ I confefs, ap- 
pear clear to my Apprehenfion^ and cannot^ I be- 
lieve^ be naturally accounted for by any other Per-- 

Inhere is one Imputation more^ rcfpeSting the good 

Intentions of General Monk towards the 

KingV Return J which a learned and worthy Per- 

fony Air. Kchard, has thought worth tranfcribing 

at large from Mr. Lock into his Hiflory. I 

wiJJj he had thought it worth a particular Con- 

ft deration, and not have left it wholly to the 

Judgment of the Reader j fince every Reader is 

not attentive enough y nor other wife qualified to make 

a true fudgnient of a Matter of Pah, where fo 

many Circumflanccs arc to be compar'dy in order 

to judge with Certainty concerning the Probability ^ 

or Improbability of it. The fame Jufice and 

T'endernefs are due to the Character of deceafed 

PerfonSy which were owin^ to their Reputation 

when living 3 and if an Hiflorian inferts any ReJa- 

tio?ij either upon the Credit of -cottimon Fame, or 

the Authority of any l/Friter, which obf cures the 

Glory of a great and good A5fion ^ it fJjould be 

mention'' d with all its Circumflames of Credibili- 

Preface. xxxvii 

iy and Incredibility, for fear an indolent, an in^ 
accurate, or ignorant Reader JJjould believe and 
p'Opagate it, upon the bare Credit of the Perfon 
by whom it is related; it being very natural for 
the TVorld to conclude, that a judicious and can- 
did Perfon would not relate any thing to the dif- 
advantage of an eminent Chara^er, efpecially with- 
■out declaring his disbelief of it, if he thought it 
incredible. Nay, I cannot but conjider this Rule 
at more particularly binding upon an Hijlorian ; 
becaufe if he does an Injury, he does a more lajiing 
and irreparable one, by tranfmitting it to dtfiant 
Ages 5 and injures not only the Reputation of him 
•who is immediately afj^e^ed by it, but is an Ene- 
my to the puhlick Good of Society, by weakening 
the Force of thofe Motives and Incitements to 
Virtue, whereof Mankind are generally mofi fen- 
fible. And I will venture to fay further, that this 
Obfervation concerns an Hiftorian whom I have 
lately mention'' d, as much as any Hijlorian, whofe 
deferv'd Reputation for Diligence, Candor, Capa- 
city, and Fidelity will be fo likely to give Weight 
mid Authority to the Facts he reports. 

But there is one Circumfiance which does not per* 
fe^ly agree with the Neutrality Mr. Echard pro- 
fefjes in this Matter. Immediately after the Relation 
of it, he fays. This gave the great Turn to the 
Reftoration of King Charles. And in the Index, 
under Afhley Cooper / find this general Head, 
'The main Inftrument of the Reftoration > re- 
ferring, for the Particulars, to this Story of Mr. 
Lock. From whence I conclude, that Air. Echard 
thought Sir Anthony //j^ main Inftrument of the 
Reftoration, and that he grounded his Opinion 
upon the Evidence of this Story} which is not 
c 3 kavina 

xxxviii The E d i t o r 's 

leaving it wholly to the Judgment of the Reader, 
hit giving his own Judgment^ and declaring his 
Belief of it. If I have injured this ivorthy Gen- 
tleman^ s Meanings I heartily ask his Pardon : 
But I can underftand it in no other Senfe. 

The Story which I am going to examine^ may 
he feen in Mr. Lock'i" Memoirs of Sir Anthony 
Aihley Cooper^ afterwards created Lord Shafts- 
bury, or in Mr. EchardV ^ Hiflory. It is too 
Jong to he tranfcriFd here, but the Sub fiance of it 
is thus: 

*' That General MonkV Wife overheard him 
'' making an Agreement ivith the French Ambaf- 
'^ f&dor, to take the Government upon himfelf, up- 
^^ on the Affurance of Afjifiance from France ; 
^^ that fhe [ent Sir Anthony Aihiey Cooper im- 
^' mediate Notice of it., who fmnmoned the Coun- 
*-^ oil of State, whereof he was one ; That Sir An- 
*' thony skilfully., and by diflant Intimations^ 
'^ chared the General with it., who difcover'^d, by 
" fome Diforders and Confufton in his Looks., that 
" he was guilty 5 and fo difappointed him in his 
■"^ Defign, by propoftng fuch Alterations in the 
*' Army J as made it ceafe to be at his Devo- 
" tion.'''' 

I only dejire the following Circumflances to he 
' confidered ; and then I fhall be very willing., with 
Mr. Echard, to leave the Determination of the 
Cafe to the Judgment of the Reader. 

In the firfl Place., Mr. Echard obferves., that 
this Account is fingular, being taken Notice of 
by no other IVriter but Mr. Lock, nor attefled 

page 758. Third Edition. 

Preface. xxxix 

hy any other Evidence ; which Circumflance alone 
feems 'very much to lejfen the Credibility of the 
Fa5i. llje General is [aid to have been fo con- 
founded in the Council, when Sir Anthony charged 
him with it, that all the Company were convin- 
ced fome foul Play was intended, though they 
did not then particularly know what the Matter 
was •, that Sir Anthony laid hold of this Oppor- 
tunity to propofcy what the General under thofe 
Diffculties found himfelf obliged to confent to, fb 
great a Change of the Army, that it ceas'd to 
be at Monk's Devotion, and was put into Hands 
that would not ierve him in the Defign. Now 
it is at all probable that fo remarkable a thing fhould 
happen, that fuch fudden and great Changes fhould 
he made in the Army, without any mention made 
of it in Hifory ? ^hat none of the Council fhould 
afterwards enq^uire more particularly into the Oc- 
cafwn of them, when they faw, by the GenekaVs 
Confufion, that it was fome deep Defgn, at which 
he was then aifning ? 'That among fo many Ene- 
mies as the General then had, watching all 
Opportunities to afperfe him, and fo many more 
envious of his Glory and Power, none of theik 
fhould know or publifJ) the Fa5l wherewith he had 
been changed? 

Mr, Echard obfer-ves further, that Mr. Lock 
had this Account, probably, from the Fountain 
Head, meaning my Lord Shaftsbury, JVhich, I 
think, isfo far from being a probable Circumflance^ 
that it carries another jufl Ground of Sufpicion. 
That Lord was not abfolutely free frojn Ambiti- 
on and Opiniatrety ; and this Story tended to grati- 
fy his Vanity, as it might he thought to afford 
0, fignal Proof of his Penetration and AddrsJ's^ in 
c 4 dif" 

ddi The Editor's 

difeoveringy and difconcertmg the Gekekal'^s Pro- 

je^ 3 which is frofe£edly the Reafon of Mr. LockV 
mentioning this Story. And it likeivife fa-vour'd 
his Profpeti of Intereji at Court^ as it gave him 
a Pretence to make a Demand upon the Crown, 
of fome confiderahle Poji of Honour or Profit, 
for fo extraordinary a piece of Service. 

Much of the Probability of this Matter depends 
upon the Evidence of the GenerAlV Wife^ and 
her Evidence in a good Meafure upon her Zeal 
for the Refioration, which is not fo clear as it 
ougjot to he^ confidering the Strefs which is laid 
upon it. If I had the Liberty to ufe the Name ofa> 
great Man now living^ I might convince the World, 
that fhe was not likely to oppofe the Advancement of 
the General, when it was offer''d by the French 
Ambajfador^ having before Jhewn fo much Refent- 
7?ient to Mr. Morrice, for endeavouring to per- 
fuade the GENERAL to refufe an Offer of the 
fa?ne Nature from the Parliament. 

But upon the Suppofition of her violent Zeal, 
let us confider what her Evidence isy and how 
far it will go. She, from another Room, hears 
the Particulars of the Agreement under Conli- 
deration. Now if her AffeHions were fo warmly 
int ere fled in thi^ Matter ^ they muji needs excite her 
Fears, and her Fears might naturally make her fan- 
fy fhe heard things which f)e did not, and improve 
fofiie broken and imperfect Sentences in an exprefs 
and pofitive Contra6i. Which is the more likely 
to be true, from the natural Caution of the Gene- 
ral, who was not us'' d to talk fo loud upon fuch 
dangerous Subjects, that a Perfon in another Room 
fnight hear diflinllly the Particulars of their Con^ 
'vcrfation j efpecially confidering his own ^icknefs 


Preface. xli 

of hearing, which was fo exceeding perre£t, that 
no-body could lafely whilper a Secret in the lame 
Room *. 

But according to Mr. LockV Account the main 
Part of the Evidence is the Diforder and Confu" 
fion of the General j from whofe Looks and 
Behaviour they argue more, than from the Autho- 
rity of the Lady's Information. In anfwer to 
this, I pall only cite a Paffage in Ludlow'j Me- 
moirs, relating to King Charles I. his Reception 
of the News of the MaJJacre in Ireland. I have it, 
fays he, from good Hands, that the King was 
pleas'd with it. Now what did the fe good Hands 
found this horrid Calumny upon, but the KingV 
Looks and Behaviour, obferved by fome who hap- 
perCd to be prefent at that 'Time ? For it never was 
pretended, that he ever acknowledged fo impious and 
inhuman a Pleafure : If then the Hatred of any 
Perfon or Perfons towards that good Prince, whofe 
natural Tendernefs and Compafjion, and whofe ha- 
bitual Piety render"* d him fo averfe to Acts of Cru- 
elty, could occafion fo wide a Mifconjiru^iion of his 
Behaviour and Looks ; may we not with more 
Reafon allow fomething to the Inanity of Sir An- 
thony Afliley Cooper, or to fome other Paf- 
fton, or Prepoffefjion in the refi of the Council, in 
the ConJiru5lion of GENERAL Monk'j Looks and 
Behaviour ? 

In what Order of Time to place this memora- 
ble Conference, Mr. Lock does not inform us. 
Mr. Echard relates it immediately after the Re- 

* skinner J p. 418. 


Ixii The Editor's 

fufal of the Go'vernment from the Parliament, 
But whether it was before or after (about that 
*itime^ no doubt ^ it happened^ if at alT) it was 
■prior to Sir John Greenvii'i" Application to the 
General, when the General firll own'dhis 
Deftgn of reftoring the King, faiing what he 
told Dr. Price privately at Coidilrecim. Now 
this Account of Mr. Lock fuppofes^ that the Ge- 
neral had given Sir Anthony, and the reft of 
ihe Council^ AJfurances of it before; which mufl 
he the Meaning of the folloiving IFords : The 
General averring, that he flood firm to what 
lie Jiad profeiled to them. * Here is an Inconji- 
jiency never to be reconcifd^ and which explains 
the whole Intent of this Piece of private Hifiory. 
Sir Anthony wanted to have it believ'd^ that 
the Plan of the Relloration was laid by him, 
mid that General Monk, was drawn into it 
hy the Influence of his Councils, 

Be fides thefe Inconfiflencies^ and DefeUs in the 
Evidence which is to fupport this Fa5i^ the Faot it- 
felf is improbable. For though \ Mr. Echard calls 
thiSy The General's greatefl Temptation, / can 
never believe, that a wife Man would accept of the 
Government from a French Interejlj arid refufe it 
from the Parliament of England : A People, to 
whom the Apprehenfion of a King'^ coming in, or 
governing by a foreign Power, was fo dreadful, 
that an Attempt of that kind would have united 
all the feveral Interefs in the Kingdom againfi 
the General ; fhe Republicans, upon the 
Strength of their infuperable Averfion to Monar- 

* Page 758, t Pas- 7 57- 


Preface. Ixiii 

cliy y the Royallifts, in regard to their Ma- 
iler's Interejl. Even his own Army was not {o 
united to him, or fo abfolutely devoted to his In- 
terejl, hut that a great Part of his Officers would 
have left him, if he had taken liich a Refblution j 
much lefs was it his Defign to ibrm an Army to 
an implicit Obedience to whatever Refblution he 
Ihould think fit to take, as my Lord Clarendon 
* reprefents it, but to a Compliance with his Mea- 
fures for the Reftoration. Otherwife how could 
his Regulations in the Army become, as undoubtedly 
they were, the avowed Grounds of their Jealoufy 
concerning him ? How came they never to enter- 
tain the leaji Imagination of his having a Defign 
to fet up himfelf, but only from the 'Temper and 
Inclinations of his Army, which they knew to he 
towards another Perfon ? Before he began his 
March from Scotland, the Scots, who, from their 
Efieem and Love for him, were the mofi likely to 
ferve him in fuch a Defign, offefd to raife, and 
maintain at their own Charge, [even Thoufand 
five hundred Men, which he refus'd to accept^ 
tho'' he was going with lefs than fix 'Thoufand a- 
gainfi Lambert, whofe Army confified of twelve 
'thoufand. TChe Reafon of his r'efufing this fea- 
fonable Supply, in Appearance fo necejjdry to his 
own Safety, and the Ends of his Ambition, if he 
had any fuch in view, can be refolved into nothing, 
but his extreme Caution, left he fioould give Oc- 
cafion to fufpeEt, that he had any Defign of em- 
ptying a Foreign Affiftance, whereby he might en- 
fiave the Nation, and is abfolutely inconfifient 

* Pag. 715. 


xliv The E d i tor's 

ivith the Suppofition of his intending to fet up him* 

upon the whole Matter: Whatever political 
Reafons the General might ha've for delibera- 
ting^ as Mr. Echardy^)'^ "^ he did^ whether he 
fjjould accept the Government as the Gift of the 
Parliament J or for feeming to comply ivith the 
fame Propofal from the French Jm.baffador, ac- 
cording to Mr. Lock, {which indeed I do not be- 
lieve^ there is no Reafon to think he inte tided either. 

'There is another Refleclion upon his Chara^er, 
which is equally groundlefs with any of the fore- 
going oneSy That he was in his Inclinations for 

So far was he from bei'ng inclin'd to Presby- 
tery, that when he was offered the Covenant, to 
qualify himfelf for his frft Co?nmiffion under the 
Parliament y Dr. Gumble tells us, he confulted 
with many learned Men, before he could fat is fy 
his Scruples about the Lawfulnefs of That En- 
gagement, the principal Defign of which was to a- 
bolifh Epilcopacy. J^Vhat Encouragement he ^ave 
the Presbyterians a little before the Reftoration, 
was wholly political, and for Reafons very obvi- 
ous. The reft of his Carriage towards that Peo- 
ple^ efpecially in Scotland, where they had mojl 
Power, and thereby the befl Opportunity of dif- 
covering their Principles and Temper, befpeak 
his Opinion of them ; as alfo their avow'd Ha- 
tred towards him, (which my Lord Clarendon 
takes particular Notice of, in a Paffage already 
cited in this Preface) is a IVilyiefs that they did 
7iot ejleem him a Friend either to their Caufe^ or 
their Perfons. " -- "•. • 

* Page 757. 


Preface. xlv 

But in his Speech to the Jundo, concerning the 
Settlement of the Kingdom y he fays : Moderate, 
not rigid Presbyterian Government feems beft 
adapted to the Interefl: of England. 

Occafjonal Arguments expreffed in fuch loofe and 
general Terms, are 'very uncertain Proofs of a> 
Mati's Sentiments. The General was arguing 
upon this Occafon from Republican Principles -, 
and a Common-wealth in the Churchy might 
agree ivell enough, perhaps, hefi with a Com- 
mon-Wealth in the State. But a Parity of 
Orders in the one will not agree fo well with 
a Subordination in the other ; nor the Difci- 
pline of a Kirk, with the Prerogative of a 
King. Epifcopacy, as it is mofl agreeable to 
Scripture and primitive Antiquity, fo it has been^ 
and ever will be found the befi Friend to Monar- 
chy i Which is the true Reafon of fome Peoples 
diflike of it. How they mutually fupport and 
firengthen each other, and how unlikely it is, that 
either of them floould long fubfifl, f'cparatcly^ in 
England, we learn unhappily frotn the Fate of 
Charles I. Like Saul -^nd^ Jonathan, they were 
lovely in their Lives, and in their Leaths they 
were not divided. 

I flmll detain the Reader no hngcr than while 
I give him a fhort Account of the Manufcript 
from whence the following Life wis la ken. 

In the firfl Place, I mufl ajfure the Publick, 
'that I have not alter'' d the Senfe or Expref/ion in 
any one Fnfiance throughout the Hiflory ; except 
that I have, in fome few Places, added a M'^ord 
inhere it was necejfary to a Qrammatical Con- 

Jiru^ion ^ 

Ixyi The Editor's 

firuUion ^ and divided the Book into Chapters and 
Se^ions for the Reader's Con'veniency.. 

The Copy was found in the Study of Mr. Owen, 
late Curate at Bockin in Eflex. / had traced it 
up by a probable 'Tradition in that Neighbourhoody 
to Dr. Skinner, who liv'd at Cokhefter, and 
was Phyfician to the Duke of Albemarle, 
when refiding at New-hall //^Ellex. ^nd I have 
fmce compared it with fome of the DoElor's Bills 
from off the File at Colchefter ; and from the Si- 
militude of HandSy I believe it to be the Doilor^s 
own Hand-writinZ' 

But after the greatefi Part of my Copy was 
printed, Mr. Great, an eminent Apothecary in Col- 
chefter, was fo kind as to fend me another Copy, 
which agrees literally with mine^ and was tran- 
fcriFd by Mr. Shelton, formerly Rector of St. 
James'j- in Colchefter j after whofe Death, it 
fell into the Hands of Mr. Great. I pre fume this 
Copy was tranfcriFd, by the Author s own Di~ 
r eh ion J for the Prefs, becaufe it has his Name, 
the 'Title, the Tear, the Place, and Printer s Name 
to it, which mine had not. However it demon" 
firates, that this Hiftory was written by Dr, 
Skinner, The Reader alfo cannot but obferve, that 
the Author of this Hiftory mentions his having 
wrote Ibmething of a like Nature, though in a- 
nother Language ; by which he certainly means 
his Motus Compofiti. 

Anthony Wood, in his Fafti OxonienieSj 
P^ol. II. Pag. 1 85). gives the following Account of 
Dr. Skinner. .-:. , . 

'■-, ■ • • - '■: ' ■ " Thomai 

Preface. Ixvii 

" 'thomas Skinner of St. John's College, Oxr 
'' ford^ was a^lually created Do^or of Phyfick, 
" by Virtue of the Letter^ of the Chancellor 
'* of the Univerfity, which iay, that he was 
^' for fbme Time bred at Cambridge ^ but was 
" forc'd to leave that Univerfity in the Times 
" of Ufurpation, by Realbn ofthe illegal Oaths, 
'' and other Impofitions olfered to him, where- 
" by he was prevented taking his Degree. 
" And this Dodor hath added a third Latin 
" Part, which lie calls Motus Compofiti ^ after- 
" wards tranflated into Englijlo by another Hand, 
" with a Preface by a Perlbn of Quality. 

There is a ColleUion of Papers referred to at 
•P^S* 333- "i^hich I never could get any Account 

The Epitaph upon the Duke of Albemarle 

was printed by itfelf a little after his Death, and 

being out of Print, I have fubjoyn^d it to his Hi' 

ftory, hoping it may be acceptable to the Rear 


Feb. 13. i72|. 

^^^Z'' IFilUam Wehjier. 


vol!. ;:..:.:. J orb j- '•! 

e:;1 Mf 

• J K>'' 

, .1 




Have heretofore publifhed 
fomething of a like Nature 
with the following Sheets, 
(tho' in another Language) 
wherein feveral Things, thro' 
want of better Information, 
were imperfedly defcribed ; yet the tair and 
charitable Receptiort it met with from the 
Readers, has not only encouraged me to 
entertain them again with the enfuing Rela- 
tion, but has equally oblig'd me to make 
them fome Amends by a more correal and 



t; The Author'.^ 

enlarg'd Account of thofe things, concern- 
ing which I was then either miftaken or de- 

Yet if any Man thinks he has Reafon to 
admire at my Attempt in writing the Life and 
Adions of the late Duke. of Albemarle^ I 
fhall meet him with a jufter Wonder, that 
this Province had not been undertaken by 
fome other Hand 5 and that whilft the Lives 
of feveral lefs confiderable or fubordinate Per- 
fons have been defervedly written, we find 
fo little (t except an hafty and loofe Account 
publiftied to ferve a private Occafion) record- 
ed of this great Inftaurator. But whilft 
fome ( by the Benefit of his Prudence and 
Succefs) have had fo great Leifure, and o- 
thers fo great Obligations, the Hiftory and A- 
dions of this illuftrious Perfon have (for ten 
Years fmce his Death) lain altogether neg- 
leded, and paflTed over in Silence. 

This Difregard towards his Memory does 
loudly arraign the Ingratitude of this Age, 
and is a fort of new Fanaiicifm, fucceflive to 
the former, which he had fo fortunately fup- 
prefs'dj by which we are become as much 
Enemies to his Glory, as the Committee of 
Safety or Rump Parliament were to his De- 
figns, or Scot and Cobbet to his Perfon. Po- 

t The Life of General Monk, by Br. Gumblc. 

rn fterity 


ftcrity will blufh and wonder, to find no o- 
thcr Monument of him than a ftufF'd Effigy 
in a Prcfs at IVeJimwfter, to whofc Fame 
and Memory, in elder and more grateful 
Times, Temples and Altars would have been 

And now this Attempt of gathering a 
few rough Stones towards his Monument, 
being fallen to my Share, I am very fen- 
fible, that in deferibing the Fortune and 
Adions of the ^nke of Albemarle, I mud 
alfo encounter all his Enemies, and run o- 
ver the whole Scries of his Adventures again 
from Coleftream to London: Yet whilft I 
am employed in this Service, I cfteem my 
fclf ftill under the Protedion of the Sword, 
and the wife and aufpicious Condudl of that 
great General. 

But that I have undertaken his Hiftory, 
who was never concern'd in any of his A- 
ftions, and had the Honour to know him 
only in the laft Years of his Life ; I reckon it 
a very little and unequal Exception againfl: 
me, fince I am fure no Hiftories have been 
worfe written than by thofe who had fomc 
Share in the Adions they relate -, nor better, 
than by others who were unconccrn'd, and 
took their Aim at a Diftance. For though 
the former may be prefumed to have a more 
diftindl and perfed Knowledge of things, yet 
fueh Writers have always had fomc body 

B 2 whom 

4 • The A u T H o r'5 

whom they fcar'd to difplcafe, and others 
whom they were obUg'd to dignify 5 bcfides 
an infeparable Humour of working in fome 
little Adions of their own, which have fcarce 
ever been fo decently, inferted, but that they 
have put fome Shadow or Difadvantage up- 
on the Luftre of the chief Aftor. Upon 
this Account many are the trifling Paflages 
of Thilip de Comines, which would never 
have been mentioned by any Writer but him- 
lelf, who had a6led fome Part in thofe times. 
And that I may not trouble the Reader with 
remoter Inftances, the Accounts that are al- 
ready extant of this great Perfon, whom we 
are now defcribing, and drawn by fuch as 
flood fomewhat nearer to the Scene of his A- 
dions, are ( to fay nothing harder ) a very 
particular and convincing Argument, that 
fuch Perfons are not always the fitted to re- 
late them. 

Yet in Matters of this Nature the T>i5fa- 
tor Cafar mull always be excepted, who was 
a very extraordinary Perfon at his Pen, as 
well as his Sword, and wrote his own A- 
ftions and Encounters as regularly as he 
fought them. 

On the other fide, Lwy has given us the 
Hifl:ory of the Roman Commonwealth and 
Confidary Times Vv-ith the greater Exadnefs 
and Eloquence j and Tacitus has defcrib'd 
the Imperial Government with the deeper 



[udgmcnt and Rcfearch ; yet the firfl: was co- 
eval to the laft Part of his own TDecad, but 
died under the Empire: And the other was 
an Infant at the End of his own Anna's^ and 
but of Years fit to write about the Time 
which concludes his Hiftory : So that neither 
of them wrote from any particular Know- 
ledge of their own, but both of them had a 
great Induftry to colled Relations, an equal 
Judgment in chufmg the beft, and perhaps 
fome particular and concealed Advantages for 
Information. The moft fteady and exem- 
plary Writer of Lives, Thitarchj never faw 
the Faces of any of thofe brave Greeks and 
Romans whom he dcfcribed, who were all in 
their Urns and Afhes many Years before his 

The Hiftory of the Belgk War is very 
juftly efteemed one of the moft abfolute and 
compleat Draughts of modern Story ; yet we 
find not, that the Author Strada was ever 
nearer Flanders than his College at Rome i 
but drew all thofe fair and exad Lines from 
the Letters, and Memorials, and other Infor- 
mations of the Prince of ^arma. ■ 

In which Advantage we pretend to fome 
Parallel with that great Author, having had 
the Opportunity to perufe a great Part of 
thofe Papers refcued from the Fire in London, 
befides other Memorials and MSS. relating 
to the Time and Anions we dcfcribe. We 

B 3 have 

6 The Author'^ 

have had alio the Privilege of frequent and 
particular Difcourfe and Information from 
more Pcrfons of Honour and Quality than 
were immediately concern'd or employ 'd in 
the principal Affairs of that Age, fo that the 
Reader may believe we have written with 
fom.e convenient Light by us. 

And whereas feveral Paflages are herein 
mentioned, that ferve only to continue the 
Order and Connexion -oi our Story 5 I have 
not held my felf oblig'd to defcribe them 
more particularly than was neceffary for that 
End, refcrving our principal Care and Exad- 
nefs for thofe Affairs in which the Duke of 
Albemarle was moft efpccially concern'd. 

In thofe Inftances which the Wifdom of 
the State has thought fit to conceal, we have 
not prefumed to make too near an Approach, 
or pry too inquifitively into the Art of Go- 
vernment J nor in doubtful Paflages to amufe 
our Reader with bold and prefumptuous Con- 
jedures: But in all Particulars (refcrving our 
Allegiance to the Supremacy of Truth) have 
endeavour'd to make the beft of our own 
Age, being fure that the fucceeding (when 
we have done all we can) will not fail to pay 
us home with Satire and Reflexion. 

But though I have given my Reader fome 
Account of fuch Advantages, as came in my 
Way for compiling this Vv^ork, and have made 
him privy to my Aim and Method in the 

5 Manage- 


Management of it, yet I efteem my felf ob- 
lig'd to acknowledge to him my many other 
particular Dcfeds j and to ask Pardon of this 
Age, and of Pofterity alfo, that being placed 
in the Vale of a low and private Life, I have 
adventured to draw the s;rcat Lines of a Per- 
fon that ftood fo high ; who, as he was Tin- 
gled out by the fuprcme Providence for great 
and extraordinary Performances 5 fo he was 
certainly none of the ordinary Produdions of 
God's Hand, but a very fublime and fingu- 
lar Perlon, fill'd with all thofe Qualities and 
Endowments, which were ncceffary to ac- 
complifh thofe great Things to which he was 

He had Prudence fufficient to difcern or 
fruftrate all the Arts and Contrivances of the 
Crafty; a Courage that was not to be en- 
countred by the boldeft Rebels, orOppofers 
of his Allegiance j a deliberate Patience in 
chufing the true Meafurcs and Minutes of his 
Bufinefs; and an impregnable Silence, by 
which he kept himfelf and his Purpofes in 
the dark to his Enemies, and left no Track 
behind him. 

All which, with the particular Actions of 
his Life, we have endeavour'd (with greater 
Faithfulnefs than Ability) to defcribe in the 
enfuing Story, that the Reader may firft in- 
form his Knowledge in the ftupendous Con- 
trivance of his Majefty's Rcftauration, and 
B 4 anew 

8 The AvTuo^'s PREFACE. 

anew confirm his own Allegiance by fo great 
an Example. 

A s to the Truth of Things, (efpecially in 
the main Point of this Hiftory) it fhall be 
anfwer'd for by my felf 5 but for my manifold 
Defc6ls in the Method or Language, I muft 
be enforc'd to lean fomewhat hard upon the 
charitable Opinion and Indulgence of my 
Reader. . :5.>-,,r^^'^ . i ..■.,,,,r::. • :,.j ii^^^ 

L-,. \noh,-,T;r/h>; THE 




O F 

General MONK, 


I, His Birth, and fome Account concerning 
the Circumftances of his Family, II. The 
Occajion of a moft bafe Indignity offered to 
his Father y Sir Thomas Monk. III. He 
refents it after a Manner that obliges his 
Father to fend him fooner into Spain than 
he otherwife intended^ under the Com- 
mand of Sir Richard Greenvill, his Rela- 

10 The LIFE of 

t'ton. IV, The next Tear he goes in the 
Expedition to the IJle of Rhec, and is 
made an Enfign. V. Teace being conclud- 
ed with France, he repairs, in the Earl of 
Oxford's Regiment, to ferve in the Ne- 
therlands : Is afterwards removed under 
the Command of Lord Goring, and made 
Captain of his own Company. VI. His 
ConduB in that Service. VII. A memorable 
Adt of Injuftice done to him at Dort -, up- 
on which he generoiifly throws up his 
CommifJIon. Vlll. His Return to England 
tipon the firft Beginning of the Scotch i?^- 
bellion, with the true Cirounds of it. 

EORGEy Duke of Albe- 
marle y was born at 'Pot he- 
ridge in ^evonjhire on Tuef- 
day the 6'^ of ^December, in 
the Year t6o8. In his Youth 
he was brought up at School in the Coun- 
try, refiding fometimes with his Father, fome- 
times with his Grandfather by the Mother's 
Side, Sir George Smith, who was alfo his 
Godfather. Being a younger Brother, and 
the Eftate of the Family fomewhat in Dc- 
clenfion, he was defigned to make his For- 
tune by the Sword, and to be fent to the 
Wars abroad, being not yet full feventeen 
Years of Age. To which Employment he 
was haften'd fomewhat fooner than his 


General Monk. ii 

Friends intended, by an Accident, which, 
though it be lufficiently known, yet, being 
the firft publick Adventure of his Life, we 
will not omit the Relation of it. 

King James being newly dead, and the 
Bufmefs of the '^Palatinate growing now def- 
pcrate, and the Spanijh Match broken off, 
in fuch fort as feem'd to threaten a War with 
that Crown, and which was alfo voted in 
Parliament j His Majefty, Charles I. among 
other Inftanccs of his Care, vifits thofe Parts 
of his Kingdom which lay moft diredly op- 
pofite to Spain, to take a View of the Con- 
dition of his Navy, and upon that Account 
came as far zsTlimoiith mi)ev on /hire, "where 
the Gentry, according to their Duty, were 
making ready to attend him. Among the 
reft Sir Thomas Monk (who was always a 
very confiderable Perfon in the publick Af- 
fairs of the County) refolv'd to be prefent. 
But knowing there were feveral Encum- 
brances left by his Father upon the Eftate, 
and that he might be obnoxious to fome 
Judgment or Statute againft him, he firft fent 
his Son George to the Under-SheriiF of the 
County, dcHring that he might with Liberty 
and Freedom attend upon his Majefty, upon 
this publick Occafion, now entring the Coun- 
ty : And for fo great Rcfped fhew'd him, 
that he would accept the Gratuity he l^d fcnt 


ji fhe LIFE of 

him by his Son. The Attorney acknow- 
ledg'd Sir Thomas Monk's Defire to be at that 
Time very fair and reafonable, accepted the 
Prefent, and promis'd him Security. Yet, 
notwithftanding, afterwards he found it his 
Interefl: to arreft the Perfon of Sir Thomas 
Monk upon an Execution, in the moft pub- 
lick Place of the County where they were, 
at their Convenience, to receive his Majefty. 

II. The Villany of this treacherous Adion 
was not fo deeply refented by Sir Thomas 
himfelf as by his Son George^ infomuch that 
he fought out the next Opportunity to meet 
the Under-SherifF at Exeter, where, having 
expoftulated the Indignity of the Adion, he 
effedually cudgcl'd him for his Perfidy. The 
Courage of the Attorney was much at the 
Rate of his Honefty ; but being a Retainer to 
the Law, he expeded the Law fhould vindi- 
cate him J and to that End was making rea- 
dy his working Tools, to reckon with the 
young Qent;leman for the Battery. 

III. This Accident led his Father to fend 
him abroad fomewhat fooner than he had in- 
tended. And the Voyage for Cadiz in Spain 
being then defigned, he was committed to 
the Care of a near Relation, Sir Richard 
Greenville who had Command in that Ex- 
pedition.. . This was the firft Tryal he was 

\''A '. .;.; '■}>:: . '■ - ■ to 

General Monk:. i^ 

to make of that Profelfion he intended to fol- 
low, and which prov'd fo unlucky as might 
well have difcourag'd a new Beginner. For 
the Expedition, through many Mifadventures 
of Wind and Weather, and other unfortunate 
Accidents, befidcs a contagious Sicknefs in 
the Navy, proving unfuccefsful, the Fleet re- 
turn d about the End of the Year home to 
turnout hy and this our young Soldier with it. 

IV.The following Year began the War with 
France, upon Caufes fufficiently known. And 
in the Expedition to the Ifle of Rhee and 
Rochel he accompany 'd S\^ John Burroughs. 
In the Voyage to Spain he had ferved only 
as a private Soldier, but now he was made 
Enfign in this Voyage to the Ifle of Rhee-, it 
is not eafy to fay which were greater, the 
Misfortunes of the Engltjh, or their Cou- 
rage. But in lefs than two Years time the 
RochellerSj for whofe Sake the War was un- 
dertaken, fubmitting to their own King, and 
the Crowns of England and France, by the 
Mediation of the State of Venice, QOVL\m2^ to an 
Agreement, he came back from i^/:?^^ 1628. 
and the next Year (being now 2 1 Years of 
Age) he went into the Low-Countries, 

V. England being now at Peace with her 
Neighbours, and having no Occafion for 
Men of the Sword, the Enfign Monk betook 


i4 ^^ LI F E of 

himfelf to the great Seminary of War and 
warlike Men, the United provinces, where 
he was firft entertained in the Regiment of 
the Earl of Oxford: And after fome Years 
was remov'd into the Command of the Lord 
Goring^ and made Captain of his own Com- 
pany, not being yet arrived to the 30* Year 
of his Age. 

VI. In this Service he did not, like a young 
Captain, retain his Commiilion as a Warrant 
for Luxury and Extravagance, but in earneft 
minded the Bufinefs of a Soldier, informing 
himfelf duly in all the Methods and Arts of 
War, being prefent at moft of the great Adi- 
ons that happen d, during his almoft ten Years 
Continuance in that Employment. 

VII. In the laft Year of his Service to that 
State (the Bufinefs of the Summer being o- 
ver) he had his Winter Quarters aOign'd him 
at '\Dort : Where there happen'd a Difference 
between him and the BiirgberSy upon this 
Occafion. Some of his Soldiers had commit- 
ted Diforders in the Town, for which he was 
ready and fevere enough to have punifhed 
them according to Martial Difcipline. But the 
imperious Burgher- Alafters would take the Bu- 
finefs under their own Cognizance, pretending 
they could allow no Authority in their own 
Liberties equal to, or diftind from their 

■ . . i-i owns' 

General Monk. t^' 

own. And this proceeded at laft to (o great 
a Quarrel, that the Matter was brought to 
the Hearing of the Prince of Orange : Who, 
though he had lately, in the fame Inftance, 
given his Judgment for Sir Richard Cavey yet 
was now lb farprevail'd upon to favour rather 
the Authority of the Burghers -, and Captain 
Monk was forc'd to exchange his Quarters at 
^ort for worfe in a meaner Place. The Circum- 
ftances of this ill Ufage fo greatly difoblig'd 
him, who, under a plain and moderate Beha- 
viour, carry 'd great and generous Spirits ; that 
he quickly after threw up his Commillion, dif- 
daining to expofe himfelf any longer in the 
Service of an ingrateful Commonwealth. 

VIII. From Holland he return'd back to 
England about the 30^^ Year of his Age, about 
the Time that the firfl: Scotch War began. 
A War never to be remembred without Hor- 
ror and Deteftation, as being the Prelude, by 
the Succefs and Advantage of it, to the Re- 
bellion in Ireland^ and to the long and bloody 
Civil War that prcfently after followed in 
England. This Rebellion in Scotland was 
fomented by fome of the Nobility of the 
Kingdom , to avoid refunding back to the 
Church the Lands they had in the Minority 
of King James alienated -, by the infolent 
Clergy, to withdraw themfelves from Sub- 
iedion to their Bifhops ; and by the Teople, 


T.6 The LIFE of 

through a certain Sottiflinefs of Nature, and 
a deprav'd Education. From. France it was 
fupported by the Cardinal RkhlieUj who 
fent private Emiflaries over, to advife and 
encourage them, and thereby was revenged 
on King Charles I. for aiding the Rochellers. 
From England it had the Approbation and 
good Wiflies of all the Turitans and Non- 
conformifts, who abetted the DifTenfions of 
Scotland, as a Support to the Common Caufe, 
or a Place, if there might be Occafion, of 


I. He is made Lieutenant-Colonel in the 
Expedition againft the Rebels in Scot- 
land ; his QonduSi and Bravery in that 
Expedition. II. A Treaty at Rippon 
with the Scots, too favourable and ad- 
vantageous to thofe Rebels. III. Earl of 
Leicefter made Lord Lieutenant of Ire- 
land. IV. Lieut eyiant 'Colonel Monk at- 
tends him thither, and is made Colonel of 

' his own Regiment. V. His Services a- 
gainftthe Rebels about Dublin, recommend 
him to the Government of that City. VI. 
The Incurfion of the Scots into England. 
VIL Which cmifd a Ceflation with the 
. . " IriOi 

General Monk. 17 

Iridi Rebels, and obliged the King to re- 
tall the Englilh Army to his AJJiflance. 

VIII. Colonel Monk returns "Joith them^ 
but is fufpe^edj as being the Earl of Lei- 
cefterV Colonel, to ' favour the 'Parlia- 
ment -, andy ttpon that SajpicioUy ordered 
to be fecured at Briftol : Lord Hawley, 
Governor of that ^lace, permits him to 
go upon his Parole to the King at Oxford, 
to whom he is introdnc'd by Lord Dig by. 

IX. The King, in regard to the great Re- 
putation which he had acquired in the 
Army, admits him to a private Conference 
with his Majefty. X. His Opinion con- 
cerning the State of the King's Army 
there ^ which he declares to the King, who 
makes him Major General to the Irifli Bri- 
gade. He is taken Prifoner by Sir Tiio- 
mas Fairfax. A Chara^er of Sir Thomas. 
And of how great Importance Major Ge- 
neral Monk was thought by the Parlia- 
ment, who remove him from Hull to the 
Tower of London. XL His Father, Sir 
Thomas Monk, dies, and leaves him an 
Annuity. Obfiacles to his Releafe from 
his Imprifonment. XII. The King pri- 
vately fends him a lool. XIII. The Parlia- 
ment propofed, by his long Imprifonment, 
to gain him over to their Side. A favou- 
rable Occafion for his Enlargement. XIV. 
The Motives upon which he accepted a 

C CommiJJion 

i8 the LIFE of 

CommiJJion to ferve againft the Rebels in 
Ireland, tinker the Lor<^ hide, with whom 
% hereturn'dto'Ew^Xznd. 

I.^^APTAIN Monk had, by his long Stay 
\^ in the Netherland's War, brought 
home the Reputation of a good Soldier ; and 
at the Recommendation of the Earl of Lei- 
cefier, to whom he was ally'd, was placed 
Lieutenant Colonel to the Regiment of the 
Earl of Newport^ who was then General of 
the Ordnance. Both thofe Northern Expe- 
ditions had but little Adion in them. But at 
Newborn, after the Scots prefled hard upon 
his Quarters, with very few Men, and lefs 
Ammunition, he fo lined the Hedges with 
his Firelocks, and brought off the Ordnance 
with that Bravery and Condud, that none of 
all the Scotch Regiments had the Courage or 
Confidence to impede his Retreat. And when 
the Earl of Strafford, General of the Army, 
moved the King, inftead of treating further 
with fuch infolent Rebels, to give him Leave 
to charge them : Lieutenant Colonel Monk 
was one of thofe few that earneftly urged a 
Battel, and gave very good Reafons for the 
Security of the Event : And was many times 
afterwards heard to difcourfe it with a parti- 
cular Indignation, that fo brave a Force of 
Horfc and Foot, able to have reduced a bet- 
ter Army than the Covenanters could raife. 

General Monk. ip 

and another kind of Kingdom than Scotlandy 
Ihould be lb bafely betrayed and baffled by 
thofe, who had their Influence upon, or be- 
trayed the Counfels of the late King. 

II. But this War ending at laft in a Trca- 1646) 
ty begun at Rippon^ with To much Advantage 

to the Covenanters ; who, for this their Scotch 
Rebellion, were paid with EngUfh Money, par- 
don'd and carefs'd by the King and Generals, 
thank'd by their Party in England \ the great 
Succefs thereof gave new Encouragement to 
the long-defign'd Rebellion in Ireland to 
break our, O^^^^r 23, 1641. Which wasthei6-fi 
more confidently attempted by the Death of 
the great Earl oi Strafford, then feafonably de- 
ftroy'd by the Malice of a Faction, whofe Pow- 
er and Policy was only dreadful to the Irijh, 

III. To obviate thefe growing Evils in 
Irelandy the Earl of Leicejter was both by 
King and Parliament (then fitting) agreed up- 
on as a fit Perfon to fucceed in the Lieute- 
nancy of that Kingdom, after the Death of 
the late Earl of Straford: And Forces al fo 
were voted to be rais'd in England for the War. 

IV. In this Service Lieutenant Colonel 
Monk was appointed by the Earl of Leice- 
fier to be Colonel of his own Regiment, 

which, with the other Forces, was not fent 
C 2 into 

20 7'he LIFE of -n 

into Ireland for fome while after. All thofc 
Supplies were much retarded, through thofe 
Jealoufies which then began to arife between 
the King and his (then long and fatal) Par- 
liament : So that much of the Money rais'd 
here for carrying on the War againft the 
Rebels in Ireland was, by the Parliamenr, 
employ 'd in their own Civil War in England. 
And many of the Soldiers, at firft lifted for 
Irijh Service, were engaged in the Army of 
the Earl of Ejfex. But though the Evglijh 
Forces were at laft fcnt over, yet the Earl of 
Lekefler never went to his Government, 
difcouraged either by the Fate of the Earl of 
Straffordj or the ill Condition of the Iri(h 
Affairs J which the War in England^ then in 
Frofped, was like to make worfe. The Earl 
of Ormond was in the interim appointed by 
him Lieutenant General of the Englijh Army 
in his Abfence, -and hisCommiflion wasalfo 
confirm'd by the King. , , 

V. Against this Rebellion, which was 
fo far advanc'd before the March of the 
Evglijh Aids, Colonel Monk did very good 
Service in and about T^tiblin: Inibmuch 
as the Lords Juftices thought him to be the 
fitteft Man to be Governor of that City. 

VL But whilft Colonel Monk^ and thofe 
other Forces in Ireland, were ftrenuoufly 
... ; ~ ' I ~'- carrying 

General Monk. 21 

carrying on the War againfl: the Rebels there, 
the Civil War in England bziwccn the King 
and Parliament began, and had fo far pre- 
vailed with fome Advantage on the King's 
Side, that the Parliament began to think of 
calling in the Aid of the Scots, who, fome 
while after, very readily trufled up their 
Trinkets and Covenant, and in Shoals came 
marching into England, zealous for their 
Common Caufc and Plunder. To balance in 1 64.3 
fome Mcafure this foreign Aid from Scotland, 
his Majcfty was enforced, by the Counfel of 
Neccfllty, to aflent to a Ceflation with the 
Irijh Rebels, and recall the Englijh Army 
to his own Alliftance at home, fome whereof 
were landed at Weft-Chefter, others at Bri- 

VII. With thefe Officers and Regiments 
Colonel Monk, according to his Duty, return- 
ed alfo into England. But at the Return of 
thefe Regiments the more loyal Party in the 
Kingdom had fome Diftruft of the Earl's Of- 
ficers, and particularly of Colonel A/<?wy&, be- 
ing his own Colonel, fo that it was fufpeded 
at his Return into England, he would ra- 
ther ferve the Parliament than the King. At 
his Arrival therefore at Briftol, there were 
Orders font from the Marquifs of Ormond, 
and from the Lord T)igby, then Secretary of 
State at Oxford, direded to the Lord Haw- 
C 3 ley. 

zi The LIFE of 

ley, who was then Governor of B^iflol, to 
fecLire Colonel Monk till further Order. Up- 
on his Arrival the Lord Hawley acquainted 
Colonel Monk with the Order he had receiv'd. 
Colonel Monk reprcfcnted to him the unjufl; 
and malicious Sufpicion that had been upon 
him ,* that he was return'd into ^?/^//5zW with 
no other Refolution but to ferve his Ma- 

VIII. The Lord Hawley was fo well ac- 
quainted with Colonel Alonk, that he knew 
him to be aPerfon not only of Courage, but 
of Integrity and Honefty, and that would 
not falfify his Word : So that infiead of fecu- 
ring him at Briftol, his Lordfliip took his 
Parole to go dircfStly to the King at Oxford, 
and fent Letters by him to the Lord "Digby, 
Secretary of State; who wasfo well fatisfy'd 
concerning him, that he introduced him to 
his Majefty in the Lodgings at Cbrijl-Churcb. 

IX. By this time Colonel Monk, through 
his long Service in the Netherland's War, 
and his Adion upon the Scots, and now of 
late againft the IriJJj, brought with him to 
Oxford the Reputation of an extraordinary • 
Courage and Conduct: Infomuch as his Ma- 
jefty then thought it worth the Time to have 
fome private Conference with him, in order 
to the Profccution of the V/ar. 

'/. :" ' ■''^"' '"■ "'^ " r '"" ' X. CoLO= 

General Monk. 23 

X. Colonel Monk, in his fhort Stay at 
Oxford, had quickly obferved the Condition 
of the King's Army there, that they were 
Men of Courage and Bravery enough, but 
the Difcipline was much more remifs than he 
had obferved in the Armies abroad. There- 
upon he took the Boldnefs to tell his Ma- 
jefty, 'that a lefs Army under greater Dif- 
cipline, would be fufficient to manage the 
War, and that the only Way to make his 
Army fuperior to his Enemies was, to equal 
them in military Difcipline. His Majefty 
could better difcern the Dcfe(9:s in his Forces 
than amend them at prefent j but there was 
fo much Reafon and Truth in what Colonel 
Monk had difcours'd, that it pleas'd his Majefty 
to command him into C^^^r. And becaufe 
upon the former Sufpicion of him, his Regi- 
ment was already given to Colonel Warren that 
had been his Major j his Majefty was pleas'd 
to entruft him with a Commiilion to be Ma- 
jor General to the Irifh Brigade. At his Ar- 
rival there he found the Lord Byron, who 
commanded in Chief over the Irijh Regi- 
ments, had befieged Nant\ji^itch, then gar- 
rifon'd for the Parliament. To whofe Re- 
lief Sir Thomas Fairfax, who, for his Cou- 
rage and Experience, was certainly the beft 
Man at Arms in the Parliament's Service, 
made fuch hafte out of Torkjhire, as he 
wholly furpriz'd the Irijlo Brigades, raifed 
C 4 t&c 

14 The LIFE of 

the Siege, and, among other Officers, took 
Colonel Monk Prifoner, and for the prefent 
fecurcd him in Hull. The Value of this Per- 
fon could no more be conceal'd from the 
Parliament than it had been from the King. 
His Courage againft the Scots^ and how 
roundly he had gone to work with the Rebels 
in Ireland^ were too late Adions to be pre- 
fently forgot. And befides,Sir Thomas FairfaXy 
who had the Fortune to furprizehim, and fe- 
veral other Low-Coimtry Officers in the Par- 
liament Service, had known him very well 
abroad, and made their Maftcrs quickly un- 
derhand that Colonel Monk was a Man worth 
the making. The Parliament therefore (who 
had refolvcd not hafiily to exchange him) 
commanded his removal from Hiilly and fe- 
curcd him in the Tower of London. 

: XL And here begins the paffive Scene of 
this Gentleman's Life, without which Ingre- 
dient, no eminent Virtue was ever raifed in, 
the World. He had brou2;ht little with him 
into England, except his Sword and his Li- 
berry, and now he has lofl: both. The Par- 
liament had provided him Houfe-room, which 
he would have thank'd them to have kept 
for them felves; but for his other Accommo- 
dations, he was enforced to be his own Stew- 
ward. Some while before his Confinement, 
and to make his Prifon the more eafy to him, 
his Father, the good old Knight, Sir Thomas 


General Monk. 2y 

Alonkj died, 1643. leaving him, a younger 
Brother, (according to the Cuftom of England 
in the bcft FamiUes) a fmall Annuity for his 
Life, which, in the Commotions of that 
County, at fo great a Diftancc, was ill paid 
him ; his elder Brother, who had the Eftate, 
being on the King's Side engaged in the 
War, which before this Time had reach'd as 
far as the remoter Counties of T>evon and 
Corn^ji'alL By thcfe Accidents he was pre- 
vented of feafonable Supplies from (lis Rela- 
tions. And his Inrerefi: at Oxfotd (where he 
made a fiiort Stay) was not fuch that he 
could cxped to be fuddenly enlarged by ari 
Exchange ; there being fo many other Offi- 
cers and Perfons of Quality in the fame Con- 
dition with himfelf, whohad powerful Friends 
at Court, that expedied to be rcleafed before 
him. Nor was it eafy to offer fuch a Perfon 
in Exchange for him as the Parliament 
would be willing to accept. 

XII. But the Charader that was receiv'd 
of him, and thofe fmall Conferences he had 
with the King at Oxford, had left ^o fair an 
Impreflion of him in his Majefty's Mind, that 
when he could not procure Colonel Monk's 
Liberty, he was careful to provide for his 
Support; and to that purpofe there was fe- 
cretly convey'd to him an hundred Pounds in 
pold, at a Time when fuch a Sum was a 


2# The LIFE of 

greater Matter in his Majefty's Coffers, than 
in many of his meaner SLibjed:s. And this 
fo fcafonable and indulgent Bounty of the 
King towards him, he has been often heard 
to mention with a very tender and fcnfible . 
Gratitude. ^'— '' *■; ■" -' 

XIII. During his Imprifonment in the 
Tower, moft of the great Adions of the Ci- 
vil War were over, and their greater Battles 
fought, as at Marfton-Moor^ Newberj^ and 
Nafeby, which made Colonel Monk's Con- 
finement fo much the more uneafy to him, 
who was in the Flower of his Age, and thir- 
fty after Glory. But it pleafed God, who had 
defi2;n'd him for another Purpofe, to ref- 
cue him from thofe Services. Yet whilft he 
was a Prifoner in the Tower he wanted not 
many and good Offers for his Enlargement, 
upon Acceptance of a Commiflion to ferve 
the Parliament ; which was the Defign of 
driving a Bargain with him, by fo long and 
clofe a Confinement, who yet kept up Hopes 
of procuring his Liberty upon better Terms, 
continuing ftill to folicit his Exchange, by 
the fmall Intereft he had at Oxford. But 
having at laft fpent almoft four Years Time 
in a long and tedious Confinement, through 
many Wants and Deftitution of things necef- 
fary to his Perfon and Quality, and the im- 
pairing of hrs Health 5 and having no Hopes 


General Monk. i;? 

or Profped of returning again to Oxford, 
there fell out a very feafonable Opportunity 
for his Enlargement, upon this Occafion. 

XIV. The Marquifsof Ormonde (who at 154*. 
firft was appointed Lieutenant General in the 
Abfence of the Earl of Leicejier) declaring 
wholly for the King in Irelaridy without any 
Regard to the Parliament at JVeftminfter, fo 
far difpleas'd them, that they voted the Lord 
Lifle, eldeft Son to the Earl of Leicejier, to 
take the Government of that Kingdom. His 
Lordfliip prefently thinks upon his Kinfman, 
Colonel Monk, in the Tower, and offers him 
a Commiflion under him. He had been (as 
we related before) Colonel to the Earl of 
Leicefter's own Regiment in Ireland, and 
therefore was the more willing to take the 
fame Commiflion from his Son. Befides, he 
had been particularly oblig'd to that Family, 
for fome feafonable Kindnefs and Supply, 
during his late Imprifonment in the Tower. 
In this War he had been engaged before, and 
it was very agreeable to his Principles and 
Confcience. The King alfo and Parliament, 
who at this time could agree in nothing elfe, 
did jointly vote the Irijh then in Arms, to be 
Rebels. And Colonel Monk having receiv'd 
his Liberty for this Service, was too gene- 
rous to employ it to any other Ufe. But 
tefore he quitted the Tower, he took Leave 

- of 

i8 The LIFE ef 

of feveral of his Fellow-Prifoners, with 
whom he was acquainted, and, among the 
reft, of the Bifhop of Ely-, Dr. JVren, from 
whom he requefted hisepifcopal Bleffing; tel- 

.* linp him, he was now going to do the King 
the beft Service he could againft the Rebels 
in Ireland, and hoped he fhould one Day do 
him further Service in England. All which, 
with the Circumftances of it, has been feve- 
ral times attefted by that Reverend and Pious 
Prelate, in the hearing of many great and 
illuftrious Perfons. Upon this he readily at- 
tended the Lord Ltjle, who on the 28'^ of 
January fet out from London towards Ire- 
land. His Lordfhip was ordered to land at 
Dublin, but the Marquifs of Ormond having 
received no Command from his Majefty, to 
deliver up the City to him, could not give 
him Admilllon. Thereupon the Lord Lijle 
and his Forces made their Way into Mun- 
fier, and landed near Cork. Very little was 
done by this Voyage of the Lord Lifle into 
Ireland. So that after two Months Stay in 
the Country, his Commillion being expired, 
he fet Sail April 1 7, and returned again into 
England, and Colonel Monk with him, who 

5^7 then was above 38 Years of Age. 

.0;;^li CHAP. 


General Monk. 29 


I. He is commiffiond to go again into the 
North ^/'Ireland, againjithoje Rebels. The 
'Difficulties he furmounted in this Pro- 
vince. II. A remarkable Inflance of his 
Frugality^ and provident Care towards the 
Support of his Soldiers. III. Upon what 
Reafons he concluded a ^eace with O 
Neal 5 after which he returned into Eng- 
land. IV. It was fufpecied that he had 
exprefs Commands from England to con- 
clude that 'Peace. V. The Murther of 
the King. VI. The General^ in his Re- 
turn ^^ England, meets Croniwel then go- 
ing Lord Lieutenant to Ireland. VII. His 
elder Brother dies. VIII. He is out of all 
Employment. IX. A new Qccafwn of his 
entring upon Action. X. Cromwel, upon 
the Lord Fairfax^ Refufal of that Employ- 
ment, is made Commander in Chief againfi 
the Scots 5 who makes Monk Lieutenant 
General of the Ordnance. XI. The great 
Confidence that Cromwel repofed in him, 
and upon what Grounds. XII. Animadver- 
fions on the Scotch Clergy, and the Death 
of theMarquifs of Momrok. XIII. A Mif 
conduB of Cromwel, and the Error of it 
retrieved by General Monk, by which 
Means the Scots were defeated at Dunbar. 
XIV. The good Effe&s of this Vi6fory, tho' 


3b the LIFE of 

in fome Meafure obfiru5fed by the Remon- 
flrators. XV. The King with the Scotch 
Army goes to Worcefter, and is purfued by 
Cromwel, who had left General Monk to 
reduce Scotland. His great Succefs there, 

XVI. He returns jick into England, 

XVII. An Aci of Coalition to tmite Eng- 
land ^«</ Scotland into one Commonwealth. 

XVIII. An Union of this kind had been 
projeBed by King James, at which the 
Scots were much difcontented, and for what 
Reafons. XIX. General yionk appointed 

. one of the CommiJJioners for concluding this 
Coalition. - 

I. y\ T his Return Colonel Monk having 
{" x difcovered his Inclination rather to 
ferve the Parliament in Ireland, than in any- 
other Employment, fome of the Members 
of Parliament knowing his Averfenefs to be 
employed in the Civil Wars at home, and all 
knowing him for his Courage and exact Dif- 
cipline, a moft fit Perfon for the Irifh Service, 
they offered him a Commiflion to command 
the Britifb Forces in the North of Ireland^ 
which he accepts 5 and now takes his third 
Voyage into that Kingdom. In this Com- 
mand he had a very nice and difficult Pro- 
vince : For the Scotch under Monroe, and 
the Englijh, though conjoin'd together, did 
not perfedly agree or truft each others yet 


General Monk.^ 31 

he kept them both in fo good Order, as he 
cfFed:ually profecuted the War. Much of his 
Bufinefs was againft Owen Roe O Neal, a 
bold and reftlcfs Rebel, and accounted the 
beft Soldier among them, having many Years 
ferved the King of Spain^ and who had train- 
ed up the Forces under his Command, to a 
Courage and Refolution beyond the ufual 
Temper of the Irip : Yet Colonel Monk 
look'd fo narrowly after all his Goings, and 
kept him fo fnort of Provifion as made him 
weary of the War. 

II. This was but a dry and barren Em- 
ployment, and the Parliament at Weftmin- 
fter had too many Irons in the Fire, to take 
any Care of Money or Provifion for an Ar- 
my in the North of Ireland. But Colonel 
Monkj who was not only a good Soldier, 
but a good Husband alfo, fo -ordered the Til- 
lage and Improvement of the Country, and 
providently difpofed of all Booties taken from 
the Enemy, that he made the War fupport it 
felf without much Relief from England, 

III. All Things, through his Induftry and 
Condud, had fucceeded fo well in the North 
of Ireland, that the Parliament thought the 
Scotch Forces unneccflary in Ulfter, and 
voted their Difcharge home, which gave Oc- 
calion to fome Jcaloufies and Difcontents be- 

c twcen 

3i T^^ LIFE of 

twecn the EnglijJj and Scotch Soldiers, infd- 
much that Colonel Monk fufpedled Monroe, 
and the other Scotch Officers, to have fome 
Defign upon his Perfon and Liberty. At the 
fame Time the Marquifs of Ormonde the 
Lord Inchequin, and divers others, coming 
to an Agreement, a great Part of Colonel 
Monk's Forces revolted from him at Dun- 
dalke\ fo that he was befet with fo many 
Difficulties, as enforced him to clofe up an 
i649hafty Pacification with O NeaU and to re- 
turn into England. 

iV. Bar this Aftidn, being of fo tranfcen- 
dent a Nature, gave Occafion to many cori- 
fidering Perfons to believe that Colonel Monky 
being a Perfon of fo much Honour and Cou- 
rage, would not, by any Neceffity whatfoe- 
ver, have been brought to fuch an Agree- 
ment, if he had not been particularly com- 
manded to it by his Superiors in England, 
who, being refolv'd to fall upon the Royal 
Party in Ireland, made no Scruple to clap up 
a Peace with the Rebels. 

V. Somewhat before this, during Colo- 
nel Monk's Employment in Ireland, was com- 
mitted the execrable Murder upon the Per- 
fon of the late King j an Adion of fo great 
Impudence and Villany, as can find no Paral- 
lel in paft Ages, and the fucceeding will as 
'■'■' hardly 

General Monk:. 33 

hk)cd\y believe it. And here let me arreft 
my Reader with the Contemplation of the 
divine Wifdom, which had dcfigned this 
Cdlotiel Monk to be the Reftorer of Mo- 
narchy, and his prcfent Majefty ; that he 
fhoold at this Time, though he ferved the 
Party, be difpofed of in an Employment of 
fo much Diftancc and Privacy, as he could 
hardly know, much lefs be concern'd in, fo 
great a Guilt, Sis was the Murther of that 
excellent King. 

VI. In his Return home he met Lieute- 
nant General Cromwell then haftening to 
confummate the Irijh War, with five Rcgi- 
hlents of Horfe, and fevert of Foot. This 
Ceflation with O Neal did greatly facilitate 
Cromweh Bufincfs, who, in lefs than a 
Years Time, finiftied that War, and then 
haften'd back into England to proiecute the 
other high Defigns of his Ambition. 

VII. About this Time his elder Brother 
Thomas Monk, Efq; dy'd by a Fall from 
his Horfe, leaving only two Daughters be- 
hind him ; and the Eftate being fettled upori 
the Ifliie-Male, it came to Colonel Monk as 
now Heir in Tail : who, as he had raifed his 
Name and Family to the higher State of No- 
bility and Honour, fo he accordingly re- 
paired the Ruins of the Family, and advanc- 

D ed 

34 The LIFE of ■ 

ed it to a Condition fuitable td fupport the 
Greatnefs of its Quality. 

VIII. Colonel Monk, after his Return 
out of Ireland, was now out of all Employ- 
ment, and very well contented to have con- 
tinued fo j but a new War at hand brought 
him again into Adion. 

IX. After the Death of the late King,^ 
the Scots had enter'd into a Treaty with his 
prefent Majefty, for reftoring him to his 
Kingdom of Scotland, which this Year 
came to a Conclufion ; but upon fuch Terms 
as Goths and Vandals would have been a- 
Ihamed to offer to an hereditary Prince. 
There was then in Scotland a very honeft 
and loyal Party, that were defirous to reftore 
him upon Conditions agreeable to their Alle- 
giance and Duty. But the Covenanters, who 
were much the greater Number, having for- 
merly made fo good a Bargain by the Sale 
of his Father, were now driving another, al- 
moft as advantagious to them, with the Son. 
His landing and Reception in Scotland gave 
a fmart Alarm to the Parliament at Weftmin- 
fter. They eafily forefaw a War would en- 
fue, and therefore thought it moft agreeable 
to their Gallantry and Puiflance to be the 
Aggreflbrs. Whereupon they voted their 
Army to march Northward, and invade Scot- 

Q land. 

General Monk. 3y 

land. And Lieutenant General Cromwel, 
having done his Bufinefs in reducing Ireland, 
was return'd to London as feafonably as if he 
had contrived it. Both he and his Party were 
dcfirous, that he might command as General 
in this Northern Expedition, and fo confum- 
mate the Circle of his Glories, by the Con- 
queftof Scotland, TheNoifeof a BruQi with 
the Scots alarnVd all the Presbyterian Party, 
and their Clergy, in England, who own'd 
themfelves obliged, by their folemn League, 
not to enter into War with their covenanted 
Brethren. And fome of them, who had a 
great Afcendant over the Lord Fairfax , and 
alfo on his Lady, had fo pradifed upon both 
their Confciences, that he willingly dilabled 
himfelf for this Service. This Advantage was 
quickly difcern'd, if not at firft contriv'd, by 
Cromwel and his Party, who laugh'd in 
their Sleeves at the confcientious Qualms of 
the Presbyterians. And this Scruple of the 
Lord Fairfax was farther promoted in him, 
by the Fincnefs of fome of the demure Inde- 
pendents in the Houfe of Commons, that were 
in Cromweh Intereft. So that in the Con- 
clufion the Matter was fo decently carry'd, 
that Cromwel was voted to the folc Com- 
mand againft the Scots. 

X. Having gain'd the Authority he fo 

long affedted, his next Care was for modelling 

D i his 

^6 ne LIFE of 

his Army, which indeed was made up of the 
Flower of the Englijh Forces. About this 
time he had taken a particular Notice of Co- 
lonel Monk I and obferving how with fmall 
Force he had managed his Bufinefs upon the 
Rebels in Ireland^ he found him an abler Of- 
ficer for the Scotch War, than many of his 
own infpired Colonels. And becaufe he would 
by no means want his Company, he furnifti- 
cd him with an extempore Regiment drawn 
out of feveral others, and afterwards made 
him Lieutenant General of the Ordnance. 
Befides the Importunities of Cromwel, which 
could not fafely be deny'd, there are two things 
which feem the more to have inclined Colo- 
nel Monk to this War : One was a kind of 
Indignation and Prejudice fettled in him a- 
gainft the Nation, ever fince their Rebellion 
and Infolencies againft Charles the Firft, in 
which War he had been employed. The o- 
ther was the Perfidy and ill Ufage he had met 
with from the Scots, when he commanded 
them lately in the North of Ireland, 

XI. To this Scotch Expedition he feem'd 
to be defign'd by the fecret Fate that govern- 
ed him. For by his extraordinary Condud 
and Prudence in this War, he gain'd fo upon 
Cromwel, as to be thought the only fit Per- 
fon to be trufted with the fole Command of 
xht Country. By which Station he became 


General Monk. 37 

at laft capable of doing thofe great and hap- 
py things which we are afterwards to relate. 

Xir. The Scots might very well have ex- 
pe6led this Invafion from England^ where a 
great Army was always in Readinefs : But 
their Counfels were chiefly governed by their 
loud and bellowing Clergy, with fome other 
Male-contents, obtruding every Day new and 
infolent Conditions upon his Majefty, accuf- 
ing and diftinguifliing Malignants, and an in- 
finite Number of wild and endlefs Babble a- 
bout their Covenant ; fo that Cromwel was 
very far advanc'd towards them, before they 
had brought their Army into any good Readi- 
nefs. And to fill up the Meafure of their Vil- 
lanies with the Slavery of the Nation, the 
Year before they had malicioufly made away 
the great and valiant Marquifs of Montrofs, 
who was accounted the beft Man of Arms 
their Nation ever bred ; whofe Courage and 
Condud, had he been alive and entrufted, 
was more than Cromweh Match, and might 
have fav'd their Nation. 

XIII. General Cromwel being advanced 
as far as Berwicky kept on his Way towards 
Edenburghj and finding the Scots not willing 
to come to a Fight, traverfed his Ground 
back again towards T>unbary the Scotch Ar- 
my pre fling fome what hard upon his Rear. 
D 3 Here 

38 The LIFE of 

Here he had run himfelf into fuch a Noofe, 
for all the Cantings and Magnificats of his 
Party, as did greatly blemifli his Difcretion. 
The Scots were Matters of the Hill, and had 
coop'd the Englijh Army into a narrow Neck 
of Land, the Sea behind them, and no Way 
for Retreat but by the Pafs at Coppefmythy 
then ftrongly poflfefled by the Scots, Now 
would Cromwel have willingly exchang'd his 
Command with Fairfax^ to have been fafe in 
his Room at London. But here the Expe- 
rience and Conduct of Lieutenant General 
Monk help'd him at the dead Lift. For at a 
Council of War he moved, to make a prefent 
Affault upon the Enemy, when never an Of- 
ficer there had the Courage to think of it ; 
and undertook the Charge himfelf, with fuch 
Succefs, as ended in an entire Vidory. Un- 
lefs Cromwel had fecretly corrupted the Of- 
ficers of the Scotch Army, or thofe Cove- 
nanters had been the arranteft Cowards in 
Nature, they could not have been fo (hame- 
fully routed, being almoft double in Number 
to their Enemies, and poflefTed of fuch great 
Advantages upon them. But by the Fortune 
of this Day, the Covenant was moft mifera- 
bly battcr'd by the LordofHofts, which was 
the Word given in the feveral Armies before 
ihe Fight began. ,v •'^. -.>; , ■■ ^ .■ '^ njy'xjj- 

.•:>V,.>i' :"] i;<;,;r." XIV. ThE 

General Monk, 39 

XIV. The loyal Party in Scotland was 
not greatly concern'd .for this Defeat at "Dun- 
bar, which had chiefly cut off fo many of 
the violent Kirk Party, that might well be 
fparcd. But it had alfo a farther Effect up- 
on the reft; for it took down the Heat 
of the Covenanters, that they came at laft 
to a calm Refolution of admitting all Par- 
ties, and that fmce they had been brought to 
thofe Streights by the Lofs of T^imbary it 
was neceflary, for Defence of the Caufe of 
God and the Kirk, to take in the Alliftanceof 
fuch as had fcrv'd the late King, and fuch alfo 
as had been in Duke Hamilton^ Army. This 
was the Refolution of the greater Part of the 
Scots ; but was remonftrated againft, as a be- 
traying the Intereft of Jefus Chrifty and his 
Kirk, by a more refined fort of whining Hy- 
pocrites: And thefe were called the Remon- 
ftrators. Which Schifm of the Refolutioners 
and Remonftrators became as natural and ma- 
licious among them, as between the Jew and 
Samaritan of old, or the late Guelfs and Gi- 

XV. But by this Refolution, and that 
which fucceeded it, his Majefty came the 
next Year to have an Army which he could 165 
better govern, and were more obedient to the 
Methods he had defigned. Which, taking 
D 4 Advantage 

40 The LIFE of 

Advantage of Cromizeh Army beiog pafs'd 
over the Frith mxo Fife, he gave them the 
Go by, and dipt into England by the Way 
of Carliflcy and was purfucd to PVorcefter by 
the Body of. Cromwel's Army, who had left 
Lieutenant General Monk with fix thoufand 
Men, to pcrfedl the Redudion of Scotland. 
Whether Lieutenant General Monk had defir- 
ed this Province, of following the War in 
that Country, or his ufual good Fortune had 
fo far befriended him, as to refcue him from 
an Employment he fo much difliked, 'viz.oi 
fighting in England, we cannot abfolutely 
determine. But after that Cromwelwzs march^ 
ed after the King into Englandy he fo warm- 
ly profecutcd the Scots, that after the taking 
of Edeyibiirgh Q^^Xz, the Surrender of Z'^w/^/- 
lon Caftle, the Rendition of Sterling, and 
the furprizing of ^Dundee, with feveral other 
confiderable Places, yielding prefently to the 
Fortune of the Vidlor : Such was Lieutenant 
General Monk's Difpatch, that he had gain'd 
a great Part of Scotland, by that Time Crom- 
wel had fully done his Bufinefs at JVorcer 
fler, ■■ .V. . 

:': XVI. But in this Summer's Expedition, 
Lieutenant General Monk, (either as an Allay 
to his Succcfs, or as a Chaftifcment upon him 
for ferving under fuch Confederates) fell into 
a violent Sicknefs, which held him all the 
Uc%'^^k.'i].4\ ^ ,,^i..u f.'ri ;^; :*' Winter^ 

General Monk. 41 

Winter, and reduc'd him to that Wcaknefs, 
that he was enforc'd to return'd into England 
for Repair of his Health 5 and the following 
Summer he recpver'd it at the Bath. 

XVII. And at his Return thence x.oLon-i6<,z 
4on, he found the Parliament, having now 
conquered Scot land y refolved to extirpate Mo- 
narchy among the Scots ; and, to fecure their 
Subjeftion, they had framed an Ad of Coal^- 
tioq, whereby both Nations fliould be united 
into one Commonwealth. 

XVIII. A Defign at which King James was 
aiming,' when he altered the Royal Style, 
and proclaimed himfelf King of Great Bri- 
tain. Great were the Difcontents in Scot- 
land about this Union. The loyal Party ut- 
terly declined it, in Hopes of fome more for- 
tunate Seafon ro rcftorc Monarchy. And the 
covenanting Presbyterians equally railed a- 
gainft it. They had already obferved the 
Declenfion of their Presbyterian Government 
here in England, and were greatly afraid, as 
Independency had already conquered their 
Country, fo it would extirpate their Reli- 
gion. - 

XIX. To fettle this Union of both Na- 
tions, Commilfioners were fcnt down, that 
\fttQ, cunning old Grandees of the Party, and 

^..;: . . ■ ;.:/■-" -of 

4Z The LIFE of 

of the Independent Intereft. To whom Lieu- 
tenant General Monk, being thought to have 
better Knowledge of them, and Intereft a- 
mong them, by his late Command there, was 
alfo added : Who, though he had conquered 
the Nation, yet had been fo fair and fo ho- 
^lourable an Enemy, as they were perfuaded 
to an Union by him, more than by all the 
Tricks and Artifices of the reft. And having 
at laft fettled the Coalition according to their 
Inftruftions, both he and they return'd to 

C H A P. IV. 

I. The ^ower and Tride of the Parliament 
incline them to a War zojith the Dutch. 
■^ 11. Blake made Admiral, who gains fome 
Advantages over them. III. The next 
'•■ Tear Dean and Monk are made Admirals, 
- equal in Commiffion. IV.TheZeal of the 
f 'Parliament in pr of e outing this War i 
^ whom, notwithftanding, Cromwel dif- 
^ folves, and ere5fs a Council of State, to 
which the ^ireEtion of military Ajfairs 
was committed' V. An Engagement be- 
tween the two Fleets on the Coaft of Flan- 
ders, wherein Dean is killed. The Tre- 
^ fence of Mind, Bravery ^ and Condu£i of 
-^ ./^ Monk 

General Monk. 45 

Monk in that ABion. He purfues the 
Dutch, and the next ^ay Jinks fix, and 
takes eleven of their Ships. VI. The 
Dutch repair their Fleet, and the 
next Month the EngUfli Fleet engaged 
them a third time ; in in'hich Engagement 
thirty of their Ships were fimky their 
Vice- Admiral Everlloii, and their Admi- 
ral Van Trump, killed by a fmall Shot. 
VII. The furprifing Siiccefs of this Ac- 
tion ; upon which the States found them- 
felves obliged to fue for T^eace, with the 
Conditions to which they were forced to 

I. ^^T O W was the Junfto Parliament at 
1^^ Weftminfter come to the Meridian 
of their Power and Ufurpation, from which 
they quickly after declined. They, had re- 
duc'd Ireland, conquer'd Scotland, and ut- 
terly baffled the King's Intereft in England-, 
which rais'd them to that Height of Pride 
and Confidence, that now they were refolv- 
ed to reckon with their Neighbours, the 
States of Holland, for certain Infolcncies they 
had fuftained from them. Hitherto they had 
diflemblcd their Refentments for the Death 
of T>oriflaiis, who went to complement the 
flitch to an Alliance to their new Common- 
wealth i and alfo the Affronts that were put 
upon their extraordinary Ambaffadors, Saint- 
''■■( ^i^i^^^;- John 

44 f^^ LI FE of 

John and Strickland. Neither wanted there 
Complaints about Trade, which they defign- 
ed to reduce by an KOl for Encouragement 
of Navigation 5 fucceeded with fuch high De- 
mands upon the T^iitch for Reparation of In- 
juries, and of fettling a free Trade, cJ^r. as 
the States were refolved to enter into a War, 
rather than make fo hard a Bargain for their 
Peace. The Honour and Efteeni of the 
Englijh Nation was at this Time utterly loft 
abroad, by the bold and infolent Adions of 
the Commonwealth Parliament, and the a- 
ftonifhing Murther of the late King ; fo that 
the T^utch fomewhat fcorn'd to be firft in 
making Alliance with fo infamous a People, 
and did alfo equally defpife them. Nor did 
they greatly like, that a Revolt from their 
natural Prince fliould thrive in other Hands, 
io much as it had done in their own. The 
Stitch very well rcmembet'd, the Kings of 
Englandy looking on them as a trading Peo- 
ple, had never fevercly infpeded or ftated 
things with them, in Matters of Profit. But 
now they were to deal with a coarfe and 
fcraping Ibrt of People, that would upon oc- 
cafion be quarrelling with them for their Pen- 
ny, and look to their Trade with as much 
Concern as themfelves. After a great deal ot 
religious Tampering on both Sides, they fell 
at laft to Blows. 

II. On 

General Monk." 4^ 

II. On the firft Yearof this War, it was 165 2 
managed on the Jundo's Side by their Admi- 
ral Blake, who, in a Fight near the Goodwin 
Sands, and afterwards near Tortland, wbrft- 

cd xhcDutch Fleet. 

III. Against the next Year, they had 165 3 
ordered General Monk and General ^ean, be- 
ing join'd in equal Commiflion, to carry on 

the War. This was fomething an odd Pro- 
vince for General Monk, who had all his Life 
commanded in Land Service, now in the 45^^ 
Year of his Age, to take up a new kind of 
Warfare at Sea. But as all Countries are a- 
like to a wife Man, fo are all Elements to the 

IV. The Parliament was very bufy in 
haftening their Preparations for this War; 
and werefo intent upon their Enemies abroad, 
that they overlook'd greater at home. For 
on April 2z. Oliver Cromwel, whofe Am- 
bition could hold no longer, enter'd the 
Houfe of Commons, accompanied with fome 
of his Officers, and diflblv'd the Parliament, 
after their twelve Yea^rs Continuance in the 
Practice of fuch Mifchiefs and Depredations, 
as are not eafy to be recounted. But though 
the Parliament was at an End, the T)utch 
War went on, being managed forthe prefent 

5 ^ 'by 

4^ The LIFE of 

by a Council of State, made up of fome prin» 
cipal Officers in the Army, and fome Mem- 
bers of the late Jundto, that were Cromwel's 

V. The firft Engagement this Year was 
June the 2** on the Coaft of Flanders -, the 
T>utch Fleet commanded by Van Trump, the 
Vice-Admiral Van de Rttyter, the two E- 
vertfons, and ^e Witt 5 and their Number 
of Ships much the greater. The Englijh was 
led by General Monk and T>ean, having Jor~ 
dan. Law [on-, Goodfon with them. The 
Fight began very early in the Morning. At 
the firft Shot from the T)utch Fleet ^ean 
was kill'd, walking by the Side of General 
Monk } who at his Fall (nothing difcompofed 
in his Mind or Looks) caft his Cloak over 
him, and afterwards ordered him to be car- 
ried into his Cabbin, commanding the Soldi- 
ers and Seamen to look to the Ship, and fol- 
low their Bufinefs. By ten of the Clock the 
Fight grew very fliarp, efpecially between the 
Squadron commanded by de Ruyter, and 
the Blue Squadron led by Lawfon. To the 
Relief of the firft Van Trump came in, and 
General Monk in excellent Order failed to re- 
inforce the other, fo that now the Fight be- 
came very hot on both Sides, till three in the 
Afternoon, about which Time the Wind fa- 
vouring the Dutchj they bore away before 
5 K 

General Monk. 47 

it, being purfued till Night by General Monk : 
Who, the next Morning, found himfelf near- 
er than he imagined to the Enemy's Fleet. 
Yet he could not get up to them till towards 
Noon, and then both Fleets engaged till ten. 
at Night ; The Wind being frefli and Wefterly, 
General Monk prelTed hard upon them, and 
funk fix of their beft Ships, and two more of 
the 'Dutch were, through Misfortune, blown 
up by their own Fleet. Eleven Ships were 
taken that Day from the Enemy, the reft 
were fecured, by Van Trump, running upon 
the Flats at 'Dunkirk. 

VI. After this Fight General Monk lay 
upon the Dutch Coafts, furprifing feveral of 
their Ships, and difturbing their Trade, till 
foul Weather drave him off their Shoars. In 
lefs than two Months time the Dutch had 
got together a very great Fleet of about one 
hundred twenty five Sail, which was the laft 
Effort of their Strength and Courage. And 
July 29. both Fleets came in View of each o- 
ther. General Monk had not above ninety 
odd Sail of Ships, which were all a Stern, To 
that till towards Evening they could not get 
up to come to any Engagement, which be- 
gan with fome of the lighter Frigats, and en- 
creafed to about thirty, and fought till the 
Night parted them. This was but the Prelude 
to the next Day's Work : For on the next 


'48 the LIFE of 

Morning early General Monk tack'd upon the 
Enemy, and a moft fierce and bloody Fight 
began on all Hands, which continued till a- 
bout three in the Afternoon. In this Battel 
the General, being much iriferior to the E- 
nemy in Number, had commanded the Cap- 
tains to attempt to deftroyor fink what Ships 
they could, without taking of any, whereby 
he fhould be oblig'd to weaken his Fleet, 
through the Abfence of thofe that muft go off 
"with them. In this Fight were funk of the 
*Dutch Fleet near thirty Ships, among which 
was Vice- Admiral Evert fori-, with the Lofs 
only of one Englijh Frigat. And to con- 
fummate the Fortune and Gldry of this new 
Admiral, in this Fight fell the brave and a- 
ged Seaman Van Trump, famous for many 
Vidories, and accounted one of the beft Sea- 
men of this Age : He was kill'd by a fmall 
Shot, and dy'd like an Admiral, with his 
Sword in his Hand, as he was (landing on 
the Deck of his Ship, encouraging his Men 
to the Fight. The Lofs of fo many Ships, 
with the Fall of their chief Commander, fo 
difcouraged the 'Dutch Fleet, that they pre- 
fently made all the Sail they could, and run 
into the Texel. 

VII. They who were at Leifure to confi- 
der the Circumftances of this Fight, have 
wondered ajt the Succcfs of it. Thei 'Dutch 


G F N E R A L M O N K. 49 

had much the Odds in Number, their Ships 
and Men frefh ; the Fight upon their Coafts ; 
they had alio Fire Ships with them, and the 
EngUjld none. The Lofs of their bcfl: Com- 
mander, and of fo great a Part of their Fleer, 
put the States of Holland into fuch Apprc- 
henfions, and their common People into fuch 
Diforders, as they haften'd back their Am- 
bafladors, who were newly rcturn'd home for 
further Inftrudions, to make fuch a Peace 
with the Englijh as they could get. But the 
Council of State held them to hard Meat. They 
would abate nothing of their laft Demands, 
made for the Common wealth Parliament. 
Nothing would do except, befide ftrikingthe 
Flag, they made a Recognition of the Eng- 
lijh Sovereignty to the Narrow Seas, a Rent 
to be paid for the Fifliery, the Trade in the 
Indies to be free, and Satisfaction for all 
Merchants Lofles, and Reparation for the 
Charge of the War, and a Coalition of both 
Nations, to the excluding the Prince of O- 
range from any Place of Government. Great 
was the religious Knavery and Falfliood on 
both Sides, and the 'Dutch had already learnt 
to cant and wheadle in the Gibberifh of the 
Englijh Sectaries. 


yo The LIFE of 


I. The little T^arliament at Weftminfter, and 
their fanatical ^Projedis of incorporating 
the [even Provinces. II. The Dutch Com- 
mijjioners at a Lojs how to treat with 
jMenj whofe Schemes and Principles ap- 
peared fo very chimerical. The 'Defign 
which Cromwcl had to ftrve by them, 
III. Having laid them a fide ^ he takes the 
Government upon himfelf with the Title 
£?/* Protestor ; makes feveralCondefcenfions 
to the Dutch ComrniJJionerSy towards the 
more ejfeEittal Seclufion of the Houfe of 
Orange from the Power and 'Dignity of 
St adh older. IV The Articles on both Sides 
in Reference to this Point. V. The States 
General ajhamed of it, yet^ by the Advice 
of Dc Witt, they at laft agree to it, as a 
fecret Article, but without the Confent of 
the other Provinces. Upon which a Peace 
is concluded between England and Hol- 
; land, rvhersin Cromwel facrifices the pub- 
lick Inter efl to the private End of his Ma- 
lice and Ambition. VI. This Agreement 
oppofed by General Monk, but to no Ef- 
fecl. VII. An Army raifed in Scotland 
for the Service of the King-, and by what 
Means their Defign was frttflrated. 
VIII. Tet Qxon\\jz\,anxiousfortheSuccefs 
of ft., and fufpeBing LilbournV Courage, 


General MoKK. yi 

tJuho commanded the Englifli F^^rr^j- there^ 
r seals General Monk for the Scottifh 
Expedition. IX. General Monk envied. 
His cautions and prudent Behaviour. His 
great Ajfe^ion for his Country. X. A fpe- 
cial Re a f on of CromwelV employing him 
in this Expedition, from isJhence he re- 
turns no morcy till he is made the happy 
Inftrument of the Reft or at ion, XL Tke 
State of Scotland upon his Arrival there. 
The Ufe he made of their extravagant 
^ifputes and T^iforders about Religion. 

I.T T 7HIL S T this "Dutch War and Trca^ 
VV fy were carrying on, that pretty 
Machine, called the Little Tarliamentj was 
fitting at Weftminfter. A fort of little infi- 
pid Fops, whom Cromwel had fct up, to 
make his laft Step into the Government the 
caHcr. Many of thefe were fettling a Kirig- 
dom only for Jefus Chrift in the World, but 
yet fo as to make themfelves his Vicegerents, 
They look'd upon the IDtitch as a Company 
of cheating, covetous Worldlings, and Ene- 
mies to the Kingdom of Chrift y as well as 
that of Englandy fo that nothing would fa- 
tisfy them lefs than a Coalition, whereby the 
Seven Provinces (hould be incorporated into 
this their Fifth- Monarchy, 

E 2 II. The 

51 The LIFE of 

i II. The folemn and formal Ambafladors 
were at fome Lofs how to deal with this fran- 
tick Sort of People, whom they thought a 
Society fitter for Bedlam^ than a Conclave of 
Senators ; and had look'd fo far into the State 
of Things, and the ambitious Inclinations of 
CromweU that they cunningly infinuated, if he 
would afliime the Government himfclf, they 
fhould be more ready to a Compliance with 
him. Thefe People were certainly call'd to- 
gether by Cromwel ow\y for a while, to flicw 
Tricks to the People, and play the Fool with 
the Government, that thereby the Nation 
might be as willing as himfelf to have the 
Reins taken into a more fteady Hand. 

III. The Refignation of this Parliament's 
Power was quickly after contrived ; and on 
^December i6, he ufurp'd the Government, 
with the Title of ^roteUor. Being now more 
concern'd to provide for his own Settlement, 
by looking after his Enemies at home, than 
to profecute a War abroad 5 and that he might 
gain entirely the Article for Seclufion of the 
Houfe of Orange from Stadholder- General, 
or Admiral, and no Entertainment to be 
given to any of his Enemies in their Domi- 
nions ; he was willing to deal very indulgent- 
ly with them in the reft of the Particulars. 
And therefore he accepted the Article for 


General Monk. 53 

ftriking the Flng, without a Recognition of 
the Title. Inftead of a Coalition, a defenfivc 
Alliance fcrvcd the Turn. The Fifliing pafs'd 
without either Lcafe or Rent ,• and the iMer- 
chants, for their free Trade, and Satisfadion 
for Damages, were wholly left in the Lurch. 

IV. It were tedious to relate all the Tricks 
and Artifices that paflcd between the Prote- 
dor and thefe Ambaffadors, about the Article 
of Scclufion. 

V. There was fo much Bafenefs and In- 
gratitude in the Thing it felf, that both the 
States General and their Agents were utterly 
afhamed of it : Infomuch that the Protedor 
at laft was contented to accept it in the Qua- 
lity of a fecret Article, but without it rcfufed 
to exchange the Ratifications. At lafl: the 
States of the Province of Holland and Weft- 
Freezland, guided by the Gounfels of the 
late Penfioner ^e IVitt, and without the 
Concurrence of the other Provinces, HgrLed 
this fecret Article: That they would never 
eicd his prefent Highnefs, nor any of his 
Lineage, to be Stadholder or Admiral of their 
Province: Neither (hould their Province give 
their Suffrage or Confent, that he, or any of 
his Family, fhould be Captain General of the 
Forces of the United Provinces. This be- 
ing fcnt over to the Ambafl'adors, and by 

E 3 thcni 

54 the LIFE of 

them delivered to Cromwel, the Peace was 
prelently and finally concluded, and the 
three hundred thoufand Pounds, which they 
ofFcr'd the Year before to the Common- 
wealth Parliament, was alfo thought to have 
been caft into the Scales, being a feafonable 
Prefent to Cromwel, wherewith to fupport 
himfclf in the Infancy of his Power and 
Greatnefs. And thus (as an Effay of his fu- 
ture Government) he abandoned the Concerns 
of the Nation, and all the Advantages of this 
War, to the Intereft of his own fecret Malice 
and Ambition. . . 

VI. General Monk (whofe Hiftory we 
have been forc'd to interrupt by this necef- 
fary Digreflion) was, during this Treaty, ly- 
ing upon the Stitch Coafts, blocking up 
their Havens, and interrupting their Trade, 
and did all he could to hinder this Agreement. 
He exc]aim'd againfl: it, as a thing infamous 
and diflionourable to the Nation. Herepre- 
fented to them;, iViztthtT^titcb could not be 
able to fight anothc. Battle 5 and that they 
had never an Ally in the World, that would 
be conccrn'd for them. But all he could do 
was only to remonftrnrc againft it. The time 
was not yet coinc for General Monk^ by his 
own Authority, to govern the great Concerns 
of the Nation, nor to put an End to Ufurpa- 
v^n and Tyranny. 

VII. The 

General Monk. 55 

VII. Thp ProtcOor Cromwel had no foon- 
cr concluded the T)utch War, but another 
begun to be formed againft him in Scotland. 
The Marquifs of At hoi, the Earl of Glen- 
carn, and icveral of the NobiUry, having 
declared for the King, had raifcd an Army 
in Sotlandy confifting of about eight or nine 
thoufand Men, headed and commanded by 
Officers of the principal of the Nobility and 
Gentry of the Nation, to which fome Force 
out of Holland^ by Middleton^ was to be ad- 
ded : Who, though he came from his Majcrty 
with a Commifllon to be General of the Army 
which the Nobility had raifed, did yet dii- 
oblige them, and afterwards the withdrawing 
and dividing the Forces, did fruftrate the 
greater Part of the Attempt. 

VIII. This Infurredion in Scotland being 
in the Morning of hisUfurpation, did great- 
ly difquiet his Proteclorfhip (who could bet- 
ter diflemble his Hatred than his Fears) not 
knowing how far it might fuddcnly prevail in 
a Nation reftlefs and didatisfied at the late 
Coalition, and that were watching upon all 
Occafions, to recover again the Lofs of their 
Reputation, with the Libcrry of their Coun- 
try. Since the Removal of General Monk 
butof Scotland^ Colonel "Dif^w commanded 
ill Chief there j and being aflcrwards called 

E 4 off 

5(5 The LIFE of 

off by the Jando to be the Admiral in the 
*T>utch War, Colonel Ltlbotirn was entrufted 
with the Government of the Country, and 
the Englijh Forces there. Him Cromwel 
thought a Peribn of too little Courage to be 
trufted at this time with fo ftrong and tough 
an Employment. Befides, he had already dif- 
covered his own Weaknefs and Fears, by re- 
prefenting the Bufinefs to the Protedor worfe 
than indeed it was : And was fo at his Wit's 
End, that he dared not look out of his Quar- 
ters. This made Cromwel more folicitous, 
not only about the Dcfign it felf, but the 
Choice of a Perion fit to be employed. And 
the Command of fo large and confiderable a 
Country was not to be difpofed of at Adven- 
tures. By his afluming the Government in 
the Quality of a fingle Perfon, he had dif- 
pleas'd feveral of his ftouteft Officers, tiiat 
were for a free Commonwealth, and there- 
fore was refolv'd not to employ them further. 
Among his own Relations (whom he could 
beft have trufted) there was not a Perfon fit 
for this Service. Some of his Council pro- 
pos'd his Brother in- Law, T>esborow\ but 
Cromwel better underftood the Man, and 
knew him to be a coarfe and boifterous 
Clown, that wanted Senfe and Difcretion. 
Fleetwood was as unfit as the reft of them. 
And for Lambert, he refolv'd not to truft 
him fo far out of his Sight. The only fuit- 

General Monk. 57 

able Perfon for this Scotch Expedition, was 
General Monk^ who had reduc'd the Country 
before, and who bed knew how to handle the 

IX. His Reputation at Arms was grown 
equal with any of the reft of the Englijh 
Commanders, and by his Succefs in the laft 
Stitch War was become their Superior : So 
that feveral of them began to emulate and 
fufped his Greatnefs. He was unluckily 
caft among thefe People, rather by his ill 
Fate, than any Choice of his own -, but was 
ft ill efpecially careful to keep himfelf from 
their greater Guilts and Hypocrify. He 
would never be concern'd in any of their 
more fecret Intrigues or Cabals, never pre- 
tended to their Frenzies of Preaching or 
Praying, nor to any of their Revelations or 
Impulfes. But as a ftout and valiant Englifh- 
man, he loved his Country, and ftill hoped 
for fome better Seafon to exprefs it. 

X. Whatever was fuggefted, fo foon as 
the Protedor found, by Conference with Ge- 
neral Monkj that he was no ways diflatisfy'd 
with his diftblving the late Commonwealth 
Parliament, and that he had no Concern for 
that Intereft, he prefently entrufted him with 
the Command of Scotland. And becaufe all 
things then run into greater Diforder, he was 


58 rioe LIFE of 

haften'd away to his Province, taking his 
Leave o^ Cromwel, whom he never faw more, 
nor fet his Foot again in England, till he 
brought back with him tlie Redemption and 
Deliverance of his Country. 

XL At his Arrival in Scotlandy about 
the 23*^ oi April, he found all things in Dif- 
order ; a querulous, difcontented People : 
an ungovcrn'd Army, hll'd with all Sorts of 
violent Fanaticks and Anabaptifts, which was 
the Religion of Colonel Lilbourn, their Go- 
vernor; and they had crouded and juftled 
the Presbyterian Clergy out of their Kirks 
and Pulpits, and expos'd their Difcipline to 
Ridicule. But General Monk, who was too 
wary to be concern'd in any of their religious 
Difputes and Extravagancies, quickly found 
them fome other kind of Employment for 
their Diverfion. And having fettled fome ne- 
ceflary Affairs in Rdenburgh, he prefcntiy 
draws out his Army, and marches them up 
into the Highlands, where he kept them fo, 
clofe to their Work as abated fome of their 
religious Madncfs. 

ri!ni;7/nomfj ^ .,^., _ zi-ri- fitiv 

i}:thu ruid bi 

;j'.ii:,w'lr:fi* CHAP. 

General Monk. yp 

CHAP. vr. 

I. The Earl of Middleton under great T>iffi- 
cult'tes in the Highlands 5 whither Gene- 
ral Monk, with Major General Morgan, 
marches after him. II. The Earl holds a 
Council of War, and determines not to 
engage the General's Forces. III. Crom- 
wel fecretly promifes the Scotch Nobility 
and Gentry their Tardon, upon their Siib- 
miffion-, which they feem willing to make, 
IV. Some of General MonkV Officers are 
for compelling them to a Battle, but the 
General is againji it. V. Major General 
Morgan defeats a Tarty of the Scotch at 
Loughgcrry ; upon which the Earl of 
Middleton efcapes to Holland, and his 
Forces lay down their Arms. VI. Gene- 
ral Monk hires Dalkeith- j^t?///^, where he 
keeps his Head-^iarters, during his Stay 
in that Country. VII . He Regulates the Ci- 
*vil and Religious Ajf airs ^/^ Scotland, and 
rejf rains the Tower of the Kirk. 

L'THHE Citadel, Forts, andCaftles, and 
J^ all Places of Strength in Scotland, be- 
ing already poffcflTcd by the EngUfh Forces; 
the Earl of Middleton, having no Garrifon or 
Retreat for his Army, defended himfclf in the 
open Country of the Highlands, where, be- 
fides other Difficulties; he was much dillref- 


6o The LIFE of 

fed with the Want of Provifion. General 
Monk, before his March up into the Coun- 
try, had ahxady laid up Provifion of Bisket 
and Chcefe in three feveral convenient Places, 
at Leith, St. Johnfton's, and Invernefs ; for 
other Supplies, they were to find them in the 
Country as they could. And having left a 
Party of Horfe and Foot to range about the 
Lowlands^ and prevent the railing of more 
Forces, he, with General Morgariy marched 
up into the Highlands in two diftind Bodies, 
having about two thoufand five hundred Foot, 
and about fix hundred Horfe, in each Party ; 
with which Force he purfued the Scotch Ar- 
my, retreating ftill before him. And as he 
took in any Caf\les or Places of Strength, he 
had them prefently fupply'd with Provifions 
from his former Stores at St. Johnjlon's or 
Leithy by which Means his Army was never 
very diflant from fome Place of Supply. And 
at any Stage the Soldiers took with them in 
their Knapfacks fuch Provifion of Cheefe 
and Bisket, as ferved them for fix or feven 
Days J it being otherwifc impoflible for his 
Soldiers to have Courage to attend the Ene- 
my through a Country fo defolatc and full of 
Bogs. As he marched through the Countries 
or Lands of fuch as were wholly in Arms, 
he dcftroycd almoft all before him? fo that 
he knew at length they would be forc'd to 
fubmit or ftarve. -^ ^mi^^^i^^ - 

11. The 

G E \ E R A L M O N K. 4^ 

II. The Earl of Middleton, obferving daily 
the Decay of his Forces, and the Ruin of the 
Country, was" very earncft to have come to a 
Battle with General Monk, or with Major Ge- 
neral Morgan, who kept on their Way in two 
diftindt Bodies, and within four Days March 
one of another. But this Refolution was laid 
afide at a Council of War, upon the Confide- 
ration, that if they fhould have the good For- 
tune to engage one Party with Succefs, the 
other, being frefh, might advance upon them, 
before they could be in Condition to receive 
them, to the Hazard or Lofs of their whole 

III. But there was alfo another fecret Con- 
trivance on Foot, that did moft of all take off 
the Scotch Nobility and Gentry from coming 
to an Engagement. For the Ufurper Crom- 
wel, being not yet warm in his Seat, and 
knowing how many Enemies he had, both to 
his Perfon and Fortune, had greatly appre- 
hended their rifing in Scotland as a Prelude 
to a farther Infurredion in England: And 
having greater and more neceflary Affairs 
upon him, than profccuting a War in the 
Highlands, had, by his fecret Agents, at- 
tempted fome of the Scotch Nobility and Gen- 
try in the Army, and let them know, that, 
for this their hafty Rifing, he was content 


6t The LIFE of 

to accept their Submiflion, and, upon laying 
down their Arms, and returning quietly to 
their Houfes, they fhould be reftored to their 
Eftates and Fortunes. Which being offered to 
them in the midft of fo many Straits, befides 
the Decay of their Forces, and the ill Pofture 
of their Affairs, induced them not to put all 
to Hazard upon fo great Difadvantage, but ra- 
ther to fubmit for the prcfent, in Expedation 
of fome more fortunate Opportunity for re- 
covering their Liberty, and reftoring their 

IV. Some of the more eager and zealous 
Officers in the Engltjh Army were frequent- 
ly importunate with him, to come clofe up 
to the Enemy, and enforce them to a Battle. 
But General Monk better underflood the Na- 
ture of this War than his inferior Command- 
ers ; and, having continual Account of the 
Scotch Army hy ^omo. Highlanders y he allur- 
ed his Officers, that the Enemy's Army was 
in fuch Difficulties, and fo daily decreafing, 
that the Bufinefs would be certainly done 
without a Battle : Nor did they afterwards 
find him decciv'd in his Frognoflicks. 

V. But in the Interim Major General Mor- 
gan, with that Party of the Englifi Forces 
under his Command, furpriz'd fome Scotch 
Forces at Loughgerryy and utterly defeated 


General Monk. (fj 

them. Upon which the Earl of M'tddleton 
retreated to an Ifland, from whence after- 
wards he got back again into Holland. O- 
thers of the Nobility and Officers making 
their Submiilion, General Monk fettled con- 
venient Garrifons in the Country. And hav- 
ing perform'd fuch a March thro' the Coun- 
try of xht Highlands, where no Force of the 
Englijh had ever left a Footllcp behind them, 
and which the Inhabitants accounted inaccef- 
fible to any but themfelves, by the End of 
Auguft he returned to Edcnburgh, which, be- 
ing the capital City of the Nation, was the 
moft proper Place of Refidence for the Prc- 
fed, or chief Governor. 

VI. But General Monk, who always af- 
feded the Privacy and Retirement of the 
Country, and taking a particular Fancy to 
the Situation of "Dalkelth-Houfe, became a 
Tenant to it : Where he continu'd his Hcad- 
Quarters, during his more than five Years 
Command of that Country. It was pleafant- 
ly feared in the midfl:' of a Park, and at the 
commodious Diftance of five Miles from E- 
denburgh. Here, in the Intervals of publick 
Buftnefs, he diverted himfclf with thePlea- 
fures of Planting and Husbandry ; refcmbling. 
therein fome of the Confuls and Didators of 
the ancient Ro?ne ; who, after they had Tub- 
dued Nations, 'and led Kingsin Triumph, re- 
'/ T turn'd 

64 The LIFE of 

turn'd again to their Tillage, and with their 
own Hands dreflcd their Trees and Vine- 

1655 VII. Upon the Reduction of thz High- 
lands, there being now no Enemy in Arms 
in Scotland, General Monk found himfelf at 
Liberty to infped the Civil Affairs of the 
Country. And bccaufe the Covenanting Cler- 
gy were grown fo infolent in their Power and 
Influence over the Government and People, a 
particulax Care was ufcd to abate their Rigour. 
They had indeed the undifturbed Ufe of their 
Kirks and Preaching, during General Monk's 
Command 5 but were not permitted the Li- 
berty of making Reflexions upon their Su- 
periors, or the Government, unto which, by 
the Complexion of their Religion, or the prag- 
matical Spirit of the Clergy, they are greatly 
inclined. The Power of Excommunication, 
and the Confequents upon it, which was the 
Palladium of Presbyterianifm, was wholly 
taken from them. Their Presbyteries were 
indeed connived at, but their general AflTem- 
blies difturbed and forbidden : So that they 
who fome Years before, in the Height and 
Ruffle of their religious Zeal, being abetted 
by their Party in England, had the Confi- 
dence to outlaw the late King, when he for- 
bad their Aflemblies, were now fo reduced 
and baffled by the Englijh Army, that they 
z would 

General Monk. 6^ 

would have dilTolved any of their Conveitti- 
ons at the Command of a Corporal. Nor were 
the Nobility and Gentry permitted to wear 
Swords, to ride on a Horfcof Value, to pro- 
fecute their old Animofirics among themfelves, 
nor to exercifc any arbitrary and violent Pra- 
ctices towards their Inferiors and Servants. 


Qvom'^QX appoints a Council of Statey con- 
fijiing of Seven y 'whereof General Monk 
-was one. II. Three of the Council after- 
wards concur with General Monk. 111. Co- 
lonel Overton endeavours to corrupt the 
Army^ and defigns the Affaffination of the 
General^ but is dete&edy and fent Tri- 
foner to London. IV. Scotland enjoj'S 
great ^Peace and Plenty under the Gene- 
ral's Adminiftration. V. CromweL^^^- 
loits of him. VI. He is tinder great Af 
fitEiion for the T)eath of his fecond Son. 
VII. A friendly Correfpondence between 
the General and the Scotch Nobility and 
Gentry. VIII. Which was improved by 
his Enemies to the Confirmation of Crom- 
welV Jealoufy of him ; whereupon Crom- 
\Jt\writesto him. IX. Cj:om\vcVsartful 
Manner of JVriting. X. At the fame 
F Time 

66 lie LIFE of 

Time he '•ji'as very weak in trufting a Ter- 
fo7t whom he fiifpeBedy with a 'Place of 
fitch Command. 

L AND now the Proteiflor having fully 
J^^\^ fccurcd the Subjedion of Scotland^ 
there was appointed by the Ufurper a Coun- 
cil of State, for the better Adminiftration of 
the Civil Government, viz. The Lord ^r^^- 
hil, Prefident of the Council, General George 
Monk, Colonel Howard, Colonel William^ 
Lockhart, Colonel Adrian Scroop, Colonel 
John JVetham, and Major General *\Desbo- 
row. To this Employment they were au- 
thorized by a Commiflion under Cromweh 
Broad Seal, dated June 1655, though they 
came not down to exercife their Commiflion 
in that Nation till about the middle of Sep- 
tember following. By which they were en- 
abled to order and difpofe of the Revenues in 
Scotland, to appoint the Officers of the Ex- 
chequer, the Commiflioners of Excife and 
Cuftoms, and of the Sequeftrations, and all 
fubordinatc Officers under them. They had 
alfo the Nomination of all Jufticcs of the 
Peace, of Sheriffs and Commiflaries in the 
feveral Counties; which Commiflaries kept 
their Courts for Probate of Wills, and grant- 
ing Adminiftrations in their refpedive Limits. 
And by an additional Power from Cromwel, 
they were afterwards authoriz'd to approve 
i .-,. 5 X and 

General Monk. (^7 

?»nd allow" of all Incumbents that were to 
be admitted into any Ecclcfiaftical Bene- 

II. This Council was continued in Scot- 
land during the Ufurpation of Cromwel and 
his Son. But three of thofe Commillloners, 
namely, the Lord Broghil Earl of Orrery, 
Colonel Howard Earl of Carltfle, and Co- 
lonel JVhetham^ who was Governor of 
^ortfmouthj did afterwards very eff equally 
co-operate with General Monk in thofe great 
and happy Alterations, which at laft intro- 
duced the King. 

III. About this Time the Commonwealth 
Party in the Army, who fecretly maligned 
the Protedor's Government, were framing 
Defigns againfl: him, which were to take Ef- 
fed in the Armies of all the three Nations. 
Among whom Colonel Overton was one, 
who had fo far diffembled his Difcontents, 
as to obtain the Command of Major Ge- 
neral of the Infantry, in General Alonk's 
Army ; where he quickly fell to pradifing 
upon the difcontented Party of the Soldiers, 
and had fet up Agitators to corrupt the parti- 
cular Regiments j fo that under the old Pre- 
tence of feeking the Lord, a confiderable 
Number of Male-contents met in order to 
this Defedion at Aberdeen, He had held fe- 

F z veral 

The LIFE of 

veral fecrct Meetings, and framed a fmart De- 
claration againft Cromwel and the Govern- 
ment 5 proceeding fo far as to defign to him- 
felf the chief Command of tlie Englifh Army 
in Scotland, which could not be efFeded but 
by the Death of General Monk, whom they 
had refolv'd to furprize on New-Tears Day 
in the Morning, and Miles Smdercomb (af- 
terwards more famous for defigning upon the 
Life of the Protedor Cromwel) was one of 
the Aflaflins. All this Practice was not fo 
fecretly carry 'd, but the wary General had 
Notice of it. And having taken Care for his 
own Security, he fuffered Overton and his 
Accomplices to proceed, till he had fufficient 
Matter againft them, and then imprifon'd 
them all in their feveral Q^iarters. Overton 
he fent up to London-, to be reckon'd with by 
the Protc6lor himfelf, who laid him faft in the 
Tower, having before fecured many other 
Officers of the Faction in feveral Goals and 
Caftles. Overtone Regiment was given to 
Major General Morgan, and for the reft of 
the Confederates, General Monk imprifoned 
or calhired them. 

1656 IV. After this little Mutiny in Scotland, 
we find no more Diforders in the Country, 
during the General's Command there ; but an 
univerfal Peace among them ; and (the Ef- 
fed of Peace) an univerfal Plenty and Trade. 
i£727 .: ', For 

General Monk. 6c^ 

For the General was always very careful in 
providing the Pay for his Army, both by the 
Tax in Scotland^ the fixty thoufand Pounds 
fer Menfem, and what was further alligned 
from England. So that the Soldiers, being 
well paid, were enabled to difcharge their 
Quarters duly, and the Money did fo univer- 
fally circulate thro' the Country, that there 
was never known fo much ready Coin in 
Scotland^ as during General Monks Com- 
mand there. He had formed his Army to a 
very exad Difcipline, fo that nothing was 
more rare than to hear of any Mutinies a- 
mong themfelves, or Depredations on the 
People : Infomuch that tho' General Monk 
continued anions them to fecure their Sub- 
jedion, yet they had a great Opinion of his 
Generofity and fuftice; and fo much Kind- 
nefs for his Soldiers, during a long and peace- 
able Neighbourhood together, that they look- 
ed upon them no otherwife than as Natives 
of the Place, or a Part of their Country; and 
as Guardians rather of their Safety and Liber- 
ty, than Inftruments of their Servitude and 

V. Hitherto the Protedor had wanted 
Leifure, or Pretence, to remove General 
Monk from his fo long Command in Scot- 
land: Yet his Jealoufy found out other Ways 
to prevent him from having too much Influ- 

F 3 cnce 

70 the LIFE of 

ence over his Army, by removing often fome 
Regiments which he moft trufted, and fend- 
ing down to him all thofe reftlefs and violent 
Parties, which he could leaft govern in Eng- 
land. And thefe furious and hair brain'd Se- 
cVaries gave him frequently a grcac deal of 
Trouble, before he could take down their 
Mettle, and bring them to live quietly in their 
Quarters, and to know Difcipline. 

VJ. About this Time, as an Allay to his 
Felicities, General Monk lofl: his fecond Son, 
George^ who, in his Infancy, dy'd of a Fea- 
ver, attended with Convulfion Fits, and was 
buried in the Chapel of T)alkeith-H.oufe. The 
Death of this Child affcdled the General with 
fo unufual and deep a Sorrow, as was greatly 
admired by thofc, who, know not that, in the 
higheft Courage, there is a Mixture of the 
greateft Tendernefs 5 or have not read, how 
that the brave <:^yEmylms * was fo concern'd 
for the Death of his two Children, that it 
took from him the chief Satisfadion of his 
late Vidories, and withered the Laurels o£ 
his Triumph. 

VII. Since the Infurredion of the High- 
landers, there had been for fome Years no 


* Flutarch's Life. o£ jEtr^Utu. 


General Monk. 7r 

confidcrablc Hoftility in Scotland. And Time, 
that overcomes all Things, had worn out in 
a great Meafurc the Memory of all part: Ani- 
mofitics. So that the Nobility and Gentry 
of Scotland azmz to a better Undcrftanding 
of their General, whom they frequently vific- 
ed J and there were among them feveral wor- 
thy and honourable Perfons, for whom Gene- 
ral Monk had a very particular Eftimation, info- 
much as he frequently defired their Converfa- 
tion, and did advife with them in the Manage- 
ment of feveral publick Affairs in their Coun- 
try. Even the brave and valiant Party of the 
Montrojjians, had a Place in his Eftimation 
and Kindnefs, fo far as the Condition of Af- 
fairs then, and the jealous Temper of the 
Age, would admit. And tho' General Monk 
abated nothing of his Difcipline, yet by his 
other Methods of Moderation and Prudence, 
he had fo far obliged all Parties, that whilft 
the Protedor, with all his Arts of terrifying 
or informing, could not keep himfelf a Year 
round from Defigns or Infurredlions againft 
him in England^ General Monk continued 
the Government in Scotland without any 
further Plot or Pradice upon him. 

VIIT. But this his quiet and peaceful Go- 1658 
vernment of Scotland^ and the general Efti- 
mation that waited on him there, was, by his 
Enemies in the Country, and others about 

F 4 the 

yr The LIFE of 

the Protestor, reprefcnted as a jealous In- 
ftance. And Cromwell whofe Humours to- 
wards his Declenfion, grew like other Li- 
quors near their Bottom, fharp and turbid> 
had entertain'd fomc Apprehenfion of him. 
The Difcontents between him and his late 
Parliament, and the Difcovery of another 
new Plot upon him, led him to other 
Thoughts : Only fome while before his 
Death, he wrote to him a Letter with his 
own Hand, containing only general Matters 
relating to the Government j but in his Polt- 
fcrJpt he fubjoins: 

ihere be that tell me, that there is a cer- 
tain cunning FellouU in Scotland, called 
George Monk, cc.-^^ is faid to lye in wait 
there to introdtice Charles Stuart j I pray ufe 
your diligence to apprehend him, and fend 
him up to me, . 

IX. This was a kind of Grimace in the 
Protedlor, to wrap up his Sufpicions in Drol- 
lery : And it was another Part of his Cun- 
ning, to place that in a Poftfcript which ill 
Reality was the main Occafion of the Letter. 

X. And here I defire my Reader to ob- 
ferve, that the Sufpicion upon Generari^ii(?w^ 
of reftoring King Charles, did not firft arife 
from his wary Refervcdnefs, and ftudicd Con- 
cealments of himfclf, ill his celebrated March 

; ! ' ■. I . from 

General Monk. 73 

from Colftream 5 but it was an Apprchenfion 
that did long before diftrefs tlie Minds of 
thofe, who had been guilty of excluding his 
Majefty from his Dominions, and whofe In- 
tereft therefore it was to hinder his Return. 

It was certainly a great Overfight in Crom- 
wet to continue fo great a Command, as the 
Government of Scotland^ in the Hands of 
General Monk, of whom he could have no 
great Security from his Principles, nor as 
partaking with him in mutual Guilts. But 
whatever his fecret Refentments were, they 
proceeded no further, being prevented by his 
own Death, which quickly after enfued on 
September 3, 1658. a Day which in his Life- 
time he had kept as an anniverfary Feftival, 
and now by his Death made it truly fuch to 
the Commonwealth. And now having five 
Years followed Providence in doing all the 
Mifchief he was able, he left the Ufurpation 
with fo little Content to himfelf, or Hopes 
of its Continuance, that he had taken no 
Care of the Succeflion, if he had not been put 
upon it by the Importunities of thofc about 


74 ^s LIFE 0} 


I. Cromwcl dies, and his Son Richard is pra*^ 
claimed at Edenburgh, who fends Letters 
of Compliment to General Monk. II. The 
State of England at that Time, A ^Par- 
liament called. Some of the Members ca- 
bal againfi the young ProteBor. The Com- 
mons refent it 5 while the Trotetlor, by 
the Advice of Thurloe, difplaces fome of 
the Officers of the Army y the Hotife of 
Lords^ on the contrary, favouring them. 
III. The Parliament diffolvedi by which 
Means the Officers recover their Places 
and IntereJL IV. And are for refioring 
the Rump P arliament . V. Fleetwood 
and Dcsborow defert the Intereft of the 
P^rote^ory and fall into Lambert'j Mea- 

■ fures. VI. The Prote^or turned out. 
W\. And the Rtmip Parliament rejtored\ 

; with the Reafons of that Refolution. V II 1 . 
The Rump Parliament, to fecure them- 
jelves, empower their Speaker to grant 
Commijfions in the Army, appointing a Com- 
mittee of Seven for the Nomination of Of- 
ficers. IX. General Monk'j CondtiB up- 
on thefe Alterations. X. The Loyalifts in 
England take Advantage from them. XI. 
How the King's Affairs had been managed 
fince theT>eath of his Father. XII. The 
Presbyterians join with the Royaltfls ; 

. their Reafons forfo doing. L THE 

General Monk. 75 

I.*'T^ H E Death of the Proteftor, and the 
I Orders for proclaiming his Son, came 
to General Monk to IDalkeith much at the 
fame Time. And prefently after Richard 
Crom''^el was proclaimed at Edenbiirgh, but 
with fo cold and indifferent Ceremony, both 
in the People and Ejjglijh Army, that it 
feem'd rather an Ad of Obedience, than Af- 
fcdion. But to fettle a better Underftanding 
with General Monk, the Protedor Richard 
fent prefently Commiflary Clafges with Let- 
ters to him, both to compliment his farther 
Service, and to defirc his Advice. They who 
converfed with General Monk in thofe Times, 
have reported it as his Opinion, that if OH- 
'uer Cromwel had lived, he could not have 
held the Government much longer: And 
therefore for his eafy Son, he prefently fore- 
faw, he would not be able to continue his 
Station many Months. Yet he return'd him 
very civil and wary Anfwers to his Letters, 
and carefully fecuring his own Command, he 
was refolved not to concern himfelf with the 
Affairs of England--, but to leave the young 
Protestor to the Condud of thofe about him, 
and his own hafty Dcftiny. 

II. The laft Protedor had left his Son 
many Enemies againft his Government, and 
thofe he could truft were rather Friends to 


76 The LIFE of 

his Fortune than himfdf. He had left the 
Government in fuch a mifcrable Condition, 
with fo many Debts and Arrears to his Army, 
that his Son was not able to keep open Doors 
any longer, without the Help of a Parlia- 
ment, which was convened to fit down, Ja- 
i ^c)6nuary the I7'^^ confiftingof an Houfe of Com- 
mons, and another they cail'd in thofe Times, 
the Other Houfe. In this Affembly there 
were fo many return'd of different Humours 
and Principles, that againft the opening of the 
Parliament, many of the Officers of the Ar- 
my haften'd up to London, where, meeting 
fevcral others formerly difoblig'd by the late 
Protedor, they fell prefently to caballing 
with other Male-contents, how to wreft the 
Government from his Son. Of this Party one 
of the leading Pertbns was Colonel Lambert y 
whofe conccal'd Ambition began now to dif- 
cover it felf. They had held feveral Meetings 
in order to thcfe Ends, with fo much Cere- 
mony, as if they had been the hereditary 
Princes of the Nation ; and had fo fool'd 
Fleetisjood and DeshoroWy and other half- 
witted People of Cromwel's Alliance, who 
had no true Notion of their own and Crom- 
'-ji'el's Intcreft, that they faw not their Error 
till it was too late to retrieve it. Thefe bold 
and open AlTemblies of the Officers gave 
fome Alarm to the Commons then fitting, 
who difcover'd their Jealoufy and Difpleafure 
,1 againit 

General Monk.' yy 

ngainft thefe Conventions, by their voting a- 
gainft them, and favouring rather the Intcreft 
of the young Protedtor, while the other Houfe 
abetted the Aflembly of the Army Officers 
againft him 5 who at laft ran into fuch high 
and infolent Refolves, as the Protestor Ri- 
chard was prudently advis'd to fecure their 
Perfons, then alTembled in Sir Henry VanCy 
or Sir Arthur Hazlerig's Houfe, and difpofe 
of their Commands. But his Secretary Thur- 
loe perfuaded him to recall their Commiflions, 
yet to leave their Perfons at Liberty. By 
which timorous and middle Counfcl, he had 
no way oblig'd them to continue hisMaflj^r's 
Friends, nor difabl'd them from becoming his 

III. The Officers of the Army did hitherto 
greatly fear the Influence and Difpleafure of 
the Houfe of Commons, as they defpis'd the 
Weaknefs and Incapacity of their Proted:or 
Richard, and therefore infolently compel- 
ling him to dilTolve their Seffion, they then 
prefently feiz'd the Army wholly into their 
own Hands, difplacing all Officers that mod 
favoured the Protectorate, by which Altera- 
tion Colonel Lambert, and the reft of thofc 
difcarded Commanders, recover 'd again their 
Stations in the Army. 

IV. The 

The LIFE of 

IV. The Protedor's Relations were all 
this while fo ftupid and fenfelefs, that they 
did not yet difcern they had ruined them- 
felves and him, by this Breach upon his 
Power : But being ftill fooled with a Bell and 
a Rattle, they had the Vanity to perfuade 
him, all fhould be very well with him, and 
tho' he had loft his Authority, yet he fhould 
continue his Government. But at the next 
Meeting of thofe Officers they quickly found 
their Error, whenitwaspaft Remedy. For 
tho* thefe People, who had magnify 'd the 
Cromwelsy as the Mofes that had led them 
out of the Houfe of Bondage, yet now 
they are refolved to fet up Fleetwood their 
Captain, and to return again into c^/Egypt* 
For now nothing would pleafe them, but to 
reftore the late Tail of a Parliament, to whofc 
Diflblution, five Years ago, moft of them had 
been confenting j and fome of them had ac- 
tually affifted Cromwel in pulling them out of 
the Houfe, and expofing them to the World 
as a Pack of Knaves and Villains, who had 
fpent more than ten Years Time there in 
cheating the Nation. Notwithftanding their 
former Contempt of them, when it fervcd. 
their Ambition or Intereft, the religious Hy- 
pocrites were not afhamed, by their Declara- 
tion, May 6. to proclaim the fame People, the 


General Monk. 79 

eminent Aflcrters of the good old Caufe, and 
fuch as had a fpecial Prefence of God with 
them, and were fignally blefTed in the Work. 

V. Fleetwood and Desborow did cafi- 
ly difcern, that the Difcourfe among them 
for reftoring the late Parliament, muft prove 
the certain Ruin of the Protectorate. And 
when they had found, that, by their own ill 
Management or Credulity, they had utterly 
loft Richard's Game, they took Care to fave 
their own Stake, and to fecure their high 
Commands in the Army, by complying with 
Lambert and the other Officers, leaving their 
young Kinfman friendlefs and defencelefs to 
the Contempt and Revenge of his Enemies. 

VI. And thus ended the Ufurpation of 
the Cromwels, begun by the Villanies and 
Falflioods of the Father, and concluding in 
the Follies of the Son ; and the fame People 
that had been the Afcent to the one, became 
the Precipice to the other. They who had 
fo officioufly lent Oliver their Hand to raife 
him up, were now as bufy with their Feet to 
kick down Richard. 

VII. The Officers of the Army, who had 
thus thrown down the Protedloratc, had no 
other Authority to which they could retreat, 
but reftoring the old Commonwealth Parlia- 

So rhe LIFE of 

ment. They could not fupport the Govern- 
ment by a military Council of their own, 
becaufe that Conftitution could raife no Mo- 
ney, which was then extremely wanted. And 
the great ones were grown to fuch an Height 
of Self-opinion and Jealoufy of each other, 
that they could never agree to fubmit to any 
fingle Perfon chofen from among themfelves ; 
nor could they truft a new Parliament, which 
w^s likely enough to declare them Rebels. 
There was therefore no other Way but to 
mount their good old Caufe again upon this 
Rum.p of the late Long-Parliament, and to 
ride till fome of them (having ripen'd their 
Defigns) could find an higher Ground to a- 
light at. 

VIII. The Members of the late Long- Par- 
liament gave good Words to them that had 
reftored them, now a fecond Time, to a Ca- 
pacity of doing further Mifchief. Yet they 
were refolv'd firfl: to fecure their own Station, 
by fixing the Army in a more certain Depen- 
dance upon themfelves. And to that End, 
tho' they granted to Fleetivood a Commif- 
fion to command as General, yet they allow'd 
him no Power to fign Commifllcns to others, 
but referv'd that Truft for the Speaker of their 
Houfe ,* from whofc Hands only all Commif- 
fions fiiould pafs. And at the fame Time ap- 
pointed a Committee of feven Perfons, 'viz. 


General Monk. 8i 

Lieutenant General Fleet'iuood, Sir Henry 
Vane, Sir Arthur Hazlerig, Colonel Lam- 
bert, 'T>esborO'-ji!, Ludlo'-ju, and Berry, with 
Authority to model the Army, and difplace 
dll fuch Officers in the three Nations as they 
thouoht fit. 


IX. General Monk fat all this while fi- 
lent in Scotland, keeping a very fteady Eye 
upon all thefe feveral Scenes and Alterations in 
London. And knowing himfclf to be in a 
Station fo coniiderable, as they would be en- 
forc'd to make Applications to him, he was 
refolv'd to keep himfclf at a Diftancc, and fe- 
cure his own Comm.and, leaving them a v/hile 
to manage their Game at their own Rate. 

X. Nor did the loyal P.irry in England 
(land as idle and unconcern'd Spcdlators upon 
this great Change of Affairs. They had in- 
deed unfortunately loft the Field in the Civil 
War J but yet contriv'd the Continuance of 
feveral Infurredions and Parties, in order to 
reftore the Monarchy -, which hitherto, by 
the Vigilance of their Enemies, or the Trea- 
chery of Tome among themfclvcs, had been 
fruftrated. Yet fupporting themfelvcs with 
the Aflurance and Confcicnce of fo good a 
Caufe, they kept up their Hopes and Endea- 
vours, and, with a very fin^ular Attention, 
obferv'd thofe wild Alterations and Inconftan- 

G cies 

8i tie LiFE of 

cics of their Enemies, hoping this their GiddU 
nefs, by fo many turnings round, would en- 
force their Fall at the laft. 

XL His Majefty's Affairs in Englandy 
fiQcc the Death of his Father, had been ma- 
naged by a fecret Conclave chofen out of the 
ioyal Nobility, and other Perfons of Honour 
and Quality, that liad furviv'd the late War 
on the King's Side, and were authorized to 
this Employment by a CommifTion under his 
Majefty's Hand ; as the Earl of Oxford^ Earl 
of Nortkampton, Sir John Greenvil, now 
Earl of Bathj the Lord Vifcount Mordant, 
the Lord Bellafis^ Colonel John RtiffeU Co- 
lonel of his Majefty's Guards, Sir fVilliam 
Co?npton-> late General of the Ordnance, Sir 
Orlando Bridgrnan-, late Lord Keeper of the 
Great Seal, Sir Jeffrey T aimer y late Attorney 
General, Colonel JVtlUam Legg, one of the 
Gentlemen of his Majefty's Bedchamber, Co- 
lonel Edward Villars^ of the Bedchamber to 
his Royal Highnefs, Mr. Newport, Brother 
to the Lord Newport^ Dr. Hewit ; and to 
thefc was unfortunately added Sir Richard 
IFillis, who nfcerwards fell into Sufpicion, 
and was not entrufted. Some of thefe fecret 
Commiilioners were always refiding in L<?«- 
don, both to hold Intelligence with fevcral 
Perfons of Worth and Loyalty, that were 
cngsg'd for his Majefty's Service in every 
.;-, 4 '; County 

General Monk. ^' 83 

County of Englandy and alfo to tranfmit to 
his Majefty an Account of Things according 
to any new Emergency. 

XII. About this Time feverai of the 
Royal Party found a fair Opportunity to in- 
large their Intereft, by the Acceilion of fcve- 
ral among the more moderate of the Presby- 
terians. The rcftoring again the Tail of the 
late Parliament, had greatly difobligcd that 
Party 5 and the rather becaufe all the Pref- 
byterian Members (who had as much Right 
to fit as the other) were kept out by the In- 
folence of the Jundo, being abetted by the 
Power of their Army. Thefe Refentments 
run at laft fo high in the whole Body of the 
Presbyterians, that, difdaining to fubmit a- 
gain to a fun£lo of Knaves that had fool'd 
and cozen'd them, and to their boiftcrous Ar- 
my of Fanaticks, they chofe rather to join 
themfelves to their old Enemy the Royal Par- 
ty, for the Recovery of their common Li- 


I. An univerfal Infurrcciion in e'very Coun- 
ty agreed itpony and a declaration for the 
Freedom of ^Parliaments^ ijuithout men- 
G 2 tiontng 

84 The LIFE of 

t toning King or Monarchy. Sir George 
> ViQQi\x the fir ft that appeared in it. \\. A 
farther T>efign to attempt the bringing o- 
'Ver fame of the Officers. General Monk 
' • cfteemed the moft likely to be prevailed up- 
on, and Sir John Grecnvile the moft pro- 
per '^erfon to be fent to him for that pur- 
pofe. III. An Account of Sir John Grecn- 
'' vil. His T>e ft ent, ijuith fi)me Account of 
his Father. His feveral Advancements 
and Conduct i7i the Army. IV. Compounds 
for his Eft at e^ and lives retired upon the 
. Seat of the Family at Kelkhampton. V. 
'> 'Trefents Mr, Nicholas Monk, Brother to 
■? the General, to the Living of Kelkhampton . 
VI. Whofe ^refentatton is admitted by 
the Committee of Tryers. VII. Sir John 
'- leaves the Country, and refides in Lon- 
* don, for the T> if charge of a Commiffion 
' from the King. He recommends Mr. Ni- 
cholas Monk to the King, as a fit 'P erf on 
to be fent to the General in Scotland. 
VIII. 7he King's Letter to Sir John for 
that purpofe. IX. The King's Letter to 
; the General. X. Sir John acquaints Mr. 
Nicholas Monk, then in Cornvval, with 
the King's ^leafure^ vuho readily accepts 
the Tnifl, and immediately repairs to Lon- 
don to Sir John, and from thence to Scot- 
land. XI. Mr. Monk arrives in Scot- 
land, and communicates hi i Bufinefsto T>r. 
5 Price, 

General Monk. 8j 

Price, the General's Chaplain^ who gives 
him fome Injlruciions about the Manage- 
ment of it. XII. Mr. MonkV Interview 
isjithy and Reception from, the General. 

XIII. The Committee makes feveral Alte- 
rations in the General's Army, "-j^hich he 
refufes to comply 'ujith, but improves them 
to the Service of that Refolution vohich he 
had taken upon the King's Mejfage to hi^n. 

XIV. An Oath of Secrecy. XV. And a 
^declaration to the Jtin6io, figned by the 
General and his Officers ; wherein the 
Jtm^o was commanded to fill up their 
Members, and to provide for frequent 
^arliame7its. A remarkable Expreffion 
of the General's to T)r. Price. XVI. Sir 
George Booth defeated. XVII. Upon 
which the General burns the 'Declaration. 
XVIII. The Juncfo and their Army in 
England difagree. XIX. The Army fends 
to their Brethren in Ireland, and to Gene- 
ral Monk in Scotland, for their Concur- 
rence againfl the T'arliament ; whereupon 
General Monk declares for the Parlia- 

I. ^ I ^HE King's Commiflioncrs very well 
\ underftood how to deal with thcfe 
People, and to make ufe of their Intereft ; 
and therefore having firft agreed, that an uni- 
verfal Infiirrcdion fliould be made ia every 
G 3 County 

8<^ The LIFE of 

County of England, and every one upon the 
fame Day (for which feveral Perfons of Qua- 
lity had undertaken) they confented that the 
firfl: Appearance ftiould be of fuch Perfons on- 
ly as had not been engagd on the King's Side 
in the late War ; thereby both to prevent the 
greater Jealoufy of the Army againft them, 
and with Hopes to have drawn over the more 
moderate Parry among the Soldiers. They 
agreed alfo to a Declaration, which (hould 
not mention the King, nor monarchical Go- 
vernment, but only for the Freedom of Par- 
liaments, according to the known Laws, and 
for Liberty and Property of the People. And 
in this Lifurredion the firft and only Pcrfon 
that appear'd was Sir George Booth. 

IL But bcfides this Defign of an univerfal 
Infurredion, ( which, if it had fucceeded 
right, had given the Jundo and their Army 
Trouble enough) it was rcfolv'd by his Maje- 
(ly and his Privy-Council at Brtiffels, to at- 
tempt the Allegiance of fome principal Com- 
manders in the EngUJh Army. And that 
fmce it had not been pollible to deal with 
them while united, to fee what good might 
be done by engaging one Party againft the o- 
thcr, which was an Experim.ent that could 
never ycr be made : Upon an exad Conftde- 
ration of feveral great Olricers among them 
all, there was no Ferfon of whom they could 


General Monk. 87 

entertain any probable Hope but General 
Monk in Scotland^ who, being a Gentleman 
born, and of better Quality tlian mod among 
them, and having formerly been in the Ser- 
vice of the late King, and no way concern'd 
in their Principles and deeper Guilts, might 
be thought, by the Condition of the Com- 
mand he held, to be a Perfon very proper for 
fuch a Service as this : Nor were there want- 
ing certain Conceits and Forebodings in the 
Minds of Men concerning him. Having there- 
fore refolved to make fome Attempt upon 
him, the next Care was in the Choice of a 
Perfon fit to undertake it : When it was fca- 
fonably remember'd, that there was a very 
near Relation between General Monk and Sir 
John Greenvil, one of the fecret Commif- 
fioners above-mentioned. And therefore 
there was difpatched to him a particular 
Commiflion, to find out fome Way of treat- 
ing privately with General Monkj in order to 
his Majefty's Service. 

And becaufe we are here fallen upon the 
mention of a Perfon, that was fo principally 
concern'd in the great Affair we have under- 
taken to relate, and made fo confidcrable a 
Figure in it, I muft lead the Reader a few 
Steps backward, for the giving him a clear 
Profpedl into the following Relation. 

JIJ. Sir John Greenvil'^zsihczldc^Sovi 
Q 4 P^ 

88 Tijc LIFE of 

of the valiant and loyal Sir Bevil Greenviji 
of Kelkhampton in Cornwal, who, at his 
own Charge in the Year 1638. rais'd a Troop 
of Horfe to attend his late Majefty, in his 
firfi: Expedition ngainfl ihtScot.rr, nnd, being 
afterwards rcturn'd Knight of tne Shire for 
Corn'-j^al in the late Long Parliament, was 
fent down by the King to fettle the Commif- 
lion of Array in that County. After which 
he led on the Cornijh Forces againft the Re- 
bels in "Devonjhire^ and the Weftern Coun- 
ties, where he obtain'd feveral confiderable 
Vi(fl:ories both at Bodmin and Launcejion, &c. 
an,d afterwards in the Battle of Lanfdown 
\o?i his Life, valiantly fighting in the midft of 
his Enemies, by whom he was kill'd with 
many Wounds. This Gentleman, his Son, 
Sir John Greenvily now Earl of Bath^ at fif- 
teen Years of ^ge commanded his Father's 
Regiment, and afterwards was entrufted with 
five Regiments added to it , with which 
Force he rucccfbfully fcrved the King in the 
Wcdern Parts of England -, from whence 
marching afterwards, at the fecond Battle of 
N^ewberry, cxpofing himfelf very far, he was 
dangeroufly wounded. At eighteen Years of 
Ase he was made Gentleman of the Bed- 
chamber to the Prince, his prefent Majefty, 
whom (after all v/as loft in England) he at- 
tended in his Exile abroad. And whilft his 
Majefty ftay'd at the Hague ^ the Garrifon and 
* ' . • ■ ^ • Iflanders 

General Monk. 89 

Ifjanders of Scilly revolted from the Parlia- 
ment, and, having fciz'd their Governor, they 
fent their Submiflion to his Majefty, defiring 
him to fend them a Governor, and fome more 
Forces. Whereupon the King, knowing the 
Courngc and Refolution of Sir John Green- 
n)il, befides the Intercft which his Name and 
Family had in thofe Weftern Parts, thought 
him the fitteft Pcrfon for this Service ; and 
immediately fent him to command the Ifland, 
wuh Directions alfo for the Marquifs of Or- 
mond, to fend him three hundred Soldiers out 
of Ireland, which were accordingly difpatch- 
cd over to Scilly. But the Parliament at JVefl- 
m'mfler, having brought all England \mo Sub- 
jedion, having lately reduc'd Ireland, and be- 
ing in a fair Way for conquering Scotland, dif- 
dain'd to be out-brav'd by two or three little I- 
flands, and therefore, 165 1, they order'd their 
Admiral Blake and Aifcongh^ with a good 
Force of Men of War and Soldiers, to attack 
the Ifland. He came before Scilly with fo 
confiderablc a Force, that Sir John Greenvil, 
and thofe Officers with him, prefently found 
they fliould not be long able to hold the Ifland 
againft him : But putting a good Face upon 
an ill Bufincfs, they flighted his Summons, 
and prepared themfelves for Defence. Yet af- 
terwards, coming to a Treaty, the Ifland was 
furrender'd upon Articles fo honourable and 
advantagious to the Bcfieg'd, that the Parlia- 

i)o The LIFE of 

ment refus'd to confirm them. But General 
Blake, who was a Perfon of Honour and Gc- 
ncrofity, telling his Matters how little he 
car'd to keep his Commiffion otherwife than 
by keeping his Word, they were at laft con- 
tented, that this Agreement fhould be al- 

IV. By the Benefit of thefe Articles, Sir 
Johii Greenvtl came into a Condition to 
compound for his Eftate, and to live quietly 
in his own Country. And retiring himfelf to 
his Seat at Kelkhampton in Cornwal, upon 
the Borders of T>evonjhtrey he found not on- 
ly his Eftate, but alfo the Parfonage, under 
Scqucftration. The Incumbent Mr. Rowfe, 
being turn'd out of his Living for DifafFe^tion 
to the Parliament, the Sequeftrator had in- 
troduc'd his Son. But fome while after Sir 
John Greenvih Return thither, by the Death 
of Mr. Ro'uufe^ the Living came again into 
Sir Johns Gift. The Sequeftrator was very 
carneft with him, to confirm his Son-in-Law, 
by granting him the Prefentation j and the 
Value was confidcrable, with the very beft of 
the Country, being worth three hundred 
Vouwis per Ann. In thofe villainous Times 
the fcqucftrcd loyal Party found it their Intc- 
ixft to gratify and oblige rhofc Publicans and 
Sequefrrarors ; but Sir John Greenvil had a 
greater Dcfign in his Eye than his own pri- 

. . vats 

General Monk. 91 

vatc Advantage. For both himfelf, and fome 
other of his Relations, were not without 
Hopes, but that, at one Time or other, their 
Coufin Monk in Scotland might become an 
ufeful Man for his Majefty's Service 5 and 
though he wanted Opportunity of obliging the 
General himfelf, yet he refolved to come as 
near it as he could, in being kind to his Bro- 
ther, Mr. Nicholas Monk, who was already 
fettled in the Country, about twelve Miles 
from Kelkhampton, in a moderate Living, 
where he had married a Widow, with fome 
AccelHonof Fortune; and, in thofe dange- 
rous and unquiet Times, polTefled a fweet and 
comfortable Privacy. 

V. To this Gentleman, who was alfo his 
Coufm- German, Sir John Greenvil was re- 
folv'd to give the Living of Kelkhampton, and 
thereupon fent for him to his Houfe ; when, 
after other Difconrfe, and fome Conference 
relating to General Monk in Scotland, he ve- 
ry freely gave him the Prefentation, upon no 
other Condition or Referve, but that if he 
fhould afterwards have Occafion to ufc or em- 
ploy him, he would be aflured of his Rca- 
dinefs therein ; which was very willingly pro- 
mis'd by Mr. Nicholas Monk, and it was af- 
terwards as fnirhfully pcrform'd. Mr. Alonk 
had in thofe Times the Character of a very 
honeft and worthy Perfon, and was generally 


92 The L I F E of 

look'd upon as a Man firmly devoted to the 
King and Church of England , yet by his mo- 
derate and filcnt Behaviour, he had efcaped 
with lefs Obfcrvation than many others of 
that Party and Principles. 

VL But though he had received the Pre- 
fentation from his Patron, yet, before he 
could be legally admitted into this Living, he 
was to run the Gantlet at London, through a 
Contrivance, call'd in thofe Times the Com- 
mittee of Tryers, which was made up chief- 
ly of Camp-Chaplains, and other Incendia- 
ries of the Pulpit 5 where, if any Man came 
for Approbation, with a Title to a Living of 
Value, they had a thoufand Tricks and Ro- 
gueries in Readinefs to fruftrate the Prcfenta- 
tion, and difpofe of it among themfclvcs, or 
their Party. Mr. Monk, very well knowing 
the Charadcr that was upon him, had fome 
Diftruft of thefe Tryers 5 but though they 
lik'd the Living better than the Man, yet un- 
derftandin<2; his Relation to General Monk in 
Scotland, they were afraid to put any of their 
Tricks upon him, but difmifs'd him and his 
Title with Allowance. 

VIL About a Year after Mr. Nicholas 
Monk was fettled in this Parfonage at Kelk- 
hampton. Sir John Greenvil was oblig'd to 
leave the Country, and to refidc in London, 


General Monk. 95 

in order to the Difcharge of that fccret Truft, 
of which \vc have given an Account before. 
Where, receiving the Inftrudions before men- 
tioned, to purfue fome Means of treating 
with General Alonk -, hedifpatch'd a Meffen- 
ger, with a Letter in Cypher, to the Lord 
Chancellor Hyde at Bru(felsj giving an Ac- 
count of what had pafled between him and 
Mr Nicholas Monky and propos'd him as the 
fitteft Perfon to be fent to his Brother the 
General in Scotland. The Chancellor com- 
municated this Letter to his Majefty, who fo 
far approv'd the Defign and Method, that 
Letters were prefently difpatch'd back to him 
to proceed therein accordingly. That to Sir 
John Greenvtl was as follows : 

VII I. ^ Am confident General Monk can 
\^ hai;e no Malice in his Heart againfi 
me, nor has he done any thing in Oppofition 
to me iL'hich I cannot eafilj pardoii, and it 
is in his ^o'wer to do me fo great Service as 
I cannot fully reward ^ but I will do all I 
can. And t do hereby authorize yon to treat 
with himj and not only to affure him of my 
KindnepSy but that I will very liberally re- 
ward him with fuch an EJiate in Land, and 
fuch a Title of Honour as himfelf fhall de- 
fire, if he will declare for me, and adhere to 
my Interefl: And whatever you fhall pro- 
mife to him on my Behalf or whatever hCy 


94 ^^ LIFE of 

or you by his Advice, Jhall promife to any of 
his Officer Sy or the Army under his Com- 
mand {^which Command he Jhall ft ill continue) 
I will make good upon the Word of a King. 

C. R. 

IX. But by his fecret Inftrudions he was 
confin'd to the Propofal of one hundred thou- 
fand Pounds per Ann. for ever to be diftribut- 
ed, at General Monks Difcretion, to fuch 
Officers in his Army, and others, as fhould 
comply with him. And in the fame Packet 
there was inclos'd this following Letter, to be 
convey 'd to General Monk, 


I Cannot think you wijh me ill, nor have 
you Reafon to do fo: And the good I ex- 
pe6t from you will bri?jg fo great a Benefit 
toyourCountrjj and to your felf that I can- 
not think you will decline my Inter eft. The 
Terfo7i who gives, or fends this to yoUy has 
Authority to fay much more to you from me. 
And if you once refulve to take my hitereft 
to Hearty I will leave the Way and Manner 
of declaring it entirely to your Judgment , 
and will co'/iply with the Advice you fhall 
give me. The reft I refer to the ^erfon that 
conveys this to you. It is in your Tower to 


General Monk. pj 

fnakeme as kind to you as you can defire, and 
to have me always, 

,, Your affedionate Friend, 

July ii- r- R ' 

X. Upon the Receipt of thefe Letters, Sir 
John Greenvil prefently difpatch'd a Letter 
down to Mr. Nicholas Monk in Cornwall to 
haften his Journey up to him 5 and at his Ar- 
rival acquainted him privately with the whole 
Bufinefs ; and that he was refolv'd to fend 
him to General Monk va. Scotland ^ fhewing 
him his Commiflion from the King to treat 
with his Brother, and withal his Majefty's 
Letter to the General. And having fully in- 
ftrufled him in the Nature of his Employ- 
ment, the next Care was, to oblige him to 
entire Secrecy. Both during his Stay in Lon- 
don, and when he was arrived in Scotland, he 
was engag'd not to difcover his Melfage to a- 
ny other Pcrfon but the General himfclf. And 
becaufe all thinj^s were in Tumult and Dif- 
order, upon Sir George Booth' ^ Infurredion, 
and the Roads full of Soldiers upon their 
March ; it was thought mod fafc to go by 
Sea. Mr. Monk very willingly accepted the 
Employment, not only as an Inftance of his 
Duty to the King, but alfo of his Gratitude 
to his Patron i yet feared to be cntruftcd with 
fo dangerous a Charge as his Majcfiy's Letter, 
which therefore was, for the prefcnt, left ftill 


9d The LIFE of 

in Sir John Greenvil's Hands. But before 
Mr. Monk left- the Town, he thought it ne- 
ccflary to find out CommifTary ClargeSj who 
was Brother to General Monk's Lady, and a 
Perfon very particularly intruded by him, 
through all his greateft Concerns in England, 
He acquainted him therefore, that he was go- 
ing into Scotland to fetch home his eldeft 
Daughter, who was then refiding with her 
Uncle at 'Dalkeith, and to advife with him 
about a Match propos'd for her with a Gea- 
tleman of their own Country. All which 
was alfo really true, and had been very late- 
ly before treated of by Letters between the 
two Brothers. And here CommiiTary Clarges 
did him a very feafonable Kindnefs, in pro- 
curing for him the Convenience of a VefTel 
going off for Scotland^ which landed him 
fafely at Leith in three or four Days after. 
From thence he found Convenience for his 
Paflage five Miles further to the Head-Quar- 
ters at Dalkeith, 

. XI. At his Arrival there, he found Gene- 
ral Monk very bufy in Difpatches (as there 
is feldom much Vacancy in the Head-Quar- 
ters of an Army) and therefore, till the Even- 
ing, was entertain'd by Dr. Trke^ who was 
domeftick Chaplain to the General. Of this 
Perfon's Integrity and Allegiance to the King, 
Mr. Monk had recciv'd io clear and undoubt- 

General Monk. 97 

ed a Charader, that though he was expreflly 
charged by Sir 'John Grecnvify not to com- 
municate his Bufinefs to any Pcrfon but his 
Brother, yet he advcntur'd the fame Day that 
he came to Dalkeith, to intruft the Doctor 
with the Knowledge of this great Secret : 
Who was as much lurpriz'd with the Strange- 
nefs of the Relation, as he was pleafcd with 
the Defign : But advis'd him not to acquaint 
any other Perfon with this Meflage ; and 
that there were not many about the General, 
who were fit to be truftcd with a Secret of 
this Nature. And knowing the General's 
Temper and Condition bcttcrthan his Brother 
did, ( who had not feen him for many Years ) 
he gave him fevcral wary Inflrudions, how 
to manage his Difcourfe with him. 

XII. By this time they had talk'd them- 
felves into the Evening, and both of them 
went to attend upon the General, it being 
then the ufual Scafon for him to be at Lei- 
fure. But coming into the Dining- Room they 
found fome Officers of Leith and Edenbitrgh, 
that were not yet. difpatch'd. Afterwards, 
late at Night, Mr. Monk and the General be- 
ing alone, he took the Opportunity to reveal 
his Meflage to him : That he was fentto him 
from their Kinfman Sir yohn Greenvil, who 
had (hew'd him aCommiffion under theKing's 
Hand, to treat with General Monk in order 
H to 

9§ The LIFE of 

to his Reftauration ; but the Manner of do^ 
jng it, and the Reward of his Service, fliould 
be wholly left to his own Choice. Only in 
the general he propos'd to him one hundred 
thoufand Pounds, to be annually fecured to 
him, and to fuch of his Officers, as fliould ad- 
here to him therein. Then he inform'd him, 
that he had feen a Letter directed to him from 
his Majefty, which he was afraid to be en- 
trufted with, and was ftill remaining in Sir 
John Greenvih Hand. Next he reprefented 
to him, the Seafonablenefs of the Attempt at 
this Time, there being an univerfal Infurre- 
dion formed againft the Rump-Parliament to 
take EfFed over all England, That his Coun- 
trymen and Relations in ^evonjhire and 
Cornwal wxre engag'd in it, mentioning Mr. 
Morrice , Sir Hugh Toliard , Sir Thomas 
Stukefy, and others. That Sir George Booths 
and feveral Perfons of Honour and Quality, 
were adually in Arms in Chejhire, when he 
came out oi Londonj the Copy of whofe De- 
claration he had brought with him, and fliew- 
ed rhe General. And that the Lord Fairfax 
had undertaken to rife in Torkfiire, and thofe 
Counties. The General ask'd him feveral 
wnry Quedions about the Bufinefs, and what 
other Fcribns were intrufrcd with the Know- 
ledge of it. Mr. Alonk alTured him, that no 
other Perfon in England was privy to it be- 
fidcSir j''^Z,/7 Gree-avil) and that lince it had 


General Monk. 99 

been revealed to himfelf, he had acquainted 
only Dr. ^r'tce with the Knowledge of it. 
The thinking filent General faid no great 
Matter at prefent to his Brother upon all this 
Difcourfc, and fo they parted for that Night 1 
and all things were kept fo fecret, that, dur- 
ing Mr. Monks continuance for above two 
Months at ^Dalkeith, it was never apprehend- 
ed he had any other Buftnefs there, but to 
advife with the General about the matching 
of his Daughter, and to carry her home with 

Xlir. During this Intrigue at Dalkeith ^ 
the Septem-virate of Commiffioncrs, which, 
we mentioned before, had made vile Work 
amo^g the Officers of his Army, having dif- 
plac'd many of the braved and ftouteft Com- 
manders : And though he reflcded upon thefe 
Impofitions upon him with fome Refentmenr, 
and interceded v/ith the Parliament for the 
Continuance of his Officers, yet he could not 
fully flop thefe Alterations. But thefe Pro- 
ceedings, as they greatly cnrag'd the cafhiered 
Officers, and formed an univerfal Jealoufy in 
feveral of the rcfV, who expedltd the lame 
Meafure, fo they mov'd a deeper Indignation 
in the General himfelf, v/ho, tliough he car- 
ry'd always the Appearance of a filcnt and 
fteady temper, yet was implacable to Af- 
fronts; and very well known th:;t thefe Al- 
ii 2 terations. 

loo the L 1 F E of 

tcrations, which, no doubr, they made with 
that View, would at laft make his own Sta-. 
tion uncafy or precarious, he was refolved, 
when all was done, not to part with his Com- 
manders. But by the Rdentmenrs among 
them, General Monk ( who very well knew 
how to make ufc of other Men's Pallions) 
came to a better Underftanding of thofe about 
him, and the Inclinations of his Army, info- 
much as he entered into a private Confulta- 
tion with fome whom he could beft truft, 
where it was agreed to frame a declaratory 
Letter to the Jun£lo at JVeflmmfter : The 
Subftance of which was, to reprefent to them 
their own and the Nation's Diflatisfadion at 
the long and continued Selllon of this Par- 
liament, defiring them to fill up their Mem- 
bers, and to proceed in eftablifhing fuch Rules 
for future Eledions, that the Common- wealth 
Government might be fecured by frequent 
and fuccefllve Parliaments. This Letter was 
drawn up by Dr. Trice, at the Diredion of 
the General, 2x^A Dr. Gumble ; and the next 
Sunday following, after Evening Sermon, Ge- 
neral Mo7ik and his Brother, rogcrher v/ith 
Dr. Barrow* Principal Phyfician to the Ar- 
my, Dr. Gumbkj Preacher to the Council at 
Edenburgh, and Adjutant Smith, met all at 
Dr. Trices Chamber, who gave the General, 
and all of them fucceflively, an Oath of Se- 
crecy in thefe Words : 
■ ■•••ui';. i . - ..i XIV. Tou 

General Monk. ioi 

ysXSfy^OU jJj all truly f-juear^ that you will 
I , JL not reveal any thing that Jhall be 

' dicourfed of by ns^ or read unto yoUj without 

the Cojifent of all us here pre fent. 

XV. Next they proceeded to the Pemfal 
of their Letter, which being fign'd by thq 
General, and the reft of them in their Order, 
they agreed feverally to procure Subfcriptions 
to it from fuch other Officers in the Army, 
as were moft likely to comply with their Dc- 
fign. The General then commanded Adju- 
tant Smith to haften to Edmburgh, and to 
treat with Captain Clifton^ Governor, about 
the Security of the Caftle. From thence he 
was to pafs to Leith^ to enfure Captain 
Hughes and Captain Miller, who command- 
ed the Citadel there 5 which being the Sum 
of what was refolv'd on that Night, the Ge- 
neral left them, and went down Stairs, being 
always accuQomed to advife privately with 
liis own Thoughts, as well as with thofc a- 
bout him. But before Adjutant Smith was 
ready to take Horfe, he return'd into the 
Chamber again, and told them, that, upon 
better Confideration, he thought it moft fe- 
cure for them, to arreft their further Pro- 
ceedings till the Return of the nexr Poft, 
which would give them a clearer Profpccl of 
the Affairs of England^ and thereby they 
H 3 might 

loi The L I F E of 

might (hape their own Way the better. That 
^y the next Letters they fliould know more 
perfedly, how near Lambert was advanced, 
what Force was join'd to Sir George Boothy 
and whether any other Parties were rifen in 
England to give Diverfion. This was fo ad- 
vifedly propos'd by the General, that they all 
confentcd to it, and fo parted for that Night 5 
only Dr. Pricey who had a particular Zeal 
for any Enterprize that might determine in 
the King's Service, prefently after fought out 
the General, whom he found difcourfing with 
Grade en Ker, a valiant Scot, that had for- 
merly ferv'd under the Marquifs of Montrofs, 
and was alfo an expert Greyhound Mafter, 
which being a Diverfion the General much 
delighted in, it led him often both to his Ac- 
quaintance and Favour. Flaving ended his 
Conference with him. Dr. ^rice approach'd 
the General with fomc Earneftnefs; telling 
him , they had cnter'd upon their Defign 
fomewhat too late already, and that he fear'd 
all farther Delay would make it \yorfe. To 
whom the General reply'd with fome Palllon: 
Ot-ir Bujinefs can receive no Prejudice by at- 
tending till the Arrival of the next Tofty 
and would you needs be fo haftyy as to bring 
7r.y Neck to the Block for the King, and 
ruin the "-jskole defign, hi a too for^jvard a7td 
unfeafonable declaring. Which being only 
an accidental Remora^ we have thought fit to, 


General Monk. 103 

fnention it in this Place, that the Reader 11137 
obferve in what Dialed General Monk could 
talk, ( even in thofe early Days ) when he was 
fecure of thofe that heard him. 

XVI. The next Morning the Poft from 
London arrived early at Edenbiirgh , and 
brought the News of the utter Defeat of Sic 
George Booth , and his Party ; who, with 
greater Faithfulnefs than good Fortune, had 
adventur'd to appear alone in that univerfal 
Infurredion which was defign'd. 

XVII. Upon this News from London, 
General Monk was inwardly pleas'd with 
his own deliberate and wary Method of pro- 
ceeding I being afliir'd his expoftulating with 
the Jundo, at the fame time that Infurredi- 
ons were form'd againft them in England, 
would have given them Caufe to fafped him 
as a Confederate in the Contrivance 5 and ve- 
ry well knowing this Defeat of Sir George 
Booth would raife, both in the [undo and 
their Army, an extraordinary Confidence and 
Prefumption, he was rcfolv'd for the prefenc 
to put all his Paflions in his Pocket, and wife- 
ly diflemble his Refcntmcnr, till feme better 
Opportunity for producing them rtiould offer 
it felf. Therefore the fame Day he call'd for 
the Paper, which had been fubfcrib'd the 
Evening before, and convening thofe who 

H ^- were 

I04 T'he L I F E of 

were privy to it, he burnt the Letter before 
them, conjuring them all to be faithful to 
their Oath of Secrecy. 

XVIII. Now, could they have trufted each 
other, the j undo and their Army might have 
carried all before them, and mod Perfons of 
Ef-ne and Fortune in England being con- 
cerned in the late Infurrc'dion, had they made 
thtm away, (as was once propos'd among 
them ) and feiz'd their Edatcs , it would 
flirewdly have wcaken'd, if not extinguifh'd 
the Royal Intersil, and raifed fo vaft a Sum 
of Money for the Payment of Debts, and the 
Continuance of "their Army, as might have 
perpetuated the Ufurpation. But inftead of 
this, the jundo at Weflminfter fat to wring 
themfelves in the high Imagination of theik* 
continued Power, after the Defeat of the de- 
iigned Infurredion againft them, their Army 
the mean while wantonly pluming and trim- 
ming their Feathers at i)erby^ whither they 
were advanced after their Defeat of Sir George 
Booth. And having routed a Company of 
new rais'd Soldiers, and unarmed IVelJhmen ^ 
they were as much tranlported with Pride 
and Vanity, as i^ they had fought the great 
Battle at Arbela, or utterly vanquifli'd Han- 
nibal and his Party in the Overthrow at Me- 
taurus. But inftead of purfuing the true Ends 
pf their defperate Intcreft, they fell to quac- 
:'^.'V- * ' " 'Z.. '■'"; " ^ " relling 

General Monk. ioj 

rclling aiiionp; thcmfelvcs. The Jun£\o and 
their Army knew lb muchFalfhood and Vil- 
lany in each other, as it was not pofliblc fot 
them to hold lon^r together. Their late A- 
dions in difabHng their chief Officers from 
2;rantin2; Commiflions, had fo leflcn'd their 
Power and Influence on the Army, as they 
were rcfoU'd to take the firft Opportunity to 
reftore their military Authority to its former 
Grandeur. And becaufe Lamberts conceal'd 
Ambition was moft concern'd to obviate thefe 
Practices, and his Brigade, by this War of 
half an Hour, were moft fpiritted with Sour- 
nefs and Arrogance againft their Mafters at 
Weftmmfter 5 they were thought fitteft to be- 
gin the Contrivance, which was prefcntly af- 
ter abetted by the other Regiments remaining 
in and about Loytdon, under the Command 
of Lieutenant General Fleet'ouood, with fuch 
bold and infolent Demands upon the Junclo, 
and fuch pert Expoftulations with them, to- 
gether with a moft unmannerly Oftentation 
of their own Merits and Services, as muft 
needs either leften the Authority of their Ma- 
fters, or end in a Rupture. 

XIX. THEjunclo, that wanted not Cun- 
ning to introfpect thefe Defigns of the Offi- 
cers, were refolv'd to make fome further Al- 
terations in the Government of the Army. 
And, on the other Side, the Commanders, 


10^. rhe LIFE of 

both to ftrengthen their Intereft, and that 
the Junfto might have no other Force to 
retreat unto for Support, had difpatched Let- 
ters to the Armies in Scotland zr\<\ Ireland^ to 
gain Subfcriptions to their Reprefentation and 
1: ctition. They had defign'd, in this their 
new Model, to wheadle General A/(!?w/^ with 
the Place of General of the Infantry ; who 
yet iook'd fo far into their Reach and De- 
iigns , that , upon Receipt of thefe Letters 
and Papers, he forbad all under his Com- 
mand to fubfcribe to them, and return'd An- 
fwer to the Officers in London , that the 
Houfe having already declar'd their DiQike 
of their Reprefentation, he was refolv'd to 
keep his own Army in Obedience to the Au- 
thority of Parliament, and that feveral of his 
Officers were diflatisfy'd with this their Way 
pf Proceeding, 

^'' •■'■ CHAP. X. 

J. Upon a thorough Conjtderation within 
himfelfofthe State of the King's Jjfairs, 
the General determines, for the prefent^ 
to. conceal his 'Deflgn of fer^ving him. IL 
He advifes his Brother and Sir John 
Greenvil to concern themfelves no more in 


General Monk, 107 

the Affair 5 III. Though he was not in- 
wardly difpleas'd with the Tropojal. IV. 
He receives Intelligence of a Rupture like- 
ly to enfite between the Parliament and the 
Army. V. Mr, Monk returns to London, 
and acquaints Sir John Greenvil with 
what had paffed between him and the Ge- 
neraly which is likewife communicated to 
the King by Sir John. VI. T>elivers a 
Meffage from the General to Commiffary 
Clarges, that he would fupport the Par- 
liament. VII. Whereupon the Parliament 
'Voted, that no Taxes Jhould be rais'dwith- 
out Confent of Parliament, disbanded fe- 
deral Officers, and appointed CommiJJion- 
ers for the Government of the Army. VIII, 
Lambert immediately fets a Guard upon 
the Parliament , to exclude the Jtm6io, 

IX. And appoints a Committee of Sajety. 

X. The General prepares to take Advan- 
tage of thefe Alterations in England. XL 
And ufes the Authority of the Jun^o on- 
ly as a Pretext. XII. The General's main 
Scheme fupport ed by two Principles, that 
the Military miift be fnbjc6i to the Civil 
*Power, and the prefent Form of Civil Au-^^ 
thority mufl be '^Parliamentary. 

I.'T'^HE Intervcnicncy of fo many new 

\ Occurrences in England, had hither- 

^p put a Stop to Mr. Monks Mcflage to the 

^ General \ 

io8 . The LIFE oj 

General; who yet, all this while, gave that 
dangerous Affair a particular Place in his 
Thoughts and Retirement. He confidered 
the King's Intereft was now (o very low, that 
he could receive no Acceflion of Power from 
his Party 5 and by the Defeat of Sir George 
Booth, and of thofe other defisn'd Infurrec- 
tions, all things were grown worfe. That to 
enter into a Treaty at this Time with the 
King would be as dangerous, as to declare 
for him j fince there have never wanted falfe 
or needy Men about his Majefty, by whom 
his Secrets had been hitherto betray 'd. He 
forgat not how much he had been oblig'd by 
his Relations, the Family of the Greenvils $ 
but being removed out of his Country, and 
from the Converfation of his Kindred, when 
he was very young ; and himfelfandSiry<?;6« 
Greenv'tl having been engag'd on different 
Sides, and wholly Strangers to each other, 
he could not yet fatisfy himfelf, whether he 
were a Perfon of Abilities and Secrecy e- 
nough to tranfad with in fo difficult an Af- 
fair. And for his own Brother, he look'd up- 
on an Employment of this Nature and Intri- 
cacy, as altogether foreign and unfuitable to a 
private Clergyman, that had been bred up 
among his Books and in Retirement. The 
Defigns of reftoring the King by Plots and 
Infurredlions, he had always efteemed but as 
fo many Toys that would come to nothing, 


General Monk. 109 

where raw and unexpericnc'd Soldiers were 
to encounter with Regiments, that had been 
fo long ufed to Arms and Vidory. He was 
refolv'd therefore at prefent, not to difcover 
his Inclinations to the King's Service, till he 
could firft fee himfelf in fuch a Station as 
would be able to fupport him alone, and 
juftify his Proceedings, without depending up- 
on the acceflbry and contingent Alliftances of 
others. The revealing alfo of this dangerous 
McfTage to others befide himfelf, was fome 
Prejudice to the Succefs of it. For though 
General Monk trufted Dr. ^rice as much as 
mofl: of thofe about him, yet he cared not to 
ftand at any Man's Mercy or Difcretion for 
the concealing his Secrets. And having no- 
thing but a Meffage by Word of Mouth> 
and the King's Letter being left behind,it made 
him have the colder Afped upon the whole 
Bufinefsj which may eafily be believ'd by 
thofe that fhali confider, what EfFeds thefe 
Letters had feven Months after, when they 
came to be delivered in better Circumftances. 

n. But this Affair being for the prefent > 
wholly laid afide , that which puzzled the 
General's Thoughts mod, was, the Care of 
concealing it. To that End he took the next 
Opportunity of difcourfmg privately with his 
Brother, advifing him to follow his Studies, 
and the Care of his Living, and no more to 
5 concern 

tio the LIFE of 

concern himfelf in publick Bufinefs ; and that 
he (hould carry this Advice to his Coufin 
Greenvily not to meddle any more in fuch 
dangerous Adventures ; and conjuring them 
both to an entire Secrecy, he told his Bro- 
ther with fome Paflion : That if ever this 
Bujinefs were difcovered by him, or JVr John 
Greenvil, he would do the beft he could to 
ruin them both. 

III. By all thefe Paffagcs the confiderate 
Reader will eafily difcern, that General Monk 
was not fo really difpleas'd with the Propofal 
made to him, as that it furpriz'd him in the 
midft of fo many unfeafonable Circumftances ; 
fo that his principal Care was, firft to conceal 
his own Intentions from others, and next to 
oblige the Secrecy of thofe that had beea 
dealing with him. 

IV. The General had all this while a par- 
ticular Account, by Letters froni Z<?w^<?», of 
the Difcontents rifen between the Parliament 
and the Army, which were likely to deter- 
mine in a downright Quarrel. And being 
refolved to make his Advantage of them both,, 
he diredcd his Brother, now preparing for his 
Return into England^ to find out Commif- 
fary Clarges fo (bon as he came to London^ 
and deliver his Mcflage to him. And hav- 
ing given Mr. Monk fuch Advice and Aflif- 


General Monk. iir 

tance as was neceflary for the beftowing of 
his Daughter, he difmifs'd them both with a 
very particular Kindncfs. 

V. Mr. Nicholas Monk took his Leave o*. s; 
at "Dalkeith about the 8'^ of 06iober^ intend- 
ing to return the fame Way he came, and 
Dr. Trice, who, by this long Converfatioa 
with him, had a particular Efteem for his Per- 
fon, as well as his Meffage, accompanied him 
and his Daughter to the Shore at Leith, where 
he took fhipping for London, and arrived there 
about four Days after. He firft found out Sir 
John Greenvil, and acquainted him with the 
whole Account of his Voyage to his Brother, 
and of all that pafs'd between them ; aflur- 
ing him that, at leaft for the prefcnt, nothing 
could be expected from General Monk, with 
whom he had taken an Oath of Secrecy, a- 
bout which he was not to be examin'd, but 
hoped good EfFeds of it would in due Time 
appear, and he was rcfolv'd now to hafteii 
home to his Family. Sir John Greenvihook 
the firft Opportunity to acquaint his Majefty 
and the Lord Chancellor Hyde at Bruffels 
with this Account 5 which, coming to no far- 
thcir Period, was laid afide for the prefcnt, 
till we find it refumed again in the Sequel of 
our Story. 

VL 1 HE 

11% The LIFE of 


VI. The fame Evcnin2;Mi'.M?72y& comins 
to Commidary Clarges, he acquainted him 
with the General's Mcffage 5 by which he 
was diredcd to inform the Members of the 
Parliament, that if the Army in London con- 
tinued in their Hifobedience towards them, he 
would all] ft them therein, and if things (hould 
run into farther Extremity, he would be in 
Readinefs to march his Army into England 
in Defence of them. 

VII. The next Morning early Commlflary 
C//3r^^j" acquainted fome of the leading Mem- 
bers with the Mcffage from General Monk ; 
which being communicated to the reft, had 
a prefent Effedt both upon their Spirits and 
Counfels. They were dogged and angry- 
enough before at the Infolence of their Ser- 
vants 5 but now fomething of Bravery and 
Difdain began to fparkle in their Difpleafure. 
Infomuch that the old Senators adventured 
now to ruffle with their Colonels -, being re- 
folv'd that if they muft leave their foft Seats, 
they would firft empty out the Feathers. 
They had already' diYcharg'd the Common- 
wealth from all Taxes, otherwife than by 
Confent in Parliament : Now they pafs'd a 
brisk Vote, to ftrike eight or nine of the 
moft daring Colonels off^ the Tally, and va- 
cated their Commiflions, ( viz. Lambert, 


General Monic. 113 

^esboro'-jVy Berryy Kelfr/y AJIofield, Cobbet^ 
Tacker^ Creed and Barro'u: ) And then dil- 
folving the prcfent Conflitution of the Army, 
they pafs'd an Ad for the appointing fcvcn 
Commiffioners to take the Charge of it, {^viz,. 
Fketwoody iMonkj Haz>lerig, Ludlow, Mor- 
lejy IValtoriy and Overton,) who were to en- 
ter upon their I'luft from the 7^^ of this prc- 
fent OCiober, and to continue till the 22^ of 
February following.. 

VIII. These nimble Proceedings of the 
Junclo put the difcarded Officers and their 
Party into fome Diforder j who thereupon rc- 
folv'd to venture at all, before thele new 
Commiffioners ffiould have any Time to fet- 
tle their Intercft or Authority over the Sol- 
diers. The next Morning therefore very ear- 
ly, Lambert, having gotten together fuch 
Force as he had at Hand, poflefs'd himfelf of 
all the Avenues to the Parliament Houfe, and^^ 
excluded the eminent Aflcrtors of the good 
old Caufe from further meeting there. In 
whofe Room a Combination of the Army- 
Officers had prefently in Readinefs another 
new Device to fucceed, which they call'd a 
Committee of Safety. 

IX. They who fbberly obferved the Falf- 
hood and Hypocrify, the Folly and MadncfS;, 
of thefe boifterous Colonels, did believe them 

I poiTeffd 

114 the LIFE of 

pofTefs'd with more Devils than one, havings 
in fix Months Time, fhirted three Govern- 
ments, ?.nd let op another Idol and Scheme 
of Government, that was not likely to out- 
laft two Moons. 

X. Ever flnce the Death of Oliver Crom- 
welj General Mr^nk expcded nothing elfe 
than a fucccfllve Series of extravagant Altera- 
tions in England, which he hoped might give 
him Opportunity of obliging his Country; 
and therefore more narrowly infpefted the 
Temper and Inclinations of his Officers and 
Army. And though he was a Perfon natu- 
rally provident, yet of late Years he was 
more careful than before, in taking the Ac- 
counts of the Treafury of War, and in keep- 
ing good Store of Money in Bank, of which 
he had feventy thoufand Pounds, befides what 
was in other Hands. The Magazines alfo of 
Arms and Ammunition m Scotland 'wcrcvcxy 
well fupply'd. 

XT. The General very well knew this 
Junfto which the Army had difturbed, were 
People neither to be endured nor trufted; 
therefore he was refolved to make ufe of them, 
and their Intereft, no further than as a Pre- 
text to opprefs the infolent Defigns of the 
Englijh Army, and afterwards to lay afide 
our J undo alio. 

5 XII. And 

.General Monk. i t j 

XII. And here wc will feafonably acquaint 
the Reader, with the two declared Principles 
of General Monkj which he had framed with 
that popular Appearance and plaufible Afped, 
as they became the Balls of all his Proceed- 
ings. And though he was fometimcs forc'd 
to fail by different Winds, yet he (Ull kept 
himfelf fteady to thele two Points. One was. 
That the Government could not be fupported 
bitt by an entire Subje6iion of the Military 
Tower in Obedience to the Civil: The o- 
ther, That the prefent Conftitution of the 
Commonwealth was to be adminifter'd by 

With thefe two Principles, prudently ma- 
naged, he was fure to have always a Game to 
play in all publick Alterations. By the firft 
he had contriv'd to awe or oppofe the Extra- 
vagancies of the Army in England. And by 
improving the other to fucceflive Eled:ions, 
he was not without Hope, but that at one 
Time or other fuch a Parliament might hap- 
pen to be chofen, as would be willing to rc- 
ftore the Monarchy. And that he was ftill 
aiming at this Contrivance, will appear both 
by his Letter to the Parliament at JVeftmin- 
fiery and by his Inftrudions given to his 
Commiflioners at the following Treaty ; by 
his Defign of diflblving the Jundo, and by 
AdmiiTion of thefecluded Members, in order 

I 2 to 

ii6 The LIFE of 

to a new and full Parliament. Befides, the 
ufual Emulation and Jealoufles which lb fre- 
quently happen among thofe that command 
Armies; the Temper and Principle of General 
Monk, and the chief Officers in England, 
was wholly incompatible. Nor is it eafy to 
fay, whether he did more hate or defpife 
them, knowing himfelf fuperior to them in 
all the Arts of War and Conducl. And the* 
he abhorr'd the Thought of afftiming the Go- 
vernment himfelf,* yet he greatly difdain'd 
that Lamherty or any other, fhould dare to 
attempt it, whilft himfelf had a Sword in his 


I. General Monk receives Intelligence of the 
Troceedings of Lambert and his ^arty. 
IL Begins his March into England, hav- 
ing firft made a Speech to his Army. IIL 
Sends Captain JohnCon to fecure Berwick, 
Captains Berry and Hall to Ed en burgh, 
whither he himfelf follows , taking up all 
difaffeBed Officers in thofe, and other re- 
moter Garrifons. V. Marches to Leith 
and Linlithgow, from whence, after hav- 
ing made fome Regulations, he returns to 


General Monk. 117 

Edcnburgh. V\. ACharaHer ofDr. Gum- 
blc. Nil. Colonel Q,o\ihzx. is fcnt to '^^Qox.- 
land by tke Committee of Officers, to caufe 
^rcifion in General Monk'j Army-, but 
Captain John Ton carries him Trifoner to 
Edcnburgh. VIII. A more particular Ac- 
count of Cobbct'.f 'Dejigns, '■joith fame 0- 
ther Indignities from the Englifli Army, 
which the General refents. IX. The Ge- 
neral publifbcs a Tieclayation : The Siib- 
ftanceofit. X. Writes r^ Fleetwood and 
Lambert ; to Lcnthall the Speaker, ayid to 
the Independent Churches. XI. As alfo 
to the Forces in Ireland, defiring their 
AJfi/lance. XII. And to the Fleet, both 
which refufe to join with him. XIII. The 
General's Refolution. 

1/ I ^HE News of interrupting the pretend- oa. 

\ ed Parliament by Lambert and his 
Party, came to l~)alkeith by the next Pod, 
and was no Surprizal upon General Monk, 
who cxpeded no Icfs ; and therefore was be- 
fore-hand refolv'd how to go to work with 
them. For the fame Minute he receiv'd the 
Intelligence, he communicated his Refoluti- 
on to fuch Officers as were then about him, 
and prefcntly difpntch'd away Adjutant Smith 
to Edcnburgh and Leith, commanding the 
Officers of both thofe Garrifons, which were 
within five Miles of him, to attend him pre- 

I 3 f^ntly 

ii8 the LIFE of 

fently at T)alkeithy where he acquainted 
them with his Refolution of marching into 
Engla'ndy to reftore the ParUament : Unto all 
which they unanimoully affcnted. And the 
fame Might he commanded, that no Poft 
fhould pafs for England^ to give Account of 
his Preparation, till he were further advanced.. 
The Citidels of St. Joknjfoj-is and Ayr were 
both important Places 5 but at a confiderable 
Diftance from Dalkeith. And General Monk' 
had no great Opinion of the Perfons that 
commanded rhem in chief: He had therefore 
lent for Captain Witter of the one, and Cap- 
tain B-obinfon of the other, being Officers he 
had fomc Confidence in, who were both of 
them with him at 'J)dlkeithj when the News 
can-c of the Interruption upon the Parlia- 
5.ment. The next Morning therefore he dif- 
patch'd them both with Inftrudions to fecure 
thofe two Citadels, with Authority alfo to 
imprifon fuch Officers or others as fhould 
diflent or oppofe them therein : Which was 
fome Days after efFedually perform'd by Cap- 
tain Robin fon at Ayr, and Captain Witter at 
St. John ft on s. 

II. In the Afternoon General Monk, being 
attended with his Guards at T>alkeith, march- 
ed to Edenburgh'j where were quarter'd on- 
ly two Regiments of Foot, one whereof was; 
his own, the other Colonel Talbot's, who was 

s''>iisi : i ■'.'■■* 

General Monk. iic) 

then abfent at London. And having fccured 
or difcardcd luch Officers as he diftrurtcd, 
and placed others in their Room, he told 
them at the Head of the Rct^imenrs then 
drawn up, That the Army in England had 
broken tip the '^Parliaments out of a re file fs 
and ambitious Humour to govern all them- 
felves, and to hinder the Settlement of the 
Nation. That their next "FraSlice would be 
to impofe their infolent Extravagancies up- 
on the Army in Scotland, that was neither 
inferior nor fubordmate to them. For his 
own Fart, he thought him f elf obliged., by 
the T^iity of his Flace-f to keep the Military 
T^ower in Obedience to the Civil-., and that 
fince thty had receiv'd their T^ay and Com- 
mijfion from the "TarUament., it was their 
T)uty to defend them j in which he expelled 
the ready Obedience of them all: But if a- 
ny did declare their 'Diffent to his Refolu- 
tion, they Jhould have Liberty to leave the 
Service, and might take Gaffes to be gone. 

III. This was fpoken with the Authority 
and Spirit of a General, and without Difguife 
or Artifice, but was receiv'd with the uni- 
verfal Shout and Submiffion of the Regiments. 
The fame Evening retiring to his Quarters, it 
was deliberated by the General, and Officers 
about him, of how much Importance it would 
be to fecure Berwick. He was well enouL^,h 
I 4 aflur'd 

I20 rioe LIFE of 

affur'd of the Fidelity of Colonel Meers^ who 
commanded the Garrifon. Bur the reft of the 
Officers were Anabaptifts, in whom he could 
have no Confidence, and which we^e a fort 
of Vermin, which he was now refolv'd to 
worm out of his Army. The fame Night 
therefore he difpatch'd away Captain Johnfon 
with a Party of Horfc, to alllft the Gover- 
nor in fccnring the Place, with Orders alfo 
to bring off with him all unquiet and difaf- 
fected Officers. 

IV. At the fame Time there were attend- 
ing at Edenburgh, Captain TJerry and Cap- 
tain Hally who commanded in Colonel Coh- 
fptfs PvCgiment at GlafcoWy and had rcceiv'd 
Orders to march the Regiment to Eden- 
burgh, and fccure the Officers that diffcnted. 
The Colonel was then at London^ and the 
two Captains perform'd their Indrudions. 
And before General Monk left Edenbnrgh, he 
fcnt for feveral fufpecled Officers, who com- 
manded in remoter Garri Tons, to attend him 
there, who, at their Arrival, were fecurcd in 
the Caftlc oi Edenbargb, and their Commif- 
fions granted to fuch as he could better truft. 
The Regiments at Aberdeen were fecurcd by 
Colonel Fairfax the Governor. And Colo- 
nel Rkead "^zs made Governor of In-vernefs, 
and ordered to fend three of his beft Compa- 
nies to the General at Edcnbiirgh. And hav- 

Genfral Monk. hi 

ing thus fettled the remoter Garrifons by fuch 
Officers as he efteem'd mofl: faithful to him, 
the nearer were difpofcd of by himfclf. 

V. Having ftay'd two Days at 
burgh, he march'd to the Citadel of Leithy 
where was lodg'd a confiderable Part of the 
Stores 5 and having difplaced mofl: of . the A- 
nabaptift Officers, he intruftcd Mr. Hughes 
with the Command of that Place. The nextn. 
Day he pafTcd to Linlithgow ; and having 
fatisfy'd himfclf in the Settlement of that Gar- 
rifon, he rcturn'd again to Edenburgh. 

VI. Where hehad much Conference with 
D^ Giimbky who was Preacher to the Coun- 
cil of State, and by that Employment, and his 
continual Rcfidcnce at the capital City, (be- 
fides his own forward Inclination) he had a 
very intimate Acquaintance with, and fome 
Influence upon, mofl: of the Officers; fo that 
General Monk, who very well knew how to 
chufe his Inftruments, had of late admitted 
him to feveral of his Counfels. He had for- 
merly been Vicar of Wickham in Bucking- 
hamjhire, in which Town Mr. Scot had liv- 
ed, and was Burgefs for that Place. By Mr. 
Scot's Interefl: he was thought to have been 
prcferr'd to this Employment in Scotlandy 
where he kept always an exad Correfpon-* 
dence with him, and others of the Party, be- 

121 The LIFE oj 

ing a very zealous Commonwealth's Man, 
infomuch as he could not conceal his Dif- 
contenrs againft the Ulurpation of Cromwell 
and his Son, in fetting up the Government of 
a fingle Perfon. The General having refolv- 
ed (as the beft Expedient at prefent) to jufti- 
fy his quarrelling with the Englijh Army, by 
deciarijng to reftore the Commonwealth Par- 
liament, made very great Ufe of Dr. Gumbky 
to reprcfent his Defigns advantagioufly to Mr. 
Scot^ who was a leading Man among them, 
and a Prefident to their Council of State ; 
and alfo to infpirit the Officers and Soldiers 
of Scotland to a Compliance with the Refo- 
lution of their Genera!. In both which Par- 
ticulars he did him very great Service ; and in 
this Aifair of ren:oring the Parliament, Dr. 
Gi-mble was fo intent and earneft in all Dif- 
coii'f ■ v\'irh the General and others, that fome 
of file Otiicers thousiht him the firft Promoter 
of the Defign againft the Army m England. 
And others, that diflented, wrote in their 
Letters to their Party in London^ that Giim- 
hle was the grand Incendiary, in provoking 
General Monk to this Refolution. The Ge- 
neral, who knew the Sufpicions that were up- 
on him, was very well pleas'd with this Ap- 
prehenfion they had taken up among them, 
being willing they fliould believe any thing 
ihe Caufe of thefe Proceedings rather than the 
true one. 


General Monk. 123 

VII. About this Time Captain Johnfon 
(whom we mcntion'd before) returned ro 'he 
General from Berwicky where he had n flirt- 
ed Colonel Mecrs in fettling the Ganifon, and 
imprifoning the diflenting Officers. But be- 
fore they had fully done their Bufincfs, Colo- 
nel Cohbet arrived from London thither, in his 
Way to Glafco'jjy where his Regiment was 
quarter'd. He was haikii'd down by the 
Committee af Officers in London^ to difpofe 
the Army under General Monk to a Compli- 
ance with their Defigns, and to oppofe or fe- 
cure fuch Perfons as diflcnted ; being a ftout 
and adive Man, and of very great Intereft in 
the Army, So foon as he came to Beriz'tckj 
he began to be very bu(y in declaring againft 
GznziA Monks Proceedings, and to remon- 
flrate againft them : So that the Officers there 
( notwithftanding all his buftling ) took the 
Boldnefs to lay him faft ; and Captain John- 
fon had now brought himPrifoner (with the 
other Malecontents of that Garrifon) to E- 
denburgh, where they were all fecur'd iu the 

VIII. General Monk was well pleas'd 
with this Service of Major Johnfon^ in pre- 
ierving a Place fo important to his further De- 
figns, and in fecurinfg fo dangerous a Perfon 
as Colonel Cobbet 5 having before receiv'd, 


124 ^^^ LIFE ©f 

from his Intelligencer at London, the Advice 
of his coming, and the Inftrndions he had 
Irom IVau'mgford- Houfe, to make Diftur- 
banccs and Parties in the Scotch Army, and 
to iaiprove his Intercfl: fofar amongft the Sol- 
diers, as to feizc the General himfelf if he did 
Dot comply with their Aftions. This Dcfign 
u'poii him, before they could pofllbly know- 
any thing of his diflenting, did greatly pro- 
vke the General, both againft them and 
their Officers at London, and their Indrument 
Cohhet : Befides fome other of their little Af- 
fronts which they had put upon him, in their 
lafl: Letters, when they dcfi red Subfcription in 
the vSVt^fr/v Army to their Rcprcfentation. They 
had cnjol'd General Mcnk with the Offer of 
Genera! of the Infantry over all the Forces in 
the Army; but in their new Model, fincc 
their Interruprion of the Junifto, they had 
taken no Notice of him. Though he was not 
dcfirous to receive any new Obligation of 
Kindnefs from thofe he was refolv'd to quar* 
rel with, yet he refcntcd the Indig!;nity, be- 
ing as dextrous in diilembling Affronts that 
were put upon him, as he was fure to remem- 
ber and requite them. 

IX. The General being by this Time got- 
ten fomewhat before-hand in his Bufinefs, by 
fettling and fecuring {o many of the nearer 
Garrifons and Regiments j it was next delibe- 
■ '* rated 

General Monk. lij 

rated by him and his Council of Officers, to 
give the Nation an Account of this their Pro- 
ceeding, by a publick Declaration. TheSub- 
ftance whereof was: That tkey had now ta- 
ken Arms only to defend the Freedom and 
Privilege of 'FarliamentSy and to vindicate 
the Rights and Liberties of the People a- 
gainfl all Oppofition iz'hatfoever. This was 
accordingly printed at Edenhurghy and dif- 
perfed through Scotland and England. 

X. But at the fame Time fome of thofc 
that had confentcd to follow their General in 
thefe Proceedings, began to be afraid of mak- 
ing fo wide a Breach between the two Ar- 
mies; and therefore propos'd to the General, 
that he would endeavour to redify thefe Mi- 
ftakes and Prejudices between both the Ar- 
mies, by writing firft to the principal Officers 
in London. They who beft underftood the 
Intereft of the Army in Scotland, did greatly 
diflike the Propofal ; but, in their prefent 
State of Affairs it was not fafe to decline that 
Method, fo much to the Difcontent or Sufpi- 
cion of thofe who were Authors of it. Let- 
ters therefore were agreed to be drawn up to 
Fleetwood and Lambert ^ in which the Gene- 
ral, expoftulating their Violence to the Par- 
liament, declar'd his own, and the unanimous 
Refolution of the Army under his Command, 
to aflert their Authority. At the fame Time 


ji6 The LIFE of 

Other Letters were alfo written to Mr. Lent- 
hally the Speaker of the late Parliament, to 
acquaint him, that if the Interruption did 
continue, he fhould be ready with his Army 
to refVore them to their SefTion, according to 
the Duty of his Place. And becaufe feveral 
of his Officers that adher'd to him, were 
Members of Independent Congregations in 
Englandj it was thought fit by the fame 
Meflcnger, to fatisfy that Intereft in the Ju- 
ftice of their Quarrel 5 alluring them by a 
Letter : That they had no Contention with 
the Army in England relating to Religion-, or 
any religious Terfuajion-., that their fpiri- 
tual Liberties (loould not be 'violated by him-, 
or his Army 5 but that he was in ^uty ob- 
liged to fupport the Authority of Tarlia- 
mentSj againft the ambitious TraEiices of the 
Army in England. A Copy of the Letter to 
the Speaker, and of thofe alfo to Fleetwood 
and Lambert^ were prefently after put to the 
Prefs at Edenburgh, But the other to the 
Independent Churches,being againft the Grain 
of the Presbyterian Methods in Scotland, was 
ordered to be printed at London, 

XL General Monk having difpatch'd a- 
way a Meflenger with thefe Letters to Lon- 
don, was in the Interim careful to ftrengthen 
his Inrerci!:, by the Accefllon of other remote 
Correlpondencies. To that End he wrote 
\ > • Letters 

General Monk. 117 

Letters to the Forces in Ireland, reprefenting 
the Juftnefs and Neccflity of his Proceeduigs 
againft the Englijh Army, and defuing theic 
Afliftance with him in rcftoring the Parlia- 
ment j from whom he rcceiv'd a very cold 
and diflenting Anfwer. 

XII. At the fame Time there was a good 
Fleet riding in the 'Downs, commanded 
by Vice-Admiral Lawfin, from whom he 
might, with much Confidence, expcd a Com- 
pliance; having been, fome Years fmce, their 
Admiral in the fortunate War againft the 
Dutch, and had left them with an extraordi- 
nary Memory and high Eftimation of his Bra- 
very and Courage. But the Officers at Lon- 
don had beforehand, by their Agents, done 
his Bufinefs fo effedually, by mifreprefenting 
his Intentions, that the Fleet was refolv'd to 
ftand off, till they were further fatisfy'd in 
the Clearnefs of his Defigns. The like An- 
fwers he received from Colonel Overton, then 
Governor of Htdl, and fome other Garrifons 
in England, who were content to become 
Interceflbrs between him and the Englijh Of- 
ficers for an Agreement -, but would not o- 
therwife be concern'd in the Quarrel. 

XIII. No Man, except General Monky 
could happily have kept his Thoughts fteady 
and refolute in the midft of fo many crols 


128 The LIFE of 

Accidents, which took him in the very Be- 
ginning of his Defigns. But being only to 
form his own Army into an exaft Obedience 
to himfelf; he was very much alTur'd, if he 
could not be in a Capacity to invade England^ 
yet his Enemies fhould never be able to force 
him out of Scotland: Having refolv'd to raife 
the Kingdom in Arms, and to entruft the No- 
bility and Gentry of that Nation, before he 
would take a Baffle from them. 


I. The EffeB of his Letters, the Army in 
England under 'a great Confter nation, 

II. They fend Commijfary Q\2C[^<zs and Co- 
lonel Talbot to treat with General Monk. 

III. l>lcv/c2i^\cfeeuredfor the Committee of 
Safety ^by Colonel Lil burn . IV. Which prov- 
ed an Advantage to the General. V. Com- 
mifary Clarges and Colonel Talbot arrive 
at Edenburgh. Vl. Commiffary Clarges 
■privately mjorms the General, of the ill 
Condition ofthofe who fent him ; however, 
to gain Time for bringing together his di- 
ft ant Forces, VII. The General confents to 
a Treaty between the two Armies, and 
appoints Coimniffioners, VIII. Gi'ves his 

5 Commif 

G r N r R A L M o n k. i 25? 

C<mrm{[fioners fowe private Liflnifljons. 
JX. The Council of Ofjiccrs at London 
prepare for a I Tar. X. Lambt-rt marches 
into the J^orth. XI. Meets "oi-ith Gene- 
ral Monk'j" CommiJ]] oners at York, and 
treats rjDtth them, hut --joithout comi>ig to 
any Jlgree7?ient. Xlf. Lnmbcrr fends a 
Meffage to General Monk by Major Gene- 
r^/ Morgan. XIII. JVi.OyattheJiWietim?, 
. privately delrjers a Meffage from the 
Z<?r^ Fairfax to the General. XiV. Fleet- 
wood alfo 'Vi'ritcs privately a civil Letter 
to the General. SJV. A Letter of Thanks 
from the independent Congregations in 
Lo n d on r ^ the General, XVI. Carried by 
tvao of their Ta[iors, and tvi'o Colonels : 
Their Behaviour and Reception. ^sMW. 
Freflo Endeavours to raife Sedition among 
the General's Soldiers. XVI II. The Ge- 
neral's great Care to prevent it. XIX. 
He appoints a fpectal Committee of Of- 
ficers for the receiving and dif patching 

I. \ ^0\jTOtioher 28. hisMe{rcngcrnr-o.7.2S. 

Jfx^ rived with the Letters at London^ 
which had all of rheni the very fame E(K*<ft 
that General Monk cxpeded. For rhejundo 
Were thereupon contriving to make Parries 
in the Army that might diftradl their Councils. 
But Fleet'X'ood and Lambert, and their Com- 
K mittee 

130 The LIFE of 

mittee of Safety, were greatly farprlz'd at 
the Receipt of thefe Letters. And being far- 
ther inform'd by his Meflenger, ( who was ill 
chofen for that Employment ) how far Ge- 
neral Monk had proceeded in modelling his 
Army and Officers to a Compliance with his 
Deflgns, and the Influences he had over them 5 
that he had clapt up Colonel Cobbet fo foon 
as he arriv'd, and (ecur'd or cafhier'd one hun- 
dred and forty of his diftrufted Officers; they 
began to think they had taken wrong Mea- 
fures with him, and were merely impos'd upon 
by the foolifh Perfuafion of thofe whoaffur'd 
them, that the Scotch Army would not be 
brought to engage againft their Brethren in 
England ; and that, though it were believ'd 
General Monk would not comply with the 
Officers at London, yet he wanted laterefl: 
enough in his Army to lead them his own 
Way. And they knew him fo well, that if 
he could fix his Army to a Submiffion and 
Dependancc upon him, he had Courage and 
Condud enough to give them more Trouble 
than all the Enemies they had yet met 
with. ■-•, _ „ _ _ 

II. They had therefore no mind to enter 
into a down-right War with General Monk 5 
but, upon farther Confulration, it was re- 
folv'd to attempt him by a Treaty 5 in Hopes 
to bring off the General himfelf, or at lead 

' fome 

General Monk. 131 

fomc of his Officers, to unite with them. 
Very late therefore the fame Evening they O'^?- ^ 
fent for Commiflary Clarges, and Colonel 
Talbot, who had a Foot Regiment then quar- 
ter'd in Edenbiirgh, to attend them prefently 
at the Council, then fitting in White-HalL 
Where they infornVd them, that they had rc- 
ceiv'd Letters from General Monk ; by which 
it did appear, their Proceedings in London 
had been mifreprefented to him ; that there 
were fome evil Inftrumcnts about him, which 
had endeavoured to create Jealoufies between 
the chief Officers in the two Armies, and (a- 
gainft the Intereft of both ) to engage them in 
a War, or Diftruft of each other. And hav- 
ing given them farther Inftrudions how to 
manage their Meflage with the General, and 
his Officers, they commanded them both to 
haften their Journey to him ; being fo nettled 
with the Bufinefs, that they allow'd them but 
three Hours Time to make ready for fo long 
a Voyage. But if General Monk had chofcn 
an ill McflTcngcr to carry his Letter to Lou- 
doUy thefe Officers had more groffiy miftaken 
themfelvcs, in fending thefe two Perfons, e- 
fpecially the Commiflary, on their Errand in- 
to Scotland. 

IIL But leaving thefe Gentlemen in pro- 
cindof their hafty Journey, we will pafs be- 
fore them again into the North, where wc 
K z . ihMl 

13^ r-^'The LIFE of 

fliall find General Monk bufied in the farther 
niodcliing of his Army. And.becaufe he 
would have PafTcs enough for his own Mo- 
tions, or for the Acccflion of fuch Parties as 
he hop'd might rife for him in England, he 
. was rcfolv'd to fecurc the two grand Avenues 
into Scotland. To that End he had before 
fcnt Major T^ean with a Party of Horfe to 
fecurc Carltfle, who fail'd in the Attempt: 
And had now commanded Colonel Knight 
with four Troops of Horfe, and Major Mil- 
ler with fix Foot Companies, to furprizc 
Ne'jvcaflle. But having marched as far as 
Morpethj they rccciv'd Intelligence, that Co- 
lonel Lill^umhad prevented their Defign up- 
on Newcnflle -, and had already entered the 
Town with a Party, rcfolving to keep it for 
the Committee of Safety. This Pcrfon was 
quartered at 2ork, and fo foon as he heard of 
General Monk' ^VxoccQd'm2,i>'m Scotland, was 
very bufy in the North to contrive againft 
him. For befidcs the Contradiftion of their 
different Aims and Principles, Lilburn had 
an old Grudge againft General Monk, ever 
lince he was thought the abler Man to fucceed 
him in the Command oi Scotland, of which 
wc have given an Account before. But fo 
foon as General Monk had received Advice, 
that Lilburn had poflcfs'd Newcafile, he dif- 
patch'd Orders to Colonel Knight and Ma- 

General Monk. 133 

jor Miller, to proceed no farther ; bur, tor 
the prelenr, to retreat to Alnwick. 

IV. Not long after, General Monk found 
his own good Fortune, in milling this Place : 
Which, being a Frontier Town, would hjp- 
ply have been bclicg'd by Lambert y before 
the General could have been in Readinefs to 
have march'd for the Relief of it: fo tliat ci- 
ther he would have been cnforc'd to enter up- 
on A6lion before he had been prepared, or to 
have expos'd thofe Troops and Companies 
which were fome of the choicell Men of his 
Army, and greatly devoted to his Service ; 
and the Officer?, fuch as had given the moll 
early Experiment of their Fidelity. 

V. About the z^ ci November , the fore- Nax-. 
mentioned Mcflengers from the Council of 
Officers, Commillary Claries and Colonel 
Talbot, arrived at Edenburgh ; and upon De- 
livery of their Mclfage, General Monk pre- 
fently perceiv'd the Officers in London did 
rather fear than defpife him ; lince they had 
taken the Trouble of fending Agents on pur- 
pofe fo far, to compliment him into a better 
Opinion of their Proceedings, and to procure 
a Treaty. 

VI.The General had much fecret Difcourfe 

with CommilTary Clarges^ whofe coming was 

K i very 

134 ^^ LIFE of 

very feafonable to him, being able to give him 
a very good Account of the Condition of 
thofe who fent him. By whom he was alTur- 
cd, that they were jealous ot each other, and 
in fuch want of Money, as they could not 
take up a few Weeks Pay for the fetting 
forth the Army, which they were preparing 
to fend down into the North. General Monk 
very well knew he had already proceeded far- 
ther, than was pofliblc to be made up by a 
Treaty -, that the Officers in England would 
never truft him, and he was refolv'd to have 
no farther Confidence in them : So that a 
Treaty could produce no good, nor did he in- 
tend it fliould. But becaufe his own Officers 
might be better fatisfied with the Equity and 
Temper of his Proceedings -, and efpecially 
in regard a great Part of his Army was not 
yet fix'd and fettled to his mind, and fome of 
them were more than two hundred Miles a- 
part; which would take Time both to inform 
the Officers, and to march thofe far diftant 
Parties to a Rendezvous; he found it his own 
Intercft and Convenience ( for the gaining 
fariher Leifure ) to confent to a Treaty. 

- ' VII. The next Morning therefore, at a 
Council of Officers, the General acquainted 
them with the Mcilagc he had receiv'd from 
London : That the Officers there were dcli- 
rous of a Treaty, to adjuft the Apprehcnfions 
. - .i ■, and 

General Monk. 135- 

and Jealoufies between the two Armies, 
which was readily aflented to by the Coun- 
cil of Officers, and that three Perfons fliould 
bechofen among them for this Employment. 
But they were fo civil towards their General, 
and confident in his Prudence, that they 
would refer the Nomination to himfelf; 
who therefore propos'd Colonel Knight 
and Colonel Cloberyj and, in Requital of 
their Refpeft, left it to the Officers to ap- 
point a third Perfon, who then chofe Colo- 
nel miks, 

VIII. These Commlffioncrs were difpatch- 
€d away with all convenient Speed, having 
received their publick Inftrudions from the 
Council of Officers. But before they took 
Leave of the General, he gave rhem alfo pri- 
vate Dire£tions of his own, which they were 
particularly oblig'd to purfue, viz. befidcs 
treating with the Officers in London^ they 
were to ufe all the Art they could, to infpcd 
the different Aims and Intercfts that were a- 
mong them, not to oblige thcmfelves to the 
fct Time, to which they were confin'd by the 
Council of Officers, but rather to protract ir, 
if they found Caufe. But in a mod particular 
Manner they were charged not to confcnt to 
any Agreement, othcrwife than by rcftoring 
the late Parliament j but if that Point could 
pot poffibly be gain'd, then that a new one 
K 4 Hiould 

13^ The LIFE of 

fliould be chofcn by the People. For Gene- 
ral Monk very well knew, there was no 
dealing!; with them, if he could not bring the 
Englijh Army to acknowledge ibme Autho- 
rity luperior to thenifelvcs : And if they 
could be brought to llibmit to a Parliament 


freely chofcn, which would be fure to op- 
pofe them, he fhould then never want Op- 
portunity or Intcred to make himfclf their 
Klatch. fie was now iirowinti old in Ar- 
niour, having turn'd the Shadow of his fif- 
tieth Year, being in the Maturity of his fudg- 
ment and Experience, and was as much their 
Superior in the Methods of War, as in the 
Juilnefs of his Caufc. . .. . 

IX, But the General Council of Officers 
in Londo'd, though they had fent down their 
MeiTengers, Commillary CLirges and Colonel 
Talbot, to procure a Treary, yet, being doubt- 
ful of the Event, wererefolv'd to fecond the 
Dcfign for Peace, with Preparation to a War, 
in Cafe General Mo'nk lliould prove rellive 
or incoirplaifanr. '' \' '"' rr* ,r«-r 

X. To this End ALjor General Lambert 
(who had contriv'd this Expedition in the laft 
Stage of his Ambition ) was order'd to march 
toward the North, withfuch Forces as could 
be fpar'd out of the City, which were to be 
complcatcd with the Addition of thofeRegi- 

' \ * ments, 

General Monk. 137 

mcnrs, that, after the Defeat of Sir George 
Booth, were quartcr'd toward the Northern 
Counties. Their Succels in Chejhire four 
Months before, had rais'd in them fuch an 
extraordinary Vanity and Confidence, that 
they did not confider they were now to en- 
counter another Sort of Warfare, and ano- 
ther kind of General, 

XL Major General L/^w^^r^ advanc'd 
prefently with his Forces towards the North, 
and at Tork met the Commillioners of the 
Treaty in their Way to London ; and was wil- 
ling %o have rpar'd them the Trouble of a 
longer yourney, aflliring them, that he had 
brought with him Powers from the Commit- 
tee of Safety, and the Council of Officers, to 
treat with them, and to compofe the Diffe- 
rences. But when they came to enter upon 
the Bufinefs, the Commiflioners would aflent 
to nothing, till it was firft agreed, that the 
late Parliament fhould be reftored. This was 
a Point which Lambert ( who had diffolv'd 
the Jun£lo ) could leafl: of all aflent to, and 
was refolv'd againft 5 and therefore pretend- 
ing he had no inllrudions to treat of it, the 
Commillioners were permitted to go on their 
journey. Only it was here agreed, that, dur- 
ing the Treaty, neither of their Armies (hould 
advance from their feveral Quarters, and that 
no Act of Hoftility lliould pals between them, 


138 The LIFE of ^ 

nor any Interruption upon Letters or Mef- 

XII. In this Place Major General Lam- 
bert found Major General Morgan, then re- 
covering from a long Fit of the Gout, by 
which he had been fome Time difabled from 
returning to his Command in Scotland, But 
now having in good Meafure got off from the 
Arreft of his Gout, he was afraid of a worfc 
Confinement ; and therefore prudently dif- 
fembled his Opinion of General ikf^«;^'s Pro- 
ceedings j infomuch as Lambert, upon Con- 
ference with him, thought him a very fit Per- 
fon to promote his Defign in Scotland, where 
he was Major General to the Army ; and of 
fo particular a Credit with General Monk, and 
Interefl: among the Soldiers, that itwashop'd 
he would be able, either to incline the Ge- 
neral to an Agreement, or to draw off a good 
Fart of his Army from him. The next Day 
therefore he began his Journey to Edenburgh, 
where he attended the General about the 
S^'^ o^ November, being fome few Days af- 
ter the Arrival of Commiffary Clarges, and 
Colonel Talbot. So foon as he came, he 
publickly gave General Monk an Account 
of his Meffagc from Lambert, dcfiring his 
Compliance with the Army in England. To 
which it was anfwercd, that if the Parlia- 
ment were iipdored again, he had no farther 

Quarrel ; 

General Monk. 139 

Quarrel : but without it there could be no 

XIII. In the Evening Morgan found Op- 
portunity of private Difcourfe with the Ge- 
neral, and deliver'd to him a Letter from 
Mr. Bowles^ a Preacher in Tork^ and a par- 
ticular Agent intruded by the Lord Fairfax^ 
afluring him, his Lordfhip, and other Per- 
fons of Quality in the Country, would be 
willing to join with him againft the Army 
in England, if, inftead of reftoring that Piece 
of a Parliament, ( which was interuptcd the 
1 3*'' of October laft ) he would confent to the 
Ad million alfo of the formerly fecluded Mem- 
bers, or to the calling of a new Reprefenta- 
tive. The General faid little hereunto; but 
then refolv'd that Commiffary Clarges fhould, 
in his Return to London, vifit Mr. Bowles^ 
and fatisfy him a little in thofe Particulars. 
And upon farther Difcourfe together, Ma- 
jor General Morgan was fo fully fatisfy 'd in 
the Juftice of the General's Proceedings, 
that, though he had taken the Pains to bring 
Lambert's Meffagc, yet did not think him- 
felf obljg'd to carry back the Anfwer, be- 
ing prcfcntly commanded by the General, 
together with Adjutant Smith, to march to 
the fcveral Horfe Quarters, and to model 
thofc Troops according to Infl:ru6lion. 


140 The LI FE of , 

The Prefence a|id Ufefulnefs of Major 
General 7\/?r^^« was now fo feafonable, that 
he look'd on this fingle Perfon as a Ba- 
lance againft thofe one hundred and forty Of- 
ficers, that had left his Service, or had been 
cafhier'd. ; .- ; 

XIV. About this Time Lieutenant Gene- 
ral Fleetwood, though he had difpatcli'd away 
Commiflary Clar^eSj and Colonel Talbot, by 
Confent of the Council of Officers, to pro- 
cure a Treaty and Agreement j yet fomefew 
Days after, he thought fit to fend Letters to 
General Monkby a private Mellenger of his 
own. Before this Time he had entertain'd 
fome Apprehenlion of Lamherfs Ambition, 
and therefore was refolv'd to procure ( if pof- 
fible ) a good Underfianding with General 
Monk, by whofe Friendfliip or Conjundlioii 
he fhould be always able to obviate or balance 
the Defigns of the other. To this End he 
fent down Mr. 'Dean, who was one of the 
Treafurers of the Army, with a very kind 
Letter and Propofals to General Monk, which 
though they came to no Etfed, yet the Ge- 
neral eafily difccrn'd all was not right among 
themfelves. This MelTcnger's Demeanour 
and Adion in Scotland, was very much re- 
fented in the Army : For in his Way through 
their Quarters, he was fiill difiributing Tick- . 
cts to feduce the Soldiers from their Obedi- 


General Monk. 141 

cnce. He was very well received by the Ge- 
neral at the Head Quarters j yet had the In- 
folence to talk indecently to him at his own 
Table, charging him with Defigns of intro- 
ducing C/jar/es Sttiart -, or if he did not dc- 
fign it, yet the Divifion he had already made 
between the two Armies, would certainly 
bring him in. Dr. Trice was one Morning 
(landing at the Head of a Foot-Company in 
Edenburghj where this Mr. IDean pafs'd by, 
and told them : My Z/<?r^ Lambert is coming 
iipon you '■juith fuch a Force, as all General 
Monk'i" Army ■x'/// fcarce make one Break- 
faft jor him. But a ftout Soldier return'd this 
furly anfwer: That the cold Weather had 
gotten Lambert a very good Stomachy if he 
could eat their S'ui'ords and Tikes, andfwal- 
low their Bullets. But the General prefent- 
ly after gave him Anfwer, and difmifs'd him, 
not without fome Refledion upon the Info- 
lence of his Carriage and Deportment. 

XV. And now the Meflengers that procur- 
ed the Treaty, Commiflary Clarges and Co- 
lonel Talbot, having receiv'd their Inftruc- 
tions, return'd back for London. But the one 
fellintoZ/^«?^fr/'s Army, and continued there 5 
the other went on towards Tork, having Di- 
rection from the General to treat farther with 
Mr. Bo'-jvles, and to leave with him the Ge- 
neral's Letter dircded to the Lord Fairfax ; 


142 The L I F E of 

and had alfo Orders to fettle other Correfpon- 
dencies in his Way to London. We have be- 
fore given Account of the Letter which Ge- 
neral Monk, ( in Compliance with fuch Offi- 
cers of his Army, as were of that Perfuafion ) 
had fent to the Independent Congregations in 
London j fome whereof were fo fenfible of 
his Refped towards them, in giving them the 
Account of his Anions, and declaring for 
their Liberty, that they thought themfelves 
oblig'd to return him Thanks by MelTengers 
of their own. Others of them that were more 
crafty and defigning, had a farther Reach in 
this Contrivance. They were moft concerned 
for the Power and Intereft of the Englijh 
Army -, and therefore were refolv d, by this 
Opportunity of fending into Scotland, if Ge- 
neral Monk and the reft (hould prove immove- 
able, to draw off their own Party there to a 
Compliance with the Army in London. 

XVL To this Employment were chofen 
two Paftors of their Churches, Mr. Carjl, a 
Pcrfon of Learning and Gravity, and Mr. 
Barker. There were alfo join'd with them, 
two Colonels of that Communion, JVhalley 
and Goff ; and when they came to Newcaftley 
their Company was increafcd by the Addition 
of Mr. Hammond, Preacher to a Congrega- 
tion there, a fevcrc Zealot of the fame Way. 
The two were to cffcd an Agree- 


General Monk. 143 

mcnt betwen the two Armies; whilft the 
two Colonels, being upon this Occafion ad- 
mitted into the Head-Quarters, fhould prac- 
tife upon the inferior Officers, who, toge- 
ther with Mr. Hammond, were much accus'd 
for feveral very ill Contrivances during their 
Refidence there. But after feveral Confe- 
rences, which did rather incenfe the General, 
than perfuade him ; General Monk gave them 
fuch Rcafons for his Refolution to oppofe 
the Englijh Army, that the Meflengers of 
Independency took their Leave of him, hop- 
ing his own Commiflloners would be more 
fortunate in concluding the Agreement in 
London, which themfelves could not begin 
at Edenbttrgh. 

XVII. General Monk had no fooner 
difmifs'd thefe Importunities upon him from 
abroad, but he was encounter'd with new Di- 
fturbances at home. For though he had im- 
prifon'd fome of thofe Officers whom he had 
difplac'd, or who had deferred him 5 yet the 
moft of them were fet at Liberty, to fettle 
the Accounts of their Companies, and to take 
Care of their other Affairs, before they left 
the Country. Thefe Officers, having thus 
loft their Commiffion and Employment, grew 
very mutinous in Edenburgh, accufing the 
General for the Methods he had taken wirh 
them, contriving to raife Seditions and Parties 

4 among 

144 T/''^? LIFE of \ 

among their own Soldiers againfl: him: Sci 
that the General was enforc'd to command 
their Departure out of Scotland prefcntly, 
where they were neither to (lay nor to return 
again at the Peril of their Heads. But for 
their Arrears, they were to ftate them with 
their new Matters whither they v/cre going, 
being refolv'd they fiiould not be enabled to 
fight againft him with his own Money, to the 
Prejudice of the other Part of his Army, that 
continued faithful. 

XVIII. But to fix the Refolution of his 
Soldiers for farther Pra6liccs upon them, and 
to fpirit them againft the Army in England, 
there was particular Care taken in the placing. 
fuch Serjeants and Corporals over them, as 
"Were People of fome Dilcretion and Truft ; 
who, converfing more with the common Sol- 
diers than the fuperior Officers did, had con- 
tinual Opportunity of making better Imprcf^ 
fions upon them. And to the fame Ends there 
were frequently publifii'd Pamphlets and Paf- 
quiis, with fharp Refledions upon the Prac- 
tice of rhe Army in England^ and Dialogues 
printed, ftating the Cafe of the Quarrel, be- 
tween a Soldier o^hc Scotch Army and ano- 
ther of the Efjglifi. All which were ufually 
read among rhem upon the Guards, and para- 
phras'd upon by the Serjeants or Corporals 5 


General Monk. 14 j 

and every Week a Gazette of the fame Pur- 
pott was printed at Edenbiirgh. 

XIX. The General was about this Time 
befieg'd with fo many Letters and continual 
MclTages to him from the general Council of 
Officers in London y and another general 
Council at T>iibltn^ and a third at Nrducaftky 
that, bcfides the (landing general Council of 
all Commifllon Officers in the Army, he con- 
ftituted a Committee of principal Comman- 
ders, to which were added fome Perfons of 
efpecial Prudence and Truft, who were to 
perufe all Letters, and to draw up Anfwers 
to them ; to entertain fuch MeOlngers as 
were Tent ; to examine the Pacquers, and to 
ftop fuch Letters as they thought fit; and to 
prepare all Bufinefs ready for the General's 
Difpatcb, againft fuch Time as he was at 
Leifure to come to Council. 


L General Monk'j Commijjioner s arrive hi 
London, and come to an Agreement with 
thoje of the Englifh Army, with the Ar- 
ticles of Agreement. IL The General is 
furprizd with the News of this Agree- 
ment > in. And refiifes to confirm it, af- 
L tef 

14(5 Tloe LIFE of 

, ter having called a Council of Officer s^ 
'uho declare their 'Dijlike of it : Upon 
which a Letter was fent to Fleetwood, 
defiring an Explanation offome of the Ar^ 
ticks, IV. Then ^ he marches back from 
Edcnburgh to Haddington 5 thence to Dun- 
bar, and takes up his ^tarter s at Ber- 
wick. VI. Some of the General's Horfe 
defert /^Lambert, who was quartered at 
Newcaftlc. VII. The General's Letters 
arrive at London. The various Effects 
€f them upon the fever al Tarties there. 
The Council of State write a Letter of 
Thanks to him^ and make him Generalif- 
fimjo 3 though with the Refiraint of five 
Commiffwners join d with hi'm. VIII. His 
Commiffioners return to Scotland. IX. T>if- 
contents in LambertV Army. X. Lambert 
writes to General Monk, to re fume the 
Treaty. XI. Intercedes for the Releafe 
of Colonel Cobbcf, which the General re- 
fiifes. XII. Chillingham Cafilefurprizd 
by Lambert's Forces, contrary to Agreement y 
upon which GeTieralMonk confines Colonel 
Zanchy, h^mbzn's Alejfenger. XIII. The 
Arrival of General Monk's Commiffioners 
from London, and their Excufe. ■ Colonel 

!• \"S^TE Jcfc the CommiHioners of the 
Treaty on their V/ay to London^ 


General Monk. 147 

where they arrived November 12. and, with-^""^- **- 
more Ceremony than Kindnefs, were receiv'd 
at IValUngford-Houfe by fuch Officers as 
were appointed by Lieutenant General Fleet- 
wood to confer with them. Here they were 
fo continually carefs'd with the Attendance 
and Refped of the Officers, that they had 
no Opportunity to purfue their fecret Inftru- 
dions, in procuring Intelligence from the Ci- 
ty, or the late excluded Members 5 norfcarce 
Freedom enough to deliberate privately a- 
mong themfelves upon the Articles propos'd 
to them. And every Day there were (hewed 
to them Letters of Intelligence from theNorth, 
( moft of which were framed in London ) in- 
forming them of the continual and daily Re- 
volt of General Monks Forces from him -, 
and fo alarm'd his Commiffioners , that 
they were afraid at this Rate, within a little 
Time, their General would not be worth a 
treating with. And therefore inftead of pur- 
fuing their private Inftrudions by artificial 
Delays, within three Days after their Arrival, 
they confented to an Agreement, figned by 
them November i $ . (the fame Evening Com-^^T^.^, i^j 
miffary ClargeSj whom we left at Torkj re- 
turned to London) which was comprehended 
in nine fuch wild and extravagant Articles, 
as any one of them had been fufficient to 
have juincd all General Monk's Defigns. 

.■:i'^ -i.^ 

iV Li I. In 

148 ne LIFE of 

i, I. In the firft, they fortify 'd their Confpi- 
racy againfi the Family of the late Kingy and 
all ^Defceyidants from him. 
' .2. By the fecond, xhc^^ precluded the Pre- 
tence of any other Jingle i^ erf on 'j whi-chwas 
Contriv'd by that Party of the Commiflioners, 
who were for a Commonwealth, and where- 
by they might not only fhut the Door againft 
the Kctmn of Richard Cromwel, but were 
refolv'd to keep it faft againft the later Ambi- 
tion of Lambert, 

3. In the third, the Matter was fo carried, 
that the fupreme ^ower of fettling the Com- 
monwealth fhotild remain in the Hands of 
the general Council of Officers 5 only now 
the Officers of the Army in Scotland zwii Ire- 
land fhould come in for a Share of the Tp; 
ranny. :- 

4- And becaufe the late |undo was not 
further to be trufted, the fomih provided for 
the Elediwn of a new Parliament ; but un- 
der fuch Qualifications as muft needs kt.ia. 
only the greateft Villains in the Nation./ vd^t 

5. The fifth took Care for \}(\^ pafing to 
the Scotch Army the Arrears of their Vror 
portion formerly fettled out of the Affeffmsnt: 
in England. ;niti iii 

6. The ^\:ah Article was the luckieft of- 
them all, ccnftituting a Committee of fourr 
teen Officer s^ half whereof were to be cho- 

v;l fen 

General Monk. 149 

fen out of the Army in England, and the 
other half out of the Army in Scotland, isjho 
were to determine the Cafe of all fuch Offi- 
cers as had been difplacd, or given up their 
Commifjicns fince the 7^^ of Odobcr lafi 
paft i and thofe Commijfioners on both Sides 
were to meet at Newcaftlc in December next 

7. And becaufe they knew, that, by their 
manifold Guilts and lawful Pradlices, they 
flood in need thereof, the feventh provided 
for their Indemnity. 

8. In the eighth, they defign'd to render 
the Pulpit only a Kind of an idle Country 
Wheadle upon the Clergy of the three Na- 
tions, far their better Support and Encou- 

9. And in the ninth was order'd the Re- 
treat of the feveral Forces in England and 
Scotland, to their former refpe^ive Star- 
ters before the ^larrel began. 

II. The Officers at Wallingford-Houfe had 
by this Agreement, fo handfomcly out-witted 
General Monk's Commiflioners , that they 
were very well pleas'd with their Contrivance; 
and therefore prefently difpatch'd away their 
fign'd Articles by two MefTengcrs of their 
own, Wallington and Floyd. But before 
their Arrival into Scotland, General Monk 
had left Edenburgh, intending to take up his 
L 3 Quarters 

15© 77:-? LIFE of 

Quarters at Berwick, and was come as far as 
Haddington, where thefe Meffengers found 
J 8. him November 1 8. late in the Evening, as he 
arofe from Supper. The General having broke 
up the Pacquer, and perus'd the Articles, 
was ftrangely furpriz'd at the Contents of 
them, and did believe his Commiflioners were 
frighted out of their Wits at London, or loft 
them by the Way, having done nothing a- 
greeable to the Inftrudions he gave them. He 
then gave the Paper to fuch Officers as were 
then prefent, and (according to his ufual Man- 
ner ) faid not a Word to them, but retir'd to 
his Chamber. 

III. The next Morning ( inftead of hold- 
ing on his March to Berwick) he retir'd a- 
gain to Edenburgh, whither the News of the 
Agreement was arrived before him. So that 
upon the firfl: Notice of his Return thither, 
■' there were good Store of his Officers (then 
• quai'tcring in the Town ) ready to attend him 
in the ufual Council Chamber. Athisfirft 
coming in among them, he was very filent 
and rcfcrv'd j till feme of them began frank- 
ly to cyprcfs their Difcontent at this Agree- 
ment ; others of them, that forefaw their own 
and the General's Ruin contriv'd by it, were 
ready to ask Pafles to provide for themlelves 5 
and others difcovcred their Padion, in rcflcd- 
ing upon the Weaknefs and Imprudence of 

... their 

General Monk. iji 

their Commiflioners. In Conclufion, the 
General let them know, he lik'd the Agree- 
ment as little as any of them : But if they 
would all unanimoufly adhere to him, he was 
refolv'd not to confirm it. To which all that 
were then prefent did very faithfully and paf- 
fionately agree. The General therefore ap- 
pointed, that a Council of Officers fhould be 
conven'd to meet in the Afternoon, where 
they would farther deliberate upon the Means 
how to fruftrate this Agreement. In this Af- 
fembly were prefent very many Officers, that 
(upon the late Alteration ) were advanced to 
higher Commands in the Army, who, when 
they obferv'd that, by the fixth Article of A- 
greement, aProviiion was made for reftoring 
the difcarded Officers to their Places again, 
were implacably refolv'd againft it ; and, as a 
farther mifchievous Contrivance upon General 
Monk and his Officers, this Article look'd no 
farther than the 7^^ of October laft paft : So 
that all thofe Officers who, (during the Seffion 
of the Jundlo ) had been difplac'd by thp 
Committee in London for regulating the Ar- 
my, and were the beft and bravcft Men in 
the Scotch Army, could receive no Benefit by 
it, though for the prefent the General kept 
them in their Commands by his own imme- 
diate Authority. At laft ir was refolv'd by 
the General, with fomc others of his moll in- 
timate Counfcl, that no Exception flionlci be 
L d. ofl\-i-'4 

I J 1 ' The LIFE of 

offer'd to any of the Articles in particulac, 
but that in the general fome Things were fq 
exprefs'ti, as wanted a more clear and diftind; 
Explication : And their CoLrimiilioners having 
fail'd in the Parfuit of their Indruclions, hav- 
ing pretermitted feveral other things, whicU 
needed further to be agreed upon • that there- 
fore they would crave Leave for the prefent 
to defer the Confirmation of thefc Articles^, 
intreating their Confent for the adding two 
Commiiiioners more to the former : which 
fliould meet at AlniJi'icky or fome other indif- 
ferent place, with the like Number of Com- 
milTioners from the Army in England, in or- 
der to a more difdnd and lalling Agreement. 
All which was couch'd and drawn up the fame. 
Night, in a Letter to Lieutenant General 
Fleet'jjGod and the Council of Officers, and. 
the next Morning was difpatch'd to London 
by lVallit2gtonzn<X Flojd, who brought down 
the Agteement. 

IV. The General having thus fent away 
• thefe Meilcngers with their Letter, and or- 
dered the Advance of his Army towards the 
Borders, refum'd again his Rcfolution for Ber- 
iL'ick. So that returning from Edenburgb, 
he took up his late Qiiarters again at Had- 
dhigton ; from whence he march'd to 'Dun- 
bar, where he ftay'd two Days to take Ac- 
count of thofe Forces that were quarter'd in 


General Monk. 153 

thofc Places. Here he vicw'd thofc Hills 
where he had raU'd the firil of his Trophies 
in Scotland^ when, well nigh ten Years a- 
go, on the third of September, he opcn'd the 
Way for the Conqucft of the Country, by 
that memorable and fatal Overthrow of the 

V. From T^iinbar he march'd to Ber'-jvicky 
where he arriv'd about the End of November, 
and took up his Head- Quarters. By this 
Station he was come clofer to his Bufinefs, 
and could better infpe^t the Proceedings of 

VL It was about the 23*^ o^ November Nov. r-^. 
when Lieutenant General Lambert, having 
before remov'd his Quarters from Tork, and 
kept on his Way, came to Nei£jcaflle, whi- 
ther he arriv'd with about feven brave Re- 
giments of Horfe, and four or five of Foot. 
Yet in this gallant Army there were two 
fatal Defe6ls : The Soldiers had no Mo- 
ney, and the General had no Authority. But 
the advancing fomuch nearer, began to have 
fome ImprelTion upon General Monk's Ar- 
jny, efpccially among the Horfe Regiments } 
whereof feveral Parties ftole away in the 
Night to Newcaftle. Major General Mor- 
gan having receiv'd Inftruftions, as we have 
befpre related, to regulate the Troops, ( and 


I j4 ^^ LI FE of 

Adjutant Smith was join'd with him ) had ta- 
ken great Pains in fixing them to the Gene- 
raal's Rcfolution. But a great many of thefe 
Troops were Anabaptifts, and fuch like Male- 
contents, and were more inclin'd to Lambert, 
and the Extravagancies of the Engl'tjh Army, 
than to the (leady Councils of their own Ge- 
neral. Yet fome of thefe Runagates were fur- 
priz'd before they could get off, and being 
unhors'd, there were Red-coats, who had been 
fo good Husbands of their Pay, that they could 
find Money to buy Boots, and were mount- 
ed in their Room. General Monky when he 
had firft dcclar'd againft the Army in Eng- 
land, was very much concern'd that he was 
no ftronger in Horfe, having had two Regi- 
ments commanded off from him by the Jun- 
£^o in the Bufinefs of Sir George Booth. But 
after he found fo many Traitors and Fugitives 
among his Troops, he was very well content- 
ed that he had no more of them to lofe. 
His Regiments of Foot were entirely devot- 
ed to him, and were certainly, for their Cou- 
rage and exad Difcipline, the beft Infantry in 
the World ; and fo perfedly obedient to their 
General, that they were refolv'd to fight in 
his Qiiarrcl, if there had been no Horfe at all 
to allifl: him. 

VII. Before this Time the Meflengers 
with General Ahnizs Le;tters were arrived at 

::•.•::;; h London^^ 

General Monk. lyy 

Londoriy where, fo foon as it was known, 
that the General and his Officers had refus'd 
to fign the Agreement, it rais'd many and va- 
rious Paflions among them. The Council of 
Officers ( who fat hugging themfelves in the 
Succefs of their Politicks ) were greatly fur- 
priz'd with this ftrangc Fruftration, after they 
look'd ontheBufinefs as fully concluded, and 
had fo reprefented it to all their Party. The 
Citizens, who, about a Fortnight ago, had 
given up their Liberty for loft, upon the 
News that both the Armies were agreed, be- 
gan now to entertain fome Hopes of their 
Redemption, when they were told the Ar- 
ticles would not pafs in Scotland. And the 
old Members of the Jundo upon this News 
began to recover their Spirits. Some while 
before they were fullen, and out of Humour, 
that General Monk, after he had fo briskly 
declar'd for them, had yet enter'd into a 
Treaty with Fleetwood and his Officers, with- 
out advifing with them ; and that his Com- 
miffioncrs, who manag'd it in Londoriy had 
made no Application to them. But now fomc 
of the old Council of State, who were rcfolv'd 
to make ufe of the Occafion, met privately 
together, and drew up a very kind Letter 
to him, which was to be convcy'd to Ber- 
wick by a Servant of Sir Arthur Hazlerig. 
In it they greatly magnify 'd the Courage and 
fidelity he had exprefs'd in his Declaration, 

1^6 Tke LIFE of 

to defend the Authority of Parliaments, pro- 
mifing alfo their utmoft Endeavours to concur 
with him therein. This was fubfcrib'd by 
Scot the Prefident, and eight more of them, 
whereof three were joint Commiflionerswith 
him, for the Condud of the Army. And 
in Tcftimony of their entire Confidence in 
him, and their Enmity againft Fleetwood ^xv^ 
Lambert, they alfo fent him a Cqmmillion 
to command as General over all the Forces of 
England yci^ Scotland. But it was fo artifi- 
cially and (lily penn'd, that if any of the for- 
mer Commiffioncrs were with him upon the 
Place, or at fuch Diftance as they could con- 
veniently be advis'd with, he was to take their 
Ccnfcnt along with him; only they had re- 
duc'd the Number from feven to five, having 
now cxpung'd Fleetwood and Ludlow. 

VIII. Lieutenant General Fleetwoody 
and his Council of Officers, having further 
confider'd the Contents of General Monk's 
Letter, were quickly apprchenfive there was 
no very good Meaning towards them in the 
Scotch Army, by this contriv'd Delay of fign- 
ing the Agreement. They therefore fent for 
the Commifiioners of the Treaty, who were 
ftili in Town 5 expoiiulating with them this 
proceeding of the General and his Officers. 
The Commiilioners had very little to fay in 
it : But they, having fign'd thofe Articles, 


General Monk. 157 

fome of them gave Aflurance of their utmoft 
Endeavour to procure the fpeedy Ratification 
of them, when they fhould next come to rc- 
fume the Treaty. Which fo far fatisfy'd the 
Council of Officers, that they prcferitly fign'd 
their Pafs for their fafe Condud homewards, 
flattering themfelves with the Confidence of 
cheating them again in the North, as cafily 
as they had done it at London. 

IX. But before thefe Commiflioners could 
get to Newcaftle in their Way home, the 
News of General Monk's Demur to the Agree- 
ment had made foul Work with Lambert and 
his Officers there; who were more conccrn'd 
than any of the reft, for the fpeedy Conclufion 
of the Treaty. And though they much ex- 
ceeded their Enemies in Number, and want- 
ed not Force enough to defend themfelves a- 
gainft them, yet they had not their ufual Con- 
veniences, nor Money to procure them. And 
thefe Soldiers of Lambert were a fort of pam- 
per'd and delicate Companions, that for a long 
Time had known no Hardfliip, but liv'd at 
Eafe in their Englijh QLiarters ; h3\ ing no- 
thing elfe to do, but to eat the Fat of the Land, 
ahd to continue the Nation's Slavery. But 
now thefe cold Countries of Northtwiberland 
and Cumberland^ among a coarfe and hardy 
kind of People, made them as weary of their 
Quarters, as they were of the War. 

5 X. In 

ij8 The LIFE of 

X. In the midft of thefe, and many other 
ill Circumftances, Major General Lambert 
was very defirous to haften the Concluflon 
of the Treaty. To which end, before Ge- 
neral Monk's Commiflioners were return'd as 
far as Newcajiley he had fent Colonel Zan- 
chy with Letters to General Monk and his 

i>ec. 6. Officers, ( who arriv'd at Berwick, 'Dec, 6. ) 
to nominate their two new Commiflioners, 
and to refume the Treaty, but without the 
Additionof new Matter, that was not agree- 
able to the former Articles. To which the 
Council of Officers reply'd, that they would 
not recede from any Thing which their Com- 
miffioncrs had aflented to, which was accord- 
ing to their In(lru6tions 5 but would not hold 
themfelvcs obliiVd in fuch Points wherein 
they either err'd or exceeded. 

XI. The fame Mcffcnger was alfo direct- 
ed to intercede for the Enlargement of Colo- 
nel Cobbetj being fent thither as a publick 
McflTengcr. To which the General warmly 
reply'd, that he could n9t accept Colonel 
Cobbet in the QLiality of a publick Meflen- 
ger ; but that it was rather a Prefumption in 
him to enter into Scotland^ where he had no- 
thing to do, and knowing the Parliament had 
vacated his Commiffion before they were di- 
fturbcd by Lambert. And whatever could 

\-\\ ./: ■ \ be 

General Monk. ijp 

be pretended, the General fo well knew the 
Temper and Influence of Colonel Cobbet^ that 
he was firmly refoly'd not to truft him with 
his Liberty. 

XII. The next Morning, being December Dec. 
7. Colonel Zanchy was to return with this 
Anfwer to Neisucafile 5 but the fame Night 
the Head-Quarters were alarm'd with the 
News, that a Party of Lambert^ Horfc and . 
DraG;oons were broke into Northtimberland, 
and had furpriz'd Chillingham Caftlc. They 
were in fo great Streigbt for Money, that 
they made this Incurfion, partly in Hopes to 
feize the Lord Grey% Rents, which they 
might eafily have done, but that the Bird was 
flown before they had fprcad their Nets, 
This Aclion being fo diredly contrary to their 
Agreement at the Beginning of the Treaty, 
did fo highly inccnfe the General, that he 
prefently commanded Colonel Zanchy to 

be fccurcd, and to give him Satisfadion for 
this Breach of the Articles. And now Zan- 
chy ^ inftead of procuring C^^^£'/'s Liberty, loft 
his own. 

XIII. Whilst this Bufmcfs was trnnfad- 
ed with Colonel Za72chy^ the Commiilioners 
of the Treaty, Colonel Knight y Colonel Cio- 
berry, and Colonel Wilks^ return'd from 
London to Berwick : Where they made the 

4 ' beft 

i6o The LIFE of 

bcft Excufe they could, for the ill Maaage- 
ment of their Embafly, and with fome Re- 
flexion upon the Raflinefs and Imprudence of 
each other. The General exprefs'd fonie Dif- 
pleafure againft them all. But becaufe Colo- 
nel Wtlks fecm'd to have led the Dance to the 
ireft, in departing from their Inftrudions, and 
had been too forward in revealing the Gene- 
ral's Inclinations for a new Parliament, which 
was to be kept to the laft Pinch, he order'd 
his Confinement ; though afterwards he was 
prevail'd upon to accept his Submiflion and 
Excufe with the Grant of his Liberty. 

Hitherto we have attended the Moti- 
ons of our General from his firft Head- Quar- 
ters at ^Dalkeith, to his fecond at Edenburghy 
thence to his third at Berwick^ and are now 
following him to his fourth and laft Head- 
Quarters 2X. Coldjiream _, 



The General marches to Coldftream, and 
takes tip his Head- garters there, II. For 
the Conveniency of its Situation. III. Lam- 
bert' j-, IV. And the reft of that Tarty s ill 
ConduB, V. IVho deceive ihemfelves with 


Gbneral Monk. i6i 

the Expe6tation of an Agreement upon 
the Treaty. VI. The Condition of Lam- 
bert and his Forces at Newcaftle. VII. 
General Monk meets CommiJJtoners from 
the Nobility tn Scotland at Berwick, who 
offer to raife [even thouf and five himdred 
Men for the Service of the General. VIII. 
The Levies refusd. IX. Colonel Tj^nchy 
difcharged. X. The General, vpon his 
Return to Coldftream, receives Overtures 
from the Lord Fairfax. XL Lambert con- 
find within his G)uarters by the Severity 
of the Weather. Xil. The Fleet and 
Portfmouth declare for the Parliament. 
XIII. The Committee of Safety fend Forces 
to befiege Portfmouth, who revolt to the 
Parliament. XIV. An Exprefs from Ge- 
neral Monk to Lambert. XV. Lambert 
in great T^iftrefs. XVI. The General re- 
hiceives the News of the Revolt of the 
Fleet. The Forces in Ireland declare for 
the Parliament, 

L \ BOUT two in the Morning 'De-^cc.s 

/\ cember 8. the General was mounted 
at Berwick, intending to vifit the Paflcs over 
the River Tweedy in his Way to his new 
Quarters. But bcfides the Badnefs of the 
Way, the Weather proving very tempeftuous, 
he was enforc'd for a few Hours to put in at the 
Pafs at Norham, and about Noon ariiv'd at 
M Coldftream, 

i6i rle LIFE of 

Coidftream, being nine Miles from Bevjiicky 
wiiere there was in Rcadinefs only one Re- 
giment of Foot for his Guards and Attendance. 
This ( as mofl: bordering Towns ) was a very 
poor and defpicable Place, and lo dcftitute of 
Provifion, that, for the firft Night, the Ge- 
neral was enforc'd to entertain himfelf with 
the chewing Tobacco inftead of a Supper, till 
he was the next Day better fupply'd with 
Provifrons from Berwick. The Houfe that 
was afllgned for his Head-Quarters, had not 
a Room in it of tolerable Reception for one 
of hrs Serjeants; fo that he was to eat and 
fleep in the fame Chamber. To this ^rato- 
rimn, made of a Cottage, were adjoining 
two Barns, whereof one was taken up by his 
Sutlers for his Pantry, and the other ferv'd 
for his Chapel. ^ . • ngvf; ^n : 

II. But this mifcrable Town was furnifh'd 
with the moftcommodiousPafs for the March 
of his Army over the Tweedy for which Rea~ 
fon he chofe it, and was very well contented 
with all other Inconveniencies. It was plac'd 
as a central Point to all the neighbouring Vil- 
lages, where his Forces all lay quarter'd a- 
bout him, fo that in four Hours time he could 
have drawn them all into a Body upon any 
fudden Occafion or Alarm. 

:!£; YrAr-fiOfM :■ .., r: ■, ,■ : HI. Ix 

GENERAL Monk. i6^ 

III. It was fome Part of the Wonder of 
thofe Times, that Major General Lamberty 
knowing how much it concern'd him to be 
quick in his Bufinefs, being dcftitute of Mo- 
ney to fupport himfelf and his Forces in De- 
lays, had not all this while march'd into 
Scotland^ having an Army fo much fuperior 
to his Enemies, and a confideiable Body of 
Horfe fit for fuch a fudden invafion: Noc 
had General Mo7ik. fully perfected his Altera- 
tions among his Officers, nor compleatly fix'd 
his own Army in Obedience to him. So 
that upon Lambert % Advance among them, 
naoft of General Monk's Horfe would proba- 
bly have gone off from him, and perhaps ma- 
ny others would have (hewn him their Heels, 
had they once fecn Lambert and his Army 
in their Country. 

IV. And indeed had the Armies In Eng- 
land and Ireland been well refolv'd together^ 
and gone roundly to the Work j fo that Lam- 
bert had diredly march'd into Scotland, and 
at the fame time fome Part of the Irifi For- 
ces ( who had as yet diflented from the Ge- 
neral's Proceedings) had landed there, which 
might eafily have been done in any Pare of 
l\\t'W^^oi Scotland', they would fhrewdly 
have broken and diforder'd all his Rcfolutions, 
nor was he of fufficient Force to oppofe them. 

M 2 So 

164 ne LIFE of 

So that ( though the General had omitted no 
Part of a wife and prudent Man ) yet it is ma- 
nifeft he was ftill under a Conduft and Provi- 
dence greater than his own, which did fo far 
infatuate the Counfels of his Enemies, as they 
frequently overlook'd thofe Advantages upon 
him, which the Difficulty of Affairs had fome- 
times given them. 

V. But to avert this Hazard, there was 
feafonably thrown out to them (from Scot- 
land) a Treaty to make play with; which 
was entertain'd with very probable Hopes of 
concluding the Difference. Nor were they 
willing to believe, that the Army in Scotland 
would be forward to engage againft their Bre- 
thren in England 2wdi Ireland, who were every 
Way too many for them. Lambert had alfo 
confented to a Ceflation of all Hoftility dur- 
ing this Treaty ; and though haply he might 
have gone forward with m.ore Advantage, by 
going back from his Word 5 yet he was a Per- 
fon of more Gencroiity than many among 
them, and was not v/illing to prevaricate his 
Promife, whilH: there was dill any Hopes of 
coming fairly to an Agreement. 

VI. But the grcatefl Impediment to the 
invading oi ScotldJid, was really from among 
thcmfelvcs. There being fo many, and ^o 
dilfcrcnt Interefls and Inclinations in Lam- 

4 berf% 

General Monk. i6^ 

berfs Army. Some of thofe whom he took 
up by the Way, that had lately march'd with 
him againft Sir George Booth, had been fo 
pradis'd on by him, that they were wholly 
at his Service. But there were many among 
them that had a great Inclination to Fleet' 
wood ; and having entertain'd a Jealoufy of 
Lambert's Ambition, were no Ways hafty 
to rufh into the War, which, if it had fuc- 
ceedcd with Victory, would have given Lam- 
bert an entire Poflelllon of the Government. 
There were alfo fome Regiments brought out 
oi London, that had formerly been Guards to 
the Parliament, and therefore had no Stomach 
to engage earneftly againft thofe, who now 
declar'd themfelves their Reftorers. Neither 
was there wanting a confiderable Number a- 
mong them of the Commonwealth Party, 
who, upon better Confideration, began to part 
with their Sufpicions upon General Monk, for 
bringing in the King, and apprehended now 
a great deal of Reafon and juftice in his De- 
claration for reftoring the Parliament: Un- 
der whofe Authority the Quarrel at firft be- 
gan, and no other Government could jufti- 
fy or maintain them in it. All thefe dif- 
ferent Intcrcfts among them were very well 
known to General Monk, who wanted not 
Efpials upon them, even in their own Hcad- 

^l I vri. Bur 

': i66 The L I FE of 

•■'"-■• ■:•: ,". "^ , T- :;' .--.-'■• * ■■*»'v«i«;i 
yil. But the General having fpent now 
almoft a Week, in fettling himfelf and his Ar- 
my in their new Quarters, was mindtai of 
the Appointment he had made with (Seve- 
ral of the Nobility in Scotland, and their 
Commiffioncrs from the Shires and Boroughs, 
B^c. IS- to meet him at Berijuick, T>ecember 13. on 
which Day he accordingly haden'd thither 
from Coldftream^ being attended with fome of 
his bcO: Colonels, and Dr. Barro'ju the princi- 
pal Phyficianj who about this Time was made 
Judge Advocate of ihz Army. The General 
had held a former Confalt with the Scotch 
Commiilioners at Edenburgh in November 
laft, which we pnrpofely omitted in its Place, 
that the Reader might not be perplex'd with 
too many Particulars, which came fo thick 
upon us, and having referv'd both thefe Con- 
ventions to be related together. In the for- 
mer the General acquainted them with his 
Refolution to march into Erigland for reftor- 
ing the Parliament, and therefore defir'd that 
the Arrears of AlTetTment for his Army might 
be fpecdily paid 5 which they all very chear- 
fully undertook for, and at their Return into 
their feveral Shires it was exadly perform'd. 
And this was the Sum of what was then done 
- : , at Edenburgh. But in this Convention at 
Beru;tckj where were prefent the Marquifs 
oi ^tkol, the Earls of Glencarn, Rotkes^ 
'V' . , Roxborough^ 

General Monk. 167 

Roxboronghy IVeams, and fevcral other of the 
Scotch Nobility, divers Things were propos'd 
by them to the General : That for the prc- 
lent they might be allow'd to have a (landing 
Council in each Shire, with Power to raife 
fome fmall Proportion of Horfe, for the fe- 
curing the common Safety, and that they 
might be furnifli'd with Arms out of the Gene- 
ral's Stores at the ufual Rates -, with Liberty 
alfo to wear their Swords, which had been 
hitherto deny'd rhem ; and that in Cafe the 
Treaty did not take EfFed, they might pro- 
ceed to make greater Levies for the Ailiftance 
of the Englijh Army, and their own Defence. 
And in particular they propos'd to raife pre- 
fently for the General's Service fix thou- 
fand Foot, and one thoufand five hundred 
Horfe. The General prefently advis'd in pri- 
vate with fome of his Officers upon thefe Pro- 
pofals, where there was fome Variety in their 
Opinions; but in Conclufion it was rcfolv'd. 
That though there was need enough for the 
General to encreafe his Forces, yet for the 
prefent by no Means to grant any Commiflion 
to the Scotch Nation for raifing of Arms ; 
which would fo alarm the Englijh Army, as 
they would prefently run into a Diftruft of 
their Officers , or would take Occafion to 
think themfelves fufped:ed. And how unwil- 
lingly their own Soldiers would comply with a 
Mixture of that Nation, they had lately made 
M 4 an 

1(58 rioe LIFE off 

an Experiment, in thpfc Difcontents that a- 
rofe upon allowing Ibme of the Scotch Of- 
ficers to fill up their Companies with Scots, 

VIII. Upon a further Conference therefore 
with the Lords, the General confented to fomc 
Part of their Propofals -, but for raifing Regi- 
ments hedefir'd their further Patience, till he 
faw what Conclufion the Treaty (which they 
were now again to refume ) would produce. 
And fome of them were very well affur'd, 
that if the War did go on, the General would 
not then be fcrupulous in admitting the Scots 
to a Conjunction with him. And both their 
Lordftiips and the other Commiflioners had 
entertain'd fuch Opinion of his Generofity 
and Juftnefs, that, though they were not gra- 
tify 'd at prefent in all their Defires, yet they 
^ook Leave of him with a very perfed Satif- 
fadion and Confidence. Some of thefe Lords 
alfo, and divers of the General's own Offi- 
cers, had fo far look'd into his Proceedings, 
that, though they had the Difcretion to con- 
ceal their own Apprchcnfions, yet were they 
very well affur'd, that all this Buftle v^as not 
made only to rctlorc a few hated and incon- 
fidcrable People into a Condition of doing 
more Mifchicf; but there was fome greater 
Dcfign in Hand than the Rcftitution of the 
Jundo Parliament. 

..'■■."'■ ;. : - IX. The 

General Monk. 1^9 

IX. The General had received Intelligence 
before he came from Coldftreaniy that Lam- 
bert ( to pacify his Difpleafure, and to reftore 
the Treaty) had recall'd his Forces out of 
Northumberland ; and therefore General 
Monk, before he left Berwick^ fent for Co- 
lonel Zanchy^ who was a Prifoner ; and hav- 
ing difcharg'd him from his Confinement, fenc 
him back to Newcaftle with this Meffage to 
Major General Lambert, that he would fpee- 
dily fend him his further Rcfolution in order 
to the Treaty. 

X. All Matters being thus concluded at 
Berwick, the General return'd again to his 
Head-Quarters at Coldftream, where, with 
much Difficulty and Hazard of the Enemy's 
Army, there came to him a Meflenger from 
the Lord Fairfax-, one Mr. Fairfax his Kin f- 
man, who inform'd him, that, by the Inter- 
view between Commiflary Clarges and his 
Agent Mr. Bowles, he was fo well fatisfy'd 
with the Juftnefs and Reafon of his Intenti- 
ons, that he was very willing to join with 
him therein ; and to that End was employ- 
ing his Intereft among the Gentry and Sol- 
diery o^ TorkJInre, and the adjacent Counties, 
for the forming of a Party to rife with him, 
which would be in Rcadinefs about the Begin- 
ning of January, to fall upon Lambert's 

Rear j 

< lyo The LI F E of 

Rear ; by which Adion his Lord/hip was like- 
ly to recover that Honour in purfuing the Ar- 
my, which, when he was formerly their Ge- 
neral, he had loft by leading it. He alfo 
receiv'd from Commiftary CLarges, and his 
other Intelligencer at London^ fuch an Ac- 
count of the Fadions and Diforders begin- 
ning in the City, that he was refolv'd to 
make no Hafte in proceeding further to the 
Treaty, which hitherto with much Artifice 
had been delay'd. 

XI. Nor was there any Fear of Lambert'^ 
further Advance or Afiault upon \\\z Scotch 
Army, the Weather having already prevented 
his March, through abundance of Snow, and 
a moft fcvere Froft, which lafted for many 
Weeks, fo that in an uneven and hilly Coun- 
try cover'd with Ice , Lambert' ^ Horfe 
(wherein was his Strength) could neither 
march, nor fight 5 and there being now more 
than forty Miles of Snow and Precipice be- 
tween them, General Monk's Qiiartcrs were 
as fecure from Lambert's Army, as if the 
Atlantkk Sea had divided them. He was 
alfo fo well inform'd concerning their Con- 
dition, that he very well knew their Mo- 
ney melted fafter than the Snov/, and would 
therefore compel them to break before the 
Weathv-r. ' .; 

'"^■' ■" " "'^-'" Xn. But 

General Monk. i;'i 

XII. But whilft General Monk held Lam- 
bert and his Army to hard Meat in the North, 
the rcftlefs Members of the late Jundo were 
as bufy in making Parties and Difturbances a- 
gainft Fleetin'ood, and his Officers, and their 
Committee of Safety in London. Some of 
them had lb far tamper'd with the Soldiery, 
that a great Party among them, finding they 
had miftaken themfelves, in fupporting anln- 
tereft that was not able to pay them, were 
willing to fubmit to their old Matters the Par- 
liament. Others ofthejundo had got down 
to Vice- Admiral La'-jvfon, and the Navy; 
where they told their own Tale fo effedually, 
that the Fleet was contented now to declare 
with General Monk, for reftoring the Parlia- 
ment. And about the fame Time Colonel 
Whetham-, who commanded the Garrifon at 
^ortfinouth, difcover'd his Inclination to join 
with General Monky and his Army, in De- 
fence of the Parliament. This Gentleman had 
formerly been of the Council of State in Scot- 
landj where he began that Eftimation and 
Friendfhip with the General, which led him 
now willingly to join his Intereft with him. 

XIII. Upon this Information, there were 
difpatch'd down to him Hazlenj^, Morley, and 
fValto?7, who were not only Members of the 
late jundo, but were alio three of the five 


171 The LIFE of 

CommilTioners appointed by them for govern- 
ing the Army. Thefe three Perfons had fo 
bcftirr'd themfelves at Tort/mouthy that feve- 
ral Forces thereabouts came in to them. But 
to reduce this Defedion there. General Fleet- 
wood and the Committee of Safety command- 
ed away a Party to befiege the Town, who, 
refleding upon the decUning Eftate of thofe 
who lent them, and that the Play would no 
longer pay for the Candle, threw up their 
Cards, and, as foon as they came there, in- 
ftcad of reducing thefe Revolters, increas'd 
their Number by joining with them. So that 
now, by the Union of thefe Parties together, 
( befidcs General Alonk's Army in the North ) 
there was a coniiderable Force in the South, 
refolving to reftore the Parliament. 

XIV. Of all thefe Circumftanccs General 
Monk had a fpeedy Account from his fure In- 
telligencer Commiflary Clarges, whoprefent- 
ly made ufe of them as a decent Contrivance 
for dillblving the Treaty. Thereupon he dif- 
patch'd away Mnjor Bannifter to Newcajile, 
with an Exprcfs to Major General Lambert, 
acquainting him, that himfelf and his Officers 
were preparing to enter again into the Trea- 
ty, but in the mean Time he had receiv'd 
Advice, that three of thofe five Commiflion- 
crs appointed with himfelf by Authority of 
Parliament, for the governing of the Army, 


General Monk.' 175 

were now at Tortfmouth in the adual Dif- 
chargeof their Truft, without whofe Confent 
and Diredion (according to the Intent of his 
Commiflion) he could not proceed alone in 
fo weighty an Affair ; but did therefore de- 
fire of him a fafe Conduct for this Meffenger, 
his Officer, to pafs quickly for Tortfmouthy 
and to bring back from thofe other Commif- 
fioners fuch further Inftrudions, for the Ma- 
nagement of the Treaty, as he and his Of- 
ficers might accordingly be enabled to pro- 
ceed upon. 

XV. At the reading of this Letter Lam- 
bert exprefs'd fome fort of Difpleafure, telling 
Major Bannifter, that the General and his 
Officers had not us'd him well. The Bufi- 
nefs at ^ortfmouth was no News, having 
been known at Ne'jucaftle before it could 
come to CoUftream. But by that he cafily 
forefaw the Treaty was at an End, and his 
own Forces. And now, as Hannibal^ when 
it was too late, grew angry with himfelf, that 
he had not led his Army, hot and bloody, 
from the Battle oi Canna to the facking of 
Rome I no lefs did Lambert accufe his own 
Delay, that he had not, inftcad of ftaying at 
Newcaftle^ march'd his Army into Scotland^ 
where he miaht have been able to command 
tliat Submillion from his Enemies, which 
now he mud be cnforc' make to them. 

XVI. But 

174 ^^^ LIFE of 

XVI. But fince the Meflengefs Journey 
to ^ort [month could not be of any Ufe to the 
Treaty, he was refolv'd it Ihould Terve for no 
other Defign ^ and therefore refufing to grant 
him any pafs, commanded his Return again 
to Coldjiream, whither he brought the Gene- 
ral better News than that he had carried to 
Newcajile. For, during his Stay there, the 
Intelligence arriv'd, that Vice- Admiral Law- 
fin and the Fleet had adually declar'd in 
the fame Caufe with him ; having threaten'd 
to block up the Thames^ and befiege their 
Trade, if the Parliament was not inftantly re- 
ftor'd. In thefe his uneafy and worft Quarters 
the General entertain'd all his bed News. For 
about this Time Captain Campbel arriv'd at 
Coldftream with the Letters from Ireland -y 
acquainting him, that the Army there had 
not only declar'd with him for reftoring the 
Parliament, but would be ready alfo to fend 
over fuch Forces to him, as he fhould have 
need of. 

C H A P. XV. 

I. A private Conference between the Gene- 
ral and his Chaplain jDr. Price, wherein 


General Monk. i/j 

he declares his Refolution of reftoring the 
King^ with the Reafons of his former 
Caution and Re fervednefs. II. A fine Re- 
fie^iion of the Author's upon this Declara- 
tion of the General. III. The diforder'd 
and difira5fcd State of London at this 
Time. IV. YXzQX^QO^fubmitsto theTar- 
liament which meets at Weftminfter. V. 
The General receives Advice^ that Lord 
Fairfax was in Arms in Yorkfhire, and 
that Lambert was upofi his Retreat from 
Newcaftle into that County. VI. The Ge- 
neral pajfes the Tweed to the Support of 
Lord Fairfax : VII. Sending his tVife and 
Son by Sea to London, VIII. He receives 
a Letter from the Speaker ^ which is read 
to the Army: IX. Is complimented at 
Morpeth by the Sheriff and Gentlemen of 
Northumberland j by a Meffage from New- 
caftle ; and a Letter from London. X, 
Arrives at Newcaftle, from which Lam- 
bert was retir'd. XI. LambertV Army 
revolt from him. XII. The divided State 
of it makes the General flac ken his T^ace, 
He writes to the Lord Mayor and Com- 
mon Council. XII L To the Speaker^ the 
Council of StatCy and Lord Fairfax. 

L I ^ H E S E ftrange and fortunate Acei- 

J^ dents at Coldftreamy were variouOy 

confider'd by fuch Pcrfons as attended the 

4 General 

^y6 The LIFE of 

General there, or were moft intent upon his 
Service and Intereft. Among the reft his 
Chaplain, Dr. Trice^ having no Opportunity 
in the Day-time of private Accefs to him, 
took Occafion, by tiie Help of a Corporal, 
who that Night commanded the Guards, to 
enter his Chamber about two in the Morning, 
where he found the Door only latch'd, and 
the General, being weary of his narrow un- 
cafy Lodging in his Bed, was fleeping in his 
Cloaths, having laid himfelf down on a Form, 
and reftcd his Head on the Side of the Bed, 
with a Fire and Light in the Room. At his 
Approach, the General ( who was never a 
found Sleeper ) prefently awak'd, and enter'd 
into much fccrct Difcourfe with him ; who 
freely reprefented to him, how much his Obli- 
gation and Safety were equally concern'd in 
complying with the Defircsofthe better Part 
of the Nation, by endeavouring their Settle- 
ment according to the ancient and known 
Laws. To which the General reply'd, that 
he very well knew what he would have, nor 
jfjoiild he be wanting therein, fa foon as he 
could find himfelf in a Capacity of effe^ing 
it 5 of which he had now fomewhat more 
Hopes than formerly. And then kindly tak- 
ing him by the Hand, very folemnly and de- 
voutly told him: By God's Grace I will do 
it. His Chaplain then took the Boldnefsto 
kt him know how much he had difoblig'd a 


General Monk. 177 

great Part of the Nation, and contracted his 
own Intereft into a narrower Compafs, by de- 
claring fo ftridly for the Parliament as it fat 
OBober 1 1 . To this the General anfwer'd 
with fome Earneftnefs: Ton fee what Teople 
they are who are now about me, by whofe 
Advice and IDifcretion feveral things are 
tranfa£ied and written. There are Jealou- 
fies enough upon me already, and the leaft Ap- 
pearance of any T)ifike would make them 
greater. But though (as he told him) ha 
had been paffive in allowing fome Troceed- 
ingSj yet he was refolved not to adt by theml 
This put an End to the Difcourfe, and his 
Chaplain, craving Pardon for this Interrup- 
tion upon him, left him to the remaining 
Part of his Repofe. 

II. This, and the like Paflages, though 
they are no eflential Part of the Story, yet 
becaufe the Minds of Men are beft difcover'd 
by fuch fudden and private Attempts upon 
them, they are very neceffary to be inferred. 
And the impartial Reader may better difcern 
the Envy and Prejudice of their Opinions, 
who have thought that General Monk did 
govern his Refolutions by the Events that fell 
in his Way, without endeavouring to bend 
and incline thofe Events to a Compliance 
with his own Rcfolution. 

N III, But 

178 The LIFE of "-. 

III. But leaving the General a little while 
to his Reft at Col^Jlream, we will lead our 
Reader back again to London, where nothing 
was to be Teen but Tumult and Diforder : The 
Citizens fuUen and querulous, their Appren- 
tices unruly and defperate, the Forces divid- 
ed and irrefolute, and fome of them already 
drawn off by their Officers that were devoted 
to the Parliament j the Committee of Safety 
no lefs diftraded in their Counfels, and the 
Forces at Tortfmouth upon their March to- 
wards London, to reftore the Parliamentr In 
fo many fatal Circumftances Lieutenant Ge- 
neral Fleetwood, who was certainly the moft 
innocent Perfon among them, but altogether 
unfit to maintain the Place he held, or to 
fupport himfelf againft fuch violent Tides as 
then ran againft him, was able to hold the 
Reins of Government no longer, but dropt 
them from his trembling Hand. 

IV. And fending his Submifllon to the 
Speaker, defired him to convene fuch Mem- 
bers as were about the Town, and to re- 
fume again the Government into their Hands, 
which had been fo ill managed by his own, 
and the Committee of Safety. The Mem- 
bers very well knew, how far Fleetwood [\2id. 
been paffive in thefe Contrivances, and by 
what Engines he had been wrought upon ; fo 

. that 

General Monk. i^^p 

that they eafily accepted his Excufe, being re- 
folv'd to difchame the Torrent of their Indis:- 
nation upon Lamucrtj and his more fecret Ac- 
complices. There wanted not much courting 
or Addrefs to pcrfuade the Senators to find 
the Way into tlieir old Seats again at fVefi- 
tninfteTy who accordingly met there "Decem-^"^' ^f* 
ber 25. where we will leave them contriving 
the laft of their Mifchief, whilft we return 
again to Coldftream. 

V. Where about this Time the General 
received a Meflage from Tork, informing him^ 
that the Lord Fairfax^ finding his Prepara- 
tions were difcover'd, and to prevent a Sur- 
prizal from Lambert's Army, was already ac- 
tually in Arms fooner than the Time he had 
appointed, and that Lilburn*s Regiment, de- 
ferting their Colonel, was brought off by 
Major Smithforiy to join with him. The 
fame Meflfcngcr brought him the firfl: NewSj 
that the Jun6lo was reftored, and that Fleet- 
wood with his Army had fubmitted to them : 
and that Lambert alfo was retreating front 
Newcafile, with Intention to march back 
into Torkjhire, 

VI. The General had a very tender Coti- 

cern for the Lord Fairfax, and his Party^ 

who had fo gencroufly dcclar'd for him ; and 

knowing how unable they wcfc alone to deal 

N % With 

i8o Tie LIFE of > 

with Lambert's Army, he was refolv'd to 
march to their Relief, and to fall upon the 
Rear before he fhould be able to engage them. 
To that End, having drawn his Forces toge- 
ther he commanded their March over the 

VII. When the General took up his 
Quatters at Coldjiream, he ordered his La- 
dy, and his Son, the prefent Duke of Albe- 
marle, to continue at Berwick, there being 
no convenient Reception for them in thofe 
uneafy Quarters. But before he marched 
hence, he took Care they fhould pafs from 
thence by Sea to London, and wait him there. 
Accordingly there v/as a Veflel in Readinefs 
to attend them.- ■ ; ;^ 

jm.\. VIII. His Army confifted only of four Re- 
i^^^o-giments of Horfc, which were not compleat, 
and fix intirc Regiments of Foot. Their 
March was in two diftinct Brigades,one where- 
of was led by himfelf, and the other by Major 
General Morgan. And on New-Tear's Day 
he order'd the Advance of the Foot over the 
River, and the next Day following them with 
his Regiment of Horfc, took up his firfi: 
Night's QLiartcrs at IVellar in Northumber* 
land : Where, late in the Night, he receiv'd 
a fliort Letter from the Speaker, dated De- 
cember z-j. informing him of their Return a- 
5 . . g^in 

General Monk. i8i 

gain to the Government, with fome Acknow- 
ledgment of his Prudence and Fidelity in their 
Service, but not one Word of Order for his 
March toward them. Which, tho' he pru- 
dently conceal'd, yet it did inwardly difpleafe 
him. But his greateft Surprifal was from their 
fo fudden Return into Power, when having 
now fo confidcrable an Army which had fub- 
mitted to them, it would lead them into a 
lefs Dependance upon himfclf, and before he 
could march to them, they would have fo 
fhifted Commi0ions in Fleetwood's Army, 
and fix'd them in fo pcrfctft Obedience to the 
Parliament, as he fliould not be able to play 
them that Game which he had intended when 
he got well into London. But that the Junc- 
to might be told how welcome their Letters 
were to him, he commanded they fliould be 
read next Morning at the Head of the Regi- 
ments, being drawn up in the Snow ; and, 
to keep thcmfclves warm, they made loud 
Acclamations for the Reftoration of their Ma- 
ilers, refolving that they would march on- 
wards, and have the Satisfadion to fee them 
in their Scats. 

IX. The fame Day the General kept on j^;?^. 3. 
his Way towards Morpeth s but bccaufe it 
was too long a March for his Army in fo deep 
a Snow, he tiay'd at a Village in the Mid-way 
for a Night, and took up his Qiiartcrs ( which 
N 5 were 

i8x The LIFE of '' 

were worfe than thofe in CoUftream) at the 
Vicar's Houfe of the Parifh j and the next 
ym. 4. Day arriv'd at Morpeth ; where he was met 
by the High- Sheriff and Gentry of Nor- 
thtimberland , who gave him the publick 
Welcome into their County. Here were al- 
fo attending two Sword-bearers, one from 
Newcaftley}j\ih. Compliments from the Ma^ 
giftrates of the place, inviting him thither ; 
and the other from London^ who prefented 
him with Letters from the Lord Mayor and 
Common Council of the City ; exprefling 
their Defires for a full Parliament, with the 
juft Reafon of their Demand, fmce, in the 
prefent AlTembly, there was not one Member 
fitting to reprefent the capital City. 

jau.^. X. From hence he came to Newcaflle, 
where Major General Lmnbert held fo long 
kept his Head-Quarters ; but he quitted them 
■about the fame time that General Monk began 
his March from Coldjtream. For the fame 
Mcfiengcr that brought to General Monk at 
/i^W/^/r the Letter from the |unfto, with the 
Account of rhcir Reftoration, left alfo their 
Orders at Nezirafilej commanding the Army 
prefently to quit their Station there, and re- 
turn dirediy to thofe rcfpcdlive Quarters 
which WLTe ailign'd them by the Parliament 
before tiicir Interruption. 

XL Lambert's 

General Monk. 183 

XI. Lambert's Army was in a fair Way 
of diflblving themfclves before thofe Orders 
arriv'd . But fo foon as the Soldiers heard, that 
Fleetwoods Forces in London had deferred 
their General, and fubmitted to the Jundo, 
they were refolv'd not to be exceeded by their 
Brethren in the Ways of Treachery and Falf- 
hood 5 and therefore prefcntly all fubmitted 
themfelves to the Orders of the Jundo, with- 
out expoftulating one Word in behalf of L^;;?- 
bert their Leader, or once drawing a Sword 
for him ; but fhifting away to their feveral 
Quarters, they left him naked and deftitute 
to the Cruelty of his Fortune. And fome of 
them thought they had acquitted themfelves 
civilly towards him, in leaving him Liberty 
to {hift for himfclf ; and had not fcrv'd him as 
the Argyrafpides did their General EiimeneSy 
and made their Peace with thejundo, by de- 
livering him a Captive to their Revenge. 

Xn. He was in the Head of an Army 
good enough to have fought them both j io 
that it was greatly admir'd he did not ftay and 
charge General Alonk in his March forward, 
or turn back upon the Lord Fairfax and 
his Forces, whom he might more eafily have 
dealt with, before the Northern Army could 
have advanced to their Relief Bur, bcfidcs 
the ditferent Inrerefts and Diftradions in the 
N ^ A.rmy, 

i84 The LIFE of 

Army, there was a particular Dread among 
them of thefe two Generals , whom they 
knew to be the greateft and moft fortunate 
Commanders in both the Nations ; fo that the 
forward eft of them all had no great Stomach 
to come to an Engagement againft them. But 
fince ( by the Diftblution oi Lumber fs Army ) 
the Lord Fairfax and his Party were out of 
Danger, General Monk did fomewhat abate 
his Pace, and ftaid three Days at Newcaftle, 
to perfed fuch Inftrudions and Letters as he 
intended to fend to London : From whence 
he difpatch'd back Mr. Man the Sword-bearer 
of London, with Letters to the Lord Mayor 
and Common Council, exprefling more of 
Refped towards them, than Affent to their 

XIIL At the fame time he alfo fent away 
Dr. Gumble with Letters to London -, one to 
the Speaker of the Parliament, by him to be 
communicated to the Houfc. And becaufe 
the Letter from the Lord Mayor and Com- 
mon Council could not be conceal'd from 
them, he inclos'd a Copy of their Letter, with 
another of his Anfwcr to them, that they 
might difccrn he had no Correfpondence, but 
fuch as he was willing they (hould be privy 
to. There was alfo another Letter to the 
, Council of State, and a third to the other 
Commiilloners appointed with him for the 


General Monk. i8j 

governing of the Army, and in his Way 
through Tork he was to leave another for the 
Lord Fairfax, Dr. Gtimble was chofen as 
the fitteft Meflfenger to convey thefe Letters 
to London, being fo particularly known and 
intrufted by Scot, and others of the ruling 
Fadion in the Houfe , and therefore could 
more advantageoufly reprefent the Service and 
Intentions of the General, than any othec 
about him : The Defign of this Meflage be- 
ing chiefly to remove from them thofe jea- 
loufies they had entertain'd of his more fe- 
cret Intentions ; and to infpcd their feveral 
Defigns, and who among them had the great- 
eft Power and Intereft. 


L The General's Arrival at York , fyom 
whence he writes to Sir Charles Coot in 
Ireland, to bring him into Me a fur es for a 
free Parliament. II. A private Confe- 
rence between him, and Lord Fairfax, and 
Mr. Bowles, his Lordfioip's Chaplain. III. 
The General receives Orders from the 
Jun^o for his March to London. IV. He 
fends General Morgan, with two Regi- 


i8<J The LIFE of 

ments, back into Scotland. V. And leaves 
another at Tork under the Command of 
the Lord Fairfax. VI. ©r. Gumble re- 
turns from London, and gives the General 
an Account of the State of A jf airs there^ 
and the T^ifpofition of the Teople. VII. 
The General advances to Nottingham, be- 
ing met there by Commijfary Clargcs. VIII. 
*iProje£fs Means for removing Fleetwood'^ * 
Army out of the City. IX. He is met by 
Scot <2w<5^ Robin fon /r^w^ the Parliament, 
X. His Behaviour towards them. XI. His 
Reception at Leicefter. XII. At Harbo- 
rough he is attended by three Commiffioners 
from London. XIII. At Northampton re- 
ceives more Addreffes for a free Parlia- 
ment. XIV. Which he was oblig'd to 
difcountenance. XV. More Addrejfes to 
him at St. Albans. XVI. Fleetwood is 
order'd, with the Forces under his Com- 
mandy to march out of London. XVII. 
The General halts for fome of his Forces 
to come up. XVIII. On the fecond of¥t- 
bruary marches to Barnet. XIX. Gives Or- 
ders for the more regidar March of his Ar- 
pjy, XX. Fkctv/ood' s Forces removed out 
i?/" London 5 XXI. IFhich^ together with 
fome ApprenticeSy begin a Mutiny, but are 
foon quieted. XXII. The General marches 

into London. 

, ■ ■ ■ ■■ ^\ 


General Monk. 187 

I. "f^ROM Ne-sjcaftle the General ad->».8. 

JJ vanc'd to Durham. Here he receiv'd 
Information that the Lord Fairfax and his 
Forces had fummon'd the City oiTork^ and 
were receiv'd into it ; but that his Lordftiip, 
being furpriz'd with the Gout, was retir'd to 
his Houfe at Nun-Appleton. From thence he 
fecretly difpatch'd Sir George T^otiglafs (who 
had long been converfant with him at T)al- 
keith) into Ireland, with Letters of Credit 
to Sir Charles Coot, and others, with whom 
he was to enter into a dangerous Treaty, for 
the difpofing of feveral Parties in Ireland to 
fome Union and Agreement, and then to de- 
clare for a free Parliament, as the only pof- 
fible Means that could now reftore any lading 
Settlement to the Commonwealth. 

From hence the General entcr'd into Tork- 
Jhire in his way to North- Allertony where 
the High-Sheriff of the County attended him ; 
and the next Day to Topclijf. 

II. From thence about January i i.hcar 7-««- " 
rived at Tork, where he took up his Q_aarters 
for five Days; and, by his own Authority, 
modcU'd and difpos'd of fuch Forces as he 
found in the Country, that had bclong'd to. 
Lambert ; whofe Regiment of Horfe he gave 
to Colonel Bethel, as a Reward of his Ser- 
vice in joining with the Lord Fairfax -, and 


i88 The LIFE ef 

the Regiment which had been Lilhurn% he 
difpofed to Major Smithfon, and made him 
Colonel of it, he having brought it off to the 
Lord Fairfax and his Party. During his Stay 
here he received a Vifit from the Lord Fair- 
fax, with whom he had much fecret Dif- 
courfe, and din'd together privately in the 
General's Chamber, whilft the Officers and 
Attendants were entertain'd publickly. The 
fame Night Mr. Bowles, who was Chaplain 
and Agent to the Lord Fairfax, was di- 
reded by his Lordfhip to confer with the Ge- 
neral, and was privately with him till after 
Midnight, reprefenting to him the Inclina- 
tion of the Country, and the Force that 
would be in Readinefs to join with him, if 
he would (lay with them there, and at Jork 
declare for the King. But the General, who 
very well knew that fuch an Attempt would 
preiently turn all the different Parties to an 
Union againft him, and that his own Army 
was not yet enough refin'd in their Principles 
and Temper to engage with him in fuch an 
Adventure, would by no Means admit of the 
Propofal. The next Day he paid a Vifit tp 
the Lord Fairfax at his Houfe at Ntin- 
Appleton, where himfelf with fcveral of his 
Officers and Retinue were very magnificentr 
Jy entertain'd at Dinner, and at Night re- 
tLjrn'd again to his Quarters at Tork. 

JII. Hitherto 

General Monk, 189 

III. Hitherto the General had march'd 
about an hundred Miles in length from Cold- 
ftream to Tork, by his own fole Authority 
and Difcretion ; but here he receiv'd Orders 
from the Junfto, to keep on his Way to Lon- 
don. They had taken no Satisfadlion at the 
Lord Fairfax his Appearance in Torkjhire^ 
though he had prefac'd his Adions with Au- 
thority of Parliament, being very well alTur'd 
that he had other Defigns in it beyond their 
Safety. Nor could they be pleas'd with Ge- 
neral Monk's Stay in that County , where he 
might probably receive other Impreilions than 
thofe he had brought out of Scotland. And 
the Union of two fuch Perfons againft them, 
( efteem'd the bcft Generals in the Nation ) 
might have given them another Kind of Di- 
fturbance, than what they had receiv'd from 
Fleetwood or Lambert. They had fuffer'd 
him to advance fo far, that now they could 
not decently command him back into Scot- 
landy without fome Difobligation upon the 
General, and Jealoufy in his Army. Nor 
were they fecure in the early Submifllon of 
the Regiments in London ; and therefore 
chofe rather to authorife General Monk's Ad- 
vance thither, than to leave him longer in 

ly. The General kept fuch Intelligence 


ipo The LIFE of 

over them by his Agents, that he verv wdt 
knew where the Shoe pinch'd. He had al- 
ready caned one of his Officers here, who 
had adventur'd to fay : General Monk will 
at laft let in the King upon us ; and, to re- 
move all Umbrage and Apprehenfion from 
among them, he refoiv'd here to leffen his 
Army, and from 2ork fent back Major Gene- 
ral Morgan to take the Care of Scotland^ ac- 
companied with two Regiments of Horfe 
and Foot. He had us'd the bed Means in his 
Power to fecure that Nation before he left it, 
yet was not very well affur'd, in the bufy Hu- 
mour of the Scots. But the fecret Reafon of 
fending Morgan back into Scotland, was 
chiefly to keep together a confiderable Re- 
ferve in Cafe the General fliould have need of 
them, or to which he might have retreated 
himfelf, if he fliould happen to take a Battle 
in England, . _ , ,: 

V. Here alfo he left another Rcgimenf ^ 
under the Command of Colonel Fairfax 5 
who, being a Native of this County, and , 
very well ally'd and eflccm'd among them^ 
was the mofl: proper Perfon to be cntrufted 
With the Care of the City, and the Safety \ 
of the County. And now having reduc'd his 
Army to four thoufand Foot, and one thou- 
fand eight hundred Horfe, he went out of 
Tork about January 16 . and march'd through 
i the 

General Monk. 191 

the reft of the County till he came to Manf- 
Jield'm Nottinghamjhre^ January iS. J*ri,i%: 

VI. At this Stage his Meflenger, Dr. Gum- 
hUy whom he had difpatch'd away from Mew- 
caflle to Londoriy came back to him after 
three Days Stay in the City, and gave him a 
particular Account of his Meflage : That he 
deliver'd all his Letters according to his In- 
ftrudions ; that he had been very ftridly exa- 
min'd concerning him by the Members of 
Parliament, but moft particularly by the Coun- 
cil of State. He inform'd him, that fcveral 
among them had an entire Confidence in 
him ; but that among many others he was 
fufpeded to have fome conceal'd Defign in 
Referve for bringing in the King ; which was 
confirm'd by the confident Expedation, which 
the difafFeded Part of the City had of his Ap- 
proach. He then acquainted him with the 
Divifion in the Council, between thofe who 
had taken the Oath of Abjuration, and were 
his profefs'd Enemies, and others that had re- 
fufed it ; and had fome Confidence that Ge- 
neral Monk being nominated a Member of 
that Council, ( whereof there were thirty one) 
there would be ftrong Applications made to 
engage him in their feveral Parties. He in- 
form'd him alfo, that i^r^?? and Robinfon, two 
Members of the Parliament, and of the Coun- 
cil of State, were upon the Road to meet him : 



ip2 The LIFE of 

That they were fent as Efpials upon his Ac^ 
tions, and the Temper of his Army ; and^ 
that, having themfelves taken the Oath of 
Abjuration, they would prefently be very ear- 
neft to engage him therein. 

jm.i^. VII. From Mansfield the next Day the 
General advanc'd to Nottingham^ where he 
was feafonably met the Day following by 
Commiffary ClargeSy who had privately ha- 
ften'd down to him, with a further Account 
of the Affairs in London and Weftminfter, and 
what Hopes or Jealoufies were entertain'd 
concerning him among the different Interefts 
and Parties. He inform'd him , that the 
Forces then in the City were much greater 
than his own, and commanded by fuch Of- 
ficers as were declared Enemies to him, ex» 
cept Morley and Fagg. ;. : 

VIII. FliTHERTO the General had brought 
all his Bufuiefs into fo good a Pofture, that 
now his next and grcateft Concernment was 
to (hifc Fleetwood's Army handfomely out' 
of the City, and ( without Impediment or" 
Icaloufy ) to bring his own in. To this End, 
before the Arrival of Scot and Robinfon, he 
cnter'd into aConrultation with fuch Pcrfons 
about him as he could beft- trufl : Where it 
was refolv'd, a Letter fliould be drawn 
up to the Parliament, giving them an Account 


General Monk. ic;^ 

of his March, and the Number of his Forces 
with hull 5 and bccaufethofe Regiments now 
in the City, had fo lately been in Rebellion 
againft the Parliament, and were not yet en- 
tirely fettled and reduced, he was very un- 
willing his own dutiful and orderly Forces 
fliould mix or converfe with them. He there- 
fore befought them ( for their own Safety ) 
that thofe Forces under Fleetwood fliould be 
remov'd to diftant Quarters in the Country, 
except the two Regiments of Colonel Mor- 
ley and Colonel Fagg^ whp had continued in 
their Duty to them, which, with his own 
Army, would be fufficient to maintain the 
Guards to the Parliament, and fecure the Ci- 
ty. But this Letter was not thought feafon- 
able to be fent till they were advanced near 
to London \ fo that they fliould not dare to 
deny him, nor have Time enough to oppofe 
his Entrance. 

IX. The General, having ftaid at Notting- 
ham two Days for the Rear of his Army to 
come up to him, on Munday, January 22. >».*»• 
marched to Leicefier^ and met Scot and Ro- 
binfon on their Way towards him. Much 
Ceremony and Submiflion was here rcnder'd 
by the General and his Army towards thefe 
two arrogant Commiflioncrs of the Jundo : 
Infomuch that the General, who had quickly 
taken the Meafures of that their Stay in the 
O Army, 

194 ^^^ LIFE of 

Army, was fo pundual, that his Soldiers 
were oblig'd, upon all Occafions, to pay them 
greater Reverence than had been us'd towards 
himfelf. During their March together, Scot 
and Robinfon had much Conference with the 
General upon the late Alterations, and the 
prefent State of Things : And much of their 
Difcourfe was full of Apprehenfion and Jea- 
loufy of every Body about them, which fur- 
ther confirm'd the General, that himfelf was 
not free from their Sufpicions. They refled- 
cd on the late Pradice of Fleetwood and 
Lambert with a very particular Indignation. 
They fell foul on the City of London-, for 
their late Stubbornnefs and Malignancy. And 
though the Army in Ireland had declar'd 
their Obedience to the Authority of Parlia- 
ment, yet they very well knew they were 
not upon the right Bafis. 

X. The General was now more troubled 
how to temporize with thefe two Commif- 
fioncrs, than ever he had been how to oppofe 
all Lambert' % Army. But becaufe his grand 
Defign was now upon the Anvil, for the re- 
moving of Fleetwoods Army out of London^ 
and the introducing his own, without which 
all his Travel hitherto would be loft, he was 
refolv a io far to comply with their Extrava- 
gancies, as to give them an entire AlTurance 
of him. 
• . - • '-' XI. Into 

General Monk. ipj 

XL Into Lekefter the Irijh Brigade fa- 
luted him, being drawn up by Colonel Red- 
man and Colonel Brett ; of whofe Fidelity 
he was alfur'd, when they were in Lambert's 
Army, and therefore receiv'd them with a 
particular Friendfliip. 

XII. From Lekefter the next Day he>». ^v 
went to his next Stage at Harboroiigh 5 where 
he met three Commiflioners, (whereof two 
were Aldermen ) fent to him from London-, to 
renew the Contents of their former Letter at 
Mar pet by wherein they defir'd a new Parlia- 
ment, or the filling up this prefent one, by 
reftoring the Members fecludedin 1648. and 
compleating it by new Eledions. Thefe Gen- 
tlemen deliver'd their MelTage with fuch Free- 
dom and Refolution, as greatly incens'd the 
two Commiflioners 5 infomuch that Scot told 
them, That the 'Parliament had already, by 
their Vote^ determind againft the fecluded 
Members ; fo that it was a Prefumption in 
any private Per [on to mention their Admif- 
fion. The General very well knew that, for 
the prefent, it was as much the Citizens In- 
tereft, as his own, to comply with the Par- 
liament's Commiflioners againft them, and 
fo fent them away diflatisfy'd : Though 
afterwards fome of thofe Pcrfons that at- 
tended the General , took the Opportunity 
O 2 of 

t^6 The LIFE of ' 

of giving them privately a better Under- 

XIII. The next Morning General Alonk 
Cct forward for Northampton, where he met 
more Addrefles from the Gentry of the Coun- 
ty, for the filling up the Parliament, or cal- 
ling anew one. But the cold Entertainment 
which the Meflengers from London had re- 
ceiv'd the Day before at Harborotigh, did 
fomewhat difcouragethem in prefenting their 
Petition, till Dr. Barrow, and fome other 
Gentlemen about the General, advis'd them 
to go on with their Addrefs, and to be con- 
tent with fuch Anfwer as they receiv'd, in 
Expedation of the future Effed. 

XIV. The General was greatly perplex'd 
how to anfwer thcfe repeated Addrefles, be- 
ing very well fatisfy'd in the Reafon and 
Equity of thofe that brought them. But 
Scot and Robinfon cas'd him of that Care; 
for they undertook to anfwer all Comers, 
leaving General Monk to the Satisfaction of 
his own Silence, who never lov'd to make 
long Speeches, nor to hear them from o- 
thers. But when he was forc'd ( in Com- 
pUance with the Com mi ill oners) todifoblige 
thofe Gentlemen that offered thefe Addref- 
fcs, by his Anfwers; yet he would ftill be 

areful to make them fome Amends, by his 
• 4 - -• CountenaDce 

General Monk. ip/ 

Countenance and the Kindnefs of his Af- 
ped toward them. 

XV. From this Stage the General kept on 
his March to T)mi(iable^ January 17. andj^^w. 17: 
the next Day arrived at St. Albans, where he -f^„. ^g. 
was again befieg'd with numerous Addreflcs 
from fevcral other Counties of England, a- 
greeing all in the fame Applications, for the 
reftoring the fecluded Members, or the cal- ' 
ling a new Parliament. Scot and Robinfon 
had, all the Way from Leicefter to St. Al- 
bans, taken up their Quarters in the fame 
Houfe with him -, and when they withdrew 
from him to their own Apartment, they al- 
ways found or made fome Hole in the Door 
or Wall, to look in or liften, ( which they 
had pradis'd fo palpably, that the General 
found it out, and took notice of it to thofe a- 
bout him, reflecting on their Bafenefs and evil 
Sufpicions ) that they might more nearly in- 
fped his Adions, and obferve what Perfons 
came to him 5 and alfo be in Readinels to 
anfwer the Addreflcs, and to ruffie with thofe 
that brought them. But here they were fo 
plainly and feverely reprimanded by thofe Gen- 
tlemen that came, that Scot, in great Paflion, 
rcply'd : Though his Age might excufe him 
from taking up Arms -, yet, as old as he was, 
( before this prefent Parliament Jhould be 
entangled, by reftoring the fecluded Mem- 

O 5 bers. 

ipS rioe LIFE of 

herSy or by new EleBions ) he would gird on 
his Sword again, and keep the 'Door againft 

Among the reft of his Interruptions in 
this Place, he was troubled with a long Faft- 
Sermon from Hugh Teters. And now being 
within twenty Miles of the City, it was 
thought fit to fend away thofe Letters to the 
Parliament, for the Removal oi Fleetwood's 
Army out o^ London, which, we gave an Ac- 
count, were drawn up before at Nottingham. 
It was the laft and niceft Part the General 
had to accomplifh, in clearing the City of 
thofe other Regiments before his own En- 

XVI. To this End Commiffary Clarges 
was fent away from hence, to prepare fuch 
Members of the [undo as he could engage, 
to further the Vote -, and Colonel Lidcot was 
pitch'd upon to carry the Letters, being the 
Speaker's Kinfman, and particularly cftcem'd 
by him. Scot alfoand Robtnfon)\'^<ij in their 
frequent Letters to their Confidents in the 
Houfc, giving fo fair a Character of the Ge- 
neral, and of the Difcipline and Temper of 
his Army, that, in Conclufion, the Vote paf- 
fed for Fleetwood's, Forces to retire into new 
Qtiarrcrs in the Country, except the two P^c- 
giments of Morley and Fagg ; though there 
were fomc that would have half of Fleetwood'^ 
'' ^ ■■ - - Forces- 

General Monk. ipc^ 

Forces remain in the City, and but half of 
General Monk's admitted. 

XVII. Here the General made an Halt of 
five Days, both for the bringing up his own 
Forces nearer together ( fome whereof, for 
the Eafe of the Country, had march'd in the 
other Road by Newark ) and alfo to receive 
the Refolutions of the Parliament by Colonel 
Lidcot, and for the diftributing the Quarters 
in London by theQuarter-maftcrs for his own 

XVIII. And from hence, February 2. hcf,^. 
march'd to Barnet^ which were his laft Qiiar- 
ters upon the Road, and within ten Miles of 
the City. And here his two evil Angels, 
Scot and Rohinfon, that had never fail'd to 
quarter with him in the fame Houfe from Lei- 
cefter to this Stage, now left him to take up 
his Lodging alone, and retir'd themfelvcs to 

a private Houfe in the Town. 

XIX. This Night he difpatch'd Or- 
ders for the March of the Anny into Lon- 
don the next Day: and that the Soldiers 
fhould be duly chargM to behave thcmfelves 
well and peaceably in their Qiiartcrs at Lon- 
dony and to pay duly for their Entertain- 
ment j which they might very well do,. 

O 4 there 

zoo The LIFE of 

there being fome of their Scotch Money flill 
iir the Treafury. 

XX. The General being advanced fo near, 
the Jundo were ia the mean while very bufy 
in difpatching Fleetwood'^ Forces out of the 
Town; which they did, not only to oblige 
General Alonky by removing them out of his 
Way i bur, as an Inftance of their Contempt 
and Scoin of thofe Regiments for their late 
Defedion, efteeming them as unworthy to 
have their Quarters in the capital City. Yet 
that the common Soldiers might beoblig'dto 
march the more contentedly, they order'd 
them a Month's Pay, to qualify the Difgrace 
of their Removal. MoJ;^ :^ri' irooi.' 

XXI. But thefe Regiments being long 
accuftomcd to a loofc and lazy Life, in the 
Luxury of the Town, were very unwilling 
to exchange their old Qiiarters in the City, 
for worfc and coarfer Entertainment in the 
Country, and ftomach'd the Difgrace of the 
Remove : Infomuch that fome of thefe Regi- 
ments began a Mutiny in the Suburbs ; and at 
the fame time a Multitude of Apprentices, 
taking the Opportunity of the Soldiers Dif- 
fontcnts, beat up their Drums in the City, 
declaring for a free Parliament, in Hopes the 
enraged and mutinous Soldiers would )oiii 
with them. The Council pf State, then ik- 


General Monk. 201 

ir^g, were fo alarm'd with the Diforders of 
this Night in the City, together with the Ap- 
piehenfion of the futther Mifchiefs which 
might happen in this unquiet Pofture of Af- 
fairs, that, late in the Night, they difpatch'd 
away Meflengers to Scot and Robinfon^ in 
the General's Quarters at Barnety defiring 
them to haften his March into the City, for 
Prevention of further Mifchief. Mr. Scot was 
fo affrighted out of his Sleep with this hafty 
News, that he could not (lay to drefs him, 
but in the Difhabit of his Night-Gown, Cap, 
and Slippers, hurry 'd prefently to the Gene- 
ral's Quarters, where he made a terrible Rc- 
prefentation of this Mutiny in the City, re- 
quiring General Monk to beat his Drums in- 
flantly, and march forward. But the Gene- 
ral, that did not ufe to be alarm'd with every 
little Noife, or put out of his Temper by an 
hafty Tale, return'd him an Anfwer calmly, 
and perfuaded Mr. Scot to return to his Bed, 
and put his Fears under his Pillow : That he 
was fo near the City, that no great Mifchief 
could be done in one Night,and that he would 
be with them early enough in the Morning, 
to prevent any greater Defign. Yet, that the 
Commiilloner might not be altogther at his 
Wit's End, he prefently difpatch'd away fome 
Meflengers of his own, to inform him more 
particularly of thefe Commotions ; who 
J)rought him News early in the Morning, that 


201 the L I F E of 

the Commanders had quieted the Muti- 
ny among their Soldiers ; and that fome 
Troops of Horfe, being fent up into the Ci- 
ty, had difperfed the Apprentices, and that 
the Regiments were then marching out of 
the Town. 

XXII. So that all things being thus quiet- 
ed in the City, the General took his own 
Time to march leifurely that Morning, Fri- 
ph. z-day^ February 3. into London. But before he 
enter'd the Town, he made a Stand at Htgh- 
gate, where the Army, being then but five 
thoufand eight hundred Men, came again to 
rendezvous, and there receiv'd Orders for the 
manner of their March into the City. The 
three Regiments of Horfe firft, and the Gcr 
neral mounted at the Head of them, with his 
Trumpets before him, acccompany'd with the 
Jundo'sCommiflioners, and fome of his own 
principal Officers, with feveral other Perfons 
of Quality, that had the Curiofity or Cour- 
tefy to meet him at his feveral Stages on the 
Way> After the Horfe march'd his four Re- 
giments of Foot : And in the Afternoon he 
made his Entry by Greys-hm-Lane, where, 
at the Rolls^ he made a Stop at the Speaker's 
Door ; but he being not yet return'd from 
the Houfe, the General went on into the 
Strand-^ where, being told that the Speaker's 
Coach was coming near, the General alight- 
5 . cd 

General Monk. 103 

cd from his Horfe, and, with much Cere- 
mony, complimented the Prince of the Se--^''*'^ *^' 
nate, and his legiflative Mace in the Boot of 
his Coach. And thence, accompany'd with 
fome of his Horfe-Guards, went on to his 
Quarters at White-Hall, where the Junc- 
to had aflign'd him before-hand the Apart- 
ment commonly call'd the Prince's Lodg- 


I. The mean Appearance of the General's Ar- . 

wj. II. The Council of State tender the 

Oath of Abjuration to him, which he re- 

ftifes. III. Is vifited by the Heads of the 

federal Parties. IV. Is introduced into, 

the Hotife of Commons, where he receives 

their Thanks by the Speaker. The Siibflance 

of his Anfwer. V. The Sufpcions of the 

Parliament, and their T)efigns againjl his 

Life difcovefd to Mr. Sturdy, VI. Who 

informs the General of it. VII. An Ob- 

[er vat ion upon thetr Jealonfies. V III. The 

Obfervatio?i continued. IX. A Rcfolntion 

of the Common Council, to pay no more 

Taxes till the ReadmiJJJon of the fccluded 


204 The L I FE of 

Members. X. The Rump impute this Re- 
folution to fome Encouragement from the 
General, XI. The General order d to take 
down the City Gates. XII. Which he 
complies with 5 XIII. And executes their 
Orders, XIV. The Refentment of his own 
Officers. XV. The Citizen's Complaints 
to him. XVI. An Order to break the Gates, 
and dijfolve the Common Council. XVII. 
I The Gates broken. XVIII, XIX. T/^^^ra^ 
Reafons of the General's Compliance with 
thefe Orders. XX., A Tetition to the 
ytin£fo for an Oath of Abjuration. XXL 
The General's Army incenjfed. XXII. The 
General expoftulates with the JunBo, and 
directs them to call a free and full ^Par- 
liament. XXIII. He quarters in the Ci- 
ty. XXIV. The City's cold Reception of 
him. XXV. The Lord Mayor confers with 
him. XXVI. A better Underftanding be- 
tween him and the City ; and the Jim6io 
furprifed with his Letter to them. 

I.'T^HE Citizens,that had been accuftomed 
1 only to the prancing o'i Fleetwoods 
Troops through their Streets, which were 
always kept fair and wanton, and had usd 
to fee thofe well-cloath'd Redcoats ileek 
and trim in the Eafe and Luxury of the City, 
had but a cold Conceit of this Northern Ar- 
my as they pafTed by. Their Scotch Horfe 


General Monk. 2oy 

were but thin and out of Cafe, with long and 
hard Marching ; and the Men as rough and 
weather-beaten, having march'd in a feverc 
Winter about three hundred Miles in length, 
and through deep and continued Snows ; Co 
that all their Way they had fcarce yet feea 
the plain Earth of their native Country. 

II. The next Morning, Saturday j Febru-Teh.^: 
ary 4. the General was invited to take his 
Place in the Council of State, where, pre- 
fently after his Entrance, the Oath of Abju- 
ration was tender'd to him by the Prefident. 
He expeded no lefs than the Offer of it, and 
was prepar'd with an Anfwer : That feveral 
others, who were nominated with himfelf as 
Members of that Council, had before refus'd 

it J and therefore he defir'd there might be a 
Conference between thofe who had taken the 
Oath and thofe who had refus'd it 5 by which 
himfelf and others who demurr'd, might be 
better fatisfy'd. He alfo told them, that the 
Officers of his own Army were very tender 
in taking Oaths ; and that he would not ob- 
lige himfelf in fvvearing to this new one, till 
he had firft acquainted them therewith 5 and • 
fo, taking his Leave of the Aflembly, rcturn'd 
again to his Quarters at White- Hall. 

III. Where, the next Day, hQ.\n<g Sunday^^^'S' 
he was vifited by the Heads of the feveral 


io6 The LIFE of 

Parties in the Jundo and Council of State,' 
and by many other Perfons of Quality in the 
City : All Men having a Curiofity to difcern 
fomething of his Intentions, by Conference 
with him, who was too wary to be fathom'd 
by any of them all, though he was befet with 
the more pert and forward Difcourfe of fome, 
and the more contriv'd and cunning Artifices 
of others. ■'■■.• < . 

teh.6. IV. But on Munday Morning he was 
brought with much Ceremony by Scot and 
Robinfon through the Court of Wards to the 
Door of the Parliament Houfe, where the 
Serjeant at Arms, with his Mace, receiv'd 
him, and condudcd him to a Chair within the 
Bar, in which he was defir'd to fit down : 
Which the General refufing, the Speaker gave 
him the Thanks of the Houfe for his Service 
and Fidelity towards them, in a fet Speech, 
fiU'd with much fcriptural and pious Raillery, 
according to the Guife of thofe Times. The 
General, from the Back of the Chair, anfwer- 
cd in a very wary and agreeable Reply, con- 
trived to fit the Temper of thofe Ears that 
were to hear him. And tho' fome Men that 
wilh'd him very well, thought, by that Dif- 
courfe, he had gone too far in his Compliance 
with them 5 yet the abjuring Part of the 
Houfe ( w'hofe Jcaloufics of him were further 
heightcn'd by his Refufal of the Oath two 
* . Days 

General Monk. 207, 

Days before ) were difpleas'd with all he faid, 
and arraign'd his whole Difcourfe. His in- 
terceding for the Eafe and Conveniencies of 
the People, they interpreted as a Strain of his 
Populariry, which was not to be endured in a 
General that ferves a Commonwealth. The 
redrelfing of Grievances, was but a more fe- 
cret Reproach upon their Negligence or In- 
juftice in the Government. His Remarks up- 
on multiplying further Oaths, was very ofFen- 
five to them, who had lately contriv'd that 
new one of Abjuration. His pleading for the 
Encouragement of the fober Gentry, they ac- 
counted as a fly Contrivance, which in Time 
would let in the Royal Party upon the Go- 
vernment. And by his frequent and fharp Re- 
flexions upon the Fanaticks, ( from which 
Speech they were thought firft to have re- 
ceived that Name, which they have never 
yet wiped off) they accufed him to have in- 
vidioufly reprefented the mod ftrid and god- 
ly Part of the Nation, who, though they 
might happen to have been mifled by the De- 
figns of others, were yet to be efteem'd and 
cherifh'd as the beft and furcft Friends to the 
Government. Nor were they plcas'd with 
the Title of General given to him, calling 
him always, in their own Difcourfe or Orders, 
CommiJJioner Monk. 

V. "That fome of them had cntcrtain'd 


io8 The LIFE of 

great Apprehenfions and Sufpicionsof him, is 
manifeft from one Inftance, which feJl out 
juft at this Time. Mr. Scot's Son had lodg'd 
for fome Time in the Houfe of one Mr. Stur- 
dy ^ a Roman Catholick, in Ruffd-ftreet -, and 
was fo well acquainted with his Landlord, that, 
difcourfing together about General Monk's 
late Arrival into London, which was then the 
common Talk of the Town ; he told him 
fecretly, that the Parliament had fuch Sufpi- 
cions of him, as that it was refolv'd to re- 
move him fuddenly from his Command in 
the Army, and to lay him faft in the Tower, 
having Articles againft him fufficient to en- 
danger his Life. 

VL Mr. Sturdy obferving, in this mife- 
rable Confufion, that the Hopes of all ho- 
ned Men were plac'd upon General Monk and 
his Army, was very much concern'd at this 
Relation y infomuch as, the next Morning 
early, he haften'd up into the City, and found 
out one Captain Morrice, an honeft Citizen 
of his particular Acquaintance, to whom he 
revealed this fecret Information. The Cap- 
tain thought it a Matter of fo much Confe- 
quence, that he brought his Friend Sturdy 
,to Mr. Kendall and Mr. James Muddef or d^ 
who were related to General Monk, and they 
two forthwith carried him to the General at 
White-Hall^ where he farther attefted the 
zl. . Truth 

General Monk.' 209 

Truth of this Relation. The General had o- 
ther Bufinefs in Hand, than to take any pub- 
lick Notice of this Information 5 yet gave fo 
much Credit to it, as he refolv'd to look more 
carefully to himfelf, and commanded Mr. 
Sturdy to ride in his Guards, which he con- 
tinued to do for fome while after. 

VlT. The General had hitherto carry'd all 
Things fo fairly towards the Jundo, evec 
fince his appearing againft the Army in Eng- 
land-, had fo carefs'd their Commiftioncrs all 
the Way they march'd with him, and feem'd 
fo refolv'd to contfnue their prefent Seflion, 
by difcouraging all Addreffes made to him 
for filling up the Houfe, or admitting the fe- 
cluded Members j that it might be Matter of 
fome juft Wonder, whence thofe Jealoufies 
they entertain'd of him for changing the Go- 
vernment, or introducing the King, fhould 
poiTibly arife. 

VIII. Fleetwood and Lambert had 
both of them con-uiianded Armies, as well as 
General Moijk, and both had rebelled againft 
them ; yet were never lb much as fufpe£ted 
to have any Defign of reftoring the King. 
Only General Monk, who had alo^e declar'd 
for them ; and, when he might have been fafe 
in his Government of Scotlandy by a Com- 
pliance wuh their Enemies, had put himfelf 
P into 

iio The LIFE of 

into a rtianifeft Hazard, by declaring for them 
with unequal Forces, againft all the Armie^ 
of England zviii Ireland^ yet could not fe- 
cure himfelf from their Sufpicions. But there 
Was fomething in his Nature and Principles 
that gave them Jealoufy; fomething was ftill 
too apparent in him, which all his Arts of 
Caution and half Lights, all his Dexterity of 
Guards and Silence, could not conceal. Nor 
indeed could they reafonably truft any Man, 
that was not involv'd in equal Guilts and Vil- 
lanies with themfelves. 

IX. But at the fame Time there fell out 
■another new Accident that did greatly pro- 
mote their Sufpicion. The City of London 
had all along been querulous, and disfatisfy'd 
with this prefent Conftitution of the Parlia- 
ment, and had made feveral open Difcoveries 
of their Difcontent 5 but now they proceeded 
to that Indignation, and Scorn againft this Tail 
of a Parliament, that the Common Council 
of London had publifli'd a Vote or Order of 
their Houfe, declaring they would p.iy no 
moreTaxesor Affeflments impos'd upon their 
City, till the Parliament were fill'd up with 
equal Reprefentatives of the People. 

X. This was fuch an avowed C ' 
tempt of the prefent Authority, ii: ' • 
dangerous an Example to the rcii of Ujw - 

General Monk. hi 

tion againft paying Taxes, as gave an Alarm 
ro the Council of Stare. Nor could they 
imagine any Pretence for this their prefcnc 
Prclumption, but from lome private Engage- 
ment given them by General Mo7ik and his 
Army. They very well knew the City had 
been conferring with him upon this very 
Point of new Reprefentatives, or rcftoring 
the fecluded Members ; as alio in their Let- 
ter dcliver'd at Morpeth^ and afterwards by 
their Commiilioners at Harborough, which 
Jed the jundo into Sufpicion of fome fecret 
Pradice between them. The City had the fame 
Caufe of Provocation before, yet never dar'd 
to run into fuch violent Counfels, till Fleet- 
"jjoocH Army was remov'd, and the Nor- 
thern Forces were quartered among them, 
from whom they receiv'd Encouragement, 
and expedled Support. 

XL But to prevent this Infolence in the 
City before it could fix it felf, and become 
exemplary to others, as alfo for the better 
Difcovery of General Monk and his Army, 
the Council of State fenr for him late at Nighr, 
February 8. (where were prefcnt the other f^^. 8. 
Commiflloners for governing the Army) and 
gave him Orders to march his Regiments the 
next Morning early into the City, and to 
quarter upon them till he had reduced them 
to Obedience j in the mean while, to fecurc 
P 2 clevea 

212 The LIFE of 

eleven of the moft adive Perfons of the Com- 
mon Council, (whofc Names were inferted) 
and to take down the Chains and Pofts in the 
feveral Streets, and to unhinge their Gates 
and Port cullices. Nor did they allow him 
longer Time to deliberate upon this extraor- 
dinary Adion than till the next Morning. 

XII. Though the General was fomewhat 
furpriz'd with this outragious Refolution of 
the Jundo, yet at the firft Offer of it to him, 
he prefently took the right Scent of their De- 
fign. And therefore, concealing his Diflike 
of them, he accepted their Orders, refolving 
to make his own \]{z of them. For though 
the Manner was not agreed on, yet the Ge- 
neral had defign'd, before he came out of 
Scotland^ to put an End to the Excrefcence 
of a Parliament, fo loon as he was well fet- 
tled in London. And this infolent Refolution 
they had taken up, of violating the City, 
would give him the faircft Advantage upon 
them, (not only to the City and Nation, but 
alfo to his whole Army) that he could ex- 
ped. And that the Junfto might thereby 
lofe for ever their Intereft and Credit, the 
(jcneral was contented to adventure his own, 
in becoming the Indrument of their Malice' 
and Revenge. And, to prevent all Imprellion 
upon him to the contrary, they kept him in 
Difcourfe with them, giving him particular 


General Monk. 213 

Inftrudions for performing their Commands, 
till towards two in the Morning j which was 
fo late, that fuch of his Attendants, who 
knew any thing of Mr. Sturdy % Information, 
began to fufped: fome ill Defign upon his Pcr- 

XIII. But the next Morning early, Fehrn- f*^- 9- 
ary 9. the General commanded the March of 

his Army up into the City, without advifing 
with any of his own Officers. And having 
plac'd his main Guards at the Old Exchange, 
and other convenient Places, he retir'd himfelf 
to the Three Tuns Tavern near Guild-Hally 
where he difpatch'd his Orders to fome of his 
Officers, for the taking up the Pofts and 
Chains, and fcnt others to apprehend thofe 
eleven Citizens, whom the Council of State 
had commanded him to fecure. This fudden 
Violence offered to the City, and by that 
Hand from whom they lead fufpected it, did 
at prefent rather furprize the People with A- 
mazement at the Indignity of it, than move 
their Paffions j fo that all things appcar'd as if 
the Town had that Morning been taken by 
Storm, or enter'd by a foreign Army. 

XIV. But not only the Citizens, but moft 
alfo of his own fuperior Officers were fo a- 
ftoniih'd at this unreafonable and odious Em- 
ployment, that they frankly exprefled their 

P 3 Rcfcnt- 

214 The L I F E of 

Refentment, and ofFcr'd him their Commif- 
fions. The General gave them fome little 
Light into his own Apprehenfions of this in- 
famous Service they had put upon him; but 
commanded them to obey his Orders at pre- 
fenr, and to truft his Difcrction with the Con- 

XV. Several alfo of the principal Citi- 
zens addrefs'd themfelvcs to him, and with 
that Temper and Prudence expoftulated this 
unworthy Ufagc and Indignity put upon them, 
as the General was greatly concern'd for the 
Injury they had fuffer'd. So that the fame 
Night lie difpatch'd Letters to the Council, in- 
forming them, that he had obey'd their Or- 
ders in fccuring the Perfons they command- 
ed, except two of them, that had been too 
nimble for him j and that the next Morning 
the Lord Mayor had appointed a Meeting of 
the Common Council, where he hoped they 
would come to a better Refolution, and Tem- 
per of fubmitting themfelves to the Authority 
of Parliament, without the Neceility of any 
further Severity upon them. 

XVI. But the Council of State was refolv- 
cd, now their Hand was in, to do their Work 
to purpofe, and cfFedually to humble that 
lofty City. And therefore they return'd him 
a further Command, not only to take down 


General Monk. 215 

their Gates and Port-cullices, according to 
their firft Order, but alfo now to break them 
in pieces : And, that they might have the full 
Stroke of their Revenge upon the Comnxofi 
Council, for their daring Refolution of pay- 
ing no more Taxes, they had decreed they 
Hiould never meet more ; and therefore in- 
ftantly palled a Vote to diflblve the prefent 
Common Council of tl^.e .City. 

XVII. These fecond Orders did more 
deeply incenfe the General againft the Coun- 
cil of State J but feeing them make fuch Haftc 
to their own Infamy, he was refolv'd now to 
execute their Commands to the full, and ven- 
ture the Iflue. The next Day therefore the ^*'^-^''' 
Gates and Port-cuUices were taken down, 
and the Soldiers broke them in pieces , but 
with fuch Refleclion upon the Parliament in 
chufing them to this bale Employment, in 
making them the Executioners of their Paf- 
fion and Revenge upon thofe who had re- 
ceiv'd them kindly, that the Citizens, being 
more ready to excufe the Stone which hurt 
them, converted all their Indignation upon 
the Arm that threw it, and loudly arraign'd 
this Infolence of the Jundo. They who at- 
tended the General in this Bufmefs, and were 
curious in obferving the Tracks of his Coun- 
tenance, found he was neither well pleas'd 
with his Employment, nor the Company a- 
P 4 bout 

ri6 The LIFE of 

bout him. For Hazlerig and Walton, (who 
were equal Commiflloners with him in com- 
manding the Army) and others, were con- 
tinual Efpials upon him, both in obferving 
how fully he gave out the Jundto's Orders, 
and at what Rate they were executed by his 
Officers and Soldiers. Only Colonel Morley, 
who was another of the Commiffioners, and 
at that Time entrufted with the Command of 
the Tower, fo far diilik'd thefe Proceedings, 
as he came this Day to the General at his 
Quarters in the City, and ofFer'd to him the 
Affiftance of his own and Colonel Fag's Re- 
giment, with the Force and Arms of the 
Tower, to oppofe or moderate thefe dange- 
rous Refolutionsofthe Council of State. Nor 
were there wanting fome Members of the 
Jundo it felf, that, apprehending the dange- 
rous EfFeds of this Violence upon the City, 
did greatly accufe thefe Methods of the abjur- 
ing Party in the Council of State. But tho' 
the General's Difpleafure went no further 
than his Countenance, yet feveral of his Of- 
ficers could not conceal their Refentments, 
accufing the Jundo, that they had as much 
contrived the Infamy of the Scotch Army, as 
the Difcharge of their own Infolence and Re- 
venge, in commanding them to this odious 

XVIII. This Adion of General Monk to- 

. wards 

General Monk. 217 

wards the City, was varioufly cenfur'd by all 
that underftood not, in thofe Times, nor, per- 
haps, at this Day, in what Circumftances he 
was then plac'd. For the Orders fign'd by 
the Council of State, to march the Army 
into the City, were not directed to Ge- 
neral Monk alone, but alfo to the other 
Commiflioners, whcrcoi Hazkngy TValton, 
and Morley were upon the Place, and, ever 
fince his Arrival into London, had afted 
jointly with him. So that, had the General 
refus'd his Orders, the others, being able to 
carry it by the major Vote, might have done 
the Bufinefs without him, and, by Confe- 
quence, might have put it to the Hazard of 
removing him from the Command of his own 
Army, or have recall'd Fleetwood and his 
Forces into the City, to balance or oppofe 

XIX. General Monkj who better un- 
derftood all this than they who haftily ccn- 
fured his Proceedings, was refolv'd at prefent 
to accept whatever Orders were impos'd on 
him, rather than, by refufing, to hazard his 
Command and Intereft in his own Army. For 
he very well knew this prefent State of 
things could .not pofTibly hold long, but that 
the furious and violent Proceedings of the 
jun£lo, and the Odium they would draw up^ 
on themfelves thereby, and the further Dif- 


2i8 The LIFE of 

content in the City and Nation, and in his 
own Army againft them, would quickly give 
him fome more fcafonable Opportunity of en- 
tering upon his retir'd and conceal'd Defigns, 
of putting an End to this Seflion. 

XX. Being now polTefied with the De- 
vils of Jcaloufy and Miichicf, the very fame 
Day the Council of State had employed Ge- 
neral Monk to break down the Gates of the 
City, they had conjur'd up a Legion of evil 
Spirits as bad, or worfc, than themfelves, 
with a Petition to the Jun<5lo, as extravagant- 
ly mifchievous as their own Votes, and much 
of the fame Stamp, requiring the Oath of 
Abjuration to be taken by all Perfons in any 
publick Employments, and other villainous 
Matters. This was a Contrivance of the more 
violent Party of the Jun(f^o and Council of 
State, who were fo jealous of the General, 
that he would not be a fit Inftrument for 
them ; that they were caballing with Vane, 
Ludioiv, and Lambert^ and other Officers of 
the Englijh Army, to make a Party againft 

XXI. These treacherous Defigns were 
not fo fecretly manag'd, but that General 
Monk's Officers had taken Notice of them, 
and apprehended the Confequences ; fo that 
(on the fame Night he had concluded his Or- 

General Monk. 219 

ders in the City, and was return'd to WJoite- 
Hall) fome of them came to him, and reprc- 
fented the dangerous EfFeds of that Day's 
Work in the City, by which they had pro- 
vok'd and difoblig'd the Metropolis of the 
Kingdom ; and the Noife of this Adion, to- 
gether with their own Infamy, would quickly 
fpread all the Nation over ; that fuch another 
Piece of Work would certainly ruin them ; 
and yet at the fame time they who employ- 
ed them therein, were Confederate with their 
profcfl: Enemies, and contriving Parties a- 
gainft them ; that they had very few Friends 
whom they could truft, and in the Parliament 
Houfe, and Council of State, none at all. 

XXII. Nothing could have been more 
pleafing to the General than this Difcourfe of 
his own Officers, by which he found the late 
Proceedings in London had not only rcnder'd 
the Jun£lo odious to the City, but alio to his 
own Army ; fo that of themfclves they had 
recover'd that Temper which he had fo long 
been contriving to incenfe into them. For 
the only Reafon why he had hitherto com- 
ply'd with the Jundo was, becaufe he thought 
his own Officers were not yet fit for any o- 
ther Imprcffion. But now being of them- 
fclves pofTefs'd with fuch Jcaloufies againft 
them for their late Adions, though he would 
gladly have had a little more Space to deli- 

220 Tloe LIFE oj 

berate opon his next Methods, yet he was 
refolv'd to make ufeof this prefent Pailion ia 
his Officers, and adventure upon the Defign 
out of hand, which otherwife muft have coft 
him longer Time, and the Contrivance of 
Ibme other Pretence. Having therefore fuch 
Officers about him as he could beft truft, 
which were only of his own Army, except 
Colonel Saunders and Major Barton^ it was 
agreed to declare their Apprehenfions the 
next Morning to the Parliament in an expo- 
ftulatory Letter, the Heads whereof were 
drawn up: That the Scotch Army had re- 
ceiv'd juft Caufe of Apprehenfion from their 
late Proceedings, having entertain'd Corrcf- 
pondcncies with Lmnbert and other Officers, 
who had fo lately rebell'd againft them: That 
they had admitted Ludlow to fit in their 
Houfe after the Irtjij Officers had laid Trca- 
fon to his Charge, and were in Readinefs to 
prove it: And that they had countenanc'd 
and accepted a late fcandalous Petition, for 
the obtruding new Oaths upon the free-born 
People of the Nation, by which the beft and 
moft fober Pcrfons would be excluded from 
having any Share in the Government, and the 
confcientious Clergy would be difabled from 
their Miniftry and Maintenance. They were 
therefore rcqacHcd, fo far to comply with the 
united Dcfircs of the Nation, as in .a Week's 
Time to iffuc out Writs for the filling up 
I |:heii' 

General Monk. hi 

their Houfc, and, concluding their own Scf- 
fion by the fixth of May, they would thea 
give Place for the convening a full and free 
Parliament. But before the General went to 
Bed, being refolv'd to advifc no more with 
the other CommilTioners in the Condud of 
his own Army, by his fole Authority he gave 
out Orders for the March of his Forces the 
next Day into the City, and that feverai of 
his principal Officers fhould attend him the 
next Morning at his Quarters in White- 

XXIII. His Secretaries fate up late that 
Night to form the forementioned Heads into 
a Letter, and to tianfcribe Copies of it, one 
whereof was fent away very early to the 
Prefs, and the other was to be fign'd by the 
General and his Officers, whereof about fif- 
teen were come together very early, and the 
Letter being read to them, they all readily 
fet their Hands to it, and it was dated F<?M/-re^. ii- 
ary 1 1. The General then commanded Colo- 
nel Clobeny and Colonel Lidcot to carry it 
to the Houfc. But before his Letter could 
poflibly be delivcr'd at Weftm'infter, the Ge- 
neral had left JVhite Hall, and went up into 
Londo7J-y and there he led his Forces to a 
Rendezvous mFinsbury Fields, having firft 
font away Commiffary Clarges and 

to Sir Thomas Allen, then Lord Mayor, 


212 ne LIFE of 

with an Account of his coming, defirin^ him 
alfo to alTign Quarters for the Reception of 
his Army in the City. 

XXIV. The Work which the General and 
his Forces had made among them the Day be- 
fore, quickly afFeded the City with a near 
Apprehenfionof this his early Return among 
them this Morning, fo that his Meflengers 
found but a cold Entertainment, when they 
came to talk with the Lord Mayor about 
Quarters for his Army, which he had rather 
wifh'd were further off. Nor had they any 
Authority to acquaint him with the Secret of 
the General's Letter fent this Mornini^ to the 

XXV. But in Conclufion the Lord May- 
or, having advis'd with Sir John Robinfon, and 
other principal Citizens, was contented at laft 
to receive a Vifit from the General, and to 
difcourfe with him about quartering his Ar- 
my. Whereupon a Meflenger was difpatch'd 
into Finsbury Fields, intreating him to haften 
his Return (it being now late) to the Lord 
Mayor's Houfe in Leadenhallftreety where 
his Lordfhip expcded him at Dinner. So 
foon as he came in, he prefently obferv'd, the 
Interview between them was not with that 
Countenance and Freedom as formerly, which 
the Lord Mayor in fome Meafure excufed, 


General Monk. 213 

from the late Diforders which had happen'd in 
the City. To which the General reply'd : That 
his Return this ^ay among them '-juas chief- 
ly to re[iify thofe MifunderftandingSy '■jjhich 
had lately arifen bet'-jueen himfetf and the 
City-, and, to that End, entreated his Lord- 
Jhip to difpatch a'-juay his Orders unto the 
Aldermen and Common Council, (which was 
the fame the Jundo had diflblved) defiring 
them to give htm a Meeting in the After- 
noon at their Guild-Hall : Which was accor- 
dingly done before they fat down to Din- 

XXVI. The General met with better En- 
tertainment at the Lord iMayor's Table, than 
his Letters had done with the Jundo at Weft- 
minjler ; who had been debating upon them 
all the Morning. The appointing them a de- 
finite Day for the concluding of their own 
Scflion, they look'd upon but as a more civil 
Way of diJolving them. But the filling up 
the Vacancies of the Houfe by new Eledi- 
ons, did touch them in the moft tender and 
effential Part of their Power and Being ; finc^ 
they very well knev, it was fcarce pofiible 
to get fuch Pcrfons return'd that would be as 
violent and mifchievous as themfclves: But 
if the People were left ro their free* Choice, 
(which could nor now be hindered) they 
would furnifh them with fuch Election^, as 
2 ihould 

224 The LIFE of 

fhould be able to out-vote them in every 
thing, and haply call them to account for the 
Villanies they had committed. 

CHAP, xviir. 

I. The JunBo dtffemble their Rejentments : 
II. And fend a Letter of Thanks to the 
GeneraU for his ready Obedience to their 
late Orders, inviting him to return to 
White- Hall. III. The Refentments of the 
General's Officers towards thefe Meffen- 
gers of the Jun^o. IV. The General's 
Command of Temper. V. He meets the 
Court of Aldermen and Common Coimcil. 
VI. His Speech to them. VII. Great Joy 
in the City. VIII. The General quarters 
at the Glafs-Houfe in Broad ftreet. IX, 
The Jimdo has the Name of Rump Tar- 
itament given it. X. A Scheme of the 
Rump Parliament for over-rnlingthe Ge- 
neral. XI. The Author's Obfervation up- 
on the Folly of it. XII. The General re- 
moves his ^larters to Drapers-Hall. XIII. 
The Council of State defire his Return to 
White- HaJ], and the Citizens his Conti- 
finance among them. XIV. Applications 
to him from all Tar ties j XV. But par- 


General MoNKr 22j 

ticularly from the fecluded Members] 
XVI. A general Character of the fecluded 
Members. XVII. At a Conference between 
fame of the fecluded Members, and as many 
of the Juntio > the Jun£fo give their Rea- 
fans againji the Readmiffion of the other si 
XVI II. The A?if'juer of the fecluded Metn- 
bers. XIX. One great T>ifficulty which 
objiruBed their Union. XX. A Tropofal 
of the General's for the Removal of that 

I. T~^HE governing and abjuring Party in 
\ the Houfe, who had all along beea 
jealous of the General, began now to magnify 
their own Politicks, in the Profped of his De- 
fedion 5 whilft the more temperate among 
them were as ready to accufe the other's vio- 
lent and extravagant Proceedings, which 
had enforc'd him to ufe thefe Methods with 
them. But knowing themfelves unable (hav- 
ing given him the Poflefllon of the City) to 
deal with him by Force, they were refolv'd. 
to over-reach him by their Dillimulation.' 
And therefore, concealing all Refentment of 
his Letter, they appointed their two ufu- 
al evil Angels, Scot and Robinfon, to attend 
him in the City, where they found him at 
the Lord Mayor's Houfe, prcfently after they^ 
had rifen from Dinner. 

<L It They 

2i6 The LIFE of 

II. THEY^acquainted him with the Thanks 
of the Houfe for his faithful Service, in fecur- 
ing the Peace of the City: And that, before 
the Receipt of his Letter, they were debat- 
ing upon Qualifications of fuch Members as 
lliould be chofcn for the filling up the Houfe, 
which fhould bedifpatch'd as fpeedily as their 
other weighty Affairs would give them Lei- 
fure : Concluding with the Parliament's cfpe- 
eial Confidence and EQimation of him, and 
inviting his Return again to White-HalL 

III. The Officers who were prefent, could 
not diflemble their Difcontents againft the 
junfto, but charged them with Perfidy and 
Ingratitude j and that they were defigning 
rather to put thcmfelvcs into the Protedion 
of their late Enemies, than to oblige the 
Army which had reftored them. And thofc 
Officers cfpecially, wbofe Commiflions had 
been vacated in Scotland by the Junto's Au- 
thority, (though they were yet continued in 
their Command by the fole Authority of the 
General) had not parted with their Difcon- 
tents and Revenge againft them. 

IV. The General, whofe Cunning It was 
to exprefs his own Refcntments by the Paf- 
fion of his Officers, was not difpleafed with 
this their Freedom, nor did he concern him- 

^ 4 felf 

General Monk. ii/ 

fclf to moderate their Heats 5 but, after his 
grave and (blemn Manner, he at I aft told Mr. 
Scot and Mr. Robinfon, That if the Tarlia- 
merit 'ujere p leafed to purfue the Advice of 
his Letter^ in [(Tiling out their Writs by 
Friday next for filling up the Houfe, all 
ixjould be -very welly nor would there be any 
Caufe of further Sufpicwn among them. But 
this free and fmart Difcourfe of the Scotch 
Officers to thefc two Senators, was fo diffe- 
rent from thofe Obfervances which had been 
paid to them, when they march'd together 
towards London^ that they took their Leave 
not over- well fatisfy'd, and return'd back to 

V. So foon as they were gone, the General 
was mindful of his Appointment for meet- 
ing the Court of Aldermen and Common 
Council at Guild-Hall, whither he was con- 
cluded by the Lord Mayor, through an infi- 
nite Multitude of People, who upon the 
News of his intended coming thither, were 
aflembled, in Expectation of fome great No- 
velty from him. The Copy alfo of his Let- 
ter to thejundo, which in the Morning had 
been fent to the Prefs, was before this Time 
publickly expofed in Print. 

VL A T his coming the General having 

friendly faluted this Aflembly of principal 

Q, 2 Citizens, 

2i8 ne LIFE of 

Citizens, told them : That the laft Time he 
ivas among thetn^ he had fubmitted to the 
moft fafttdmis Employment of his whole 
Life J the Execution of which was as con^ 
trary to his own Inclinations, as the Obliga- 
tions he had to their City. That being paft 
and done, he could only be firry for thofe 
jiff rants which had been put upon them a- 
gainjl his Will. That this T)ay he had re- 
folvd to render a fuller Anfwer to their 
Letters, than he was able to do at Morpeth, 
where he received them ; and, in Compliance 
with their Defires then, he had this Morn- 
ing written to the Parliament, to iffue out 
their Writs, witPim feven Days, for filling 
tip their Houfe , and by the fixth of May 
" 7iext to diffolve their AJfembly j and there- 
by to fnake Room for the fitting down of a 
full and free ^ arliament . In the Interim he 
was refolvd to quarter his Army in their 
City, and to continue hrmfelf among them, 
till he faw how the Co7itents of his Letter, 
and the Defires of the City and Nation, 
were performed. 

VII. The Acclamations of that great and 
numerous Aflcmbly of Grecians at the Jfth- 
r/iian Games, when Flaminius unexpededly 
proclaim'd Liberty to all the Cities of Greece, 
was hardly greater than the Joy of the City 
upon the News of their Deliverance from the 


General Monk. 229 

Bondage of this Jundo. It is not eafy to fiy, 
whether the Citizens were more furpriz'd with 
what the General told them this Day, or 
what they had fufFer'd by his Soldiers the 
Day before, when their Pofts and Chains 
were remov'd, and their Gates and Port-cul- 
lices broken down. But the Hopes of feeing 
fo fpeedy an End put to the ParHament, and 
the convening of another, was fo welcome 
News, that all Places were prcfently fiU'd with 
an univcrfal Joy and Exultation ; and Quar- 
ters were prcfently fet out for the General's 
Regiments, which hitherto had flood all Day 
on their Arms, but now Meat and Drink was 
fent to them from almoft every Houfe in the 

VIII. The General, having done his Bn- 
fincfs at Guild-Hall , took Leave of the 
Citizens , who exprefled a very particular 
Satisfaction and Confidence in him. And. 
from thence he went to the Bull-Head 
Tavern in Cheapflde, where he ordcr'd the 
Quarters of his Forces , and the fettling 
the Guards that Night, for the Security of 
the City. From whence he went very late 
to quarter , for the prefent , at the Glafs- 
Houfe in Broadjireet ; which having on- 
ly Accommodation for his own Perfon, his 
principal Attendants , and fome Officers 
that were always near him, were forc- 
es cd 

t3o the LIFE of 

ed to fit up all Night, and watch with his 

IX. But before this, the Apprentices and 
common People, in Deteftation of the Jundo, 
( to whom they had given, this Night, the 
lafting Name of the Rump Parliament) had 
fet all the Bells in the City on ringing, and 
kindled Bonefires in every Street, which con- 
tinued till Morning ; and this Sattirday^\'^^X., 
'February ii, was called the roailing of the 

Riifnp, : 

X. But leaving now the General in his 
Qiiartcrs, and the Citizens to their jollity, 
we will retreat a little while, (though late) 
to IVefiminlier, and fee what this new named 
Rump Parliament had, this Afternoon and 
Evening, been doing there. When their Mef- 
fengers, Scot and Robinfon, return'd from the 
General out of the City, they gave the Houfe 
an Account of his Adions there, and with 
what Difcourfe they had been entertain'd by 
his Ofticcrs, which led them into further Jea- 
loufy, both of the General and his Army ; in- 
fomuch that they call'd for the late Order of 
their Houfe, appointing five Commiffioners 
for the governing of the Army, to be read to 
them ; whereupon they ftruck out Overton^ 
bccaufc, being abfent at//////, he could be of 
no Ufe to ^hcm, and put in Colonel Alured, 


General Monk. 231 

who was upon the Place. Three of thefe 
five were to make a Riorum 5 but it being 
mov'd, that General Monk might be always 
one of the three for the ^lorum^ upon the 
Vote it was carried againft him : So that, 
though they durft not take away his Com- 
miflion/^ "Terminis, yet in EfFcd and Con- 
fequence they had done it. For Sir Arthur 
Hazkrig, Alured, and JValton^ were at any 
Time fufficicnt to over- rule General Moiik 
and Colonel Morley. And thus they thought 
they were even with him, for enforcing them 
to fill up their Houfe, and to determine their 
Sellion at a Day. 

XL The prefent Age has fufficiently ex- 
pos'd the Villanies of thefe Men, but Pofte- 
rity will laugh at their Follies alfo. For tho' 
the little Foplins of their Party have magni- 
fy 'd them as the prime Politicians of the 
World, yet this was an Inftance of theic 
weak and impotent Malice, by fo foolifh a 
Revenge to provoke a great and powerful 
General, who had an Army fo much at his 
Devotion, and was poilefs'd of the City, 
where he had been too nimble for them, by 
recovering in an Inflanthis Eftimation among 
the People, and leaving the Odium of what 
he had done upon thcmfelvcs. So that now 
he was in a Condition to bafile them, and all 
the Commillioncrs to bootj and to defpKe 
Q^ 4 . the 

^2^1 The L IF E of 

the Weaknefs of their Rage, in (hewing 
their Teeth when they durft not bite. 

But though the prevaiUng Fadion of 
the Rump Parliament had been fo incon- 
fiderate as to difobUge him, yet the General 
was too difcreet to take any pubiick Notice 
of it at prefent, having many other Irons 
in the Fire ; nor was his own Army (though 
in a good Tendency towards it ) yet fully 
brought to that Rcfolution and Temper he 
aimed at. 

XII. But this Difcontent, arifuig between 
thejunclo and General i1i/<?w^''s Army, was 
very welcome News to thofe other Forces 
under Fleeti^ood and Lambert, who now e- 
fteem'd their own Infolencics juftify'd, when 
they diiccrn'd the Army from Scotland, 
which the Houfe had fo much rely'd upon, 
were likely alfo to quarrel with them. Nor 
were they without Hopes, if the Jealoufies 
lliould encreafe, to make their own Advan- 
tage thereby, and that their old Mafters would 
be enforced to feek Protection from them a- 
gainft General Monk; who yet was more 
wary and confideratc, than to let things run 
to filch Extremity, as fhould give any other 
Party Advantage upon him. 

We had left him in his ftrait Quarters at 
the Glafs-Houfe 5 but now, the following 
Week, he rcmov'd thence to l^rapers-Hally 

-'./.■ wherca 

General Monk. 233 

where, with the Addition of another large 
Houfc (of Alderman /^/(?'s) adjoining, he 
had Convenience enough for the Reception 
of all his Attendants, and for the quartering 
of his Guards. 

XIII. And now the Rump Parliament 
finding they were too weak to deal with him 
cither by Tricks or Force, continued their fur- 
ther Applications and Mcirages to him: The 
Council of State alfo, February 13. invited ^'^- » 3^ 
him again to aflift them with hisPrefence and 
Counfels 5 to which he return'd Anfwer the 
Day following : That till the Oaths were 
withdrawn , he could not pojjibly attend 
them 5 but-, for the prefent^ his Continuance 
in the City was further neceffary, becaufe of 
thofe T>tfcontents there^ which were occafi- 
oned by themf elves, having difiributed feven 
thoufand Arms out of their Stores into the 
Hands of Anabaptifts, and other dangerous 
Fanaticks 5 and that his own Forces were 
greatly alarm' d, till thefe Arms were again 
recalid. But the Junfto, and Council of 
State, were not more importunate to reco- 
ver him again to White-Hall, than the Citi- 
zens were to perfuade his Continuance among 
them, as being moft for his own Safety, as 
well as theirs. At the fame Time he was al- 
fo inform'd of fevcral ill Pradices againft him, 
contriv'd by fome in the Council of State, in 


234 ^^ LIFE oj 

fending fevcral Male-contents, and other vio- 
lent Sedaries, about the Counties where Fleet- 
wood's Army quartered 5 poflelling them with 
Jealoufies againft General Monk and his For- 
ces ; that they had enter'd into fecret Dcfigns 
with the City of London, to alter the Go- 
vernment, and to introduce the King. Some 
of thefe Reports he took publick Notice of 5 
others he contemn'd. . .. i;:^ ) 

XIV. During his Abode in his Quarters 
at ^raperS'Hally he was continually befet 
with Applications to him from the feveral 
Interefts in the City, and from the Heads of 
the Presbyterians and Independent Parties; 
to whom he return'd fuch Anfwers as the 
Condition of his Affairs would allow. 

XV. The Meflages alfo from JVeftmin- 
fter were dill daily continued : But, above all 
the reft, that Intereft in the City and Coun- 
try, which the General could bcft truft, had 
now begun very powerful Addrefles to him, 
for the reftoring the formerly fecluded Mem- 
bers. The General had before refolv'd to ac- 
complifli his Defign of introducing the Mo- 
narchy by other Methods ; but finding it to 
be the univerlallnclinarion of a powerful In- 
tereft to readmit the fecluded Nlcmbers, he 
began to approve of it, as the moft fafe and 
eafy Step he could poflibly make forward at 

. this 

General Monk. 23^ 

this time. Only he very well knew the June- 
to, now fitting, would be rather willing to 
fill up their Houfe by new Eledtions (a great 
Part whereof might probably be New-comers) 
than confent to the Return of thefe fecluded 
Members, whom they had formerly difoblig- 
edby Co impudent and injurious a Seclufion. 
He confider'd alfo, that the EngltjJo Army, 
who had been the Inftruments of that Vio- 
lence, would grow very apprehenfive upon 
the News of their Return : Nor was he per- 
fectly well fatisfied in the Inclination of his 
own Officers. But refolving to make fomc 
Effay, how far the Contrivance would go, he 
was contented to receive Vifits from feveral 
of thofe fecluded Members, having ftill or- 
der'd the Bufinefs fo, that fome of his Officers 
fliould be prefent at the Difcourfe. 

XVI. These Gentlemen were moftly of 
the Presbyterian Interefl:, and fome of them 
had been bufy enough in beginning the Mif- 
fortunes of their King and Country 5 but were 
now grown wifer, by the Experience of their 
Miftakes, and the Miferies of a Civil War, 
which had ended in almoft their own undo- 
ing, as well as the Death of the King. Some 
of them alfo were Perfons of good Eftate, and 
Quality, and eafily apprehended the Infecu- 
rity of their Condition and Fortunes, whilft a 
violent Jundto of Robbers and Republicans 


1^6 The L I FE of > 

govern'd at Weftminjler, and were fupported 
by an Army of needy and boifterous Fana- 
ticks. They now faw clearly there was no 
way left to fettle the Nation, but by rcftor- 
ing the Monarchy ; only they would firft fit 
it to their Church Difcipllne, and melt down 
the Crown into a new Form, and reduce the 
Sceptre to a Length of their own. For the 
Frofecution of thefe Ends, they were as eager 
to be again fingering the Government, as the 
Jundo, then fitting, were to keep them out 
of it. But being Men of much better Morals 
and Principles than moft of the other 5 they 
had the Prudence to propofe their own Re- 
ad miflion with that Moderation and Temper, 
^i was very acceptable to the General and 
his Officers. They aflur'd them, that their 
P^crnrn would not interfere with the General's 
Declaration in Scotland^ in behalf of the Par- 
liament as it fat QEiober 7. for it was ftill the 
fame Parliament that would be continued. 
They convinc'd them that having, by the 
fame Declaration, undertaken to ilibjccl the 
Military Power in Obedience to the Civil, 
they had oblig'd themfclvcs to fccurc their 
Readmiflion,fince they had been rcmov'd from 
their Places by the Violence of the Army. 

XVII. The General and his Olliccrswcrc 
fo well fati.sfy'd with this Propofal, that, ia 
the next Place, they were rcfolv'd to hear 


General Monk. 237 

what could be alledg'd againft them. To that 
Purpofe it was agreed, that Ibme of thefe fc- 
cluded Members fliould meet at a Conference 
with a like Number of thofe now fitting, 
which was accordingly done oa. Saturday Feb.^'^^' 'S- 
1 8. the General and his Officers being prefent. 
Where it was pretended by thofe now fitting, 
that fince the Removal of the fecluded Mem- 
bers, fo many things had been done, both as to 
Change of the Government, Liberty of Con- 
fcience, and the Sale of publick Lands, as 
was likely to be all interrupted and difordered 
again, by the Return of thefe Members, to 
the further Prejudice, and retarding the Set- 
tlement of the Commonwealth. 

XVIIL To this the fecluded Members rc- 
ply'd : That they would not bring with them 
their Pailions nor Revenge into the Houfe, 
nor concern thcmfelves in any Man's Pro- 
perty, nor lofe Time in refled:ing back upon 
what had been done in their long Abfence ; 
but would dired all their Thoughts forward, 
in purfuing fuch Counfels as might lay a bet- 
ter Foundation of Settlement to the Common- 
wealth ; and leave things in fome good Or- 
der, for the further Endeavour of the Parlia- 
ment which fliould fucceed them. Moft of 
thofe Gentlemen from the Junfto, were of 
the moderate Party in the Houfe, who were 
weary'd with the Extravagances of their 
4 Fellows^ 

138 The LIFE of 

Fellows, and would be contented toftren?- 
then their Intereft by the Accemon of the fc- 
eluded Members. But becaufe the Inclination 
of the Houfe could not be given but by their 
Vote in Parliament , they parted on both 
Sides without coming to any final Agree- 

XIX. When they were withdrawn, the 
General enter'd into further Difcourfe with 
his Officers, where feveral of them were incli- 
nable enough to reftore the fecluded Mem- 
bers. But others among them, of the Inde- 
pendent Perfuafion, ( who had been tamper'd. 
with by the Heads of their Party ) began to 
demur upon it, unlefs thoi'e Members would 
give Security, to declare for the Government 
of a Commonwealth, and Liberty of Con- 
fcience, and that they would confent to a fur- 
ther Ad for Confirmation of publick Sales. 

XX. To fatisfy thefe Scruples in thofc 
who cffcr'd them , the General appointed 
three Perfons of his principal Trufl, to debate 
thefe Points further with fome of the fecluded 
Members, in a Conference next Day j which 

:stb. 19. was to be held at Mr. Anneflfs Houfe, the 
prefcnt Earl of Anglefey, The fecluded 
Members were not willing to depart from 
their firft Length ; but, upon a further De- 
bate, gave them frefli Aflfurance, that they 


General Monk. 239 

would make no Alteration in the prefent 
Government, but leave that Point wholly to 
the next Parliament. And for an Ad to 
confirm the Sale of publick Lands, they were 
not yet refolv'd to pafs any Aft at all. Bur, 
that there might be no Jealoufy upon them, 
they were content to be limited in the chief 
Points they fhould confult upon ; and, in one 
Month's Time, to conclude their Seflion. 


I. The General refolves upon the AdmtJJton 
of the Jecluded Members, upon certain 
Terms ; II. Which they fubmit to. III. 
They are admitted into the Houfe. IV". 
The Behaviour of the JimBo upon their 
Admijjion. V. The Lords alfo defire to be 
reftored to their Seats, VI. The General 
declares that he has no Intention to alter 
the prefent Conftitution oj a free State, 
or Commonwealth , in order to fet up 
Charles Stuart, or anyfingle ^erfon. VII. 
He is made Commander in Chief of all the 
Land Forces^ but in the Navy Mountaguc 
is joined ^ with him. VIII. Sir George 


240 The LIFE of 

Booth and others difcbarg'd from Impri^ 
fonment, andL^mbcztmprifon'd. IX. The 
Oath of Abjuration ^ooted down, and the 
Council of StatCy another being appointed-, 
moft of whom were well affe£ied to the 
King. X. Mr. William Morrice admitted 
as a ^omejiick in the General's ^ar^ 

I. \ LL this while the General was very 
^/^ uneafy in the prefent State of things. 
From the Jundo now fitting he expeded no 
good. The Englifh Forces in the Country 
began to be mutinous ; and fome of his own 
officers, by long deliberating, were grown 
' more un fettled. So that he was now refolv- 
ed, without further Ceremony, to put fome 
Stay to the Courfe of things, by admitting 
the fecluded Members. To that End, Mun- 
■, February 20. he defired a Meeting a- 
• gain with them, and had appointed four Ar- 
ticles to be drawn ready, which (houid be 
fubfcribed by all that were prefent, and by 
thofe alfo who were abfent, before they were 
admitted into the Houfe. ■ ■ \ . 

First, To fettle the CondtiH of the Ar- 
mies in the three Nations, fo as might befi 

fecure the Te ace of the Commonwealth. Se- 
condly, To provide for the Support of the 
Forces by Sea and Landj and Money alfo for 

; J their 

General Monk. 241 

their Arrears, and the Contingencies of the 
Government, Thirdly, To conjiittite aCoim- 
cfl of State for the Civil Government of 
Scotland and Ireland , and to iffiie out Writs 
for the fummoning a T'arliarnent to meet at 
Weftminfter/^^20f'^«?/ April. Fourthly, To 
confent to their oij^m H>ijfolution by a Time 
that fhould be limited to them. 

II. S o foon as they were aflembled, the 
Articles were read to them, and willingly fub- 
Tcribcd by all then prefent, who were fo very 
well fatisfy'd with this Method he had taken, 
that they promis'd to give him a Commiflion 
of General over all the Forces in the three 
Nations, both by Sea and Land. Which in- 
deed at this Time was alfo a feafonable Of- 
fer } for his old one granted by the Juni^lo 
being confin'd to the zz^ of February, was 
to expire within two Days. 

At their parting with him, the General in- 
treated them to meet him the next Morning 
at his lace Quarters in IVhite-HalL 

. The next Morning early he left the City,^'^''^' 
and his Head-Quarters, to which he never 
returnd more, and haften'd to White-Hall^ 
where he met the fecluded Members, whom 
he enterrain'd with a (hort Speech, recom- 
mending to them the Care of the Nations, 
and to keep their Word with him, aflllring 
R them, 

24i 77^? LIFE of ! 

them, he (hould impofe nothing new upon 
them ', which was pundually perform'd by 
him during their whole Sefllon. And then 
order'd Major Miller, who commanded his 
Guards, to condud them into the Houfe of 
Commons, and divers alfo of his other Offi- 
cers attended them to the Door. 

IV. This Refolution of admitting them 
that Morning into the Houfe, was fo private- 
ly carry 'd, that the old Junfto were infinite- 
ly furpris'd and difordcr'd when they faw 
them enter. The violent and abjuring Party 
prefently found, that it would not be worth 
their while to keep their Seats, and therefore 
refign'd them to thefe new Comers, and quit- 
ted the Houfe, fome of them muttering their 
Difcontents againft the General, as they went 
out of the Door. But the more moderate 
Parry among them congratulated the Return 
of the fccludcd Members 5 and both Sides 
prefently apply'd themfelves to their Bufi 

V. But whilft the fecludeci Members of 
the Houfe of Commons were thus earneftly 
treating with the General for their Readmif- 
]ion, fome of the Nobility, and particularly 
the Earl oi Strafford,'^ txc as importunate with 
him for the rcftoring the Lords alfo to their 
Scflion. But the wary General thought the 


General Monk. 243 

Return of the Commons was as fair and fafc 
a Length as he durft adventure to go at one 
Step, referving the Admiflion of the Peers to 
a further Confideration, and the Temper of 
that Parliament that was to fucceed. 

VI. The General having thus placed the 
fecluded Members again in their Seats, and 
fearing w hat Difordcrs theNews thereof might 
raife among the diftant Forces oitht Englifh 
Army, vi'as refolv'd to fatisfy them prefently 
with the Reafon and Ncceflity of what he 
had done, before they (hould receive any 
worfe or different Impreflions from others. 
And to that Purpofe he commanded the fame 
Day a Council of his Officers to attend him, 
and to draw up a fatisfadory Letter to all the 
remote Forces and Garrifons of the three 
Nations, concerning the Readmiffion of the 
fecluded Members j alTuring them, that no- 
thing was thereby intended to alter the pre- 
fent Conftitntion of a free State or Common- 
wealth; that without reftoring thefe Mem- 
bers the prefent Conftitution of the Houfe 
could raife no Money for Support of the Ar- 
my and Navy, which now would be fpcedily 
raised and fent to them, and the fucceeding 
Parliament, which was to meet within two 
Months, (hould further confirm all publick 
Sales and Difpofitions of Lands in the three 
Nations. Thev were then further defircd to 
R 2 fend 

244 ^^^ LI F E of 

fend an Officer from their fevcral Regiments 
and Garrifons, that might give the Lord Ge- 
neral Monk an Account of their Compliance 
with him herein. And, that they might ap- 
preliend no Defign of Alteration upon them, 
they were alfo ftriftly requir'd to look after 
all Perfons dcfigning Difturbances in Favour 
of Charles Stuart, or any other fingle Per- 
fon, or intended Authority, and to give an 
Account of them to the Parliament or Coun- 
cil of State. This Letter was dated February 
21. and %n'd by the General, with twelve 
of his Colonels, five Lieutenant Colonels, 
eight Majors, and fome few CaptJiins, and 
prcfently fo many Hands were employed to 
tranfcribe the Letter, that the fame Night 
there were Copies enough fign'd, and fenta- 
way to every Regiment in England, and to 
all the Commanders in &\K.i 'va Scot land zkx'^ 

VIL This Night the General IcklVhite- 
■ Hall, and fettled his Head Qtiariers at St. 
.'James's, which, being a Place fomewhatdi- 

ftant from the City, would Icfs expofe him to 
'Vifits, nnd Obfervations upon him, and 
^whcrc he might more privately make ready 
cthoie farther fccret Contrivances, which were 
:next to come upon the Srdge. Here he receiv'd 
:.an7\ccount, what Vote theHoufo had pafs'd 

that Day 5 having firfl: raz'd and cxpung'd all 
-. $ . . -^ thofe 

General Monk. 245 

thofe Orders in the Journals, which had been 
made to authorize their Exclufian. Next* 
they conftituted his Excellency General Monk, 
Commander in Chief over all the Forces at 
Sea and Land, in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland. But in the Truft of the Admiralty, 
they admitted General Mount ague to an e- 
qual Authority with him, which was the hrft 
falfe Step this newly re entcr'd Parliament 
made with their Rcftorer, having aflur'd him 
of the fupreme and entire Command, both 
in their Armies and Navy, without a fe- 
cond Perfon to ihare with him in cither. 
But of this the General took no notice, be- 
ing very well fatisficd of the Worthincfs and 
good Intentions of his Colle2;ue, and having 
now, befides the Conduct of his own Forces, 
the Care alfo of thofe two other Armies in 
England and Ireland, which were likely to 
give him Trouble enough. 

VIII. The Houfe alfo appointed the Re- 
leafe of all thofe Citizens, who had been conv 
mitted by Order of the late Council of State, 
and difcharg'd Sir George Booth from his 
Imprifonment in the Tower, with all thofe 
.other Gentlemen alfo that had been contin'd 
with him upon the fame Account, and ordcr'd 
Major General Lambert to be imprifon'd in 
their Room. And about the fame Time Dr. 
fVreny Bifiiop of Ely, who was Fellow Pri- 
R 3 ^oi^cr 

146 The LIFE of 

foner with General Manky in the Tower, was 
jreleas'd alfo at the General's Mediation, af- 
t(;r his almoft twenty Years Confinement 
there. -: . w,. . 

Jl,i,H\.^ \.kk 

IX. The Houfe having voted down the 
late Council of State, with the Oath of Ab- 
juration, they appointed a new one, ( confift- 
ing of thirty one Perfons ) to fucceed. Mod 
whereof for their Character, and good Incli- 
nations towards the King's Service, were ac- 
counted of the very Choice and Flower of the 
Aflembly, and of this Council the General 
was one. 

X. The Fame of reftoring the fecluded 
Members was quickly fpread all over the Na- 
tion ; and they who were already enter'd, dif- 
patch'd the fpeedy Advice thereof to their 
Acquaintance that were abfent in the Coun- 
tries, who accordingly haften'd their Return 
into the Houfe„ Among the reft Mr. WiU 
Ham Morrice of ^evD.njhire came up lo 
London^ who being aily'd to the General, 
and alfo particularly recommended to him 
for his great Learning and Prudence, by his 
Brother Mr. Nicholas Mo7ik, was retain'd with 
him as a domeftick Friend in his Quarters at St. 
yames'Sy where he became an Inftrument of 
feveral extraordinary Services, which will fol- 
low hereafter to be related^ 

• ■ - CHAR 

General Monk. 247 
C H A P. XX. 


I. Th General's great Care tofecure ihe O- 
bedience of the Arm'jy and Garrifons, II. 
The Condition ^Ireland. III. Colonel O- 
verton mutinies at Hull, but fuhmits^ and 
the Garrifon is given to Colonel Fairfax. 
IV. An AB for raijing one hundred thon- 
fand Tounds a Month for the Support of 
the Army and Navy, V. Another AdJ 
for fettling the Militia. VI. 7he Houfe 
offers to fettle Hampton Court upon the 
General and his Heirs. VII. As at fo the 
Government. VIII. Both which he re- 
je6fs. IX. The Etigagement vacated. X, 
XI. Some Officers propofe a Declaration 
againfi Monarchy. Xll. TheT>efign frur 
firated. XIII. Colonel Okcy'j Speech far 
a Commonivealthy ivithout any Houfe of 
Lords. XIV. Which is effc5lually an- 
fweredby Commiffary Clargcs. XV. ThB 
General forbids any more Afjembltes of Of- 
ficers without his Leave. 

WHILST the Parliament were carncHly 
confulting for the Settlement of the 
State, General Monk begins to cxcrcife the 
Authority of his new Com mi (11 on, in regu- 
Jating the Armies, now all united under his 
(Con:)ilian4. And bccaufc the pijblifk Safety 
R f wa* 

i48 The LIFE of > 

was fo much included in his own, he was pre- 
vail'd upon to encreafe and fettle his Life- 
guards, and gave Colonel Thilip Howard the 
Command thereof. And being inform'd that 
Colonel Rich was praftifing fome Difturban- 
ccs with his Regiment quartered at Burj/y he 
fcnt down Colonel Ingoldsby to fix thofe 
Troops, and trave him the Command of the 
Regiment. ^Desiyorough's Regiment, which 
the late J undo had given away to Colonel 
Walton^ the General enrrufted to Colonel 
Charles Howard, now Earl of Carlifle^ and 
made him Governor of that Place. And to 
Major General Morgan he difparch'd a more 
authcntick Commiffion for the Government 
of Scotland, and afterward fcnt him more 
Forces, for the further Security of that Na- 
tion. Neither did the Garrifons and Caftles in 
Wales efcape his Thoughts. He extended his 
Care to the Security of the more remote Wef- 
tetn Counties of T^evon and Cornwall and 
from thence back again to the fartheft EaO, in 
the Settlement of Norfolk and Suffolk 5 all 
which, though not done together, we have 
yet coRJcin'd, for the greater Clearnefs and 
Eafe of the Reader. 

- II. I N the interim Ireland gave him no 
Trouble for the prefenr, where all Things 
went very weil through the Care of Sir 
Charles Coot^ and Sir Theopkilus J ones , and 

i '. others. 

General Monk. 249 

others. Ludlow was abfent in England, and 
Sir Hardrefs Waller was quickly after fc- 

III. This extraordinary Providence of the 
General, together with the feafonable and 
prudent Letter, which he had difperled be- 
fore to the icveral Forces, had hitherto kept 
them in ibme good Order, till Colonel O- 
'venon at Hull fell into his Fits of Mutiny 
and Diftraftion 5 who being a zealous Bigot 
of the fifth Monarchy, and confident of the 
Strength of the Place, had difperfed feveral 
Copies of a feditious Letter among the Offi- 
cers and Regiments in the North, one where- 
of was fent up to the General by Colonel 
Fairfax J then Governor of Tork. General 
Monk\!zs not io much concern'd about the 
Danger of the Man, as the Quality of the 
Place he held, and therefore acquainted the 
Council of State with thcfe Pra£lices and Let- 
ters, who, together with the General, fent 
down Colonel Alured and Major Smith with 
their Letters, commanding him, upon the Re- 
ceipt thereof, to attend them forthwith at Lon- 
don, and there to give them an Account of his 
Fears and Jealoufics. O'verton found him (elf 
furpriz'd much fooncr than he expcdcd ; fo 
that he was enforc'd to rubmir,.and deliver up 
the Garrifon. This' was a Place of impreg- 
Jiable Defence and Strength, whither if Z/^?-^- 
i bert 

2^0 The LIFE of 

hen had retreated with Part of his Army, af- 
ter his Quarters were broke up at Newcaftle, 
he might have given all of them Trouble e- 
nough, before they could have been able to 
reduce him. The General was therefore re- 
folv'd to intruft this Garrifon in a fure Hand, 
and committed it to Colonel Fairfax, 

IV. Hitherto he had fecured the Sub- 
miflion of the Armies by an extraordinary 
Prudence, which now the Parliament took 
care to confirm, by a Vote of their Houfe $ 
and knowing nothing could fo much oblige 
the Obedience of Soldiers as the Affurance of 
their Pay, they palfed an Ad for the raifing 
of one hundred thoufand V oxxTi^s per Menfent, 
upon England and Wales, which was to 
continue for fix Months, towards the Sup- 
port of the Army and Navy. 

V. But though they had thus provided for 
their Maintenance, yet they were refolv'd al- 
fo to take Care for their own Safety. They 
forgot not that the Englijh Army had been 
train'd up in Saucinefs and Infolencej that 
they had been accuftom'd to fliew Tricks at 
Weftmmfter in difturbing, or diflblving for- 
mer Parliaments ; and therefore, to prevent 
the like Violence upon them again, they paf- 
iQ.(i another KQl for raifing the Militia in thp 
City and Nation, which was fo vigproufly 

5 carried 

General Monk. 251 

carried on in London^ that they had prefcnt- 
ly fettled fix good Regiments of Foot, and 
one of Horfe, befides the auxiliary Forces, 
being in all twelve thoufand fighting Men, 
The like Care was alfo ufed in the feveral 
Counties for the fettling the Commands of 
their Train'd- bands and County Troops. 

VI. The Entertainment of the Soldiers 
being thus provided for, it was next thought 
reafonable to pafs fome Vote for rewarding 
alfo the Service of their General. A nd to that 
End thofe Commonwealth's Men, Members 
of the late Jun6to, that ftill kept their Places 
in the Houfe, being defirous to oblige the 
General to their Side, or that nothing might 
be left to fupport a fingle Pcrfon, propound- 
ed to fettle, by Aft of Parliament, upon him 
and his Heirs, the Manour and Honour of 
Hampton Court, with the Parks and Lands 
belonging to it, which the Villanics of thofc 
Times had not yet fwallowed ; having been 
referv'd from their Jaws by the late Ufurper 
Cromwell for his own Convenience. And 
the' the fecluded Members, who had been re- 
ftored by the General, could not decently re- 
fufe the Propofal, yet himfclf utterly declin- 
ed the firft Motion of ir. But the Houfe 
having gone fo far in ir, they then engaged 
to gratify him with the Sum of twenty thou- 
fand Founds. 

' ' VII. Though 

2ji The LIFE of ) 

VII. Though he had refus'd the Gift of. 
the Crown-Lands, yet fome of thofe who had 
been concern'd in the Murder of the late 
King, and others who had cut themfelves 
large Thongs out of the Royal Demefns, had 
the Confidence to tamper with him about af- 
fuming the Government in his own Perfon. 
And, among the reft. Sir Arthur Hazlerig 
(to preclude the Reftoration of the King) 
offered him one hundred thoufand Hands th^t 
fhould fubfcribe to his Title. 

VIII. It may feem ftrange, that they who 
every where difcovered their jealoufiesagainft 
him, for rcftoring the King, fliould now think 
he might be periuaded to fet up himfelf. But 
imce they could not interrupt his Defign by 
fuggefting the former, they had fecretly con- 
triv'd his Ruin by the Offer of the later. Ayl 
they who thus officioufly complimepted^is 
Advancement, would have been the firft Re- 
bels againft him. But the General, who was 
immovable in his fccret Refolution and Al- 
legiance for rcftoring the King, abhorred the 
Thoughts of this Propofal, and gave them fo 
clofe and pofitive an Anfvver, as he was rq- 
folv'd (hould put an End to all further Ad- 
d relies of that Nature. 

IX. The Houfe was all this while bufy ip 


General Monk. ijj 

fettling the Affairs of the Nation for the Con- 
venience of the fucceeding Parliament, and, 
among other things, about the 1 3'^of March March 
they vacated the Oath called the Engagement ^ 
which about ten Years before, was impofcd 
upon the People, and to be taken by all Mem- 
bers of Parliament before their Admillion to 
fit in the Houfe. But the folemn League and 
Covenant ( the Engine or Sacrament of fo 
many Mifchiefs) ftill hung upon the Wall of 
their Houfe, as the Palladium of the Place, 
where moft of them prefent might read their 
own Names fubfcribed to it, till a fucceeding 
Parliament two Years after, went backward, 
and covered the Shame of their Predeccflbrs, 
by a Vote of their Houfe, commanding it to 
be taken down, and diffolved the Charm it 
had put upon the Nation, by burning the 

X. Though the Proceedings of the Par- 
liament and the General were managed with 
a very extraordinary Caution, yet the unquiet 
Officers of the Army began to be jealous and 
apprehcnfive of their own Danger. They were 
highly alarmed with two late Votes of the 
Houfe. The Ad for fettlingtheMilitia through- 
out the Nation, they elkcm'd a Defign to ba- 
lance or mafter the Power of the {landing 
Army ; and their late Order for diiVolving 
the Engagement, whi:h hitherto had been 



254 ^^ LIFE of 

the Bafis of the Conftitution of the Common- 
wealth, feem'd to them as a preparatory Con- 
trivance for changing the Government, Nor 
were they better contented with the late Me- 
thods of the General, in declining fo fair an 
Offer of the Crown-Lands, and afterwards of 
the Government it felf. Their own Ambi- 
tion and Avarice would have skip'd at a much 
lower Bait 5 which led them into a deeper Suf- 
picion of the General's Refufal, as a Contri- 
vance of going to a better Market, by reftor- 
ing the Monarchy j which would certainly 
put an End to their in folent Dominion over 
Parliaments and People, and expofe their 
Necks to anfwer for their Guilt and Villanies, 
in murdering the King, and changing the Go- 
vernment. ^ . • aj ;. 

XI. Such Apprchcnfions as thefe had To 
far poflefled thefe d 11 contented Officers, that 
they had appointed a Meeting thereupon ,• 
where it was unanimoufly refolv'd to draw 
up a Declaration, which fliould be firft fign'd 
by the General and themfelves, and thcnof- 
fer'd to the Parliament. The chief Point 
whereof was, to declare againft Monarchy, 
and the Dominion of any fingle Pcrfon under 
whatfoevcr Title or Pretence, but that the 
Government of thcfc Nations fliould continue 
and remain as a Commonwealth and Free- 
State 5 and that the prclcnt Houfe fliould pafs 


General Monk. lyy 

an AA to cftablifh this fundamental and un- 
alterable Conilitution, in fuch manner as no 
fucceeding Parliament ftiould prefumc to 
change or alter it, othcrwifc they would not 
hold themfelves oblig'd to proted their Au- 
thority. Some of them prcfently attended 
the General with this Paper, defiring his 
Confent and Allowance. Upon the Perufal 
whereof, it is hard to fay whether he was 
more difpleas'd or furpriz'd. But refolving to 
conceal his own Diflike till he could fruftratc 
the Effect of it, he only told them, that to 
Morrow there would be a general Council of 
Officers at the Head- Quarters, where he de- 
fired their Paper (hould be further examined 
and confidered. 

XII. This Declaration of the feditious 
Commanders was fo diredly levelled againft 
all the General's next Contrivances, as great- 
ly concerned him. So that he prefcntly ad- 
vis'd with his ufual Confidents, how to pre- 
vent the Progrefs of this Defign ; and there- 
upon commanded all his own Officers that he 
could befl: truft, to be prefent, and over- rule 
it. He had before made Mr. Morrice a Mem- 
ber of the Army, by giving him the Govern- 
ment of Tlimouth, dcfigning thereby to em- 
ploy his Prudence and Temper in moderating 
thefe Aflemblies. But being a Gentleman that 
had fpcnt his Time in the Silence of his Books 


t^6 rhe L IFE of 

and Studies, it rcndcr'd him uneafy in the 
Company of fuch rude and clamorous Con- 
ventions. Commiflary Clarges was alfo di- 
refted to be prefent, who, by his long Em- 
ployment, had fo pradis'd the Converfation, 
that he was not eafy to be run down or im- 
pos'd upon by thofe violent Huckfters. So 
that amongft thofe many extraordinary Ser- 
vices which the Commiflfary had perform'd in 
all this Deiign, the Management ot this Day's 
Conference was very confiderable, wherein he 
proceeded with that Reach and Dexterity, as 
filcnced the Jealoufics of thofe People, and 
baffled the Contrivance. 

March ij. XIII. The next Moming, being March 
15. a confidcrablc Party of the Officers were 
ready at St. James's; and Colonel Okey, 
( who could better ufe his Sword than his 
Tongue, in Defence of their Common- 
wealth ) b'egan a long and querulous Story 
of their Fears and Jealoufies : That their good 
old Caufe was like to be It ft in the Lurch 5 
" a72d jiich l^efigns were now on Foot for 
changing the Goz'ernmenty as muft fiecejfari- 
ly determine in reflorivg the King. Bitty 
to obviate thefe growing Evils, there was no 
other IVay^ but to oblige the prefent JunBo 
to declare inflantly for the unalterable Con- 
tinuance of a Free- State J without any Houfe 
of Lords ; or^ upon their Refufaly to take 


General Monk. 257 

fome other Methods for the Safety of the 
Common-jjealth : So great a Statefmau was 
this Chandler of BiUingfgate grown. 

XIV. To all which Commiilary Clarges 
anfwer'd in a clofc and well-wrought Rcpiy ; 
That their prefent Jealoufies and Apprehen- 
fions isjere only imaginary 5 that they had taken 
their Meafures wrongs if they thought to make 
any Advantage oj this Parliament , by ruffling 
with them J who had formerly boldly withftood 
themy when they had lefs Tower than now, 
when the Nation is more on their Side^ and 
wholly refolv'd againjt the Government of an 
Army : That the General had oblig'd him- 
felfto give the Houfe noTDiftiirbance in their 
Councils during their Sefjion; and that if he 
Jhould break this promife with them, they 
had yet Tower in their Hands to deal 
with him, and fuch other Officers, as they 
pleased, by voting away their Commijfwns : 
That by fuch an Addrefs the Houfe would 
be fo incenfed, as prefently to pafs a Vote 
for their own T)iJfolution, without taking 
care of ijfaing out IVrits for the ficceedtng 
Parliament. All which would prefently 
bring them into fuch a Labyrinth of T)ifor^ 
der and Confufon, as they would not eafily 
know where to turn them i unlefs they would 
meanly fubmit themfelves again to Richard 
Cromwell, whom they had fu greatly provok- 
S ' ed. 

258 Tie LIFE of 

ed ; foTy as for his Excellency here prefenU 
they knew his Mind already j fo that ( let 
them take what Coiirfe they pie as' d) he was 
refolved not to be concern d in 7neddling with 
the Government. 

XV. The General, according to the ufual 
manner, kept his own Part for the laft Scene ; 
and, having gravely put them in mind of the 
Jnconveniencies which they had before 
brought upon themfelves by difturbing former 
Parliaments, he told i\\cm the prefent Houfe 
was fo near its Conclufion, that no evil Con- 
feqtients could be feared from them. And 
the fucceeding Parliaments would be called 
under fuch §ltiaUfications as mufi neceffarily 
fecure the Government. In the interim^ he 
advifed them to remember their T^utyy and 
how contrary it was to the good T>ifcipline 
of an Anny, to intermeddle in the Civil Go- 
'vernment 5 and then ftritily commanded them 
all to hold no more ofthefe Affemblies with- 
out his T)ire£fion. But, during this Confe- 
rence, he took fo particular Notice of fuch 
Officers as were moft forward and turbu- 
lent, that he was refolv'd to worm them out 
of their Commifllons by the firft Opportu- 

' l' ' CHAP. 

General Monk. 250 

CHAP. xxr. 

I. The Tresbyterians encvnrngcd by the Ge- 
neral, for having good Inclinations to- 
ijuards the King. 11. A remarkable In- 
ftance of his Favour to that Tarty. III. 
A IDeJign in the ""Parliament to rejtore the 
King ; iz'hich obliges the General to hajlen 
their T>iJfolHtion. IV. T'H'o remarkable 
Votes. V. The Parliament diffohed. VI. 
The Council of State continued : They pub- 
lip a Proclamation : The Army fign an 
Engagement of Obedience to their Gene- 
ral. VII. The Royal Party quietly 'vjait 
the Event of thefe extraordinary Pro-* 
ceedings. VIII. Only Sir John Greenvil 
now refolves to execute his former Com- 
miffionfrom the King to the General, 

THE fhort Sellion of the fecludcd Mem- 
bers had already made a very confide- 
rable Alteration in the late governing Inte- 
refts j fo that now the Presbyterian Party be- 
gan to come aloft. The General was not now 
to be taught the Temper and Principles of the 
Presbyterians, having fecn enough of their 
Way in thofe Petulances between the Rcfo- 
lutioner and Remonftrator in Scotla?tdj dur- 
ing his long Command among them, and 
therefore had taken a juft Length how far to 
: 1 S 2 intiuft 

i6o The LIFE »/ "* 

intruft or employ them. He very well knew 
their Power and Intereft in the City of Lon- 
doTiy and that there were alfo very many Per- 
fons among them, who, out of Hatred to the 
late Tyrannies, and AfFedionto the King, did 
very paffionately dcfire his Reftauration, as 
the beft: Remedy for faving their Country, 
and therefore were very Hkely to co-operate 
with him towards his own Ends. And ob- 
ferving how abfoltitcly this People were go- 
vern'd by their Clergy, he had receiv'd feve- 
ral Vifits from the chief of them, and fre- 
quently heard fome of them preach, efpecial- 
ly Mr. Calamy, the Superintendent of their 
Party ; with whom he fo far comply'd, as to 
'entertain only fuch Chaplains to preach be- 
fore him every Sunday in the Chapel at St. 
James's, as Mr. Calamy fhould pleafe to fend 
him, who was hourly contriving to poiTefs 
the Ears of the General with the continual 
y\ir and Breath of Presbyterianifm,and to plant 
it in his Family, to the further Advantage and 
Reputation of the Party. 

II. But his domeftick Chaplain Dr. ^ricCy 
who knew nothing of this Intrigue, being 
defirous to introduce fome of the principal 
Clergy of the Church of England to the Fa- 
vour and Eftimation of the General, had, 
o'i\z Sunday, defired Dr. Tearfon (theprefent 
Lord Bifliop of Chejhr) to preacli before 
- '■ - him. 

General Monk. i6i 

him, who was accordingly there prcfcnt. In 
the interim arrived two Minifters lent from 
the Head of their Order, to perform the Ser- 
vice 5 but in the bad Way by the Park Wall, 
their Coach happen'd to make fo unlucky a 
Trip, that all came together into the Dirt, I'o 
that neither of them were in any Condition 
for a Pulpit, till Dr. Trice had fet them to 
rights again in his Chamber, intreating one 
of them to preach that ^//T/^.'z;', and the other 
on the next. The General being inform'd what 
Perfons were there ready to preach, would 
by no Means accept Dr. Tear fan, though he 
very well underftood the Value of the Man, 
and was perfuaded to it by his domcftick 
Confident Mr. Morrice, but accepted of the 
Presbyterian Preachers. So careful he was, 
even in this little Inflancc, not to difoblige 
the Parry, till he had fully done his Bufinefs 
with them. 

III. The General having thus palliated 
the Difcontents of his Officers, expeded no 
further Rubs in the Current of his Affairs, 
when prefently he found himfelf incumbrcd 
with a new Trouble from the Parliament it 
felf, where feveral of the Members, being un- 
willing to hear of a Diffolution at the Time 
prefix'd them, began to contrive Delays for 
the Continuance of their Seflion ; and fore- 
feeing the necelTary Reftoration of the King, 
S 3 were 

r6% The LIFE of- 

were delirous to mend their own Markets, in 
voting home the Son, who had firtt voted a- 
way his Father in the Beginning of the War. 
The General was acquainted with their daily 
Proceedings by the nightly Accounts of Mr. 
Monice, whom he had particularly inftrud- 
ed, by all poflible Arts of Diverfion, to ftave 
off this prcfent Seflion from meddling with 
any Alteration of Government. For the Ge- 
neral had at fii-n: rcflored them, rather to pre- 
vent the Mifchicf of the other Parties, than 
for any great Good they could have done by 
themfelves, having placed his main Hopes 
upon the Effcds of the Parliament which 
fhould fucceed them. But finding them as 
willing to hear of their Death, as their Dif- 
folution, he was cnforc'd to take the Boldnefs 
of putting them in mind of it, by quickening 
their Pace. 

IV. But now the Day for concluding their 
Sclljon being near nt Hand, the Houlc began 
to make ready for it, having firfl: ifllicd out 
Writs for chuilng the fuccecding Parliament 
againft y^/>ri/ 2 5 . which, by their Agreement 
with the General, fhould have been conven'd 
five Days fooncr. And, that they might 
have an Army at hand, to juftify all they had 
done in the late War, and a fuccceding Par- 
liament of their own fanguine Complexion, 
they concluded their Scilion with two fucb 
c <^ Votes 

General Monk. i6^ 

Votes as gave Entertainment and Difcourfe 
to the Nation j one whereof was, that no 
Commiilion fliouW be granted to any Officer 
in the Army that did not firft acknowledge 
and declare, that the late \Var, railed by the 
two Houfes of Parliament in their own De- 
fence againft the late King, was jufl: and law- 
ful. The fecond was, that whatever Pcrfon 
had advifed, abetted, or afllfted in any War 
againft the Parliament, fince the lirft of Ja- 
nuary 1 64 1, neither they, nor their Sons, 
ihould be capable of being eledled into the 
next Parliament, unlcfs they had before given 
fome Tcftimony of their good AfFedtion to 
the prefent Parliament. 

V. And thus having refolved to make their 
End agreeable to their Beginning, on the long 
dcfir'd 17*'^ of March this unhappy and fatal 
Parliament, having been twice excluded, and 
twice difmembcr'd, was at laft diflblv'd by 
their own Act, after they had continued thro' 
various Interruptions, for almoft twenty Years, 
in the Pradice of fuch publick Milchief and 
Confufions, as will ever be remember 'd with 

VI. But though the Parliament was at an 
End, yet the Council of State ( moft whereof 
were of the foundeft and molt generous Part 
of the Houfe ) continued ftill their Seflion, 

S 4 bt*i"S 

i64 The LIFE of 

being appointed by the Parliament to put in 
Execution, after their Recefs, the Ati they 
had paft for the Eledion of Members to ferve 
in the next Parliament. They were alfo in- 
ftruded to fettle more efFedually the MiUtia 
of the Nation, and to aflift the General in fe- 
curing the Temper and Obedience of the Ar- 
my. To this End they put out a Proclama- 
tion, for the apprehending all Perfons that 
fhould endeavour to make Parties, or raife 
Jealoufies, among the Soldiers, or withdraw 
them from their Duty, to the Difturbance of 
the publick Peace. And whoever (hould dif- 
cover or apprehend any fuch Offenders, fhould 
have the Reward of ten Pounds for their 
Pains. But bccaufc no Means was thought 
effedual enough to bind and fccure the Obe- 
dience of an Army that had been fo long ac- 
cuftomed to Mifrule and Violence, it was 
contrived by the General, and fome of his 
more fecrct Council, that all Officers in the 
feveral Armies fliould prcfently fign an En- 
gagement, declaring their entire Submiflion 
to all the Commands of his Excellency the 
Lord General, and to the Orders of the pre- 
fcnt Council of State, and that they would 
yield all Obedience to the Refolutions and 
Councils of the fucceeding Parliament. This 
Engagement was readily fubfcrib'd by all the 
Officers of General Monk's Army, and by 
moiX alfo of the others j and they v/ho refused 
• • . .. were 

General Monk. i6j 

were prefently remov'd from their Com- 
mands, which gave the General the fair Op- 
portunity which he had lb long dcfir'd, for 
introducing feveral Perfons of Honour and 
QuaHty into Commands in the Army, in the 
Place of thofc he could no longer truft. 

VII. Hitherto all things had been ma- 
nag'd by the Power and Influence of the Par- 
liamentary Party, whilft the Royal Intcreft 
(that were to reap the fole Advantage of the 
fucceeding Change ) having entertain'd fome 
feeret Hopes or Confidence in General Monk's 
Proceeding's, contented themfelves to fit dill, 
without raifing any farther Jcaloufies upon 
themfelves or him, by making further Ap- 
plications to him. 

VIII. 0^i.Y^\iJohnGreenviU (his near i6(5o. 
Kinfman ) who had, the laft Year, been 
pradifing upon the General's Allegiance in 
Scotland^ by fending his Brother Monk thi- 
ther, of which we have given the Account 
before, was refolv'd to make fome further At- 
tempt upon him, efpecially now, obferving 
him to be in a much better Capacity of an- 
fwering his Ends, than when he had firft 
dealt with him in Scotland, 


i66 The LIFE of 


I, II. 4$/>John, bytheMeansofMr.yioxnct, 
though with much 'Difficulty y gets a Tro- 
mife of a private Conference with the Ge- 
neraly who knew Sir JohnV Biijinejs. III. 
Sir John is introduced to the General, to 
whom he opens his Meffiage and Creden- 
tials. IV. The General's feeming Siir- 
prife, and Sir JohnV great ^Frejence of 
Mind and Refolutian. V. The General 
receives him and his Mejfage with great 
Kindnefs. VI. The Author's Objerva- 
tion upon it. VII. The General declares 
himfelf to Sir John, in the Frefence of 
Mr. Morrice. VIII. Sir John offers the 
General, from the King, a great Reward, 
which he refufes. IX. His Caution in 
not writing yet to the King. X. His 
InflruBions to Sir John, upon his Return 
to the King. XI. Sir John arrives at 
Bruflels, and gives the Account of his 
fuccefsful Meffiage to the General. XII, 
XIII. His Majejiys great Hopes, and 
Removal to Breda. 

I. ^TH'O this purpofe he made frequent Vi- 
j[ fits to the General ?,t St. James's, but 
in the Croud of fo many Suitors and Atten- 
dants, he could never yet meet with a vacant 


General Monk. 167 

Opportunity of Conference with him 5 tho* 
he had icveral Times ftaid late, hoping the 
Retirements of others, would have given hioi 
an Advantage to furprize him alone. The 
General very well knew his Bufinefs, and the 
Reafon of his fo frequent and late Vifirs: 
But becaufe he thought his own Station not 
yet fecure enough to receive his Meflage ; he 
was refolv'd ftill to prevent any Addrefs to 
him ; either fometimes calling his Secretaries, 
and refuming Bufinefs, or elfe rifing from his 
Chair with a Good Night, Coujin, 'tis late, 
and fo retiring to his Bed-chamber. But after 
fo many Fruftrations, Sir John Greenvil, being 
impatient till he had performed his Majefty's 
Commands, was refolv'd, fincc he could not 
make his Way to the General by himfelf, he 
would attempt it by the Mediation of ano- 
ther. And to that purpofe finds out Mr. 
Morrice, to whom he was very well known, 
both as being ally'd to him, and alfo a Truf- 
tee for his Eftate, by theDifpofition of his Fa- 
ther, Sir BevilGreenvih Will. Him he en- 
gag'd to take the firft Opportunity of inform- 
ing the General, that he had Bufinefs of great 
and fecrct Importance to acquaint him with, 
intreating his Excellency to allow him the 
Favour of a private Conference. It was not 
long before Mr. Morrice '^o md an Occafioa 
to communicate all this Diicourfeto the Ge- 
neral, who rcply'd : That his Coufin Green- 

2(58 The LIFE of 

n)il was fo well known in the Town, and fo 
noted a Royalift, that he could not, with Se- 
curity or Concealment, admit him to a private 
Interview in the Head-Quarters, but that, in 
a Time of fo much jealous Obiervacion, fome 
ill Apprehenfions would be railed from it. He 
therefore defired Mr. Morrice to go to Sir 
John Greeuvil in his Name, with Aflurance, 
that he had given him full Truft to hear his 
fecret Bufinefs, and that by him he (hould alfo 
receive the General's Anlwer. Mr. Monice 
prefently acquainted Sir yohn Greenvil^ at 
his own Houfe in Covent-Garden, with this 
Diredion from the General ; who utterly re- 
fus'd to communicate his Bufinefs to any o- 
ther Perfon except his Excellency himfelf. 
But the General was fo little fatisfy'd with 
this Anfwer, that he afterwards fent Mr, 
Morrice back again, more earneftly defiring 
him that he would truft him with the Convey- 
ance of this fecret Affair. But Sir John was 
ftill refolv'd to treat only with the General, 
and though he had fecurely intrufted Mr. 
Morrice with his Eftate, yet he could truft 
no Man but himfelf in this Bufinefs 5 afturing 
him, that this Affair related only to the Ge- 
neral himfelf, whom it fo nearly concern'd, 
that if his Excellency would not grant him 
the Favour of a private Accefs, he muft be 
forced to acquaint him with it where-ever he 
next met him. Upon the Return of this An- 


General Monk. 2(Jp 

fwer, the General was exceedingly pleas'd 
with the Refolution and Warinefs of his Kinf- 
nian. For now he found he was to deal with 
a Man of Secrecy, which was all he aim'd at. 
And therefore the next Day Mr. Morrice was 
fent back to let him know, that the fame 
Evening he would give him a Meeting in Mr. 
Morrice % Chamber at St. James's, 

II. It cannot be imagin'd, but the General 
very well knew Sir John Greenvi I could have 
no other Bufincfs with him of fo much Se- 
crecy, but what he had before begun in Scot- 
land, the King's Rcftauration ; nor can it be 
thought his Excellency would To much con- 
cern himfelf (in fending fomany MefTages) 
to be told that which he had no Mind to 

III. Sir John Greenvil was very careful 
to attend the Minutes of this Appointment, 
and accordingly came in the Evening to the 
Chamber, where he found Mr. Morrice ; and 
prefently after the General, by a back Stairs, 
entered the Room at another Door. So foon 
as they had faluted each other, Mr. MorricCy 
knowing it to be an Interview of Secrecy, 
withdrew to the Door, refolving to fecure the 
Room from any other Interruption upon 
them. Whereupon Sh JohnGreenvil btpin. 
to compUment the General for the Favour he 


^yo The LIFE of 

had done him, in giving him this Opportuni- 
ty to difcharge a Truft, which had long re- 
mained in his Hands, and was of To great 
Concernment both to his Excellency, and al- 
fo to the whole Nation : That hitherto he 
had been unhappily prevented in his Endea- 
vours from obeying the Commands of the 
King his Matter ; and thereupon prefented 
the General with his Majefty's Letter, and 
alfo produced his own Commillion from the 
King, by which he was enabled to treat with 
him in this Bufinefs. 

IV. The General having receiv'd the Let- 
ter and Papers into his Hands, ftepp'd back in 
a kind of Surprizal, and then with fome E- 
motion ask'd him. How he dtirft adventure 
to treat with htm in a Matter of this Na- 
turey without confidering the "Danger of the 
Attempt ? To which Sir John reply'd, That 
he had fo long been accuftomed to daily Ha- 
zards of this Kind in purfuing the Com- 
mands of the King his Mafter, that they 
were grown familiar to him : Bttt now he 
was the more encouraged, by obferving the 
Methods which his Excellency had taken, 
and from whence his Majejly had alfo enter- 
tained fome particular Confidence of his good 
Affe^ion and Inclination towards his Ser- 

V. The 

General Monk. 271 

V. The General could not longer conceal 
himfelf, but with fome Pafllon ( like that of 
Jofeph to his Brethren) he embraced his Cou- 
iin Green-vily giving him Thanks that he had 
with fo much Prudence and Secrecy convey'd 
his Majefly's Letter to him j which he did 
more gladly receive from his Hands, being 
his neareft Kinfman, and a Defcendant of 
the Family to which he owed fo many Obli- 
gations. That he was very well pleas'd in 
obferving his Refolution, not to reveal this 
Secret to any Man after his Brother ; other- 
wife he fhould not have thought him a Pcr- 
fon fit to be talked with in Bufincfs of io 
great Concernment. 

VI. And here let it be noted with a Point 
of a Diamond, that the fame General Monky 
who was naturally fo wary and confiderate, 
that he would find Ways to deliberate upon 
the lead fudden Propofal made to him, yet 
entertain'd prefently this great Affair the firft 
Minute it was offer'd him. So congenial and 
agreeable was the Addrefs of Sir John Green- 
vil to his own fecret Inclinations. And they 
who have rcnder'd this great and illuftrious 
Perfon a kind of Property led on by the 
Condud of others, may here meet with their 
own Convidion. For though no Man knew 
better than himfelf, how to make ufc of thofe 


%y% The LIFE of 

about him ; yet in this great Concernment, 
which was the moft nice and tendered Part 
of all his Bufinefs, he advis'd with none of 
them all, nor made them privy to it. 

VII. The General then read his Majefty's 
Letters,. and look'd over S\^ John Greenvil's 
Commiflion, and thereupon further reply'd. 
That he was much oblig'd to his Majeftyfor 
this good Opinion he was pleas' d to entertain 
of him, and for the Ajjurance his Majefty 
had given him ( by his Letter ) of his gra- 
cious Pardon. That indeed he had been caft 
into the Society oj his Majefty s Enemies, 
but his Heart was always faithful to him, 
and he had ft ill kept an Eye upon his Ser- 
'vice, whenfoever he ftoould be in a Condition 
to attempt it ; unto which he had now, in 
fome good Meafure, arrived, through mani- 
foWTiifficulties and T)ifappointments -, being 
refolded to endeavour his Majefty s Reftaii- 
ration with the Hazard of his own Life 
and Fortunes. And, that there might be fur- 
ther Witneffes of thefe Refolutions, he would 
call that honeft Man from the Door. Mr. 
Morrice was accordingly call'd to the reft of 
their Confereace, and aflifted therein. 

VIII. Sir John Greeyivil acquainted the 
General, that he had Authority from his Ma- 
jefty to aflurc him of an hundred thoufand 
\ . Pounds 

General Monk. 273 

'Pounds per Ann. to be annually paid to him 
and his Officers for ever, with what Title of 
Honour he fliould chule for himfclf, together 
with the Offer of Lord High-ConQable of 
EiJgland. All which his Excellency as gene- 
roufly refufed, telling Sir John Grcenvtl: 
There ^-jvas fufjicient Reward in the Con- 
fcience and SdtisfaBion offtrvivg his 'Frincey 
and obliging his Country. That he 'xoidd 
not fell his T)ntyj nor bargain for his Alle- 
giance j fo that for any Regards to^ji'ards 
hiniy he was wholly refolv'd in to the good 
T*leafure of his Majefty. 

IX. Sir John Greenvil then moved the 
General to write fome Anfwcr to his Maje- 
fty 's Letter, and to fend a Mefllngcr of his 
own to attend him ; which his Excellency 
declin'd, telling him, That he had none about 
him that as yet he could truft with fuch a 
Secret. And though Sir fohn mentioned the 
Names of fome particular Perfons about him, 
yet he refufed, for the prefcnt, to adventure 
a Letter to his Majefty, which, if it fliould 
happen by any Accident to be intercepted, 
would raife fuch Jcaloufics and Apprchcnitons 
in the Army, (not yrt fully wrought to his 
Mind ) as it fhould hardly ever be again in 
his Power to compofc them. He therefore 
dcfir'd Sir John Greenvil-, as he had rccciv'd 
from him the Commands of his Majefty, fo 
T he 

^74 ^^ LIFE of 

he would alfo return his Anfwer ; and that 
fmce he could not fccurely write, a Meflengei: 
of his own without Letters would be to little 
purpoie ,• but his Majefty would believe his 
own Agent, though he brought no Letter 
of Credence. Sir John Greenvil then told 
the General, that he would begin his Journey 
to the King the next Evening, who thereup- 
on appointed to meet him again the following 
Day in the fame Place, where he fliould re- 
ceive his Inftrudions. 

X. The next Evening Sir John Greenvil 
attended the General in Mr. Morrice's Cham- 
ber, where his Excellency defir'd him to take 
his Inftruclions in Writing, the Heads where- 
of were : 

" That fmce by the long Civil War and 

" Change of Government, the Minds of the 

" Soldiers in general, and a great Part of the 

" People would be alarm'd with the Appre- 

" henfion of his Majefty's Return, it was his 

" humble Advice, that he would be graci- 

" ouily plcas'd to proclaim his free and gene- 

" ral Pardon to all his Subjects, except to 

" fuch as the Parliament (hould cfteem inca- 

" pable of it. That he would prepare the 

*' Minds of the Army, by declaring hisRea- 

" dinefs to confent to fuch Ads asfhould fe- 

" cure the publick Sales and Difpofitions of 

[[ Lands, and the Payment alio of their Ar- 

~ • ' . *' rears. 

General Monk. 27^ 

•^ rears. And becaufe nothing was morclikc- 
" ly to run the People into Frenzies, than 
" the Fear of Reflraint in their feveral Reli- 
" gions, he did further befecch his Majcfty 
" to declare his Aflent for a Toleration and 
" Liberty of Confcience to all his Subjcdls, 
" who fliould fo employ it as not to give any 
*' Difturbance to the Civil Government. He 
" was alfo inftrudled to defire his Majclly to 
" retire from the Dominions of the King 
*' of Spain into fome convenient Place be- 
*' longing to the States of the united Pro- 
" vinces, where, with more Freedom and Se- 
" curity to his Perfon, he might treat further 
" with his Parliament and People. And laft- 
." ly, he was ftrictly cautioned not to give 
" his Majcfty any Interruption, by offering 
" Propofals to him for the Reward of his 
" Service." The General then defired him 
to perufc hislnftruclions carefully, and to fix 
them throughly in his Memory 5 and then, 
receiving the Paper from his Hand, threw it 
into the Fire before them, and inrreated him 
to keep thefe Particulars in his Thoughts as 
he travelled, aud by no means to commie 
them a^ain to Writin^i, till he was firfl ar- 
riv'd in Flanders, nor to acquaint any rer- 
fon with his Buiinefs except his Mnjcfly only. 
They then privately took Leave of each o- 
ther 5 and the fame Night Sir John Creenv'tl, 
fpeeding fcccetly through the City, bcg^.n his 
T 2 JoLirncy 

176 The LIFE of 

Journey towards Trover, where, the next 
Day, he feafonably found the Lord Mordaunt, 
who was then going over to the King, and 
had hir'd a VelTel to himfelf, in which he 
was very joyful to accommodate his old Ac- 
quaintance Sir John Greenvil^ and engage 
together in the King's Service j but in all 
their Voyage to Oftend, they knew nothing 
of one another's Bufinefs. When they came 
to Bru(felsj the Lord Mordaunt refolv'd to 
go diredly to the Court, and Sir John Green- 
i;/7to his Lodgings; defiring his Lordfliip to 
acquaint the King, that he was come to 
Town, and where he lodged. 

XI. So foon as his Majefty was inform'd 
of Sir John Greenvil's Arrival, he expeded 
from him Tome extraordinary News from 
England'-, and the rather, becaufc he came not 
to Court, but rctir'd himlclf fo privately. 
The lame Night therefore his Majefty went 
alone in his Coach to his Lodgings, where, 
being private together, he gave his Majefty 
a diftind and particular Account of all his 
Proceedings with General Monk ; with what 
Readincls he had embrac'd his Majefty's Ser- 
vice, and with what Care and Prudence he 
had run through a thoufand Difficulties and 
Difappointmcnts to arrive at his prcfent Sta- 
tion j and by which he hop'd he fiiould be a- 
.bie to accompliili his MajcO-y's Rcftauratidn. 
. He 

General Monk. 277 

He then defcendcd to the Relation of thofc 
private Inftrudions he had received from the 
General 5 which, when his Majefty had further 
confidered and debated with Six John Green- 
*vily they found it impoflible to comply with 
General Monks, Defire, in managing this fe- 
cret Affair by themfelves alone, without ad- 
mitting fome others to a Share in their Coun- 
fels. And therefore his Majefty rcfolv'd that, 
the next Day, the Marquifs of Ormond, the 
Lord Chancellor Hide, and Sir Edward Ni- 
cholas, fliould be acquainted with it ; who ac- 
cordingly attended his Majefty privately, to- 
gether with Sir John Greenviiy and received 
this News from General Monk with a kind of 
joyful Aftonifhment. 

XII. And now his Majefty began to en- 
tertain fome nearer Hopes of recovering the 
Throne of his Anceftors, than he had done 
by thofe former Attempts, which had been 
made for him in England or Scotland, For 
this was a Method that had never yet been 
try'd, and the Condud of it was in the 
Hands of a wary and valiant Man, that want- 
ed not Prudence and Courage to go through 
with it. Nor did his Majefty and the honour- 
rable Counfellors forget to rcficd upon the 
extraordinary Service of Sir John Grecnvil, 
with what Pains and Induftry, through how 
jnany Dangers and Hazards, he had carried 
T 3 on 

273 The LIFE of 

on this fecret Truft for almoft three Quarters 
of a Year, and had at laft fo happily conclud- 
ed it with the General. 

XIII. At this Conference it was refolv'd 
to purfue the well-advifed Counfcl from Ge- 
neral Monk, for the removing of his Majefty 
out of the Spanijh Territories. And accord- 
ingly fome few Days after he went privately 
to Breda, where he fettled his Court y and 
in this Place were made ready all thofc Pack- 
ets and Difpatches, which ^vijohn Greenvil 
was to carry back into England. A. Decla- 
ration was alfo formed and figned by the 
King, containing all thofe very Points which 
the General had propos'd by his Inftrudions 
to Six John Greenvil. ,, : 


I. A CommiJJion drawn tip for conflitittmg 
General Monk Captain General of all his 
Majefty s Forces, with Letters by him to 
be communicated in England. II. Some of 
the late ^Parliament are for impofing very 
diJhoi20urable Terms upon the King, in 
order to his Refloration, III. They fend 

a Letter 

General Monk. 279 

a Letter to the King to that Tnrpofe, and 
reprefent the General as complying with 
them. IV. Str John Grecnvil returns to 
England with the King's Inftru6fions. V. 
What pajfed betweeen the General and him 
upon his Return. VI. The Ele&ion for a 
new Parliament. VII. An hjfurrettion. 
VIII. Lzmbcn efcapes, and joins them in 
• Warwickfhire. IX. The General re folves, 
if Occafion Jhould be, to publifJo the Kings 
CommtJJion, and declare openly for him, 
X, XI. Lambert is taken ''Prifoner, and 
recommitted to the Tower. 

I. IJ EFORE his Majcf^y took any Care 
13 about the Difpofal of his own Affairs, 
he was firft confidering how to reward the 
Service of the General, and was advifing with 
Sir John Gr^^«i;/7 hereupon ^ who told him, 
he had already acquainted the General with 
his Majcfty's Propolals, according to his for- 
mer Inftru(rtions, which, the General had 
wholly refufcd ; and that, among his other 
Inftrudions from the General, there wjs this 
particularly inferred, " that he fliould move 
** nothing to the King about any Reward." 
So that Sir John Greenvil did now offer it 
as his humble Advice to his Majcfty, to in- 
termir, for the prcfcnr, the Care thereof till 
his own happy Arrival into England. Where- 
fore at prcfent his Majedy only commanded 
■ T 4 a Com- 

a8o the LIFE of 

a Commiflion to be drawn up for General 
Monk-, to command as Captain General over 
all the Forces of England, Scotland^ and Ire^ 
land I which was fign'd by him, and put up 
with a private Letter to him from his Maje- 
fty, written with his own Hand. There was 
aUo another Letter dire6ied : To our tnifty 
and wellbeloved General Monk, to be by 
him commtimcated to the Trefident of the 
Council of State, and to the Officers of the 
Armies under his Command^ with a Copy 
of the forementioned Declaration enclofed. 
And bccaufe the new and aufpicious Parlia- 
ment (upon whofe Councils the Hopes both 
of the King and People did fo much depend ) 
were fuddenly to meet, Letters were drawn 
up to be delivered at their Aflembly by Sir 
John GreenviU direQed by the King : To 
cur trufiy and right well beloved the Speaker 
oj the Hoiife of Lords : And another, To our 
trufiy and well-beloved the Speaker of the 
Tloufe of Commons 5 In both which were alfo 
Copies of his M^jcdy's forementioned Decla- 
ration inclos'd. There was alfo a Letter di- 
rcclcd : To our trufiy and well beloved the 
Lord Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council 
of our City oj London ; In the contents where- 
of the Lord Mor daunt, who was alfo to return 
with Sir Johyi Greenvtl^ was mentioned. And 
another to General Monk, and General Moun- 
tague, to be by them communicated to the 
Fleet, .-',:.., ■ IL But 

General Monk. 281 

II. But vvhilft thcfc Letters are makin"- 
ready at Breda^ we will return a while into 
England, where all Parties were exceeding 
bufy in the Purfuit of their particular Inte- 
refts, upon the Profpcd of this great Revolu- 
tion, which fome of them hop d for, and 
others equally fear'd. So that General Monk 
was perpetually befet with many and diffe- 
rent Addrefles from thofe who were curious 
to difcover his Senfe and Inclination, or to 
propofe their own. But, among the reft, 
there was a moft mifchievous and villainous 
Application made to him by fome Members 
of the late Parliament ; who pcrfuaded him, 
that if the next Sellion fhould refolve upon 
reftoring the ancient Government, and bring 
home the King ; yet his Return fhould not 
be fafely admitted, but upon the fame Ar- 
ticles which, twelve Years before, had been 
ofFcr'd to his Father in his laft and grcatcft 
Extremity in the Ifle of Wtght, and would 
have made him no better than Magni Nomi- 
nis Umbra. By which Concellions the Mi- 
litia of the Kingdom , with the Difpofal of all 
Places of Truft, and all Oificers, muft have 
continu'd in the Hands of the Parliament; 
and the Presbyterian Government be cfta- 
blifti'd at Icaft for three Years, with the fair 
Probabilities of a longer Lcafc ; and his mod 
faithful Servants be dealt with as Delin- 

^iZz The LIFE of 

quents. So that, upon thefe Terms, the Par- 
liament would not have been lefs Matters than 
before, nor his Majefty a much greater Prince 
than in his prefent Exile. 

III. The General having before fent away 
Sir John Greenvil privately to his Majefty 
with Aflurancc of his Allegiance, and Refo- 
lutions for his Service, without the mention 
of any Limitation, was fomewhat concern'd 
how to make good Work with thefe Gentle- 
men. Nor were they ordinary People, but 
fome of them Perfons of Quality, and all of 
them Men of Parts and Eminency among the 
Parties where they fway'd. So that the Ge- 
neral thought it moft fafe at prefent to enter- 
tain them with fome Appearance of his Con- 
fent; and having (as they thought) thus fa- 
ften'd the Trick upon him, their next Contri- 
vance was to perfed this Juggle with the 
King. To that purpofe a Letter was fent to 
him, relating their earneft 'Dejires and En- 
deavours for his Return 5 and that to that 
End they had held feveral Treaties with 
General Monk, who could not be prevail'd 
with to confent to his Reftauratiom, other- 
wife than upon his Father's ConceJJions in 
the Ifle of Wight ; befeeching his Majefty to 
accept thereof ^ rather than-, by his further 
RefufaU to hazard a total Exclufion from his 
Crown and Kingdom. This Letter was de- 
li ver'd 

General Monk. 285 

liver'd to his Majefty, whilft Sir John Green- 
i;/7 was attending upon him, to whom it was 
alfo fhewn. But, upon farther deUberating 
among themfelves, the Artifice was quickly 
difcover'd j fo that his Majefty pleafantly re- 
ply 'd : Iperceive thefe People do not know 
that I and General Monk ftand upon much 
better Terms, which he has fo generoufly pro- 
fofed to me, and Sir John Greenvil has fo in- 
duftrioujly tranfaBed, and faithfully rendered 
me the Accoyint of. And thefe Perfons wheri 
they came afterwards to find, that the Gene- 
ral had, by Sir John Greenvil, cnter'd into 
fecret Correfpondencies with the King, tho* 
they had the Difcretion to conceal their Dif- 
content, yet were ever afterwards fecret and 
implacable Enemies to him. 

IV. By this Time all the Letters and In- 
(Irudions were made ready, and dclivcr'd by 
the King to Sir John Greenvil, together with 
his Privy-Seal and Signet, to be intrufted with 
General Monk ; by which he was authorized 
to chufe a Secretary of State for his Majefty 's 
Service. And after four Days Stay at Court 
he took Leave of his Majefty, and return'd 
for England. 

V. At his Arrivalheprivately attended the 
General at St. James's, and dclivcr'd to him 
his Majefty's Letter written with his own 

5 Hand, 

tS4 T^^^ LIFE of 

Hand, together with his Commiflion of Ge- 
neral over all the Armies of England, Scot- 
land, ^Xi6. Ireland. The General perus'd the 
Letter, and kept it with him ; but, for the pre- 
fent, he would not truft his own Cabinet 
with the Commiflion ; which was therefore 
delivered back to Sir John Greenvil, who fe- 
cur'd it in a private Place in the Floor of his 
Bed-chamber, where he had us'd to lay up 
Letters and Commiflions from the King^ 
where alfo this lay till after the King's Re- 
turn, and was then deliver'd to the General. 
And for thofe other Letters, it was here re- 
folv'd, that Sir John Greenvil fhould keep 
them privately till the opening of the Parlia- 
ment, and then deliver them according to his 
Inftrudions. The General alfo here delibe- 
rated with Sir John Greenvil, about the Dif- 
pofal of his Majefty's Seal and Signet; where 
it was agreed, that, in Regard Mr- Morr'tce 
was the only Perfon that had been privy to 
this fecret Affair, and had fo faithfully afllft- 
cd therein, they would recommend him to 
the Truft : Which, fo foon as the King re- 
turned, was accordingly done by the General, 
when, at the fame Time, his Excellency was 
offer'd ten thoufand Pounds to procure the 
Place for another. And now, for the pre- 
fent, all Interviews between the General and 
Sir John Greenvil were but feldom, and al- 
ways private^ 

General Monk. 28 j 

VI. All this while the People were every 
where very bufy in chufing the Members for 
the approaching Parliament ; but with Co lirtle 
Regard to thofe Qualifications appointed by 
the former Aflembly, that no Man ever took 
Notice of them. The Presbyterians were ve- 
ry induftrious for the introducing again Men 
of their own Party ; but were fucccfsfully 
prevented by the Royal Intercft, which at 
this Time began to appear, yet with great 
Moderation and Temper. And the People 
(from the Memory of their paft Miferics) 
were generally fo averfeto that Sort of Men, 
that few of rhcm found their Way into this 
approaching Parliament. 

VII. Whose Sefllon was now fo near, that 
General AJorik ( having already fo fucccfsfully 
entcr'd into a Treaty wich his Majcfty ) be- 
gan to entertain himfclf with the Approach 
of his own and the Kingdom's Safety : Till, 
on a fuddcn, he was furpriz'd with the word 
and laft of his Encumbrances, being the ex- 
piring and foul Effe£l of the fan ntick Rage. 
For the defperate Crew of Murthcrcrs, and 
other mifchievous Male-contcnrs, having of 
late turn'd every Stone in vnin ; and finding 
they could not continue the Tyranny of the 
Rump-Parliament, nor compliment the Ge- 
neral to fet up for himfclf, norraifc'thofc Jea- 


±^6 The LIFE of 

loilfies in the Army to any Height, as they 
had frequently attempted, were now refolv'd 
with a Pufli to venture zt all, by breaking 
forth into a new Rebellion ; for which they 
would quickly have found another Name, if 
it had luGceeded. 

VIII. But, to bring this about, it was re- 
folv'd to contrive Major General Lambert's 
Efcape out of the Tower ; which was quick- 
ly after efFcdted, by the Treachery of two or 
three common Soldiers in Colonel Mor ley's 
Guards. So foon as he was efcaped, the Ge- 
neral had fpeedy Notice of it, and where he 
was lodged, io that he mifs'd him very nar- 
rowly. And tho' the Search after him was 
carefully continued, yet he heard no more of 
him, till Colonel Streater (who, upon the Di- 
QiuhviUonoi Fieet'wood's Army, was quartered 
with his Foot Regiments 2iX. Northampton) 
gave the General the firfl: Account of him. 
For Lambert, finding that the General had fo 
fettled the Militia of the City, as no good was 
to be done among them^ quickly left the 
Town, and haften'd towards Warwickjhtre : 
having firil agreed with his Confederates to 
meet at a Rendezvous there, whither he hop'd 
the Regiments of the Englijh Army, quarter- 
ing in thofc Countries, would quickly repair 
to him. Upon this News, the General pre- 
fently difpatch'daway Colonel Ingoldsby, with 


General Monk. 287 

his Regiment of Horfe quartering in Suf. 
folk, to iiaften through Cambridge to Nor- 
thamptoriy and there join with Colonel .^rr^^ 
ter, and purfue Lambert where-ever he could 
be heard of -, and more Forces were fent af- 
ter, commanded by Colonel Ho'juard, to pre- 
vent the Motions of any other Forces, quar- 
tered in thofe Countries, from joining with 

IX. At the fame Time his Excellency fent 
alfo for Sir John Greenvil ; and, upon pri- 
vate Conference with him, told him, it 'oi'as 
not certain "jchat might be the l([ue of this 
InfurreEHoUy if Lambert 'iL'as not prefently 
reduced^ and the Army fooiild reojolt from 
him : But that he isjotild piiblifi his Com- 
miffion from the King^ and by itwouldraife 
ail the Royal Tarty of the three Nations in- 
to Arms, rather than fnjfer thefe furious 
andhair-braind SeBaries to domineer '■joithin 
the Kingdom j de firing him to be al-ji'ays in 
Readinefs for recei-jing further Orders from 
htm, which pould be communicated b"^ him 
to fuch Terfons about the To-jvn, as he kne^jj 
i2:ere moft faft and devoted to his Majefiys 

X. Colonel Jngoldsby had, in four Dnys 
time, got his Regiment togcrhcr, and arriv'd 
at Northampton by Saturday Nighr, where 


288 The LIFE of 

he found a good Troop of Gentlemen, and 
others, whom the Earl of Exeter hzd brought 
in to the Afliftance of Colonel Streater, 

XI. On the next Morning early, being 
Eafter-^ay, the Scouts brought in News 
where Lmnbert was ; and accordingly the 
Forces were drawn out to follow him, and 
found him near Daventry, having drawn out 
his Men in an open plovv'd Field. The Force 
with him was but fmall, being only feven 
broken Troops and a Foot Company. Colo- 
nel Okey zliOj finding the Bufinels would not 
be done by Ipcaking at St. James's; and Cob- 
bet ^ whom we left laft in Edenburgh Caftle, 
had found their Way thither, together with 
Colonel ^.rf^/, and feme few Captains. Thefe 
Forces having fac'd each other for four Hours 
feem'd not greatly inclin'd to a Combat, hav- 
ing fpent moft of the Time in Mefiliges and 
Parleys, till Colonel higoldsby advanced, and 
commanded to fire upon them. Whereupon 
Lambert's Party were lo irrefolute and unwil- 
ling to endure the Charge, as fome of theni 
came over to Ingoldsbj^ and the reft fled, and 
the Commanders began prefently to fhift a- 
way for them (elves. But Colonel IngoUsby 
had his Eye ftill upon Lambert, and came 
up fo clofely, that he took him Prifoncr ; nor 
would he be prcvail'd with to connive at his 
Efcape, tho' others of them ofFcr'd thcmfclvcs 
5 • Prifoners 

GeKeral Monk. 189 

Prifoncrs in his ftcad. Cobhet alfo and Creed 
were here taken wirh better Luck than Ax- 
tel and Okey, who cicaped -, bat not long af- 
ter were brought to another Reckoning. Lam- 
but^ Cobbet, and Creed were prefcntly car- 
ry 'd off with a Guard ; and ov\ Eaflcr Tuef- 
day were brought to London^ and fecured a- 
gain in the Tower. And thus was this little 
Cloud feafonably difpers'd, which otherwilc 
might have brought upon the Nation the 
Tcmpeft of another Civil War. 


The Grounds of the General's Fear cf 
this new Infurre^i'wn, II. Bafore the 
SuppreJJtnu of which he wrote lO the King, 
hi Avfwer to one from his Majejiy. 111. 
The too great Forwardncfs of the GeneraCs 
Officers to reflore the King. IV. IVhtch 
he di [courages. V. The fecret and 'vile 
T radices of the old rebellious Tarty, m 
order to finftrate the General's T>ifgns. 
VI. The new Tarliamcnt meets , and 
thanks the General for his Care and Con- 
dutt. VII. Remarks of the Author upon 
the General's 'Froceedmgs. Vlll. The 
U Kirig's 

ic/o The LIFE of 

, ^ King's Letter to the Council of State de^ 
liver d to the Parliament by Sir John 
Greenvil. IX. A Motion for the Com- 
mitment of Sir John, which the General 
prevents, by anfwering for his Appear- 

"^ H E General was very joyful at the 
fpcedy and fcafonable SupprefHon of 
Lambert and his Party, fufpeding the Eng- 
lijh Army would preiently have fallen off to 
him. For though he had always a very ordi- 
nary Opinion of Lambert's Conduct, yet he 
knew feveral of the Officers with him, efpe- 
cially Okey and Cobbet, were bold and daring 
Men, and would adventure to the utmoft. 
But though there wanted not feditious and 
urgent Spirits among them, yet the Englijb 
Forces did not feem over-forward at prefent 
to join in this new Attempt. They had late- 
ly bit on the Bridle by following the Paflions 
of their Officers, and were now well and 
warm in their Quarters, whither the Parlia- 
ment had lately fent them their Payj and 
the Government, during their Obedience, had 
taken Care for their Support. Thofe Regi- 
ments alfo which Laynbert had the laft Year 
whcadled into the North, had no Stomach 
to dance after his Pipe into fuch another Mif- 
advcnturej wherein they were to encounter 
the fame Army, and the fame General, that 
, . ., ^ had 

General Monk. ipi 
had baffled them before. Nor was the Ge- 
neral lefs fortunate in the Choice of Colonel 
Ingoldsby for this Service ; who, befidcs his 
Faithfulnefs to the General, was exceedingly 
belov'd by a great Part of the Enemy's Army, 
who would not be readily drawn to engage 
againft him ; and had alio Courage and Rclb- 
lution equal to the bcft of them. 

II. We have before given Account of his 
Majcfty's Letter to the General, which was 
brought to him by Sir John Greenv'tU to 
which the General was fo concern'd to return 
his Anfwer, with further Afliirance of his 
Duty and Faithfulnefs to his Majefty's Ser- 
vice, that he would not defer it till the Con- 
clufion of Lambert's Infurredion -, but, before 
ever he knew what would be the Effedl of 
this Man's Mifchief, or whether he might be 
able to mcke good his Word, herefolv'd to 
write back to his Majcdy ; and bccauie Sir 
John Greenvil, who was to be ready at the 
opening of the Parliament now at Hand, 
could not be fpar'd from that Attendance, 
that thij- iecret Truft mighi dill be contmucd 
in the Family, the General lent his Letter by 
Mr. Bernard Greeri'vily a younger Brother to 
Sir John. 

III. And now Lambert being again laid 
faft in the Tower, and his Party wholly dc- 

U 2 feated, 

291 The LIFE of 

fcated, to the utter Ruin and Fruftration of 
that Intereft, the General had no more to do, 
but to difcharge a great Part of his Care into 
the Bofom of the approaching Parliament, 
which now, within very few Days, was to fit 
down. But, before their Meeting, he was in- 
terrupted with an importunate and unfeafon- 
able Addrefs from fome of his own Officers, 
who, obferving how all things concenter'd 
towards the King's Reftauration, were very 
earneft with his Excellency to anticipate the 
Counfels of the Parliament, and afiume the 
Glory and Advantage of the Adion to him- 
feifand his Army, whereby they might fairly 
now oblige his Majefty, and mend their own 
Fortunes. They undertook alfo to engage the 
reft of the Officers, and the whole Army, to 
a Concurrence in the Defign. 

IV. But the General, who had otherwife 
rcfolv'd and lik'd his own Methods as mod 
fafe and honourable, calmly declin'd the Fro- 
pfofal; telling them, They had before declared 
their Refoliition to keep the Military To^^er 
in Obedience to the Civil 5 and that lately 
they had engaged themfehes, by their Sub- 
fcriptions, to fiibmit to the Refolutions of 
this approaching Parliament , both i^'hich 
Obligations '■joonld be treacheroujly fritjlrat- 
edby fetch an Atte?npt* 

■ . ,.:.. . V. And 

General Monk. 


y. A N D now no open Force diirft any 
ways appear againft the General's Proceed- 
ings. But,- where the defpcrate and Ceditious 
were prevented in their publick Confederacies 
againft him and his Party, they were contriv- 
ing, by fccrec Milch icfs, to fcattcr JealouHcs 
and Sulpicions among the Soldiers. And, to 
that End, Teveral villanous Libels againft the 
King and the Royal Party were dilpcilcd at 
Night among the Guards, and other PraiLliccs 
fet on Foot toraifc Mifunderftandingsbetween 
the General and thofe he moft rruftcd,- as al- 
fo among themfclvcs. To abate the Zeal and 
Induftry of Commiflary Clarges^ it was re- 
prefenred, that Mr. Morrice had got rhc ftarc 
of him in the General's Opinion and Confi- 
dence, and tliat all things were govcrn'd by 
his Counfclsj To that if the King wercrcQor- 
cd, Mr. A/i?rr/Vf would triumph alone in rhc 
Glory of the Action. And, to ruin Mr. Mor- 
rice^ it was whifpcr'd, that he had complain- 
ed of the General's tenacious adhering to the 
Government of a Commonwealth, In Oppo- 
fuiontothe King, and with what Dillicu'ty 
he had wrought him to a Conlent to PvC- 
ftauration. Bur the known Artifices and l^aU- 
hoods of thofe People, prevented the Evil Ef- 
fe<^ of their Dcfigns. Yet thefe rebellious 
and Icdirious Perfons, though they had lb 
often faii'd in their Chymiary, woi}ld nor give 
U 3 yvei 

2p4 ^^^ L I F E of 

over the Experiment. For, with the like Ar- 
tifices, they were pradifing upon their elder 
Brethren the Presbyterians , cxpoftulating 
their vain Credulity, and Ovcr-forwardnefs 
for reftoring the King, which muft needs con- 
clude in their own Slavery. As for them, 
though they had no Dominion over other 
Mens Confciences, yet they had the free 
Pofleflion of their own : But with the King's 
Return, Prelacy, their old Adverfary, would 
return alfo, together with its AccefTaries and 
infufFcrable Attendants, Arminianifm and Po- 
pery, with fuch other injurious and ftalc Pre- 
tences as, twenty Years before, had uflicr'd 
in the Rebellion. And now they began to 
difcliarge all their Satire and ill Refledions 
upon the General alfo ; accufing him for pre- 
varicating v/ith them, and that they had been 
deluded by him ; who had never promis'd 
them any thing, orherwife than in Compli- 
ance with the Relblutions of a free Parlia- 
ment. But they were the People that had 
cheated all the World that had the Folly or 
Misfortune to truft them. They had taken 
up Arms for theiate King's Defence, and yet 
murthered him : They own'd themfelves Ser- 
vants to the Parliament, and yet utterly de- 
ftroy'd one Houfe, difmember'd the orher, 
afnd at laft diflblv'd it 5 juftifying all their Vil- 
ianies by Enthufiarm, and their Treachery by 
Kcccfiiry and Frovidtnce. 

5 VL Bur 

General Monk, 295 

VI. But now the 25''' of y^/r/'/bcing come, -4/>r/72; 
the Houlcs of Lords and of Commons were 
aflemblcd at IVeftm'wfler^ who, though they 
were not called by the Royal Authority, yet 
the great and memorable Adions done by 
them, in reftoring his Majcfly, and fettling 
the Nation, will ever entitle them tothciio- 
nourable Appellation of a "Tarllamcnt. For 
the Houfe of Lords the Earl of Manchefler 
was chofcn Speaker, and for the Houfe of 
Commons Sir Harbottle Grimflone. ' Into 
their Aflembly the General was clccled by a 
double Return, both from the Univcrfity of 
Cambridge, and the County of ^cvoji ■■> but, 
having civilly acknowledg'd the Rcfpcfisof 
the former, he chofe to ferve for his native 
Country of T^evonflnre. In the Beginning 
of their Counfcls the Houfe was plcas'd to 
give to the General their publick Acknowledg- 
ments of his Prudence and faithful Service, 
in prefcrving the Peace of the Common- 
wealth, and fo cffc(fiually oppofing the Ene- 
mies thereof, whereby they had now the 
Privilege of aflcmbling together in Parlia- 
ment with Liberty and Freedom. 

Vn. And here we will make a fcdfonablc 

Stand, and a while rcil the wearied Rcadv;r 

under the fliady Contemplation of fon-.c pnr- 

\j ^ ticular 

1^6 The LIFE of 

ticular Remarks upon the General's Proceed- 


He had now pafled from one Tropick to 
another, by fo gradual and eafy Steps, that 
the Alteration he made, ftole upon the People 
as iiilenfibly as the lengthening of the Days, 
and Changes of the Year and Seafons. He 
embraced a mofl: plaufible Pretence of oppof- 
iingthe endlefs Extravagancies of the Englifi 
Army, by declaring for the Rump Parlia- 
ment ; and then corrected the Furies of that 
Jun(fto, by the Mixture of the fecluded Mem- 
bers. By their own Hands he buried that 
fatal Parliament, never to rife more, which 
otherwife pretended to an immortal Power, 
like the Crowns of Princes, who never dye. 
From their own Afhcs he produced thispre- 
Ant and better Scflion; fo that he had now 
filently fhifred three Scenes, to make way 
to his laQ Act. 

By the like Gradations he proceeded in re- 
gulating his Armies. When he firft began 
his Dcfign in Scotland^ he cleared his Hands 
from all his Anr.bapti(ls, by the Miniftration 
of the Independents. At his Arrival into 
London, he aitcmpcr'd his Independents by 
introducing the Presbyterians: And now, at 
laii, had let in the Royal Party, which he 
could only trufi, to the Exclufion of both. 
So that all good Men were as much delighted 
with the Order of thefc Proceedings, as with 
the Variety, VI IL Bur 

General Monk.' 297 

VIII. But the Parliament being met, it 
was now agreed by the General and Slrjo/jn 
Greenvi/, that thofe Letters which he had 
brought over from his Majefty, fliould bedc- 
liver'd according to the feveral Inftrudions. 
And bccaufe it was not yet feafonable, that 
thofe fccret Cabals and Conferences betweca 
the General and Sir John Greenvil, fliould 
be publickly known, it was refolv'd, that the 
Letter direded to the General, and by him to 
be communicated to the Council of State, and 
Officers of the Army, fliould be openly dcli- 
ver'd to him at the Council Chamber in 
White-Hall. Accordingly next Day Sir John 
Greenvil flood ready at the Door, intending, 
by the next Member that went in, to let the 
General know he was there. And Colonel 
Birch happen'd to be the Man who receiv'd 
Sir Johri% Melfage ; and, upon Intimation 
to the Genera], his Excellency came to the 
Door J where Sir John Greenvil told him, 
he had Letters to him from the King, which 
he delivcr'd into his Hand in Sight of the 
Guards; and the Bufinefs was fo contriv'd, 
that the General receiv'd him as a Stranger 
whom he had never feen before, and with 
fome Surprizal at his Bufinefs. He then dc- 
fjr'd him to flay there till he receiv'd his An- 
fwcr, and commanded his Guards to look af- 
ter him. The General then carried the Lct- 
5 tcr 

ipg The LIFE of 

ter to the Council, opening the Seal, and de= 
livering it to the Prefident : And the Super- 
fcription being read, the Style of it made them 
all know whence the Letter came. 

IX. The Council being furpriz'd with the 
Receipt of thefe Letters, fell into an earned 
Debate about them ; fo that Colonel Btrch 
( though there was no Fear that this Bufinefs 
would hurt his Reputation ) endeavour'd to 
clear himfelf by his Proteftation, That he 
neither knew the Gentleman that deliver d 
the Meffage to him, nor any thing of his 
Bufinefs. And without doubt he was believed 
by thofe that heard him. It was then refolv- 
cd, that the Letter fliould not be open'd till 
the Parliament met again, which was then 
adjourn'd for three Days 5 and Sir John Green- 
vil was then call'd in, where the Prefident 
examin'd him ftrictly about the Letter, and 
how he came by ir. To which Sir Johjt re- 
ply'd : That the King his Mafter deliver' d 
it to him at Breda with his own Hand. It 
was then debated to fend him into Cuftody, 
till the Parliament fliould determine therein , 
but General Monk then told the Prefident, 
That though hehadnotfeenSir johnGrcen- 
vil for fnany Tears, yet he was his near 
Kinfman, fo that he would undertake for his 
Appearance before the Houfet, and thereup- 
on he was difmifs'd by tjie Coui"u:il. 


General Monk: i^^ 


I. y^t the Meeting of the ^arliafnejit Sir 
John Greenvil attends both Houfes '■jjitb 
the King's Letters : Their Refolution 
thereupon. II. The King's Letters com- 
municated to the Army by the General, 
III. The Reception of them. IV. The Houfe 
of Commons pafs a Vote for prefenting the 
King, and ^ukes of York ^^/^Glouccf- 
tcr, iL'ith fixty fi-ve thoiifand 'Pounds ; 
and five hundred to Sir John Greenvil. 
V. An honorary Grant from the King to 
Sir John Greenvil. VI. The Parliatnent 
fend Sir f ohn to the King ijuith their An- 
fiL'er to his Letters. YW.GeneralMouw- 
tague direBed to carry the Fleet to the 
Dutch Coafls. VIII. Sir John Greenvil'j 
Arrival at Breda. IX. An Addrefsfrom 
the Army to the General. X. Which is 
carried to the King. XI. The King pro- 
claimei by a Vote of both Houfes : XII. 
Attended at the Hague by Commiflioners 
from them. XIII. Sir Thomas Clarges 
returns from the King. XIV^, XV. Ge- 
neral MountagucV Arrival at the Hague 
isjith the vuhole Fleet. 

I. /^N the Day the Houfc met again, Mayiuy 

K^J I. was Sir John Gree?rji I ^ccord'iD'j^- 
ly ready 5 and meeting in the Lobby, the Lord 


300 The LIFE of 

Commiflioner 73'rr^/,then entering the Houfc 
with whom he was acquainted , he entreated 
him to inform the Speaker, that he attended 
at the Door with Letters to the Houfe from 
his Majefty. When the Lord Commiflioner 
came in, he found the Prefidcnt of the Coun- 
cil of State giving the Houfe an Account of 
Letters from the King ; which fo foon as 
be had ended, Commiflioner Tyrrel acquain- 
ted the Speaker with Sir John Greenvil's Mef- 
fage. But whilft the Commons were de- 
bating of this Letter, Sir John was retir'd 
from the Door, and haften'd to the Houfe 
of Lords, where he firft enquir'd for his Grace 
the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of 
Oxford. And being inform'd, that the Duke 
was not yet come, but that the Earl of Ox- 
ford was then fitting ; he Tent in a Meflage 
to him, upon which his Lordfliip came forth 5 
and Sir John Greenvil inform'd him, that he 
had Letters from the King, which he was 
commanded to deliver to the Speaker of 
the Lord's Houfe, intreating his Lordfliip to 
acquaint the Earl of Manchefter therewith. 
This Relation was very welcome to the Earl 
of Oxfordy who, befides his Defcent from 
a Family of old and uninterrupted Loyalty, 
had, for feveral Years, faithfully afllftcd in 
thofe fecret Counfcls for the King's Reflau- 
ration. He prefently acquainted the Speak- 
er with the Arrival of his Majcliy's Letters, 


G^NEHAL Monk. 301 

Thereupon it was firft debated in what man- 
ner they would receive them ; and accord- 
ingly the Lords voted, to attend their Speak- 
er to the 'Door of the Houfe, where Sir John 
Greenvil met them, and delivcr'd his Ma- 
jefty's Letter 5 and, having receiv'd the 
Thanks of the Lord's Houfe, he haften'd pre- 
fently back again to the Houfe of Com- 
mons, where his Majcfty's Letters were c- 
qually welcome, tho' they receiv'd them with 
lefs Ceremony, not being fo well acquainted 
as their Lordfhips, in the Ufage of Kings. 
Sir John was then called in, and delivcr'd 
his Majefty's Letter to the Speaker. And up- 
on the Perufal of thefe Letters, the Lords 
voted, Thaty according to the ancient and 
fundamental Laws of the Kingdom ^ the Go- 
'vernment iSy and ought to be^ by King, 
Lordsy and Commons. And after his Maje- 
fty's Letter and Declaration inclos'd had been 
read by the Commons, the like Vote was 
paflcd in that Houfe alfo. 

II. The General then dcfired Leave of 
the Houfe to communicate his Mnjcfty's Let- 
ter, w^ich had been delivcr'd at the Coun- 
cil of Stare, to the Officers alfo of his Army, 
which was accordingly there read. About 
the fame time the Lord Mayor and Alder- 
men receiv'd the Kind's Letter from the Lord 
Mordaunt and Sir John Greenvil ; and after- 
wards Sir John Greenvil delivcr'd alfo his 


joi The LIFE of 

Majefty's Letter to General Mountdgiie and 
the Fleet. 

III. The Lords and Commons then voted, 
nat they would return Anfwer to his Ma- 
jeftfs Letters by Meffengers from their fe- 
deral Houfes. And the Lord Mayor and 
Common Council appointed twenty of their 
principal Citizens to return their Anfwer to 
his Ma j eft y's Letter, with their Prefenttothe 
King, and the Dukes of Tork and Gloucejier. 
But General Mountague and the Fleet being 
refolv'd to carry their own Meflage themfelves 
to his Majefty, fent no Meflenger. 

IV. And becaufe his Majefty had been fo 
long difpoflTeiVd, not only of his Kingdoms, 
but Revenues, the Houfe of Common's pafs'd 
a Vote for the prefenting him with fifty thou- 
fand Founds, and ten thoufand Founds to the 
Duke of Torky and five thoufand Pounds to 
the Duke of Gloitcefter ; which Sams ( be- 
caufe of the prefent Difpatch ) were to be in- 
ftantly borrowed of the City of London^ till 
the Money could be afterwards raifed at Lei- 
fure from the reft of the Kingdom. And, that 
it might appear how joyfully tiiey received 
his Majefty's Letter, they voted five hundred 
Pounds to Sir John Greeri'uil ^o^ bringing the 
Letter, to buy him a jewel, which he was de- 
fic'd to wear as a Memorial of the Thanks 


General Monk. 30J 

and Refpeds of the Houfe to him. And ac- 
cordingly the faid Sum was brought to his 
Lodgings the next Day. 

V. And having mentioned the Gratitude 
of the Houfe of Commons to this Gentle- 
man, we will here feafonably alfo take notice 
of the Eftimation and Value, which his Ma- 
jefty fet upon his Service, as appears from 
his Majefty's Royal Grant or Warrant to 
him, which we have tranfcribed from the 
Original, and have added in the CoUcdion 
at the End of this Hiftory. 

VI. The Parliament then proceeded to 
the Nomination of fuch Perfons from their 
feveral Houfes, as (hould attend upon his 
Majefty with their Anfwer to his Letters, 
and ordered alfo the Inftruftions to be drawn 
up for them ; and that General Monntague 
with the Fleet fhould be in Readinefs to at- 
tend them. But becaufe thefe Proceedings 
of the Parliament would take up Time, and 
the General was altogether uneafy, till his 
Majefty was adlually return'd, he refolv'd to 
fend Sir John Green'vil again to him, to ac- 
quaint his Majefty with the Reception of his 
Letters,- and that he would be plcas'd to ex- 
ped ite his Return into England. He a! fo fur- 
ther confider'd, that, in regard his Journey 
into England could not be dcccntlv k-t in 


3c34 Tlje LIFE of 

Order, till the Money were remitted thithcf % 
The General fo far prevail'd with the Lord 
Mayor and Citizens, that the fifty thoufand 
Pounds voted by the Houfe of Commons for 
a Prcfent to his Majefty, was inftantly raifed, 
to be conveyed to him by Sir John Green- 
mi, whereof ten thoufand Pounds in Gold he 
carry 'd with him in Coaches to IDouer, ac- 
companied with a Convoy of Horfe ; for the 
reft he had Bills of Exchange, which were af- 
terwards paid at Amfterdam upon Sight. With 
Sir John Greenvil went over to his Majefty 
the Lord Lauderdale^ being releafed from his 
Imprifonment in Windfor Caftle, where he 
had been confin'd ever fince the Battle at JVor- 
cejler, together with divers others. 

VII. When his Excellency difmifs'd Sir 
John Greenvil, he directed him to acquaint 
General Mountague with his Defire ; that, 
for the more fpeedy Expedition of his Maje- 
fty's Return, he would forthwith carry the 
Fleet to the T>utch Coafts. Accordingly Ge- 
neral Mountague, having firft accommodated 
Sir John Greenvil, for the quicker Difpatch, 
with the Mary Frigat ( then called the Speak- 
er ) and left a good Convoy in the T>owns to 
bring over the Commiflioncrs, ordcr'd the reft 
of the Fleet to put under Sail for the Shore 
of Holland, 

VIII. The 

General Monk. 30 j 

VIII. The next Day Sir John Greejivil 
landed at FlttJIjing^ and then attended the 
King at Breda j where he acquainted him 
with the welcome Entertainment of his Ma- 
jefty's feveral Letters, and that all things did 
concur in England to halicn his Reftaura- 
tion ; to which End he had brought over fifty 
thoufand Pounds from the Houfe of Com- 
mons for his Maicfty's prefent Occafions. And 
Refolutions began now to be taken in order 
to his Removal. 

IX. The General had before communicat- 
ed his Majefty's Letters and Declaration to the 
Officers of his Army who were near him ; 
by whom they were fo joyfully recciv'd, 
that they prefcnted a publick Addrefs to the 
General, to tcftify their Duty and Allegiance 
to his Majefty. The Copies of which Letters 
and Declaration, together with the Copies of 
the Addrefs, were difparch'd away to all the 
remote Garrifons and Regiments ; where 
they were entertain'd with the like Readinefs 
and Submiflion. The General had, by his 
former Methods, fo effcclually regulated his 
Army, that there was no Report made of 
any one Officer that refufed to fign the Ad- 

X. This Addrefs from the Army, togc- -^•^•^r r- 

X thcr 

30(5 the LIFE of 

ther with the General's Letter, wasfent to 
his Majcfly by Commiffary Clarges 5 and 
gave a further Aflurance of the Army's Obe- 
dience and SubmiiTion. His Majefty had be- 
fore receiv'd an Account of this Gentleman, 
and of the Service he had render'd him, by 
his conftant and faithful Correfpondence with 
General Monk, in order to his Rettauration. 
So that he entertain'd him with a particular 
Kindncfs, and prefently knighted him, be- 
ing the firfl: Perfon who receiv'd ( and de- 
fervedly) any Title or Mark of Honour from 
his Majefty upon this Service. 

MctyZ. XL Upon the fame Day {May 8.) on 
which Sir Thomas Clarges prefentcd to the 
King the Army's Addrefs at Breda^ his Ma- 
jefty was, by a Vote of both Houfes, pro- 
claim'd at London with all the ufual Ceremo- 
nies, but with an AfFedion that certainly was 
never fo manifefted towards any of his Pre- 
decefibrs. Li this Solemnity the General 
. joyfully affifted, following in his Coach the 
Coaches of both the Speakers. And fuch 
was the publick Fcftivity of this Day, that 
it fccm'd as the Shadow of the King's Ap- 
proach, or like the firft Light of the Morning 
that looks over the Mountain's Tops, and 
ufhcis in the Sun. 

i •i; XIL By This time the Paiiiamcnt had per- 

v,r.' fc(5ied 

General Monk. 307 

fefted their Inftrudions for their Commif- 
fioners from both Houfes that were to attend 
his Majcfty at the Maguey whither he had 
rcmov'd from Breda, in order to the receiv- 
ing them there. And the Englifi Fleet was 
already arriv'd near him in the Bay of Scheve- 
ling-, where they lay at Anchor, in Readinefs 
to receive his Commands. On the 16''* o^MAyiG^ 
Alay the Commiilioners attended his Majcfty 
at the Hague \ and, according to their Inftru- 
ftions, they acquainted him : That, before 
their fetting forth, the ^arliatnent had al- 
ready-proclaimed him in his City of London, 
which was already done in all the reft of his 
^Dominions. That, for the Succefs of his 
Arrival and fit ure Happinefs, they had or- 
der d the Trayers, for the King's moft Ex- 
cellent Majefty, to be reftored in the publick 
Office of the Church ; and had prepar'd the 
Way for his Arrival, by eretiing the Royal 
Arms in the Tlace of thofe fet up by the late 
nfurping Commonwealth. They were alfo 
further to fupplicate his Majefty to haft en his 
Return \ and that the Houfes might receive 
timely Notice in what manner he would 
pleafe to be received. 

XIII. The fame Day the Commiflioncrs 

arrived at the Hague, his Majefty, in the 

Evening, difpatch'd Sir Thomas Uarges back 

X 2 foe 

3o8 rie LIFE of 

for England to the General, with News of 
his intending to land at T>over. 

XIV. By the Arrival of the honourable 
CommilHoners, and feveral other Perfons of 
QLiality, that haften'd to proffer their early 
Duty at the Hague, the King began even in 
a foreign Country to have the Splendor of 
a Court, and appcar'd like the Monarch of 
Great Britain in the morning Rays of Royal 
Majefly. The Prcfcncc of thefe Commif- 
(ioncrs was very welcome to him ; but when 
he came to view his Fleet, the Profped was 
like that of Jofeph's Waggons to his Father 
Jacob 5 both whereof were fent on the fame 
Errand, and had the fame A durance. 

XV. But in the midft of this Feftivity 
fomc of the Commiflloncrs could not con- 
ceal their Rcfentmcnts; being difpleas'd that 
General Mountague had left them only a 
Convoy, and that they had not the whole 
' Fleet to attend them in their Voyage. Bur, 
to pacify this Difpleafure, an antedated Or- 
der was fecretly procured under his Majefty's 
Hand, to authorile General Mountague s Ax.- 

^r.j I'll . "( ■ 

'^■' '^' ^ CHAP. 


General Monk. ^oc> 


I. The King lands at Dover, and is receiv- 
ed by the General. II. At Canterbury the 
General is wade Knight of the Garter. III. 
The King is received by the Army dra-jvn 
tip at Black- Heath. IV. His Entrance 

t /w/^^ London. V . The Magnificence of it. 
VI. He is congratulated at White Hall by 
both Honfes. VII. The T laces and Ho- 
nours conferred onthe General: WW. And 
Sir John Grecnvil. IX. The General 
made a CojnmJJloner of the Trcafury^ 
and afterwards LordTreafurer. X. He 
is created T^uke of Albemarle, and has 
feven thou f and ^Pounds per Annum fet- 
tled upon him and his Heirs. His great 
Temper and Humility floewn in the upper 
Houfe. He promotes the Afl of Oblivion. 
XI. His Moderation in general. XII. A 
fpecial Inflance of it-, in his Con fi lit to 
the disbanding the Army. XIII. An In- 
flame of his exact Tiifcipline, in the Rea- 
dinefs of the Soldiers to be disbanded. 
XIV. The Kin^ advifes 'with him ^'jout 
the Government of Scotland : The happy 
EffeBs of his late adminijiration there. 
XV'. His publick Cares and Service : A 
jujl Reflection oj Sir Edward Nicholas up- 
on them* 

X 3 I. AND 

310 rioe LIFE of 

I. \ ND now all things being in Readinefs 
£^\^ for the King's Removal, he went on 
. Board his Fleet, May 2 3 . where he firft took 
Poffeflion of his Dominion at Sea, and then 
arrived at Dover ; where the General was 
ready to receive him on the Shore. At his 
landing, and after the Sight of his Majefty, 
many there prefent had a particular Curiofity 
to obferve their Interview j which was per- 
form'd by the King with extraordinary Kind- 
nefs and AfFedion; and on the General's 
Part, with that Duty and Proftration, as if 
he had come this Day rather to ask his Ma- 
jefty's Pardon, than to receive his Thanks. 

II. From hence he attended his Majefty 
to Canterburyy where he receiv'd the firft ho- 
nourable Mark of his Favour, being there 
made Knight of rhc Garner, which was the 
Foundation of thoie further D^gnifJrs which 
were to be conferred upon him. And the 
moft illuftrious Dukes of Tork and Gloiicefter 
put upon him, with their own Hands, the En- 
figns of his Order. 

III. In all the Way of the King's Progrefs 
towards London^ the General had much Free- 
dom of Dii'courfe with his Majefty, and was 
admitted to all his private Hours. At Black- 
Heath he led his Majefty to view that Part 
of the Army, which was then drawn up to 


General Monk. 31T 

offer their Addrefs and Service to him : An 
Army of fuch clear Courage and cxad Dil'ci- 
plinc, that, being united into one Body un- 
der fuch a General, it would have (haken any 
Crown in Chriftendom, not accepting his 
who is now thought Co much Tuperior to his 

IV. From hence his Majefty begun his.v.i>J9. 
triumphant Entrance into London on the An- 
niverfary of his Nativity ; on which Day, 
thirty Years before, he was born in this his 
native City of PFeftminfter. In this glorious 

and magnificent Proccflion, the General rode 
next before his Majcfty. The reft of its State 
and Order is fo fufficiently known and dc- 
fcrib'd, that we will not tire our Reader with 
the particular Recital. 

V. In the Splendor and Acclamations of 
this Day's Triumph, his Majcfty exceeded all 
his Royal Anccftors. For neither the Recep- 
tion of Richard the I-^' from the HqI)' Lnndy 
and his Captivity in Germany ; nor of llmry 
the V''' from the Conqucft of Frame, nor of 
Henry the VII^*' to his Coronation from the 
Battle of Bofworth, had any thing conipa- 
rable with this Day's Magnificence : Ii^ which 
his Majcfty alfo greatly oiu-fliiu'd h>s Cirand- 
jfarhcr K\n^^ James, when he came to London 

312.^ The LIFE of 

to unite the Crown of England with his own 
native Diadem. 

VI. After the Glories and Feftivities of 
this Day, the General having leen his Maje- 
fty fafely lodged in his Palace at IVhiie-Hall, 
and congratulated there by both his Houfes 
of Parliament, rctir'd to his Apartment at the 
Cockpit, whither he was now remov'd, to 
be nearer the King's Prefence and Counfels. 
Aicid. when his Friends and Attendants began 
to renew their Thanks and Acclamations to 
him for his great Service and Faithfulncis, in 
producing the EfFefts of this Day 5 he was 
fo far from being exalted with any Opinion 
of his own Merit, that he declin'd them all : 
Telling them, he had all along been befet 
with fo many T>ifficulties and Jealoufies up- 
on him, as dllThanks and Acknowledgments 
tmift be 07ily paid to the Miracle of the "Dl- 
vi?2e Trovidence. 

VII. Presently after his Majefty's Reftau- 
ration, he fettled his Privy-Council, chofen 
out of the chief Officers belonging to the 
Crown, and other principal Nobility ; of 
which Number General Monk was one, and 
was continually admitted to all Counfels of 
the moiT: interior Truft and Concernment. He 
was alfo made Mailer of his Majcfty's Horfc, 
and one of the Gentlemen of his Bed- chamber. 

5 By 

General Monk. 313 

By the firft he had a confidcrablc Station ia 
the Court, and the other gave him the con- 
ftant Opportunity of Acceis to his Majclly's 
Pcrfon and Converrc. 

Vlir. And having mcnrion'd here his Ma- 
jefty's Favour to the General, wc are Icafo- 
nably to inform the Reader with thofc Re- 
wards placed upon that honourable Perfon, 
who did firft and principally co-operate with 
the General in this great Affair, "uiz. Sir Johi 
Green^il i who, upon his Ma jelly's Return, 
was made firfl: Gentleman of the Bed chamber, 
ard Groom of the Stole, and afterwards, a. 
^ainft the Solemnity of the Coronation, was 
created Earl of Bathy Vi (count Greenvil of 
Landfdo'-jun, Baron Greenvil of B'tdd'iford 
and Kelkhmnpton. Nor were the Services of 
Mr. Nicholas Monk forgotten, being made 
Provoft of Eatony and afterwards Bidinp of 
Hereford ; in which Dignity he dy'd fomc 
Years after. 

IX. And becaufe, In this prcfcnt State of 
things, nothinsi; rcquir'd greater C.irc than the 
Management of his Majcfty's Exchequer, the 
General was chofen one of the Commillion- 
ers for the Treafury. But that Otlicc wa$ 
fome time after intrufled in the HanJs of a 
fingle Perfon, the late juft and upright Earl 
of Southampton j after whofe Dsarh, both 


314 The LIFE of 

the King and People were fo perfedly fatif- 
fied with the General's Care and Faithfulnefs 
in that Truft, that he was called to it again, 
and in which he continu'd to the Day of his 
Death. To this Employment he brought ve- 
ry congenial Virtues, both by his unqueftio- 
nable Integrity and natural Frugality j fo that 
he was a greater Husband in the King's Ex- 
pences, than in fome of his own. 

X. Nor did the Current of his Majefty's 
Favour and Gratitude to the General flop 
here, but within a little more than a Month 
after his Reftauration, he was, 6y Letters Pa- 
tents under the Great Seal of England^ made 
Y)ukcoi Albemarle, Earl o f Tor rmgt on ^ Baron 
Monk of Totheridge, Beauchamp and Tees i 
and, for the better Support of this high Dig- 
nity, befides the Penfions recited in the Let- 
ters Patents, his Majefty fettled upon hmi 
feven thoufand Pounds per Ann. out of the 
Royal Dcmefnes, to him and his Heirs for 
ever. He was alfo fummon'd by Writ into 
the Houfe of Lords ; and tho' the Commons 
were very forry to part with fo dear and con- 
liderable a Member from their Body, yet, iri 
Tcftimony of their great and particular Efti- 
mation and Rcfped towards fo great and il- 
luftrious a Perfon, moft of them attended him 
to the Door of the Lord's Houfe: Whither 
he brought with him the ftme Temper and 

General Monk. jij 

Moderation, the fame Silence and Humility, 
which he had praftis'd in the Houfe of Com- 
mons ; applying himfelf always to fuch Coun- 
fels as did moft promote the King's Service, 
and thepublick Benefit. To that End he much 
furthered the Progrcfs of the Ad of Oblivion 
and general Pardon, which was then under De- 
bate, and had taken up fo much Time in both 
Houfes 5 and did privately move his Majefty to 
quicken their Proceedings therein, as being fo 
very confiderable and effedual to his own Se- 
curity, and the Quiet of his People. 

XI. They who have had the good For- 
tune and Abilities, by great Services, to ob- 
lige Kings and Stares, may be eafily thought 
not to want Spirit or Inclinations enough to 
refled upon their own Merits. And there- 
fore fuch as knew not the Virtues and Cnuti- 
on of the Duke of Albemarle, expcdcd he 
would now have put that Value on himfelf, 
as to have govern'd the publick Counfcls, to 
have over-rul'd the Opinions or Methods of 
others, or have rendcr'd himfelf the Head of 
an Interefl: ; or, with Mntianus ( whofc Ser- 
vices to Vefpafian had rather fomc Refcm- 
blance with the Duke's, than an Equality) 
have made himfelf a Comp:nion with his 
Prince, and (har'd the Government. But, in- 
dead thereof, as he had poflcfs'd his M-iicfly's 
Favour by his great Prudence, fo he us'd it 
5 with 

31^ The LIFE of 

with equal Humility. And he that had ma- 
ny Years commanded Armies, which ufually 
makes the Temper of Generals violent and 
prefuming ; he that for feveral Years, as aa 
abfolute Prince, had govern'd Scotland^ knew 
now as well how to obey, and be a dutiful 
Subjed in England. Nor was he lefs careful 
of his juft Regards and Obfervances towards 
all the Nobility and Minifters of State, who, 
though they had frequent Emulations among 
themfelves, yet held good Correfpondence 
with the Duke of Albemarle 5 who invaded 
no Man's Province, nor engrofled Bufinefs or 
Power to himfelf, nor was ever the Author 
of extreme Counfcls. Though he wanted not 
early Enemies, even among thofe who had 
but lately come to cat allured Bread by the 
Benefit of his Prudence and Faithfulnefs, and 
who began to accufe the Virtue which kept 
fome of them from ftarving. The Ambitious 
envy'd the Greatnefs of his Merits, and the 
Covetous the Rewards of them. 

. XII. Though a very confiderable Part of 
the Dake's Intereft lay in the Army, and the 
disbanding of them would greatly leffen his 
Povv^er and Influence 5 yet when the Parlia- 
ment had voted their Difcharge, no Mari did 
more readily affent to it than the Duke of 
Albemarle'-, and, to that End, had before- 
hand introduc'd feveral of the Nobility into 


General Monk. 317 

Commands in the Regiments, bywhofe Au- 
thority and Example they might more readi- 
ly fubmiti 

XIII. His Majcfty had been very Juft to 
thofe Forces, in the full Payment of their Ar- 
rears, and very kind alfo in the Gratuity given 
them over and above out of his Royal Boun- 
ty. Yet, that Pofterity may fee how much 
the good Difcipline of an Army prevails to 
the disbanding of them, as well as the keep- 
ing them up ; the Duke had inured them to 
fo exact an Obedience, that, when they law 
their Continuance would be unneccflary to 
the Nation, they laid down their Arms with- 
out Murmur, and betook themfclves to other 
Employments; to which they were enabled, 
by a very indulgent Ad of Parliament that 
gave them their Freedom, to exercife their 
Trade in all Cities and Towns Corporate. 
This was a Temper very different from that 
in the Army of the late Ufurper Cr^w-c^•f/, 
who were lb infolent and reflivc, as they 
would only march at their own Pleafarc, and 
pick and chufc their Employment, and had 
frequently mutiny'd againfl: their Mafters up- 
on the leaft mention of disbanding. 

XIV. It plcafcd his MajcQy about this 
Time to conl'ult with the Duke about the 
Government and Affairs of Scotlarid, and the 


3i8 The LIFE of 

Choice of Officers of State ; in all which he 
advis'd with great Experience and Prudence i 
though many things were afterwards altered 
by the Influence and Importunities of others. 
But, as an Inftance of thofe true and exad 
Meafures, which, in the Time of his own 
Command, he had taken, for fettling the 
Peace of that Country; the EfFeds thereof 
continued many Years after he had left it : So 
that no Rebellion, nor any confiderable Di- 
fturbance, was form'd any more in Scotland 
during the Duke's Life. 

XV. And now every Man had a greater 
Share in the Delights of this happy Change, 
than he who had the greateft Share in effcd- 
ing it, who could only enjoy the Satisfadion 
of it without the Diverfions, being always 
befet with continual Cares of publick Truft ; 
which made Sir Edward Nicholas ( who had 
been Secretary of State to two Kings ) fay. 
That the Indiiftry and Service which the 
^uke of Albemarle had paid to the Crown 
fince the Kind's Reftauration, without re- 
pealing upon his Service before, deferved all 
the Favour and Bounty which his Majejly 
had been pleafed to confer upon him. 


General Monk. 31^ 


I. General Monk'j Candour in the Tryal of 
the Regicides ; "juith a particular A^ of 
Generofity to Sir Arthur Hazlerig. II. y^n 
Infurre^iion in London: III. But imme- 
diately fupprejfed by the Generats o'jju Re- 
giment, IV. Which is continued. 

I.T T I TH E RTO we have furvcy'd the 
JL J, Endeavours of the Duke of Albe- 
marle againft the Enemies of the Crown, and 
now we fi^all find him employ'd in the Pu- 
nifhment of them. For the Parliament hav- 
ing now perfected the Ad of Indemnity, and 
general Pardon, with their Exceptions to 
thofc particular Perfons who had been con- 
cern'd in the Murder of the late King ; his 
Majefty accordingly granted his CommifTion 
of Oyer and Terminer, under the great Seal of 
England, direded to feveral of the chief Nobi- 
lity and Judges of the Land, for the Tryal of 
thofe Regicides, which was begun 05fober 9-03.9' 
In the Number of thefe Commiflloncrs the 
Duke of Albemarle was one, wherein he gave 
the World one of the greateft Inftanccs of his 
Moderation. For though he knew more of 
the Guilts and Pradiccs of thefe Criminals, 
than mod of thofe who fat on the Bench, and 
fome of them had been his grcatcft and moft 


^■>L0 Tloe LIFE of 

inveterate Enemies, yet he aggravated no- 
thing againft them, but left them to a faic 
Tryal, and the Methods of their own De- 
fence, when he could have ofFer'd Matter a- 
gainft fome of them that would have preffed 
them harder. And, by a like generous Way 
of forgiving Injuries, he had a little before 
favcd the Life of Sir Arthur Hazlerig^ and 
afterwards procured his Eftate alfo, by own- 
ing of a Promifc made to him ; when there 
was no Man among them all had more mali- 
cioufly cxpos'd and traduc'd him 5 and, af- 
ter the Affurance given, he had done enough 
to difengage the Duke from the Performance 
of it. 

II. One might reafonably have thought, 
that fuch an Ad of general Pardon as has 
been lately pafs'd, might have oblig'd the 
Minds of all People to a Submiflion, andSa- 
tisfac^iion in the Government 5 but that Hc- 
rcfy and Fanaticifm arc not to be cured by 
Balfams. For about this Time began fuch 
an InfurrcQion, as it is not eafy to tell, whe- 
ther the Fury or the Folly of it v/ere the 
greater Ingredient. His Majefty being then 
gone out oi London to Tortfmoiith, whither 
he accompany'd the Queen-Mother and Du- 
chefs of Orleans in their Journey towards 
France 'j a fmall Company of the Fifth-Mo- 
narchy Zealots having arm'd thcmfclves in 


General Monk. 321 

(heir Meeting- Houfc, where ufually their Vil- 
lanics are firft hatch'd, broke out into an ac- 
tual Rebellion in London. Their Teacher 
was alfo their Captain, one Venner^ a Wine- 
Cooper, who had preach'd his Difciples to a 
Degree of Madncfs and Extravagancies, bc« 
yond the Force of all the Wine in his Cellar. 

III. This Irruption was (o fudden as did 
greatly fiirprize the City ; and tho' their Num- 
ber was contemptible, yet Mcnbclicv'd they 
would not have venrur'd on fo defpcratc aa 
Atteaipt, but upon Confidence of a greater 
Party in London to join with them. Many 
of them had been Soldiers in Cromiz'el's Ar- 
my, and, being poflcflcd with the Height of 
fanatick Rage, laid about them at a rate not 
ufual. Nor was any (^ffedual Refiftance made 
againft them by the City Arms, orthcnew- 
rais'd Guards ; till the Duke of Albemarle 
brought his ownRej^iment of Foot (not vcc 
disbanded) up among them, who, being old 
Soldiers that had been long accuftom'd to this 
kind of Work, quickly put a Clieck to their 
defperate Madnefs, having kill'd and wound- 
ed feveral of them upon the Place, and di- 
rperfed the reft. 

IV. Upon this Accident (though timely 
fupprcfs'd ) it was reprefented to the Duke by 
feme of his Officers, of how little Service 

y Train'd- 

3 2 2 The LIFE of 

Tram'd-bands, or newrais'd Guards, would 
prove upoa any fudden Difturbancc ; and 
how ncceflary it were, both to his Majefty's 
Safety and the publick. Peace, to keep up his 
Grace's own Regiment, and fome other fmall 
Force, againft fuch hafty Attempts. To 
which the Duke reply 'd, That his Endea- 
njour to continue any Tart of his Army, 
would be obnoxious to much Mijinterpreta- 
tion, that he would by no means appear in 
it i but being further importuned, that he 
would not hinder their Endeavours therein, 
he made no Anfwer. But, by thefe Appli- 
cations to his Majefty and Council, that Re- 
giment was ftill kept up. 

-; 'H 


.1. The King's Coronation, II. The T^iike 
grows inclinable to a private Life. Ill, 
IV. A War with Holland 5 the T>uke of 
York and Tri?ice Rupert command the 
Fleet. V. An Engagement. VI. the 
Dutch beaten. VJI. Gur Fleet purfues 
them as far as theTc-^tl. VIII. The Lofs 
the Dutch fuflained. IX. The Braver') of 


General Monk. 323 

the T>uke ofYoik. X. The Thtgtie breaks 
out in London; upon 'H'hichthe Kmggoes 
to Oxford. XI. The Care of the City com- 
mitted to the T>uke of Albemarle : His 
Tendernefs and Compaffion to the 'Poor: 
XII. He is affiled by the ArckbifJoop of 
Canterbury and the EarlofCi:n\Q.v\. Xllf. 
An Encampment in Hyde 'Park. XIV. 
The Multiplicity of Affairs '•juherein the 
General 'was involv'd. 

I. "^ J 'HE following Year begins with his 166 1. 

JL Majefty's Coronation j which was 
perform'd with greater Ceremony and Mag- 
nificence, than we can meet with in the Inau- 
guration of any of his Royal Predcccil jrs. The 
preparatory Ceremony began April 22. with 
his Majefty's triumphal PafTagc through the 
City from the Tower of Lo'ndon, to his Pa- 
lace at JVhite-Hally attended by his domc- 
ftick Servants, the Judges, and Nobiliry, with 
the chief Officers of State, and palling thro' 
thofe four triumphal Arches, which the Ci- 
tizens had ercded, to do Honour to the So- 
lemnity of the Day. In this Ceremony the 
Duke of Albemarlcy as Maftcr of the Horfe, 
followed his Majefty's Triumph, leading the 
Horfe of State. The next Day his Majefty^^^.^/jj- 
was folemnly crown'd at IFeflminfler, in the 
Abbey Church, with all the ufual Ceremonies. 
In the Froceilion from Jl'^eflminflcrllall to 
Y 2 the 

3i4 T^^ LIFE of 

the Abbey, the Regalia were carried before 
the King by the chief Nobility, and, among 
the reft, the Sceptre and Dove was born by 
' the Duke of Albemarle. In the Time of the 
anointing, he was one of the four that held 
up the Pall of Cloth of Gold over his Maje- 
fty 's Head, whilft the Archbifhop of Canter- 
bury perform -J the Undion. And after- 
wards he, and the Duke of Buckingham, did 
Homaee for themfclvcs and the reft of the 
Order of Dukes in England, ^ 

II. And now his Majcfty being perfectly 
fettled in the Government, adually crown'd, 
and the Army disbanded j the Duke of Al- 
bemarle, for fome Years, betook himfelf to 
Privacy : So that we find no very publick 
Adionofhis Life for fome Years, fa vc that 
he carefully attended at the Privy- Council, 
advifing with his Majcfty upon all Occafions, 
and was conftantly prefent at the Houfe of 
Lords in the fcvcral ScHions of Parliament. 

III. At home all things were quiet and 
orderly, excepting feme little Plots and Con- 
triv.inccs amon^; the Seditious ; which were 
ftill fo timely difcern'd, that they were as ea- 
fily prevented. Nor had his Majetly any 

rl'>'*"\'' Quarrels abroad, having renewed Alliances 

with all his Neighbours, till a War begun 

i(y64.with the T>utcb: Who rcfufuigto give Sa- 

V tibfaclion 

General Monk. 32^ 

tisfaclion for old Injuries, and conrrivini^ the 
Pradicc of new ones, rais'd fuch a Multitude 
of Complaints againft them by the Subjeds 
of this Crown, that his NLijclly ( having tirft 
in vain fought Reparation by Treaties and 
Mcflagcs) refolv'd at lad, witii the Advice of 
his Privy-Council, to enter into a War with 
the States: Which was fccondcd by a bri.^k 
and unanimous Vote of the Parliament then 
fitting, for the railing of Money proportio- 
nable to maintain it. So that by the follow- 
ing Spring his Majelly had made ready a Fleet 
of near an hundred Ships of War, furniflVd 
with above thirty thoufand Mariners and Sol- 
diers. And his Royal Highnefs the Duke of 
Tork. beinGjalfoLord Hi^h Admiral of £'«'if- 
landj undertook the Condud of them, accom- 
pany'd with the moft illuftrious Prince 7?//- 
■pert-, who commanded a Squadron, the late 
General Mount ague ( fi nee E.ul o^Sanc'rju'ah ) 
being Vice-Admiral. Bur, before his Royal 
Highnefs went on Board the Fleer, he left 
the Care of the Admiralty to the Duke of 
Albemarle^ to provide for the Stores and Pro- 
vifion of the Navy, which was all attended 
with a very particular Induftry. 

IV. About the 22"^ of y-Z/^r/Y this Fleer k\..-i^'i'.ix. 

Sail from the T)o-juns to the T)utch Coafis, 

and came to an Anchor about the Tcxe! ••> 

where they continued for almoft a Month, 

y J cxpeclu)^ 

ii6 ne LIFE of 

cxpcding daily the coming out of the Stitch 
Fleer, and provoking them to a Battle, by 
taking daily leveral of their Ships. But, be- 
ing wearied with fo long Delays, and hav- 
ing in a Month's Time, exhaufted much of 
their naval Provifions, his Royal Highnefs 
brought back the Fleet toward their own 
Shores, from whence tkey might be again 
more fpecdily fnpply'd. But, vvhilft he lay 
at Anchor in the Gun fleet near Har^^ich, 
he receiv'd Advice that the 'Dutch were 
come out to Sea, confifting of more than one 
hundred Ships, and proportionably mann'd, 
led by the Admiral Opdam, and four Vice- 
Admirals; and, in their Way had furpriz'd 
fcvcral Eiiglifro Merchant-men coming from 
Hdmburgh, which had unfortunately fallen 
in among them. Though his Royal High- 
nefs had prcfented them Battle upon their 
own Coafis, yet he was not willingto receive 
the like Offer from them at home, but com- 
manded the Fleet indantly to weigh Anchor 
•tov.'ardsiS'^i^Wr/Bay, where hearriv'd Jtme i. 
And the fame Day Intelligence was brought 
him, by fomc Ships kept out for Difcovery, 
that they had Sight of the Enemy's Fleet. 
Wherefore he commanded the Fleet to weigh 
again, and to get farther off from Shore, for 
the Benefit of Sea-Room. 

• V. The next Morning his Royal High- 

General Monk. 317 

ncfs made all the Sail he could to join the 
^utch Fleet ; but they, being to Windwatd 
of him, declin'd engaging. That Night both 
Fleets came to an Anchor at convenient Di- 
ftancefrom each other 5 fo that the next Day,>'"3- 
after three in the Morning, Prince Rupert, 
who commanded the Van, began the Fight. 
But the 'Dutch being defirous to gain the 
Wind of the Englifi Fleet, kept off at prc- 
fenc from all clolc Engagement, and made 
feveral Trads upon him : So that his Royal 
Highnefs came at length to have his own 
Squadron in Front of the Enemy's Line ; hav- 
ing Sir John La-ji^fon on head of him, who 
bore in upon the Dutch Fleet, feconded by 
his Royal Highnefs, keeping ftill the Wind of 
them, to prevent the Aflault of their Fire- 
fhips, wherein they exceeded the EvglijJj 
Fl(fet. The Duke then obferving Admiral 
Opdam's Ship to come up into their Line, 
commanded his own to bear up to him, by 
whofe Exa^iiplc, and following the Motions 
of the Admiral's Ship, the Body of the Eng- 
lijh Fleet came clofe up to the Enemy, and 
ply'd their Guns on all Hands at near Diftan- 
ces. But his Royal Highnefs charg'd Admi- 
ral Opdam fo warmly, that, after a fmart En- 
counter, his Powder- Room was fir'd, and 
the Ship blown up. 

VL Before this Accident the T>ntch 
Y 4 Fit^-t 

3i8 the LIFE of 

Fleet began to fhrink, and give Ground ; but 
when they obferv'd theLofs of their Admiral 
and his Ship, they made their own Misfor- 
tune this Day the greater, by an hafty and 
inconfiderate Flight ; in which they loft the 
Ora;ige-Trcej a Ship of fevcnty fix Guns, fe- 
cond to the Admiral, which was taken and 
burnt; and, in this frightful Run, four of 
their capital Ships, falling foul of each other, 
were burnt by a Firefliip clofe to them. Af- 
terwards three more, by a like Accident, being 
intangled, were deftroy'd by another. 

VII. His Majefty's Fleet had the Chace of 
the T>utch all the Day towards their own 
Coafts, and in the Night kept up with them ; 
fo that, in the Morning early, they were up- 
on them again, deftroying more of their 
Ships, and purfuing them to the Mouth of 
the Texel'i where, being better acquainted 
with rhcir Road, and drawing Icfs Water, they 
got in with the firft Tide. And afterwards 
his Pvoyal Highnefs brought off the Engltjh 
Fleet triumphing in their Spoils, and Vidory 
of their Enemies, to their own Shame. 

VIII. In this Fight there fell of the T>iitchy 
befides Admiral Opdam^ three Vice- Admirals, 

Stllimgwalf^ and Schamp^ and 
about eight or ten thoufand common Soldiers 
and Mariners, with the Lofs of about twenty 


General Monk. 

eight Ships, taken and funk 5 with a very in- 
confiderablc Damage to his Majetty's Navy, 
having loft only one little Vcflcl, call'd the 
Mary^ taken in the Beginning of the Fight, 
and carried off with them j and the Lofs of 
Men was alfo difproportionable. Only fomc 
honourable Perfons, who fcrv'd as Volunteers 
or honorary Soldiers at this Battle, fell in it; as 
the Earl o^ Tort land: But the Earl o^ Fal- 
mouth, the Lord iMuskerry, and Mr. Bo^le, 
fecond Son to the Earl of Biirlingtonj were 
■ cutoff together by one Shot in his Royal High- 
nefs's Ship. The Earl of Marlborough, who 
commanded a Frigar, was here llain, with 
Rear- Admiral y<?^?;y^w. Vice- Admiral La-jj- 
fon received a Hurt in his Knee, at the Be- 
ginning of the Flight, which was thoufilu io 
inconfiderable, that there was not that time- 
ly Care taken of it which it dcfcrv'd : Nor 
did he make fo much Hafte to Shore, as he 
fhould J fo that in about five Weeks he dy'd 

IX. In this Engagement his Royal High- 
ncfs had fo far cxpofed himlelf, that neither 
his Majcfty, nor his People, were willing to 
adventure the next Hope of the Common- 
wealth, to any further Dangers and Hazards : 
So that, the remaining Part of this Summer, 
ihcEarlof^^w^eo'/V^, being Vice- Admiral of 
England, commanded the fleet. But this 
\ laic 

330 The LIFE of ^ 

iate Fight had fo taken down the 'Dutch Sto- 
machs, that, for the reft of this Year, they 
had neither Force nor Courage to adventure 
upon another Engagement. 

X. With the Beginning of this War, be- 
gan alfo a mod fatal Peftilence in London, 
and both were of 'Dutch Original. For as 
they brought the War upon themfelves, by 
their feveral Depredations of fe^Z/y^ Goods ^ 
fo they fent us the Contagion in fome of their 
own, convey'd hither out of Holland, where 
lately the Plague had very fevercly raged. It 
began firft in London, and from thence was 
difpers'd to moft of the principal Towns anct 
Cities of the Nation, accompany 'd with fo 
great Mortality, as we have no Account of the 
like Contagion in any Age or Annals of ^«^- 
land. His Majefty was therefore enforc'd to 
jeave his Palace 2ifVhite-HaU,zndi retire to Ox- 
fordy whither afterwards the Houfes of Parlia- 
ment and the Term were adjourn'd. The No- 
bility alfo, and Gentry, and principal CitizenS;, 
were difpers'd for Refuge from the Infedioa 
throughout all the Villages of Eyigland. 

XI. But being the capital City of the 
Nation was not to be left at random, where 
not only the Poor, enforc'd by Necelliry, or 
cncourag'd through Liberty, might rifle the 
Houfes of the Rich, but the Seditious alfo 


General Monk. 331 

might take the Opportunity to pradifc new 
Milchicfs 5 it plcas'd his Majcfty to cntrufl: 
the Care and lafcry of the Place with the 
Duke of Albemarle, commanding his Conti- 
nuance in the Town. And though his Grace 
might very well, with the reft of the NobiU- 
ty, have confultcd his own Safety, by re- 
treating with his NLijcfly to Oxford, or to 
fome of his own Retirements in the Country^ 
and his paft Services might have fairly ex- 
empted him from this hazardous Attendance, 
and throw it upon fome others ; yet he very 
willingly obev'd, and, when other Men had 
cxpos'd their Eftatcs and Fortunes to fccurc 
their Lives, he was contented to ftay and cx- 
pofe his own Life to fecure their Properties. 
Nor did he only dircdhis Care to the Con- 
cernments of the Rich, but efpecially for the 
Neceflitics of the Poor, by continually in- 
fpeding the Diftributions of the publick Cha- 
rity, to which was alfo fupciaddcd a Share 
of his own private Bounty. 

XII. In thcfe Cares he was greatly helped 
by the Afliftanceof two other great and ho- 
nourable Perfons, who alfo remained in the 
City : His Grace the Lord Archbifliop of 
Canterbury, who ftay'd a great Part of the 
Time at his Palace at Lambeth, v. here, be- 
fides his own vaft and diffufivc Charity to- 
wards the Poor and AfRiacd, he fo effcaually 
^ folicitcd 

33^ Tie LIFE of 

folicited the other Bifhops in England, that 
feveral great and almoft incredible Sums of 
Money were rais'd for Relief of the infeO:ed. 
And had the Fadious given the hundredth 
Part of their Bounty, the Nation muft have 
rung with the Noife of their Charity. With 
the like companionate Care did the Earl of 
Craven continue in the Town, diftributing 
conftantly the greateft Part of his Revenue to 
fupply the Neceflities of the fick and perifh- 

XIII. The Guards and necefifary Forces 
left with the Duke for fecuring the Peace of 
the City, were, by his Order, quarter'd in 
Hyde ^ark, where there were Tents and 
Conveniences made ready for them ; but, not- 
withftanding all his Care, and their Diftance 
from the Infcdion, yet he loft a great Part of 
them. His own Refidencc he ftill continued 
at xh^ Cock pit nzzt White HaU, where, by 
his free Admiflion of all Pcrfons that had Bu- 
finefs with him, he convers'd daily with more 
allured Dangers, than in any of the Battles 
that had been fought by him. 

XIV. But, befides the Hazard of this Em- 
ployment, it was attended with fo many 
Cares and infinite Importunities, as would 
have troubled an Head that had not been ha-» 
bitually accuftoiiVd to Bufuiefs like the Duke 

General Monk. 333 

of Albemarle's. For his Majefty being remov- 
ed to Oxford, the Duke was oblig'd to con- 
ftant Correfpondence with him, bcfidcs his 
alfiduous Difpatches to the Lord Chancellor, 
and the Secretaries of State. With the Fleet 
he had continual Bufinefs, in ordering Sup- 
plies for them, upon all Occafions, out of the 
Stores in the City. His Care wns endlefs 
andunceffant, both with the Admiralty, and 
Commillioners of the Navy, in infpecVing the 
Management of the Prize- Office : Bcfides his 
daily Correfpondcncies with the Lord Mayor, 
for Relief of the Poor, and Security of the 
City ; his granting Licences for Ships to 
Sea, and appointing Convoys to attend them. 
In all which, having a cfroud of Bufinefs, nei- 
ther the Danger of his Perfon, nor the Trou- 
ble of his Employment, gave him any Di- 
fturbance ; but his Grace was as eafy and pre* 
fent to himfelf, and well pleas'd, as other Men 
are in their Recreations and Divcrfions. 


L Trirce Rupert and the T^uke <?/ Albcmnrlc 
jo'ind in Cormniffion againjt the Dutch. 1 1. 


334 '^^^ L I F E of 

The ^uke accepts the Chargey againfl the 
Advice of his Friends. 111. Has the Care 
of making all the Naval T reparations, 
IV. The King returns to London. V. The 
Admirals go on Board. VI. The Dutch 
make an Alliance with the French. Vil. 
Who ajjlfl themy and declare War againfi 
England. VIII. The preparations on both 
Sides towards AEiion. IX. The Dutch 
Fleet appears. X. Thef come to an En- 
gagement. XL The Event of it. XII, 
XIII. Another Engagement. The T>tike 
refolves to retreat. XIV. The Manner of 
his Retreat. XV. Trince Rupert returns, 

XVI. And joins the ^ukes Fleet -^ the 
Dutch upon their Conjun5fion retiring, 

XVII, XVIII. Refolvedy in a Council of 
War, to give them Battle again. XIX. 
Otir Fleets follow them. XX. They come 
to an Engagement upon the Dutch Coafly 
XXI. The 'T>tike's Courage and ConduH in 
this Adion. XXII. The Dutch are beaten, 
and get off y the Englifh returning home, 
XXII I. different Reflections upon the 
Wilkes CondiiEi. XXIV. The Opinion of 
the Dutch upon it. XXV. The Dutch 
put to Sea again. XXVI. The Englifh 
Fleet purfues them to their own Coafis-^ 
XXVIL And engages them^. 


General Monk, jjy 

1 np O W A R D S the End of the Year, 

1 his Majcfty advis'd with his Privy- 
Council at Oxfordy about the Condud of the 
Fleet next Spring. And though his Royal 
Highnefs was very importunate to finifli the 
War with the ^Diitch, which he had fo for- 
tunately begun ; yet, fince they were rcfolv'd 
not to venture his Perfon again to further 
Hazards, it was at laft detcrmin'd, that his 
Highnefs Prince Rupert, and the Duke of 
y^lc^emar/e, (hould, by joint Commiflion, com- 
mand at Sea, and carry on the War the fol- 
lowing Summer. 

II. The Prince, being prefent upon the 
Place, accepted the Charge 5 and his Majedy 
appointed the Duke (hould hadcn down to 
Oxford -, which he prcfently did by Poft, and 
chearfully fubmitted to the Commands of his 
Sovereign ; though there wanted not thofe a- 
bour him, who difluadedhim from this Em- 
ployment ; alledging, that his Merits were 
great and unweildy already, and his Repu- 
tation higher than to need further Advance ; 
that his Fortune had already foyl enough, 
and that he had now no greater Concern than 
toprefcrve himfelf where he was ; that the ill 
Succefs of this War might perhaps be fufli- 
cicnt to Icflcn him ; but the Profpcroufnefs 
of it would add little to his Fame, and much 


33^ ^^ LIFE of i 

to Envy. Though there wanted not Tome 
Rcafon in thefe Suggeftions, yet the Dukd 
lik'd no politick Contrivance in the Inftance 
of his Obedience ; and having (laid three 
Days at Oxford, advifing privately with the 
King about the Preparations for the War, and 
rcceiv'd his Majefty's Thanks for his faithful 
Care of the publick Safety, and Security of 
the City, he return'd back to his Charge at 
London. , . ,, 

HI. And now, being made Co admiral at 
Sea, he had another Province added to the 
reft of his Cares, whereby he was oblig'd to 
give Orders for the making ready fuch Ships 
as were not yet finifh'd, and the Repair oi 
others, that had been difabled in this Year's 
War, bcfides all other naval Preparations for 
the following Spring. 

IV. Though the Plague did greatly fpread 
and increafe in other remoter Cities and Pla- 
ces of the Kingdom, yet, towards the End of 
the Year, it manifeftly abated in London; 
and the City became fo clcar'd from fartheir 
F,^. I. In fed ion, that about the firft oi February, 
his Majefty haftcnd his Return from Oxford 
to his Court at IVhiteHall^ where he might 
more commodloufly infped his Affairs, and 
ad vile for the further Preparations of his 
Fleet. The late Mortality, as it had fwept 

- . I 

General Monk. :^ ^ 7 

away great Multitudes in the Suburbs of the 
City, lo it had dcltroycd abundance of the 
Seamen in thofe Pariflics adioinini; to the 
River, and had done the Uke in other mari- 
time Towns of England: Inlbmuch that there 
was forae Difficulty in procurini^ enough of 
thofe ftout and vahant People to man the 
Fleet. But the Duke of Albemarle, having; 
formerly commanded at Sea, had fo mucli 
Reputation and Influence among the Sea- 
men, that, whilft there was any of them left 
in Englandy he was not likely to want theii: 
Company in his Majcfty's Service. And, by 
the united Intercft and Influence of the Prince, 
notwithftanding the Difadvantagcs of the late 
Plague, all thmgs were brought into fo pood 
Readinefs, as that both the Men and Ships 
would quickly be fit to fail, attending for 
their Admirals to come on Board. 

V. Accordingly, April z-^. being St. 
Georges, Day, his Highnefs Prince Rupert, 
and the Duke of Albemarle, took Leave of 
his Majefty and the Court ; and, at JVhite- 
HallSuKS, in one of the King's Barges, went 
down the River to the Fleet. 

VI. Nor were the T>utch all this while 
lefs fedulous in preparing their own Navy. 
The laft Year's War had fo much weaken'd 
their Fleet, but more the Courage of their 

2, People. 

3 3? Tke LIFE of 

People, that they found themfelves not able 
to continue it further without the Arms of 
their Neighbours. To that End they had 
contraded a new Alliance with France^ from 
whence they were to have the Adiftance of 
the French Fleet, led by the Duke d^ Beau- 

VII. His Majefty of Great Britain was 
already io much fuperior to all his Neigh- 
bours at Sea, that the i^'r^wf^ King was great- 
ly afraid he (hould grow more potent there, 
by his further Succefs againft the T>utch, 
And though he hated nothing more than that 
People, and their Government, yet he lov'd 
his own Intereft better than to depart from ir, 
by denying them Alliftauce. He had already 
defign'd the Invafion of their Country by 
Land, and therefore was not a little concern- 
ed, that his Majefty (hould prevent him ia 
the Conqueft, by fubduing them firft at Sea. 
And other fecret Reafons led him, in Conjun- 
dion with the T>utch, to declare War againft 
England'-, which was accordingly denounced 
back upon him into France, 

VIII. Prince Rupert and the Duke of 
Albemarle had, by this Time, brought the 
Fleet to fuch Readinefs, as they were 
come to an Anchor in the IDownSy refolv- 
ing from thence to fet fail for the ^atch 

' / Coafts;^ 

General Monk. 33(7 

Coafts, and find out the Enemy. Bur, in the 
interim, hisMajefty had rccciv'd Intelligence 
from France, that the Duke de Eciw.fort had 
made equal Difpatch in getting ready the 
French Fleet, and was coming our to join 
with the 'D//^r^. Upon which Information 
from thence, hisMajcfty, with the Advice of 
the Privy Council, difpatch'd away Orders 
to his Fleet, That Trince Ku^cnfioui^ take 
twenty of the befi and nimbleft Frigats, andy 
direuiing his Way towards the Coajis of 
France, fJoould attend the Motions of the 
French Admiral, atid engage him before he 
could join his Fleet with the Dutch. Thefe 
Inftrudions were prefently put in Execution 
by his Highnefs, leaving the Duke, with the 
reft of the Fleer> ftill in the T)owns. 

IX. The laft of iV/^7 the Duke fet fail from %?<: 
the T)owns \ and the next Morning early, jnnt m 
the BrifloU plying about a League from the 
reft of the Fleet, difcovered fevcral Sail j and 
therefore fir'd three Guns one after another, 
which gave Warning to the Fleet. About 
eight of the fame Morning, from the Admi- 
ral's Top-maft-head, they difcovered about 
eleven or twelve Sail ; and at the fame time 
other Ships difcovered about twenty or thirty- 
Sail more, towards T)unkirk and OJfeyjd, and 
prefently after more of them were dcfcry'd 5 
fo that it was out of hand concluded to be 

340 The L I F E of 

the T)utch Fleet. Therefore his Grace pre- 
fently commanded the Flag-Officers to meen 
in a Council of War, where were prefent Sic 
Robert Holmes y Sir Jofeph Jordan, Sir Chri- 
ftopher Mings y Sir George A f cough, Rear- 
Admiral Hannan, and others, where it was 
debated, Whether they Jhould adventure to 
engage the Dutch in the Abfence of fo confi- 
derable a ^art of their Fleet, then gone off 
with the prince. Butj in regard feveral 
good Ships, beJidestheK.oyz\. Sovereign, then 
at Anchor in the Gun-fleet (neither fully 
manndy nor ready) wotdd, upon their Re- 
treat, be in ^Danger of a Surprizal by the 
Enemy 5 and that fuch a Coiirfe might 
have forne Imprefjion upon the Spirit and 
Courage of the Seamen, who had not been 
accuftom* d to decline fighting with the Dutch -, 
it was at lafi; tinanimoujly refolded to abide 
them, and the Fleet jhould prefently be put 
in Readinefs to fall into a Line. This Ad- 
vice was agreeable to the Opinion and Senti- 
ments of the Duke, who did very much un- 
dervalue the Power and Force of the 'Dutch 
Fleet, expecting fuch eafy Conquefts as he 
had obtained thirteen Years before. But the 
Dutch of late had built much greater and 
ftronger Ships, and, by often Tryals, had 
learnt from the Englijh the Experience of 
fighting better. 

^n-* ,. -X X. The 

General Monk. 341 

X. TwE'Dutcb Fleet was that Day crtccm- 
cd about fcventy fix Sail, and ten Firc-fliips, 
commanded by the Admiral rt't'/^z/rrcr, who 
fuccceded after the Death of Opdam. With 
the Duke there was not above fifty Frigats, 
whereof eighteen were heavy l^utcb Bot- 
toms, which had been taken from the Fnemy 
in this and the former War. About one of 
tl-K; Clock, about Mid-Sea, towards the Coaft 
of 'Dunkirk, the Fight was begun by Rcar- 
Admiral Harman^ of the llloite Squadron, 
who led the Van, and bore in upon the^t"^- 
/^w^ Squadron, riding head moft of the Ene- 
my's Fleet, and prefently a great Part of the 
Ships on both Sides were engaged. But the 
Wind blowing high, the Force of xhcDiitch 
Fleet fell chiefly upon the Sails and Rigging 
of the Er/gif/h. The Duke wasfo intent up- 
on this Charge, that he engaged far among 
them, till he had mofl: of hi<; Tackling taken 
clear off by the Chain-Shot, and his Standard 
ftruck down, fo that he was forc'd to tack 
and go off to an Anchor, being rclicv'd by 
the Royal Oak. And, having fpccdily rigg'd 
again with Jury-Mafts, and brought new Sails 
to the Yards, he ftood in again, and fell into 
the Body of thzDutch Fleet, where he en- 
gaged cle Ruyter j and, about this Time, four 
of the T>Htch great Ships were lank and 
burnt j but many of the Seamen fav'd, being 

Z 3 taken 

542. Hoe L I F E of 

taken up by the Engltfi Boats and Tenders j 
and Trump receiv'd a full Broad-fide from the 
Royal Catherine y which io difabled him, that 
he was forc'd to get off, as alfo were feveral 
other capital Ships that drew into Harbour, 
Among the reft, Van Trumps with his Ship 
of eighty two Guns ; Van Ghent, with his 
Ship of feventy ; and Nejfe, with a Ship of 
eighty Guns (bcfides fome others) got into 
the Goree, miferably torn and fhatter'd. 

XI. Nor was it any whit better with fe- 
veral of the Er,giijh Ships, which, by that 
Day's Work, were fo difabled in their Shrouds, 
JVlafts, and Tackling, that they were forc'd 
to retire, and make their Way to the next 
Harbour. The Henry had three Fire (hips 
upon her, yet had the good Fortune to clear 
them all with fome Lofs, but ^o torn and 
(hattcr'd, as flic was fent off to Harbour. In 
this Day's Engagement there appeared no 
confidcrablc Damage to any of the Ships 
themfelves. All the Tempefl: fell above Deck 
among the Shrouds and Mafts 5 and, for the 
Length and Fiercenefs of the Encounter, 
there were very few Men kill'd or wounded. 
His Grace receiv'd that Day a fmall Bruife in 
his Hand by a Splinter, and, among thofe 
unlucky and thick Vollies that brought 
down his Tackling, one of them fhot away 
{lis greechcs, but leaving the Skin untouch'd 5 
• - " and^ 

General Monk. 343 

and, by nine or ten of the Clock at Night* 
both Sides were well enough content to give 
over, and fall to mending their Sails and k,vz 

XII. The next Morning about fix, the 
Fight begun again, and the Duke, though lb 
much inferior to the Enemy, in the Number 
of Ships, was yet the Aggreffor, and mod 
Part of the Day had the Advantage of the 
T>iLtch Fleet, till towards two in the After- 
noon , about which Time the Enemy, which 
was fo much fuperior in Number before, was 
recruited by the Accefllon of llxtcen' frcfli 
Ships, by which they were enabled to prcfs 
very hard upon the EngliJJj Fleet, who yet 
kept their Ground, and fought it out till E- 
vening, though extremely Ihatter'd in their 
Mafts, Sails, and Rigging, and many Men 
kiird. The T^utch loft three good Ships in 
this Day's Engagement j and the Duke four, 
the Swift-furey the EaglCy the Loyal George^ 
and the Catherine -■, which two laft were no 
Part of the Royal Navy, but Merchant men 
which had been hir'd into the Service. Vet 
though the Ships were deftroy'd, the Men 
were generally fav'd. This Night the Lord 
OJfory, and Sir Thomas Clifford^ with fomc 
other Perfons of Quality, came from Uover 
on board the Admiral, by whom his Grace 
was aQuc'd, that the Prince was upon his Re- 
turn. XIII. But 

344 '^'^'^ ^ I F E of 

XIII. But this Day's Work had Co far dif- 
abled feveral of his Majefty's Ships in their 
Mafts and Rigging ; and their odds of Num- 
ber was fo extremely difproportionable, that 
it was refolved this Night by the Council of 
War, (having with unequal Force fo ndvan- 
tagioufly aflerted the Honour of his Majefty, 
and their own Gallantry,) to make a fair and 
regular Retreat. 

XIV. To that End, the next Morning his 
Grace ordered all the Men out of two or three 
Hug Ships, which were unferviceable, and 
commanded them to be fired, rather than put 
them to the Hazard of falling into the Ene- 
my's Hand in his Retreat. And now he had 
not full forty good Ships with him to make 
good his Retreat againft about ninety of the 
Enemy's. Bur, commanding all his weak 
and difabled Frigars to go off before him, 
and placing about fixteen or rweory of the 
foundcft and mod in Heart to the Enemy's 
Front, he began a regular and leifurcly Retreat, 
which was managed with fo much Bravery , 
and Courage, that the 'Dutch, though poffef- 
fed withfo many great Advantages upon him, 
had no great Stomach to the Furfuir, con- 
tenting themfelves to follow a-ioof off, and 
to fire their Guns at fuch Diftance, as gave 
no Prejudice to the Evglijh Fleet : Till about 


General Monk. j^j 

four in the Afternoon, the Wind cncrcafine, 
they came clofer up to the Duke in two Bo- 
dies, and fpcnt fomc Broad-fides upon his 
Ship; but were fo warmly ply'd from the 
Englijh Fleet with their Stern Pieces, as made 
them contented to lye further off. 

XV. The fame fre(h Gale which at this 
Time had brought up the "Dutch Fleer, 
brought alfo the Prince with his Squadron in 
View of the Duke's Ships, which now ap- 
peared in the mod feafonable Minute, having 
made all the Sail they could to come to his 
Relief. Nor was the Duke lefs willing to join 
the Prince and his Squadron. But, in making 
their Way towards him, feveral of the princi- 
pal Ships, and among the reft, the Duke in 
the Royal Charles, came a- ground on the 
Gapper or the Galloper Sands, but had all of 
them the good Fortune to get off again ; on- 
ly the Royal Prince, a great and brave Fri- 
gat, was fo deeply ftrandcd, that it was not 
poflible to bring her off, but became a Prey 
to the Enemy , where Sir George Afcough 
that commanded in her, and his Company, 
were taken Prifoners. And when the Dutch 
alfo had in vain attempted to get her off the 
Sands, at Night they burnt her down. This 
unfortunate ftriking of fo many of our Ships 
upon the Sands, gave the Dutch fo great an 
Opportunity of dcftroying the Duke's Fleet, 


34<5 Tie LIFE of 

as they have Caufe never to forgive the Com- 
manders that made no greater Advantage of 
it, where all might have been loft, if the 
Enemy had been brave enough to have ad- 
ventured for it. V' -^ i 'V 

XVI. So foon as the T^iitch obferv'd the 
Approach of the Prince with his Squadron, 
de Ruyter fent over a Party of between twen- 
ty and thirty Ships to meet him, himfelf with 
the reft of the Fleet ftill attending the Moti- 
on of the Duke. This Squadron of the 
*Dutch Fleet fent out againft the Prince, 
feem'd to provoke him to the Combat ; but 
becaufe he as yet knew nothing of the State 
of the Fleet, he refolv'd firft to fend off a 
Veffcl to the Duke, letting him know, that, 
if he thought it moft advifable, he would 
keep to Windward, and engage that Party 
which had been fent out to brave him. But, 
leaft the Veflel fhould not return Time enough 
to prevent the Prince's Intention, his Grace 
firft fir'd two Guns from the Royal Charles, to 
give him Warning, and made a Waft with his 
Flag ; and prcfcntly after the Meflcnger re- 
turn'd alfo, and brought his Highnefs Cauti- 
on from the Duke, That he fiould by m 
means bear tip the Squadron, there being a 
dangerous Sand, called the Galloper, lying 
between tbe?n, where fever a I of his own 
Shifs had that T> ay been Jlranded 2 ^nd, at 

General Monk. 347 

one End of it y the Royal Prince iz'as lofl : 
That the Appearance of the Dutcli Squadron 
in that Tlace, isuas only to tempt them into 
the Bank, and draw them into the Toil. Up- 
on this Advice, his Highncfs picfcntly bore 
away to the Northward, to get clear of thofc 
dangerous Sands, and, by the Evening, made 
his Way to the Duke's Fleet, the Enemy all 
this while, notofferingthcni any Difturbance. 
But To foon as they percciv'd the EngltJJj 
Fleet to be all join'd, the 'Dutch Fleer pre- 
fently haled clolcupon a Wind, and went out 
of Sight. 

XVIL The Duke prcfently haftcn'd to at- 
tend his Highnefs in the Royal JameSy and 
gave him an Account of all Particulars in thefc 
three Days Action. That Night a Council 
of War was called, where were prcfent Sic 
Thomas Allyn, Sir Chrijlophcr Mings y Sir 
Edward Sprag, and the reft ; where it was 
agreed, That it would be injurious to his 
Majeftfs Honour, and the Refolution of the 
Englifli Fleet y to let the Dutch ^i^^ off thus y 
and to carry home with them the Appearance 
of an Advantage : That the Courage of the 
Sea-men was ft til brave and high, and the 
Fleet in Heart ; their Hulls being all un- 
touch' d, and the T)amage hitherto being only 
in their Shrouds and Tackling : That by the 
working of the Enemy s Fleet all this T)ay^ 


34^ The L IFE of 

when our Fleet retreated, it appear' dy tho^ 
they were fo much higher. t7i Number ^ yet 
they were lower in Courage. 

XVIII. It was- therefore refolv'd, That, 
the next ^ay, they would fall upon the E- 
7iemy ; and that his Highnejs's Squadron, be- 
ing frejh and u7itouched, and being the befl 
failing Frigats in the Fleet, fhould lead the 


XIX. And on Munday, by the Morning 
Light, the Englijh Fleet was under Sail 5 and, 
the T)iitch being gone out of Sight, they ftood 
their Courfe after them ; and fome while af- 
ter recovered Sight of their Fleer, who made 
their Way at Leifure towards their own 
Coafts. For, befidcs what Damage they had 
themfelves known and feen in the EngUjh 
Fleet after three Days Fighting, they had re- 
ceiv'd from thofc Prifoners they had taken out 
of the Royal Trince, fuch an Account of the 
fiiattered and difabled Condition of the Eng- 
lijh Fleet, that they could not eaftly believe 
the Prince and Duke would have the Courage 
to purfue them 5 or, if they fhould, yet the 
Stitch had fo much Wit in their Anger, as 
they would endeavour to fight near home, 
whereby, upon any Difadvantage, they might 
more eafily run into their own Stations, whi- 
ther the £;?^///^ could not eafily follow them. 
.... -• • XX. Br 

General Monk. 


XX. By eight of the Clock the EngliJIj 
Fleet was got up to them ; and the T)utchy 
having got the Weathergage, put their Fleet 
in Readinefs, and fell into a Line all to Wind- 
ward of the Engltfi Fleet j which, coming 
up in very good Order, ranged themfelvcs 
for the Fight. Sir Chriftopker Mings with 
his Divifion led the Van, next the Prince 
with his Squadron, and then Sir Ed'Ji'ard 
Spragj having the Duke of Albemark in the 
Rear. The Fight was begun with that Cou- 
rage on both Sides, and continu'd with fuch 
Fierccncfs, as any one would have thought 
it the firft Day's Encounter, rather than their 
fourth. In the firft. Rear- Admiral Mings, and 
fome other Ships were difabled, and prcfent- 
ly cnforc'd to quit the Fight, whilft the 
Prince with his frcfli Squadron, found the 
Enemy Work on all Hands, fucceedcd by the 
Duke, who revengingly charged them. 

XXI. ONEof their Vice- Admirals, being 
a (tout Ship, boldly attempted to board him, 
coming up fo near, that the Shroud Arms 
touched each others but his Grace receiv'd 
him with fo full a Broad-fidc, and pour'd up- 
on him fo fmart a Volly of his fmall Shot, 
that he immediately fell a Stern, and appear'd 
no more, nor any other to fucceed in his 
Room. And Trump receiv'd fuch another 

t Broad- 

3 JO Tloe LIFE of 

Broad-fide from the Royal Catherine, as ut^ 
terly difabled him for the reft of the Day. But 
the "Dutch knowing his Grace's Squadron, 
by the former three Days Fight, to be weak- 
er than the reft, charged fiercely upon him, 
and gave him no Breath, whilft the Duke, by 
his extraordinary Condudl and infinite Cou- 
rage, fo managed the Force of his Squadron, 
improving vigoroufly fuch Ships as were in 
Heart and Strength, and warily fheltering 
fuch as were moft difabled, that he ftill gain- 
ed Ground upon the Enemy. 

XXII. Both the Prince and Duke had, ia 
this Day's Engagement, five times pafled 
through the Body of the Dutch Fleet, at e^ 
very Pafs making fome fignal Impreffion up- 
on them. And by this time the 'D/z/r^ were 
fought fo low, that Part of the Fleet began 
to think of fecuring themfelves by retreating^ 
and, among the reft, de Rujter, who, to dif- 
guife his Flight, or to fecure if, made Shew 
as if he would tack again -, which being ob- 
ferv'd by the Prince, who, towards Evening, 
with eight or ten of his Frigats had got to 
Windward of the Enemy's Fleet, he was re- 
folved to bear in upon them, and at one Pufh 
to compleat the Vidory, by putting them to 
the Run. At the famclnftant hisMain-top- 
maft, being terribly fliaken, came all by the 
Board 5 and the Duke, who alfo at the fame 

General Monk. jjr 

trmc ftood by the Leeward of the Enemy 
with his Squadron, gave Order to tack and 
join with the Prince, in this concluding 
Charge upon the Enemy. But having, in the 
laft Pafs, receiv'd two Shots in his Powdcr- 
Room between Wind and Water, they could 
not prefently be (topped. His Main top-maft 
alfo was fo fliattcr'd by a Shot through it, 
that he was forced to lower his Top-fail ; and 
at the fame Time his Fore-maft had received 
fo many Shots, that it was difablcd for fur- 
ther Service at prefent. By which unhappy 
Accidents the T>utch Fleet gain'd a lucky Op- 
portunity to make the beft of their Way, 
and got off much fairer than otherwift they 
(hould have done, being purfu'd by fdme of 
the nimbler Frigats whilfl: their Powder and 
the Light lafted. In this Engagement the 
T^utch had fix Ships fir'd and funk , on the 
Englijh Side were loft only the Trince 
(worth all the '\Dtitcb loft) and the Ej]ex\ 
having grappled with a 'Dutch Ship, was by 
others boarded and taken. Two Days after, 
his Highnefsand the Duke brought the Fleet 
to an Anchor in the Gun-feet -^ but a great 
Part of them fo miferably torn and fliatter'd, 
that they had little elfe toboaftof, except the 
honourable Marks of a fevere Engagement. 
From thence the Fleet was diftributcd into (c- 
veral Harbours, to be refitted with all pof- 
fible Speedy and the CommifTioncrs of the 
4 Navy 

3 5^ ^^ L I F E of 

Navy were ftridly obliged to infped the Dif- 
patch. His Highneis and the Duke of Albe- 
marle haften'd then to London to attend his 
Majefty : To whom they were the more wel- 
come, by thofe extraordinary Services and 
Hazards they had paflfcd through, 

XXIII. This Adion of the Duke's, in ad- 
venturing to fight the T>utch after the divid- 
ing the Fleet, was by feveral Men varioufly 
confidercd. His Enemies, though they ac- 
knowledg'd his Courage and Generofity, yet 
did greatly accufe his Difcretion -, and did 
fugged, That a little Allay of the Co'jvard 
'was a fafer Ingredient in a General^ than 
fuch vafi and tranfcendent RaJJmefs : And 
tho' he came off welly yet he intriifted For- 
tune with a greater Stock than a wife Man 
would put into her Hands. But his Majefty, 
and all difecrning Perfons, had another Opi- 
nion of this extraordinary Adion : That it 
was grounded on the great eft Reafon and Ne- 
cejjity, and that the Honour of the Nation 
was concerned in it : That he had thereby 
given the great eft Inftance of his own and the 
Englifh ^rowejs ; and had raifed the Re- 
putation of his Majefty s Naval Force to fuch 
an Height of Glory, as would render him 
more terrible to his Enemies y and deftfd by 
his Allies. 

V-r XXIV. And 

General Monk. 3^3 

XXIV". And, if we will hear the Opinion 
t)i\X'\z "Dutch themlclvcs, who, in this In- 
ftance, may be counted the bed and moft im- 
partial Judges, it is manifcft, that this En- 
counter of tifty Frigats againfl: all the Force 
they could make, gave then a greater Apprc- 
henfion and Dread of his Majefty's Power at 
Sea, than all the Vi(flories which had been 
gain'd on them. So that, though the Con- 
fidence of the GOtlimon People was to be 
kept up with Bubble and Brandy, yet their 
Governors difccrn'd their own Danger and 
Inability 5 and that his Majefty's Fleer, under 
an high and great Conducl, had a Force and 
Courage more than human. Which made the 
late Heer de tVit (accounted the wiUftMan in 
the Nation, and who then govern'd their Af- 
fairs, and who was never guilty of much Re- 
Ipeft to his Majefly, and the Engltjh Nati- 
on) acknowledge to S\iJVjlliamTi7nplc, his 
Majefty's Ambaflador then to the States of 
Hollandy "That, by this Engagement of the 
" Duke of Albemarle^ we had gain'd more 
" Honour to our Nation, and to the invin- 
" cible Courage of the Seamen, than by the 
" other two Vidories. That he was fure the 
^' T>iitch could never have been brought on 
" the other two Days, after the Difadvantagc 
*' of the firft J and he bcliev'd no other Na- 
" tion was capable of it except the Englijh." 

A a But 

3^4 Tke L I F E of 

Bur if his Grace was too daring in this Eft- 
counter, yet the 'Dutch were certainly much 
more too cowardly, in negleding the Ad- 
vantage of it. Had the Duke been pofTefs'd 
of half thofe Advantages upon the Enemy^ 
he would have given Security, at the Price 
of his own Head, to have deftroy'd or taken 
their whole Fleet. But the T>iitch had got 
off fo much better than they hoped for, from 
this Encounter, that they were willing to 
fanfy it for a Viftory. So that it was not only 
owned as fuch by their own People, with 
whom fuch Contrivances are politickly neccf- 
fary j but was puplifh'd alfo in the Courts of 
foreign Princes, who, being better inform'd 
in the Circumftances of the A([^ion, greatly 
fmiled at the Dutch Vanity. 

XXV. The States in the Interim had re- 
pair'd their Fleet with fuch extraordinary Di- 
ligence and Difpatch, ( in which Inftancc 
only they may be thought to exceed theic 
Neighbours ) as they were again got out to 
Sea with about an hundred Sail ; and, that 
they might appear to have been vidorious in 
the late Engagement, came and lay upon the 
Englijh Coafts : With which, not only theiL' 
own People, but the Seditious and Difcon- 
tented in England, were well fatisfy'd. Yet 
all this was but Pretence, and a Copy of their 
Countenance. For the Dutch very well 


General Monk.' 35- y, 

knew, that his Majefty's Fleet would not yet 
be ready J and fo foon as it was, they prc- 
fently drew off, not for Sea Room, as the 
Englifh ufed to do from the Coafts of Hol^ 
land, but, in cafe «hey wcrcforc'd to an En- 
gagement, to lye near the Retirements of thcic 
own Shores. 

XXVI. By this Time the Prince and Duke 
ti^ Albemarle h^idMkd fuch Induftry, that his 
Majefty's Fleet was in Readinefs to come to 
a Rendez-vous at the Buoy of the Nore, July 
the 17^^ and from thence, July 22. fail'd to 
the Gun-fleet. The next Day they ftood to 7"^ 2j. 
Sea after the Enemy's Fleet, who kept under 
Sail before them towards their own Coafts. 
And on July 25. by fix in the Morning, goty^// 1^, 
within two Leagues of the T>utch Fleet, who 
thereupon failing in very good Order, brought 
themfelves into a Crelcent 5 and the EngUJhy 
as they came up, fell into a Line; both Sides 
having divided themfelves into three Squa- 

XXVIL Between nine and ten In the 
Morning the Fight begun. The fVhite Squa- 
dron, led by Sir Thomas Allen, rode in the 
Head of the Fleet; and, coming clofe np to 
the Enemy, the Anne began to fire, and prc- 
fently the IVhite Squadron was wholly en- 
gag'd with the Enemy's Van. And the Red 
Aa 2 Squadron 

\y^6 The LIFE of 

Squadron next advancing upon the Body of 
the Stitch Fleet led by de Riiper, and then 
the Blue Squadron undertook i\i^ Zealand \^\- 
vifion 5 fo that by Noon all our Fleet was in 
with them. This Encounter, though itlafted 
not long, yet, for the Time of its continuance, 
was ftiarp enough : In which the 'Dutch had 
fevcral Ships funk and fir'd ; and fome of our 
own, as the Royal Catherine^ the St. George, 
the Rupert, and another Ship of the White 
Squadron, were fo difabled as they came out 
of the Line, and lay by to mend. His High- 
nefs and the Duke being both in the Royal 

^ Charles, bore up to Admiral de Ruyter with- 
in Musket Shot, and fought him hand to 
hand for fome time, till they came out of 

v their Line to refit their Tackling, leaving the 
Place to Sir Jofeph Jordan in the Royal So- 
'vereign, who ply'd him fo warmly, that he 
fliot down his Top-maft, and funk his Fire- 
fhip by his Side. In half an Hour's Time the 
Prince and Duke ftood in again, engaging the 
fccond Time fo clofely with de Ruyter, as, 
having receiv'd feventeen Shot in his Ship 
under the Water, and double the Number in 
his Hull above, he was glad to give Way, 
and retire. All the Damage to the Royal 
Charles was only in her Tackling; where 
they had no Ropes nor Steerage left, but file 
was towed out of the Line by Boats, his 
Highnefs and his Grace removing into the 


General Monk. 3^7 

Royal Jmnes. About this Time Sir Robert 
Holmes, having loft both his Top marts, lay- 
by a while to repair. And now the Refolii- 
tioriy being firft dilabled, was burnt by a Firc- 
ftiip fent upon her by Van Trump. Captain 
Hannam, who commanded in her, bravely 
clear'd himfclf of the Fire-Ship 5 but the Flame 
was advanced io far, as he could not poillbly 
prcferve his Ship ; yet himfclf and Ship's 
Company Hived thcmfelves by Boars which 
were fent off to them from fuch Ships as lay 
ncareft. For fome Time before, the Fnc- 
iny was obferv'd to give Ground ; between 
one and two of the Clock the Van was already 
got off with all the Wind they could nukej 
and now, about four in the Afternoon, de Riiy- 
ter with the Body of their Fleet began to run; 
but made frequent Tacks to fetch off his 
fhattered and maimed Ships. In one where- 
of he hazarded his own Safety to rcfcue his 
fccond ; which was fodifabled, as it was not 
pofllble for him to retrieve her. And no\v% 
befidcs what i\\zT>utch had lod: in the Fight, 
fevcrai other Ships were loft as they fled a- 
way. About feven at Night the Royaiyames 
took Vice- Admiral BanJjnrt's Ship of fixry 
Guns, himfelf efcaping a-board Captain de 
Haes. And the Snake of Harlem, a ftoui 
new Ship of fixty ilx Gnn<, wjs alUi lak- ^ 
and both of them lir'd b\ the En^ii!^-.'. !■: 
car Q'vft in the Furfu it. A 1 1 i his w hi : ^ 
A a $ 

55? TToe LIFE of 

remy Smith with the Blue Squadron (lood 
engaged with Van Trump and the Zealand 
Divifion, till, toward Night, they alfo made 
all the Sail they could to the Northward, 
and the Blue Squadron in the Purfuit till 
Night parted them. 


I, II. The Dutch are beaten into their own 
Harbour. Ill, IV. The Lofs on each Side. 
V. The Prince and 'Duke refolve to an- 
chor upon the Dutch Coafts, VI, VIL Sir 
Robert Holmes makes aDefcent upon the 

; IJland of Schelling, plunders and burns 
the Town of Brand aris, with an hundred 
and fifty Ships in the Harbour. VIII, 
The Dutch put to Sea again, and fail to- 
wards the French Coafts, in hopes ofjoin^ 
ing them. The Englifh Fleet goes in Tur- 
fuit of them. 

I. '^j 'HE T^utch Fleet being gone ofiP, his 

J^ Highnefs and the Duke this Night 

gave Order to Sir Thomas Allen in the Royal 

pakj with two other Frigats, to keep near 

^ ihcm^ 

General Monk. 3jp 

them, and to put up Lights that might give 
Notice, in cafe the Enemy fliould niter his 
Courfe 5 which was To effedually perform'd, 
that, by the firfl: Light of the Morning, Sir 
Thomas Allen found himfelfnot much above 
Musket fliot from de Ruyter's Lee, and then 
tacked towards our own Fleet. This Morn- 
ing early the Prince and Duke drew the Fleet 
into a Line, and made all the Sail they could, 
to get up with the T^utch ; but there was 
fo little Wind, that they could not poflibly 
reach them. But while the Ships, for want 
of Wind, could not make fail, the Fan-Fan, 
a little Pleafure-boat built at Harn'k/j foi- 
the Service of Prince Rupert, by the Melp 
of her Oars, where the F^rigats, for want cf 
Wind, could not come, made up to de Ruy- 
ter 5 and bringing her two little Guns to bear 
on one Side, ply'd the Admiral's Ship Broad- 
fide to Broad-fide for almoft an Hour : The 
Admiral having fpent fcveral Guns to no pur- 
pofe upon her, till at lad he gave her two or 
three Shot between Wind and Water, with 
which file retired ; having thereby let the 
Enemy fee, at how low a Rate they valued 
the Belgick Lion, whom they had fo often 
worried. Afterwards, the Wind a little in- 
creafing, the Prince and Duke made their 
Way towards de Rtiyter, who found him- 
felf fo difabled by Yeitcrdav's Engagement, 
that both his Men and Ships were out of 
A a 4- Courage, 

^6o The LIFE of 

Courage to (land another Encounter, but bore 
away before them. The Englifh Fleet chaf- 
ing them over feveral Banks and Flats, till the 
great Ships came to fix Fathoms Water, and 
the lefs continu'd in Purfuit within two Miles 
of their own Shores. And, had there been 
Wind enough in this Retreat, both de Riiy- 
ter, and fcvcral of his Ships, had certainly 
been taken or deftroy'd. But there being fo 
great a Calm, the T)ntch Ships, drawing lefs 
Water, made their Way fafter than the Eng- 
liJJj could purfue them, and fo efcaped into 
the Harlo-jv Channel of Zealand. 

II. The fame Day Sir Jeremiah Smithy 
with the Blue Squadron, prefled fo hard up- 
on Van Trump and his Divifion, that he beat 
them all into their own Port of the fVeel- 


III. In this Engagement the Freezland 
and Zealand Squadrons were thought to have 
loft the better half of their Men. In their 
whole Fleet were eflimated about four thou- 
faad Men killed, two thoufand wounded. The 
Commanders of Note that fell in this Fiiiht 
were. Evert [on of Zealand^ Termick Hides 
Admiral oi Freezlandy and C<?w^^rj his Vice- 
Ad miral, with about twelve of their principal 

IV. Ti|E 

General Monk. ^6i 

IV. The Lofs on the Englijh Side was 
greatly dilproportionable, having loft but few 
in the Fight, and not above three hundred 
wounded, upon a ftrid Computation. And, 
among the Officers, were kili'd only Captain 
Seymour in the Forejighty Captain Martin 
in the Eaft-India, London^ and Captain bar- 
ker in the Tarmouth ; Captain Saunders only 
in the Breda dangeroufly wounded. And but 
one Ship wanting, namely the Refolution, of 
which we have given Account before, 

V. The Day after the Fight the Prince7«// 27- 
and Duke, at a Council of War, refolv'd to 
fend home thofe few Ships that were difablcd, 

and to ply upon the T^ntch Coafts, in Expcd- 
ation of fome further Advantage upon the 
Enemy, who could not make this Engage- 
ment Pafs among the People for a Vidory, 
when they faw every Day the Englifl Fleet 
at Anchor in View of their Shores. 

VI. Neither would the Courage and 
Refolution of his Majcfty's Fleet content it 
felf to lye idly upon the Enemy's Cor.lh ; 
but the Prince and Duke having recav'd In- 
formation from a difcontcntcd ^Dutch Cap- 
tain, how cafy it was to make an Aitcmpt 
upon the Ifland of Schelling^ and Town of 
BrandariSf commaoded Sir Rokrt hiohnes 

& ^9. 

■^6z The LIFE of 

to go upon that Expedition ; who according- 
ly, taking with him eleven Foot Companies, 
and eight fmall Frigats, with five Fire fhips, 
befides feveral Ketches and Boats, in the 
Morning early enter-d the Channel ; and, be- 
ing come into Schelling Road, Sir Robert 
and the Captains with him, obferving a con- 
fiderable Fleet of about an hundred and twen- 
ty Sail, riding thick and clofe together at 
Anchor in the Uly, with few Men of War a- 
inonff them for their Alliftance, refolv'd to 
attempt the firing of them. Whereupon Sir 
Robert Holmes left the Advice and Hamp- 
jloire Frigats without, to fecure the Buoys, 
left the Enemy fhould fend fome Veffels to 
take them away, and fo hazard their Retreat 
in an unknown Channel. The Pembroke and 
three Ketches and Boats, with one Foot Com- 
pany, and Sir Robert Holmes himfelf in the 
little Fan-Fan that had lately braved de Ruy- 
ter, with the five Fire- (hips a head, went in 
upon the '\Dutch Fleet, and prefently fir'd 
two "Dutch Men of War, and fome other 
Ships, that, upon the Alarm, ftood to de- 
fend the Fleet. The Boats then were fent to 
burn the reft of the Ships ,- which was dif- 
patch'd with fuch Succefs, that prefently all 
their Ships were on fire, except a Gtiinea- 
wan of twenty four Guns, and three fmall 
Privateers, that, hailing together in the nar- 
fPNV pf the Channel^ preferv'4 themfelves, 


General Monk. 3^5 

^nd five Sail more that were behind them, 
fo as the Boat could not poflibly get up to 

VII. The Tyger^ Affiirance, l^ragon, Gar^ 
landy and Sweepjlakes, flood in Schelling 
Road with five Foot Companies, to prevent 
any Surprizal from the Enemy, whilft the o- 
ther five Companies went on Shore upon the 
Ifland of Schelling for the Town of Bran- 
darts r, which, in half an Hour's Time, was 
all on a Flame, and above a thoufand Houfes 
were confumed. The Spoil and Plunder, both. 
in the Ships and Houfes, were wholly aban- 
doned to the Seamen and Soldiers, where 
fome of them found great Booties. And, 
having deftroy'd more than an hundred and 
fifty Sail of the Enemy's Ships, Sir Robert 
Holmes returned fafely, having not above 
twelve Men kill'd or wounded in the Adion. 
And, being come back to the Fleet, the Prince 
and Duke font Sir Philip Howard^ who was 
one of thofe eleven Captains that went on 
this Expedition, to give his Majcfty an Ac- 
count thereof. 

VIII. The Prince and Duke continued fllll 
upon the T^utch Coafts, intercepting their 
Trade and Ships ; and, about the middle of 
Augufty returned with their Fleet to thcic 
pv/n Shores, having fpent all their Provifion, 


3<54 71-? LIFE of 

and much of their Ammunition 5 both which 
were to be fupply'd again at home. But fome 
Veflels for Intelligence were ftill continu'd on 
the T^utch Coafts ; and, toward the End of 
this Month, brought Account, that the Ene- 
my was coming out with a Fleet of eighty 
Sail j who took this Advantage of the Eng- 
Ujh Fleet's Retreat, to get out with all the 
Hafte they could make, and failed towards 
the French Harbours, hoping to join with 
their new Ally, who hitherto had given them 
no AlTiftance. 

IX. The News of the Enemy's Fleet 
coming forth, was quickly brought to the 
Prince and Duke of Albemarle, who made 
all the Hafte poflible to get the Fleet in Rea- 
^c;/, i.dinefsto fall on them. And, about the firft 
of September^ came up to them, having 
gotten French Harbour in the Bay of Sta- 
plesy where the Englijh Fleet flood ready 
to engage them ,- but the Enemy kept them- 
felves clofe in the Harbour. The Weather 
was now very tempeftuous by a ftrong Eafter- 
!y Wind, and the Englijh could not conve- 
niently weather it 5 and, perceiving the E- 
iicmy not willing to fight, the Prince and 
Duke retir'd to St. Hellerts Bay, that being 
a fafe and commodious Station, where they 
might intercept the joining of the *Z)///f/6 and 
French Fleet, then lyinL'- about Fjicbel. 


General Monk.' ^6j 


I. The Fire of London. .^11. The T>uke com- 
manded home for his AJfiflance upon that 
Occafion. 111. No farther Jetton at Sea 
this Tear. IV. The Methods taken next 
Tear to bring the Dutch tofome Atiion, or 
to Teace. V. The T>iftribution of the 
Englifh Fleet. VI. The Dutch make an 
Attempt upon Chatham, but afterwards 
fubmit to a Teace. VII, VIII, IX. The 
"Duke taken til, his T^iftemper, the Courfe 
of it. X. He returns to London, grows 
worfe, XI. His Advice to the Members 
of 'Parliament, and Minifiers of State^ 
who come to fee him. XII, XIII. Marries 
his Son to a 'Daughter of the Duke of 
Newcaftle. XIV. Sequeflers him felf from 
all public k Affairs. XV. His Death, 
XVI. Some of his moft important Aifions 
enumerated. XVII. His Death univer- 
fally lamented. XVIII. His Funeral cele- 
brated at the King's Charge. XIX. A 
phyfical Account of the Author's concern- 
ing the Caufe of his Death. XX. His Bo-^ 
dy lies in State at Somerfet Houfe. 

I. T T T H I L S T the Fortune of England, 

VV by fo many Naval Succefles a- 

broad, run thus high upon the Water, it was 


^6^ 7%e LIFE of 

fuddenly arretted by a fatal Fire at home ] 
Sf^f. 2. which about this Time {September 2.) be- 
gan, and, irt three Days Time, burnt down 
the greateft Part of the City ; which the Ci- 
tizens computed at above one thoufand three 
hundred Houfes, befides fo great a Lofs of* 
Goods and Wares, as can never be duly efti- 
mated. And, after the Aftonifhment of this 
Conflagration it felf, the next Wonder is, that 
the Minds of Men have been no ways clearly 
fatisSed about the Beginning or Continuance 
of it. 

IT. After fo great a Blow upon the Mt- 
tropolis of the Nation, it pleafed his Majefty 
to command the Duke of Albemarle from 
Sea, to be near his Perfon and Counfels iri 
fo diftra(5led a Time ; who accordingly came 
back to London about two Days after the 
Fire was quenched. 

III. It might have been here expelled, 
that the 'Dutch Fleet, now in Conjundion 
with France^ would have taken this Oppor- 
tunity of fighting his Majefty's Navy, which 
all this while flood ready for them. But the 
late Engagement, upon dividing the Fleet, 
had coft them fo dear, they were not willing 
to try a fecond Experiment ; and were fo far 
from coming to a Fight after the Union with 
the French Ships^ that, though his Majefty 


General Monk." 3(^7 

kept out his Fleet till the Seafon was over, 
yet the Enemy trifled away the Time with- 
out coming to Adion. So that his Grace 
went no more this Year to the Fleet, but 
continued at home, allifting with the Privy- 
Council for rebuilding the City. 

IV. And for the next Year his Majefty,' 
having taken other Methods, was pleas'd to 
cxcufe him from any further Service at Sea. 
For the 'Dutch were contriving as dilatory a 
War with his Majcfty of Great Britain, as 
they had formerly manag'd with their natu- 
ral Prince Thilip II. to weary him with De- 
lays. So that in England there was more 
Fear about the Continuance and Charge of 
the War, ( cfpecially after the burning of the 
City) than for the Event of it. This Year kscj/. 
therefore it was refolv'd, inftead of dancing 
Attendance after their fighting Fleet, to turn 

the War upon their Trade, and intercept theic 
Commerce ; whereby the Dutch Fleet would 
be enforc'd, either to follow their Blows more 
roundly, or fubmit to a Peace. 

V. In order to this Refolution, his Maje- 
fty had taken Care to fccure the Britijb 
Seas, by appointing a convenient Number of 
Ships to lye upon the Coafts about Scotland^ 
and another Squadron to ply about Tortf- 
mouth 5 fo that neither Way the Merchant- 

3^8 ^^^ LIFE of 

Ships fhould be able to pafs without Hazard ■ 
The reft of his Majefty's Fleet was put into 
the Harbour at Chatham -, and, for their Se- 
curity and Defence, Order was given for the 
better fortifying Sheernefs, at the Mouth of 
the River, for the planting of Guns at Up- 
nor Caftle, which commanded the Stream ; 
and to fecure the River Med'juay with a large 
and ftrong Chain« , 

VL Of this limber and ductile Contrivance 
the Duke of Albemarle was neither the Au- 
thor nor Promoter 5 which yet might have 
fucceeded much better, if any Part of the 
Inftrudions had been duly profecuted. But 
the T^iitchy finding Chathamj and the Parts 
about it, unable to mai^e a Defence, took 
thofe Advantages upon the Water, which iE 
was impollible for the Duke of Albemarle^ 
and thofe Land Forces, which, to the Num- 
ber of one thoufand five hundred Foot, and 
five or fix hundred Horfe, were fent from 
London thither under his Condud to deprive 
them of. Wherefore doing as much as could 
be effeded by Land againft an Enemy at Sea, 
the Duke fecured the Coaft and the Country; 
and letting them know that Albemarle was 
y„„^.flill alive, difpofed the Stitch to a Peace; 
which was concluded between his Majefty 
and the States not long after in the fame Sum- 
men After which, having no further Occa- 
...„••:' ' ' ■ ""'" ' ■ fion 

General Monk. ^6c) 

Hon to ufe his Sword, he rcturn'd to enjoy the 
Benefit of that Peace, which his Courage and 
Conduct had helped to procure. 

VII. From which Time he divided him- 
felf between his Majcfty's Service (which in 
any the leaft Inftance he would never negled) 
and his own private Affairs j till he arrived 
to the fixtieth Year of his Age. 

VIII. And now that firm and good Con- 1668. 
ftitution of Body, that great and conftant 
Health, which he had io long enjoyed, be- 
gan to impair in him ; which Decays were 
more haftily promoted, by the Hardfliips of 

a Soldier's Life in his younger Days 5 and 
were further advanced , by the continual 
Weight of publick Cares in his declining Age. 
His general Indifpofition of Body difcovcr'd 
it felf in the Beginnings of a Dropfy, againft 
which no timely Care was cmplo)'d. For, 
though his Grace was very well pleas'd wiih 
the Reafons and Difcourfe oi^ Phyficians, yer, 
through an uninterrupted Health, he had a 
kind of Avcrfcnefs to Medicines, or Methods 
of Phyfick. In this Condition he retired 
himfelf to his Seat at Ne^ju-Hall in Ej[ex\ in 
Hopes that the frefli Air might have fome 
good Effect upon his Body -, and, by this Re- 
treat and Reccfs from publick Bufinefs, he 
might recover his Health. 

B b IX. Which, 

370 The LIFE of 

IX. Which, proving otherwife, and his 
Dropfy and Shoitnefs of Breath flill increaf- 
ing, he was perfuaded, by the Importunity 
of his Friends, and particularly by one who 
had been an Officer in his Army, to ufe a 
Pill, which, at that Time, had fome Reputa- 
tion for curing the Dropfy, and was then ia 
5r. Sir- the Hands of a Perfon that had formerly been 
'^°'*' a Soldier under him in Scotland-, and being 
informed, that the Remedy might be try'd 
without any ftrid Method or Confinement, 
he was the more inclinable to make fome Ex- 
periment of it. Which, though it never ef- 
feded any thing worthy the Name of a Cure, 
yet, upon the frequent Ufe thereof, it fo dif- 
charg'd the Deluge of waterifli Humour, as 
the active Parts of his Blood began again to 
recover ; fo that the Difficulty of his breath- 
ing, and the fwelling in his Body and Legs, 
were very much relieved. And all Men, be- 
ing fo greatly defirous of his Life and Health, 
they were ready to perfuade him into the Con- 
fidence of a greater Amendment than there 
really was. ;:,,.,./ . : .: - 

1669. X- With this Opinion, at the End of the 
Summer, he returned back to London: But, 
u;>on the Approach of the Winter, his Blood 
declining again with the Year, his Dropfy 
tncrcalcd upon him, with the fame Accidents 
. . ■ ':- . 5 :. A as, 

G^xtRAL Monk. 371 

as before. Nor could his former Remedy, 
which, by the Opinion of curing him before, 
was grown to a great Reputation, avail any 
thing to preferve his Grace, and its own Cre- 
dit, by a fecond Recovery. 

XI. The Noife of his Relapfe, and the 
imminent Danger of it , being quickly 
fpread about the Town, all his Friends and 
Retainers came to make their Vifits to him. 
Several alfo of the Houfe of Lords, and of 
the Commons, then fitting, did frequently 
attend him; and, having accuftomcd himfelf 
to publick Cares, he could not part with 
them in the midft of his own Difficulties i 
but, with that little Breath he had left to fup- 
port himfelf, dilcourfed always very earneft- 
ly with them about his Majcfty's Service, and 
the Good and Settlement of the Common- 
wealth ; conjuring them, to preferve alujays 
a good Under ft andtng between the two Hon- 
fes', and that his Majeflfs Crown and Go- 
'vernment ought never to fiiffer any Incon- 
venience by the ^Paffions or prejudice of 
thofey who were fo nearly obliged to take 
Care of it. 

XII. In this his Sickncfs (when the King 
Cent continually, as well as the Duke of Torky 
to know his State) he was frequently vifircd 
by his moft intima;c and principal Friend the 
Df:; B b 2 Earl 

371 The LIFE of 

Earl of Bath, and alfo by the Lord Arling- 
ton j to both whom he recommended the 
Care of his Servants. For, as to his own 
Concernments, he had brought them into a 
narrow Room 5 having nowbut one mortal 
Care upon him, which was the Marriage of 
his only Son, whom he was likely to leave 
young, being then about flxteen or feventeen 
Years of Age. So that his Grace was very de- 
firous of living fo long as to provide a Match 
for him in fome ancient and loyal Family, 
which were the principal Qualifications he 
aimed at. To that End, fome Weeks before 
his Death he entered into a Treaty with the 
Duke of Newcajikj with whom he contract- 
ed a Match for his Son with the Lady Eliza- 
bethy eldeft Daughter of the faid Duke, a 
fair and virtuous Lady. By which Alliance 
he united the Glories of the ancient Houfes 
of Newcajlle and T>orchefter , Cavendijh 
and ^ierpointy with his own Ducal Coro- 
net. ..,- . .' , :;.:■ „ ■■.-.a ,, , . \-y:\, p. ,^ 

XIII. And finding, by his daily and cn- 
crcafing Weakncfs , the Approach of his 
Death, he made the more Hafte toconfum- 
mate the Marriage. To that End, "Decem- 
ber 27. his Grace employed the moft Part of 
the Day in giving Inftrudionsto his Council 
at Law, for the better fettling his Eftate upon 
his Son, and the afligning a Jointure upon 
5 the 

General Monk. 373 

the young Lady. And three Days after, be- 
ing ©^r^w^^r 30. the Marriage was folcm-OrV-o; 
niz'd in the Duke's Chamber 5 where, with 
that Httle Strength he had, he deHvcrcd the 
Bride from his own Hand into the Arms of 
his Son. 

XIV. When the Ceremony was ended, he 
feem'd very much pleas'd that he had lived to 
fee the Accomplifhment of it, being the laft 
of his human Cares. After which he fequc- 
ftred himfelf from all mortal Affairs never to 
be refumcd more. 

XV. And now the extreme Difficulty of 
breathing, which had all along been the mod 
uneafy Part of his Sicknefs, increafed fo vio- 
lently upon him, that he could not lye down 
in his Bed, but entertained himfelf only with 
fome (hort Sleeps in his Chair , in which Pofture 
he dy'd four Days after the Marriage of his 
Son, January I. about nine in the Morning.7^"; ^^ 
And as he liv'd in Silence, fo he dy'd with- ''^' 
out Noife ; one eafy and fmgle Groan did the 
Work of Death upon the ftouteft and mod: 
valiant Hero of the Age he lived in. In his 
Sicknefs he had been often vifited and com- 
forted by his Grace the then Archbifliop of 
Canterbury ; and, in thofe his laft Minutes, 

he was affifted by the Prayers of the Bifh#p 

B b 3 of 

374 77^^ l^I FE of 

of Saliskiryy who attended him to his laft 
Breath, and doled his Eyes. 

XVI. Such was the Exit of this high and 
illuftrious Perfon. After he had furvived ten 
thoufand Hazards of War and Battels, and 
furmountcd as many Difficulties to redeem 
his Country 5 and in his immortal March 
from ''Dalkeith to London, had \zd two Kmg- 
doms in his own Triumph ; after he had re- 
ftored his Majefty to his Crown, and had e- 
recled the Trophies of his Courage and Pru- 
dence in his Dominion at Land, and had 
humbled the Pride of the (lubborn Enemy, 
thc^iitch, in two memorable Battels at Sea ; 
after he had lecn the Enemies of th\^ Crown 
under his Majcfty's Feet, and, for ten Years, 
faithfully aflifted in the Settlement of the 
State 5 he exchanged this mortal Life for an 
happy Immortality, having lived fixty one 
Years and twenty nine Days. , ,,. .,,, 

• XVII. The Report ofhis Death was quick- 
ly convey 'd from his own Family to thq 
Court adjoining, \\ here it aifcded his Majefty 
and all Perfons wirh a very particular Sor- 
row j and the News thereof was enter- 
tain'd in the City, and throughout the King- 
dom, as apublickLois and general Calami- 
ty» all Men commenting on the Fall of this 
their great Reftorer with an univerlal Sorrow. 


General Monk. 


XVIII. And as his Majefty had always 
treated him with a very fingular Eftccm all 
his Life-time, fo he was pleas'd to follow 
him with the Marks of his Royal Favour 
to the Grave, refolving to celebrate the Duke's 
Funeral at his own Charge; and he allign'd 
him alfo a Tomb in Henry the VII'''' Chapel, 
that the great Inftaurator, and Guardian of 
Monarchy, mightreft himfelf near the crown'd 
Heads, and mix his loyal Duft with the Aflies 
of former Kings. 

XIX. January 4. his Body was opened 
and embalmed, in order to the Solemnity of 
his Funeral. But, upon the Search, there 
was found only a large Quantity of difco- 
ioured Matter in the Cavity of the Belly, and 
no confiderable Alteration or Injury upon the 
Parts within j fave only in the Heart it fclf, 
both the Ventricles whereof were fiU'd with 
a bloody Subftance, which had alfo infinuat- 
cd it felf into the Mouths of the adjoining 
Veflels, which had fo far precluded the even 
Motion and Circle of Blood through his 
Lungs, as gave him a perpetual Difficulty of 
breathing. His long and habitual Dropfy 
had alfo fo far difablcd the Vigour and Mo- 
tion of his Blood, that it was not able to 
entertain and affimilate the chylous Li- 
quor offered from his Diet ; which did tirft 

B b 4 ftick 

176 The LIFE of 

ftick among the Fibres and Columns in 
both Ventricles of the Heart; and, by the 
continued and gradual Succeilion of the like 
tenacious Matter, came at lafl: to that Bulk 
as to fill up both the Cavities, and inevi- 
tably to ftrand the further Current of his 

XX. After his Body was embalmed, it 
was, by his Majcfty's Command, removed 
to Somerfet Houfc, and there placed for 
many Weeks in Royal State, attended with 
all the Ceremonies of pompous Mourn- 




! ;■ 'O 

OS. • 
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ClT • J 

', -1:0 A ■: .,.. ... iilfi]'' 

•■on, ALVf ji *;y} J: 

..'^■jhivz -ir^lij ^hi.moit ):■ THE 
i. 'in 

General Monk. 




Containing a 


O F T H E 

D U K E. 

HEY who daily poflefs the Be- 
nefit of this great Man's Prudence 
and Loyalty, and never had the 
Happinefs of feeing him, will ex- 
pert here fome Character of his 
Perfon j which was indeed rather comely than 


37-8 ne LIFE of 

elegant. His Stature was of the middle Size, 
but contrived for Strength and Adion. In his 
Countenance there appeared fomething very 
great and auguft, yet without Pride. His Af- 
pe£t was fo truly martial, that they who knew 
him not, might have taken him for a Gene- 
ral, and collected the Ideas of an Hero from 
the Lines of his Face. His Eye-fight ferved 
him to the laft upon nearer Objects, though 
at remoter Diftances it was fomewhat defec- 
tive. Which Imperfection was, in fome 
Mcafure, recompenfed to him, with a very 
extraordinary Quicknefsof hearing; wherein 
he did To very far excel, that it was dangerous 
to whifper a Secret in the fame Room with 

His Conditution alfo was framed to a fin- 
gular Steddincfs of Temperament, which in- 
abled him to live with a very little Sleep, 
and without any of thofc Emotions in his 
Blood, which mod other Men find from the 
Want of it. Upon the fame Account he 
was capable of enduring long and frequent 
Parting, when impofcd upon him, either by 
Religion, Neccility, or Bufmefs; without any 
obfervable Prejudice to his Health, or any o- 
ther Inconvenience. In his Palate he wa§ 
not curious, or at all lludious how to gratify 
it. When he was young, he had the Small- 
pox ; yet cntertain'd them, moft Part of the 


General Monk. 379 

Time, on Horfe-back, and marched every 
Day with his Regiment, without any of 
thofe fatal EfFeds, which naturally follow 
from theleaftlmprefllon of the cold Air. 

But when wc come to defcribe the Vir- 
tues and Endowments of his Mind, we en- 
ter upon a more copious and cxtenfivc Sub- 
jed. His Courage and Fortitude were be- 
yond any hyperbolical Strains of his Friends, 
and were never yet queftioned by his great- 
eft Enemies. They were nor, like the un- 
certain, and occafional Impetuofity of the 
late Ufurper Cromi::el, taken up by Fits ; 
but a fteddy and well-advifcd Greatnefs of 
Spirit, feparatc from Raflmefs, and conduifV- 
cd by an extraordinary Prudence and Forc- 
fight. So that in thofe many Engagements 
where he had commanded, he was always at- 
tended with a fmooth, uninterrupted Succcfs, 
which has rarely been conflant to old Gene- 
rals. And, in that fmglc Surprizal upon him 
by thc'Dutch Fleer, he fought rliem fo ftout- 
ly with a very unequal Force 5 and afterwards 
fccured his Retreat with fo much Refolution 
and Bravery, that his Enemies were obliged 
to acknowledge, there was fomcthing in his 
Greatnefs of Mind and Condud that was more 
than human. 

If we confidcr either th? Afcendant of his 


380 The LIFE of ^* 

Courage, or Fortune, it will not be eafy to 
find a Parallel in his own Age, and as hardly 
in all Antiquity. He had reftorcd his Country 
with Camfl/us , but the Sequel of his Life 
was more glorious. He had all the Difpatch 
of Cafar, but none of his Ambition ; the Po- 
pularity of Tompey, without any of his Er- 
rors, or Misfortunes ; the Eftimation of Lu^ 
culluSy feparate from his Luxury j the In- 
duftry of the brave Agricola, but in the Ser- 
vice cf a better Mafter. He had equalled 
Scipio, in reducing the greater Enemies of the 
Common-wealth, and more faithlefs than the 
Carthaginians, but exceeded him in the Love 
of his Country, and the Glory of his End. His 
Command, and the Times he lived in, had 
the neareft Rcfcmblanceto thofeof Sertorius 
in Spain ; nor were there wanting Confede- 
rates about him of l^erpennds infidious Tem- 
per ; but he look'd ^o narrowly after them, 
that none of them could find thofe Advan- 
tages acrainll: him, which were taken aeainft 
that generous Rodman. 

If his Virtues had been only Military, he 
and his Armour might, in peaceful Times, 
have rufted together. But as he had the Suf- 
ficiency of a great General in War, To he had 
equal Prudence and Jnduftry in Civil Bufi- 
ncfs. And, when there was no more Occa- 
ilon for his Sword, he became a mofl: ufe- 

General Monk. 381 

£ul and ncceflary Minifter of State i where- 
in, if fome few have exceeded him in Dif- 
patch, yet none in Surenefs and Fidelity. 
By his Prudence he baffled all his Enemies, 
and unravelled all the Labyrinths of their 
crooked Subtilty. By the fame Virtue he 
preferved to himfelf the continued Affedion 
and Kindnefs of his Majefty, which (hined 
upon him to the Evening of his Life, with- 
out the Interruption of the lead Cloud. By 
tlie like Quality he kept up his Eftimatioa 
with his Equals, and the Minifters of State, 
againft whom he had never given into any 
intriguing Schemes. And, as a Reward of 
his Prudence and Integrity, he had thofe Ad- 
vantages which have feldom been known to 
center in the fame Perfon 5 of being equally 
the Favourite of the King, the Court, and 
the People. 

Nor was it the leaft of his Felicities, that 
he had the Opportunity of obliging a Prince 
of fo generous and humane a Difpofition, who 
could never be capable of looking upon the 
Greatnefs of his Services with Sufpicion, or 
to eftecm it a Reproach to his own Great- 
nefs and Glory, to have been reftored by one 
of his own Subjeds. He had alio the fur- 
ther good Fortune to perform his Service to 
the King in the Flower of his Age, and tlic 
Fulnefs of his Joys, before the narrow and 


38i The LIFE of 

fufpicious Temper, which is more incidtnit 
to an advanced Age, could be fuppofed to 
difcover its ordinary and too riatural Ef- 


His Silence and advifcd Taciturnity was 
Part of his Prudence, which grew in a great 
Meafure upon his Nature, and became habi- 
tual to him, by a long Converfation among 
thofe whom he could neither love, not 
thought it reafonable to truft. Such was his 
Caution and Warinefs, that he would com- 
monly contrive to be the laft Man in the 
Company to declare his Opinion. He had 
thofe Virtues in Perfcdion, which the Lord 
Bacon requires in a Perfon in a publick Of- 
fice, viz. " Opennefs in Fame and Opinion 
" of others, Secrecy in an habitual Conceal- 
" ment of himfelf." Becaufe the Generality 
of Men arc moft delighted in difcourfmg of 
thofe Subjects wherein they excel, or have 
been eminently fuccefsful ; fome have con- 
trived to oblige him, by making the Affairs 
of thofe Times, and his extraordinary Servi- 
ces in reftoring the King, theSubjedof Con- 
verfation in his Company ; in all which he 
would always reply with fo great Humility, 
and Appearance of difclaiming all Merit in 
himfelf, that there is not a Perfon now liv- 
ing, who can charge him with Vanity or O- 
dentation. And, perhaps, there is not an In- 


General Monk, 385 

ftance in Hiftory of any Man, who ever per- 
form'd fuch great Services, and difcovered Co 
little Inclination to mention them, ortoheac 
them mentioned by others. 

Though his Grace very well knew how 
to exped thofe Regards, which were due to 
his Perfon and Quality, yet furely no Man 
entertained hisownGrcatnefs withlefs Cere- 
mony, being a profefled Enemy to the little 
pompous Vanities, by which Perfons of the 
firft Diftindion fo magnificently trifle with one 
another. And they who could only take the 
Height of a great Man, by the Length of 
his Shadow J by Appearances, and the Noife 
about him 5 by Formalities, and a numerous 
Croud of Attendants, thought they wanted 
fomcthing of Grandeur in his Character and 
Behaviour ; who had indeed the Spirit of a 
great Hero, with the Moderation of a Philo- 
fopher ; the Plainnefs of a ^ood Man, with 
the Secrecy of a ConfciTor. 

The Envious whom he out-(hined, and 
the Malicious whom he had defeated, have 
expofcd his regular and decent Frugality to 
the Dlfadvantagc of his Gencrofiry, which, 
if rightly confidercd, was one --^t ihc greatcft 
Ornaments of his Life ; and did not proceed 
from the Littlenels of his Mind, but from the 
Greatnefs of his Wifdom. For his Grace had 


384 The LIFE of 

taken the true Mcafures of human Things; 
and eftcemed it as a furc Maxim, that Power 
and Intereft are hardly fcparable from Wealth. 
He very well knew how much Princes dcf- 
cend from the Footftool of their Throne, and 
veil their Sovereignty to their Subjeds, by 
too frequent, and, fometimes, mean Appli- 
cations to their People in their Wants : How 
unable the Nobility are to fupport their own 
Efteem and Order, or to aflift the Crown, 
whilft they make themfelves contemptible 
and weak, by the Number and Weight of 
their Debts, ar^d the continual Decay of their 
Eftates. And if the Wealth of the Nation 
come to centre moft among the lower and 
trading Part of the People, at one Time or 
other, it will certainly be in their Power, 
and probably in their Defires, to invade the 
Government. Thcfe, and the like Conside- 
rations, had moved the Duke of Albemarle 
to become as great an Example to the Nobi- 
lity of honourable good Husbandry, as he 
had been before of Loyalty and Allegi- 
ance. , •.,;' ._■ vr; '■'.;/■! '- " X 

Besides his immortal Fame, he has ano- 
ther Inftance of pofthumous Felicity, leav- 
ing behind him a Son, the prefent Duke of 
Albemarle^ the Inheritor of his Nobility and 
Gloriej, ; and growing daily more to the Re- 
femblanceof him, notonly in the Lineaments 


General Monk. 385 

of his Face, but in the Ima^,,of his Mind, 
the Worthincfs of his Natur^S'tid Height of 
his Courage and Gallantry. Befides his own 
great Example, he had given him, in his Life- 
time, the early Imprcflions of Virtue and 
Loyalty j and left him, at his Death, great in 
the Favour of his Prince, great in the Efteem 
of the Nobility, great in the univerfal Affec- 
tion of the People, and great in the Circle of 
human Fortune. 

Such were the Felicities of the late Duke 
of Albemarle^ as cannot poflibly happen to 
any, but tothofe who arefingularly fuftained 
by the Divine Favour, and have purfued glo- 
rious Ends -y which will make Men of rebel- 
lious and fanatical Principles afraid how they 
mix their Reproaches and Curfes among fo 
many Bleflings of God. 

Thus have we brought this Great, this 
Fortunate, this Triumphant Hero to his 

And now may the Imperial Crown of 
England never want any thing to fupport it, 
befides its own Majefty and Greatnefs. But 
if ever it fliould, may there never be wanting 
a Duke of Albemarle. Amen. 

C c Ccn.' 

Gen.AfOiVZ's Pedigree. 

HE follow'mg Account of Ge- 
neral Monk'^ Defcenty was 
taken out of a Pamphlet (late- 
ly c omnium cafe d to me) printed A. D, 
1 6' J 9 . Arid I pre fume from the Date 
of it^ the Dejign of publifhmg tt at that 
Ttme was^ to make out a Title to the 
Crown^ which they were fo importunate 
with hirn to accept of The Pamphlet is 

. The Pedi|Trce and Defcent of his 
Excellency Gen. George Monk: 
Setting forth how he isdefcend- 
ed from K. Edzvard the Third, 
by a Branch and Slip of the White 
Rofe, the Houfe of 7"^^^^/ And 
IikewifehisExtra6lion from Ri- 

ti^Z' chard King o{ the Romans. 

I Page 



General Monk s Pedigree, 

P^li'C TO. 

" Frances^ another Daughter and Coheir 

" of the faid Arthur ^Tlantagcnet, was marri- 

" cd firft to John Buffet in the County of 

" ^e'voriy by whom (he had Arthur Baffet, 

" Knight, &c. She after married to Sir Tho- 

" mas Monk of ^otkeridze in the aforelaid 

" County of 'Devon -^ which S'\^ Thomas \,':!ls 

" the Son of Anthony, the Son and Heir of 

" Humphrey Monk of Totheridge, and of 

" his Wife Mary, Daughter and Coheir of 

" Richard Champeriioon in Corn-jjal, by the 

" Daughter and Coheir of Sir John Lumley^ 

" Knight, and of his Wife the Daughter and 

" Coheir of Sir Humphrey Talhot,Y^r\v^\\t ; 

*' which Richard Champ erne en was Son to 

'^ Richard, Son of John, third Son to Ri- 

" chard, Son to Henry, Son to Thomas, Son 

'' of i?/V/j^r<^ and 3^<?/z?2 his Wile, Daughter 

" and Heir of Ralph Vautort, and of his 

" Wife Joan, Daughter to Edmund Earl of 

" Corn'-jjaJ, Son to Richard¥^\ngo^ x.\\q Ro- 

*^ mans : Sir Thomas Monk aforelaid bad If- 

*' fue, Anthony Monk, firfi Son, (and fcvcral 

" other Children) from whom is defccndcd 

" George Monk, Lord of Totheridge. and at 

" this Ti'Vic the famous and moft rcaowncd 

" General. 

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. '^v 

Life of General Monk, 

Received: Bound in full 
brown calf; front and 
back covers detached. 

Treatment: Spine cleaned; 
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