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The • Toronto • University 











By E. GUHL and W. KONER, 





549 & 551 BROADWAY. 





In order to make the present volume more acceptable to the 
English reader, the letter-press has been considerably shortened, 
partly by means of condensation, such as the more concise char- 
acter of our language, in comparison with the German, permits 
of, partly by the occasional omission of details which seemed to 
lie somewhat beyond the scope of the work. Nothing of impor- 
tance, however, has been left out, and it is hoped that this English 
version will fulfill, no less perfectly than the original, the task 
of rendering a comprehensive account of the life and manners 
of the two great antique nations, founded on the latest results of 
modern research, and illustrated by the careful reproduction of 
Greek and Rpman monuments. It ought to be added that after 
the decease of one of the authors — Professor E. Guhl, in 1862 — 
Professor W. Koner, of the University Library, Berlin, has 
brought out two revised and considerably augmented editions of 
their common work. 




1. Significance of the Temple 1 

2. Preparatory Stages of Temple-Building 3 

3. Temple on Mount Ocha 5 

4. Doric, Ionic, and Korinthian Columns • . . 7 

5. Templum in Antis — Pronaos — Doric Beams 11 

6. Double Templum in Antis — Opisthodomos 13 

7. Prostylos — Small Temple at Selinus . 15 

8. Amphiprostylos — Temple of Nike Apteros at Athens — Ionic Beams — Tem- 

ple on the Ilissos 17 

9. Peripteros — Development of the Colonnade — Meaning of Pteron — Perip- 

teral Temple — First Form — Temple at Selinus — Second Form — Theseion 

at Athens — Third and Fourth Forms — The Parthenon at Athens . . 20 

10. Pseudodipteros — Temple at Akragas 29 

11. Hypaethros — Temple of Apollo near Phigalia — Temple of Poseidon at 

Paestum — Temple of Zeus at Olympia 31 

12. Dipteros — Temple of Apollo at Miletos 37 

13. Pseudodipteros — Temple at Selinus — Temple at Aphrodisias ... 40 

14. Other Forms of the Temple — The Round Temple — The Double Temple— 

Erechtheion at Athens — The Votive Temple — Temple at Eleusis . . 43 

15. Fittings of the Temple — Altars — Altar of Zeus Hypatos at Athens — The 

Oblation Table 49 

16. Temple-Inclosure — Portals — Portal at Palatia — Propylaea at Sunion — 

Temple-Inclosure and Propylaea of Eleusis — Small Propylaea in the same 
Place — The Akropolis and Propylaea at Athens 52 

17. Walls of Tyrins, Mykenae, Psophis, Panopeus, and Messene — Castle of 

Tyrins 59 

18. Gates of Tyrins, Phigalia, and Messene — The Lions' Gate at Mykenae — 

Gates of Orchomenos, Messene, and ffiniadae 62 

19. Towers — Several Forms of the Tower — Towers of Phigalia, Orchomenos, 

Aktor, Messene, Mantinea, Keos, Andros, and Tenos .... 65 

20. Buildings of Utility — Aqueducts — Harbors of Pylos, Methone, and Rhodes — 

Roads — Bridges in Messenia — Bridges across the Pamisos and Eurotas . 69 

21. Dwelling-Houses — The House of the Homeric Anax — Treasuries — Thesau- 

ros at Mykenae — Fountain-House in the Isle of Kos .... 73 

22. The Historic Dwelling-House — The Court — Gynaikonitis, Pastas — Door, 

Passage, and Court-yard — The Hearth — The dvpa fitTavXos — Dwelling- 
House with Two Courts — The 6vpa ixeaavKos — Dwelling-House in the Isle 
ofDelos 78 



23. Graves — Tumuli at Marathon, Pantikapaion, and in the Isle of Syme — 

Graves in Rocks in the Islands of iEgina, Melos, and Delos — Graves 
of Chalke and Chilidromia — Stone Coffins — Graves at Xanthos — Fa9ades 
of Tombs at Myra and Telmessos — Graves in Rocks of Kos, Rhodes, and 
Cyprus — Necropolis of Kyrene — Fittings of Graves : Altars, Stones, Stelai, 
Columns, Pillars, Sarcophagi, Statues 85 

24. Graves — Graves cut from the Rock in Lykia and in the Isle of Rhodes — 

Grave-Monuments of Kyrene, Mykenae, Delphi, Carpuseli, and the Isle of 
Amorgos — The Mausoleum of Halikarnassos — The Choragic Monument of 
Lysikrates at Athens 97 

25. Palaestra and Gymnasion — Parts of the Gymnasion — Gymnasia at Hierapo- 

lis and Ephesos 106 

26. The Agora : its Significance — Agorae of Delos and Aphrodisias — The Tower 

of the Winds at Athens Ill 

27. Stoae at Athens, Elis, Psestum, Thorikos, and of the Hellanodikai at Elis 113 

28. The Hippodrome — The Hippodrome of Olympia 116 

29. The Stadia of Laodikeia, Messene, and Aphrodisias 119 

30. The Theatre: its Division— The Spectators' Place — Theatres of Delos, 

Stratonikeia, Megalopolis, and Segesta — Diazomata — Theatres of Knidos 
and Dramyssos — Stairs and Entrances — Theatre at Sikyon — Sitting-Steps 
— Theatre f Dionysos at Athens — The Orchestra; the Thymele — The 
Scenic Ore. tra — The Stage-Building — Proskenion and Hyposkenion — 
Theatre of '* messos 122 

31. Seats : Diphroo, Klismos, Thronos — Footstool 134 

32. Couches: Kline — Beds 136 

33. Tables 739 

34. Drawers and Boxes 139 

35. Vases — Earthen Vessels : Places where they are found chiefly . . . 141 

36. Manufactory of Earthen Vessels 142 

37. Development of Painting on Earthen Vessels 143 

38. Forms and Varieties of Earthen Vessels : Storing, Mixing, Drawing, and 

Drinking Vessels — Crockery — Baths . . 148 

39. Vessels made of Stone, Metal, and Basket-work 156 

40. Torches and Lamps — Lighting-Apparatus 159 

41. Dress — Endymata : Chiton, Exomis, Doube Chiton, Diploi's, Ampechonion 160 

42. Dress — Epiblemata: Himation, Tribon, Chlamys — Materials of Dresses: 

their Color and Ornamentation 166 

43. Dress — Male Head-Coverings 171 

44. Men's Way of wearing the Hair 173 

45. Dress— Women's Head-Coverings and their Way of dressing the Hair . 174 

46. Dress — Shoes, Boots, etc 177 

47. Dress. — Ornaments : Wreaths, Chains, Rings, Gems — Sun-shade — Mirror — 

Stick and Sceptre 179 

48. Female Life — The Position of Women — Spinning, Embroidering, and Weav- 

ing — Hand-mills — Women's Bath — The Swing 186 

49. Female Life — Marriage, Nuptial Bath, Wedding Feast — The Hetairai . 191 

50. The Education of the Boy — Birth and Infancy — Toys — First Education — 

Wri ting-Materials 196 

51. Music — Stringed Instruments : Lyra, Barbiton, Kithara, Phorminx, Trigo- 

non — Wind-Instruments : Syrinx, Aulos, Double Aulos, Askaules — War- 
like Instruments — Hydraulos — Musical Instruments used at the Religious 
Rites of Bacchus and Cybele : Krotaloi, Cymbals, Tympanon, Sistrum . 200 

52. Gymnastic and Agonistic Exercises — Foot-race — The Leap (Halteres) — 

Wrestling (rubbing of the Limbs with Oil) — Diskobolia — Throwing the 
Spear — Pentathlon — Boxing — Pankration 213 

53. Chariot-races — Horse-races — Game at Ball — The Bath .... 226 

54. Armor: The Helmet — Cuirass — Greaves — Shield — Spear; the fiecrdyKv\ov 

— Sword (Harpe) — Club — Battle-axe — Bow — Sling — Battle-chariot — Har- 
ness — Armor of Horsemen and Horses. — Tropaion 232 



55. The Ship — The Homeric Ship — Origin of Larger Vessels — Outer Con- 
struction of the Hull — Mast, Sails, Rigging, Anchor, Lead, Ship's Ladder 
— Interior Arrangement of the Ship : Rowing- Apparatus ; Oars, Ranks 
of Rowers — Docks — The Roman Ship 254 

5G. The Meal — Symposion — Jugglers — Games at Draughts and Dice — Cock- 
fights — Game at Morra 265 

57. The Dance — Warlike Dances — Dance of Peace 273 

58. Theatrical Representations — The Spectators' Place — Scenery — Costumes 

—Masks 276 

69. The Sacrifice — Purification — Prayer — Sacrifice Proper — Panathenai'c Pro- 
cession (Frieze of the Parthenon) 282 

60. Death and Burial 288 


y/ 61. Principle of Roman Sacred Architecture — Essence of Roman Religion — 

The Templum — Division of the Roman Temple — The Etruscan Temple 295 

62. Temple of the Capitoline Deities in Rome 298 

63. Influence of Greek on Roman Life — Greek Culture in Italy aip4 Rome — 

— Religious Relations between Greece and Rome — The Intro jifcion into 
Rome of the Forms of the Greek Temple — The Temple of tj i Olympian 
Jupiter at Athens *. 301 

64. Alterations of Greek Architectural Forms in Rome — Greek Orders of Col- 

umns in Roman Buildings — Korinthian Order 304 

65. Amalgamation of Greek and Italian Forms — Roman Temple — Temple of 

the Sibyl of Tivoli — Temple at Nismes — Temple of Jupiter at Pompeii 

— Temple of Concordia in Rome 307 

G6. Roman Temple with a Vaulted Cella — Temple at Heliopolis — Double Tem- 
ple with Vaulted Cellae — Temple of Venus and Roma in Rome . . 311 

07. Roman Round Temple — Monopteros — Peripteros — Temple of Vesta at 

Tivoli — Pantheon in Rome 315 

68. Surroundings of the Roman Temple — Temple of Venus at Pompeii — Tem- 

ple of Jupiter and Juno in Rome — Temples of the Sun at Palmyra and 
Hierapolis — Temple of Fortuna at Prameste 322 

69. Roman Fortifications — Walls — Walls on the Palatine Hill — Materials and 

Composition — Town-Walls of Pompeii and Rome — Towers at Pompeii 

— The Saalburg near Homburg and the Roman Camp at Gamzigrad . 328 

70. Roman Gates — The Arch — Porta Aurea at Salona — Porta Maggiore in 

Rome — Gates with Three Openings — Gates of Aosta and Pompeii . 335 

71. Roman Roads — Grotto of the Posilippo, near Naples — Via Appia . . 33(» 

72. Roman Bridges — Ponte di Nona, near Rome — Bridge across the Fiora — 

Pons Fabricius and Ponte S. Angelo, Rome 342 

73. Roman Harbors — Harbors of Centumcellas and Ostia — Emporium in Rome 345 

74. Canals — Cloaca Maxima — Drainage — Emissarium of the Fucine Lake — 

Aqueducts — Aqueducts of Rome and near Nismes and Segovia — Castella 

— Reservoirs at Fermo and Baiae 349 

75. — Roman Private Architecture — Atrium — Houses at Pompeii — Tablinum 
— Peristylium — House of Pansa at Pompeii — Casa di Championnet at 
Pompeii 355 

76. Roman Private Architecture— Facades — Door and Windows — Plastering 

of the Walls — Court in the House of Actaeon, Pompeii — Interior of the 
House of Pansa — The Palace — Golden House of Nero — Palace of Dio- 
cletian at Salona — Villas of Hadrian at Tibur and of Diomedes at Pompeii. 363 

77. Graves at Caere and Norchia — Cucumella — Sarcophagus of Scipio— Colum- 

barium of the Freedmen of Livia 373 

78. Tombs of Virgil, of the Horatii and Curiatii, and of Caecilia Metella— Pyramid 

of Cestius — Tomb of Bibulus — Graves at Palmyra — Monuments of Augus- 



tus and Hadrian — Street of Graves at Pompeii — Ustrinae — Tombs in the 

Via Appia 377 

79. Monuments of Honor — Monument oflgel — Columns of Trajan and Anto- 

nine — Triumphal Arches — Arches of Titus and Constantine . . . 885 

80. Thermae at Veleia and Pompeii — Thermae of Titus and Caracalla in Rome. 393 
-■ 81. Curiae — Basilicae of Otricoli and Pompeii — Basilica Julia — Basilica Ulpia 404 

82. Comitia — Forum Romanum — Fora of Veleia and Pompeii — Imperial Fora 

in Rome 411 

83. Circus of Bovillae — Circus Maximus in Rome 419 

84. Theatres at Tauromenium, of Pompey and Marcellus in Rome, of Herod at 

Athens, at Orange, and Aspendos 422 

85. Amphitheatre — Theatre of Curio — Amphitheatres at Capua and Rome 

(Coliseum) 430 

86. General Remarks about Roman Utensils 435 

87. Seats : Sella, Cathedra, Solium, Sella Curulis, Bisellium .... 437 

88. Couches : Lectus, Lectus Triclinarius, Sigma, Hemicyclia .... 440 

89. Tables— Tripods 443 

90. Vessels — Crockery — Dishes 445 

91. Vessels of Precious Metals — Treasure found at Hildesheim — Glass Vessels 

— Murrhine Vases — Drawing-vessel — Wine-vessels — Vintage — Growth 

of the Vine — Wine-skins 448 

92. Lamps — Candelabrum — Lampadarium 468 

93. Doors — Locks and Bolts — Family Pictures — Wall-Paintings . . . 463 

94. Mosaic — Gardens 471 

95. Dress — Toga — Paenula — Lacerna — Sagum — Paludamentum — Synthesis — 

Tunica — Stola — Palla — Ricinium — Materials and Colors of Dresses — Full- 
ing 474 

96. Head-Coverings and Ways of wearing the Hair (Male and Female) — Shoes, 

Boots, and Sandals 486 

97. Ornaments : Hair-pins, Necklaces, Pendants, Rings, Fibulae, Mirrors, Etrus- 

can Mirrors — Toilet-Mysteries 493 

98. Roman Cookery — Meals — Drinking — Game at Dice 499 

99. The Bath — Gymnastics — Game at Ball 505 

100. Slaves: their Classes and Social Position — Sedan-Chairs — Carriages and 

Carts — Jugglers 509 

101. Slaves as Artificers — Mill — Bakery — Scales — Cook-shops — Potters — 

Founders — Architects — Shoemakers, etc 517 

102. Slaves as Physicians and Copyists — Book-trade — Books — Writing-Materi- 

als — Libraries — Agriculture — The Vine and Olive .... 524 

103. Priestly Colleges ; Pontifices, Flamines, Vestals, vii Viri Epulones, xv Viri 

Sacris Faciundis, Augurs, Haruspices, Salii, Fetiales — The Sacrifice . 531 

104. Ludi Circenses 544 

105. Amphitheatrical Games — Gladiators — Fights with Animals — Naumachiae 551 

106. Theatrical Representations . . • 562 

107. Armor : Helmet, Cuirass, Shield, Spear (Pilum, Framea), Sword, Bow and 

Arrows, Sling — Elephants — Baggage — Stores— Praetorians — Standards — 
Military Music — Military Engines — Battering-Ram, Testudo, Walking- 
Tower — Bridge of Boats — Allocutio (Lictores and Fasces) . . 565 

108. Military Decorations 582 

109. Triumph 584 

110. Death and Burial — Consecration 589 

List of Illustrations 595 

Index of Terms 609 


1. In undertaking to describe the life of the Greeks in its 
distinct external appearance, we have first of all to direct our 
attention to the products of architecture. For of all the creations 
designed by man's ingenuity and executed by his hand, these 
produce the grandest and most powerful impression and give the 
most distinguishable character to the life of a nation. 

Originated by the free creative fantasy of man, they have 
to serve at the same time certain purposes and demands of life. 
They therefore open a view into the genius of their creators, giv- 
ing at the same time a picture of the real existence in which these 
creators moved. If this is true of nations in general, it is par- 
ticularly the case with the Greeks, because they were enabled and 
gifted more than any other nation to render the innermost nature 
of their genius in external works of art. It being the task of all 
investigations of antique Greece to make us understand the spirit 
and mode of thinking and living of this people, we shall scarcely 
be able to attain this aim without considering, together with the 
creations of their poetry and philosophy, with the legal institutions 
of the state and the doctrines of their religion, also the numerous 
and variegated productions of their architecture. In these, no less 
than in the others, Greek genius and Greek culture find their 
expression, with all the greater distinctness as these introduce us 
into the varied phases of real existence, and tend to show a dis- 
tinct character common to all their different peculiarities. 

For whatever part of Greek life we may consider — be it public 
acts of religion or social intercourse, public feasts and games, or 
the more quiet scenes of home and family — we find that for all 
these their ingenious mind has created works of architecture, 
which, through being regulated by these various demands, give 
us a much more vivid idea of this life than the mostly isolated 


written testimonials in our possession are able to. Indeed, the 
materials which these latter offer to our investigation can only 
be completed and invested with full life by an accurate knowledge 
of the monuments. 

To do this in a manner as complete and comprehensive of all 
the phases of life as possible is the task of "the architectural 
remnants of the Greeks," with which we begin our description of 
antique life. It is not our intention to give an gesthetical reason 
for the forms, or a history of their development, which belong 
to a different science. We only wish to show how the Greeks 
supplied the various demands of religion, and of public and 
private life, in their edifices. For this reason also our division 
of the abundant material cannot but be a purely practical one ; 
beginning, quite in accordance with Greek notions, with a de- 
scription of the temples, and adding afterward the various kinds 
of profane buildings. For it was the custom of the Greeks to 
begin with divine things even in the works of daily life, and of 
all their creations none are so apt to bring home to us this 
connection between the celestial and terrestrial as those belonging 
to the domain of the fine arts. 

Poetry begins simultaneously with the narration of human 
feats of valor and the praise of the immortal gods. The fine arts 
are developed from the ornamentation of the various appliances of 
daily life, combined with the desire of giving distinct form to the 
image of the deity. In this manner architecture serves a material 
want in affording shelter to human beings, but no less it meets 
the ideal want of the religious mind in erecting the temple as the 
protecting dwelling of the divine image. A firm house was 
prepared for the god to testify Iris protecting presence, and a 
centre was created, round which the exercises of various arts 
grouped themselves. In building and adorning temples archi- 
tecture has become a fine art, and the images of the gods dwelling 
therein, combined with the symbolical representation of their 
deeds and history, have raised sculpture to its highest perfection. 
Moreover, in the' same manner, as within the holy precinct the 
peace-offering was celebrated, the temple became likewise the 
centre of festival and dignified events which were so frequent 
in the life of the Greeks, and endowed it throughout with an 
artistically beautiful and harmonious impression. In front of 


the temples were heard the songs of the god-inspired poet; it 
was there that the processions of Greek virgins moved in measured 
grace, that the powerful beauty of youths strengthened by athletic 
sports showed itself. In the shadow of the temples walked the 
sages and leaders of the people, and round them gathered the 
wide circle of free and honest citizens, rejoicing in the enjoyment 
of a life ennobled by art and culture, and justly proud in the 
consciousness of being Greeks. In this way the temple became 
the rallying-point of every thing good, noble, and beautiful, which 
we still consider as the glory of Greek culture and refinement. 
To the temple, therefore, we must first of all devote our attention 
in order to revive our consciousness of the spirit and essence of 
classical antiquity. 

2. But not at all times were there among the Greeks such 
temples connected with the veneration of certain gods. Not to 
speak of the earliest periods of Greek history, during which the 
gods were adored as nameless and impersonal powers, as, for 
instance, by the Pelasgi, it also happened at much later times 
that the divine principle was considered as present in certain 
phenomena of Nature. Fountains and trees, 
caves and mountains, were considered as 
seats of the gods, and revered accordingly, 
even without being changed into divine habi- 
tations by the art of man. So it happened 
that offerings and gifts were devoted to cer- 
tain trees believed to be the symbols and seats 
of certain gods ; nay, sometimes such trees 
were adorned with garlands, and altars were 
erected in front of them. Representations 
from later periods testify this in various 
ways. Fig. 1, for instance, shows a sacred 
pine, to which are attached peculiarly-tied 
wreaths and sounding brasses (/cporaXov), as 
they were used in the service of Dionysos, 
the altar in front being destined for the 
reception of offerings. 

Among mountains, particularly Parnassos 
and Olympos were considered as favorite seats of the gods. We 
also find not unfrequently that certain religious rites were con- 

FlG. 1. 


Fig. 2. 

nected with natural caves ; these being naturally considered as the 
seats of superhuman powers because of the strong impression 

made by their mysterious 
darkness on the human 
mind. Pausanias, for in- 
stance, tells us that a cave 
in a cliff near Bura in 
Achaia was dedicated to 
the Herakles Buraikos, and 
that in it there was an 
oracle which disclosed the 
future by means of dice. 
Recent travelers believe 
that they have rediscovered 
this oracular cave of Hera- 
kles in the cliff represented by Fig. 2. They allege that the 
natural rock has been shaped purposely into a certain form, and 
that, at the top of the rock, the rudely-worked likeness of a head 
is recognizable. 

These and other similar usages point back to a time when the 
gods were considered in the light of indefinite powers ; the want 
of temples, properly speaking, seems to have become more urgent 
only when the gods began to be imagined and represented under 
distinct human forms. Only then it became of importance to find 
for the representative image of the god a certain protected dwell- 
ing-place. But here again it was originally the custom to make 
use of natural objects which were considered as connected with 
the nature of the god, and the same places 
which formerly were considered as the habita- 
tions of divine beings now were in reality used 
or prepared for the reception of the idol. We 
know, for instance, that the oldest image of 
Artemis, at Ephesos, was placed in the hollow 
stem of an elm-tree : even Pausanias saw in his 
own time the image of Artemis Kedreatis in a 
large cedar at Orchomenos. Later sculptors 
often show divine images of smaller size placed 
on the stem or branches of protecting trees, as is the case in a 
relief (Fig. 3). 

Fig. 3. 


3. The above-mentioned appliances for the protection of divine 
images may be considered as preparatory stages of the temple 
properly so called. In the same degree as architecture in its at- 
tempts at constructing and securing human dwellings became more 
and more developed (see § 21), the desire became apparent of pro- 
curing to the god a dwelling at once firm and lasting in accord- 
ance with his eternal nature. With the progress of architecture, 
which made this possible, the development of sculpture went hand 
in hand ; and as, in the poems of the Greeks, the gods became 
more and more humanized, we notice in the same degree a change 
in the fine arts from the bare and simple outline to a more and 
more perfect human representation of the gods. And the nearer 
god approached man, the closer also the primitive protection of 
the image began to resemble the house. A lucky accident has 
preserved in Eubcea several specimens of the oldest temple-build- 
ings in the shape of simple stone houses. In this island, not far 
from the town of Karystos, rises the steep mountain of Ocha 
(called at present Hagios Elias). At a considerable height there 
is a narrow plateau, to which there is only one access, and over 
which the rock rises still a little higher. On this plateau modern 
travelers (first Hawkins) have discovered a stone house, from which 
there is a splendid 
view over the sea ^^^^^^g 
and the island (see p^3 « 
Fig. 4). According Mji 
to the measurement wS^Si 

of HI rich, it forms p§| 
an oblong from west 
to east of forty feet B^l 5~ 
in outer length, 
by twenty -four in ^^■""^^" 
width. The walls, 
four feet deep, and formed of irregular pieces of slate, rise to 
seven feet in the interior. In the southern wall there is a gate 
covered with a slab thirteen feet long by one and a half feet 
thick, and two small windows which remind one of the gates in 
old Kyklopic or Pelasgic walls (see § 18). The roof of this house 
consists of hewn-stone slabs, which, resting on the thickness of 
the wall, are pushed one over the other toward the inside — a 

Fig. 4. 


mode of covering which has also been used in the buildings of 
the earliest period of Greek architecture, as, for instance, in the 
treasure-houses of the old royal palaces. It ought also to be no- 
ticed, that in the middle of the roof there has been left an open- 
ing nineteen feet long by one and a half wide, the first beginning 
of the hypcethral formation (see plan, Fig. 5, and interior, Fig. 
6). In the interior there protrudes from the western wall a stone, 
which most likely was destined for the reception of the idol or 

of other holy objects. In 
the temples of later periods 
the holy statues also stood 
generally nearest to the 
western wall, looking to 
the east, where the entrance 
usually was. That this is 
not the case here is ex- 
plained by the situation of 
the holy edifice, for close 
to the eastern wall the rock 
falls steep into the sea. For 
this reason the gate could 
be placed only on the south- 
ern side, up to which winds 
the rocky path which forms 
the only approach. To the 
west of the temple there are 
remnants of a wall which 
either served as an inclos- 
ure (peribolos), or may 
also have belonged to a 
treasure-house. Notwithstanding the objections of some archae- 
ologists, we are entitled to consider this building as a temple, 
perhaps dedicated to Hera, who was particularly worshiped in 
the island of Eubcea. This opinion is further confirmed by the 
myth, that, on this very Mount Ocha, the goddess celebrated her 
wedding with Zeus ; we may indeed assume, almost with cer- 
tainty, that the described temple was erected in commemoration 
of that mythical event, on the very spot where it was said to have 
taken place. Of similar construction are three other stone build- 

Fig. 6. 


ings in Euboea lying close to each other northeast of the village 
of Stura, two of which are oblong, while the third and middle 
one is a square in form, covered with a hypaethral roof like a 
cupola, formed by protruding slabs. 

4. From the simple form of the quadrangular house sur- 
rounded by smooth walls, as we have seen it in the just-mentioned 
primitive temple, there took place a gradual progress toward 
more beautiful and varied formations. These embellishments 
consisted chiefly in the addition of columns. Columns are isolated 
props used to carry the ceiling and the roof, and applied in a 
particular artistic form and order. Such props are mentioned in 
the Homeric poems ; they were used chiefly in the interiors of 
the royal palaces described therein, where, for instance, the courts 
are surrounded by colonnades, and where the ceilings of the 
lordly halls are supported by columns. All the later forms of Greek 
temples arose from the connection of these props with the holy 
edifice, and from their different uses in the exteriors and interiors. 

Before we describe the temples we have to consider the 
different kinds of columns. Not to speak of the gradual trans- 
formation which the column underwent in the course of time, 
the consideration of which belongs to the history of art, we have 
to distinguish two chief kinds, the knowledge of which is required 
in order to form a notion of the different species of the temples 

These two species of columns, which are generally denomi- 
nated the orders of columns, are the Doric and Ionic. A third, 
the Korinthian order, belongs to a later period of Greek art. The 
Doric column has its name from the Greek tribe of the Dorians, 
by whom it was invented and most frequently used, and with 
whose serious and dignified character its whole formation corre- 
sponds. It is divided into two parts, the shaft and the capital. 
The shaft consists of a stem of circular form, which up to a third 
of its height slightly increases in circumference (evraaisi), and 
decreases again more or less toward the top. The bottom part 
rests immediately on the stereobaton or base of the temple. 
Only in rare cases the column was monolithic, usually it consisted 
of several pieces or " drums " (airovBuXoi), composed without mor- 
tar, which were fastened to each other by dowels of cedar-wood, 
such as have been discovered on the columns of the Parthenon 


Fig. 8. 

and the temple of Theseus at Athens. Lengthways the shaft was 
broken by parallel indentures (pafiSaxrw), now called flutings, the 
edges of which formed sharp angles, and which, as we can see 
from several unfinished temples, were chiseled into the columns 
after they had been put into their places. On the shaft rests the 
second part of the column, the head or capital, which the Greeks, 
in analogy to the human head, called icefyakaiov, the Romans ca- 
pitulum. The capital of the Doric order consists of three parts. 

The first is called viro- 
Tpcvyrfkcov, neck, and 
forms the continua- 
tion of the shaft, from 
which it is separated 
by one or more inden- 
tures. In its upper 
part it widens, and is generally adorned by several 

H horizontal stripes called by the Romans rings, an- 

nuli. After this follows the chief portion of the 
capital, a ledge also, of circular formation, and 

I strongly projecting all round. It was called by the 

Greeks e'^ti/o?, and comprised the supporting power 
of the column, under the weight of the beams and 
the roof resting on it. The third part consists of a 
square piece with square edges, which is called the 
bearer (afiai;, whence the Latin abacus), and is des- 
tined for the reception of the chief beam or archi- 
trave {eiruTTvkiov) resting on the column {see page 

Fig. t. The artistic (gesthetic and static) import of all 

these parts must not occupy us here, any more than 
the changes which they underwent in the gradual development 
of Greek art. We must confine ourselves to the general remark 
that the older the building, the heavier and more compressed is 
the formation of the whole column, as is particularly shown by 
the few still-existing columns of a temple at Korinth, which per- 
haps belongs to the sixth century b. c. As an example of the 
most beautiful form, we add (Fig. 7) the reproduction of a col- 
umn of the Parthenon belonging to the acme of Greek architect- 
ure ; its capital is shown on a larger scale in Fig. 8. 



The Doric order expresses artistically the spirit and the se- 
rious tendency of the Doric tribe ; the lighter and more versatile 
mind of the Ionic tribe finds its expression in the more ornament- 
al order of columns called after it. About the time of its origin 
we will say nothing here. May it suffice to state that, as early as 

Fig. 9. 

the thirtieth Olympiad (656 b. c.) the Ionic order 
of columns was in use, together with the Doric. 
At that time Myron, tyrant of Sikyon, is said 
to have devoted to the gods a treasure-house at 
Olympia which contained two rooms, one of 
them showing the Doric, the other the Ionic, 
order of columns. 

The Ionic column differed from the Doric 
first of all by its greater slenderness. Its height 
in the average was equal to eight diameters at 
the bottom of the column, while the Doric col- 
umn amounted usually only to four or five. The 
column is divided into three parts, a foot or base 
being added to the shaft and capital. The base 
consists of several prominences {torus) like bol- 
sters, separated from each other by indentures 
(Tpoxihos) which rest on a square slab (ifkivOos), 
and in a manner raise the column from the earth. 
The shaft shows the same cylindric form as that of the Doric 
column, but the decrease in size toward the upper part is less con- 
siderable, and the fluting also differs from the Doric in so far as 
the deep parts are more excavated, and between them there are 


Fig. 10. 



small flat parts called ridges (scamillus). The capital shows, in- 
stead of a simple and severe formation, a greater variety and 
elegance of form. The neck is embellished by sculptural orna- 
ments, the echinus is less prominent, and shows a sculptural 
ornament called ovolo. The richest and most striking charac- 
teristic of the Ionic capital is the part which, somewhat like the 
abacus of the Doric capital, droops, as it were, under the weight 
of the architrave, and leans in an elastic curvature over the 
echinus ; both in front and at the back it shows a double spiral 
ornamentation usually called the volute ; at the sides it forms a 
bolster called by the Romans pulvina?\ Above this lies a small 
slab, also adorned with sculptures, and destined to receive the 
beam. Fig. 10 shows a simple Ionic column which belonged to 
the no longer existing temple on the Ilissos at Athens; Fig. 9, a 
rich capital from the Erechtheion at Athens. 

The third or Korinthian order of columns (the independent 
development of which does not seem to date back before the end 
of the fourth century b. c.) resembles, in the formation of the 
basis and the shaft, the Ionic order. The capital, on the other 
hand, has the form of an open chalice formed of acanthus-leaves, 

over which rises from the 
same basis a second higher 
row of leaves. In the in- 
terstices of this mass of 
leaves we see stems, with 
smaller chalices at their 
tops, rising upward, and 
from the tops of these there 
are again developed stalks 
divided into two, the tops 
of which are bent like vo- 
lutes under the weight of 
the abacus, which in a man- 
ner rests on them. The 
beams are generally bor- 
rowed from the Ionic or- 
der. Vitruvius (iv., 1, 9) 
tells a pretty story . according to which the celebrated architect 
and engraver (Topevrrjs;) Kallimachos, of Athens, was the inventor 

Fig. 11. 



of this capital ; perhaps he was the first to use it artistically. In 
any case, the perfection of the Korinthian capital (as we know it 
from its simplest beginnings in the temple of Apollo at Phigalia, 
up to its noblest development in the capitals of the temple of the 
Didymaic Apollo near Miletos, and in those of the mausoleum of 
Halikarnassos, and on the choragic monument of Lysikrates at 
Athens, Fig. 11 {see Fig. 152), belongs to the time after Perikles. 
Perhaps the first attempts at an ornamentation which was taken 
from plants, and might easily be reproduced in clay, were made 
at Korinth, the seat of clay potteries, and in that case the Ko- 
rinthian capital would have received its name from its first home. 

5. The simplest and most natural way of connecting the 
columns with the temple itself, was to leave out the smallest of 
the four walls in which the entrance was placed, and to erect in- 
stead of it two columns, which thus formed a stately and beautiful 
ingress, and also carried the beams and the roof of the temple. 
The Greeks called a temple of this kind iv 7rapdo-raaiv, the Ro- 
mans a tenvplum in antis, because in it the columns were placed 
between the front pillars of the side-walls, which latter were 
called by the Greeks irapdara^, and by the Romans antes. ,But 
this change of design could not be made without consequences 
for the arrangement of the temple itself. By opening in this way 
the temple on the one — generally the eastern — side, there was 
certainly gained an appropriate ornamentation of the chief 
facade ; but, on the other hand, the regard for the holiness of the 
image required a further seclusion of the room in which it was 
placed : for the house of the god 
was sacred, separated from the 
profane world, and accessible only 
after a previous purification. In 
consequence, the space of the 
temple-cella was divided by a 
wall into two parts, of which the 
one, the mo? proper, contained FlG . &, 

the image of the god, the other 

being used as an outer court or outer temple, and therefore called 
by the Greeks irpovaos or 7rp68ofio<;. 

An example of this most primitive and simple design is pre- 
served in a small temple at Rhamnos, in Attika, which is gener- 



ally designated as the temple of Themis. Its plan (see Fig. 12) 
shows an oblong form similar to that of the temple on Mount 
Ocha, but that on the east side the wall has been omitted, and be- 
tween the two ends of the side-walls or antce (a a) two columns 
(h ~b) have been erected. Passing through these columns we enter 
the pronaos (B\ against the back-wall of which, built of polygo- 
nal stones, stand two marble chairs (c c), dedicated the one to 
Nemesis, the other to Themis, as the inscriptions on them indicate 

(see Fig. 13). Perhaps they 
contained originally the statues 
of these goddesses; the statue 
of one goddess at least, in an 
antiquated style, has been dis- 
covered in the pronaos. The 
temple is small, and stands in a 
very irregular position by the 
side of a larger one, which is 
usually considered as that of 
Nemesis. For this was the 
goddess particularly venerated 
by the inhabitants of Phamnos, 
and her affinity to Themis, the 
goddess of justice, the violations of which Nemesis had to re- 
venge, would account for the close vicinity of the two temples ; 
their irregular position with regard to each other finds its expla- 
nation in the circumstance of the different dates of their erection. 
For the temple of Nemesis belongs to the time of Kimon, while 
that of Themis was erected at an ante-Persian period, most likely 
contemporaneously with the building of the ante-Persian Par- 
thenon and the ante-Persian Propylsea, as is shown by the po- 
lygonal structure of the walls of the cella and the use of the 
porous stone for the columns and antse. 

The facade which shows us the further peculiarities of the 
Doric order we see, Fig. 13. "We observe, first of all, that the 
temple rests on some steps, as was the universal custom among 
the Greeks. The columns of the Doric order, as described in the 
last paragraph, carry, together with the two antse, the upper part 
of the whole building, generally called the beams. The beams 
of the Doric order are divided into three parts — archhitrave, 

Fig. 13. 


frieze, and cornice. The architrave consists of four-edged, 
smoothly-hewn stone beams, which are placed from column to 
column (hence the Greek name ijri<TTv\Lov, i. e., on the columns), 
and are equally continued beyond the wall of the temple. Over 
this follows a second layer of a similar kind, but that here certain 
prominent parts, adorned with vertical stripes and called tri- 
glyphs (rplyXvcposi), occur alternately with square pieces called by 
the Greeks fieT(07rov, and usually adorned with images, i. e., reliefs. 
After these representations (£&«) the Greeks called this part of 
the beams £&x/>opo9. The completion of the beams was formed 
by the cornice called by the Greeks yei<rov, and consisting of a 
prominent rafter cut obliquely downward. Over these beams 
rises on the two smaller sides of the temple a pediment, i. e., a 
triangular structure, as necessitated by the sloping position of the 
roof ; it was formed by a stone-wall and surrounded by a cornice 
similar to the geison of the beams. The Greeks called this gable 
aeros or aerco/jLa, perhaps owing to its similarity to an eagle with 
extended wings. The gable front surrounded by 
the cornice was called by the Greeks Tvpnravov ; 
it was generally adorned with sculptures, such 
as we shall see on several of the larger Greek 
temples. The ridge of the roof as well as the 
corners of the gable were provided in most of 
the temples with ornaments (a/cpwTrjpiov), which 
generally, similar to those on the sarcophagi and 
crrijXcu, were formed like anthemia (Fig. 14). fig. u. 

Instead of these we also find not unfrequently 
on the comers of the retos pedestals, destined to carry statues or 
holy implements like tripods and vases. 

6. There is still another kind of the templum in antis de- 
scribed in our last chapter, which seems not to have been called 
by the Greeks by a separate name, neither is it mentioned sepa- 
rately by Vitruvius, to whom we owe the classification of the 
different forms of the temple. Nevertheless it deserves our par- 
ticular attention, as showing the strictly logical process, followed 
by the Greeks in this matter. 

For, after the one smaller side of the temple had received 
columns instead of a wall, it was natural to do the same on the 
opposite side. This was indeed only in accordance with the feel- 



ing of symmetry shown by the Greeks, to which we shall have to 
refer in considering another form of the temple. 

A beautiful example of this form of the templum in antis we 
find in a temple discovered at Eleusis, of which Fig. 15 shows the 
plan. It was dedicated to Artemis Propylsea, and the position 
of the ruins close by the propylsea of the sacred precinct of the 

temple at Eleusis shows 
beyond doubt that it is 
really the temple seen, 
and called by that name, 
by Pausanias; it is in- 

Fig. 15. 

deed one of the rare cases 
where the name of a 
Greek temple can be 
proved with certainty. 
The temple, of which 
little more than the 
foundations remain, but 
which can be easily reconstructed with the help of these founda- 
tions and of some fragments of Pentelic marble, 1 is divided into 
three parts, of which the cella (A) and the pronaos (C) are formed 
exactly as we have seen in the temple of Themis. 

Beyond the back wall of the cella the side- walls of the temple 
have been continued, and between their antae two columns have 
been erected ; in this way a space (B) has been formed, which, 
although perhaps not equal in dimension, corresponds exactly with 
the pronaos or prodomos, and is therefore called by the Greeks 
oTriadobofios. In the same way as the pronaos was the front-hall, 
the opisthodomos was the back-hall, of the temple, and therefore 
by the Eomans appropriately called a posticum. 

This arrangement assists us in understanding the use of the 
spaces thus gained in front and back of the cella ; for they must 
be considered not only as casual extensions of the temple, but 
they have a distinct significance for the religious service and its 
usages, as it was always the habit of the Greeks to combine 

1 This was the case at least at the time of the first investigation. At present the 
ruins found at that time have (with the exception of a few almost unrecognizable 
remnants) disappeared, that is, they have been used for the houses of the insignifi- 
cant modern Eleusis. 


artistic and religious considerations. The openness of both spaces 
indicates sufficiently that they were not properly holy or conse- 
crated places. They were, on the contrary, as Bdtticher justly 
remarks of the pronaos, "show-rooms." The pronaos, which 
formed the entrance and as it were preparation hall of the holy 
room, was furnished accordingly. Sculptures and other ornaments 
alluded to the god and his myths ; in the temple of Themis we 
recognized the two chairs as being most likely the seats of divine 
images. There were also implements placed here to prepare for 
the entrance into the sacred room proper. The basin with con- 
secrated water had its place here, with which everybody sprinkled 
himself or was sprinkled by the priest, before entering into the 
immediate presence of the god, whose image always stood front- 
ing the entrance-door. These rooms were frequently secured and 
closed by railings, traces of which are preserved in several temples, 
and in this way, although open to the eye, they could be used for 
the reception of the treasures with which pious custom richly 
endowed the temples, as is distinctly told us of the festive temples 
at Athens, Delphi, Olympia, and elsewhere. 

A similar ornamentation, by means of statues referring to the 
god of the temple, or anathemata devoted to him, must have 
been in the opisthodomos. It must, however, be added that in 
some temples the opisthodomos occurs as a separate chamber 
behind the cella. In that case it was used for the keeping of 
that property of the god which was not shown in public, such as 
old sacred implements or perhaps old images ; in some cases also 
money and public or private documents were kept in it because of 
the greater security of the place. This, for instance, was done at 
the Parthenon, where even a list of objects kept in the opisthod- 
omos has been discovered. In this case the back-hall of the 
temple (posticum) remained the show-room, adorned with sculpt- 
ures, anathemes, and pictures in a similar manner as the pronaos 
on the opposite side of the temple. 

7. In his sketch of the different forms of the temple Yitruvius 
mentions after the antge-temple the prostylos. This name already 
indicates a temple in which the columns (<ttv\ol) protrude on one 
side, and which naturally forms in this way a further step in the 
development of the temple. In the antse-temple the columns as 
it were replaced the one smaller wall of the temple-house, which 



Fig. 16. 

had been omitted in order to give the outer part of the temple a 
certain public character. But after this significance of the col- 
umn as a separate and " room-opening" (Botticher) prop had once 
been recognized, it became impossible to abide by this form, and 
it is quite in accordance with the steady and gradual progress 

always observable in Greek 
art that the columns were also 
advanced quite independently 
on the open side of the temple 
which required ornamentation. 
The general design was not 
modified hereby, and could re- 
main exactly the same as in 
the antse-temple. 

An example of this design 
is offered by the small Ionic 
temple near the large temple at Selinus (see Fig. 16). Selinus, on 
the southwestern coast of Sicily, was a colony of the Doric town 
of Megara, by whose inhabitants a great many towns were founded. 
Their attention was particularly directed toward Sicily, where, 
after founding several other colonies, they built, about the thirty- 
seventh Olympiad, the town of Selinus, perhaps on the site of an 
old Phoenician colony. The fertility of the soil and the favorable 
situation of the town made it soon a considerable emporium, and 
with its growing wealth was combined an artistic culture to 
which we owe several still-existing ruins in the Doric style. 
Besides these ruins of the Doric order {see Figs. 21, 23, 33), there 
has been discovered a small sanctuary which shows a peculiar 
combination of the Doric and Ionic styles, and has lately been re- 
produced and described at great length as the temple of Empedo- 
kles, with the restoration of its original colors. On a base of 
steps about 2J feet in height rises the little temple about 15 feet 
high and resembling in its design exactly the temple of Themis. 
We have the cell a (A) and the pronaos (B), with the only 
difference that the columns adorning the latter stand, not between 
the antse, but protrude beyond them. The columns grow con- 
siderably slighter upward, in analogy to the Doric order, but 
they have a base and an Ionic capital; their flutings resemble 
more the Doric than the Ionic order. The beams also are in the 


Doric order ; on the architrave three layers are indicated by- 
colors ; the frieze has triglyphs and metopa, which were also 
painted ; the pediment shows the form we have met with in the 
temple of Themis. 

The connection of the portico with the cella is brought about 
by a continuation of the architrave from the pillar of the antse to 
the column, by means of which the beams and the roof in front 
form a strong projection carried by the columns. This is an 
evident gain for the design of the temple ; for in this way both 
the portico and the pronaos are increased in size, and the column 
now fulfills much better its task as an independent and " room- 
opening " prop. 

8. Although the prostylos marks a progress in the develop- 
ment of the column-edifice, it cannot be denied that it shows a 
certain want of symmetry and proportion in its design. The 
back part does not correspond with the facade, indeed the strong 
projection carried by the columns seems to require a similar 
arrangement on the opposite side of the temple. There is some- 
thing imperfect in the look of such a temple, particularly if one 
imagines its position open on all sides. This want could not but 
become apparent to the Greeks, who in almost all their artistic 
doings have shown a particular predilection for symmetrical pro- 
portions. Greek orators weighed carefully the measure of their 
periods, and symmetry was the principle of strophe and anti- 
strophe in their lyrical poetry. The same care has been noticed 
in the plastic or pictorial ornamentation of rooms and of certain 
objects, in which the Greek artists always tried to carry out a 
perfect symmetry and parallelism of the grouping. This feeling 
it could not satisfy to see the front part of the temple developed 
in such a striking manner, and it was only natural that the 
Greeks should have added before long a portico to the opposite 
side of the temple. From this as we have seen quite natural and 
essentially Greek proceeding arose a new form, called by the 
Greeks very appropriately mo? anfynrpoarvkos, i. e., a temple 
with projecting porticoes on both sides. The amphiprostylos is, 
indeed, the necessary supplement or rather completion of the 
prostylos, a completion which was the more natural as through 
the double antae-temple (see % 6) (which might appropriately be 
designated as amphiparastatic) one was accustomed to an opis- 



thodomos or posticum, corresponding with the pronaos. The pos- 
ticum, which was wanting in the prostylos, is gained in the amphi- 
prostylos by means of the back-hall, and became available in the 
same manner as we have seen in the developed form of the antse- 
temple (see § 6). Altogether the amphiprostylos stands in the 
same relation to the prostylos as the double to the single antse- 
temple, and we notice here again the steady and equal progress 
which has given to all Greek creations their harmony and organic 
necessity, or, which is essentially the same, their beauty. As an 
example of this not very frequent form of the temple, of which 
Yitruvius does not name an instance, we mention the temple of 
Nike Apteros, the wingless goddess of victory, in the Akropolis 
at Athens 1 (see Fig. 17). This elegant Ionic structure crowns, 
like a votive offering, the front part of the wall which Kim on had 
erected as at once a protection and ornament of the Akropolis. 

It was taken off by the Turks and 
used for the building of a bastion, but 
was restored to its original form from 
the remnants found in the destroyed 
bastion, during the first decennium of 
the revived kingdom of Greece (see 
the sketch of the side-view, Fig. 18). 
From the right-hand side of the stair- 
case, which leads up to the propylsea, a 
small flight of steps ascends to the tem- 
ple of Nike Apteros. It stands pretty 
close to the right wing of the propylsea, 
and is for this reason shorter than in 
other cases, for instance in the temple on the Ilissos, which other- 
wise corresponds with it exactly. It is said that its dedication to 
the wingless goddess of victory signified the retaining of victory 
for Athens ; according to earlier statements, it was erected by 
Kimon after the completion of the above-mentioned wall in order 
to commemorate his double victory over the Persians on the 
Eurymedon (01. 77, 3 = 470 b. c.) ; Bursian, on the other hand, 

1 Of temples of this class without colonnades we also mention one, the ruins of 
which have been discovered by Stuart on the Ilissos, not far from Athens. The am- 
phiprostylos is more frequently applied where the cella is surrounded by a colonnade. 
{See § 9, d.) 

Fig. 17. 



places its completion, or at least that of its upper parts, in the 
time of Perikles. The dimensions of the temple are but small 
(18 J feet in width, 27 feet in length), but its style is beautiful 
and elegant. It consists of a simple cella A (Fig. 17), with an 
outer hall B on the eastern side toward the propylaea, and a 
posticum C, on the western side toward the staircase. The open- 
ing of the cella toward the east is not, as in most cases, effected 



>W<UP^.Wff-TWIwf v ^?/V.*rif»'TO»^/T,r>,7»r^- 


■MUM- "■ 


I V 

■ I 



1 r 

H i 

H 1 

^m 1 





Fig. 18. 

by a door in the wall, but by two slender pillars (b h) between 
the antae (a a), which afford an open view of the interior and of the 
statue placed therein. Against the outer hall the cella was as 
usual closed by means of railings, the fastenings of which are still 
observable on the pillars and antae. 

The columns have bases and beautiful capitals in the form of 
volutes ; their slightly heavy proportions remind one of the Doric 
order ; the beams, on the other hand, are strictly Ionic. Accord- 
ingly, the architrave (which in the Doric order (see § 5) consists 
of a simple smooth stone) is divided into three horizontal stripes 
(fasciae), over the uppermost of which there is a thin ledge. The 
frieze no more exhibits the division into metopa and triglyphs, 
but consists of an uninterrupted plane, equal in height to the 
architrave, and adorned with bass-reliefs which represent battles 
between Greeks and Persians. After this follows the cornice 
(yeicrov), which, unlike the simplicity and heaviness of the Doric 
cornice, consists of several pieces composed in an easy and grace- 
ful manner. 



Fig. 19. 

The pediments both at the back and in front are similar to 
those of the Doric temple, but that they rise a little higher, and 
the cornices round them correspond with the geison of the beams. 

Fig. 19 shows the plan of 
the above-mentioned tem- 
ple, which Stuart has dis- 
covered on the southern 
bank of the Ilissos, not 
far from the well Ennea- 
krunos ; this temple was 
used in Stuart's time as a 
Christian church, but has 
now entirely disappeared. 
It was an amphiprostylos of the Ionic order, the division of which 
into cella A, pronaos B, and posticum C, agrees exactly with the 
above-stated principles. It was 40£ feet in length, by 19J in 

9. The most extensive use of the columns takes place, when 
they are placed not only before and behind the temple, as in the 
amphiprostylos, but when they are ranged round the four sides 
of a building. 

This is the last and most perfect form to which the combina- 
tion of the columns with the temple-house could lead, and it must 
be considered as the necessary development of the different pre- 
paratory stages mentioned in the above. 1 Here we have, at last, 
a temple-house surrounded by columns on all sides, beautifully 
variegated, and yet not wanting in organic unity. In conse- 
quence, this form was used by the Greeks more frequently than 
any other, and most of the remaining temples, particularly those 
of the Doric style, belong to it. 

Concerning the mode of its erection, we must imagine that 
the columns were placed at equal distances round the cella, so 
that one might walk round it, barring such cases where statues 
or partition-walls prevented it. For the distance of the columns 

1 An historic proof of this gradual growth cannot be given, seeing that already the 
oldest monuments known to us show the complete surrounding by columns. With 
the sole exception of that on Mount Ocha, the above-mentioned temples must not be 
considered as actually older than those to be described in the following pages. They 
are only specimens of a prehistoric period of architecture, the single forms and stages 
of which were continued even after the completion of the peripteral temple. 



from the wall of the cella there is no certain rule ; on the longer 
sides it was generally equal to the distance of the columns from 
each other, in front and at the back (i. e., on the two smaller 
sides) it was considerably larger than this. The beams rested on 
the columns {see Figs. 13 and 18) as in the prostylos and amphi- 
prostylos ; they surrounded the cella in an uninterrupted line, the 
walls of the former being built up to an equal height, and after- 
ward connected with the beams by means of cross-beams made of 
stone. Stone slabs adorned with so-called caskets, that is, square 
indentures (laeunaria), were placed on these cross-beams and 
formed the so-called lacunaria-ceiling. In this way a protecting 
roof was gained for the colonnade, and at the same time the organic 
unity of the temple was obtained by means of the connection of 
the columns with the cella. Fig. 20, showing the section of a 
temple of this kind, will serve to illustrate this arrangement. 
A signifies the interior of the cella, B the colonnades on both 

sides, a I the columns, b c the beams, connected with the wall of 
the cella by means of the lacunaria-ceiling. (About the interior, 
see Fig. 30.) The ceiling of the colonnade protruding in this 
way from the cella to right and left was called by the Greeks (in 
analogy with the name of the gable aeros, as mentioned above) 



irrepov, wing, and from this expression the name vabs irepiTTTepos 
was derived, viz., a temple surrounded on all sides by a protrud- 
ing wing of this kind. In the same way as this name refers to 
the ceiling of the colonnade, another is taken from the columns 
themselves, and according to the latter a temple of this kind is 
called a vao? or ol/cos Trepio-rvXos, that is, a temple surrounded by 
columns, the colonnade itself being called to irepiarvKov. The 
name peripteros was always, and has remained, the most common 

After having described the structure of the peripteros so as 
to give a distinct notion of the pteron, and of the construction of 

Fig. 21. 

this kind of temple in general, we must now turn to the consid- 
eration of the plan in order to learn the division and arrange- 
ment of the different rooms. This division is more complicated 
in the peripteros than in any other class of temples ; we find, 
indeed, the different kinds of divisions as numerous as the classes 
of temples we have hitherto met with. It will be remembered 
that in these latter there was only one arrangement of the 
interior peculiar to each ; but as it is the chief purpose of the 
peripteros to surround the temple-house with a colonnade, this 
house itself may have any of the described forms ; it may be, in 
other words, an antse-temple, a prostylos, or an amphiprostylos. 
These possible variations in the plan of the peripteros have 
hitherto, perhaps, not been sufficiently noticed. Yitruvius does 
not mention them, and the rules laid down by him comprise only 
the smallest portion of the preserved monuments. 



a. The temple-house surrounded by the colonnade may first 
be an antge-temple, as described by us in § 4. An example of 
this design is offered by one of the older temples at Selinus (see 
Fig. 21). It is situated, with two other similar ones, on a hill, in 
the western part of the town ; the colonnade D is formed by six 
columns on the small, and thirteen on the long, sides ; the cella 
is an antae-temple with two columns between the walls, which 
latter do not end in common antse, but take the form of columns. 
Through these columns one ascends the pronoas (B) on two steps ; 
after it follows, raised again by one step, the cella proper (A), 
from which a staircase of five steps leads into the opisthodomos 

x (C) ; this is walled in on all sides, and forms a completely-closed 
room, inaccessible except from the cella. 

b. The antae-temple might also have columns between the 
antse of the two small sides, as, for instance, in the temple of 
Artemis Propylaea at Eleusis (Fig. 15). This kind of temple- 
house may also become the centre of a peripteros by being sur- 
rounded by columns. This is the case in the Theseion, one of 
the finest and best-preserved temples of Athens (Fig 22.) 

i ! 



Fig. 22. 

This temple lies on a small hill northwest of the Akropolis, 
and is, in all probability, identical with that devoted by the 
Athenians to the memory of their national hero Theseus, to 
whose appearance in the battle of Marathon they owed the 
victory. In memory of this event they afterward resolved to 
transfer the remains of Theseus from the island of Skyros (con- 
quered by Kimon) to Athens, and to bur^y them in a manner 
worthy of the hero. This was done by Kimon, the son of Mil- 
tiades, Olympiad 76, 1 (476 b. a), and on the same occasion our 


temple was erected, and called, after the hero, Theseion. 1 The 
building is of Pentelic marble ; thirty-four columns, in the most 
beautiful Doric style, in its freer and more elegant Attic modifica- 
tion, surround the temple-house, so that six columns stand on each 
of the small, and thirteen on each of the large, sides. The temple- 
house itself has the form of a double antse-temple ; in the middle 
lies the cella proper A, 2 joined on the eastern side by the pronaos 
B, on the western by the opisthodomos C, the latter forming, 
like the pronaos, an open hall. Beams and ceiling of the peri- 
stylos show traces of rich polychromatic painting. The temple, 
formerly richly decorated with statues on the gable and the 
metopa, has for a long time been used as a church of St. George, 
to which circumstance its good preservation is most likely due. 
At present the antique remnants found at Athens are kept in it. 

c. In another form of the peripteros, the temple-house consists 
of a prostylos surrounded by columns. It is, however, rarely met 
with, the just-mentioned arrangement (b) being the most usual. 
As an example of this third style, we mention one of the older 
temples on the western hill of the town of Selinunt, in Sicily 
(see Fig. 23). Inside of the colonnade lies the oblong temple- 
house, which shows a portico of four columns. It contains, 
besides the cella proper (A), a peculiarly-shaped pronaos (B), and 
an opisthodomos (C), the latter being walled in on all sides. 

Fig. 23. 

d. The highest development of the peripteros is reached when 
the cella is formed by an amphiprostylos (the complement of the 

1 More recently it has also been declared to be a temple of Ares. 

2 The width of the interior of the cella is 20 feet 4 inches (English measure). 


prostyle*, see § 8), being at the same time surrounded by a 

As an example we quote the temple of Athene Parthenos in 
the Akropolis of Athens, which altogether must be considered as 
one of the most perfect, if not the most perfect, monument of 
Greek architecture. 1 Being dedicated to the highest protecting 
goddess of Athens and of the Attic country, it occupied the most 
important site of the Akropolis, and evinced, both by the grandeur 
of its dimensions and its artistic splendor, the culture of the na- 
tion itself, which, under Perikles, had reached the acme of its 
power. On the same spot, where had stood the older Athene- 
temple, destroyed by the Persians, Perikles erected this new one. 
The two architects, Iktinos and Kallikrates, completed the gigan- 
tic work in about ten years, in 438 b. c. The sculptural decora- 
tion of the gables and metopa was supervised and no doubt part- 
ly executed by Phidias, an intimate friend of Perikles, and equal- 
ly supreme in art as the other in politics. On a strong base of 
Piraeic stone-work, surrounded by three high steps of Pentelic 
marble (the upper one being 101J ft. wide by 228 ft. long), rose 
the peripteros, formed by forty-six Doric columns, of which eight 
stood on each of the smaller, and seventeen on each of the longer, 
sides {see plan, Fig. 24, and view, Fig. 25). The architrave was 
adorned with golden shields and inscriptions, while the metopa of 
the frieze showed the more lasting ornamentations of reliefs, 
representing the myths of Athene and the heroes renowned in 
her service. On the gables were enthroned the sublime forms, 
by means of which Phidias and his disciples had celebrated two 
important events from the cycle of myths relating to Athene. 
The one showed the first appearance of the goddess among the 
Olympians after her birth from the head of Zeus ; the other rep- 
resented the contest in which the victorious goddess had gained 
the supremacy of the Attic land from Poseidon. Everywhere 
the splendor of the Pentelic marble (of which the columns, the 
beams, the walls of the eel la, and even the tiles of the roof, were 
made) was discreetly modified by the application of colors. 

During the middle ages it was transformed into a Christian 
church, of which Spon and Wheler have seen as late as 1676, and 
afterward described, the altar-niche on the east side and the whole 

1 See the plan of the Akropolis, Fig. 52, B. 



interior arrangement ; 1 and, owing to this circumstance, the Par- 
thenon, like the temple of Theseus, had been well preserved, 
until the siege of Athens by the Venetians under Morosini, in 
1687, caused the deplorable destruction of this unique building. 
The besieged had placed a powder-magazine in the cella, and 
when this was hit by a shell of the besieging artillery, a dreadful 
explosion took place, which destroyed almost the whole building, 
with the exception of the two pediments. 

It must be considered as a fortunate circumstance in this dis- 
aster that the ruins, although poor and scanty, if compared with 
the former splendor of the building, still are sufficient to allow 
of a tolerably accurate reconstruction of its general features. 
Moreover, the very ruins show a dignity and beauty of form 
which baffle description : a proof of the excellence of Greek ar- 
chitecture, which even without the passing splendor of outer 
ornaments, and deprived of the imposing effect of the whole 
building, still preserves its overpowering impression. 

The design of the temple, with regard to its principal rooms, 
does not now seem doubtful ; the previous investigations of 
architects and archseologists concerning the cella and the opis- 
thodomos seem completed by the excavations in the Akropolis of 
C. Botticher, during the early summer of 1862. 


Fig. 24. 

Fig. 24 shows the plan of the Parthenon after the design of 
Using, which is founded on a thorough investigation of the dif- 

1 The bottom part of this niche exists still at the present time. 



ferent opinions ; we are not prepared to vouch for all its details, 
neither can we enter upon our own notions with regard to single 
parts, gained by personal study of the remnants. Passing through 
the columns of the colonnade (A), one encounters a second row 
of six columns, forming the portico of the pronaos (B). The pro- 
naos is raised by two steps over the- level of the peristylos, and 
was used for the keeping of the precious offerings, which were 
brought from far and near to celebrate the holiness of the temple 
and of its protecting goddess. They were kept safely behind 
iron railings, and carefully locked up by the Tamiai, 1 but might 
be seen from the outside. In an inscription, a list of the objects 
kept here has been preserved to us. The entrance to the pro- 
naos, which formerly had been blocked up by the 6-ft.-thick wall 
of the apsis of the church built into the Parthenon, was reopened 
by Botticher. • 

Fig. 25. 

These parts of the building were also decorated with sculpt- 
ures. Beginning from the portico, the frieze round the whole 
cella was covered with the marvelous representation of the fes- 
tive procession of the Panathenaea, or, according to Botticher's 
opinion, the preparations for this procession. These reliefs, 3 ft. 
4 in. in height, extended originally over 528 ft. ; 456 ft. have 
since been recovered from the ruins, and transferred to England, 
with a great many other sculptures from the Akropolis, by Lord 

1 The holes for fastening these railings were discovered by Botticher, from bottom 
to capital, in all the columns of the pronoas and posticum. 


Elgin. At present they are in the British Museum, but other 
parts of the frieze, found later, have been kept at Athens. Over 
the entrance to the pronaos, and therefore to the cella proper, 
there is an ingenious representation of an assembly of the gods 
looking at the approaching processions of youths and maidens. 
They are seated in arm-chairs, simply and beautifully grouped, 
and among them the forms of the god Poseidon, of the hero 
Erechtheus, and of the goddess Aphrodite with Peitho and Eros, 
are recognizable. A large door in the back-wall of the pronaos 
forms the entrance to the cella proper (C), which is a hundred 
feet long, and therefore called hekatompedon. Two rows of 
columns, each nine in number, divided this room into three naves, 
and above these there was a second row of Doric columns form- 
ing an upper story, up to which led staircases from the side-naves. 
At the end of the middle stoa, which we must imagine as hypse- 
thral, stood, closed in by a bar and protected by a canopy, the 
chryselephantine Agalma of Pallas (b) ; in front of it was the 
dais of the proedria (a), the site of which is still recognizable by 
a piece of Pirseic stone pavement in the middle of the marble 
floor. Concerning the masterly statue of Athene by Phidias, we 
can only say a few words illustrating its artistic arrangement. 
The base on which the figure stood was ornamented by a repre- 
sentation of the birth of Pandora, and by the forms of twenty 
gods. On this pedestal stood the statue of the goddess herself, 
in a simple but majestic posture, 26 yards ' in height ; face, neck, 
arms, hands, and feet, were made of ivory ; the drapery (which 
Phidias had fortunately made removable) was of pure gold, which 
noble metal also prevailed in the other parts of the figure. Com- 
bined with the splendor of the material and the imposing im- 
pression of the whole figure, the careful ornamental treatment of 
the details added to the total effect. There were, for instance, 
the helmet with a sphinx and other ornaments, and the shield 
standing at the feet of the goddess with a battle of the Amazons 
on the outer side ; nay, even the edges of the high sandals showed 
a Kentauromachia with numerous figures, among which, it is 
said, there were portraits of Perikles and Phidias, the last-men- 
tioned being afterward made the grounds of accusations of im- 
piety against the great statesman and his artistic friend. 

1 German Ellen. The measurements are throughout on the German scale, un- 
less stated otherwise. 


Behind the cella with the statue in it, was the opisthodomos, 
a closed room connected with the cella by means of two little 
doors at the northern and southern ends of the intervening wall. 
Eemnants of these doors, destined only for the business purposes 
of the treasure officials, were also found among the ruins in 
1862. The ceiling of the opisthodomos was carried by four 
columns ; many articles of value, documents, and anathemata, not 
meant for public exhibition, were here kept by certain officials, 
who had to render strict account of them. From the opisthod- 
omos another door, secured by a double railing, led into the 
back-hall, similar in form to the pronaos, and used, like it, for 
placing works of art and pious offerings (E). 

10. After the description of the vabs TrepLTTTepos, which we 
have now considered in all its varieties, we pass over to the 
pseudo-peripteros treated by Vitruvius, together with the perip- 
teros. As the name indicated (yjrevSos, deception, appearance), 
this temple is not in reality surrounded by a pteron, but only 
appears to be. A pteron, as we have seen, consists of the wing- 
like protrusion of beams and ceiling, supported by separate col- 
umns. If the idea of the pteron is done away with, the beams 
and ceiling may remain, but they no more form an independent 
protrusion round the cella ; that is, they are no more supported 
by independent columns, but by a firm wall, which on its part 
may supply the columns by semi-columns or pilasters. This 
form is very rare in Greek architecture, which was founded on 
truth, but the llomans have applied it more frequently (see § 63). 
It is true that one Greek specimen of the pseudo-peripteros is 
known to us, but in it the purpose of producing the illusion of 
columns has evidently been absent, the arrangement having be- 
come necessary by the large dimensions of the building and the 
nature of its material. This temple was at Akragas. Akragas, 
" the splendor-loving noble city, of all the most beautiful," as 
Pindar calls it, was founded at the beginning of the sixth century 
by Gela, a Doric colony on the south coast of Sicily, and, by its 
favorable position and fertile soil, had acquired considerable 
wealth. The numerous remnants of its former artistic splendor 
are, together with those of Selinus, among the finest specimens 
of the older Doric style. Not far from the well-preserved 
so-called temples of Juno and Concordia the foundations have 


been discovered of an enormous temple dedicated to Zeus, and 
finished, all but the roof, after the victory of the Carthaginians 
over the Agrigentines (01. 93, 3 = 406 b. a). Diodor, who 
gives a detailed description of the temple with measurements, 
admired, after so many centuries, the grandeur of its remnants. 
According to later measurements the length of the temple, steps 
included, is 359 ft., its width 175£ ft. ; its height must have been 
120 to the top of the gable, as may be calculated from the 
remaining fragments of the beams and columns : its site was 
therefore almost three times as large as that of the Parthenon. 
The columns, being almost 62 ft. in height, stood so widely apart, 
that, to cover the intervening spaces by means of free architraves, 
slabs of stone almost 26 ft. long, and over 10 ft. thick, would 
have been required. But the use of such the nature of the 
material would not permit, the buildings of Agrigent being not 
of marble, but of a soft, crumbling kind of chalk (Muschelkalk), 
which grows firmer in the course of time, but is wholly unavail- 
able for the covering of open spaces of considerable extension. 
In consequence, the Agrigentines were obliged to erect solid walls 
between the columns as high as the beams, and to place on them 
an architrave and frieze of single smaller blocks of stone. Instead 
of a free colonnade, the temple-house was therefore surrounded 
by a solid wall, with columns protruding by one-half of their 
circumference on the outer side, the corresponding places on the 
inner side being marked by pilasters. Whether the lighting of 
the building was hypsethral, or (as some archaeologists have rather 
rashly conjectured) was effected by means of windows in the 
upper part of the wall between the half-columns, must be left- 
undecided. The cella is long and narrow, as is frequent in 
Sicilian monuments (see Figs. 21 and 23), and its walls were also 
adorned by pilasters. The place of the door is difficult to define, 
because of the quite unusual uneven number of seven columns at 
the facade. Kockerell thinks there must have been two doors, 
one on each side of the facade ; a native archaeologist, Politi, on 
the other hand, accepts one large door in the middle, but this 
divided into two entrances by the colossal statue of a giant instead 
of a pillar. 1 

i This statue is still in existence ; it consists of several enormous blocks of stone, 
which have been found among the ruins, and arranged on the ground, forming a 


11. In our description of the Parthenon (see page 28) we 
noticed that the middle part of the cella was entirely open to the 
sky. This leads to a new form of the temple often used in larger 
designs, and called by Vitruvius the hypaethros. His description 
(leaving alone the prescriptions for the numbers of columns and 
other arrangements, which in this, as in most cases, by no means 
tally with the Greek monuments) is couched in the following 
terms : " In the inside (of the cella) there are colonnades, with 
double rows of columns, separate from the walls, so that one may 
walk round them just as in the outer colonnades. Only the 
middle nave is open to the sky, and there are doors at both ends 
leading to the back-house and front-house. Specimens of this 
kind there are none in Rome, but at Athens there are the eight- 
columned temple of Minerva, and the ten-columned one of the 
Olympian Jupiter." The former of these is none other than the 
Parthenon; the latter we shall refer to in our description of 
Roman temples. 

We cannot enter upon the literary feud about the existence 
or non-existence of the hypsethral temple, considering (with 
Botticher) the question settled in the affirmative. For, not even 
to mention the opinion that the services of certain gods required 
uncovered rooms, it seems natural that large buildings without 
windows, or even large doors, for lighting purposes, had an open 
space in the middle, which, moreover, was quite in accordance 
with the open court of the dwelling-house. Analogies between 
these two were frequent. In this way architectural necessity 
tallies perfectly with the statement of Vitruvius^ which, moreover, 
is confirmed by a thorough investigation of genuine Greek monu- 
ments. There are distinguishable even several species of the 
hypsethros, which show that it had become necessary by the con- 
ditions of peculiar rites at an early period, and that its form and 
size might be modified in various ways. The simplest form of 
the hypasthros we have seen in the small temple on Mount Ocha 
(Fig. 6), where the small opening in the roof w T as most likely 
required by the nature of Zeus and Hera, as divinities of the 

complete figure. It is generally supposed that a whole row of such statues used to 
carry the ceiling of the cella. But in that case most likely other fragments would 
have been found, which, at least during my own prolonged stay at Girgenti, has not 
been the case. 


ether and sky. Among the peripteros-temples the examples of 
hypsethral cellse are not nnfrequent. 1 We mention first the tem- 
ple of Apollo Epikurios, near the town of Phigalia in Arkadia. 
On the side of one of the mountain-ranges which surround Phiga- 
lia in a wide circle, lies the village of Bassse. Here, near the 
summit of Mount Kotilios, we find the ruins of a temple, which, 
barring a slight difference in the distances and the nature of the 
material, seems to agree perfectly with the description in Pausa- 
nias of a sanctuary of Apollo Epikurios. According to him the 
temple was built by Iktinos, the architect of the Parthenon, and 
was surpassed in beauty among the temples of the Peloponnesos 
only by that of Athene Alea, near Tegea ; a remark which is the 
more important as Pausanias only in rare cases mentions the artis- 
tic value of a building. The remnants of the temple, which have 
been examined carefully for the first time in 1818, fully confirm 
this opinion, although a great part of the building had been pur- 
posely destroyed, most likely in order to obtain the bronze rivets 
joining the stones to each other. The original plan is, however, 
easily recognizable. The design (Fig. 26) shows a colonnade of 
thirty-eight columns (A A) ; six on each of the narrow, and fif- 
teen on each of the long, sides (inclusive of the comer columns of 
the facades) ; all of these are preserved standing erect. The pro- 
naos (B) is formed by the walls of the cella and two columns in 
antis. The cella is divided into a covered space (D) and an un- 
covered one (C), the latter inclosed by strongly-projecting pilasters. 
The fronts of the pilasters resemble Ionic half -columns, and show 
above the capitals a frieze representing battles of the Amazons in 
excellent bass-reliefs. The middle part of the space was open, and 
formed as it were a court surrounded by niches, adapted for the 
keeping of votive offerings by the frieze which protected their 
contents. The back part of the cella (D) was covered by a ceil- 
ing carried by two of the above-mentioned pilasters, which pro- 
truded obliquely from the wall of the cella, and besides by a 
single column, the latter serving at the same time as a specimen 
of the Korinthian order in its most simple form. Behind this 

1 For the same reason we mention the hypaethros here, differing in this from the 
arrangement of Vitruvius, who goes by the position of the outer columns. But the 
nature of a great number of peristylos-temples cannot be clearly understood without 
a previous knowledge of the hpysethros. 



was placed, according to Blouet's opinion, the statue of a god (b). 
There seems to have been a door in 
the back-wall of the cella ; possibly 
there may have been a door in the 
place marked c leading to the colon- 
nade at the side. Behind the cella 
follows the opisthodomos (E), in- 
closed by the wall of the former and 
two columns in antis. As a pecu- 
liarity of this temple, caused most 
likely by its locality, it is mentioned 
that the chief facade looked almost 
due north, instead of east, as was 
usually the case. 

One of the remaining temples 
at Psestum corresponds still more 
exactly with Yitruvius's description. 
Among the. remnants there, which 
represent the severity and noble 
simplicity of the early Doric style, 
one temple is prominent, which, 
because of its size, is considered as 
the chief temple of the town ; and, 
for the same reason, is generally 
supposed to have been dedicated to 
the protecting deity, Poseidon. It 
consists of a peripteros of six col- 
umns on each of the narrow, and 
fourteen on each of the long, sides ; 
the cella, surrounded by colonnades, has both in front and at the 
back two columns in antis. Through the pronaos one enters the 
cella, both sides of which show double rows of columns, as de- 
scribed by Yitruvius. On the back-wall of the cella there are 
staircases, which can be distinctly recognized, nay, even used, at 
the present clay. They lead to the hyperoon or upper gallery, 
and between them is the entrance-door to the opisthodomos. Fig. 
27 shows the interior of the temple in its present condition. It 
is 193 feet long by 81£ wide. 

To conclude, we mention the temple of Zeus at Olympia. 

Fig. 26. 



Among the ruins of this sacred place (situated in the plain of 
the Alpheios and forming a brilliant centre of Greek national 
life), for some time remnants had been noticed which showed a 
better material than the bricks commonly used. After the libera- 

Fig. 27. 

tion of Greece from the Turks a French exploring expedition 
closely investigated the place, and came to the conclusion that 
among these ruins the remnants of the celebrated temple of 
Zeus Olympios were preserved ; nay, it was even found possible 
to form from these a sufficiently clear notion of the sacred edifice 
which once inclosed the most sublime image of the father of the 
gods, the pride and joy of Greece. We shall have to consider 
further on the splendid festivities celebrated by the nation, as it 
were in the presence of the god ; here we must limit ourselves to 
the temple itself, which, next to the Parthenon, may be considered 
as the climax of artistic perfection, in the same way as in the 
statue of the god, by Phidias, it possessed the only work of sculpt- 
ure which rivaled and in some respects surpassed the excellence 



of Athene Parthenos. " The style of the temple," Pausanias says, 
in his simple description (v., 10), " is Doric ; with regard to the 
exterior, it is a peristylos. The material is porous stone found on 
the spot. Its height, up to the top of the gable, is 68 feet, its 
width 95 feet, its length 230 feet. The architect was a local man 
named Libon. The tiles of the roof are not of burnt clay, but of 
Pentelic marble, resembling bricks in their shape. At the two 
corners of the gable there are gilt receptacles, and on the top of 
each of them there is a gilt figure of Nike." The occasion of 
building the temple was a victory of the Olympians over the 
inhabitants of the neighboring city of Pisa (01. 52) ; but the 
completion of the sculptures on the metopa and gables, by Phid- 
ias and his pupils, did not take place till Olympiad 86. Of the 

Fig. 23. 

surrounding colonnade a (see Fig. 28) only nine columns have 
been found in different places, besides parts of the wall of the 
cella with the antse, between the latter of which there were two 
columns both in front and at the back. In the pronaos h there 
has been found, underneath a Koman pavement which consists 
of marble and Oriental alabaster, a roughly-composed mosaic of 
pebbles, such as are found in the Alpheios, which represents sea- 
gods and goddesses, and which undoubtedly was the original 
floor. Close by this was the base of a statue, also mentioned by 
Pausanias, such as are frequently met with in the entrance-halls 
of temples. The cella was divided into different parts, the middle 
one (e) being uncovered and surrounded by two colonnades in two 
stories ; in connection with it there was a smaller covered com- 
partment (d), which contained the statue of the god. Zeus was 
represented as sitting on a throne, which is described as an elab- 



orate structure of cedar-wood, laid in with ebony and richly 
adorned with valuable stones and sculptures. The base was also 
richly decorated in accordance with the figure itself. The face, 
the chest, the naked upper part of the body, and the feet, were of 
ivory ; the eyes consisted of brilliant stones. The waving hair 
and beard were of solid gold, as was also the figure of Nike which 
the god held in his extended right hand ; the sceptre in his other 
hand was composed of different precious metals. The drapery 
covering the lower part of the body was also of gold, with flowers 
in a kind of enamel. But all this splendor of valuable materials 
was as nothing compared with the grandeur of the divine form. 
In this Phidias had embodied the description of those wonderful 
lines of the Iliad (i., 528) which lived in the memory of every 
Greek — 

TH, ical Kvavaycnv eir 6(f)pvcn vev&e Kpovicov 
afjLJ3p6<ncu S' apa yahai iireppcocravTO civa/cros 
Kparbs am dOavdroio' fieyav 8 > e\e\ii;ev , '0\vfjL7rov. 

So he sat, sublime and inapproachable, and yet mildly inclining 
toward the spectator, perhaps the most perfect realization of the 
Greek ideal of godhead, and therefore the goal of every one's 
longing ; not to have seen the Olympian Zeus was considered as 

Fig. 29. 

a misfortune. The height of the statue was 40 feet, almost too 
colossal, in proportion to the surrounding architecture, so that the 
Greeks themselves used to say that if the god rose from his seat 
he would knock in the roof overhead. On both sides of the room 
containing the statue there were steps leading to the upper gal- 
lery, and most likely open to the spectators for a closer view of 



the statue and the single ornaments. In front of the statue a 
piece of black-marble pavement has been discovered, which quite 
tallies with a statement of Pausanias ; for, according to him, a 

Fig. 30. 

piece of the floor immediately before the statue was paved with 
black marble, instead of white stone ; this piece was surrounded 
with an inclosure of white Parian marble, and into it oil was 
poured so as to preserve the statue from the dampness of the soil, 
in the same way as the evaporation of water was considered 
beneficial to the statue of Athene in the dry atmosphere of the 
Akropolis. Behind the back-wall of the cella was the opisthod- 
omos, which again, through the columns between the anta?, 
opened into the peri stylos. Fig. 29 shows the length, Fig. 30, on 
a little larger scale, the width, of the temple. 

12. The peripteros, i. e., the temple-house wholly surrounded 
by columns, marks the ultimate completion of Greek architecture. 
There were certainly a great many varieties of the form so gained, 
as, for instance, the formation of the cella as antse-temple, pro- 
stylos, and amphiprostylos, and many modifications of the interior 
arrangement; still, the idea of a temple-house surrounded by 
colonnades is common to all of them. But this idea itself might 
be enlarged by adding to the first row of columns a second one, 
so as to form a double colonnade or pteron. This temple was 



called by the Greeks, very appropriately, a mo? $L7rT€po$, 1 i. e., a 
temple with a double pteron. " The dipteros," Yitruvius says, 
" has eight columns both in front and at the back, but round the 

cella it has a double colonnade. 


m <§><§> m m 


Of this order are the Doric tem- 
ple of Quirinus, and the Ionic 
one of Diana built by Ktesi- 
phon." This rule of Yitruvius 
does, as is often the case, not 
tally with the remaining mon- 
uments, the number of the col- 
umns in the facades being oc- 
casionally ten, instead of eight 
as prescribed by him. Of the 
two mentioned specimens, the 
temple of Quirinus was at 
Rome, erected by Augustus; 
the other one is one of the 
most brilliant examples of this 
order, which seems to have 
been used chiefly by the luxuri- 
ous Greeks of the colonies in 
Asia Minor. The temple of 
Artemis at Ephesos {see % 2) 
was built at a very early period, 
and always considered as the 
earliest and at the same time 
one of the grandest and most 
perfect specimens of the Ionic 
style {see § 4). It was after- 
ward considerably enlarged, but 
the original plan was not essentially modified. For a long time 
it was mentioned as the absolute perfection of the rich Ionic style, 

1 To be quite complete we ought to add that denominations of this kind were also 
derived from the number of the columns of the facades. A temple the facade of which 
had four columns was called a tetrastylos (see Figs. 16-19); one with six was called 
a hexastylos (see Figs. 21-23) ; the Parthenon with its eight columns was an okta- 
stylos (see Figs. 24, 25); the ten-columned temple of Apollo Miletos (Fig. 31), a 
dekastylos ; and the votive temple at Eleusis, a dodekastylos, because of the twelve 
columns of its portico (see Fig. 39). 

Fig. 31. 


and counted by the ancients themselves among the seven won- 
ders of the world. Remnants of the building have quite lately 
been discovered by English excavations, but accounts have not 
yet been published ; we, therefore, cannot enter into a detailed 
description, although the plan of the temple may be guessed with 
tolerable certainty from the accounts of the ancients themselves. 
We add, instead, the design of a temple (Fig. 31), which, with 
regard to both size and splendor, might vie with that of Artemis, 
and which must be considered as an equally important specimen 
of the dipteros. It is the temple of Apollo Didymseos at Miletos. 
Miletos was one of the richest and most important colonies of the 
Ionians on the coast of Asia Minor. According to tradition, it 
had been originally inhabited by the Karians, from whom it was 
taken by the Kretans ; afterward the Ionians chose it as a colony; 
they increased it and raised it to one of the most important com- 
mercial cities, whose ships sailed to all parts of the Mediterranean 
and beyond the Columns of Herkules, and, on the other side, car- 
ried their wares into the Pontus Euxinus. The names of the phi- 
losophers Thales and Anaximander, and of the historians Kadmos 
and Ilekatseos, prove the existence of scientific culture combined 
with commercial industry. The same may be said of the fine 
arts, and particularly of architecture, the high development of 
which is shown in the remnants of the once-celebrated temple of 

Connected with an oracle revered in this place ever since the 
time of the Kretan colony there had been built, at an early date, 
a temple of Apollo, the service in which had been, also for a long 
time, in the family of the Branchides! This older temple disap- 
peared in the general destruction of Miletos by the Persians 
(Olympiad 71, 3), but after the independence of the city was 
restored, in more splendid style, by the Milesian architects Paeo- 
nios and Daphnis ; it seems, however, never to have been quite 
finished. The plan was on the grandest scale ; the facade, con- 
sisting of ten columns, was longer almost by two-thirds than that 
of the Parthenon of Athens ; the columns were 6J feet in diam- 
eter by 63 feet in height, and were slenderer than those of the 
Artemisin at Ephesos and of other Ionic temples. Accordingly, 
the beams were lighter and weaker, as is shown in the design of 
the facade (Fig. 32). Through the double colonnade (Fig. 31, A) 



one enters, first, the pronaos B, which was bounded toward the 
peristylos by four columns in antis, and the walls of which were 
adorned by pilasters with very rich Korinthian capitals. Through 


a small room (C), destined either for the keeping of treasures or 
for staircases, one entered the cella (D), most likely open in the 
middle, and inclosed at the sides by colonnades. There seems 
to have been no opisthodomos surrounded by walls. 

13. The dipteros, as we have seen, was only an enlargement 
of the peripteros ; the pseudo-dipteros, on the other hand (the last 
temple with a square cella in the list of Vitruvius), is a kind of 
medium between peripteros and dipteros, and is, therefore, men- 
tioned by Yitruvius between the two. The explanation of the 
name is similar to that of the pseudo-peripteros ; it means a tem- 
ple which has the appearance of a dipteros without being one in 
reality, i. e., the pseudo-dipteros seems to have two colonnades 
without having them ; or, to say the same in different words, its 
external plan is exactly like that of a dipteros, but that the 
second row of columns between the exterior one and the wall of 
the cella has been omitted. " Pseudo-dipteros," Yitruvius says, 
" is called a temple which has eight columns in front and at the 
back, there being fifteen columns on each of the longer sides 
inclusive of the corner columns. But the walls of the cella, both 
in front and at the back, are exactly opposite the four middle 
columns. The interval between the exterior columns and the 
walls is, therefore, all round, equal to two interstices and one 



diameter of the bottom part of a column." Evidently this order, 
which is approved of by Vitruvius on account of its picturesque- 
ness and of the saving of the interior colonnade, is a thing be- 
tween a dipteros and a peripteros. With the latter it has in 
common the one colonnade round the whole cella; with the 
former the circumstance of this colonnade being wide enough to 
give room for an imaginary interior row of columns. It is said to 
have been invented by Hermogenes about the time of Alexander 
the Great, but one does not see why it should not have occurred 
before. At Selinus, at least, the largest of the temples on the 
eastern hill of the city is built in this style. It is, like the other 
buildings of that city, in the Doric style, but approaching the 
Attic by the gracefulness of its proportions. Fig. 33 shows the 
plan of this temple. The colonnade A surrounding the temple 
has exactly the width of two interstices and one bottom diameter 
of the columns. The pronaos B is formed by the projecting 

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u u 

o o u 

Q B 

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Fig. 83. 

antge-walls and six detached columns. The cella (C) seems to 
have been open and surrounded by colonnades; behind it follows 
the opisthodomos D. 

There were several Ionic temples of this order ; Hermogenes, 
named by Vitruvius as its inventor, is indeed the architect who 
for the first time treated the Ionic style according to a scientific 
system, in opposition to the Doric style, to which he objects on 
the ground of several irregularities. The temple of Artemis 
Leukophryne at Magnesia on the Maeaiidros, cited by Vitruvius, 
was, to judge from the discovered remnants, of the Ionic order, 
as was also, most probably, the temple of Apollo at Alabanda, 
the native city of Hermogenes, also mentioned by Vitruvius. 



We quote, as an example of the Ionic pseudo-dipteros, the temple 
at Aphrodisias in Karia, which was built in the early times of the 

empire, and the ruins of which are 

exceptionally well preserved. The 
protecting goddess of Aphrodisias 
was Aphrodite, as indicated by 
this name being substituted for 
the original Ninoe, and her service 
was celebrated with a splendor 
evidently influenced by the wor- 
ship of similar Asiatic deities. This 
was often the case in Asia Minor. 
For these reasons it is not unlikely 
that the mentioned temple was 
dedicated to Aphrodite. It is of 
large dimensions and easy, grace- 
ful proportions, quite in accordance 
with the nature of the goddess and 
her service. 

Fig. 34 shows the plan ' of the 
temple divided into the colonnade 
(A), the pronaos (B), and the cella 
(C, D) ; Fig. 35 represents a sketch of the facade, elegant and 

Fig. 34. 

Fig. 35. 

graceful in its proportions. Peculiar to it are the little tablets on 

1 The width of the inside of the cella is about 22 feet 6 inches English measure. 


the shafts of the columns with Greek votive inscriptions, which 
interrupt the fiutings. 

14. Hitherto we have discovered, as the fundamental idea of 
the most widely-different temples, the oblong square cella, the 
house of the god, surrounded by columns in various ways, and di- 
vided for the purposes of the service into pronaos, cella, and opis- 
thodomos. This was, indeed, the prevalent form of all Greek 
sacred edifices, even of the chapels ( vata/coi). 

There are, however, some exceptions to this rule. First, with 
regard to shape, there are the round temples. But, besides this, 
there may be different arrangements of the interior, or even of 
the whole plan of the building, caused by the peculiar require- 
ments of the service. A specimen of the former variation was 
the double temple ; one of the latter, the votive temple. 

a. The round temple we can mention but briefly. Yitruvius, 
it is true, mentions it in his list of different temples, but without 
reference to Greek specimens, as has been the case with regard 
to those hitherto considered. The only specimen of the round 
temple in existence is, as far as my knowledge goes, the tholos 
of Polykleitos, in the hieron of Asklepios near Epidauros ; the 
foundation walls, together with some remnants of the geison, are 
preserved. There are, however, some analogous buildings men- 
tioned in the records of the ancients. In the agora of Sparta, 
not far from the Skias, stood a circular building containing the 
statues of Zeus and Aphrodite, surnamed the " Olympian " (Paus. 
iii., 12, 11). The expression tholos (60X09), applied by Pausa- 
nias to the building near the Buleuterion at Athens, where the 
pry tan es used to sacrifice, also seems to indicate a circular form. 
Small figures of silver, and the statues of the heroes presiding 
over the single tribes (<j)i>\cu), were placed in them. Some tem- 
ples at Platsege and Delphi seem also to have been of a round form ; 
we know, however, nothing else about their plans. A round 
house, oLKrjfjua Trepifepis, stood in the Altis grove at Olympia. It 
was erected by Philip, king of the Makedonians, after the battle 
of Chseronea (01. 110, 3), and was called, after him, the Philip- 
peum. It was made of burnt bricks ; there were columns round 
it (peripteros), and on the top there was a brass decoration in the 
form of a poppy-head, which served, at the same time, to fasten 
the beams of the roof. In the interior were placed the statues 



Fig. 36. 

of Philip, his father Amyntas, his son Alexander the Great, and 
those of Olympia and Eurydike, wrought in gold and ivory by 

Leochares. Whether or not the Philip- 
peum had the significance of a temple, 
it may, in any case, be considered as 
analogous to the round temple, for 
which reason we have added (Fig. 36) 
the original plan of the building as de- 
signed by Hirt. 

That form of the round temple 
which Vitruvius designates as monop- 
teros, consisting of an open circle of 
columns with beams and a roof placed 
on them, is specified by the analogous Choragic monument of 
Lysikrates at Athens. To this we shall have to return in speak- 
ing of profane architecture (§ 24, Fig. 152). 

h. The double temple. Several temples are mentioned by the 
ancients in which two deities were adored, each in a separate 
room. In this case the cella had to be divided, whence the ex- 
pression vabs Bnfkovs ; and this seems to have been done in various 
ways. The one least in use seems to have been that of putting 
the rooms of the different gods one on the top of the other. Of 
this, Pausanias knows only one example, viz., an old temple at 
Sparta dedicated to the " armed Aphrodite," whose image was 
placed in it. This temple had an upper story dedicated to Mor- 
pho. Morpho, however, was, according to Pausanias, only a sur- 
name of Aphrodite. Her image in the upper temple was, unlike 
the other, without arms. The goddess was represented with her 
feet in fetters and veiled, most likely in allusion to her signifi- 
cance as the goddess of death. 

More frequent was the division of the cella into two level 
rooms, one by the side or at the back of the other. The separa- 
tion of the cella by a wall built parallel to the length of the tem- 
ple (such as it might be found in an Egyptian temple at Ombos) 
seems not to have been used by the Greeks. The double temple 
of Asklepios and Leto at Mantinea, cited by Hirt as a specimen 
of this division, may (according to the statement of Pausanias, 
viii., 9, 1) just as well have been divided by a cross-wall right in 
the middle of the cella. 


The last-mentioned division of the cella is proved by several 
other temples. At Sikyon, for instance, Hypnos, the god of 
sleep, and Apollo, surnamed Karneios, were adored in a double 
temple. The image of Hypnos was in the front compartment, 
while the interior was dedicated to Apollo ; the latter, only priests 
were allowed to enter (Pausanias, ii., 10, 2). 

Another double temple at Mantinea was dedicated to Aphro- 
dite and Ares. Pausanias remarks that the entrance to the room 
of Aphrodite was on the eastern, that to the apartment of Ares 
on the western, side. 

Of a partition of the temple by a cross-wall we have an in- 
stinctive example in the sanctuary of the old Attic deities Athene 
Polias, Poseidon and Erechtheus, and the daughter of Kekrops, 
Pandrosos, situated in the Akropolis of Athens, and called pro- 
miscuously temple of Athene Polias, Erechtheion, or Pandroseion. 
At a very early period there was, opposite the long northern side 
of the Parthenon, a temple which, according to Herodot, was 
dedicated jointly to Athene Polias and the Attic hero, Erech- 
theus. (01. 68, 1.) King Kleomenes, of Sparta, who had ex- 
pelled Klisthenes from Athens, was refused the entrance into 
this temple because in it were placed the national deities of the 
Athenians (01. ?5, 1) ; this temple was destroyed by fire while 
the Persians held the city. Not unlikely the rebuilding of the 
Erechtheion was begun by Perikles together with that of the 
other destroyed temples of the Akropolis ; but, as it was not fin- 
ished by him, it is generally not mentioned among his works. 
From the fourth year of Olympiad 92 we have a special account 
of the state of the building. From a public document, in which 
the architects give an account of their work, we gather that at 
that time the walls and columns of the temple were finished, only 
the roof and the working out of details remaining undone. This 
temple was renowned among the ancients as one of the most 
beautiful and perfect in existence, and seems to have remained 
almost intact down to the time of the Turks. The siege of Athens 
by the Venetians in 1687 seems to have been fatal to the Erech- 
theion, as it was to the Parthenon. Stuart found the walls and 
columns still erect, but part of the architrave, half of the frieze, 
and almost the whole cornice, were destroyed ; stones, rubbish, 
and the ruins of the roof, covered the floor ; in the northern 



entrance-hall was a powder-magazine. At present the temple 
has been restored as far as possible. . 

The plan of this building, which represents the Attic-Ionic 
style in its highest development, is, for various reasons, con- 
nected with the divine service, one of the most complicated we 
know of during the Greek period (Fig. 37 *). The chief part of 
it we must consider as a cella stretching from west to east ; the 

Fig. 37. 

masonry is 73 feet in length by 37 in width ; on the eastern side 
a pronaos is formed by a portico of six Ionic columns. A door 
led from this pronaos into the cella (B) dedicated to Athene 
Polias, which could be entered only from this eastern side ; it 
was separated from the cella (C) of Poseidon Erechtheus by an 
uninterrupted cross-wall. Another wall, interrupted by three 
entrances (I II G), separated the Erechtheion proper from the 
cella of Pandrosos — a small apartment, not unlike a corridor (D), 
which finished the building toward the west. The western outer 
wall was adorned with columns, between the intercolumnia of 
which there were windows, but it had no entrance corresponding 
to that on the eastern side. The entrance into the Pandroseion — 
and through it into the middle room of the Erechtheion — con- 

1 Compare the plan of the Akropolis, Fig. 52, B. 



sisted of a pronaos (E) carried by six slender and richly-decorated 
Ionic columns (compare Fig. 10), and situated at the western end 
of the northern long side ; from it a beautiful and still-preserved 
door led into the sanctuary. Corresponding to this pronaos we 
discover, at the western end of the southern long side, a small 
graceful hall (F), the ceiling of which is carried, instead of col- 
umns, by six caryatides, representing Athenian maidens (compare 
Fig. 214) ; a small postern led from this hall down into the Pan- 
droseion. Thus much about the plan and arrangement of the 
interior of the temple, as gathered from Botticher's clever re- 
searches. A conjectural reconstruction of this beautiful edifice 
is shown, Fig. 38 ; it is the more authentic as the remaining por- 
tions, although partly displaced and damaged, still give a distinct 
notion of the former state, even with regard to ornamental details. 

Fig. 38. 

c. We will conclude our survey of the exceptional forms of 
Greek temples with a description of the great votive temple at 
Eleusis. The sanctuaries hitherto considered were habitations of 
the deity represented by its image. Greek temples, as a rule, 
were not destined for the reception of crowds with a view to 
common religious ceremonies. Individuals might enter to pray 
and offer, or to gaze at the divine images ; but the great religious 
festivities took place outside the temple. There were, however, 
a few holy edifices for the purpose of common prayer ; which. 



therefore, were not only houses of the gods but also places for 
religious meetings. • These were the so-called votive temples 
{reXearripta, fieyapa), destined for the celebration of mysteries ; 
and, therefore, constructed on an entirely different plan from 
other temples. The great importance of the mysteries for antique 
life is well known ; they date from early Pelasgic times, but their 
symbolic celebration, relating to the divinities of the earth and its 
culture, was in the acme of Greek development combined with 
artistic energy of every kind. The original import of their mys- 
tical doctrine was rendered in mimico-dramatic representations, 
and formed at the same time the subject of choral hymns. For 
this purpose large rooms were required, and the only building of 
this kind known to us, viz., the Megaron at Eleusis, is indeed 
unique in its arrangements. It has at present disappeared almost 
tracelessly, but former excavations throw a sufficiently distinct 
light on various important points of its interior arrangements 
(Fig. 39). The temple was quadrangular in form, from 212 to 
216 feet long by 178 wide ; in front was a portico of twelve col- 
umns which formed the pronaos (A). The second compartment, 

which one entered by a door from the 
pronaos, formed an almost perfect 
square ; it was divided into five par- 
allel naves by four rows of columns. 
The columns, some of which have 
been found, carried galleries, as in the 
hypsethral temple, but that in this case 
they were broader, and rested on two 
rows of columns respectively (C and 
E). The space in the middle (B) 
extended through both stories, and 
formed a kind of central nave of in- 
creased height. Plutarch mentions 
the history of the building in his life 
of Perikles, its originator. According to him, Koroibos, most 
likely under the supervision of Iktinos, began the Telesterium ; 
he also erected the columns of the first story, and covered them 
with their architraves. After his death, Metagenes added the 
frieze and erected the upper columns (i. e., the columns of the 
upper story) ; the opening over the anaktoron (viz., the centre 



nave B) was covered by Xenokles. Underneath the floor was a 
kind of crypt, supported by short cylindrical props (Cylinder- 
sjritzen), and used, perhaps, for preparing the above-mentioned 
mimical representations. On the side 
opposite the entrance a raised terrace 
was added to the temple, to which led, 
through a narrow square court-yard, an 
entrance decorated with columns. Most 
likely there was a door also on this side, 
destined for the conductors of the mys- 
teries (mystagogoi), while the large door 
in the facade gave entrance to the ini- 
tiated, into the holy chambers. Fig. 40 shows a rich Korinthian 
capital of a pilaster found among the ruins, and belonging, most 
likely, to the decorations of the pronaos. 

15. In looking back on the interior arrangements and the sur- 
roundings of the temples, we are struck again by their rich and 
solemn appearance. Wherever the situation made it possible, the 
temple was secluded from the current of profane life ; it stood in 
a peribolos, which, at the same time, served to receive the votive 
offerings less appropriate for the interior. Here were symbols of 
the gods, trees, rocks, and fountains, frequently with holy tradi- 
tions attaching to them ; here were statues sometimes wholly ex- 
posed to the air, or else protected by elegant small roofs ; heroa, 
or small chapels (yato-tcoi), and altars used for the reception of 
offerings, and often dedicated to several deities ; nay, even groves 
and gardens were comprised in these inclosures. 

The most important were the altars (Z&w/xo?, Oirrrjpiov) on which 
burnt-offerings were devoted to the deity of the temple. Burnt- 
offerings of the flesh of living creatures did not take place in the 
interior of the temple {see § 59). They were performed on the 
thymele before the pronaos, the doors being open at the time, so 
that the image of the god celebrated could look on the altar. It 
need not be mentioned that in large temples these altars were 
decorated with great splendor. Originally they were only natu- 
ral hillocks which gradually increased in size by the ashes and 
horns of the burnt animals, and soon became capable of archi- 
tectural and sculptural development. Pausanias describes (v., 13) 
the altar of the Olympian Zeus as an artificial structure, the base 



(fcprjirk or irpoOvcn^) of which was 125 feet in circumference. On 
this stood the altar proper, 22 feet in height ; stone steps led to 
the prothysis, and thence to the uppermost platform of the altar, 
to which women had no access. The altar, Pausanias adds, con- 
sisted of the ashes of the thighs of the killed animals, as was also 
the case with an altar of Hera of Samos ; the altars of the Olym- 
pian Hera, of the Olympian G-aia, and of Apollo Spodios at 
Thebes, also consisted of ashes; while an altar near the large 
temple of Apollo Didymgeos, at Miletos, was composed of the 
blood of the slaughtered animals. We also hear of altars of 
wood ; at Olympia there was one of unbumt tiles which once 
every Olympiad was rubbed with chalk. For the greater part, 
however, the larger and more elaborate altars were made of stone, 
the inside being possibly filled up with earth. An altar at Per- 
gamon is distinctly stated to have consisted of marble ; the shape 
was usually quadrangular. Pausanias (v., 14, 5) calls the altar of 

Artemis of Olympia square, 
and gradually rising upward; 
square was, also, the colossal 
altar at Parion, said to have 
been one stadium (600 feet) in 
length and width. A speci- 
men of an altar in the form of 
a terrace we have in that de- 
voted to Zeus Hypatos, or Hy- 
pistos, at Athens (Fig. 41). It 
was cut from the living rock 
and formed, partly by nature, 
partly by the hand of man, into a terrace, visible from afar, up 
to which led steps and well-constructed paths. Prof. E. Curtius 
has proved this structure to be an altar, and not the Pnyx, or 
place of public assembly, as was formerly supposed. It was one 
of those places of oldest Athenian worship, connected with the 
" highest Jove ; " which, with the increase of the city, was raised 
and enlarged proportionally. {See the perspective view, Fig. 42.) 
Facing the altar for burnt-offerings rises the facade of the 
temple, consisting of beautiful marble; or, if made of lesser 
material, clad with delicate stucco, discreetly colored, a modifica- 
tion of the glaring whiteness, also occasionally applied to the pro- 

Fig. 41. 



trading details of a marble erection. Now and then votive offer- 
ings are fastened to the facade, in addition to the sculptures of 
the frieze and pediment. Tripods and statues crown the top of 
the gable, golden tripods or other statuary ornaments are placed 
on its edges, and golden shields were often hung up on the archi- 
trave, as, for instance, in the Parthenon. Statues of priests and 
priestesses stand at the sides of the entrance ; the number and 
value of the offerings and statues increase on entering the pro- 
naos ; frequently valuable plate was kept here, partly for the pur- 
poses of the service, as, for instance, basins for washing, partly with 
a view to alluding to sacred events, as in the case of the couch of 

Fig. 42. 

Hera in the pronaos of the Hergeon, near Mykense ; in its vicini- 
ty was also placed, as an anathema, the shield which Menelaos 
had snatched from Euphorbos before Troy. The cella was fitted 
up in a similar but still more splendid style. The divine image 
is enthroned in a carefully-secluded space, frequently in a sepa- 
rate niche, but always under a shelter from above. The images 
of friendly deities (a peBpot) were frequently placed in its vicinity, 
surrounded at a greater distance by statues and offerings of vari- 
ous kinds. Very important was the oblation-table (lepa or dvcopbs 
Tpdire^a) placed before the image, and corresponding to the 
burnt-offering altar outside, but destined only for bloodless offer- 

Even in their homes the Greeks had such sacred tables, near 



Fig. 43. 

or on which were placed statues of the gods, and dishes with the 
first portions of the food. "Where one and the same cella was 
devoted to several divinities, each of them, had a 
separate Tpdire^a inside, and an altar of burnt- 
offerings outside, of the temple. The thymele 
in front of the pronaos and the trapeza before 
the image are the chief criteria of what Botti- 
cher calls the cultus-temple, i. e., of a temple 
which served for the performance of sacra and 
other devotional acts of the people represented 
by the priests. Both were wanting in another 
class of temples, viz., the agonal or festive temples. In these the 
trapeza was supplanted by the bema, from the top of which the 

prizes gained in the agon were dis- 
tributed. Although occasionally 
portable, the altars were generally 
made of stone. Some of them are 
known from pictures, others have 
been rediscovered. On an earthen 
vessel found at Athens an altar is 
depicted with a fire burning on it 
in honor of Zeus, whom we dis- 
cover standing by the side of it, to- 
gether with Nike. On a low pedes- 
tal is raised a small erection with 
ornaments like volutes (Fig. 43). 
Stuart has found, at Athens, an oc- 
tagonal altar adorned with garlands, 
skulls of bulls, and knives (Fig. 44). A round altar of white 
marble, with similar ornaments, and a small erection, have been 
found in the island of Delos (Fig. 45). Valuable implements of 
the service, like candlesticks, basins, or small votive offerings, 
were placed on tables, as is shown, for instance, in a terra-cotta 
reproduction {see Fig. 46). 

16. The highest splendor of Greek architecture was shown 
where several temples were placed together in one particular 
space devoted to the gods. Of such centres of Greek life and 
religious worship several are known to us ; as, for instance, the 
grove Altis, at Olympia, where an abundance of architectural 

Fig. 44. 



monuments were crowded together, and where the agility and 
beauty displayed by the youth in the games, celebrated in honor 
of Zeus, offered plentiful suggestions to the sculptor. At other 
places competitions in music and poetry were added to the display 
of gymnastic skill, which formed the prominent feature of Olym- 
pian festivals. But even where no such games took place, sev- 
eral sanctuaries were frequently built together. At Girgenti, 
even at the present day, a row of temples is discoverable on a 

Fig. 46. 

Fig. 46. 

height overlooking the sea ; at Selinunt there are two groups of 
buildings on two hills, and the remaining three ruins of temples at 
Paestum seem also to have belonged to a group. 

The entrances to such holy inclosures were always decorated 
with a splendor corresponding to their sanctity and beauty ; the 
largeness and beauty of the entrance-gate, or portal, indeed, 
seemed to indicate in advance the corresponding importance of 
the place. The simplest kind consisted of a gate rising in com- 
manding dimensions over the wall of the peribolos. Perhaps an 
entrance-portal of this kind must be recognized in a separate gate 
of beautiful stone which has been discovered standing erect in 
the small island of Palatia, near Naxos (Fig. 47) ; its inner width 
is 3.45 metres. Palatia was connected with the larger Naxos by 
means of a bridge, and had a temple, near which the mentioned 


PROPYL^EA of suniok 

Fig. 47. 

portal has been found; it consists of a threshold, which origi- 
nally seems to have been level with 
the ground, over which it is raised 
at the present time; it is also pos- 
sible that there were steps leading 
up to it ; the posts and the lintel 
are divided into three parallel stripes 
like an Ionic architrave, and sur- 
rounded with a simple cornice. 

Where the entrance-structure was 
developed more richly it was natural 
to conform its appearance to the chief 
model of Greek architecture, the 
temple itself. The simplest kind of 
this conformity is displayed in the 
beautiful portal leading to the peribolos of the temple of Athene, 
at S anion, on the southern point of Attika. To this building 
(see the plan, Fig. 48) the name propylsea may be applied, which 
was the general denomination of portal-erections. The propylsea 
of Sunion resemble in their design a temple with two columns 
in antis on the two small sides, and with the 
cross-wall of the cella left out. When the 
plan of this building was first made public, 
it was thought that in the space covered by 
the roof no cross-wall had been intended, 
but Blouet has since discovered that the 
actual gates, formed by two pillars (a b), 
were in this cross-wall. These pillars, or 
shall we call it a broken wall, divided the 
whole space into two halves, of which the 
outer one (A) forms a kind of portico, while 
the second division (B) is turned toward the inside of the peribolos 
and the temple itself. In the latter stood marble benches (e d) 
against both the side- walls. 

Eicher forms and developments are shown by the propyl sea 
of the two temple-inclosures best known to us, viz., at Eleusis 
and in the Akropolis of Athens. The former was destined to 
inclose the large votive temple described above (§ 14, Fig. 39). 
In the plan (Fig. 49) the walls of both au outer (A) and inner 

Fig. 48. 



(a a) peribolos are recognizable. The entrance is formed by the 
large propylsea (B), near which the above-mentioned temple of 
Artemis Propylsea is situated (see Fig. 15). These propylaea form 

Fig. 49. 

a square space, inclosed by a wall on each side, and by a portico 
of six Doric columns, both in front and at the back. Inside, 

Fig. 50. 

there is a cross-wall (Fig. 50), interrupted by five doors corre- 
sponding to the intercolumnia of the portico ; it divides the whole 
space into two compartments, in the larger of which there are 



two rows of three Ionic columns each. The same arrangement 
we shall have to mention again in the propylsea of Athens, after 
which those of Eleusis were fashioned. On entering the outer 
peribolos, through this beautiful . building, one encounters a sec- 
ond smaller erection of propylsea (C), which leads into the inner 
peribolos. The latter lies higher than the other parts, and is also 
surrounded by a wall (a a). It surrounds the votive temple (D) at 
a moderate distance. The plan of the smaller propylsea is shown, 
Fig. 51. They also are inclosed by walls on the two long sides ; 

Fig. 51. 

a cross-wall divides the whole space into two halves. The side 
where the entrance lay was open in front, and had columns which 
supported the roof. By the walls, to right and left, are raised 
steps (a b) ; the part in front of the columns (A) had an even 
pavement, while in part B the pavement rises gradually to the 
amount of about sixteen inches. Into the well-preserved floor 
grooves have been cut, seemingly destined for the wheels of 
vehicles, or for rollers. The small inner space (C) was separated 
from the last-mentioned one by a door, the leaves of which opened 
inside, as is still recognizable by marks on the floor. On the 
right and left sides, the passage (C) is joined toward the interior 
by two smaller rooms, like niches, in which, most likely, statues 
were placed ; in front of these are some holes (c d\ carefully 


worked out, and evidently connected with the exhibitions which 
here took place. Altogether, the mentioned details seem to indi- 
cate that this entrance was used to prepare the visitors for the 
ceremonies in the votive temple, by arrangements or exhibitions 
of some kind. 

The greatest splendor of antique art, however, was displayed 
in the propylsea which formed the entrance to the Athenian 
Akropolis. The Akropolis is situated on a table-land, 1,150 feet 
in length, and 500 broad in the widest places ; being 160 feet 
high, and of steep ascent except where it slopes toward the town. 
The Akropolis, in a manner, marks the beginning of Athens, 
both as a state and a city, having been, at a very early period, 
surrounded by walls, and containing the oldest national sacred 
monuments. The old temples were destroyed by fire during the 
Persian occupation, but when liberty and prosperity were restored 
they once more rose from their ashes with renewed splendor (see 
plan of the Akropolis, Fig. 52) ; the temple of the Wingless Nike 
(Figs. IT, 18, and 52, D) was erected here, so as to attach the 
goddess of victory to Athens ; here rose in majestic severity the 
Parthenon (A), and the graceful structure devoted to Athene 
Polias and Erechtheus (B), while between both stood the impos- 
ing form of Athene Promachos (E) as in defense of the castle. 
Numerous holy* statues, altars, architectural groups, and other 
ornaments, stood around these splendid monuments ; and it was 
but natural that the entrance to this beautiful and hallowed spot 
should be adorned with splendor. For this purpose the propylsea 
(C) were erected by Mnesikles on the side looking toward the 
city ; the building of it took from 437 till 432 (b. a), and the ex- 
pense amounted to 2,012 talents. The chief part of the building 
consisted of a large square, inclosed by walls on the right and 
left, but opening toward both the city and the Akropolis by 
means of porticoes. Nearest to the inner portico, which was 
slightly raised, a wall went right across the space, being inter- 
rupted by five doors corresponding to the intercolumnia of the 
former {see Fig. 50) ; these doors formed the entrance proper. 
Between this wall and the outer portico lay a space of not in- 
considerable dimensions, which was divided into three naves by 
means of two rows of Ionic columns, each row consisting of three 



The unevenness of the soil was equalized by means of steps, 
but between the mentioned centre-columns a gently-ascending 
road was hewn into the rock, so as to effect a commodious entrance 
for the carts laden with the splendid peplos of Athene, which 
formed a feature of the procession of the Panathensea. The whole 
space was covered with slender marble cross-pieces, which spanned 
the naves and carried a rich and graceful casket-work (Cassetten- 
werlc). Two lower side-wings with porticoes joined the chief 

A. Parthenon. 

B. Erechtheion. 

C. Propylsea. 

Fig. 52. 

D. Temple of Nike Apteros. 

E. Pedestal of Athene Promachos. 

F. Steps in the Kock. 

G. Terrace of Polygons. 
H. Theatre of Herodes. 
I. Theatre of Dionysos. 

facade, so as to add to its impression. The northern one, which is 
still well preserved, contained in its interior the celebrated paint- 
ings by Polygnotos from the Iliad and Odyssey ; and even at the 
present day its walls are covered with the smooth marble slabs 
which once served as the frames of these pictures. The other 
wing was of similar construction, but of lesser width ; during the 
middle ages the materials of this building have been used for a 
watch-tower of the castle, which was inhabited by the Franconian 
dukes of Athens. Between these two buildings, which were in 
beautiful proportion with the great facade of the propylsea, ended 


the splendid marble steps placed in the slanting rock of the 
Akropolis ; their length was equal to the width of the propylsea ; 
some of the steps are still in existence. Between these steps lay 
a wide carriage-road, paved with large slabs of marble, into which 
grooves had been chiseled for the wheels of the above-mentioned 
vehicle. Recent excavations have discovered the lower part of 
the steps, and the entrance-gate between two towers ; the gate, 
however, is of Roman origin. 

17. After having discussed the Greek buildings supplying the 
ideal demands of the adoration of the gods, we now must turn to 
those which served the material purposes of life. 

Among these the walls ought to be mentioned first. We 
have noticed the habit of the Greeks of inclosing the precincts of 
their temples with walls, and the same feature we find repeated 
in the oldest specimens of their settlements. This is proved by 
the numerous remnants of old cities, both in Hellas and the 
Peloponnesos, which tend to show that wall-inclosures were 
among the very earliest productions of Greek architecture. The 
Greeks themselves ascribed these colossal structures to the Cyclops, 
a mythical race of giants, who are said to have come from Lykia, 
and to have taken a prominent part in building the walls of 
Tiryns. Nowadays these structures are generally called Pelasgic, 
owing to the opinion of their being built by the tribe of that 
name. This opinion seems to be confirmed by the fact that these 
monuments are generally found in places originally possessed by 
the Pelasgi. At Athens, the oldest parts of the fortifications of 
the Akropolis were called Pelasgic walls, and their erection was 
ascribed to the Pelasgi, who once had a settlement there (Paus, 
i., 28, 3). A third name applied to these walls refers to the 
mode of their construction. In the more ancient walls of this 
kind it consists in the piling on each other of rough, many-edged 
stones, and is therefore called polygonal building. Among the 
remaining monuments, the walls of Tiryns are most remarkable, 
which consist of large blocks of stone heaped on each other, the 
intervals being filled up by smaller stones. " Of the town," 
Pausanias says (ii., 25, 8), "no remnants exist but the walls, 
which are the work of the Cyclops. They consist of rough stones, 
each one of which is so large that the smallest of them could not 
have been carried by a yoke of mules. At an early period smaller 



Fig. 53. 

stones have been placed between, so as to join the large ones to- 
gether." In another place (ix., 36, 5) he calls them quite as ad- 
mirable as the pyramids of Egypt, both by the grandeur of their 

dimensions and the diffi- 
culty of the work re- 
quired in erecting them. 
The walls of Tiryns 
seem to be, at the pres- 
ent time, in the same 
state as when Pausanias 
saw them. They have 
been examined by Gel], 
after whose drawing a 
fragment is reproduced in Fig. 53 (scale = 10 feet English meas- 
ure). A second kind of these very old monuments show the 
stones still in their irregular polygonal form, but with some traces 
of workmanship upon them. 

The stones have been worked into the polygonal form nearest 
to their natural shape, and afterward carefully joined together, so 
that the wall presents a firm, uninterrupted surface. The finest 
specimens are found in the walls of the very ancient town of 
Mykense, in Argolis (Fig. 54). They are of considerable thick- 
ness ; the two outer sur- 
faces consist of hewn 
and carefully composed 
stones, while the space 
between is filled up with 
small stones and mortar. 
This kind of construc- 
tion was called by the 
Greeks efiirXe/crov ; it 
was further strengthened by the addition of solid inner cross-walls. 
The use of polygonal stones, as applied in the walls of Argos, 
Platseae, Ithaka, Koronea, Same, and other places, may result in 
great firmness, by means of the stones being put together as in a 
vaulted structure. In consequence it was retained occasionally 
by the Greeks, even after the freestone construction has been 
introduced (see Fig. 13) ; in our own time it has been applied, 
for instance, in the terraces which form the base of the Walhalla, 

Fig. 54. 


at Regensburg, and in the protective walls on the shores of the 
German Ocean, which Forchhammer has appropriately compared 
to Cyclopic-Pelasgic walls. 

Notwithstanding the advantages of polygonal structures, the 
desire for regularity led, at an early period, to the use of hori- 
zontal and regular layers of stones, as is shown by several old 
walls. The walls of Argos consist partly of horizontal arrange- 
ments of totally irregular stones. In some places, as, for instance, 
in the remnants found in ^Etolia, the layers, although horizontal, 
are totally irregular with regard to the cross-joints ; while in other 
places the transition to the regular freestone style is shown more 
distinctly by the application of vertical cross-joints. An instance 
of this are the walls of Psophis, in Arkadia (Fig. 55). A similar 
arrangement appears in a tower on the wall of Panopeus (Fig. 50), 

Fig. 55. Fig. 56. 

and still more distinctly the regular freestone style is shown in 
the wall of Chaeronea, in Boeotia, which, moreover, has the pecu- 
liarity of not being perpendicular, but of showing a decided talus. 
(Compare the walls of (Eniadse, Figs. 64 and 69.) 

The use of regular freestone afterward became general 
among the Greeks. Not only the walls of temples, but also 
those of later cities, were erected in this way, as is shown, for in- 
stance, by the well-preserved walls of Messene (built 371 b. a), of 
which we shall give illustrations. As the most solid and, at the 
same time, most artistic walls, those are mentioned by means of 
which the Athenians had joined the Piraeus harbor to their city. 
Unfortunately, only few remnants, consisting of single large blocks 
of stone, are preserved. 

Fig. 57 (scale = 100 yards) shows the plan of the castle of 


Tiryns, which may serve as a specimen of these ancient fortifica- 
tions. A signifies a gate, C a tower, and B a road ascending from 
the lower plain ; D is the present entrance. Near E and H are 
the galleries, to which we shall have to return ; near F is another 

Fig. 57. 

gate, up to which leads the road G. Near I a cistern has been 
found, and near K is another smaller gate. 

18. Concerning gates we have to add that, where the top of a 
mountain was transformed into a castle by means of walls, there 
was generally but one gate. There are, however, examples of 
such castles having several gates ; as, for instance, the above- 
mentioned Akropolis of Mykense. A town, on the other hand, as 
the centre of commerce, required numerous entrances ; and it was 
considered a particular honor to a city, to have many gates, the 
fortified safeness of which symbolized, in a manner, its impor- 
tance. The importance and size of the gates naturally depended 
on the importance of the roads which led to the city. In conse- 
quence, we have to distinguish between gates and posterns (irvXai 
and irvkihes, Pforten)^ the most important among the former 
being called the large gate (fieyakao irvXat). Such was the 
dipylon at Athens, where met the roads from Eleusis and Megara, 
the large harbor road, and the roads from the Academy and the 
Kolonos ; while, inside, these were joined by the High and Market 
Street of the city ; in this way an enormous amount of traffic was 
concentrated in this one point. 

Originally the gates were of the simplest construction. Where 
the stones of the walls were left in a rough state, the gates were 
constructed in a similar manner. The single blocks were pushed 
gradually toward each other till, at last, they touched, and in this 
way formed a simple arch. This primitive mode of construction 
is shown in a postern at Tiryns (Fig. 58), where, as we have seen, 
the walls were of an equally simple kind. In the same manner 



the arched openings of a gallery have been constructed, which is 
built into the wall of the same castle. The gallery itself likewise 
consists of layers of stone pushed toward each other, as is shown 
by the view of the interior (Fig. 59, compare Fig. 57, H). The 

Fig. 58. 

Fig. 59. 

same construction also appears in the pas- 
sages within the wall, of which Fig. 60 rep- 
resents a section. 

The construction of the 
gates improves in propor- 
tion to that of the walls. They may be con- 
structed by overlaying the stones, or by the 
placing of a long straight block across the two 
side-posts. A simple specimen of the former 
method we see in some small posterns at Phigalia (Fig. 61) and 
Messene (Fig. 62) ; the latter is specified by a small door in the 

Fig. 60. 

Fig. 61. 

Fig. 63. 

Fig. 64. 



Akropolis of Mykenae (Fig. 63), and a gate at (Eniadse, in Akar- 
nania (Fig. 64). One of the oldest and most curious exam- 
ples of such gates is the so-called lions' gate at Mykense (Fig. 65.) 
It stands between a natural prominence of the rock and an arti- 
ficial projection of the wall, and is formed by two strong and 
well-smoothed blocks of stone which serve as side-posts, and in- 
cline toward each other, so as to diminish the space to' be cov- 
ered. On them rests, horizontally, an enormous block of stone, 
fifteen feet long, which forms the lintel, and in this way finishes 
the gate. The wall itself is much higher than the gate ; in order 
to weaken the pressure of the upper stones on the lintel, and to 
prevent it from breaking, a triangular opening has been left above 
it, in which, afterward, a thinner slab of stone, about 11 feet wide 
by 10 high, has been placed. On this slab we see two lions in 
alto-rilievO) standing with their fore-paws on a broad base, which 

Fig. 65. 

Fig. 66. 

supports a column growing thinner at the lower end. Gottling 
recognizes in these lions, with the Phallic symbol between them, 
the protecting image of the castle of Mykense. In any case the 
group is interesting as the oldest specimen of Greek sculpture in 

Both the larger gates and the smaller sally-ports were, as much 
as possible, protected by projecting parts of the wall. We have 
already mentioned this fact in speaking of the gate of Mykense ; 
we add a gate at Orchomenos (Fig. 66), in which the projection 
of the wall on the right-hand side of the entrance may still be 
distinctly recognized. 

A gate at Messene, showing both firmness of structure and 



artistic proportions, is still in existence. This city, founded and 
raised to the capital of Messenia by Epaminondas, was, next to 
Korinth, considered as the safest stronghold of the whole Pelo- 
ponnesos, owing to the solidity of its walls ; the above-mentioned 
gate quite tallies with this statement, found repeatedly in ancient 
authors. The design (Fig. 67) and the section (Fig. 68, scale = 
100 feet English measure) show that it was a double gate with an 
outer (a) and inner (b) door. It is situated in a kind of tower, 
destined to increase the strength of the wall, inside of which 
there is a circular space 
like a court-yard. The 
two gates lie opposite 
each other in this court- 
yard, the one marked a 
on the outward side, that 
marked b being turned 
toward the town. 

As remarkable we 
have still to mention the 
occurrence of vaulted 
gates in Akarnania, quite 
lately discovered by Heu- 

zey. Generally speaking, the use of arches does not occur in 
Greece before the time of the Makedonians ; but in Akarnania 

Fig. 67. 

Fig. 6a 

there are found, in old polygonal fortifications, gates, the outer 
walls of which show a vault, while the inside part is still covered 
by horizontal pieces of stone (see Fig. 69). 

19. The description of the gates leads us to that of the tow- 
ers, which were almost universally used to increase the firmness 
and defensive conveniences of the walls. The gates naturally 



required a great deal of protection, and by this means, as Curtius 
has pointed out, the art of fortification itself was considerably 

developed. It seems, indeed, that the tower itself was only a 
development of the projection of the wall which is usually found 
to the right of the gate, as a favorable point of attack on the 
storming forces. 

The simplest form seems to have consisted of a mere jutting 

out of the wall, repeated at certain intervals, 

ST$1 5x\ fJ-J by means of which the besieged could direct 

ll^J!' their defense to 

^■p^ different points 

Ig^^. easier than would 
have been possi- 
ble from a straight 
wall. Such tower- 
like projections 
"W^ we find in the old 

Pelasgic walls of 
Phigalia, in Arkadia (Fig. 70); they are partly quadrangular, 
partly semicircular. 

We also find towers on single rocks, or prominences, the natu- 
ral strength of which had to be increased by fortifications ; they 
were used to reconnoitre the surrounding country, which, for in- 
stance, was the purpose of a tower in the Akropolis of Orchome- 
nos in Bceotia (Fig. 71). 

Fig. 71. 



At Aktor a tower of two stories has been preserved. It 
stands on a point where the walls of the town meet at an obtuse 
angle. It has been preserved so well that the two stories are 
distinctly recognizable; but no traces of a staircase have been 
found. Most likely it consisted of wood, like the ceiling of the 
first story, so as to be easily removable, if necessary, in case of an 
attack. The entrances to the tower were two small gates, ap- 
proachable from the top of the wall ; on the three sides turned 
outward there were windows, which, like the embrasures of me- 
diaeval castles, are very small toward the outer side, but increase 
considerably in size toward the inside. 

Of similar construction are the towers found on the walls of 
Messene, both as a protection and an ornament. A round tower, 
among others, stands where the walls 
meet at an obtuse angle (see the plan, 
Fig 72, scale = 10 metres, and the 
view, Fig. 73) ; another tower, in 
good preservation, illustrates the kind 
of entrance from the top of the wall ; 
Fig. 74 (scale = 9 metres) gives a 
side-view of it. The stones are placed 
on each other in layers, but the cross-joints are mostly oblique and 
irregular; the former are hewn so that the front-side projects 

Fig 72. 

Fig. 73. 

Fio. 74. 

slightly from the surface of the wall (a style called by the Italians, 
Rustico) ; the tower as well as the walls are crowned by battle- 
ments, which are still distinctly recognizable ; the small windows 
converge in an acute angle toward the outside, the inside part 



widening in the form of a pointed arch. The door, approachable 
from the top of the wall (see Fig. 74), closes in a straight line. 

Two round towers, standing al- 
most separate, protect the gate of 
Man tinea (s^plan, Fig. 75, scale — 
30 metres). 

Single towers were often built 
on the sea-shore, particularly on isl- 
ands, both as watch-towers against 
pirates and as places of refuge for the inhabitants. (Similar strong- 
holds built by the Venetians, against the landing of the infidels, 
are found on many points of the Greek coast.) The most impor- 
tant structure of this kind has been preserved in the isle of Keos. 
It rises, in four stories, straight from the ground, and is crowned 
with battlements, and surrounded on its four sides by projecting 

Fig. 75. 

Fig. 76. 

Fig. 78. 

blocks of stone, which carried an open gallery, perhaps " the only 
well-preserved example of the peridromos, so important in an- 
tique fortification." (Ross, " Inselreise," i., p. 132.) 

Of similar construction, but round in shape, is a tower in 
Andros (Fig. 76), built most likely for the protection of the 
neighboring iron-mines. It is remarkable by winding stairs in 


the interior, and by a circular chamber in the lower story, which^ 
like the treasure-houses {see § 21), grows smaller toward the top 
by the overlaying of the stones ; the ceiling is formed by radiat- 
ing slabs of stone (Fig. 77). 

To detached towers, courts surrounded by masonry were 
sometimes added, as places of refuge for the inhabitants of the 
neighboring country and their goods. Fig. 78 shows the plan 
of such a combination, situated in the island of Tenos, where the 
court, connected with the tower and inclosed by a strong wall, is 
nearly 84 feet long. 

20. After the buildings of protection follow those of utility. 
Among these we must consider particularly aqueducts, harbors, 
roads, and bridges; of all of which considerable remains have 
been preserved. Curtius (" On the Water-works in Greek Cities " 
in Archaologisehe Zeitung, 1847, p. 19, ss.) has laid down, as the 
leading principle of Greek aqueducts, their accommodation to the 
natural conditions of the soil, widely different in this respect from 
the water-works of the Romans, " who, in their imperial manner, 
made the fountains follow one straight line from their origin to 
the capital ; and in this way accomplished marvelous edifices 
entirely independent of the conditions of the soil." The oldest 
epoch of town water- works is undoubtedly marked by the cistern, 
which became necessary where the dryness of the soil required 
the collection of rain-water, or where the wells became insuffi- 
cient for the increasing population. They are mostly perpendicu- 
lar, gradually widening shafts, hewn into the living rock, and 
covered with slabs ; one descended into them on steps. Such 
cisterns are frequently found in Delos, at Iulis in Keos, at Old 
Thuria in Messenia, and at Athens in the southern parts of the 
city, and on the stony backs of the hills which slope toward the 
sea ; while in the eastern and northern parts of the city we find 
numerous remains of wells, often connected by subterraneous 
channels. To a later epoch, mostly to the time of the Tyrannis, 
belong the water-works, by means of which the fountains rising 
on the neighboring mountains are led (in communications hewn 
in the rock, or inclosed by walls) into reservoirs, and distributed 
thence over the town by a system of canals. By a system of this 
kind the springs of the Hymettos, Pentelikon, and Pames, were 
conducted into Athens ; and, in a similar manner, several villages 



in the dry plains of Attika were supplied with water by subterra- 
neous aqueducts, partly still in use. Of other water-works we 
mention an aqueduct seven stadia long, dug through a mountain 
by Eupalinos ; a system of works supplying the castle of Thebes 
with water; and the underground aqueducts of Syrakusse, the 
latter of which are still in use. The remains of these, as well as 
of other aqueducts near Argos, Mykense, Demetrias, and Pharsa- 
los, prove sufficiently the care taken by the Greeks in this im- 
portant branch of architecture. 

Although natural harbors were frequent on the Greek coast, 
many of them required additional arrangements for the safety of 
the ships at anchor. We possess, for instance, the remains of a 
stone jetty, built for the protection of the excellent harbor of 
Pylos, on the west coast of Messenia. It is built, like the walls 
of the town, in the Pelasgic manner, horizontal layers being the 

rule, and extends considerably 
into the sea, so as to protect 
the harbor against storms and 
currents. Fig. 79 illustrates 
a bird's-eye view of the rem- 
nants of the breakwater. 

More extensive were the 
works in the harbor of Me- 
thone, or Mothone (the mod- 
ern Modon), to the south of Pylos. To the line of cliffs, which 
naturally protects the harbor, a wall has 
been added, extending into the sea in 
the shape of a repeatedly-broken bow, 
and surrounds the harbor proper on three 
sides in connection with the equally se- 
cured shore ; Fig. 80 shows the plan of 
the harbor, which is still in frequent use. 
A and B mark the points where remnants 
of the old masonry are still in exist- 
ence. Other harbors were on a still 
larger scale, and supplied with arsenals, 
light-houses, temples, and works of art ; 
of these, the Korinthian harbor at Ken- 
chrese and the Piraeus are the most remarkable. The harbor proper 

Fig. 79. 


Fig. 80. 


consisted in the latter also in natural bays, turned to account and 
further protected by walls built into the sea on both sides of the 
entrance, so as to defend the inner space against 
both waves and enemies. No less complicated 
was the harbor of Ehodes ; according to Koss, it 
retains, at the present day, the original construc- 
tions ; which, by turning to account the natural 
bays, made it one of the most important stations 
for commercial and war purposes. Fig. 81 shows 
the design ; a, b, c, signify respectively the har- 
bors for boats, commercial and war vessels ; d is 
the exterior harbor, e the site of the town. 

Concerning the roads of the Greeks we certainly have writ- 
ten evidence of carefully-paved roads and streets, particularly 
in connection with the festive processions to the great national 
places of worship ; but little is said about the method of the 
Greeks in these structures, and only few remnants remain to en- 
lighten us as to the way in which they were made even, or paved. 
In low, boggy places the want of level and secure roads was natu- 
rally felt first ; their earliest form seems to have been that of dams 
(xcofAara, ytyvpcu). According to Curtius, a dam led from Ko- 
pai, in Bceotia, to the opposite shore of the Kopaic bog. It is 22 
feet wide, propped by stone-walls, and supplied with a bridge, so 
as to give an outlet to the water of the Kephissos. Like the 
choma, which led through the marshes of the Alphaeos, and 
formed the border-line between the dominions of the Tegeatai 
and Pallantioi, it served at the same time both as a protection of 
the arable land against the waves and as a means of communica- 
tion. Sometimes canals were connected with such dams, an ex- 
ample of which is offered by Phenea. 

Eoads led up to the old lordly castles " as they are found at 
Orchomenos and other places" (Curtius's " History of the Building 
of Eoads among the Greeks," 1855, p. 9). In later historic times, 
however, the chief purposes of road-building were commercial 
traffic and festive processions. " It is the worship of the gods 
which here again has given rise to art, and the holy ways were 
the first artistically-constructed roads among the Greeks " (p. 11), 
connecting tribes and countries for the purpose of common cele- 
bration. Still, at the present time Greece is crossed by roads on 



which the grooves for wheels are hewn into the rocky ground. 
On these the holy vehicles, with the statues of the gods and the 
implements of worship, could be moved conveniently. Between 
these tracks the road was leveled by means of sand or pebbles. 
Where there were no two pair of grooves, arrangements were 
made to avoid collisions. 

We know a little more about the construction of bridges 
among the Greeks. In most cases bridges across rivers and 
ravines were made of w T ood ; as an example of a very firm, long 
bridge made of wood we mention that across the Euripus, be- 
tween Aulis and Chalkis, in the island of Euboea, built during the 
Peloponnesian War, and perhaps afterward superseded by a dam- 
structure, remnants of which are still in existence. ■ There are, 
however, found in Greece bridges wholly made of stone; but 
their dimensions can have been but small before the arch-vaulting 
principle came into use. Gell mentions a bridge of this kind 
near Mykenae, and another similar one near Phlius the coverings 
of which consisted of blocks of stone. 

Wider rivers were crossed by a mode of structure w T hich we 
have mentioned in connection with the openings of gates and 
walls. The layers of stones were pushed gradually toward each 
other from both sides, and when the space between w r as thus 
sufficiently diminished it was covered by slabs of stone, or rafters, 
laid across. This system is used in a bridge between Pylos and 

Methone, near the vil- 
lage of Metaxidi, in Mes- 
senia (Fig. 82). Only the 
lower layers are antique ; 
the arch is of later date. 
A complicated and 
well-calculated structure 
is the bridge across the 
river Pamisos in Messe- 
nia. It is placed where 
a smaller river falls into 
the river Pamisos, and 
consists of three parts, one 01 which lies toward Messene, the 
second toward Megalopolis, and the third toward Franco Eclis- 
sia (Andania). {See plan, Fig. 83, and view, Fig. 84.) The front 

Fig. 82. 



parts of the pillars of the two branches crossing the two rivers are 
pointed, so as to break the force of the waves. The piece a in 
Fig. 83 is illustrated by Fig. 85 ; it shows one smaller opening 

Fig. 83. 

Fig. 84 

which is covered with straight pieces of stone, while the larger 
opening shows the gradual approach of the layers. This is shown 
by the remaining old layers, to which, later, an arch has been 

The same form of covering is found in a bridge across the 
Eurotas, near Sparta {see design, Fig. 86). In looking at Fig. 87 


Fig. 86. 

Fig. Si 

it ought to be remembered that the pointed arch of the vault is 
a later addition. (About a peculiar kind of water-works, viz., the 
fountain-houses, see % 21, Figs. 90 and 91.) 

21. After the buildings destined to protect man against man, 
we have to consider those which shelter him against the influences 


of Nature, viz., the human habitation. The first human habita- 
tions, not to mention caves, were among the Greeks, as among 
other primitive nations, huts, constructed differently according to 
the nature of the country. They were said to have been invented 
by Pelasgos, the progenitor of the Pelasgic tribe in Arkadia. Of 
such huts and similar more or less primitive dwellings we possess 
neither descriptions nor actual specimens. The stages of develop- 
ment from the hut to the regular dwelling-house, as described in 
the Homeric poems, are likewise conjectural ; the arrangements, 
however, of the dwellings of the old Greek royal families, which 
evidently are described as actually seen by that poet, can be 
understood, at least, in their chief features. This applies particu- 
larly to the description of the palace of Odysseus, which, together 
with partial descriptions of those of Alkinoos, Priamos, and of 
the house-like tent of Achilles, conveys a sufficiently clear notion 
of the royal mansion of the time. 

According to these descriptions the royal palace was divided 
into three parts, the distinction of which is recognizable in Homer. 
The same division, with such modifications as were necessitated by 
the more limited space, applied, undoubtedly, also to the more im- 
portant private houses. The first division was intended for every- 
day life and intercourse ; it consisted of the court-yard (called avXrj 
by Homer), into which one entered from the street, through a door 
of two leaves (ra nrpoOvpa, Ovpai BUktSe;). In the middle of this 
court-yard stood the statue Zeus, the protector of dwellings (Zev? 
iprceios). It was surrounded by outhouses destined for the keep- 
ing of stores, for handmills, bedrooms of the male servants, and 
stables for horses and cattle, unless the latter were kept in sep- 
arate farms. Opposite the gate of the yard was the frontage of 
the dwelling-house (h&jjua or Souos) of the family of the Anax ; 
in front of the entrance-gate was a covered portico (aWovaa Scofjua- 
tos), corresponding to a similar one on both sides of the yard 
(alQovaa ah\r\i). This portico in front of the house must have 
been of considerable size, as, according to Homer, it was occa- 
sionally used by the princes as the place of their assemblies. 
Through it one entered the fore-house, or 717)680/1,0?, which is to be 
considered either as a kind of entrance-hall to the house prop- 
er, running along its frontage, or as the innermost part of the 
aWovaa ScofjuaTo?, in which case it was, perhaps, closed by a wall. 


In this place the couches of the guests were prepared for the 

The dwelling-house (Bcofia) of the Anax and his family, which 
follows after the 7173680/409, comprises the hall of the men, the 
women's rooms, the connubial chamber, the armory, and the 
treasury. The hall of the men (to fieyapov) was the chief room 
of the palace ; according to Homer, it was a large room resting on 
columns. Perhaps, in contrast to the light and airy prodomos, it 
is described as shady (cr/aoecs), the light entering only through 
windows at the sides, or through an opening in the smoky ceiling, 
which served also to let out the smoke. Near the back-wall of 
the megaron, and opposite the door which led to the women's 
chambers, stood the hearth (eo~xdpr]\ on which the meal of the 
revelers in the hall was prepared. The floor was of stone, 
perhaps varied in color, and the walls were covered with large 
pieces of polished metal. It is true that the megaron of Odysseus, 
the ruler of a poor, rocky island, was bare of these ornaments ; 
but the palaces of richer kings, like, for instance, that of Menelaos, 
undoubtedly showed this favorite old wall-decoration, not to 
speak of the perhaps fictitious description of the splendid hall of 
Alkinoos. The question about the nature of the /jl€ct6&/j,cu men- 
tioned by Homer, we do not wish to decide definitively ; some 
modern archaeologists, like Rumpf and Winckler, 1 the one following 
the other's investigations, consider them to be two galleries, placed 
at the end of the megaron, on both sides of the entrance to the 
women's chambers : older commentators believe the mesodmai to 
be niches between the pilasters, or these pilasters themselves. We 
ourselves incline to the latter opinion, because such a gallery 
would be quite adapted to the hall of a hostelry, used as a women's 
room in the daytime and a sleeping-room for the men at night, 
but in the megaron of a palace it seems strangely out of place. 

The third division was devoted to the smaller family circle ; 
its collective name was originally Oakafioi, afterward changed into 
yvvcutcwvLTis. A small corridor (irpoOvpov) led to these rooms, the 
largest of which was a hall on the ground-floor, belonging to the 
female members of the family and their handmaidens. Smaller 
chambers, being the bedrooms of the maid-servants, fifty in num- 
ber, in the house of Odysseus, might be found by the side of 

1 A. Winckler, "The Dwelling-houses of the Greeks," Berlin, 1868, pp. 31-55. 



this hall, while the upper story (v7repooov) contained separate 
sleeping and sitting rooms for the members of the king's family. 
The connubial chamber, or thalamos proper, of the king and 
queen was, perhaps, in the lower story, at the end of the large hall 
of the women ; it seems, at least, that Odysseus placed his bed- 
room there from the fact of his cutting the top off an olive-tree in 
his yard, and using the stem as a post of his connubial couch. 
Near it, most likely, was the armory, although certain archae- 
ologists have placed it, like the connubial chamber, in the upper 

Thus much about the house of the Anax in Homer's time. 
Many conjectures as to the situation of the staircases to the upper 
story, the place and destination of the tholos, of the corridors of 
the spear-stand, etc., we have purposely omitted. In Homer's 
time such palaces, varying according to the locality and the 
owner's wealth, were scattered all over Greece. Many theories as 

Fig. 88. 

Fig. 89. 

to details, mostly founded on vague conjectures, have, for the 
greater part, been exploded by Hercher (in his meritorious paper 
" Homer and Ithaka, as it was in Reality," in " Hermes," vol., i., 
p. 263, ss.). 

As an important part of the fortified palace we have still to 
mention the treasury (Orjo-avpos), the firm construction of which 
guaranteed the safety of its valuable contents, as is proved by 
several vaults still in existence. Among these we mention par- 
ticularly the treasure-house of Atreus, remains of which are 


found among the above-mentioned Cyclopic remnants at My- 
kenae. This thesauros, which is expressly mentioned by Pau- 
sanias, has been rediscovered and repeatedly described by mod- 
ern scholars. It consists of a round chamber lying on the slope 
of a hill. (See plan, Fig. 88, and section, Fig. 89.) The en- 
trance is through a space inclosed by walls (A) ; the gate (B) is 
formed by horizontal layers of stone, and covered with an enor- 
mous slab of stone, over which, as in the lions' gate {see Fig. 65), 
a triangular opening has been left so as to protect it from the 
weight of the upper stones. Through this door, on which the 
traces of nails are still observable (destined evidently to fix a 
metal coating), one enters the chief apartment (C), which is joined 
at the side by another chamber (D). The latter is cut into the 
rock, while the w T alls of the chief apartment consist of horizontal 
layers of stones arranged in a circular form. These layers ap- 
proach each other toward the top, which produces the appearance 
of a cupola, closed at the top by a larger stone (Fig. 89). 

Pausanias mentions several thesauroi, the convenient arrange- 
ment of which is exemplified by the one described above. At 
Mykenae he mentions, besides the treasure-house of Atreus, those 
of his sons, of which also remnants are still in existence. At 
Orchomenos, in Bceotia, he mentions the thesauros of Minyas as 
a wonderful work, unsurpassed by any monument in Greece or 
elsewhere (Pausanias, ix., 38, 1). His description tallies perfectly 
with the construction of the treasure-house at Mykenae, but for 
the size, the latter being only 48 feet in diameter, against 70 of 
the Orchomenos thesauros. 

The same principle of forming the vaults by overlaying has 
been applied to other buildings, as tombs of heroes, fountain- 
houses, and religious treasure-houses, at an early period. Koss 
has discovered a fountain-house in the island of Kos, in which 
the tholos principle has been applied in a similar manner. 
About one and a half hour's walk from the city of Kos, on 
the slope of Mount Oromedon, lies the well Burinna, which 
supplies the town with water. In order to keep it quite cold 
and pure a circular chamber (2.85 metres in diameter, and 7 me- 
tres in heigiit, up to the round opening in the vault) has been 
erected, into which the water runs, and from which it issues 
through a subterraneous canal 35 metres in length, and of an 



average height of 2 metres. Fig. 90 shows the mouth of the ca- 
nal (A), the chamber (B), and the cleft in the rock (C) whence 
the water issues ; between this and the chamber there is a door. 

The chamber (see Fig. 91, D) 
is built like the treasure-house 
at Mykense, and opens at the top 
by means of a shaft (B) 3 metres 
high, which leads through the 
mountain in order to connect the 
water with the open air. Above 
the roof of the canal (A) (which 
consists partly of large horizon- 
tal blocks of stone, partly of long, 
narrow pieces of freestone) a 
small chamber (E) has been dis- 
covered, the entrance to which 
lies on the slope of the mountain, 
between the mouth of the canal 
and the opening of the shaft. It 
is connected by a small, window 
(A) with the principal chamber, 
and may have been the sanctuary 
of the nymphs of the fountain, or the watchman's dwelling, besides 
letting in fresh air to the fountain in addition to the shaft (B). 

22. About the historic dwelling-house of the Greeks our 
information is almost as scanty as about the Homeric palace. 
Remaining specimens are totally wanting, perhaps with one ex- ' 
ception ; and a systematic description of the Greek house by 
Yitruvius seems to relate more to the splendid mansions of post- 
Alexandrine times than to the houses of the common citizens. 
His account, moreover, is not easily understood ; so that about 
this most important feature of Greek domestic life little is to be 

In comparing the historic Greek house with that of the Ho- 
meric poems, we find, as an important deviation, that in the latter 
the women's chamber was always in the upper story ; while in 
the former men's and women's apartments, although separated, 
iay generally on the same flat. This rule, however, is not with- 
out exceptions with regard to both cases. 

Fig. 91. 


Both the Homeric and the historic houses have, in common, 
the important feature of a court-yard. In both it is surrounded 
by columns, and forms, as it were, the centre round which the 
other parts of the house are grouped equally, and into which the 
single rooms open. The historic house, however, was much infe- 
rior in size and splendor to that described by Homer, as was nat- 
ural, seeing that it was inhabited by simple citizens instead of 
kings and rulers of the people. Homer never even mentions pri- 
vate dwellings. Moreover, it was a peculiarity of the Greeks, in 
their best times, to concentrate all their splendor and luxury in 
the adornment of temples and other public edifices, while their 
private dwellings were small and modest, not to say mean. The 
homes of the Greeks were their public places, their Stoas and 
Agoras ; on these they looked with pride and joy ; only in the 
Makedonian period, when Greek freedom and greatness had van- 
ished, luxurious private houses became the fashion ; while at the 
same time begin the complaints of both religious and civic build- 
ings being more and more neglected. But even then buildings of 
large size and great splendor were more common in the country- 
seats of the rich than in the towns, where the limits of space and 
the regular lines of the streets precluded a too great extension. 

Hence one yard only was the. rule for town-houses. The de- 
scriptions by Yitruvius of numerous splendid rooms, etc., evidently 
refer to the palace-like buildings of the time after Alexander ; 
still these descriptions are of great importance to us. For in 
that part of the house first described by him, which he calls gynai- 
konitis, the original nucleus of an old Greek dwelling seems pre- 
served ; while the second part, called andronitis, contains the 
additions of increased and more refined luxury. We must try 
first to recognize the old simple house in his description. 

" On entering ! the door," Yitruvius says, " one comes into a 
rather narrow passage, called by the Greeks Ovpcopelov." It cor- 
responds to our modern passage. To right and left of it are 
rooms for domestic purposes. Yitruvius mentions on the one 
side stables, and on the other, the porters' rooms. Through the 
passage, which is also called dvpcov or irvKxov, one enters the 
7rept(TTv\cov. The peristylion is an open yard surrounded by 

1 We omit the references to the Roman house contained in his description, as to 
this we shall have to return hereafter. 



colonnades, also described as avXrj or totto? Trepacicov. " This peri- 
stylion," Yitruvius continues, "has colonnades on three sides. 
But on the southern side are two antse (i. e., front and wall pil- 
lars), which stand at a considerable distance from each other, and 
carry a beam. They form the entrance to a room, the depth of 
which is equal to two-thirds of the interval between the antse. 
This place is called by some irpoard^, by others irapaa-rd^ ; " it 
is, therefore, a room which, on its broad side, opens into the yard ; 
an open hall, in fact, to which, most likely, the not uncommon 
expression iraard^ may also be applied. 

"Further toward the interior," Yitruvius concludes, "are 
large rooms, where the lady of the house sits with the maids at 
their wheels. To the right and left of the prostas are bedrooms 

(cubicula), one of which is called 
thalamos, the other amphithala- 
mos. All round the yard, un- 
der the colonnades, are rooms 
for domestic purposes, such as 
eating -rooms, bedrooms, and 
small rooms for the servants. 1 
This part of the house is called 
gynaikonitis." In this gynai- 
konitis, as we said before, we 
recognize the old Greek house. 
The husband, whose life passed 
in public, possessed only the 
smaller outer part of it ; while 
in the interior the housewife, 
with her maids, was in com- 
mand. Fig. 92 is meant to il- 
lustrate the plan of an old Greek 
dwelling on this basis. 

The above-mentioned chief 

parts are easily recognizable. 

A is the small passage, B the 

open court-yard surrounded by 

colonnades, C the open hall (irpoard^, TrapaaTas, iraardi), to 

which are joined the bedroom of the master of the house (D) 

(the thalamos) ; and on the other side the amphithalamos, per- 

Fig. 92. 


haps the bedroom of the daughters. At the back of these are 
good-sized rooms for the maids (G), working under the supervision 
of their mistress. Round the yard,, and opening into the colon- 
nades, lie other rooms for domestic purposes, such as store-rooms, 
bedrooms (H), etc., some of which, on both sides of the street-door 
and looking toward the street, were frequently used as shops or 
workshops (I). Behind the house, and more or less shut in by 
the neighboring houses, might be a garden (K), frequently men- 
tioned by ancient writers. 

The street-door leading into the passage was mostly in a line 
with the facade. 1 The expressions irpbQvpov and Trpoirvkcuov, how- 
ever, seem to indicate that in some houses there must have been 
a small space in front of the door, which might be adorned with 
antae, or, as is proved by the still-existing remains of a private 
house, with columns {see Fig. 92). By the propylaion stood fre- 
quently, if not generally, the image of Apollo Aggieus (2) ; 
perhaps at some distance from the house was placed the symbol 
of Hermes as the protecting god of roads and traffic. It con- 
sisted merely of a column or pillar. 

In the yard usually stood an altar, separate and visible from 
every side, and dedicated to Zeus Herkeios, as the supreme pro- 
tector of the family. This circumstance is already mentioned in 
Homer. According to Petersen's opinion, the sanctuaries of the 
6eol KTrjdiOL (the gods giving possession) and of the Oeol Trarpaot 
(the gods of families or generations) were placed in the alee 
(4 and 5), a less accessible part of the house, but connected with 
the colonnade. From the court-yard one entered the open hall 
which, as it were, formed the boundary between the public and 
the private life of the family, and therefore was most adapted for 
the gatherings of the family at religious offerings and common 
meals. It is therefore here that the hearth, the holy place of the 
house, devoted to Hestia, the all-preserving goddess, must most 
likely be placed. Originally it w T as no doubt used for cooking, 
but even later, when a separate kitchen had become necessary, 
the hearth remained the centre of the house, and on this altar all 
the events of domestic life were celebrated by religious acts. 8 " A 

1 A street-door is illustrated in Gerhard's " Goblets of the Royal Museum of 
Berlin," Table XXVII. 

8 See Petersen, " The Domestic Worship of the Greeks, in Zeitschrift fur Alter- 



particular occasion," says Petersen, "for worshiping Hestia was 
offered by all important changes in the family, such as a depart- 
ure, a return from a journey, or a reception into the family, even 
of slaves, who always took part in the domestic worship of Hestia. 
Birth, giving of a name, wedding, or death, were celebrated in like 
manner. This altar was also holy as an asylum ; to it flew the 
slave. to escape punishment; on it the stranger, nay, even the 
enemy of the house, found protection ; for the worship of Hes- 
tia united all the inhabitants of the house, free-born or slaves, 
nay, even strangers." For this important function of the altar, 
the place assigned to it by us seems the most appropriate. 

To the right and left of the prostas were the thalamos and 
amphithalamos, in the former of which were placed the sanc- 
tuaries of the connubial deities ; in the back-wall of the prostas 
was a door, which is frequently mentioned by ancient authors 
as particularly important for the arrangement of the Greek 
house. It is called fieravXos, to distinguish it from the door 
leading into the yard from the outside, the 6vpa aiJXeto?, " be- 
cause it lies opposite the avXecos, beyond or behind the avkr)" 1 
In case it was closed, the maid-servants, who seem to have been 
employed in the work-rooms, and slept on the floor above (7rvpyoi), 
were secluded from the other parts of the house — a circumstance 
repeatedly mentioned by Greek authors. Where there was a gar- 
den, it was connected with the house by a door (8), called dvpa 
Krjiraia (garden-door). 

So much about the older Greek house with one court. The 
numerous descriptions of the enlarged house differ in so many 
points that a new attempt at an analysis may seem desirable ; it 
will be based entirely on the practical considerations which must 
have led to the addition of a second yard. In the towns, at least, 
this change must at first have been applied to buildings already 
in existence. The increase of luxury made a more commodious 
enlargement of the houses of the wealthy desirable. This ex- 
tension had to be directed toward the back, the frontage being 
fixed by the line of the street ; while, on the other hand, the fre- 
quently-occurring gardens might be conveniently used for the in- 

ihumswissenschaft, 1851, p. 199. Petersen places the altar in the large hall of the 
men, which, according to him, separates the two yards. 
1 See Becker, " Charikles," second edition, ii., p. 88. 



traduction of a second yard. In consequence, the whole first part 
of the house has remained unchanged {see Fig. 93) ; the only in- 
novation being that from the metaulos (Fig. 92, 7) one gets im- 
mediately into the second yard 
(K), instead of into one of the 
large work-rooms. These work- 
rooms (G), together with other 
apartments (L), were arranged 
in a manner which, with regard 
to size and position, must have 
varied greatly, according to cir- 

The additional space so 
gained was appropriated by the 
narrower family circle, while 
the first part became the scene 
of the more public intercourse. 
The metaulos remains the boun- 
dary between the two parts, 
from which circumstance alone 
its hitherto unexplained second 
name fiio-avXos can be derived. 
The metaulos (door behind the 
first yard) becomes in this way 
a mesaulos (door between two 
yards). The prostas, in the 
back -wall of which this door 
lies, retains its importance, de- 
rived from the sacred hearth. 
This arrangement becomes still 
more likely from its analogy with the tablinum in the Roman 
house, which, as we shall show, was most likely an imitation 
of the prostas. 1 It need not be added that the above descrip- 
tion is intended only to convey a general notion of the Greek 
dwelling-house. The rule was naturally modified by the na- 
ture of the locality, the requirements of individual families, 

1 We call the reader's attention to Winckler's comprehensive researches ( u The 
Dwelling-houses of the Greeks," Berlin, 1868, p. 138, ss.), from whom, however, we 
differ in several points. 



etc., in the same way as this may be observed in the houses of 
Pompeii, which illustrate the construction of the Roman house 
in manifold varieties, or in modern dwelling-houses. The only 
preserved specimen, indeed, of a Greek private house shows many 
deviations even from the important features of our plan. We 
are speaking of a building which has been discovered in the isle 

Fig. 95. 

of Delos (Fig. 94). It shows a very 
beautiful vestibule (irpoTrvXatov), which 
lies on the narrow side toward the 
street, and consists of two Ionic col- 
umns between two graceful antse (Fig. 
95). To right and left small doors 
(Fig. 94, 1 and 2) lead into side-rooms, while the large door (3) 
leads into a narrow passage (B). The aula (C) to which this 
passage leads is very short and narrow, and seems to have been 
without columns. Unfortunately, the rooms adjoining the pas- 
sage and the yard have not been described by the archaeologists 
who investigated the building ; they only tell us of the existence 
of a cistern (F). The room D, open on both sides, may perhaps 
be considered as a very small prostas, in which case the room to 
the right of it (E) would be the thalamos ; G would then be the 
second yard, but here also no columns seem to have been found. 
The editors believe the building to have been a public bath — 
which, however, seems unlikely from its moderate dimensions. 


The cistern, which seems to have given rise to this idea, may just 
as well have belonged to a private house. The Greeks were just 
as anxious to have a water-reservoir in their houses as we are at 
the present day. Parts of the important building in Delos have, 
as Ross complains, been destroyed to gain stones and mortar for 
new buildings. But for this barbarous custom, whole quarters of 
the town might still be in existence. Under many, perhaps most, 
of the houses cisterns were dug, partly (according to their width) 
spanned by small arches, partly covered with long pieces of 

23*. From the dwelling of living individuals we now turn to 
the abode of the dead, from the house to the grave. The piety 
of the Hellenic people made the latter of great importance ; hence 
the astonishing variety of their forms. We will divide them into 
groups according to the different modes of their construction. 
Graves, therefore, may be heaps of earth, they may be hewn 
into the rock, or they may be detached buildings, according to 
the conditions of the locality, or the mode of burying. Within 
these divisions there are, again, many varieties of size, form, and 

In places where stone was scarce, mounds were made of earth ; 
where stones were found in the ground, these were heaped on 
each other ; where the soil was rocky, natural caves were used or 
artificial ones dug. Such are the oldest forms of graves ; only 
later, when civilization was more advanced, separate monuments 
were more commonly erected. 

a. Tombs consisting of earth-mounds, as the oldest and sim- 
plest form of graves, were common to the Caucasian race, as is 
shown by numerous remains from East to West. Greece also is 
rich in such primitive structures, which in a small chamber con- 
tain the remains of the dead, and, by their imposing forms, serve 
at the same time as monuments. Owing to the primitive mode 
of their structure, their appearance resembles more the works of 
Nature than that of human hands ; they were called by the Greeks 
koXcdvol (hills), another expression, ^co/MiTa (heaps), being derived 
from their kind of construction. Of this kind are the enormous 
mounds of earth which are still to be seen on the shores- of the 
Hellespont, and which, according to old Greek traditions, contain 
the remains of Homeric heroes, like Achilles, Patroklos, Aias, 



and Protesilaos. Tombs of the same kind were erected by the 
Athenians in the Marathonian plain to those fallen in the great 

Fig. 96. 

Fig. 97. 

battle ; the largest of these was originally 30 feet high (see Fig. 
96). Smaller tumuli are numerous in the Attic plain ; of a simi- 
lar kind are also the large burial hills of the Bosporanian kings 
which are found at Pantikapaion, on the Kimmeric Bosporus 
(see Fig. 97). 

In order to add to the firmness of these mounds, and to avoid 
the sliding down of the earth, they were frequently surrounded 

Fig. 98. 

Fig. 99. 

by a stone inclosure, as for instance was the case with the tombs 
of iEpytos at Pheneos, in Arkadia, and of (Enomaos at Olympia. 
There still exists in the island of Syme a tumulus which exactly 

answers to the de- 
scription of Pausa- 
nias. Its diameter 
is 19 metres ; it is 
quite surrounded by 
a stone-wall (tcpr)7rk 
or Opiy/cos) 1.25 — 
2.19 metres in 
height, which con- 
sists of polygonal 



stones (XWot aypoi, \oyd8es) (see Figs. 98 and 99). The conical 
mound has been destroyed almost entirely. 

Mounds of this kind were also made of stone, as for instance 
the tomb of Laios, near Daulis, mentioned by Pausanias, to which 
kind we shall have to return. 

b. Another kind of primitive tombs were caves in rocks, either 
natural or artificial,. and decorated by art. Of these also we have 
to distinguish various 
kinds. A natural cavern 
may have been extended 
and used as a tomb ; or 
the rocky soil may have 
been hollowed into a sub- 
terraneous chamber ; or, 
lastly, a more or less sepa- 
rate piece of rock may 
have been excavated and 
decorated externally. The 
caves and galleries' of 
quarries must have led 
to the idea of subterra- 
neous graves in rocks at 
a very early period. Structures of this kind (the name of which, 
Kyklopeia, denotes their great age) are found near Nauplia. Simi- 
lar caverns of irregular formation may be seen near Gortyna, in 

fig. 101. 

Fig. 102. 

Fig. 103. 

the isle of Crete ; more regularity is shown in the Nekropolis of 
Syrakuse, which also seems to have been occasioned by quarries. 



Simple shafts of great depth, ending in a burial-chamber, are 
found among the above-mentioned royal tombs of Pantikapaion 
{see Figs. 97 and 100), where a tunnel, erected of blocks of stone 
has also been discovered {see Fig. 101). 

The burial-caverns of both old and more modern dates found 
in the islands are still more numerous and important than those 

Fig. 104. 

of the Greek peninsula. Some of them are cut into the rock in 
such a manner that the ceiling requires no additional props, as is 
the case, for instance, in a tomb in the island of ^Egina, of which 
Figs. 102 and 103 show the plan and section. A narrow stair- 
case (a) leads to ths entrance, which has the form of an arch {b), 
and through it into the burial-chamber. The latter contains three 

Fig. 105. 

sarcophagi, which are constructed of simple slabs of stone, with 
a cover of the same material. They occupy three sides of the 

A grave in the isle of Melos contains three sarcophagi on each 
side, which stand in semicircular niches, as is shown by the plan 
(Fig. 104) and the section (Fig. 105, scale — 10 metres). 

In other tombs the ceiling has been propped by pillars and 



cross-walls, by means of which the interior is at the same time 
divided into several separate chambers. A burial-chamber in 
Delos shows two pillars (a) on each of the two side-walls, between 
which lie small niches (b) (see plan, Fig. 106). In each of these 
niches are two sarcophagi, placed one on the top of the other. 
The height of the grave is 2.30 metres. The ceiling consists of 
stone slabs joined closely together (see Fig. 107). 

A subterraneous grave in the isle of Chalke shows a different 
arrangement (Fig. 108). A narrow staircase (b) leads to the en- 
trance-door (a). Inside the chamber (14| feet long) is a pillar (c), 

Fig. 106. 

Fig. 107. 

Fig. 108. 

from which two strong stone beams (d d) extend toward the two 
smaller walls of the chamber. They carry the ceiling, consisting 
of slabs of stone, and lying only a few feet under the surface. 
All round the room by the wall are the couches of the dead, re- 
sembling stone benches. Ross, on discovering them, found them 
empty. In the walls are square niches, for the reception of jugs 
and other objects, which it was the custom to leave with the 
dead. This custom (see § 35) is exemplified by the numerous 
graves in the small island of Chilidromia. These are not cut into 
the rock, but built of chalk-stone in a simple manner, not very 
much below the surface. Fig. 109 shows one of them, opened 
by Fiedler, in which the skeletons and the offerings to the dead 
were found in their original position. The grave itself consists 
of a square hollow sufficiently large to receive the body, and sur- 
rounded by stones, the two longer walls being built of carefully- 



fitted chalk-stones without mortar, while the two shorter sides are 
formed by large slabs. The body was placed with its head toward 
the south. Two small drinking-vessels and 
two copper coins were found in the same 
chamber, which was covered with three 
large stone slabs. At the foot-end of the 
body was another smaller room, inclosed and 
covered in a similar manner, and, like a store- 
room, containing a number of objects, all 
destined for the dead. Among these were 
one large and several smaller cans, an oil- 
pitcher, several vases for offerings, and vari- 
ous drinking-cups, all made of burnt clay ; 
there was also a bronze mirror. An earthen 
lamp showed distinct traces of having been 

The same custom was observed when the 
dead were buried in coffins (o-opol). Several 
coffins of burnt clay have been 
found at Athens. Fig. 110 shows 
a coffin covered with three slabs ; 
Fig. Ill is an open dead-box, 
filled with vessels of various 
kinds. Another kind of graves 
in rocks consisted in chambers 
cut into the slope of a rock, the 
surface near the entrance being arranged architecturally. Grave- 
facades of this kind are very frequent in Phrygia and Lykia ; 
they indicate a civilization originally foreign to the Greeks, but 

imitated by them even dur- 
ing their historic times, from 
which many of these monu- 
ments date. 

The Lykian graves display 
a most curious imitation of 
wood-architecture, carried into 
the minutest details. Usually the facade is divided into several 
parts by means of beams protruding from the surface (see Fig. 
112). Our illustration shows a grave in a steep slope of a rock 

Fig. 109. 

Fig. 110. 



at Xanthos ; the imitation of wood is carried even to the copying 
of nails and pegs to join the different beams ; it resembles the 

Fig. 111. 

frontage of a house solidly built of timber, with a ceiling of 
hewn trunks of trees, 
such as the huts of Ly- 
kian peasants have at 
the present day. A 
perpendicular beam in 
the middle divides the 
facade into two deep- 
ened partitions. Some- 
times the cross-beams 
quite protrude from 
the surface, in which 
case a kind of porch is 
formed in front of the 
facade. This arrange- 
ment is found, for in- 


stance, in 
Myra {see 

a grave at 
Fig. 113), 

which, moreover, is 
decorated with excel- 

Fio. in 



Fig. 114. 

lent paintings both by the side of the facade and inside the en- 
trance-hall. A grave at Telmessos (Fig. 114) shows a complete 
facade in the Ionic style. Two Ionic columns between two antae 

carry a pediment adorned with ac- 
roteria, and forming in this way 
the portico ; in the back- wall is the 
entrance to the burial-chamber. 

Graves with facades of this kind 
are also frequently found on the 
Greek continent — more frequent- 
ly, indeed, it seems than in the isl- 
ands ; sometimes artificial construc- 
tions have been added to increase 
the natural firmness of the rock. 
In a grave in the island of Thera, 
discovered by Ross, the chamber 
is formed by a natural cleft in the 
rock; but the walls have been 
propped by masonry, and the ceiling consists of slabs of stone. 
Another grave in the slope of a hill, discovered by the same 
scholar in the island of Kos, consists of a small fore-court, which 

leads to the entrance-door, decorated 
in the best Ionic style, remnants of 
which have been preserved in a chapel 
close by. The grave itself (see plan, 
Fig. 115, and section, Fig. 116) con- 
sists of a vaulted chamber, 6 metres 
in length (a), on both sides of which 
are the couches of the dead (b b), 2.50 
metres long by 66 centimetres wide. 
Fragments in the best Ionic style 
found near it most likely belonged 
to the separate porch of this grave- 
chamber, which, according to an in- 
scription, was the heroon of Char- 
mylos and his family. 

A grave at Lindos, in the isle of 
Rhodes, is entirely worked into the rock. It is one of the most 
perfect specimens of this style, imitated most likely from the 

Fig. 115. 

Fig. 116. 



monuments of the opposite Lykian coast. Instead of the above- 
mentioned Lykian wood-imitations, we here, however, find the 
forms of Greek architecture in the decoration of the facade. Fig. 
117 gives an illustration of the grave, which unfortunately is in 
a very decayed condition. The facade resembles a Greek portico, 
with Doric columns, an 
architrave, frieze, and cor- 
nice. Of these columns, 
originally twelve in num- 
ber, four are said to have Hii 
been detached, while the 
others protruded from the 
surface of the wall by 
halves or a little more. 
Larger structures of the 
kind have been discovered in Cyprus. The one discovered by 
Ross shows the form of a court surrounded by columns (see view, 
Fig. 118, and the plan, Fig. 119.) 

Finally, we mention the beautiful graves at Kyrene, on the 

Fig. 117. 

Fig. 118. 

Fig. 119. 

north coast of Africa. The rocky ground near the city has been 
worked into terraces, in which the graves are situated. The 
graves themselves mostly consist of small chambers cut into the 

Fig. 120. 



rock, and are for the greater part adorned with porticoes, which 
give them a most picturesque appearance. Fig. 120 shows the 

Fig. 121. 

plan, Fig. 121 the perspective view, of a terrace adorned with a 
long row of grave-facades ; Fig. 122 shows the dwellings of the 
living in the close vicinity of the city of the dead at Kyrene. 

Fig. 122. 

c. In and on graves of this kind are found many objects, either 
for the purpose of adorning them or for that of indicating the 
identity of the body. Of vessels and other utensils intended for 
the use of the dead, we have spoken before. When the buried 
person began to be considered as a hero, the grave required an 
altar. (Graves were commonly called heroa, even if not in the 
form of temples.) Such altars, in the shape of dice, with the 
name of the dead inscribed on them, are numerous in Boeotia, 
round the Helicon. Others, round in shape, and either smooth, 
with only an inscription (like one at Delos, Fig. 123), or adorned 



with sculptures, mostly of garlands and skulls of bulls, belong 
principally to the Greek islands (see Figs. 44 and 45) ; on others 

Fig. 123. 

Fig. 124. 

figures are represented. An altar found in a grave at Delos 
(Fig. 124) shows the representation of an offering in bass-relief, 
besides the inscription — 


The gravestones discovered by Ross in the isle of Kasos are of 
very extraordinary appearance. They consist of semi-globes of 
blue marble, about 8 to 10 inches in diameter, in the smooth 
front side of which the name of the deceased has been chiseled 
in several lines of letters, belonging to the third or fourth ^- 
century b. c. 

The most common kind of above-ground monuments 
for the dead all over Greece till far into Asia, are the old 
Attic stelai (crTr)\rj). They are narrow, slender slabs of 
stone, gently tapering toward the top ; they stand erect, 
fastened in the ground, or on a bema, and have the name 
of the deceased inscribed on them. They are crowned 
with anthemia, i. e., ornaments of flowers and leaves, 
either in relief or painted, sometimes also with pediments 
adorned with rosettes ; sometimes the stele shows repre- 
sentations, relating to the life of the deceased, in bass-re- 
lief. In the times of the Makedonians and Romans the 

stele becomes shorter and broader, with a pediment at the FiG.125. 



top. Fig. 125 shows a stele, found at Athens, with a palmetto- 

Peculiar to Attica are the grave-columns of blue Hymettic 
marble, with inscriptions on them, round which were wound rib- 
bons and wreaths in memory of the dead. Figs. 126 and 127, 
both taken from Athenian earthen vessels, illustrate these columns, 
one of them being flat at the top, the other adorned with a capi- 
tal of acanthus-leaves. Other stelai show the form of small chap- 

Fig. 126. 

Fig. 127. 

Fig. 128. 

el-like buildings (heroa), between the surrounding columns of 
which the forms of the dead are represented in relief. Fig. 128 
shows a monument of this kind, found in a grave in the isle of 
Delos ; Fig. 129, a similar one dug out at Athens, the bass-relief 
of which shows the taking leave of the deceased, called "Phrasy- 
kleia," from the surrounding friends, a favorite subject during the 
best period of Greek art. Portrait-statues, in full or half figure, 
were, during the Makedonian and Eoman times, 
frequently placed on the graves, or, if space per- 
mitted it, inside the heroa ; this was the custom 
particularly in the islands. Fragments of such 
statues from the graves of the Telesikratides, the 
ruling noble family of Anaphe, have been found 
in that island ; Ross conjectures that the roof -like 
covers of sarcophagi found in the isle of Rhensea 
also used to carry statues of this kind. 

Frequently detached coffins, or sarcophagi, 


Fig. 129. 



wrought of stone, are found in the grave-chambers, in which the 
bodies were deposited. These are numerous in Lykia, but in 
Greece they have been found only in a few cases at Platseae, and 
in the islands of Thera, Karpathos, and Anaphe. 

24. In the constructions of Greek tombs above the earth, two 
technical divisions must be made. 

a. The first consists of graves cut from the rock, but 
transformed into real buildings by means of outside and inside 

Fig. 130. 

Fig. 181. 

arrangements and decorations. 
Of this kind the most numerous 
and varied examples are naturally 
found in the rocky Lykia, dating 
not only from the old Lykian, but 
also from the Greek times. The 
simplest form consists of a square 
stout pillar resting on steps, and crowned with a simple cornice. A 
specimen of this form, found at Tlos, is seen in Fig. 130. A sec- 
ond form is that of the imitation of a complete wooden house, 
of which the above-mentioned graves only gave the facade (Fig. 
131). Trunks of trees joined together seem to form the roof, 
which protrudes considerably on all sides, and is both finished and 
crowned by a horizontal cornice, formed by the crossing each 
other of beams. In a third kind of grave the roof, instead of 
being flat, shows a pointed arch, somewhat like our pointed roofs 
( Walmdacher) (Fig. 132) ; sometimes skulls of bulls, also wrought 
in stone, adorn their fronts. Fig. 133 shows a roof of this kind, 
cut from the rock in the manner of a relief ; it is found at Pi- 
nara. In Greece, also, graves of this kind were in use, as is 



shown by several specimens in the isle of Rhodes ; the monu- 
ments of the coast of Lykia, lying opposite, may have been the 
models. Ross found near the village of Liana a rock rolled 

from the height, the interior of 
which contained a complete grave- 
chamber, with three couches for the 
dead ; the exterior showed two niches, 
one on each side of the entrance (Fig. 

Grander than, and very different 
from, the Lykian graves, is another 
monument found by Ross in the isle 
of Rhodes. It consists of a large 
block of sandstone, the lower part of 
which has been hewn into a square 
form with vertical walls. Each of 
the long sides measures 27.81 me- 
tres, and contains twenty-one semi- 
columns about five metres in height, 
which, standing on three steps, were 
evidently destined to carry a cornice ; this, however, has been de- 
stroyed by the upper parts falling on it. Whether the top con- 
sisted of a stone pyramid, or of a hill planted with shrubs and 
trees, cannot now be distinguished. On the northern side, which 
is the best preserved (see Fig. 135), between the fifth and sixth 

Fig. 132. 

Fig. 133. 

Fig. 134. 

columns of the western corner (see plan, Fig. 136 ; scale = 15 
metres), lies a door (a), through which one enters the grave-cham- 
bers. The first compartment is an entrance-hall (b), 9.20 metres 



Fig. 135. 

wide by 3 metres deep, in the small sides of which there are 
niches. A second door (p) leads into a larger chamber (d), 6.70 by 
4.40 metres, in the walls of 
which are unequal niches, 
with five couches for the 
dead ; these, however, were 
found empty when the tomb 
was opened. On the walls 
of all these chambers (which 
extend only over a fourth 
part of the whole basis, and 
probably were joined by oth- 
ers) a fine coating of stucco 
has been preserved, with 
some traces of painting on 
it. Tombs of this kind, cut 
into the rock, were not usual 
in Greece. Detached grave- 
buildings were evidently the 
rule, and of the numerous 
varieties of these we propose 
to give some specimens. 

h. The oldest and sim- 
plest buildings of this kind 
are the developed forms of 

the above-mentioned earth -mounds. From sur- 
rounding these with stone-walls one proceeded to 
building the whole tomb of stone, and in changing 
the round form for the square a quadrangular- 
pointed stone pyramid was arrived at. Pausanias 
saw a monument of this kind near Argos, on the 
road to Epidauros ; it was explained to him as the 
common memorial of those slain in the fight between Proitos 
and Akrisios. A number of similar monuments have more re- 
cently been discovered in Argolis, the most important of which, 
near Kenchreai, is a pyramid built of square stones {see Figs. 137- 
139). The basis is 48 feet long by 39 feet wide. According to 
Ross, the southern corner is rectangular, and here a door, covered 
by protruding stones in the manner of the Tirynthian galleries, 

{ ' '" 





\ ■ * 



Fig. 138. 

leads into a narrow passage, at the end of which one enters, by a 
second door on the right-hand side, the inner chamber, measuring 

10 feet square. It re- 
mains doubtful wheth- 
er this building was a 
tomb or a watch-tower. 
Where the round shape 
of the earth -mounds 
was retained (see, for 
example, the grave in 
the isle of Syme, Fig. 
98), with an additional 
architectural arrange- 
ment of the surround- 
ing stones, the result 
was a handsome round building resting on a quadrangular base, 
and frequently used for tombs. Fig. 140 shows a beautiful speci- 
men of this style found in the nekropolis of Kyrene. 

Some of the graves at Mykense are old and simple. Like the 
megalithic tombs of Western Europe, they consist of roughly-hewn 
stones, and contain small, low 
chambers, covered with large 
slabs of stone. Fig. 141 shows 
the largest among them. 

We now come to graves 
of a more monumental char- 
acter. JSTear Delphi one has 
been discovered which has 
exactly the form of a house. 

It lies among graves of various kinds, and is surrounded by rem- 
nants of sarcophagi and other ruins which indicate the site of the 
old nekropolis of Delphi. Thiersch describes it as an " edifice of 
freestone, which shows the antiquity of its style by the fact that 
the sides, the door, and a window above it, grow narrower toward 
the top ; " he adds that its destination as a grave cannot be doubted 
(see Fig. 142). 

Some tombs found at Carpuseli, in Asia Minor, are more ele- 
gant in design. They are square and stand on some steps ; the 
walls consist of equal blocks of freestone, showing a base at the 

Fig. 140. 


bottom and a cornice at the top. One of the largest among them 
(see Figs. 143 and 144) contains in the interior of the chamber, 

Fig. 141. 

Fig. 142. 

the entrance to which is not visible, a strong pillar, which carries 
the ceiling, consisting of large beams and slabs of stone ; on it 
stood, perhaps, the statue of the deceased. 

In the Greek islands tombs are frequently found which, like 
the subterraneous chambers, contain several couches for the dead. 
They consist of strong masonry, and their ceilings are vaulted, 
whence the name tholaria now commonly applied to them. The 
only specimen we quote (Fig. 145) has been found in the island 
of Amorgos. It comprises three graves, separated from each 
other by slabs of stone. Over each of these is a niche in the 

Fig. 143. 

Fig. 145. 

wall, containing glass vessels, lamps, etc. The door is very low ; 
its threshold consists of a rounded slab of stone. The tomb itself 
is at present covered by alluvial earth, but stood originally above- 
ground like others of the same kind in the islands of Ikaros, 
Kalymnos, Leros, and others ; some of these tombs contain from 
five to six burial compartments. 

Graves of this kind were considered chiefly as safe receptacles 
of the remnants of the dead ; others were destined at the same 
time to preserve the memory of the deceased by means of artistic 
beauty. In this manner the grave developed into the monument. 



Fig. 146. 

The dead, according to Greek notions, were considered as he- 
roes, their graves were frequently called heroa, and naturally took 
the form of holy edifices. The facades of the above-mentioned 
graves in rocks remind us of those of temples, and, on the same 
principle, detached tombs (for instance, those in Thera and other 
islands) were built like temples. A tomb discovered by Fellows 

at Sidyma in Lykia seems to re- 
semble a temple, with separate 
standing columns in the facade (see 
Fig. 146). The same similarity to 
a temple is shown by a tomb at 
Kyrene, the facade of which, con- 
trary to rule, contains two doors 
adjoining each other (see Fig. 147). 
The most perfect specimen of 
this style has been made known by 
the researches of Fellows near 
Xanthos in Lykia. It is in a state 
of almost com- 
plete destruction, 
but from the well- 
preserved base and 
from a number of 
ruins and redis- 
covered sculptures 
the plan of the 
whole may be con- 
jectured with tol- 
erable certainty. 
A model, as well as the remains of it, is in the British Museum, 
in which to each of the single fragments its supposed original po- 
sition has been assigned. Another reconstruction, differing from 
the above, has been attempted by Falkener, from which we have 
borrowed the plan (Fig. 148) and the perspective view (Fig. 149). 
According to Falkener's conjectures, the monument consisted of 
a base 10.25 metres in length, 6.90 metres in width, and of al- 
most the same height, adorned with two surrounding stripes of 
battle-scenes in relief, besides an elegant cornice. On this base 
rose an Ionic peripteros, the peristylos of which had four columns 

Pig 14T. 



on each of the smaller, and six columns on each of the longer 
sides ; the cella shows on each side two columns in antis. A 
richly-decorated door leads from the pronaos (a) (to which corre- 
sponds the posticum (b) on the other side) into the roomy cella (<?). 
The frieze and the pediment were adorned with reliefs ; on the 
points of the gables stood statues, as also in the interstices be- 
tween the rich Ionic columns. 
The widely-spread use of such 
monuments is shown by a beau- 
tiful structure found at Cirta, 
on the north coast of Africa (the 
Constantine of the present day), 
and said to be the grave of 
King Micipsa, who founded a 
Greek colony in this place. A 
square structure rises on a base 
of steps (as in the grave of 
Theron, at Agrigentum); there 
is a door on each side, worked in 
relief. On the top of this struct- 
ure stands a small Doric temple, 
also square in shape, and showing 
gables on all sides. The roof 
thus formed is carried by eight 
columns, again forming a square, 
which stand perfectly free, and do not inclose a cella (see Fig. 

To conclude, we mention one of the most splendid monumen- 
tal graves that ever existed, viz., the tomb of Maussollos, King of 
Karia, at Halikarnassos. Unfortunately only ruins remain, which, 
by order of the British Government, have been freed from the 
surrounding rubbish by Mr. C. T. Newton (1856-'59), and care- 
fully measured by the architect of the expedition, Mr. R. P. Pul- 
lan. Pliny (" Hist. Nat.," xxxvi., 5, § 4, ed. Sillig), in his de- 
scription of this monument (considered by the ancients as one of 
the seven wonders of the world), says that Artemisia erected it 
for her husband Maussollos (ob. Olympiad 167, 352 b. c). It is 
an oblong, measuring from north to south 63 feet, the front and 
back being a little shorter. The circumference of the monu- 

Fig. 148. 



ment (i. e., of the peribolos) amounts to 411 feet ; it rises to a 

height of 25 cubits 
(37£ feet), and is sur- 
rounded by thirty- 
six columns. The 
colonnade round the 
tomb was called the 
pteron. The sculpt- 
ures on the east 
side were by Skopas, 
those on the north 
side by Bryaxis, 
those on the south 
side by Timotheos, 
and those on the 
west side by Leo- 
chares. Above the 
pteron rises a pyr- 
amid corresponding 
in size to the bottom 
part, which on 24 
steps narrows itself 
into a pointed column. On the 
top is a quadriga of marble, 
the work of Pythis, including 
which the height of the whole 
monument is 140 feet. From 
marble steps, pieces of col- 
umns, capitals, and some frag- 
ments of sculptures, together 
with Pliny's remarks, the 
mentioned English scholars 
have cleverly conjectured the 
original form of the building. 
The chief view of the west- 
ern front is shown in Fig. 
151 according to their designs. 
We prefer Pullan's attempt 
at a reconstruction to that of 

Fig. 149. 



Falkener, inserted in our former editions. From fragments of 
the horses and chariot of the quadriga, its own dimensions, as 
well as the circumference of the pyramid on which it stood, can 
be calculated, the height of the latter being definable by the dis- 
covered steps, and that of the pteron by the columns, etc. In 
many places the traces of painting in red and blue have been dis- 
covered. Of the above-mentioned reliefs fourteen tablets were 

' I ' i ' i ' i T" 1- 


' i 

i i ' i 

1 i 

1 ' 1 ! 

, I 

1 ' 1 l 


— i — — i — — r 

- 1 — |— 

i i 






1 1 ' 

1 i ■ i 

' 1 ', 1 ', L 


' 1 

rr; i ; i 


— jf 


t§ t 





4 \* 

Fig. 151. 

found let into the walls of the Turkish citadel of Budrun, built 
from the ruins of Halikarnassos. In 1846 they were purchased 
by the English Government for the British Museum. By the 
Romans the word mausoleum was used as a general term for 
tombs, reminding us by their splendor or design of our monument. 
c. In some of the artistic grave-monuments the keeping of 
the body was quite dispensed with. We are speaking of the so- 
called kenotaphia, erected to deceased persons whose remains were 
not in the possession of their friends, or their paternal city, which 
wished to honor their memory. This leads us to monuments 



erected in honor of living persons, for instance, of victors in 
pnblic games, or wrestling-competitions. The most beautiful 
among them, and, at the same time, one of the loveliest remnants 
of Greek antiquity, is the one erected at Athens to commemorate 
the victory gained by the choragos Lysikrates (334 b. a). It is 
called either the choragic monument of 
Lysikrates, or the lantern of Diogenes 
(Fig. 152). It is altogether 34 feet high. 
The base is slender and square in shape ; 
on it rises an elegent little round temple ; 
six Korinthian semi-columns protrude 
from the circular wall (see Fig. 11) carry- 
ing beams, the frieze of which represents 
an episode from the history of Dionysos, 
the god of festive games. Above the 
beams is the roof, wrought in the shape 
of a flat cupola from a large block of 
marble ; from the middle of it a stone- 
flower of acanthus-leaves seems to grow. 
It served to support a tripod, for the 
legs of which artistically-decorated rest- 
ing-points have been preserved on the 

25. Among public buildings we men- 
tioned first the gymnasia, which, origi- 
nating in the requirements of single per- 
sons, soon became centre-points of Greek 
life. Corporeal exercise was of great 
;^ -• — Hj importance among the Greeks, and the 

fci;" """„'■ ■ ~~ 111 games and competitions in the various 

fig. 152. kinds of bodily skill (to which we shall 

return) formed a chief feature of their 
religious feasts. This circumstance reacted on both sculpture and 
architecture, in supplying the former with models of ideal beauty, 
and in setting the task to the latter of providing suitable places 
for these games to be celebrated. For purposes of this kind (as 
far as public exhibition was not concerned) the palaestrai and 
gymnasia served. In earlier times these two must be distin- 
guished. In the palsestra (iroXaiarpa from iraXr}, wrestling) 

Pjh '■ 

1?^: "" 


young men practised wrestling and boxing. As these arts were 
gradually developed, larger establishments with separate com- 
partments became necessary. Originally such places were, like 
the schools of the grammarians, kept by private persons ; some- 
times they consisted only of open spaces, if possible near a brook 
and surrounded by trees. Soon, however, regular buildings — 
gymnasia — became necessary. At first they consisted of an un- 
covered court surrounded by colonnades, adjoining which lay 
covered spaces, the former being used for running and jumping, 
the latter for wrestling. In the same degree as these exercises 
became more developed, and as grown-up men began to take an 
interest in these youthful sports, and spent a great part of their 
day at the gymnasia, these grew in size and splendor. They soon 
became a necessary of life, and no town could be without them, 
larger cities often containing several. Minute descriptions of 
these establishments by Greek authors we do not possess, but the 
important parts are known to us from occasional remarks, particu- 
larly in the Platonic dialogues. There we find mentioned the 
icfyrjftelov, where the youths used to practise ; further, the bath 
(/3a\aveiov), to which belonged a dry sweating-bath {irvpiarripLov), 
for the use of both wrestlers and visitors. The airoBvTrjpLov was 
the room for undressing. In another room, the eXaiodrjcrtov, the 
oil was kept for rubbing the wrestlers, and there possibly this 
rubbing itself took place ; in the KovLar-qpLov the wrestlers were 
sprinkled with sand, so as to give them a firm hold on each other. 
The o-(f)atpL(TTr}piov was destined for games at balls, while other 
passages, open or covered (collectively called Spofios), were used 
for practice in running or simply for walking. A particular kind 
of covered passage were the %vaToi, which had raised platforms 
on both sides for the walkers, the lower space between being used 
by the wrestlers — an arrangement similar to that of the stadia, 
whence the name of porticus stadiatm applied to them by the 

About the connection of these different parts we receive infor- 
mation by Yitruvius, who, in his fifth book about architecture 
(chapter xi.), gives a full description of a Greek gymnasion. He 
begins his architectural rules (derived from the gymnasia of late 
Greek times) with the court, which, as in the dwelling-house, is 
called TrepMJTvXiov, and may be either a perfect square or an ob- 


long ; its whole circumference ought to be 2 stadia = 1,200 feet. 
It is surrounded by colonnades on all four sides, that toward the 
south being double, in order to shelter the rooms lying on that 
side against the weather. Adjoining the single colonnades lay 
spacious halls (exedrce), with seats for philosophers, rhetoricians, 
and others ; behind the double colonnade lay various rooms, the 
centre one (ephebeum) being a large hall with seats, for the young 
men to practise in. Like the prostas of the older dwelling-house 
it seems to have been the centre of the whole building. To the 
right of it were the coryceum (for games at balls, fccopv/cos), the 
conisterium (see p. 109), and next to it, where the colonnade 
made an angle, the frigida lavatio (cold bath), called by the 
Greeks Xovrpov. On the other side, in the same order, lay the 
elceothesium, the frigidarium, or rather, which is more likely, the 
tepidarimn (tepid bath), and the entrance to the prqpnigeum 
(heating-room), with a sweating-bath near it, to which, on the 
other side, were joined a laconicum and the calda lavatio. 

In most cases this was the whole of the gymnasion. At a 
later, more splendor-loving period, these establishments were 
considerably enlarged, and in some cases a stadion was added to 
the gymnasion. Yitruvius mentions this extension in his addi- 
tions to the above description. He says that, beyond this peri- 
stylos, three porticoes may be added (with remarkable analogy to 
the addition of a second court to the older dwelling-house) : one 
on the side forming the peristylos (his name for the whole of the 
buildings just described), and two others to right and left of it. 
The first-mentioned one, toward the north, ought to be very 
broad, with a double colonnade ; the others, simple, with raised 
platforms (margines), at least 10 feet wide, going round at the 
side nearest to the wall and columns ; the deeper-lying centre, 
with steps leading to it, being destined for the wrestlers to prac- 
tise in during the winter, so as not to disturb those walking on 
the platforms. These, he says, were the %v<ttoI of the Greeks. 
Between these two %v<TToi are to be plantations, gardens, and 
public walks, called by the Greeks TrepiSpofil&es, by the Romans 
xysti / on the third side of these grounds lies the stadion, a large 
space for the accommodation of both spectators and wrestlers. 

These precepts, of course, were not carried out in every Greek 
gymnasion ; they only may serve to give a general notion of such 



establishments. Instead of adding a new one to the many con- 
jectural designs attempted by archaeologists, we will give a de- 
scription of a really existing Greek gymnasion, which, although 
very simple in design, tallies in the most essential points with the 
description of Yitruvius. Leake has discovered its remains at 
Hierapolis in Asia Minor {see plan, Fig. 153, scale = 90 metres). 
A A are covered passages, B the open colonnade, behind which 
the chief building is situated. In the latter the ephebeum (D) forms 
the centre, joined on one side by the coryceum (E), the coniste- 

Fra. 158. 

rium (F) and the cold bath (G), to the latter of which belonged 
perhaps the room I. In the two rooms opening toward the 
portico we must recognize the apodyteria, which Vitruvius does 
not mention at all. Room H would, according to Yitruvius, be 
the elaeothesium, L the tepidarium, and N" the entrance to the 
heating-room and to the warm baths (M O), of which Yitruvius 
mentions the various divisions. Turning to the back part of the 
establishment, we notice several rooms (C C), either exedrce or 
rooms for the keepers, between which lies the double portico (P), 



turned toward the north, and forming the entrance from the first 
into the second division. Q Q are the covered passages with sin- 
gle porticoes, the plantation (R R) lies between them, the third 
side of the quadrangle being occupied by the course (S), with 
steps (T) for the spectators. 

Quite different is the arrangement of the Gymnasion of Eph- 
esos, which was built brobably by the Emperor Hadrianus, and is 
among the best-preserved ones in existence (see plan, Fig. 154, 
scale = 100 feet, English measure). The frequent use of the 
vault proves its Roman origin, while in the arrangement of the 
chief parts the essential features of Greek construction remain 

Fig. 154. 

the same. We find no peristylos, the chief building being, in- 
stead of it, surrounded by a portico (crijpto-jporticus, A) joined 
by numerous exedrae, which, however, are not, as Yitruvius 
prescribes, sjtatiosce, but resemble small niches of both round and 
quadrangular shapes. From the portico one enters an open space, 
thought to be the palaestra (B), and evidently intended to supply 
the peristylos. After it follows the ephebeum (C), which here 
also is the real centre of the building. The rooms D D seem to 
have had no communication with the ephebeum ; they open into 
the palaestra B, and may be considered as elaeothesium and conis- 
terium, unless we take them for the apodyteria. Behind the 


ephebeum lies a passage (E) leading to the baths, F and G being 
most likely the situations of the cold, L and M those of the 
warmer baths. H H are explained by the editors of the " Ionian 
Antiquities " as the hot or sudatory bath. Near I a staircase leads 
into a vaulted chamber, still blackened by smoke, which the 
editors take to be a laconicum. Perhaps it may have been a 
propnigeum, the room above being in that case the laconicum 
proper. K, which corresponds to the palaestra B, was most likely 
the sphseristerium or coryceum. 

26. The centre of political and commercial intercourse was the 
agora. Like the gymnasion, and even earlier than this, it grew 
into architectural splendor with the increasing culture of the 
Greeks. In maritime cities it generally lay near the sea ; in 
inland places at the foot of the hill which carried the old feudal 
castle. Being the oldest part of the city, it naturally became the 
focus not only of commercial, but also of religious and political 
life. Here even in Homer's time the citizens assembled in con- 
sultation, for which purpose it was supplied with seats ; here were 
the oldest sanctuaries ; here were celebrated the first festive 
games ; here centred the roads on which the intercommunication, 
both religious and commercial, with neighboring cities and states 
was carried on ; from here started the processions which contin- 
ually passed between holy places of kindred origin, though local- 
ly separated. Although originally all public transactions were 
carried on in these market-places, special local arrangements for 
contracting public business soon became necessary in large cities. 
At Athens, for instance, the gently-rising ground of the Philopap- 
pos hill, called Pnyx, touching the Agora, was used for political 
consultations, while most likely, about the time of the Pisistra- 
tides, the market of Kerameikos, the oldest seat of Attic industry 
(lying between the foot of the Akropolis, the Areopagos, and the 
hill of Theseus), became the agora proper, i. e., the centre of 
Athenian commerce. The described circumstances naturally led 
to an ornamentation of the market-place. Nevertheless, in old 
towns the agora was not an artistic whole with a distinct archi- 
tectural design. Its confines were originally irregular, and the 
site of temples, and the direction of the streets leading into it, 
made an alteration of its boundary-line difficult. This was differ- 
ent in cities founded at a later period ; the regular construction of 



the agora seems indeed to have been initiated by the colonies of 
Asia Minor. Pausanias says of the market-place of Elis, that 
it was not built according to the Ionian custom, but in a more 
ancient style. 

Concerning these Ionic market-buildings, we again meet with 
the form of a quadrangular court surrounded by colonnades. This 
form, eminently suited to the climate, was frequently used by the 
Greeks, both in private and public buildings. The description 
by Yitruvius (" Arch.," v., 1) of an agora evidently refers to the 
splendid structures of post-Alexandrine times. According to him 
it was quadrangular in size, and surrounded by wide double colon- 
nades. The numerous col- 
umns carried architraves 
of common stone or of 
marble, and on the roofs 
of the porticoes were gal- 
leries for walking pur- 
poses. This, of course, 
does not apply to all mar- 
ket-places, even of later 
date ; but, upon the whole, 
the remaining specimens 
agree with the description 
of Yitruvius. Figs. 155 
and 156 illustrate the beau- 
tiful market-place of De- 
los. It lies on a terrace 
near the small harbor of 
the town, and consists of 
a quadrangular court surrounded by a Doric colonnade. The 
length of the whole is 170 feet (English measure). The western 
colonnade (A) is the largest, being 40 feet wide ; it has a num- 
ber of doors through which the entrance from the terrace and 
the sea into the agora was effected. E and F mark the sites 
where, most likely, stood altars ; in the centre of the open area 
was a fountain. 

Richer and larger was the agora of Aphrodisias in Karia. It 
occupied an area of 525 by 213 feet, and the inside of it was 
adorned with an elegant Ionic colonnade containing marble 

Fig. 155. 



Fig 156. 

benches. Outside of the inclosing wall was also a colonnade. 
Altogether 460 columns stood in this place. 

To complete the picture of a Greek agora we mention a mon- 
ument which once adorned the market-place of Athens. It is the 
so-called " Tower of the 
Winds," erected about 50 
b. c. by Andronikus of 
Kyrrhos, and supplying 
two important require- 
ments of commercial 
gatherings. The interior 
contained a water-clock, 
and on the floor (see Fig. 
157) the grooves are still 
recognizable, the gradu- 
al filling of which with 
water from a reservoir 
marked the passing time. 
On the top of the roof is 
a capital, and on it stands 
a movable bronze figure 
of a Triton (no more in 
existence), which, moved 
round by the wind, point- 
ed with its staff to the 
different directions of 
the winds, the figures 
of which, in bass-relief, 
adorned the eight sides 
of the building. Under- 
neath this frieze the lines 
of a sun-dial are chiseled 
into the wall. Two small 
porticoes contain each 
two fluted columns with- 
out bases, the capitals of which remind us of the Korinthian style. 
A semicircular building is affixed to the chief edifice, the whole 
impression of which is extremely graceful (Fig. 158). 

27. "We have repeatedly mentioned the stoa or colonnade in 

114 • THE 8T0A. 

connection with other buildings ; we now have to consider it as a 
separate artistic erection. Something of the kind we have already 
seen in the xysti, where wide colonnades were terminated on one 
side by a wall, on the other by a row of columns. In the same 
manner the stoa, as an independent building, occurs both as an 
ornament of streets and squares, and as a convenient locality for 

Fig. 158. 

walks and public meetings. Its simplest form is that of a colon- 
nade bounded by a wall. This back-wall offers a splendid surface 
for decorations, and is frequently adorned with pictures. A stoa 
in the market-place of Athens contained illustrations of the bat- 
tle of (Enoe, of the fight of the Athenians against the Amazons, 
of the destruction of Troy, and of the battle of Marathon ; hence 
the name <ttocl iroiKikt). 


The progress from this simple form to a further extension is 
on a principle somewhat analogous to what we have observed in 
the temple ; that is, a row of columns was added on the other 
side of the wall. The result was a double colonnade, gtocl 8i7r\rj } 
as a specimen of which, Pausanias mentions the Korkyraic stoa 
near the market-place of Elis. As im- 
portant we notice Pausanias's remark 
that this stoa " contained in the mid- 
dle not columns, but a wall ; " which 
shows that most of the double colon- 
nades contained columns in the cen- 
tre as props of the roof. Indeed, such 
remains as are preserved indicate this 
arrangement more or less distinctly. 
This is the case particularly with the 
so-called basilica of Paestum. This 
building, lying to the south of the 
small temple, looks itself at first sight 
like a temple, from which, however, 
it differs considerably on closer inves- 
tigation. First of all, it has on its 
smaller sides an uneven number of 
columns (viz., 9), while in the temple 
the situation of the entrance in the 
middle necessitated an even number 
of columns. Inside the colonnade 
we here find, instead of the walls of 
the cella, rows of columns, and in the middle between these an- 
other row of slightly larger columns, which divide the building 
into two equal parts, and, like the wall in the Korkyraic monu- 
ment at Elis, carry the roof. 

The design of the colonnade at Thorikos in Attica seems to 
have been of a similar character (see Fig. 159). It has seven 
columns in each of the two smaller facades (a little over 4S 
English feet wide) and fourteen on each of the long sides; a row 
of columns in the middle (no more in existence) seems to have 
carried the roof. 

In stoas destined for public consultations a further division 
of the centre space became desirable, and, indeed, we are told that 

[]• © 




^Q ~o" 



















t G 





Fig. 159. 



in some of them the interior was divided by rows of columns into 
three naves. Touching the agora of Elis, toward the south lay a 
stoa in which the Hellanodikai assembled for common consulta- 
tions. It was of the Doric order, and divided into three parts by 
two rows of columns. If we assume that it was surrounded by a 
wall, instead of a simple row of columns, Fig. 160 will show us 
the design (scale = 50 feet). A is the centre nave, B B the two 
side naves, C a semicircular termination to the centre nave analo- 
gous to the exedrce in the gymnasia ; D is the portico by means of 
which the building opens toward the agora. In this way we gain 
the form of a building somewhat similar both to the cella of a 
temple and to the Roman basilica. Perhaps the aroa /3a<r/Xeto? 

in the agora of Athens, where the 
the Archon Basileus sat in judg- 
ment, was arranged in a similar 

28. The arts practised in the 
gymnasia were publicly displayed 
at the festivals. The buildings in 
which these displays took place 
were modified according to their 
varieties. The races both on horse- 
back and in chariots took place in 
the hippodrome (l7nr6EpofjLos:), for the gymnastic games of the 
pentathlon served the stadion (o-TdScov), while for the acme of 
the festivals, the musical and dramatic performances, theatres 
were erected. 

Hippodromes were originally of very simple design. The he- 
roes before Troy raced in a plain near the sea, the boundaries of 
which were marked in the most primitive manner ; a dry tree one 
fathom (Klafter) in height, with two white shining stones lean- 
ing against it, served as the goal (p--r}/ui). The spectators took 
their seats where they could find them on the hills, near which a 
course was generally chosen with this view. 

This regard to the locality, so characteristic of Greek architect- 
ure, was even observed when the recurrence of festive games had 
made more complicated arrangements necessary. This was par- 
ticularly the case with the hippodrome of Olympia, of which we 
possess minute descriptions, and which therefore may serve as an 

Fig. 160. 




example of Greek race-courses in general. Pausanias says in his 
description of this building (if so it may be called), that one side of 
it was formed by a low range 
of hills, where the seats of 
the spectators were situ- 
ated. Perhaps this one side 
was sufficient for that pur- 
pose during the first time 
after the introduction of 
races (Olympiad 25). But 
when the multitudes at the 
Olympian festivals began 
to increase more and more, 
a wall of earth (%w/xa) was 
erected opposite the hill- 
side with more seats. These 
two platforms bounded the 
course proper on its two 
long sides, the wall being 
a little longer than the 
hill, owing perhaps to the 
oblique direction of the 
line of starting. It lay to 
the left of the hill, and, 
being extended as far as the 
wall, finished the course 
on this side ; the architect- 
ural boundary of the whole 
was formed on the same 
side by a portico built by 
Agnaptos. On the oppo- 
site side the wall joined the 
hill in a semicircle, with an 
outlet in the centre, which 
on this side finished the 
course. Here also was 
placed the goal round 

which the charioteer had to turn, the most difficult operation of 
the whole race. " Here was," says Pausanias, after mentioning 

Fig. 101. 


the outlet, " the horror of horses, the taraxippos (rapafyTnros). 
It has the form of a round altar, and, when the horses pass it, 
they are struck, without a visible cause, with great fear, which 
produces restiveness and confusion ; the reason why often the 
chariots break, and the charioteers are wounded." A second 
goal was at the other end of the course ; on it stood the statue 
of Hippodameia, and it marked the spot which the chariots, after 
rounding the taraxippos, had to -reach in order to gain the vic- 
tory. The plan of the course is shown by Fig. 161 (scale = 300 
feet), according to Hirt's investigations. A is the slope of the 
hill, R the rows of seats on the wall, C C the semicircle joining 
the hill, D the above-mentioned passage. Opposite this stands 
the taraxippos E, F being the second goal with the statue of 
Hippodameia. Whether between these two goals the ground was 
raised, in analogy to the spina of the Roman circus, or whether 
the line of separation between the up and down courses was 
marked by columns, Pausanias does not say. Some arrangement 
of this kind must certainly have been desirable, and has therefore 
been conjectured by several archaeologists (G). The side of the 
Hippodrome lying opposite the curve is closed by the portico of 
Agnaptos (H). In front of it was a contrivance which, although 
Pausanias describes it with evident gusto, can hardly be recognized 
with certainty. It is the afyecn^ the start (J J) or barrier, from 
which, on a given sign (a bronze eagle thrown into the air by 
some mechanical appliance), the horses dragging the chariots set 
out on their run. The afyeaus protruded into the space of the 
course like the prow of a vessel, each of its two sides being about 
400 feet long. Inside it were the places for horses and chariots 
(olKrjfjbara). They were placed with a view to showing perfect 
impartiality to all competitors, and were assigned to them by lot. 
Each compartment was closed by a rope ; on a sign being given 
the rope was first withdrawn from the compartment nearest the 
portico (a a); when the horses thus released had reached the 
compartment (b h), the rope was withdrawn there and two other 
chariots (or racing-horses) entered the course, and so forth up to 
the farthest point of the afaaLs. 1 Between the lists and the 

1 On this ImraQeoic the inventor of it, Kleoetas, the Athenian sculptor, prided 
himself much. The whole arrangement, however, has been doubted, as too com- 
plicated for the practically-minded Greeks. Still the words of Pausanias distinctly 



portico of Agnaptos lay an open court (K), in which the prepara- 
tions for the race were made, and where stood the statues of 
Poseidon Hippios and Here Hippia. Altars and statues were, 
moreover, placed in various points of the building. Two of the 
former were respectively dedicated to Aries Hippios and Athene 
Hippia, as the protecting deities of warlike and chivalrous ex- 
ercises ; others were devoted to the ayadr) tv^t), to Pan, Aphro- 
dite, and the Nymphs, not to mention several other divinities. 
Demeter Chamyne had a temple on the top of the hill, most 
likely above the spectators' seats. 

29. Analogous to the design of the hippodrome was that of 
the stadion (gto&lov). This being originally designed for the 
running of foot-races, its lengthwise shape was also determined. 

Fig. 162. 

The runners here, however, being men, both the length and width 
of the course were of smaller dimensions. The usual length of 
the stadion was 600 feet, a measure which, first decided upon by 
Herakles for the stadion of Olympia, afterward became the unit 
of the Greek road-measure. Some of the stadia are, however, 
much longer ; the one at Laodikeia being, for instance, 1,000 feet 
long by only 90 wide {see Fig. 162). Here a natural declivity of 
the soil had been made available. The games took place in the 
valley, the spectators being seated on the slope of the hill, which 
for that purpose had been formed into terraces. Such favorable 
situations, however, being scarce, generally the sides of the stadion 

indicate the gradual releasing of the horses, and also the two sides of the starting- 



had to be artificially raised, which was done by surrounding it 
with a wall of earth. 1 This arrangement seems to have been the 
common one among the Greeks, and Pausanias mentions several 
stadia (for instance, at Corinth, Thebes, Athens, Olympia, and 
Epidauros) consisting of a %«/*« ; moreover, he mentions ex- 
pressly that this was the usual way of their construction. In 
later times artistic decorations were added, and the seats built of 

solid stone. The stadion 
of Messene is a beauti- 
ful example of natural 
fitness and additional ar- 
tistic arrangement. Ly- 
ing in the lower parts 
of the town its form was 
determined by the na- 
ture of the soil (see Fig. 
163, scale = 100 me- 
tres). The area, the 
scene of the competitions 
(a a), lies in a natural 
hollow through which 
flows a brook. The hills 
on both sides were used 
for seats (b b) without 
any attempts being made 
at making the two long 
sides of the stadion par- 
allel. Colonnades were 
erected on the top of 
the rising ground, and 
the semicircular termi- 
nation of the course was fitted with stone seats all round. The 
colonnade (C) extended on one side to the end of the course, 
which is there finished by the town wall (7c) ; on the other it ends 

1 Sometimes this was done only on one side of the stadia, as was, for instance, the 
case in that lying, according tb Pausanias, behind the theatre of iEgina. Ross says 
of the stadion of Delos, that its western side is bounded by a hill, the eastern one 
being left entirely without seats, with the exception of a kind of tribune about forty- 
five paces in length lying right in the centre, and having contained, as it seems, three 
or four rows of seats. 

Fig. 16a 


in an obtuse angle (d), owing to the slight decline of the ground at 
that point. The colonnades also extend toward the end of the 
course, where they inclose a square court, and are joined together 
by a double portico (e e). This double portico seems to have been 
the chief entrance, the wall inclosing this whole part being 
besides interrupted by two minor entrances {f and g). In the 
centre of this raised peristyle lies the semicircular termination of 
the stadion (h A), called by the Greeks afyevhovT), or occasionally 
Oearpov, owing to its similitude to the place for the spectators of 
a theatre. It was reserved for wrestling-matches, the pankration, 
and the like. Here, at Olympia, the umpires were seated; at 
Messene also this space was evidently reserved for a better class 
of people ; hence the sixteen rows of benches surrounding the 
area all made of stone. Two protrusions of the surrounding 
colonnade (ii) give this space a beautiful architectural conclusion 
{see the section of the stadion, Fig. 164, scale = 70 metres). 

Fia. 164 

Eight opposite, in a curve of the town wall, lies a building evi- 
dently used for religious purposes. The stadion of Ephesos was 
entirely a product of art ; it seems to date from the later time of 
the city's splendor under the successors of Alexander the Great, 
or even under the Roman emperors. 

The barrier from which the runners started was on the same 
side as in the hippodrome, the goal, which was not wanting in 
the stadion, being placed in or near the curve of the sphendone. 
Both starting-point and goal were marked by columns ; a third 
column, according to one account, stood between them in the centre 
of the stadion. These three formed the line (perhaps otherwise 
marked) dividing the stadion into two halves, an arrangement 
necessary for the " double run " and the run against time. For in 
these the runner had to turn round at the goal {yvaaa, repfia, etc.) 
and run back. This seems indicated by the inscription written on 
the last column, according to tile account of the Scholiast (So- 
phokles, El. 691), of Kapdfov (turn !), the words on the two other 



columns being aplareve (be brave !) and airevBe (make haste !) The 

stadia with semicircles at both ends 
required a different arrangement. 
These seem to belong to a later 
epoch, and may in many cases have 
been imitated from Eoman amphi- 
theatres. A beautiful specimen- of 
F |ij this later style is the stadion of 

jj««»*^J ^ ,„\.i ; Aphrodisias in Karia, which is 

t ' ' I ; about 895 English feet in length 

E ll j j a '. (see Fig. LG5). Here also a natural 
. declivity of the soil has been turned 

p'| ( "'"' ^: to account, and, in order to have 

t j^^J IS room for rows of seats, the hollow 

fc ■ > has been artificially increased. The 

,{• t^^^i ^Jiip" whole space is surrounded bv a wall • 

t i I ' with ornamental arcades (see cross- 

^~^=, .--^4^; section, Fig. 16G), through which 

t j..::;!;,.^! 1 ; fifteen public entrances led into the 

F f|- interior ; several subterraneous pas- 

C - -I -^«4n4 : sages opened into the area without 

£ (I ; touching the seats of the spectators 

rTT "j\ (see longitudinal section, Fig. 167). 

ril 111 111. & -i ,-. 

t ! J J- ouch passages seem to have been 

FTTTI I : common. Pausanias (vi., 20, 8) 

^.LulLi ^4ili : mentions one in the stadion of 

F ■* Olympia through which the com- 

r 111 • • • 

petitors and the Hellanodikai used 

to enter ; the Olympian stadion at 
Athens still shows on its left long- 
side the traces of a subterraneous 
entrance, cut through the rock. 

30. The theatres formed the 
climax of festive architecture in 
Greece, in accordance with the im- 
portant position of the drama in 
Greek poetry. Their beginnings 
were, however, simple, the more 
so as they were in use before the drama had attained its artistic 



development. Originally they were destined for the performance 
of the choric dances and songs appertaining to the worship of 
Dionysos, but soon they obtained public importance, and became 
both a means of artistic culture for youths and maidens and a 
source of public enjoyment. Theatres were even used for quite 
different purposes. Pageants of all kinds could take place in 
them, and at the same time they offered a convenient point for the 
communications made to the people on the part of the government. 
Kegular public meetings were held in theatres, as was, for 
instance, commonly the case at Athens in the great theatre of 
Dionysos, even after the dramatic performances had reached a high 


Fig. 166. 

Fig. 167. 

The form and construction of the buildings were here again 
adapted to local circumstances, natural risings of the ground being 
generally chosen for the purpose. Differently from the hippo- 
drome or stadion, the action here had to be fixed to a certain point, 
round which the spectators' seats had to be arranged, so as to 
enable them to direct their eyes to this centre of action. Hence 
the form of a greater or smaller segment of the circle was chosen 
as most convenient. 

The oldest theatres consisted of two chief divisions ; the stage 
for the dancers (xopo?* opxv a " r P a ) an( ^ tne P^ ace f° r tne spectators. 
The former was leveled in the simplest manner ; in the centre 


stood the altar of the god to be celebrated, most frequently 
Dionysos, whose worship was connected with dancing. Round the 
orchestra rose on the one side the seats of the spectators, in the 
form of a semicircle or of a large segment mostly on the slope of 
a hill. Originally the people sat on the hill itself, afterward seats 
(first of wood, later of stone) were put up, where the soil was soft ; 
where it was rocky, concentric rows of seats were cut into it. This 
custom was not relinquished by the Greeks even after the demands 
of artistic beauty and perfection were pitched very high, which 
explains the fact that in Greece proper only one theatre (at 
Mantinea) has been discovered where the natural height has been 
supplied by an artificial one, which simply consists of an earth- 
wall propped by surrounding walls of polygonal stones and covered 
with row's of seats. 

Only in very few cases, however, was the locality naturally 
quite adapted to the purpose. Generally alterations and enlarge- 
ments were required, which ultimately, in the splendor-loving 
cities of Asia Minor, at a post-Alexandrine period, led to the 
theatre being wholly built of stone. 

Other alterations of the original theatres date from a much 
earlier period. From the original Bacchic. chorus the drama had 
developed into tragedy and comedy ; and, although these are said 
to have been performed at first by Thespis on a movable scaffold, 
they soon were transferred into the standing theatres, the more 
easily as the drama itself was considered as part of the Dionysos- 
worship. This circumstance made the erection of a stage neces- 
sary. Even in the older theatres a wall had been erected at the 
back of the orchestra, partly for architectural, partly for acoustic 
reasons, and this wall now was gradually extended into a separate 
stage-building. The first theatre erected of stone with a regular 
stage was that of Athens, which became the model of all others, 
both in Greece and the colonies. It was dedicated to Dionysos. 
After the wooden scaffolds, originally used, had broken down 
during a theatrical performance in which ^Eschylos and Pratinas 
appeared as competitors, this theatre was built on the southern 
slope of the Akropolis (see Fig. 51, J). The hill itself was partly 
turned to account architecturally. The theatre was begun in 
Olympiad 70, and finished between 340-330 b. a, under Lykurgos. 
It had almost entirely disappeared under the rubbish of centuries 


Fig. 166. 

when it was restored to light in its whole extent by the celebrated 
German architect Strack in 1862 (see Fig. 181). 

In the theatre of Athens a common type had been gained, 
which, with many local modifications, was reproduced ever after. 
The theatre was divided into three 
parts — the orchestra, forming al- 
most a complete circle, the place for 
the spectators, and the stage-build- 
ing. The place for the spectators 
(to /cotXov, the hollow pit) consisted 
of several steps rising round the or- 
chestra in a semicircle or larger seg- 
ment, and serving the audience as 
seats (iBcokiov). Toward the stage 
the seats were closed by a wall, 
which served both 
as a prop and a 
boundary, and, fol- 
lowing the rising 
line of the seats, 
did not obstruct 
the view on to the 
stage. The posi- 
tion of these walls, 
standing either in 
an obtuse angle 
toward each other, 

or in a straight line, was the cause of two different arrangements, 
according to which we may divide all the Greek theatres known 
to us into two classes. As 
an example of the first 
class, we may mention the 
theatre of Delos (see Fig. 
168, scale = 50 metres). 
It consists of a natural 
rising of the ground, being 
artificially brought into a 
more regular shape, and completed by a solid wall 19 feet thick 
by 30 long. 

Fig. 169. 

Fig. 170. 



Another example is the theatre of Stratonikeia {see Fig. 169, 
scale = 60 feet, English measure), built most likely at the time 
of the Seleukides, and enlarged under the Koman emperors. 

Of theatres with a rectangular termination of their seats we 
mention that of Magalopolis in Arkadia, originally one of the 
largest and most beautiful in Greece (see Fig. 170). It consists 
of a hill considerably enlarged, in consequence of which Pausa- 
nias calls it the largest theatre. The accounts of its diameter 
differ from 480 to 600 feet. In its present ruined condition 
neither the stage nor the seats are distinctly recognizable. 

The same form is shown by the theatre of Segesta, in Sicily, 

the koilon of which 
dates from early Greek 
times ; other rows of 
seats on artificial bases, 
in addition to the origi- 
nal twenty, have later 
been added. A pas- 
sage divides the earlier 
and later parts of the 
seats. The remnants 
of the stage belong to later Eoman times. Fig. 171 shows the 
perspective view, Fig. 172 the plan (scale = 140 Sicilian palms). 

Fig. 171. 

Fig. 172. 

The interruption of the rows of seats by wider intervals is 



frequently found in theatres, particularly in the larger ones. In 
order to facilitate the ascent to the rows and single seats, these 
passages {Bia^cofiara) used to divide the seats into several con- 
centric stripes. One diazoma only occurs both in the theatres of 
Segesta and Stratonikeia (Fig. 169). Others have two, as, for 
instance, the small theatre of Knidos, which has also been con- 
sidered as an odeum {see Fig. 1 73 ; width of the orchestra = 
about 65 English feet). Its koilon is inclosed by rectangular 
walls, most likely owing to the direction of the streets between 
which the theatre lies. 

The theatre at Dramyssos in Epeiros has three diazomata, two 
dividing the seats, and one inclosing the whole koilon ; it may at 
the same time serve as an example of the above-mentioned rec- 

Fig. 173. 

tangularly closed theatre. The koilon {see Fig. 174 ; scale = 
100 English feet) is well preserved ; in the place of the upper 
third diazoma Donaldson conjectures a colonnade, of which, how- 
ever, no remnants are now in existence. The diameter of the 
orchestra is very small compared with that of the spectators' 
place ; d and e mark steps leading up to the second diazoma. 
The style of the building is very simple, and it therefore is con- 
sidered by many as very early and of Greek origin ; according 



to others it belongs to Roman times. Of the stage-building no 
recognizable parts remain. 

On the outside the koilon was generally inclosed by a wall, 
as is shown by the theatre of Dramyssos and others ; Vitruvius 
in his description of the Greek theatre speaks of a colonnade, but 
of this no authentic traces remain in ruins of the Greek period. 

The entrances to the seats were generally between the prop- 
ping walls and the stage-building ; the spectators ascended from 
the orchestra. In larger theatres other entrances became desira- 
ble. In the theatre of Dramyssos stairs on the outside of the 
propping wall led to the first diazoma. In other theatres, where 
the locality permitted, entrances to the upper parts of the koilon 
had been arranged, as, for instance, in the theatre of Segesta, 
and also in that of Sikyon {see Fig. 175 ; scale = 60 metres). In 
the latter, two passages (a and h) led through the mountain itself 
into the centre of the koilon {see a view of passage a, Fig. 176). 
Moreover, the single rows of seats intercommunicated in all thea- 
tres by means of narrow stairs, which, verging like radii toward 
the centre of the orchestra, divided the koilon into several wedge- 

Fig. 174. 

like partitions {/cep/clbes). In Greek theatres these are generally 
found in even numbers, varying, according to size and other local 
conditions, from two to ten. Where several diazomata are found, 
the mutual position of the stairs has been changed (as at Knidos, 
Segesta, Stratonikeia), or their number has been doubled (as at 
Dramyssos). Two of the stair-steps are equal in size to one of 
the sitting-steps, the latter being so arranged that the spectators 



had room to sit at ease without being inconvenienced by the feet 
of those occupying the upper rows. Their height was, according 
to Yitruvius, no less than one foot, and not more than one foot 
six inches, which small measure is accounted for by the custom 
of raising the seats by means of bolsters and cushions ; the width 

Fig. 175. 

Fig. 176. 

of the seats was equal to about twice their height. The steps are 
generally simple in design, with a view, however, to convenience 
and comfort. Frequently they are slightly raised in front, the 
lower part at the back being destined for the feet of those sitting 

Fig. 177. 

Fig. 178. 

in the row behind. This is illustrated in the simplest manner by 
the sitting-steps of the theatres of Catana (Fig. 177) and of Akrai 
(Fig. 178), in Sicily, a being the sitting-steps, I those of the stairs. 

Fig. 179. 

Fig. 180 

In other theatres the front side of the steps has been slightly 
pushed back or hollowed out, so as to gain room for the feet. 
Such is the case in the theatres at Megalopolis (Fig. 179), at 



Tauromenium, and at Side in Asia Minor. Particularly comfort- 
able are the steps of the theatre at Sparta, with their seats slightly 
hollowed out (Fig. 180) ; those at Iasos, in Asia Minor, are formed 
in the manner of arm-chairs the seats in front of the diazoma 
being real arm-chairs with backs to them, as was also the 
case in the theatre of Epidauros, celebrated among the ancients. 
Particularly interesting with regard to these arm-chairs is the 
above-mentioned theatre of Dionysos at Athens, rediscovered in 

Fig. 181. 

IS 62. The place for the spectators consists of about one hundred 
rows of seats, divided into thirteen kerkides by means of fourteen 
stairs, the last two of which lie near the entrances, close by the 
side-wall. The height of each step is 0.345 metre, the horizontal 
depth 0.782 metre ; the latter is divided into two parts, the front 
one (0.332 metre deep) being used as the seat ; the back one 
(0.45 metre deep), slightly hollowed, being destined for the feet 
of those sitting higher. The width of the stair-steps is 0.70 metre, 


their height corresponding with that of the sitting steps in this 
manner, that the stair-step at first is 0.22 metre high, but gradu- 
ally rises toward the back. In this sloping part grooves have 
been cut into the step, so as to prevent people from slipping. 
The lowest row of steps immediately surrounding the orchestra 
(Fig. 181) is occupied by sixty-seven arm-chairs, by ones, twos, or 
threes, hewn from blocks of Pentelic marble. These, as is proved 
by their inscriptions, were destined for the priests, archontes, and 
thesmothetai, the centre one, richly decorated with bass-reliefs, 
being reserved for the priest of Dionysos Eleuthereus. The wall 
of the proskenion, also decorated with bass-reliefs, was erected by 
the Archon Phaidros, perhaps in the third century after Christ, 
while the older wall and the oldest proskenion were placed, the 
former by six, the latter by eight metres farther back, owing to 
the orchestra required for the chorus of the old tragedy and 
comedy being much larger than that wanted for the mimic per- 
formances of late Roman times. 

The orchestra, as we said before, was the scene of the choric 
dances in which the drama had its origin. Even in later theatres 
a large space was reserved for this purpose between the place for 
the spectators and the stage. This space was larger in the Greek 
than in the Roman theatres, in which latter no dances of this 
kind took place. Yitruvius describes the Greek orchestra as a 
circle into which a square had been designed, so that the four 
corners touched the periphery. The side of the square turned 
toward the stage terminates the orchestra, the space between this 
line and the tangent parallel to it being occupied by the stage. 
On the other side the orchestra is inclosed by the seats of the 
spectators. In the centre of it stands the thymele, the altar of 
Dionysos, which at the same time forms the central point of the 
choric dances. The soil was simply leveled ; at meetings it was 
perhaps strewed with sand (hence Koviarpa) ; only in case dances 
were performed the thymele was surrounded with a floor of boards, 
resting most likely on several steps. In case of dramatic per- 
formances different arrangements became necessary. For the 
chorus had not only to sing and dance, but also to speak to the 
actors on the stage, and its place of action had to be raised accord- 
ingly. This was done by erecting a scaffolding over one-half of the 
konistra as far as the thymele, and placing boards thereon. This 


raised part was called the orchestra proper, or the scenic orchestra, 
to distinguish it from the choreutic one. The latter, by some 
feet lower than the stage, was entered by the choreutai by the 
same passages (7rap68o<s), between the walls and the koilon, 
through which the spectators reached the konistra, and thence 
their seats. Steps led up to the orchestra, which again was con- 
nected with the stage by means of low movable stairs (fcklfia/ces) 
of three or four steps each (fckifjuafCTfipes), as the course of the 
drama required frequently the ascending by the chorus of the 
stage, and its returning thence to the orchestra. Of these tempo- 
rary arrangements naturally nothing remains, hence the various 
theories regarding them started by archseologists. Upon these, 
however, we cannot enter. 

Of the stage-building we have fewer and less well-preserved 
remnants than of the place for the spectators. The stage was 
called rj (7K7]V7) (tent), an expression dating most likely from 
the time when at the back of the orchestra a scaffolding was 
erected from which the actors entered as from a kind of tent. 
Afterward the same expression was transferred to the stone 
theatre, its meaning being now either the whole stage-building, 
or, in a narrower sense, the back-wall of the stage. Hence the 
expression found in Yitruvius of scena tragica, camica and sa- 
tyrica, from the different changes of scenery applied to it. Some- 
times the small space in front of the back-wall on which the 
actors performed was called a/c^vr), instead of the more common 
TrpocncrjVLov. Sometimes also the name Xoyelov was used for this 
place, or more particularly for the- centre of it, from which the 
actors mostly delivered their speeches. This proskenion was con- 
siderably higher than the floor of the konistra, in order to raise, 
as it were, the actors into a strange sphere. Probably the whole 
space below the wooden floor of the proskenion was called 
vttoo-ktJviov ; its outer wall facing the orchestra was, according to 
Pollux, decorated with columns and sculptures. From it the 
"Charonic steps" {yapoaveioi KklfiaKei) led up to the proskenion, 
on which the ghosts of dead persons and river-gods ascended the 
stage. The entrance was closed by a sliding slab of wood. 
IlapacrKrjvLa were the two juttings of the stage-building inclosing 
the proskenion to right and left, liri<jicr]via the different stories of 
the stage-wall. 



Several stage-buildings have been preserved, particularly in 
Asiatic cities, but in most of them Roman influences must be 
suspected, and they hardly can serve as specimens of purely Greek 

LJLJ-L— 1L_ 


Fig. 182. 

arrangements. The theatre of Telmessos in Lykia is perhaps 
most adapted to this purpose, owing to its great simplicity (see 
Fig. 182). The koilon is formed by a hill, the seats being closed 

Fig. 183. 

in obtuse angles; one diazoma divides them into two halves, 
another serves as an upper passage round them ; eight stairs 
divide the place for the spectators into nine /cep/clSes ; the orches- 


tra is very large, and agrees exactly with the statement of Yitru- 
vius ; the proskenion rested on a wooden scaffolding. The wall 
of the skene shows five doors, each of them originally inclosed 
by two columns. Beneath these one still recognizes the hollows 
into which the beams of the floor of the proskenion were placed 
{see Fig. 183) ; the doors underneath led into the hyposkenion, 
the position of which we have described above. Other specimens 
of preserved stage-buildings we shall mention in speaking of the 
Roman theatre (§ 84) ; we conclude our description with a per- 
spective view of a Greek theatre, designed by Strack according to 
the statements of ancient writers and the preserved remnants 
(Fig. 184). 

Fig. 184. 

31. In our description of the private dwellings of the Greeks, 
we mentioned that more even than the public buildings they have 
suffered from the influence of time. The same applies to their 
interior fittings ; only the utensils deposited in graves have es- 
caped the common destruction ; in other cases pictures on vases 
and sculptural representations must aid us in our description. 

The different kinds of seats are specified by the following 
expressions — 8icf>po<;, k\mt/jl6<;, KXcvrrjp, /ckco-lr) and Opovos. Di- 
phros is a small, backless, easily movable stool, with four legs, 
either crossed or perpendicular. The first-mentioned form of the 
diphros, called also ofcXaSias Slcfrpos, otcXahlas, or Opovos tttvktos, 
hippos rcnreivos, could easily be folded, as the seat consisted only 
of interwoven straps. It was, therefore, the custom among the 
Athenians to have these folding-stools carried after them by slaves. 



No less frequent were the diphroi with four perpendicular legs, 
which could naturally not be folded. Both forms of the diphros 
are found on ancient monuments in many varieties. Fig. 185, 
a, a diphros okladias, is taken from the marble relief of a grave at 
Krissa. The two folding-stools, Fig. 185, b and c, are from pict- 
ures on vases ; the legs appear gracefully bent and neatly carved. 
The second form of the diphros is shown by Fig. 185, d, and Fig. 
186, c. The first is taken from the frieze of the Parthenon, 
where similar stools are carried on their heads by the wives and 
daughters of the metoikoi who, at the Panathenea, had to submit 
to the custom of stool-carrying (Bicfrpofopeiv) : the second illustra- 
tion is derived from a marble relief at Athens ; it is remarkable 
by its neatly-bent legs and by the turned knobs above the sitting- 
board, perhaps destined to fasten the cushion placed thereon. If 

Fig. 185. 

to this solid diphros we add a back, we come to the second species 
of chairs, called /cXio-fios, rcTuvrrip, and /cXialr) (see Fig. 185, e,f). 
They are like our ordinary drawing-room chairs, but for the upper 
part of the back, which is bent semicircularly, and therefore much 
more comfortable than our straight-backed chairs. The legs bent 
outward gracefully are in perfect harmony. 

Under Opovos we comprise all larger chairs with a straight 
back and low arms ; the former reaches either to the middle of 
the back, or up to the head, of the sitting person. The thronoi 
in the temples were the seats of the gods ; in private houses they 
were reserved as seats of honor for the master and his guests. 
The thronoi in private houses were mostly made of heavy wood ; 
those in the temples, the ekklesiai, dikasteria, bouleuteria, the 
stadion, and hippodrome, reserved for the judges and leaders of 
the people, were generally wrought in marble. The thronoi were 
in different parts richly decorated with carved garlands or figures ; 



in sculptures they occur in various forms. The low-backed thro- 
nos is shown in Figs. 185, g, and 186, a, the former from the 
Harpy-monument at Xanthos, the latter from the frieze of the 
Parthenon. The old wooden throne with a high back appears in 
a marble relief of the best period (Fig. 186, I), while several 
richly-ornamented marble seats in the theatre of Dionysos (Fig. 
181), in the Akropolis of Athens (Stuart and Revett, "An- 
tiquities," iii., p. 19), illustrate the seats of honor of the athlo- 
thetai in the market-places. The existence of thronoi without 
backs is proved by the picture on a vase of a thronos (Fig. 185, h) 
on which Aigisthos is being killed by Orestes. On the seats of 
all these chairs woolly hides, blankets, or bolsters, used to be put, 

Fig. 186. 

as is mentioned by Homer (see Fig. 185, b, c, e,f, g). To the 
throne belonged the footstool (Oprjvvs), either attached to its front 
legs, and therefore immovable, or as a separate piece of furniture. 
It was considered as* indispensable both to rest the feet and to 
mount the high throne. It was used, however, also with low 
seats, resembling very much our modern footstool (Fig. 185, d, 
and Fig. 186, c). Something similar may have been the massive 
wooden footstool (cr</>eXa?) which, in the house of Odysseus, Eu- 
rymachos applies as a missile. The width of the footstool corre- 
sponds to that of the chair, those used for couches being natural- 
ly longer (see Fig. 188). 

32. The oldest specimen of a bedstead (k\lvtj) is that men- 
tioned by Homer as joined together by Odysseus in his own 
house. He had cut off the stem of an olive-tree a few feet from 
the ground, and joined to it the boards of the bed, so that the 



trunk supported tlie bed at the head. It therefore was immov- 
able. The antique bed must be considered as the prolongation 
of the diphros. The cross-legged diphros prolonged became the 
folding bed ; that with perpendicular legs, the couch. The* for- 
mer could easily be moved and replaced ; they are perhaps iden- 
tical with the Befivca frequently mentioned in the "Odyssey," 
which were put into the outer hall for guests. One of them is 
shown as the notorious bed of Prokrustes in a picture on a vase 
(Fig. 187, a). The second diphros corresponds to the couch rest- 
ing on four legs (Fig. 187, 5), at first without head and foot- 
board, which were afterward added at both ends {avaickivTpov or 
iiriickivTpov). By the further addition of a back on one of the 
long sides, it became what we now call a chaise longue or sofa 
(Fig. 187, c y Figs. 188-190). This sleeping kline was no doubt 
essentially the same as that used at meals. The materials were, 
besides the ordinary woods, maple or box, either massive or 
veneered. The legs and backs, and other parts not covered by 

the bedclothes, were carefully worked. Sometimes the legs are 
neatly carved or turned, sometimes the frames are inlaid with 
gold, silver, and ivory, as is testified in the "Odyssey" and 

The bedding mentioned in Homer did not consist of sump- 
tuous bolsters and cushions as in later times. It consisted, even 
among the richer classes, first of all of the pyyea, i. e., blankets 
of a long-haired, woolen material, or perhaps a kind of mattress. 
Hides (/ccbea), as spread by the poor on the hard floor, were some- 
times put under the ptfyea and other additional blankets {TdirrjTes;), 
so as to soften the couch. The whole was covered with linen 
sheets. The y^uaXvai served to cover the sleeper, who sometimes 
used his own dress for this purpose ; sometimes they consisted of 
woolen blankets woven for the purpose. After Homer's time, 
when Asiatic luxury had been introduced into Greece, a mattress 



(fcvicpakov, rvXelov or Tvkrj) was placed immediately on the bed- 
straps (Ketpia). It was stuffed with plucked-wool or feathers, and 
covered with some linen or woolen material. On this mattress 
blankets were placed, called by Pollux irepiarpoy^ara, vTroarpa)- 
fjLara, i7n0Xrj/jLara, ifeaTpiSes, yXalvai^ ap,§ieGTpihe<;, lirifiokaia, 
BdinSes, -\Jrt\o8a7rtSe?, ^vari&es xpvaoTraaTot,, to which must be 
added the Ta7n7Te? and afjufyirairriTes with the rough wool on 
either or both sides. Pillows, like the mattresses stuffed with 
wool or feathers, were added to complete the bedding, at least in 
more luxurious times. Of a similar kind were the klinai placed 

Fig. 188. 

Fig. 1S9. 

in the sitting-rooms, lying on which, in a half-reclining position, 
people used to read, write, and take their meals. They were 
covered with soft blankets of gorgeous colors, while one or more 
cushions served to support the body in its half -sitting position or 
to prop the left arm (Fig. 187, e). Fig. 187, a, shows the folding- 
bed, Fig. 187, b, the simple kline covered with the prjyea. Fig. 

187, c, shows the kline with one upright 
end on which two persons are reclining, 
one of them resting the left arm on a 
cushion covered with a many-colored ma- 
terial, the other leaning with her back 
against two cushions. Much richer is 
the couch in Fig. 188, which has a head 
and foot board and is covered with mat- 
tresses and pillows ; a long ornamented footstool has been added. 
Fig. 190, after a marble relief, exactly resembles our sofa. Fig. 
189 shows a peculiar kind of kline, on which a sick person is 
lying, to whom Asklepios is giving advice. Sometimes the 
drapery is evidently intended to hide the roughly-carved wood- 
work, as is shown by the picture of a symposion (Fig. 304), to 
which we shall have to return. 

Fig. 190. 



33. Tables were used by the ancients chiefly at meals, not for 
reading and writing. The antique tables, either square with four 
legs, or circular or oval with three connected legs, afterward with 
one leg (rpaire^at rerpaTrohes, TpiTroSes, fiovoTroSe?), resemble our 
modern ones but for their being lower. Mostly their slabs did 
not reach higher than the kline ; higher tables would have been 
inconvenient for the reclining person (see Fig. 187, c). In 
Homeric and even in later times, a small table stood before each 
thronos. The use of separate dishes for each guest is compara- 
tively new. Originally the meat was brought in on large plat- 
ters, divided by the steward, and each portion put on the bare 
table. In want of knives and forks the fingers were used. The 
pastry was put in baskets by the tables. Whether the Homeric 
tables were as low as the later ones, when lying instead of sitting 
had become the custom, we must leave undecided in want of 
sculptural evidence. The legs of the tables were carefully finished, 
particularly those of the tripods, which frequently imitated the 

Fig. 191. 

legs of animals, or at least had claws at their ends (Fig. 191, a, b, 
c). The four-legged tables were more simple in design. The 
material was wood, particularly maple ; later on, bronze, precious 
metals, and ivory, were introduced. 

34. For the keeping of articles of dress, valuable utensils, 
ornaments, bottles of ointment, and documents, larger or smaller 
drawers and boxes were used. Chests of drawers and upright 
cupboards with doors seem to have been unknown in earlier times ; 
only in few monuments of later date (for instance, in the wall- 
painting of a shoemaker's workshop at Herculaneum) we see 
something resembling our wardrobe. The wardrobes mentioned 
by Homer (</>&)/?ta^o?, %^\6?) doubtlessly resemble our old-fashioned 
trunks (T/'i/he). The surfaces showed ornaments of various kinds, 
either cut from the wood in relief or inlaid with precious metals 



and ivory. Some smaller boxes with inlaid figures or painted 
arabesques are shown .in Fig. 192, b, c,f\ g, h, all taken from pict- 
ures on vases. The ornamentation with polished nails seems to 
have been very much in favor (Fig. 192, e,f, h) — a fashion rein- 
troduced in modern times. The most celebrated example of such 
ornamentation was the box of Kypselos, in the opisthodomos of 
the temple of Hera at Olympia. It dates probably from the time 
when the counting by Olympiads was introduced, and served, 
according to Botticher, for the keeping of votive tapestry and the 
like. According to Pausanias, it was made of cedar- wood, and 
elliptic in shape. It was adorned with mythological representa- 
tions, partly carved in wood, partly inlaid with gold and ivory, 
encircling the whole box in five stripes, one over the other. Box- 
es for articles of dress are seldom found in old pictures on vases 
(Fig. 192, a) ; l very frequent are, on the other hand, portable 

Fig. 192. 

cases for ornaments, spices, etc. (Fig. 192, b, d, e, f, g, h). Fig. 
192, c, contains evidently bottles of ointment. Another box 
standing before a reading ephebos, and showing the inscription 
"XEIPONEIZ KAAE," evidently contained documents (see 
Micali, "L'ltalia avanti il dominio dei Bomani," Tav. ciii.) The 
cover was fastened to the box by a ribbon tied in a knot. The 
custom of securing the ends of this ribbon by the impression 
of a signet-ring on wet sealing-earth or wax is of later date. 
Locks, keys, and bolts, known at an early period for the closing 
of doors, were later applied to boxes, as is sufficiently proved by 

1 The inner surface of a drinking-goblet at the Royal Museum of Berlin (Gerhard, 
" Trinkschalen und Gefasse," I. Taf. ix.) shows the large box in which Hypsipyle, the 
Princess of Leranos, has hidden her father Thoas. See also our Fig. 231. 


the still existing small keys fastened to finger-rings {see § 93), 
which, although all of Roman make, were most likely not unknown 
to the Greeks. For doors these would have been too small. 

35. The furniture of Greek houses was simple, but full of ar- 
tistic beauty. This was particularly displayed in vessels for the 
keeping of both dry and fluid stores, as were found in temples, 
dwellings, and even graves. Only the last mentioned have been 
preserved to us. Earthen vessels are the most numerous. The 
invention of the potter's wheel is of great antiquity, and was 
ascribed by the Greeks in different places to different mythical 
persons. The Korinthians named Hyperbion as its inventor. In 
the Kerameikos, the potters' quarter of Athens, Keramos, the son 
of Dionysos and Ariadne, was worshiped as such. The name of 
the locality itself was derived from this " heros eponymos." Next 
to Korinth and Athens (which latter became celebrated for earth- 
en manufactures owing to the excellent clay of the promontory 
of Kolias), ^Egina, Lakedaemon, Aulis, Tenedos, Samos, and Kni- 
dos, were famous for their earthenware. In these places the man- 
ufacture of painted earthenware was concentrated; thence they 
were exported to the ports of the Mediterranean and the Black 
Sea for the markets of the adjoining countries. Owing to the beau- 
tiful custom of the ancients of leaving in the graves of the dead 
the utensils of their daily life, a great many beautiful vessels have 
been preserved which otherwise would have shared the destruction 
of the dwellings with other much less fragile implements. From 
the pictures on these vases we derive, moreover, valuable infor- 
mation as to the public and private habits of the Greeks. The 
greatest number of graves in their original condition, and filled with 
vessels, are found in Italy. The chief places where pottery has 
been and is still being found are— in Sicily, Gela and Girgenti (the 
old Akragas) ; in Southern Italy, the necropoles of the Apulian 
cities of Gnatia (Fasano), Lupatia (Altamura), Caelia (Ciglia), 
Barium (Bari), Rubi (Ruvo), Canusium (Canosa) ; in Lucania, the 
cities of Castelluccio, Anxia (Anzi), Paestum, and Eboli ; in the old 
Campania, the cities of Nola, Phlistia (Santa Agata de' Goti), Cu- 
mae, and Capua ; in Central Italy, the necropoles of the old Etrus- 
can cities of Yeii (Isola Farnese), Caere, Tarquinii, Yulci, Clusium 
(Cliiusi), Volteme (Volterra), and Adria. In Greece and Asia 
Minor things are different. The political conditions of these coun- 



tries have prevented their scientific investigation; some of the 
smaller vessels have been found only at Athens and ^Egina, some of 
the larger in Thera, Melos, and Ehodes. Besides these we mention 
the discoveries in the grave-mounds of the old Pantikapaion, the 
capital of the Bosporic empire. They consist of utensils worked 
in precious metals or bronze, and numerous painted vessels belong- 
ing to the later period of pottery, which must have been brought 
by merchants from Attika to this distant outpost of antique cul- 
ture. Of Athenian origin were also the celebrated Panathenaic 
prize-vases dating from the fourth century b. c. which have been 
found among the ruins of the Kyrenaic Pentapolis. They are 
amphorae with two handles, and the picture of Athene painted on 
them in an archaic style. In Greece, principally in Attika, were 

undoubtedly the manu- 
factures which supplied 
the enormous demands 
of both colonies and bar- 
baric countries. In the 
style of their paintings 
the shrewd Attic men of 
business tried to hit the 
taste of their barbaric customers, not unlike our present manu- 
facturers. The whole trade was thus monopolized by Greece, a 
competition existing only in those places where local manufac- 
turers worked after Greek patterns. 

36. The technique of antique pottery may be learned from two 
gems. The first (Fig. 193) represents an ephebos clad in the 
chiton, sitting in front of a handsome oven, from the top of 
which he takes, by means of two sticks, a newly glazed two-han- 
dled vessel. The second illustration also shows the interior of a 
potter's workshop (Fig. 194). A nude potter gives the last polish 
to a finished vessel (most likely with a piece of hard leather) ; 
on a kind of baking-oven, closed by a door, stand a pitcher and 
a drinking-bowl for the purpose of drying. Two pictures on 
vases, published by Jahn (" Berichte der kgl. sachsischen Gesell- 
schaft der Wissensch.," vi., 1854, hist. phil. CI., p. 27, et seq.\ 
show, one of them, a potter similarly occupied as ours (Fig. 194) ; 
the other, a little less finished in style, the whole interior of a 
potter's workshop with wheel and oven. Good (7*7 Kepafiir^\ 

Fig. 193. 

Fig. 194. 


particularly red, clay, was in demand for superior goods, and of 
this the promontory or Kolias, near Athens, furnished an unlim- 
ited supply. The potter's wheel (icepafieLos rpoxo?) was in use at a 
very early period. On it were formed both large and small ves- 
sels ; with the difference, however, that of the former the foot, 
neck, and handles, were formed separately, and afterward attached, 
as was also the case in small vessels with widely-curved handles. 
In order to intensify the red color, the vessel was frequently 
glazed and afterward dried and burnt on the oven. The outlines 
of the figures to be painted on the vase were either cut into the 
red clay and filled up with a brilliant black varnish, or the sur- 
face itself was covered with the black varnish up to the contours, 
in which case these stood out in the natural red color of the clay. 
The first-mentioned process was the older of the two, and greater 
antiquity is therefore to be assigned to vessels with black figures 
on a reH ground. In both kinds of paintings draperies or the 
muscles of nude figures were further indicated by the incision of 
additional lines of the color of the surface into the figures. 
Other colors, like dark red, violet, or white, which on close in- 
vestigation have been recognized as dissolvable, were put on after 
the second burning of the vessel. 

37. About the historic development of pottery we know 
nothing beyond what may be guessed from the differences of 
style. As we said before, figures of a black or dark-brown color 
painted on the natural pale-red or yellowish color of the clay in- 
dicate greater antiquity. The black figures were occasionally 
painted over in white or violet. These vessels are mostly small 
and somewhat compressed in form ; they are surrounded with 
parallel stripes of pictures of animals, plants, fabulous beings, or 
arabesques (Fig. 195). The drawings show an antiquated stiff 
type similar to those on the vessels recently discovered at Nine- 
veh and Babylon, whence the influence of Oriental on Greek art 
may be inferred. This archaic style, like the strictly hieratic 
style in sculpture, was retained together with a freer treatment at 
a more advanced period. As a first step of development we no- 
tice the combination of animals and arabesques, at first with half- 
human half -animal figures, soon followed by compositions belong- 
ing mostly to a certain limited circle of myths. The treatment 
of figures shows rigidity in the calm, and violence in the active, 


positions. The Doric forms of letters and words on many vases 
of this style, whether found in Greece or Italy, no less than the 
uniformity of their technique, indicate one place of manufacture, 
most likely the Doric Korinth, celebrated for her potteries ; on 
the other hand, the inscriptions in Ionian characters and written 
in the Ionian dialect on vessels prove their origin in the manu- 
factures of the Ionian Euboea and her colonies 1 . The pictures on 
these vases, also painted in stripes, extend the mythological sub- 
ject-matter beyond the Trojan cycle to the oldest epical myths, 
each story being represented in its consecutive phases. 

The latter vases form the transition to the second period. 
The shapes now become more varied, graceful, and slender. The 
figures are painted in black, and covered with a brilliant varnish ; 
the technique of the painting, however, does not differ from that 

Fig. 195. 

of the first period. The outlines have been neatly incised and 
covered up with black paint ; the details also of draperies and 
single parts of the body are done by incision, and sometimes 
painted over in white or dark red. The principle seems to be 
that of polychrome-painting, also applied in sculpture. Single 
parts of the armor, embroideries, and patterns of dresses, hair, 
and beards of men, the manes of animals, etc., are indicated by 
means of dark-red lines. This variety of color was required par- 
ticularly for the draperies, which are stiff and clumsily attached 
to the body. ■ The same stiffness is shown in the treatment of 
faces and other nude parts of the body, as also in the rendering 

1 See the excellent preface of Jahn's description of vases in the Royal Pinakothek 
at Munich (p. cxlviii., et seq.), where the different periods of pottery have been charac. 
terized. See also Jahn's essay, " Die griechischen bemalten Vasen," in his " Popu- 
lare Aufsatze aus der Alterthumswissenschaft," Bonn, 1868 (p. 307, et seq.). 


of movements. The faces are always in profile, the nose and 
chin pointed and protruding, and the lips of the compressed 
mouth indicated only by a line. Shoulders, hips, thighs, and 
calves, bulge out, the body being singularly pinched (Fig. 196). 
The grouping is equally imperfect. The single figures of com- 
positions are loosely connected by the general idea of the story. 
They have, as it were, a narrative character ; an attempt at truth 
to nature is, however, undeniable. The subjects are taken partly 
from the twelve-gods cycle (like the frequently-occurring birth of 
Athene, Dionysian processions, etc.) or from Trojan and Theban 
myths ; partly also from daily life, such as chases, wrestlings, 
sacrifices, symposia, and the like. To this class belong most of 
those large Panathenaic prize-vases, which are 
of such importance for our knowledge of gym- 
nastic competitions. 

In our third class the figures appear in the 
natural color of the surface, w T hich itself has 
been painted black. The character of the fig- 
ures in consequence appears gay and lively. 
Both styles seem at one time to have existed 
together, for we find them used severally on 
two sides of one and the same vessel, till at fIG . 196 . 

last the painting of black figures was disused 
entirely. The drawings now become more individual, and are 
freed from the fetters of conventional tradition — a proof of the 
free development of both political and artistic feelings, even 
among the lower classes of artificers. The specimens of the 
third class show the different stages of this process of liberation. 
At first the figures are still somewhat hard, and the drapery, 
although following' the lines of the body more freely than previ- 
ously, show T s still traces of archaic severity of treatment ; the 
details, indicated by black lines, are still carefully worked out. 
For smaller folds and muscles, a darker shade of the red color is 
used ; wreaths and flowers appear dark ; red white is used only 
in few cases — for instance, for the hair of an old man. The 
composition shows greater concentration and symmetry in the 
grouping, according to the conditions of the space at disposal. 
The figures show a solemn dignity, with signs, however, of an 
attempted freer treatment. Kramer justly calls this period that 



of the " severe style," and compares it with the well-known 
" JSginetie " style in sculpture. The further development of the 
" severe style " is what Kramer calls the " beautiful style," in which 
grace and beauty of motion and drapery, verging on the soft, 
have taken the place of severe dignity. In high art this transi- 
tion might be compared to that from Perugino's school to that of 
Eaphael, or, if we may believe the ancient writers, from the 
school of Polygnotos to that of Zeuxis and Parrhasios. 

Fig. 19T. 

The form of the vessels themselves next calls for our attention. 
The vases, two-handled amphorai and krateres, found most fre- 
quently during this period, are slender and graceful. Together 
with them we meet with beautifully-modeled drinking-horns 
(Fig. 201), and heads (Fig. 197, cl), or whole figures, used to put 
vessels upon. The variety of forms, and the largeness of some 
vessels, overloaded as they were with figures, soon led to want of 
care in the composition. The moderation characteristic of the 
" beautiful style " was soon relinquished for exaggerated orna- 
mentation, combined with a preference for representing sumptuous 


dresses and the immoderate use of white, yellow, and other 
colors. This led gradually to the decadence of pottery. Lucania 
and Apulia are the places where sumptuous vessels of the degen- 
erating style are most frequently found (see Fig. 197, #, 5, c). 
The handles of the splendid amphora (Fig. 197, a) are attached to 
the brim, adorned with an ovolo, the handles being in the form 
of volutes the centres of which contain heads of the Gorgon, their 
lower parts end in heads of swans. The neck of the vessel is 
adorned with three stripes of garlands, in the centre of which are 
female heads — a common feature of this style (see the vase, Fig. 
197, c). The body of the vessel is occupied by pictures from the 
myth of Triptolemos, who himself is discovered in the centre on 
a chariot drawn by dragons. The pictures are in two rows, one 
above the other, a peculiarity frequently found in larger vases of 
this style. Above them we see a double ovolo ; beneath them a 
" meandering " ornamentation. The arrangement of the figures in 
Fig. 197, 0, is similar. In the centre of the picture is an open 
building (frequently met with on vases of this style), round which 
the figures are grouped in two rows, one over the other. The 
vessel itself is an amphora resembling a candelabrum, the exces- 
sively slender body of which, resting on a weak foot, shows its 
merely ornamental purpose (compare the picture on a vase in § 60, 
representing the burial of Archemoros). Fig. 197, b, shows Kad- 
mos fighting with the dragon : the busts of gods being painted 
above the chief action, as if looking down upon it from heights, 
are also peculiar to this style. 

The subject-matter of these pictures has undergone similar 
changes as the old mythical stories themselves, when looked at 
through the medium of poetry, both lyrical and dramatic. Attic 
myths were treated in preference. The infinitely varied treatment 
proves the popularity of those lyrical and dramatic versions. In 
the decaying style, not only battles of Amazons and Ken tars, 
and scenes from the Hades, but also the subjects of tragedies, are 
depicted, the situations of the latter being evidently imitated from 
the stage, including even the variegated colors of the costumes. 
The whole impression becomes theatrical in consequence. Some- 
times mythological scenes and characters have been caricatured as 
on the comic stage (see pictures of this kind in § 58). The vases 
of Lucania and Apulia, moreover, show frequently representations 



of Greek burial-rites as modified by the South Italian populations. 
Jahn from this fact concludes the existence of local manufactures 
(I. <?., p. ccxxxi.), which is confirmed by the inscription on the ves- 
sels. They belong to a post-Alexandrine period, those of the 
"beautiful style "dating from the time between Perikles and 




Fig. 198. 

In some Etruscan cities earthenware was manufactured by 
local artists working after Greek patterns. The figures are dis- 
tinguished from genuine Greek work by the contours being in- 
cised very deeply and filled up with red color. The clay also is 
coarser. The compositions show an admixture of local myths and 
usages, not to mention Etruscan inscriptions. 

38. Hitherto we have considered the various artistic styles of 
vessels. Now we must try to distinguish their names and forms 


by the varieties of their uses. Ancient writers have transmitted 
to us a variety of names for them, which in some cases may he 
verified hy inscriptions on individual vessels. The naming, how- 
ever, of many of them is very difficult, and the attempts of Panof- 
ka in this direction have met with much contradiction among 
archaeologists. Their nomenclature among the ancients seems to 
have been much more diversified than is the case at the present 
day. We have collected forty-one of the most striking forms (Fig. 
198), by means of which the innumerable varieties in our museums 
may be to some extent classified. 

Vessels may be divided, according to their uses, into those 
for storing, mixing, and drawing liquids. Among the vessels 
for keeping wine, oil, honey, water, etc., the pithos {ttLQos) 
is the largest. It is made of strong clay, without a foot, either 
pointed or flattened at the bottom. If pointed, the pithos, in 
that case generally a small one, was dug into the earth to keep it 
upright ; if flat-bottomed, it was larger, and had a wide mouth. 
The cubic measure of the large pithos was equal, at least, to our 
large wine- vats, as is shown by the fact of those kept in the rocky 
cellars of Gallias at Agrigentum holding one hundred amphorai 
of wine each. During the Peloponnesian War, the poorer people 
seeking shelter in Athens lived in pithoi, also called inQaKvai. Of 
mythological celebrity is the pithos of the Danaides in which Eu- 
rystheus hid himself ; the tub of Diogenes is generally known. 
Similar to the pithos, but smaller and more easily movable, must 
have been the o-rdfjuvos (Fig. 198, 18, called stamnos by both Pa- 
nofka and Gerhard, and Fig. 198, 40, described by Panofka as a 
lekane, by Gerhard as an Apulian stamnos) and the ffifeos. Wine, 
oil, figs, and salt meat, were preserved in them. About the forms 
of the wine-vessels called vpxv an d irvTlvr) we are quite uncertain. 
Equally uncertain is the form of the /edSos, a larger vessel, also 
for wine, unless we consider it as belonging to the class of ampho- 
rai. The form of the amphora (afMpopevs), a two-handled vessel 
(o e/caTepcoOev Kara ra wra Svvafievos (fyipeadac) mentioned by 
Homer, is sufficiently known from many representations on vases, 
bass-reliefs, coins, and gems. They are more or less bulky vessels, 
with necks shorter or longer in proportion, but with mouths al- 
ways of moderate size compared to the bulk (Fig. 198, 20-23) ; 
frequently resting on feet, but sometimes (Fig. 198, 22) ending in 


a flattened point, in which ease the amphora was either put 
against a wall or fitted into a frame. The variety consists in the 
form of the handles, essentially modified by the size of the vessel, 
and in the larger or smaller opening of the month. Among the 
amphorai we count the Panathenaic prize-vases, in which the victor 
received the oil from the sacred olive-tree, and which even during 
the period of the " beautiful style " preserved the archaic manner 
of black figures on a red background. Hydria (vSpla) and kalpis 
(/cd\7ri<;) (Fig. 198, 16 and 17) seem to be different names of one 
and the same kind of bulky, short-necked vessel, the use of which 
is shown by its being carried on their heads, in the pictures on 
vases, by maidens fetching water. Its characteristic is a third 
handle in the centre of the vessel, which prevented its sinking 
in the water, and, at the same time, made the lifting of the filled 
pitcher on the head easier. The diminutive v8pi<T/cr} signifies a 
smaller vessel for the keeping of ointment, formed, most likely, 
in imitation of the hydria. The krossos (/cpao-ao?, Kpcoaos, 
Kpcocrcriov) was used for keeping water and oil, but also ashes. 
It most likely resembled the hydria, but cannot with certainty 
be recognized in any of the existing vessels. A smaller wine- 
vessel, most likely bulky and long-necked, was the \wyvvos. 
Gerhard compares it to the modern Orvieto-bottle. The lagynos, 
surrounded with wicker-work, called (f>\aafciov by Suidas, may 
have been the model of our bottles or flasks. Travelers and 
soldiers in the field used the kcoOcdv, a bulky flask with a narrow 
neck and a handle, which had the advantage of clearing the 
water from muddy substances, most likely by means of a partic- 
ular clay of which it was made. A similar drinking-flask was 
the bombylios (/3o/j,/3v\l6<;, fiofifivkrj), the narrow neck of 
which emitted the fluid by single drops only, and in this way 
produced a kind of gurgling sound, like the /3t)<tiov or ftrjcraa 
used by the Alexandrines. Whether the little flask with 
handles (Fig. 198, 37), called bombylios by Gerhard and 
Panofka, answers to the Greek term, we will not venture to 
decide. The Xtf/cvOoi, mentioned by Homer, served for the 
keeping of ointment; their form is sufficiently defined both 
by pictures on vases and numerous still-existing specimens 
(Fig. 198, 33). In these the oil was preserved for the rubbing 
of the limbs of wrestlers, or of bathers after their baths ; out of 


them also was poured the sacred oil over the graves of the dead. 
All these vessels show very much the same type. The neck 
was narrow in order to let the oil pass only in single drops, 
by means of which the above-mentioned gurgling sound (\a/ceiv, 
Xafcdfciv) was produced. The numerous vessels of this kind 
were chiefly manufactured in Attika ; they were necessary both 
to men and women. About the form of the olpe ipkirr], okira, 
o\7rfc?), also used for oil, and peculiar to the Doric tribe, we know 
nothing. According to Athenseus, olpe seems to have been an 
old name of the oinochoe ; hence the notion of the vessels, 
Fig. 198, 26 and 27, being of the oinochoe kind. The former 
is called by Panofka, olpe, by Gerhard, oinochoe ; the latter 
Gerhard calls an olpe approaching the Egyptian style. About 
the form of the alabastron (akaftacrTpov, aXd^aarov) we are 
better informed. It is a small cylindrical vessel, narrowing a 
little in the neck so as to produce the gradual dripping of the 
perfumed ointment preserved in it. All the specimens preserved 
to us, although varying in size and form, agree in the essential 
points, but for the style of the pictures and the material of which 
the vessels are made. The use of the alabastron is shown in the 
wall-picture of the so-called Aldobrandini wedding {see Fig. 232). 
The generic term for mixing-vessels used at meals and liba- 
tions is krater {Kparrjp, Kprjry'jp, from /cepdvvv/u). Its form, greatly 
modified by different ages and tastes, is sufficiently known from 
pictures and existing specimens (Fig. 198, 25 ; compare Fig. 
197, b). It had to hold larger quantities of wine and water 
(unless these were mixed afterward in the drinking-glasses), and 
was accordingly bulky and broad-necked. A handle on each side 
made the krater easily portable when empty. It rested on a foot 
divided into several parts, and on a broad base. Of the several 
divisions of the krater, as the Argolian, Lesbian, Korinthian, 
Lakonian, we have, no doubt, specimens in our collections, with- 
out, however, being able to distinguish them. Hypokreteria, i. e., 
large flat dishes, were placed under the krateres, to receive the 
overflowing liquid. Similar to the krater was the tyvterrjp, a 
cooling-vessel for wine before it was mixed. Its dimensions 
varied greatly ; in some cases topers emptied a whole tyvicrrip of 
moderate dimensions. According to Pollux, this vessel was also 
called S«/o?, and rested on a base consisting of dice or knobs, in- 



stead of a foot. Its shape was somewhat like a pail, and resem- 
bled the kalathos, the working-basket of Greek women ; this name 
was, indeed, also applied to it. We have in our collections sev- 
eral vases resembling this shape, to which, therefore, the names 
of yJrv/cTrjp and Blvos may be applied. 

Among vessels for drawing liquids we first mention those 
called dpuTcuva, dpvcrTiyps, and apv/3a\\o<;, all derived from dpvco, 
to scoop. Of the aryballos Athenseus says, that it expanded 
toward the bottom, and that its neck narrowed like a purse with 
its string tightened, which latter was called by the same name. 
Specimens of it are numerous in our museums (Fig. 198, 34 and 
36). It was also used for the keeping of ointment, and as such 
belonged, like the arytaina or arysane, to the bathing-utensils. 
The olvoxprj, %oi)9 7r/?o%ou?, and iTri'xyo-is served, as their names 
indicate, for the drawing and pouring out of liquids, especially 
of wine. They had one handle, and resembled a jug. Their size 
varied considerably (Fig. 198, 26-31). Their use is sufficiently 
illustrated by pictures. Fig. 199 shows a picture on a vase in 
which the ephebos kneeling to the right is taking wine from the 
krater with the oinochoe, in order to fill the drinking-vessel of the 
other ephebos. The prochous seems to have been used chiefly as 
a water-jug. Accurate accounts of its different forms we do not 
Moreover, according to Atheneeus, the terms had been 
changed. What originally was 
called pelike, afterward re- 
ceived the name of choe. The 
pelike resembled the Panathe- 
naic vases ; and is said to have 
taken afterward the form of 
the oinochoe, as used at those 
festivities. At the time of Athenaeus the pelike was only a piece 
of ornament used at festive processions, the vessel in common 
use being called chous, and resembling the arytaina. The kotyle 
(kotvXtj, kotvXos) was used as a measure of both liquid and dry 
substances, but also for drinking purposes. The captive Atheni- 
ans in the Syrakusian quarries, for instance, received one kotyle 
of water and two kotylai of food a day (see Fig. 198, 4 and 7 ; 
the former, called by Panofka, kotyle, by Gerhard, skyphos ; the 
latter, by Panofka, kotylos, by Gerhard, kotyle). Its form was 

Fig. 199. 


that of a deep, pot-like, two-handled dish, with a short foot. 
Several small kotylai with covers to them were sometimes com- 
bined and carried by one handle, similar to what we find among 
peasants in Central Germany at the present day. Athenaeus calls 
this combination a icepvos (Fig. 200). Its elegant form makes its 
use at table as a kind of cruet-stand appear probable. The /cvados 
was used both for drinking and drawing liquids. It resembles 
our drinking-cups but for the handle, which is considerably higher 
than the brim of the vessel (Fig. 198, 10, 13, 14), in order to pre- 
vent the dipping of the finger into the liquid on 
drawing it. It was used as a measure at the sym- 
posia, before inebriation became the rule, when 
larger vessels were used. 

Among drinking-vessels we mention the phi- 
ale, the kymbion, and the kylix. The <f)id\rj was 
a flat saucer without a foot (Fig. 198, 1 and 2), 
the centre of which was raised like the boss of a 
buckler, and called like it dficpaXos. Smaller phialai were used 
for drinking ; larger ones served at libations and lustrations and 
as anathemata in the temples, particularly those wrought in pre- 
cious metals. The kymbion {kv^Plov, tcvixftrj) is said to have been 
a deep, long dish like a boat, without a handle, used for drinking 
or libations ; a specimen we do not possess, as far as we know. 
The kv\i% is a drinking-cup with two handles, resting on an ele- 
gantly-formed foot (Fig. 198, 8). We meet with it frequently in 
pictures and in museums. The kylix of Argos differed from that 
of Attika by having its brim bent inward a little. Whether the 
so-called Therikleic ky likes had their name from the animals 
painted on them, or from the potter Therikles, who was cele- 
brated at Korinth at the time of Aristophanes, we must leave un- 
decided. Athenseus describes these as deep goblets with two 
small handles, and adorned at the upper brim with ivy-branches. 
Fig. 199 shows an ephebos holding in his right hand the skyphos 
(<Tfcv(f)o<;), while a kylix stands on his extended left. The former 
resembles a cup, sometimes with a flat bottom, at others resting 
on a small Doric base (Fig. 198, 6), at others, again, ending in a 
point (Fig. 198, 41). It generally had two small horizontal handles 
just underneath the brim. Originally used by peasants (Eumaios, 
for instance, offers one to Odysseus), it afterward became part of 



the dinner-service. According to different forms, peculiar to 
different localities, we distinguish Boeotian, Rhodian, Syrakusian, 
and Attic skyphoi. The skyphos was generally designated as the 
drinking-eup of Herakles. The icavOapos was a goblet resting on 
a high foot, and having widely-curved thin handles : it was pecul- 
iar to Dionysos and to the actors in the Dionysian thiasos (Fig. 
198, 12, compare Fig. 199), and appears frequently in their hands 
in pictures on vases and other representations. The old kantharos 
was larger than that later in use, as appears from a passage in 
Athenseus which says, that the modern kantharoi are so small, as 
if they were meant to be swallowed themselves, instead of having 
the wine drunk out of them. As the oldest drinking-vessel the 
Kapxnvwv is mentioned. According to Athenseus, it was lengthy 
in form, with the centre of the body slightly bent inward, and 

two handles reaching to 
the bottom. Whether it 
had a foot or a flat base 
(Fig. 198, 11), cannot be 
decided. Homer mentions 
a heiras afx^LKvireXkov, i. e. 
double goblet, which, as 
appears from Aristotle 
(" Hist. Anim.," ix., 40), 
was also known at a later 
period. A specimen of 
it has not been preserved, 
as far as is known to us. Being mostly wrought in precious 
metals, they were probably, at a later period, frequently remod- 
eled into more fashionable shapes. 

To conclude, we mention the beautifully-modeled drinking- 
horns, wrought partly in clay, partly in metal, and used at feasts 
(/cepas and pvrov) {see Fig. 201). The horn has been used as a 
drinking-utensil since the oldest times, particularly among bar- 
barous nations. Both iEschylos and Xenophon quote examples 
of this custom. In pictures on vases the Kentauroi and Dionysos 
frequently appear with drinking-horns. The rhyton is an artistic 
development of this primitive form. Its end has been modeled 
into the head of an animal, according to the nature of which the 
rhyton has received the surnames of ypvyjr (Fig. 201, b), \vkos 

Fig. 201. 


(Fig. 201, c), ow, rifjLtovo? (Fig. 201, e), /cairpcx; (Fig. 201, g), 
e\€(/>a?, tWo?, ravpos, etc. (compare the picture on a vase in § 50, 
in which one of the topers pours the wine from a panther-rhyton 
(iraphcCkis) into a goblet). The rhyton had to be emptied at one 
draught, and was afterward placed (probably to be filled again) 
on a stand (v7r66r)/jLa, viroirvOp.rjv, TreptafceXk). As appears from 
the cited picture, the rhyton had an opening (which most likely 
could be stopped) inside the mouth of the animal, from which 
the wine was poured out, and had to be caught by the drinker in 
his glass. 

As another means of keeping wine and oil we now mention 
the aaicos, the wine-skin, still in use in the East and in Southern 
Europe, consisting of the hide of an animal sewed and tied 
together. In pictures we often see it on the backs of fauns and 
Sileni, and its form has even been imitated in clay in small ves- 
sels for wine and oil. Our museums contain several vases of this 
kind (see Levezow, " Gallerie der Vasen," etc., Table ix., No. 
189). Even that common form of handled vessels called by Ger- 
hard askos (Fig. 198, 32) may originally have been suggested by 
the wine-skin. 

Of Greek crockery nothing remains, with the exception of a 
few dishes. It was destroyed with the dwelling-houses, and had 
not the advantage of being deposited in the grave-chambers. On 
the other hand, the kitchen-utensils of the Romans are fully illus- 
trated by the excavations at Pompeii ; to these we refer the 
reader. The yyTpa no doubt resembled our saucepans with one 
or two handles. Porridge, meat, and vegetables, were cooked in 
it, and out of it the first portion was offered to the domestic gods 
and to Zeus Herkaios at every meal, and at the consecration of 
temples and altars. Sometimes the chytra had three feet (see 
Fig. 198, 38), but usually, and particularly if it was oval in shape 
and without feet, it was placed on a kind of tripod ('xyrpoirovs, 
\da-avov). Homer already mentions large vessels (rplirohes), stand- 
ing on tripods or having three feet, used particularly for heating 
the bathing-water. Identical with the chytra was the Xeftr)?, 
mostly made of bronze. Both names occur frequently among 
the enumerations of temple treasures. They were made of 
bronze, silver, or gold. On a cameo (Panofka, " Bilder antiken 
Lebens," Table xii., No. 5) we see a huge lebes, but without 


the tripod, in which two boys are cooking a pig, while a third one 
is poking the fire under the vessel. Besides these, we possess 
some dishes in our museums the painting of which with fish of 
various kinds indicates their being used for the preparing of these ; 
whence the name of Ixdvcu applied to them, 

As a domestic utensil we also mention the bath. In Homer 
baths are mentioned, most likely made of polished stone {aoaynv- 
0oi), and large enough to hold one person. 
These asaminthoi, however, were soon re- 
placed by large scale-like baths (Xovrrjpesy 
XovTTjpia, Fig. 202) resting on one or several 
feet, and filled by pipes in the walls, Fig. 
202. They appear in the pictures of bath- 
ing-scenes in all kinds of varieties. Larger 
baths for several persons, which were placed 
in the public or private bathing-chambers 
(ftaXavela), were called KoXvjjLfirjOpa, TrveXos, 
and fid/cTpa. They were either dug into the earth and surrounded 
with masonry, or cut into the living rock. They may have also 
been built of stone. 

39. We now have to add a few remarks about vessels made 
of metal, of stones more or less precious, and of glass. All these 
were numerous, both as ornaments and for practical use. The 
names mentioned for earthenware apply in general also to them. 
Instead of paintings, however, we here find plastic ornamentations. 
Among stones the fine white alabaster was most frequently used, 
for those delicate little ointment bottles called by the name of 
alabastron (see p. 151), partly because of the softness of the color 
of the stone, partly because of its great coldness, which tended 
to keep the ointment fresh. Its use for drinking-cups was less 
frequent. Its sides were with great skill, by means of turning, 
reduced to the thinness of note-paper, as can be seen in an alabas- 
tron at the Museum of Berlin. For the same purposes as the 
alabaster were also used the onyx and the agate. Mithridates VI. 
Eupator had among his treasures two onyx vases, which Lucullus 
brought to Eome as spoil. Only few of these precious vessels 
are preserved at the present day. Among these we mention the 
so-called " Mantuan goblet " in the possession of the late Duke 
Charles of Brunswick, formerly owned by the Gonzaga family, 


an ointment- vase of onyx-agate in the Munz- und Antiken- Cabi- 
net at Vienna, an onyx vase in the Antiquarium of the Royal 
Museum at Berlin (all these decorated with sculptures), and two 
onyx vases at the Museums of Vienna and Naples respectively. 
As the finest specimen of Oriental agate in existence we mention 
a vase in the just-mentioned collection at Vienna 28J inches in 
diameter, including the handle. It was brought to Western 
Europe after the conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders, 
and came afterward into the possession of Charles the Bold, Duke 
of Burgundy, whence it was transferred to Vienna as part of the 
dowry of Maria of Burgundy, wife of the Emperor Maximilian 
I. For larger vessels, like the krater or the um, white or colored 
marble, porphyry, and also various metals, were used, and we still 
possess numerous vases of this kind adorned with beautiful re- 
liefs. Particularly the krater is, according to its destination, fre- 
quently adorned with the Dionysian attributes, such as Silenus- 
masks, goblets, musical instruments, etc., beautifully grouped 
together with flower and fruit ornamentations ; the handles and 
the finely developed foot are in perfect harmony. Bronze vessels 
of this kind are frequently mentioned by the ancients. Achilles 
offers a silver krater wrought by Sidonian artists as a prize for 
runners at a race. Croesus made a votive offering to the Delphic 
oracle of one golden and one silver krater, the latter holding 600 
arnphorai, being a work of Theodoros, the Samian bronze-found- 
er; a bronze krater, resting on three colossal kneeling figures, 
was dedicated by the Samians to Hera. Among the votive offer- 
ings at the Parthenon were numerous goblets of this kind, made 
both of gold and silver. The most celebrated Greek toreutai, like 
Kalamis, Akragas, Mys, Stratonikos, Antipater, Pytheas (who, 
however, according to Pliny, worked only in silver and bronze), 
cultivated this branch of their art, and the vessels from their ate- 
liers were sought after, up to the latest period, by the Romans. 
With the exception of the smaller oil and drinking vessels, these 
vases served only as ornaments in the houses of the rich, as votive 
offerings in temples and graves, as decorations of the gables of 
buildings, and as prizes at the games. The art of making vessels 
of glass seems to have been a later importation from the East, 
particularly from Egypt. At first vessels made of glass (\l0os 



XVTrj) were appreciated as much as those of precious metals ; after- 
ward glass bottles and drinking-glasses become more common. 
Still the Greek manufacture of this article never was equal to 
those of Rome and Egypt (compare § 91). 

Among domestic utensils we also count articles made of basket- 
work, which frequently occur in antique pictures (see Fig. 203). 
The kalathos (/cdXaOos, /caXadk, /caXaOicrfcos), the basket for keep- 
ing wool (used for weaving and embroidering), and also flowers 
and fruit, is frequently met with in vase-paintings illustrating the 
life of Greek women (Fig. 203, a) ; perhaps Fig. 203, b, also went 
by the name of kalathos. As early as Homer's time baskets 
(/cdveov), probably round or oval, were used, at meals, to keep 
bread and pastry in. They had a low rim and handles (Fig. 
203, c). The kaneon was also used at offerings, as is proved by 
Fig. 203, c, where it is filled with pomegranates, holy boughs, 

and ribbons. At the Panathenaia 
noble Athenian maidens carried 
such baskets, filled with holy 
cakes, incense, and knives, on 
their heads, whence the name 
Kavrj(f)6poc applied to them. These 
graceful figures were a favorite 
subject of antique sculpture. 
Both Polyklete and Skopas had 
done a celebrated kanephore — 
the former in bronze, the latter in 
marble. The (nrvpk, chiefly used 
for carrying fish, was also a flat 
basket, similar to that used at the 
present day by fishermen in the 
South. Other baskets used by 
peasants appear frequently in an- 
tique pictures, such as Fig. 203, d, 
in the original carried by a peasant on a stick over his shoulder, 
together with another basket of the same pear-like shape ; Fig. 
203, f and e are taken from a bass-relief representing a vintage, in 
which the former appears filled with grapes, while the latter is 
being filled with must by a boy. This proves, at the same time, 

Fig 203. 


the knowledge among the Greeks of the art of making the basket- 
work dense enough to hold fluids. The same fact is shown by a 
passage in Homer, in which Polyphemos lets the milk coagulate 
to cheese in baskets (Tokapo? 7r\e/eTo<?), which cheese was after- 
ward placed on a hurdle (Tapcros), through which the whey trickled 
slowly. Of plaited rushes, or twigs, consisted also a peculiar kind 
of net (icvpTos), a specimen of w T hich is seen on the reverse of a 
medal coined under the Emperor Macrinus, as the emblem of the 
maritime city of Byzantium (see Dumersan, " Descript. d. Me- 
dailles ant. du Cabinet du feu M. Allier de Ilauteroche," PI. iii., 
No. 8). Baskets, roughly plaited, appear also in the vase-painting 
of the " Weighing out of the Silphion " (Panofka, " Bilder anti- 
ken Lebens," Taf. xvi., No. 3), where the silphion is being carried 
in them. According to Athenseus, basket-work was imitated in 
precious metals. 

40. To light and heat the rooms, at Homer's time, fire-baskets, 
or fire-basins (Xayu,7TT?)/)e?), were used, standing on high poles, and 
fed with dry logs of wood or splinters (SaSe?). The cinders were, 
at intervals, removed by serving-maids, and the flames replenished. 
Such fire-baskets, on poles, are still used by 
night - travelers in Southern Russia, and at 
nightly ceremonies in India. The use of pine- 
torches (SatScov virb XafjLTTo/jLevdcov) is of equal 
antiquity. They consisted of long, thin sticks 
of pine-wood, tied together with bark, rushes, 
or papyrus (Fig. 204, e). The bark of the vine 
was also used for torches, called \o<j>k. The 
golden statues on pedestals, in the hall of Alki- 
noos, undoubtedly held such torches in their hands. In vase- 
paintings we also see a different form of the torch, carried chiefly 
by Demeter and Persephone, which consists of two pieces of wood 
fastened crosswise to a staff (Fig. 204, b). An imitation of this 
wooden torch was undoubtedly the torch-case, made of clay or 
metal, in the shape of a salpinx. Their surface was either smooth 
or formed in imitation of the bundles of sticks and the bark of 
the wooden torch, the inside being filled with resinous substances. 
A different kind of torch was the phanos (<faw?, <f>avrj), which 
consisted of sticks tied together, and perforated with pitch, resin, 



Fig. 205. 

or wax. They were put into a case of metal, which again was 
let into a kind of dish, turned either upward or down- 
ward (Fig. 204, a). This dish (xyrpa) served to receive 
the cinders or the dripping resin. The phanoi were 
either carried, or, when their case was prolonged to a 
long stem (kclvXos), and had a foot (Pdais) added to it, 
might be put down (Fig. 205), and received, in that 
case, the names of Xa^irrrip or Xv^vovxo^. The further 
development of this form was the candelabrum, carry- 
ing either fire-basins or oil-lamps (see the Roman light- 
ing-apparatus, § 92). The date of oil-lamps in Greece 
cannot be stated with accuracy ; they were known at 
the time of Aristophanes. They were made of terra- 
cotta or metal, and their construction resembles those 
used by the Romans. They are mostly closed semi- 
globes with two openings, one, in the centre, to pour the oil in, 
the other, in the nose-shaped prolongation (jjLVKTrjp), destined to 
receive the wick (OpvdKkk, eKkirxycov, <j>\ofjb6<;). Among the small 

numbers of Greek lamps preserved to us, 
we have chosen two of the most graceful 
specimens, one of them showing the ordi- 
nary form of the lamp (Fig. 206), the 
other that of a kline, on which a boy is 
lying (Fig. 207). Both are made of clay, 
the latter being painted in various colors. The 
Athenians also used lanterns (Xu^^oO^o?) made 
of transparent horn, and lit up with oil-lamps. 
They were carried at night in the streets like the 
torches. Sparks, carefully preserved under the 
ashes, served both Greeks and Romans to light 
the fire. The ancients had, however, a lighting-apparatus (irvpela), 
consisting of two pieces of wood, of which the one was driven 
into the other (crTopevs or ia^dpa), like a gimlet, the friction 
effecting a flame. According to Theophrast, the wood of nut or 
chestnut trees was generally used for the purpose. 

41. We now come to the dress of the Greeks. We shall have 
to consider those articles of dress used as a protection against the 
weather, and those prescribed by decency or fashion, also the 
coverings of the head and the feet, the arrangement of the hair, 

Fig. 206. 

Fig. 207. 

DRESS. 161 

and the ornaments. Unfortunately, the terminology is, in many 
cases, uncertain. Many points, therefore, must remain undecided. 
Before entering upon details, we must remark that the dress of 
the Greek, compared with modern fashion, was extremely simple 
and natural. Owing to the warmth of the climate and the taste 
of the inhabitants, both superfluous and tight articles of dress 
were dispensed with. Moreover, the body was allowed to de- 
velop its natural beauty in vigorous exercise ; and in this 
harmony and beauty of the limbs the Greeks prided them- 
selves, which, of course, reacted favorably on the character of the 

The two chief divisions of garments are the ivSufjuara, which 
are put on like a shirt, and the €7n/3\rj/j,aTa, or 7repifi\T]ficiTa, re- 
sembling a cloak, loosely thrown over the naked body, or the 
endymata. Weiss (" Kostiimkunde," i., p. 703, et seq^) remarks 
rightly that the original character of Greek dress, consisting of 
the two parts just mentioned, remained essentially the same. 
The later changes apply only to the mode of using these, and to 
their material and ornamental qualities. 

The xltcdv, in its various forms, was used both by men and 
women as their endyma— i. e., the under-garment touching the 
naked body. A second under-garment like a shirt, worn under 
the chiton, seems not to have been in use. The expressions 
/jlovoxltcdv and cl^Itcov only indicate that in the first case the chiton 
was worn without the himation ; in the second, vice versa. The 
chiton was an oblong piece of cloth arranged round the body 
so that the arm was put through a hole in the closed side, the 
two ends of the open side being fastened over the opposite 
shoulder by means of a button or clasp. On this latter side, 
therefore, the chiton was completely open, at least as far as the 
thigh, underneath of which the two ends might be either pinned 
or stitched together. Round the hips the chiton was fastened 
with a ribbon or girdle, and the lower part could be shortened 
as much as 'required by pulling it through this girdle. A chiton 
of this kind is worn by a soldier in Fig. 208, taken from a beau- 
tiful relief on an Attic urn representing the leave-taking of an 
Athenian warrior from his wife and child. This sleeveless chiton, 
made of wool, was worn chiefly by the Dorians. The Athenians 
adopted it about the time of Perikles, after having worn pre- 



viously the longer chiton peculiar to the Ionians of Asia Minor. 
Frequently sleeves, either shorter and covering 
only the upper arm, or continue to the wrist, 
were added to the chiton, which resembled, in 
consequence (at least, in the former case), ex- 
actly the chemises worn by women at the pres- 
ent day. The chiton, with sleeves coming 
down to the wrist (x i ™ v %eipt8ft)T09), undoubt- 
edly an invention of the luxurious Asiatic 
Greeks, is worn, for instance, by Skiron (north- 
west wind) and Boreas (north wind), among 
the portraitures of the eight chief winds on the 
octagonal tower of the winds at Athens (see 
Fig. 158). The so-called pedagogue among the 
group of the Niobides also wears this chiton ; 
but the arms of this statue have been restored. 
The short-sleeved chiton is frequently worn by women and chil- 
dren on monuments. Of the sleeveless chiton, worn by men over 
both shoulders, as in Fig. 208 (afAfafido-xakoi), it is stated that it 

Fig. 208. 

was the sign of a free citizen. 

Slaves and artisans are said to 
have worn a chiton with one hole 
for the left arm, the right arm 
and half of the chest remaining 
quite uncovered. The i£a>fik was 
another form of the chiton, worn 
on monuments, chiefly by He- 
phaistos, Daidalos, and workmen, 
tear egoxnv, as also by fishermen 
and sailors, whose occupations re- 
quired the right arm to be quite 
unencumbered. A bass - relief 
(Fig. 209) shows two ship-carpenters dressed in the exomis, repre- 
senting, perhaps, master Argos and an assistant, working at the 
ship Argo, under the supervision of Athene. Two charming 
statuettes of fisher-boys at the British Museum and the Museo 
Borbonico of Naples (Clarac, " Musee," Nos. 881, 882), respectively, 
also illustrate this picturesque costume. 

Identical with this in form is the chiton worn by Doric women. 
It was simple, short-skirted, and with a slit in the upper part at 

Fig. 209. 



both sides. It was fastened with clasps over both shoulders, and 
shortened as far as the knees by means of pulling it through the 
girdle. In this form it is worn by two maidens in the Louvre, 
destined for the service of the Lakonian Artemis at Karyge. They 
carry kinds of baskets (crcCkia) on their heads, and are performing 
the festive dance in honor of the goddess (Fig. 210). The exomis, 
as described above, is worn by the female statue in the Vatican 

Fig. 210. 


Fig. 212. 

known as the "Springing Amazon" (Mullens " Denkmaler," i., 
No. 138, a), and also by statues of Artemis, and representations of 
that goddess on gems and coins. The long chiton for women 
reaching down to the feet, and only a little pulled up at the girdle, 
we shall see in a vase-painting (§ 57, Fig. 310) representing 
dancing youths and maidens, the former wearing the short, the 
latter the long, chiton. A development of the long chiton is the 
double-chiton. It was a very large, oblong piece of woven cloth, 
left open on one side, like the Doric chiton for men. It was 
equal to about one and a half lengths of the body. The over- 
hanging part of the cloth was folded round the chest and back, 
from the neck downward, the upper edge being arranged round the 
neck, and the two open corners clasped together on one shoulder. 
On this open side, therefore, the naked body was visible (Fig. 



211). Over the other shoulder the upper edge of the chiton 
was also fastened with a clasp, the arm being put through the 
opening left between this clasp and the corresponding corner of 
the cloth. 

In the same way was arranged the half -open chiton, the open 
side of which, from the girdle to the lower hem, was sewed up. 
A bronze statuette (Fig. 212) illustrates this way of putting it on. 
A young girl is about to join together on her left shoulder the 
chiton, which is fastened over the right shoulder by means of an 
agraffe. It appears clearly that the whole chiton consists of one 
piece. Together with the open and half -open kinds of the chiton, 

we also find the closed double- 
chiton (%n-<wz/ irohi\p7]i) flowing 
down to the feet. It was a piece 
of cloth considerably longer than 
the human body, and inclosed on 
both sides, inside of which the 
person putting it on stood as in a 
cylinder. As in the chiton of the 
second form, the overhanging part 
of the cloth was turned outward, 
and the folded rim pulled up as 
far as the shoulders, across which 
(first on the right, and after it on 
the left side) the front and back 
parts were fastened together by 
means of clasps, the arms being 
put through the two openings 
effected in this manner. Eound 
the hips the chiton was fastened 
by means of a girdle (£cbviov, 
<7Tp6(f)iov), through which the bot- 
tom part of the dress trailing along the ground was pulled up 
just far enough to let the toes be visible. Above the girdle the 
chiton was arranged in shorter or longer picturesque folds (/co\7ro?). 
Most likely the overhanging part of the chiton, which we shall 
meet with again as an independent garment, was called by the 
Greeks Bi7r\o'k or hafKoihiov. We have illustrated the chiton by 

Fig. 213. 



two representations from the best period of Greek art. Fig. 213 
shows a running female figure, the arms and feet of which have 
unfortunately been destroyed. The original is ten inches high. 
She seems to implore the help of the gods 
against a ferocious animal, the claws of 
which have already caught her floating 
garment. 1 Chiton and diplois are arranged 
most gracefully, and the violent motion 
of the body has been softened by a certain 
quiet treatment of the drapery. Fig. 214, 
on the other hand, shows one of the sub- 
lime female forms carrying the roof of 
the southern portico of the Erechtheion 
(compare Fig. 38). The attitude of the 
kanephore is quiet and dignified. Kolpos 
and diplois are gracefully arranged in sym- 
metrical folds. In spite of the calm atti- 
tude required by the architectural char- 
acter of the figure, the artist has managed 
to convey the idea of motion by means of 
the left leg being slightly bent, and the 
straight folds of the chiton modified in con- 
sequence. The chief alterations of varying 
fashion applied to the arrangement of the 
diploidion, which reached either to the 
part under the bosom or was prolonged as 
far as the hips ; its front and back parts 
might either be clasped together across 
the shoulders, or the two rims might be 
pulled across the upper arm as far as the 
elbow, and fastened in several places by 

means of buttons or agraffes, so that the naked arm became vis- 
ible in the intervals, by means of which the sleeveless chiton 
received the appearance of one with sleeves (Fig. 219). Where 

1 On the back part of the garment the paw of a large animal is distinctly visible ; 
for which reason we have adopted the above explanation in preference to that of her 
being a Bacchante, against which opinion, moreover, the modest dress and the absence 
of orgiastic emblems seem to speak. 



Fig. 215. 

the diploidion was detached from the chiton, it formed a kind of 
handsome cape ; which, however, in its shape, strictly resembled 
the diploidion proper. This cape was most 
likely called by the Greeks aixmeyoviov. Its 
shape was considerably modified by fashion, 
taking sometimes the form of a close-fitting 
jacket, at others (when the sides remained 
open) that of a kind of shawl, the ends of 
which sometimes equaled in length the 
chiton itself (Fig. 215). In the latter case, 
the ampechonion was naturally at least three 
times as long as it was wide. In antique 
pictures women sometimes wear a second 
shorter chiton over the yyrihv irohrjpes. A 
great many varieties of dress, more distin- 
guishable in the vase-paintings representing 
realistic scenes than in the ideal costumes of sculptural types, 
we must omit, particularly as, in most cases, they may be reduced 
to the described general principles. 

42. From the ivBvfjuaTa we now pass to the eV^/SA^aTa or 
irepi^KrjiJbaTa, i. e., articles of dress of the nature of cloaks. They 
also show throughout an oblong 
form, differing in this essentially 
from the Eoman toga. The 
Ifidriov, belonging to this class, 
was arranged so that the one 
corner was thrown over the left 
shoulder in front, so as to be 
attached to the body by means of 
the left arm. On the back the 
dress was pulled toward the right 
side so as to cover it completely 
up to the right shoulder, or, at 
least, to the armpit, in which latter case the right shoulder re- 
mained uncovered. Finally, the himation was again thrown over 
the left shoulder, so that the ends fell over the back. Figs. 216 
and 217, taken from vase-paintings, show two male figures com- 
pletely enveloped in the himation according to the fashion of the 
time (imbs ttjv x ei ? a ^X eLV )- Both men and women wore the 

Fig 216. 

Fig 217. 



himation in a similar manner (see Fig. 218, taken from a terra- 
cotta at Athens). The complete covering, 

even of the face, in this last figure indicates 

a chastely-veiled Athenian lady walking in 

the street, or, or according to Stackelberg, a 


A second way of arranging the himation, 

which left the right arm free, was more 

picturesque, and is therefore usually found 

in pictures (see, for instance, Fig. 219). The 

first-mentioned himation, however, was com- 
monly given by the artist to figures meant 

to express noble dignity. The truth of 

these statements will be recognized in look- 
ing, for instance, at the statue of the 

bearded Dionysos in the Vatican enveloped 

in the himation according to strictest usage. 

In the beautiful statues of Asklepios at 

Florence and in the Louvre, the left side 

and the lower part of the body are covered 

by the himation, which is also the case in 

the figure of the enthroned Zeus in the 

Museo Pio Clementino, where one corner 

of the garment rests on the left shoulder, and fails in beautiful 
folds over the lap of the figure. The arrange- 
ment of the himation worn by women was 
equally graceful, as appears from the pictures, 
without, however, being subjected to a strict 
rule, as in the case of men. Perhaps the cos- 
tume of the maidens carrying hydriai on the 
frieze of the Parthenon may be considered as 
the common type. The picturesque arrange- 
ment of the himation could undoubtedly be 
acquired only by long practice. In order to 
preserve the folds and prevent the dress from 
slipping from the shoulders, the Greeks used 

Fig. 218. 

Fig. 219. 

to sew small weights into the comers. 

Different from the himation was the much 
smaller and oblong rplficov, or rpiftwviov, worn among the Doric 



Fig. 220. 

tribes by epheboi and grown-up men, while boys up to the twelfth 
year were restricted to the use of the chiton. At Athens, also, the 
inclination toward the severe Doric customs 
made this garment common. Up to the time 
of the Peloponnesian War the dress of the 
Athenian boy consisted of the chiton only. 
On attaining the age of the ephebos he was 
dressed in the %\a/w, introduced into Attika 
from Thessaly or Makedonia. The chlamys 
also was an oblong piece of cloth thrown over 
the left shoulder, the open ends being fastened 
across the right shoulder by means of a clasp ; 
the corners hanging down were, as in the hi- 
mation, kept straight by means of weights 
sewed into them. The chlamys was princi- 
pally used by travelers and soldiers. Fig. 220, 
representing the statue of Phokion in the 
Museo Pio Clementino, illustrates this hand- 
some garment. Hermes, Kastor, Polydeukes, 
the wandering Odysseus, soldiers, and horse- 
men (for instance, the epheboi on horseback on the frieze of the 
Parthenon), generally wear the chlamys. 

Concerning the materials of the described garments, we have 
mentioned before that linen was used principally by the Ionians, 
wool by the Dorians ; the latter material in the course of time 
became the rule for male garments all over Greece. The change 
of seasons naturally required a corresponding modification in the 
thickness of these woolen garments ; accordingly we notice the 
difference between summer and winter dresses. For women's 
dresses, besides sheep's wool and linen, byssos, most likely a kind 
of cotton, was commonly used. Something like the byssos, but 
much fiuer, was the material of which the celebrated transparent 
dresses were woven in the isle of Amorgos. They were called 
afjbopyiva, and consisted of the fibre of a fine sort of flax, un- 
doubtedly resembling our muslins and cambrics. The introduc- 
tion of silk into Greece is of later date, while in Asia it was 
known at a very early period. From the interior of Asia the silk 
was imported into Greece, partly in its raw state, partly worked 
into dresses. Eeady-made dresses of this kind were called aripifcd 


to distinguish them from the fiofifivtava, i. e., dresses made in 
Greece of the imported raw silk (jiira^a, fidra^a). The isle of 
Kos was the first seat of silk manufacture, where silk dresses 
were produced rivaling in transparency the above-mentioned 
dfiopywa. These diaphanous dresses, clinging close to the body, 
and allowing the color of the skin and the veins to be seen (eifiara 
8ta(f)av7]), have been frequently imitated with astonishing skill by 
Greek sculptors and painters. We only remind the reader of the 
beautifully-modeled folds of the chiton covering the upper part 
of the body of Niobe's youngest daughter, in a kneeling position, 
who seeks shelter in the lap of her mother ; in painting, several 
wall-pictures of Pompeii may be cited. 

The antiquated notion of white having been the universal 
color of Greek garments, a colored dress being considered im- 
modest, has been refuted by Becker (" Charikles," iii., p. 194). 
It is, however, likely that, with the cloak-like epiblemata, white 
was the unusual color, as is still the case among Oriental nations 
much exposed to the sun. Brown cloaks are, however, by no 
means unusual ; neither were they among Greek men. Party-col- 
ored Oriental garments were also nsed, at least by the wealthy 
Greek classes, both for male and female dresses, while white still 
remained the favorite color with modest Greek women. This is 
proved, not to mention written evidence, by a number of small 
painted statuettes of burnt clay, as also by several pictures on 
lekythoi from Attic graves. The original colors of the dresses, 
although (particularly the reds) slightly altered by the burning 
process, may still be distinctly recognized. In Fig. 320, from a 
vase-painting, the female form on the left wears a chiton of saf- 
fron-yellow hue (/epo/ccoTa), perhaps in imitation of the color of 
the byssos, and a violet peplos, the chiton of the woman on the 
right being golden brown. Men also appear in these pictures 
with the cherry-colored chlamys and the red himation; while 
Charon wears the dark exomis usual among fishermen (see Sta- 
ckelberg, " Graber der Hellenen," Taf . 43-45). These dresses, 
both with regard to shape and color, are undoubtedly taken from 
models of daily life. 

The dresses were frequently adorned with inwoven patterns, or 
attached borders and embroideries. From Babylon and Phrygia, 
the ancient seats of the weaving and embroidering arte, these 



crafts spread over the Occidental world, the name " Phrygiones," 
used in Eome at a later period for artists of this kind, reminding 
of this origin. As we learn from the monuments, the simplest 
border, either woven or sewed to the dresses, consisted of one or 
more dark stripes, either parallel with the seams of the chiton, 
himation, and ampechonion (see Figs. 215-217, 219, 221), or run- 
ning down to the hem of the chiton from the girdle at the sides 
or from the throat in front. The vertical ornaments called pdft&ot 

or irapv(f>al correspond to the Ro- 
man clavus. Besides these orna- 
ments in stripes, we also meet 
with others broader and more com- 
plicated; whether woven into or 
sewed on the dress, seems doubt- 
ful. They cover the chiton from 
the hem upward to the knee, and 
above the girdle up to the neck, as 
is seen in the chiton worn by the 
spring goddess Opora, in a vase- 
painting (" Collection des Vases 
gr. de M. Lambers," PL 65). The 
whole chiton is sometimes covered 
with star or dice patterns, partic- 
ularly on vases of the archaic 
style. The vase-painters of the 
decaying period chiefly represent 
Phrygian dresses with gold fringes 
and sumptuous embroideries of 
palmetto and " meandering" pat- 
terns, such as were worn by the 
luxurious South-Italian Greeks. 
Such a sumptuous dress is worn by Medea (Fig. 221) in a pict- 
ure of the death of Talos on an Apulian amphora in the Jatta 
collection at Ruvo. In the same picture the chitones of Kastor 
and Polydeukes, and those of the Argonautai, are covered with 
palmetto embroideries, the edges at the bottom showing mytho- 
logical scenes on a dark ground. We also call to mind the rich 
peploi offered at high festivals to adorn the holy images, and also 
of the himation, fifteen yards long and richly ornamented, which 

Fig. 221. 


was offered by the Sybarite Alkimenes to the Lakinian Hera in 
her temple near Kroton, and afterward sold to the Carthaginians 
for 120 talents by the elder Dionysios. Plastic art in its noble 
simplicity has disdained to imitate these ornaments, which it 
introduces only in rare cases to adorn certain parts of the dress. 
The upper garment of a statue of Artemis in the Museo Borbo- 
nico, at Naples, shows a border imitating embroidery ; and the 
archaic statue of Pallas in the Museum of Dresden wears a pep- 
los, imitated from the celebrated Panathenaic peplos, covered 
with scenes from the gigantomachy (see Muller, " Denkmaler der 
alten Kunst," i. Taf. x., Nos. 36, 38). 

43. In the cities Greeks walked mostly bareheaded, owing 
most likely to the more plentiful hair of southern nations, which, 
moreover, was cultivated by the Greeks with particular care. 
Travelers, hunters, and such artificers as were particularly ex- 
posed to the sun, used light coverings for their heads. The 
different forms of these may be classified as kvvtj and 7rZXo?. The 
kvvtj was a cap made of the skins of dogs, weasels, or cows ; its 
further development was the helmet, to which we shall have to 
return. In Homer already we read of a peasant with a cap of 
goat's skin (kwetj alyeirj), most likely of the shape of a semi- 
globe, and fastened under the chin with straps. In a vase- 
painting in the Berlin Museum, representing the interior of a 
foundery, the workman poking the fire wears this cap as a pro- 
tection against the heat (Fig. 222, a). The shape of the 7rt\o? 
was conical, either without a shade, like the kvvvj (see Fig. 208), 
or with a small brim. It was made of felt. Sailors, merchants, 
and several gods and demigods, may be recognized by it, par- 
ticularly Charon, Odysseus and his companions, and Hephaistos 
the artificer ; also Kadmos, the Dioskuroi (for instance, on 
Spartan coins), and the A maz <ms, i n several vase-paintings. 
Tydeus also wears the pilos in a vase-painting (Fig. 222, b), and 
the cap worn by a shepherd blowing the double-pipe (Fig. 222, c) 
may lay claim to the same appellation (compare Fig. 208). It 
resembles in form the cap worn by South-Italian shepherds at 
the present day. Nearly related to the pilos is the well-known 
Phrygian cap, but for the top, which is turned over in front. 
The latter, now worn by Greek and Italian fishermen, was, in 
old times, used by the barbarous nations of Asia, which may be 



recognized by it. Paris, Ganymede (Fig. 222, d), Anchises, 
Olympos, Atys, Mithras, and the Amazons, are frequently repre- 
sented with it, also barbarous warriors on Roman monuments of 
the imperial period. An interesting combination of head-cover- 
ings, with a flattened pilos among them, appears in a large vase- 
painting (Millin, " Galerie Mythologique," PI. cxxxv.) repre- 
senting a battle between Greeks and Amazons with their Scythian 
allies, perhaps an imitation of the battle of the Amazons repre- 
sented by Phidias on the shield of Athene Parthenos. Similar 
to the Phrygian is another cap worn by Amazons and noble 
Asiatics. It consists of wool or leather, and resembles a helmet. 
The top is only a little turned down in front, the back part being 
prolonged by means of a flap (Fig. 222, e, compare Fig. 212). 

Fig. 222. 

It appears in paintings on the heads of Asiatic men and women, 
sometimes in the quaintest shapes (see Fig. 221). It is generally 
called fxlrpa, although this word seems to imply the covering 
of the head with a scarf. Such a turban-like covering of the 
forehead, cheeks, and neck, with only the point of the Asiatic cap 
protruding from it, is worn, for instance, by the Persians in the 
Pompeian mosaic called the Battle of Alexander. The Oriental 
turban is undoubtedly a remnant of this costume. The third 
form of the hat is the Treraaos, originally worn in Makedonia and 
Thessaly, and introduced into Greece together with the chlamys 
worn by epheboi. It resembled our wideawakes, but for the very 
small headpiece, and was fastened to the head by means of straps, 
which, at the same time, prevented it from slipping when thrown 


over the back (Fig. 222,/"), in the same way that the mediaeval 
biretta was worn occasionally. This petasos is worn by the 
epheboi on horseback on the frieze of the Parthenon (Fig. 222, h), 
4ind also by Kastor (Fig. 222, g) and Hermes in vase-paintings. 
The latter god may be recognized by a winged petasos peculiar 
to him (Fig. 222, i). What name must be assigned to a hat 
resembling a plate, which appears on coins of the Thessalian city 
of Krannon (Mus. Hunter., Tab. 21, No. xvii.), and of the 
Thrakian city of Ainos (Mus. de Hauteroche, PI. iii., No. 3), 
remains doubtful ; it may be the /eavaia worn by the Makedo- 

44. The hair is considered in Homer as one of the greatest 
signs of male beauty among the long-haired (/capr)/cofi6covTe<;) 
Achaioi ; no less were the well-arranged locks of maidens and 
women praised by the tragic poets. Among the Spartans it be- 
came a sacred custom, derived from the laws of Lykurgos, to let 
the hair of the boy grow as soon as he reached the age of the 
ephebos, while up to that time it was cut short. This custom 
prevailed among the Spartans up to their being overpowered by 
the Achaic federation. Altogether the Dorian character did not 
admit of much attention being paid to the arrangement of the 
hair. Only on solemn occasions, for instance on the eve of the 
battle of Thermopylae, the Spartans arranged their hair with 
particular care. At Athens, about the time of the Persian wars, 
men used to wear their hair long, tied on the top of the head in a 
knot (/epoo/foXo?), which was fastened by a hair-pin in the form of 
a cicada. Of this custom, however, the monuments offer no 
example. Only in the pictures of two Pankratiastai, on a monu- 
ment dating most likely from Roman times (" Mus. Pio Clement." 
vol. iv., p. 36), we discover an analogy to this old Attic custom. 
After the Persian War, when the dress and manners of the 
Ionians had undergone a change, it became the custom to cut off 
the long hair of the boys on their attaining the age of epheboi, 
and devote it as an offering to a god, for instance, to the Delphic 
Apollo or some local river-god. Attic citizens, however, by 
no means wore their hair cropped short, like their slaves, but 
used to let it grow according to their own taste or the common 
fashion. Only dandies, as, for instance, Alkibiades, let their hair 
fall down to their shoulders in long locks. Philosophers also 


occasionally attempted to revive old customs by wearing their hair 

The beard was carefully attended to by the Greeks. The 
barber's shop (fcovpelov\ with its talkative inmate, was not onlv 
frequented by those requiring the services of the barber (jcovpev?) 
in cutting the hair, shaving, cutting the nails and corns, and tear- 
ing out small hairs, but it was also, as Plutarch says, a symposion 
without wine, where political and local news were discussed. 
Alkiphron depicts a Greek barber in the following words (iii., 

66) : " You see how the d d barber in yon street has treated 

me ; the talker, who puts up the Brundisian looking-glass, and 
makes his knives to clash harmoniously. I went to him to be 
shaved ; he received me politely, put me in a high chair, envel- 
oped me in a clean towel, and stroked the razor gently down my 
cheek, so as to remove the thick hair. But this was a malicious 
trick of his. He did it partly, not all over the chin ; some places 
he left rough, others he made smooth without my noticing it." 
After the time of Alexander the Great, a barber's business be- 
came lucrative owing to the custom of wearing a full beard 
(jrcoycov fia6v$ or haavs) being abandoned, notwithstanding the re- 
monstrances of several states. 1 In works of art, particularly in 
portrait statues, the beard is always treated as an individual char- 
acteristic. It is mostly arranged in graceful locks, and covers the 
chin, lips, and cheeks, without a separation being made between 
whiskers and mustache. Only in archaic renderings the wedge- 
like beard is combed in long, wavy lines, and the whiskers are 
strictly parted from the mustache. As an example, we quote 
the nobly-formed head of Zeus crowned with the stephane in the 
Talleyrand collection. The usual color of the hair being dark, 
fair hair was considered a great beauty. Homer gives yellow locks 
to Menelaos, Achilles, and Meleagros, and Euripides describes 
Menelaos and Dionysos as fair -haired (gavOolo-i, (SocrTpvxoL<n>v 
evfcoo-fAos /COfMTJv). 

45. The head-dress of women was in simple taste. Hats were 
not worn, as a rule, because, at least in Athens, the appearance of 
women in the public street was considered improper, and there- 

1 According to tradition, many Makedonians were killed by the Persians taking 
hold of their long beards, and pulling them to the ground. Alexander, in conse- 
quence, had his tooops shaved during the battle. 



fore happened only on exceptional occasions. On journeys women 
wore a light, broad-brimmed petasos {see p. 171) as a protection 
from the sun. With a Thessalian hat {Qecraakk kw/j) of this 
kind Ismene appears in " CEdipus in Kolonos." The head-dress 
of Athenian ladies at home and in the street consisted, beyond 

the customary veil, chiefly of different contrivances for holding 
together their plentiful hair. We mentioned before, that the 
himation was sometimes pulled over the back of the head like a 
veil. But at a very early period Greek women wore real shorter 


or longer veils, called fcprj&e/jLvov, KaXvirTpa, or tcakvfifia, which 
covered the face up to the eyes, and fell over the neck and back 
in large folds, so as to cover, if necessary, the whole upper part 
of the body. The care bestowed on the hair was naturally still 
greater among women than among men. Fig. 223 shows a num- 
ber of terra-cotta heads of Athenian women published by Stackel- 
berg. These, and the numerous heads represented in sculptures 
and gems, give an idea of the exquisite taste of these dead-dresses. 
At the same time, it must be confessed that most modern fashions, 
even the ugly ones, have their models, if not in Greek, at least in 
Roman antiquity. The combing of the hair over the back in 
wavy lines was undoubtedly much in favor. A simple ribbon 
tied round the head, in that case, connected the front with the 
back hair. This arrangement we meet with in the maidens of 
the Parthenon frieze and in a bust of Mobe (Muller, " Denk- 
maler," i., Taf. xxxiv., c). On older monuments, for instance, 
in the group of the Graces on the triangular altar in the Louvre, 
the front hair is arranged in small ringlets, while the back hair 
partly falls smoothly over the neck, and partly is made into long 
curls hanging down to the shoulders. It was also not unusual to 
comb back the front hair over the temples and ears, and tie it, 
together with the back hair, into a graceful knot (fcopvfjLftoi, Fig. 
223, e, c). Here, also, the above-mentioned ribbon was used. It 
consisted of a stripe of cloth or leather, frequently adorned, where 
it rested on the forehead, with a plaque of metal formed like a 
frontal, and called arecfxivTj (Fig. 223, a). This stephane appears 
on monuments mostly in the hair of goddesses ; the ribbon be- 
longing to it, in that case, takes the form of a broad metal circle 
destined no more to hold together, but to decorate the hair. This 
is the case in a bust of Here in the Yilla Ludovisi, in the statue 
of the same goddess in the Vatican, and in a statue of Aphrodite 
found at Capua (Muller, " Denkmaler," ii., Taf. iv., Nos. 54, 56, 
268). Besides this, another ornamented tie of cloth or leather 
was used by the Greeks, broad in the centre and growing nar- 
rower toward both ends. It was called afev&ovr), owing to its 
similarity to the sling. It was either put with its broader side 
on the front of the head, the ends, with ribbons tied to them, 
being covered by the thick back hair, or vice versa ; in which 
latter case the ends were tied on the forehead in an elaborate 

SHOES. 177 

knot. The latter form was called oino-Ooa^evhovr]. The crrXeyyt? 
resembles the sphendone. The net, and after it the kerchief, 
were developed from the simple ribbon, in the same manner as 
straps on the feet gradually became boots. The different kinds 
of nets may collectively be called tce/cpixpaXoL. The kekryphalos 
proper consists of a net-like combination of ribbon and gold- 
thread, thrown over the back hair to prevent it from dropping. 
The large tetradrachmai of Syrakuse, bearing the signature of 
the engraver Kimon, show a beautiful head of Arethusa adorned 
with the kekryphalos. More frequent is the coif-like kekryphalos 
covering the whole hair, or only the back hair, and tied into a 
knot at the top (crate/cos) (see Fig. 223, 5, «, Fig. 229, and the 
group of women to the right in Fig. 232). The modifications of 
the sakkos, and the way of its being tied, are chiefly illustrated 
by vase-paintings. Kelated to the sakkos is the /ifapa, at first 
only a ribbon, but gradually developed into the broad frontlet 
and the kerchief. The front of the head might, besides these 
coifs, be adorned with a stephane, as is shown by Fig. 223, i, and 
by the statue of Elpis in the Museo Pio Clementino (iv., Taf. 8), 
which shows the sphendone and stephane on the front and back 
parts of the head respectively. At the present day the Greek 
women of Thessaly and the isle of Chios wear a head-dress ex- 
actly resembling the antique sakkos (see v. Stackelberg, " Trachten 
und Gebrauche der Neugriechen," Part I., Taf. xiii., xix.). The 
acquaintance of the Greeks with the curling-iron and cosmetic 
mysteries, such as oil and pomatum, can be proved both by 
written evidence and pictures (see Fig. 223, 5, d). It quite tallied 
with the sesthetical notions of the Greeks to shorten the forehead 
by dropping the hair over it, many examples of which, in pictures 
of both men and women, are preserved to us. 

46. Gloves (%etp/Se?), worn by the enervated Persians, were 
not usual among the Greeks. At home, nay even in the streets, 
Greeks often walked with naked feet, and, like modern Orientals, 
took off their shoes on entering their own or a stranger's house. 
Homer states how a man on leaving the house ties the splendid 
soles (ireStXa) to his feet, which custom was continued for a long 
time. In a bass-relief representing the visit of Dionysos to Ika- 
rios (Miiller, " Denkmaler," ii., Taf. 1., No. 624), a Panisk bares 
the feet of the god previous to his lying down to dinner. We 



know a great many varieties of shoes from the monuments, and 
we are, on the other hand, told of a number of terms by ancient 
writers. But to apply the ones to the others will be in most 
cases impossible. Three chief forms may, however, be recog- 
nized; which, according to our modern nomenclature, may be 
denominated the sole, the shoe, and the boot. Our word sole, 
whether fastened to the foot with one simple or with several 
straps intertwined, may be rendered by im6$r]fjLa. The simple 
sole might be fastened by a strap (£170?) right across the instep, 
or by two straps issuing from its two sides, and tied or buckled 
together on the instep (see Fig. 224, 1, representing the foot of 
the statue of Elpis, in the Yatican). Whether this arrangement 
is identical with a kind of sandal called fiXavrr} must remain 

Fig. 224. 

undecided. By the addition to the sole of several intertwined 
straps the advBaXov is formed, worn originally by women, but 
also by men, as is sufficiently proved by the monuments. In the 
sandal a strap was sewed on the sole one to two inches from the 
tip, and pulled through the big and first toes (sometimes com- 
bined with a second strap between the third and little toes) ; to 
it were added two or four other laces, fastened by twos to the 
edges of the sole, and held together by a fibula in the form of a 
heart on the centre-point of the foot, where the straps crossed 
each other. The whole intertwined system of straps terminated 
above the ankles. Fig. 224, 2, shows a female foot with the sim- 
ple, Fig. 224, 3, the foot of Apollo of Belvidere, with the com- 
pound, sandal. Above the latter the fibula> in the form of a 


heart, is shown separately. Instructive is also the sandal worn 
by Dirke in the group called the " Farnesian Bull." The net-like 
entanglement of the straps, together with the leather laces of the 
compound sandal, gives it the appearance of a broken high shoe, 
as it appears, for instance, on the coins of the Thessalian city of 
Larissa, commemorating the one-shoed (jj,ovo<rdv&a\o<;) Jason. The 
sole itself, being mostly made of several layers of cow's hide, ap- 
pears very thick in sculptures, making the otherwise graceful san- 
dal look rather heavy. 

By the addition of a closed heel, and of larger or smaller 
side-pieces sewed to the sole of the shoe, our second class was 
formed, perhaps identical with the ancients' KoVka virohrjfiaTa. 
The sides of the shoe were tied with straps to the foot and ankle, 
leaving the toes and the upper part of the foot uncovered. The 
different forms of the shoe are illustrated by Fig. 224, 4, 5, 7 — 
No. 5 being taken from the statue in the Vatican of a youth 
tying his shoe, formerly called Jason, at present Hermes. In 
No. 7, taken from the statue of Demosthenes in the Yatican, the 
juncture of the heel and side pieces is covered by a dropping piece 
of the lace. The closed shoe, tied across the foot, we find in 
many statues of both men and women (Fig. 224, 6). 

We now have to mention the boots (eV8po/-w'8e<?) — our third 
class. They were made of leather or felt, closely attaching to the 
foot, and reaching up to the calf. They were open in front and 
tied together with laces. To Diana a light hunting-boot is pecu- 
liar, resembling the moccasins of the Indians (Fig. 224, 8). The 
same kind of boots are worn by the so-called pedagogue among 
the group of the Niobides. A fringe of cloth generally sur- 
rounded the upper rim of the boot. We have purposely limited 
ourselves in our remarks almost entirely to monumental evidence, 
the explanation of many expressions in ancient writers, as, for 
instance, of e/-t/3a? and /cprjirk, being throughout conjectural. 

47. We conclude our remarks about dress with the description 
of some ornaments the specimens of which in Greek graves and 
in sculptural imitations are numerous. In Homer the wooers try 
to gain the favor of Penelope with golden breast-pins, agraffes, 
ear-rings, and chains. Hephaistos is, in the same work, men- 
tioned as the artificer of beautiful rings and hair-pins. The same 
ornaments we meet with again at a later period as important arti- 


cles.of female dress. Many preserved specimens show the great 
skill of Greek goldsmiths. Hair-pins, in our sense, and combs 
for parting and holding up the hair, were unknown to the Greeks. 
The double or simple comb of Greek ladies (/tTeiV), made of box- 
wood, ivory, or metal, was used only for combing the hair. The 
back hair was prevented from dropping by means of long hair- 
pins, the heads of which frequently consisted of a graceful piece 
of sculpture (see Fig. 226, a, a gold pin found in a grave at Pan- 
tikapaion adorned with a hart's head). Well known are the hair- 
pins adorned with a golden cicada which, in Solon's time, were 
used by both Athenian men and women for the fastening of the 

It was the custom of the Greeks to adorn their heads on fes- 
tive occasions with wreaths and garlands. Thus adorned the 
bridegroom led home the bride. Flowers full of symbolic mean- 
ing were offered on the altars of the gods, and the topers at 
carousals were crowned with wreaths of myrtle, roses, and 
violets, the latter being the favorite flower with the Athenians. 
The flower-market (at fivpplvaC) of Athens was always supplied 
with garlands to twine round the head and the upper part of the 
body ; for the latter also was adorned with garlands (vTroOvfiiSes, 
{moOu/MaSes). Crowns consisting of other flowers, and leaves of 
the ivy and silver-poplar, are frequently mentioned. Wreaths 
also found a place in the serious business of life. They were 
awarded to the victors in the games ; the archon wore a myrtle- 
wreath as the sign of his dignity, as did also the orator while 
speaking to the people from the tribune. The crowning with 
flowers was a high honor to Athenian citizens— awarded, for 
instance, to Perikles, but refused to Miltiades. The head and 
bier of the dead were also crowned with fresh wreaths of myrtle 
and ivy (see Fig. 31 8 — a vase-painting representing the adorning 
of the dead Archemoros). The luxury of later times changed the 
wreaths of flowers for golden ones, with regard to the dead of the 
richer classes. Wreaths made of thin gold have repeatedly been 
found in graves. The barrows of the old Pantikapaion have 
yielded several beautiful wreaths of ivy and ears of corn (Ouvaroif, 
" Antiquites du Bosphore Cimmerien," PL iv.) ; a gold imitation 
of a crown of myrtle has been found in a grave in Ithaka (Stack- 
elberg, " Graber der Griechen," Taf . 72). Other specimens from 



Greek and Roman graves are preserved in our museums. A 
golden crown of Greek workmanship, found at Armento, a village 
of the Basilicata (at present in Munich), is particularly remark- 
able (Fig. 225). A twig of oak forms the ground, from among 
the thin golden leaves of which spring forth asters with chalices 
of blue enamel, convolvulus, narcissus, ivy, roses, and myrtle, 
gracefully intertwined. On the upper bend of the crown is the 

Fio. 225. 

image of a winged goddess, from the head of which, among pieces 
of grass, rises the slender stalk of a rose. Four naked male genii 
and two draped female ones, floating over the flowers, point 
toward the goddess, who stands on a pedestal bearing this inscrip- 
tion : 


Ear-rings (ivayria, iWofita, eki/crfipes) were, in Greece, only 
worn by women ; while among the Persians, Lydians, and Baby- 



lonians they were common to both sexes. Their form varies from 
simple rings to elaborate, tasteful pendants. Fig. 226, b, shows 
a pendant, found in Ithaka, in the shape of a siren, holding a 
double pipe in her hand. Fig. 226,/, shows an ear-ring trimmed 
with garnets, found in the same place, with the head of a lion 
at one end, and that of a snake at the other. Fig. 226, c, is an 

Fig. 226. 

ornament, found near Pantikapaion, in the form of two clubs, 
hanging on an ear-ring of Syrian garnet. Fig. 226, d, shows a 
pendant, found in the same neighborhood, resembling those now 
in use. Numerous other illustrations are supplied by vase-paint- 
ings, coins, and gems ; while works of sculpture reproduce orna- 
ments only in rare cases. 

Necklaces {irepiZepaia, opfiot), bracelets for the upper and un- 
der arm (tyeXia octets), and rings worn round the leg, above the 
ankle {TrdhaiyjpvGai irepLo-KeXiSe^, irepio-cpvpLa), are frequently met 
with on monuments. 1 Neck-ornaments either consisted of rings 
joined into a chain, or of one single massive ring, spiral in form, 
and made of bronze or precious metals, the latter being worn 

1 A statue of Aphrodite in the Glyptothek of Munich wears a broad ring round 
the upper arm. 

OEMS. 183 

principally by barbarous nations. 1 Fig. 226, 0, shows a aTpex-ros 
irepiavxevios of this kind, undoubtedly of Greek workmanship, 
with figures of couching lions at each end. It has been found 
in a grave near Pantikapaion. Armlets and anklets are mostly 
of the form of snakes, whence their name o^et?. 

It was an old custom, and the sign of a freeman, to wear rings 
on the lingers, used both as signets and as mere ornaments. With 
the signet (o-<f>pcvyfc) documents or property was marked. Solon 
made the forging of a seal a capital crime. About the age of the 
use of gems among the Greeks little is known : they most likely 
belong to a period after Homer, instruments sufficiently hard to 
cut them being wanting previously. The beginnings of the art 
of engraving among the Assyrians, Egyptians, and Etruscans, are 
of much earlier date. The common use of the signet soon 
caused the artistic treatment of the gem. The setting (acfrev&ovr)), 
on the contrary, was most simple, at least in most of the rings 
preserved to us. On the other hand, the technique of the Greeks 
in cutting and polishing the stone has not been equaled even by 
the great skill of the celebrated engravers of the Cinque-cento 
and the eighteenth century. 

The stones chosen were such as did not resist the drill too 
much, and allowed of a smooth line of incision. A further re- 
quisite consisted in the stone being either of pure color, or in its 
facilitating the varied representation of whole figures or parts of 
the body and dress by means of patches, veins, or layers (zonce) of 
various colors. The stones used most frequently were the car- 
nelian, sardonyx, chalcedony, agate, onyx, jasper, and heliotrope, 
more rarely the nephrite, turquoise, and rock-crystal, the silvery 
magnet-ironstone, the amethyst, green quartz, and precious ser- 
pentine. Of jewels proper only few were used, like the ruby, 
genuine sapphire and emerald, the green beryl, the felspath-opal, 
and the bluish genuine aquamarine. Topaz, hyacinth, Syrian and 
Indian garnets, and chrysophrase (the latter being introduced into 
Greece after the time of Alexander) were used equally. The 
ancients also knew how to imitate jewels in colored glass, par- 
ticularly the emerald in colored crystal. These paste copies 
were, according to Pliny, a most lucrative article of counterfeit- 
ing industry. They were the result of the desire of the middle 

1 A torque is seen, for instance, round the neck of the dying gladiator. 



classes for rich ornaments, and are frequently found in our muse- 
ums. The accuracy and finish of the minutest details justify us in 
supposing that the ancients knew all the utensils of the trade, e. g., 
the wheel, the diamond-point, diamond-dust, and even magnify- 
ing-glasses, which latter are generally claimed as an invention of 
modern times. The figures were either incised into the gem, 
which in that case was used as a signet, or they were formed out 
of the different layers of certain stones like onyx and sardonyx, 
in relief. In the former case they are called gems (dvdyXvcfra, 
gemmm sculptce, exsculptce, intaglio), in the latter cameos (eKTwrra, 
gemrnce ccelatw). The latter, only used as ornaments, might, 
when small, be set in rings ; when of larger dimensions, they 
were used to adorn agraffes, girdles, necklaces, and weapons, or 
they were let into the surfaces of vases and precious goblets. 
The finest cameos and gems were made in Alexander's time, who 
was not only painted by Apelles and sculptured by Lysippos, but 
also had his portrait cut in a jewel by Pyrgoteles. The passion 
for gems among all classes of both Greeks and Romans is proved 
by the great number of them of more or less good workmanship 
found in graves. Fig. 226, g, h, shows two elastic gold rings 
trimmed with garnets, found in a grave in Ithaka. Their form 
resembles the above-mentioned opheis. 

Fig. 226, i, shows an ornamented girdle, also found in a grave 
in Ithaka. It is made of gold, and is held together by means of 
a gold clasp richly ornamented with hyacinthine stones. On it 
hang two Silenus-masks, to each of which are attached three little 
gold chains adorned with garnets (compare the girdle of the 
marble statue of Euterpe in the Museo 
Borbonico, xi., Taf. 59). 

Greek, particularly Athenian, women 
carried a sun-shade (o-tad&etov), or employed 
slaves to hold it over them. In the Pana- 
thenaic procession even the daughters of 
metoikoi had to perform this service 
(cr/aaSr)(f)op6Lv). Such sun-shades, which, 
like our own, could be shut by means of 
wires, we often see depicted on vases and Etruscan mirrors (Fig. 
227, a). This form was undoubtedly the most common one. 
The cap-like sun-shade painted on a skyphos, which a Silenus, in- 

Fig. 227. 



stead of a servant, holds over a dignified lady walking in front 
of him, is undoubtedly intended as a parody, perhaps copied from 
the scene of a comedy (Gerhard, " Trinkschalen," ii., 27). In 
vase-paintings we also see frequently the leaf-like painted fan 
(o-/c67raafia) in the hand of women (Fig. 227, b, c). 

Of the secrets of Greek toilette we will only disclose the fact 
that ladies knew the use of paint. The white they used consist- 
ed of white-lead (yjn/j.v0Lov) ; their reds were made either of red 
minium (/jli\,to$) or of the root of the a<yx ovaa - This unwhole- 
some fashion of painting was even extended to the eyebrows, for 
which black color was used, made either of pulverized antimony 
(crrlfifjLL, (TTifijJUs) or of fine soot {aa/36\rj). 

The mirrors {evoirrpov, KaroTrrpov) of the Greeks consisted of 
circular pieces of polished bronze, either without a handle or 
with one richly adorned. 1 Frequently a 
cover, for the reflecting surface, was added. 
The Etruscan custom {see § 97.) of engrav- 
ing figures on the back of the mirror or the 
cover seems to have been rare among the 
Greeks, to judge at least from the numer- 
ous specimens of mirrors found in Greek 
graves. Characteristic of these are, on the 
other hand, the tasteful handles, represent- 
ing mostly Aphrodite, as in a manner the 
ideal of a beautifully adorned women {see 
Fig. 228). These hand-mirrors frequently 
occur in vase-paintings, particularly in those 
containing bathing-utensils {see Fig. 231). 

The carrying of a stick {ftatcrrjpia, or cntrprrpov) seems to have 
been a common custom. It is mostly of great length, with a 
crutched handle ; young Athenian dandies may have used shorter 
walking-sticks {see Fig. 217). The first-mentioned sticks seem to 
have been used principally for leaning upon in standing still, as is 
indicated by frequent representations in pictures. Different from 
this stick was the a/crjirrpov proper, a staff adorned with a knob 
or a flower, which, as early as Homer, was the attribute of gods, 

Fig. 228. 

and of rulers descended from the gods. 

In regal 

families the 

1 Compare the collection of ornamented Etruscan mirror-handles in Gerhard'3 
Etruskische Spiegel," PI. xxiv., et seq. 


sceptre was a valued heirloom. The sceptre serving as the em- 
blem of judicial power (pafihos) was a little shorter ; it was also 
used by embassadors, and a herald had to present it to the orator 
on his rising to address the council. In sculptures we frequently 
see the sceptre as the attribute of divinities, for instance, on the 
triangular altar in the Louvre. Our modern commander's staff is 
a modification of it. 

48. The life of married women, maidens, children while in the 
care of women, and of female slaves, passed in the gynaikonitis, 
from which they issued only on rare occasions. The family life 
of Greek women widely differed from our Christian idea ; neither 
did it resemble the life in an Oriental harem, to which it was far 
superior. The idea of the family was held up by both law and 
custom, and although concubinage and the intercourse with he- 
tairai was suffered, nay favored, by the state, still such impure 
elements never intruded on domestic relations. Our following 
remarks refer, of course, only to the better classes, the struggle 
for existence by the poor being nearly the same in all ages. In 
the seclusion of the gynaikonitis the maiden grew up in compara- 
tive ignorance. The care bestowed on domestic duties and on 
her dress was the only interest of her monotonous existence. 
Intellectual intercourse with the other sex was wanting entirely. 
Even where maidens appeared in public at religious ceremonies, 
they acted separately from the youths. An intercourse of this 
kind, at any rate, could not have a lasting influence on their cult- 
ure. Even marriage did not change this state of things. The 
maiden only passed from the gynaikonitis of her father into that 
of her husband. In the latter, however, she was the absolute 
ruler, the olKo^eairoiva of her limited sphere. She did not share 
the intellectual life of her husband — one of the fundamental con- 
ditions of our family life. It is true that the husband watched 
over her honor with jealousy, assisted by the gynaikonomoi, some- 
times even by means of lock and key. It is also true that com- 
mon custom protected a well-behaved woman against offense; 
still her position was only that of the mother of the family. In- 
deed, her duties and achievements were hardly considered, by 
the husband, in a much higher light than those of a faithful do- 
mestic slave. In prehistoric times the position of women seems 
to have been, upon the whole, a more dignified one. Still, even 


then, their duties were essentially limited to the house, as is 
proved, for instance, by the words in which Telemachos bids his 
mother mind her spindle and loom, instead of interfering with the 
debates of men. As the state became more developed, it took 
up the whole attention of the man, and still more separated him 
from his wife. Happy marriages, of course, were by no means 
impossible ; still, as a rule, the opinion prevailed of the woman 
being by nature inferior to the man, and holding the position of 
a minor with regard to civic rights. This principle has, indeed, 
been repeatedly pronounced by ancient philosophers and law- 
givers. Our remarks hitherto referred chiefly to the Ionic- Attic 
tribe, renowned for the modesty of its women and maidens. The 
Doric principle, expressed in the constitution of Sparta, gave, on 
the contrary, full liberty to maidens to show themselves in public, 
and to steel their strength by bodily exercise. This liberty, 
however, was not the result of a philosophic idea of the equal- 
ity of the two sexes, but was founded on the desire of produ- 
cing strong children by means of strengthening the body of the 

The chief occupation of women, beyond the preparing of the 
meals, consisted in spinning and weaving. In Homer we see the 
wives of the nobles occupied in this way ; and the custom of the 
women making the necessary articles of dress continued to prevail 
even when the luxury of later times, together with the degeneracy 
of the women themselves, had made the establishment of work- 
shops and places of manufacture for this purpose necessary. An- 
tique art has frequently treated these domestic occupations. The 
Attic divinities, Athene Ergane and Aphrodite Urania, as well as 
the Argive Here, Ilithyia the protecting goddess of child-bearing, 
Persephone, and Artemis, all these plastic art represents as god- 
desses of fate, weaving the thread of life, and, at the same time, 
protecting female endeavors ; in which twofold quality they have 
the emblem of domestic activity, the distaff, as their attribute. 
Only few representations of spinning goddesses now remain ; but 
many are the pictures of mortal spinning-maidens painted on 
vases, chiefly for female use. Fig. 229 is one of them. It shows 
a woman winding the raw wool from a kalathos round the distaff. 
For the spinning, a spindle was used, as is still the case in places 



Fig. 229. 

where the northern spinning-wheel has not supplanted the an- 
tique custom. Homer describes noble ladies handling the distaff 

{rfKaKOLTrjy coins) with the spindle (arpa/c- 
To?, fusus) belonging to it. Helen re- 
ceived a present of a golden spindle, 
with a silver basket to keep the thread 
in. The distaff, with a bundle of wool 
or flax fastened to its point, was held 
under the left arm, while the thumb 
and first finger of the right hand, slightly 
wetted, spun the thread, at the end of 
which hung the spindle, made of metal. 
The web (kXcoo-Trjp) was, from the spin- 
dle, wound round a reel, to be further prepared on the loom. 

Akin to spinning are the arts of weaving (yfavruai) and em- 
broidering (iroiicCkTucrj). We frequently see in vase-paintings 
women with embroidering-frames in their laps. The skill of 
Greek ladies in embroidery is sufficiently proved by the tasteful 
embroidered patterns and borders on Greek 
dresses, both of men and women. The vase- 
paintings supply many examples. Fig. 230, 
after a vase-painting, shows a woman occupied 
with embroidering at a frame which she holds 
on her knees. 

We know from Homer that, next to spin- 
ning, weaving was one of the chief female oc- 
cupations. Even at that period the art must 
have been highly developed, as we conclude 
from the description of Penelope's work. In 
historic times the weaving of both male and female articles of dress 
was the business of women ; in some places we even hear of corpo- 
rations of women being bound by law to weave the festive gar- 
ments of certain holy images. The Attic maidens were obliged 
to weave a peplos for the statue of Athene Parthenos at the re- 
turn (every four years) of the Panathenaia. Into this were woven 
the portraits of men worthy of this high honor {afyoi rov ireifKov). 
These peploi, therefore, served, as it were, as an illustrated chroni- 
cle of Athens. Sixteen matrons were bound to weave a peplos 
for the statue of Here at Olympia. The same duty devolved on 

Fig. 230. 



the noble maidens of Argos with regard to a statue of Artemis. 
Spartan ladies had to renew the chiton of the old statue of the 
Amikla'ic Apollo every year. Unfortunately, we have no pict- 
ures illustrating the weaving process itself. Our information, 
therefore, is but scanty. Originally weaving was done by means 
of a frame placed perpendicularly (ppOios kttos), over which the 
long or chain threads {arrjfiLov, stamen) were pulled in parallel 
lines downward, the bottom ends being made into bunches, and 
having weights (ayvvdes) attached to them; the woof (tcpo/cn, 
i(j>v<f)rj, subtemeri) was drawn through them with a needle, in an 
horizontal direction). The improved horizontal loom, invented 
by the Egyptians, more resembled that at present in use {see 
Marquardt's " Handbuch der romischen Alterthumer, ,, v., 2, p. 

Fig. 231. 

130, et seq.). Ovid's description (Metam. vi., 53, et seq.) ought to 
be read in connection with it. 

The pretty vase-painting, Fig. 231, refers to this branch of 
female occupation. Two maidens, in richly-embroidered dresses, 
are occupied in folding a garment with a star-pattern embroidered 
on it, perhaps part of the dowry of a third maiden, standing to 
the right of them. Other garments are either hung up on the 
wall (together with the inevitable hand-mirror) or lie piled up on 
a chair between the two girls. The large press on the left most 
likely also contains garments. In case we wish to give mytho- 
logic significance to the picture, we may take it as an illustration 
of Nausikaa bidding two servants to prepare the garments that 
are to be taken to the washing-place (compare the picture of Nau- 

190 BATHS. 

sikaa and two servants drying garments in Panofka's " Bilder 
antiken Lebens," PI. xviii., 5). 

Our remarks about female duties in preparing the meal must 
be short. The heavy parts of the duty, like grinding the corn 
in hand-mills, were performed by servants. In the palace of 
Odysseus twelve female slaves were employed all day in grinding 
wheat and barley in an equal number of hand-mills, to supply the 
numerous guests. The hand-mill (jivKrj, ^etpofivKrj) consisted (like 
those still used in some Greek islands) of two stones, each about 
two feet in diameter, the upper one of which was made to rotate 
by means of a crooked handle, so as to crush the corn poured 
through an opening in it (compare the Koman hand-mills found 
at Pompeii, § 101). Baking and roasting meat on the spit were 
among the duties of female slaves. In every house of even mod- 
erate wealth, several of these were kept as cooks, chambermaids, 
and companions of the ladies on their walks, it being deemed 
improper for them to leave the house unaccompanied by several 
slaves. How far ladies took immediate part in the preparing of 
dainty dishes we cannot say. In later times it became customary 
to buy or hire male slaves as cooks. 

Antique representations of women bathing, adorning them- 
selves, playing, and dancing, are numerous. The Athenian maid- 
en, unlike her Spartan sister, did not think it proper to publicly 
exhibit her bodily skill and beauty in a short chiton, but taking 
a bath seems to have been among her every-day habits, as is 
shown by the numerous bathing-scenes on vases. In one of them, 
a slave pours the contents of a hydria over her nude mistress. 
Cowering on the floor in another we see an undressed woman 
catching in her hand the water-spout issuing from a mask of Pan 
in the wall into a bath. An alabastron and comb are lying on 
the floor {see Panofka " Bilder antiken Lebens," PL xviii., 
10, 11). A picture on an amphora in the Museum of Berlin 
offers a most interesting view of the interior of a Greek bath- 
chamber. We see a bathing establishment built in the Doric 
style. By a row of columns the inner space is divided into two 
bath-chambers, each for two women. The water is most likely 
carried by pressure to the tops of the hollow columns, the com- 
munication among which is effected by means of pipes about six 
feet from the ground. The openings of the taps are formed into 


neatly-modeled heads of boars, lions, and panthers, from the 
mouths of which a fine rain-spray is thrown on the bathers 
Their hair has been tightly arranged into plaits. The above- 
mentioned pipes were evidently used for hanging up the towels ; 
perhaps they were even filled with hot water to warm the bathing 
linen. Whether our picture represents a public or private bath 
seems doubtful. The dressing after the bath has also been 
frequently depicted. We need not enter upon the subject here, 
having mentioned the chief utensils, as the comb, ointment-bot- 
tle, mirror, etc., on a former occasion. The scenes thus depicted 
are undoubtedly borrowed from daily life, although Aphrodite, 
with her attendance of Cupids and Graces, has taken the place 
of mortal women. For music, games, and dances, we refer to 
§§ 52, et seq. Here we mention only a game at ball, which was 
played in a dancing measure, and therefore considered as a prac- 
tice of graceful movements. Homer mentions Nausikaa as a 
skilled player of this game. It is remarkable that wherever 
women playing at ball appear in pictures they are represented in 
a sitting posture. 

The swing (auopa) was essentially a female amusement. In 
commemoration of the fate of Erigone, daughter of Ikarios, a 
festival had been ordained at Athens at which the maidens 
indulged in the joys of the swing. Illustrations of this pastime 
occur frequently on vases, free from any mythological symbolism, 
even in cases where Eros is made to move the swing (see Panofka, 
" Griechinnen und Griechen nach Antiken," p. 6, and the same 
author's " Bilder antiken Lebens," PI. xviii., 2). 

49. We now come to the point in the maiden's life when she 
is to preside over her own household as the legitimate mate of 
her husband (yafieTtj, in Homer icovpi§lr) aXo^o?). In most cases 
a Greek marriage was a matter of convenience, a man consider- 
ing it his duty to provide for the legitimate continuation of his 
family (TrcuSoTroLeiadcu 71/77(7/0)?). The Doric tribe does not at- 
tempt to disguise this principle in its plain-spoken laws ; the rest 
of Greece acknowledged it but in silence, owing to a more refined 
conception of the moral significance of marriage. The seclusion 
of female life, indeed, made the question of personal charms 
appear of secondary importance. Equality of birth and wealth 
were the chief considerations. The choice of the Athenian citizen 


(ao-To?) was limited to Athenian maidens {aarrj)\ only in that 
case were the children entitled to full birthright (yvricnoi,), the 
issue of a marriage of an Athenian man or maiden with a stranger 
i£evr) or fei^o?) being considered illegitimate (voOoi) by the law. 
Such a marriage was, indeed, nothing but a form of concubinage. 
The laws referring to this point were, however, frequently evaded. 
At the solemn betrothal (iyyvrjaw), always preceding the actual 
marriage, the dowry of the bride {irpol^ y fyepvrj) was settled ; her 
position as a married woman greatly depended upon its value. 
Frequently the daughter of poor, deserving citizens were pre- 
sented with a dowry by the state or by a number of citizens. In 
Homer's time the bridegroom wooed the bride with rich gifts ; 
Iphidamas, for instance, offers a hundred heifers and a thousand 
goats as a nuptial present. But afterward this was entirely 
reversed, the father of the bride having to provide the dowry, 
consisting partly in cash, partly in clothes, jewelry, and slaves. 
In case of separation the dowry had, in most cases, to be returned 
to the wife's parents. The most appropriate age for contracting 
a marriage, Plato in his " Republic " fixes, for girls, at twenty, 
for men, at thirty. There was, however, no rule, to this effect. 
Parents were naturally anxious to dispose of their daughters as 
early as possible, without taking objection to the advanced years 
of the wooer, as is tersely pointed out by Aristophanes (Lysist., 
591, etseq.). 

The actual marriage ceremony, or leading home, was preceded 
by offerings to Zeus Teleios, Hera Teleia, Artemis Eukleia, and 
other deities protecting marriage \6eol ^afirjXiot). The bridal 
bath (XovTpov vvfupi/cov) was the second ceremony, which both 
bride and bridegroom had to go through previous to their union. 
In Athens the water for this bath was, since the earliest times, 
taken from the well Kallirrhoe, called after its inclosure by 
Peisistratos, Enneakrunos. Whether a boy or a girl acted as 
water - carrier on this occasion (Xovrpocfropos) is differently stated 
by ancient authors. The latter supposition is supported, among 
other things, by an archaic picture on a hydria (Gerhard, " Aus- 
erlesene griechische Vasenbilder," in., 306). To the left of 
the spectator lies, as the inscription indicates, the holy fountain 
Kallirrhoe, flowing from the head of a lion under a Doric super- 
structure. A girl, holding in her hand branches of laurel and 


myrtle, as used at lustrations, looks musingly down on the hydria 
which is filling with the bridal water. Five other maidens oc- 
cupy the remaining space of the picture. Some of them, with 
empty pitchers on their heads, seem to wait for their turn ; 
others are about to go home with their filled pitchers. Gerhard's 
opinion of their forming a sacred procession is contradicted by 
the evidence of ancient writers. As most weddings took place 
in the month of marriage (ya/j,r]\iov\ the meeting of several bridal 
water-carriers was, in a populous city like Athens, any thing but 
unlikely ; and a scene of this kind is evidently the subject of our 

On the wedding-day, toward dark, after the meal at her 
parental home {Qoivr) yafu/crj) was over, 1 the bride left the festive- 
ly-adorned house, and was conducted by the bridegroom in a 
chariot (i<f a/judges;) to his dwelling. She sat between the bride- 
groom and the best man (Trapavfifyos, irapo'xos) chosen from among 
his relatives or intimate friends. Accompanied by the sounds of 
the hymenseos, and the festive sounds of flutes and friendly ac- 
clamations from all passers-by, the procession moved slowly 
toward the bridegroom's house, also adorned with wreaths of 
foliage. The mother of the bride walked behind the chariot, 
with the wedding torches, kindled at the parental hearth, accord- 
ing to custom immemorial. At the door of the bridegroom his 
mother was awaiting the young couple with burning torches in 
her hand. In case no wedding-meal had been served at the bride's 
house, the company now sat down to it. To prognosticate the 
desired fertility of the union, cakes of sesame (jrefifiaTa) were dis- 
tributed. The same symbolic meaning attached to the quince, 
which, according to Solon's law, the bride had to eat. After the 
meal the couple retired to the thalamos, w^here for the first time 
the bride unveiled herself to her husband. Before the door of 
the bridal chamber epitlialamia were sung, a charming specimen 
of which we possess in the bridal hymn of Helena by Theokritos. 
On the first two days after the wedding {iiravKia and airavKia), 
wedding-presents were received by the pair. Not till after these 
days did the bride appear without her veil. 

Antique art has frequently illustrated the various customs of 
the marriage-feast. A series of archaic vase-paintings (Gerhard, 

1 At this meal, contrary to the usual custom, women were present 



"Auserlesene griechische 
Vasenbilder," iii., PI. 
310, et seq.) show Mgm 
and quadrigon containing 
the bridegroom with the 
veiled bride, followed by 
the paranymphos, and 
surrounded by female 
relatives and friends, 
who carry the dowry in 
baskets on their heads. 
Hermes, the divine com- 
panion and herald, pre- 
cedes the procession, 
looking back on it. 
Another vase - painting 
(Panofka, " Bilder anti- 
ken Lebens," PI. xi., 3) 
shows the crowned bride- 
groom on foot leading 
the veiled bride to his 
house, at the entrance of 
which stands the nym- 
pheutria with burning 
torches waiting for the 
procession. A youth 
preceding the couple ac- 
companies the hymenaios 
on a kithara ; the bride's 
mother, recognizable by 
her matron -like dress, 
with a torch in her hand, 
closes the procession. 
The most remarkable of 
all wedding scenes is 
the glorious wall-paint- 
ing known as the " Al- 
dobrandini Wedding " 
(Fig. 232). It is 4 feet 
high by 8£ long. It 
represents three differ- 


exit scenes painted on one surface, without regard to perspective, 
as is frequently the case in antique bass-reliefs. The straight 
line of the wall in the background is broken by two pillars, 
by means of which the artist undoubtedly intended to open a 
view into two different parts of the gynaikonitis, while the third 
scene is meant to take place in front of the house. The picture 
illustrates three different scenes of the marriage ceremony such 
as might take place inside or in front of the bride's house before 
the starting of the bridal procession. From this point of view 
we must first consider the centre picture. In a chamber of the 
gynaikonitis we see the bride ' chastely veiled and reclining on 
a beautiful couch. Peitho, the goddess of persuasion, sits by 
her side, as appears from the crown on her head, and from the 
many-folded peplos falling over her back. She pleads the bride- 
groom's cause, and seems to encourage the timorous maiden. A 
third female figure to the left of the group, leaning on a piece of 
column, seems to expect the girl's surrender, for she is pouring 
ointment from an alabastron into a vase made of shell, so as to 
have it ready for use after the bridal bath. Her peplos, only 
held by the shoulder-clasp, leaves the upper part of her body 
almost uncovered. Most likely she represents the second hand- 
maiden of Aphrodite, Charis, who, according to the myth, bathed 
and anointed her mistress with ambrosial oil in the holy grove at 
Paphos. The pillar at the back of Charis indicates the partition- 
wall between this chamber and the one next to it on the left, 
to which we now must turn. We here see a large basin filled 
with water, standing on a columnar base. The water is perhaps 
that of the well Kallirrhoe, fetched by the young girl standing 
close by for the \ovrpbv vv[K^lk6v. The girl seems to look in- 
quiringly at a matronly figure approaching the basin on the 
other side, and putting her finger into the water as if to examine 
it. Her sublime form and priestly dress, together with the leaf- 
shaped instrument in her hand (probably the instrument used at 
lustrations), seem to betray her as Here Teleia, the protecting 
goddess of marriage, in the act of examining and blessing the 
bridal bath. The meaning of the third figure in the background 
holding a large tablet is difficult to explain. Botticher (" Die 
aldobrandinische Hochzeit," p. 106) believes that on the tablet is 

1 Compare the statuette, Fig. 218. 

196 BIRTH. 

written the horoscope of the impending marriage. The third 
scene, to the right of the spectator, is placed at the entrance of 
the bride's house. The bridegroom, crowned with vine-branches, 
is sitting on the threshold, as if listening impatiently for the close 
of the ceremony inside the house. In front of him we see a 
group of three girls, one of whom seems to be offering at a 
portable altar, while the two others begin the hymenseos to the 
accompaniment of the kithara. 

Yery different from the social position of chaste women was 
that of the hetairai. We are not speaking of the lowest class 
of unfortunates, worshiping Aphrodite Pandemos, but of those 
women who, owing to their beauty and grace of conversation, 
exerted great influence even over superior men. We only remind 
the reader of Aspasia. In the graces of society the hetairai were 
naturally superior to respectable women, owing to their free 
intercourse with men. For the hetairai did not shun the light of 
day, and were not restrained by the law. Only the house of the 
married man was closed to them. 

50. Before passing from private to public life, we must cast 
a glance at the early education of the child by the mother. We 
begin with the earliest days of infancy. After the first bath the 
new-born child was put into swaddling-clothes (a7rdpyava\ a cus- 
tom not permitted by the rougher habits of Sparta. On the fifth 
or seventh day the infant had to go through the ceremony of 
purification ; the midwife, holding him in her arms, walked sev- 
eral times round the burning altar. The day was called in conse- 
quence Spofiidfjufaov rjfjbap, the ceremony itself, dfifaSpo/jua (the run- 
round). A festive meal on this day was given to the family, the 
doors being decorated with an olive-crown for a boy, with wool 
for a girl. On the tenth day after its birth, when the child was 
named, another feast (Be/carrf) took place. This ceremony implied 
the acknowledgment, on the part of the father, of the child's 
legitimacy. The name of the child was chosen by both parents, 
generally after the name of either of the grandparents, sometimes, 
also, after the name or attributes of a deity, under whose particu- 
lar protection the child was thus placed. A sacrifice, offered 
chiefly to the goddess of child-bearing, Here Ilithyia, and a meal, 
concluded the ceremony. At the latter, friends and relatives 
presented the infant with toys of metal or clay, while the mother 


received painted vases. The antique cradle consisted of a flat 
swing of basket-work (Xi/cvov), such as appears in a terra-cotta 
relief in the British Museum of the infant Bacchus being carried 
by a satyr brandishing a thyrsus, and a torch-bearing bacchante. 
Another kind of cradle, in the form of a shoe, is shown (Fig. 238) 
containing the infant Hermes, recognizable by his petasos. It 
also is made of basket-work. The advantage of this cradle con- 
sists in its having handles, and, therefore, being easily portable. 
It also might be suspended on ropes, and 
rocked without difficulty. Other cradles, 
similar to our modern ones, belong to a later 
period. The singing of lullabies (fiavKa- 
XrjfjLara, KaTa^aVKaXrjae^), and the rocking 
of children to sleep, were common among FlG . 2 s3. 

the ancients. Wet-nurses (tltOtj) were com- 
monly employed among Ionian tribes ; wealthy Athenians chose 
Spartan nurses in preference, as being generally strong and 
healthy. After the child had been weaned it was fed by the dry 
nurse (rj Tpo<f>6<;) and the mother with pap, made chiefly of honey. 
The rattle (ifkaTayrj), said to be invented by Archytas, was 
the first toy of the infant. Other toys of various kinds were 
partly bought, partly made by the children themselves on 
growing older. We mention painted clay puppets {icopai, 
tcopoirXodoi, /copo7r\d(TTcu), representing human beings or animals, 
such as tortoises, hares, ducks, and mother apes with their 
offspring. Small stones were put inside, so as to produce a 
rattling noise; which circumstance, together with the fact of 
small figures of this kind being frequently found on children's 
graves, proves their being toys. Small wooden carts (see Panof ka, 
" Bilder antiken Lebens," PL i., 3), houses and ships made of 
leather, and many other toys, made by the children themselves, 
might be instanced. Up to their sixth year boys and girls were 
brought up together under their mother's care ; from that point 
their education became separate. The education proper of the 
boy (TraiBeia) became a more public one, while the girl was 
brought up by the mother at home, in a most simple way, 
according to our notions. From among the domestic slaves a 
trustworthy companion (7^8070)709) was chosen for the boy. He 
was, however, not a tutor in our sense, but rather a faithful 


servant, who had to take care of the boy in his walks, particularly 
on his way to and from school. He also had to instruct his pupil 
in certain rules of good behavior (eu/coo-fiia). The boy had, for 
instance, to walk in the street with his head bent, as a sign of 
modesty, and to make room for his elders meeting him. In the 
presence of the latter he had to preserve a respectful silence. 
Proper behavior at table, a graceful way of wearing his gar- 
ments, etc., might be mentioned as kindred subjects of edu- 
cation. Boys were accompanied by pedagogues up to their six- 
teenth year. The latter appear frequently in vase-paintings, 
and are easily recognizable by their dress, consisting of chiton and 
cloak, with high-laced boots ; they also carry sticks with crooked 
handles, and their hair and beards give them a venerable aspect ; 
while their pupils, according to Athenian custom, are clad more 
lightly and gracefully. The pedagogue of the group of the Xio- 
bides is well known. 

Education was, at Athens, a matter of private enterprise. 
Schools were kept by private teachers, the government supervi- 
sion extending only to the moral not to the scientific qualification 
of the school-master. Grammar (ypafifULra), music (jiovcritcr)), and 
gymnastics (yv/jivacrTiKrj), to which Aristotle adds drawing (ypa<j)c- 
kyj\ as a means of aBsthetic cultivation, were the common subjects 
of education at schools and gymnasia. The expression ypdfi/Mara 
comprised reading, writing, and arithmetic. The method of 
teaching how to write consisted in the master's forming the let- 
ters, which the pupils had to imitate on their tablets, sometimes 
with the master's assistance. The writing materials were small 
tablets covered with wax (7rLva/ce<;, irivaiaa, SiKroi), into which the 
letters were scratched by means of a pencil (crrvko^ ypafahv) 
made of metal or ivory. It was pointed at one end, and flattened 
or bent at the other (Fig. 234, a) so as to extinguish the writing, 
if required, and, at the same time, to smooth the surface again 
for other letters. The burnisher Fig. 234, b, the broad side of 
which is about equal in width to a tablet, most likely served to 
smooth the wax cover of a whole tablet at once. By means of 
joining several tablets together, in the manner of a book, the so- 
called Trokvirrvxpi hekroi were formed (Fig. 234, c). Waxed tab- 
lets were used also for letters, note-books, and other requirements 
of daily life. A young girl in a charming Pompeian wall- 



painting (" Museo Borbonico," vol. vi., PL 35) has in her hand a 
double tablet (SeXnov hlwnrxpv), while with her other hand she 
holds a pencil to her chin, as if pondering over a letter. Her 
nurse looking over her shoulder tries to decipher the contents of 
the love-letter. Besides these tablets, Herodotos mentions the use 
of paper (yS//3\o?) made of the bark of the Egyptian papyrus- 
plant. The stalk (three or p 
four feet in length) was cut j[ | 
longitudinally, after which 
the outer bark was first 
taken off; the remaining 
layers of bark, about twenty 
in number (philurce), were 
carefully severed with a 
pin; and, afterward, the single stripes plaited crosswise; by 
means of pressing and perforating the whole with lime-water, 
the necessary consistency of the material was obtained. The 
lower layers of bark yielded the best writing-paper, while 
the outer layers were made into packing-paper (emporetica) ; 
the uppermost bark was used for making ropes. Names of 
different kinds of paper, such as charta jfigyjitiaca, Niliaca, 
Saitica, Taneotica, were derived from different manufacturing 
places in Egypt, which, down to late Eoman times, remained 
the chief market for paper; other names, like charta regia 
(j3aai\i/cri), Augusta, Ziviana, Fanniana, Claudia, Cornelia, 
were invented after emperors and empresses. Of at least equal 
antiquity with the use of papyrus was that of hides (8t,(j>depai) 
for writing materials. The Ionian s used, according to Hero- 
dotos, the hides of goats and sheep for this purpose from 
time immemorial ; but the more careful preparation of the ma- 
terial was invented not before the reign of Eumenes II. (197- 
159 b. c.) at Pergamum, whence the name wepyafjLrjVTj — anglice, 
parchment. The leaves of the papyrus had writing only on 
one side, those of parchment on both. The latter were rolled 
on sticks (Fig. 231:, e), kept in cylindrical cases, a small piece of 
parchment (o-iXkv/Sos), with the title written on it, being fastened 
to the upper end of each roll (compare § 102) for convenience' 
sake. A case of this kind full of parchment-rolls (tcvTuv&pot), 
with a cover to it, stands by the side of Klio in a wall-painting of 


Herculaneum (Fig. 235). In her left hand the muse holds a half- 
opened roll on which are inscribed the words KAEIS2 IC TO- 
PI AN (Klio teaches history). The ink (to fjueXav) was made of a 
black coloring-substance ; it was kept in an inkstand made of 
metal, with a cover to it (/jueXavSoxov or 7ruft?). As is proved by 
Fig. 234, d, it could be fastened to the girdle by means of a ring. 
Double inkstands, frequently seen on monuments, 
were most likely destined for the keeping of black 
and red inks, the latter of which was frequently 
used. To write on paper or parchment, the an- 
cients used the Memphic, Gnidic, or Anaitic reeds 
f7g. 23o7 {/caXafMo^y calamus, harundo, fistula, Fig. 234, d), 
pointed and split like our pens. As we men- 
tioned before, it was the custom of adults to write either reclining 
on the kline, with the leaf resting on the bent leg, or sitting in a 
low arm-chair, in which case the writing apparatus was supported 
by the knee of the writer. The latter posture is exemplified by 
a reading ephebos in a vase-painting (Panofka, " Bilder antiken 
Lebens," PI. i., Fig. 11) ; it was, undoubtedly, also that of the 
boys sitting on the rising steps used as forms (fiaOpa) at the 
schools. After his elementary education was completed, the boy 
was made acquainted with the works of national poetry, particu- 
larly with the poems of Homer, the learning by heart and recit- 
ing of which inspired him with patriotic pride. 

51. Musical instruction formed the second part of general edu- 
cation (iy/cv/cXtos iraiheta). Technical virtuosity was a secondary 
consideration, the ethic influence of the art being the guiding 
principle. The playing of one instrument, generally a stringed 
one, was an important subject of education. At games and 
meals, or in the throng of battle, the exhilarating and inspir- 
ing influence of music was felt. Into the intricacies of Greek har- 
mony, as developed among different tribes, we cannot enter here, 
any more than into the relations of music to the sister-arts of 
poetry and the dance ; or into the monodic and choral divisions of 
vocal music (jjuekos). We must restrict ourselves to instrumenta- 
tion proper, collectively called /cpovcn^, so far as it may be illus- 
trated by the remaining specimens of antique instruments. It 
ought to be remembered that the music of stringed instruments 
only was called /adapto-TCfcrj, or ^frfXij /addpicns, KidaprpSi/cr} being 


the term for vocal music accompanied by strings. In the same 
way avXrjrcK)] or ijnXr) av\r)<ns signified music of wind-instruments ; 
avkwhiaf) the combination of these instruments with the human 
voice. We shall mention first the stringed instruments, after 
them the wind-instruments, and conclude with the clanging in- 
struments, chiefly used for orgiastic music. 

a. The Greeks used no bows in playing on stringed instru- 
ments. The strings were placed all at equal distance over the 
sounding-board ; a low, straight bridge (v/coXvpiov, pcvyas, or 
ficuydhov) only served to prevent the vibrating strings from 
touching the sounding-board. The strings were fastened at 
one end to the so-called " yoke " (%vyov or tyycofia) by means of 
pegs (/coWoires, or tcoWaftoi) ; at the other they were attached 
to the inside, or outside, of the sounding-box. The use of the 
bow was thus made impossible, by the want of a curved bridge 
(as it exists in our stringed instruments), by means of which the 
relative height of the position of the single strings is modified. 
The stringed instruments of the ancients were played with 
the fingers, or with the straight or curved plectrum (7r\rj/crpov), 
made of wood, ivory, or metal. Sometimes also both fingers and 
plectrum were employed severally or simultaneously. Both the 
shape and the use of the plectrum are illustrated by Fig. 237, c, 
e, g. It was held in the right hand, and fastened to a long rib- 
bon (Fig. 237, g). Large-stringed instruments, played with both 
hands, or with the plectrum and the fingers of the left hand 
simultaneously (see Fig. 237, e, e), were held in a convenient 
position by means of a strap slung over the shoulder ; other 
instruments, played only with the plectrum or the fingers of the 
right hand, might rest on the left arm, without being tied to it. 1 
This trap, fastened by means of rings to either surface of the 
sounding-board, appears most distinctly on the statue of Apollo 
in the Museo Pio Clementino. The god wears the costume of 
a kithara-player, accompanying his own song on the instrument 
(see Miiller, " Denkmaler," Part I., No. 141, a / compare a statue 
of Apollo in the same collection, ibid., Part II., No. 132). In 
vase-paintings these straps have been generally omitted ; but 
their necessity may be easily conjectured from the position of 

1 In this sense the words eiruXhtov Ki&api£uv (in the hymn on Hermes, verses 432 
and 510) must be understood. 



the instrument, which seems to float in the air. The numerous 
specimens in pictures, and the varied terms in authors, make 
it here again next to impossible to explain the nuances of 
nomenclature, the more so as the statements of the authors 
are frequently very brief, and the representations of the artists 
(particularly with regard to the number of strings) inaccurate. 
The last-mentioned feature can, for this same reason, be no cri- 
terion in classifying the different instruments; the construction 
of the sounding-board, as illustrated by the monuments, must 
be our only principle of division. Most likely the artists 
rendered essentially the forms of the real instruments, although 
the whole conception of Greek art forbade a slavish imitation of 
details. The rich ornamentation of some stringed instruments, 
as proved by the vase-paintings, is quite in accordance with the 
general taste of the Greeks. 

Three fundamental types of stringed instruments must be 
distinguished — viz., the lyre, the kithara, and the harp. They 

are exemplified by an in- 
teresting vase-painting in 
the old Pinakothek of 
Munich (No. 805), the 
centre group of which con- 
sists of the three Muses, 
Polymnia, Kalliope, and 
Erato, playing respective- 
ly on the three mentioned 
instruments — the lyra, the 
kithara, and the trigonon 
(Fig. 236). The inven- 
tion of the lyre (\vpa) is 
ascribed, by the myth, to Hermes, who first drew strings across 
the oval hollow of a tortoise-shell, which in this way became 
the sounding-box of the instrument. This primitive form is 
still in use among some of the South-Sea populations ; in 
Greece it was only known traditionally. The remaining evi- 
dence, both literary and artistic, refers only to the developed 
form of the lyre. In this not only the back-shell of the tortoise, 
but also the part covering the animal's chest, was used, the whole 
forming a closed sounding-box, the natural openings for the 

Fig. 236. 



front leffs of which were used for the insertion of the roots of the 
curved horns of a goat. Near their points these were joined 
together by a transverse piece of wood, called the yoke. Across 
this frame the strings were drawn, being more than twice as 
long as those of the mythical lyre. On the chest part of the 
shell (for only this flat part could be used for the purpose) was 
placed a bridge, across which the strings were drawn, being at 
one end tied in knots and fastened to the sounding-board; at 
the other, either simply wound round the yoke, or fastened to 
pegs. Figs. 237, a b, <?, d, e, illustrate a number of lyres, of 
which c shows most distinctly the entire tortoise-shell. The arms 
{irrixw) are > m c > d> e i made of goats' horns, which, as we shall 
see in speaking of weapons, were also used for bows ; in a and b 
they consist of wood. In e the construction of the sounding- 

board is somewhat difficult to understand, showing as it does a 
large round opening in the centre. Equally difficult is the clas- 
sification of the instrument in Fig. 237, f. Fig. 237, g, shows 
an instrument nearly related to the lyre. From the sounding- 
box, consisting of a small tortoise-shell, two wooden arms issue 
in divergent directions ; toward their upper ends they approach 
each other, and are joined together by a yoke. In vase-painting 
this instrument appears generally in the hands of either Alkaios 
or Sappho, from which circumstance archaeologists have (not 
without good reason) conjectured it to be the barbiton (fidpftirov, 
fiapv/uTov), a low-toned instrument, which Terpander is said to 
have introduced from Lydia into Greece. The iryicrfc and 
fiayd&s, both of Lydian origin, may also have been of the nature 
of lyres. Both expressions are applied by Greek authors pro- 



miscuously to one and the same, and to different instruments. 
In Greece Sappho is said to have played on a pektis ; in Sicily it 
seems, at a later period, to have been used at mysteries. The 
magadis is said to have been one of the most perfect instru- 
ments. It comprised two full octaves, the left hand playing the 
same notes as the right, an octave lower. Still more perfect 
was the inrvyoveiov, the name being derived from that of its 
inventor, Epigonos. It had forty strings, most likely in double 
rows — twice as many as the magadion. Neither of the two 
instruments was played with a plectrum. They cannot be with 
certainty recognized in the pictures ; but the large lyre with 
fifteen strings, standing before a sitting agonethis, in a marble- 
relief on a grave at Krissa (see Stackelberg, " Graber der Grie- 
chen," PL ii.), doubtlessly belongs to the same species. 

The second class of stringed instruments, differing from the 

lyre both in shape and material, is called kithara (taOapa) ; it 
was invented by Apollo, and therefore belonged to the kitharodes 
kclt i%oxnv. The sounding-box here consists of thin plates of 
wood, ivory, or metal ; it is generally angular, in other cases 
semi-oval in shape, and is continued, in order to increase its re- 
sounding power, by two arms, also hollow, and at their base equal 
in thickness to the sounding-box itself. The size of the latter, 
as well as the length of the arms, and their distance from each 
other, depended on the greater or smaller number of strings, also 
on the desired stronger or weaker resonance, not to speak of 
the individual taste of the maker (XvpoTrotos), which, moreover, 
could show itself in the rich ornamentation of this particular 
kind of instrument. The sounding-board may have been equal 
in power to that of our guitars. Fig. 238, a, 5, c, d, e, show a few 


of the numerous variations of the kithara. Some of them 
(particularly c) resemble perfectly the guitar {cither) used in 
South Germany at the present day. Their forms are pleasing, 
that of d (most likely an imitation of the ornamental kithara, 
made of ivory or metal) magnificent. The distinction between 
lyre and kithara, founded on the different constructions of their 
sounding-boards, is not mentioned by ancient writers. The 
existence of a distinction between these two species, however, 
may be proved by written evidence, and is, moreover, confirmed 
by the vase-painting in Fig. 236, where the three muses repre- 
sent the three chief classes of stringed instruments. The more 
complicated construction of the kithara, compared with the primi- 
tive tortoise and goat's horns of the lyre, seems to prove its later 
invention. The lyre was most likely of Thrakian origin ; Or- 
pheus, Musaios, and Thamyris, were there celebrated as masters 
on it, and thence it was most likely, together with the orgiastic 
worship of Dionysos, introduced into Greece. Its connection 
with that particular phase of religion is sufficiently proved by 
the monuments. In Greece the musical education of the youth 
began with the lyre ; together with the flute, it was the instru- 
ment most commonly used, for instance, at festive meals. The 
kithara, on the contrary, introduced from Asia into Greece by the 
Ionians, was used at musical competitions, sacrifices, and pageants, 
as is proved, for instance, by the Panathenaic procession on the 
frieze of the Parthenon. The players always appeared on such 
occasions in the costume of the kitharodes, i. e., crowned and clad 
in long, flowing robes . The phorminx seems not to have differed 
essentially from the kithara. Homer, at least, uses the expressions 
<j>6p/jLiyyi KtOapl^eiv and icLQapis (popfit^etv as meaning the same 
thing. The explanation by Hesychius of phorminx, as a kithara 
carried on a ribbon over the shoulder {<f>6piu<y%. 7) tois w/zot? 
<j>epoiJL6vr) icidapis), is most inappropriate, seeing that a difference, 
if it existed at all, must have appeared in the construction of the 
sounding-board, or the number of strings ; while, on the other 
hand, the strap is common to all the forms of the kithara. 

As the third form of stringed instruments we mention an 
instrument resembling our harp, called by archaeologists trigonon 
(rpirycovov). It was of triangular shape, as indicated by the name, 
and of Syrian or Phrygian origin. We are therefore justified in 


applying to the harp-like instruments (Figs. 236 and 238,/), both 
taken from vase-paintings, the name of trigonon, or perhaps that 
of o-afiftvfcr), an instrument defined by Suidas as e!8o? KiQapas 
rpiycovov. As in our harp, the sounding-board was on the side 
turned toward the player ; in the trigonon, however, the broader 
side is turned upward, differing in this from the modern instru- 
ment. To the sounding-board the strings were fastened by means 
of studs ; the side of the instrument resting on the player's lap 
took the place of the yoke. The strings, therefore, ran parallel 
to the third side or arm of the instrument. From Fig. 238, f, 
compared with similar representations, it would appear as if the 
yoke had been a double one, with double rows of strings drawn 
across it, as was the case in the above-mentioned epigoneion. 
The third side of the trigonon consisted either of a simple stick, 
connecting yoke and sounding-board, or it was shaped like an 
animal (Fig. 238,/). In Fig. 236 it is wanting entirely, and the 
trigonon, in consequence, resembles the harps, of different sizes, 
found frequently on Egyptian monuments. 1 An instrument with 
two wooden arms and ten strings, appearing in a wall-painting 
of Herculaneum (" Pitture d'Ercol.," Tav. i., PI. 171), belongs 
undoubtedly to the same class ; analogous forms of this instrument 
have also been found on Egyptian monuments (Wilkinson, " A 
Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians," vol. i., p. 119), and, 
indeed, are still in use among certain tribes of the valley of the 
Upper Nile. The names of other instruments we must omit, as 
not sufficiently explained by monumental evidence. We only 
mention a four-stringed instrument, with a sounding-board in the 
form of a semi-globe to which a long and narrow neck is attached 
just as in the modern guitar. It appears in a marble-relief of late 
Roman origin in the Louvre, held by a muse (Clarac, " Musee," 
ii., PI. 119). Instruments of this kind do not appear on Egyp- 
tian monuments. 

h. The wind-instruments (avkol) may be divided into pipes 
(crvpivyes), clarionets {avXol proper), and trumpets (o-dk7nyr/es). 
The oldest and simplest form of wind-instrument is the reed-pipe 

1 Among the " Swanes," a tribe of the Caucasus, a harp called Tschungi, resem- 
bling the trigonon, is still in use. See Radde, " Berichte iiber biolog.-geograph., 
Untersuchungen in den Kaukasuslandern," i. (Tiflis, 1868), where a picture of the 
instrument may be seen. 



Fig. 2S9. 

(crvpiyf;). The sound was produced by blowing either into the 
orifice of a broken reed, or, as in the life (Querflote), into a hole 
made to the side of the reed. The sound of the wind in the reeds 
led most likely to the invention of the syrinx, which is ascribed 
to Pan. According to the myth, Syrinx, the daughter of the 
Arkadian river-god Ladon, pursued by Pan, was changed into a 
reed, which the god thereupon cut into several pieces, joining to- 
gether seven of them, decreasing in size, by means of wax. The 
result received the name of syrinx, or Pan's pipe. The number 
of reeds varied from seven to nine, as is proved both by the state- 
ments of ancient authors and by the mon- 
uments. Fig. 239, b, shows the simpler 
syrinx, taken from a wall-painting at Her- 
culaneum ; the pipes are seven in number, 
and seemingly of equal length. Fig. 239, 
a, taken from a candelabrum in the Louvre, 
shows nine pipes of different sizes. The syrinx, together with 
other wind-instruments and the lyre, appears most frequently in 
the hands of Sileni and satyrs in scenes from the Bacchic myth — 
for instance, on a gem in the Florence Gallery (Fig. 240), which 
shows two Sileni with a syrinx, an aulos, and a lyre. In practi- 
cal music the syrinx seems to have been used little, although it 
appears occasionally, together with other instruments, in pictures 
representing concerted music. An Etruscan 
bass-relief (Micali, M L'ltalia avanti il dominio 
dei Rom.," Atlas, Tav. 107) shows three girls 
playing severally on a syrinx, a flute, and a 
kithara; and in another Etruscan representa- 
tion (Muller, " Denkmaler," Part ii., No. 757) 
the sirens use it to allure Odysseus. Nearest 
akin to the syrinx is the ifka<y[av\o<; (fife) said 
to be invented by the Libyans. It was not a 
favorite instrument with the Greeks, and is 
rarely found on monuments. Fig. 241, m, shows a youth playing 
on it, after a bass-relief in the Louvre (compare the statue of a 
young satyr in Miiller's "Denkmaler," Part ii., No. 460). Gen- 
erally both the instruments in Fig. 241, g and A, are also called 
plagiauloi ; whether rightly or wrongly we will not venture to 

Fig. 240. 


The avkos proper resembles our hautboy or clarionet, differing, 
however, from the latter in the fact of its lower notes being more 
important than the higher ones. The aulos consisted of two con- 
nected tubes and a mouth-piece, to the latter of which belonged 
two so-called tongues (yXwcraai), in order to increase the trembling 
motion of the air. The myth connected with the invention of 
the aulos illustrates, at the same time, the mutual position of 
wind and stringed instruments among the Greeks. Athene played 
for the first time on an aulos, made from the bone of a hart, at a 
feast of the gods. Here and Aphrodite rallied her on account of 
her blown-up cheeks, and the goddess, after having ascertained 
the truth of these objections by looking at her image, while 
playing, in the fountain on Mount Ida, threw down the instru- 
ment in disgust. It was found by Marsyas, the Phrygian Silenos, 
who, on the strength of it, dared to compete with Apollo, the 
inventor of the lyre, the muses being appointed as umpires. The 
victory of the god symbolized that of stringed over wind instru- 
ments. It took a long while before the playing on the pipe was 
fully received in Greece ; and although in Athens it formed part 
of the musical education, it never was there appreciated as much 
as in Boeotia, whose inhabitants were celebrated for this art. Per- 
haps the particularly fine reeds growing in the marshy plains of 
Orchomenos tend to explain this phenomenon. 

The materials of the aulos were, besides reeds, the wood of 
box or laurel, the bones of the hart, and ivory; metals were 
chiefly used in it for ornamental purposes. At first the aulos had 
only three or four holes (rpr/para, Tpvirrj^ara, 7rapaTpv7rrj/jLara), 
but Diodoros of Thebes added to the number. The addition of 
side-holes, with keys to them, completed the aulos. It was 
blown by means of a removable mouth-piece ; which, if not used, 
was kept in a case {yXcocro-oKojjLelov). The /36/jl/3v% (reed) itself was 
mostly straight ; sometimes it was bent upward near the open- 
ing, which was wider or narrower according to the strength of 
tone required. The simplest and oldest form of the aulos is seen 
in Fig. 241, b and n ; it resembles a short shepherd's pipe (Schal- 
mei), and the figures holding it in both cases are taken from the 
statues of shepherds. The form of the mouth-piece appears dis- 
tinctly in Fig. 241, a, d, e, f. The clarionet (jiovavkos, fiovo/cd- 
Xafio?) with one tube only is seen also on the frieze of the Par- 



thenon ; but still more common was the double clarionet, called 
by the Romans tibia) gemince. It consisted of two tubes blown 
simultaneously by means of one common or two separate mouth- 
pieces (Fig. 241, a, d, e,f, t, k, Z), and comprises as many notes as 
the syrinx. The tube held in the right hand, and blown with the 
right side of the mouth, had three holes, and was called by the 
Romans tibia dextra, by the Greeks the " male " clarionet (av\6<; 
av&prj'ios;) ; the left tube had four holes, and was called tibia 
sinistra, or "female" aulos (avXbs yvvcufcrjios). The former 
produced the lower, the latter the upper notes. 1 The tubes are 

either both of the same length and shape (used to accompany 
revels and gymnastic exercises, Fig. 241, a, d,f, k, I), or of un- 
equal length but equal shape (av\ol <yanrjkio£) ; or, finally, differ- 
ing totally both in shape and length (Fig. 241, e, i). The pipes 
might be with (Fig. 241, d) or without keys (Fig. 241, a,f, k, J). 
The first-mentioned instrument (d) appears on a sarcophagus in 
the Vatican, in the hands of a genius displaying the attributes 

1 Double shepherd's pipes, called " dutka," are still used by peasants in certain 
parts of Russia. 



of Euterpe. Sometimes the lower opening was shaped like a 
bell (kcoScov) (Fig. 241, c, d), as in our clarionets. The Phrygian 
double pipe (eXvfioi avXol), with one tube straight and the other 
bent downward like a horn, shows the largest extension of the 
tube-opening. Fig. 241, i, shows a female figure playing the 
Phrygian double - pipe, taken from a sarcophagus in . the Vati- 
can ; the two Phrygian pipes, put crosswise (e), are taken from 
one side of a square altar in the Yatican, and appear in exactly 
the same form in a relief representing an Archigallus sur- 
rounded by the attributes of his dignity (Muller, "Denkma- 
ler," Part ii., No. 817). The difference in shape between the 
two mouth-pieces is remarkable. Other varieties appear fre- 
quently (see, for instance, " Museo Borbon.," vol. ix., Tav. 37 ; 
and Fig. 247, b, representing a dancing bacchante, from a marble 
relief). Both Greek and Koman players occasionally tied a 
leather bandage round their lips and cheeks ((f>op/3eid, Gropis, 
XuXtorrjp), through the hole of which, bouud with metal, the 
mouth-pieces of the double clarionet were put (Fig. 241, I). The 
purpose of this bandage was to soften the tone by preventing 
violent breathing. It was used particularly at theatrical repre- 
sentations, sacrifices, and pomps, to play long pieces on the large 
double clarionets ; while the female players in representations 
of symposia always appear without it. It was never used with 
single clarionets. The bag-pipe is of antique invention. Fig. 
242, taken from a bronze statuette, shows a bag-pipe player 
(a(Tfcav\r)<;, utricularius). His instrument resembles those used 
by modern piferari. Its squeaking notes naturally appealed 
only to the taste of the lower classes. 

The adkiT^ (trumpet) consists of a tube considerably increas- 
ing in circumference toward the lower opening, and a mouth-piece 
in the shape of a drinking-vessel. The long trumpet, unknown to 
the Greeks in Homer's time, is said to have been introduced by 
the Pelasgic Tyrrhenians ; the Hellenic salpinx was undoubtedly 
identical with it. The far-sounding salpinx was a warlike instru- 
ment, no less than the pipe and kithara, used as such chiefly 
by the Spartans and Cretans ; it also accompanied religious 
ceremonies. By the sound of an Argive salpinx Agyrtes rouses 
the warlike spirit of Achilles, hidden among the women of 
Deidameia in the isle of Skyros (Fig. 243, taken from a marble 



relief), while Diomedes and Odysseus display shining weapons to 
the young hero. Of other trumpets and horn-like instruments 
ascribed by Greek authors to Oriental nations, but not to the 
Greeks themselves, we mention the Egyptian ^z/oO?, used to call 
the people to the sacrifice; it resembled the curved salpinx 
(<7a\,7riyi; (TTpoyyuXr)), the comu of the Romans (Fig. 245). We 
further name the trumpet called the Galatian, bronze, or shrill 
(dgixfxovos;) salpinx, with a leaden mouth-piece and a kodon in the 
shape of an animal's mouth ; by the Galatian Celts it was called 
Kapvv%. The Paphlagonian trumpet was low-toned (fiapucjxovos), 
and larger than the Greek salpinx ; from its kodon, bearing the 
shape of a bull's head, it was called /36tVo?. The Medes used 
a hollow-sounding salpinx, made of a bulrush, with a wide kodon. 

Fig. 242. 

Fig. 243. 

Fig. 244. 

This Median trumpet seems to be depicted in t*vo vase-paintings ; 
in one of them (Micali, " L'ltalia avanti il dominio dei Romani," 
Atlas, Tav. 100) we see an Asiatic archer, in a Median or 
Parthian dress, blowing on a very thin, long tube, with a 
screwed-on mouth-piece, which he has fastened to his mouth by 
means of a bandage in the manner of an aulos-player ; the other 
(Gerhard, " Griechische Yasenbilder," Part ii., PI. 103) shows 
the same instrument in the hands of the Amazon Antiope clad in 
Greek armor. It appears from the position of both these figures 
that this instrument was turned toward the ground on being 
played, differing in this from the Greek trumpet. We finally 
mention the Tyrrhenian bronze trumpet, the kodon of which was 
bent upward (kgoScov tcefcXacr/Aevos) ; it was also called the curved 



or Etruscan lituus (\Itvov), and resembled, in its shape, the 
Phrygian pipe (compare Fig. 241, i); it was used as a signal- 
trumpet in battles, and at games and ceremonies. Horns (fcepara), 
as warlike instruments, seem to have been unknown to the Greeks. 
Barbarian nations frequently used them for that purpose. Fig. 

244 shows a player on the horn {fceparavXr]^) whose pileus of black 
lamb's wool betrays him as an Armenian or Persian. In the 
vase-painting in which he occurs, he seems to encourage Asiatic 
warriors fighting with Greeks, while the latter are called to battle 
by the sounds of Hellenic trumpets. 

To conclude, we mention the water-organ (t/SpauXo?, vBpavXk, 
organon hydraulicum\ invented by Ktesibios the mechanician, and 

described by his pupil, Hero of Alex- 
andria. It was constructed on the syrinx 
principle, and contained seven pipes made 
partly of bronze, partly of reed. The 
sound was produced by waving the air- 
columns through the means of water. 
It was played, organo modulari, on a 
keyboard. Ktesibios' s invention was after- 
ward considerably improved. Nero took 
a particular interest in it, and during his 
reign hydraulic organs of a new construc- 
tion were built (prgana hydraulica novi et ignoti generis). Fig. 

245 shows an organ taken from a Roman mosaic floor at Eennig. 
A man is playing on the horn to the sound of the organ. 

e. We now come to the " clanging instruments " used chiefly 
at religious ceremonies connected with the worship of Dionysos 
and Kybele — castanets, the cymbal, and 
the tambourine. They were also used 
as a rhythmical accompaniment of social 
dances, played by the spectators, or the 
dancers themselves, as is still the cus- 
tom among peasants in the south of Europe. The castanets 
(fcporaXoi,) said to be invented by the Sicilians, consisted, like our 
modern ones, of small pieces of reed, wood, or metal, or of shells, 
tied together with a ribbon. They were struck against each 
other by the fingers at rhythmical intervals. The three pairs of 
castanets seen in Fig. 246 appear in the hands of dancing-women 

Fig, 245. 

Fig. 246. 



Fig. 247. 

in wall-paintings and on vases. Their manipulation requires no 
other explanation. 

The cymbals (tcvfjt,/3a\a) consisted, like those of our military 
bands, of two metal bowls in the form of semi-globes (Fig. 247, a). 
They were held in the hollow of 
the hand or by means of straps (see 
" Museo Borbonico," vol. xv., Tav. 
47). They were used at the above- 
mentioned religious ceremonies, and 
were also hung upon the branches of 
holy trees (compare Fig. 1). Still 
more noisy was the tambourine 
(rvfiTravov), a broad ring of wood 
or metal with a covering of hide. 
Bells and pieces of brass were added 
to increase the noise (Fig. 248). In 
vase-paintings the tympanon ap- 
pears with a sounding-bottom in the form of a semi-globe, which 
makes it resemble our kettle-drum. To conclude, we mention 
the sistrum (crelarpov, Fig. 249), not used by the Greeks, but in- 
troduced to the Romans as part of 
the secret worship of Isis. It con- 
sisted of a sounding-box resembling 
that of the lyre, made of brass or 
precious metals, into which were in- 
serted loosely small bars of metal, 
bent down at the end so as to pre- 
vent their sliding out. By means 
of a handle the instrument was 
shaken, whereat the vibrating mo- 
tion of the bars produced a not inharmonious sound. 

52. It was a distinguishing feature of the Greeks among an- 
cient nations to consider corporeal exercise as a no less important 
factor of education then mental progress itself. The harmonious 
development of the body, and, indeed, of every single limb, was" 
thought to be of the utmost importance for the attainment of self- 
conscious determination in the practical demands of life. This 
principle of acting, through means of the body, on the mind, was 
realized in the gymnastic and agonistic institutions of Greece. 

Fig. 248. 

Fig. 249. 


Lueian, in his " Apology of Gymnastics," insists upon the ethic 
bearing of athletic exercise on the mind of young men in directing 
their ambition into the right channel, in preventing them from 
laziness and its accompanying vices, and in endowing them with 
that combination of good qualities which is collectively called 
fcako/ccvyadla. The physical as well as the intellectual (for in- 
stance, musical) education varied greatly among the different tribes 
of Greece. Among the Doric tribes, chiefly in Sparta, it consisted 
principally in hardening the body of the young citizen-warrior 
against the influence of pain and exertion ; among Ionian tribes, 
and chiefly at Athens, the harmonious development of body and 
soul, i. e., grace and ease of bearing and demeanor {evpvOfila and 
euapfioaTia), were the objects chiefly aimed at. 

The beginnings of gymnastic and agonistic exercises, although 
lacking at first the systematic development of later times, date 
back to prehistoric ages. Games were held at an early period in 
honor of gods and heroes ; and the laws of Solon and Lykurgos 
only served to regulate and further develop the skill thus ac- 

To our previous remarks (§ 25) we must add a few words as to 
the important question of the separation of the gymnasion from the 
palaestra. The separation of the two localities, destined as they 
were for different branches of athletic exercise, seems established 
beyond doubt, notwithstanding the utterances of ancient writers 
frequently contradicting each other. Herodotos, for instance, calls 
both the dromos and the palaestra yvfjuvdcna, while Yitruvius uses 
palaestra for gymnasion and palaestra collectively. At one time 
the palaestra was undoubtedly a building by itself, connected with, 
or detached from, the gymnasion. At the time of the emperors, 
but not before, this distinction seems to have disappeared ; hence 
the mixing up of the two terms by Yitruvius. At Athens 
the gymnasia were public institutions, supported by private or 
public means, at which epheboi and men spent a part of their 
day in athletic exercise and in instructive and social intercourse. 
There were the Lykeion, the Kynosarges, the Academy, the 
Ptolemaion, the splendid gymnasion of Hadrianus, and the small 
gymnasion of Hermes. The number of palaestrai at Athens was 
still greater. They were all private institutes kept by single 
paedotribai, and destined for the athletic education of boys only. 


In smaller cities, the joint practice of youths and grown-up men 
in the same locality was frequently inevitable. But it is errone- 
ous to suppose that the palaestra was exclusively the resort of 
athletai. The separation of youths and men from boys was de- 
sirable both for moral and educational reasons. For the difficul- 
ties of the task increased in proportion to the age of the aspi- 
rant. Classifications according to age and abilities are contained 
in the expressions 7rat8e? vecorepot and irpeafivrepoi, or wpcoTrj and 
Bevrepa rfKmia — the former applying to younger, the latter to 
older boys. A more advanced stage was the rplrrj r)\Lfcla, de- 
noting the transition from the age of the boy to that of the 
ephebos ; another name for these youths was aykveioi. Similar 
distinctions existed undoubtedly among the epheboi of different 
ages. These distinctions were especially marked in Sparta, where 
each age had its particular amount of sufferings and exertions to 
go through. 

Before entering upon the single exercises we must try to de- 
fine the three general appellations, yv/j,va<TTtfoi, aycovio-TucT], and 
a&\i]TiKr\. The first term comprises all kinds of regulated bod- 
ily exercise for the purpose of strengthening the body or single 
limbs. The expressions avTayavio-Trjs and aycov apply to those 
games on which the emulation of several persons was brought to 
bear. The ayavio-Ti/crj comprises the gymnastic exercises tending 
to prepare the athletai for the wrestling-matches, which formed 
an important feature of national festivities, particularly of the 
games of Olympia, celebrated once every H\e years, at the time of 
the first full moon after the summer solstice. Here assembled, 
invited by the peace-messengers of Zeus, the delegates of empires 
and cities ; not to speak of crowds of enthusiastic spectators from 
the most distant shores. The flower of Greek youth came to test 
their skill in the noble competition for the crown of Zeus. Only 
he whose unstained character and pure Hellenic descent had been 
certified by the Hellanodikai was allowed to approach the silver 
urn which contained the lots. A previous training of at least ten 
months at a Greek gymnasion was further required for obtaining 
the permission of taking part in the holy contest. Supreme were 
the honors conferred on the victor. The umpires crowned him 
with the fresh olive- wreath and the palm in the temple of Zeus ; 
poets like Pindar sang his praise ; inscriptions and statues of brass 
announced his fame to coming generations. 


The ethic purpose of gymnastic art came to be more and more 
neglected when artificiality and affectation began to prevail. It 
was then that the noble art deteriorated into a mechanical pro- 
fession ; the a&\7}TLKrj is the later signification of that term. 

To the fine arts the palaestra and gymnasion yielded an inex- 
haustible supply of beautiful models both for youthful grace and 
manly strength. The national pride of the Greeks further en- 
couraged the artist in the choice of athletic subjects ; hence the 
innumerable plastic monuments in the native cities of the victors, 
and on the sites of their triumphs. Pausanias, who wrote after 
the wholesale spoliation and destruction of Olympia by the Roman 
conquerors, mentions no less than 230 bronze statues of Olympian 
victors adorning her streets and squares as the remnants of past 
glories. We possess only few specimens of this branch of Greek 
art, but their excellence and technical finish demonstrate the 
reciprocity between the feeling of the nation and its artistic ex- 
pression. Scenes from the palaestra and gymnasion frequently 
occur in vase-paintings. There we see older or younger men clad 
in himatia, leaning on crooks, and looking down on the wrestlers, 
or directing their movements by means of peculiarly forked staffs 
(Gerhard, " Auserlesene griechische Vasenbilder," Taf. cclxxi.), 
the destination of which, however, seems somewhat doubtful. 
These men are the gymnastai and paedotribai ; the former having 
to superintend the general development and deportment of the 
body, the latter directing the single exercises. These were the 
real teachers in gymnastics, and their place was among the wres- 
tlers. Among other officials we mention the sophronistai, who 
were responsible for the good behavior (a-co^poo-vvrj) of the boys. 
Their number at Athens was ten, one being selected by each 
phyle. During the imperial times we meet with a kosmetes, with 
one anti-kosmetes and two hypo-kosmetai as assistants, who had 
to watch the epheboi at the gymnasia. The gymnasiarchos was 
the superintendent of the whole gymnasion, an honorary and, 
moreover, expensive post. He had to pay the expenses of the 
torch-races, and also for the oil used at the games, which after- 
ward was supplied by the state. He also had to arrange memo- 
rial processions in honor of great men. 

It may be assumed that the simplest bodily exercises, viz., those 
that required no weapons or antagonists, were also the oldest. 


The most primitive of these was the foot-race (Spofios), which 
always came first among the contests at the great Hellenic festi- 
vals. At the Olympic games, indeed, the foot-race continued for 
a long period the sole athletic exercise; and the Pythian, Ne- 
mean, and Isthmian games, which were modeled after them, 
always began with the foot-race whenever the pentathlon was 
enacted in its entirety. The foot-race consisted of the simple 
race (arahiov or Bpofios), in which the race-course had to be run 
over once from beginning to end. The race of the boys, how- 
ever, comprised but half the race-course, and those of the ageneioi 
of two-thirds. This race of the boys was incorporated with the 
Olympic games in the 37th Olympiad, and the names of the youth- 
ful victors are invariably first quoted in old inscriptions. But in 
those states in which the physique of the female sex was likewise 
trained and developed, the foot-race was regarded as the most suit- 
able of gymnastic exercises for maidens, the length of their course 
being shorter by one-sixth than that reserved for men. In the 
second species of race, the diaulos (BiavXos), the competitors had 
to run twice over the whole length of the race-course. The goal 
had to be doubled in a curve (Kafnrrj), whence tne name tca^eio? 
Spouos. But the greatest exertion of strength and endurance had 
to be displayed in the third species of races, the long-run (B6\t- 
%o?,) in which, without stopping, the course had to be measured 
so often that the whole distance, according to various reports, 
consisted of 12, 20, or 24 stadia, that is, more than half a geo- 
graphical mile, if we accept the highest computation. 

We can understand, therefore, that the Spartan Ladas, when 
crowned conqueror in the foot-race, after having, for twelve suc- 
cessive times, run backward and forward over the course, should 
have dropped down dead on reaching the goal. Strength of limb 
and breath were, according to Lucian, the necessary requisites 
in running this race ; while the greatest possible speed, on the 
other hand, was required by those who took part in the shorter 
course. The race in complete armor (ottXIttj^ Bpofws:) also be- 
longed to these exercises. At first this was executed by young 
men fully equipped with helmet, shield, and greaves ; but at a 
later period their armor for this race was reduced to the simple 
shield. This armed race was undoubtedly of the greatest im- 
portance as a preparation for active service ; and Plato, with a 


view to this military object, demanded its being practised both 
in the long and short running-matches. For the Greeks, like 
the French, were wont to attack the ranks of the enemy at a 
running pace. This is said to have been the case at the battle 
of Marathon. At foot-races, as in all other exercises, the com- 
batants used to appear quite naked, except in earlier times, when 
they girded their loins with a cloth. The runners who repre- 
sented themselves at the agon as candidates were ranged in 
divisions (rafet?) (each consisting, as may be seen from monu- 
ments, of four agonistai) and led to the starting-point, where it 
was decided by lot in which order the different divisions were to 
follow each other. Any kinds of tricks, bribery, or force, em- 
ployed by racers to gain an advance upon the others, were strict- 
ly prohibited. After the various divisions had run their race, 
the victors of each had again to compete with each other ; and 
only in the last race was it settled to whom the prize or garland 
should be awarded. Races of this description, run by four men 
or epheboi, are often represented on Panathenaic vases. The 
runners here appear perfectly naked, and their lifted arms look 
as though they were to increase the swiftness of their legs. 1 The 
torch-race (Xa/ii7raSrjSpofjLLa) may also be regarded as belonging to 
this species of athletic sports. It was held at night in honor of 
various gods and goddesses in different parts of Greece. The 
principal object at these night-races was to reach the goal with 
one's torch alight. Two epheboi, armed with round shields, and 
flourishing torches in their hands, are thus depicted on a vase 
(Gerhard, " Antike Yasenbilder," Cent, i., 4, Taf. 63). On two 
other vessels (Tischbein, " Yas. d'Hamilton," Taf. iii., PL 48, 
and ii., 25) Nike presents the crown, in sign of victory, to one 
of three youthful torch-bearers competing for the prize. Other 
races were connected with festivals of a religious character, such 
as the Oschophoria at Athens, where runners, clad in female gar- 
ments, bore vines covered with grapes from the temple of Diony- 
sos to that of Athene Skiras in the Demos Fhaleros. These and 
others, however, do not properly come under the category of races. 
Leaping (akfjua) ranked next in the series of gymnastic exer- 
cises. Homer already introduces practised leapers in his descrip- 

1 " Mus. Gregorianum," ii., Tav. 42. " Monum. in edit. d. Inst, di Corrisp. arehe- 
ol," i., Tav. 22. Gerhard, "Antike Bildwerke," Cent, i., Taf. 6, etc. 



tion of the games of the Phaiakai, and the same exercises were 
afterward, introduced among the gymnic agones ; they, as well as 
the foot-race, formed a part of those sports to be presently de- 
scribed as the pentathlon. The leaps upward, forward, and 
downward, appear to have been practised at the palaestra and the 
gymnasia, in a similar manner as in our modern gymnasiums. 
But it is doubtful whether the Greeks were acquainted with the 
long pole now habitually used in gymnastics ; the poles depicted 
on many vases held in the hands of leaping epheboi having rather 
the appearance of spears than poles. But if we consider that the 
Greeks regarded gymnastics as a preparation for military service, 
and that the spear was often employed in war to leap over ditches, 
we may safely assume that poles were also used for gymnastic 
purposes. This surmise is further strengthened by the Amazon 
on a gem (Muller's " Denk- 
maler," i., Taf. xxxi., No. 
138, b\ who, grasping such 
an instrument in her hands, 
prepares for the leap. Writ- 
ten and monumental evi- 
dence proves, on the other 
hand, that the Greeks, in or- 
der to secure accuracy of 
motion for the distant leap, 
made use of so-called akrrj- 
pe?. The form of this instrument, not unlike that of our own 
dumb-bells, though rarely mentioned by ancient authors, appears 
in numerous pictorial representations. On a vase where an ephe- 
bos is just preparing for the leap, a pair of these instruments is de- 
picted (Fig. 250). They were either pieces of metal of semi-oval 
form, in the curved lines of which orifices were left for the hands, 
or they consisted of short iron bars having knobs at each end, thus 
resembling our dumb-bells in shape ; this latter kind was that in 
use at the pentathlon. The mode of using these dumb-bells was 
probably as follows: The person about to leap, whether first 
stepping back a few paces or not, stretched his arms, laden with 
the dumb-bells, back in a straight line ; and then, in the very act 
of leaping, swung them forward again with a sudden motion 
(Fig. 250). But as this violent motion of the arms necessarily 

Fig. 250. 


imparted an oblique and receding position to the body, in coming 
down the person would necessarily have fallen on his back had 
not the equilibrium been restored by a rapid backward motion of 
the arms. It has, in fact, recently been proved by practical ex- 
periments that a person in the act of leaping is capable of taking 
a much wider leap by the aid of dumb-bells : still, even ac- 
knowledging the greater practice of the Greeks, it remains inex- 
plicable how Phayllos could, by aid of these dumb-bells, have 
leaped to a distance of fifty-five feet, considering that the most 
practised gymnasts of our time only succeed in leaping one-third 
of that distance. As is the case in our gymnasiums, the ancients 
marked, by a line dug in the ground, or a board, the spot whence 
the leap had to be taken (fiarrip). Such a board, of a very lofty 
height, whence a palsestrites takes the salto mortale, is depicted 
in a wall-painting in an Etruscan burial-chamber (Micali, " L'ltalia 
avanti il dominio dei Bomani," Atlas, Tav. 70), where, in fact, 
the most varied exercises of the palaestra are most graphically 
represented. The goal which had to be attained in leaping was 
marked either by a furrow dug in the earth (crfcdfi/jLa), or the dis- 
tance to which each of the competitors leaped was marked by an 
incision in the ground. This drawing of furrows is probably in- 
dicated by those agonistic representations on vases, of men with 
hoes (Gerhard, u Auserlesene griechische Yasenbilder," Taf. 
cclxxi.). Others, again, depicted in these paintings, carry long 
red ribbons in their hands, probably pieces of tape, by which the 
length of the leaps as well as other kinds of athletic exercises were 
determined. Although the use of the dumb-bells as weights to be 
held in leaping has not been introduced into modern gymnastics, 
its strengthening the muscles of the arms, neck, and chest has, 
nevertheless, been as fully recognized as it was by the ancients. 

"Wrestling (Trakrj) was the third species of athletic exercise. 
The custom of preparing for this exercise by anointing the body 
(ekcuov) seems to have been introduced in post-Homeric times. 
It contributed to the suppleness and elasticity of the limbs, and 
was soon not only used in wrestling but in all other kinds of 
athletic exercises. But in order to obviate the too great facility 
of extricating the limbs from the embrace of an antagonist, the 
wrestlers used to sprinkle their bodies with sand. Besides, as 
Lucian says, this double covering of the skin prevents a too 


copious perspiration by closing the pores, which, owing to the 
violent exercise, are open, and thus more exposed to the bad 
effects of draughts ; it also strengthens the powers of endurance 
generally. The duty of anointing the limbs devolved on the 
akeiTTTTjs. At the end of the combat the body, of course, was 
thoroughly cleansed ; and the ancients for that purpose used an 
instrument of the nature of a scraper, which they called o-TXeyyfc 
(strigilis). Both sexes were also in the habit of employing the 
same scraper after every bath for the cleansing of their limbs. 
This instrument, hollowed out in the shape of a spoon, and 
consisting of metal, bone, or reed, was provided with a handle, 
and we naturally find an instrument so constantly used in daily 
life depicted in various paintings (Gerhard, "Auserlesene grie- 
chische Vasenbilder," Taf. cclxxvii., cclxxxi. ; " Mus. 
Gregor.," vol. ii., Tav. 87), the subjects of which are 
taken from the palaestra or from domestic life. As a 
rule, it appears together with a vessel of a globular 
shape, in which the oil was kept. Fig. 251 may assist 
the reader in forming a correct idea of a complete ap- 
paratus of this sort, consisting of an oil-flask suspended 
by cords, of scrapers of various lengths, and of a flat 
dish ; the original is at the Museo Borbonico. The 
manner of using this instrument is exemplified in a 
particularly vivid manner by the beautiful statue of an 
athlete scraping himself, in the Museo Chiaramonti, fi Q .251. 
Fig. 252, generally known under the name of 'Atto^vo- 
fjievos. In no other kind of contest was a professional training as 
necessary as in the wrestling-matches. Not only rude strength 
was required, but also firmness of eye in finding out an antago- 
nist's weak points. No less useful were certain dexterous thrusts 
learned at the wrestling-schools and quickness in outwitting an 
antagonist by feigned turns and positions, all of which had, at 
the same time, to be executed in a pleasing and decorous manner. 
Certain rules were enforced at the wrestling-school which the 
combatants were not allowed to transgress. They do not, it is 
true, harmonize with our more humane ideas ; for, although the 
beating of an opponent was then, as now, forbidden, not so were 
pushing (w^tcr/Ao?), and spraining his fingers and toes, nor grasp- 
ing his throat with the hands. The combatants were also 



allowed to knock their heads against each other (o-vvapdrreLv ra 
fieTcoTra), unless this is to be understood as a mere pressing 
together of foreheads, a position which is also permitted in our 
modern gymnasiums. This latter species of combat seems de- 
picted on a vase of the Blacas collection (" Musee Blacas," t. i., 
PI. 2 ; compare with it a similar representation in the " Museo Pio 
Clemen tin o," vol. v., PI. 37), where two naked 
wrestlers, with their heads pressed against each 
other, endeavor to grasp each other's arms. 
The Greeks had two species of wrestling. In 
the first the wrestlers strove to throw each 
other (tt&Xt) 6p0rj, bpOia) while standing in an 
upright position, and, if thrown, to rise again 
to renewed contest. If the opponent was 
thrown three times in the same contest he had 
to declare himself beaten. The other species 
of wrestling formed the continuation of the 
first ; the custom in this being that, as soon as 
one of the combatants had been thrown, the 
other knelt down upon him to prevent his ris- 
ing, the contest (akivErjo-^, /cvkiais) being car- 
ried on in this recumbent position. In both 
species of wrestling certain tricks were used, 
by means of which the wrestlers tried to deprive 
their opponents of the free use of their arms and 
legs, by closely embracing them. The opponents (Fig. 253) first 
approached each other, at the beginning of the contest, with up- 
lifted arms, at the same time advancing the right leg, and taking 
a firm position with the upper body drawn back {efifSokai). 

The contest, then, was begun with arms and fists (Fig. 253), 

each antagonist try- 
ing to encircle the 
other's arms and 
shoulders (hpaao-eiv). 
Another (ryi^a (the 
technical name for 
the different tricks of wrestling) was done with the legs ; Odys- 
seus, in his contest with Aias, applies it by knocking his heel 
against the bend of the knee of his antagonist, and flooring him by 

Fig. 255. 



Fig. 254. 

that means (vireXvae Be yvta). Another similar trick consisted in 
suddenly lifting up the antagonist's leg with one's hands, and 
throwing him down in that manner ; this is frequently depicted 
in vase-paintings (" Monumenti 
dell' Istit.," vol. i., 22, No. 8, b). 
The encircling of the antagonist's 
legs, continued even after the 
wrestlers had fallen to the ground, 
also belongs to this species of com- 
bats ; it is illustrated by the cele- 
brated marble group of "The 
Wrestlers," at Florence. The 
technical name for it was viroo-ice- 
Xl^euvy and it formed an important 
feature of the art. In the above- 
mentioned group (Fig 254) the 
uppermost wrestler has laid his left leg tightly round that of his 
antagonist ; the latter endeavors to lift himself up by means of 
his disengaged left arm and of his right knee. But his right arm 
has been firmly grasped by the victor, and is being pushed up- 
ward. Many other schemata of wrestling mentioned by ancient 
authors we omit as not sufficiently explained. 

The fourth kind of gymnastic exercise is the throwing of the 
diskos (pca/coPoXia). Our illustration (Fig. 255) is taken from 
the statue of a Diskobolos found in 1781 at the Villa Falombara, 
belonging to Principe Massimi. It is undoubtedly a copy of the 
celebrated statue by the sculptor Myron. The upper part of the 
body is bent down toward the right, and rests on the left arm, the 
left hand itself resting on the knee of the right leg, which is 
slightly bent. The weight of the body, therefore, is thrown on 
the right foot ; while the left one, with the toes bent slightly, only 
touches the ground to keep up the equilibrium. The heavy diskos 
lies on the lower part of the arm and the right hand. The right 
arm is bent backward up to the height of the shoulder, so as to 
add force to the throw. The neck and head are turned toward the 
hand holding the diskos, so as to control the right direction of the 
throw. The same position is also mentioned by Philostratos 
(" Imag.," i., 24) in his description of a diskobolos, and was, 
undoubtedly, the regular one. It somewhat resembles that of oui 



players at nine-pins, with the difference, however, that in our 
game the ball is thrown in a straight line, while the diskos was 
propelled in a curve. This game is connected with mythical gods 
and heroes ; Homer mentions it as a favorite occupation of men. 

The Homeric diskos (0-0X09) consisted of 
a heavy piece of cast-iron (avroxocovos) 
or of stone ; as, for instance, among the 
Phaiakai. The historic diskos has the 
shape of a lens. It resembled a small 
round shield without a handle, and was, 
therefore, difficult to manage. The dis- 
kobolos bent his fingers over the side 
of the diskos which rested on his palm 
and on the lower part of the arm (Fig. 
255). A diskos found at JEgina is 
M # in diameter, and weighs 3 lbs. 29 
oz. It is at present in the antiquarium 
of the Royal Museum of Berlin (Bron- 
zen, No. 1273); on it are represented 
two epheboi, one of them throwing a 
spear, the other holding dumb-bells. 1 
The diskobolos stood on a small earth-mound (/3a\/3tV), and the 
longest distance obtained decided the victory, whether or not a 
goal had previously been marked. 

Still more than was the case with the diskobolia another 
exercise, viz., the throwing of spears (clkovtiov, a/covncrfjLos), was 
considered as a preparation for actual warfare. It was well known 
in Homer's time, and afterward counted among the gymnastic 
and agonistic exercises. In Homer's time the game was per- 
formed in full armor and with sharp spears ; later on, only point- 
less spears were used, as is confirmed by several vase-paintings in 
which epheboi appear with one or two spears without points. In 
the pentathlon light, short spears, with long, thin points, were 
used either in throwing at aims or only for long distances. We 
shall return to the spears in treating of Greek weapons (§ 54). 
The five exercises thus described, viz., running, leaping, 

Fig. 256. 

1 See the picture of a diskos (original size) in Ed. Pinder, " Ueber den Funf kampf 
der Hellenen," Berlin, 1867. 

BOXING. 225 

wrestling, throwing the diskos, and the spear, formed the so-called 
7revTa0\ov. At the four great national festivals all these had to 
be gone through on one and the same day, and the prize was 
awarded to him only who had been victorious in all of them. 
According to Bockh, the pentathlon began with leaping ; after it 
followed running ; after that, the throwing of the diskos and of 
the spear, the last game being the wrestling. Other philologists 
prefer a different order. It remains doubtful whether the whole 
pentathlon was gone through each time. According to Krause 
(" Gymnastik und Agonistik der Hellenen "), the Tpuayfio^ (viz., 
leaping, and throwing of diskos and spears) was obligatory in all 
cases, the running and wrestling being omitted occasionally. 

The most dangerous of all contests was the boxing-match 
(7rvyfjL7], 7rv^). In order to increase the force of the clinched fist 
each fighter (ttuktijs;) tied straps of bull's-hide (Ifiavre^) round 
both his clinched fists, so as to leave only the fingers uncovered. 
The ends of these straps were tied several 
times round the wrists, so as to protect the 
artery in that place. Such was the older 
custom mentioned by Homer. The name 
of this covering was fieiXlx al '> perhaps, as 
Krause remarks, because it caused a soften- 
ing of the blow dealt with it (see Fig. 256, a). 
In other cases, strips of hardened leather, 
or even nails and lead buckles, were attached to these coverings, 
inflicting wounds at each well-aimed blow. The name of this 
dreadful weapon was afyalpai (see Fig. 256, 5, taken from the 
statue of a fighter in the Yilla Pamfili). The fingers there are 
put through a ring of metal or leather, while round the arm 
are wound numerous straps, to which is added a piece of metal 
resembling a shield. A still more dangerous weapon is exem- 
plified by the statue of a fighter in the Dresden Museum (Fig. 
257) ; perhaps we there see what the ancients called pjvpy^K^. 
The fighters entered the " ring " perfectly naked. After their 
straps had been adjusted by experienced men, they chose their 
places. After the signal had been given, they began the 
combat with the upper part of the body bent forward, but 
with the throat drawn back so as to remove it from the grasp 
of the antagonist. Fig. 257, and many other statues and vase- 


paintings, exemplify this position. All kinds of tricks were used 
by the fighter to tire out the antagonist and protect himself from 
blows. Both hands were used alternately to deal blows, the 

unemployed arm being used to 
ward off attacks from the head, 
the chest, or the belly. Quick- 
ness and agility in changing the 
position were no less required than 
strength of muscles. Illicit means 
of gaining the victory were severely 
punished, as was also the inten- 
tional killing of the antagonist. 
Blows were chiefly aimed at the 
chest, temples, ears, cheeks, nose, 
mouth, and chin. The teeth were 
frequently knocked in, and the 
ears squashed, as appears from 
several statues. Ear-cases of wool 
or leather (a//,</)G>T/Se?) were used 
in the gymnasia and palsestrai, but 
not at public fights. Fighters of 
about equal strength and dexterity 
sometimes used to break their combat by short intervals of rest. 
Strongly-contested fights, however, were generally continued with- 
out interruption till either of the combatants confessed himself 
beaten by lifting up his hand. 

To conclude, we mention the Trcvy/cpaTiov, a combination of 
wrestling and boxing. It was unknown in heroic times, and does 
not appear among public games previous to Olympiad 33. Straps 
were not used in it, as these would have impeded the motion of 
the hands in wrestling. According to rule in the pankration, the 
blow was not dealt with the clinched fist but only with the bent 
fingers. Otherwise all tricks and schemata of both wrestling and 
fighting were permitted, barring illicit means of weakening the 
adversary {jcaKopay&v). 

53. After having considered the gymnic agones (dyojv 
yvfivifcos), we now come to the lirirLKo^ aycov* i. e., racing in 
chariots and on horseback. Both these agones were considered 
as the highest and noblest kinds of public games. Horses and 

Fig. 257. 


chariots, of course, could be owned only by the richer classes, 
whence the fashionable character of these games. Firmness of 
hand and eye in directing the horses was the most important 
requisite of the art. The owners of horses, therefore, employed 
frequently substitutes at the chariot-races {appuiTrjXao-la). The 
architectural arrangements (aphesis, goal, etc.) of the race-course 
have been described in § 28. "We add a few remarks about the 
chariots themselves. The two-wheeled chariot used by Homeric 
heroes, both in the race-course and on the field of battle, remained 
in use at races during the historic period. The charioteer alone 
occupied it. (Compare our remarks about the battle-chariot, 
§ 54.) The number of chariots admitted at one race most likely 
varied according to the width of the hippodrome ; in large hippo- 
dromes, like that of Olympia, the aphesis of which, on each side, 
was about 400 feet long, it was, no doubt, considerable. The 
number of horses attached to each chariot was originally four of 
full-grown size (fy)o/*o? 'lttttcov reXelow), afterward two (Ifanrav re- 
\dcov avvcDpfc). The first kind of race was introduced 01. 25, the 
second, 01. 93. The occurrence of three horses is proved by the 
frieze of the Parthenon. After 01. 99, the custom of using colts 
(7tco\ol), either by fours or twos, was introduced. The use of 
mules in the hippodrome occurs only between 01. 70-84. The 
places of the chariots were decided by drawing lots. At a given 
signal the horses started simultaneously, animated by the driver's 
shouts, and urged on to the utmost speed by his whip (fido-Tc^) 
or goad (/cevrpov) ; thick clouds of dust followed the wild race. 1 
Just as in the foot-race, the course was either run through 
once, without returning round the goal (atcapLTTTov), or the 
chariots had to run back, as in the diaulos of the foot-race. The 
equivalent of the dolichos would be the running twelve times 
through the whole course with grown-up horses (SaSe/caros 
fy>6/.io?), as done at the Olympia, Pythia, and Isthmia. We 
also find, analogous to the 6tt\[t^ 8p6/j,o<; of the foot-race, a 
chariot-race at which both horses and drivers appeared in full 
armor. Usually, however, the charioteers were naked, while 

1 The mastix consisted of a short stick with a number of thongs attached to it (Fig. 
259) ; the kentron was a long pointed staff similar to that used in Southern Italy and 
Spain at the present day. Sometimes rattles were attached to the point of the kentron 
(see Muller, " Denkmaler," Part i., No. 91, 6). 


the horses were harnessed as lightly as possible. Great danger 
of upsetting, or even smashing, the chariot was incurred in 
going round the goal, not to speak of many other inconveniences 
connected with the imperfect leveling of the course. Nestor 
refers to the former danger in the instruction addressed to his 

Chariot-races have been frequently the subjects both of sculpt- 
ure and painting. A wall-painting in an Etruscan grave-cham- 
ber (Fig. 258) illustrates the preparation for the race. On the 
left a charioteer drives his biga into the race-course, while an 
expert seems to examine the horses of the next-following chariot 
before admitting it to the hippodrome. On the right, two horses 
are put to a chariot by two servants. Other monuments show the 

Fig. 253. 

chariots amid the dangers of the race. In a vase-painting "(Pa- 
nofka, " Bilder antiken Lebens," Taf. iii., 10) we see a running 
horse with the rein torn ; a wall-painting (Micali, " L' Italia avanti 
il dominio dei Eomani," Atlas, Tav. 70) shows a chariot smashed 
by the kicking horses, while the charioteer is thrown up into the 
air (see also the representation of Circensic games on a mosaic 
floor at Lyons, § 104). 

"We now have to consider the races on horseback (iinrohpofjLLa). 
The art of riding, as applied to both warfare and racing, belongs 
essentially to historic times, when the Homeric chariot began to 
disappear from the fiel d of battle. Only barbarous nations retained 
the chariot as an implement of war. In horse-racing we also meet 
with the distinction between grown-up horses (fonrtp /ciXrjTi) and 
colts (k6\7]tl waikrp), the race with the former dating from 01. 33, 
that with the latter from 01. 131. The rules of horse-racing were 
most likely identical with those of chariot-racing. The turning 
round the goal in the former was much less dangerous than in the 
latter ; but accidents, nevertheless, were not impossible, as appears 
from a vase-painting (Panofka, " Bilder antiken Lebens," Taf. iii., 


4), where a rider is dragged along the ground by his horse. The 
arrival at the goal is illustrated by a vase-painting (Fig. 259), in 
which the umpire receives the victor ; he is one horse's length in 
advance of his competitors. The so-called koXtttj was a peculiar 
kind of race in which the rider, while racing round the course for 
the last time, jumped off his horse, and, holding it by the bridle, 
made for the goal. Something similar to the kalpe (which, how- 
ever, was soon discontinued) occasionally took place at chariot- 
races. Two persons, viz., the driver (tylo-xps) and the competitor, 
stood in the chariot. While the course was measured for the last 
time the latter jumped from the chariot and ran by the side of it, 
until very near the goal, when he jumped into it again, assisted by 

Fig. 259. 

the heniochos ; hence his name airofiaTr)? or avaftaTTjs. At the 
Panathenaia this kind of race was most commonly practised, and 
the frieze of the Parthenon undoubtedly contains examples of it. 
There we see chariots with three horses, driven by charioteers, 
while warriors, armed with helmet and shield, run by the side of 
them, or are s.een jumping into them. 

Among gymnastic exercises we also name the game at ball 
((KpacpLariKj]), greatly recommended by Greek physicians as 
strengthening the limbs, and, moreover, considered by the Greeks 
as a chief means of developing the grace and agility of the body. 
Boys and men, girls and women, practised it. It was played, 
like other gymnic exercises, according to certain rules which had 
to be learned. At the gymnasia a separate place (afycupurrripiov, 



a<palpiaTpa) was reserved for it, where a teacher (crcfxupLaTifcos;) 
gave instruction in the art. The balls were of various colors, 
made of leather, and stuffed with feathers, wool, or fig-seeds. 
With regard to size the distinctions were — small, middle-sized, 
and very large, empty balls. The game with the small ball (jxucpa) 
was again divided into three classes, according as the smallest 
(o-(f)cSpa futcpd), the slightly larger {pklrfto rovSe fiel&v), or the rel- 
atively largest ball (afyaiplov fiei&v rcovBe) was used. The chief 
difference between games with the larger and smaller balls seems 
to have consisted in the position of the hands, which in the former 
were not allowed to be raised above the height of the shoulders ; 
while in the latter they might be lifted above the head. The ex- 
planations of ancient authors are, however, not very perspicuous. 
Our monumental evidence consists chiefly of women, in a sitting 
position, playing with one or several balls. For want of a Greek 
representation, we have chosen a scene from a Roman sphairiste- 
rion (Fig. 260). It is taken from a wall-painting in the thermae 

of Titus, in Eome. Three 
epheboi, superintended by a 
bearded teacher, are practis- 
ing with six small balls. The 
position of their arms accords 
with the rule just mentioned. 
The airoppafys was another 
game with small balls. In it 
the ball was thrown on the 
ground in an oblique direc- 
tion, and was caught by the 
other player after having re- 
bounded several times owing to its elasticity. These bounds used 
to be counted. The players altered their positions only when the 
ball, in rebounding, had changed its direction. Another game 
with the small ball was called ovpavia, in which the little ball was 
thrown into the air as high as possible, and had to be caught on 
falling down again. In another game, of Spartan origin, called 
eiricricvpos or itprjficfcrj, the players were divided into two parties, 
separated by a line (afcvpov). Behind each party was drawn 
another line which they were not allowed to cross in catching the 
ball. The ball was placed on the skyron and thrown by a member 

Fig. 260. 


of one party toward the other party, who had to catch it, and 
throw it back. As soon as either party were driven back behind" 
their boundary-line the game was ended. About the games with 
large and very large balls we are instructed less fully. They were 
thrown with considerable force, and had to be caught and thrown 
back by the antagonist with his arm or the palm of his hand. A 
similar game, played by young men in Italy at the present day, 
may be an antique reminiscence. "Whether the game called 
<f)aivip$a, was played with large or small balls is uncertain. In 
it the player pretended to throw the ball toward one of his antag- 
onists, but changed its direction unexpectedly. We know that the 
balls used in this game were hollow. We finally mention the 
game with the korykos {jcdupvKOjj^ia, KwpvKoftokia). From' the 
ceiling of a room was suspended, down to about the chest of the 
player, a rope with a balloon attached to it, which latter was filled 
with fiour, sand, or fig-seeds. The task of the player consisted in 
putting the balloon in a gradually increasing motion, and in 
throwing it back with his hands or chest. 

Bathing also may be counted among corporeal exercises. The 
warm bath as a means of refreshment after the day's labor is 
mentioned by Homer. In historic times, also, the beneficial in- 
fluence of a bath, particularly before meals, was generally ac- 
knowledged by the Greeks, although they never cultivated bath- 
ing as a fine art like the Komans. The too frequent use of hot 
baths was rare among the Greeks. For warm baths, public and 
private buildings (ftaXaveia hr^^ocna and IBia) were erected ; cer- 
tain rooms in the gymnasia were reserved for the same purpose 
(see page 107). 

To judge by the vase-paintings — our chief means of infor- 
mation with regard to the interior arrangements of baths — the 
ablution of the body was effected in bathing-tubs, constantly sup- 
plied with fresh spring-water (compare Gerhard's " Auserlesene 
griech. Vasenbilder," Taf. cclxxvii.). In taking a sudatory 
or steam bath (irvpiaty Trvpiarrjpicu), the bather was seated in a 
tub, either standing free or let into the floor (wvekoiy ao-dfiwdoi, 
Homer). After the bath, cold water was poured over him by the 
master of the bath (ftaXavevsi) or his assistants (irapaxyrai)' To 
the bath an anointing-room (akeuTrrrjpiov) was always attached, 
where the body was scraped and rubbed with delicate ointment. 

232 ARMOR. 

Here, also, the bather dressed ; at least, in earlier times. Separate 
"dressing-rooms {airohvTrjpia) were a later addition. The peculiar 
arrangement of a bath for women, shown in a vase-painting, has 
been mentioned before. 

54. The games practised at the gymnasion were, to the Greek 
youth, a preparation for actual warfare ; this we shall now have 
to consider. Our chief attention will be directed toward the vari- 
ous weapons and pieces of armature. The different phases of 
Greek strategy we shall touch upon only in so far as they imply 
at the same time a change in the implements of war. The de- 
scription of complicated war-machines, invented by the Greeks, 
we shall reserve for the Roman division of our work, seeing that 
the only illustrations of them appear on monuments belonging to 
the times of the emperors. 

Our knowledge of Greek arms, both from written and monu- 
mental evidence, is considerable. The preserved specimens, on 
the other hand, are few in number, the weapons made of iron 
being almost entirely destroyed by rust, the effects of which only 
bronze has been able to withstand. The stone weapons of the 
aborigines, found in Greece, we shall omit for the present, being 
chiefly concerned with the classic period of Greek antiquity. 
Yase-paintings and sculptures, our chief means of knowledge, 
must be used with great caution, owing to the fantastic exaggera- 
tions of archaic painters, and to the ideal treatment of sculptors, 
both of whom were prone to sacrifice realistic truth to artistic 
purpose. Moreover, our written and monumental means of knowl- 
edge are not easily applicable to each other, unless we accept the 
specimens on the great monuments of Roman imperial times as 
equally illustrative of contemporary Greek armor. 

To give the reader an idea of the full armor (iravoirXla) of 
a Greek warrior, we will introduce him to the workshop of 
Hephaistos (Fig. 261), taken from a bass-relief in the Louvre. 
The god, dressed in a tucked-up chiton, is employed in adding 
the handle to a large shield which one of his satyr-assistants is 
scarcely able to hold. By the side of the master, another work- 
man is sitting on the floor, polishing a greave. On a stele near 
him are placed a sword and a cuirass, both in a finished condition. 
To the left of this group we see a furnace blazing with flames, 
and sitting near it a dwarfish figure, perhaps meant for Kedalion, 



the faithful companion of the god. He somewhat resembles the 
gnomes of Northern mythology. In our picture he is looking 
with the eye of a 
connoisseur on a hel- 
met with a crest of 
a horse's mane. A 
satyr standing be- 
hind the furnace jest- 
ingly extends his 
hand toward the pi- 
leus of the old man. 
Supposing this to be 
an illustration of the 

lines in the Iliad descriptive of Hephaistos working at the armor 
of Achilles, we may consider ourselves as perfectly informed with 
regard to the outfit of a Homeric hero. 

As the chief weapons of defense we mention the helmet, the 
coat of mail, the greaves, and the shield. The covering of the 
head and the upper part of the body, to protect them from the 
weather and the enemy's weapons, originally consisted of the 
hide of wild animals. Thus the hunter's trophy became the war- 
rior's armor. Herakles, the extirpator of ferocious animals, al- 
ways wears the hide of the Nemsean lion as his attribute ; other 
warriors appear on the monuments with a similar head-dress. On 
an Etruscan box of ashes, the relief-ornamentation of which 
shows the combat between Eteokles and Polyneikes, one of the 
important figures wears a cap of lion's skin (Fig. 262, a). The 
same custom prevailed among Germanic nations, and seems to 
have been adopted by the Roman standard-bearers and trumpet- 
ers, as is proved by the monuments of the imperial period. As 
a medium between this primitive head-dress and the helmet of 
metal, we mention the leather cap (jcwerj), made originally of the 
raw-hide of an animal. A cap of this kind is worn by Diome- 
des on his nightly expedition with Odysseus. It was close fit- 
ting, without crest or knob, and was made of bull's-hide (icvvkr) 
ravpeiri or Karalrv^). Odysseus wore a similar head-covering on 
that occasion. His cap was entirely made of leather, lined with 
felt, and fastened with straps inside ; on the outside it showed the 
tusks of a boar, reminding one of the cap made of an animal's 



hide which we mentioned before. Dolon wore a morion made of 
otter's skin (tcwer) /crcBir]). According to Homer, a cap of leather 
was generally worn by yonnger warriors ; Fig. 262, b, taken from 
a bronze statuette of Diomedes, may serve to illustrate its form. 
The casque of metal (/cpdvos, by Homer called /copvs, or Kvverj 
7rdyxa\fco<;) was a further development of this form. It was semi- 
globular in shape, and made of brass. Gradually front, back, and 
cheek pieces, visors and demi-visors, were added ; a crest served to 
protect the skull. On a hydria of Yulci, showing the taking 
leave of Amphiaraos and Eriphyle, the hero wears a semi-globular 
helmet of brass (Fig. 262, c). 

Fig. 262, d, is taken from the group of the iEginetai at 
Munich. It represents the bowman, Teukros. His helmet 
protects the head to a much greater extent than that just men- 
tioned. The semi-globular cap has been made to fit the back 

of his head, and to it have been added a neck-piece, of about 
the width of a hand, and a narrow front-piece. Still more perfect 
is the helmet worn by Telamon in the same group (Fig. 262, e). 
The difference consists in a small piece of metal to cover the 
bridge of the nose being added to the front-piece. Besides this, 
short cheek-pieces ((f>d\apa) have been attached to the sides by 
means of hinges, as appears from numerous vase-paintings ; these 
cheek-pieces could be turned upward, which gave the helmet the 
appearance of a winged helmet. Still more protection is afforded 
by the helmet in Fig. 262,/*, found in the river Alpheios, near 
Olyrapia. Front, neck, and cheek pieces are made of one piece 
with the helmet, and completely cover the head down to the 
shoulders ; only mouth, chin, and eyes, remain uncovered. The 
avk&TTis was another form of the helmet, lighter and more grace- 
ful than the one just described. The neck-piece is severed from 
the front-piece by an incision, and the latter has been developed 
into a complete visor, with small slits for the eyes (Fig. 262, g). 



In the battle it was pulled down so as to cover the skull with the 
cap, and the face with the visor ; otherwise it was worn pushed back 
over the neck, so that the visor rested on the top of the head (see 
Fig. 263, b : a head of Athene, from the Villa Albani). Frequently 
the elegant Greek helmet appears without any front-piece, and 
with a broad border bent upward (<ne$avrj), not unlike the open 
visor of a mediaeval helmet (see the head of Athene, Fig. 263, a). 
The leather cap, and frequently, also, the simple casque of 
metal, were without a crest ((/>a\o?, see Fig. 262, d, e, f). 
Hence the name acf>a\o<; applied to them. But Homer already 
mentions a heavy helmet of metal, with a crest proceeding from 
top to neck, and covering the seam which joins the two sides of 

the helmet (Figs. 263, a, c, 264) : it served to protect the head 
from blows, and also to fasten the crest (\o</>o<?). Yase-paintings 
of the archaic kind also show this crest. To increase its power 
of resistance, it was frequently made of four layers of metal. 
Hence the name rerpafyaXos, rerpacfxzXrjpo^. 1 Holes or notches 
were made into the upper side of the phalos for the insertion of 
bunches of horse-hair (Jirirovpis) or feathers (Fig. 262, g). The 
KvufSa'Xps afcpoTaros mentioned by Homer (" Iliad," xv., 536) is, 
perhaps, identical with the (f>d\o<;. When the phalos was want- 
ing, the crest seems to have been fastened to the casque by means 
of a small tube (Figs. 262, g, 263, d). 

The helmets of the common soldiers were generally without 
ornaments, those of the officers only being decorated with figures 
or patterns ; the cap, visor, and stephane, were frequently covered 
with these. The crest appears in many variations (Fig. 263, 
b, c), and sometimes was increased to overloading by the addition 
of feathers (Fig. 263, d). Decorated helmets of various kinds 

1 According to Gobel's explanation; see " Philologus," 1862, p. 213. 


are generally worn by the statues of Athene, Ares, and several 
heroes ; we also see them on the head of Athene and various por- 
trait-heads on coins and gems — for instance, on cameos with the 
heads of Ptolemy I. and II., in the collections of St. Petersburg and 
Vienna. Fig. 263, c, shows the head of Athene from a silver coin of 
Herakleia ; Fig. 263, e, the head of Neoptolemos, taken from a bass- 
relief, most likely of Roman origin, published by Orti di Manara. 
The second defensive weapon is the cuirass (dcbpa!;). Pausa- 
nias describes its older form on speaking of the lesche painted 
by Polygnotos at Delphi. " On the altar," he says, " lies an iron 
cuirass of an unusual form, such as were formerly worn by the 
heroes. It consists of two iron plates, connected by means of 
buckles (7T6p6vaL), one of which covers the chest and stomach, the 
other the back. The former is called yvaXov, the latter Trpoarjyov. 
They seem sufficient to protect the body, even without a shield." 
Pausanias here speaks of the solid cuirass (Ocopai; crrdSio^ or o-tcltos) 
worn, in Homer, by the leaders, and, in consequence, frequently 
depicted in the older vase-paintings (Fig. 264). We also refer to 
the figure of Teukros in the JEginetan group at Munich. This 
cuirass was made of strong plates, and went 
down only as far as the hips, where it either 
was cut off or had a curved border added to 
it. Later on the plates were made thinner, 
and more in accordance to the lines of the 
muscles {see Fig. 261). The chief difference 
between this and the older cuirass, besides its 
being lighter arid more elegant, consists in 
the prolongation of the front plate over the 
navel. Altogether, it was more adapted to 
the altered warfare of later times. It was 
most likelv worn only by officers. Pound 

Fig. 2C4. ,- . J f lT ix /> ' *» ' \ 

the waist was worn a belt (gcoarrjp, goovr)) 
over the cuirass, both to keep the parts of the harness together, 
and to protect that part of the body. It was fastened with 
buckles (in Homer, made of gold — o^e? 'xpvaziot). Odys- 
seus wears a zoster of this kind over his jerkin, seemingly a 
leather one, on an Etruscan box of ashes (Fig. 265). Under the 
armor, but over the chiton, another broad belt, made of thin 
metal and lined inside (fjiiTpa), was usually worn. It is, of course, 
invisible in oictures, being covered by the armor ; but one speci- 



Fig. 266 

men of it (Fig. 266) has been preserved to us. It was purchased 
by Bronsted in Eubcea, and described by him in his pamphlet, 
" Die Bronzen von Siris." It consists of 
bronze, and is eleven inches long. On the 
inside fifteen larger and thirteen smaller 
indentures have been made which, on the 
outside, look like so many small semi- 
globes ; the hooks at each end served to at- 
tach it to the lining of the real belt. This 
definition of zoster and mitra explains, at 
the same time, Homer's description (" Iliad," 
iv., 135, et seq.). 

We mention, together with the iron 
cuirass, the linen jerkin (Xivodcopr}^) worn 

by Aias, the son of Oileus and Am- 
phios, in Homer ; and the iron chiton 
(xakfcoxLTGov). Both were tight-fitting, 
made of leather or linen, and had 
pieces of iron attached to them to pro- 
tect the heart and the shoulders (Figs. 
265, 267). A belt was added, to protect the abdomen. The 
shoulder-pieces tied to the belt or to the jerkin itself (Fig. 267) 
were, as appears from numerous representations, richly orna- 
mented. The reliefs on two bronze shoulder- 
pieces, representing Aias fighting with an Ama- 
zon, are among the masterpieces of Greek art. 
Both are in the British Museum. The incorrect 
statement of their having been found on the 
banks of the Siris has given rise to the conjecture 
of their having been part of the splendid armor 
worn by Philip in the battle on the Siris. Not- 
withstanding the erroneousness of this supposi- 
tion, their common name, the " Bronzes of Siris," 
will probably remain unaltered. Both these light 
jerkins (said to have been introduced among the 
Athenian army by Iphikrates) and the cuirasses r». 207. 

modeled after the lines of the body, had longer 
or shorter stripes of leather or felt attached to their bottom parts. 
These stripes consisted frequently of two layers, and were cov- 


ered with plates of metal (irTepuyes). They served to protect the 
abdomen, and were, like the shoulder-pieces, frequently orna- 
mented. (Fig. 267 ; compare, as an example of the older armor, 
the statue of a warrior on the stele of Aristion, in Overbeck's 
"Geschichte der griechischen Plastik," Part i., p. 98). Such 
Trripvye^ of smaller size were also attached to the arm-holes of the 
cuirass, to protect the upper arm. 

The coat of mail, consisting of a linen or leather shirt covered 
with iron scales, occurs at an early period. The large scales were 
imitated from those of a fish, the smaller ones from those of a 
snake ; hence the names Ocopai; \e7n,$coT6<; or <J)o\i,&(ot6<;, respec- 
tively applied to the two different kinds of armor. 1 Scale-chitons 
are worn, for instance, by Achilles and Patroklos on the vase 
known as the " Kylix of Sosias " in the Koyal Antiquarium of 
Berlin. The Persian bowman among the iEginetai, generally 
called Paris, wears a tight-fitting armor of this kind. The cuirass 
of chain (Qoapa^ akvo-iScoros) is of late Roman date, and, most 
likely, of Oriental invention. 

The lower part of the leg was protected, even in Homer's 
time, by bronze greaves (/ei^ycuSe?) covering the leg from the ankle 
to over the knee. They were made of flexible metal, and, in 
being put on, they were first bent back (Fig. 268) 
and afterward placed round the leg, and their open 
sides bent together. They were tied across the 
ankle with beautifully-wrought ribbons {eTna^vpid), 
as is proved by some fragments of legs belonging to 
the ^Eginetan group. 2 They do not, however, ap- 
pear on other monuments. Besides this, the greaves 
were fastened round the calf with buckles or straps. 
fig. 263. The putting-on of greaves is frequently depicted 

on vases. 
The principal weapon of defense was the circular or oval 
shield. The circular shield {aairh ttclvtos itarj, ev/cv/cXos) — also 
called the Argive, or more correctly the Doric, shield (Figs. 269, 
a, b ; 270, b, <?), owing to its being first substituted for the long 
shield by that tribe — was the smaller of the two, covering the 

1 The fragments of a coat of mail have been found among the ruins of the old 
Pantikapaion. See " Antiquites du Bosphore Cimmerien," PI. xxvii. 

2 These ribbons have been preserved on the restored figures. 



soldier from about the chin to the knee. As in battle it fre- 
quently had to be raised up to the helmet, an elastic cloth, made 
of leather or felt, was added at the bottom (Xcuo-rj'Ca Trrepoevra ?), 1 
sufficiently strong to ward off blows and thrusts (Fig. 269, b), 
This cloth was of Asiatic invention, but adopted by the Greeks 
at an early period. The oval shield (acucosi), about 4£ feet long 
by over 2 wide, covered the warrior almost from head to foot 
(noBrjvetcr)?, afupifipoTcx;, Fig. 264). As mentioned before, the 
older long shield was soon changed for the round shield; but 
the oval shield, although considerably shortened, occurs up to 
a very late period. Such 
oval shields as had semi- 
circular or oval incisions 
in the centre were called 
Boeotian (Figs. 264, 269, 
c, 270, a). The use of 
these incisions is not suffi- 
ciently explained ; perhaps 
they served as peep-holes. 
This form of the shield ap- 
pears in the scutcheon of 
most of the Boeotian cities 
(see Fig. 270, a, from a coin 
of the Boeotian city of 
Haliartos) and numerous archaic vase-paintings. The outer 
surface of the shields was more or less bent. The older way of 
carrying the shield, slung over head and neck by means of a strap 
(reXajnoov) fastened to the inside of the shield, must have been 
very inconvenient. For the left hand there was a handle (irop- 
ira%) inside the shield to direct its position. The Karians, accord- 
ing to Herodotos, improved this weapon considerably by intro- 
ducing a band of leather or metal (oxavov), placed in the centre 
of the hollow for the upper part of the arm ; to which was added 
another handle for the arm near the rim of the shield (Figs. 264, 
265, 270, c). Whether the reXafuov was dropped entirely, or kept 
by — in order to carry the shield over the back on the march, as 
was the Roman fashion — seems uncertain. The straps fastened 
to a ring which occurs, together with the two handles, on the 

1 Compare Aristophanes, Achon, v., 1088 : ra aTpA/iaf u iral dfjoov ek rijg aairidoc. 

Fig. 270. 


shield of Ares, in the Villa Ludovici (Fig. 270, d), is undoubtedly 
a telamon. In the older round shield we often see, instead of the 
two handles, a broad bar (jcavcov) reaching from one rim to the 
other. Through it the arm was put, the hand taking hold of the 
thong of leather or cloth fastened round the whole inner edge of 
the shield (Fig. 270, b). The numerous handles thus effected had 
the advantage of enabling the soldier to change the position of 
the shield in case one side of it was damaged. This mode of 
holding the shield belongs, most likely, to earlier times, being 
met with only on vase-paintings of the archaic period. 

The shield was made of bull's-hides, and frequently consisted 
of several, sometimes of no less than seven, layers, sewed one over 
the other, with a metal plate fastened on the top of them by 
means of nails. These nails protruded from the rim of the shield 
like buckles (oficjxiXol, Fig. 269, a) ; hence the epithet o^aXoeaaai 
applied to the shield by Homer. The centre boss, generally 
richly ornamented, and used to parry blows, was the omphalos 
tear iZoxrfv. The Greeks also had massive round shields of metal 
(7raYx<z\/co? a<77r/?), which, owing to their weight, were soon 
disused. The beauty of some shield-decorations appears from the 
verses in the " Iliad " descriptive of the shield of Achilles made 
by Hephaistos, and from Hesiod's description of that of Herakles. 
The dreadful head of the Gorgon, lions (Fig. 269, b), panthers, 
boars, bulls (Fig. 269, a), scorpions, snakes, anchors, tripods, 
chariots, etc., appear frequently in vase-paintings as emblems 
(i7TL(T7)fia, arjfiela) on shields, mostly with some reference to the 
character of the wearer. The shield of Idomeneus, for instance, 
showed a cock, in allusion to his descent from Helios, to whom 
that bird was devoted ; Menelaos's scutcheon consisted of the image 
of the dragon which had appeared to him in Aulis as a divine 
message. A similar emblem, on the shield placed on Epami- 
nondas's grave at Mantinea, indicated the descent of the hero 
from Kadmos ; the shield of Alkibiades showed Eros throwing 
the lightnings. We also recall iEschylos's description of the 
shields of his seven heroes before Thebes. Besides these indi- 
vidual signs (pliceia a-rjfjbela), there existed, also, national emblems 
of the different Greek tribes. This custom dates from the Per- 
sian wars. The shields of the Sikyonians showed a brilliant 2, 
those of the Lakedsemonians an archaic lambda y (whence their 



name, lambda, or labda), those of the Mykenians a M, those of 
the Athenians an owl, and those of the Thebans an owl or a 
sphinx. Inscriptions also occur ; on the shield of Kapaneus was 
written, Trprjaco iroXiv ; on that of Demosthenes, ar/ady TV)(rj, 
Only one Greek shield has been preserved ; it is in the Museum of 

The Persian wars caused an entire change of Greek strategy. 
In the heroic age the valor of the individual showed itself in sin- 
gle combats ; in more modern times the hoplitai, i. e., the heavy- 
armed foot-soldiers, decided the battle. 
These warriors retained the Homeric oval 
shield, while the heavy iron cuirass was 
changed for leather or linen jerkins with 
iron plates ; helmet and greaves also were 
made of lighter materials. After the Per- 
sian wars we meet with light infantry as 
distinguished from the hoplitai. After 
the expedition of the Ten Thousand, the 
light infantry became an essential feat- 
ure of Greek armies; they were divided 
into yv/jLvfjres, yvjjbvol, soldiers without 
any armor, and TreXraaral, ireXro^opov, 
i. e., soldiers wearing a pelta as defensive 
weapon. They were destined to fight 
at a distance; their weapons were, ac- 
cording to their national predilections, 
the bow, the sling, or the javelin. The 
peltastai also wore a shield in the form 
of a crescent (ireKTa). It was two feet 

Fig. 2H. 

long, made of wood 
or osiers, and cov- 
ered with leather. 
It is said to have 
been of Thrakian 
origin. In vase- 
paintings the pelta 
is generally worn 
by Amazons, and 
a comprehensive knowledge of its more graceful forms might be 
gathered from the numerous representations of battles of Ama- 

EL dSk 

Fig. 272. 

Fig. 278. 



zons. Fig. 271, from a beautiful marble statue of the Dresden 
collection, may serve to illustrate not only the pelta but the 
whole warlike costume of the Amazons in Greek art. This 
Amazon appears in a noble Greek dress ; more frequently, how- 
ever, we meet with an Oriental costume, as worn, for instance, 
by an Amazon shooting with a bow (Fig. 272). Sometimes the 
Amazons also wear the vaulted oval shield of the Greek soldiers ; 
on the above-mentioned bronze armor from Siris we see one 
with a small flat pelta in the shape of a disk with only one 
handle. Fig. 273 shows a peltastes from a skyphos at Athens. 
The figure is of particular importance to us as being illustrative 
of the new mode of attack for foot-soldiers introduced by Cha- 
brias. Cornelius Nepos, in his biography of that commander, 
says : Reliquam jphalangem loco vetuit cedere, dbnixoque genu 
scuto, projectaque hasta impetum excvpere hostium docuit. 

The aggressive weapons of the Greeks were the spear, sword, 
club, battle-axe, bow, and sling. The spear 
(ey%o?, Bopv) consisted of a smooth shaft (in 
Homer's time generally made of ash-wood, 
IMeikivov) about 6 to 7 feet long, over the 
pointed end (icavkbs) of which an iron head 
alyjir], afcwKT}) was drawn by means of a 
socket (av\6s), and fastened to it with an iron 
ring {iropKTj^). The shape of this spear-head 
varies greatly; it frequently resembles a leaf 
or a broad bulrush (Fig. 274, 5, c, e,f), at other 
times it has a barb (Fig. 274, i) ; sometimes, 
also, it is exactly like the spear's head used by 
our modern lancers. To the other end of the 
shaft (especially in post-Homeric times) a 
" shoe " (aavprrip, Figs. 273, 274,/, g) was added, 
which either served to fasten the spear in the 
earth when not used, or supplied the spear's 
head in case this was broken. Smaller spears 
were used for throwing, longer ones for thrusting ; 
of the former, the Homeric heroes generally have 
two in their chariots. Warriors in vase-paint- 
ings also generally carry two javelins; it appears, however, 
on comparing these two spears on numerous monuments, that they 

Fig. 274. 



were of unequal length, whence it may be concluded that the 
longer was used for thrusting, the shorter for throwing (compare 
the lances worn by Achilles and Aias in Panofka, " Bilder ant. 
Lebens," Taf. x., 10, and by Peleus in Overbeck's "Gallerie 
heroischer Bildwerke," Taf. viii., 6). Something analogous to 
this unequal length of the spears we observe in the fact of the 
Roman hastati and jyrincipes being armed with the pilum or 

Besides these spears, of an average length of 5 to 7 feet, we 
find in vase-paintings others only 2 to 3 feet long, in which 
latter the iron part is equal to one-third of the entire length 
(see Overbeck, ibid., Taf. xiii., 1, and Taf. xviii., 3, in the 
latter of which the spear of Aias is still shorter, Fig. 274, I). 
The same custom of carrying several spears of unequal length 
was continued in historic times. The peltastai in Xenophon's 
army carried five shorter and one longer javelin, the latter 
having a strap (ayicvkn, amentum) attached to it, whence the 
name peo-dy/cvkovy hasta amentata (Fig. 274, h). About the 
handling of these spears with straps opinions differed for a long 
time ; both written and monumental proofs with regard to this 
point are, indeed, very scanty. Kochly was the first to treat 
the question comprehensively, illustrating it at the same time by 
means of practical trials (see " Verhandlungen der 26. Versamm- 
lung cleutscher Philologen und Schulmanner," Leipzig, 1869, 
pp. 226-238). According to him, this weapon was adopted by 
the peltastai from the gymna- 
sion. It must be considered as 
a javelin, 2£ to 3 Greek yards 
(Ellen) long by f inch thick, 
to which, in its centre of grav- 
ity, a leather strap was tied. 
The two ends of the strap were 
tied round the shaft several 
times and arranged in a loop, 
through which the fingers were put (SnrytcvTuDfievoi. Ovid, 
" Metamorph.," xii., 326 : intent amento digitos). At the moment 
of throwing the spear the loop was pulled violently, by means 
of which the strap, in being unwound, conveyed to the spear a 
rotating movement, similar to that of the missiles of our rifled 

Fig. 275. 


guns. Fig. 275 is the only existing antique representation illus- 
trative of the use of this weapon. From a passage in Plutarch's 
" Life of Philopoimen," it appears that the ankyle remained at- 
tached to the shaft. That commander is hit by a spear in both 
thighs, and, owing to the force of the throw, the strap also is 
pushed through one thigh, which makes the extraction of the 
weapon a difficult matter. 

The longest of all spears, called o-dpccro-a, <rdpL<ra, were used 
by the Makedonians. According to Greek authors they were at 
first 16, in later times 14 yards long, which, reckoning the Greek 
yard at 1£ foot, would make 24 and 21 feet respectively. A 
spear of such length would have been unwieldy in the hands of 
the strongest soldier; we therefore agree with Riistow and 
Kochly (" Geschichte des griechischen Kriegswesens," p. 238 est 
seq.) in changing the " yards " of antique measurements into feet. 
With this modification we will quote the description by iElianus 
(" Theory of Tactics," c. xiv., est seq. 1 ) of the Makedonian phalanx ; 
our conjectural reductions of the measurements are added in 
brackets : " Every man under arms in the closed phalanx stood at 
a distance of 2 yards (2 feet, meaning the distance from the chest 
of the man in the first row to that of the man in the second row). 
The length of the sarissa was, according to the original pattern, 
16 yards; in reality, however, only 14 yards (16 to 14 feet). 
From this the space between the two hands holding the spear = 4 
yards (4 feet) must be deducted ; the remaining 10 yards (10 feet) 
lie in front of the first row of hoplitai. The second row stands 2 
yards (2 feet) behind the first, their sarissai, therefore, protrude 
by 8 yards (8 feet) from the front row, those of the third row by 
6 yards (6 feet), of the fourth row by 4 yards (4 feet), of the fifth 
row by 2 yards (2 feet) ; those standing in the sixth row are un- 
able to let their sarissai protrude from the first row. The five 
sarissai in front of every man of the first row naturally are of 
fearful aspect to the enemies, while, at the same time, they give 
fivefold strength to his attack." 

Shorter than the sarissa, but still of considerable length, was 
the lance of the Makedonion cavalry. Representations of this 

1 Compare iElianus, c. xiv., in "Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller," erklart von 
Kockly und Riistow. 



Fig. 2T6. 

weapon are scarce. A silver coin of the Thessalian city of Pelina 

may serve to illustrate the arms used in Northern Greece. On 

one side of the coin (Fig. 276) we see 

a horseman, covered with a Thessalo- 

Makedonian felt hat, and armed with 

sauroter and sword ; the reverse shows 

a light-armed foot- soldier with the 

same kind of hat, and armed with a 

Makedonian round shield, a sword, and 

three short spears. The latter is perhaps meant for one of the 

hypaspistai, introduced into the Makedonian army during the 

reigns of Philip and Alexander ; the horseman is most likely a 

representative of the celebrated Thessalian cavalry, who joined 

the Makedonians as allies. 

The hunting-spear (a/covriov) resembles, on monuments, that 
used by soldiers ; Fig. 274, i, shows one with a double barb. 

The sword (f t<£o?) was worn on the left side, about the height 
of the hip. It was fastened, by 
means of a loop (aoprrfp), to 
a belt (reKafuov) which was 
thrown over the right shoulder. 
The hilt (kcotttj, \a/3rj), 4 to 5 
inches long, had no guard; a 
cross-hilt (Fig. 277, a), some- 
times rounded (Fig. 277, d), 
serving to protect the hand. 
Hilt and blade were frequently 
made of one piece ; in more 
ornamental swords the blade 
was let into the hilt. The 
blade, sharpened on both sides 
(a/ji(f)r)/ce<;, d^iyvov), was about 
16 to 18 inches long by 2 to 2£ 
wide 1 (Fig. 277, d). A scabbard (/coXeo?, Fig. 277, e*), made 

1 A beautiful Greek sword, found near Pella in Makedonia, now in the Royal Anti- 
quarium of Berlin, has a blade 1*7 inches long, and a handle measuring 4 inches. The 
blade of another sword in the same collection is 19^ inches in length, the hilt being 
4 inches long. The latter resembles perfectly our Fig. 277, d. 

8 Sword and scabbard (Fig, 277, c, d) belong to one and the same figure. 

Fig. 277. 


either of leather or metal, covered the blade up to the hilt. 1 The 
sword of heroic times was, like most weapons, modified by the 
changed mode of warfare of a later period. According to Corne- 
lius Nepos, Iphikrates increased, according to Diodoros, he doub- 
led, the length of the sword-blades of the infantry of the line ; the 
hoplitai, however, retained the shorter sword of earlier times. 
Besides this straight sword, ancient writers also mention another, 
the Lakedsemonian sword (/ia%atpa) ; its blade was slightly bent 
on one, the sharpened, side, while the other side was blunt like 
the backs of our knives ; the end was pointed obliquely toward the 
back (see Fig. 277, c, and Fig. 277, 5, in the latter of which the 
form of the handle indicates a curved sword inside the scabbard). 
A third kind of sword, the blade of which is like that of a dagger, 
is repeatedly found on monuments (Fig. 277, a). Artistic orna- 
mentation was chiefly applied to the hilt. The sword of the rest- 
ing Ares in the Yilla Ludovici has a hilt in the form of an ani- 
mal's head (Miiller, "Denkmaler," Part ii., No. 250). 

To conclude, we mention the sickle, the most primitive instru- 
ment for cutting grain, the form of which resembles that used at 
the present day. For pruning of vines and trees, the pruning- 
knif e (apirrj) was used. Kronos first applied 
it in the fight with his father ; the harpe 
(Fig. 278, a) belongs to an image of that god. 
The knife iised at sacrifices to cut off the 
animal's head resembles the sickle. It con- 
sists of a straight blade with a sickle or hook- 
like addition near its end (Fig. 278, h). In 
exactly the same form the harpe appears in 
renderings of the myth of Perseus, who with 
this instrument cuts off the head of the Gor- 
gon (compare Fig. 278, c, another form of 
Perseus's weapon). Barbarous nations used 
swords shaped like sickles, as appears from the monuments of im- 
perial Pome. Battle-chariots with sickles attached to the wheels 
and axle-trees (Bpeiravrj^opov apfia) were also used by barbarians, 
but never by Greeks ; in the battle of Gaugamela fifty sickle- 
chariots were placed in front of the centre of the Persian line. 

1 The Royal Antiquarium of Berlin possesses a scabbard of chased silver, belong- 
ing to a dagger-like weapon. 



A wooden and an iron club {poiraXov, /copvvr]), the former cut 
by Hercules from the root of a tree, the latter made for that hero 
by Hephaistos, are mentioned in the " Iliad." This weapon, how- 
ever, was never introduced into the Greek army. Herodotos 
mentions among the weapons of the Assyrians in Xerxes' s army 
clubs covered with iron buckles {poiraXa TervXcofjuiva o-iSrjpw), re- 
minding one of the maces, clubs, and flails, of the middle ages. 

The battle-axe (fiovTrXrjj;, afyvrj) appears chiefly in the hands 
of Amazons ; it is also carried by some of the heroes of the 
" Iliad," for instance, by Peisandros in the hollow of his shield 
(" Iliad," xiii., 611, et seq.). The later Greeks never 
used this weapon. In the East it seems to have 
been retained much longer ; even in Alexander's 
time two thousand Barkanian horsemen in the Per- 
sian army use battle-axes. Fig. 279, c, shows the 
oldest form of the weapon as used by the inhab- 
itants of the isle of Tenedos, and depicted by 
them on their coins. Fig. 279, b shows a bill, d a double battle- 
axe, a and e fighting-hammers combined with axes — all found in 
the hands of Amazons, and all resembling mediaeval weapons of 
the same kind. 

We have to distinguish two forms of the antique bow (rogov). 
The one, simpler and more easy to bend, consisted of a curved 
elastic piece of wood, the ends of which were turned slightly 



Fig. 279. 

Fig. 230. 

upward, for the purpose of fastening to them the string (vevprj). 
This bow, called Skythian or Parthian, is frequently found on 
monuments. Fig. 280 reproduces a vase-painting in which three 



epheboi practise shooting with this bow. The aim is a cock 
placed on a column. Only in few Greek states archery was re- 
ceived among the gymnastic exercises, for which reason we have 
not mentioned it among the agones. Whether the just-mentioned 
bow, or that called the Greek bow proper, was the older of the 
two, is difficult to determine. The simpler construction of the 
former seems to indicate its greater antiquity, although the 
Greek bow was universally used as early as the heroic period. 
As to the construction and manipulation of the latter, we refer 
the reader to Homer's graphic description (" Iliad." iv., 105, 
et seq.). 

Like the lyre, this bow was made of the horns (2J feet long) 
of a kind of antelope (7r^u?), the growing ends of which were 
joined together by a metal socket (/copcovij) ; on this the arrow 
rested ; the other ends were tipped with iron, and to them the 
string, made of calf-gut, was tied. Including the socket, the Ho- 
meric bow must have been about 6 feet long, which allows 16 hands 
for each horn. To bend a bow of this kind required considerable 
strength. After being disused for some time it required greasing 
to recover its elasticity. At a later time these horns were imi- 
tated in wood, both because of the cheapness and the lightness of 
the material. The arrow (oi'crro?, to?) consisted of a shaft (Bovaf;) 
2 feet in length, made of reed or light wood, and of a generally 
three-edged metal head 2 to 3 inches long, with or without a barb. 
The back end of the arrow was feathered. 
A notch (y\v<j>k) was cut into the shaft 
where it lay on the string. The quiver 
((jxtperpa, To^odr/KT]) was made of leather or 
basket-work. It usually held nineteen or 
twenty arrows (Fig. 281). It was carried on 
the left side by a strap slung across the 
shoulders (Figs. 272 and 280), and had a 
cover attached to it (Fig. 281, b, c). Sometimes both bow and 
arrows were kept in the quiver (Fig. 282), as is still the custom 
among Mongolians and Kirghis. Bending the bow, the archer 
generally put one knee on the ground — a position taken, for 
instance, by the archer of the ^Eginetan group (compare Figs. 
272, 280). As early as Homer's time the Kretans were re- 
nowned as skillful archers. Kretan bowmen formed a peculiar 

Fig. 282. 


feature of Greek armies up to the latest times, in the same 
way as Macedonian archers were a separate corps of the light 
infantry of Alexander the Great. Among barbarians, the 
Skythians and Parthians were celebrated bowmen, both on foot 
and horseback. 

The sling (afevSovrj) consisted of a strap, broad in the centre 
and narrowing toward the two ends. The stone or leaden bullet 
(jjlo\v/38l<;) was placed on the broader part of the strap ; in 
throwing, the slinger held the two ends of the strap in one hand, 
and, after whirling the sling round his head several times, threw 
the bullet by letting go one end. In the " Iliad " the sling is 
mentioned only once as used by a Trojan; it seems to have been 
of Oriental origin. Later on it seems to have 
been adopted by various Greek tribes, who had 
experienced its efficacy in the war with Xerxes. 
At first the Akarnanians, afterward the in- 
habitants of JEgium, Patrse, Dymse, Rhodes, 
and Melos, were renowned as slingers. Accord- 
ing to Livy (xxxviii., 29), the Greek sling 
consisted of three straps sewed together; the 
precision of which it was capable even surpassed that of the 
Balearic slingers. The coins of the Pisidian city of Selge are the 
only Greek sculptures which represent slingers (Fig. 283) ; they 
frequently occur on Roman monuments. 1 

The use of battle-chariots belongs to the heroic period. The 
warrior (TrapafiaTT)<;\ standing by the side of the charioteer 
(17^/0^0?), was driven in front of the line to invite hostile war- 
riors to single combat. When the strategic skill of the com- 
mander superseded the demands on his personal valor, the chariot 
was transferred from the battle-field to the hippodrome, where 
alone its original form was preserved. The description of the 
Homeric battle-chariot, therefore, to a great extent, also applies 
to the historic chariot of the race-course. Notwithstanding the 
plentiful monumental evidence, many important points, as, for 
instance, the harnessing of the horses, remain open to contro- 
versy. The generic term for chariot was apfia ; its other name 
Stypos is a pars pro toto, the denomination of the body of the 
chariot being applied to the whole. The body of the chariot 

1 Compare § 107 as to the inscriptions on the missiles of slings. 


rested on two wheels (Tpo^ol, kvkXcl) connected by an axle-tree. 
The small diameter (30 inches) of the former must be explained 
from the desire of preventing the chariot from being upset by 
the impediments of the battle-field, such as debris or dead bodies. 
The axle-tree (agcov) was about 7 feet long, which, counting 1 
foot for the nave of each wheel, leaves 5 feet for the chariot ; a 
width sufficient not to impede the movements of the warrior. 
The nave {ifkripbvq, yowi/ck) contained in its opening (o-vpcy^) an 
inner ring (arapvov, ydpvov, hecrrpov), while two other metal rings, 
one before, the other behind, the spokes (ifkrinvoheTos, dcopa]-), 
surrounded it on the outside. The Homeric wheels had eight, 
those in vase-paintings generally four, spokes (Kvrjfuu,, hence 
oKTd/cvrjfjLa). They were let into the four feliles (a^rZSe?) forming 
the rim of the wheel (tru?). In order to prevent the wheel from 
falling to pieces, a tire of metal (ima-a-mrpov) was added. The 
body of the vehicle (vTreprepia, or Stypos proper) rested on the 
axle. To the axle a wooden frame (tovos, Ifiavrcoo-^ tov Bfypov) 
was fastened by means of nails and pegs, and on this frame the 
boards forming the bottom of the chariot (Trrepva), elliptic in 
shape, were placed. Along the curved side of these boards rose 
the sides of the chariot {irepi^pcuyfia, Tappiov), frequently made 
of osiers in the manner of trellis-work (hence Homer's expression 
8/0/90? evTrke/cTos), and reaching on the side of the horses up to 
the knee of the charioteer, while toward the back it became grad- 
ually lower (Fig. 258). The upper rim (avTvi;), made of wood or 
metal, was either prolonged toward the back in 
a large curvature (Fig. 258), or it was doubled 
all along the sides of the chariot (Fig. 284). Its 
form varies greatly in the vase-paintings. Its 
destination was, most likely, twofold ; the back 
part was grasped by the warrior on jumping on 
to the chariot, while the front part served for 

Fig 284 

fastening the reins and the traces of the " wheel- 
horses " — an important point, hitherto unnoticed. The diphros 
was mounted from the back, which was open. The height of the 
sides in front was about 2 feet ; in the Roman triumphal chariot 
(an imitation of the Greek battle-chariot) it was increased up to 
about the chest of the charioteer. A cover of leather served to 
ward off missiles ; where it was wanting the sides were composed 



Fig. 2t5. 

of strong boards. Fig. 285, taken from a Koman relief, shows a 
chariot into which the corpse of Antilochos is being lifted by his 
friends. About the con- 
struction of vehicles for 
every-day use we know lit- 
tle. As somewhat similar 
to the two- wheeled diphros, 
we mention the gig. The 
wheels resemble those of 
the chariot ; a seat for two 
people, with a back and 
sides to it, rests on the 
axle (Fig. 286). In anoth- 
er vase-painting (Gerhard, 
"Auserlesene griech. Va- 

senbilder," Taf . ccxvii.) this seat resembles a chest ; on it a 
female figure is seated ; the driver sits at her feet close to the 
pole, with his legs hanging down at the side, a 
position similar to that of modern Neapolitan 
coachmen. On a coin of the city of Ehegium 
we see a one-horse vehicle on which the driver 
sits in a cowering position. We are ignorant 
of the names of these different forms of the 
gig. 'Airrjvr} and afiaga seem both to apply to 
four-wheeled vehicles of larger dimensions, used for carrying 
people and goods. The dfia^a, for instance, served as bridal 
chariot, on which the bride was seated between the bridegroom 
and parachos, a circumstance which proves the greater width of 
the vehicle. .On journeys, or as a means of enjoyment, vehicles 
were used to a limited extent ; walking, and riding on horseback, 
were deemed preferable. 

The pole (pv^o?) of the diphros was firmly inserted into the 
axle ; its other end was bound with metal, frequently shaped like 
the head of an animal ; the ends of the axle-tree were frequently 
adorned in like manner. To the point of the pole the yoke 
(firyoy, made of ash, maple, or beech-wood) was fastened by 
means of a very long strap (ZvyoBecrfjuov, Archaol. Zeitung, 1847, 
T. vi.). 

The slipping off of the yoke was, moreover, prevented by a 

Fig. 286. 


long nail (earcop) being stuck through the pole, and a ring (KpUo$) 
put over it. The yoke itself consisted of two wooden half -rings 
joined together by a transverse bar, which were put on the necks 
of the animals, the inner surfaces being stuffed so as to prevent 
chafing. To prevent the horse from shaking off the yoke, rings 
were attached to the curved parts which, by means of straps, were 
connected with the girths and the neck-straps (\i7raSva). Only 
the two horses next to the pole carried a yoke (whence their 
name £vyioi), the one or two additional horses running by the 
side of them being called aeipaloi (creipacfropoi,, Trapaaaipoi, iraprj- 
opoi\ or trace-horses, because they pulled by one trace only, fast- 
ened to the antyx of the vehicle and to the neck-strap of the 
animal. The harnessing of these trace-horses is illustrated by 
numerous vase-paintings (Gerhard, " Auserlesene griech. Vasen- 
bilder," Taf. 107, 112, 122, 123, 125, 131, 136, and others). In 
one vase-painting (Taf. 102, ibid.) this mode of fastening the 
traces to the antyx has even been applied to the biga. Whether 
the yoke continued to be used at a later period remains doubtful ; 
Pollux, in his description of the harnessing process, does not 
mention it. With few exceptions (Fig. 258, compare Gerhard, 
"Ueber die Lichtgottheiten," in " Abhandhmgen der Berliner 
Akademie der Wissenschaften," 1»39, Taf. iii. 1, and iv., 2) the 
yoke is invisible on the monuments, owing to the harness of the 
yoke-horses being covered by the trace-horse nearest the spectator. 
The bridle perfectly resembled that now in use. The Greeks 
had names for the single parts of it, as, for instance, %a\tz/o? for 
the bit, and icopvfyaia for the strap running from the bit upward 
across the head. The reins were fastened to both ends of the 
bit. As is evident from vase-paintings, all the reins were drawn 
through a ring just above the pole ; they were held by the chari- 

About the warlike equipment of the horses and horsemen of 
historic times we know little ; monumental evidence is almost 
absent, seeing that the lancers occasionally met with on coins are 
very imperfectly armed. The citizen-horsemen in the Pana- 
thena'ic procession on the frieze of the Parthenon are quite 
unarmed. As appears from this monument and various repre- 
sentations of horse-races (Fig. 259), saddles were not used in 
common life. Greek cavalry in battle used the saddle-cloth 


(i(f)L7nnov), fastened to the horse's back by means of a girth 
(eiroxov). The horse of Alexander the Great in the Museo 
Borbonico (Muller, "Denkmaler der alten Kunst," Part i., 
No. 170) wears a saddle-cloth. The ends of the cloth are there 
joined together over the chest of the horse by means of an 
elegant clasp ; the bridle is adorned with rosettes. Stirrups and 
horseshoes were unknown to the Greeks. The rider jumped on 
his horse, making use occasionally of stones lying by the road, 
or of his lance. The horse was protected by pieces of armor for 
the head {irpofieTwirlhiov)^ the chest (irpocrrepvlScov), and the sides 
(TrapaTrXevp&ia). In a fragment of a vase-painting (Micali, 
" Monumenti antichi," 1844, Atlas, PI. 45), a head-armor of this 
kind is depicted, resembling a plate, which is fastened to the , 
horse's head by means of iron bands. 

Almost all the battle-scenes on Greek monuments represent 
mythical subjects. Historical battle-scenes, as frequently found 
on Koman coins and triumphal monuments, are very rare. Of 
historic representations we mention the battle between Greeks and 
Persians on the frieze of the temple of Nike Apteros, at Athens, 
the mosaic known by the name of " Battle of Alexander," and 
the assembly of the nobles of Darius Hystaspis, painted on a vase 
in the Museo Borbonico (Gerhard, " Denkmaler und Forschun- 
gen," 1857, Taf. ciii.). 

To conclude, we mention the trophy (rpoTraiov), which, ac- 
cording to international custom, was erected from pieces of the 
booty, on the spot where the enemy had turned to flight {rpeiray, 
Tpoirr) ; Tpoiraiov arrjo-aL, ar^aaadac). Only in rare cases it was 
erected with a view to permanency; as, for in- 
stance, the trophy placed in the temple-grove Altis 
by the inhabitants of Elis, in commemoration of 
their victory over the Lakedsemonians. As a rule, 
the trophy was temporary, and was frequently de- 
stroyed by the beaten party in case their defeat 
was not decisive enough to compel them to own it. 
The trunk of a tree, on which a complete armor has been hung, 
and at the foot of which pieces of booty have been heaped, ap- 
pears as a tropaion on a coin struck by the Boeotians, most likely 
in commemoration of some victory (Fig. 287). The commemora- 
tion of victories and victorious generals at home by means of vo- 



tive offerings, monuments, and inscriptions, was of a more lasting 
kind, although the Greeks never indulged in the self -glorifying 
exaggerations of the Roman emperors. 

55. We add a few remarks about Greek war and merchant 
vessels. Many attempts at explaining the construction of antique 
ships have been made, but the mutual ignorance of seafaring men 
and philologists with regard to the technical terms of their re- 
spective branches of knowledge has, in many cases, led to be- 
wildering confusion and wild conjectures. Moreover, antique 
representations of ships — partly from the total want of perspec- 
tive, partly from the omission of the most important details — are 
of comparatively little assistance to us. Graser has attempted a 
, new solution of this important problem, which is among the most 
difficult tasks of antique research. 1 Following the researches of 
Bockh (in his celebrated work on the Attic navy) with regard to 
the construction and rigging of Greek ships, Graser has expound- 
ed an entirely new theory of the dimensions and rowing appara- 
tus of Greek vessels. His intimate knowledge of modern ships 
has been of considerable assistance to him. We have essentially 
adopted the results of his investigations in preference to all pre- 
vious conjectures. 

We pass over the earliest attempts at navigation in hollow 

trees or on rafts. The invention 
of the art of ship-building, like 
that of most other arts, must be 
placed in prehistoric times; gods 
and heroes are mentioned as its 
originators. A bass-relief in the 
British Museum (Fig. 288) shows 
Athene supervising the building 
of the Argo, in which Jason and 
his companions are said to have 
ventured on the first long voyage. Homer's descriptions of the 
interior arrangements of ships prove that at the time of the Tro- 
jan War the art of ship-building was considerably advanced. 
Rowers (20 to 52 in number), sitting on benches (fckrjlSes;) along 

Fig. 283. 

1 Graser, " De veterum re navali." Berolini, 1864. " Philologus," supplementary 
volume iii. part ii. — " Das Modell eines athenischen Fiinfreihenschiffs (Penteres), aus 
der Zeit Alexanders des Grossen, im kgl. Museum zu Berlin." Berlin, 1866. 

THE SHIP. 255 

the sides of the ship, beat the waves simultaneously with their long 
oars {eperfid) made of pine- wood. As in our sloops (Schaluppen), 
the oars of the Homeric vessel were made fast between pegs 
(aKaXfioi) by means of leather straps (fjpTvvavro 8' i per pa Tpoirols 
ev Sep/jLCLTivoiaw), so as to prevent their slipping. In case of a 
calm or of adverse winds the ship was propelled by the rowers ; 
the mast (7<rro?) was placed in a case, or rather on props (loToSo/cif), 
and kept in its position by means of ropes fastened to the prow 
and poop of the vessel. The sail (icttlov) was attached to a yard 
(eiriicpiov). Wind and oars were thus conjointly made servicea- 
ble ; the helmsman (KvfSepvrjTrii) directing the course of the vessel 
by means of the rudder (TrrjBakui). The war-vessels sent against 
Ilion carried fifty to a hundred and twenty soldiers, who, un- 
doubtedly, had also to act as rowers. Of the fifty men forming 
the crew of the smallest vessels, forty plied the twenty oars by 
turns, the others taking care of the rigging or acting as officers. 
The small draught of , the vessels is proved by the fact of their 
being, without much difficulty, pulled ashore, where wooden or 
stone props {epfmra) served to keep them dry and protect them 
from the waves. 

The development of ship-building was undoubtedly due to the 
Greeks. The numerous natural harbors of the Greek continent, 
combined with the growing demands of intercommunication with 
the islands, and the colonies of Asia Minor and Southern Italy, 
favored the rapid growth of navigation. The continual wars 

waged among the Greek tribes, and by them collectively against 
barbarians, necessitated the keeping up of large navies. The 
Homeric vessel, most likely only a transport, and unfit for battle, 
was soon supplanted by war-vessels of larger dimensions. Be- 
sides flat-bottomed vessels, called, according to the number of 
rowers sitting on both sides, el/coo-opoL, rpiafcovropoi, irevT7)Kovropoi 
(Fig. 289) and e/carovropoi, we also hear of ships of greater 


draught, in which the oarsmen sat in two rows, one over the 
other. During the Persian and Peloponnesian wars the fleets 
consisted of Tpufipei? exclusively. Vessels with more than three 
ranks of rowers, such as reTprjpeis and irevrripeis, were first intro- 
duced by Dionysios I., tyrant of Syrakuse, after a Carthaginian 
pattern. Dionysios II. introduced egr/peis. Even six rows were 
not always deemed sufficient. Ten and (with a modification of 
the system) more rows were placed one over the other, the result 
being a surprising velocity and handiness of the vessels thus 
constructed. In the battle of Actium we hear of ships with ten 
rows ; Demetrios Poliorketes had even vessels of fifteen and 
sixteen rows, the seaworthiness of which is warranted by antique 

The construction of the war-vessel, as introduced shortly be- 
fore the Persian wars, must now command our attention. The 
keel (rpoTrus, carina) consisted of one horizontal beam, parallel to 
the longitudinal axis of the vessel ; in older ships it rose from 
the centre to the ends in a wide curve. The large ships of a 
later period had keels composed of several straight beams joined 
together, into the ends of which stem (areipa) and stern posts 
(aaavhov) were inserted almost in a right angle, being only 
slightly bent outward. Under the. keel another beam {^ekv^pa) 
was placed parallel to it, so as to add to its power of resistance ; 
corresponding to this, a third beam (Spvoxov) lay on the top of 
the keel ; into this, the ribs of the ship (iy/coiXia, costw) were 
let. The upper ends of each pair of corresponding ribs, forming 
together one curvature, were joined together by means of a 
straight cross-beam (arpcor^p), destined to carry the upper deck 
(fcardcrTpcofjLa, constratum). The bulwark, inclosing the two long 
sides of the latter, generally consisted of trellis-work. In larger 
vessels a second layer of boards (£vyov, transtrum), underneath 
the upper deck, was laid across the ribs of the vessel, destined to 
carry the second or lower deck (e'Sa<£o9, pavimentwri). The 
two decks communicated with each other and the hull (kolXov) 
by means of steps, hatchways being cut in the boards for the pur- 
pose. The hull contained the ballast and the pump. 

Both in the prow (irpcopa, prora) and poop (7rplfj,va, puppis) of 
the vessel small half -decks (iKplcofia), corresponding to our fore- 
castle and quarter-deck, were placed considerably above the upper 



deck. They rested on the prolongation of the ribs nearest to 
stem and stern. The poop and prow were essentially identical in 
construction, differing in this from all modern vessels excepting 
our latest iron-clads. 

The planks of the vessel (o-avl&es) were strengthened externally 
by a wooden ledge {yofiel?) just above the water-line, corre- 
sponding to which a number of boards (apfjuovlcu, Seo-fioi) were 
placed along the ribs inside, so as to give firmness to the whole 
fabric. As a further means of increasing their compactness, war- 
vessels were provided with a band consisting of four stout ropes 
(vTro&paTo) laid horizontally round the hull below the water- 
line ; in case of a dangerous voyage, the number of these ropes 
might be increased. These hypozomata are distinctly recogniz- 
able on a small bronze in the Antiquarium of the Royal Museum, 
Berlin (No. 1329), representing the prow of a man-of-war (com- 
pare the small bronze statuette of Poseidon, No. 2469 of the 
same collection). 

A little lower than the upper deck, just above the upper holes 
for the oars, a narrow gangway (7rdpo$os) runs along both sides of 
the vessel ; in wood-clad vessels (fcard^paKToi, tectce) this parodos 
is protected by strong massive boards (see Fig. 300, representing 
a Roman bireme). Both stem and stern- 
post ended in a volute. The tent-like house 
\(7K7]vrj) of the helmsman (Fig. 290) stood 
on the poop just underneath the volute. 
From this point he directed the two rud- 
ders (inj&akiov, gubemaeulum) to right and 
left of the stern, which are peculiar to all 
antique ships, by means of a rope (%a\«/o?) 
running straight across the vessel. The 
rudders were always kept parallel (Fig. 
291). To the volute of the poop a leaf or 
feather ornament (dcfAaarpov, aplustre) has 
been added (Fig. 290). The prow frequently shows an ornament 
resembling the neck of a swan (^wcr/co?), which, perhaps, at the 
same time, served for fastening ropes. Between these two, the 
flag-staff (tTTrfkk), with the flag (arjfjuelov) attached to it, was erected. 
In merchant-vessels the flag-staff was frequently supplied by the 
image of the protecting deity. Athenian vessels, for instance, 

Fro. 290. 

258 THE SHIP. 

carried the image of Athene as clttlkov crrjfietov. The prow, as 
we said before, exactly resembled the poop. Here, also, a strong 
wooden band encircled the vessel on a level with the parodos. 
The point where the outer ribs crossed each other was marked 
by a ram's head (yrpoeixBoXiov) made of bronze, and serving either 
as an ornament or as a protection to the upper part of the vessel. 
Underneath this, on a level with the water-line, was the beak 
(efjifioXov, rostrum), consisting of several rafters let into the body 
of the vessel and ending in a point, which was made more for- 
midable by the addition of a massive piece of iron divided into 
three blunt teeth of unequal length. Two beams (eVajriSe?), 
supported by props (ai/TT/ptSes), protruded 
on both sides of the rostrum ; on these the 
anchors were hung up. They also served 
to protect the vessel from the attacks of 
the enemy's beak. We finally mention an 
opening on each side of the prow, through 
which the cables were drawn; these holes 
were bound with iron, and somewhat re- 

Fig. 291. 

sembled eyes, whence their name o^OakfjioL 
The resemblance of a vessel thus constructed to a fish was not 
unnoticed by the ancients {see Fig. 289). Something similar we 
meet with in the imitation of dragons in the vessels of the Norse- 
men, and in the construction of Chinese junks. 

The beam of merchant-vessels was usually equal to a quarter, 
that of men-of-war to one-eighth or one-tenth, of their length. 
Hence the name vrjes fia/cpal (na/ces longce) applied to the lat- 
ter. A trireme was 149 feet long by 14 wide (at the water- 
line) and 19^ deep. Her draught was 8£ feet, her tonnage 232. 
In the pentere the corresponding figures were 168 feet, 18 
feet, and 26J feet ; the draught being 11 J feet, and the tonnage 

The main-mast (Icttos /Jbiyas) stood in the centre of the vessel. 
It was square-rigged {icepaZoi, antennce), and carried two sails 
([aria fjbeyaXa), one above the other, answering to our course and 
top-sail. Above these was another square sail corresponding to 
our topgallant-sail (BoXcov, dolori), and above that two triangular 
sails {a-LTrapoi, suppara). Besides the main-mast there were two 
smaller masts (jo-ros a/careto?), with two fore-and-aft lateen-sails 


each, one over the other, which were important in tacking. 
Strong ropes supported the main-mast (stays, irporovoi ; back- 
stays, iiTLTovoc ; and shrouds, tcakoi) and the two smaller masts ; 
thinner ropes served for lifting and bracing the yards, setting the 
sails, etc. 

Besides the ropes of the rigging, collectively called a-xevrj 
fcpefAacrrd, a war-vessel required various contrivances of a similar 
nature to protect her both against high seas and the missiles of 
the enemy. To this class belonged strips of tarpaulin (vTrofikrjfia) 
hung round the hull to cover the apertures for the oars, when 
these had to be pulled in owing to the roughness of the sea ; as 
also an awning (KaTd/3\7)fjLa) suspended over the upper deck as a 
protection both from the sun and missiles; a woven stuff was 
also pulled over the trellis of the bulwark (Trapa/SX^fiara, irapap- 
pvfjLara) to ward off darts and arrows. 

To conclude, we mention the anchor, the ship's ladder, the 
boat-hook, and the lead. The most primitive forms of the anchor 
(ay/cvpa, aneora) were blocks of stone, sand-bags, and baskets 
filled with stones. Later, anchors in our sense, made of wood 
and iron, and essentially like those at present in use, were 
introduced. Their varieties are 
illustrated by Fig. 292 ; a, c, 
being taken from coins of the 
city of Tuder ; b, from one of 
Luceria; d, of German icia Cae- 
sarea, and e, of Psestum. The 
antique anchor, as appears from the pictures, has at the end of 
the stem a ring, movable or immovable (a, b, d, e), to which 
the cable is fastened; the cross-beam is underneath this ring 
(c, d, e). The flukes of the anchor appear in many varieties on 
the coins. Those on the coins of Psestum (e) exactly resemble 
our modern ones. At the point where the flukes met, a loop or 
staple (a, b, c, d) was attached to the anchor, to which a rope was 
fastened for the purpose of lifting up the flukes so as to make 
them catch. This could be done only where the water was not 
very deep. The cable (trxpwla ay/cupeia, aneoralia, furies anco- 
rales) was wound round a capstan (crrpocpeiov), by means of which 
the anchor was weighed (see " Pitture d'Ercolano," t. ii., p. 14). 

Fig. 292. 



Fig. 293. 

The cable ran .through eye-like hawse-holes on both sides of the 
prow. Each ship had several boat-hooks (kovtol) and ship's lad- 
ders (KXifjuatclSesy scalce). Fig. 293 and other 
monnments illustrate their use as bridges or 
gangways thrown from the side of the high 
vessel to the shore. As appears from a vase- 
painting (Micali, "L'ltalia avanti il dom. dei 
Romani," Tav. 103), these ladders were secured 
to the rigging by means of ropes. Fig. 294, 
from a bass-relief in the British Museum, shows 
the lead (/3o\t?, KaTa7recpaTrjpy perjpendiculum) 
suspended on the volute of the prow. 

Fig. 295 shows a design of a triere, by means 
of which the mutual position in the vessel of the 
parts hitherto mentioned may be recognized : a is the periphery 
of the vessel at the water-line; b, OaXafuraL ; c, ^vyurai ; d, 
Opavlrcu ; h, irdpoho<; ; i, l/cpia (forecastle and 
quarter-deck) ; Jc, Kardarpco/jui ; I, eVftm'Se? ; 
m, dvrrjpiBes ; n, €fij3o\ov ; o, point where the 
stern {crrelpa) begins ; p, d(rdvBiov ; q, I crro? 
dfcareios ; r, lo-rbs fj,e<ya<; ; s, %a\iv6<; ; t, 7rr)$d- 
Xlov ; u, SuKppdyfjLaTa. 

The interior arrangement of the antique 
ship, particularly with regard to the position 
and manipulation of the oars, is subject to many doubts. Here, 
also, Graser's investigation of the original sources, combined 
with practical experiments, has elucidated the question to a 
considerable extent. The rowing-apparatus (eyfccQirov) was con- 
fined to the centre part of the hull. Poop and prow were un- 
available, owing to their narrowness, and the former supposition 
of the uppermost rank of rowers having sat on deck has been 
completely abandoned, as has also the opinion that the space 
for the rowers was divided by horizontal partitions of any 
kind. The space for the rowers (^vycoo-cs;) was inclosed on the 
one hand by the long sides of the ship, on the other by two 
vertical partitions (Btacppdy/juaTa), with openings in them through 
which the rowers (ipeTcu, nautce) -filed off to their seats. The 
benches (£vyd, transtra), reaching from the diaphragma to the 
side of the vessel, were arranged in rows of different heights. 

Fig. 294. 




Owing to the outward curvature of the hull, the rowers in the 
lower ranks naturally sat nearer to the side of the vessel than 
those in the higher. The width of seat y 

necessary for each man may be counted at ijl 

8 square feet (Fig. 296). The benches 
were arranged so that the seats of the 
upper row were on a level with the heads 
of the lower. Fig. 297, a, shows the 
arrangement of the ranks, which, in a ^ 
manner, were dovetailed into each other m 
(Fig. 297, b), in consequence of which the - 
handles of the oars in one row required to - 
be only two feet lower than those in the "" 
row above it. This arrangement, which left 
sufficient freedom to the movements of the „ 
rowers, explains why, in many-ranked ves- - 
sels, the oars of the upper rows need not - 
have been too long or too heavy to be " 
plied by one man only. For Greek ships, 
unlike mediaeval galleys, had only one 
rower to each oar. In order to make this „ 
possible, the oar (Koyn-rj, remus) was bal- - 
anced as much as possible, the weight of - 
the part inside the vessel being increased ' 
by the thickness of the handle and addi- 
tional pieces of lead, so as to make it 
quite as heavy as or even a little heavier - 
than the outer part. Besides this, the aper- - 
ture for the oar (rprjfia, columbarium) was - 
bound with metal, so as to reduce the fric- " 
tion to a minimum. The force of the beat 
of the different banks of oars on the water 
was made equal through the proportion of _ 
the inner to the outer part of the oar being . 
in the same proportion in all oars (at first, 
1:2; afterward, 1 : 3). 

As we said before, the rowers of each 
bank sat horizontally behind each other, fig. 295. 

the ranks themselves lying perpendicularly over each other. 

! k J 


-1 k 




Fig. 296. 

The number of these ranks determined the name of the vessel 
(rpLrjpTjs, triremis / rerpr/pr]^, quadriremis ; TrevTrjpr)*;, quinque- 
remis / etc.). In the triere the rowers of the bottom bank were 
called OaXa/jblrai, those of the middle ^vylrai, those 
of the top row Opavhai ; in the pentere the rowers 
of the fourth row were called TeTprjplrcu, those 
of the fifth TrevTTjpLTcu. The distance between the 
oars of the same row was exactly 4 feet ; but they 
were always pushed one foot in front of the corre- 
sponding oars of the upper row (see Fig. 298, b, c, d). 
Reckoning the distance of the bottom row from the 
water-line, the thalamitai would have required oars 
of a length of 7£ feet. This length was increased by 
3 feet in each ascending row, which determines the 
length of the oars of the zygitai at 10£ feet, of the 
thranitai (the topmost row of the triere) at 13£ feet, 
of the tetreritai at 16£ foot, of the penteritai (the 
top row of the pentere) at 19 J feet. The verti- 
cal distance of the handles of the oars was, as we 
said before, 2 feet (Fig. 298, a, b) ; but this dis- 
tance was reduced to If feet by the curvature of 
the sides of the vessel (c, d) ; that between the 
apertures, seen from the outside, was, indeed, 
only H foot (/, g). The distance of the top row from the sur- 
face of the water in the pentere was only 8 feet, in the triere 5J 
feet. For a ten-ranked ship this gives a distance of the aper- 
tures from the water of 14^ feet, the length of the oar being 
34f feet. Even in sixteen-ranked ships, such as were built by 
Demetrios Poliorketes, the length of the uppermost oars could be 
- reduced to 27f feet, so as to make the vessel 
seaworthy. This was done by making the row- 
locks more slanting. This explains the possi- 
bility of the forty-ranked state-ship built by 
Ptolemaios Philopator ; which, however, could 
be used only in smooth water. The uppermost 
oars were, according to AthenaBus, 57 feet 
The celebrated state-ship of Hieron of Syrakuse was, 
however, not a vessel of war, but of burden. 

i See Graser, u De veterum re navali," §§ 64-70, Tab. iv. , 

Fig. 297, b. 

Fig. 29S. 

long. 1 



The number of rowers was increased by one in each ascend- 
ing rank. The number of the thalamitai, counting both sides, was 
54 ; of the zygitai, 58 ; of the thranitai, 62 ; of the tetreritai, dQ ; 
of the penteritai, 70. The triere, therefore, contained altogether 
175 rowers; the pentere, 310. All these were under the com- 
mand of the /ceXevarrjs (hortator) and his lieutenant, the eTroirrr)^. 
The rowing was accompanied by the rhythmical notes of a piper 
(TpLTjpavkr)?). The number of marines (eTrifi&Tai) was compara- 
tively very small. An Attic pentere contained only eighteen of 
them, besides twenty-four sailors (vavrcu, nautce). The small 
number of marines is explained by the fact of a Greek sea-fight 
consisting chiefly in endeavors to knock a hole into the enemy's 
vessel by means of the above-mentioned rostrum, or, at least, to 
break her oars in passing close by her. Every thing, therefore, 
depended upon skillful manoeuvring. 

The building and equipping of vessels were done in military 
harbors, of which that of Athens is in the best state of preservation. 
It was separated from the commercial harbor, commonly called 
Piraieus, and was divided into three basins, cut nearly circularly 

Fig. 299. 

into the Piraieus peninsula. The centre one, Munychia, could 
hold twice as many men-of-war (viz., 200) as each of the two oth- 
ers, Zea and Kantharos. The docks (vewroucai) lay round these 
basins close to the water, their openings being turned toward the 
centres or the outlets of the basin ; in them the ships, when not 
in use, were protected from the weather. Farther back were 



situated the arsenals (o-Kevodrjfcri), containing the fittings of the 
ships not in use ; the name for the whole dockyard was vedopta. 
The docks, or ship-sheds, generally contained one vessel each ; as, 
for instance, was the case in the celebrated harbors of Rhodes, 
Korinth, and Kyzikos, the latter of which could hold two hun- 
dred ships; in Syrakuse, however, and some other places, each 
dock contained two vessels. Graser's measurements of the Athe- 
nian harbors have fully confirmed his above-mentioned conject- 
ures as to the construction of the vessels themselves. Further 
confirmation is derived from the bass-relief of an Attic Tprfpys 
acppafCTos, but KardaTpcoTos, in which, therefore, the uppermost 
bank of oars is visible (Fig. 299). 

As the Roman vessel resembles the Greek in most points, we 
will here add a few remarks about the former. The Latin terms 

have already been given. As long as Roman conquests were 
limited to Italy, their navy consisted only of long boats (caudices, 
naves caudicarice) for river navigation, and of small sea-vessels as 
a means of intercommunication between the maritime provinces, 
not to mention the defense of the harbors. The Carthaginian wars 
necessitated the building of a powerful fleet. In a space of two 
months 130 penteres and trieres were constructed, after the pattern 
of a stranded Carthaginian pentere. The timbers were roughly 
cut, and the improvised sailors had to be trained on rowing-frames 
erected on shore ; but the foundation was thus laid of a fleet of 
triremes, quadriremes, and quinqueremes, commonly called naves 
longce. The Romans, differing in this from the Greeks, trans- 
ferred the mode of close fighting to their sea-battles. Two or 

THE MEAL. 265 

four towers {navis turrita) and catapults transformed the deck 
into a castle, from which the marines began the light with mis- 
siles till the vessels approached within boarding distance. The 
marines, therefore, were much more numerous on board Ro- 
man than Greek vessels. The quinquereme contained 120. 
After the battle of Actium Roman ship-building underwent a 
thorough change. That battle had been won against the Greek- 
Egyptian fleet of Antony, built according to Greek rules, chiefly 
by means of the ships of the Liburnian pirates, which had only 
two banks of oars and a very light rigging. In consequence, the 
Roman fleet was reorganized according to the same principle 
{navis Libumd). Besides men-of-war, larger vessels of burden were 
required ; these naves onerarice {(poprar/Goybs vavs or arpoyyvXv) 
were about three or four times as long as they were broad. Many 
statements in ancient authors prove the quickness of voyage in 
those days. Balbilus went from Messina to Alexandria in six 
days (the French mail-steamers require 6-J- days for the same 
distance). Yalerius Maximus sailed from Puteoli to Alexandria 
lenissimo flatu in nine days, and the voyage from Gades to Ostia 
took only seven days, in case the wind was favorable ; that from 
Gades to Gallia Narbonensis (perhaps to Massilia), three days. 

56. From the serious business of life we now follow the 
Greek citizen to scenes of merriment. We mentioned before 
(J 33) that the chief difference between the customs at the 
meals of earlier and later periods consisted in the former being 
taken in a sitting, the latter in a reclining position {/caTaickicns). 
The Kylix of Sosias, in the Berlin Museum, where the gods 
appear at their meal sitting on thrones in couples, may serve to 
illustrate the older Homeric custom. Only the Kretans pre- 
served this old custom up to a later period. Almost all the later 
representations show the men lying at their meals ; women and 
children, on the contrary, appear in an upright posture, the 
former sitting mostly on the farther end of the kline at the 
feet of their husbands, or on separate chairs. 1 The sons were 
not allowed to recline till they came of age ; in Makedonia not 
till they had killed a boar. The women we occasionally see 
in pictures (mostly of later date) are probably hetairai {see 

1 Compare the specimens collected by Welcker, " Alte Denkmaler," vol ii., p. 242, 



Fig. 301. 

Fig. 304). This, however, is different in Etruscan representa- 
tions, where a man and a woman are seen reclining on one and 
same Mine. Aristotle says expressly that men and their 

wives used among the Etrus- 
cans to lie down to their 
meals under one and the 
same coverlid. In Greece, 
also, a kline was gener- 
ally occupied by no more 
than two people. Fig. 301 
shows two couches with 
an older and a younger man reclining on each of them, talking 
to each other in a lively manner. A cup-bearer is about to 
replenish their emptied goblets. Where three or four persons 
are seen on the same kline {see Fig. 304), we may suspect the 
introduction of a Roman custom into Greece. 

The gorgeous arrangement and more refined cookery of the 
meals of latter days widely differed from the frugality of Homer- 
ic times. Pieces of beef, mutton, goat-meat, or pork, roasted on 
the spit, were placed by the maid-servants on little tables in front 
of the guests {see § 33) ; the bread was handed round in baskets ; 
and at the end of the meal wine was drunk, which had been pre- 
viously mixed with water in huge krateres. The use of knives 
and forks remained unknown, whence the custom of washing the 
hands {airovtyacrQaC) and drying them on a towel {^eipofiaKTpov) 
provided for the purpose. Tablecloths and napkins were equally 
unknown. The latter were supplied by a peculiar kind of dough, 
which served to clean the fingers from grease. Sometimes tem- 
porary spoons were formed of the same material, to eat the more 
fluid victuals. Such is still the custom in the East. Greek cook- 
ery, even of a later period (not to mention Spartan frugality), 
is described as simple, if not poor; consisting chiefly of fjud^a 
(flat round cakes of barley, still eaten in Greece), various kinds 
of salad, garlic, onions, and pulse, whence the derisive expres- 
sions iiiKpoTpdire^oL or cpvWorpayyes applied to the Greeks. The 
more refined tastes of Grecia Magna were only gradually intro- 
duced among the richer classes of Greece itself. Various kinds 
of fish and shell-fish, and different vegetables, gradually supplant- 
ed the huge joints of Homeric times. The meals were prepared 


by cooks hired from the market, or by Sicilian " chefs," who, in 
Roman times, were among the slaves of every rich Greek family. 
The menus which might be composed from the statements of an- 
cient authors seem little palatable according to our notions ; but 
the rich and tasteful plate and other table-furniture described by 
us (§ 33, et seq.) give us a high idea of the elegant appearance of a 
Greek dinner-table. 

Another characteristic of the meals of later time3 was the addi- 
tion of the crvfiiroa-cov to the meal proper (hehrvov). Deipnon was 
the name of the chief meal or dinner, about sunset ; aKpdrtafia 
that of the breakfast ; apivTov that of the luncheon, about mid-day. 
In early times the meal was considered as finished as soon as the 
appetite was satisfied ; later, the drinking-bout, animated by con- 
versation, music, mimic representations, and games, became the 
most important part of the meal. Wit and humor were displayed 
to their fullest advantage, for the Greek, differing in this from the 
more indolent Roman, took an active part in the various amuse- 

The removal of the dinner-table (cupew, airalpeiv, iiraipuv, 
acjxupelv, ifccf)ep€Lv, jBaard^ew rds rpaire^a^), and the simultaneous 
cleaning of the floor from bones, peelings, and other remnants of 
the meal, gave the signal for rising. Sosus, the artist, imitated in 
mosaic a floor, covered with such remnants and other rubbish, for 
the dining-hall of the royal palace of Pergamon. At the end, as 
at the beginning of the meal, the hands were washed with scented 
soap (a/juf/y/LLa or oy/%ta) ; the meal proper then was closed by a liba- 
tion of unmixed wine, which was drunk by all round to the good 
spirit (dyaOov SaifjLGvos), or to each other's health (vyielas). A 
second libation (awovBai) introduced the symposion. Hymns and 
the solemn notes of a flute accompanied this libation, which, as it 
were, gave a sacred character to the beginning symposion. 

The dessert, called, in opposition to the irpwrai rpdire^at or 
helirvov proper, hevrepai rpdire^ai or Tpcuy^iiara, later also iircBop- 
ina, iTrcBopirlafiara, eiribopinoi Tpdire^ai, iTrlSenrva, iTriBeiirvtSes, 
eirifyopyjiMiTa, eTTaiickia, ywyaXevfjLaTa, etc., consisted of about the 
same dainties as nowadays. Piquant dishes, stimulating the 
guests to drinking, were chosen in preference ; among cheeses, 
those from Sicily and from the town of Tromileia in Achaia 
were particularly liked ; cakes sprinkled with salt {eiriircurra) were 



another important feature of the Greek dessert. Dried figs from 
Attika and Khodes, dates from Syria and Egypt, almonds, melons, 
etc., and salt mixed with spices, were seldom wanting. Many of 
these dainties, as various fruits and Attic cakes shaped like pyra- 
mids, may be recognized in pictures lying on little tables in front 
of the topers. The drinking began simultaneously with the ap- 
pearance of the dessert ; for during the meal no wine was served. 
Unmixed wine (atcparov) was not as strictly forbidden to the 
Greeks as to the inhabitants of Lokri, in Southern Italy, where 
the law of Zeleukos made it a capital crime ; still, the diluting of 
the wine with water was an old-established custom in Greece. 
This dietetic measure, made necessary by the universal custom 
even among the lower classes of drinking the fiery wine of the 
South, was so common in Greece, that the contrary was consid- 
ered as a characteristic of barbarous nations. Habitual drunken- 
ness was exceptional among the Greeks, although occasional ine- 
briation at symposia was by no means uncommon ; the severe 
Doric customs of Sparta and Krete for that reason forbade the 
post-prandial drinking-bout altogether. The wine was mixed 
with hot or cold water ; in the latter case snow was frequently 
mixed with the wine, or the filled vessel itself was put into a 
wine-cooler filled with snow. The mixture always contained 
more water than wine ; a mixture by halves (i<rov i<r(p) was very 
uncommon. The proportion of water to wine was generally 3 : 1 
(a mixture called by Athenseus in derision " frogs' wine " — 
fiarpaxpLs olvoxpeiv), or 2 : 1, more rarely 3 : 2. This proportion, 

however, was modified 
by the taste of the 
drinker and the qual- 
ity of the wine. Large 
krateres of metal or 
burnt clay (see the ves- 
sels standing on the 
floor in Figs. 302 and 304) were used for mixing the wine. From 
this large vessel the wine was poured into the goblets (phiale, 
kylix, skyphos, kantharos, karchesion, keras, and rhyton) by 
means of the kyathos or oinochoe (see the vase-painting, Fig. 
302). Fig. 303 is taken from another vase-painting, in which 
the youthful cup-bearer there depicted approaches two girls on a 

Fig. 302. 

Fig. 303. 



kline with two kyathoi in his hands. As soon as the goblets 
were filled a king of the feast (ySacrtXeu?, ap%(ov ttjs iroaew^;, o-vfi- 
Trocriapxos, eWcrrafyto?) was chosen. His election was generally 
decided by casting the dice, unless one of the topers chose himself. 
This ruler had to decide the right mixture of the wine, the num- 
ber of goblets to be drunk by each guest, and the general rules 
of the feast (rpoTros t??? Troaecos;), which he occasionally had to en- 
force by penalties. The drinking was begun with small goblets, 
soon followed by larger ones, which had to be emptied by each 

Fig. 804. 

guest at one draught {airvBv<ni or afivorl irlveiv) to the health of 
his right-hand neighbor. All this somewhat reminds one of the 
customs of German students at their drinking-bouts. The south- 
ern vivacity and wit of the Greeks gave a peculiar charm to these 
feasts, which, however, frequently ended in sacrifices to Aphrodite 
Pandemos, as is but too easily explainable from the presence of 
beautiful girls as singers, players of flute and kithara and cup- 
bearers. Frequently these feasts were held at the houses of cele- 
brated hetairai. 1 Fig. 304 represents one of these scenes, which 

1 The presence of female slaves as cupbearers at these feats is proved by a bass- 
relief (Mieali, " L'lt. av. il Dominio d. Rom." Atlas pi. 107), where a female slave 



in later times were undoubtedly of frequent occurrence, and have 
often been the subjects of vase-paintings. 

Jugglers of both sexes, either single or in gangs, were com- 
mon all over Greece, putting up their booths, as Xenophon says, 
wherever money and silly people could be found. These fre- 
quently amused the guests at drinking-f easts with their tricks. 
The reputation of this class of people was any thing but above 
suspicion, as is proved by the verse of Manetho (" Apotheles," iv., 
276), in which they are described as the " birds of the country, the 
foulest brood of the city." Their tricks were innumerable, and 
outvied in boldness and ingenuity those of our conjurers, barring, 

Fig. 305. 

Fig. 306. 

of course, such as are founded on the modern discoveries of natural 
science. Male and female jugglers jumped forward and back- 
ward over swords or tables ; girls threw up and caught again a 
number of balls or hoops to the accompaniment of a musical 
instrument ; others displayed an astounding skill with their feet 
and toes while standing on their hands. Rope-dancers performed 
the most dangerous dances and salti-mortali. In Rome even 
elephants were trained to mount the rope. Flying-machines of a 
construction unknown to us are also mentioned, on which bold 
aeronauts traversed the air. Alkiphron tells a story about a 
peasant who, on seeing a juggler pulling little bullets from the 
noses, ears, and heads of the spectators, exclaimed : " Let such a 
beast never enter my yard, or else every thing would soon dis- 
appear." Descriptions of these tricks are frequent in ancient 
writers, particularly in the indignant invectives of the early 
fathers of the Church (compare § 100). Among the pictures of 

fills the goblets of two couples reclining on couches, while three girls are playing on a 
flute, lyre, and syrinx, respectively. 


female jugglers in all kinds of impossible postures we have 
chosen three. Fig. 305 shows a girl in short drawers and with a 
cap on her head, performing the dangerous sword-dance (e? 
fiaxalpas /cvficaTav) described by Plato (" Euthymed.," p. 294) 
and Xenophon (" Symposion," § 11). It consists in her turning 
somersaults forward and backward across the points of three 
swords stuck in the ground. A similar picture we see on a vase 
of the Berlin Museum. Fig. 306 shows a female juggler dressed 
in long drawers standing on her hands, and 
filling with her feet a kantharos from a krater 
placed in front of her. She holds the handle 
of the kantharos with the toes of her left 
foot, while the toes of her other foot cling 
round the stem of the kyathos used for draw- 
ing the liquor. A woman sitting in front 
of her performs a game with three balls, in 
which the ether artiste also seems to take a Fm * 80L 

part. In Fig. 307 a girl, in a rather awkward position, is shoot- 
ing an arrow from a bow. 

Of social games played by the topers we mention, besides the 
complicated kottabos, the games played on a board or with dice. 
Homer already mentions a game of the former class (7rerTeta), and 
names Palamedes as its inventor; of the exact nature of this 
game we know little or nothing. Neither are we informed of the 
details of another kind of petteia played with five little stones 
(yjrf}(f)oi), on a board divided by five lines. The so-called " game 
of cities" (7ro\et9 irai^eLv) seems to have resembled our chess 
or draughts. The board was divided into five parts {iroXet^ or 
%o>/?at). Each player tried to checkmate the other by the skillful 
use of his men. Games of hazard with dice and astragal oi were 
most likely greater favorites with the topers than the intellectual 
ones hitherto described. The number of dice (kv/3oi, fcvfteia, 
fcvfievTrjpta, t%sserce) was at first three, afterward two ; the figures 
on the parallel sides being 1 and 6, 2 and 5, 3 and 4. In order 
to prevent cheating, they were cast from conical beakers (irvpyos, 
turricula\ the interior of which was formed into different steps. 
Each cast had its name, sixty-four of which have been trans- 
mitted to us by the grammarians. The luckiest cast, each of the 
dice showing the figure 6 (rph ef), was called Aphrodite ; the 


unluckiest, the three dice showing the figure 1, had the name 
of " dog " or " wine " applied to it (kvcov, oho?, also T/>et? kv/3ol). 
Another game of a similar nature was played with the so-called 
astragaloi (aaTp&yaXoi,, tali), dice of a lengthy shape made of the 
knuckles of animals. Two of the surfaces were flat, the third 
being raised, and the fourth indented slightly. The last-men- 
tioned side was marked 1, and had, among many other names, 
that of " dog " (kvcov, canis) ; the opposite surface, marked 6, was 
called kwos. The Latin names of the two other sides marked 3 
and 4 were suppus smd planus respectively. The figures 2 and 5 
were wanting on the astragaloi, the narrow end-surfaces not being 
counted. The number of astragaloi used was always four, being 
the same as in the game of dice. Here also the luckiest cast was 
called Aphrodite, with which at the same time the honor of king- 
of-the-feast was connected. Young girls liked to play at a game 
with five astragaloi, or little stones, which were thrown into the 
air and caught on the upper surface of the hand (irevTeXiOt^eiv, 
irevraXiOl^eiv). This game is still in use in many countries. We 
possess many antique representations of these various games. 1 
Two vase-paintings (Panofka, " Bilder antiken Lebens," Taf. x., 
Nos. 10, 11) show soldiers playing at draughts. Astragaloi and 
dice of different sizes, some with the figures as above described 
on them, others evidently counterfeited, are preserved in several 
museums. Of larger representations we mention the marble 
statue of a girl playing with astragaloi in the Berlin Museum, 
and a Pompeian wall-painting (" Museo Borbon.," vol. v., Tav. 
23) in which the children of Jason play the same game, while 
Medea threatens their lives with a drawn sword. The celebrated 
masterpiece of Polykletes, representing two boys playing with 
astragaloi, formerly in the palace of Titus in Eome, has unfor- 
tunately been lost. Another wall-painting (Millin, "Mytholo- 
gische Gallerie," Taf. cxxxviii., ISTo. 515) shows in the fore- 
ground Aglaia and Hileaira, daughters of Elobe, Jmeeling and 
playing the same game. 

In connection with these social games we mention a few other 

1 Among the false dice of the R. Museum of Berlin one has the figure 4 twice 
over ; another was evidently loaded with lead. Besides, there is a die in the shape 
of an octagonal prism ; the surfaces show the following sequence of figures : 1, 1, 2, 
6, 3, 5, 4, 8. 

DANCES. 273 

favorite amusements of the Greeks. The existence of cock- 
fights (a\e/cTpvovo/jLaxla) is proved by vase-paintings, gems, and 
written evidence. It was a favorite pastime with both old and 
young. Themistokles, after his victory over the Persians, is said 
to have founded an annual entertainment of cock-fights, which 
made both these and the fights of quails popular among the 
Greeks. The breeding of fighting-cocks was a matter of great 
importance, Khodes, Chalkis, and Media, being particularly cele- 
brated for their strong and large cocks. In order to increase 
their fury, the animals were fed with garlic previous to the fight. 
Sharp metal spurs were attached to their legs, after which they 
were placed on a table with a raised border. Yery large sums 
were frequently staked on them by owners and spectators. Here 
again we see antique customs reproduced by various modern 
nations. The Italian game of morra (il giuco alia morra or fare 
alia morra) was also known to the an- 
cients. In it both players open their 
clinched right hands simultaneously with 
the speed of lightning, whereat each has 
to call out the number of fingers extend- 
ed by the other. Fig. 308, from a vase- 
painting in the Pinakothek of Munich, 
shows Eros and Anteros playing this 
game. It was called by the Greeks Sa/crvkcov iiraXka^, by the 
Romans micare digitis. (Compare similar representations in 
Archceologisehe Zeitung, 1871, Taf. 56.) 

57. Mimetic dances, were another favorite amusement at 
symposia. They mostly represented mythological scenes. A 
few words about Greek dancing ought to be added. Homer 
mentions dancing as one of the chief delights of the feast ; 
he also praises the artistic dances of the Phaiakian youths. 
This proves the esteem in which this art was held even at that 
early period. In the dances of the Phaiakai, all the young 
men performed a circular movement round a singer standing in 
the centre, or else two skilled dancers executed a pas de deux. 
Homer's words seem to indicate that the rhythmical motion was 
not limited to the legs, as in our modern dances, but extended to 
the upper part of the body and the arms. Perhaps the germs of 

Fig. 308. 



mimetic art may be looked for in this dance. According to 
Lucian, the aim of the dance was to express sentiment, passion, 
and action, by means of gestures. It soon developed into highest 
artistic beauty, combined with the rhythmic grace peculiar to 
the Greeks. Like the gymnastic and agonistic arts, the dance 
retained its original purity as long as public morality prevailed 
in Greece : its connection with religious worship preserved it 
from neglect. Gradually, however, here also mechanical virtuos- 
ity began to supplant true artistic principles. 

The division of dances according to their warlike or religious 
character seems objectionable, because all of them were originally 
connected with religious worship. The distinction between war- 
like and peaceful dances, called by Plato to iroXe/juicbv el%o$ and 
to elprjvitcov, is more appropriate. Among the warlike dances 
particularly adapted to the Doric character, the Trvpplxv was the 
oldest and that most in favor. It dates from mythical times. 
Pyrrhichos, either a Kretan or Spartan by birth, the Dioskuroi, 
also Pyrrhos the son of Achilles, are mentioned as its originators. 
The Pyrrhic dance, performed by several men in armor, imitated 
the movements of attack and defense. The various positions 
were defined by rule ; hands and arms played an important part 
in the mimetic action, hence the name ^eupovopbla also applied 

to this dance. It formed the 
chief feature of the Doric gym- 
nopaidia and of the greater 
and lesser Panathenaia at 
Athens. The value attached 
to it in the latter city is proved 
by the fact of the Athenians 
making Phrynichos command- 
er-in-chief owing to the skill 
displayed by him in the Pyrrhic dance. Later a Bacchic element 
was introduced into this dance, which henceforth illustrated 
the deeds of Dionysos. A fragment of a marble frieze (Fig. 
309) shows a satyr with a thyrsos and laurel crown performing 
a wild Bacchic dance between two soldiers, also executing a 
dancing movement ; it most likely illustrates the Pyrrhic dance 
of a later epoch. Of other warlike dances we mention the 
Kapireia, which rendered the surprise of a warrior ploughing a 

Fig. 309. 



field by robbers, and the scuffle between them. It was accom- 
panied on the flute. 

More numerous, although less complicated, were the peaceful 
choral dances performed at the feasts of different gods, accord- 
ing to their individualities. With the exception of the Bacchic 
dances, they consisted of measured movements round the altar. 
More lively in character were the gymnopaidic dances performed 
by men and boys. They were, like most Spartan choral dances, 
renowned for their graceful rhythms. They consisted of an 
imitation of gymnastic exercises, particularly of the wrestling, 
match and the Pankration ; in later times it was generally 
succeeded by the warlike Pyrrhic dance. Another dance, per- 
formed by noble Spartan maidens in honor of Artemis Karyatis, 
is depicted, Fig. 310. The chain-dance {opfio?) belongs to the 
same class. It was danced by a number of youths and maidens 

Fig. 810. 

placed alternately in a ring, and holding each other's hands ; they 
each performed the softer or more warlike movements suited to 
their sex, so that the whole, according to Lucian, resembled a 
chain of intertwined manly courage and female modesty (compare 
Fig. 310). We pass over the names of several dances, of which 
nothing is known to us beyond their connection with the worship 
of Dionysos. In this worship, more than in any other, the sym- 
bolic rendering of natural phenomena was felt by the people. 
The dying throbs of Nature in autumn, her rigid torpor in winter, 
and final revival in spring, were the fundamental ideas of the 
Bacchic myth. The joy and sorrow expressed by the Bacchic 
dances were in a manner inspired by these changes in Nature. 
This dramatic element in the Bacchic dance was the germ of 
theatrical representations. The grave and joyful feelings excited 


by the approach of winter or spring found their expressions both 
in hymns and choric dances. In the intervals between two 
hymns the choragos, disguised as a satyr, stepped forward, and 
recited in an improvised oration the feats of Dionysos, celebrated 
in the dithyrambos. His language was either serious or jocular, 
according to the facts related. Thespis, by distinguishing the 
actor from the chorus, and introducing a dialogue between him 
and the choragoi, initiated the artistic drama. The choruses sung 
at the Lenaia, the Bacchic winter celebrations, were descriptive of 
the death of Nature, symbolized by the sufferings of Dionysos. 
Tragedy owed its origin to them, while comedy was the develop- 
ment of the small rural Dionysia at the conclusion of the vintage. 
In the latter the phallus, the symbol of Nature's creative power, 
was carried in festive procession, surrounded by a crowd, adorned 
with wreaths and masks. After the Phallic and Ithyphallic songs 
had been sung, unbounded merriment, raillery, and satire, became 
the order of the day. Our remarks about the Greek theatre 
will be limited to the decorative arrangement of the skene (as far 
as it has not been considered in § 30), and the costumes of the 

58. The assembled people in a crowded theatre must have 
been an imposing spectacle, in which the gorgeous colors of the 
dresses were blended with the azure of a southern sky. No an- 
tique rendering of this subject remain's. The spectators began 
to assemble at early dawn, for each wished to secure a good seat, 
after paying his entrance-fee (Oecopi/cov). This, not exceeding 
two oboloi, was payable to the builder or manager of the theatre. 
After the erection of stone theatres at Athens, this entrance-fee 
was paid for the poorer classes by government, and formed, in- 
deed, one of the heaviest items of the budget. For not only at 
the Dionysian ceremonies, but on many other festive occasions, 
the people clamored for free admission, confirmed in their de- 
mands by the demagogues. Frequently the money reserved for 
the emergency of a war had to be spent for this purpose. The 
seats in a theatre were, of course, not all equally good, and their 
prices varied accordingly. The police of the theatre (pafi&ocjio- 
poi, paft&ovxoi) had to take care that everybody took his seat 
in the row marked on his ticket. Most of the spectators were 
men. In older times women were allowed only to attend at 


tragedies, the coarse jokes of the comedy being deemed unfit for 
the ears of Athenian ladies. Only hetairai made an exception to 
this rule. It is almost certain that the seats of men and women 
were separate. Boys were allowed to witness both tragedies and 
comedies. Whether slaves were admitted among the spectators 
seems doubtful. As pedagogues were not allowed to enter the 
school-room, it seems likely that they had also to leave the theatre 
after having shown their young masters to their seats. Neither 
were the slaves carrying the cushions for their masters' seats ad- 
mitted among the spectators. It is, however, possible that when 
the seats became to be for sale, certain classes of slaves were al- 
lowed to visit the theatre. Favorite poets and actors were re- 
warded with applause and flowers ; while bad performers had to 
submit to whistling and, possibly, other worse signs of public in- 
dignation. Greek audiences resembled those of Southern Europe 
at the present day in the vivacity of their demonstrations, which 
were even extended to public characters among the spectators on 
their entering the theatre. 

The frontage of the skene consisted in the oldest times of 
only one story, to which, however, several others were added 
when the development of the drama by Aischylos demanded a 
greater perfection of the scenic apparatus. According to Yitru- 
vius, the skene was developed architecturally, like the facades of 
large buildings, and, like these, adorned with columns, archi- 
traves, and friezes. His statement is confirmed by the well-pre- 
served skene of the theatre at Aspendos, which, however, was 
built after a Eoman pattern {see the view and description of it, 
§ 8±). According to Yitruvius, five doors were situated in the 
background, the centre one being called the gate of the royal 
palace {valvce regice), most likely owing to the action of the an- 
tique tragedy generally taking place in front of a king's palace. 
The two gates to both sides of this led into buildings connected 
with the palace destined for the reception of guests, whence their 
name hospitalia. The two remaining doors, lying near the cor- 
ners of the skene-wall and the wings of the stage, were called adi- 
tus and itinera respectively ; the former indicating the road to the 
city, the lattenthat to foreign countries. In theatres where there 
were only three doors, the latter names were applied to the two 
doors to the right and left of the valvce regice. The chorus entered 


the orchestra through the parodoi ; the actors coming from home 
or foreign parts could therefore conveniently enter and retire from 
the stage by means of the steps ascending from the orchestra to 
the logeiom Immediately before the skene-wall, perhaps only a 
few feet distant from it, was placed a wooden framework, across 
which the back-scene was fastened. The doors in this piece of 
scenery corresponded to those in the stone-wall. The back-scene 
could undoubtedly be made to slide to right and left from the 
centre (scena ductilis), so as to produce a change of scenery, which, 
as we shall show, could be made complete by the turning of the 
periaktoi. Whether the back-scene consisted of only two, or, as 
is more likely, of four or eight, movable pasteboard partitions we 
must leave undecided. Lohde ' says that, in order to make the 
parts of the back-scene, pushed behind the periaktoi, quite invis- 
ible to the public, " slight frames of wood- work, covered with 
painted paper-hangings, were placed at the farther end and to 
both sides of the pulpitum, which were immediately connected 
with the side-wings of the stage-building." By means of these 
pieces of scenery the excessive length of the stage was considera- 
bly shortened — the remaining space being still quite sufficient for 
the few actors of the Greek drama. In order to cover the stone- 
wall of the skene, the artificial wall alluded to had to be of con- 
siderable height. To give it firmness, a second wooden erection 
was placed several feet behind it, running parallel to it; both 
were connected by means of cross-beams, and rested on firm foun- 
dations, the remains of which have been discovered in the thea- 
tres of Herculaneum, Pompeii, Orange, and Aries, belonging, it is 
true, all of them to Roman times. 

Besides the back-scene, two side-scenes (TrepicucToi, fjuj^aval) 
existed in Greek theatres. They consisted of slight wooden 
frames in the form of three-sided prisms, covered with painted 
canvas. By means of pegs they could easily be revolved on 
their axis, so that always one of their painted surfaces was turned 
toward the spectators. Each of these three surfaces was painted 
in a different manner, and the changed position of the periaktoi 
indicated a total or partial change of locality on the stage. In 
case the periaktos to the left of the spectator was moved, the 

1 " Die Skene der Alten." Berlin, 1860. The chief points of which investigation 
we have adopted in our description. 

MASKS. 279 

direction of the foreign road was supposed to be changed. <The 
revolving of both periaktoi implied a modification of the back- 
scene, an entire change of locality being thus indicated. The 
periaktos to the right of the spectator could never be turned by 
itself, for it indicated the position of home, which, as long as the 
centre-scene was unchanged, naturally remained the same. The 
few changes of scenery occurring in the antique drama could 
easily be effected. To complete the skene, a kind of ceiling of 
boards was necessary, traces of which can still be distinguished 
on the wall of the skene of the theatre at Aspendos. On these 
boards stood the crane on which was suspended the flying ap- 
paratus (called wxavrj in general, or more especially yepavos, 
alcoprj/jba, o-rpofalov, and r)p,iGTpb$iov). By means of it gods and 
heroes and spectres entered and left the stage, or floated across it. 
A floating machine of this kind was also the Oeokoyeiov, on which, 
for instance, Zeus, with Eos and Thetis, appeared in Aischylos's 
" Psychotasia." The upper conclusion of the stage was effected by 
means of a piece of painted canvas (/caTdfiXrjfAa) hanging down, 
which covered the wood-work of the ceiling and the machinery 
placed there from the eyes of the spectators. The Charonic stair 
we have mentioned before. Quite recently 1 a hollow, of the 
shape of a coffin, has been discovered on the stage of the Greek 
theatre of Azanoi in Asia Minor, just in front of the porta regia. 
This was undoubtedly the opening of the Charonic staircase. 
Whether the old Attic stage had a curtain seems doubtful : later 
a curtain (avXala, irapairerao-fiay originally called also Trpocncrjviov) 
is mentioned. Perhaps it used to be parted in the middle, and 
the two divisions pushed behind the sides of the proskenion. 

An important part of the costume of the actors was the mask 
(7Tp6cr(07rov). Its origin must undoubtedly be looked for in the 
grotesque jocularities of the Dionysian worship. Disguises, the 
painting of the face with the lees of wine, afterward with minium, 
or the wearing of masks made of leaves or bark, were customary 
from the earliest times. Thence the drama adopted its masks of 
painted canvas. It must be remembered that the antique actor 
was not so much the expounder of individual passion as the 
representative of the different phases and classes of society. The 

1 Sperling, " Ein Ausflug in die isaurischen Berge im Herbst, 1862," in Zeitschrift 
fur allgemeine Erdkunde. New Series, xv., 1863, p. 435. 



expression of his face, therefore, was of much less importance than 
in the modern drama. K. O. Muller justly remarks that types like 
Aischylos's Orestes, Sophokles's Aias, or Euripides's Medea, did 
not demand the nucmces of facial expression that would be ex- 
pected from Hamlet or Tasso. Moreover, the masks could be 
changed so as to render the more general gradations of passion. 
Owing to the large size of the Greek theatre, acoustical and opti- 
cal means had to be applied to convey the words and movements of 
the actors to the more distant rows of spectators. One of the latter 
was the apparent increase of the actor's size by means of KoOopvoi 
and high masks. The development of the mask into a covering, 
not only of the face, but of the whole head with side and front hair 
attached to it (07/C05), was ascribed to Aischylos. Openings were 
left for mouth and eyes, the latter not being larger than the pupil 
of the actor, and the former only just wide enough to afford egress 
to the voice. This was the case at least in tragedy ; comic masks, 
on the other hand, showed distorted features, and a mouth widely 
opened, the lips serving as a kind of speaking-trumpet. Varieties 

of modeling and painting, combined with the numerous changes 
of hair and beard, tended to greatly modify the character of 
the masks. The parts of young or old men and women and of 
slaves had their characteristic masks assigned to them, all of 
which are enumerated by Pollux. All this tended to some extent 
to remove the stiffness of the mask. Figs. 311 and 312 show a 
number of masks found on monuments. Fig. 311, a, h, c, d, are 
tragic masks, b, c, being remarkable by their high onkoi ; d shows 
a female countenance with waving locks, e the ivy-crowned and 
nearly bald mask used in satyr-dramas. Fig. 312 illustrates the 
varieties of comic masks ; it would, however, be difficult to identify 
the masks described by Pollux on the monuments. The height of 
the onkos demanded a proportionate increase of the size of the 



body, which was effected by the actors walking on buskins 
(tcoOopvo?) (see Fig. 313, illustrative of a scene from a tragedy) ; 

they used to pad their limbs. The remainder of the actors' cos- 
tumes was also to a great extent borrowed from the Dionysian 
feast, both with regard to shape and color. 
Tragic actors wore chitones and himatia of 
light color richly embroidered, and em- 
bellished by brilliant gold ornaments. In 
comedy the dress of daily life was essentially 
reproduced, with the difference, however, 
that the old comedy caricatured this dress 
by attaching to it the frequently indecent 
emblems of Dionysian worship, while the 
later comedy retained the caricatured mask, but discontinued the 
grotesque costume of older times. The monuments contain only 

" 11 IP 

Fig. 814. 

few representations of scenes from tragedies: scenes from the 
satyr-drama and the older comedy are, on the contrary, very 


frequent. Only in very few cases, however, are we able to trace 
these scenes back to the dramas preserved to ns. Fig. 314 
opens a view into the ^opyyelov or BiSao-KaXelov of a poet or 
choragos before the performance of a satyr-drama. The aged 
poet seems to instruct 'some choreutai in their parts, and to call 
their attention to the masks lying before them ; a pipe-player is 
practising his music. In the background to the right an actor 

is putting on his costume 
with the aid of a servant ; 
his mask is lying by his side. 
A similar rehearsal of a satyr- 
drama is illustrated by a large 
vase-painting, in the centre 
of which Dionysos and Ari- 

Fig. 315. 

Fig. 316. 

adne are reclining on a couch. A second female figure, perhaps 
the Muse, is sitting on the other end of the couch, by the side 
of which stand two actors (Fig. 315), one in the dress of Hera- 
kles, the other in that of Seilenos. The third actor, in the rich 
costume of an unknown hero, appears on the other side of the 
kline. The whole group is surrounded by eleven choreutai in a 
similar costume to those in Fig. 314. We also discover one kitha- 
rodos and one pipe-player, and the youthful master of the chorus. 
Fig. 316 depicts a scene from a comedy. Herakles, in a gro- 
tesque boorish dress, presents two kerkopes, caught and impris- 
oned by him in market-baskets, to the ruler, whose mask resembles 
the head of an ape — quite in accordance with the ape-like form 
of the imps. 

59. Agones, hymns, and choric dances, were performed in 
honor of the gods ; sacrifices and prayers, on the other hand, 
established the immediate rapport between man and God. They 
were offered either to pray for a divine gift, as a successful chase, 


harvest, etc., or they were intended to soften the wrath of the 
gods in impending or actual danger, such as illness and storms. 
A thank-oftering eventually followed the grant of these prayers. 
A third sacrifice was that of expiation and atonement for a breach 
of the law, human or divine. The mode of prayers and sacrifices 
varied with their motives ; but, before a man entered into inter- 
course with the deity, he had to undergo a symbolic process of 
external purification (tcadapfjLol, ikaafjuoly rekeral). This was ex- 
acted not only from those who sacrificed, but from all who en- 
tered the precinct of a temple. Vessels with consecrated water 
stood at the entrances to such places, the sprinkling being done 
either by the person himself or by a priest. These lustrations 
were even performed in daily life, previous to acts in any way 
connected with religious ideas. The bridal bath described by us, 
the lustrations before feasts, the vessel with water placed at the 
door of a dead person for the use of the mourners on leaving the 
house — all these had the same significance. The contact with a 
dead body especially required a lustration, being considered as a 
taint which temporally prohibited the intercourse with the deity. 
Another kind of purification was that by fire and smoke. Odys- 
seus performs a lustration with the steam of " curse-removing 
sulphur " (irepLOelcoo-is) after the murder of the wooers ; the fire 
burning on the altar, and the torches carried at religious ceremo- 
nies, had the same significance of moral purification. The carry- 
ing of the new-born infant round the flames of the domestic 
altar has been mentioned before. The lustration with fire and 
water even extended to the garments and to the utensils used at 
sacrifices. Herakles purified the goblet with water and sulphur 
before sacrificing to Zeus ; Penelope took a bath, and dressed her- 
self in clean garments, before sacrificing and praying for the 
safety of her son. To certain plants, such as myrtle, rosemary, 
and juniper, purifying qualities were ascribed. A twig of Apol- 
linian laurel was supposed to free the murderer from his guilt. 
These purifications were also performed collectively by tribes and 
nations ; in Homer, for instance, the Achaioi " purify themselves 
and throw their stain into the sea." In historic times collective 
lustrations of cities after epidemics or civil wars are mentioned 
repeatedly. Epimenides, for instance, purified Athens after the 
Kylonian massacre. 


The act of purification was followed by the prayer. Plato 
says that it ought to precede every enterprise, great or little, and 
that for a virtuous man there is nothing better than keeping up 
the intercourse with the gods by means of offerings, prayers, and 
vows. Almost all important events or customs in the daily life, 
both of individuals and communities, were accompanied by 
prayers, consisting chiefly of old traditional formulas. Three 
gods — for instance, Zeus in conjunction with Athene and Apollo — 
were usually addressed together. In order not to offend the deity 
by omitting one of its names, certain formulas were usually 
added to the prayer, such as " whether you be a god or goddess ; " 
or, " whoever you may be ; " or, " whether this or another be your 
favorite name." The Olympian gods were prayed to in an 
upright position with raised hands ; the marine gods, with hands 
held horizontally ; the gods of Tartarus, with hands held down : 
the latter were also invoked by knocking or stamping the foot on 
the ground. Kneeling was not a custom of the Greeks : when- 
ever it is mentioned among them, Oriental influence must be sus- 
pected. Only those craving protection used to embrace the statue 
of the god in a kneeling position, which is frequently represented 
on the monuments. Akin to the prayer was the curse against 
criminals : the Erinies were implored to execute it. Zeus Hor- 
kios, the revenger of oaths, punished the perjurer with his wrath. 
The solemn oath was taken on hallowed ground before the altar 
or statue of a god. The swearing person either touched these or 
immersed his hand in the blood of a sacrificed animal, calling, as 
in the prayer, usually on three gods as witnesses. This was the 
later custom : in Homer the heroes taking an oath raised their 
sceptre against the sky. 

Prayers were always accompanied by gifts, to propitiate the 
gods. They were either gifts for the moment, to be deposited on 
the altar or consumed by fire ; or they took the shape of votive 
offerings, which remained the property of the sanctuary. Gifts, 
as an old proverb says, determine the acts of gods and kings. 
Offerings of the former class consisted of the first-fruits of the 
field, such as onions, pumpkins, grapes, figs, and olives. Prepared 
eatables, such as cakes (Trefifjuara, irekavoi) and other pastry, fre- 
quently in the shapes of animals, and in the place of real ones, 
were also offered to the gods. Koasted barley (ovkai, ovXoxvtcu) 



was another common gift; it was either thrown into the flames or 
sprinkled on the necks of the animals brought for sacrifice. A 
bloodless offering is depicted in Fig. 317. The laurel-crowned 
priest stands in front of the fire on the altar, throwing into it the 
barley which is presented to him by an attendant in a basket 
adorned with sacred twigs. On the other side another youthful 
attendant is holding a long staff resembling a torch, to the upper 
end of which is fastened some wool or oakum, serving most likely 
to light a fire. By other archaeologists this figure is explained as 
a neokoros with a besom of laurel-branches ; a musician accom- 

Fig. 817. 

panies the ceremony on the pipe. Libations formed an essential 
feature of sacrifices, just as they did at the meals of mortals. To 
some gods unmixed wine was offered; others, for instance the 
Erinies, Nymphs, Muses, and deities of Light, received honey, 
milk, and oil. A libation of this kind is represented in the 
frequently-repeated choragic bass-reliefs, where Nike pours the 
sacred beverage into a vase which is offered to her by the vic- 
torious Kitharoidos (Millin, " Galerie mythol.," PL xvii., No. 58). 
The choice of the animals to be sacrificed depended on the 
individual qualities of the various gods. The Olympian gods pre- 
ferred white animals ; those of the sea and the nether world, black 
ones. To Demeter a pig was sacrificed, to Dionysos a he-goat, 
because these animals destroyed the gifts granted to man by these 
gods. Heifers, sheep, goats, and pigs, were offered in larger or 
smaller numbers, according to the wealth of the worshiper ; 


sometimes these different animals were promiscuously offered on 
one and the same occasion. In Homer sometimes twelve, at 
others ninety-nine, bulls are slaughtered together ; in later times 
we repeatedly hear of hecatombs of a hundred and more bulls 
being killed. The original custom of burning the entire animal 
gradually disappeared ; and, even in Homer's time, the gods re- 
ceived only the haunches and small pieces of flesh as their share, 
the remainder being eaten by those present. These sacrificial 
meals, shared, as it were, by gods and men, became an integral 
part of the sacrifice ; only offerings for the dead, and the 
sacrifices on which lay a curse, were buried entire. The animals 
had to be strong and healthy, and their previous use for human 
purposes made them inadmissible ; only in Sparta, where luxu- 
rious sacrifices were altogether unusual, owing to Doric fru- 
gality, this absolute purity of the animals was less strictly insisted 

For a graphic account of the sacrificial ceremonies, which 
remained essentially unaltered in later times, we refer the reader 
to two passages in Homer (Od., iii., 436, et seq., and II., i., 458, 
et seq). 

The custom of gilding the horns mentioned by Homer was 
afterward changed into adorning them with wreaths and tainiai. 
It was considered a favorable omen if the animal went to the 
sacrifice without opposition, or even nodded its head, as - if con- 
senting to its death. According to the sacrifice being for the 
Olympian or nether world, the head of the animal was bent 
upward or downward. Its throat was then pierced with a knife. 
Vase-paintings frequently show Nike in the act of sacrificing 
a bull. The animals, as well as the baskets and other sacrifi- 
cial utensils, were adorned with twigs or wreaths; the latter, 
or instead of them a woolen tie, were worn by the Greeks at 
all religious acts. Criminals only were forbidden to wear them, 
and were by that means excluded from sacrificial ceremonies. 
Barring a few representations not easily to be explained (e. g., 
"Museo Borbon.," vol. v., Tav. 23), Greek monuments, as a 
rule, illustrate only simple sacrificial acts, as the adorning of 
divine images or the offerings of gifts of various kinds ; we 
therefore refrain from entering into details. To the sacrifices for 
the dead we shall return hereafter. 


The most brilliant exhibitions of religious worship were the 
festive processions. The Panathenaia, in which the whole Athe- 
nian population took part, are rendered, on the cella frieze of 
the Parthenon, by the master-hand of Phidias. Theseus, who 
united the Attic komai into one city, was also named as the 
originator of this celebration of fraternity. At first only horse 
and chariot races took place, to which were added, in Peisistra- 
tos's time, gy mnic agones, and, since Perikles, poetical and musi- 
cal competitions. The performance of all these agones took place 
in the third year of every Olympiad, between the twenty-fifth 
and twenty-seventh days of the month of Hekatombaion. The 
climax of the feast — the procession — was held on the twenty-eighth 
day of that month. It moved through the streets of the city to 
the seat of the goddess, in the Akropolis. On the morning of 
that day the citizens of Athens, together with the peasants of 
the neighboring country, assembled before the chief gate of the 
city, and formed themselves into a procession according to a 
fixed ceremonial. Kitharoidoi and auletai opened the proces- 
sion ; the reason of this distinction being that the musico-poeti- 
cal agones were those last introduced at the Panathenaia. After 
them followed, in good order, citizens on foot, armed with spear 
and shield, and others on horseback. Next came the victors in 
the horse and chariot races ; the former riding on their horses, 
or leading them ; the latter standing on their splendid quadrigae. 
Priests, with their attendants, guarded the hecatombs to be 
sacrificed; old men, chosen for their dignified appearance, held 
olive-branches, from the holy tree of the Academy, in their hands 
(6a\\o<f)6pot) ; other distinguished persons carried the votive 
offerings destined for the goddess ; a select band of citizens' 
daughters carried baskets containing the utensils of the sacrifice 
(tcavr)<f)6poi,) ; while epheboi brought valuable plate, wrought by 
the most celebrated masters. After them followed the wives and 
daughters of the tribes protected by the Athenians ; the matrons 
holding in their hands oak-branches, the emblem of Zeus Xenios, 
so as to mark them as guests ; the maidens carying the sun-shades 
and chairs of the citizens' daughters (aiaahrifyopoi, hitypofyopot). 
The centre of the procession was formed by a ship resting on 
wheels, which carried, by way of a sail, the peplos of Athene, 
woven by Attic maidens, and richly embroidered, in which the 


old Xoanon of the goddess in the Akropolis was dressed. In this 
order the procession moved through the most splendid streets 
of the city, past the most celebrated sanctuaries where gifts were 
offered, round the rock of the Akropolis, entering, at last, through 
the celebrated Propylsea. Here the procession divided, to gather 
again on the east side of the Parthenon. All arms were taken 
off, and hymns were sung to the goddess by the assembled crowd, 
while burnt-offerings blazed on the altars, and votive-offerings 
were deposited in the sanctuary. 

Although the frieze of the Parthenon-cella does not syste- 
matically render the procession, we can easily reconstruct it from 
the indications thus offered ; indeed, all the important components 
of the festive crowd appear in the different groups. According 
to Botticher, 1 however, the subject of the frieze is not the proces- 
sion itself, but the preparations for it, such as the division, among 
the persons destined to carry them, of chairs, couches, and 
bolsters, which were kept in the Hekatompedon, and other pre- 
paratory arrangements. The various scenes represented are, 
according to him, divided both by space and time. Botticher' s 
conjecture was started in contradiction to all previous archaeolo- 

60. We now have to follow the Greek to his last place of rest, 
to see how the holy rites {ra St/ccua or ra vofiifjua) are duly per- 
formed for him. To watch over the rights of the dead, and to 
do him the last honor, so that his spirit might not wander rest- 
lessly on the bauks of Acheron, excluded from the Elysian fields — 
this was the beautiful Greek custom sanctified by the precepts 
of religion. Hence the pious usage of adorning the dead for their 
last journey, of burying them with becoming ceremonies, and of 
considering their graves as holy places not to be profaned. "With 
the same view the bodies of those who died in foreign countries 
were brought home, or, where this proved impossible, an empty 
tomb, a kenotaphion, was erected in their birthplace. It would 
have been disgraceful to deprive even enemies of the honor of a 
burial, and it was the custom, after a battle, to interrupt hostilities 
till both parties had buried their dead. Solon's laws discharged 
the son from all obligations toward his father in case the latter 

1 In " Konigliche Museen. Erklarendes Verzeichniss der Abgiisse antiker Worke." 
Berlin, 1871, pp. 188-228. 


had committed an immoral act against him, with the exception 
only of the duty " of," to use the words of Aischines, " burying 
his father according to prescribed custom in honor of the gods 
and the law. For he who receives the benefit is no more able to 
feel it." Only he who had betrayed his country or committed a 
capital crime was deprived of the honor of a burial. His corpse 
remained unburied, the prey of wild beasts, with no friend near 
to throw at least a handful of earth on it. On the other hand, an 
honorable burial (yiro tcov eavrov i/cyovcov /caXw? kol fLeydkoirpeiro)^ 
racftrjvcn,) was, as Plato says in " Hippias Maj.," the most beautiful 
conclusion of a life prolonged to old age, and surrounded by 
wealth, health, and the esteem of men. 

We first turn to the burial-rites of heroic times. The closing 
of lips and eyes of the dead was, as early as Homer's time, the 
first service of love (to yap yepas iarl davovrwv) on the part of 
the surviving relatives or friends. After it the body was washed, 
anointed, and clothed in white thin garments; only the head 
remaining uncovered. Thus arranged, the body was placed on a 
kline, the foot-end of which was turned toward the door of the 
house. Thereupon began the lament, for a specimen of which we 
refer the reader to the passage of the " Iliad " in which the death 
of Patroklos is announced to Achilles. The ceremonies per- 
formed at the couch of the slain Hektor prove the existence of a 
regulated lament for the dead at that time. We there hear of 
singers intoning chants of complaint (Oprjvoi), interrupted by the 
loud lamentations of Andromache, Hekabe, and Helen. The 
corpse was exhibited for several days (e. g., that of Achilles seven- 
teen days, that of Hektor nine), during which time the lamenta- 
tions were renewed incessantly ; ultimately it was placed on the 
funeral-pile to be given to the flames, numerous sheep and heifers 
being sacrificed simultaneously round the pyre. As soon as the 
funeral-pile was consumed by the flames, the fire was extinguished 
with wine. The ashes, after having been sprinkled with oil 
and wine, were collected into urns or boxes of valuable materials. 
The urn itself was covered with gorgeous purple draperies, and 
deposited in the grave. 1 On this grave was heaped a high earth- 

1 Ross states that in the large graves of the Isle of Rhenaea (" Archgeolog. Auf- 
satze," i., p. 62) two different kinds of vessels containing ashes (boTodiJKai) have been 
discovered. The first kind consists of semi-globular vases {k&Ittiq ) of thin bronze', 10 


mound, as examples of which custom we mention the grave- 
mounds raised in honor of Achilles and Patroklos bj the Greek 
army. Agones and a festive meal concluded the ceremonies, as 
described by Homer. 

In early times the Attic burial-rites are said to have been very 
simple. The grave was dug by the nearest relative, and the 
corpse buried in it ; whereupon the mound was sown with corn, 
by means of which the decaying body was supposed to be pacified. 
A meal, at which the real worth of the deceased was extolled by 
the survivors {nam mentiri nefas habebatur), concluded the cere- 
mony. The more luxurious habits of a later period made the 
great funeral pomps originally reserved for heroes a common 

Fig. 818. 

custom among all classes. Solon had to prescribe distinct burial 
regulations, by which the protracted exhibition of the dead and 
other abuses were forbidden. Upon the whole, however, the 
ceremonies described by Homer remained essentially unaltered. 
An obolos, being the ferriage (vavXov, havcucrj) for Charon, was put 
into the mouth of the corpse; the body then was washed and 
anointed by the relatives (particularly the women), and clothed in 
a white shroud. It was crowned with flowers and wreaths, also 
provided by the relatives, and thus prepared for the customary 
lying-in-state (irpoOecns, irpoTiOeaOat). This adorning of the 
corpse is illustrated by an interesting Apulian vase-painting, 
representing the crowning of the body of Archemoros (Fig. 318). 

to 12 inches in diameter, which, owing to their brittleness, have been fitted into marble 
cases with covers to them. Such marble shells, containing bronze vases covered with 
rust and partly destroyed, have been discovered in the graves of the Peiraieus. The 
second kind consists of square or round boxes of lead, also with covers to them. 


On a kline covered with bolsters and cushions is lying the body of 
Archemoros, who, when little more than a boy, had been killed by 
a clragon. Hypsipyle, the careless nurse of the boy, stands by 
the side of the bier about to put the myrtle-wreath on the curly 
head of the dead ; another, younger female, standing at the head 
of the kline, holds a sun-shade over the bier, in allusion, as Ger- 
hard thinks, to the old notion that the light of Helios should 
accompany the dead to his dark house, a night-burial being 
considered dishonorable (compare Euripides, Troad., 446 : rj va/cbs 
yca/ceo? racfrrjcrr) vvktos, ovk iv rjiiepa). At the foot of the bed we 
observe the pedagogue, recognizable by his dress and the inscrip- 
tion over his head. In his left hand he is holding a lyre, in 
order, perhaps, to add it to the gifts destined to adorn the 
chamber of the dead. Under the kline stands a pitcher, the 
contents of which had undoubtedly served as a libation. Next 
to the pedagogue are standing two attendants, carrying on their 
heads tables, on which various vessels adorned with tainiai are 
placed. All these, as well as the splendid amphora standing on 
the ground, and the krater carried by an ephebos on the left ? 
belong to the vessels which a pious custom deposited in the grave 
or on the funeral -pile. At the lying-in-view of the corpse, which 
by Solon was considerably shortened, and of which Plato approved 
only as a means to prevent burying alive, the relatives and friends 
assembled to begin the lamentation. To avoid violent outbreaks 
of grief, such as described by Homer, 
Solon forbade a demonstrative behav- 
ior, particularly on the part of women : 
the severe law of Charondas even pro- 
hibited all kind of complaints at the 
bier of the dead. Frequently women 
were paid on such occasions for sing- 
ing woful songs accompanied by the 

flute. Fig. 319, taken from a bass-relief on an Etruscan ash-box, 
shows three women, most likely of this kind, at the kline of a 
deceased person ; a fourth seems to lacerate her face with her 
hands ; a smaller figure, standing near the bier, whose raised 
arms indicate deep grief, seems to be the son of the deceased. 

After the lying-in-view of the corpse, the burial proper (eV(f>o- 
pa) took place early in the morning of the following day. The 


cortege was opened by a hired chorus of men chanting mourning 
songs (OprjvySoi), or by a number of females playing on flutes 
(/caplvai), who were followed by the male mourners in gray or 
black garments and with their hair cut off. All these preceded 
the corpse, generally carried by relations or friends. The fe- 
male mourners walked behind the bier : by Solon's law, however, 
women under sixty, unless the nearest relatives, were excluded. 
The old custom of burying those fallen for their country at the 
public expense is thus alluded to by Thukydides (ii., 34) : " Ac- 
cording to custom, the Athenians prepared a public funeral for 
those fallen in battle in this manner : three days previously they 
erected a tent, in which the remains of the killed lay in view ; 
every one there might bring offerings for his deceased relatives. 
At the funeral, the coffins of cypress-wood are placed on carts, 
one being assigned to each phyle ; in the coffin of each phyle the 
remains of those belonging to it are laid. An empty covered 
kline is carried for those missing, whose bodies have not been re- 
covered. Citizens and friends follow the procession, the women 
attending at the funeral with lamentations. The remains are 
buried in a public grave lying in the most beautiful suburb of 
Athens. This place is always used for burying those fallen rn 
battle, with the exception of those killed at Marathon, who were 
buried on the spot, their courage being deemed worthy of that 
distinction. After the bones have been covered with earth, a wise 
and respected man, chosen by the citizens, pronounces the eulo- 
gium of the slain, standing on a tribune erected for the purpose." 
Funeral orations of this kind at the grave were in classic times 
usual at public funerals only. 

The choice of a place for the burial and the ceremonies accom- 
panying it varied according to the means of the deceased and the 
customs among different tribes. In the earliest times the burial- 
places seem to have been in the houses of the deceased themselves. 
This immediate contact with the dead, however, being considered 
unclean, burial-grounds were prepared outside the city walls both 
at Athens and Sikyon. Sparta and Tarentum had burial-grounds 
in the city in order (as the law of Lykurgos has it) to steel the 
minds of the youths against the fear of death. Such burial-grounds 
lie along the roads outside the gates of almost every city, and yield 
the most important specimens of the grave-monuments described 


in §§ 23 and 24. The Athenian law forbidding monuments of 
greater splendor than could be completed by ten men in three 
days must have been often infringed. Private persons were al- 
lowed to bury their dead in fields belonging to them instead of 
in the nekropolis. That the burning of the bodies — at least, of 
the Greek nobles — and the preserving of their ashes, were custom- 
ary in the heroic age, is sufficiently proved by Homer. Accord- 
ing to Lueian, the same practice continued to be the most usual 
among the Greeks ; recent investigations of numerous graves in 
the Attic plain, however, seem to prove that the burial of unburnt 
bodies in wooden or earthen coffins ( Xapva%y <ropo<;), or in grave- 
chambers cut from the living rock, was at least equally frequent ; 
according to Cicero (De Legg., 2, 22), the latter custom was even 
the older of the two. Most likely the wish of the deceased or his 

Fig. 320. 

Fig. 821. 

relatives, and also the greater or less abundance of timber in a 
country, decided the matter. The rocky soil of Attika, bare of 
trees, necessitated the burial in grave-chambers for the majority 
of the inhabitants. The expression Qwktuv applied to either 
kind of burial ; Kaietv signified cremation ; Karopyrreiv, interment 
in particular. Cremation became necessary particularly when the 
accumulation of bodies after a battle, or, for instance, after the 
plague of Athens, caused dangerous evaporations. The same pro- 
cess facilitated the transfer home of the remains of a person dy- 
ing in a foreign country. 

After the burial the cortege returned to the house of the de- 
ceased and sat down to a meal (Trepihenrvov), they being consid- 
ed, in a manner, as the guests of the dead person. The first (rpl- 



t«), second (evara), and third (rptaKa^) sacrifices at the grave took 
place on the third, tenth, and thirteenth days after the funeral. 
The last concluded the mourning period at Athens, that at Spar- 
ta being still shorter. The tomb adorned with flowers was a hal- 
lowed spot where on certain days of the year oblations and liba- 
tions were offered in memory of the deceased (ivdyicrfjia, ivayi&iv, 
also xoac used chiefly of libations). 

Representations of this pious custom are common, particularly 
on the lekythoi, which, in a more or less preserved condition, are 
frequently found by the side of stelai, or among the remains of 
funeral-piles. For it was the custom, particularly of the Athe- 
nians, to throw behind them the vessels used on such occasions, 
no utensil used at funerals being allowed to serve the wants of 
the living. Figs. 320 and 321 are pictures taken from Athenian 
lekythoi. The former represents a stele adorned at the top with 

a " meandering " ornamentation 
and crowned by a capital of col- 
ored acanthus-leaves. A blue tai- 
nia has been wound round the 
stele. On either side a woman is 
approaching. She to the right of 
the spectator carries a large flat 
dish, on which stands a lekythos, 
with a tainia laid round it. The 
figure on the left carries a similar 
dish in her left hand, while her 
right hand holds a large flat basket, destined most likely for carry- 
ing flowers and cakes. The second picture, only partially repro- 
duced here (Fig. 321), represents the adorning of the tombstone. 
A crown of ivy and a lekythos containing the secred oil are seen 
on the steps of the simple stele, round which a woman is employed 
in tying red tainiai, with lekythoi attached to them. Fig. 322 
shows Hermes Psychopompos gently leading a female shade to 
the boat of Charon, on her way to the thrones of Hades and 
Persephone, where stern judgment awaits her. 


61. The design of the Greek temple, in its highest perfection, 
was, as we have seen, a gradual development of the dwelling- 
house. This simple, necessary, and logical growth of artistic 
perfection would be looked for in vain in Roman sacred architect- 
ure. The numerous indigenous and foreign elements observ- 
able in the general development of that nation have produced a 
variety of forms in their sacred edifices which makes the me- 
thodical evolution of a purely artistic principle, like that of 
Greek architecture, impossible. It is true that all the forms of 
the Greek temple described by us also occur among the Romans ; 
at the same time essential differences occur, owing to the above- 
mentioned mixture of indigenous and Greek elements in the 
national life of the Romans. In speaking of the architecture of 
the Roman temple we therefore shall have to consider three 
points — viz., firstly, the requirements of the original Italian re- 
ligion ; secondly, the introduction of Greek forms ; and, lastly, 
the reciprocal influence of Roman taste and culture on the forms 
borrowed from the Greeks, and the modification of the latter re- 
sulting therefrom. 

Concerning the religious ideas of the old Italian tribes, we 
have to bear in mind that their notions of the Deity did not 
approach the human type as nearly as did those of the more 
artistic Greeks. The rational and reflecting Romans considered 
the gods as the rulers of human affairs and the prototypes of 
human virtues. Even the names of the old Italian deities were 
identical with those of the particular phases of moral and physi- 
cal life protected by them ; hence the symbolism and want of 
individuality of type in Roman mythology. The notion of the 
god as an idealized man into which the Greeks bad developed 


the original symbolism of their religion was absent from the 
Roman mind. Roman deities, therefore, were not in want of a 
protecting dwelling. 

Nevertheless, statues of gods and houses for them occur 
among the Romans at a very early period, originating partly 
in the universal tendency of primitive nations in that direction, 
partly in the influence of Greek on Italian culture, which dates 
back to farthest antiquity. But, whenever these houses are of 
purely Italian origin, their form differs essentially from that of 
the Greek temple. For, to the desire of giving protection to the 
deity, another purpose of no less, perhaps even greater, importance 
was added. 

For, instead of humanizing their gods, the Romans were in- 
tent upon pointing out, in the strongest manner, the divine influ- 
ence on human affairs. Hence their anxiety to know the will of 
the god so as to regulate their actions accordingly. This knowl- 
edge, however, they did not derive from the utterance of a god-in- 
spired person, as was the case in Greek oracles ; the practical mind 
of the Romans was directed entirely upon obtaining from the gods 
a decisive Yes or No with regard to a particular action or resolu- 
tion. Hence the development of augural science, which, by cer- 
tain signs in the sky, as the flight of birds or the flashes of light- 
ning, determined the positive or negative decision of the divine 
will. The observation and explanation of these signs most likely 
; belonged originally to the head of the family, in whom centred 
the authority with regard to both religious and legal questions. 
As social and political relations grew more complicated, and the 
prediction of the future itself took the form of a science, the 
function of an augur seems to have devolved, first upon the king, 
afterward on students of the science, who took the official name 
of augurs, and formed one of the most important priestly colleges 
among the Romans. Individuals were allowed, and representa- 
tives of the state compelled, to consult the augurs on all impor- 
tant occasions. 

For the observations of these augurs a space in the temple 
had to be assigned, and protected against the intrusions of the 
profane. The Romans derived the origin of the science from the 
Etruscans, in whose theology, it is true, the limitation of the 
templum was determined in its minutest details ; it seems, how- 

1 1 


ever, certain that the science itself was common to all old Italian 
tribes. The observatory of the augurs was originally a square 
piece of ground, inclosed in the simplest and, at the same time, 
most appropriate manner. The generic term for such a space 
was templuniy from an old Italian root related to the Greek word 
refiveiv (to cut off, to border), whence re^evo^, the Greek analogue 
of templum. In order to enable the augurs to decide the favor- 
able or unfavorable character of the auspices, 
the space alluded to, and, in accordance with « */ d, 

it, the sky, was, by a line drawn from east to 
west (Fig. 323, e, f\ divided into a day and 
night side ; a second line drawn through it W e ~ 
in a right angle to the first, from north to 
south (g, A), marked the sides of the increas- 
ing and decreasing day, or of morning and J* 
evening. The former line (e, f) was called 
decumanus, the latter (g, h) cardo. The whole space was thus 
divided into four equal rectangular regions. The augur stood 
in the point of section (decussis) of these lines, the regions 
taking their different denominations according to the lines. 
The cardo divided the space into a right or western half (a, g, h, b), 
called pars dextra, or exortiva, and into an eastern one (g, d, c, A), 
called pars sinistra. The former comprised the third and fourth 
(0 to 180°), the latter the first and second (180° to 360°), chief 
regions ; that is, the range of sight of the augur, when turned 
toward the south, comprised the southeast on the left and the 
southwest on the right. The decumanus, on the other hand, 
divided the space into a northern half (a, e, f, d), pars postica, 
lying at the back of the augur, and a southern half (e, b, c,f), 
pars antica, lying in front of him ; that is, the augur looking 
toward the east had the northeast on his left and the southeast 
on his right. Signs appearing on the left were always considered 
as lucky, those on the right as the reverse. This division of the 
templum into four chief regions was the common one in the 
times of Cicero and Pliny, the older rule being observed no more. 
The older division of the temple into sixteen regions originated 
with the Etruscans; it implied a close observation of the con- 
stellations. This division is of the utmost importance for the 
investigation of Roman temples, which, according to Nissen's 


clever researches, are by no means all built in the same direction. 1 
The axis of the temple was directed toward the point of the 
horizon in which the sun rose on the day of the foundation-stone 
being laid, which coincided with the native day or chief feast of 
the god to whom the temple was dedicated. This point changes 
in Italy during the course of the year by 65°, in consequence of 
which the Italian temples lie in almost all directions of the com- 
pass. The old Etruscan rule of building temples from north to 
south seems to have been adhered to by the Komans only in rare 
cases, as is proved by Nissen's investigations. As the Romans 
during their prayer always turned toward the east, the image to 
which their prayer was directed had to look westward. 

The square form of the tern plum necessitated an almost identi- 
cal shape of the temple-inclosure. In this respect the old Italian, 
or as it was called by the Romans, Tuscan, temple differs essen- 
tially from the Greek, the latter being an oblong with a depth 
almost twice as long as its frontage ; in the Tuscan temple the 
proportion of depth to frontage was 6:5. No examples of the 
Tuscan temple remain, it having been sup- 
planted by the forms of Greek architecture ; 
but with the assistance of Yitruvius's de- 
scription (iv., 7) we are able to gain a tol- 
erably clear notion of its appearance. Fig. 
324 shows the plan of an Etruscan temple 
according to Hirt's conjectures. It strikes 
us at once that inside the cellse, which occupy 
about one-half of the whole area, no columns 
Feet, are to be seen. The pronaos has four columns 
in front, the two corner ones of which cor- 
respond with the cmfoe-pillars. Two other columns are placed 
between these pillars. Peculiar to the Tuscan style is the slender 
smooth column seven diameters in height and tapering by one- 
quarter. It has a base divided into two parts, viz., a circular 
plinth and a torus, of equal height, and a capital consisting of three 
parts, of equal height. This older form of the column occurs fre- 
quently in the decorative semi-columns of later Roman architecture. 
62. The design of larger temples was much more varied. The 
style seems to have attained its climax in the temple of the 

1 Nissen, " Das Templum." Berlin, 1869. 



Capitoline deities, which, according to Roman tradition, Tar- 
quinius Priscus intended for a national sanctuary of the Roman 
people. He chose for the purpose the highest summit of the 
Capitoline Hill, which, however, was found insufficient both with 
regard to size and level surface, and therefore had to be extended 
and propped by means of enormous substructures. In this man- 
ner an all but square area 800 feet in circumference was formed 
for the reception of the temple, either on the western (present 
site of the Chiesa Araceli) or eastern (present site of the Palazzo 
Caffarelli) summit of the hill. The undertaking, however, both 
with regard to working power and expense, was so enormous 
that Tarquinius Priscus did not even begin the temple itself, 
which was brought nearer its completion only by Tarquinius 
Superbus, after (according to some writers) Servius Tullius had 
made efforts in the same direction. To the Republic was re- 
served the honor of completing the national sanctuary. M. 
Horatius Pulvillus, who was consul together with P. Valerius 
Poplicola in the third year 
of the Republic, is said to 
have inaugurated the tem- 
ple. It stood in its original 
form for 413 years, when 
it was totally destroyed 
by fire. It was rebuilt by 
Sulla, essentially unaltered 
with regard to the original 
measures and proportions, 
although modified as to ar- 
chitectural details, as ap- 
pears from Tacitus's expres- 
sion, " iisdem rursus ves- 
tigiis situm est " (" Hist.," 
iii., 72). ' The description, 
therefore, of the later tem- 
ple by Dionysios of Halikarnassos (iv., pp. 251, 260) applies to 
some extent to the original Tarquinian structure. Fig. 325 

1 It was again burned down during the Vitellian riots, and rebuilt by Vespasian. 
After this new structure had also been destroyed by fire it was rebuilt, and inaugu- 
rated for the fourth time, by Domitian. 



gives the plan, Fig. 326 the view, of the temple according to L. 
Canina's conjectural designs. In Fig. 325 we recognize the above- 
mentioned divisions of the temple into a front and a back half, 
the former of which, turned toward the south, is inclosed by col- 
umns without a wall, while the latter contains under a common 
roof the three cellse of the Capitoline deities to whom the temple 
was dedicated. The centre cella belonged to Jupiter, the two 
smaller ones to left and right being assigned to Minerva and Juno 
respectively. By diminishing the dimensions of these two latter 
cellae, Canina has succeeded in making his reconstruction to some 
extent tally with that part of Dionysios's description according to 
which the temple had three rows of columns in front and only 

Fig. 326. 

two on each of the long sides. Differing from Dionysios, and not 
quite free from objection, is Canina's conjecture of there being 
only six columns in the facade, to which he was led by the repre- 
sentation of the Capitoline temple on Roman coins, where it un- 
doubtedly appears as a hexastylos. At any rate the illustrations 
offered by us will give the reader a correct general notion of this 
and other temples with three cellse. For Fig. 326, old Roman 
and Etruscan monuments have been consulted to determine not 
only the columns and their proportions, but also the beams and 
their ornamentation with triglyphs and metopse. The statues on 
the gable were, according to Etruscan custom, of burnt clay. 


63. So much about the original Roman or Tuscan style of 
architecture which, as we said before, was founded on the require- 
ments of old Italian worships. The detailed rules given by Vitru- 
vius for the Tuscan order of columns remind one of Greek forms, 
and may serve to prove Greek influence on this as on other 
branches of earliest Italian development — an influence which will 
appear still more distinctly in our remarks about old Italian graves 
and wall-structures. 

In following the further history of Roman civilization one 
observes this influence becoming stronger and stronger. During 
the times of the kings, to which the development of Tuscan 
architecture belongs, the relations of the two nations were of the 
simplest kind ; a conscious imitation of Greek customs cannot be 
thought of, least of all in Latium, the poverty and simplicity of 
whose inhabitants prevented a deeper-going influence in that direc- 
tion. This, however, was different in Etruria, the political secu- 
rity and greater wealth of which made it more susceptible to the 
charms of Greek culture. Hence the notion common among the 
Romans, although considerably shaken by modern science, of the 
Etruscans having introduced Greek culture to them. 

After the expulsion of the kings the influence of Greek on 
Italian manners begins to increase. The time when first the 
Roman people were enabled to model more fully their political 
and legal institutions coincided with the highest climax of Greek 
culture with regard to political, military, and artistic phases of 
development. ISTo wonder, therefore, that over the whole Italian 
peninsula a new civilization, akin to the Greek model, and 
fashioned after it, began to gain strength more and more. 
Etruria began to abound with Greek works of art, and even to 
rival those great models; Apulia had, from the first, followed 
Greek examples ; in Lucania and Campania Greek language and 
Greek characters of writing prevailed to a great extent — the 
surest sign of mental affinity. Rome, which always must claim 
our chief attention, was, by its constitutional struggles and the 
warlike spirit of its inhabitants, prevented from receiving with a 
collected mind the germs of Greek civilization. Nevertheless, 
the world-conquering power of this civilization could not wholly 
be evaded, and we can look for no more striking proof of the 
civilizing mission of the Hellenes than in the fact of the Romans 


becoming more and more subjected to their genius, notwithstand- 
ing these unfavorable circumstances. 

This influence is recognizable in political no less than in legal 
and commercial matters. After the conquest of Campania, in the 
fifth century of the city, the knowledge of Greek institutions, 
formerly limited to individual statesmen and lawgivers, became 
diffused among wider circles. But, besides this strong and ever- 
increasing intrusion of Greek uses (and but too frequently) abuses, 
we have to consider another point of affinity which, from the very 
beginning of this new epoch, became more and more important, 
particularly as far as sacred architecture is concerned. 

We are alluding to the old religious connections between 
Greece and Rome, which remained unobliterated in the con- 
sciousness of the two nations — the signs, as it were, of a common 
origin, and which led to continued intercourse. The want of per- 
sonality in the old Italian myths was thus supplied from the rich 
stores of Greek mythological lore, and the worships of certain gods 
were, by public authority, transferred from Greece to Rome. This 
enlargement of the religious horizon is not without political signifi- 
cance. At first the priestly office was entirely monopolized by 
the patricians ; but, with the growing power of the plebeian ele- 
ment, the introduction of new objects of public worship became 
necessary. The kings already tried to mediate between plebeians 
and nobles by erecting a centre of national worship, and the fre- 
quent introduction, in the following centuries, of Greek deities 
by government was, in a manner, a continuation of this attempt 
at conciliating these classes. 1 

The adoption of Greek architectural forms was, therefore, due 
to religious causes, previous even to the entering of sesthetical 
considerations into the question. During the last century of the 
Republic the attachment to the old indigenous form of worship 
was more and more supplanted by the influence of modern Greek 
civilization. This admixture of Greek mythology and, but too 
often, Greek skepticism soon tended to abolish the deep religious 

1 The temple of the Capitoline deities must be considered as this centre of 
national worship (Ambrosch, " Stud.," i., 196), independent of patrician exclusiveness. 
Similar transformations of the Roman religion seem to have been attempted by the 
earlier Tarquinians. Tarquinius Priscus is said to have erected the first images of 
gods, and, after him, Servius Tullius ordered the statue of the Aventine Diana to be 
fashioned after the model of the Artemis of Ephesos, known to the Romans through 
the Greeks of Massilia. 


feeling characteristic of the old Romans. The religious indiffer- 
ence of the upper classes grew into a decided aversion to religion 
itself, and soon complaints began to be raised of the temples 
standing empty and being allowed to go to ruin. Augustus re- 
stored as many as eighty-two temples, most of them undoubtedly 
according to the principles of Greek taste, which at that time pre- 
vailed in all artistic and poetical creations of the Romans. 

Such were the different phases of the influence of Greek on 
Roman sacred architecture, which gradually led to the entire 
transformation of the old Italian temple. Indeed, all the different 
forms of the Greek temple are met with among the sacred edi- 
fices of the Romans. 

The simplest form of the templum in cmtds (see § 5) occurred, 
according to Yitruvius (iii., 1), in a temple of the Three Fortunes, 
outside the Porta Collina : the prostylos (see § 7) was very 
frequent. To this we shall have to return (§ 65). Even of the 
amphiprostylos (see § 8), which was rare among the Greeks them- 
selves, and of which Yitruvius mentions no example either in 
Greece or Rome, we have at least one specimen in the temple 
on the Forum of Yelleja (compare § 82). Of the peripteros 
(see § 9), Yitruvius mentions two examples, viz., the temple of 
Jupiter in the Hall of Metellus, and that of Yirtus and Honos, 
also in Rome, which the architect Mutius had built for Marius. 
The form of the pseudo-dipteros, of which only one specimen 
exists in Greece (see § 10), was frequently used by Roman 
architects, as we shall see hereafter. Yitruvius mentions one 
specimen of the dipteros (see § 12), viz., the temple of Quirinus, 
erected by Augustus on the Quirinal. It had double colonnades 
of seventy-six columns, and was counted among the most splendid 
edifices of Rome. Of this temple no traces remain. We, therefore, 
shall specify the influence of Greek on Augustan architecture by 
some remains of a Greco-Roman temple at Athens. We are speak- 
ing of the beautiful columns standing southeast of the Akropolis, 
60 feet in height, and partly still showing their architraves. They 
belonged to the temple of the Olympian Zeus, the building of 
which was begun by Pisistratos, but not continued till the reign of 
Antiochus Epiphanes. On the latter occasion we hear of a Roman 
knight, Cossutius, acting as architect. The temple was finished by 
the art-loving Emperor Adrian. Yitruvius, in the preface of his 



seventh book, says that Cossutius built the walls and the double 
colonnade, and also covered the beams. The additions of 
Adrian must therefore have consisted either of the ultimate 
completion of the last-mentioned parts, or of the decorative ar- 
rangements of the interior. Fig. 327 shows the plan of the tem- 
ple. It was a dipteros 173 
feet broad by 359 long. 
Livy (xl., 20) justly des- 
ignates it as unique. It 
had ten columns on the 
narrow and twenty on the 
long sides ; on the nar- 
row sides it had three rows 
of columns instead of the 
two usually found in the 
dipteros, as may still be 
seen from the remains. 
Of the two other orders of 
the temple, the pseudo- 
dipteros (§ 13) and the 
hypsethros (§ 11), there 
were, according to Yitru- 
vius, no specimens in 
Eome. The temple of 
Yenus and Eoma, how- 
ever, to which we shall 
have to return (§ 66), un- 
doubtedly showed the es- 
sential characteristics of 
the pseudo-dipteros ; and 
Yitruvius's own descrip- 
tion (iii., 2) proves that 
the just mentioned tem- 
ple of Jupiter Olympius was, like the Parthenon in its vicinity, 
a hypsethros. 

64. The forms of Greek architecture thus adopted by the 
Eomans were considerably modified by them. These modifica- 
tions were of a twofold kind. They either originated in the 
reaction of the Italian on the Greek temple, in which case the 

Fig. 82T. 




design and local division of the building were affected ; or they 
were caused by entirely new modes of construction being applied 
either to the purely Greek or Greco-Roman temple. In that case 
the whole character of the edifice was altered. 

Before, however, entering into these more important modifi- 
cations, we must mention a few minor changes, chiefly with re- 
gard to the order of columns. All the Greek orders of columns 
described by us were also used by Roman architects. As exam- 
ples of the Doric order, we name the temples of Quirinus at Rome 
and of Hercules at Cori : not to mention several other specimens of 
the Doric style collect- 
ed by Canina, " Archi- 
tettura Romana," Tav. 
67. The graceful forms 
of Greek architecture 
have, however, been fre- 
quently misunderstood ; 
and have, in conse- 
quence, lost their ori- 
ginal purity and harmo- 
nious proportions. The 
Tuscan order, frequent- 
ly used by the Romans, 
is itself nearly related 
to the Doric style. It 
must be explained from 
the adoption and par- 
tial modification of the 
Greek original by the 
Etruscans, from whom 
it again was borrowed 
by the Romans, the 
latter developing the 
forms thus received in- 
to a system of their 
own. The statements 
of Yitruvius, together 
with some archaic specimens found on Etruscan graves (for in- 
stance, the fragments of columns of the Cucumella of Yulci), and 

Fig. 328. 


other examples of this style in later Eoman buildings, enable us 
to form a distinct notion of this old-Etruscan order of columns. 
It must suffice to refer the reader to the facade of the Capitoline 
temple (Fig. 326), which displays the Tuscan order with the modi- 
fications alluded to. 

The Ionic order of columns, likewise, is found in Roman edi- 
fices ; for instance, in a small temple of Tivoli (see Fig. 330), and 
in the still standing temple of Fortuna Yirilis in Rome ; also in 
that of Saturn in the Roman Forum. The second stories of both 
the Coliseum (§ 85) and the theatre of Marcellus are adorned with 
Ionic semi-columns ; a few specimens of this style have been 
found at Pompeii. Almost all these specimens show more or less 
important deviations from the pure Greek form. Particularly, 
the graceful sweep of the curvatures and the spiral lines of the 
volutes have been lost — an observation which also applies to the 
large Ionic temples of Asia Minor (see Figs. 9 and 10). A char- 
acteristic example of the Roman form of the Ionic capital occurs 
in Desgodetz's description of the temple of Fortuna Yirilis in 
Rome (PL iii.). 

While the Ionic and Doric orders were thus deteriorated by 
Roman architects, the Korinthian column, and especially the Ko- 
rinthian capital, received a richer and more splendid development 
at their hands. The peculiarities of this style seem to have been 
congenial to the Roman mind ; it is, indeed, particularly adapted 
to an architecture which derives its effects more from the grand- 
eur of massive structure than from the harmonious proportions of 
architectural lines. The capitals are formed by two or three rows 
of delicate acanthus-leaves, from between which appear volutes, 
flowers, or the forms of men and animals, the richer development 
of the beams being in harmony with this splendid style of orna- 
mentation. This order has been most frequently applied by the 
Romans, the greater number of whose edifices are, indeed, built in 
the Korinthian style. We have met with it already in the temple 
of the Olympian Zeus at Athens, and shall find it again in almost 
all the monuments we shall have to mention. One of the finest 
specimens of the style is the Pantheon (see Figs. 342 to 344), a 
column of which, with the beam resting on it, is shown in Fig. 
328. In later times, the style became overloaded, and by the 
addition of Ionic volutes the so-called " composite capital " was 



Fig. 329. 

arrived at, of which Desgodetz (v., 17) and Cameron (" Baths of 
the Romans," PL 30) show examples (compare, also, the trium- 
phal arch of Titus, Fig. 448). 

65. The requirements of the old Italian religion led naturally 
to the adoption of that more or less modified form of the Greek 
temple which was most suited to its peculiar rites 5 this form was 
the prostylos. The Tuscan temple, the frontage of which con- 
sisted only of colonnades, so as not to obstruct the view of the 
sky, was itself a prostylos. At the same time the prostylos could, 
by means of a simple enlargement, be easily adapted to the 
demands of Italian worship. This enlargement was effected by 
adding one or more rows of columns to the one which in the Greek 
temple formed the portico of the 
building. In this manner the front 
part, surrounded only by columns 
{pars antica, § 61), became of almost 
equal size with the back part (postica), 
occupied by the cella. The door of 
the cella, therefore, where the augur 
used to stand, was exactly, or at least 
very nearly, in the centre of the temple. This form of the pro- 
stylos with a far-protruding portico occurs so frequently that 
it may be called that of the Roman temple par excellence. As 
such, it is distinguished from both the Tuscan and purely Greek 
temples, the elements of which it amalgamates to artistic unity. 

The simple form of the prostylos, protruding in front by one 
column only, is also frequently found 
among Roman edifices, more fre- 
quently, indeed, than in Greece, 
where it was used very rarely. Yi- 
truvius, for instance, mentions no 
specimen of it jn Greece, but two in 
Rome, viz., the temple of Faunus and 
that of Jupiter in the Island of the 
Tiber. Figs. 329 and 330 show the 
design and view of a small half-ruined 
prostylos at Tivoli, near the well- 
known round temple (see Fig. 340, et seq.). It is preserved up to 
the height of the capitals ; the wall of the cella is adorned with 

Fig. 830. 



Ionic half -columns, and therefore appears in the form of a pseudo- 
dipteros (§ 10), frequently applied by the Komans. On each of 
the long sides, between the two pairs of centre columns (count- 
ing those of the portico) we see a small window growing nar- 
rower toward the top, and adorned with an elegant cornice. Ac- 
cording to Canina, from whom our woodcuts are taken, the temple 
was built toward the end of the republican era, and dedicated 
most likely to the Sibylla Tiburtina or Albunea. 

The first and most natural enlargement was effected by the 
addition of another column to the projecting one which carried 
the portico. This form also occurs frequently. Besides the 
above-mentioned temple of Fortuna Yirilis (at present S. Maria 

Fig. 331. 

Egiziaca) in Eome, the temple of Isis at Pompeii shows this en- 
larged form of the portico. The all but square size of this tem- 
ple reminds one of Vitruvius's rules for the Tuscan temple. A 
small oblong temple at Palmyra, most likely from the time of 
Aurelianus, shows the same form of the enlarged prostylos. Like 
that of Isis at Pompeii, it has four columns in the facade, which, 
together with the two on each side, form the pronaos, almost 
equal in size to the cella. 

The design is more interesting where the portico projects 
by three columns. This arrangement is shown in the beautiful 



temple of Antoninus and Faustina, the portico of which is carried 
by six columns in front and three on each side, each of the 
columns consisting of one piece of green-veined marble. The 
walls of the cella, also preserved, consist of the stone called com- 
monly travertine. 

Fig. 331 shows an unusually well-preserved temple of the 
same order at Nismes (the old Nemausus), in Southern France. 
It belongs to the best period of 
Roman architecture, and was 
erected, according to an inscrip- 
tion on it, by Augustus, in honor 
of the sons of the faithful Agrip- 
pa, Caius and Lucius, adopted by 
the emperor. The temple, known 
as Maison quarree, consists of a 
cella (pseudo - dipteros) adorned 
with Korinthian half -columns, and 
a portico formed by six columns 
in front and three on each side. 
The beams, in perfect preserva- 
tion, resting on the wall and the 
columns, show a frieze with beau- 
tiful bass-relief ornaments. The 
old pediments with their beautiful 
cornices are also preserved. The 
interior of the temple is at present 
used as a museum, in which the 
numerous antiquities found in and 
near jNismes are kept. 

A further development of the same principle of Roman archi- 
tecture appears in the large temple of Jupiter at Pompeii, which 
at the same time may be considered as one of the finest examples 
of this style. Fig. 332 (scale 24 Par. feet) shows the plan, Fig. 
333, a restored section of the building. The protrusion of the 
portico is increased by a further column, six columns standing in 
front and four on each side. In front of the portico (b) lies a 
platform, with steps leading up to it (a), by means of which the 
whole front part was made equal in length to the back part, in 
accordance with Vitruvius's rules for the Tuscan temple. The 

6 tii IS it- 



position of the temple from north to south also accords with 
these rules. Through the door which lay exactly in the centre 
of the building one entered the cella, on both sides of which there 
were galleries of eight Ionic columns each {ff). In front of the 
back wall of the cella lay a kind of substructure containing three 
small cellaa (d). The Ionic columns (as appears from Fig. 333) 
seem to have carried a gallery of Korinthian columns, up to which 
led a staircase in the back wall of the cella (Fig. 332, e). The 
substructure (d) may have supported a statue, the head of which, 
in the character of Jupiter, has been discovered there. The three 
cellae most likely served to keep documents and treasures, as was 
frequently the case in temples. The walls of the cella were richly 

Fig. 333. 

painted, as were also the columns of the portico, consisting of lava. 
The floor of the temple was adorned with mosaic. The temple 
itself lay in the most beautiful part of the Forum. A tasteful 
and clever reconstruction of both it and the Forum is found in 
Gandy's "Pompeiana ? (PI. 51). 

In connection with these specimens of the Eoman prostylos 
we mention the temple of Concordia in Home, differing in design 
from all other similar buildings. It was built in consequence of 
a vow made by Camillus after he had spoken in the senate in 
favor of the claims of the plebeians to the consular dignity. It 
was intended as a symbol of the restored concord between patri- 
cians and plebeians. It lay at the northern end of the Forum 



Romanum, close to the enormous foundations of the Tabularium 

(see § 81). The remains found on the spot do, however, not 

belong to the older temple of Concordia, but to the splendid 

temple .built by Tiberius on its site. Only the large substructure 

of the temple, to which led a 

flight of steps from the Forum, 

may be recognized by some 

remnants of masonry, which, 

together with the Capitoline 

plan of the city, enable us to 

define the original situation 

of the building. The entire 

building (see plan, Fig. 334) 

formed an all but regular 

square stretching from north 

to south, one-half of which 

(postica) was occupied by the 

transverse cella, while the 

other half (antica) consisted 

of the substructure and the 

portico, projecting by six columns. The cella was used at the 

same time as the meeting-hall of the senate, and therefore was 

known at first by the name of senaculwn, in later imperial times 

by that of curia. (The same was the case with the cella of the 

above-mentioned temple of Jupiter at Pompeii.) To judge by 

the few preserved pieces of the architrave, with the cornice, and 

by the slabs of painted marble which formed the floor, the beauty 

and purity of the style of this temple must have been unsurpassed 

in Rome. According to ancient writers, the interior, most likely 

the senate-hall, contained twelve statues of gods by the hands of 

the greatest masters. 

66. The third modification of the Roman temple above referred 
to was caused by the introduction of a mode of construction seldom 
used by the Greeks, and never on a large scale. It enabled 
Roman architects to cover the cellse of the temples in an imposing 
monumental manner. "We are speaking of the vault, by the bold 
and consistent development of which Roman architecture differs 
essentially from the art of the Greeks. We cannot here discuss 
whether and when the art of vaulting became known to the 

Fkj. 334. 



Greeks, or whether it was invented by the Italians. Suffice it to 
say, that vaulted buildings occur at a very early period among 
the Etruscans and other Italian tribes ; but that it was left to the 
Romans to carry this important principle to its technical and 
sesthetical perfection. We shall have frequently to speak of the 
vault, as applied to canals, bridges, aqueducts, gates, and trium- 
phal arches. By its means the Romans were enabled to get over 
architectural difficulties in a manner differing from, and much 
grander than, any known to the Greeks. At present, we must 
consider the vault in its influence on the development of the 
temple. The exterior of the temple never displays vaults or 
arches in any noticeable manner; the interior, on the other hand, 
was considerably transformed by the new principle, even the 

largest cellae now being spanned by 
bold and richly-decorated vaults, in- 
stead of the flat lacunaria-ceilmg for- 
merly in use. As an example of this 
style we mention the smaller of the 
two temples at Heliopolis, in Syria, 
to the larger of which, the so-called 
Temple of the Sun, we shall return 
(§ 68). Fig. 335 shows the plan (scale 
80 feet English measure), Fig. 336 
the view, of a prostylos of the above- 
described kind, which, in addition, has 
been surrounded by a colonnade. Ex- 
cepting the front row of columns of the 
facade, it has been perfectly preserved. 
A flight of steps (A) leads to the colon- 
nade (B), through which one enters 
into the pronaos (C), the ceiling of 
which consists of a transverse barrel- 
vault. A splendid door (D), on each 
side of which a staircase has been let 
into the wall, opens into the inner 
cella. It is divided into two parts; 
the first of which, lying on a level with the pronaos, is spanned 
by a bold barrel-vault richly adorned with laquearia. The 
side-walls are adorned with beautiful Korinthian half-columns 

Pig. 886. 



inclosing niches. Opposite the entrance lies a raised space 
(F), up to which seem to have led steps. It was separated 
from the space in front of it by two columns, and most likely 

I L k |:„ L U \a \o 1ft 

Fig. 386. 

contained the statue of the temple. In the inside of the raised 
platform is a space evidently destined for the reception of sacred 
implements and other valuable objects. The style of the archi- 

Fig. 887. 

tecture is splendid, as was usual under the Emperor Caracalla, 
who seems to have finished the buiding begun most likely by his 
father Severus. 



The temple of 
Venus and Eoma in 
Rome shows the same 
principle of vaulting, 
although belonging to 
an earlier period. It 
is, at the same time, 
one of the few spe- 
cimens of a double 
temple in Roman ar- 
chitecture. It stood 
between the Forum 
Romanum and the 
Coliseum, rising on 
a strong substruct- 
ure. It was begun by 
Adrian, a lover of art, 
and himself an ama- 
teur architect, and 
most likely finished 
|* by Antoninus Pius. It 
6 belonged to the most 
splendid monuments 
of Rome, and its ruins 
are still of imposing 
aspect. These remains 
at the same time en- 
able us to distinguish 
the position of the 
two separate cellse be- 
longing to the above- 
named goddesses. 

In the centre of 
the temple were two 
semicircular niches 
touching each other, 
adorned with beauti- 
ful semi-cupolas, and 
containing the statues 
of Yenus and Roma. 
One of them was turn- 
ed toward the west, 


the other toward the east. Fig. 337 shows the plan of the temple. 
It must be described as a pseudo-dipteros dekastylos, having ten 
columns in the facades. The distance of the colonnade from the 
wall was sufficient to leave space for another omitted row of 
columns (compare § 13). Each of the long sides had twenty col- 
umns. The entrances to the two divisions of the cella lay toward 
east and west respectively ; the entrance to them was through 
pronaoi, formed by the prolongations of the cella-walls, and by 
four columns placed between the antce of these walls. The two 
cellse were covered by richly-adorned barrel-vaults {see Fig. 338), 
which were in beautiful harmony with the semi-cupolas over the 
two niches. The side-walls contained niches with half-columns 
inclosing them, additional splendor being produced by colored 
tablets of marble. The outside consisted entirely of Prokonne- 
sian marble. Steps led from the Forum to the terrace (500 feet 
long by 309 wide) on which the temple stood. Some remains of 
these steps are still in existence. The two long sides had no steps. 
Fragments of shafts of columns made of gray granite have been 
found near the edges of the substructure. They tend to prove 
the existence of a colonnade round the building. The temple 
itself lay on a separate platform inside the colonnade, by six or 
seven steps above the level of the substructure. 

67. In the examples of vaulted temples hitherto cited a so- 
called barrel- vault was joined immediately to the quadrangular 
shape of the cella or the pronaos. Another no less important 
kind of the vault is the cupola applied to circular buildings. The 
Romans used it frequently, sometimes with great effect. 1 We 
have mentioned the round temple in Greek architecture (§ 14), 
without, however, being able to cite examples of this style, bar- 
ring, perhaps, the monument of Lysikrates at Athens (Fig. 152) 
and the conjectural design of the Philippeum of Olympia (Fig. 
36). In Rome these buildings were both more frequent and more 
developed than among the Greeks ; they indeed form a consid- 
erable fraction of Roman edifices. According to Servius {see 

1 Adler (" Das Pantheon zu Rom," 31. " Programm zum Winckelmannsfest der 
archaeolog. Ges. zu Berlin, 1871, p. 16, et seq.) contends that the cupola was an old 
Oriental, not a Roman, invention. In Alexander's time it attained its climax in 
Western Asia and Lower Egypt, whence it came to the Romans, who brought it to its 
highest perfection in the cupola of the Pantheon. 



" ^En.," ix., 408), they were dedicated chiefly to the goddesses 
Vesta and Diana, also to Hercnles and Mercury. Vitruvius (iv., 
7) mentions two kinds of this temple, one of which he calls mono- 
pteros, the other peripteros. The monopteros consists of a num- 
ber of columns arranged in a circular form, standing on a base 
with steps (stylobat), and carrying the beams, also circular in 
shape, and, by means of them, the vaulted cupola, made either of 
stone or wood. These temples, in the centre of which the statue 
of the deity was placed, had therefore no separate cella ; which 
want was perhaps supplied by railings between the single col- 
umns, as appears from a bass-relief. No specimens of this style 
are preserved. To judge by a coin of Augustus, the temple of 
Mars Ultor (not to be mistaken for the splendid temple of later 
origin) in the Capitol, built by that emperor, was a monopteros, 
which form also appears on another coin repre- 
senting an open temple containing the statue of 
Yesta (Fig. 339). On the top of the cupola is 
a flower-like ornament quite in accordance with 
Vitruvius's statement, who (iv., 7) prescribes a 
certain measure for this flower (flos). The in- 
accuracy of such representations, however, pre- 
vents us from deciding with certainty whether 
our illustration is not perhaps intended to represent the Koman 
temple of Yesta still in existence, although that belongs to the 
second form of round temples. 

The temples of the second kind also rest on a circular base ; 
but here the separate columns encircle a 
round cella, which is covered by a cupola 
resting on the colonnade. This arrange- 
ment is specified by the above-mentioned 
temple of Yesta, more commonly called the 
temple of Hercules Yictor. It has been 
transformed into a Christian church (S. 
Maria in Cosmedin), to which circumstance 
it owes its preservation. The celebrated 
temple of Yesta, which now has entirely 
disappeared, lay at the foot of the Palatine, 
near the church S. Maria Liberatrice, a 

Fig. 339. 

A*H MUM i U Lc 
Fio. 840. 

little way from the Yia Sacra. 


The ruins of another temple, ascribed to Yesta with more 
certainty, are found at Tivoli. Its original appearance can dis- 
tinctly be recognized. It is one of the finest specimens of the 
class of round temples called by Vitruvius peripteroi. Fig. 340 
shows the design, Fig. 341 the view, both after Yalladier's draw- 
ings of the remains, to which Canina has added the missing 
parts. The cella is formed by a circular chamber {see Fig. 340), 
whose wall contains a handsome door and two elegant windows. 

Fig. 841. 

The cella is surrounded by twenty Korinthian columns, carrying 
richly-ornamented beams {see Fig. 341). The upper part of the 
cella-wall, surrounded by a graceful cornice, rises above these 
beams, the conclusion being made by the cupola, crowned by an 
ornament. The whole structure stands on a base, also surround- 
ed by a slight cornice, up to which base leads a narrow flight of 
steps in accordance with Yitruvius's rule. The building must be 
considered as one of the finest specimens of late republican ar- 
chitecture. 1 

1 Weiss in his " Costiimkunde " (Part i., p. 1169) suggests that the round temple 
may have been a reminiscence of the circular huts of the old-Italian populations. 


Hirt has called attention to the remarkable circumstance of 
Yitruvius limiting his description to these two kinds of the round 
temple without mentioning a third class, in which the circular 
body of the building (in that case generally of larger dimensions) 
is not inclosed by columns at all, but only shows a projecting 
portico like the other Roman temples (prostyloi). This omission 
on the part of Yitruvius is all the more remarkable, as in his 
time already Roman architecture had achieved its highest success 
in that particular style. 

We are speaking of the Pantheon, the splendid building erect- 
ed by M. Agrippa, the friend of Augustus, in immediate connec- 
tion with the Thermae, built and dedicated to Jupitor Ultor by 
him. This building, which embodied, as it were, the highest aspi- 
rations of Bo man national pride and power, was completed, accord- 
ing to the original inscription preserved on it, b. c. 25, in which 
year Agrippa was consul for the third time. According to the 
statement of Pliny ( u Hist. Nat.," 36, 24, 1), which, however, has 
been disputed, it was originally dedicated to Jupitor Ultor, whose 
statue, therefore, undoubtedly stood in the chief niche opposite 
the entrance. The other six niches contained the statues of as 
many gods ; those of the chief deities of the Julian family, Mars 
and Yenus, and of the greatest son of that family, the divine 
Caesar, being the only ones among the number of which we have 
certain knowledge. Was it that the statues of Mars and Yenus 
showed the attributes of the other principal gods, or that the 
statues of the latter stood in the small chapels (cediculm) between 
the niches, or that the unequaled enormous cupola was supposed 
to represent heaven, that is, the house of all the gods ? Certain 
it is that, together with the old appellation, the new name of the 
Pantheon, i. e., temple of all the gods, was soon applied to the 
building. This latter name has been unanimously adopted by 
posterity, and has even originated the Christian destination of the 
edifice as church of all the martyrs (S. Maria ad Martyres). 
Without entering into the consecutive changes the building has 
undergone in the course of time, we will now attempt a descrip- 
tion of its principal features. The temple consists of two parts, 
the round edifice and the portico (see plan, Fig. 342). The former 
was 132 feet in diameter, exclusive of the thickness of the wall, 
which amounts to 19 feet. The wall is perfectly circular, and 



contains eight apertures, one of which serves as entrance, while 
the others form, in a certain order, either semicircular or quad- 
rangular niches; the former are covered by semi-cupolas, the lat- 
ter, by barrel- vaults. Only the niche opposite the entrance is, 
at the present time, uninterrupted, and open up to its full height, 
thus corresponding with the formation of the entrance (compare 
section, Fig. 344) ; in front of each of the others, two columns 
have been erected, the beams of which close the opening of the 
semicircular vault. To this chief portion of the building is 
attached the splendid portico which, in the manner of the above- 

Fig. 342. 

mentioned temples, projects by three columns, besides a massive 
wall-structure. The frontage shows eight columns. As a rule, 
the whole space of the pronaos was without columns ; contrary to 
this rule, we here see it divided into three naves by means of two 
pairs of columns. The centre nave, which was also the widest, 
led to the entrance-door, each of the two others being terminated 
by an enormous niche. Not to mention sesthetical considerations, 
these columns were required as props of the roof covering this 
vast space (the portico is about 100 feet long). 

The columns of the portico (one of the capitals is shown, Fig. 



328) carried beams, on the frieze of which the following inscrip- 
tion in large letters has been placed : MAGRIPPA-LFCOS- 
TEBTIUMFECIT. Another inscription below this one, in 
smaller characters, states the building to have been restored 
by Septimius Severus and Caracalla. The beams carry a large 
pediment, originally adorned with groups of statues representing 
Jupiter's victories over the Grigantes. Behind and above this 
gable rises a second one of the same proportions, serving as an 
ornament of the projecting wall which connects the round 
building with the portico {see also plan, Fig. 344). The roof of 
the portico was supported by beams made of brass. According to 

Fig. 343. 

the drawing of Serlio, these beams were not massive, but consisted 
of brass plates riveted together into square pipes — a principle 
frequently applied by modern engineers on a larger scale in 
building bridges, etc. Unfortunately, the material of the roof, 
barring some of the large rivets, has been used by Pope Urban 
Till, for guns and various ornaments of doubtful taste in 
St. Peter's Cathedral. The large columns carrying the ugly 
tabernacle on the grave of St. Peter are one of the results of this 
barbarous spoliation. The old door, also made of brass, which 
leads from the portico into the interior has, on the contrary, been 
preserved. The outer appearance of the round building is simple 


and dignified. It most likely was originally covered with stucco 
and terra-cotta ornaments, of which, however, little remains at 
present ; but the simple bricks, particularly in the upper stripes, 
where the insertion of the vault becomes visible, look, perhaps, 
quite as beautiful as the original coating. The whole cylinder of ' 
masonry is divided into three stripes by means of cornices, which 
break the heaviness of the outline, the divisions of the inner space 
corresponding to those of the outer surface (see Figs. 343 and 
344). The first of these stripes is about forty feet high, and rests 
on a base of Travertine freestone. It consists of simple horizon- 
tal slabs of stone, broken only by doors which lead to chambers 
built in the thickness of the wall between the niches (see plan, 
Fig. 342). It corresponds to the columns forming the first story 
of the interior, the two cornices, in and outside, being on a level. 
The second stripe, about 30 feet in height, answers to the second 
story of the interior, where the semicircular arches of the niches 
are situated. The horizontal stone layers outside are accordingly 
broken by large double arches, destined to balance the vaults in 
the interior. They alternate with smaller arches, thus forming a 
decoration of the exterior at once dignified and in harmony with 
the general design of the building. The two cornices in and 
outside are again on a level. The third stripe corresponds to the 
cupola, the tension of which is equal to 140 feet. The outer 
masonry reaches up to about a third of its height, from which 
point the cupola proper begins to rise in seven mighty steps. 

The height of the dome is equal to the diameter of the cylin- 
drical building, which adds to the sober and harmonious impres- 
sion of the whole building. The lower of the above-mentioned 
interior stories is adorned with columns and pilasters, the latter 
of which inclosed the niches. Eight of these columns, over 
thirty-two feet in height, are monoliths of giallo antico — a yellow 
kind of marble beautifully veined, and belonging to the most 
valuable materials used by ancient architects. Six other col- 
umns are made of a kind of marble known as 'pavonazzetto / by 
an ingenious mode of coloring these columns are made to har- 
monize with those consisting of the rarer material. Above the 
first lies a second lower story, the architectural arrangements of 
which may be recognized from Adler's ingenious attempt at re- 
construction (see Fig. 344). Its original decoration consisted of 



tablets of colored marble, the effect being similar to that of a se- 
quence of narrow pilasters. This original decoration has later been 
changed for another. Above the chief cornice which crowns this 
story, and at the same time terminates the circular walls, rises the 
cupola, divided into five stripes, each of which contains twenty- 
five " caskets " beautifully worked and in excellent perspective. In 
the centre at the top is an opening, forty feet in diameter, through 
which the light enters the building. Near this opening a frag- 
ment has been preserved of the bronze ornamentation which once 
seems to have covered the whole cupola. Even without these 

Fig. 344. 

elegant decorations the building still excites the spectator's ad- 
miration as one of the masterpieces of Roman genius. 

68. The temple-inclosures of the Romans were, as a rule, still 
more splendid than the periboloi of the Greeks. Although few 
in number, the remaining specimens of these surrounding courts 
are sufficient to give us a distinct idea of the whole arrangement. 
The original purpose of these courts was to seclude the sanctuary 
from the profane bustle of the world, for which purpose the in- 
closure of the space immediately in front of the temple was suffi- 
cient. Several inclosures of this kind have been preserved at 
Pompeii. In front of a prostylos with a colonnade projecting by 
two columns, commonly designated as the temple of ^Esculapius, 



is situated a simple court inclosed on two sides by a bare wall, 
only the third side fronting the temple being adorned with a 
portico of two columns. Another still smaller sanctuary, with- 
out columns, at Pompeii, formerly described as the temple of 
Mercury, at present as that of Quirinus, shows an entrance-court 
the walls of which on two sides are adorned with pilasters, the 
third consisting of a portico of four columns. Through the latter 
one enters the court of the temple, in the background of which, 
on a broad base, rises the cella containing the statue of the god ; 
in the centre of the court stands an altar remarkable for its relief- 

In other cases the courts were richly decorated and of larger 
dimensions, surrounding the temple on all sides. This seems to 

have been the case in almost all the larger and in most of the 
smaller temples wherever the locality would permit it. In Pom- 
peii we again refer to the above-mentioned temple of Isis, which 
is built in a regular space surrounded by walls. The court is sur- 
rounded by a colonnade ; in the centre of it lies the cella with the 
pronaos. A similar arrangement, on a larger scale, we see in the 
so-called temple of Yenus, occupying 'the western side of the 
Forum of Pompeii. It is a peripteros surrounded by twenty-eight 
splendid Korinthian columns, with a portico of considerable pro- 
jection in front. The temple is inclosed by a covered court 
adorned with columns ; the colonnades on the narrower sides con- 
sisting of nine, those on the broader sides of seventeen, detached 
Korinthian columns. The wall on the right is joined on the out- 
side by a similar colonnade (Fig. 345, a) of Doric columns, which 


belongs to the surroundings of the forum. The remnants of both 
the temple and the court are in a state of tolerable preservation. 
Mazois has attempted a trustworthy conjectural design of the ori- 
ginal building {see Fig. 345). The temple rises in beautiful pro- 
portions over the surrounding colonnades. Both with regard to 
elegance of proportions and splendor of decorations it ranks among 
the finest buildings of Pompeii. In front of the steps leading to 
the base stands the small altar, occupying the centre of the fore- 
ground. The surface of the inner walls of the cella is divided into 
several parts separated by pilasters of stucco. They are of a light- 
yellow color, while those of the peribolos are richly adorned in 
the manner of perspective room-decorations — only rarely met with 
in temples. The back wall of the peribolos is joined by a number 
of small chambers destined, perhaps, for the priests. Their walls 
are decorated with beautiful figure-pictures. 

In Rome no temple-inclosures of this kind have been pre- 
served, but their existence in ancient times is proved by the tem- 
ple of Venus and Roma described by us (Figs. 336 and 337). Of 
a very early structure of a similar kind, we have knowledge from 
the plan of the city of Rome, which, made of marble, was placed 
in the temple of Romulus, and the fragments of which are now 
let into the walls of the staircase of the Capitoline Museum. In 
this fragment we see two temples standing near each other, and 
inclosed at a moderate distance by a single oblong colonnade. 1 
This colonnade was built most likely of common material by Q. 
Csecilius Metellus ; Augustus reconstructed it on a larger scale in 
marble in the name of his sister Octavia. In front of the two 
temples stood, as appears from the Capitoline fragment, groups 
of twenty-five horsemen, the work of Lysippus, which had been 
brought as spoil from Macedon by Metellus. In the reign of 
Titus (a. d. TO) both temples were burned down in a fire which 
destroyed a great part of Rome. They were rebuilt, according to 
an inscription found on them, by the Emperor L. Septimius Seve- 
rus (a. d. 203). Both temples were dedicated to Jupiter and Juno. 
Remains of the portico leading to the court are found in the 

1 See F. Reber, " Die Ruinen Roms und der Campagna." Leipsic, 1863, p. 210, et 
seq. P. 211 contains a view of the portico of Octavia; p. 213, the fragment of the 
Capitoline plan referring to it. 


Piazza di Pescaria; some columns of the temple of Juno belong 
to a private house in the Yia di S. Angelo di Pescaria. 

The largest temple-inclosure among the monuments known 
to us belonged to the temple of the Sun at Palmyra, the mighty 
city of the desert, situated on the frontier of the Roman and Par- 
thian Empires. In it the most gorgeous specimens of almost all 
classes of Eoman architecture are found. The open colonnade, 
for instance, more than 4,000 feet long, consisting of four rows of 
Korinthian columns, had not its equal in Rome, no more than the 
just-mentioned temple-inclosure. The latter occupies a square 
nearly 3,000 feet in circumference. The outer wall, of consider- 
able height, is broken on three sides by windows cut into it at 
regular intervals between the pilasters, which adorn the wall both 
in front and at the back. The fourth side has no windows, but 
instead of them a high entrance-portal in the centre, which may 
be considered as one of the most splendid specimens of Rornan 
architecture under the Emperor Aurelianus. The court which 
one enters through this portal is of proportionate size and splen- 
dor. Each of the sides (over 100 feet in length) is adorned with 
colonnades ; those on three sides being double (i. e., formed by 
two rows of columns), that on the side of the entrance single. 
The whole area of the court is covered with slabs of marble, and 
it contains, on both sides of the entrance, two large regular hol- 
lows, most likely used as ponds. Opposite the entrance, facing 
it with its long side, lies the temple, a dipteros about 110 feet 
wide by 200 long ; the entrance to it lies on the long side of the 
cella, opposite the portal of the inclosure-wall. This is a deviation 
from the ordinary design of temples ; another irregularity consist- 
ing in the windows which are broken into the walls of the cella. 
The inner sides of each of the two narrow walls of the cella con- 
tain a quadrangular niche destined to receive the statue of a god. 
This fact accords with the statement of Aurelian having placed 
here the statues of Helios and Belus. The same emperor restored 
the older temple in a manner the splendor of which is frequently 
praised by ancient writers, and still is apparent from the remains. 
Less in size, but not in splendor or individual peculiarities, 
were the courts of the temple of the Sun in Heliopolis, the modern 
Balbek. One of the chief temples of that city we have mentioned 
in § 66 (see Figs. 335 and 336). The other one, larger than the 


first, and most likely devoted to Jupiter, as god of the sun, was 
a peripteros with ten columns in front, and nineteen on each of 
the long sides. Its width was 160 feet ; its length, exclusive of 
the steps, about 300 feet. The cella of the temple has been de- 
stroyed beyond restoration ; only the beautiful Korinthian col- 
umns of the colonnade (about 7 feet in bottom diameter) may 
still be recognized. The courts in front of the temple, and the 
entrance-portal belonging to them, are comparatively well pre- 
served. The latter (see plan, Fig. 346 ; scale 200 feet) consists of 
a portico of twelve columns, up to which led a broad flight of 
steps, the entrance into the first court being formed by three 
magnificent gates. The court itself shows the unusual shape of 

a hexagon. Opposite the 
entrance lies the chief por- 
tal, leading to the second 
court. The four remain- 
ing sides show halls, open- 
ing toward the court 
through colonnades ; the 
niches in the walls of 
these halls, with their 
beautifully vaulted ceilings, may still be recognized from the 
ruins. The second court, square in shape, was designed in a simi- 
lar manner, each of three of its sides (400 feet in length) contain- 
ing open halls (exedrce) alternating with semicircular niches. The 
walls of the halls are adorned with niches, most likely containing 
statues. On the fourth side, opposite the splendid portal with 
three gates above mentioned, rises the facade of the temple, con- 
cerning the arrangement of which we have spoken before. 

So much about the inclosures and courts of temples. Fre- 
quently these temples were also erected in public squares, to 
which arrangement we shall have to return in speaking of the 
Fora of Rome and Pompeii (see § 82). The grand impression 
of a temple is frequently increased by the artificial base on which 
it stands. We have spoken of such a base in reference to the 
Capitoline sanctuary (§ 62). The foundations of the court of the 
temple of Yen as and Roma were, as we have seen, on the largest 
scale. Similar preparatory works were necessary for the base of 
the just-mentioned temple of Heliopolis. Large walls of free- 






III . 1 1 




'"- L ktZJKJZ 

Fig. 846. 



stone had been erected for the purpose on three sides, consisting 
of stones of thirty or even of sixty feet in length. In a temple 
erected on rising ground, the base itself could be architecturally 
developed; terraces, frequently of imposing proportions, often 
led up to the temple. As an instance, we add the temple of 
Fortuna of Prseneste, at Palestrina, conjecturally redesigned by 
Canina (Fig. 347). According to this design, the mountain, on 
the slope of which the old town of Prseneste lay, was converted 
into terraces up to half its height, which were propped by mighty 
basements of different kinds and ages. The midmost terraces, 
for instance, show front walls of Cyclopic-Pelasgic workmanship 

Fig. 847. 

(see % 17), and are therefore dated by Canina back to the time in 
which the similarly constructed walls of Prseneste itself were 
built. This structure was afterward enlarged toward both top 
and bottom, these later parts accordingly showing regular free- 
stone architecture. Other parts again show the so-called opus 
incertum (see § 69), and, also, the regular brick-architecture of 
imperial times. The modem town of Palestrina has been built 
among these ruins, which latter have been an object of continued 
research ever since the sixteenth century (we mention only the 
important works on the subject by Pirro Ligorio and Pietro da 


Cortona). In comparing the remains with the statements of an- 
cient writers, we find that the temple of moderate dimensions lay 
abont half-way up the mountain resting on the above-mentioned 
terraces, which again were architecturally adorned in various 
ways. The bottom story, if we may use that expression, was 
formed by a grand archway carried by pillars ; it extended to a 
considerable length, running parallel with the highway which 
passes the mountains on that side. On both sides of it two large 
covered cisterns have been discovered. From here, stairs led up 
to a terrace of large size, on which two other large tanks were 
situated — an arrangement met with also in the court of the tem- 
ple of the Sun at Palmyra. From here stairs led up to a second 
terrace, in the centre of which remains of a gorgeous building 
have been discovered. It consisted of two large halls connected 
by means of a colonnade ; in one of the halls a celebrated mosaic 
floor has been discovered. Pietro da Cartona transferred it to 
the palace of the Barberini family, built on the ruins of this 
structure, where it still remains. Double flights of steps led up 
to a third and a fourth terrace ; on the fifth terrace stood an arch- 
way running along the front edge ; on the sixth we see a large 
square court surrounded by colonnades (peristylos), joined by 
another similar court of semicircular shape. From this a flight 
of steps, semicircular in design, led up to the temple of Fortuna 
itself, of which, however, nothing now remains. 

69. We now have to consider the wall — the most primitive 
form of protective architecture. A great similarity exists be- 
tween the first attempts of this kind in Greece and Italy, which 
proves the relationship and analogous development of the two 
nations. The oldest Italian town-walls known to us consist of 
large stones, in the cutting and placing on each other of which 
we notice the same different modes of proceeding as in the Pelas- 
gic walls (compare Figs. 53 to 56). We therefore need not re- 
peat our previous remarks, and only add, that not only towns, 
but also other places, were inclosed with walls for purposes of 
safety or religious worship. Wall-inclosures of this kind are fre- 
quently found on heights in various parts of Italy ; it is indeed 
probable that one of the chief centres of Rome, the Capitoline 
Hill, was inclosed originally for the purpose of defense rather 
than of habitation. In this manner it became, like the akropolis 


of a Greek city, the centre point round which the first dwelling- 
houses of the city were grouped. 

When a town was to be founded systematically, as frequently 
was the case with a colonizing nation like the Komans, certain re- 
ligious ceremonies had to be observed. A bull and a cow were 
harnessed to a plough in order to encircle the place destined for 
the city with a furrow. For the gates, the number of which was 
also determined by holy traditions, a space was left by lifting up 
the plough. The ploughed-up earth had to lie toward the town, 
the furrow itself toward the country, this arrangement being in a 
manner suggestive of the wall and moat of Italian and Roman cit- 
ies. Where the locality permitted it, the space for the town was 
designed as a square, an instance of which was the old Roma qua- 
drata on the Palatine Hill : this arrangement recalls the form of 
the templum (see § 61, et seq.), the centre of the town being, like 
that of the temple, considered as holy, and marked as such by the 
deposition of gifts and offerings. 

The walls of the Romans were generally made of bricks. Re- 
cently, however, some remains of the oldest fortifications of Rome 
have been discovered which 
are built of freestone in the 
Greek manner. On the 
Aventine Hill, for instance, 
may be traced for a consid- 
erable distance the line of 
a freestone wall, which un- 
doubtedly belongs to the 
so-called fortifications of ^ mM 

o r -i. i Fig. 848. 

feervius. It lies on the top 

of a large earth-wall (agger), which is expressly mentioned among 
those fortifications, and it contains, like the walls of the Greeks, 
projections for the purpose of defense ; the arches placed at inter- 
vals for the sake of increasing the firmness of the layers of stones 
are thoroughly Italian in character. Of a similar kind are the 
substruction-walls which have been recently found on the Pala- 
tine Hill, forming, most likely, the original fortification of that 
hill (see Fig. 348). 

In later times, as we mentioned before, brick was used in for- 
tifications. Vitruvius states that first of all masses of earth were 



use, by 

Fig. 349. 

heaped up, and the erection thus gained was inclosed on both sides 
with strong brick walls. In these walls, as well as in those made of 

massive stone, different modes 
of structure were in 
means of which the 
ance of the walls was consid- 
erably modified. Either the 
whole wall consisted of a mixt- 
ure of mortar and unbaked 
bricks (called opis incertum by 
Yitruvius), or the outer surface 
of the wall was faced with reg- 
ular bricks of equal size. In 
this case, also, two modes of 
construction became possible, the stones being either triangular in 
shape and arranged in horizontal layers (Fig. 349), or being cut in- 
to quadrangular prisms 
which were pressed into 
the soft mortar, so that 
the joints crossed each 
other in a net-like man- 
ner {opus reticulatwn). 
Fig. 350 illustrates the 
latter mode of structure, 
which also appears, for 
instance, in the walls of 
FlG - 35 °- a conduit of the Alsie- 

tine aqueduct. The inside of these walls consists of irregular 
bricks joined together by mortar {opus incertum), while the outer 
surface consists of reticulated brickwork coated over with stucco. 
Sometimes the reticular and horizontal principles appear com- 
bined, in which case the reticular surfaces are interrupted by nar- 
rower pieces of horizontal layers. This is the case, for instance, 
in several parts of the Eoman town-walls. 

We quote two instances of town-walls in illustration of the 
principles hitherto insisted upon, viz., the walls of Pompeii and 
the so-called Aurelian fortification of Rome. In the former the 
wall consists, according to Yitruvius's rule, of an irregularly 
heaped mass of stones, faced both in front and at the back with 



flag-stones (scarp and counterscarp), to which additional firmness 
is added by means of buttresses. The upper surface of the wall is, 
toward the outside, protected by battlements four feet in height, 
into which, at intervals of nine feet, embrasures have been cut ; 
they project toward the inside by three feet, thus yielding a safe 
position to the besieged. Toward the 
town side the wall is considerably raised, 
reaching a height of forty-two feet from 
the level of the ground. Broad but 
rather steep steps lead from the town 
up to the wall. Square towers com- 
municated with the top of the wall 
by means of (generally round-arched) 

In our second example (Fig. 352), 
the Aurelian fortification of Kome, the 
wall toward the inside is propped by 
strong buttresses connected with each other by means of round 
arches. The top of the wall here, also, is protected by battle- 
ments. A sort of gallery is formed by these arches," in the single 
divisions of which semicircular niches are cut into the thickness 

Fig. 851. 

Fig. 852. 

of the wall which communicate with the outside by means of nar- 
row shot-holes, thus yielding a strong position both for attack 
and defense (another arrangement of the wall is illustrated by 
Fig. 359). Here also turrets are placed at certain intervals, such 



W CML<&&j/j 

Fig. 353. 

as we have met with before at Pompeii (Fig. 341) and in Greece 
(compare § 19, Figs. 70-7.7). Upon the whole, Koman towers 
differ little from the Greek but for the vault, which adds to their 
strength. Fig. 353 (scale, 18 feet) shows a section of a turret at 
Pompeii, rising in three stories to a height of about forty feet. 
_- ^ The ceiling between the two lower sto- 

KJ ries inclines slightly toward the ont- 

HpHHEBB, s ^ e ' wn ^ cn * s a ^ so tne case with the 

Urrpl openings above referred to. The steps 

necessary for communication lie in the 
back part of the turret, which is slightly 
raised. The topmost chamber commu- 
nicates with the circuit of the wall by 
means of a vaulted gate (compare Fig. 
351). The upper platform also inclines 
outward so as to let the rain run off, 
stone eaves being added for the same 
purpose, as is also the case with the cir- 
cuits of the wall. Battlements protect the platform. 

A few words ought to be added about fortified camps, so im- 
portant in Poman warfare. They were erected at considerable 
distances from each other, to protect the frontier from the bar- 
barians, sometimes connected with each other by long lines of 
wall with intervening smaller fortifications. They, of course, 
required large garrisons. The remains of a large fortified camp 
are still visible in the Taunus Mountains, about an hour's walk 
from Homburg vor der Hohe, and 250 paces from the large 
Eoman line of defense commonly called the Pfahlgrdben. The 
present name of the camp is Saalburg j it is most likely identical 
with the Arctaunon (Arxtauni) mentioned by Ptolemseus. It 
was built by Drusus in the year 11 (b. c), and reerected by his 
son Germanicus after its partial destruction by the Germans 
(a. d. 9). Continued, but not yet finished, excavations have made 
it possible to discern the whole plan of the camp (see Fig. 354, 
after the designs of Archivrath Habel). The shape of the for- 
tification was quadrangular, being 700 feet long by 450 wide. 
The outer wall, consisting of irregular blocks of stone, had a 
thickness of 5 feet, slightly increased on the north side, which 
was most exposed to the attacks of the enemy. The four angles 



are rounded. The original height of the wall cannot be deter- 
mined with certainty ; in some parts the remaining portions rise 
to 6 feet from the ground. Outside of this wall lies a double 
moat ; inside of it we see a second higher line of wall, about 7 
feet wide, which, in our plan, is marked by a double line of dots. 
Behind this wall lies a road 30 feet wide, the via cmgularis (E) 
(marked by a single dotted 
line in our plan), destined * 

for the reception of larger 
bodies of troops. The other 
arrangements of the camp 
perfectly tally with the de- 
scriptions of ancient writers. 
On the front side, between 
two towers projecting inside, 
lies the chief gate, porta prce- 
toria (A), with which corre- 
sponds, on the opposite side, 
\hsporta decumana (D). On 
the two long sides we have 
the porta principalis dextra, 
also protected by towers (B), 
and the porta principalis 
sinistra (C). In the centre of 
the camp, where the connect- 
ing lines between the oppo- 
site gates meet, stands the 
dwelling of the commander, 

the praitorium (F). Erected without much care and in a hurry, it 
still shows several compartments, partly for the private use of the 
general, partly for military purposes. There is no entrance on the 
side of the porta pyrmtoria, in the place of which we see a square 
tower (g) ; on the opposite side the building terminates in an ob- 
long room (a\ the three outlying sides of which contain three 
doors exactly opposite the three gates in the corresponding walls of 
the camp. Near G and H remains of buildings have been discov- 
ered, most likely those of dwelling-houses. The narrow intervals 
between the cross-walls of H seem to indicate the existence of 
a heating-apparatus. I marks a small sanctuary, K a well. The 

Fig. 354. 



prcetorium was reserved for the staff and the corps oV elite / the 
rest of the army lived, according to the rules of castrametatio, in 
the open spaces between the praetorium and the wall of the camp. 
Light huts, made of earth or wood, were most likely constructed 
for the purpose, the German climate being too cold to permit 
living in tents for long. Stone foundations of the soldiers' dwell- 
ings have not been discovered. 

Another camp, at Gamzigrad in Servia, carefully investigated 
for the first time by F* Kanitz, is much larger and in a better 
state of preservation than the one just described. It dates, un- 
doubtedly, from late Koman times. It was erected to protect 
the Timon Valley, and is of enormous dimensions. It formed an 

Fig. 355. 

irregular square (Fig. 355), the narrow sides having a length of 
1,461 and 1,351 feet respectively, while the two long sides show 
the enormous measures of 1,908 and 1,896 feet. Eound towers, 
180 feet in diameter, and with walls 24 feet thick, stand at the 
four corners, a number of smaller round towers projecting almost 
circularly from the wall at irregular intervals. At a distance of 
about 108 feet from this wall the remains of a second row of tow- 
ers have been discovered also, most likely connected with each 
other by walls. The substructure of a square building of 84 by 
132 feet occupies the centre of the fortification. Unfortunately, 
no excavations have taken place, by means of which the name of 
this camp might, perhaps, be discovered. 



70. The Eoman gates differ from the Greek ones more than 
is the ease with towers or walls. It is true that their position in 
the wall remained essentially unaltered ; that is, they were in- 
serted mostly in the parts most protected by nature, and further 
strengthened by projections of the wall, built in such a manner 
as to afford a point of attack on the left side of the besieging 
enemy. As we have seen before, the gates were flanked by towers 
(compare also our description of the castle of Salona, § 76, Fig. 

All these points the Roman gates have in common with the 
Greek. The chief difference consists in the principle of vaulting 
applied to the Roman structures. By means of this principle, 
applied also to subterraneous canals, the Romans were able to 
cover wide spaces without difficulty. We quote a few examples 
of Roman gates, classed according to the number of their open- 

The simplest form naturally consists of one arch, either flanked 
by projections and cut into the thickness of the wall, or else 
repeated on the opposite sides of a tower. A beautiful specimen 
of the first kind is the 
gate of Perusia, where a 
second decorative arch is 
added above the actual 
opening. An example of 
the second kind we see in 
the gate of Yolterra, which 
shows all the simplicity of 
the old-Italian arch. The 
gate of Pompeii, leading 
to ISTola, is of later date ; 
its simple arch does not 
lie in the wall but at the 
end of a small passage, 
which touches the wall at 
an obtuse angle, thus com- 
pelling the besiegers to expose themselves to the attack of those 
standing on the side-walls of this passage. Later still, and evi- 
dently erected with a view to decoration as well as to safety, is 
one of the gates of the above-mentioned villa of Diocletianus, at 

Fig. 856. 



Salona, called porta aurea, most likely owing to its splendid or- 
namentation (see § 78). Like the other gates of this building, it 
is flanked by towers, and contains one opening only. The latter 
shows a round arch, closed at the bottom by a straight ledge of 
stone (see Fig. 356). The surface of the wall is decorated in the 
late Eoman style, with small columns on bases, inclosing niches. 
A cornice, partly destroyed, adds to the beauty of the gate even 
in its present condition. 



Fig. 357. 

Gates with two openings are of rarer occurrence. As an ex- 
ample we quote one of the oldest and most beautiful gates of 
Home, at present called Porta Maggiore, the original aspect of 
which is shown Fig. 35T. 1 The design is very complicated, 
owing to various considerations ; but it shows, at the same time, 
the artistic skill of the Romans in getting over architectural 
difficulties. Two high arched portals afford an opening to two 
Roman highways, the Yia Labicana and Yia Prgenestina, which 
here met at a pointed angle. These portals are inclosed by 
two mighty piers, the upper parts of which are broken by 
smaller arches and decorated with two semi-columns each, on 
the latter of which rest beams and pediments. The centre pier 

1 Compare the gate of Messene (Fig 67), the opening of which seems to have been 
divided into two halves by a pillar. 



shows, below the just-mentioned opening, another small, round- 
arched gate. The arches served at the same time to carry two 
aqueducts. Just above them lies an " attic," which, however, 
does not contain water ; but above this we see two other " attics : " 
the lower one forms the conduit of the Aqua Claudia, the upper 
one that of the Anio Nova. Three large inscriptions cover the 
three attics. The first states that the Emperor Claudius built the 
aqueduct called Aqua Claudia, by which the waters of the two 
wells called Caeruleus and Curtius, lying near the forty-fifth 

Figs. 858 and 

milestone, were conducted into Eome. The second inscription says 
that the same emperor conducted the Anio Nova to Eome from a 
distance of sixty-two Roman miles. The third inscription men- 
tions Vespasian and Titus as the restorers of the gigantic build- 
ing of Claudius. 

More frequent than two, are three gate-openings, of which the 
centre one is usually wider and higher than the two others : the 
former being destined for horses and carriages, the latter for foot- 
passengers. The two purposes of defense and traffic are beauti- 
fully combined in a gate belonging to the fortifications of Aosta, 


built by Augustus {see view, Fig. 358, and plan, Fig. 359). The 
wall to which the gate belongs differs essentially from those of 
Pompeii, the interval between the lower and outer (Fig. 359, a), 
and the higher and inner, wall-facings (B) being not filled up 
with earth, but left empty, the connection between the two 
wall-facings is effected by means of arches. This interval is thus 
transformed into a number of small, vaulted chambers (C) which 

Fig. 360. 

open toward the town, and thus somewhat resemble the inner 
divisions of the Aurelian walls. Two towers (D D), inclosing the 
outer gate (F), project from this double wall. The gate shows 
the just-mentioned division into three openings, all of which could 
be closed by strong portcullis. After this gate follows an open 
space (H), called by Yegetius propugnaeulum, because here the 
besiegers that might have advanced so far could be attacked from 
the platforms of the low towers. On the opposite side of this 
space lies the inner gate (G), the three openings of which were 


closed by doors studded with iron. The architecture is dignified 
and even severe in style, and this work of Augustus may be 
counted among the finest of its class. 

A similar though less fortified structure we see in one of the 
gates of Pompeii, called, from the direction of the road passing 
through it, the Herculanean gate {see the outer view of it, Fig. 
360, from the conjectural designs of Mazois). On the left it is 
protected by a projection of the wall ; it has one centre and two 
side entrances, the latter for foot-passengers. The inward side of 
the gate shows the same arrangement. The narrow space lying 
between the two chief portals was uncovered, thus forming a kind 
of prqpugnaeulum, similar to that of the gate of Aosta. The 
side entrances are vaulted in their full length ; they were each 
connected with the uncovered space in the centre by means of 
two arches, through which the necessary light is conveyed into 
the long and narrow passages. The large portals could, at one 
time, be closed by portcullis, which, however, at the time of the 
destruction, seem to have been no more in use. The side 
entrances contained doors, as indicated by the still-preserved 
hinges. The whole structure consists of pieces of tufa and 
mortar, coated with stucco. The remains show how carefully the 
surface was smoothed. The whole gate was 16.80 metres deep 
by 14 wide. The width of the centre passage is 4. 70 metres, that 
of each side passage 1.30. 

71. The structures of utility, to which we have now to turn, 
differ from those of the Greeks by their greater variety of 
purpose, and of the means used to accomplish this purpose. It is 
here that the practical sense of the Eomans shows to greatest 

The Romans soon discovered the political importance of roads, 
and showed great energy and consistency in carrying out their 
ideas, differing in this from the Greeks. With the latter, religious 
purposes formed an important consideration in the building of 
roads ; the Romans only considered the necessities of the state. 
Artistic road-building commenced as soon as the Roman dominion 
began to extend beyond its original limits. Conquered provinces 
had to be connected with the heart of the state, i. e., the city of 
Rome. The roads thus became a means of political, commercial, 
and intellectual interchange between Rome and the provinces. 



The chief and first purpose, however, was of a military kind ; 
large masses of troops had to be conveyed with ease to distant 
provinces. In this way originated the first artistic road, the Yia 
Appia, and its continuation to Arminum, the Yia Flaminia : the 
subjection of the Boii, on the Po, led to the construction of the 
Via ^Emilia; while that of the Gallic and Germanic nations 
caused the grand system of roads in the Alps and the countries 
on the Rhine and Danube. The gradual extension of the Roman 
territory may be followed in the history of road-building. These 
large political considerations, of course, were out of the question 
among the numerous and, to a great extent, isolated states of 
Greece. This difference of purpose between the two nations also 
influenced their modes of constructing roads. The Greeks built 
their roads according to the nature of the locality, or even to old 
traditional routes of travelers, heedless of occasional detours. 
The Romans, on the contrary, true to the indomitable energy of 
their character, follow the one plan of building as nearly as 
possible in a straight line. The nature of the ground is almost 
totally disregarded ; where mountains intervene they are broken 

through ; hollows are made level by 
means of dams ; deep valleys or rapid 
streams are spanned by bridges, the 
bold design of which still excites the 
admiration of modern engineers, far 
superior though they are to the Romans 
in technical, scientific, and mechanical 

Of tunnels through mountains we 
mention the so-called " Grotto of the Po- 
silippo," near Naples, which is still daily 
passed through by thousands (Fig. 361). 
It is cut through a promontory between 
Naples and Baise, being in length 2,654 
Neap, palms by 24 wide. The height 
inside varies from 26 to 74 palms. At the two ends there are 
arches of 94 and 98 palms respectively, tending to increase the firm- 
ness of the structure. The tunnel is bored through the solid rock. 
Other difficulties had to be overcome in marshy places. The 
soil here had to be made firm and its level raised by means of a 

Fig. 361. 



dam. Tlie Via Appia, for instance, was thus conducted through 
the Pontine marshes. In other places, again, the road had to be 
carried on along precipices on walled substructures or viaducts. 
This is the case in that 
part of the Yia Appia 
which descends from Al- 
bano to the valley of 
Ariccia; just below the 
village of Ariccia it runs 
for a considerable dis- 
tance on an embankment 
faced with freestone. Fig. 
362 shows this part of the road with massive balustrades and seats 
on both sides of it. Vaulted openings in the basement evidently 
served as outlets for the mountain-streams. 

As to the technical arrangements of the roads, such as pave- 
ment, gutters, etc., full information is derived from Hirt's work, 
" Die Lehre von den Gebauden bei den Griechen und Romern," 
which we have followed in many points. The roads were either 
strewed with sand and gravel (glarea mam sternere) or paved with 

Fig. 362. 

Fig. 3G3. 

Fig. 364. 

Fig. 365. 

solid stones. In the latter case generally polygonal blocks of 
some hard stone, generally basalt, are chosen for the roadway, the 
surface being made as smooth as possible (silice sternere viam\ as 
is shown by the part of the Yia Appia in Fig. 363. In case there 
were raised pavements for foot-passengers, they were generally 
made of the softer common tufa (lapide sternere). The middle 
of the road was generally raised a little, so as to make the 
rain-water flow off ; small outlets for the water, such as we 



mentioned in speaking of the wall {see Fig. 353), also occur on 
roads. Figs. 364 and 365 illustrate the draining apparatus of the 
Yia Appia, where an arched passage under the road serves as an 
outlet for the water, perhaps also as a means of communication. 
Fig. 364 shows the front view ; Fig. 365 the sections. The road- 
way itself is about 18 feet wide ; it has a massive stone balustrade 
on each side. 

The streets of Pompeii were of similar construction, drains 
being frequently found below them ; the pavements for foot-pas- 
sengers to both sides are generally raised a little, posts, connected 
by curb-stones, being placed at certain intervals to prevent the in- 
trusion of horses or vehicles. At intervals of 1,000 paces, mile- 
stones (milliaria) were placed on the highways, with the distances 
from the larger towns written on them. Frequently seats for ex- 
hausted travelers were placed near these mile-stones. 

72. In their construction of bridges the Romans differ widely 
from the Greeks, owing to the use of the arch in Roman architec- 
ture. The viaducts and bridges of the Romans are among the 

most remarkable monu- 
ments of antiquity. At 
the ninth mile-stone from 
Rome, on the road to Ga- 
bii, is a viaduct across a 
broad valley, which only 
during the rainy season of 
the year is partly flooded. 
Nevertheless, the viaduct 
is built on as many as seven 
arches. It is 285 feet long, 
and consists of blocks of " peperin " and red tufa. Owing to the 
softness of the material the pillars are very stout, and the in- 
tervals spanned by the arches small. From the simple and solid 
structure of the work (which is now called Ponte di JSTona, and 
still in use), Hirt believes it to belong to the time of Caius Grac- 
chus, who, while a tribune (124-121 b. c), constructed a great 
many roads, and of whom Plutarch distinctly remarks (C. Grac- 
chus, c. iii.) that he considered not only usefulness but also beauty 
and elegance {x^P LV Kai K °XKxii). 

Where a stream had to be crossed, the arch naturally became 




of still greater importance. Bridges, moreover, seem to have been 
regarded almost like religious monuments. In the early history 
of the city of Home, so closely connected with the Tiber, the 
bridges across that river were of such religious import that the 
care of them was assigned to a fraternity of priests (pontifices, i. e., 
bridge-makers), of which the highest college of priests in Rome 
was a further development. The name Pontifex Maximus re- 
mained attached to the office of high-priest, and is at present that 
of the pope. 

Although of great importance, the arch was not indispensable 
in Roman bridge-architecture. Not to speak of temporary bridges 
of boats, we mention permanent wooden bridges, such as the 
Pons Sublicius, the oldest bridge in Rome, and the bridge that 
Caesar threw across the Rhine. In other bridges wood-work 
and masonry occur combined, as, for instance, in the splendid 
bridge built across the Danube by Trajan. It rested on twenty 
strong stone pillars, standing at distances of 170 feet, and con- 
nected with each other by wooden arches instead of stone vault- 
ings. A representation of this bridge is seen on the column of 

Arched structures made of stone marked the highest perfec- 
tion of the art, combining, as they did, firmness of structure with 
the capability of spanning wide spaces without impeding (owing 
to the height of the arches) 
the navigation on the river. 
Without entering into de- 
tails, we will, in the fol- 
lowing pages, quote a few 
examples of bridges, class- 
ing them according to the 
number of their principal 
arches. The bridge near 
Volci, across the river 
Fiora (Fig. 367), shows 
one chief arch, with two smaller ones on the banks of the river. 
This bridge also serves to carry an aqueduct across the river 
(compare § 74). 

Fig. 368 shows a still-existing Roman bridge with two prin- 
cipal arches, generally known as the Ponte de' Quattro Capi, 

Fig. 867. 



owing to the two heads of Janus Quadrifrons on stelai placed on 
the balustrade above the tetes-du-pont. According to the inscrip- 
tions it was built in 62 b. c. by L. Fabricius, at that time curator 
viarum. Its condition was, in 21 b. a, examined and testified as 
safe by the consuls Q. Lepidus and M. Lollius. It connects the 
city with the island of the Tiber, and consists of two arches 
extending in graceful lines from a strong pillar in the centre of 
the river to its two banks. On the base of the pillar, between 

Fig. 368. 

the two chief arches, the masonry is interrupted by a third arch, 
which gives an appearance of grace to the whole structure. The 
side of the pillar- turned toward the current of the stream is 
made into a sharp edge. Two other smaller arches, nearer the 
banks, add to the firmness of the structure, being filled up with 

One of the first Eoman bridges is the Pons iElius, built across 

the Tiber by the Emperor Hadrian. It opened the access to the 
tomb erected by him on the right bank of the river (compare 
§ 78). The bed of the river was crossed by three semicircular 
arches, joined to right and left by four smaller vaultings. It is 
in a state of excellent preservation, and well known by the name 
of Ponte S. Angelo. On its restoration at a later date one of the 
arches has been filled up, and is hidden by the extended embank- 



ment. Fig. 3(59 shows the original design of the bridge ; Fig. 370 
its present aspect at low water, which shows the massive structure 
of the foundations and piers. 

73. Of still greater magnificence and boldness of construction 
than the bridges were the harbors, canals, and similar structures. 
Ilirt (" Lehre von den Gebauden," p. 367) justly remarks, " that 
even the splendor of Nero's golden house dwindles into nothing 
compared with the harbor of Ostia, the drainage-works of the 
Fucinine Lake, and the two large aqueducts, Aqua Claudia and 
Anio Nova, all built by Claudius. In their water-works the an- 
cients seem to have surpassed themselves." Of the harbors of 
the Greeks, partly of considerable dimensions, we have spoken 

Fig. 870. 

before (§ 20) : in comparing them with those of the Romans we 
find the same difference as between the roads of the two nations ; 
that is, the Greeks adapt their structures to the conditions of the 
soil, while the Romans, without neglecting local advantages, as a 
rule, force Nature to their powerful will. In Greece, harbors 
generally consisted of natural bays enlarged and fortified by dams 
and similar structures : the Romans built their harbors where no 
such natural opportunities offered themselves. It is true that 
their coasts, compared with Greece, were wanting in bays and 
promontories. Instead of these, therefore, the Romans built 



dams and walls far into the sea, to obtain safe anchorage for their 
ships ; nay, entire artificial islands were produced in the sea so as 
to protect equally artificial harbors from the waves. This was 
the case, for instance, in the harbor of Centumcellge (the modern 
Civita Yecchia), built by Trajan. Of the gradual progress of this 
structure we are told by the younger Pliny (§ 31) : two enormous 

piers were being built, of 

Fig. 371. 

which that to the left was 
finished first ; at the same 
time an artificial island in 
front of them was in prog- 
ress of construction. Enor- 
mous loads of blocks of 
stone were brought in flat 
vessels, and thrown into 
the sea in proper places. 
In this manner a powerful 
stone-wall was formed 
x*ujijutkci*5o» nnder the water, which, 
at the time when Pliny 
wrote, already protruded from the surface of the sea. {See the 
plan of the harbor, Fig. 371, according to Canina's design.) 

Similar structures, although on a different plan, had been 
attempted at a much earlier period. When the harbor of Ostia 
(built at the mouth of the Tiber by Ancus Martins, and already 
covered with sand about the end of the Republic) was being 
restored, we hear of an artificial island of this kind. It formed a 
breakwater in front of the large piers of the harbor, and earned 
a light-house almost equal in size to the celebrated Pharus in the 
harbor of Alexandria. Instead of rough stones, the Emperor 
Claudius, who took a particular pride in buildings of this kind, 
used chalk, mortar, and Puzzuolan clay. Of these materials three 
enormous pillars were built and sunk into the sea together with 
the colossal ship on which they stood. 1 The clay received an in- 
destructible firmness by the accession of the salt-water, and in 
this manner the foundation of the island was formed. As to 

1 This was the same vessel in which, under Caligula, the obelisk of the Vatican 
had been brought to Italy. By the Romans it was believed to be the largest vessel 
that ever sailed on the ocean. 


the rest, this harbor resembled that of Centumcellae. Like the 
latter, it consisted of an outer harbor built into the sea by Clau- 
dius, and of a large basin • afterward dug into the shore by com- 
mand of the Emperor Trajan. The basin was inclosed by 
freestone walls, and communicated with the outer harbor by 
artificial canals, as also with the open sea by means of the Tiber, 
the stream of which was well regulated and embanked. Fig. 372 
(scale 1,000 metres) shows Canina's design, made according to the 
existing remnants of the harbor. The ruins of the harbor of 

Fig. 872. 

Claudius now lie one miglia inland, owing to the deposits of the 
sea. Our design also indicates the storehouses for grains and 
other merchandise by which the inner hexagonal basin was sur- 
rounded. A coin struck during the fifth consulate of Trajan 
(a. d. 103) gives a distinct view of this harbor and the buildings 
surrounding it. As to the arrangements of such storehouses we 



may perhaps derive some knowledge from the remains of a build- 
ing discovered by Piranesi near the Emporium in Rome, on the 
left bank of the Tiber (see Fig. 374). It 
rose from the river to the city in terraces in 
accordance with the natural conditions of 
the ground. The ceilings of the store-rooms 
were vaulted; graceful arches in the in- 
closing walls effected an easy communication 
with the street. 

Fig. 375 shows the view of a harbor 
from a Pompeian wall-painting. Walls 
crowned by towers serve as a means of 
protection. Storehouses sur- 
round the basin, connected 
with the shore by means of 
a bridge. On an island con- 
nected with one of the ietties 

Fig. 374. J _ 

we see a temple and a dwell- 
ing-house adorned with columns, both standing on artificial ter- 

Fig. 373. 



Fig. 375. 

races, to which lead steps. Groups of trees add to the pictu- 
resqueness of the whole. The most remarkable feature is the 



jetty, to the right of the harbor, projecting far into the sea, and 
containing a number of arcades destined for the keeping out of 
mud or for the reception of smaller vessels. 

74. We now have to consider the drainage-works of the 
Romans — less imposing, but no less useful, than their harbors. 
We mention particularly the drainings of the Pontine marshes, 
the meadows of the Po, etc., where, by means of canals, ditches, 
and drains of various kinds, damp, boggy stretches of country have 
been transformed into arable land. A still more remarkable 
example of a complicated system of drainage is the city of Rome 
itself. Lying on several hills, with a river flowing through it, 
the lower parts of the city naturally were liable to the formation 
of unhealthy swamps. To remove this nuisance, a system of 
subterraneous canals was built, whose grand and skillful design 
still excites our admiration ; they serve their purpose, after about 
2,500 years, in the most perfect manner. The fundamental idea 
was to collect the water by means of a system of smaller canals 
into one large sewer, which conducted it, together with the refuse 
of the city, to the river. This chief canal, known as Cloaca 
Maxima, is still preserved for a distance of nearly 1,000 feet. 
It served, and still serves, to conduct the waters from the 
Capitoline and Palatine Hills, collecting in the Yelabrum, into 
the Tiber {see its open- 
ing toward the river, 
Fig. 376). A barrel- 
vault of tufa, with arches 
of travertine inserted 
into it at intervals of 
10 feet, covers the canal, 
which is about 20 feet 
wide. Its original height 
was 12 feet, now re- 
duced to 6 to 7 feet by 
the mud and dust which have collected in its bed, in spite of 
frequent clearings out. The commencement of cloaca-buildings 
in general, and that of the Cloaca Maxima in particular, is gener- 
ally ascribed to the last three kings ; several additions to the latter 
were necessitated by the increasing size of the city. Frequent 
clearings out of the canal were required, owing to the gathering 

Fig. 876. 


of mud ; some of them, carried on at great expense, are mentioned 
by contemporary writers. One of the late extensions is ascribed 
to M. Agrippa, the friend of Augustus. He seems to have con- 
structed a new system of canals underneath the Campus Martius, 
one of which still passes under the floor of the Pantheon. 

Of no less importance were the structures serving as outlets of 
lakes, either to prevent inundations or to regain arable land from 
the water. Such outlets, emissaria, also are mentioned at a very 
early period. They were either opeD or covered, and served to 
conduct the superfluous water from the lake to lower ground. 
The greatest difficulty naturally consisted in cutting the canals 
through solid mountains, or in conducting them in subterraneous 
tunnels. This was, for instance, the case with the drainage of 
the Albanian Lake, which Livy (v., 15, est seq.) connects with the 
story of the conquest of Veii by M. Furius Camillus (396 b. a). 
The water-works are still in use at the present day. From the 
high level of the lake, which lay in the crater of the old Albanian 
volcano, the water was let off by means of a shaft cut through 
the mountain for a distance of several thousand feet. According 
to the precept of the Delphic oracle, it was not led into the 
sea, but divided over the neighboring fields, which thus were 
made fertile, the periodical inundations being at the same time 

In a similar manner, but by an open canal, the drainage of 
the Yeline Lake, in the country of the Sabii, was effected, after 
the conquest of those parts by Curius Dentatus (290 b. c). By 
this means the country round Eeate was converted into one of 
the most fertile regions of Italy. These works also are still in 

The largest structure of this kind were the drainage-works of 
the Lacus Fucinas, in the country of the Marsi, which had been 
desired for a long time by the inhabitants, owing to the danger- 
ous inundations, and were planned by Csesar, but not executed 
till the reign of Claudius, Here the whole basin of the lake 
was to be laid dry, and thus gained for agricultural purposes. 
This was effected by means of a shaft cut through the living 
rock from the lake down to the river Liris (at present called 
Garigliano), which discharged the water into the Mediterranean, 
near Minturnse. According to ancient authors, the shaft was 


3,000 pas8U8 long by 14 high and 9 wide. Fig. 377, a c, gives 
the section of the shaft in its full length, the line a b marking the 

Fig. 31 

horizon so as to show the strong incline of the shaft. The vertical 
and oblique lines indicate shafts and galleries leading from the 
surface to the canal ; the former destined for carrying off the 
rubbish, the latter for the descent of the workmen, thirty thousand 
of whom were occupied for eleven years in constructing the canal. 

From the emissaria we turn to the aquceductus, destined to 
conduct the water necessary for human use from distant places. 
The care and skill bestowed on their construction and preserva- 
tion was equal, if not superior, to that required by the first-men- 
tioned canals. 

The first thing required after the discovery of a spring in a 
high place was to collect the water in a sheltered spot. This led 
to the erection of fountain-houses, specimens of which, in Greece, 
we have before described (see Figs. 90 and 91). . In Italy also 
some archaic buildings of this kind are extant, as, for instance, 
the fountain-house discovered at Tusculum, and made known in 
his description of Tusculum by Canina. It consists of an oblong 
chamber divided into several compartments, the ceiling being 
constructed by the overlaying of stones on the old Greek system, 
afterward supplied among the Romans by the vault. The man- 
ner of conducting the water to the cities was, of course, modified 
by the nature of the soil, as well as by the material at hand. 
One way was to conduct it underground in pipes (tubi, fistidce) 
or subterraneous canals. The pipes were generally made of lead 
or clay ; in some towns some of these have been preserved with 
the municipal stamp on them. The canals were, like the emis- 
saria, either cut into the rock, or, where the soil was soft, dug 
into the earth and walled in. In either case shafts or other open- 
ings placed at certain intervals served as communications of the 
water with the fresh air. Such openings were also contrived 


where the canal, owing to the nature of the soil, was sunk below 
its ordinary level. A hollow extension of this kind was called 
venter, and above it a perpendicular shaft was laid as far as, or 
beyond, the surface of the earth, from which in the latter case it 
protruded like a chimney. In this shaft the water rose again 
to its ordinary level, by means of which it not only communi- 
cated with the open air, but also received additional pressure. 
The expenses of these aqueducts, so far as they were used for 
public purposes, were borne by the municipal governments ; the 
private use of the water for houses, land, or the carrying on of a 
trade, was subjected to a tax. 

Where the aqueducts lay above-ground, it was usual to place 
them on the tops of walls {see Fig. 378). In that case the 
water-channels usually were made of freestone 
or brick, and covered, in the former case, with 
slabs of stone, in the latter with vaults. In 
either case the interior of their walls received 
a water-tight coating, consisting of chalk and 
fragments of bricks, instead of the more com- 
mon sand. The same coating was used in 

Fig. 378. & 

canals cut through the rock. 

An uninterrupted wall would have been a great obstacle to 
the traffic, for which reason here also the all-important vaulting 
principle was applied. By means of intervening arches the 
wall of the aqueduct was divided into pillars at intervals, suffi- 
ciently large to leave space for the passage of roads, or even of 
rivers, without endangering the firmness of the structure. As 
an example we cite the arches of different dimensions across the 
FioraYalley, near Yolci, which carry both a road and an aqueduct 
{see p. 343, Fig. 367). 

The Porta Maggiore in Rome {see p. 336, Fig. 357) ought 
also to be mentioned again as being part of two of the most cele- 
brated Roman aqueducts. We have stated above how across the 
arches of this gate the waters of the Aqua Claudia and of the 
Anio Nova were conducted into the city in two different channels. 
Both aqueducts were begun by Caligula (a. d. 38), and finished 
fourteen years later by Claudius. The former, comparable by 
the excellency of its water to the celebrated Aqua Marcia, 1 began 

1 Called since its restoration by Pius IX., June 21, 1870, Aqua Pia. 


near the thirty-fifth mile-stone of the Via Sublacensis, in the 
Sabine Mountains, and was fed by two plentiful springs, besides 
receiving part of the Aqua Marcia. Owing to some turns neces- 
sitated by local conditions, the length of the aqueduct was ex- 
tended to forty-five miles, thirty-five of which were taken up by 
subterraneous canals, the remaining ten by open-air structures. 
The Anio Nova was fed, as its name indicates, by the river Anio, 
the word nova being added to distinguish it from an older aque- 
duct, Anio Yetus. It commenced at the sixty-second mile-stone 
of the same road, and received its water not immediately from 
the river, but from a basin into which it was led for the purpose 
of purification ; near the thirty-eighth mile-stone a spring of still 
purer water, the Rivus Herculaneus, joined the aqueduct. Its 
whole length amounts to sixty-two Roman miles, partly above, 
partly under ground. About six miles from the city the two 
aqueducts join, and are carried on to the end by a common struct- 
ure of arches, in some places 109 feet high ; the channel of the 
Anio Nova, lying above that of the Aqua Claudia, was considered 
to be the highest aqueduct in Rome. 

Some provincial aqueducts reach a still greater height. One 
of them is found near Nemausus (Nismes), in Southern Gaul, 
whose beautiful temple we have mentioned before. The magnifi- 
cent aqueduct, which crosses a valley, is in a good state of preser- 
vation. Its highest portion, known as Pont du Gard, rises in 
two stories to a height of nearly 150 feet. A row of smaller 
arcades is added on the top of the chief structure. The arcades 
are wide-arched, and convey the impression of a bold, graceful 
construction. Of a similar kind were the aqueducts of Segovia 
and Tarragona in Spain. The former is 2,400 feet long, and con- 
sists of a row of vaulted arcades : where the valley is deepest, the 
arcades rise in two stories up to a height of 100 Castilian feet, 
combining grace with firmness of structure. Owing to its excel- 
lent construction the aqueduct is still in good preservation. 1 The 
aqueduct of Tarragona is 876 feet long by 83 high. 

So much about the aqueducts themselves. Many other con- 
trivances were, however, required to make and keep the water fit 
for human use, as also to distribute it regularly. For the former 

1 See Andres Gomez de Sommorostro, " El Acueducto y otras Antigucdades de 
Segovia." Madrid, 1820. 


purpose we mention, besides the shafts described above, the so- 
called castella, or reservoirs for collecting and purifying the water. 
At the beginning of the Anio Nova, for instance, lay a large 
mud-reservoir (piscina limaria), destined for filtering the water 
from the river. At the Aqua Virgo the waters of several springs 
had to be collected in separate reservoirs before being led into 
the common aqueduct. 

The above-mentioned castella also served different purposes 
(see Fig. 379, representing a castellum of the Aqua Claudia). 

According to Yitruvius, they had to be 
repeated at intervals of 24,000 feet, par- 
ticularly in high aqueducts, their pur- 
pose being chiefly to give opportunities 
for distributing the water among the 
inhabitants of the surrounding coun- 
tries ; in case of stoppages, they also 
considerably facilitated the finding of 
the damaged places. Particular care was 
required for the castella at the ends of the aqueducts, from which 
the distribution of the water for the different purposes of the 
town took place. According to Yitruvius, the water seems to 
have been divided into three portions — one for the public foun- 
tains, the other for the thermae, and the third for private use. 
For these three purposes three reservoirs served, each fed by a 
separate pipe ; by means of other pipes the water was further dis- 
tributed from these reservoirs. As, moreover, the water had to 
be divided over several quarters of the town, a number of smaller 
castella, and indeed a whole system of canals and reservoirs (247 
of such are counted), became necessary, the excellent management 
of which, by a numerous staff, is a brilliant proof of the practical 
capacities of the Romans. Besides the usefulness of this quantity 
of water, it also served to embellish Rome. Numerous fountains 
adorned the city ; M. Agrippa alone is said to have placed 105 
jets. Rome still has the reputation of possessing a greater num- 
ber of fountains than any other city in the world. 

The above-mentioned piseincB could also be constructed on a 
larger scale, in which case they became real reservoirs. In order 
to keep the water pure and cool a vault was constructed over the 
basin. As an example of these magnificent structures, we quote 



Fig. 380. 

the piscina at Fermo {see section, Fig. 380), which contains 
in two stories six wide oblong compartments covered with so- 
called barrel - vaults, and connected 
with each other by means of smaller 
openings. Fig. 381 shows the large 
reservoir still preserved near Baiae, 
which is known as Piscina Mirabile. 
It is 270 palms long by '108 wide, and 
is covered with a vault broken by ven- 
tilation-holes, and carried by forty- 
eight detached slender pillars. Two 
stairs of forty steps each lead to the bot- 
tom of the reservoir, in the centre of which 
is a considerable cavity for the reception 
of the settling mud. Walls and pillars 
are coated with a peculiar kind of very 
hard stucco, impenetrable, it is said, even 
to iron. 

75. In the private buildings of the 
Romans we discover the same mixture 
of old Italian and Greek elements as in 
their temples. 

In order to understand the peculiarities of the Roman dwell- 
ing-house as distinguished from the Greek {see § 22) we have to 
consider the three most important parts of the former, as they can 
be plainly recognized from existing specimens. As is generally 
known, the three towns of Pompeii, Stabiae, and Herculaneum, 
were buried by an eruption of Vesuvius in 79 a. d. "While the 
two latter towns were more or less destroyed by streams of lava, 
Pompeii was only covered with ashes ; after, therefore, the ashes 
and the arable land on the top of them have been removed, the 
buried buildings reappear in their original condition, unless they 
have been damaged by fire. In this way we gain a perfect idea 
of a provincial town, which, although Oscio-Samnitic by origin 
and Greek by development, 1 still, by its long connection with the 
Roman Empire, may, in its present condition, be considered as 
essentially Roman. The dwelling-houses there preserved may 

1 Some of the oldest buildings, as, for instance, the so-called temple of Hercules, 
show the old Doric style. 

Fig. 381. 


therefore be fairly quoted as proofs, and indeed the only. re- 
maining proofs, of the Greek influence on private architecture. 

The historic Roman house must be divided into a front 
space partly covered (atrium), a centre space wholly covered 
(tablinum), and adjoining it an open court surrounded by col- 
umns (peristylium). These three parts are found in the same 
order in almost every house, other smaller rooms being grouped 
round them in various ways. The atrium seems to be of ex- 
clusively Italian origin, as is proved by its mode of design en- 
tirely differing from Greek architecture, as also by its name. It 
consists of a square space covered by a roof which projects from 
the four walls, only a .square opening being left in the centre. 
In this simplest form, of which several examples are known to 
us, the atrium is called Tuseanicum, for, like most other old 
Italian institutions, it was believed to owe its origin to the 
Etruscans (compare § 61, et seq.). Yarro and other Roman 
antiquarians adhering to this notion have derived the name 
from the Etruscan town of Hatria; others derive the word 
from the Greek aWpiov, or from the Latin ater (black). Ac- 
cording to the former etymology, atrium would mean a room 
open to the sky {yir aldpUp) ; according to the latter, which is 
now generally accepted, a room blackened by the smoke of the 
hearth placed here. The latter explanation implies that the 
atrium was the chief room of the Italian house, owing to its 
containing the hearth, or, which is the same in other words, that, 
with the rooms immediately adjoining, it originally was the Ital- 
ian house itself. 

In sacred parlance, which retains the oldest ideas and expres- 
sions longer than any other, the house of King Numa is called 
atrium regium, which perhaps is identical with the atrium 
Vestal, for this house lay close to the temple of Yesta, i. e., 
the common hearth of the Roman state. An old legal custom 
also proves the high age of the atrium. The opening in 
the centre of the roof was, as we said before, an essential 
feature of the atrium. Through it the smoke ascended, but 
also the rain entered, for which latter reason it was called, in 
conjunction with the slight excavation of the floor just under- 
neath it, the impluvium and compluvium. The old law alluded 
to prescribed that if a man in fetters entered the house of the 



Flamen dialis, these fetters were to be taken from him and 
thrown through the impluvium into the street, which proves suf- 
ficiently that at the time the law was made the atrium was an 
essential part of the house. 

The simplicity of early times easily leads to the conclusion of 
the atrium having been the old Italian house itself ; it was, like 
the court, surrounded by columns in the 
Greek house, at once the starting-point 
and the remaining essential feature of 
later developments. Marini (see his 
" Vitruvius," c. iii., Fig. 2) has attempt- 
ed to reconstruct the old Italian house 
on this basis. As an important, though 
indirect, proof of our opinion, we also 
mention an old Etruscan box of ashes 
discovered at Poggio Gajello (see Fig. 382). It is evidently in- 
tended for the imitation of a house, as is not unfrequently the 
case with similar boxes. We can distinguish the protruding roof 
(mentioned by Yitruvius as a feature of the old Etruscan temple), 
the doors, and the impluvium, which is indicated by a cavity in 
the raised centre portion of the house, which accordingly consist- 
ed only of the atrium, surrounded perhaps by some smaller rooms. 

Fig. 382. 

Fig. 884. 

Among the numerous houses of Pompeii 
are moreover several which show this simple 
structure, and are evidently reminiscences of 
the original form. Fig. 383 shows the de- 
sign, Fig. 384 (scale, 18 feet) the section, of one of these ; besides 
a shop (b) lying toward the street, and a small passage (a\ it con- 
sists exclusively of the atrium. The roof, protruding on three 
sides (on the fourth there is a simple wall), is supported by two 



columns (<?), to which correspond two semi-columns in the wall ; 
d indicates the impluvium. Within the atrium, and under the 
same roof with it, we see a small separate compartment (g), to the 
upper story of which (most likely the bedroom of the slaves) leads 
a staircase (f ) ; a larger room (e) adjoining the atrium is evidently 
the sitting and bed room of the owner (cubiculum), the small 
compartment observable in it being most likely a sort of alcove for 
his bed. 

Another house, the design of which is shown, Fig. 385 (scale, 
18 feet), is of no less importance. Here again we see nothing 
but an atrium (c), inclosed on two sides by the walls of the house, 
while the two other sides open into various 
rooms. We first observe the entrance-hall (a) 
and a small chamber (A), to the upper story of 
which leads a staircase (b) ; the other rooms 
(f, f, g) communicate with the atrium by 
means of narrow doors. The atrium itself, 
like the above-mentioned Tuscan one, is with- 
out columns ; the roof protrudes equally from 
the four walls without further props ; the im- 
pluvium (d) is comparatively small. A par- 
ticularly important feature of this house is 
another room (e) not hitherto met with, which 
adjoins one long side of the atrium, into which it opens complete- 
ly, and not by means of doors, as in other cases. On comparing 
the design of the older Greek house (Fig. 92) we shall find that 
this room (e) lies in a similar position to the atrium as the pros- 
tas (Fig. 92, C) does to the court (B), with the only difference 
that in our present case, for want of space, the room could not, 
like the prostas, be placed opposite the entrance. This room (e) 
therefore becomes the chief apartment of the whole house, and 
we recognize in it the simplest form of the tablinum, to which we 
shall return presently. 

The modifications of this original type of the dwelling-house 
were, as in the temple, caused by the intrusion of Greek elements. 
Here also they consist, first of all, of an enlargement of the house. 
As we remarked before, the greater number of existing Roman 
dwelling-houses contain, besides the atrium, a second important 
part, viz., the court surrounded by a colonnade. The mode of ex- 

Fig. 385. 


tending the house for natural reasons resembled that explained by 
us with regard to the Greek dwelling (compare Fig. 93, et seq.). 
We there recognized the court and the prostas as the oldest parts. 
to which afterward a second back court was added. This court we 
also observe in most Roman houses. Between it and the atrium 
lies an open hall, called tablinum, which thus forms the centre of 
the house. It lies in the same place and served the same purpose 
as the prostas in the Greek dwelling. It was reserved to the mas- 
ter of the house, who from it could overlook the two other divis- 
ions ; here he kept his money and documents, here he transacted 
his business. Zumpt calls it the office, or writing-room, of the 
owner, and derives its name from tabellce (writing-tablets) ; an- 
other derivation is that from tabula, tabellce i. e., family pictures, 
which are said to have hung in the tablinum. 1 Notwithstanding 
its being open and lying between the atrium and peristylium, the 
tablinum was not used as a passage between the two ; slaves and 
other domestics rarely entered it ; some remaining traces seem to 
indicate that it could be closed by means of sliding doors or cur- 
tains. The communication between the atrium and perystylium 
was effected by means of narrow corridors {fauces) running most- 
ly alongside the tablinum. 

The peristylium 2 is the court added to the Roman house at a 
later period, after Greek architecture had become prevalent. Ac- 
cording to Greek patterns, it was surrounded by columns ; its name 
also is Greek ; while tablinum and atrium are derived from Latin 
roots. It is natural, and moreover confirmed by Vitruvius's state- 
ment and the remaining specimens, that in the houses of the less 
wealthy classes the peristylium, if found at all, was of secondary 
importance compared with the atrium ; in many cases it certainly 
was very unlike the regular court surrounded by colonnades on 
its four sides prescribed by Vitruvius. Some houses in Pompeii 
have a court without any columns, instead of the peristylium. 
The Casa della Toeletta del Ermafrodito, or di Adone ferito 
(called so from the pictures found in it), at Pompeii, shows a reg- 

1 According to other accounts, these family pictures were kept in separate rooms, 
called alee, the position of which seems uncertain but for the undisputed fact of their 
being part of the atrium. 

1 The expression, cavum cedium, which occurs frequently, and has been explained 
m various ways, seems to be applicable to the peristylium. 



ular and spacious atrium ; while the peristylium (the open part of 
which is not longer than the atrium) shows columns only on two 
sides, the two others being occupied by the walls, which inclose 
the house toward two streets crossing each other. A similar de- 
sign we find in the peristylium of the Casa della Caccia, or di 
Dedalo e Pasifae, but for its being still more irregular, owing to 
the want of a rectangular termination ; the atrium of this house 
also is spacious, and perfectly regular. The latter is the case also 
in the house of Sallustius, the peristylium of which is surrounded 
by columns on three sides. 

We must omit other more or less irregular designs, and turn 
to a house at Pompeii which is remarkable for the regularity 
of the corps de logis of the owner, and also for the manner in 
which other parts of the premises have been made useful for mer- 
cantile purposes, or let out to other persons. We are speaking of 
the house of Pansa, so called after the inscription on the facade, 
which, however, does not indicate the owner. The house, includ- 


E23 p 

— 1 cz 

ta to no to .so 
Fig. 386. 

•Oii V- e* 

ing the above-mentioned smaller habitations, is a complete oblong, 
surrounded by streets on all four sides (in front by that of Delle 
Terme), and therefore forming a so-called insula. The dwelling 
of the owner is surrounded on three sides by smaller houses (see 
Fig. 386), which appear hatched in our plan. Part of the facade 
and the right side of the premises are occupied by various build- 
ings, used partly as shops, partly let to so-called minor lodgers. 
The chief part of the opposite side is taken up by a bakery, with 


the mill (12) belonging to it, and by three shops (tabemce) with 
small apartments attached to them. The entrance to the dwell- 
ing-house lies between two shops, let separately. A narrow hall 
(vestibulum, l), 1 the inner threshold of which shows a " Salve " 
in mosaic, leads to the spacious atrium (2 2), the impluvium of 
which is marked' 3 in our plan. Six side-chambers (cubicula) 
communicate with the atrium by means of doors ; two other 
rooms being entirely open toward it may be considered as the 
side- wings of the atrium, whence their name alee (compare the 
Greek house, Fig. 92, 4, 5, and Fig. 93). Opposite the entrance 
lies the tablinum (4), which, both by its position and the beauti- 
ful mosaic on its floor, is marked as the chief room of the house. 
Although open toward both sides of the house, it did not serve 
as a passage, the communication being effected by narrow cor- 
ridors (fauces, 5) to the right of the tablinum. On its left, tow- 
ard the atrium, lies a good-sized room (6), which shows a mo- 
saic floor similar to that of the tablinum. Remains of writ- 
ten documents have been found in it, whence it is believed to 
have been the archive or library of the owner. On the opposite 
side, separated from the tablinum by the fauces, lies a smaller 
apartment, the entrance of which lies toward the peristylium. 
Overbeck believes this to be a winter triclinium, frequently met 
with in a similar situation. We now come to the beautiful sym- 
metrical peristylium (7) (20.15 x 13.10 metres), the open centre 
space (8) of which is surrounded by sixteen graceful columns of the 
Ionic-Korinthian order ; its floor is occupied by a fountain (pis- 
cina), the sides of which, two metres in height, are painted with 
fish and water-plants. A narrow passage between two of the 
out-houses led from the peristylium into the side-street. Sev- 
eral rooms open into the colonnade of the peristylium, those to 
the left of the entrance being bedrooms (cubicula) ; while a larger 
room on the right was the triclinium, 3 or dining-room, the adjoin- 
ing room serving as pantry, or as assembling-room for the jug- 

1 Some authors (in accordance with Vitruvius, vi., 8) call vestibulum an open space 
in front of the house. In Rmipeii there is no example of such, unless we call the 
small space immediately before the door (ostium, janua) by that name, in which case 
the word iter (used by Vitruvius) would apply to the entrance-hall. Vestibulum 
to have been used by the ancients in different senses. 

8 About the arrangement of the triclinium we shall speak at greater length (§ 
but we omit the description of the banqueting-halls (oeci). 


glers and dancers appearing toward the close of the meal. Be- 
hind the peristylium lies a garden, the connection between 
which and the peristylium is formed by a second kind of tabli- 
num, the cecus (9) or state-room of the house. A corridor (10) 
by the side of the cecus, and communicating with it by means of 
a door, proves that the cecus itself was not used as a passage. To 
the left of the last-mentioned corridor lay the kitchen, and another 
room in which the dishes were dressed. The back facade, adorned 
with a portico, is joined by a garden (11) ; the regularly-shaped 
beds (where most likely vegetables were grown), as also the lead 
pipes for watering the garden, are still visible ; in the background, 
opposite the entrance to the cecus, seems to have been a sort of 
open hall (12). 

One of the shops adjoining the dwelling-house was connected 
with the atrium by means of a back-room (the blank compart- 
ment of our plan, the second to j;he left of the entrance). Per- 
haps the owner here sold the produce of his garden or estate. 
The largest and best preserved of the offices is the bakery (pis- 
trinum), lying in the left division of the facade, next to the last- 
mentioned shop. Here we see the well-preserved oven, the mills, 
baking-table, water-reservoir, etc. Other shops were used for the 
sale of different goods, as, for instance, the colors used for wall- 
paintings. The owners lived in the dark rooms behind their 
shops, or in the rooms on the upper flats, to which led stairs from 
the shops. There are indisputable indications of the existence of 
a second story in this house, even parts of the floors of the upper 
rooms have been preserved. Mazois, to whom we owe a masterly 
publication of Pompeian buildings, remarks that here objects of 
female toilet have been discovered, which makes it appear 
probable that the sitting and bed rooms of the women lay on the 
second floor. According to Mazois' s trustworthy design the 
rooms of this upper story were lower than those of the ground- 
floor ; they were grouped round the two large open rooms of the 
house, so however that their walls did not take away air and light 
from the atrium and peristylium. Their windows, as far, at 
least, as the chief dwelling-house is concerned, looked toward the 
interior. The staircases in the out-houses here also prove the ex- 
istence of a second floor, the windows of which, of course, lay 
toward the street (see Fig. 388). 


Home, of course, differed in many respects from provincial 
towns. Originally built without a plan and on uneven ground, 
its narrow, angular streets were inhabited, about the time of the 
Antonines, by nearly a million and a half of people. Only the 
wealthy could have houses of their own, the middle and poorer 
classes living in hired lodgings. Speculators erected houses of 
many stories, of light wood-work or bad material, repairs were 
neglected, and enormous rents had to make up for the losses of 
the owners caused by their houses breaking down or being con- 
sumed by fire — daily occurrences in Rome. As early as the Re- 
public houses of three or four flats were common in Rome. By 
a law of Augustus the street-frontage of no private house was 
allowed to exceed 70 feet (Roman measure), which limit was, 
after the fire of Nero, further reduced to 60 feet. 

Fig. 887. 

To conclude, we add (Fig. 387) the section of a regular and 
tasteful middle-class house, the so-called Casa di Championnet, at 
Pompeii : a indicates the passage leading from the street to the 
atrium ; ft the atrium, the ceiling of which is carried by four 
slender columns : here lies the altar-like mouth (puteal) of a 
cistern, also met with in the peristylium of the house of Pansa ; 
o is the tablinum, the walls of which are still adorned with paint- 
ings ; d the peristylium, the open space of which is occupied by 
a cavity used as a conservatory ; underneath this is a vaulted 
cellar (hypogceum) for the keeping of stores. 

76. We add a few further remarks about the outward appear- 
ance of the houses, as also about certain modifications of their 
ordinary design. About the facades we know but little, seeiag 
that in Pompeii all the upper stories of houses have been de- 



stroyed. Most likely they were generally in very simple taste ; 
for antique private architecture was chiefly intent upon the dec- 
oration of the inner apartments. The frontages of houses may, 
however, have been adorned in a simple way. We must dis- 
tinguish between houses with or without shops in front. Of such 
shops we have already seen some examples (Figs. 385 and 386). 
They seem to have been open toward the street in their full width. 
The want of architectural beauty was supplied by a tasteful 
arrangement of the goods, in which the Italians of the present 
day, particularly with regard to fruit and other eatables, are still 

Of a house without a shop, opening toward the street only by 
a door, Mazois has attempted the reconstruction (Fig. 388). The 
facade shows a door in the centre between two Korinthian pilas- 
ters ; the walls to the right and left are coated with stucco imitat- 
ing freestone, the lower part representing large slabs, the upper 

regular layers of small stones. A 
simple ledge finishes the lower story, 
over which a second story has been 
erected, with three small windows in 
it. The second story protruded from 
the surface in the manner of a bow- 
window, as is proved by several houses 
in the lane del Balcone Pensile at 
Pompeii. As to the manner of closing 
the window-holes we are uncertain 
in most cases. Sometimes movable 
wooden shutters have been used, as is 
proved by the wooden frames found beside the windows of the 
house of the "tragic poet." at Pompeii; in other cases thin 
broken tablets of clay served the purpose, of which also several 
specimens have been preserved at Pompeii ; we further hear of a 
transparent stone {lapis specularis) being used for the same pur- 
pose ; window-panes of artificial glass have also been found at 

Several specimens of doors (see Fig. 389) have been preserved 
to us : about the construction of their leaves and the manner of 
closing them we shall speak hereafter (§ 93). Fig. 389 shows a 
very simple door found at Pompeii. We there see the small, 

Fig. 383. 



window-like opening in the pilasters, through which the porter 
(ostiarius) could look at the callers after they had knocked with 
the knocker, also visible in our illustration. The most striking 
point on entering the house is the painting of the walls. The 
thorough artistic taste of all classes is proved 
by the fact of the walls of even poorer 
houses being always either decorated pic- 
torially or at least painted. The careful 
plastering of the walls, much superior to our 
present method, is equaled by the execution 
of the paintings themselves, which, although 
sometimes technically imperfect and me- 
chanical in design, still give us some notion 
of the proportionately higher finish of real 
antique art. The large mythological figure- 
pictures painted on, or let into, the centre-pieces of walls at Pom- 
peii and Herculaneum show the prevailing influence of Greek 


Fig. 389. 

Fio. 890. 

art, while the landscapes, still-lives, and architectural decorations, 
are more specifically Roman in taste. 

To these wall-paintings also we shall have to return (see § 93). 


We add a few illustrations of single parts of houses, designed 
in accordance with the remaining specimens. Tig. 390 shows 
the open court of the house of Sallustius (also called the house 
of Actseon) turned into a garden. One side of it is occupied by 
the wall of the house, while the other shows a colonnade with a 
low wall (pluteus) in the columnar interstices ; on the third side, 
near a fountain, the remains of which still exist, stands a sort of 
veranda or bower, decorated by Mazois in the well-known man- 
ner of a triclinium. 

Fig. 391 shows the interior of the house of Pansa, from the 
reconstructive design of Gell. We first see the atrium, contain- 
ing statues and other objects ; several alas and cubicula open into it 

Fig. 391. 

(compare Fig. 386) ; we further see the triclinium, to the left of 
which lies a cabinet ; while to the right we discover the corridors 
or fauces leading to the large peristylium, which itself is visible 
in the distance with its lofty colonnades. Every thing gives the 
idea of a secluded, comfortable home. 

When the wealth of the owner or the situation of the house 
in the country gave additional space to the architect, he was 
naturally tempted to develop new and enlarged modes of design. 
This led, in the former case, to the palace ; in the latter, to the 
villa. This distinction, however, cannot always be preserved ; 
for, on the one hand, the town-palaces of later times sometimes 
comprised pleasure-grounds, etc., belonging properly to a country 


residence ; while, on the other hand, the villa of a rich, luxurious 
Roman took the form of a monumental palace. 

During the last century of the Republic the splendid mansions 
of private persons begin to be mentioned more and more fre- 
quently. We only remind the reader of the house built on the 
Palatine by M. iEmilius Scaurus, the step-son of the dictator, L. 
Cornelius Sulla, a man celebrated for his wealth. He first bought 
one of the most celebrated houses of the time, that of Cn. Octa- 
vius, with adjacent pieces of ground, to erect his own mansion on 
the site. As a specimen of great luxury Pliny mentions the mar- 
ble columns, thirty-eight feet in height, which adorned the fore- 
court. They most likely had formerly belonged to the theatre 
built by Scaurus {see § 84), and their size certainly implies a local- 
ity of more than ordinary dimensions, even if compared with the 
larger dwelling-houses at Pompeii. Mazois has attempted a con- 
jectural design of the palace of Scaurus, which gives an idea of 
the splendor and variety of its single parts. But all this was far 
surpassed by the buildings of imperial times, of which we will 
only mention the " golden house " of Nero, the product of an 
exaggerated love of splendid architecture which did not shrink 
from incendiarism to satisfy its craving on the ruins of Rome. 
The palace was built on the Palatine, and extended from there, 
by means of intermediate structures {domus transitoria), to the 
Esquiline, containing all the luxuries and conveniences imagi- 
nable. A fore-court surrounded by a triple colonnade (a Roman 
mile, or 1,478.50 metres, long) contained the statue of the em- 
peror, 37 metres in height ; ponds of the size of lakes, with 
rows of houses on their banks, gardens, vineyards, meadows, and 
woods, inhabited by tame and ferocious animals, occupied the 
various courts ; the walls of the rooms were covered with gold, 
jewels, and pearls ; the ivory with which the ceiling of the din- 
ing-halls was inlaid was made to slide back, so as to admit a rain 
of roses or fragrant waters on the heads of the carousers. Under 
Otho this gigantic building was continued at an expense of about 
£525,000, but only to be pulled down for the greater part by 
Yespasian. On the site of the above-mentioned ponds stood the 
large amphitheatre finished by Titus (see § 85), and on the foun- 
dations of Nero's buildings on the Esquiline the thermae of the 
same emperor were erected. The Palatine proper remained the 



chief residence of the later emperors, who greatly altered the 
original arrangements. The excavations ordered by Napoleon 
III. and Pius IX., and conducted by the architect Rosa, have 
yielded the most important contributions to the history of the 
Palatine edifices, from the oldest times of the Roma Quad rata 
down to the Flavii. 

A work of later date must serve to give us a more distinct 
idea of Roman palatial architecture. We are speaking of the 
palace erected by the Emperor Diocletian on the coast of Dal- 
matia, near his birthplace, Salona, where he spent the last years 
of his life after his abdication. On the few occasions when this 
large and splendid building is mentioned by ancient authors it is 
simply called a villa. It might more properly be described as a 
castle fortified in the manner of a camp {see § 70), for the whole 
area occupied by the palace and other houses adjoining it is in- 
closed on three sides by a solid wall, protected by square or oc- 
tagonal towers. The whole space thus inclosed is about 500 feet 
wide by 600 long. Among the ruins of the house now lies a 
great part of the town of Spalatro. Between the centre pair of 

the above-mentioned towers on 
each of the three sides lies a 
gate (compare Fig. 356), those 
on the two long sides being con- 
nected by means of a street, 
just as we found it in the 
Saalburg, near Homburg (com- 
pare Fig. 354). Another street, 
crossing the first in the centre, 
starts from the gate on the third, 
narrower side, without, how- 
ever, being continued to the 
opposite side. This street, after 
passing between two temples, 
ends in what may be considered 
as the vestibule or entrance-hall 
of the imperial palace proper. 
This palace occupied the fourth side toward the sea. Instead of 
the solid walls we here see an open passage with arcades, into 
which open the numerous different apartments of the imperial 

E 4JiiM i iii i ) ijr ^ i iiiiHi^ 3 


Fig. 892. 



dwelling. The view of the sea and surrounding country is beau- 
tiful. The space of the whole area not occupied by the palace 
itself (see plan, Fig. 392) is divided into four quarters by means 
of the above-mentioned streets, the two outer ones being taken 
up by the houses for the body-guard and other attendants of the 
emperor, while the two remaining quarters form open spaces, 
with a temple standing in the centre of each. One of these 
temples, to the left of the palace-entrance is a simple prostylos 
of moderate dimensions; the other is a fine specimen of the 
vaulted round temple, for, although octagonal in its outer 
shape, it is circular in the interior. The wall is adorned with 
two rows of columns, one above the other, and by an elegant 

There is no room within the inclosing wall for gardens and 
fields, and it is moreover mentioned expressly that these lay out- 
side. The character of the architecture is rich and splendid, but 
shows a decline if compared with the purity of the end of the 
Republic and the beginning of the Empire. 

Villas proper, i. e., country residences, were greatly in favor 
with wealthy Romans, and we in consequence possess numerous 
descriptions of them of various dates, on the authority of which 
architects and scholars since Pirro Ligorio have attempted various 
reconstructive designs. The old villa rustica, of which Cato and 
after him Yarro speak, comprises a combination of the dwelling- 
houses and of the various buildings required for farming purposes. 
Yarro already complains of the latter consideration being thrown 
into the background by the desire of transforming large agri- 
cultural districts into beautiful landscapes, the villas themselves 
being at the same time reconstructed on the luxurious system of 
town architecture (villa urbana), Vitruvius, whose statements 
about the villa rustica tally with those of Yarro, says that the 
villa urbana was constructed like a town-house, with the distinc- 
tion of its being more regular in design, and that of its site 
being chosen better than the narrow space between the adjoining 
houses of a street would permit. The increasing scale of luxury 
and comfort may be marked by comparing the simplicity of the 
older Scipio's Lintemum in Campania, or the family-seat of 
Cicero at Arpinum, with the more comfortable villa of the latter 
at Tusculum or his Formianum, and finally with the splendid 


country residences of Metellus and Lucullus. We possess the 
description and partly the remains of some of the villas of impe- 
rial times, which give ns a high idea of the variety and splen- 
dor of their architectural arrangements. The younger Pliny 
has described in two letters his Tuscum (Ep. v., 6 ; compare § 
94) and his villa at Laurentum (ii., 17). He there mentions a 
great number of apartments, halls, courts, baths, and other con- 
veniences for the enjoyment of life in different weathers and 
seasons ; he at the same time notices the absence of fish-ponds, 
museums, libraries, etc., such as were considered indispensable at 
other villas. These statements refer to the time of Trajan. Of 
the time of Hadrian we know the villa constructed for himself , 
by that art-loving emperor at Tibur, the former splendor of which 
is still visible in the numerous remains of it found near the 
modern Tivoli; a short description of the same villa by Spar- 
tianus (v., Hadriani, 26) assists us further in realizing its grand 
design. The ground belonging to it had a circumference of 
seven Roman miglie. We are still able to distinguish two larger 
theatres, and an odeum, smaller in size, and destined, most likely, 
for musical performances ; a great number of chambers, still 
recognizable, seem to have been destined for the pilgrims visiting 
a temple and oracle here situated ; other rooms in a still better 
state of preservation (" le Cento Camarelle ") may have belonged 
to the emperor's body-guard. Near them lie the ruins of what 
is supposed to have been the emperor's dwelling. Other struct- 
ures were called by the names of celebrated buildings in different 
provinces of the empire. The Canopus (an imitation of the 
temple of Serapis at Canopus) mentioned by Spartianus has been 
recognized in the ruin of a round temple lying in a valley, in- 
closed architecturally. It was adorned with numerous statues 
in the Egyptian style, the remains of which are in the Capitoline 
Museum. Other ruins containing the remains of baths are said 
to have been the Lyceum and Academy ; a large square surrounded 
by columns was the Poikile, adjoining which lie a basilica and a 
round building, most likely the Prytaneum mentioned by Spar- 
tianus. Even the valley of Tempe had been imitated, while 
Hades is recognized by some in a still-preserved labyrinth of 
subterraneous chambers. The architecture was technically per- 
fect, as is shown by the remaining brick walls and vaults : some 



of the ruins seem to prove that the walls were adorned with slabs 
of marble, and that the vaulted ceilings were coated with stucco. 
Numerous fragments of columns, beams, valuable pavements, and 
sculptures, have been (during the last three centuries) and are still 
being recovered from the ruins. 

To illustrate the simpler villas of the higher middle class we 
have inserted the plan of the so-called villa suburbana of M. Arrius 
Diomedes at Pompeii (Fig. 393 ; scale, 100 feet). It lies near the 
city in the street of graves, which passes the building in an 
oblique direction. The ground in this place slopes downward 

Fig. 893. 

from the street ; and as the house has to follow this declivity, 
the front parts (marked in our plan by black lines) lie higher 
than the back ones (marked by hatched lines), rising above them 
in the form of terraces. Near the entrance the pavement of the 
street is raised, and from it seven further steps ascend to the door 
(1) through which one enters the peristylium (2), quite in accord- 
ance with Vitruvius's (vi., 8) rules for such villas, called by 
him pseudourbance ; in the position of the peristylium they there- 
fore differ essentially from town-houses. Fourteen Doric columns 
(the lower third of which is not fluted, but painted red, while the 
two upper thirds are white and fluted) form the peristylium, and 



surround a compluvium, the water of which communicated with 
two fountains (jputeaT) between the columns. On the side opposite 
the door of the peristylium lies the tablinum (3), the other sides 
being adjoined by smaller chambers, some of which were bed- 
rooms, as appears from the beds worked into the walls. The 
tablinum opens into a sort of gallery (4), connected on one side 
with the peristylium by means of fauces, and opening on the 
other into a large hall (5), the cecus. This again opens into a 
second large court with colonnades by means of a window reaching 
almost to the ground. The inclosing walls of the space hitherto 

. -,# ;> . . i 1 1 i ; , •' 1 

: ; . 

^■i" ^^*^fe • "•^..:^ Im Jj* jfi^K '^^fr .^JP^' v^ -. 

Ms - ... 

Fig. 394. 

described are marked black in our plan, the hatched lines between 
them being meant for the walls of smaller chambers on the 
ground-floor underneath it. The just-mentioned court (6), meas- 
uring 33 square metres, was surrounded by a vaulted passage 
(7), supported by pillars (cri/ptoporticus), two sides of which are 
in perfect preservation ; to judge by some of the remains it must 
have had a second story. In the centre of the court lies a large 
piscina adorned with a jet, and behind it an open structure re- 
sembling a temple, which most likely served as triclinium in 
the summer. The six columns formerly supporting it are partly 


preserved. To the left of the street-door we notice a triangular 
court (8) inclosed on two sides by a covered passage, the third 
longer side being occupied by a cold plunging-bath. We also 
find a tepidarium (9) and calidarium (10) for tepid and hot baths, 
in the latter of which the tub for the hot water, the niche for the 
labrum, and the heating-apparatus, are preserved (compare § .80). 
Eemarkable is also a beautiful bedroom (11), the semicircular 
projection of which contains three large windows, to let in the 
sun in the morning, afternoon, and evening ; the view from these 
windows is beautiful. The back-wall of this room contains the 
alcove for the bed, that could be closed by means of a curtain, as 
is proved by the rings still in existence ; 12 marks a small cham- 
ber, through which, by means of a staircase, one passed into the 
lower story and the rooms lying near the large court. To con- 
clude, we add (Fig 394) the view of a villa by the sea, from a 
Pompeian wall-painting. 

77. From the houses of the living we pass to the graves and 
grave-monuments. Among the numerous and variegated Roman 
graves we must limit our remarks to a few specimens. Almost 
all the different kinds of Roman tombs have their analogies in 
Greek architecture. We cannot discuss the question whether, 
as seems likely, the old Latin or Italian custom consisted in sim- 
ply covering the corpse with earth ; neither will we try to de- 
termine when this custom was superseded by the construction of 
grave-chambers or detached monuments for the reception of the 
ashes of burned bodies. Certain it is that at the time when 
this was done models for all the varieties of tombs as developed 
by the Greeks {see §§ 23 and 24) were to be found among the 
neighboring Etruscans. Among the Etruscan tombs we dis- 
tinguish the subterraneous grave-chamber, the tomb cut into 
the rock with a more or less elaborate facade, and finally the 
detached grave-mounds. Of the first kind the old graves of 
Caere and the burial-places of Yulci and Corneto offer numerous 

Among the former we have chosen the grave known as 
Tomba delle Sedie {see plan, Fig. 395, and section, Fig. 396). 
The plan shows an inclined passage leading (partly by means of 
steps) down to a vestibule, into which open three doors ; the two 
at the sides lead each into a chamber all but square in shape 



(d); the third between these two is the entrance to the chief 
burial-chamber (a). It is an oblong, and shows on the wall oppo- 
site the entrance two stone chairs (see Fig. 396), whence the name 

* S. i f s 

Fig. 395. 

of the grave is derived ; along the other three 
walls run benches (c). After this chief apart- 
ment follow three smaller chambers, of which 
that on the right contains a niche in the 
wall (b). 
Of graves cut into the rock we find several examples in the 
narrow valleys of Norchia and Castell d'Asso, the steep slopes 
of which contain the entrances to the graves; steps lead up to 
them. Some of the facades are adorned with columns (compare 
Lenoir, " Tombeaux de Norchia ;" Ann. dell' Instit., iv., 289 ; 
" Mon. Ined.," i., tav. xlviii., 4), while others (see Fig. 397) show 

Fig. 397. 

no artificial work beyond the doors and the steps leading up to 

Of the third or detached grave we find numerous specimens 
in the burial-places of Vulci and other towns. Most of these 
resemble the above-mentioned grave-mound in the isle of Syme 
(see Fig. 98) ; our illustration (Fig. 398), the so-called Cucumella, 
differs from it only by its larger diameter (200 feet) and by the 



Fig. 398. 





rvrr-consoL censors 





careful stone-border surrounding its whole circumference. On the 
slope of the mound we also discover ruins of old Etruscan struct- 
ures which indicate a more 
elaborate architectural de- 
coration of this grave. 

We now come to the 
subterraneous Roman 
graves built after the Etruscan pattern. Like the Greek tombs 
they varied in design according to the conditions of the soil, 
being either cut into the hard rock, or dug into the earth and 
inclosed with walls where the softness of the soil required it ; in 
the construction of the 
ceiling the vault became 
an important element. Of 
graves in rocks we possess 
a very primitive example 
in the tombs of the Scipi- 
ones — a kind of labyrinth 
of irregular subterraneous 
passages, previously used 
as a quarry. Originally 

they lay outside the city in the Yia Appia, but on the enlarge- 
ment of Eome they came within the circle inclosed by the 
Aurelian Wall. Of the monuments found there we quote (Fig. 
399) the sarcophagus containing the remains of L. Cornelius 
Scipio Barbatus (consul, 298 b. c). It is made of common stone, 
and may be considered as one of the most important proofs of 
the early influence of Greek on Roman art, showing an orna- 
mental border resembling the frieze of Doric art, and a cornice of 
dentils, which, like the volutes of the top decoration, remind one 
of Ionic patterns. 

More regular is the tomb of the Nasones, in the Yia Flaminia. 
It consists of a subterraneous chamber, with semicircular niches 
for the coffins. The grave of the Gens Furia, near Frascati, 
consists of a semicircular chamber surrounded by a narrow pas- 
sage, the entrance to which, on the slope of the mountain, is 
adorned with a facade. 

We finally mention the subterraneous grave-chambers common 
to a tribe or to the slaves and f reedmen of the imperial or other 

Fig. 399. 



noble families. The urns (pUa), with simple covers to them, stand 
in niches somewhat resembling pigeon-holes, whence the name of 
columbarium (dovecot) applied to these graves ; a small marble 

tablet above each niche records 

the name of the deceased. Sev- 
eral of these columbaria have 
been found in and near Rome. 
Figs. 400 and 401 give the 
plan and view of the colum- 
barium in which the freed- 
men of Livia, the wife of 
Augustus, were buried. It 
lies in the Via Appia, and 
consists of several apartments, 
of which the one nearest the 
entrance is very simple, while 
the larger ones, reached by 
descending a staircase, are decorated more richly. Large niches, 

itcafa dl*Itetx& 

Fig. 400. 

Fig. 401. 

square or circular in shape, were destined for the reception 
of sarcophagi; while seven ascending rows of smaller openings 



in the walls contained the cinerary urns. Another colum- 
barium in the Vigna Codini contains 425 niches in nine rows. 
The interior arrangements 
of detached graves are of a fltt 

similar kind (compare § 78). w^^ /j 

Fig. 402 illustrates the in- 
terior of a detached tomb, 
the exterior of which we 
shall consider hereafter {see 
Fig. 412). The simple room 
covered with a barrel-vault 
receives its light from a 
single window in the ceil- 
ing. Niches in- the walls 
and in the benches contain the urns, others of which are standing 
on these benches. 

78. The simplest forms of detached graves above-ground are 
nearly related to Etruscan structures of the same kind. We pass 
from the simple earth-mounds {tumult) to those tombs which show 
a distinct architectural design. Fig. 403 shows Hirt's reconstruc- 
tive design of a partly destroyed, but still recognizable, grave 

Fig. 402. 

Fig. 403. 


near Naples, generally called the tomb of Yirgil. It consists 
of a square base made of bricks, the frontage of which contains 
a round-arched door leading into the grave. On this base stands 
a flattened cone, also made of brick, except the bottom layers, 
which consist of hewn stones. 

A similar, though more artistic, design appears in the so-called 
tomb of the Horatii and Curiatii, standing on the road from Rome 



to Albano, near the last-mentioned place (see view and design, 
Figs. 404 and 405). It seemingly belongs to the time of the 
Kepublic. Its material is a stone found in the quarries of Albano, 
generally called " peperin." The substructure is nineteen metres 
in circumference, and shows a base and a cornice carefully 
worked out. On it stands a conical structure, 
similar to that of the grave of Yirgil. Here, how- 
ever, several smaller cones are grouped round the 
centre one, the former occupying the four corners 
of the substructure. The centre cone is both thicker 
and higher than the others. Perhaps an individual 
Etruscan model has here been imitated ; the descriptions, at least, 
of the tomb of the Etruscan King Porsenna indicate a similar 
arrangement of four conical turrets. 

Akin to these conical erections is the round tower on a square 
base, such as found in the grave in the Via Appia belonging, 
according to its inscription, to Caecilia Metella, daughter of Q. 
Creticus, and wife of the triumvir C. Crassus, celebrated for his 

Fig. 405. 

Fig. 406. 

riches (406). The base is made of quarry-stone, the round tower 
being carefully faced with freestone, and adorned with frieze and 
cornice. The decoration of the frieze is composed of alternating 
flowers and skulls of animals, whence the popular name of the 
monument " Capo di Bove." A small door leads into the circu- 
lar grave-chamber. What the original roof of the building has 



been, can no more be ascertained ; the battlement seen in our illus- 
tration dates from the middle ages, when the Caetani turned the 
tomb into a tower of defense, connecting it with other fortifica- 
tions still preserved. 

Another monument built in imitation of the Egyptian pyra- 
mids belongs to the age of Augustus (Fig. 407). The pyramid 
is of rather steep ascent, its base being 30 metres in circumfer- 
ence, its height 37 metres. It is built of a very firm composition 
of mortar and small stones faced with tablets of white marble. 
The grave-chamber is comparatively small, and still shows traces 

Fia. 40T. 

of beautiful wall-paintings. The original entrance was effected 
by means of an inclined shaft about half-way up the northern 
side of the pyramid. This shaft, covered outside with a stone, 
led straight to the centre of the vault, covering the grave- 
el uunber. Columns and statues adorned the exterior. Several 
inscriptions record the dignities of the deceased inmate, among 
which we count those of praetor and tribune of the people. 
His name was C. Cestius. The monument was erected to him 
by his heirs, one of whom was M. Agrippa. In accordance with 



Fig. 408. 

the last will of the deceased it had been completed in 330 

Other forms of the grave resemble the design of a temple, 
as does, for instance, a monument discovered near the northern 

corner of the Capitol (Fig. 408). It 
is built of freestone, and shows on 
its base an inscription, according to 
which it was dedicated by the peo- 
ple and senate to the memory of the 
sedile Caius Poblicius Bibulus. The 
upper part contains on the side shown 
in our illustration a door between 
two Doric or Tuscan pilasters, which 
at the same time carry the beams, 
with a sort of balustrade on the top 
of them. The frieze shows a decoration of flowers and skulls 
of bulls, similar to that of the tomb of Caecilia Metella. Another 
tomb at Palmyra shows a still closer resemblance to the temple ; 

it may, indeed, be described as a pro- 
stylos hexastylos {see Fig. 409 ; scale, 
40 feet). It forms an all but perfect 
square, with a portico of six detached 
columns added to it. The arrange- 
ment of the interior proves its destina- 
tion as a family-grave; on three sides 
we see rows of narrow cellae or grave- 
chambers, while almost in the centre 
of the building stands a structure of 
four columns itetrastylos), most likely 
destined for the reception of the chief 
sarcophagus. Another grave in the 
form of a tower is also found at Palmyra (Fig. 410; scale, 
24 feet), the front side of which shows the statue of the 
deceased in a lying position; while the interior contains, in 
different stories, a number of niches for the reception of cinerary 

All the monuments hitherto mentioned are, if not small, at 
least of moderate dimensions ; the increasing luxury of later 
times, however, also extended to grave-monuments. This was 


j ii m 

o to 


Fig. 409. 



particularly the case where the dignity of the state itself was rep- 
resented by the deceased person. The monument erected by Au- 
gustus to himself and his descendants shows colossal dimensions. 
On a square base rose an enormous round building (similar to 
that of the tomb of Csecilia Metella), on which _ ■_ 

was heaped an additional tumulus, while under- 
neath it lay the imperial grave-chambers. The 
inclosing walls are preserved sufficiently to give 
an idea of the original grandeur of the structure. 

When, in the course of a century, it had been 
filled with the remains of emperors, Hadrian de- 
termined upon erecting a similar structure for 
himself and his successors. 

The site chosen lay on the other side of the 
Tiber, opposite the tomb of Augustus, connected 
with the city by means of the above-mentioned 
Pons iElius (Figs. 369 and 370), at present 
called Ponte S. Angelo. This tomb also con- 
sists of a square basis (90 metres), and, standing on it, a colossal 
round tower (67 metres in diameter by 22 high), originally faced 

Fig. 41L 

with Parian marble, and decorated more richly than the mauso- 
leum of Augustus. According to a tradition, the twenty-four 



Korinthian columns in the centre nave of St. Paul's Basilica ori- 
ginally belonged to this Moles Hadriani, which indicates its hav- 
ing been surrounded by colonnades in the manner of a round pe- 
ripteros. This conjecture becomes still more probable from the 
fact of plastic works of art being mentioned in connection with 
the mausoleum, which statues most likely stood in these colon- 
nades : excellent works of art have indeed been found in the 
neighborhood. The chief part of the edifice has been preserved 
in the round tower of the Castello S. Angelo, which makes a care- 
ful investigation of the interior a matter of some difficulty. Sev- 

Pig. 412. 

eral designs of the original form of the building have been at- 
tempted. Fig. 411 shows that of Canina, who, in opposition to 
Hirt, assumes the existence of two external colonnades. Canina 
crowns the building with a pyramidal roof, the top ornament 
being a large pineapple of bronze, found in the neighborhood, 
and at present in the garden of the Vatican. 

Of other smaller grave-monuments, partly containing the 
grave-chambers, partly built above them, we possess a variety 
of forms. They either resembled small round or square altars 
(cvppi), or they consisted of simple pillars (hermw), the tops of 


which were rounded on one side, so as to almost resemble a 
human head cut in half. Of all these forms we see specimens in 
the street of graves at Pompeii (Fig. 412). On both sides of the 
street (our view is taken from a point near the villa of Diomedes, 
Fig. 393), we see numerous graves, generally with the names of 
individuals or families inscribed on them. Where space permit- 
ted the monument was, like the temple, surrounded by a small 
court, separated from the street and other graves by a wall. 
These inclosures, besides indicating the hallowed character of the 
place, were, in some cases, used for the solemn burning of the 
body and the collecting of the remains according to prescribed 
rites (ossilegium). In case the inclosure served this purpose it 
was denominated ustrina (from urere, to burn). In some places, 
however, the burning of the body near the grave was forbidden, 
besides which the poorer classes could not afford separate inclos- 
ures; for these reasons public ustrina had to be provided, one 
of which, in the form of a square space inclosed by a wall, has 
been discovered at Pompeii. Another large public ustrinum, in 
the Yia Appia, about five miglie from the Porta S. Sebastiano, 
has been discovered by Piranesi, and described by him in his 
u Antichita di Koma " (iii., 4). It is a vast square, surrounded 
on all sides by walls of large blocks of peperin-stone. On the 
wall is a path with a low parapet, evidently intended to enable 
the mourners to witness the burning of the body in the square, 
after which the collecting of the ashes took place. 

Among the tombs of the Pompeian street of graves (Fig. 412) 
we discover on the left, first, a small monument like a temple, with 
two columns ; it lies just opposite the villa of Diomedes, and was, 
according to its inscription, the common grave of the family of 
M. Arrius Diomedes ; to it belong the two cippi which lie on a 
common base with the chief monument, and are inscribed to two 
members of the same family. The second larger monument on 
the same side is devoted to the memory of L. Ceius Labeo ; his 
and his wife's busts, which formerly stood on the grave, are now 
in the Museo Borbonico. • On the right side of our illustration 
we see a wall covered by a gable ; a low door in this wall leads 
into an uncovered square court adjoining one corner of the villa 
of Diomedes, in which court the arrangements for the funeral 
repast, the last ceremony of the burial, have been found. In this 



court we recognize a triclinium funebre resembling the dining- 
rooms of private houses, with their gently-inclining couches ; 
its walls were covered with paintings, now in an all but destroyed 
condition. Next to this triclinium stands, on a rich base, an 
altar-like monument, which is among the finest and best-pre- 
served tombs of Pompeii. It lies in a court, the wall of which 
is adorned with small turrets ; a door in this wall opens into the 
street. The grave-chamber lies inside the base (see the view of 
the interior, Fig. 402) ; the cippus, resembling an altar, which 
rises above the base on several steps to a height exceeding that 

Fig. 413. 

of the inclosing wall, is richly adorned with bass-reliefs. The 
inscription on its front side says that JSTsevoleia Tyche, the f reed- 
woman of Lucius ISTsevoleius, has erected the monument dur- 
ing her lifetime to herself, to L. Munatius Faustus, and to their 
liberated slaves of both sexes. Among the monuments following 
on the same side, and still visible in our illustration, we mention 
the cenotaphium of C. Calventius Quietus, in the form of an al- 
tar. After it follows a family-grave without inscription, consist- 
ing of a round, flat tower surrounded by a wall, crowned by tur- 
rets, with decorations in relief. We further mention the tomb of 



Scaurus, interesting by its bass-reliefs representing gladiators 
(compare Figs. 505, 507, 508). 

To conclude, we add 
an illustration of a portion 
of the Yia Appia, near 
Rome. This important 
highway was peculiarly 
adapted to be adorned 
with tombs and other 
monuments, the traces of 
which have been discov- 
ered for a distance of 
several miles from Rome. 
After carefully examin- 
ing the remains and com- 
paring them with other 
monuments, the architect 
Canina has tried to illus- 
trate parts of the Yia in 
their original appearance. 
Fig. 413 is a reproduc- 
tion of one of these at- 

79. We now come to 
those monuments which, 
instead of being the re- 
ceptacles of dead persons, 
served to prolong the 
memory of their deeds 
and merits. Some mon- 
uments served both as 
tombs and memorial 
structures (compare our 
remarks about the keno- 
taphion of the Greeks, 
§ 24, g). The most 
striking illustration of 

the combination of these two different purposes is the column of 
the Emperor Trajan, to which we shall have to return. Fig. 414 

Fig. 414. 


shows a monument, which in a manner forms the connecting link 
between the two species of edifices almded to. It lies near the 
village of Igel, in the vicinity of Treves ; onr illustration shows 
the north side. It is built of freestone, and rises in several di- 
visions to a height of 64 feet, according to the lowest of the dif- 
ferent measurements. The sides toward north and south are 15, 
those toward east and west 12 feet wide. The steep roof, resem- 
bling a pyramid with curved outlines, is adorned with decorations 
not unlike scales. It is crowned by a sort of capital, adorned 
with human figures in the four corners, on which rests a globe 
supported by four small sphinxes. Some fragments on the top 
of this globe seem to indicate that here was placed originally an 
eagle carrying a human figure to heaven — an apotheosis of the 
persons to whom the monument was dedicated. Besides these 
greatly injured sculptures we observe a profusion of figures in 
relief on all sides and in all divisions of the structure. Like the 
chief representation on the south side they refer partly to the in- 
dividuals to be honored by the monument, partly to mythologi- 
cal objects (the centre bass-relief visible in our illustration, for 
instance, shows the god of the sun in his chariot), partly also they 
illustrate scenes of actual life in reference to the person s alluded 
to. Of this more anon. The style of the sculptures and archi- 
tecture belongs to late imperial times. An inscription, although 
partly destroyed, and explained in many different ways, seems to 
prove beyond doubt that the monument was erected by L. Secun- 
dinius Aventinus and Secundinius Securus in honor of their 
parents and other blood-relations. It was the common monument 
of the Secundinii, several members of which family are men- 
tioned in inscriptions found near Treves as holding offices of 
various kinds. Similar monuments of Eoman origin have been 
found by Barth in the south of the Tripolitan country (the 
Syrtica Tripolitana of the Komans), in the Wadi Tagidje, and 
near the fountain of Taborieh {see H. Barth, " Reisen und 
Entdeckungen in Nord- und Central-Afrika," i., pp. 125 and 

In turning to the monuments of honor proper we must pre- 
mise that among such may be counted all structures, be they tem- 
ples, halls, theatres, columns, pillars, or gates, erected in honor of 
a person or in celebration of an event. To Caesar and several 


emperors temples have been erected ; small buildings resembling 
chapels, built in honor of individuals, occur at Palmyra ; halls and 
colonnades in Rome served, as they did among the Greeks, to 
perpetuate the memory of great men ; even a theatre in Rome 
was built in honor of a favorite of the Emperor Augustus. We 
must refrain from describing these and similar structures. We 
mention only two forms of the monument of honor, one of which 
has been invented, the other applied in preference, by the Ro- 
mans. To the latter class belong the columns; to the former 
the triumphal arches. Columns were frequently erected by the 
Greeks for the same purpose, and in that case bore the statue of 
the person to be honored (as, for instance, that of the orator 
Isokrates), or some object referring to the deeds or merits of this 
person. A second column erected to the same Isokrates showed 
the image of a siren as a symbol of eloquence ; other columns, 
partly still preserved, carried tripods, such as were awarded to 
the victors of the agones. 1 Sometimes the columns showed only 
inscriptions without sculptural decorations. Columns of all three 
kinds may have occurred among the Romans, who at an early date 
adopted this mode of honoring meritorious citizens from the 
Greeks. Originally they were awarded only by the senate, after- 
ward also by the people, the expenses being either raised by 
private collections or paid by the state. Having frequently de- 
scribed the architectural characteristics of the column, we shall 
here refer to such columnar monuments only as greatly deviate 
from the common type. We first mention the oldest of all such 
columns, viz., the Columna Rostrata, built in the Forum, and 
adorned with the prows of ships, to celebrate the naval victory of 
C. Duilius over the Carthaginians (b. c. 261). A modern imita- 
tion of it with the antique inscription is preserved in the Capito- 
line museum. This venerable monument became the model of 
other columncB rostratce found on various coins of imperial origin, 
struck in celebration of naval victories. Whether these columns 
(as, for instance, those on silver coins of Augustus and Titus, with 
the statues of these emperors on the top of the columns) were 
actually erected, remains uncertain. Other columns show the 

1 On the south side of the Akropolis, near the castle-wall, above the theatre of 
Dionysos, are still standing several columns of this kind, the Korinthian capitals of 
which have been made triangular, so as to fit the tripods to be placed on them. 


deeds of their heroes in relief representations, winding generally 
in a spiral line round the shaft of the column from base to capi- 
tal. A column of this kind was the chief ornament of the Forum 
built by Trajan, to which we shall later have to return (see § 82). 
The column stands on a square base covered with the inscription 
and with numerous warlike trophies of various kinds. The ped- 
estal is 17 feet high ; the column itself, including base and capi- 
tal, 92 feet. Above the capital rises a pedestal, on which the 
bronze statue of the emperor stood : it has been lost, and replaced 
by that of St. Peter. The column itself, consisting of twenty- 
three drums of marble, is in surprisingly good preservation. 
The bass-reliefs surrounding it, in twenty-two spiral curves, form 
a consecutive number of scenes from Trajan's wars with the 
Dacians. The inscription on the base gives the date and purpose 
of its erection. 1 According to a doubtful tradition the ashes of 
the emperor were inclosed in a globe held by the statue ; while, 
according to another more trustworthy account, Hadrian deposited 
the remains of his predecessor in a golden urn underneath the 
column. A winding staircase of 185 steps inside the column 
(the entrance to which lies in the pedestal) leads to the top of the 

Kesembling the column of Trajan, although not equal to it 
in workmanship and beauty, is the column erected by senate and 
people to the memory of the noble Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. 
It seems to have been connected with a temple devoted to the 
same emperor. Like the column of Trajan, it is well preserved, 
and, like it, it has lost the original statue of the emperor, the 
present one of St. Paul having been placed on it by the same 
pope, Sixtus Y ., who put the statue of St. Peter on the column of 
Trajan, on the occasion of both these monuments being cleaned 
and restored. Fig. 415 shows a design of Canina of the column 
with its original surroundings. Like the first-mentioned column, 
it consists of large cylindrical blocks of marble worked, on the 
inside, into a winding staircase of at present 190 steps. According 
to an inscription found near it, its height is 100 old Koman feet. 




The shaft is like that of the column of Trajan, but the pedestal 
is considerably higher in this case ; part of it is now hidden by the 
earth. The bass-reliefs winding round the column in twenty spiral 
curves refer to the wars of the emperor with the Marcomans and 
other tribes to the north of the Lower Danube (compare § 107). 
Triumphal arches were frequently erected by the Romans, in 

Fig. 415. 

this case without the aid of numerous models in Greek architect- 
ure. Both by their character and destination these structures 
are essentially Roman. The custom of arranging festive pageants 
in celebration of happy events soon led to the erection of 
triumphal gates for the procession to pass through. Besides 


decorating the gates of the city for the occasion, the Eomans used 
to erect detached gates of a monumental character. Such tri- 
umphal arches might be the reward of all kinds of civic merit. 
An arch erected to Augustus at Araminium (Kimini) celebrated 
his construction of the Flaminian road from that town to Rome ; 
an arch, still standing, on the jetty of Ancona records Trajan's 
restoration of that harbor; another arch at Beneventum was 
dedicated to the same emperor for his restoration of the Yia 
Appia ; an arch still preserved, near the Olympicum, commemo- 
rates the building of a new splendid quarter of Athens by Ha- 
drian. The so-called arch of the Sergii at Pola records the merits 
of a family ; a small but richly-decorated triumphal gate in the 
Forum Boarium in Borne was erected to Septimius Severus by 
the goldsmiths and cattle-dealers. 

In most cases, however, these arches were designed for the 
triumphal entrance of a commander at the head of his army after 
a victorious war. These triumphal entrances (compare § 109) are 
essentially representative of the national spirit of the Romans, 
quite as much as the public games were of that of the Greeks. 
The sculptural decorations of the arches generally represent the 
processions that were to pass through them : on the arch of 
Titus we even see a sculptural reproduction of this monument 
itself. As the arch itself is a product of Roman national spirit, 
so its design is preeminently representative of that specifically 
Roman element in architecture — the vaulting or arching prin- 
ciple. Nowhere is this principle displayed more simply and more 
effectively, nowhere does the mixture of Greek columnar archi- 
tecture with Roman elements appear in a more striking manner, 
than in these detached triumphal gates, the arcades of which are 
in a manner framed with columns or semi-columns appearing to 
support the flat coverings of the arches and the second lower 
stories on the top of them. Into the architectural varieties of the 
triumphal arch we cannot enter here ; we only shall quote two 
examples, representative of the two principal divisions of these 
monuments. Like the city-gate, the triumphal arch can have 
either one (compare Fig. 356) or three openings (358-360), the 
possibility of two openings occurring in some Roman gates (Fig. 
357) being naturally excluded. 

A beautiful example of the first species is the arch of Titus 



in Kome, built of Pentelic marble (see design, with the statue 
of the emperor in a quadriga added to it, Fig. 416). Its height 
is 15.40 metres, its width 13.50, its depth 4.75 metres. The 
arched opening is 5.36 metres wide by 8.30 high. In the middle 
ages a tower of f ortitication had been built on it ; but it was re- 
stored to its present form in 1822. Its construction is very simple : 
two strong piers have been connected by means of an arch for the 
triumphal procession to pass through. To right and left of the 


Fig. 416. 

arch the piers show two fluted semi-columns of the " composite " 
order, being the earliest specimens of that order (the two outside 
ones in travertine and without flutes are a modern addition) ; they 
stand on a common base, and inclose on each side of the arch a 
so-called false window. The beams, which are supported by the 
columns, and which at the same time cover the arch, are richly 
decorated ; the frieze shows a small bass-relief representation of 
a sacrificial pageant. Above the beams rises the attic, divided, 
like the lower story, into three parts, the centre one of which 


shows the inscription. The sculptural decorations of the arch it- 
self are beautiful ; the triangular surfaces between the arch and 
the columns are occupied by winged Yictories with warlike attri- 
butes. Inside the opening the walls to right and left are adorned 
with bass-reliefs, one of which represents the emperor in his tri- 
umphal chariot, the other groups of soldiers with the booty of the 
Jewish War, among which we discover the seven-branched candle- 
stick of the temple of Jerusalem (compare § 109). The barrel- 
vault of the archway is adorned with laquearia, a bass-relief in the 
centre showing the apotheosis of the emperor, who is carried to 
heaven by an eagle. According to the inscription, the monument 
has been erected to the memory of Titus by senate and people in 
the reign of his successor Domitian. It lies in a beautiful posi- 
tion, between the temple of Venus and Roma and the Coliseum 
above the Yia Sacra, and is one of the most remarkable architect- 
ural monuments of Rome. 

Still more important for the history of art, although of later 
date, is the triumphal arch of the Emperor Con stan tine. In it 
the traces of two very different periods are distinguishable. For 
it marks the closing period of the old empire and the rise of 
Christianity, being erected in celebration of the victory of Con- 
stantine over his .rival Maxentius, by means of which Christian- 
ity was established as the official religion of the Roman state. 
On the other hand, it takes us back to one of the most glorious 
epochs of Roman history, viz., the time of Trajan's victories over 

the Dacians. For when, after the 

EJff JUL 4JISL victory at the Pons Milvius (a. d. 
312), people and senate decided upon 
P| erecting an arch for the victor, the 
|f|f jf ]|jr shortness of time or the want of artis- 

Pig. 4iT. tic means at their disposal compelled 

them to make use of the plastic and 
architectural decorations of an older monument for their new 
structure. 1 This latter {see plan, Fig. 417) has three openings, 
the centre one of which is both higher and wider than the two 
others, being destined for the triumphal chariot of the emperor. 
The three entrances were inclosed by detached columns, instead of 

1 Height, 21 metres ; width, 25.'70 ; depth, 7.40. Height of centre arch, 11.50, of 
side arches 1A0. 



the usual semi-columns {see Fig. 418), four of which, made of 
yellow Numidian marble {giallo antico\ stood on each side of the 
structure. According to Hirt, their workmanship denotes the 
purer style of the reign of Hadrian. The greater part of the 
sculptures, on both sides of the structure and inside the centre 
arch, are taken from the triumphal gate (according to Hirt, two 
different gates) erected to Trajan for his victories over the Dacians 
and Parthians. The arrangement of these sculptures is very taste- 
ful. They begin at the bases of the columns, which are adorned 

with large relief -figures in standing postures ; on each side of the 
richly-decorated arch-inclosures we see two seated Yictories. 
After them follows, in the manner of a frieze, over the smaller 
entrances, a series of smaller bass-reliefs ; above each of these 
lower bass-reliefs are two circular bass-reliefs (" medallions," eight 
in all), representing scenes from the private life of Trajan, to 
which correspond eight square bass-reliefs with larger figures in 
the so-called Attic. The scenes represented by the last-mentioned 
sculptures begin, according to l^raun's description, on the side 
turned toward the Aventine. " They commence," he says, 1 " with 
an illustration of the triumphal entrance of Trajan after the first 

1 In his work on the " Ruins and Museums of Rome," p. 8. 


Dacian War, and then turn to his merits in conducting the Via 
Appia through the Pontine marshes, and in founding an orphan- 
age. They also refer to his relations to Parthamasires, King of 
Armenia, and to Parthamaspates, to whom he gives the Parthian 
crown ; also, finally, to Decebalus, King of the Dacians, whose 
hired assassins are brought before the emperor. The remaining 
groups show the emperor addressing the soldiers, also the usual 
sacrifices of pigs, sheep, and oxen." About the "medallions" 
representing the private life of the emperor, "in simple and 
graceful compositions," Braun makes the following remarks : 
" They begin with the setting out for the chase. The second group 
represents a sacrifice to Sylvanus, the protecting god of the forest. 
The third shows the emperor on horseback hunting a boar ; the 
fourth, the thank-offering to the goddess of the chase. The groups 
on the side of the Coliseum show a boar-hunt, a sacrifice to Apol- 
lo, the inspection of a killed lion, and, lastly, an unexplained oracu- 
lar scene, most likely referring to the miraculous escape of Trajan 
from an earthquake at Antiochia." 

The above-mentioned frieze continued over the central open- 
ing represents consecutively the battle, the flight, and chase of 
the enemy, and the crowning of the emperor by the Goddess of 
Victory. It is dedicated to Constantine as the "founder of 
peace," and the " liberator of the city ; " which inscriptions refer 
to Constantine's victory over Maxentius, and his occupation of 
Rome. Only the latter sculptures — the seated Victories, and the 
standing figures on the pedestals of the columns — date from Con- 
stantine's time. By their bad execution and clumsy composition 
they denote the decline of Roman art ; while the bass-reliefs from 
the time of Trajan, together with the figures of captive barbari- 
ans over the columns, are perfect in both these respects (compare 
§§ 107 to 109). 

80. We have described (§ 25) the development of the Greek 
gymnasia from private institutions for the requirements of indi- 
viduals to centres of public intercourse and recreation. A similar 
position in Roman life was held by the public baths. They also 
grew from private into public institutions of great magnificence 
indispensable to the Romans, and, therefore, found in all impor- 
tant towns. 

These baths, from the greater importance of the warm baths 


contained in them, generally called thermce, are, in many respects, 
comparable to the Greek gymnasia, which name was, indeed, 
occasionally applied to them in later times ; in other points, how- 
ever, the two differ entirely. Although the gymnastic exercises, 
together with their Greek names, were adopted by the Komans, 
they never gained national importance among them : war, and 
warlike evolutions in the field, remained the chief means of their 
corporeal education. In their bathing-establishments the thermae 
or baths had, therefore, the largest space assigned to them, smaller 
localities being reserved for agonistic games ; the Greek notions 
about the relative importance of these two purposes were thus 
exactly reversed. Common to both Greek and Roman institu- 
tions were the localities serving as walks and places of meeting 
and conversation to all visitors. The luxury of imperial times 
added to the thermae means of intellectual enjoyment, such as 
libraries and museums. 

In older times, before bathing had become a necessity of daily 
existence, the lavatrina, or wash-house, lying next to the kitchen, 
and connected with it by a heating-apparatus, served also as bath- 
room. But this simple arrangement soon became insufficient. 
Hot, sudatory, tepid, and cold baths, shower-baths, rubbing and 
oiling of the body — all these required separate apartments, to 
which, at the thermae, were added dressing and undressing 
rooms and other apartments for conversation and various kinds 
of amusement. From numerous remains of baths discovered in 
various points of the Roman Empire we have a distinct idea 
of their original arrangements ; these remains, moreover, tally 
in a remarkable degree with Vitruvius's rules. We ought to 
add that the picture of the interior of a bath supposed to have 
been found in the thermae of Titus, and reproduced in most 
compendiums of Roman antiquities for a century and a half, has 
been proved by Marquardt * to be an invention of the architect 
Giov. Ant. Rusconi (1553). 

All the bath-rooms lie over a substructure (suspensu?w) about 
two feet high, the ceiling of which rested on rows of pillars stand- 
ing at distances of one and a half foot. The furnace ijiypo- 
ccmsis), with the firing-room (propnigeum, prcefumium) lying 

1 In " Handbuch der romischen Alterthiimer, etc., begonnen von W. A. Becker, 
fortgesetzt von J. Marquardt," Part v., Division i., p. 288, et seq. Leipsic, 1864. 


in front of it, occupied the centre of the establishment. From 
here the heat was diffused through the basement, and ascended in 
earthen or leaden pipes (tubi) in the walls to the bath-rooms. 
The cold, tepid, or hot water required for the baths came from 
three tanks lying above the furnace, and connected with each 
other by means of pipes. The bath-rooms, over the basement, 
grouped round the furnace at greater or less distances, were 
divided, by the different degrees of heat attained in them, into 
tepidaria (sudatory air-baths), caldaria (hot baths), andfrigidaria 
(cold baths). Tanks (piscina), or tubs (solium, alveus), occupied 
the centre of the caldaria and frigidaria ; benches and chairs were 
ranged along the walls, or stood in niches ; a flat tub (lafo'um, see 
Fig. 202), placed in a niche on the narrow side of the oblong 
calidarium, was filled with cold water for a plunge after the hot 
bath. In larger, particularly public, baths separate rooms served 
for dressing and undressing (apodyterium), rubbing (destricta- 
rium) and oiling the body (unetorium). In smaller baths, the 
latter process was occasionally gone through in the tepidarium. 
After the end of the Republic, larger establishments used to have 
a separate steam-bath (laconicum) in imitation of the Greek 
TTvpiaTrjpiov. Next to the tepidarium, but separated from it by a 
wall, lay, according to Vitruvius, a small circular building covered 
by a cupola, which received its light through an aperture in the 
centre of the dome. By means of a separate heating-apparatus 
its temperature could be increased to an enormous degree. A 
brass plate (clypeus) was suspended on chains from the dome ; by 
lowering it, or pulling it up, the hot air in the apartment became 
more or less condensed. 

So much about the general arrangements of the bath. We 
now must turn our attention to some of the remains of baths pre- 
served to us. A house at Pompeii shows very simple arrange- 
ments. A small dressing-room (apodyterium), with a chamber 
for a tepid air-bath (tepidarium) and a hot bath (caldarium), may 
still be recognized. A similar arrangement we see in the above- 
mentioned villa suourbana, where to the tepid and hot baths 
(Fig. 393, 9 and 10) is added a court for a cold bath (8). The 
reservoir of the latter, as well as the apparatus for heating the 
water of the hot bath, is still recognizable. 

The same arrangements, although increased in number and 



varied in form, we meet with in the thermae proper, or public 
baths ; as the simplest specimen of such we quote the thermae 
of Veleia. Yeleia, or Velleia, was built in the first century of 
the Christian era by the Yeleiates, a Ligurian tribe dwelling 
previously in villages in the country traversed by the Via ^Emilia, 
not far from the modern Piacenza. Under one of the successors of 
Constantine the town was buried by the fall of a mountain, and 
all knowledge of it was lost till 1747, when the discovery of the 
largest existing bronze inscription, the so-called tabula alimentaria 
of Trajan, near the village of Macinisso, indicated the existence 
of a Roman settlement. In 1760, by command of Don Philip 
of Parma, systematic excavations were begun, which, after five 
years, resulted in the discovery of a moderate provincial town of 
the first centuries of the Empire. Fig. 419 shows the plan of the 

'^..u.lfi J &^™ 



partly-destroyed thermae of Yeleia according to the design of the 
architect Antolini. The facade (1 to 12) contains several en- 
trances. That lying on the extreme right (1) leads into the baths 
for women, consisting of a sort of entrance-hall (2) and of a larger 
apartment for hot baths (4). The smaller room lying between the 
two may have contained the heating-apparatus (hypocaustum). 
On the other side of the vestibule, common to both divisions, lies 
the entrance-hall of the men's baths (3). After it follows the 
bath-room for men (5), separated from that for women by a space 
containing a staircase. The room adjoining it (6) was intended 
for social intercourse ; after it follows the swimming-bath {natatio) 
of the men (7), surrounded by a colonnade. Into this peristylium 
open a narrow apartment (8), in which a mosaic floor has been 



discovered, and a covered passage (crypta, 10). The street (11) 
runs parallel with the latter : on the opposite side of the building 
was also a street, while in front of it seems to have been an open 

More complicated in design and larger in size are the thermae 
excavated at Pompeii in 1824 (see plan, Fig. 420). Like the 
house of Pansa (Fig. 386), they are surrounded by a number of 
shops and lodging-houses, which, however, are unconnected with 
the bathing-establishment. The whole block of houses (insula) 
forms an irregular square bordered on all sides by streets. Here 

*-*+* W J^tm-s 

Fig. 420. 

also, the baths of women and men are separate, and have different 
entrances. The former comprise the rooms K L M N P, the 
entrance being near 0; the latter, the rooms BDEGBL 
Four entrances lead into them from the street on three different 
sides (A A A). The heating-apparatus (F) is common to both 
divisions, and lies between them. The remainder of the area 
(marked in our plan Q, or left blank) is occupied by shops and 
private lodgings belonging to them. 0, as we mentioned before, 


marks the entrance to the women's bath in a projection of the 
wall. To the left of it lies a small apartment furnished with 
benches, undoubtedly a sort of waiting-room. The larger room 
L is generally believed to be an apodyterium ; it also is fitted up 
with stone benches. In the small alcove-like part of it nearest 
the entrance we recognize the frigidarium, with the piscina 
belonging to it, to which latter descend steps {see plan). From 
the apodyterium one enters the tepidarium M), under the floor 
of which, as well as under that of the caldarium (K) adjoining it, 
the suspensurse for the diffusion of the hot air are still recogniz- 
able. In a sort of niche in the latter room we discover the 
labrum, intended for cold ablutions. Near iVis the opening of the 
canal through which the hot air and hot water were conducted 
from the firing-room (F) to the caldarium. Here we see the 
heating- apparatus inclosed in thick walls: it consists of a 
circular furnace, about 8 to 9 feet in diameter, from which the 
hot air was conveyed to the two caldaria for women {K) and 
men (F) by means of canals of brickwork which pass underneath 
the raised floors. We also mention two caldrons in which the 
bathing- water was heated ; they were filled with cold water from 
a quadrangular reservoir lying behind them. The fuel was kept 
in a court, perhaps covered, and connected with F by means of 
narrow passages. 

The rooms for the baths of the men were also grouped round 
this central heating-apparatus, those requiring the greatest heat 
lying nearest to it. The caldarium of the men (F\ lying close to 
the furnace, consists of an oblong apartment, covered with a 
barrel-vault, containing openings to admit the light and let out 
the steam. The slightly raised floor of the centre part lies above 
the suspensurge. On the sides narrow openings were left between 
the stones of the wall and its outer surface to let the hot air pass 
through. On the narrow eastern side of the room lies a large tub 
for hot baths (lavatio calda) ; several steps led up to this tub or 
tank, which is connected with the wall itself. The opposite 
western side, ending in a semicircular niche, contains a detached 
round labrum, for cold ablutions, about eight inches deep, and 
raised above the ground by one metre; a bronze pipe at the 
bottom of it admitted the water. An inscription in bronze letters 
on the border of the tub says that it had been purchased by 



decree of the decuriones for the sum of 5,250 sestertii (about 


A door connects the caldarium with the tepidarmm (Z>), 
smaller in size, but more richly decorated with sculptures and 
paintings: a bronze hearth and three benches of the same 
material have been discovered in this elegant and comfortable 
apartment (Fig. 421). Inscriptions on the seats of the benches 
name M. Mgidius Vaccula as the donor. Parallel with the 
tepidarium, and connected with it by means of a door, we see 
another slightly larger room (B). It also has a barrel-vault, but 

Fig. 421. 

is decorated less richly than the tepidarium. It served as apody- 
terium, and was surrounded by stone benches with a low step in 
front of them. On one of the narrow sides of this room lies a 
small chamber (^4.) belonging to the keeper of the bathers' 
clothes (capsarius from capsa, i. e., cupboard where valuables are 
kept). On the opposite side the apodyterium is adjoined by a 
round room (rotatio, G), covered W T ith a cupola, in which 
room a round marble basin served for cold baths, and which may 
therefore be described as f rigidarium. A small aperture in the 
conical ceiling admitted the light, while the tepidarium was 


lighted by means of a window closed with one pane of ground 
glass. In accordance with its destination, the tepidarium was 
connected with the street (A) by means of a narrow corridor. In 
the wall opposite the opening of this corridor,- by the side of the 
entrance to the frigidarium, lies the door of another narrow cor- 
ridor leading to an open court (II). This court, accessible from 
the street by two other entrances (A A\ resembles a peristylium, 
two of its sides being occupied by covered Doric colonnades, 
while on a third lies a vaulted hall, cryptoporticus, receiving its 
light from several large windows. One of the colonnades is ad- 
joined by a hall (I, exedra), serving for purposes of conversation 
and amusement. The court itself was used for gymnastic exer- 
cise and walks, whence its name ambulatio. It was particularly 
adapted to advertising purposes, whence the numerous inscrip- 
tions on the walls, most of which, however, are no longer legible. 
Here has been found a box, in which, most likely, the entrance- 
fees were collected by the janitor. 

Much larger than those just described are the so-called " new 
thermae " at Pompeii, the excavation of which was finished in 1860. 
Here all the walls are covered with rich paintings ; the upper rooms, 
moreover, are larger in size, and several new accommodations have 
been added. Among these, we principally count an uncovered 
marble swimming-bath (natatio ; compare Fig. 419, 7), 16.5 by 8 
metres in size, opening with its full width toward the palaestra. 

The thermae of Pompeii were naturally surpassed by those of 
Pome ; nevertheless, they are to us of almost greater importance 
than the latter, owing to their better state of preservation. The 
dimensions and splendor of the Poman thermae may, for instance, 
be seen from the fact that the Pantheon itself, one of the grandest 
monuments of Poman architecture, formed only a small portion 
of the thermae built by M. Agrippa. In later imperial times, 
even this splendor was surpassed ; Seneca already mentions the 
coating of the walls with the most valuable kinds of marble, the 
introduction of silver mouth-pieces for the water-pipes, and the 
placing of numbers of columns and statues in the public baths — 
a statement which is confirmed by the fragments of beautiful 
statues found among the ruins of thermae ; an ancient author 
justly compares their extensive grounds to whole provinces. 

Fig. 422 shows the plan of the thermae of Caracalla, designed 



by Cameron. His design, however, only represents the chief 
building: an enormous court with which the Emperor Decius 
afterward surrounded it has been omitted; but, even without 
this addition, the thermse finished by Caracalla in the fourth year 
of his reign (a.d. 217) must be considered as the most magnifi- 
cent Koman structure of the kind. The walls and part of the 
vaults are well preserved ; the latter are made of porous tufa, 
lighter than the common one, which adds to the boldness of their 
design. This applies particularly to the magnificent entrance- 
hall, a rotunda (A) with eight niches, similar in design to the 
Pantheon, which it almost equals in size, its diameter being 111 

Fig. 422. 

feet. The vault is not, as in the Pantheon, spherical, but sur- 
prisingly flat in design, and has, for that reason, been compared 
by the ancients with a sole, whence the name of the structure 
cella solearis. The architects of the time of Constantine ex- 
plained the possibility of this kind of vaulting by presuming 
that metal sticks were placed in the interior to support the ceil- 
ing ; Hirt, however, thinks that the lightness of the material is 
sufficient to account for the difficulty. After having passed 
through the cella solearis one entered the apodyterium (B\ be- 
hind which lay the chief hall — the ephebeum (C) (compare the 



gymnasium of Ephesos, Fig. 154, C\ by Roman authors also 
called xystus. Eight colossal granite columns, one of which now 
stands in the square S. Trinita in Florence, carried the intersect- 
ing- vaults of the ceiling (see view of the interior, Fig. 423) ; the 
length of the whole room was 179 feet. Adjoining the two nar- 
row sides of the ephebeum, and separated from it by columns 
only, lay smaller rooms (Q Q) destined for spectators or wres- 
tlers ; exedroe resembling niches (Z Z Z Z) lay on the longer sides 
of the hall. We next come to another hall (D) of equal length, 
in which lay the swimming-bath (piscina) ; this room also was 

Fig. 423. 

adjoined by niches (Z Z) and other apartments for the spectators 
(E E). The rooms hitherto mentioned formed the chief part of 
the building, distinguished from the other divisions by its greater 
height. The destination of these latter lying to both sides of the 
centre structure cannot always be determined with certainty. 
According to Cameron, F marks vestibules or libraries; G, the 
dressing-rooms for the wrestlers, near which the remains of stair- 
cases to the upper stories have been found. He further mentions 
peristylia with swimming-baths (H\ rooms for practising (/), 
elseothesia (K), with konisteria (Y) adjoining them ; also vesti- 
bules (X), above which rooms with mosaic pavements have been 


discovered. M, iT, 0, P, respectively marked the laconicum, 
caldarium, tepidarium, and frigidarium ; B indicates larger rooms 
(exedrce) for conversation. Fig. 423 shows the interior of the 
chief hall (G) in its original condition, for the reconstructive de- 
sign of which the analogous hall of the thermae- of Diocletian, 
preserved in the church S. Maria degli Angeli, has been of con- 
siderable assistance. Other reconstructive designs of the whole 
building may be found in the comprehensive work, " Les Ther- 
mes de Caracalla," by the French architect, Abel Blouet. 

81. The enormous development of their political power natu- 
rally reacted on the architecture of the Komans ; its tasks were 
greater and more varied than those of Greek architecture. With 
the extension of the empire, the number of officials in the central 
seat of government increased proportionately, for whose accom- 
modation large public buildings were required. Other buildings 
served to supply the demands of the more extensive and varied 
judicial and commercial developments of the people, while fur- 
ther structures were required to satisfy the craving of the popu- 
lace for pageantry and theatrical splendor. Hence the number 
of basilicas (both for judicial and commercial purposes), of colon- 
nades (for social intercourse), of forums and theatres ; hence, also, 
the enormous extension of the circus to accommodate the cruel 
populace of the metropolis : the amphitheatre of Vespasian may ? 
in a manner, be considered as the embodiment of the power and 
splendor of the empire. The same phenomena, though on a 
smaller scale, we see repeated in the provincial towns in propor- 
tion to their growing wealth and independence. 

The remains of political buildings of the time of the repub- 
lic are scarce ; republican Rome soon became transformed into 
imperial Rome, the different phases of which latter are illus- 
trated by numerous monuments. Our knowledge of the official 
buildings of republican magistrates is, to a great extent, conject- 
ural ; sometimes their meetings may have taken place in certain 
parts of the Forum or in temples. About the meeting-place 
of the senate, generically called curia, we know little — neither 
as regards the curia HosUUa belonging to the times of the kings 
nor the curia Julia instituted by Caesar, nor, indeed, those other 
curiae called by the names of Marcellus, Pompey, etc. Most like- 
ly they were roomy, oblong halls of some kind, which view is 


supported by the fact that the cellse of the temples, where the sit- 
tings of the senate frequently took place, show the same form. 
Of particular importance, in this respect, are the remains of the 
temple of Concordia in the Forum Romanum, already described 
by us {see Fig. 334) : it was here that Cicero delivered his fourth 
oration against Catilina and several of his Philippics ; here also 
the condemnation to death of ^Elius Seianus, the notorious favor- 
ite of Tiberius, was pronounced by the senate. 

The meeting-place of the quaestors also was a temple, viz., 
that of Saturn, of which eight columns on a high base are still 
preserved in the Forum. Here the treasure of the state (mrari- 
um\ with the documents belonging to it, as also the standards of 
the army, were kept. The tablets of the law and other political 
documents {tabulae) were kept in the so-called Tabularium or 
archive. This building, lately investigated, rests on a large sub- 
structure, seventy-one metres in length, which seemingly adds to 
the firmness of the Capitoline Hill on the side of the Forum. It 
lies immediately above the just-mentioned temple of Concordia 
(compare Fig. 428, E F G H). One wall of the Tabularium, and 
a row of arcades erected on it, are still in existence {see Fig. 334, 
a). The arcades rest on strong separate pillars of freestone, 
adorned, toward the Forum, with Doric semi-columns. Above 
them rises the ci Palazzo del Senatore," built in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and supposed to occupy the site of the Tabularium, which, 
therefore, must have been of considerable dimensions. Accord- 
ing to an inscription, both the substructure and the Tabularium 
itself were built by Q. Lutatius Catulus (b. o. 78). Under Nero 
the Capitol and the archives were destroyed by fire. Yespasian 
undertook the new building. According to Suetonius (Yespas. 
8), " the emperor restored 3,000 bronze tablets melted by the fire 
after having searched for copies of their contents, the finest and 
oldest collection of documents {instrumentum) of the empire, in 
which, since the foundation of the city, all the decrees of the sen- 
ate, and the plebiscites with regard to the right of confederation, 
and the privileges granted to each community, were kept." 

The censors had their office in the so-called atrium libertatis 
— to judge by its name, a building of some religious character 
(compare what has been said about the atrium in § 74). The prae- 
tors performed their judicial function at first in " tribunals " (i. e., 



square raised substructures standing in the Forum), afterward in 
basilicas. Before describing the latter most developed form of 
Koman architecture we must mention a few smaller buildings as 
examples of simple meeting-places of municipal officials and 

We are alluding to three buildings in the immediate vicinity 
of the forum of Pompeii {see their plans, Fig. 424). They con- 
sist of three halls (9 to 10 metres broad by 16 to 18 long) of sim- 
plest design. The entrances lie on the narrow side toward the 
forum, separated, from the latter by a double colonnade. On the 
side opposite the entrances there are niches, destined evidently to 
receive the seats of the functionaries. In a this niche (tribunal) 
is semicircular in form; in b it is smaller, and appears termi- 

nated by two parallel walls to which a flattened segment has 
been affixed ; in c we see a further square indenture in the cen- 
tre of the wall of the otherwise semicircular niche. Every 
thing indicates that these buildings were used for the meet- 
ings of some board, and not as temples or treasure-houses, as 
has been conjectured. 

The destination of another building in the forum of Pompeii 
as the meeting-house or senaculum of the decurions can be deter- 
mined with more certainty.- It consists of a large square hall (20 
by 18 metres), to the back of which is added a semicircular apse 
11 metres wide (at the opening) by 6.50 deep. In the background 
of this apse is situated a broad dais for the seats of the presiding 
magistrates. These and similar buildings may be safely classed as 


curice, a name which was generically applied to council-houses 
of magistrates : a building, for instance, devoted to Mars, where 
the priestly college of the Salii held their meetings, was called a 

Still more often occurs the name of basilica, a kind of struct- 
ure frequently described by antique authors, and, moreover, suf- 
ciently illustrated by the remaining specimens. The name was 
derived from the kingly hall (a-roa /3a<rtkeio<; ) at Athens, where 
the archon basileus sat in judgment. This derivation is con- 
firmed by the fact that the first basilica was erected at a period 
when the influence of Greek on Roman architecture had already 
become powerful. When, during the consulate of Q. Fabius 
Maximus and M. Marcellus (b. o. 214), a fire destroyed part of the 
Forum, no basilica was in existence : a fact which Livy (xxvi., 
27) thinks it necessary to tell his contemporaries, to whom the 
ideas of forum and basilica had become inseparable. About thir 
ty years after this event M. Porcius Cato, while censor (b. o. 184), 
erected the first basilica at public expense, after having purchased 
two plots of ground in the Latomia, besides four shops, for the 
site of the building. The latter lay beside the curia in the Forum, 
of which it was in a manner a continuation, being destined for 
commercial and judicial purposes. For which of these two pur- 
poses Cato intended the building, called by himself Basilica Por- 
cia, is difficult to decide, seeing that written testimony is wanting, 
and that the building itself has been totally destroyed during the 
riots of Clodius. Yitruvius (Arch., v., 1) seems to think only 
of commercial convenience. " Basilicas," he says, " ought to be 
built in the warmest quarters of the market-places, in order that, 
in winter, the merchants assembling there may not be inconven- 
ienced by bad weather." In his description, on the other hand, 
of the basilica built by himself at Fanestrum (the modern Fano), 
he mentions the " tribunal," which he calls " hemicyclium ; " but 
says that the curve was not a complete semicircle, its depth being 
15 feet by 46 wide, " in order," he adds, " that those who stand 
near the magistrates may not be disturbed by those doing busi- 
ness in the basilica." ■ The twofold use of the basilica appears 

1 The first passage (edition of Rose and Muller-Striibing) reads, Ut per hiemem 
sine molestia tempestatium se conferre in eas negotiatores possint ; the second, Uii qui 
apud magistratus starenl negotiantes in basilica ne impedirent : according to this 
version, here also the commercial interest is put in the foreground. 



sufficiently from these two passages. With regard to the construc- 
tion of such buildings Vitruvius adds the following rules : " Their 
width must not be less than one-third, and not more than one- 
half, of their length, providing the nature of the locality does not 
necessitate different proportions. If the site is of considerable 
length, chalcidica ought to be added at both ends of the building." 
The latter seem to have been halls added to the narrow sides of 
the basilica, in order to make use of the whole space at disposal. 
The basilica is divided lengthwise into three parts, the two at the 
sides being called portions ; their width is to be equal to one-third 
of that of the centre space ; the height of the columns is to be 
equal to this width ; above the first porticus lies a second, with 
columns lower by one-quarter than the bottom ones; between 
these lies a high parapet. From the further description of the 
basilica of Fanestrum, it appears that all the rooms were covered. 
All these rules, however, must be taken in a general sense only ; 

individual buildings frequently de- 
viate from them. One class of ex- 
ceptions are, for instance, the basili- 
cas with one instead of three naves ; 
other basilicas occurring at an ear- 
ly period had as many as five 
naves. Of such with one nave, 
and therefore without porticus, we 
mention the remains of a basilica 
at Aquino (the old Aquinum in 
Latium), where the walls of the 
+*■**• tribunal built of freestone are 
still recognizable ; also that at Pa- 
lestrina (the old Prseneste), where the " hemicyclical " tribunal, 
with a " chalcidicum," has been preserved. The design of the 
three tribunals in the forum of Pompeii is, in a more or less 
modified way, repeated in most of these buildings ; this is, for 
instance, the case in a basilica at Palmyra, consisting of an ob- 
long hall, to one of the narrow sides of which a perfectly semi- 
circular niche has been added, while the opposite side shows 
an entrance-portico of four columns. To the other sides of the 
building wings have been added, which, however, are inclosed 
by detached columns instead of walls. Each of these wings 

Fig. 425. 



contains twenty columns arranged in five rows of four columns 
each ; they were covered with roofs, and thus formed convenient 
places of meeting for the merchants whose disputes were decided 
in the interior of the building. 

We also possess several specimens of basilicas with three 
naves; one of them was discovered near the modern Otricoli, 
in 1/T75. It has been recognized as the basilica of the Roman 
municvpium of Ocriculum, one of the larger towns of Umbria, 
situated on the Yia Flaminia (Fig. 425). The shape of the 
basilica considerably differs from Yitruvius's rule, forming an all 
but perfect square. It is divided by two rows of columns (three 
in number) into three naves, the centre one of which is the widest. 
To this has been added a semicircular tribunal, up to which lead 

Fig. 426. 

steps. On the floor of the first a second dais seems to have been 
raised. On both sides of the hemicyclium lie two small quad- 
rangular chambers, accessible also from the two side-naves, besides 
being connected with the niche of the tribunal. A narrow 
passage (cryptoporticus) surrounds the space on three sides. Of 
other basilicas with three naves, we mention the church of Alba 
on the Fucine Lake, and a basilica at Treves (233 by 88 feet) ; as 
also the so-called " Temple of Peace " in Eome, lying between the 
Coliseum and the temple of Yenus and Eoma. It was begun by 
Maxentius, and finished by Constantine ; its ruins are among the 
most splendid of Eome. Four enormous piers divided the inner 
space into a wide centre and two narrower side-naves, the former 
being covered with an intersected vault, the two latter with barrel- 


vaults. Two apses were reserved for the seats of the judges. 
The form of the principal hall in the thermae of Caracalla (Fig. 
423) is exactly like that of the present building, but for the ab- 
sence of a tribunal in the former. 

Fig. 426 (scale 36 feet) illustrates the basilica with three 
naves at Pompeii, from which we are able to derive a distinct 
idea of the arrangement of such buildings. With its narrow side 
it touched the forum, the colonnade of which hid the front of 
the basilica, a in our plan marks a small fore-hall, most likely 
a chalcidicum. On four steps of the same width as the building 
we ascend the basilica proper — an oblong edifice with five doors, 
surrounded on all four sides by a colonnade (portions, b b,fg), 
by means of which the whole is divided lengthwise into three 
naves. These columns were of the Ionic order. Thinner pilas- 
ters, of Korintho-Eoman order, were let into the walls, which 
latter most likely contained windows, seeing that in all probability 
the centre space (c) also had a roof to it. The quadrangular tri- 
bunal (e) is raised several feet above the ground, and is adorned 
in front with a row of smaller Korinthian columns. From two 
chambers stairs led up to this seat of the judges ; another staircase 
led into the vaulted chamber under the tribunal, which received 
its light from an opening in the floor of the tribunal, not to men- 
tion several small side-openings. This chamber was most likely 
a temporary prison. The ruins show traces of rich mural deco- 
rations all over the building ; the pavement consisted of marble. 
Near d a pedestal has been discovered, which, to judge by some 
sculptural fragments, carried an equestrian statue. According to 
Mazois, the three naves were of nearly equal height, the centre 
one only being raised a little. The entire length of the basilica 
was 67 metres, by a width of 27.35 metres. The staircase (h) in 
our plan is not connected with the basilica ; it leads up to the 
roof of the colonnade surrounding the forum. 

Of basilicas with ^ve naves we mention the Basilica Julia, 
built by Caesar for the centumviral courts of justice in the Forum, 
between the temple of the Dioscuri and that of Saturn. Accord- 
ing to the latest excavations, it was a large building surrounded 
by a double porticus, and divided by four rows of strong traver- 
tine stone pillars into five naves. The pavement consists of gray, 
reddish, and yellow slabs of marble, which are in an excellent 



state of preservation. The building (some arches of which were 
still in existence in 1849) was so large that four judges could sit 
in its different parts simultaneously. Fig. 427 shows the plan 
of the Basilica Ulpia, built by Trajan as part of the splendid 
decoration of his forum. A fragment of the antique plan of 
Kome, 1 frequently mentioned by us, distinctly shows the five 
naves, and even the large niche of the tribunal. The covering of 
the building with beams of bronze is mentioned with admiration 
by ancient writers. 

82. About the places where public meetings were held in 
republican times we know but little. In most cases open spaces 


|, | f | » , | . | '.| . . j.: j » | . 1 '.. M ■ 1*1 B C 

1*1 l» l 1*1 1* 1 1 .1 | j | ■*. 1 .' ,.: j 1.: ;.'. . ■ 

l »i 1 *1 1 *1 t 1*1 l» 1*1 1*1 » 1 *1 1*1 1*1 1 * 1 1*1 www 

it ji i.i m m m <*■ ■ ■ ■ »rnw ■ 

j pifififii ■ ■ | pfftfta 


Ml!! 80 P 

<tC *a 

Fig. 427. 

withont much monumental decoration served the purpose. Only 
the curios, i. e., the divisions of the people according to old tribal 
traditions, form an exception to this rule. The buildings where 
they met, originally situated in the old parts of the town, were 
for the greater part afterward transferred to the more modern 
quarters, whence the distinction between curice veteres and curies 
novce. The importance of the curia as a tribal community, 
although to a great extent divested of its political character, re- 
mained unaltered. Their original places of meeting were un- 
doubtedly of the simplest construction, the curise of later date, 
mentioned in § 81, being most likely fashioned after their model. 

1 This plan, engraved on slabs of marble, represents Rome under Septimius Severus 
and Caracalla. Fragments of it were found, under Pope Pius IV., behind the church 
of SS. Cosmo e Damiano, and deposited by Benedict XIV. in the Capitoline Museum 
founded by him. According to Canina, the scale of the plan, barring some inaccura- 
cies, was 1 : 250. 


They were connected with sanctuaries {sacelld) of Juno Quiritis, 
the protecting goddess of the old tribal unions. They were 
destined for deliberations and sacrificial acts under the presidency 
of the curio, as also for common meals of the members (curiales). 
The comitia, on the other hand, were the places of meeting of 
the whole sovereign people ; the name was applied both to the 
assemblies themselves and to the place in the upper part of the 
Forum Romanum where they were held (see Fig. 428, R). The 
meetings were held in the open air till 208 b. c. (546 of the city), 
in which year, on the occasion of a census (which fixed the num- 
ber of citizens at 137,108), the comitium was for the first time 
(see Livy, xxvii., 36) covered — most likely with canvas, in the 
manner of the theatres and amphitheatres. 

The comitia tributa and comitia centuriata were frequently 
held in the Campus Martius, where for that purpose certain places 
called sheep-pens (ovile) were fenced in ; later they were called 
septa, or lists. They were made of wood till Julius Caesar erected 
splendid marble ones (septa marmorea, septa Julia). About 
their form nothing is known, beyond what appears from the old 
plan of Rome, and various, coins relating to them ; the space in 
the interior must have been very large, seeing that at a later date 
fights of gladiators and naval battles took place in it. They were 
completed by Agrippa, destroyed by fire under Titus, and after- 
ward restored by Hadrian. In the same Campus Martius, most 
likely connected with the septa, lay the diribitorium, a splendid 
building, used for counting, perhaps also for giving, votes ; of its 
original roof, a beam 100 feet long used to be shown in the septa 
as a curiosity. 

"We have to add a few remarks about the market-places (ford), 
in which many of the public buildings mentioned by us were 
situated. Their importance for political life was still greater 
among the Romans than among the Greeks (compare § 26). 
Particularly the Forum Romanum appears like the heart of the 
body politic. In the course of centuries it was adorned with 
numerous structures of both historic and artistic importance. 
Fig. 428 shows the plan of the Forum Romanum in accordance 
with the latest investigations by Reber and Detlefsen ; we 
shall, in the following remarks, attempt to convey to the reader . 
an idea of what the Forum was during the first centuries of 


the empire. Upon a discussion of controverted minor points we 
cannot enter. 

The Forum (A) occupies the valley to the northwest of the 
ridge of mountains connecting the two Capitoline hills (S S) ; to 
the southeast it extends as far as the Yelia, a part of the 
Palatine (T). Its shape is an irregular oblong, the southwestern 
long side of which is determined by the recently-discovered an- 
tique pavement of the Yia Sacra and several buildings touching 
it. The northeastern side is still covered by a mass of rubbish 
(30 feet deep), on which later structures have been erected. The 
antique buildings formerly situated there are for that reason 
indicated in our plan by dotted lines, with the exception only of 
the Mamertine prison and the temple of Faustina. Of the two 
narrow sides, that lying toward the slope of the Capitoline hills 
has been determined by the discovery of the substructures of 
several temples, identifiable both by their inscriptions and by the 
testimony of ancient authors ; the opposite side (at a distance of 
570 feet) can be distinguished from the vicinity of the Rostra 
Julia (W) ; the arch of the Fabii, formerly standing there, has, 
on the other hand, entirely disappeared. We first enumerate the 
buildings bounding the southwestern side of the Forum, also 
called sub veteribus so. tabemis. According to antique authors, 
the Atrium of Yesta (Q) lay at the foot of the Palatine (T) ; its 
exact situation can no more be determined. By the side of it 
rose the temple of Castor and Pollux, of which three Korinthian 
columns, connected by a richly-ornamented architrave, are still 
standing erect. It was devoted to the memory of the victory 
near the Regillus Lake (b. c. 485), but was most likely burnt down 
together with the Basilica Julia in its vicinity. Tiberius rebuilt 
it a. d. 6. The excavations, begun in October, 1871, have already 
laid open three sides of the building, the pavement of which lies 
10 metres below the surface of the modern street. The above- 
mentioned Basilica Julia (C) was separated from this building 
only by a street; its substructure has been laid open in its full 
length. After it follows the temple of Saturn, the cerarium or 
public treasury (D), eight granite columns of which (six belong- 
ing to the frontage, the two others to the two long sides), with 
the architrave resting on them, are still in existence. The first 
erection of this temple dates back to early republican times ; it 





was, however, restored repeatedly, for the last time in bad style, 
under one of the later emperors. 

The northwestern side of the Forum was bounded by four 
buildings, viz., the porticus of the Dii Consentes (E), the temple 
of Vespasian (F, formerly called temple of Jupiter Tonans), the 
temple of Concordia (H, see also Fig. 334), and, towering above 
them all, the Tabularium (G) already mentioned. The porticus 
of the advice-giving gods (Dii Consentes), or twelve chief Eoman 
deities, has been partly restored in modern times with the aid of 
excavated fragments of antique columns and architraves. The 
statues of the gods stood, most likely, in front of, or between, the 
columns. Of the temple built by Yespasian in honor of Domi- 
tian (a prostylos hexastylos), three Korinthian columns with their 
beams are still standing. 

Our knowledge of the buildings on the northeast side of the 
Forum is to a great extent conjectural. Only the two corners 
are distinctly marked by the ruins of the Mamertine prison (I) 
and those of the temple of Antoninus and Faustina (P). The 
foundations of the intervening buildings, viz., the Curia Hostilia 
(M ; the senate-house till b. c. 55, when it was destroyed by fire), 
the Curia Julia built by Augustus (N), and the Basilica JEmilia 
et Paulli (O), have been built over at a later date. The Mamer- 
tine prison lies underneath the church S. G-uiseppe de' Falegnami 
and the chapel S. Pietro in Carcere, from which a modern stair- 
case leads down to the uppermost of the two subterraneous cham- 
bers (according to tradition the prison of the Apostles Peter 
and Paul). From here another staircase descends to the lower 
chamber, under which lies the co-called Tullianum (from the old 
Latin word tullii, which, according to Festus, means " fountain- 
vault"), in which Jugurtha, Sejanus, and others, found their 
death. ISTo trace remains of the notorious staircase leading 
from the prison to the Forum, on which the corpses of the exe- 
cuted were exhibited, and on which the Emperor Yitellius was 
killed. In comparatively the best state of preservation is the 
temple of Antoninus and Faustina (P), a prostylos hexastylos, 
inside of which the church S. Lorenzo in Miranda has been 

The upper part of the space surrounded by these buildings 
was, in republican ' times, occupied by the comitium (K) ; the 


lower part formed the Forum proper. The two divisions were 
of about equal size : on the northeast side stood the old tribune 
for the orators, the rostra Vetera (Y), protected from the populace 
thronging the Forum by a semicircular balustrade ; behind it lay 
the above-mentioned Curia Hostilia and the older Grsecostasis, an 
uncovered terrace (locus substructus) surrounded by a balustrade, 
where foreign embassadors waited for the decision of the curia. 
After Ceesar's time the rostra was transferred to the lower Forum, 
where it existed during the first two centuries of the empire un- 
der the name of Kostra Julia (W). After the downfall of the 
republic, the comitium and the whole republican arrangements of 
the Forum lost their political significance ; new buildings were 
erected, the old ones remodeled. Septimius Severus at last (203 
a. d.) built a triumphal arch (K), of Pentelic marble, on the north- 
west side of the Forum, and at the same time transferred the Yia 
Sacra (which previously ran along the older booths — sub veteribus 
— on the southwest side of the Forum) to the opposite side, di- 
recting it straight toward the triumphal arch ; behind the latter 
the road most likely turned westward in a curve (marked by a 
bent arrow), joining the old Yia Sacra at the foot of the Clivus 
Capitolinus. Near the arch of Severus lies, at present, a terrace 
(U), slightly curved toward the Forum, and showing the remains 
of a marble balustrade ; a brick base in the corner nearest the arch 
of Severus is believed to be a remnant of the milliarium aureum, 
built by Augustus, i. e., the central mile-stone, and at once the 
centre (umbilicus) of the Roman Empire. The terrace itself is, 
by some modern archaeologists, believed to be the Rostra Capito- 
lina of imperial times ; others call it Grsecostasis. 

Yitruvius (v., 1), in his rules for the building of regularly- 
planned fora, says that their shape ought to be oblong, instead of 
showing the square form of the older Greek agora ; the reason 
for this modification being the public games (combats of gladia- 
tors) whieh, according to old Italian custom, were held in them. 
For this purpose the oblong form seems to have been the more 
convenient one. In order not to obstruct the view of the specta- 
tors, the columns of the surrounding colonnades ought to stand at 
considerable distances from each other. Inside these colonnades 
shops (tabemcB argentarice, i. e., money-changers' offices) ought 
to be built, with a second story above them. The width of the 



forum ought to be equal to two-thirds of its length. The latter 
rule is strictly followed in the forum of the Ligurian town of 
Yeleia, formerly mentioned by us (see Fig. 429, from Antolini's 
design). The open space (1) is 150 Roman palms long by 100 
wide ; it is surrounded on three sides by colonnades (14), the sin- 
gle Doric columns of which are ranged at considerable distances 
from each other. In the open space several pieces of solid ma- 
sonry (2), most likely the remains of decorative monuments, have 
been discovered. A still-existing canal surrounded the whole 
area in order to drain off the water ; a stripe of marble (marked 
in our plan by thinner lines), with a bronze inscription on it» 

Fig. 429. 


lay right across the forum : according to the inscription, L. Lu- 
cilius Priscus had the Forum paved with stone slabs (laminis 
stravit) at his expense. A temple (3) occupies the centre of the 
side on which one enters the square, the entrance being through 
small passages leading past the temple, not unlike the fauces of 
private houses. 1 To right and left of the temple lie two good- 
sized rooms, one of them (4, 6) believed to be the dwelling of the 
priest, the other (5) a meeting-hall (comitium) reserved for the 
deliberations of religious communities. On entering the forum 
through the temple or the fauces, one sees to the left a row of 

1 The temple itself has been mentioned by us (§ 
of an amphiprostvlos. 

as one of the rare examples 


shops (9), opening into the surrounding colonnades ; 10, on the 
same side, marks another entrance, through which one ascends the 
forum by means of steps ; 7 and 8 have been explained as prisons. 
Opposite the temple lies a large building, generally called a basil- 
ica (10), with chalcidica (11) on both sides ; it bounds the area in 
its full width. 13 is supposed to be another larger and detached 
chalcidicum : an inscription found there says that Bsebia Basilla 
presented a chalcidicum to her fellow-citizens. The space be- 
tween this chalcidicum and the supposed dwelling of the priest is 
generally considered as the site of the aerarjum. In this Forum 
was undoubtedly kept the large inscription, the finding of which 
led to the rediscovery of Yeleia itself : it is written on a plate of 
bronze 8 feet 8 inches long by 4 feet 4 inches high, and is be- 
lieved to be the largest inscription on metal in existence ; it is 
known by the name of tabula alimentayria, because it contains the 
regulations of Trajan for the keeping of the orphans and other 
poor children of the town, the number provided for being 246 
boys (pueri alimenta/rii) and 35 girls (puelloe alimentarice). Be- 
sides a separate fund for 19 other children, a sum of 1,044,000 
sestertii (about £11,344) was mortgaged on houses and land in Ye- 
leia, the interest of which at 5 per cent, was divided among the 

Much more splendid than the Forum of Yeleia was that of 
Pompeii : the remains of the buildings surrounding it seem to 
indicate a uniform architectural design. Including the colon- 
nades in front of the curee its length is 160 metres, its medium 
width from north to south 42 metres. An uninterrupted colon- 
nade surrounds the Forum on the western long side, the southern 
narrow side, and part of the eastern long side. On the remaining 
sides the colonnade is interrupted in several points. The con- 
tinued colonnades carried (in accordance with Yitruvius's precept) 
a second story, the former existence of which is proved by the 
preserved: staircase leading up to it. On the north side stands 
the temple of Jupiter, already described (see Figs. 332 and 338) ; 
to both sides of it lie two gates, that on the right being, to judge 
by its remnants, a triumphal gate. It was, at the same time, the 
chief entrance to the Forum. On the eastern long side, to the 
left of the triumphal arch, lie the so-called Pantheon, with the 
money-changers' shops (tabemce argentarice) in front of it, the 


curia of the decuriones, the small so-called temple of Mercury or 
Quirinus, the chalcidicum of Eumachia, and, separated from these 
by a street, another edifice, perhaps a public school. On the 
south side (adorned with a double colonnade), opposite the temple 
of Jupiter, lie the council-houses (shown in Fig. 424) ; on the 
west side the basilica (see Fig. 426) and the so-called temple of 
Yenus, the long side of which latter, with its splendid colonnade, 
is turned toward the Forum, but is accessible from it only by a 
gate, the chief entrance to the temple lying in a street leading to 
the Forum. By the side of the last-mentioned gate, in a niche, 
stands an interesting monument, viz., the gauging-stone, consisting 
of two tables, one on the top of the other, into the slabs of which 
the normal measures have been inserted. The original is at pres- 
ent in the Museum of Naples, being supplied at Pompeii by a 
rough imitation. On the same side of the Forum and opening on 
to it lies also a large hall (10 metres deep by 34 wide), considered 
by some as a picture-gallery (stoa jpoekile) ; by Overbeck, with 
better reason, as a public room for conversation. 

Hitherto we have considered only the fora reserved for civic 
intercourse (fora civilia), from which mercantile pursuits (barring 
the shops of the money-changers) were excluded. Market-places 
for the latter purposes (fora venalia) also occur in Rome and other 
towns, as, for instance, markets for vegetables (forum olitorium\ 
oxen (f. boarium), pigs (f. suarium), fish (f. piscarium), meat and 
vegetables conjointly (f. macellum), etc. In Rome itself there 
were, besides the Forum Romanum, several other fora civilia, 
originated by the increasing number of citizens and by the desire 
on the part of the emperors to gain popularity by the erection of 
splendid structures for common use. Whole blocks of houses had 
frequently to be bought and leveled for the purpose. The Forum 
of Julius Caesar, surrounded by double colonnades and adorned 
with the splendid temple of Yenus Genitrix, has almost entirely 
disappeared. We mention besides the fora of Augustus, Yespa- 
pasian, Nerva (also called Forum Transitm^ium or Palladium), 
and of Trajan, the last of which surpassed all the others in size and 
splendor. All these fora lay grouped together on the north side 
of the Forum Romanum, of which they were in a manner a 
splendid continuation. 

83. Our remarks about the buildings for public games and 



Fig. 480. 

similar enjoyments, so important for 
Roman life, and so fully illustrated by 
the remaining specimens, can be couched 
in few words. What we have said about 
the Greek hippodrome (§ 28), stadion 
(§ 29), and theatre (§ 30), applies to a 
prevailing extent also to the Roman cir- 
cus and theatre. Peculiar to the latter 
nation is only the amphitheatre ; but here 
also the architectural principles of the 
Greek theatre in conjunction with those of 
the stadion and hippodrome may be recog- 
nized. About the games of the circus iludi 
circenses), the theatrical representations, 
and the fights of the gladiators, we shall 
have to speak at greater length hereafter. 
Fig. 430 shows the plan of a circus or 
race-course discovered, in 1823, among the 
ruins of the old Bovillse, a small town in 
Latium lying on the Yia Appia, at the 
foot of the Albanian Mountains. It is 
comparatively small, much smaller, for 
instance, than the race-courses in Rome. 
The foundations are of simple construc- 
tion, and show a very moderate use of the 
vault, generally one of the grandest and 
most characteristic features of similar 
structures. On the other hand, it is 
more than usually well-preserved, partic- 
ularly that part of it where the race 
began; it resembles the hippaphesis of 
the hippodrome of Olympia, and is one 
of the most essential features of the 
whole arrangement. We are speaking of 
the compartments for the single chariots 
(carceres), being placed in a line at once 
curved and oblique, in order to produce 
equal distance from the point where 
the real race began (see plan, Fig. 



430). The number of these carceres, in the middle of which 
lay the entrance-portal, was twelve : on the two sides are tower- 
like buildings (qppida), occurring also in other race-courses. In 
one of these towers we discover steps leading to the seats on 
the roofs of the carceres. In the middle of the course lies the 
spina (a raised line), with the metw (goals) at both ends ; round 
these the chariots had to race a certain number of times. In the 
centre of the semicircular curve of the course, opposite the car- 
ceres, lies the triumphal gate (porta triumphalis) through which 
the victor left the circus. 

Fig. 431. 

The same arrangements, on a large scale, we find repeated in 
the numerous race-courses of Rome itself. We mention only the 
Circus Maxim us, lying in the broad valley between the Palatine 
and Aventine hills. This circus (afterward, in comparison to oth- 
er smaller ones, called "the largest") is said to have been built 
by King Tarquinius Priscus, who also arranged the seats of the 
people, according to their division, into thirty curiae. In Tar- 
quinius Superbus's time already the circus was enlarged and the 
seats rearranged, which process of enlargement and embellish- 
ment was, in the course of a thousand years, repeated frequently, 
the last restorer being Constantine or his son Constantius. The 


additions consisted of massive buildings in several stories, by 
means of which the number of seats was gradually increased from 
150,000 to 260,000, according to a later account even to 383,000 ? 
The circus has entirely disappeared, the regulated formation of the 
sides of the valley being the only trace of its existence. Fig. 431 
shows its original aspect ; we there see the raised substructure 
{podium) and the different stories of the spectators' seats {mmni- 
ana), overlooked on the left by the imperial palaces, also the spina 
with its manifold decorations (the goals, several sanctuaries, an 
obelisk, etc.), and the porta triumphalis. 

The stadia, of which there was a considerable number in Eome, 
exactly resemble those of the Greeks. 

84. "After the market-place has been designed," Yitruvius 
continues (v., 3, et seq.), tC a very healthy spot must be chosen for 
the theatre, where the people can witness the dramas on the feast- 
days of the immortal gods." Unless a natural rising of the ground 
had been made use of, as was mostly the case in Greece, founda- 
tions and substructures had to be built. "On this basement 
marble or stone steps {gradationes) must be raised." The latter 
remark refers to the place for the spectators, which, in analogy to 
the koTKov {see § 30), was called cavea (hollow). Part of it was 
the orchestra, which was not, as in Greek theatres, used for the 
performance, but contained seats for the spectators. The seats 
were, as in the Greek theatre, interrupted by parallel passages 
{prceeinetiones — Bia^cofiara), the name of the several divisions 
being mceniana. 

" The number of the prgecinctiones," Yitruvius continues, 
" must be in proportion to the height of the theatre. They ought 
not to be higher than they are broad ; for if they were higher 
they would throw the voices back toward the top, and thus pre- 
vent those occupying the uppermost seats above the prgecinctiones 
from hearing the words distinctly. A line drawn from the high- 
est sitting-step {gradus) ought to touch all the corners or edges of 
the steps, so as nowhere to impede the voice." After having 
treated in the following chapters (iv. and v.) of several acoustic 
calculations and contrivances, Yitruvius (chapters v. and vii.) adds 
some prescriptions as to the size and proportions of the stage and 

1 According to the latest calculations, the circus, in late imperial times, must have 
contained 480,000 seats. It is about 21,000 feet long by 400 wide. 



of the place for the spectators. The orchestra, like the sitting- 
steps rising round it, ought to be semicircular in shape. Between 
the orchestra, where the arm-chairs of the senators are placed, and 
the back wall (frons scence) lies the stage {jpulpiUc7n\ which ought 
to be twice as long as the diameter of the orchestra, and wider 
than the Greek stage, because in the Roman theatre " all the act- 
ors act on the stage. . . . The height of the pulpitum must be 
above five feet, so as to enable those sitting in the orchestra to 
see the gestures of the actors." 

The sitting-steps of the spectators are to be divided not only 
horizontally by the prascinctiones, but also into wedge-like parts 
(cunei) by means of stairs. In the same manner, radiating from 
the centre of the orchestra, are to be designed the entrances, lying 
between the walls of the substructure (also designed as radii). 

Fig. 432. 

Care must be taken not to let the entrance-passages to the upper 
seats cross those to the lower, so that on leaving their seats the 
people may not press on each other (chap. iii.). 

Having considered Yitruvius's precepts, we now must turn to 
some of the remaining specimens of theatres. Fig. 432 (scale, 100 
Sicilian palms) shows the cross-section of the theatre of Syracuse, 
being, as we mentioned before (§ 30), a Greek structure with Eo- 
man additions. The cavea lying on the slope is of Greek origin. 
The seats are made of the rock itself. The remaining parts of 
the stage-wall indicate Eoman origin : with the aid of these rem- 
nants a reconstructive design of the two stories of the skene has 
been attempted. The colonnade of the spectators' place also is a 
Eoman addition. 

Of Eoman theatres we mention that built by Pompeius, b. c. 



55. All previous theatres, although splendidly decorated, 1 had 
been built of wood, to be pulled down after the festive perform- 
ances were over. Of the theatre of Pompeius little remains ; but 
a fragment of the old plan of Rome enables us to distinguish its 
general design, and even the arrangement of the single parts {see 
Fig. 433). The cavea (a) contained, it is said, 40,000 seats ; it 
shows the above-mentioned radiating direction of the walls, be- 
tween which the entrance-passages of the spectators lay, and on 

Fig. 433. 

which the sitting-steps rested. The. stage (b b) shows a skene-wall 
richly decorated with columns and semicircular niches. " Behind 
the stage lies a portico (e), in order," as Yitruvius adds (chapter 
ix.), " that, in case the play is interrupted by a shower of rain, 
the people may find refuge there ; also in order to give the cho- 
ragi room for arranging the chorus." The design of this por- 
tico indicates various embellishments : the ancients indeed boast 

1 The theatre of Scaurus already mentioned, built 52 b. a, had 80,000 seats. The 
stage-wall was three stories high and adorned with 360 marble colums partly of co- 
lossal size. The wall of the first story was coated with marble, that of the second 
with glass (most likely colored glass mosaic), that of the third with plates of gilt met- 
al. Between the columns bronze statues, to the almost incredible number of 3,000, 
were placed, not to mention various other decorations. 



of its statues and valua- 
ble tapestry, also of the 
groves, fountains, wild 
animals, etc., found in it. 
Another theatre, in a 
better state of preserva- 
tion, is that built by 
Augustus (after a plan of 
Caesar), and called by him 
after the name of his 
nephew Marcellus. It was 
opened b. c. 13, the same 
year in which the theatre 
of Cornelius Balbus was 
completed. These three 
were the only theatres in 
Home. The theatre of 
Marcellus stood near the 
hall called after his mother 
Octavia : during the mid- 
dle ages the Savelli family 
used the remains of the 
theatre for the erection of 
their palace, at present 
owned by the Orsinis. 
The passages between the 
foundation - walls of the 
theatre are at present used 
as offices, and part of the 
old wall of the cavea may 
still be recognized in the 
inclosing wall of the pal- 
ace. The cavea was semi- 
circular in shape, and 
rose in three stories, the 
two lower of which were 
adorned with arcades and 
Doric and Ionic semi- 
columns, while the upper 
one consisted of a mas- 
sive wall adorned with 



Korinthian pilasters — an arrangement which (but for the addi- 
tional fourth story, here wanting) resembled that found in the 
Coliseum (compare Fig. 439). Fig. 434, after Canina's design, 
shows the cross-section of the interior, containing 30,000 seats. 
We there see the form of the substructure with the stairs and 
passages, also the corridors, already described in the theatre 
of Pompeius, which surround the cavea and open into the ar- 
cades, also mentioned in the above. The rows of seats of the 
cavea rise in beautiful proportions from the orchestra and the low 
podium ; they are divided into two parts by a prsecinctio, tallying 


-& m — - s ~m m~% 

Fig. 435. 

in this respect, and also as regards the cunei, with the precepts 
of Vitruvius. The upper end is finished off by a colonnade, which 
also contains places for the spectators, and which is mentioned by 
Vitruvius among the necessary requirements of a Koman theatre. 
" The roof of the arcade," he says (chap, vii.), " ought to corre- 
spond with the height of the skene, because in that case the voice 
spreads simultaneously to the upper ranks and the roof ; while 
if the two differ in height the voice is broken by the first lower 
point it encounters." On the roof of the arcade the ropes 
were fastened, by means of which a canvas could be stretched 


over the cavea, so as to protect the spectators from the sun (see 

About the stage itself little was known till the discovery of 
the theatre of Aspendos in Pamphilia ; the closer investigation of 
the Roman theatre at Orange, in the south of France, has also 
yielded, interesting results as to this important portion of the 
antique theatre (see Lohde's work, "Die Skene der Alten"). 
Besides these two buildings we mention the theatre of Herod at 
Athens, the stage of which seems to show a similar arrangement. 
The latter theatre, counting among the best-preserved antique 
buildings of Athens, lies on the western side of the southern slope 
of the Akropolis, the seats being worked into the rock. Skene 
and paraskenia have been well preserved, rising partly up to 
three stories, interrupted by arcades. The end wall of the hypo- 
skenion, which carried the logeion, and the stairs leading up to the 
stage, have been partly recovered by recent excavations. These 
arrangements have been imitated from Greek architecture, while 
the magnificent stage-building itself shows the Roman method. 
The cavea (Fig. 435, B) lying toward the rock of the Akropolis 
is divided into two ranks of sitting-steps by means of a preecinc- 
tio 4 feet wide : the lower division contained twenty, the upper 
most likely thirteen steps ; the latter are completely destroyed. 
The height of each step is 1£ foot : the lower section of steps is 
again divided by six, the upper one by twelve, staircases. The or- 
chestra (A) is semi-elliptical in shape, its diameter being 60 feet 
long ; it is paved with square slabs of white Pentelic marble and 
of Oipollino from Karystos, the latter with green, yellow, or gray 
veins. As in Greek theatres, the lowest row of steps does not 
immediately touch the stage, but is divided from it by the 
parodoi (D D). The stage, 24 feet deep, lies 4£ feet above the 
floor of the orchestra. The skene-wall contains three doors, 
through one of which one enters a room (I), the remains of which, 
like those of the rooms marked E E and F F, show the traces of 
a vaulted ceiling. The theatre was built between 160 and 170 a. d. 
by Herodes Atticus of Marathon, celebrated for his wealth and 
his oratorical talents : to him Athens also owes the Panathenaic 
stadion on the ' Ilissos. When Pausanias visited Athens this 
theatre had not yet been erected ; in another passage he speaks of 
it as an odeum, and counts it among the most splendid buildings 



in Greece. Philostrates calls it the theatre of Annia Regilla, the 
deceased wife of Herod, in whose honor her husband erected it. 
According to the same author, its roof consisted of cedar-wood, a 
remarkable feature in a building of such dimensions. 

Fig. 436 gives a perspective view of the repeatedly-mentioned 
theatre of Orange, the stage of which is in perfect preservation. 
The cavea lies on the slope of a hill. Behind the richly decorated 
skene-wall lies a narrow building of three stories, the facade of 
which, adorned with arcades, is seen in our illustration. Between 
the wall of the skene and the outer wall are several staircases. 
The stage-building is 103.15 metres long by 36.821 high; the 

Fig. 486. 

length of the proskenion, from paraskenion to paraskenion, is 
61.20 metres ; the distance between its facing wall and the centre 
door of the skene-wall is 13.20, that from the two side-doors 18 
metres : an oblique roof of timber covered this whole space (see 
Lohde, " Die Skene der Alten," p. 5, et seq.). 

Of a similar kind was the arrangement ol the theatre of 
Aspendos (see Fig. 437, where the position of the oblique roof of 
the stage may be distinguished). The spectators' seats lie on the 
slope of the hill on which the town of Aspendos is situated. The 
rows of seats rise from the semicircular orchestra, which first is 
surrounded by a podium of considerable height. A diazoma 
divides the rows of seats into two stories, the upper one of which 



is surrounded by arcades, with a barrel-vaulted niche attached to 
each of them. The cavea is more than usually well preserved. 
The top of the arcades is on a level with that of the skene-wall, 
in accordance with Vitruvius's precept. The wall of the skene 
rises in three stories, richly adorned with columns, which have 
disappeared ; the projecting beams carried by them are, however, 
still visible, as are also the gables. All these projecting parts, 
and the window-sills of the first stories, are made of marble; 
the wall itself consists of large blocks of a kind of breccia, joined 
together without mortar ; the whole back-wall of the skene was 
once adorned in an encaustic manner. Above the third series of 

Fig. 437. 

columns lay the oblique roof covering the whole stage : traces of 
its insertion into the wall of the proskenion may be discovered in 
our illustration. Besides the usual three doors, two apertures 
in the wall of the paraskenion opened on to the stage, similar 
to those in the theatres of Herod and at Orange. Above each 
of these two doors the walls of the proskenion contain two other 
openings, leading, most likely, to small balconies or boxes for 
distinguished spectators. The building behind the wall of the 
skene is narrow, as at Orange. It had three stories, the middle 
one of which communicated by a door with the space which lay 


between the wall of the skene and the back scene, put in front of 
it during the performance. 

85. We now have to mention a building unique as regards 
mechanical appliances, and important for us in so far as it un- 
doubtedly was the intermediate step to another class of edifices 
for public amusement. We are speaking of the building erected 
by C. Curio during his tribunate (b. c. 50) for an enormous sum 
of money, given to him by Caesar for the furthering of party 


Fig. 438. 

purposes. Both the stone theatre of Pompey (55 b. c.) and the 
wooden one of Scaurus were already in existence. A new con- 
trivance of astonishing boldness had to be invented, so as to 
excite the admiration of the multitude. Pliny (Hist. Nat., 
xxxvi., 24, 8) gives the following description of the astonishing 
structure : " He (Curio) built two wooden theatres by the side of 
each other, each of them kept its balance by means of movable 
pegs. In the forenoon comedies were performed on them, and 
the two theatres were turned away from each other, so that the 


noises on the two stages should not interfere with each other. 
All of a sudden they were whirled round, so as to stand opposite 
each other ; in the evening the wooden partitions of the stages 
were removed, the ends of the sitting-steps (cornua) touched each 
other, and an amphitheatre was thus created, in which Curio, 
after having endangered the lives of the people themselves, 
arranged battles of gladiators." Pliny strongly reproves both 
tribune and people for trusting their lives to a fragile wooden 

Whether this was the first attempt at constructing an amphi- 
theatre we cannot tell ; certain it is that foar years later Caesar 
built an edifice for the battles of gladiators and the fights of ani- 
mals, which resembled the bold attempt of Curio, and to which 
the name of amphitheatrum was technically applied. 1 It was 
built of wood, but richly decorated. The first stone amphitheatre 
in Rome was built during the reign of Augustus by Statilius 
Taurus, the friend of that emperor; it was destroyed by fire 
under Nero. The amphitheatres, to which the gladiatorial bat- 
tles formerly fought in the forum or circus were transferred, 
became so popular in consequence, that even provincial towns 
went to enormous expenses in erecting them. Fig. 438 shows 
the plan of the amphitheatre of Capua, consisting of an oval 
arena surrounded by rows of seats. It was built at the expense 
of the town, after the model of the Flavian amphitheatre in 
Rome, from which the substructure and the arrangement of the 
sitting-steps and of the stairs leading up to them are imitated 
almost exactly. It nearly equaled the size of its model, being the 
second largest of all the amphitheatres known to us. An inscrip- 
tion says that the Emperor Hadrian added the columns and their 
roof, meaning the colonnade surrounding the highest row of steps, 
as in a theatre (compare Fig. 434). Underneath the arena were 
vaulted chambers (also found in the Flavian amphitheatre), des- 

1 Amphitheatrum means literally a building with a dedrpov, spectators' place or 
cavea, on two sides. The buildings for the so-called naumachia (naval battles) also 
had the form of amphitheatres. Hirt (he. cit. } hi, 159) points out that the elliptical 
shape was chosen in preference to the circular as it held more spectators on an 
equal space ; the greater length of the arena, moreover, left more freedom to the 
movements of men and animals than a circle would have done. Acoustic consid- 
erations were out of the question, as there was nothing to be heard, but only some- 
thing to be seen. 



tined for the keeping of the wild animals, also for making the 
necessary preparations for the performances. 

The Flavian amphitheatre, better known as the Coliseum, 
was begun by Yespasian, and completed by his successor Titus, on 
the site of a large pond (stagna Neronis) in the " Golden House " 
of Nero. Augustus is said to have planned an amphitheatre to 
be erected on the same spot. It is said to have contained 87,000 
seats (loco), and was, owing to its central situation, one of the 
most favorite places of amusement of the Roman people. Its 
plan is shown in Fig. 438. The arena, underneath which vaulted 

Fig. 439. 

chambers have been discovered, has the form of an ellipse, the 
larger diameter measuring 264, the smaller 156 feet. The sur- 
rounding edifice has a uniform depth of 155 feet, which gives a 
total diameter of 574 feet, or of 466 feet for the inclosing outer 
wall. The latter was interrupted by eighty arcades, forming the 
openings of the numerous systematically arranged corridors and 
staircases of the interior. The lowest row of these arcades 
(vomitoria) is adorned with Doric, the second story with Ionic, 
and the third with Korinthian semi-columns. The fourth story 
consists of a wall adorned with Korinthian pilasters, and inter- 



rupted by windows. The total height is 156 feet. Figs. 439 and 
441 show views of the exterior and interior of the Coliseum in 
its present state. In the upper story 240 small projections are 
conspicuous, to which answer as many openings in the chief cor- 
nice. These were destined to carry masts, to which ropes were 
fastened, to support an awning {velarium) stretched across the 
enormous space. The section (Fig. 440, from a design by Fontana, 
modified by Hirt) serves to illustrate the interior arrangements 
(compare also Fig. 434). The Coliseum consists almost entirely 
of travertine freestone, carefully hewn ; the interior, partly built 

Fig. 440. 

of bricks, has considerably suffered during the middle ages. At 
one time it served as the castle of the Frangipani family ; at 
another it was systematically ransacked for building-materials 
(the Palazzo della Cancelleria, Palazzo Farnese, and Palazzo di 
S. Marco have been built of such) ; but its grand forms have 
withstood all these attempts at destruction. In the substructure 
of the rows of seats, the corridors {itinera), passages, and stairs 
leading up to them, are still recognizable. The lowest part of the 
spectators' place, viz., the podium, has been built higher than was 
the custom in theatres : as a further means of protection against 



the wild animals in the arena other contrivances were added. 
Near the podium were the seats of the imperial family, of the 
highest magistrates, and of the Vestals ; at the back of them fol- 
lowed the ordinary rows of seats in three stories (mceniana, cor- 
responding to those of the exterior arcades), the lower of which, 
containing about twenty steps (gradus, no more in existence), was 
reserved for magistrates and knights, the next following one (of 
about sixteen steps) for Eoman citizens. ' The prsecinction-wall, 
between the second and third stories, is higher than usual, and the 
upper rows themselves show a steeper ascent than the lower ones, 
in order to enable the spectators seated there to overlook the arena. 

Fig. 441. 

This highpraecinction-wall, called balteus, was richly decorated (ac- 
cording to Hirt, with glass mosaic) in the same manner as that 
of the theatre of Scaurus. The fourth story, the steps of which 
were considerably higher than those of the lower rows, was sur- 
rounded with an open portico, also richly decorated. Here were 
the seats for the women, and perhaps at both ends of the longer 
diameter, those for the common people. The differences of rank 
and station coexisting with the legal equality of the Eoman peo- 
ple appear thus distinctly marked in the Coliseo, which, in a man- 
ner, becomes the symbol of the grandeur and variegated develop- 
ment of the nation itself. 


86. We now turn to the consideration of the implements of 
domestic use ; our knowledge of these is much more accurate than 
of those of Greek origin, owing, to a great extent, to the preser- 
vation of the dwelling-house itself, to which these utensils belong. 
We have mentioned before how, during the eruption of Vesuvius 
(79 a. d.), Herculaneum and Stabise were more or less destroyed 
by a stream of lava, while Pompeii was first covered with a shower 
of glowing rajpilli, on which lava afterward collected. Only in 
1748 Pompeii was rediscovered by an accident. At Herculaneum 
the hardened lava could only partially be removed : at Pompeii, 
on the other hand, the layers of loose ashes, to a depth of seven to 
eight metres, offered comparatively little difficulty to attempts at 
excavation. At first these excavations were made without plan 
or system ; the recovered objects were left for a long time at the 
mercy of the weather, not to speak of the spoliation of unculti- 
vated or unprincipled persons. Arditi, in 1812, was the first to 
bring system into the work; and, after the expulsion of the 
Bourbons, Fiorelli has continued his predecessor's efforts, intro- 
ducing at the same time a new method, viz., that of horizontal 
instead of vertical digging ; in this manner, the former danger of 
the houses breaking down as soon as their props were taken away, 
has been removed. A little less than one-half of Pompeii has 
thus been discovered. The wall, about 10,000 feet long, surround- 
ing the whole town in the shape of an irregular oval, shows Pom- 
peii to have been of moderate dimensions ; but the numerous pub- 
lic buildings and the comfort of many of the private houses prove 
the wealth of the citizens. Pompeii, and (in a lesser degree) many 
other seats of Roman culture, have yielded from among their 
ruins a rich harvest of utensils and implements of daily life and 


intercourse, such as vessels (of metal, glass, and earthenware), 
lamps, armor, jewelry, coins, etc. Most of these have passed into 
private and public collections; numerous valuable objects have 
been purloined and destroyed by the finders. 

In looking at these utensils, and comparing them with similar 
objects of Greek origin, we have to consider the question whether 
they were really of Roman make — that is, worked by Roman 
artificers. In trying to answer this question we must briefly 
touch upon the political history of Rome. To south and north 
of the Roman territory, the country was inhabited by nations 
superior to the Romans in both material and intellectual respects. 
We are speaking of the Greek colonies in the southern, and of 
the Etruscan cities in the more northern, parts of Italy. The 
splendor of both nations, however, was waning when they came 
into contact with their less-civilized neighbors : first the Etruscans, 
and after them the Greeks, had to submit to the superior military 
tactics of the Romans. The military spirit of the conquerors 
prevented them at first from adopting the higher culture of the 
vanquished. At the same time it must be remembered that at an 
early period Etruscan artists adorned the public edifices of Rome 
with the works of their handicraft ; moreover, the statues of gods 
and other works of art, brought to Rome as booty from the con- 
quered and devastated Etruscan cities, formed an intellectual and 
religious link between conquerors and conquered. Political mo- 
tives thus cooperated with growing artistic culture. The statue 
of the Juno Regina was. brought from Yeii by Camillus, that of 
Jupiter Imperator from Prseneste by Cincinnatus, with a view to 
amalgamating the nations. 

Of still greater importance was the treasure of master-works 
of art and culture found by the Romans in the cities of Magna 
Grsecia and Sicily, such as Capua, Tarentum, and Syracuse, further 
augumented by the spoils of the Greek peninsula, Macedon, and 
the Asiatic empires. The art-treasures paraded in the three 
days' triumph by Quinctius Flaminius and Paullus iEmilius, the 
conquerors of Philip and Perseus of Macedon, were of enormous 
value. Roman praetors used to ransack their Greek provinces for 
valuable objects of art : Scaurus, for instance, adorned his theatre 
with Greek statues and pictures acquired in this manner ; and, 


when his villa at Tusculum was burned by his enraged slaves, 
Greek works of art to the value of about £600,000 are said to 
have perished in the flames. Omitting many other instances of 
spoliation, we remind the reader only of that of Nero, by which 
Delphi and Olympia were deprived of the statues still remaining 
there. Thus Italy was flooded with the creations of Greek genius, 
and the craving for foreign art diffused among all classes of the 
Eomans could not but throw into the background the productions 
of native artists. Many Greek artificers, moreover, came to Rome 
as the best market for their wares : even among the Greek slaves 
artistic talent was of no rare occurrence. In this way Greek 
patterns became prevalent, not only in high art but also in 
mechanical handicrafts. Even at a later period, when Greek art 
itself had declined, and Roman customs and ideas had, to a great 
extent, absorbed the national peculiarities of the conquered races, 
the artistic creations of what is generally called the national 
Roman style are, for the greater part, only reminiscences of 
originally Greek ideas. At Pompeii, also, much of what we now 
call Roman is undoubtedly of Greek origin ; the compositions of 
the best wall-paintings and mosaics breathe Greek spirit, as 
might be expected in a town which, although Romanized to a 
great extent, still retained traces of its Greek origin. Never- 
theless, most of these wall-paintings, mosaics, and other objects of 
art and industry, although perhaps composed by Greek artists, or 
after Greek patterns, are justly denominated Roman, as they 
undoubtedly belong to the period of municipal power and inde- 
pendence, which fostered the growth of the Roman national 

87. Seats and couches are sufficiently illustrated by wall-paint- 
ings at Pompeii and Herculaneum, and by the remaining speci- 
mens. The simple folding-stool with crossed legs, the backless 
chair with four perpendicular legs, the chair with a low or high 
back, and the state-throne (see § 31) — all these were made after 
Greek patterns. The word sella is the generic term for the differ- 
ent classes of chairs comprised in the Greek diphroi and klismoi ; 
only the chair with a back to it is distinguished as cathedra. The 
form of the cathedra resembles that of our ordinary drawing-room 
chairs but for the wider, frequently semicircular, curve of the 



back, which greatly adds to the comfort of the seated person. 
Soft cushions, placed both against the back and on the seat, mark 
the cathedra as a piece of furniture belonging essentially to the 
women's apartments ; the more effeminate men of a later period, 
however, used these fauteuils in preference. The marble statues 

of the younger Faustina (Fig. 469) 
and of Agrippina the wife of Ger- 
manicus, both in the gallery of Flo- 
rence (Clarac, "Musee," Pis. 955, 930), 
are seated on cathedrae. The legs of 
the chairs were frequently shaped in 
some graceful fashion, and adorned 
with valuable ornaments of metal and 
ivory ; tasteful turnery Was also often 
applied to them : all this is suffi- 
ciently proved by the wall-paintings 
(compare Fig. 471). Different from 
these chairs is the solium, the dignified 
form of which designates it as the seat 
of honor for the master of the house, 
or as the throne of rulers of the state and gods; it answers, 
therefore, to the thronos of the Greeks. The richly-decorated 
back rises perpendicularly sometimes up to the height of the 
shoulders, at others, above the head, of the seated person ; two 
elbows, mostly of massive workmanship, are attached to the 
back. The throne stands on a strong base or on high legs ; it 
was generally made of solid, heavy materials. Of the wooden 
solium, seated on which the patron gave advice to his clients, 
naturally no specimen remains; but we possess several marble 
thrones, most likely the seats of emperors, and others placed, ac- 
cording to Greek custom, near the divine images in the temples. 
A marble throne of the first-mentioned class, richly decorated with 
sculptures, is in the Koyal Collection of Antiques in Berlin. Fig. 
442 shows a throne from a temple — one of the two of the kind 
preserved in the Louvre. The symbolical sculptures on the inner 
surface of the back, both above and below the seat, consisting of 
a pair of winged snakes, the mystical basket, and the sickle, also 
the two torches serving in a manner as props of the back, seem 

Fig. 442. 


to indicate its connection with the worship of Ceres. The seat is 
supported by two sphinxes, the wings of which form the elbows 
of the chair. The companion-chair in the Louvre shows the 
Bacchic attributes arranged in a similar manner. Similar thrones 
of gods occur frequently in Pompeian wall-paintings and on 
Roman coins ; we also mention in connection with the subject a 
wall-painting at Herculaneum ("Pitture antiche d'Ercolano," 
vol. i., p. 155). These thrones generally show light, graceful 
forms of legs, and broad seats covered with soft cushions ; the 
back and elbows are frequently enveloped in rich folds of drapery. 
Of the two thrones in the Herculaneum wall-painting referred to, 
one has a helmet, the other a dove, on its seat — the respective 
emblems of Mars and Yenus. The solium used by the magistrates 
of the republic was without back or elbows. 

Peculiar to the Romans was the sella curulis, a folding-stool 
with curved legs placed crosswise ; at first it was made of ivory, 
afterward of metal : it most likely dates from the times of the 
kings. At that period it was in reality a seat on wheels, from 
which the kings exercised their legal functions : afterward the sella 
curulis, although deprived of its wheels, remained the attribute of 
certain magistrates ; it was placed on the tribunal, from the height 
of which the judge pronounced his sentence. The use of the sella 
curulis was permitted to the consuls, praetors, propraetors, and the 
curulian aediles ; also to the dictator, the magister equitum, the 
decemviri, and, at a later period, the quaestor. Among priests, 
only the Flamen Dialis enjoyed the same privilege, together with 
a seat in the senate. On some of the denarii of Roman families, 
such as the Gens Caecilia, Cestia, Cornelia, Furia, 
Julia, Livineia, Plaetoria, Pompeia, Yaleria, we fre- yf7 ^\ 
quently see the sella curulis connected with the , ESjjSjHj' M 
names of those members of the gens who held one I %&*% /) 
of the curulian offices. Fasces, lituus, crowns, and s^^^ ks 
branches, frequently are arranged round the chair FiQ 448 
to indicate the particular function of the magis- 
trate. Fig. 443 shows the reverse of a coin of the Gens Furia, 
with a sella curulis depicted on it. On the chair are inscribed 
the words P. FOYRIYS ; underneath it we read, CRASSIPES : 
the other side of the coin shows the crowned head of Cybele 

440 BEDS. 

with the inscription, AED. CYR. The emperors also claimed the 
privilege of the sella cnrnlis. The marble statue of the Emperor 
Claudius in the Villa Albani (Clarac, " Musee," PL 936, B) is, for 
instance, seated on the sella curulis, or rather sella irwperatoria. 
Several bronze legs of chairs, in the Museo Borbonico, worked 
like necks of animals and placed crosswise, most likely belonged 
to chairs of this kind. The subsellium, a low bench with room 

for several persons, was destined 
for the magistrates of the people, 
i. e., for the tribuni and sediles 
plebis. Silver coins of the Gens 
Calpurnia, Critonia, Fannia, and 
Statilia, show this bench always oc- 
cupied by two sediles (see Kiccio, 
" Le Monete delle antiche Famiglie 
di Roma," Tavs. x., xvii., xx., xlv.). 
Another seat of honor was the bisellium, a very broad chair, or 
rather double chair, without a back, destined for the decuriones 
and augustales. Two bronze bisellia have been found at Pompeii, 
one of which is shown, Fig. 444. 

88. The couches and beds show the same elegance and comfort 
as the chairs. We need only add a few remarks to what we 
have already said about Greek couches (§ 32). The body of the 
bed, made either of wood inlaid with ivory and tortoise-shell, or 
of valuable metal (lecti eborati, testudinei, inargentati, inaurati), 
rested on gracefully-formed legs. Sometimes the whole bed- 
frame was made of bronze, and in a few cases (e. g., the bed of 
Elagabalus) of solid silver. A bronze bed-frame somewhat re- 
sembling our iron truckle-beds may be seen on an Etruscan tomb 
(see " Museum Gregorianum," vol. i., Tav. 16). A bronze trellis- 
work here carries the mattress, instead of the more usual web- 
bing ( fasciae, institoe, tenia cubilia). The mattress (torus), origi- 
nally filled with straw, was afterward stuffed with sheep's wool 
(tomentum) or the down of (particularly German) geese and swans ; 
Elagabalus chose the soft plumage under the wings of the partridge 
for his mattresses. Bolsters and cushions (culcita) were stuffed 
with the same material (see, for instance, Zahn's " Schonste 
Ornamente," Series iii., Taf. 41). Blankets and sheets (vestes 


stragulw), according to the owner's wealth, made either of simple 
material or dyed and adorned with embroidered or woven patterns 
and borders, were spread over the cushions and bolsters. One or 
several pillows (pulvinus) served to prop the head (whence their 
name cervicalia) or the left elbow of the sleeping or reclining 
persons (compare the couches in Fig. 232 and those in Figs. 187 
to 190, the latter of which, although taken from Greek vase- 
paintings, are equally illustrative of Roman forms). Footstools 
(subsellia, scdbella, scamna), used for mounting high thrones and 
beds, or with cathedrae for resting the feet, were as general among 
the Romans as among the Greeks. Wooden bed-frames, like 
all other wooden utensils, have been destroyed at Pompeii ; but 
we see many couches (on the average 2.50 metres long by 1 
wide) let into the walls of the niches of bedrooms ; these niches, 
as, for instance, that in the villa of Diomedes, could be closed by 
means of curtains or pasteboard partitions (" Spanish walls "). J 
As we said before, the couch was used, not only for sleeping, but 
also for meditating, reading, and writing in a reclining position, 
the left arm leaning on the cushions. This custom was undoubt- 
edly adopted from the Greek. The two names, derived from the 
different purposes, lectus cubicularius and lectus lucubratorius, 
most likely apply to one and the same kind of couch ; perhaps in 
the latter there was attached to the back of the couch (pluteus) 
nearest the head a contrivance like our reading-desks, to put books 
and writing-materials on ; a similar contrivance is mentioned in 
connection with the cathedra. 

In later times, when the simple custom of sitting at their 
meals was abandoned by the Romans, men used to lie down to 
their meals on couches. The wife sat on the foot-end of the 
lectus, the children on separate chairs, and the servants on benches 
(subselliitm). This custom, as illustrated by numerous bass-reliefs, 
was limited to the family circle. In the dining-rooms (triclinium), 
where guests were received, a particular arrangement of the 
couches became necessary. A square table stood in the centre 
of the triclinium (several of which are perfectly preserved at 
Pompeii) surrounded on three sides by so many low couches 

1 See a picture of the remains of such a partition found at Pompeii in Overbeck's 
" Pompeji," second edition, ii., p. 48. 



Fig. 445. 

{lectus triclinaris), while the fourth side remained open to the 
access of the attending slaves. Fig. 445 shows the arrangement 
of a triclinium. M indicates the table surrounded by the three 
couches. The latter, as is proved by several couches made of ma- 
sonry at Pompeii (Ma- 
zois, " Ruines de Pom- 
pei,"t. i., PI. 20), had the 
edge nearest the table 
slightly raised (compare 
the summer triclinium in 
the background of Fig. 
j. 390). The couch was 
ascended by the guests 
(accubare) on the lower 
side, the space between 
the edge of the table and 
the couch being too nar- 
row for a person to pass. 
Each couch had room for three persons reclining in the direction 
of the arrow in our plan ; the left arm rested on the cushions, 
while the disengaged right hand was used for eating. Z. i. 
mark the lowest {lectus imus), L. m. the middle (lectus medius), 
and L. s. the highest {lectus summus) couch. In the same man- 
ner the single seats on each couch were distinguished as locus 
imus, medius, and summus. On the lectus imus 1 marks the 
lowest, 3 the highest, and 2 the middle place. On the lectus 
medius 3 marks the highest, 1 the lowest, and 2 the middle. 
The last-mentioned place was the place of honor ; 1 was called 
the locus consularis, because if a consul was present this place 
was occupied by him, in order that he might be able to receive 
important communications during dinner. The place on the 
lectus imus (3) touching his was occupied by the host. On the 
lectus summus the places followed in the reverse order of that 
on the lectus imus. The stronger lines on the edges of the loci 
summi mark the low backs against which the cushions belong- 
ing to these seats were placed ; the cushions belonging to the 
other places lay in the middle of the couch, and therefore did 
not require a prop. In later times three or more triclinia were 


frequently placed in one dining-room, which must have been of 
considerable size, taking into account the additional space required 
for the servants, dancers, musicians, etc. 

About the end of the Republic the use of round tables (orbes) 
instead of square ones became more frequent ; the three couches 
standing at right angles were accordingly transformed into one, 
the shape of which, following the curve of the table, became 
semicircular, resembling the form of a Greek C, whence its name 
sigma or stibadium. The two corner seats (cornua) now became 
the places of honor, that on the right (in dextro cornu) being con- 
sidered superior to that on the left (in cornu smistro). On a 
sigma of this kind are reclining several Cupids, round a table 
covered with drin king-cups (see the graceful Pompeian wall- 
painting, " Museo Borbon.," vol. xv., Tav. 46). One large bolster 
on the edge of the couch nearest the table serves as prop for the 
left arms of the topers ; a light awning protects them from the 
sun. A different arrangement we see in the wall-painting found 
near the tomb of the Scipiones in the Yia Appia (Campana, " Di 
due Sepolcri Romani del Secolo di Augusto, etc.," Roma, 1840. 
Tav. xiv.). Here the table has the form of a crescent (mensa 
hmata) ; along its outer edge is placed the sigma, on which 
eleven persons are reclining, partaking of the funereal repast 
(compare the description of a similar scene in " Bullettino arch. 
Napoletano," 1845, p. 82). We refrain from describing the rich 
ornamentation of these couches, with their bolsters and valuable 
carpets, harmonizing with the wall-decorations and the mosaic 
pavement of the dining-room itself. 

To conclude, we mention the benches of bronze found in the 
tepidarium of the thermge at Pompeii (Fig. 421), as also the 
hemieyclia, semicircular stone benches, holding a greater number 
of persons, such as were placed in gardens and by the side of 
public roads. Two marble hemicyclia may be seen by the side of 
the street of graves, near the Herculanean gate at Pompeii ; a 
third bench occupies the background of a small portico opening 
into the street (see " Mus. Borb.," vol. xv., Tav. 25, 26). 

89. We have already made mention of square, round, and 
crescenkshaped tables. The brick leg of a table, the wooden slab 
of which has disappeared, may be seen in the triclinium funebre 

444 TABLES. 

at Pompeii; it is surrounded by three well-preserved couches. 
The above-mentioned mensa lunata in a wall-painting is, on the 
other hand, supported by three legs shaped like animals. Besides 
these larger tables, others of smaller size, and more easily mov- 
able, were in frequent use. They might be either round or 
square, and were placed by the side of the couches : like the 
dining-tables, they were not higher than the couches. For their 
various forms we refer the reader to the Greek tables shown in 
Fig. 191. The way of ornamenting the tables was far more 
splendid and expensive among the Romans than among the 
Greeks. ISTot only were the legs beautifully worked in wood, 
metal, or stone (the graceful forms of the numerous marble and 
bronze legs found at Pompeii have become the models of modern 
wood-carvers), but the slabs also consisted of metal and rare kinds 
of stone or wood wrought in elegant and graceful shapes. Par- 
ticularly the slabs of one-legged tables {monopodia orbes) used to 
be made of the rarest woods ; the wood of the Thyia cypressiodes, 
a tree growing on the slopes of the Atlas, the stem of which, near 
the root, is frequently several feet thick, was chosen in preference ; 
the Roman name of this tree was citrus, not to be mistaken for the 
citron-tree. The value of large slabs of citrus-wood was enormous. 
According to Pliny, Cicero (by no means a wealthy man according 
to Roman notions) spent 500,000 H. S. (about £5,400), Asinius 
Pollio £10,800, King Juba £13,050, and the family of the Cethegi 

£15,150, for a single slab of this 
material. The value of this wood 
consisted chiefly in the beautiful 
lines of the veins and fibres (ma- 
cula), shown to still greater advan- 
tage by the polish. The Romans 
classified the slabs by their designs 
into tiger, panther, wavy, and pea- 
FlG - m - cock-feather, etc., patterns. The 

enormous price of the massive 
slabs naturally led to the custom of veneering other wood 
with citrus. Valuable tables of this kind were taken out of 
their covers only on festive occasions. The plate and nicknacks, 
always found in elegant Roman houses, were displayed on small 
one or three legged tables (frapezophoron), the slabs of which 



(abacus, a word which, like trapezophoron, is sometimes used for 
the whole table) had raised edges round them : several richly-or- 
namented specimens of such tables have been found at Pompeii. 
Fig. 446 shows a small abacus resting on three marble legs, which 
has been found in the house of the " Little Mosaic-Fountain " at 
Pompeii. Another table ("Museo Borb.," vol. xv., Tav. 6), 
with a slab of rosso antico resting on four graceful bronze 
legs, deserves attention on account of an ingenious contrivance 
between the legs, by means of which it could be lowered or 
heightened at will : a similar contrivance occurs in several tri- 

A table of a different kind was the tripod (delphica so. mensa), 
imitated from the Greek Tplirov^, 
and used chiefly at meals to put 
vessels and dishes on : several 
elegant specimens of the tripod 
have been discovered at Pompeii. 
The ends of the three legs were 
generally shaped like the paws 
of animals; the legs, connected 
by means of metal bars and gen- 
erally ornamented with figures 
or foliage, carry a metal basin, 
either flat-bottomed or of semi- 
globular shape (Fig. 447). Wheth- 
er the tripods found in the rooms 
of houses were used for sacred 
or profane purposes cannot al- 
ways be decided with certainty. 
The skulls and garlands sur- 
rounding the top of our tripod 
(Fig. 447) seem to indicate its 

sacred character : other tripods are without any decoration. The 
top of the sacred tripods generally consisted of deep, caldron-like 
basins : specimens of them have been found in Etruscan graves ; 
they also occur in various forms on coins and vases. 

90. The numerous vases found in the graves of Italy (see § 38, 
et seq.) are, as we have seen, of Greek origin, although frequently 
manufactured on Eoman territory. The pictures on them illus- 

Fig. 447. 



trate myths, or scenes from the daily life of Greeks or Etrus- 
cans ; we therefore have refrained from referring to them in 
speaking of Roman customs and artistic achievements. As to 
the degree of skill with which native Roman artificers worked 
after Greek patterns we are unable to judge, seeing that most 
of the specimens of Roman native pottery preserved to us be- 
long to a low class of art. Local potteries were found in almost 
all places of any importance ; and the former existence of manu- 
factures is betrayed by the heaps of potsherds found in such 
places — as, for instance, in the valley of the Neckar. Whole 
vessels are, however, found very rarely. More numerous are the 
specimens of clay vessels found in Roman graves: their style 
and material are far inferior to those of Greek make. About the 
forms of the smaller drinking and drawing vessels and ointment- 
bottles (to which classes they chiefly belong), we have spoken before 
(compare Fig. 198) : new to us only are the kitchen utensils of 
clay, numerous interesting specimens of which have been dug 
up. The destinations of most of these can be determined from 
their similarity to vessels now in use. Besides these earthen- 

Fig. 448. 

ware vessels a great many others made of bronze have been found 
at Pompeii and other Roman settlements ; their elegant and, at 
the same time, useful forms excite our highest admiration. In 
most cases the names occurring in ancient authors cannot, unfor- 
tunately, be applied with certainty to the remaining specimens. 
Figs. 448 and 449 show a variety of vessels, all found at Pompeii ; 
Fig. 448, g, shows a kettle, semi-oval in shape and with a com- 
paratively narrow opening, to the rim of which the handle is 
fastened ; it rests on a tripod {tripes). Similar kettles, with 
covers (testum, testu) fastened to their necks by means of little 



chains, have been found in several places (" Mus. Borbon.," vol. 
v., Tav. 58). A pot (plla cacabus), similar to those now in use, the 
handle of which is made in the shape of a dolphin, is represented, 
Fig. 448, d. Porridge, meat, and vegetables, were cooked in it. 

Of pails we possess a considerable number (Fig. 448, a, b). 
Their rims are adorned with graceful patterns, and the rings to 
which the handles are fastened often show palmetto ornaments. 
The pail, Fig. 448, b, shows small -pegs on both sides of the rings 
to prevent the heavy handle from falling on the graceful rim of 
the vessel ; the double handle (Fig. 448, a) served to steady the 
vessel while being carried ; thus usefulness and elegance of form 
were combined. 

Fig. 449, y, resembles our saucepan. Two vessels of this kind, 
the ends of whose horizontal handles are shaped like heads of 

swans, have recently been found, the one at Teplitz in Bohemia, 
the other at Hagenow in Mecklenburg ; both show, on the upper 
surface of the handle, the stamp of the same manufacturer — 
Bohemia shows underneath this inscription another name, 
GAIYS ATILIVS HANtfO, which Mommsen (Archaologischer 
Anzeiger, 1858, ISTos. 115-117) takes to be that of the modeler. 
The flat pan (sartago, Fig. 449, h) was used to heat the oil — an 
important ingredient of Southern cookery. Fig. 449, i, shows a 
pan with four indentures, used most likely for poaching eggs ; 
Fig. 449, I, a sort of shovel with a handle and an elegant border- 
pattern ; and Fig. 449, g, a two-handled vessel, also for kitchen 
use. In Fig. 449, m and n, we see two forms of the spoon 


(cochlear, ligula) / they were used not only for eating soup and 
porridge, but also for the opening of eggs, oysters, and snails, 
whence their pointed ends. Fig. 449, e and d, show ladles for 
drawing water ; Fig. 449 a, b, c, specimens of the long-handled 
trua or trulla (the Greek kyathos, compare Fig. 303), to draw 
the wine from deep butts, etc. Of sieves (colum, Fig. 449, k), 
funnels (infundibulum), and similar kitchen-utensils, most of the 
larger museums contain specimens ; we refer the reader to the nu- 
merous works illustrative of the kitchen-utensils found at Pompeii. 

Meat and fish were put on small or large flat dishes (jpatind) 
with raised edges, mostly made of clay. Those of rich people were 
made of precious metals beautifully chiseled (argentum ccelatum). 
But even those made of clay frequently were bought at enormous 
prices. Pliny relates that the tragic actor Clodius iEsopus pos- 
sessed a dish worth 100,000 sestertii. Vitellius had an earthen- 
ware dish made for himself at the price of one million sestertii ; 
an oven had to be erected in the fields for the purpose. Among 
dishes resembling plates we mention the lanx. According to 
Pliny, there were in Rome, after Sulla's wars, more than 150 
lances of silver, weighing each 100 Roman pounds. Drusilianus 
Rotundus, the slave of the Emperor Claudius, owned a dish of 
500 Roman pounds weight, while his fellow-slaves possessed eight, 
weighing each 250 Roman pounds. The patella, catinum, catil- 
lum, and parqpsis, resembled our plates ; the latter was chiefly for 
dessert (ojpsonium). 

91. The names of Roman drinking- vessels, calix, patera, 
scyphus, cyaihus, sufficiently indicate their Greek origin; their 
shapes show the same variety as those of their Greek models 
(see § 38). Their names cannot always be identified, but the 
existence of a few measuring-vessels with the gauge marked on 
them enables us to speak with certainty about the cubic contents 
of some of their forms. 1 Here, however, we must limit ourselves 
to the outer appearance of the vessels, and the material of which 
they are made. All vessels made of precious metals were either 
pura, i. e., without any relief -work and therefore of smooth surface, 
or they were cazlata, that is, adorned with bass-reliefs, either 
wrought of the material itself or soldered to its surface. Many 

1 Compare Hultsch, " Grieschische und romische Metrologie," p. 87, et seq., and 
Becker's " Gallus," herausgegeben von Rein, third edition, Part iii., p. 280, et seq. 


Greek and Oriental vessels of great value were brought to 
Rome, and kept in Roman families as precious heirlooms ; oth- 
ers made of precious metals were melted and recast according to 
Roman taste. The custom of adorning drinking-vessels with 
precious stones, known to the Greeks, was exaggerated by the 
luxurious Romans of imperial times to an unprecedented degree 
(Pliny, " Hist. Katur.," xxxiii., 2). Such vases (gemmata pota- 
ria) were sent by foreign kings to the Roman people, and with 
them the emperors rewarded the services of their generals or of 
the chieftains of Germanic tribes (Tacitus, " Germania," v.). 
We possess numerous vessels of earthenware, adorned with gar- 
lands of leaves and flowers, and inscribed with gay devices ; such 
REPLETE, etc. Vessels of precious metal are of rarer occurrence. 
We have mentioned before the luxurious custom, common 
among the Romans after the conquest of Greece and Asia, of 
having their utensils of the table, and even of the kitchen, made 
of solid silver. Valuable plate {argentum escarium and jpotorium) 
was of common occurrence in the houses of the rich. According 
to Pliny, common soldiers had the handles of their swords and 
their belts studded with silver ; the baths of women were covered 
with the same valuable material, which was even used for the 
common implements of kitchen and scullery. Large manufac- 
tories of silver utensils were started in which each part of the 
work was assigned to a special artificer ; here the orders of the 
silver-merchants (negotiatores argentarii vascularity were exe- 
cuted. Among the special workmen of these manufactories were 
the figuratores (modelers), flatuarii or fusores (founders), tritores 
(turners or polishers), ccelatores (chiselers), crustarii (the workmen 
who attached the bass-reliefs to the surface of the vessel), and the 
inauratores or deauratores (gilders). Many valuable vessels have 
been recovered in the present century ; others (for instance, sev- 
eral hundred silver vessels found near the old Falerii) have trace- 
lessly disappeared. Among the discoveries which happily have 
escaped the hands of the melter we mention the treasure of more 
than one hundred silver vessels, weighing together about 50 lbs., 
found by Bernay in Normandy (1830). According to their in- 
scriptions, these vessels belonged to the treasury of a temple of 
Mercury; they are at present in the late Imperial Library at 



Paris. In the south of Russia the excavations carried on in 1831, 
1802, and 1863, among the graves of the kings of the Bosporic 
empire, have yielded an astonishing number of gold and silver 

Fig. 450. 

vessels and ornaments belonging to the third century of our era. 
At Pompeii fourteen silver vases were discovered in 1835 ; at 

Fig. 451. 

Csere (1836) a number of silver vases (now in the Museo Grego- 
riano) were found in a grave. One of the most interesting dis- 
coveries was made near Hildesheim, October 7, 1868, consisting 


of seventy-four eating and drinking vessels, mostly well preserved ; 
not to speak of numerous fragments which seem to prove that only 
part of the original treasure has been recovered ; the weight of all 
the vessels (now in the Antiquarium of the Koyal Museum, Ber- 
lin) amounts to 107.144 lbs. of silver. The style and technical 
finish of the vases prove them to have been manufactured in 
Home ; the form of the letters of the inscriptions found on twen- 
ty-four vessels indicates the first half of the first century after 
Christ. The surfaces of many of them are covered with alto- 
rilievos of beaten silver — a circumstance which traces back their 
origin to imperial times, distinguishing them, at the same time, 
from the bass-relief ornamentations of the acme of Greek art. 
The gilding of the draperies and weapons, and the silver color of 
the naked parts, in imitation, as it were, of the gold-and-ivory stat- 
ues of Greek art, also indicate Roman workmanship. Figs. 450 
and 451 show some of the finest pieces of this treasure. The 
composition of the figures on the surface of the vase in Fig. 450 
shows true artistic genius : naked children are balancing them- 
selves on water-plants growing in winding curves from a pair of 
griffins ; some of the children attack crabs and eels with harpoons, 
while others drag the killed animals from the water. The grace- 
ful groups on the drinking-vessels in Fig. 451 are mostly taken 
from the Bacchic cycle of myths. 

Besides vessels of precious metals and stones, those of glass 
were in favorite use among the Romans. The manufactory of 
glass, originating in Sidon, had reached its climax of perfection, 
both with regard to color and form, in Alexandria about the time 
of the Ptolemies. Many of these Alexandrine glasses have been 
preserved to us, and their beauty fully explains their superiority 
in the opinion of the ancients to those manufactured in Italy. 
Here also, after the discovery of excellent sand at Cumae and 
Linternum, glass-works had been established. Most of our mu- 
seums possess some specimens of antique glass manufacture, in 
the shape of balsam or medicine bottles of white or colored 
glass. We also possess goblets and drinking-bottles of various 
shapes and sizes, made of white or common green glass ; they 
generally taper toward the bottom, and frequently show grooves 
or raised points on their outer surfaces, so as to prevent the glass 
from slipping from the hand ; urns, oinochoai, and dishes of vari- 


cms sizes made of glass are of frequent occurrence (Fig. 452). 
Some of these are dark blue or green, others party-colored with 
stripes winding round them in zigzag or in spiral lines, reminding 
one of mosaic patterns. Pieces of glittering glass, being most 
likely fragments of -so-called allassontes versicolores (not to be 
mistaken for originally white glass which has been discolored by 
exposure to the weather), are not unfrequently found. We pro- 
pose to name in the following pages a few of the more important 
specimens of antique glass-fabrication. One of the finest among 
these is the vessel known as the Barberini or Portland Yase, which 
was found in the sixteenth century in the sarcophagus of the so- 
called tomb of Severus Alexander and of his mother Julia Mam- 
msea. It was kept in the Barberini Palace for several centuries, 
till it was purchased by the Duke of Portland, after whose death 

Fig. 452 

it was placed in the British Museum. After having been broken 
by the hand of a barbarian, it has fortunately been restored satis- 
factorily. Many reproductions of this vase in china and terra- 
cotta have made it known in wide circles. The mythological bass- 
reliefs have not as yet been sufficiently explained. Similar glass 
vases with bass-relief ornamentation occur occasionally either whole 
or in fragments. The present writer saw in the collection of the 
late Mr. Hertz, in London, a small tablet of transparent green 
emerald resembling a shield, in the centre of which appears an 
expressive head of a warrior in gilt opaque glass similar to the 
bass-reliefs of the Portland Yase ; this tablet is said to have been 
found at Pompeii. According to a story told by several writers 
in the time of Tiberius, a composition of glass had been invented 
which could be bent and worked with a hammer. 


We further mention a small number of very interesting gob" 
lets, which, to judge by their style, evidently belong to the same 
place of manufactory as the Portland vase. They perhaps belong 
to the class of goblets known as vasa diat/reta^ some specimens of 
which were sent by Hadrian from Egypt to his friends in Koine. 
The goblet, Fig. 453, foimd near Novara may serve as specimen. 
Winckelmann, in his " History of Art," gives a description of it. 
He speaks of a reticulated outer shell at some distauce from the, 
glass itself, and connected with it by means of thin threads of 
glass. The inscription, BIBE YIYAS MVLTIS ANNIS, is in 
projecting green letters, the color of the net being sky-blue, and 
the color of the glass itself that of the opal, i. e., a mixture of red, 
white, yellow, and sky-blue, such as appears in glasses that have 
been covered with earth for a long time. Three vases of a simi- 
lar kind have been found at Strasburg and Cologne (see " Jahr- 
biicher des Yereins von Alterthumsfreunden 
im Rheinlande," Year v., p. 337, Tafs. xi., 
xii.) ; all these distinctly show that they have 
been made of solid glass by means of a wheel, 
together with the net and letters. The highest 
prices were paid for the so-called Murrhine 
vases (vasa Murrhina) brought to Rome from 
the East. Pompey, after his victory over Mith- 
ridates, was the first to bring one of them to 
Rome, which he placed in the temple of the Capitoline Jupi- 
ter. Augustus, as is well known, kept a Murrhine goblet from 
Cleopatra's treasure for himself, while all her gold plate was 
melted. The Consularis T. Petronius, who owned one of the 
largest collections of rare vases, bought a basin from Murrha 
for 300,000 sestertii ; before his death he destroyed this match- 
less piece of his collection, so as to prevent Nero from laying hold 
of it. Nero himself paid for a handled drinking-goblet from 
Murrha a million sestertii. Crystal vases also fetched enormous 
prices. There is some doubt about the material of these Murrhine 
vases, which is the more difficult to solve, as the only vase in 
existence which perhaps may lay claim to that name is too thin 
and fragile to allow of closer investigation. It was found in the 
Tyrol in 1837 {see Neue Zeitschrift des Ferdinandeums, vol. v., 
1839). Pliny describes the color of the Murrhine vases as 



a mixture of white and purple ; according to some ancient 
writers, they even improved the taste of the wine drunk out of 

Fig. 454 shows two bronze jugs, at present in the Museo Bor- 

bonico, for the drawing 
or pouring out of liquor 
(compare the correspond- 
ing Greek forms, Fig. 198). 
The metal admitted of a 
more artistic treatment 
than the clay used by the 
Greeks. The more or less 
bent handles are adorned 
at their ends with figures, 
masks, or palmetto or- 
fig. 454. naments ; the gracefully- 

curved mouths of the 
vessels frequently show borders of leaves and branches ; the 
body of the vessel is either smooth or decorated by toreutic art. 
These vessels served for domestic uses, such as pouring water 
over the hands of the guests after dinner, or keeping the wine 
in. One particular kind of them, similar in form to the wine- 
vessels found on Christian altars, was reserved for libations 
(compare § 103). 

We finally mention two graceful vessels, one of which, made 

of bronze (Fig. 455), rep- 
resents a Roman fortified 
camp ; the walls, as well as 
the towers flanking them, 
are hollow ; into these 
boiling water was poured, 
in order to keep warm the 
dishes placed on the para- 
fig. 455. pet of the walls, or fitted 

into the centre hollow, 
which was also filled with water. The tower in the right corner . 
of our illustration shows a lid ; the water ran off through a tap 
on the left. The handles visible in Figs. 455 and 450 tend to 
show that both vessels were meant to be lifted on to the table. 



The construction of the latter heating-apparatus is of a compli- 
cated kind. A square box on four graceful legs supports a high, 
barrel-like vase with a lid to it ; the mask just underneath serves 
as a. safety-valve for the steam inside the vases ; a similar con- 
trivance appears on a semicircular water-box connected with the 
former. Three birds on the upper brim of the latter served as 
stands for a kettle. Whether the open box contained hot water 
or burning coals seems uncertain. 

The Greek custom mentioned in § 39 of decorating buildings 
with ornamental vases was further developed by the Komans, who 

Fig. 466. 

loved to place krateres, amphorae, urns, and paterae, in their rooms 
or on the outsides of their houses ; open halls and gardens were 
adorned in the same manner. Marble, porphyry, bronze, and 
precious metals, were used for these ornamental vases, several 
specimens of which, in stone and bronze, have been preserved to 
us. The Museo Borbonico in Naples possesses a pitcher or kettle 
with a richly-ornamented border, resting on three fabulous ani- 
mals ; also a bronze krater of great beauty. Fig. 457 shows a 
bronze mixing-vessel of Etruscan workmanship, of noble sim- 
plicity in form and decoration. Another vase of marble (Fig. 



Fig. 457. 

458) belongs both by its graceful shape and by the execution of 
its ornamental details to the finest specimens of antique art. It 
most likely came from a Greek workshop 
(some say from that of Lysippus), and .has 
been found among the ruins of Hadrian's 
villa at Tivoli ; at present it is in War- 
wick Castle, whence the name of War- 
wick Vase by which it is generally known. 
It has been frequently reproduced on a 
smaller scale ; a copy, in the original size, 
adorns the staircase of the Royal Muse- 
um, Berlin. 

Among the earthen vessels used for 
keeping wine and other liquors we men- 
tion the dolia, and the amphorce and 
cadi, specimens of which are to be found 
in all our larger museums. They are 
of rude workmanship, showing either two small handles or 
none at all. The former resembles a pumpkin ; the bodies of 
the latter are slender, ending in a point (see Fig. 459) ; they were 

dug into the earth about half- 
way, or put against the wall in 
an oblique position in order to 
prevent them from falling. In 
the latter position a number of 
these vessels have been found 
in the house of Diomedes at 

We subjoin a few remarks 
about the Roman way of mak- 
ing wine. After the grapes 
for eating had been separated, the remainder was put into 
coops and stamped on with the feet. After this the grapes 
were once more operated upon with a wine-press. The juice 
thus produced was poured into dolia or large tubs, and taken 
to the wine-cellars (cella vinaria), which, in order to make 
them cool, were always built facing the north. In these 
open tubs the wine was left to ferment for a year: after that 
it was either drunk or (in case its quality was to be improved 

Fig. 458. 


by longer keeping) poured from the dolia into the amphorae and 
cadi (diffundere). The amphorae, after having been pitched (hence 
vinum picatum) and cleaned with sea or salt water, were further 
rubbed with ashes of vines and smoked with burnt myrrh, after 
which they were closed with clay stoppers, and sealed up with 
pitch, chalk, or cement (oblinere, gypsare). A small tablet (tes- 
sera, notce, pittiacia) attached to the body of the vessel indicated 
the size of the vessel and the name of the wine, also the consul 
under whom it had been stowed away. One amphora, for instance, 
bears the following inscription— RYBR. YET. Y. P. CII. (ru- 
brum vetus vinum picatum CII.), i. e., old pitched red wine, con- 
tents 102 lagenoe. The amphorae were put in the upper story of 
the house, in order that the ascending smoke should give the 
wine a mild flavor (compare Horace, Od. iii., 8, 9). Owing to 
the copious sediment produced by this method, the wine had to 
be strained each time before it was drunk. Several strainers 
(eokim) made of metal have indeed been found at Pompeii. 
Sometimes a basin filled with snow (colum nivarium) was put on 
the top of a larger vessel. The wine was poured on the snow, 
through which it dripped into the amphora both cooled and fil- 
tered. Wooden barrels were not used in Rome in Pliny's time; 
they seem to have been introduced from the. Alpine countries at 
a later period. 

Innumerable different kinds of wine were grown in Italy, not 
to mention the Greek islands. The Romans became acquainted 
with the vine through the South Italian Greeks, who brought it 
from the mother-country. Italian soil and climate were favorable 
to its growth, and Italian growers were, moreover, encouraged 
by laws prohibiting the planting of new vineyards in the prov- 
inces. According to Pliny ("Natural Hist.," xxxiii., 20), the 
Surrentum (so. vinum) was the favorite wine of earlier times, 
afterward supplanted by the Falernum or Albanum. These and 
other celebrated wines were frequently imitated. Of great ce- 
lebrity were also the Csecubum (afterward supplanted by the 
Setinum), the Massicum, Albanum, Calenum, Capuanum, Mamer- 
tinum, Tarentinum, and others. Altogether eighty places are 
mentioned as famous for their wines, two-thirds of which were in 
Italy. Besides these we count about fifty kinds of liqueurs made 
of odoriferous herbs and flowers, such as roses, violets, aniseed, 



thyme, myrtle, etc., also several beverages extracted from various 

We possess several representations of vintages and of the 
process of pressing the grapes. In the centre of a bass-relief in 
the Yilla Albani (Panofka, " Bilder antiken Lebens," Taf. xiv., 
9) we see a large tub, in which three boys are stamping with 
their feet on grapes brought to them in baskets. The must runs 
from the large tub into a smaller one, whence another boy pours 
it into a vessel made of osiers secured with pitch ; to the right 
another boy pours the contents of a vessel of the same kind into 
a dolium. A wine-press is seen in the background. In another 
picture (Zahn, " Die schonsten Ornamente," etc., third series, Taf. 
13) we see three Sileni occupied in the same manner as the three 

We mentioned before (§ 38) that the custom, still obtaining in 

Fig. 459. 

the South, of keeping the wine in hides of animals, is of antique 
origin. The hairy part, rubbed with a resinous substance, was 
turned inside. Both Roman and Greek peasants brought their 
cheap wines to market in such skins inter). In case larger 
quantities had to be transported, several skins were sewed to- 
gether, and the whole put on a cart. Fig. 459 shows a wine-cart 
from a wall-painting, with which the interior of a tavern at 
Pompeii is appropriately decorated. The picture, which requires 
no further explanation, gives a vivid idea of a Roman market- 

92. Among all domestic utensils dug up, the lamps, particular- 



ly those made of bronze, claim our foremost attention, both by 
their number and by the variety of their forms. Lamps, like 
other earthenware utensils, were made in the most outlying set- 
tlements, or were (in case their designs were of a more elaborate 
kind) imported there from larger towns. The older Greek cus- 
tom of burning wax and tallow candles (candelce cerece, sebaceae) 
or pine-torches {see § 40) was soon superseded by the invention 
of the oil-lamp (lucerna) ; these candles, moreover, were always 
of a primitive kind, consisting of a wick of oakum (stuppa) or 
the pith of a bulrush (scirpus) dipped into the liquid wax or 
tallow, and dried afterward. Even the lighting of the rooms by 

Fig. 460. 

lamps (notwithstanding the elegant forms of the latter) was not 
on a par with other comforts and luxuries of Roman life. Glass 
chimneys were unknown, and the soot of the oil-lamps settling on 
furniture and wall-paintings had to be carefully sponged off by 
the slaves every morning. 

The lamp consisted of the oil-reservoir (discus, infundibulam), 
either circular or elliptic in form, the nose (nasus), through which 
the wick was pulled, and the handle (ansa). The material com-' 
monly used was terra-cotta, yellow, brownish red, or scarlet in 
color, frequently glazed over with silicate. The simplest forms 



of the lamp are specified in Fig. 460, d, e, I, m. All these lamps 
have only one opening for the wick (monomyxos, monolychnis), 
others (5, c, h) have two such openings {dimyxi, trimyxi,polymyxiy 
Birch (" History of Ancient Pottery," vol. ii., pp. 274 and 275) 
gives earthenware lamps with seven, and even twelve, nasi from 
originals in the British Musenm. The Eoyal Antiquarium in 
Berlin also possesses two earthenware lamps with twelve nasi. 
The disks and handles of many of these lamps are adorned with 
graceful bass-reliefs, representing mythological events, animals, 
domestic life, or battles, fights of gladiators, flowers, garlands, etc., 
frequently original in composition. Fig. 460, d, shows Apollo, I a 
Koman warrior standing by a battering-ram, m two soldiers fight- 

Fi<5. 461. 

ing. Of particular interest is Fig. 460, e representing an earthen- 
ware lamp, which, according to its inscription, was intended for a 
New-Tear's present (strence). 1 The device on the shield of the God- 
dess of Victory reads : ANNO NO YO FAVST VM FELIX TIBI. 
A number of lamps show on their bases inscriptions, either 
incised or in relief, indicative of the name of the potter, the 
owner, or the reigning emperor, etc. ; sometimes we also meet 
with trade-marks affixed to the lamps. 

1 Several lamps, intended as New Year's gifts, such as were habitually exchanged 
by friends among the Romans, are in the Royal Antiquarium of Berlin. 



The forms of the lamps in Fig. 460, b, i, are of an unusual 
kind. The former shows a sacellum with the enthroned figure of 
Pluto ; the latter has the semblance of a sandaled foot. Greater 
elegance and variety are displayed in the bronze lamps frequently 
found in our museums (Fig. 460, a,f, g, A, 1c). Herculaneum 
and Pompeii have yielded a number of 
beautiful specimens, counting among the 
most graceful utensils of antique times. 
To snuff the wick (putres fungi) and 
to pull it out, small pincers were used, 
numbers of which have been found at 
Pompeii ; another instrument serving the 
same purpose appears in Fig. 460, a, 
where the figure standing on the lamp 
holds it by a chain. 

In order to light up larger rooms 
these lamps were either put on stands or 
they were suspended by chains from 
lamp-holders or from the ceiling. These 
stands or lamp-holders (candelabrum) 
were, among the poorer classes, made of 
wood or common metal ; the rich, on the 
other hand, had them executed in the 
most graceful and elegant forms. The 
thin stem, sometimes fluted, sometimes 
formed like the stem of a tree, rises to a 
height of 3 to 5 feet, on a base generally 
formed by three paws of animals ; on 
this stem rests either a diminutive capi- 
tal or a human figure, destined to carry 
the plate (discus) on which the lamp 
stands. The shaft is frequently adorned 
with figures of all kinds of animals. 
Sometimes we see a marten or a cat crawl- 
ing up the shaft of the candelabrum, intent upon catching the 
pigeons carelessly sitting on the disk — a favorite subject, which 
occurs, with many variations, in the candelabra found in Etrus- 
can grave-chambers. Besides these massive candelabra, there 
were others with hollow stems, into which a second stem was in- 

Fig. 462. 



serted, which could be pulled out and fastened by means of bolts ; 
in this manner the candelabrum could be shortened or lengthened 
at will. Fig. 461, #, shows a candelabrum in the shape of a tree, 
the branches of which carry two disks for lamps. At the foot of 
the tree a Silenus is seated on a rock — an appropriate ornament, 
seeing that the lamp was destined to give light to merry to- 

Different from the candelabrum is the lampadarium. Here 
the stem resembles a column or pillar, and is 
often architecturally developed ; from the capital 
at the top issue several thin branches gracefully 
bent, from which the lamps are suspended by 
chains. Fig. 461, b and c, represent two elegant 
specimens of lampadaria ; in the latter the base 
takes the shape of a platform, on the front part 
of which we see an altar with the fire burning on 
it, and on the opposite side Bacchus riding on a 
panther. Each of the four lamps is made after 
a different pattern, which is also the case with 
the lamps in Fig. 461, h. 

All the candelabra and lampadaria hitherto 
mentioned could be placed and replaced as con- 
venience required ; others were too heavy to be 
moved. We are speaking of the long marble 
candelabra, specimens of which are shown in 
Figs. 462 and 463 ; they were placed as anathe- 
mata in temples, or in the halls of the rich, and 
on festive days blazing fires were lit on them. 
The sacred character of the candelabrum (Fig. 
462) is proved by the altar-like base resting on 
three sphinxes, and by the rams' heads at the corners. Cicero, 
in his impeachment of Yerres, mentions a candelabrum adorned 
with jewels destined by the sons of Antiochus for the temple of 
the Capitoline Jupiter, but appropriated by Yerres before it had 
reached its place of destination. The candelabrum (Fig. 463), 
the stem of which is supported by kneeling Atlantes, most likely 
belonged to a private mansion. 

Lanterns also (latema) have been found at Pompeii; they 

Fig. 463. 


consist of cylindrical cases protected by a cover, and attached to 
a chain. Transparent materials, such as horn, oiled canvas, and 
bladder, were used instead of glass, which was introduced at a 
later period. 

To conclude, we mention some Greek lamps, mostly found in 
Roman catacombs, which, by the Christian subjects of their bass- 
reliefs and by the sign of the cross and the monogram of Christ 
frequently found on them, can be distinguished from other con- 
temporary lamps, from which, however, they do not differ in form. 

93. To complete our description of domestic utensils, we must 
once more pass through the different rooms of the Roman house 
with the assistance of our plan (Fig. 386). Entering the ostium 
from the street we first observe the folding-doors (fores, hi/ores), 
made of wood, frequently inlaid with ivory or tortoise-shell ; in 
public buildings, particularly in temples, these always open out- 
ward, in private houses inward. They, however, did not, like 
the doors of our rooms, move on hinges, but on pivots (cardvnes) 
let into the lintel (limen superum) and the stone sill (limen in- 
ferwn). Holes for this purpose have been found in the thresh- 
olds of houses at Pompeii. Like the threshold, the door-post 
(postes) in good houses consisted of marble or of elegant wood- 
work. Knockers, fastened in the centre of the panel, may be 
seen in wall-paintings ; a few specimens of these have been pre- 
served. The janitor or porter (whose office was held in every 
good house by a particular slave, and whose box, cella ostiarii, 
was near the door) opened the door by pushing back the bolt 
(pessuli) or bar (sera, whence the expression reserare, to unbolt). 
Doors opening outward, particularly those of cupboards, etc., 
were not bolted, but closed 
with lock and key. Most 
of our larger museums pos- 
sess specimens of iron or 
bronze keys (Fig. 464). 
They are of all sizes, from 
the small ring-key (Fig. 464, 
a) attached to the finger- 
ring, or the small skeleton-key (Fig. 464, c), to the large latch-key. 
Frequently they are of a peculiar shape (Fig. 464, b), and the 
locks to which they were fitted must have been contrived with 


great mechanical ingenuity. A few locks have been preserved ; but 
most of them, like, for instance, those found at Neuwied, are in 
an almost decayed condition. 

There were no separate doors to the single rooms, which were 
closed only by curtains (vela), so as not to shut out the fresh air 
from the generally small bedrooms and sitting-rooms. Poles and 
rings for these curtains have been found at Pompeii. 

We now enter the interior of the house, undeterred by the 
rod (virga) or threatening list, which the porter (ostiarius) was 
wont to oppose to unwelcome visitors. A " SAL YE " on the 
threshold bids us welcome. We first come to the atrium, the 
centre of house and family, where stood the hearth with its Lares 
and Penates and the venerable marital couch (lectus genialis). 
Here, in ancient times, the matron, surrounded by her children 
and handmaidens, used to sit and weave. These old customs, 
however, soon disappeared. It is true that even at a later period 
the altar was reflected in the waves of the fountain ; but no fire 
was lit on it ; it remained in its place only as a tradition of 
former ages. Another memorial of ancient times are the family- 
portraits {imagines maiorum) looking down upon us from the 
opened wall-presses (armaria) surrounding the room. In the 
atria of old family houses were found masks of wax (cerce), taken 
from the features of the dead persons, with tablets (titulus, elo- 
giuin) telling of their names, dignities, and deeds, attached to 
them. " The lines of the pedigree " (Pliny, " Nat. Hist.," xxxv., 
2) " were drawn to the pictures, and the family archives filled 
with written and monumental evidence of their deeds. By the 
doors were seen representations of their valor, and near these were 
hung the weapons captured from the enemy, which even subse- 
quent owners of the house were not allowed to remove." This 
custom was abandoned when upstarts bought the old mansions, 
and placed the marble or bronze busts of fictitious ancestors in 
their niches. Needy scholars were not wanting to trace back 
pedigrees to iEneas himself. The craving for portrait-statues is 
ridiculed by Pliny, who says that the libraries frequently contain 
sculptural reproductions of features invented for the purpose, as, 
for instance, those of Homer. 

The wall-paintings found at Pompeii and Herculaneum, 
although belonging to provincial towns, afford us sufficient 




Fig. 466. 



insight to judge approximately of the art of painting as practised 
•among the Greeks; for this art also the Romans had adopted 
from them. How far the Greeks used this art for wall-decoration 
of their private houses is difficult to decide, seeing that all such 
houses have disappeared and that Greek authors only mention the 
large paintings found in public buildings. Perhaps private wall- 
painting, although certainly not unknown to the Greeks, was 
practised among the Eomans more extensively than among their 
instructors. Most of the better wall-paintings were undoubtedly 
executed by Greek artists living in Italy. In most cities there 
were guilds of painters, presided over by a master, perhaps of 
Greek birth, who himself made the designs of the better pictures, 
leaving the mechanical part of the work to his assistant. Many 
of the imperfect designs, however, found at Pompeii are evidently 
the work of inexperienced mechanics ; but even in these a certain 
grace of workmanship betrays the influence of Greek schools. 
The same influence is displayed still more distinctly in those fan- 
tastic arabesques which Vitruvius (" Arch.," vii., 3) considers as 
the excrescences of a degenerated taste. With this censure we 
are unable to agree fully ; for these compositions, although 
frequently hizarre, surprise us by the boldness and accuracy 
of their designs, which, at any rate, betray a thorough artistic 

Whether the remaining wall-paintings are originals or copies 
is in most cases impossible to decide : four monochromes at Her- 
culaneum have the name of the artist, Alexandros of Athens, 
added to them. The fact, however, that among the numerous 
paintings found in two neighboring towns, and frequently treat- 
ing the same subjects, no two compositions exactly like each other 
have been discovered, seems to prove that the copying of pictures, 
barring a few celebrated masterpieces, was not customary ; single 
features of compositions are, however, frequently repeated, which, 
like the uniform treatment of color and design, and the almost 
unvaried repetition of certain figures, tends to prove the existence 
of schools of decorative painters. 

All the different classes of wall-paintings specified by Vitru- 
vius — viz., architectural design, landscapes, still-lives, scenes from 
daily life, tragic and satirical representations, and renderings of 
mythical subjects — are specified by one or more examples among 



the wall-pictures of Pompeii and Ilerculaneum. Imitations of 
architectural materials, particularly of marble, occur frequently, 
as do also fanciful architectural designs, used mostly as frames of 
large surfaces adorned with pictures (Fig. 465) ; lofty buildings 
resting on thin columns, with winding staircases, windows, doors, 
and roofs of fantastic, almost Chinese, shape, throughout adorned 
with statuettes, garlands, and small animal pictures, are drawn 
in white or light-yellow contours on a dark background. Small 
views of the sea, with ships on it, of harbors, temples, vil- 
las {see Figs. 375, 394), halls, forests, and rocks, with figures 
in the foreground, paint- 
ed generally on friezes 
and bases of columns, 
give us an idea of Greek 
landscape-painting. The 
painter Tadius, in the 
reign of Augustus, was, 
according to Pliny, the 
inventor of this style of 
painting. Still-life is 
represented by numerous 
culinary subjects, such as 
game, fish and other ma- 
rine creatures, fruits, and 
pastry {see Fig. 479). 
Among genre pictures we 
count numerous scenes 
from daily life, such as 
interiors of workshops 

with genii as carpenters and cobblers, a fullonica with (Figs. 472, 
473) workmen, vintners carting home their grapes (Fig. 459), 
symposia, sales of Cupids, etc.; also representations connected 
with the theatre, both on the stage and behind the scenes, dancing- 
girls, and floating figures, the latter particularly being among the 
highest achievements of antique painting. We, moreover, refer to 
the above-described charming picture of a young lady with a pen- 
cil and writing-tablet in her hands, as also to that of a female 
painter (Fig. 466). The artist dips her brush into a color-box 
standing on a piece of column ; in her left she holds her palette ; 

Fig. 466. 


her eye rests on the herme of a bearded Bacchus, which she has 
been copying ; a boy kneeling by the base of the herme holds the 
canvas, with the picture of the god nearly finished. We mention 
in connection with this picture the name of Iaia of Kyzikos, who, 
according to Pliny, lived in Rome when Marcus Yarro was a 
young man : she painted with the brush and also engraved on 
ivory, chiefly female portraits ; in Naples she painted on a large 
tablet the portrait of an old woman, and also her own likeness 
from a looking-glass. 

Of mythological subjects we see specimens in all the more 
important houses at Pompeii, as, for instance, in the Casa delle 
Pareti Nere, Casa delle Baccanti, Casa degli Scienziati, Casa 
delle Sonatrici (with life-size figures), Casa di Adone, di Mele- 
agro, del Poeta Tragico : consisting of larger compositions or 
of single figures, these pictures occupy the centre spaces of the 
walls, either in square or round frames. Among single figures, 
we frequently meet with those of Jupiter and Ceres. Of sub- 
jects we mention the finding of Ariadne by Bacchus, Adonis 
bleeding himself to death in the arms of Yenus, Mars and Yenus, 
Luna and Endymion, not to mention numerous other amorous 
adventures of the gods, with which the lascivious taste of the 
time was wont to adorn bedrooms and triclinia. The same pref- 
erence for erotic and sentimental subjects appears in many 
pictures representing the mythical adventures of heroes ; others 
are treated in a purely artistic spirit without sensuous admixture. 
Among the latter we refer to the graceful picture of Leda, hold- 
ing in her hand the nest containing Helen and the Dioscuri; 
also to the pictures of the sacrifice of Iphigenia, Chiron giving a 
music-lesson to the youthful Achilles, the discovery of the same 
hero among the daughters of Lykomedes, and the abduction of 
Briseis from Achilles' s tent. The backgrounds of these pictures 
are black, reddish-brown, deep-yellow, or dark-blue ; particularly 
on black and dark-blue backgrounds the figures appear with a 
distinctness rivaling plastic art. This contrast of colors, no less 
than the effects of light and shade, and the grace and truth of 
many of the compositions, more than fully make up for occasional 
inaccuracies of drawing. 

In order to preserve the pictures, the most important ones 
among them have been sawed from out of the walls and 


removed to the Museum of Naples, where, after many of them have 
been partly destroyed by unskillful treatment, the remainder are 
now placed in a favorable position. Many of those not removed 
have partly or entirely been destroyed by the influences of day- 
light and weather; only in cases where the pictures had been 
protected in time by roofs has the process of decay been, at least, 
retarded. Two Germans, Zahn and Ternite, 1 deserve our grati- 
tude for having copied and published a number of the chief pict- 
ures at a time when they were still in a good state of preserva- 
tion. The accurate reproduction of designs and colors leaves 
nothing to be desired, which is more than can be said of the much 
more numerous copies which have appeared in the " Museo Bor- 
bonico." a The latter reproductions are without colors. In judg- 
ing of the effects of color in these pictures it ought to be remem- 
bered that they were intended to be seen by the subdued light of 
the atria and peristylia, or of the adjoining chambers, which had 
no windows of their own. 

A few words ought to be added about the mechanical method 
of painting among the ancients. Many authors speak about the 
gradual development of the art from the first silhouettes (linearis 
pictura) attempted at Korinth and Sikyon, to the painting of 
the outlines in monochrome. Darker lines were added to ex- 
press the various parts of the body and drapery ; and this led 
ultimately to a perspective, life-like conception of the human 
figure, in exactly the same gradual manner which we observed in 
vase-painting. About the time of Polygnotos the use of four 
colors, viz., white earth of Melos, red earth of Sinope, yellow- 
ochre of Attika, and black, began to supersede painting in mon- 
ochrome. The use of these four colors and their mixtures 
implied the fundamental notions of light and shade, the first 
introduction of which has been severally ascribed to Apollodoros 
of Athens, Zeuxis, and Parrhasios, the founder of the Ionic school. 
The highest degree of artistic skill was attained by the school 
of Sikyon, founded by Eupompos, and brought to its climax of 
perfection by Apelles. Unfortunately, no pictures of the great 

1 W. Zahn, " Die schonsten Ornamente und merkwiirdigsten Gemalde aus Pompeji, 
Herculanum und Stabiae." Series 1-3. Berlin, 1827-1859. Ternite, "Wandge- 
malde aus Pompeji und Herculanum." 11 parts. Berlin, 1839. 

3 " Real Museo Borbonico," vols, i.-xvi. Napoli, 1824-1857. 


Greek artists have come to us. The canvases of the great Greek 
masters were either brought to Rome as spoil or they were 
imported by the dealers. Even wall-pictures were sawed from 
out of the walls, in order to be framed and taken to Italy by the 
conquerors ; this was done, for instance, in several buildings of 
Sparta. All these paintings have been lost in the course of cen- 
turies. Only the burial-places of Etruria, the houses of Pom- 
peii and Herculaneum, some parts of the imperial thermae in 
Rome, and a few remnants of wall-paintings found in various 
other places, bear witness of the great perfection of Greek 
technique preserved in Italy even after the decay of Greek art 
itself. It has been proved by careful and still-continued inves- 
tigations that the substances used for the color were almost 
exclusively minerals : of animal substances we only know the 
slimy matter of the purple snail mixed with chalk ; the only 
vegetable substance used was the black of charcoal. As unmixed 
colors were used the white of chalk and the yellow of ochre, 
the admixture of chalk and minium to the latter producing light 
yellow and orange ; for blue, was used oxidized copper ; for red, 
red chalk or minium ; and for brown, burnt ochre. Green was 
only produced by mixture. Previously to applying the color (see 
Yitruvius, vii., 3, 8) one layer of plaster was laid on the wall, on 
the top of which one or more thin layers of fine mortar were add- 
ed : over these several layers of mortar mixed with powdered mar- 
ble or chalk were laid, the upper one being added before the lower 
had quite dried, by means of which the whole surface received a 
firmness and consistency almost equaling marble. The upper lay- 
ers were finally beaten down and smoothed by means of a wooden 
instrument called baculus (stick), the impressions of which are, 
according to Mazois, still recognizable on several walls at Pompeii. 
The painting was done either alfresco or a tempera. In the former 
case the colors, moistened with water, were put on the damp 
wall ; by means of a chemical amalgamation the picture was thus 
indelibly affixed to the hardening surface. In a tempera painting, 
the colors, after having received an admixture of size in order 
to make them adhesive, were put on the dry surface. Both 
methods have been used at Pompeii (see Overbeck, " Pompeji," 
second edition, vol. ii., p. 182, et seq.). The backgrounds were 
always painted alfresco, as were also generally the architectural 

MOSAIC. 471 

ornaments, imitations of colored stones ; and, in a few cases, the 
subject-pictures in the centre. As a rule, the latter, however, 
were painted a tempera on the alfresco background or imme- 
diately on the wall, a space being in that case left free for them ; 
the latter pictures may be removed from the wall in thin layers, 
while a removal of the alfresco paintings implies the destruction 
of the surface underneath. 

Encaustic colors were never applied in wall-decorations, al- 
though frequently in pictures painted on tablets or canvas. Col- 
ors prepared with a resinous substance have been found in the 
shop of a colorman belonging to the Casa del Arciduca, at Pom- 
peii. In order to preserve them from the influence of the open 
air the pictures were frequently coated over with varnish made 
of wax or resinous matter. 

94. The floors of the rooms consisted originally of clay, 
stamped or beaten to make it smooth, and mixed with potsherds 
to add to its firmness (pavimentum testaceum). Soon, however, 
this primitive method was superseded by a pavement consisting 
of slabs of white or party-colored marble, placed together in geo- 
metrical figures of three, four, or six angles (pavimentum sectile) ; 
sometimes also square tablets were composed into checkered 
patterns {pavimentum tessellatum). The latter kind of pavement 
was common in Italy even before the Cimbrian War ; it was 
applied, for the first time on a large scale, in the temple of the 
Capitoline Jupiter, after the beginning of the third Carthaginian 
"War (see Pliny, " Nat. Hist.," xxxvi., 25, 61). From this kind of 
pavement (which remained in use down to late Roman times) 
the mosaic proper was developed, the larger tablets being changed 
for small party-colored pieces of marble, valuable stones (such as 
onyx or agate), and glass, placed together in various patterns. 
The art of working in mosaic had been practised in the East from 
a very early period. The method of surrounding the centre 
pictures with decorative designs was adopted for these pavements 
from wall-painting. The dark stripes of the geometrical figures 
thus form, in a manner, the frames of the pictures themselves. 
Sometimes the whole floor of a room was occupied by one design, 
at other times by several smaller medallion-like pictures. Work 
of this kind received the name of mosaic {pavimentum musivum). 
Before the mosaic was placed, the ground underneath was firmly 

472 MOSAIC. 

stamped down, or received a foundation of slabs of stone ; to this 
foundation a layer of plaster, slow in drying and very adhesive, 
was added, into which the above-mentioned small pieces were 
inserted after a certain pattern ; the whole formed a compact 
mass, impenetrable to dust and rain. 

The mosaic floors found in almost every Roman house have 
mostly been well preserved under the rubbish of centuries. In 
the various Roman temples, baths, and dwelling-houses, we see 
numerous specimens of mosaic, varying from rude attempts to the 
highest perfection of workmanship. Remains of Greek mosaic 
preserved in Greece have not as yet been discovered, barring a 
rather rude composition of colored stones in the pronaos and 
peristylos of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. 

The compositions of the mosaic pictures are of the most varied 
kind, not to speak of the numerous decorative patterns of generally 
black lines on a white ground. Masks and scenic representations 
(mosaic of Palestrina), races in the circus (mosaic found at Lyons, 
see § 104), mythological representations (fight of Theseus with 
Minotauros, found among the ruins of Iuvavia, the modern 
Salzburg), historical battles (battle of Alexander in the Casa 
del Fauno, at Pompeii), musical instruments (mosaic pavement in 
the villa at Nennig, Fig. 245) — such are the subjects chosen, and 
executed with admirable neatness, by antique artists. Among 
the most celebrated mosaics no more in existence we mention the 
pavement of the dining-hall of the royal palace of Pergamum, 
executed by Sosus. It imitated a floor with the remains of a 
dinner lying on it ; the name applied to this hall was " the un- 
swept" (oIkos ao-dpcoros;), afterward transferred to all mosaic- 
work of a similar kind {opus asarotum). Pliny also mentions 
another mosaic in the same palace representing a dove sitting on 
the rim of a fountain, with the shadow of its head thrown on to 
the water. Perhaps the two mosaics seen in the villa of Hadrian 
and at Naples were imitations of those of Pergamum. Among 
mosaics still preserved, we mention particularly the large battle- 
scene found, in 1831, in the Casa del Fauno, at present to be seen 
in the Royal Museum, Naples. With regard to both size and 
beauty of composition it ranks among the finest works of 
antique art. It represents, most likely, the final victory of 
Alexander over Darius at Issos : both kings appear in the melee, 


the former piercing with his spear a noble Persian, the latter 
standing on his chariot surrounded by a few faithful followers : 
a horse is kept ready for his flight. From 
the left the Greek cavalry are making an 
irresistible attack on the wavering lines of 
the Persians. Helen, the daughter of Ti- 
mon the Egyptian, is said to have painted 
a picture of this battle, which Yespasian 
brought to Rome ; perhaps our mosaic is fig. 467. 

a copy of it. The accuracy of the details 
may be concluded from the fact that each square inch is com- 
posed of one hundred and fifty pieces of glass or marble. Fig. 
467 represents a mosaic found in the house of the Poeta Tragi co 
at Pompeii. 

Before leaving the house, we must cast a passing glance at the 
viridarium. Homer already mentions a large garden belonging 
to the palace of Alkinoos, king of the Phaiakai. Inclosed by a 
quadrangular wall, it contained the choicest kinds of pears, figs, 
pomegranates, olives, apples, and grapes, not to speak of beauti- 
ful beds of flowers. The water-supply was plentiful. Horticult- 
ure, however, limited itself to the indigenous productions of the 
soil: the importation of tropical plants was unknown both to 
Greeks and Romans. We quote a letter of the younger Pliny to 
give some idea of Roman horticultural art ; it somewhat reminds 
us of the style of the time of Louis XIY., as displayed in the gar- 
dens of Versailles. " In front of the portico of the house," Pliny 
says, speaking of his Tuscan villa, " lies a terrace cut into all kinds 
of shapes, and edged with box ; it is adjoined by a sloping lawn, 
at the side of which the box is cut into the forms of various ani- 
mals looking at each other. In the plain stands a cluster of deli- 
cate acanthus-plants, round which there is a walk, the latter being 
inclosed by a hedge of evergreen cut into different shapes and 
always kept under the shears. By the side of it an avenue re- 
sembling a race-course winds round clusters of box cut into vari- 
ous shapes, and trees not allowed to grow high. The whole is in- 
closed by a wall hidden from sight by box planted in a terrace-like 
manner. Behind the wall follows a meadow, pleasing by its natu- 
ral beauties no less than the garden by its artificial charms. Fields 
and many other meadows and groves lie around." After this 

474 DRESS. 

follows a glowing description of the villa itself, and the summer- 
house with its beautiful view of garden, fields, and woods. " In 
front of this building," he continues, " lies a roomy manege, open in 
the centre and surrounded by maple-trees ; ivy encircles their stems 
and branches, winding from one tree to another. Here you see 
a small meadow, there clusters of box cut into a thousand shapes, 
sometimes in the form of letters indicating the name of the owner 
or that of the gardener. You next come to a grove with a bench 
of white marble, overshadowed by a grape-vine propped by four 
small columns of Carystian marble. A small water-spout issues 
from the bench, as if caused by the pressure of those sitting on 
it; the water falls into a hollowed stone, whence it flows un- 
noticeably into another marble basin. In case people want to 
dine here, the heavy dishes are put on the rim of the basin, while 
the lighter ones, shaped like birds or fish, are set afloat on the 
water." Pliny, of course, is describing one of those large gardens 
belonging to the country-residences of the rich. In large cities, 
particularly in Rome, where every square foot of ground was 
of great value, gardens even of very moderate dimensions could 
be indulged in only at great expense. Such viridaria, deprived 
of the charms of living trees and flowers, but still showing the re- 
mains of verandas, statuettes, and fountains (compare " Pitture 
antiche d'Ercolano," vol. ii., Tav. 21), ponds, and borders of flow- 
er-beds, have been discovered among the ruins of Pompeii ; for 
instance, in connection with the houses of Diomedes, of Sallustius 
(see Fig. 390), of Meleager, of the Small Fountain, and of the Cen- 
taur. The existence of glass houses to protect tender plants from 
the cold of the winter is proved by the verses of Martial (viii., 14). 

95. The art of arranging in a picturesque manner the few 
pieces of clothing required by the southern climate of Italy, or 
by their feeling of propriety, the Romans had adopted at an ear- 
ly period from their Greek neighbors, aided in this respect by 
their own sense of the picturesque. The old republican type of 
the Roman dress, although to some extent modified with regard 
to shape and color by the luxurious habits of later times, still 
remained essentially unaltered. 

The Greek distinction between epiblemata and endymata re- 
appears in the amictus and indutus of the Romans ; the former 
class being chiefly represented by the toga, the latter by the tuni- 

THE TOGA. 475 

ca. The toga, the specifically national dress of the Romans, was 
originally put on the naked body, fitting much more tightly than 
the rich folds of the togas of later times. About the shape of this 
toga, which is described as a semicircular cloak (wepifioXcuov 
7]futcv/c\i,ov), many different opinions prevail. Some scholars con- 
sider it to have been an oblong piece of woven cloth like the 
Greek epiblemata described by us (§ 42) ; others construct it of 
one or even two pieces cut into segments of a circle. Here again 
we shall adopt in the main the results arrived at through practi- 
cal trials by Weiss (" Costiimkunde," p. 956, et seq.). The Roman 
toga, therefore, was not, like the Greek epiblemata, a quadrangu- 
lar oblong, but " had the shape of an oblong edged off into the 
form of an oval, the middle length being equal to about three 
times the height of a grown-up man (exclusive of the head), and 
its middle breadth equal to twice the same length. In putting it 
on, the toga was at first folded lengthwise, and the double dress 
thus originated was laid in folds on the straight edge and thrown 
over the left shoulder in the simple manner of the Greek or Tus- 
can cloak ; the toga, however, covered the whole left side and even 
dragged on the ground to a considerable extent. The cloak was 
then pulled across the back and through the right arm, the ends 
being again thrown over the left shoulder backward. The part 
of the drapery covering the back was once more pulled toward 
the right shoulder, so as to add to the richness of the folds." 
Counting the whole length of the toga at three lengths of a full- 
grown man, the first third of the toga would go to the front part 
of the drapery up to the height of the left shoulder, the second 
third to the part pulled across the back and under the right arm, 
the remaining third being occupied by the part pulled across the 
chest and again thrown over the left arm. If the toga is folded 
so that the two half -ovals are not congruent to each other, and 
that therefore the lower edges of the cloak do not fall together, 
the result will be that in putting on the toga two layers of cloth- 
ing will appear, the longer one reaching down to the calves (media 
crura), the shorter one only to the knee (see Fig. 468). The for- 
mer part of the cloak touches the body, the latter one lying out- 

The simpler, that is narrower, toga of earlier times naturally 
clung more tightly to the body ; a wide bend of the part reaching 



from the right arm across the chest to the left shoulder was 
therefore impossible. This rich fold in the later toga is com- 
pared by an author to the belt of a sword (qui sub humero dextro 
ad sinistrum obUque ducitur, velut balteus — Quinctil., xi., 3, 137). 
The same author adds that the old Koman toga had no such fold 
(sinus), which in the later toga was large enough to hide objects 

in. The part of the toga 
touching the ground was 
pulled across the sinus and 
arranged in large folds, as 
appears, for instance, from 
the statue of the Emperor 
Lucius Severus (Fig. 468). 
Whether the part thus ar- 
ranged was called umbo we 
will not venture to decide. 
Although the older toga 
impeded comparatively 
little the motions of the 
body, soldiers thought it 
necessary to tie the end 
thrown over the left shoul- 
der round their waists, so 
as to keep their arms free. 
This sort of belt (cinctus 
Gabinus) remained the 
military costume till the 
sagum was introduced : 
even after that time the 
belted toga used to be worn 
at certain religious rites, 
such as the founding of 
cities or the opening of the 
temple of Janus ; also by the consul when performing certain reli- 
gious ceremonies previously to setting out on a campaign. The 
Eomans had undoubtedly adopted this costume from the inhabi- 
tants of the neighboring Gabii, who on their part received it 
from the Etruscans. The later toga, with its rich folds covering 
the whole body, prevented each rapid motion which might have 

Fro. 468. 

TEE TOGA. 477 

disturbed their careful arrangement. In order to produce, and 
give a certain consistency to, these folds, they were arranged by 
slaves on the preceding evening ; sometimes small pieces of wood 
were put between the single folds, so as to form them more dis- 
tinctly. Pins or clasps to fasten the toga seem not to have been 
used. Small pieces of lead sewed into the ends, hidden by tassels, 
served to preserve the drapery ; a similar practice we noticed 
among the Greeks. 

The toga as the Roman national dress was allowed to be worn 
by free citizens only. A stranger not in full possession of the 
rights of a Roman citizen could not venture to appear in it. Even 
banished Romans were in imperial times precluded from wearing 
it. The appearance in public in a foreign dress was considered 
as contempt of the majesty of the Roman people. Even boys 
appeared in the toga, called, owing to the purple edge attached to 
it (a custom adopted from the Etruscans), toga prodexta. On 
completing his sixteenth, afterward his fifteenth, year {firocinium 
fori), the boy exchanged the toga praetexta for the toga mriUs, 
pura, or libera — a white cloak without the purple edge. Roman 
ladies (for these also wore the toga) abandoned the purple edge 
on being married. The toga praetexta was the official dress of 
all magistrates who had a right to the curulean chair and the 
fasces ; the censors, although not entitled to the latter, also wore 
the toga praetexta. Among priests, the Flamen Dialis, the pon- 
tifices, augures, septemviri, quindecimviri, and arvales, wore the 
praetexta, while acting in their official capacity ; tribunes and 
aediles of the people, quaestors and other lower magistrates were 
prohibited from wearing it. The toga picta and the toga palmata 
(the latter called so from the palm-branches embroidered on it) 
were worn hy victorious commanders at their triumphs ; also (in 
imperial times) by consuls on entering on their office, by the 
praetors at the pompa circensis, and by tribunes of the people at 
the Augustalia. Being originally the festal dress of the Capito- 
line Jupiter, this toga was also called Capitolina ; it was presented 
by the senate to foreign potentates. Masinissa, for instance, re- 
ceived a golden crown, the sella eurulis, an ivory sceptre, the toga 
picta, and the tunica palmata. 

Besides the somewhat unwieldy toga, there were other kinds 
of cloaks both warmer and more comfortable. In imperial times 


the toga was indispensable only in the law courts, the theatre? 
the circus, and at court ; under the Republic it was considered 
improper to appear in public without it. Among other cover- 
ings we mention the pce?iula, a cloak reaching down to the knees, 
adopted most likely from the Celts. It was without sleeves and 
fastened together at the back (vestimentum clausum), a round 
opening being left to put the head through. It was open at both 
sides, and had a seam in front at least two-thirds of its length 
from the neck downward. It consisted of thick wool or leather, 
and was worn by both men and women, over the toga or tunica, 
during journeys or in bad weather. At first it used to be made 
of a sort of foreign linen (gausapa), the outer side being rough, 
the inner smooth ; the woolen cloak (pcenula gausapina) was an 
introduction of later date. The psenula was, most likely, worn 
by soldiers sent to a rough climate. Another kind of cloak, 
also worn over the toga or tunica, was the lacerna. Its cut re- 
sembles that of the Greek chlamys, being an oblong open piece 
of cloth, fastened on the shoulder by means of a fibula. Although 
introduced much later than the psenula, it had become the com- 
mon costume of imperial times, in which Romans appeared even 
on festive occasions. Being made of thinner material than the 
paenula, the lacerna gave more opportunity for the artistic arrange- 
ment of the folds. Large sums were spent on well-made and par- 
ticularly well-dyed lacernae. As a further protection from wind 
and weather a hood (cucullus) was affixed to both psenula and 
lacerna ; to this we shall have to return. 

Similar in cut to the lacerna was the warrior's cloak, called 
originally trabea, later jpaludamentiim and sagum ; it is essentially 
identical with the Greek chlamys. The paludamentum, always 
red in color, was in republican times the exclusive privilege of 
the general-in-chief, who, on leaving for the war, was invested 
with it in the Capitol, and on his return changed it for the 
toga (togam paludamento mutare). In imperial times, when the 
military commandership was concentrated in the person of the 
emperor, the paludamentum became the sign of imperial dignity. 
It was laid round the body in rich, picturesque folds. The sagum 
or sagulum was a shorter military cloak, also fastened across the 
shoulder like a chlamys ; it was worn by both officers and private 
soldiers in time of war. The sagum of imperial times was longer 


than that of the Republic. In the representations of " Allocu- 
tions," frequently occurring on monuments (for instance, on the 
arch of Septimius Severus and the Columna Antoniniana, Fig. 
530), both officers and privates appear in richly-draped saga, reach- 
ing down to the knees. The name sagulum most likely applies 
to the short mantle reaching hardly lower than the hips which 
is worn by the barbarian soldiers in the bass-relief of the arch of 

About the form of an article of dress called by the Greek 
name of synthesis we are entirely uncertain ; we do not even 
know whether to class it as amictus or indumentum. Out-of-doors 
it was only worn by the highest classes of society at the Satur- 
nalia ; in-doors it was usually worn at dinner (vestes cenatorice). 
Nevertheless the synthesis never appears in the numerous repre- 
sentations of festive meals. An epigram of Martial, in which 
Zoilus is made fun of for changing this synthesis eleven times, 
owing to its being saturated with perspiration, seems to indicate 
that it must have been a close-fitting dress like the tunica. 

The tunica was put on in the same way as the Greek chiton. 
Its cut was the same for men and women, and its simple original 
type was never essentially modified by the additions of later 
fashion. It was light and comfortable, and was worn especially 
at home ; out-of-doors the toga was arranged over it. Like the 
chiton, it could be worn with or without sleeves, and reached 
down to the calves ; underneath the chest it was fastened round 
the body with a girdle (cinctura), across which it was pulled and 
arranged in folds in the Greek fashion. The persons carrying the 
temple-treasure of Jerusalem on the arch of Titus (see Figs. 536 
and 537) wear the simple tunica arranged in this manner. In 
statues clad with the toga, the dress covering the upper part of 
the body to the neck must be designated as tunica (Fig. 468, com- 
pare the statues of Julius Coesar, Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius, 
in Clarac, " Musee de Sculpture," Nos. 916, 924, 912 A, 936 B). 
The soldiers on the monuments of imperial times wear the tunica 
underneath their armor or sagum. About the time of Commodus 
sleeves were added to both male and female tunics (tunica mani- 
cata), covering the arm almost to the wrist ; in a late Roman bass- 
relief we even see a prolongation of the sleeve resembling a cuff ; 
this kind of tunica is also called dalmatica. At a later date two 



or three tunics were put on in cold weather ; Augustus is said to 
have worn four in the winter. The tunic nearest to the body 
was called subucula ; the one over this, intusium or mpparus. 
A tunic with a purple edge was the privilege of senators and 
knights, the sign of the ordo senatorius being one broad stripe, 
that of the ordo equester two narrower ones ; the former ornament 
was called clavus latus, the latter clavus angustus, whence the 
distinction between tunica laticlavia and tunica angusticlavia. 

Fig. 469. 

"Women also used to wear a double tunica, the one nearest to 
the body (tunica interior) being a close-fitting sleeveless chemise 
reaching down over the knee. No girdle was required for it ; 
a thin band (mammillare, strophium) served to support the bosom. 
Above the lower tunica the long stola fell in many folds ; as to 
its cut and the way of putting it on we refer the reader to our 
remarks about the simple Doric chiton of Greek women. Like 



this, the stola was an oblong chemise, cut open on the two upper 
sides, the open ends being fastened on both shoulders by means of 
clasps (compare the statue of Livia in " Mus. Borbon.," vol. iii., 
Tav. 37). Underneath the bosom the stola was fastened to the 
body by means of a girdle, through which it was pulled, so that 
its lower edge just touched the ground. 
In case the tunica had sleeves, the stola 
worn over it had none, and vice versa. 
The sleeves of the tunica or stola were 
cut open, and the ends fastened together 
by means of buttons or clasps, in the same 
manner as described by us in speaking of 
Greek dress {see the celebrated marble 
statue of the younger Faustina, Fig. 469 ; 
also Fig. 471). An essential part of the 
stola is the furbelow (instita) or orna- 
mental border attached to the bottom of 
the dress {see Fig. 471). 

Out-of-doors women wore a cloak 
{palla), appearing frequently on statues. 
Its cut resembled either that of the toga 
or that of the Greek himation, arranged 
in graceful folds according to the taste 
of the wearer, unrestricted by the laws 
of fashion, which exactly prescribed the 
folds of the male toga. A third kind of 
palla seems to have consisted of two 
pieces of cloth fastened over the shoulders 
with fibula, and either falling down in 
loose folds or fastened round the body 
by means of a girdle. These three 
kinds of the palla occur on monuments, 
the first-mentioned being seen most fre- 
quently on the statues of matrons of the 

imperial family, or other portrait-statues of imperial times. Some- 
times the back part of the palla is drawn over the back of the 
head in the manner of a veil {see the statue of the younger Agrip- 
pina, Fig. 470). Other graceful arrangements of the palla appear 
in Fig. 469, and on a seated statue of Agrippiha, the wife of Ger- 

Fig. 470. 



manicus, in the Museum of Florence. Before the introduction of 
the palla, Roman ladies used to wear a shorter and tighter square 
cloak, called ricinium, which afterward seems to have been worn 
only at certain religious ceremonies. Similar articles of dress 
were the rim and suffibulum, the former worn by the Flaminica, 
the latter by the Yestals in the manner of a veil. Fig. 471 repro- 

Fio. 471. 

duces a graceful picture found in a room at Herculaneum (1761), 
with several others, leaning against the wall. It is generally 
designated as the " Toilet of the Bride." On a throne is seated 
the still youthful mother of the bride, dressed in the stola, tied 
round the body with the strophium. The lower part of the body 
is covered by the folds of the palla; down her back floats a 


long veil fastened to the back of her head. Her right arm ten- 
derly embraces the neck of her daughter ; both are gazing at the 
bride standing in the middle of the room. The stola of this, her 
second, daughter shows the broad instita already mentioned ; its 
open sleeves, or those of the tunica underneath, are fastened to 
the upper arm by means of buttons. She wears a palla of the 
toga kind over her other garments. A maid-servant, standing 
behind her, is clad in a stola (with sleeves reaching down to the 
wrists) and a palla. 

Up to the end of the Republic the only materials used for 
these dresses were wool (lanea) and linen (lintea). The togae were 
made of various kinds of wool, those of Apulia and Tarentum 
being considered the best among Italian, and those of Attica, 
Laconica, Miletus, Laodicea, and BEetica, the finest of foreign 
materials. "Women's underclothing was made of linen, the ma- 
terials of Spain, Syria, and Egypt being preferred to those of 
Italian origin. Both materials were worked into lighter dresses 
for the summer, and warmer ones for the winter. Silk dresses 
{holoserica) and half-silk dresses (subserica) began to be worn by 
ladies about the end of the Republic; under the Empire they 
were even adopted by men, notwithstanding the prohibitory law 
of Titus. About the importation of raw silk from Asia into 
Greece, and thence into Italy, we have spoken before. We only 
add that the transparent sea-green veils, made principally in the 
isle of Kos, occur repeatedly in wall-pictures (see " Mus. Borbon.," 
vol. viii., Tav. 5, iii., 36, vii., 20). Goat's-hair was used only for 
coarse cloaks, blankets, and shoes. 

The usual color of the dress was originally white (for the 
toga this was prescribed by law) : only poor people, slaves, and 
freedmen, wore dresses of the natural brown or black color of 
the wool, most likely for economical reasons. Only the mourn- 
ing dresses of the upper classes showed dark colors (toga j)ulla, 
sordida). In imperial times, however, even men adopted dresses 
of scarlet, violet, or purple, colors formerly worn only by women. 
Fig. 471 may serve to illustrate the different colors of the dresses. 
The veil of the mother is blue, her stola of a transparent white, 
through which one sees the flesh-color of the bosom ; her palla 
is reddish-white, with a bluish-white border. The stola of the 
daughter nearest the mother is also reddish-white, her palla being 


yellow, with a bluish-white border. Yellow was, according to 
Pliny, a favorite color with women, particularly for brides' 
veils. The bride wears a reddish-violet stola, adorned with an 
embroidered instita of darker hue ; her palla is light-blue. The 
servant wears a blue upper dress with white underclothing. 
Frequently the inside of dresses appears in the pictures of another 
color than the outside. In a picture, for instance, representing 
Perseus and Andromeda (Zahn, "Die schon. Orn.," Series 3, 
Taf. 24), the outside of Perseus's dress is reddish-brown, the 
inside white ; while Andromeda's dress is yellow outside and blue 
inside. Perhaps these dresses were lined with material of a 
different color. 

Particularly interesting are the purple-colored silk or woolen 
dresses of the Komans ; the raw materials were subjected to the 
dyeing process. Two kinds of snails, the trumpet-snail (buccinum, 
murex) and the purple snail proper (purpura, pelagia), yielded 
the color ; the exudations of the latter were, in reality, of a yel- 
lowish-white color, but by the combined influence of the sun and 
of dampness they turned into a rich violet color. The scarlet 

juice of the buccinum was generally mixed with purple color in 
order to prevent its fading. The purple color proper had two 
shades, a black and a red one ; it was applied either pure or mixed 
with other substances. By means of these mixtures, and by dip- 
ping the cloth into the color more than once, the ancients con- 
trived to produce no less than thirteen different shades and 
nuances of color. By mixing blackish-purple with the buccinum- 

juice the favorite amethyst-violet and hyacinth-purple colors were 
produced Jianthinum, violaceum}. In order to gain brightness 
and intensity of color the dress was dyed twice (bis tinctus, 
8lj3a(j>o<;), being dipped first into the purple juice and afterward 
into that of the buccinum. Looked at straight, the blood-red dress 
thus prepared had a blackish tint, looked at from underneath it 
showed a bright-red color. The double-dyed purple dresses, par- 
ticularly those of Tyrian and Laconic origin, fetched the highest 
prices, a pound of double-dyed Tyrian wool being sold at 1,000 
denarii (about £43), while a pound of the above-mentioned violet- 
amethyst-purple wool cost only £15. 

At first only the broad or narrow hems of togas and tunicas 
(worn by senators, magistrates, and knights) were colored with 



genuine purple (blatta) ; those of private persons being dyed with 
an imitation purple. The white toga, with a hem of genuine 
purple, remained the official dress of certain magistrates ; but as 
early as the last years of the Republic it became the fashion 
among men to wear entire purple togas. The first to wear one 
of these as the sign of highest dignity was Julius Caesar, who, 
like several successive emperors, tried to stem the luxurious habit 
by restrictive laws ; which, however, became soon disregarded. 
The wearing of genuine purple, however, remained the exclusive 
privilege of the emperors. Even women were punished for 
infringing this law, as were also merchants for trafficking in the 
genuine article. 

After being woven the materials of the dresses were further 
prepared with needle and scissors, as is sufficiently proved by the 
cut of most of the under-dresses, particularly of the paenula and 
tunica. Most of the Greek dresses were worn unsewed. In 
Rome each wealthy household counted among its slaves several 
tailors (vestiarii, pcenularii). The existence of guilds of profes- 
sional tailors is established beyond doubt. The guilds of fullers 
and dyers carried on two important trades connected with cloth- 
ing. The old Greek custom for kings' daughters to superintend 
personally the cleaning of clothes was, if ever imitated by the 
Roman ladies of noble families, soon abandoned by them. The 
cleaning, moreover, of the white woolen materials chiefly worn 
among the Romans required arti- 
ficial means. For this purpose the 
guild of the fullers (fullones) was 
established at an early period ; like 
that of the cloth- weavers (collegium 
textorum jpanni), it did a large and 
profitable business. The shop and 
the work of a fuller are illustrated 
by the remains of a fullery (ful- 
lonica) found at Pompeii, and also 
by several paintings on its walls 

(see Figs. 472 and 473). Near the back wall are four large tanks 
consisting of masonry, and connected with each other, but on a 
different level, in order to let the water run from the highest to 
the lowest. A raised platform runs along these tanks, which one 

Fig. 472. 



ascends on several steps. To the right of it lie six small com- 
partments destined, most likely, to receive the washing-tubs. 
To the right of the peristylium there is, moreover, a vaulted 
chamber containing a large tub and a stone table to beat the 
clothes on. Large quantities of soap have been found in this 
apartment, which was the washing- room proper. On one of the 
corner pillars of the peristylium four wall-paintings have been 

discovered illustrative of 
the work of a fuller. In 
the first (Fig. 472) we 
see, standing in niches, 
several tubs filled with 
water, in the centre one 
of which a fuller is tread- 
ing on the clothes, for 
the purpose of cleaning 
them ; in the tubs on 
both sides (we only re- 
produce part of the pict- 
ure) two other men are 
occupied in pulling the 
clothes out of the water, and in rubbing off such stains as may 
remain on them. After this the clothes were once more rinsed 
with pure water, to remove the nitre or urine frequently used in 
fulling. The other picture (Fig. 473) introduces us to a different 
part of the fullery. In the background a workman is brushing a 
white dress with a purple hem which hangs over a pole ; on the 
right another workman approaches with a frame resembling a 
hen-coop, across which the clothes were drawn for the purpose 
of sulphuration ; the vessel carried by the man most likely con- 
tains the necessary sulphur. On the top of the frame the bird of 
Athene Ergane, the goddess of industry, has appropriately been 
placed. In the foreground is the seated figure of a richly-dressed 
woman, who seems to examine a piece of cloth given to her by a 
young work-girl. The third picture, not here reproduced, shows 
the drying-chamber, with pieces of cloth hung on poles for dry- 
ing. A fourth picture shows a press with two screws, for the 
final preparation of the cloth. 

96. With regard to Roman head-coverings of men we have 

Fig. 473. 


little to add to our remarks about Greek hats {see § 43, Fig. 222). 

Most of the forms there shown also occur among the Romans. 

The Roman, like the Greek, generally wore his head uncovered, 

the toga pulled over the back part of the head being sufficient 

shelter in case of need. The pileus and petasus, however, were 

worn by the poorer working-classes continually 

exposed to the weather, and by rich people on 

journeys or at public games as a protection from 

the sun. The pileus was occasionally replaced 

by the hood {cueullus, cucullio), introduced into 

Rome from northern countries,. most likely from 

Gaul, North Italy, and Dalmatia. The cueullus 

was either fastened to the psenula or lacema like 

the cowl of a monk, or it was worn as a separate 

article of dress. A cueullus of the latter kind, ^ G , 474# 

covering head and body down to the knees, is 

worn in a bass-relief by a traveler who is just settling his bill 

with the hostess of his inn (" Bullet. Napoletano," vi., 1) ; the 

smaller cueullus is worn in a wall-painting by several persons at 

a rural feast (Fig. 474). 

The custom of leaving the head uncovered naturally led to a 
careful treatment of the hair. According to Varro, Romans used 
to wear long hair and long floating beards covering chin and 
cheeks till the year 454 of the city. At that time the first barbers 
{tonsores) came to Rome from Sicily ; Scipio Africanus is said to 
have been the first Roman who had himself shaved iradere) with 
a razor (novacula) every day. The fashion of wearing the hair 
cropped short seems to have made slow progress, and only 
among the higher classes. The hair was either worn in wavy 
locks, or it was arranged in short curls {cincinni) by means of 
a curling-iron resembling a reed, and for that reason called 
calamistrum ; the slaves charged with this manipulation were 
called ciniflones. The different ways of wearing the hair become 
apparent from a comparison of the numerous male portrait-heads 
occurring on coins and statues. " Swells " of the period of moral 
decline managed to twist their hair into all kinds of unnatural 
shapes. A common fashion was, for example, to wear curls 
arranged in several steps {coma in gradus formata), such as 
found on the head of M. Antonius at Venice. Of the Emperor 


Gallieniis it is told that he had his hair powdered with gold-dust. 
About the beginning of the Empire it was a common custom, 
both among men and women, to wear false hair (capillamenfaim), 
either to hide bald places or to give a fuller appearance to the 
natural hair. Sometimes also hair was painted on the bald head, 
so as to produce the semblance of short hair, at least at a distance 
(compare Martial's Epigram, vi., 57). The close-cropped hair 
seems to have been the fashion from the time of the Emperor 
Macrinus to that of Constantine. 

Full beards became again the fashion about the time of Ha- 
drian. Up to the time of Constantine an uninterrupted series of 
portrait-heads of emperors on coins yields excellent inf ormation 
with regard to these matters ; afterward the type of the coins 
degenerates. Between the reigns of the two above-mentioned 
emperors the heads appear with full beards, with only a few 
exceptions, as, for instance, the heads of Elagabalus, Balbinus, 
Philippus the younger, and Hostilianus, which are always repre- 
sented with smooth chins. Barber-shops (tonstrind) were natu- 
rally of frequent occurrence among the Komans. They were the 
gathering-places of all idlers and the centres of town-gossip in 
Italy, as well as in Greece. They were well furnished with 
razors (novacula\ tongs (volsella) to pull out the hairs of the 
beard, scissors (axisia), several pomatums to destroy the hair in 
certain places, combs (pecten), curling-irons (calamistrum), mirrors 
(speculum), towels, etc. The small so-called barber's shop in the 
street of Mercury at Pompeii, next to the fullonica, can, it is 
true, not have accommodated many persons at a time ; but, most 
likely, the establishments in the capital were on a larger and more 
splendid scale. 

Women do not seem to have worn hats ; they generally pulled 
their palla over the back of their heads (see Fig. 470). Still 
more picturesque was the veil fastened to the top of the head 
(Fig. 471), and dropping over neck and back in graceful folds. 
The mitra was a cloth wound round the head in the manner of a 
cap ; it resembled the Greek sakkos, and served to keep the hair 
in its position (see the servant, Fig. 471 ; and Fig. 232, where 
the woman sacrificing in front of the bridal-chamber wears the 
sakkos). This cap frequently consisted of the bladder of an 
animal ; it never reached higher than the top of the head ; 


the front-hair was always arranged in graceful, wavy lines. A 
more handsome head-covering was the net made of gold-thread 
(reticulum), also worn by Greek and indeed by our modern ladies 
(see Fig. 473, where the seated female wears it). 

More variegated were the ways of dressing the hair as illus- 
trated by the numerous female statues of imperial times. Ovid 
remarks that " the different ways of dressing the hair in Rome 
were equal in number to the acorns of a many-branched oak, to 
the bees of the Hybla, to the game on the Alps, every new day 
adding to the number." Compared with this variety even the 
numerous hair-dresses appearing on coins, representing empresses, 
ladies of the imperial court, or private persons, seem few in num- 
ber. At the same time they are representative of the leading 
fashions. In the first centuries of the Republic the hair was 
arranged in a simple, graceful manner, in accordance with the 
general character of the dress. The long hair, either parted or 
un parted, was combed back in wavy lines, and plaited or tied in 
a knot (crines in nodum vincti, crines ligati), sometimes arranged 
round the top of the head like a crown, at others fastened low 
down the neck by means of ribbons or clasps (see the daughter 
standing by the mother's side, Fig. 471). Another fashion was 
to arrange the hair round the head in long curls, or to arrange the 
front-hair in thick plaits, connecting it with the back-hair, etc. 
The form of the face and the taste of the lady naturally were 
decisive in this matter (compare Ovid, " Ars Amat.," iii., 137, 
et seq). Married ladies were, at least in earlier times, excluded 
from this license ; they always used to arrange their hair in a 
high toupe, called tutulus, fastened on the top of the head by 
means of ribbons. This at least, seems to us the right explana- 
tion of the description of the tutulus by Yarro (vii., 44): "Tutu- 
lus appellator ah eo quod matres familias crines convolutos adver- 
ticem capitis quos habe?it vitta velatos, dicebantitr tutuli, sive ah eo 
quod id tuendi causa capillijiebat, sive ah eo quod altissimum in ur- 
be quod est, arx, tutissimum vocatur." Perhaps the arrangement 
of the mother's hair in Fig. 471 ought to be described as a tutulus 
fastened with gold rings instead of ribbons. The original simple 
and beautiful arrangement of the hair was soon superseded by 
fantastic structures of natural and artificial hair, justly described 
by Juvenal (vi., 502) as " towers of many stories." Hairdress- 


ing became a science, and occupied a considerable part of a 
fashionable lady's time. Special maid-servants were employed 
for the purpose, whose naked arms frequently had to suffer the 
pricks of the needle of the fastidious beauty, who perhaps all 
the while seemed to listen to the speeches of philosophers and 
rhetoricians. Among the numerous heads illustrating the hair- 
fashions of imperial times we have chosen the portraits of three 
empresses (Fig. 475), viz., those of Sabina, wife of Hadrian (a), 
of Annia Galeria Faustina, wife of Antoninus Pius (#), and of 

Julia Domna, wife of 
Septimius Severus (c). 
The natural hair was 
frequently insufficient 
for the tower-like coif- 
fures, and the want had 
to be supplied either 
by false plaits or by 
complete wigs. Even 
plastic art imitated this 
custom by adding to the head a removable marble hair-dress 
which could be replaced by a new one according to fashion. In 
the Royal Collection of Antiques, Berlin, there is a bust with 
movable hair, ascribed to Lucilla. The custom of dyeing their 
hair became common among Roman ladies at an early period. As 
early as Cato's time the Greek custom of dyeing the hair a red- 
dish-yellow color had been introduced in Rome ; caustic soap (spu- 
ma caustica, also called spuma Batawa), made of tallow and ashes, 
was imported from Gaul for the purpose. The long wars of the 
Romans with the Germans engendered among Roman ladies a 
predilection for the blond hair of German women (flavce com.ce) ; 
this hair became, in consequence, a valuable merchandise: Ro- 
man ladies used to hide their own hair under fair wigs of German 

We have already mentioned the numerous pomatums and bal- 
sams used for dressing and scenting the hair, by both men and 
women. Cicero speaks of the demoralized companions of Catili- 
na as shining with ointments. Kriton, the body-physician of the 
Empress Plotina, gives in his work on " Cosmetics " the receipts 
of twenty-five different pomatums and scents. 



Ribbons and pins served at once to fasten and adorn the 
hair. These ribbons (worn, for instance, by the daughter 
standing by the mother's side, Fig. 471) were adorned with 
pearls and jewels; frequently they were replaced by a ring of 
thin gold or gold-thread (see the hair of the mother and the 
bride, Fig. 471). Strings of pearls also were tied up with the 
hair (see the hair-dress of the Empress Sabina, Fig. 475, a), with 
the addition of a stephane studded with jewels (Fig. 475, a, b). 
Not the least graceful adornment of the hair were the wreaths, 
consisting either of leaves of flowers joined together (coronce su~ 
tiles) or of branches with leaves and blossoms (coronce plexites). 
In a wall-painting of Pompeii (" Mus. Borb.," vol. iv., Tav. 47) 
we see four Cupids sitting round a table, occupied in arranging 
wreaths and garlands. 

Hair-pins, made of metal or ivory, have been found in great 
numbers and varieties. We reproduce (Fig. 476, a, b, c, h, i, k) 
some of the more 
graceful ones worked 
in ivory, one of which 
(c) shows Yenus rising 
from the sea and strok- 
ing back her wet hair, 
a common subject of 
antique sculpture. Fig. 
476, 0, shows a poma- 
tum-box with a reclin- 
ing Cupid in bass-relief 

represented on it ; f, a bronze comb (peeten), which was used (as by 
the Greeks) only to comb, never to fasten, the hair. A very elegant 
bronze comb adorned with colored stones was found some time 
ago near Aigle, and is at present in the Museum of Lausanne. 
Combs made of box or ivory are preserved in many of our museums. 

We have given (§ 46) a comprehensive account of the sandals, 
the boots, and the shoes, used among the Greeks. The same 
remarks apply essentially also to Roman foot-coverings ; little 
remains to be added. The equivalent of the Greek sandal is the 
Roman solea (worn by the mother, Fig. 471). They were worn 
by men and women at home, and on all occasions where the offi- 
cial toga did not require a corresponding foot-dress. At table the 


soles were taken off, for which reason the two expressions, demure 
soleas and poscere soleas, are synonymous with lying down to, 
and getting up from, table. It is, however, unlikely that even 
in older times the Romans ever appeared in public with naked 
feet, as is told of the Greeks. The solea, like the tunica and la- 
cernse, belonged to private life ; the official toga required the cor- 
responding calceus, a closed high shoe resembling our ladies' boots. 
Calcei are frequently worn by male and female statues. Official 
distinctions were, however, made. The calceus fastened to the 
ankle and calf with four strings (corrigice), and, moreover, adorned 
with a crescent-shaped piece of ivory (lunula) on the top of the 
foot, was most likely worn by senators, being, in that case, iden- 
tical with the black calceus senator ius, as distinguished from 
the calceus patricius or mulleus. The mulleus, made of red leath- 
er, and with a high sole like a cothurnus, was originally worn 
by the kings of Alba, but afterward adopted by the patricians : 
it reached up to the calf ; little hooks (inalleoli) were attached 
to its back leather for the purpose of fastening the laces. The 
calceus was cleaned with a sponge, as is proved by the bronze 
statuette (in the late Hertz collection) of an Ethiopian slave occu- 
pied in that manner. 1 

Besides the calceus, we find on statues numerous varieties of 
the sandal, and also a sort of stocking tied with laces from the 
instep to the calf ; the name of the latter is entirely unknown to 
us ; it appears frequently on the warlike statues of emperors, the 
upper borders, made of cloth or leather, being adorned with the 
heads of lions and other animals,, worked most likely in metal 
(see, for instance, the statues of Caesar, Tiberius, Caligula, Yitel- 
lius, Hadrian, and others, in Clarac, "Musee," pi. 891, et seq.). 
The just-mentioned combination of toga and calceus has, however, 
not always been preserved by the artists : the statues, for instance, 
of Cicero in the Museum of Yenice, of Sulla at Florence, and of 
M. Claudius Marcellus in the Museo Chiaramonti, wear sandals ; 
while, on the other hand, the statue of Balbus in the Museo Bor- 
bonico, and many other portrait-statues, correctly wear calcei with 
the toga. 

The caliga was a sort of military boot of imperial times. 

1 " Catalogue of the Collection of Assyrian, etc., Antiquities f&rmed by Hertz." Re- 
vised by W. Koner. London, 1851. Tab. iii. 


Cams Caesar received his nickname Caligula from this boot. The 
caliga was most likely a boot with a short top, turned over at the 
upper edge, resembling the Spanish boots of the middle ages 
(compare Fig. 523). 

Sandals and shoes were fastened to the foot by means of 
straps tied round the foot and the leg, from the ankle upward. 
These straps mostly covered about half of the calf (fascim crura- 
les, tibiales), extending, however, sometimes up to the thigh (fas- 
cice feminales) ; the latter mode of wearing them was considered 
to be effeminate. On historic monuments of imperial times we see 
Roman legionaries clad in socks reaching up to the middle of 
the calf, and fastened with straps covering the heel, foot (with 
the exception of the toes), and the leg, up to some inches above 
the ankle ; they were, most likely, part of the military dress, and 
very convenient for marching. 

Breeches (braccce) were originally worn by barbarous nations, 
but adopted by Roman soldiers exposed to northern climes. The 
trumpeters opening the procession, and the soldiers carrying Vic- 
tories (Figs. 532, 533), are clad in trunk-hose, similar to those 
worn by the barbarians following the triumphal chariot (Fig. 538, 
compare Fig. 526). The Persian warriors in the Pompeian mo- 
saic of the "Battle of Alexander" wear close-fitting breeches 
similar to the tights in which Amazons are generally depicted {see 
Fig. 272). 

97. We add a few remarks with regard to the numerous or- 
naments made of precious metals, ivory, jewels, and pearls, some 
of them of artistic value, which have been found at Pompeii and 
other places, particularly in graves. Hair-pins, ear-rings, neck- 
laces, bracelets, girdles, and agraffes, compose what were collective- 
ly called ornamenta muliebria. 1 Most of these objects have 
already been mentioned as worn by Greek ladies (compare § 47, 
Figs. 225 and 226) ; the specimens found in Italy distinctly betray 
Greek workmanship. 

1 A complete set of a lady's ornaments, consisting of bracelets, necklaces, rings, 
ear-rings, brooches, and pins, has been found near Lyons in 1841 (see Comarmond, 
" Description de l'Ecrin d'une dame Romaine trouv6 a Lyon en 1841," Paris et Lyon, 
1844). Of particular value are the seven necklaces, consisting of emeralds, garnets, 
sapphires, amethysts, and corals. Pliny, " N. H.," ix., 117, relates that Lollia Paulina, 
the wife of Caligula, used on ordinary occasions to wear ornaments to the value of forty 
million sestertii (about £450,000). 


About hair-pins (crinales) we have spoken above (see Fig. 
476). Simpler specimens, about seven-eighths of an inch long, 
with round or angular heads, or with eyes for the fastening of 
the strings of pearls, are found in most collections. The bride 
(Fig. 471) has her hair fastened with elastic gold bandeaux, open 
in front. 

The neck and bosom were adorned with necklaces (monilia) 
or chains (catellw, see mother and daughter, Fig. 47.1) of gold, 
studded with jewels and pearls. A necklace of beautiful work- 
manship, consisting of elastic gold-threads twisted together, has 
been found at Pompeii ("Mus. Borbon.," vol. ii., Tav. 14); 
attached to it is a lock adorned with frogs. A gold chain for 
the neck, 5 feet six inches in length, and equal in weight to 203 

ducats, has been found 
near the Magura Moun- 
tain in Siebenbiirgen 
(Austria), and is at 
present in the Miinz- 
und Antiken-Cabinet, 
Vienna: fifty different 
instruments, en minia- 
ture, such as scissors, 
keys, anchors, saws, 
tongs, hammers, etc., 
are attached to it by 
means of thirty rings (Fig. 477) ; compare the description of the 
necklace found at Lyons in Marquardt, " Eomische Privatalter- 
thumer," second Series, 1867, p. 294). Other chains, wound sev- 
eral times round the neck, and falling down to the bosom, had 
frequently a little case (bulla) attached to them. It contained a 
charm against sickness and the evil-eye, and was worn by boys of 
noble families, afterward also by the legitimate sons of freedmen, 
up to the time of their relinquishing the toga praetexta. The 
custom was of Etruscan origin. At a later' period grown-up per- 
sons, particularly victorious generals at triumphs, used to wear a 
protective bulla (inelusis intra earn remediis, qum crederent ad- 
versus invidiam valentissima). It appears on several statues of 
Eoman youths, as also on the statue of a young man clad with 
the toga in the Dresden Gallery (Clarac, " Musee," pi. 906). A 


bulla fastened to an elastic gold-thread, found at Pompeii, was 
evidently meant to be worn by a woman (compare the bulla, Fig. 

Bracelets (armillce, bracchialia) in the form of snakes (com- 
pare the Greek o^et?) or simple ribbons, also of rings or plaited 
gold-thread, adorned the lower and upper parts of women's arms. 
Bracelets frequently appear on statues ; others, made of bronze 
or precious metals, have been found in Roman graves. They were 
used as male ornaments by the Etruscan and other Italian nations, 
as is proved by the story of Tarpeia's treason, as also by the male 
figures on Etruscan cinerary-boxes. In imperial times massive 
arm-rings were given to Roman men as the reward of prowess 
(see the centurion, Fig. 531). 

Pendants (inaures,pendentes) were worn by Roman as well as 
by Greek ladies, as is proved by several specimens found at Pom- 
peii ; the form of the segment of a globe was, in the first centmy 
of the Empire, used frequently for them. We also hear of pearls 
and jewels fastened to the ear by means of hooks of gold-thread 
(see Fig. 471). " Two pearls beside each other," Seneca com- 
plains, " with a third on the top, now go to a single pendant. 
The extravagant fools probably think their husbands are not suffi- 
ciently plagued without their having two or three heritages hang- 
ing down from their ears." Another fashion was to wear a sin- 
gle large pearl (unio) as a pendant. White pearls, resembling 
the color of alum, fetched the highest prices, their value being 
proportionate to their size, smoothness, and roundness. Caesar 
presented to the mother of Marcus Brutus a pearl which had cost 
him six million sestertii ; the pearl which Cleopatra drank dis- 
solved in vinegar was worth ten million sestertii. 

Enormous sums also were spent on rings adorned with jewels 
and cameos. According to the simpler custom of old times, 
adopted from the Etruscans, an iron signet-ring was worn on the 
right hand : even after the introduction of gold rings old families 
continued wearing the primitive iron signet-ring. Originally 
only embassadors sent to foreign nations were allowed to wear 
gold rings, and were supplied with such at the public expense as 
a sign of their dignity ; later, senators and other magistrates of 
equal rank, and soon afterward knights, received the jus annuli 
aurei. After the civil war, when many equites had to drop their 

496 RINGS. 

knighthood owing to the loss of the census, the privilege was 
frequently encroached upon. The first emperors tried to reenf orce