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JN the following little work will be found the 
leading events connected with the life of 
Henry Benedict, the Cardinal Duke of York, 
and last direct descendant of the unfortunate House 
of Stuart. 

While narrating matters of purely personal interest, 
the writer has deemed it advisable to add a brief 
outline of such contemporary events as bear more or 
less directly on the subject of this memoir. 

The writer tenders his best thanks to those who 
have encouraged and assisted him in drawing up this 
account, especially to the Rev. R. McCoy, S.J., of 
Stonyhurst College, Lancashire, who has supplied 
valuable information concerning Prince Henry's 
Cardinalate, and to the Rev. Oswald Turner, C.J., 
of St. George's College, Weybridge, who has kindly 
revised the manuscript. His acknowledgments are 
likewise due to his old friend Mr. George Williams, 
of Erdington, for kindly criticisms and suggestions. 

In conclusion it may be remarked that the frontis- 
piece is from a photograph by Messrs. Walker and 
Boutall, permission to reproduce which has been 
kindly granted by Lionel Cust, Esq., Director of the 
National Portrait Gallery. 

January, 1899. 





Birth and early years Education of Charles Edward and 
Henry Benedict Stuart The crown of Poland Descrip- 
tion of Prince Henry Death of Queen Maria Clementina 
Charles leaves Rome for Paris The rebellion of 1745 
Charles arrives in France Henry enters the Church, 
and is created Cardinal by Pope Benedict XIV. - - 11 


Displeasure of Prince Charles at Henry's Cardinalate 
His benefices Society for the conversion of England 
Created Camerlengo Archbishop of Corinth translated 
to Frascati Rebuilds and reorganizes the seminary 
Death of the old Chevalier (James III.) His funeral 
Refusal of the Pope to recognise Charles as King 
Charles's intemperate habits His visit to the Pope 
Affair of the Jesuits Death of Clement XIII. The Con- 
clave Visit of Joseph II. Election of Clement XIV. - 86 



Previous history of Clement XIV. Troubles of the Church 
Constitution against the Jesuits Action of Cardinal 
York Marriage of Charles Edward Present of Cardinal 

x Contents 


York to the bride Visit of the Duke of Gloucester to 
Borne Cardinal York and the crofters of South Uist 
Suppression of the Jesuits Death of Clement XIV. 
Election of Pius VI. Cardinal York and the Passionist 
Congregation Cardinal York and the Jubilee Charles 
Edward's life at Florence Separation from his wife 
Cardinal York's intervention Visit of Pius VI. to 
Vienna The adventurer and Cardinal York Visit of 
the King of Sweden Last days of Prince Charles His 
death and funeral Cardinal York assumes the title of 
Henry IX. Cardinal York and Consalvi His will 
Correspondence with the Earl of Traquair Revolu- 
tionary designs on Borne Flight of Cardinal York to 
Venice His destitution Pensioned by George III. 
Correspondence on the subject Election of Pius VII. 
Return to Borne Private life of Cardinal York His 
second will Translation to Ostia Death - 65 


Cardinal York's villa and property Portraits of Cardinal 
York Sources of information - - 125 

INDEX ..... . 132 






i GLUMES have been written on the life of 
Prince Charles Edward, the Young Pretender. 
His daring and chivalrous attempt in 1745 
to recover the crown of his ancestors, with all the 
circumstances of that memorable campaign the 
victory at Preston Pans, the brilliant march to Derby, 
and the final rout at Culloden, where Stuart hopes 
and Highland clanship fell for ever are cameos of 
history on which generations of readers and students 
have gazed with wonder, admiration and delight. Of 
his brother, Prince Henry Benedict Stuart, few know 
any more than that he was a Cardinal and Bishop of 
Frascati, that he led a simple and unostentatious life, 
and finally died, unknown to fame, at an advanced 
age. In the following pages it has been our endeavour 
to add to this meagre stock of information by the 

12 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

publication of further details regarding this by no 
means unimportant or uninteresting personage. 

Henry Benedict Stuart, Cardinal Duke of York, the 
last representative in the direct male line of the Royal 
House of Stuart, was born at Rome, in the Palazzo 
Muti Savorelli, situated in the Via Santi Apostoli, 
and still known by the name of the Palazzo del 
Pretendente, on March 6, 1725, four years after the 
birth of his elder brother, Charles Edward, the Young 
Pretender, and thirty-seven years after his grandfather, 
James II., had been driven from the British throne. 
The palace in which the Cardinal Duke was born, 
which is represented in a contemporary picture by 
Van Lint as a large square mansion of stone standing 
in its own extensive pleasure-grounds, was given to 
the Stuarts by Pope Clement XI. in 1717. The father 
of Prince Henry was James Francis Edward Stuart, 
generally known as the Old Pretender, but known to 
the Jacobites as James III. James Francis Edward 
Stuart, the son of James II., by Mary, daughter of 
the Duke of Modena, was born in St. James's Palace, 
London, on June 10, 1688, a few months before the 
outbreak of the Revolution that banished the Stuart 
family from these realms for ever. On the death of 
his father at St. Germains in 1701, James Francis 
Edward was at once recognised as King by a large 
body of adherents in the British Isles, and also by 
Louis XIV. of France, who in 1708 fitted out an un- 
successful expedition to Scotland in his behalf. Seven 
years later, when Prince George, Elector of Hanover, 
ascended the throne of England, the exiled James 
Francis Edward landed in Scotland, and at his presence 
the abortive rebellion of 1715 broke out. The Cheva- 

Cardinal Duke of York 18 

lier de St. George, as James is sometimes called, was 
not qualified to act as leader in such an enterprise, 
and he soon found it expedient to re-embark for 
France, leaving his party in a state of thorough dis- 
organization, and the scaffold wet with the blood of 
Derwentwater and Kenmure and a number of less 
distinguished followers. In 1717 he settled in Rome, 
a city ever afterwards associated with the events 
that marked the closing scenes in the great Stuart 
drama. His wife, Maria Clementina, was the daughter 
of Prince James Sobieski, son of the renowned John 
Sobieski, King of Poland, who, by the wisdom of 
his counsels and the prowess of his arms, delivered 
Austria, and perhaps all central Europe, from the 
threatened domination of the Turks. The romantic 
and impressionable character of the Princess frequently 
led her, when a child, to predict her future elevation 
to the throne of England, a prophecy which seemed 
to be in a fair way towards realization when, at the 
age of seventeen, she was betrothed to the titular 
James III. As the English Government was known 
to be much opposed to this union, the greatest care 
was necessary to prevent the intended marriage from 
being frustrated by political intrigues. To Mr. Charles 
Wogan, an Irish officer in the French service, and a 
man of great courage and diplomatic skill, was 
entrusted the task of conducting the lovely Princess 
to Bologna, where the Chevalier had for the time 
fixed his court Wogan, with his assistants, Majors 
Gaydon and O'Toole, carried the perilous undertaking 
to a successful issue. A medal, bearing the motto 
* Deceptis Custodibus,' and as device a chariot in full 
speed, was struck to commemorate the royal elope- 

14 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

ment, the fame of which was soon spread over Europe. 
But, although the Princess arrived in Bologna in the 
month of May, the marriage, owing to the Chevalier's 
absence in Madrid, did not take place till Sep- 

On the evening of December 31, 1720, the stillness 
of the Eternal City was broken by the artillery of the 
Castle of St. Angelo, announcing the birth of the 
titular Prince of Wales. The event was celebrated 
with bonfires and illuminations, and the Cardinal 
Protectors of the various European Powers paid State 
visits to the child, who, five hours after his birth, was 
baptized under the name of Charles Edward Louis 
Casimir by his Lordship the Bishop of Montifiascone, 
in the Church of the Santi Apostoli. A great con- 
course of noble and distinguished personages, including 
seven Cardinals and fourteen British Peers, were 
present at this ceremony, which was depicted in a 
large painting now in the possession of the Earl of 

The subject of this sketch, the second son of the 
Old Chevalier, was born on March 6, 1725. The 
happy event was immediately communicated to the 
reigning Pontiff, Benedict XIII., who, at the time of 
the announcement, was engaged in private devotion 
in his oratory. The Holy Father, having graciously 
intimated that he would himself baptize the child, at 
once proceeded to the palace of the Stuarts, where he 
was received by the Chevalier in person, and ushered 
into the apartment where the Princess lay. James 
took the infant into his arms, and presented it to the 
Pope, saying as he did so : ' I present to your Holiness 
the Duke of York, that you may make him a Christian.' 

Cardinal Duke of York 15 

The Pontiff thereupon performed the rite of holy 
baptism, giving the little Duke the names of Henry 
Benedict Clement Mary Edward, with other names 
up to the number of twelve. The visit of the Sover- 
eign Pontiff was quickly followed by that of the whole 
College of Cardinals, who came in all their stately 
splendour to congratulate the ' King and Queen of 
England ' on the birth of their second son. 

At the time of Prince Henry's birth his father and 
mother were unhappily estranged from each other by 
a combination of circumstances brought about in 
great measure by the suspicious character and way- 
ward conduct of Clementina. During the years that 
intervened between the birth of his first son, Charles 
Edward, and that of the Duke of York, James had 
been planning another rising in Scotland, and had 
been in frequent correspondence with some of the 
leading Jacobites on the Continent, of whom Atter- 
bury, the exiled Bishop of Rochester, and Lord Oxford 
were the most noted. To facilitate his negotiations, 
the Chevalier had taken into his personal service a 
certain Colonel John Hay, on whom he conferred the 
title of Earl of Inverness. Lady Hay was appointed 
to the household of the Queen, and her brother, 
James Murray, was created governor to the Prince 
of Wales. In the discharge of his duties as royal 
courier, Lord Inverness had reason to suspect that 
the Earl of Mar, James's general in the Rebellion, 
was betraying the secrets of the Stuart Court to the 
British Government, and he laid his fears before the 
titular King, who mentioned them to his Queen. 
Clementina, who had absolute faith in the abilities 
and fidelity of Mar, flew into a violent passion, charged 

16 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Lord Inverness with seeking to bring about Mar's 
ruin, and insisted that Inverness and all the members 
of his family should be dismissed from the Stuart 
Court. In vain did the Chevalier protest against the 
unfounded charges of the Queen, and her still more 
unreasonable demands. Clementina was deaf to all 
argument ; on James's steadily refusing to banish his 
faithful Hay, she declared her intention of retiring to 
a convent, a threat which she put into execution on 
November 15, 1725, when, accompanied by Lady 
Southesk, she withdrew to the Ursuline Convent of 
St. Cecilia in Trastevere. 

It does not come within the scope of this little work 
to follow this miserable dispute through its many 
details, or to narrate how the representations of 
Clementina made her for the time appear in the 
eyes of the world as the victim of conjugal tyranny. 
Harmony was restored in 1727, when Lord Inverness, 
by a rare display of generosity and zeal for the 
interests of his Sovereign, prevailed on James to 
dispense with his services, in order that the quarrel, 
which had now reached the proportions of a scandal, 
might be speedily brought to an end. Owing to the 
absence in France of the Chevalier, who was preparing 
for another insurrection in the Highlands, the recon- 
ciliation, if such it may be termed, did not take place 
till February, 1728, when Clementina left the convent 
and rejoined her consort at Bologna. 

It is pleasant to turn from this unfortunate quarrel 
to the subject which occupied so much of the 
Chevalier's solicitude the education of his sons. 
As long as her health permitted, Clementina herself 
undertook this important duty, a task for which she 

Cardinal Duke of York 17 

was fitted by the extent of her information and the 
vigour of her mind. It had been the original intention 
of James III. to place his sons under the tuition of 
Sir Andrew Ramsay, better known as the Chevalier 
Ramsay, the great Scotch scholar and educationalist, 
who had been converted to the Catholic Church by 
the immortal Fra^ois de Salignac F6nelon, Arch- 
bishop of Cambray. But the dissensions reigning 
in the Stuart household, in consequence of the 
unhappy incident narrated above, had made the 
residence of Ramsay at the Palazzo dei Santi Apostoli 
impossible. His place was supplied, so far as the loss 
of such an instructor, whose fame as a scholar was 
familiar all over Europe, could be supplied, by Sir 
Thomas Sheridan and the Abbe Legouz, of the 
University of Paris. Under these preceptors the 
two princes went through a complete course of what 
was then termed the belles-lettres, though their 
English education seems, in the case of Prince 
Charles at least, to have been somewhat neglected. 
They both spoke, however, the French and Italian 
languages with grace and fluency. When the Abbe* 
Legouz resigned his charge, they continued their 
studies under Drs. Berkeley and Cooper, two non- 
juring Anglican clergymen who acted as chaplains to 
the Protestant members of the Chevalier's Court. 

Of the childhood of the future Cardinal few 
particulars are forthcoming. At one time it was 
the intention of James to have him brought up 
at Madrid, in order that the sympathy and influence 
of the Escuriel might be enlisted on behalf of his 
family in any future attempt to regain the British 
throne. This scheme was never carried out, owing 
-vt 2 

18 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

to the strong opposition of Clementina, whose maternal 
affection and dread of dangerous surroundings made 
her determined never to consent to separation from 
her children. 

James Field-Marshal Keith, the ' noble exile ' whose 
death at Hochkirchen, in the Seven Years' War, has 
been described by Lord Macaulay in a well-known 
passage, gives us, in a letter to his brother, George 
Lord Marischal, dated November 21, 1731, a glimpse 
of Prince Henry when in his seventh year. It runs 
thus : 

' The little Duke is much on his good behaviour. 
He has ordered a journal of his actions to be kept 
and given me, that you may see how well he behaves. 
I never saw any child comparable to him. His 
brother has already got the better of his governors, 
which makes him a little unruly ; but I fancy he 
will be bold and no dissembler two great and good 

In another letter, of October 30, 1732, the Marshal 
says : 

' The Duke of York believes I send you a journal 
of his actions ; he stands in great awe of it, lest his 
faults should be published in Europe and Asia, and is 
very fond to do any good thing to be put in the 
journal.' This letter was written from Rome. 

Lord Inverness (Colonel Hay), in a letter to Thomas 
Gordon, Admiral of the Russian Fleet and Governor of 
Cronstadt, bears witness to the good impression made 
by Charles and Henry on their friends, and further 
says that ' They are the most lively boys this day on 
earth ; pray God preserve them long,' etc. The 
natural cheerfulness of Prince Henry, v/hich never 

Cardinal Duke of York 19 

forsook him through life, led the poet Gray, some 
eight years later, when the future Cardinal was in 
his sixteenth year, to describe him as having ' more 
spirit ' than his elder brother. 

In 1733 events in Poland inspired some of the 
Continental Jacobites with the hope that the influence 
of the Court of France and the family alliance of the 
Stuarts with the Sobieskis might have the effect of 
securing the crown of that unhappy country for the 
young Duke of York. In February of that year died 
Augustus, Elector of Saxony, who had been summoned 
to the throne of the Jagellons by the voice of the 
Polish Diet in 1697, on the death of the great John 

In March the Chevalier wrote to Prince James 
Sobieski, expressing his pleasure at the favourable 
disposition of certain influential persons in Warsaw 
towards his family, but also reminding him of the 
practical impossibility of securing the election of a 
child of eight to the throne of a country proverbial 
for the turbulence of its factions. In the event the 
crown went to Augustus, son of the previous monarch, 
who, soldier though he was, could not take possession 
of his kingdom till his adversaries had been awed 
hi to submission by the presence of 60,000 Russian 

The year 1735 opened with a great blow for the 
Chevalier and his family, in the loss of Queen 
Clementina, who expired, after a long and painful 
illness, on Tuesday, January 18. After the recon- 
ciliation already recorded, James III. and his consort 
had continued to reside together at Rome, though the 
deep mutual love which had characterized their early 


20 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

wedded life had never been quite restored. The 
Chevalier, absorbed in schemes for another invasion 
of Britain, was too preoccupied to attend much to 
matters of domestic interest, while Clementina, on 
her part, made no earnest attempts to regain that 
place in her husband's affections which she had in a 
great measure lost by her own foolish and unreason- 
able conduct. She spent her last years chiefly in 
works of piety and charity, assisting poor girls who 
were in danger from evil surroundings, relieving 
destitute families, and establishing needlework guilds 
among the Roman ladies for supplying needy churches 
with vestments and altar linen. She was encouraged 
in these admirable undertakings by her confessor, the 
celebrated Franciscan preacher who did so much to 
revive religious fervour in Italy, Father Leonard, of 
Port Maurice, who was beatified by Pope Pius VI. in 
1796, and canonized by Pope Pius IX. in 1867. Pope 
Clement XII., to show his esteem for the deceased, 
and the goodwill he entertained towards the Stuart 
family, ordered a most sumptuous funeral for the 
Princess, some account of which may not be con- 
sidered out of place here. 

The body of the Princess was taken on the day of 
her death to the Church of the Santi Apostoli, the 
hearse being accompanied by the ladies and gentle- 
men of the household and a number of servants and 
attendants, bearing funeral torches and wax candles. 
As the deceased, shortly before her death, had become 
a Tertiary of the Order of St. Dominic, a number of 
the Dominican Fathers met the corpse at the entrance 
of the church, and conducted it in procession to a bed 
of state, surrounded by twenty-four wax candles, where 

Cardinal Duke of York 21 

it lay while the Office for the Dead was chanted by the 
choir. This was followed by the ceremony of em- 
balmment, which took place in an inner apartment, 
probably the sacristy, under the direction of Signer 
Antonio Leprotti, private physician to the Pope, in 
the presence of the Duchess Strozzi, her Excellency 
Donna Isabella Aquaviva d'Aragona, and, by special 
dispensation, the pontifical majordomo, Monsignor 
Gamberacci, Archbishop of Amasia. At the con- 
clusion of this Office, the ladies attired the body 
in the habit of the Dominican nuns, after which 
it was conducted to the chapel of the Father Minister- 
General, where a captain and company of the Swiss 
Guard kept watch round the catafalque. 

On Sunday, the 23rd, about noon, the ladies-in- 
waiting removed the religious habit from the deceased, 
putting on in its place royal robes of purple velvet, 
gold, and ermine. It was then conducted, with much 
solemnity, to the Church of the Apostles, which was 
suitably adorned with funeral emblems and insignia. 
Thirty-two Cardinals, in their violet mourning robes, 
attended, and assisted at the Office for the Dead, 
which was chanted by the Mendicant Friars. The 
remains were then taken in procession to St. Peter's, 
attended by members of numerous Religious Orders 
and Congregations, bearing lighted candles, and 
followed by the entire Stuart household in Court 
dress. With the hearse also went the students of 
the English, Scotch, and Irish colleges, and a detach- 
ment of the Swiss Guard. Then followed in order 
the officials of the Pope's household, Prelates of the 
Palace, Masters of Ceremonies, Protonotaries, and 
Chaplains in their carriages, attended by halberdiers 

22 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

and mace-bearers with silver maces. Last of all came 
ten coaches, containing the Chevalier de St. George, 
the Princes Charles Edward and Henry, and their 
respective suites. At seven in the evening the pro- 
cession entered St. Peter's, where the body was 
conducted to the choir, which, by order of his 
Eminence Cardinal St. Clement, Archpriest of the 
Fabric, had been adorned with hangings of black 
velvet and gold tassels and shields, bearing the arms 
and monogram of the deceased Princess. The choir 
was illuminated by great wax candles, set in massive 
silver candlesticks. After the De Profundis had 
been recited by Monsignor Cervini, Patriarch of 
Jerusalem and Canon of St. Peter's, the body was 
again stripped of its royal robes, clothed in the 
Dominican habit, and enclosed with the regalia in 
an inner and an outer coffin. Next morning a 
solemn Mass of Requiem was sung by the Cardinal 
Archpriest, in the presence of the Chevalier and his 
family, several Cardinals, the Archbishop of Hiero- 
polis, the Bishops of Gyrene, Constance and Marciana. 
After the Absolution had been given, the clergy and 
court, preceded by the cross, attended the coffin to 
the vaults, where it was placed in the crypt near the 
Chapel of the Presentation. The heart of the deceased 
was enclosed in a silver urn, and deposited in the 
Church of the Apostles, where a handsome monument, 
erected by the Bishop of the Fabric of St. Peter's, 
marks the spot where it is laid. 

We now pass from the purely domestic concerns of 
the exiled family to a consideration of the events 
connected with the last Jacobite rebellion in Scotland. 
Though these occurrences are not immediately con- 

Cardinal Duke of York 28 

nected with the subject of the present memoir, some 
reference must be made to them to enable the reader 
to understand and appreciate the circumstances of 
the times in which Prince Henry lived. 

In 1741 the unjust aggression of the sovereign of 
a then unimportant German State involved half of 
Europe in a bloody struggle. The death of the 
Emperor Charles VI., in the October of the preceding 
year, had presented to Frederick of Prussia a favour- 
able opportunity for marching a powerful army into 
the Austrian dominions, and annexing the province 
of Silesia to his territories. The ' Moriamur pro rege 
nostra Maria Theresa ' of the indignant Hungarian 
nobles as they raised their flashing sabres in defence 
of the insulted daughter of the Caesars and the rights 
of her infant son, their sovereign, sounded the note 
of war which was to devastate the greater part of 
Europe for seven years. Alone of all the Powers that 
had sworn to safeguard the claims of the Empress, 
England remained faithful to its word, and in 1743 
the broken faith of France and Bavaria, who, regard- 
less of treaties, had supported the aggression of 
Frederick, received condign punishment in a crushing 
defeat from the British forces at Dettingen. It was 
at this juncture that Cardinal Tencin, Prime Minister 
of France, resolved to divert the attention of England 
by a Stuart rising at home. He invited Prince Charles 
to Paris, assuring him that an army of 15,000 men 
and a fleet of transports would be put at his disposal. 
The young Prince, to whom the prospect of regaining 
the throne of his fathers had become the one object 
of life, was not slow to avail himself of the promise 
thus made. He hastened to Paris to place himself at 

24 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

the head of the armament, but, alas ! the elements, 
ever the foes of the House of Stuart, once more 
declared against them. A violent tempest covered 
the northern coasts of France with the wreckage of 
the invading flotilla, and the young Chevalier was 
constrained to await a more favourable opportunity. 

It is from the pen of Father Julius Cordara, of the 
Society of Jesus, an intimate friend of Cardinal York, 
that we know of the full details of Charles Edward's 
secret departure from Rome. While living at Albano 
with his father, many years afterwards, Cardinal York 
made Cordara's acquaintance. The Jesuit met the 
Duke of York as his Eminence was taking a walk one 
evening on the beautiful road between Castel Gandolfo 
and Albano. The Cardinal entered into conversation 
with him, took a fancy to him, and became his close 
friend. After his consecration as Bishop of Frascati, 
the Cardinal Duke often had Cordara with him on 
prolonged visits, and though the Cardinal consulted 
him on many matters of importance, the Jesuit never 
forgot his patron's double rank as ecclesiastical and 
temporal Prince, and treated him always with becoming 

At the time the young Chevalier left Rome, the 
war of the Austrian succession was at its height. 
The Mediterranean literally swarmed with English 
men-of-war, and a multitude of spies were to be found 
everywhere, ready to chronicle the Chevalier's move- 
ments, so that it was necessary for him to exercise 
the utmost caution in making his way to the French 
capital. On January 9, 1744, he left Rome for 
Cisterna, about thirty miles distant on the Via Appia, 
where he had a shooting-box. The day before his 

Cardinal Duke of York 25 

departure from Rome, the Prince gave an entertain- 
ment to the leading nobility, and during the whole 
course of the evening did not betray, by the slightest 
look or word, the fact that he was on the eve of 
commencing a war against one of the most powerful 
monarchs of Europe. 

He ordered a carriage to be ready to start shortly 
after midnight, explaining that he wished to have 
some sport early on the following day. The whole 
scheme was kept so profound a secret that not even 
the Duke of York, who usually shared his brother's 
counsels, was aware of the true nature of the project. 

At the appointed hour the young Chevalier drove 
out of Rome, accompanied by Sir Thomas Sheridan, 
and when some distance out in the country was met 
by a Mr. Stafford, one of his gen tlemen-in- waiting, 
with two horses saddled and bridled. Charles now 
expressed his intention of riding to Cisterna by the 
Albano road. He and Sheridan therefore mounted 
the horses, and, bidding the coachman drive back to 
the city, galloped off for some distance, and, after 
allowing time for the carriage to get well on its way, 
retraced their path, and made for the Tuscan road by 
another route. At Capraola, where Cardinal Acquaviva 
had a palace, they found relays of horses, and after 
five days' travelling reached Genoa, whence the Prince 
and his companion sailed to the adjacent shore of 
France in a rowing-boat, to avoid arousing the sus- 
picions of the numerous British cruisers sailing about 
the coast. 

In the meantime the Duke of York had received 
intelligence of the scheme, but, for the sake of pre- 
serving his brother's secret more effectually, pretended 

26 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

to be greatly alarmed on not finding Charles at 
Cisterna. While he was giving orders for inquiries to 
be made as to the delay, Mr. Stafford, who was in the 
plot, came in with the news that Prince Charles had 
met with an accident, caused by the slipping of his 
horse, and had been taken to the palace of the King, 
their father, at Albano. Lest news of the mishap 
should reach his father's ears, the Duke gave strict 
orders that nothing should be said about the matter ; 
but, notwithstanding the prohibition, the story spread, 
and was believed by everyone. After a few days, 
Prince Henry made preparations as though to visit 
his brother, when a letter arrived from Stafford, 
stating that His Royal Highness wished the hunt to 
be transferred to Lake Fogliano, ten miles off, and 
that the Prince would be there to take part in it. 
When the Duke and his party arrived at Fogliano, 
they found another letter from Stafford, in which it 
was stated that the wound in the Prince's foot had 
not quite healed, and that the doctor had ordered him 
a few days' rest. Thus, several days more elapsed 
before the truth became known, and by that time 
Charles Edward was safe in France. 

As the story of the rebellion of '45 belongs ex- 
clusively to the history of the young Chevalier, any 
detailed account of that romantic episode would be 
entirely out of place in a narrative dealing with the 
Cardinal Duke of York Still, we cannot let the last 
heroic effort of the Stuart dynasty to recover its long- 
lost throne pass entirely unnoticed. 

Though the fleet destined for his service had been 
destroyed, hope still remained, and on July 21, 1745, 
Charles Edward and the Seven Men of Moidart stood 

Cardinal Duke of York 27 

alone on the shores of Loch-na-Nuagh. Following 
the generous example of Cameron of Lochiel, the 
Highland clans rallied to the standard thus boldly 
unfurled, and once more unsheathed the sword on 
behalf of Scotland's ancient line. Then quickly 
followed the capture of Edinburgh, the festivities of 
Holyrood, where the young Chevalier won all hearts, 
and the glorious victory of Preston Pans, where the 
irresistible fury of the Highlanders swept Sir John 
Cope's army in rout and confusion from the field. 
Then came the march into England, the capture of 
Carlisle and Manchester, and the entrance into Derby 
on December 2. Nor was the retreat which the 
unsympathetic attitude of the great English houses, 
and the large forces that were advancing against him, 
made necessary less glorious to the Prince. At Clifton 
Moor, in Cumberland, the retreating Highlanders turned 
fiercely on their pursuers, and in the moonlight of a 
clear winter's night forced the Duke of Cumberland's 
dragoons to fall back with considerable loss. In 
Scotland one last triumph awaited them, to shed a 
departing ray of glory over the Stuart cause. On the 
evening of January 23, 1746, amidst a storm of wind 
and rain, a large army under General Hawley was 
signally defeated at Falkirk. 

The Duke of Cumberland, George II.'s son, now 
arrived on the scene, at the head of powerful forces, 
and at the advance of their terrible assailant, the 
' plaid-men ' slowly continued their retreat northward. 
The councils of the Chevalier were distracted by 
dissensions, and his little army, worn out by famine 
and innumerable hardships, daily diminished in 
numbers. In this forlorn condition it was attacked 

28 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

by the whole English army at Culloden Moor, near 
Inverness, on April 16. Resorting to the simple 
tactics that had made them victorious on so many 
fields, the whole body of the clans (with the exception 
of one of the tribes of Macdonalds on the left), drawing 
their broadswords and covering themselves with their 
targets, precipitated themselves on the foe. A heavy 
and incessant fire of grapeshot and musketry rolled 
from the English lines on the advancing columns of 
the Highlanders, and the few shattered bands that 
burst through the first division of the Duke's army 
were immediately surrounded and cut to pieces. 

The Young Adventurer fled from the field of his 
ruined hopes to the bleak valleys and snow-clad 
hills, where, for the space of five months, the 
descendant of Robert Bruce wandered, a proscribed 
fugitive, with a price of 30,000 on his head. That 
none of the poor peasantry among whom he lived 
offered to betray him, is as splendid an example 
of chivalrous honour and heroic loyalty as any 
recorded in history. 

As soon as the suppression of the rebellion became 
known in Rome, the greatest anxiety prevailed in 
James's Court as to the safety of Prince Charles. 
As may easily be expected, the most contradictory 
and conflicting rumours reached, from time to time, 
the young Prince's father and friends. Now he was 
reported dead; at another time his safe arrival in 
France was announced ; at another time he was said 
to be captured. By the express wish of James, public 
prayers were daily recited in the Church of the Santi 
Apostoli and elsewhere in Rome for the safe deliver- 
ance of his son from the perils that surrounded him. 

Cardinal Duke of York 29 

The friends and followers of Prince Charles on the 
Continent were meanwhile exerting themselves to 
provide him with effective means for escape. 

Shortly after the news of his brother's victory at 
Preston Pans, the Duke of York had arrived in Paris 
from Rome, with the intention of proceeding to 
England with a Franco-Jacobite army that was 
being organized. His presence in the French capital 
was now of service in encouraging the members of the 
Jacobite party resident there to make strenuous efforts 
to rescue Prince Charles from his dangerous position. 
By the exertions of the future Cardinal and his 
friends, a privateer was fitted out and despatched, 
and, after narrowly escaping capture from the English 
fleet, this vessel arrived safely in the waters of Loch- 
na-Nuagh, near the very spot where Charles, a year 
before, had sprung ashore, full of hope and courage, 
' to carve a passage to the British throne.' The 
arrival of the friendly craft was communicated to 
the young Chevalier, who, several days later, came 
on board, 'his visage wan, and his constitution 
greatly impaired by famine and fatigue.' He 
generously delayed starting for two days longer, 
to give an opportunity to a number of his followers 
to come on board. About 150 persons availed them- 
selves of this chance of escape, and on September 20 
the vessel set sail. A thick fog, fortunately, enabled 
her to elude the vigilance of a squadron under 
Admiral Lestock, and the same good fortune pre- 
served the exiles from capture by two other British 
men-of-war, and on the ninth day after weighing 
anchor the privateer and its precious freight reached 
the shores of France. 

30 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Journeying from the little seaport of Roscoff, where 
he had landed, Charles arrived at Morlaix, where he 
spent a few days in resting after the fatigues of the 
voyage. From this place he addressed a letter to his 
brother Henry, acquainting him of his safe return, 
and requesting him to inform the French King 
officially of the same. King Louis, on hearing the 
good news, ordered the Chateau of St. Antoine to be 
fitted up for the Prince's reception, while the Duke 
of York, accompanied by a retinue of French and 
Scottish noblemen and gentlemen, hastened to meet 
the brother who had so often been given up as lost. 
Shortly after their meeting, Prince Henry wrote the 
following account of it to his father. It is dated 
from his residence at Clichy, and runs thus : 

4 October 17, 1746. 

' This very morning, after I writ you my last, I 
had the happiness of meeting with my dearest brother. 
He did not know me at first sight ; but I am sure I 
knew him very well, for he is not in the least altered 
since I saw him, except grown somewhat broader and 
fatter, which is incomprehensible after all the fatigues 
he has endured. Your Majesty may conceive better 
than I can express in writing the tenderness of our 
first meeting. Those that were present said they 
never saw the like in their lives, and, indeed, I defy 
the whole world to show another brother so kind and 
loving as he is to me. . . . The Prince sees and will 
scarcely see anybody but myself for a few days, that 
he may have a little time for rest before he is plagued 
by all the world, as to be sure he will when once he 

Cardinal Duke of York 81 

sees company. I go every day to dine with him. 
Yesterday I brought him privately to see my house, 
and I perceive he has as much godt for the chase as 
ever he had. Most humbly asking your Majesty's 

' I remain, 

' Your most dutiful son, 


Charles remained at the Castle of St. Antoine, near 
Clichy, for a few days, to recruit himself and make 
preparations for his interview with the French King. 
He spent almost the whole of his time in the company 
of Prince Henry, narrating to him the thrilling story 
of the rebellion, and of his wanderings in the Western 
Highlands. On the Sunday after his arrival at Clichy 
he drove to Versailles for his state visit to the King. 
The only distinguishing feature about his dress on 
this occasion was a white cockade of satin ribbons 
and diamonds which he wore in his hat. The entire 
Court was enthusiastic in its reception of the young 
hero, with whose renown all Europe was filled. Louis 
saluted him with the words, ' Mon tres cher Prince,' 
embraced him warmly, and in a high-flown speech 
expressed his ardent wish that so much merit as 
that possessed by Charles might quickly meet its 
reward. The Chevalier, however, was unable to 
persuade his Majesty to assist him to recommence 
the struggle before the disarming ordered by the 
Government had taken full effect in the Highlands. 

The failure of the late enterprise, while it seemed 
not to affect the sanguine disposition of Charles, 
made a deep impression on the mind of the Duke of 

82 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

York. He was, perhaps, the first of his party to fully 
recognise in the Battle of Culloden, if not the total 
extinction of the Stuart hopes, at least the postpone- 
ment for an indefinite length of time of any fresh 
attempt to seat his family on the throne. His own 
inclinations had always been towards a life of study 
and retirement, although the events of the past few 
months had forced him into the publicity of political 

It is not then surprising that the Duke of York 
should now decide upon quitting the secular life, with 
all its difficulties and dangers, and taking Holy Orders. 
This resolution he at once proceeded to put into effect. 
Leaving Paris secretly, he reached Rome on May 25, 
1747. A few days after his arrival, it began to be 
noised abroad that the younger son of the King of 
England not only meditated embracing the ecclesi- 
astical state, but was about to be elevated to the 
dignity of the Gardinalate. This rumour was not 
long in receiving substantial confirmation. On 
June 30, 1747, the Duke of York received the tonsure, 
or initiation into the clerical state, from the hands of 
the Sovereign Pontiff himself, in the Sistine Chapel, 
in the presence of his father and the Stuart Court. 
Four days later it was known that His Royal 
Highness had been created Cardinal Deacon. On the 
day his elevation was announced, the Duke, conform- 
ably to custom, held a reception at the Stuart Palace, 
where he received the congratulations of the Sacred 
College, and of the members of the diplomatic body. 
On the afternoon of the same day he proceeded in 
state to the Vatican, and received from the Holy 
Father the red skull-cap and biretta. He held another 

Cardinal Duke, of York 33 

reception on July 2, to receive further felicitations 
from the Roman nobility, and the generals of the 
various Religious Orders. The following morning 
the Cardinal Duke, wearing the gorgeous robes of his 
high dignity, went with great pomp to the Sistine 
chapel, where he took the customary oaths of fidelity 
to the Apostolic See. Then, kneeling with his face 
to the altar, he received from the Pontiff the red hat, 
symbolical of that martyrdom for which the princes 
of the Church must ever stand prepared. When the 
last strains of the Te Deum, which marked the 
termination of this solemn ceremony, had died away, 
His Royal Highness delivered a set oration, in which 
he expressed his profound gratitude to the Holy 
Father for the immense honour he had just received, 
and the deep sense he felt of his own unworthiness of 
so great a distinction. Pope Benedict, in his reply, 
which on this occasion partook of the nature of an 
allocution to the entire body of cardinals present, 
thanked the Duke for his gracious words, and, after 
referring to his birth and illustrious descent, took 
occasion to remind their Eminences that there was 
nothing unusual in the elevation of a youth of twenty- 
two to the Sacred College, seeing that the glorious St. 
Charles Borromeo had been invested with the purple 
when of the same age as the Duke of York, while 
the famous Cardinal Peter de Luxembourg received 
the red hat from Clement VI. when only eighteen. 

It may be interesting to recall the fact that the 
Duke of York was the third Prince of the English 
blood-royal to be honoured with the sacred purple, 
the first being Henry Cardinal Beaufort, son of John 
of Gaunt, and the second the famous Cardinal Pole, 


34 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

grand-nephew of Edward IV., who reconciled our 
country to the Apostolic See, after its defection under 
Henry VIII. and Edward VI. 

The Cardinalate of itself confers on the recipient 
the rank and honours of a prince. The Duke of 
York, however, in consideration of his birth and the 
claims of his family, was conceded privileges gener- 
ally allowed only to those Cardinals who belong 
to dynasties actually reigning. He wore the royal 
ermine on his mozetta or short scarlet cloak, above 
the rochet, took precedence immediately after Cardinal 
Ruffo, Bishop of Ostia, Dean of the Sacred College, 
and received, without returning, the visits of the 
princes of the Church and the lay nobility. This 
piece of etiquette was not at first understood by the 
nobles, and gave them much annoyance. After his 
elevation to the Cardinalate, His Royal Highness was 
accustomed to give receptions every Thursday 
evening. These receptions were so numerously 
attended that it sometimes happened that late 
comers, much to their chagrin, were unable to gain 

The Roman Senate visited the Duke of York in 
state to offer their congratulations. The felicitations 
of the Senators were expressed in Latin, in which 
language the Cardinal suitably replied. Six days 
later he underwent the ceremony of having his mouth 
opened and shut in one and the same consistory, a 
rite symbolical of the fidelity with which the members 
of the Sacred College ought to keep the secrets of the 
Church, and received from the hands of the Pope 
the Cardinalitial sapphire ring, a gem emblematical 
of the foundations of the Church foreshadowed by 

Cardinal Duke of York 35 

Isaias.* The Prince, on his side, made the usual 
offering of several hundred crowns for the promotion 
of the foreign missions. Benedict conferred upon the 
newly-created Cardinal the Church of Santa Maria in 
Campitelli, famous for its curious cross of transparent 
alabaster, and the tomb of the Blessed Father Leonardi, 
founder of the Congregation of the Mother of God, 
as his titular church. It may not be superfluous to 
mention here that the awarding to each Cardinal, on 
his elevation, of a titular church is a custom that has 
come down from the first ages, when the cardinals 
were the parish priests of Rome, charged with the 
cure of souls. 

* ' poor little one, tossed with terqpest, without all comfort, 
behold I will lay thy stones in order, and will lay thy founda- 
tions with sapphires ' (Isaias liv. 11). 


86 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 


HE news of his brother's ecclesiastical honours 
had been anything but welcome intelligence 
to Prince Charles, who foresaw that these 
events would greatly increase the religious prejudices 
which stood between the Stuarts and the throne of 
England. Shortly before the red hat was conferred 
on his younger son, Prince James wrote to Charles 
Edward, who was then on a visit to his friend the 
Duke de Bouillon, informing him of the coming event. 
The letter commences, 'My dearest Carluccio,' and, 
after narrating the circumstances of the return of the 
Duke to Rome, and his resolution of abandoning the 
lay for the ecclesiastical state, thus concludes : ' I 
am fully convinced of the sincerity and solidity of 
his vocation ; I should think it a resisting of the will 
of God, and acting directly against my conscience, if 
I should pretend to constrain him in a matter which 
so nearly concerns him.' 

We can understand to some extent the resentment 
felt by the young Chevalier against his father and 
brother. If they had tacitly abandoned all further 
attempts against the House of Hanover, he most 

Cardinal Duke of York 87 

certainly had not, as the history of his life abundantly 
proves. Of his family, he alone thoroughly under- 
stood the intense prejudice entertained by the bulk 
of the English nation against the Roman Catholic 
Church ; and here was his very own brother identify- 
ing himself with the most exalted rank but one of the 
Roman hierarchy, and becoming one of the sworn 
councillors of the Pope ! During the progress of the 
Rebellion much harm had been done the Stuart cause 
by the publication of an impudent forgery, which, to 
its lasting shame, the English Government caused to 
be published as a statement of the Pretender's plans 
should the rising prove successful. It purported to 
be an intercepted communication from a Father 
Graham, Charles's pseudo - confessor, to the Duke 
of York, and was, of course, plentifully interlarded 
with sentiments and phrases calculated to excite to 
the highest pitch the passions of Protestant English- 
men. The young Chevalier was described as ' wearing 
constantly about his neck a small medal ... on one 
side of which is impressed his Royal Highness leading 
Britannia repentant to kiss the Pope's toe.' His father, 
Prince James, was made to repeat the old calumny 
that ' no faith ought to be kept with heretics,' and one 
of the concluding sentences of this monstrous fabrica- 
tion promised that, should the Stuarts be restored, 
' our Smithfield fires shall again blaze !'* 

Charles Edward was not the only person who 
looked with disfavour on what had lately occurred. 
A letter written by Marshal Keith to his brother 

* This letter was published by Mr. Cooper, of Paternoster 
Bow, at the instigation of the Government (1745). Its spurious- 
ness is proved by a correspondent in Notes and Queries for 
June 23, 1865. 

38 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

about this time expresses the opinion of one of the 
leading Jacobites on the subject. After referring to 
the general state of the Stuart affairs, Keith con- 
tinues: 'Mine are not a bit mended. I have never 
had one word from C. Smith ' (Charles Edward) . . . 
'their' (i.e., the Stuarts') ' unfortunate and obstinate 
choice of favourites and confidants hitherto, particu- 
larly of Murray and the Ked Cap at Rome, has 
brought their affairs to such a pitch of discredit 
that they are under necessity of something to soothe 
folks,' etc. The Murray alluded to here is Mr. James 
Murray of Broughton, who acted as secretary to the 
Chevalier in the year '45, and afterwards saved his 
own life by turning King's evidence. The ' Red Cap ' 
is, of course, the Cardinal Duke. 

Yet another cause of mortification awaited Charles 
Edward. He had at first hoped that the Cardinalate, 
being but a princely rank and not a sacred Order, 
would be no obstacle to his brother marrying at some 
future time. But on this point, too, he was doomed 
to disappointment. In August of the same year it 
was notified to him by Cardinal Valenti that Prince 
Henry, in accordance with his own wishes and those 
of the Pope, had resolved on taking Holy Orders. 
On the 27th of the same month the Duke of York 
received the four minor Orders from the hands of the 
Holy Father in the Sistine Chapel, his father being 
present, with his Court, at the ceremony. 

On August 18 following he received the Order of 
Subdeacon, and a week later that of Deacon, the 
ceremony of Ordination being performed by the Pope. 

On September 1 the Duke was ordained priest, and 
four days later his Royal Highness said his first Mass 

Cardinal Duke of York 39 

in his father's domestic chapel, and administered Holy 
Communion to his father and several members of the 
Court. Twelve days afterwards Benedict XIV. created 
him Cardinal-Priest, but allowed him to retain in 
commendam his diaconal church. On the feast of 
the Holy Innocents the Cardinal Duke celebrated his 
first Missa Cantata, or sung Mass, in the Sistine 
Chapel, in the presence of his father and no fewer 
than twenty-four Cardinals. He was likewise the 
celebrant at the High Mass sung at St. Peter's on 
the feast of St. Peter's Chair, January 18, 1749. 
The function was rendered unusually solemn by the 
attendance of twenty- two Cardinals in their cappa 
magnas, or long scarlet trains. 

In addition to the income allowed his son by Prince 
James, the Holy Father conferred on the Cardinal 
Duke the lucrative office and title of Archpriest of 
the Basilica of St. Peter's. It may not be out of 
place to remark that the Church of St. Peter's at 
Rome, from its vast size, calls for the service of a 
special body of clergy, who are attached to it much 
in the same way as priests elsewhere are attached to 
a diocese. As a matter of fact, the Basilica is under 
the immediate jurisdiction of a bishop, who exercises 
episcopal authority over all persons in the parish or 
district adjoining the church. 

Shortly after his appointment to this preferment, 
Cardinal York presented the treasury of St. Peter's 
with a massive gold chalice of exquisite workmanship, 
profusely adorned with precious stones of great value. 
When Rome was plundered by the armies of the 
French Republic hi 1798, this valuable piece of plate 
fortunately escaped the notice of the modern Vandals, 

40 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

and remains to this day among the treasures of the 
Vatican, as a memento of the last of the Stuarts and 
a token of his munificence. As Archpriest of the 
Basilica, the Cardinal had in his gift several wealthy 
preferments, that of Vicar of the Basilica being the 
most considerable. 

During the course of the year 1751 Prince James 
made over to the parochial Church of Santa Maria in 
Campitelli, the church of his son's cardinalitial title, 
a sum of money for the purpose of promoting a society 
which met there every week to recite prayers for the 
return of Great Britain to the Catholic faith. In 
accordance with the terms of this gift, to this day 
thirty candles are lighted on the high altar, and 
the Blessed Sacrament exposed for adoration, every 
Saturday one hour before noon. The service consists 
of a low Mass, during which the Litany of Loretto and 
the psalm ' Levavi oculos meos in montes ' are chanted, 
followed by Benediction. 

Cardinal York took the liveliest interest in the 
sodality, and when in Rome never failed to be 
present at the Saturday devotions, which were 
attended by a large number of the Roman people, 
both clerical and lay, and the students of the English, 
Scotch, and Irish Colleges. 

By one of the clauses of the treaty of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, which was signed in 1748 by the ministers 
plenipotentiary of England, France, Spain, Holland, 
and Austria, France pledged herself to expel Charles 
Edward from her dominions. The Court of St. James's 
sternly refused to forego this rather petty opportunity 
for gratifying its vengeance, and the French Govern- 
ment was forced to comply. The difficulty in carrying 

Cardinal Duke of York 41 

out this stipulation was that the object of so much 
diplomatic attention absolutely refused to go. In 
vain King Louis implored and his father commanded ; 
the young Chevalier remained obdurate, and at last it 
was found necessary to employ force. As the Prince 
was stepping out of his carriage one night to enter 
the Opera, he was seized by six strong sergeants of 
the Gardes Fra^ais, bound hand and foot with a 
silken cord, and driven to the Bastille. After a short 
imprisonment in that grim fortress, he was conducted 
across the frontier, and there set at liberty. To com- 
pensate the Stuart family in some degree for this 
indignity which, indeed, had been brought entirely 
on his own head by the Prince himself and to show 
his regard for the Cardinal Duke of York, King 
Louis XV. conferred on his Eminence the rich Abbey 
of Auchin, in the diocese of Cambray, and four years 
later that of St. Amand. The possession of these two 
preferments augmented the Cardinal's already large 
income by 48,000 Roman crowns or 24,000. 

Before his death, which occurred on May 3, 1758, 
Pope Benedict XIV. gave the Cardinal Duke two 
further proofs of his appreciation and goodwill. The 
first of these was the presentation to the Church of 
the Santi Apostoli, vacant through the death of 
Cardinal Riviera ; and the other the appointment to 
the office of Camerlengo, which has been well described 
as the most eminent in all the Court of Rome. The 
Camerlengo is at the head of the treasury, and during 
a vacancy of the Papal chair he coins money, issues 
edicts, and performs other acts of sovereign authority. 
He has under him a treasurer, an auditor- general,and 
twelve prelates, called clerks of the Chamber, for the 

42 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

transaction of minor business. It was not long before 
His Royal Highness was called upon to exercise the 
very considerable powers with which he was invested. 
The Holy Father, as has before been said, expired in 
May, 1758, leaving behind him the reputation of 
having been the most learned pontiff that ever sat in 
St. Peter's chair. Pope Benedict received the tiara 
at a time when the infidel spirit of the eighteenth 
century had already, in many countries, destroyed 
every sentiment of religion in public life, and in 
others had made the rulers reluctant to show the Holy 
See that respect and deference which the greatest 
emperors and potentates of former times had delighted 
to manifest to the Vicar of Christ. This state of 
things the wise and conciliatory spirit of Benedict XIV. 
had in a great measure remedied, while his domestic 
enactments were no less conducive to the reform of 
abuses and the promotion of prosperity at home. A 
foe to religious persecution, he advised the Empress 
and other Catholic sovereigns to grant toleration to 
their Protestant subjects. During his Pontificate 
English, Swedes, and Protestants of other nations 
visited Rome in large numbers, and Frederick the 
Great and the Czarina Elizabeth consulted him on 
many knotty points of State policy. ' He would 
make us all Papists if he came to London,' said an 
English lord of Benedict on one occasion a remark 
not wholly devoid of truth, since one of the chief 
obstacles to the return of Protestants to the ancient 
Mother Church is that tangled mass of ignorance 
and prejudice concerning her which intercourse with 
such men as this immortal Pope would be so eminently 
calculated to dispel. 

Cardinal Duke of York 48 

As soon as the Holy Father had expired, Cardinal 
York, as Camerlengo, wearing his mourning-robes of 
violet, entered the death-chamber, and remained for 
some time engaged in prayer with the rest of the 
prelates present. He then removed the white veil 
from the face of the Pontiff with the words, 'The 
Pope is indeed dead,' and after breaking, according 
to ancient custom, the ring of the Fisherman with 
a golden hammer, took formal possession of the 
Vatican, in the name of the Sacred College. This 
ceremony was followed by the customary despatch of 
troops to secure the gates of the city and the Castle 
of St. Angelo, after which the Cardinal Duke returned 
to his palace, accompanied by the Swiss Guards who 
usually attend the person of the reigning Pontiff. 

The Conclave which assembled on the death of 
Benedict XIV. was of considerable duration, com- 
mencing early in March, and concluding on July 6 
with the election of Cardinal Charles Rezzonico, Bishop 
of Padua, a prelate of great piety and considerable 
learning, to the vacant throne. The new Pope, who 
assumed the name of Clement XIII. , was crowned at 
St. Peter's on July 16, in the presence of a concourse 
remarkable for the great number of English nobility 
and gentry it contained ; for the enlightened rule of 
the late Pontiff had made Rome the most popular 
city of resort in Europe. 

The election of Clement marked a new era in the 
ecclesiastical life of Cardinal York. As a prelude 
to appointing him to one of the metropolitan Sees 
of Rome, the Pontiff, at a private consistory held 
on October 2, 1758, nominated him Archbishop of 
Corinth in partibus infidelium. The ceremony of 

44 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

consecration took place in the Cardinal's titular Church 
of the Santi Apostoli on Sunday, November 19, the 
Pope himself officiating, assisted by Cardinal Guadagni, 
Bishop of Porto, and Cardinal Borghese, Bishop of 
Albano. At the conclusion of the consecration, his 
Holiness entertained the newly-created Bishop at a 
grand banquet in the Palazzo Apostolico. On 
February 12, 1759, Cardinal York renounced his 
' title ' of Santa Maria in Cumpitelli, taking in its 
place that of Santa Maria in Trastevere, retaining, 
however, in commendam the Church of the Santi 
Apostoli. At the same time, he resigned into the 
hands of the Sovereign Pontiff the purse of the 
Camerlengo which he had received from Benedict XIV., 
whereupon Clement restored it to him with a fresh 
confirmation of his jurisdiction and powers. Shortly 
before his consecration as Archbishop of Corinth, a 
temporary estrangement took place between the 
Cardinal and his father, the precise cause of which 
has never been fully explained. It seems, however, 
that Prince James entertained a strong dislike for a 
certain Abbe John Lercari, a member of the ' Pious 
Schools,' and afterwards Archbishop of Genoa, whom 
the Cardinal, his son, had taken into his household 
hi quality of Maestro di Camera, or Chamberlain. 
The ' King ' requested the Cardinal to dismiss Lercari, 
but the Cardinal, though always most dutiful and 
affectionate towards his father, felt compelled on this 
occasion to refuse compliance. To give his father's 
displeasure time to blow over, his Eminence went for 
a short visit to Bologna, but fearing that what was in 
itself only a trifling affair should appear to strangers 
more serious than it was, he thought it best to return 

Cardinal Duke of York 45 

to Rome and dismiss the obnoxious Chamberlain. 
By the Cardinal's influence, Lercari was promoted to 
the titular See of Adrianople, and finally, in 1767, 
translated to the Archdiocese of Genoa, which he 
ruled till his death in 1802. 

In 1761 Cardinal Camillus Paolucci, who since 
1758 had filled the See of Frascati, was created 
Subdean of the Sacred College, an honour which, by 
long-established custom, necessitated his translation 
to the See of Porto and Santa Ruffina. On July 13 
the Sovereign Pontiff nominated the Cardinal Duke 
of York as successor to Cardinal Paolucci. In the 
Consistory held a few days later, His Royal Highness 
formally renounced the title of Archbishop of Corinth, 
and took the oath of canonical obedience to the 
Apostolic See for the Bishopric of Frascati. He like- 
wise renounced his commendam of the Church of 
the Apostoli, but retained that of Santa Maria in 

On Wednesday, July 15, the ' Litterse Confinna- 
tionis/ or Bulls of enthronement, of the new Bishop, 
were read in the Cathedral Church of Frascati by the 
provost of the Chapter, and on the Saturday following 
the Cardinal took up his residence in the episcopal 
palace. The town of Frascati, which for upwards of 
forty years was to be associated with the last of the 
Stuarts, is a comparatively modern superstructure 
erected on an ancient site, having sprung up during 
the middle ages among the ruins of the old Roman 
city of Tusculum. The name is said to be derived 
from Frascata, which, as far back as the eighth 
century, was given to the locality on account of its 
woody appearance. Its environs now, as in ancient 

46 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

times, are renowned for the number and beauty of 
the villas which dot the country ; but the town itself 
has few buildings of interest beyond a fountain 
constructed in 1480 by Cardinal d'Estouteville, and 
the cathedral, with its curious imitation dome above 
the sanctuary. 

At the time of his translation to Frascati, the 
Cardinal Duke acquired the Villa Muti Savorelli, beauti- 
fully situated at the foot of the hill, and at a short 
distance from the fountain of Vermicino. Mr. George 
Stillman Hillard, the American traveller, who visited 
it in 1853, describes it as an unpretentious though 
well-arranged building, containing ' a large number of 
immense rooms generally opening into each other. . . . 
Many of the floors are paved with tiles or brick, like 
the hearth of a country farmhouse.' Up to this time 
the Cardinal had occupied a portion of his father's 
palace, but upon his appointment to the Bishopric 
of Frascati, he caused his household and effects to be 
removed to Frascati. Here he formed the splendid 
collection of historic and art treasures which, till the 
time of their dispersion* at the Revolution, made the 
Cardinal's episcopal residence one of the show-places 
of Italy. 

On Sunday, July 19, the day after his arrival, 
Cardinal York took possession solemnly and publicly 
of his See, and pontificated at the High Mass which 
followed this function. The Cathedral was crowded 
with the elite of Rome, several of the British and 
foreign nobility being also present, as well as Prince 
James, who, as ' King of England,' occupied a throne 
on the right of the sanctuary. To testify their joy at 
the accession of the Prince-Bishop, the inhabitants of 

Cardinal Duke of York 47 

the town and vicinity celebrated the event by bonfires 
and illuminations. His Royal Highness, on his part, 
entertained the Cathedral Chapter and principal 
personages of the place at a grand banquet, while 
among the poor of the neighbourhood clothes, money, 
and other necessaries were distributed in large 
quantities. He likewise presented the Cathedral with 
two rich Planetas or folded chasubles for use during 
Lent and Advent. On Thursday, July 23, his Eminence 
gave Confirmation to more than eighty boys and girls 
in the Cathedral, and on the evening of the same day 
returned to Rome. 

The Cardinal had not long been translated to the 
See of Frascati when he manifested his zeal by two 
much-needed undertakings. One was the complete 
reorganization of the diocesan seminary ; the other 
the promulgation of a number of salutary laws for the 
better government of the clergy of the diocese. Early 
in 1763 orders were issued for the convocation of a 
Synod, which met at Frascati on May 8, and terminated 
on May 11 of the same year. The synodal decrees 
were subsequently published in two bulky quartos 
under the direction of the Vicar-General, Father 
Stefanucci, S.J. The title-pages of this work, which 
was printed in Latin and Italian, bear his Eminence's 
armorial device, the royal arms of England, surmounted 
by the Cardinal's hat, and supported on either side 
by angelic heralds. The work commences with a 
Latin address to the Cardinal Bishops of the six 
metropolitan Sees of Rome. 

The statutes dealing with the discipline of the 
clergy may be passed over without notice, as they 
contain merely a repetition of what had been repeatedly 

48 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

enforced in all dioceses since the time of the holy 
Council of Trent. It was with the reconstruction of 
his seminary, to which the flock committed to his care 
had to look for a supply of zealous pastors, that the 
Cardinal was chiefly concerned. This institution, 
which had been founded about the middle of the 
sixteenth century, by Cardinal Cesi, had fallen into 
a state of great decay, so that its immediate recon- 
stitution was a matter of the first importance. The 
Cardinal Bishop rebuilt at his own expense that fabric 
itself, in a style suited to the requirements for which 
the institution was intended. The site chosen for the 
new building was among the vineyards of that de- 
lightful locality where tradition says the martial 
sybarite Lucullus had his country residence, near the 
Villa Montalto, now the property of the Propaganda. 

A series of stringent regulations were drawn up, 
with the approbation of the Cardinal, for the govern- 
ment of the new institution. The students, as far as 
possible, were to be natives of the diocese, and, thanks 
to the bounty of his Eminence, those who could not 
afford the moderate annual fees were maintained on 
a number of free bursaries, founded by himself. The 
course of studies pursued at the seminary occupied 
nine years, arranged in the following order : First, two 
years of Greek and Latin grammar, followed by two 
years of the classical authors, both prose and verse, 
with modern history and literature. Then came the 
Ecclesiastical studies proper, commencing with Philo- 
sophy, which lasted a year. To Philosophy succeeded 
four years' study of Dogmatic and Moral Theology, 
Scripture and Canon Law. Cardinal York was careful 
to make due provision for the instruction of the 

Cardinal Duke of York 49 

students in Gregorian chants and liturgical ceremonies, 
in which last branch they were to be exercised twice 
a week in the Cathedral by a Magister Ceremoniarum 
appointed for the purpose, and paid at the rate of two 
scudi a lesson. 

The Cardinal gave the entire management of the 
seminary to the Jesuits, as the body most fitted by 
learning and experience in spiritual training for the 
direction of aspirants to the sacred priesthood. The 
rector was his Eminence's confessor and Vicar- 
General, Father Horatius Stefianucci, of whom men- 
tion has been made. This remarkable man had 
entered the Society of Jesus at the age of nineteen, 
and, after completing the long and arduous course of 
study prescribed by the rule of St. Ignatius, and 
receiving priest's Orders, was appointed Professor of 
Canon Law at the German College in Rome, a post he 
held for twenty-five years. Cardinal York became 
acquainted with him through a mutual friend, the 
famous Cardinal John Francis Albani, and so im- 
pressed was his Royal Highness with Father Stef- 
fanucci's learning and capacity for business, that he 
made him his Vicar-General, and consulted him on 
all matters pertaining to the welfare of the diocese. 

Of the many ecclesiastical students who afterwards 
rose to eminence, either as Churchmen or scholars, 
thanks in great measure to the patronage of Cardinal 
York, two deserve an especial mention. The first of 
these was the immortal Cardinal Consalvi, whose 
diplomatic ability, as manifested in the conflict be- 
tween the Holy See and the French Empire, won for 
him from Napoleon the title of the ' Siren of Rome.' 
The young Consalvi, shortly after the death of the 

50 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Marquis, his father, in 1763, was sent with his brother 
to the seminary of Frascati, by his guardian, Cardinal 
Andrew Negroni, who for several years filled the high 
judicial post of Auditor-General under Cardinal York. 
After completing his studies at the seminary, and 
taking his degree in Canon Law at the University 
with great applause, the young Consalvi entered upon 
that diplomatic career which was to win for him the 
honours of the Roman purple, and engage him in one 
of the most terrible struggles in the field of politics 
that the world has ever seen. 

Another protege of the Cardinal Duke's who after- 
wards obtained considerable reputation in public life 
was Thomas Erskine, subsequently Cardinal and 
envoy of Pope Pius VI. to the Court of George III. 
His father was Colin, son of Sir Alexander Erskine, 
Bart., who lived and died in Rome, an exile for the 
Stuart cause. Young Erskine, being early left an 
orphan, was placed by his Eminence in the Scots' 
College, in Rome, an institution which was ever re- 
garded with peculiar veneration and affection by 
Cardinal York. After a long and distinguished 
career, spent hi the service of the Holy See, Mon- 
signor Erskine was, in January 1803, proclaimed 
Cardinal Deacon of the Church of Santa Maria in 
Campitelli, an honour which contained a special 
reference to his friend and patron the Cardinal Duke 
of York, who had formerly held the ' title.' His 
death occurred at Paris on March 20, 1811, caused, it 
is said, by grief at the deplorable persecution which 
the Sovereign Pontiff, whom he had accompanied to 
France, was then enduring at the hands of the French 

Cardinal Duke of York 51 

In the summer of 1765 it became apparent to all 
who knew him that Prince James, the Cardinal's 
father, had not long to live. The Prince had, 
indeed, been in declining health for several years, and 
in consideration of his age and infirmities had, like 
Charles V., been dispensed by the Pope from fasting 
before receiving Holy Communion. As the autumn 
wore on to winter the old Chevalier kept himself very 
much to his palace, saw few visitors, and beyond an 
occasional visit of state to the Vatican, seldom went 
out. His domestic and other affairs were attended 
to by Cardinal York and a Mr. Graham, on whom 
James had conferred the title of Lord Alford. By 
December James was confined to his bed, and in 
anticipation of his approaching end, asked that an 
altar might be erected in his apartment, so that Mass 
might be said daily in his presence, either by one of 
his chaplains, or by the Cardinal, who was constantly 
at his father's bedside. On Christmas-day the Holy 
Viaticum was administered to the dying Prince, who 
rapidly grew worse, till on the afternoon of January 1, 
1766, his death was momentarily expected. The 
entire household was summoned to the sick-room, 
where the prayers for the dying were recited by the 
Cardinal, while prayers for the same intention were 
offered up by the students of the English, Scotch, and 
Irish Colleges, and at most of the churches in Rome. 
Shortly before midnight James ceased to breathe, and, 
upon examination, the physicians pronounced life to 
be extinct. The obsequies accorded the deceased 
Prince were the same as those for a monarch that had 
actually reigned. After the embalmment the body 
was attired in royal robes, and lay in state for five 

52 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

days in the apartment where the death had occurred. 
This apartment, in accordance with the prevailing 
custom, was transformed into a chapelle ardente, 
adorned with rich hangings and armorial bearings, 
and lighted with large candles of yellow wax set in 
great candlesticks of massive silver. On January 6 
the corpse was taken to the Church of the Santi 
Apostoli, accompanied by the chief officials of the 
Papal household, the Roman nobility, and representa- 
tives of all the religious Orders and confraternities in 
Rome. A thousand wax candles and funereal torches 
blazed round the catafalque, and twenty violet-robed 
Ctrdinals supported the pall. On its arrival at the 
church the body was removed to a bed of state 
surrounded by purple hangin gs and gold lace. The 
canopy was surmounted by figures of angels sup- 
porting the crown and sceptre of England, while 
beneath ran the inscription ' Jacobus Magnse Britan- 
niae Rex, Anno MDCCLXVI.,' surrounded by medallions 
emblazoned with devices of the English orders of 
chivalry. In accordance with the ghastly fashion of 
the time, the sepulchral appearance of the church 
was intensified by the use of a number of bronze 
effigies of Death holding candelabra. Mass was 
celebrated by his Eminence Cardinal Alberoni, 
nephew of the famous minister, while the musical 
portions of the requiem were chanted by the choir of 
the Apostolic College. Masses for the repose of the 
King's soul were also offered up by Cardinal York at 
the churches of the Apostoli and Santa Maria in 
Trastevere, as well as by the dean of the cathedral at 
Frascati, and the chaplains of the British Colleges in 
Rome. Three days after the conclusion of the 

Cardinal Duke of York 53 

obsequies, the remains of the deceased Prince were 
removed to St. Peter's and deposited in the vault 
prepared for their interment. 

Of the private fortune left by the Chevalier the 
great bulk naturally went to Prince Charles, the 
Cardinal being already amply provided for by his rich 
benefices in Italy and France. In money alone the 
fortune of the deceased amounted to over 200,000, 
while it also included the Crown jewels of England 
which King James II. had taken with him on his 
flight in 1688, and the magnificent collection of plate 
and jewels, estimated at nearly a million of money, 
which had formed part of the dowry of the Princess 
Maria Clementina. These latter included a large 
shield of pure gold that had been given by the 
Emperor to John Sobieski, after one of the latter's 
signal victories over the Turks, and some immense 
rubies taken by the same illustrious conqueror from 
his Moslem foe. 

After the death of James the Holy See declined to 
recognise the right of the Stuarts to the title of King. 
Prudence, as well as political expediency, demanded 
that Charles, James's heir, should be regarded as of 
princely, but not sovereign, rank ; for by identifying 
itself with the cause of the exiled family, the Pontifical 
Government was giving to the Court of St. James's a 
very strong pretext for continuing the penal laws 
against its Catholic subjects, on the ground that they 
obeyed a power that lent its authority and prestige 
for the purpose of advancing the claims of a pretender. 
Cardinal York, as was only to be expected, warmly 
espoused the cause of his brother, who was absent 
from Home at the time the above decision was arrived 

54 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

at, and, in an interview with the Pontiff, implored 
him to reconsider the resolution he had taken. The 
French Ambassador, M. d'Aubeterre, joined his 
solicitations to those of the Cardinal, but all that 
these representations could elicit from Clement was a 
promise to consult the Sacred College before proceed- 
ing further in the matter. The result of this consulta- 
tion was that the Senate of the Church, with almost 
unanimous voice, approved of the policy of rejecting 
the claim of Charles Edward to be recognised as 
Charles III. The repudiation of these pretensions to 
the British throne involved the deprivation of the 
right to nominate to vacant bishoprics in Ireland, 
which ever since the Revolution had been enjoyed by 
the Stuarts, and was now transferred to the Congre- 
gation of Propaganda. 

When Charles arrived in Rome, no notice was 
taken of his presence by the authorities, nor did any 
of the Cardinals visit him. To console his brother 
for this cold reception, Cardinal York took special 
care to show him all the honour in his power. He 
several times visited the Chevalier in state, addressed 
him in public as ' your majesty,' and in driving out 
with him in Rome, placed him on his right hand an 
honour shown by Cardinals only to reigning sove- 
reigns. The immediate friends of the Cardinal soon 
followed suit. Cardinal Orsini, Neapolitan Minister 
in Rome, attended all Charles's receptions, and gave 
him homage as a King, as also did the priors of the 
Orders of Malta, Altieri, and Fiano, and the rectors of 
the English, Scotch, and Irish Colleges. This public 
defiance of the law drew from the Government a 
circular of stern reprimand, while the rectors of the 

Cardinal Duke of York 55 

British Colleges, as born subjects of King George, and 
therefore more likely to attract the displeasure of 
their Government by an act which at home would be 
reckoned high treason, were banished for some time 
from Rome. 

Prince Charles was already beginning to succumb 
to those confirmed habits of intemperance which have 
cast so deep a gloom over his memory. To distract 
his attention from the mortifications he had lately 
suffered, Cardinal York, in the autumn of 1766, 
invited his brother to Frascati for the shooting 
season. The Prince, who was still as keen a sports- 
man and as good a shot as when he brought down 
partridges in the Isle of Skye, remained in the 
country till the end of the season, residing alternately 
at Frascati with the Cardinal and at his own hunting 
lodge near Albano. 

In a drinking bout one evening at this latter place he 
drew his sword on one of the company, and, but for the 
intervention of those present, history might have had 
to lay homicide to the charge of the young Chevalier. 
Writing to a friend concerning this unhappy incident, 
the Cardinal remarked : 

' I have very little to say except to deplore the 
continuance of the bottle ; that, I own to you, makes 
me despair of everything, and I am of opinion that it 
is impossible for my brother to live if he continues in 
this strain. You say he ought to be sensible of all I 
have endeavoured to do for his good ; whether he is 
or not is more than I can tell, for he has never said 
anything of that kind to me. What is certain is, that 
he has a singular tenderness and regard for me and 
all that regards myself, and as singular an inflexibility 

56 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

and disregard for everything that regards his own 
good I am seriously afflicted on his account, when 
I reflect on the dismal situation he puts himself 
under, which is a thousand times worse than the 
situation his enemies have endeavoured to place him 
in ; but there is no remedy except a miracle, which 
may be kept at last for his eternal salvation, but 
surely nothing else.' 

The miserable effects of intemperance, as exempli- 
fied in his own brother, induced the Cardinal to draw 
up his well-known paper on the ' Sins of the Drunkard ' 
for distribution among the clergy and faithful of his 
diocese. It is a complete summary of the Catholic 
doctrine on the subject, and has been since translated 
into several languages. In England at the present 
day it forms the substance of the temperance resolu- 
tions directed to be read in every church and chapel 
of the Catholic diocese of Liverpool on the first 
Sunday of February and July. 

When once the Pope had clearly manifested his 
resolution of refusing sovereign honours to the Stuarts, 
no one more readily submitted to the will of the Pontiff 
than Cardinal York himself. In conjunction with 
some of his friends, he now urged his brother to 
lay aside the empty title of Charles III. for that 
of Count of Albany, which would be granted to him 
readily by everyone. This title was intimately con- 
nected with the Royal House of Stuart, having been 
first bestowed hi 1398 on Eobert Stuart, second son 
of Robert II., King of Scotland. The dukedom 
afterwards passed to the famous John Stuart, who 
was Regent during the minority of James V., son 
of the king who fell at Flodden Field. It finally 

Cardinal Duke of York 57 

descended to Henry Darnley, the ill-starred husband 
of Mary Queen of Scots. Moreover, James II., 
Charles's grandfather, before ascending the throne, 
had borne the title of Duke of York and Albany. 

The advice of the Cardinal was assuredly well- 
timed, if we are to judge of Charles's relations with 
society at this time, as given in the following letter 
from Sir William Hamilton, our ambassador at Naples, 
to Lord Shelburne, dated May, 1767. This communi- 
cation is interesting also from the insight it gives into 
Cardinal York's acts of benevolence. It proceeds thus : 

' The Pretender is hardly thought of even at Rome. 
The life he leads is now very regular and sober ; his 
chief occupation is shooting in the environs of Rome, 
and the only people he can see and converse with are 
his few attendants, Messrs. Lumsden, Montgomery, 
etc. The pension his father had of 1,200 a year 
from the Court of Rome is now granted to the 
Cardinal ; but, as he was not in the least want of any 
addition to his income, he gives it to the present 
Pretender, and, it is said, allows him 1,800 more 
out of his own income. The Cardinal's ecclesiastical 
benefices in the Roman States and in France are said 
to amount to 18,000 a year, with which he does 
much good, being extremely generous. Besides the 
3,000 he allows the Pretender, he is supposed to 
give at least 2,000 more in private donations to 
support poor families at Rome. The Father left a 
considerable quantity of jewels to the present Pre- 
tender, which still remain untouched.'* 

* The annual income of the Cardinal at this time could not 
have been less than 40,000 a year, for the Court of Spain had 
recently made over to him some very rich estates (or benefices) 
hi Mexico. 

58 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Convinced at length of the necessity of complying, 
Charles fell in with these overtures, and, as a pledge 
of his sincerity in submitting to the Pope's wishes, 
expressed his intention of visiting the Pontiff, in 
company with Cardinal York. 

When the time appointed for the interview arrived, 
the Cardinal drove his brother in his state coach to 
the Vatican, and, in accordance with his privilege as 
a Prince of the Church, was immediately admitted 
into the presence of the Pontiff. Charles, who had 
remained seated in an ante-room, was, after some 
little delay, summoned to the audience by one of 
the chamberlains, who addressed him merely as the 
brother of Cardinal York. On entering the Pope's 
private apartment, the Chevalier kissed his Holiness's 
hand, and remained kneeling like any other visitor 
till desired to rise. During the whole visit, which 
lasted a quarter of an hour, Charles stood, although 
his brother, like the Pope, remained seated. 

Having shown his goodwill by complying with the 
wishes of the Head of the Church, the Chevalier 
became a persona grata at the Vatican, and at the 
same time resumed the place he had lost in society. 
On the occasion of one of his visits to Clement XIII., 
the Holy Father presented him with a rosary of gold 
and precious stones, of the sort usually given only to 
reigning princes, and, it is said, informed him at the 
same time that political considerations alone prevented 
the Government from giving him the honours due to 
kingly rank. 

Some notice must now be taken of the political 
events which at this time were giving to the Holy 
See such serious grounds for alarm. The peace and 

Cardinal Duke of York 59 

tranquillity enjoyed by the States of the Church 
during the glorious reign of Benedict XIY. terminated 
with the death of that Pontiff, and the tiara had 
scarcely descended to his successor when the long- 
expected storm burst with incredible fury. The 
cause of this tempest in the religious and political 
firmament was the corporate existence of the Jesuits. 

In the third quarter of the eighteenth century the 
Society of Jesus, though it had lost much of its 
former prestige and influence, was still by far the 
most potent religious community in the Church. Its 
members laboured for the conversion of the heathen 
and ignorant beneath the sun of India and amidst the 
snow-bound regions of the North. Its schools were 
largely frequented by scholars of all classes, and its 
reputation for learning in every department of know- 
ledge was still well maintained. But its enemies were 
numerous and powerful. France, Spain, and Portugal 
were the countries in which opposition to the Society 
was the strongest ; for, though outwardly Catholic, 
these nations, especially France, had drunk deeply 
of the waters of infidelity and moral corruption which 
at this miserable epoch threatened to destroy the very 
foundations of religious and social life. The opinion 
of French philosophic atheism was well expressed by 
Voltaire when he wrote : 'Once we have exterminated 
the Jesuits, the destruction of that infamous thing 
(i.e., Christianity) will be only child's play for us.' 

The French Episcopate, to its everlasting credit, 
did its utmost to defend the Jesuits, but in vain. 
By 1764 the royal decrees against the Fathers had 
been everywhere enforced, and the Society no longer 
existed in France. The Jesuits had already been 

60 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

expelled from Portugal, and a little later they were 
expelled from Spain. 

It was not to be expected that the Sovereign Pontiff 
could witness these savage aggressions without raising 
his voice in solemn protest. His Bulls and edicts 
commanding the restoration of the Society in France 
were, however, not likely to produce much effect in a 
country where religion had almost entirely disappeared 
beneath the most bestial immorality and blatant in- 
fidelity. Clement convoked a Consistory for January 3, 
1769, to consider the dangers threatening the Church ; 
but ere it could assemble, the soul of the sorely-tried 
Pontiff had passed away. 

The remains of the deceased Pope were deposited 
in St. Peter's, beneath a monument representing Death 
and Religion hi an attitude of meditation, a monument 
which has excited the admiration of generations of 
visitors to the Eternal City. Never, perhaps, in the 
whole history of the Church did a Conclave assemble 
in such momentous circumstances as that which met 
after the death of Clement XIII. The so-called 
Catholic Powers France, Spain and Portugal in- 
formed the Cardinals that no Pontiff would be accept- 
able who was not pledged to abolish the Society of 
Jesus. Such a declaration as this portended a schism 
in the already distracted Church, the avoidance of 
which was the problem imperatively calling for 

On February 15, 1769, the Cardinals, at the con- 
clusion of the Mass of the Holy Ghost, entered the 
Conclave in procession, shortly after mid -day, and at 
once entered upon the business of the election. From 
the outset the Conclave was divided into two sections 

Cardinal Duke of York 61 

the Cardinals who favoured the demands of the 
Bourbon Kings, and the Cardinals who defended the 
corporate existence of the Jesuits. Among the former 
party were numbered the Cardinals York, Orsini, 
Conti, Corsini, Cavalchini, and Carraccioli. The latter 
party, however, outnumbered its opponents at the 
outset by more than three-fourths. An attempt was 
made by the Cardinals Rezzonico and Albani, the 
leading supporters of the Jesuits, to complete the 
election before the arrival of the Cardinals from the 
Bourbon Courts who were on their way to Rome. 
But the suggestion of hasty procedure in a matter of 
such grave importance met with almost general con- 
demnation. In a conference held on February 19 
between the Cardinals York, Lanti, Rezzonico and 
Perelli, it was clearly demonstrated that such a course, 
far from restoring peace to the Spouse of Christ, 
would be productive of nothing but calamities. The 
election consequently assumed its normal aspect, and 
so continued till an event occurred which for a time 
diverted the attention of the august assembly. This 
was the arrival in Rome on March 15 of Joseph II. 
of Austria and his brother Leopold, Duke of Tuscany. 
Two days later the imperial visitors attended a session 
of the Conclave. Though the visitors maintained the 
strictest incognito, the Cardinals did not fail to honour 
their illustrious guests with an imposing display of 
pomp and splendour.* The Cardinals Albani, Orsini 

* The state robes of a Cardinal are splendid, consisting of a 
scarlet silk cassock, lace rochet, short red silk cloak, or long 
Cape (mozetta), and cappa magna ; an ample train of scarlet 
silk, twelve yards long, fastened to the shoulders by a rich hood 
of silk or ermine, according to season. The famous red hat, 
with its pendant tassels, is seldom or never worn, its place being 

62 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

and Spinola received the Emperor and his brother, 
and presented to them the Florentine and Milanese 
Cardinals as being their immediate subjects. The 
visitors then withdrew to the Sistine Chapel, where 
they adored the Blessed Sacrament, which was exposed 
for their veneration, after which they returned to the 
main hall of the Conclave, and engaged in familiar 
conversation with various members of the Sacred 
College. Cardinal York on this occasion became the 
especial object of the Emperor's attention, for the son 
of Maria Theresa was not unmindful of the deep debt 
of gratitude owed by his House to his Eminence's 
immortal ancestor, John Sobieski, the deliverer of 

Although the visit of the Emperor took place in 
Holy Week, none of the imposing ceremonies of the 
Church proper to that solemn season could be carried 
out, owing to the vacancy in the Papal throne. But 
by order of Cardinal York, as Camerlengo, the great 
dome of St. Peter's was illuminated with countless 
lamps on the evening of Easter Monday, and the 
entire week following was spent in festivals and 
rejoicings. The Roman nobility vied with each other 
in showing honour to the heir of the Qesars, and a 
series of splendid fetes were given at the magnificent 
villas of the families of Braciano, Corsini, Albani and 
Doria. On April 10 the Empress Maria Theresa, the 

taken by the scarlet biretta. In Lent, and on occasions of 
mourning, violet robes take the place of the scarlet, and on the 
first Sunday of Advent rose-colour, though the scarlet zuchetto 
or skull-cap is worn at all times. Cardinals belonging to the 
great religious Orders usually retain their monastic habit, but, 
like the rest of the Sacred College, are distinguished by the 
zuchetto, sapphire ring and pectoral cross. 

Cardinal Duke of York 63 

mother of Joseph and joint ruler of the Empire with 
him, addressed an elegantly-worded Latin letter to 
the Conclave, thanking the Cardinals and the Roman 
people for the reception given to her sons. The 
Emperor and his brother had already quitted Rome, 
but on their return to Vienna, the former despatched 
an embassy headed by Count Kaunitz-Rittburg, son 
of the Chancellor of the Empire, to suitably express 
the profound thanks of the Austrian Court for the 
honours shown to the person of the Sovereign by the 
Sacred College. So splendid was the reception given 
to this embassy by the Cardinals that the French 
Ambassador, though accustomed to the brilliant cere- 
monial of Versailles, afterwards described it in a letter 
as the most magnificent scene he had ever witnessed in 
the whole course of a long series of courtly pageants. 
The Conclave now returned to its task of selecting 
a Pontiff at once agreeable to the Courts and capable 
of maintaining in its integrity the prestige of the 
Apostolic See. In the midst of their deliberations, 
Monsignor Azparu arrived with the Veto which the 
Governments of France, Spain and Portugal had 
drawn up, prohibiting the election of certain Cardinals. 
The envoy informed Cardinal Orsini that the Powers 
he represented required that the Pope-elect should 
give a formal undertaking to suppress the Society of 
Jesus. Orsini rejected this proposal with indignation, 
and declared that any attempt of the Civil powers to 
overstep the lawful provisions of the Veto would cause 
any election that might come about through such 
influence to be absolutely null and void. This reply 
had the desired effect, and no further attempts were 
made to unduly influence the progress of the Conclave. 

64 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

It would be tedious to follow this protracted election 
through all its details. We content ourselves with 
stating that at the last scrutiny, or examination of 
votes, taken on May 19, Cardinal Ganganelli was found 
to have united all the suffrages. 

The excitement aroused by an assembled Conclave 
invariably causes the great square outside St. Peter's 
to be filled both day and night with a dense crowd 
eager to witness the pulling down of the walled-up 
window that marks the coming of the Senior Cardinal 
to announce the name and title of the new occupant 
of the Papal throne. The great length of the Con- 
clave on the present occasion had the effect of 
lessening the popular interest, and it was not the 
voice of a Cardinal, but the boom of the guns from 
the heights of St. Angelo, that first announced to the 
city that a new Pope had been elected. 

Cardinal Duke of York 65 



who, after so long an interval, was summoned 
to the headship of the Church, under the 
name of Clement XIV., was already known throughout 
Italy for his extensive learning, unaffected piety, and 
cheerfulness of disposition. Born in 1705, at St. 
Arcangelo, near Rimini, he had, on the completion 
of his studies, entered the Franciscan Order, where 
his uncommon ability led his superiors to appoint him 
professor of philosophy and theology. His elucidation 
of the works of the great luminary of his Order, Duns 
Scotus, procured for him an extraordinary reputation, 
and on September 24, 1759, he was proclaimed a 
Cardinal by Clement XIII. His promotion wrought 
no change in his conduct. His friends missed nothing 
of his wonted cheerfulness, while strangers, instead of 
the dignified reserve of the Roman prince, saw nothing 
in him but a monk filled with humility. 

The coronation of the Pope-elect passed off amidst 
the customary splendour. The ceremony of Episcopal 
consecration was performed by his Eminence Cardinal 
Cavalchini-Guidobono, Bishop of Ostia, while the 


66 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

coronation service was performed by the youngest 
Cardinal Deacon in curia. Cardinal York, as Arch- 
priest of the Basilica, addressed the Holy Father in a 
Latin oration, on behalf of himself and the Chapter of 
St. Peter's, during the course of which his Royal 
Highness referred, with a singular happiness of 
expression, to the glorious succession of Pontiffs 
who, like the object of his congratulation, bore the 
name that told of mildness and mercy. 

Though the accession of Clement XIV. was re- 
ceived with signs of apparent approval by the various 
European Powers, it may be doubted if any Pontiff 
ever succeeded to the Chair of St. Peter under darker 
auspices. The Courts of France and Spain were 
clamouring for the immediate suppression of the 
Jesuits, Portugal was seriously thinking of setting 
up an independent patriarch, while the Republic of 
Venice, emboldened by these examples, was passing 
several senatus-consulta highly prejudicial to the 
interests of the Church and the Holy See. In 
Asia Minor the Christian communities about Mount 
Lebanon who acknowledged the primacy of the 
Roman Pontiff were enduring a violent persecution 
from the Turks and Russians. This formidable array 
of dangers did not dismay the Pope. Assured, as 
every Catholic must always be, of the ultimate 
triumph of the Church whose glorious Spouse, the 
Saviour of the world, abides with her for ever, he 
calmly faced the situation. He appointed Cardinal 
Pallavicini, a consummate diplomatist, his Secretary 
of State, raised the Cardinal Duke of York to the 
office of Vice-Chancellor of the Apostolic See, des- 
patched Monsignor Martorelli, Archbishop of Sidon, 

Cardinal Duke of York 67 

as Nuncio to arrange matters with the Government of 
Venice, addressed a letter to the pious Empress Maria 
Theresa, requesting her to use her influence with the 
Czar and Sultan on behalf of the Eastern Christians, 
and finally informed the Bourbon Courts that their 
demands should be submitted to the investigation of 
a committee of Cardinals and Canonists. 

Early in 1770 the Pope promulgated a constitution 
which caused the utmost excitement in Rome. This 
was nothing less than the dismissal of the Jesuits 
from the seminary of Frascati, and the placing of that 
institution under secular priests. Cardinal York, as 
Bishop of the diocese, incurred a good deal of un- 
merited odium at the time for his supposed over- 
zealousness in carrying out the Pontifical ordinance, 
as we learn from the following letter written by 
Father Galloway, S.J., to Father Thomas Hawkins, 
Chaplain at Oxburgh Hall, Lancashire : 

' Bad news from Rome. Cardinal York has seized 
on the college and church at Frascati, with all the 
effects, movable and immovable, and the Brief 
mentions no other reason than his zeal and desire 
of having it. Visitations are going on, as in 
Henry VIII.'s time, and the consequence is seizure. 
The visit of the Roman College is postponed by 
reason of Cardinals Negroni and Pisani refusing to 
act in conjunction with Cardinal Marefoschi.' 

The ' zeal and desire ' of Cardinal York to possess 
the property of the Jesuits connected with the church 
and seminary at Frascati may have arisen from a fear 
of its passing into other hands, and so being lost to 
the college ; or it may well be that much of the 
property had originally been given to the Society 


68 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

by himself, and that he was only claiming the 
reversion. But whatever his motive may have been, 
we may be sure that he was not prompted by avarice, 
as the reader will, we doubt not, readily acknowledge 
after what has been already said of the kind and 
generous disposition of Cardinal York. 

We may now leave this painful topic for a time, 
to say something of the marriage of Prince Charles 
Edward, which took place in the spring of 1772. 

As it was the policy of France to perpetuate the 
House of Stuart, and thus have ever at hand a ready 
means of disquieting her great rival, England, the 
Duke d'Aguillon, the French Minister of State, 
intimated to Charles, through his cousin, the Duke 
de Fitz James, in the summer of 1771, the strong 
desire felt by the Court of Versailles to see him 
married. The Chevalier thereupon proceeded to 
Paris, and, after several interviews with the Minister, 
agreed to unite himself in marriage with any eligible 
bride that might be selected, on condition of receiving 
a pension of 10,000 a year. 

After a considerable amount of further negotiation, 
an * eligible bride ' was found in the person of the 
Princess Louise, daughter of Prince Gustavus of 
Stolberg-Gerden, a brave cavalry officer, who fell 
at the Battle of Leu then in the Seven Years' War. 
Her maternal grandfather was Thomas Bruce, second 
Earl of Aylesbury, and a noted Jacobite, while her 
sister, the Princess Caroline, was betrothed to the 
eldest son of the Duke de FitzJames, who, as most 
of our readers are aware, was the direct descendant 
of James II. 

The preliminaries being at length concluded, the 

Cardinal Duke of York 69 

Chevalier and his bride were married by proxy at 
Paris on March 28, 1772. The actual celebration 
took place twenty- one days later in the chapel 
attached to the villa of Cardinal Campagnoni-Mare- 
foschi at Macerata, in the marches of Ancona. 
Charles wore on this occasion a suit of crimson 
silk, and as insignia the ribbon and star of the 
Garter. He signed his name in the register as 
'Charles III., King of Great Britain, France, and 
Ireland, 1772,' while the bride added to' her name 
the title of Queen. 

On the Wednesday of Easter week their Royal 
Highnesses set out for Rome. They were met near 
the city by Cardinal York, accompanied by his state 
coaches and his retinue in scarlet and gold. The 
streets of Rome leading to the Stuart palace were 
lined with people, eager to see Charles and his 
consort ; but otherwise no notice was taken of their 
arrival, although a formal intimation of the same 
had been made to the Cardinal Secretary of State. 

On the day following his brother's entry into Rome, 
Cardinal York, who, in quality of Archpriest of the 
Vatican Basilica, was residing in the palace in the 
piazza behind St. Peter's, made his sister-in-law a 
morning call, and presented her with a truly princely 
wedding present, consisting of a beautifully wrought 
box of embossed gold, set with brilliants. When 
opened, the precious casket was found to contain a 
draft on his Eminence's bankers for 20,000 Roman 
crowns, or about 10,000. 

Another royal visitor arrived in Rome at this time 
in the person of William, Duke of Gloucester, brother 
of King George III. The Duke received a magnificent 

70 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

reception from the Papal Government, and had several 
private interviews with the Pope, who was glad of this 
opportunity for speaking to his Royal Highness on the 
deplorable condition of the Catholics in the British 
Isles. The Duke, whose goodness of heart and 
liberality of sentiment were well known, needed no 
reminder to make him aware of the cruelty and 
injustice of the penal laws which weighed so heavily 
on so large a number of his fellow-subjects, and on his 
return to England exerted himself in such a manner 
with the Government as to pave the way for the first 
Catholic Relief Act, which became law some years later. 

Not long after the departure of his distant cousin, 
the Duke of Gloucester, who, while in Rome, frequently 
expressed his deep commiseration for the misfortunes 
of the Stuart family, Cardinal York received informa- 
tion from Scotland of a most cruel persecution which 
was being carried on against a large number of the 
Catholic crofters of South Uist by their hereditary 
laird, Macdonald of Boisdale. This harsh personage 
offered his wretched tenants the choice of turning 
Presbyterians or being evicted "from their homes. 
Cardinal York laid an account of this sad state of 
things before the Pontiff. His Holiness at once com- 
municated with his Eminence Cardinal Roche- Aymon, 
Grand Almoner and Confessor of King Louis XV., 
requesting him to draw the attention of the British 
Government to the conduct of the island despot. 
It does not appear that any attempt was made to 
restrain the Presbyterian zeal of Boisdale, for the 
persecution went on unchecked. 

At length Bishop Hay, the Vicar Apostolic of 
Edinburgh, who, when a young man, had fought 

Cardinal Duke of York 71 

for Prince Charles in 1745, collected a sufficient sum 
from the Catholic nobility and gentry of Great Britain 
to enable the evicted families to emigrate to America, 
where they founded a large and flourishing colony. 
The emigrants were accompanied in their exile by 
Mr. Macdonald of Glenaladale, the cousin of their 
persecutor, and a Catholic, who nobly disposed of 
his famity estate that he might have the means 
of assisting his poor co-religionists who were flying 
from the tyranny of his heartless kinsman. There is 
reason to believe that the emigration fund so nobly 
started by Bishop Hay received substantial contribu- 
tions from Cardinal York and his brother, both of 
whom were on terms of intimacy with the eminent 
author of the ' Sincere Christian.' 

The death of Clement XIV. took place in the 
middle part of the year 1774, about a year after the 
promulgation of the famous Brief ' Dominus ac Re- 
demptor Noster,' which declared the Society of Jesus 
at an end. The suppression of the Jesuits was a 
political expedient intended to avert the threatened 
schism between the Bourbon countries and the Holy 
See. The existence of any religious Order is quite 
accidental and contingent, whereas it is absolutely 
necessary that the whole Church should be joined in 
spiritual communion with the successor of St. Peter. 
Clement declared the Society dissolved on the ground 
that the altered relations between the Church and the 
modern world rendered it undesirable that the Jesuits 
should continue to exist as a corporate body. His 
predecessors had from time to time suppressed other 
religious Orders as unsuited to the altered conditions 
of the age. 

72 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Such of the Jesuit Fathers as were too old or too 
infirm to undertake parish work were assigned pensions. 
It was, however, unfortunately deemed necessary in 
carrying out the provisions of the Brief to confine the 
General of the Society, Father Lorenzo Kicci, to the 
Castle of St. Angelo as a State prisoner. Here he 
remained hi iHjljjjjttiL imprisonment till his death 
some months later, on November 25, 1775, asserting 
to the last the entire innocence of his brethren of the 
offences laid by their enemies to their charge.* 

The action of Clement in suppressing the Society 
of Jesus, and thus appearing to give a quasi endorse- 
ment to charges that were never proved, has been 
much censured by some Catholic historians, who 
have contrasted the conduct of this Pope with that 
of Pius IX. In somewhat similar circumstances 
Pius IX. found a way out of the difficulty arising 
from the opposition of one of the Governments of 
Europe to the Jesuits, by advising the Fathers to 
retire for a time from that particular country. 

In Holy Week of 1774 Clement XIV. manifested the 
first symptoms of his mortal sickness, and in the 
following July his physicians ordered him to retire to 
his country residence of Castel Gandolfi. Here he 
was visited several times by Cardinal York. On 
October 20 Clement received the Holy Viaticum, and 
on the following day Extreme Unction, in the presence 
of Cardinals Malvezzi, Simone, and Negroni, as well 
as all the Superiors-General of the religious Orders in 
Rome. Next day at one o'clock in the afternoon 
Clement XIV. breathed his last, in the seventieth 

* The Society of Jesus was subsequently restored by Pope 
Pius VII. in 1814. 

Cardinal Duke of York 73 

year of his age and sixth of his Pontificate. The 
Conclave which met to elect his successor, though 
somewhat protracted in length, presents none of the 
features which marked the previous Conclave. Car- 
dinal York, who was to share with the future 
Pontiff the vicissitudes of fortune, acted as Vice- 
Chancellor of the Apostolic See on this occasion, and 
in that capacity issued the silver medals for distri- 
bution among the prelates and nobility of Rome as 
passports to certain parts of the Vatican palace during 
the sitting of the Conclave. These medals had on the 
obverse the arms of his Eminence surmounted by a 
Cardinal's hat, and on the reverse the inscription: 
' Henricus Cardinalis Dux. Ebor. S.R.E. Vicecan- 
cellarius Sede. vacan. 1774.' [Henry, Cardinal of 
the Holy Roman Church, Duke of York, and 
Vice-Chancellor during the vacancy of the Holy 
See, 1774] 

The result of the election, which was proclaimed on 
February 15, 1775, was the elevation of Cardinal John 
Angelo Braschi to the Chair of St. Peter. 

The prelate thus happily called to the first dignity 
hi Christendom was an ecclesiastic of noble family, 
whom Clement XIII. had invested with the sacred 
purple in recognition of his admirable virtues and 
his erudition in civil and canon law. When the 
Cardinals offered the customary congratulations to 
the Holy Father, the Pope prophetically replied : 
' Venerable Fathers, your pleasure is my misfortune.' 
The name chosen by the Pontiff was Pius VI. 

The year 1775 is further remarkable for the death 
of the renowned founder of the Passionist Congre- 
gation, St. Paul of the Cross, whose long life of 

74 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

eighty-one years was devoted to the spiritual regener- 
ation of sinners by means of ' missions ' and ' retreats ' 
preached in various parishes. Triumphant over serious 
opposition and the calumnies of enemies, the holy 
founder of the Passionists lived to see his Order 
established in almost every kingdom in Europe. 
Two years after his death steps were taken in Rome 
to procure his beatification. More than two hundred 
witnesses of rank, piety, and learning bore testimony 
on oath to the heroic sanctity and miracles of the 
deceased. This evidence, accompanied by petitions 
from Cardinals, Bishops, heads of religious Orders, 
and others, was presented to the Holy See, and in 
due course laid before the Congregation of Sacred 
Rites. Here Cardinal York, as Cardinal ponente, 
having raised a formal objection to the introduction 
of the cause, a unanimous vote of approbation was 
given in its favour and the case was proceeded with. 
After several years of investigation and inquiry, 
Pius VI. on September 22, 1784, gave Father Paul 
of the Cross the title of Venerable, this being the 
first step towards that of beatification. Cardinal 
York showed his thorough appreciation of the 
Passionist Order by building for the Fathers at his 
own expense a monastery on Mount Cavo, the highest 
point of the Alban Hills. In carrying out this laud- 
able work, the Cardinal unfortunately authorized an 
act of vandalism which brought on the last of the 
Stuarts the bitter resentment of all lovers of antiquity. 
To supply the necessary building materials for the 
work, the picturesque ruins of the ancient Roman 
temple of Jupiter Latialis were demolished, and so 
effectually that all that now remains of this once 

Cardinal Duke of York 75 

interesting monument of paganism is a massive wall, 
composed of rectangular blocks of hard stone, on the 
south and east sides of the monastery garden. It is 
a subject for wonder and regret that so art-loving a 
Pontiff as Pius VI. did not interpose his authority to 
save so ancient a monument from destruction ; but 
the rapidly increasing troubles of the Church, caused 
by the persecutions of the infatuated Joseph II. of 
Austria, left little leisure to the Pope for attending 
to home affairs, much less to the preservation of 

Before the close of the year 1775 the Jubilee, a 
period of special religious exercises and indulgences, 
was proclaimed in Rome. During the progress of a 
Jubilee, sovereigns who wish to take part in the 
various services and processions which mark this 
solemn period, have special places of honour assigned 
them near those allotted the Cardinals. Among the 
royal personages who came to Rome on this occasion 
for the purpose of gaining the indulgence was Fer- 
dinand, King of Naples. The Chevalier expressed 
his intention of being present, but requested per- 
mission to attend as King. Cardinal York joined in 
this petition, and had an audience with the Holy 
Father on the subject ; but His Holiness was not to 
be moved. Charles might take part in the processions 
as Count of Albany, but not as Charles III. The 
Chevalier retired to Florence, and never again at- 
tempted to press his regal claims on the authorities 
in Rome. At the conclusion of the Jubilee of 1775 
Cardinal York, as Vice-Chancellor and Camerlengo, 
presided at the impressive function of walling in the 
Porta Sacra, which marked the final ending of a series 

76 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

of religious ceremonies of more than ordinary mag- 
nificence. The silver trowel with which the mason's 
work was formally commenced by his Eminence ia 
now one of the historic treasures of Lord Braye. 

The refusal of the Vatican to recognise him as 
King rankled deeply in the breast of the Chevalier, 
whose frame of mind was not improved by the cold 
reception given him about this time by the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany. His evil genius once more over- 
came him, and all his old habits returned. During 
the carnival season he exposed himself to the ridicule 
of the whole city by his continued and public state of 
intoxication. He went a great deal to the opera, where 
he lay on a couch in his box looking languidly at the 
performance, and drinking his favourite beverage, a 
sweet Cyprus wine, till quite overpowered, when his 
footmen carried him to his carriage and drove him 
home. His treatment of his consort was in perfect 
keeping with his general conduct. He was always 
either beating or abusing her, and on St. Andrew's 
night terrified the entire household by his attempts 
to strangle her. Most of his attendants quitted his 
service in disgust. Had it not been for the earnest 
entreaties of Cardinal York, the unhappy Prince 
would have lost his dearest friend and adviser, Mr. 
Caryll, of West Grinstead, Sussex, who, unable to 
endure the outrageous behaviour of his master, was 
on the point of retiring from his service. It is not 
surprising, in view of these events, that the Countess 
of Albany resolved on quitting her unfeeling husband 
and retiring into a convent, a project which she 
put into execution in November, 1780, when she 
temporarily entered the house of the Bianchetti, or 

Cardinal Duke of York 77 

Dominican nuns, at Florence. From this retreat she 
wrote a long letter to her brother-in-law, the Cardinal, 
explaining the motives for the step she had taken, 
and asking his assistance. His Eminence replied in a 
very long letter, commencing as follows : ' My very 
dear sister, I cannot express what I have suffered in 
reading your letter of the ninth of this month. I 
have long foreseen what has happened, and the step 
you have taken with the sanction of the Grand Duke 
and Duchess guarantees the uprightness of your 
motives.' The Cardinal went on to say that he had 
consulted with the Holy Father on the subject, and 
had by the advice of the Pope selected a convent in 
Rome, to which she might retire till some arrangement 
could be made for her future. 

The convent selected by the Cardinal was that of 
the Ursuline nuns, in the Via Vittoria, to which his 
own mother had retired during her estrangement 
from Prince James. Hither the Princess repaired, 
but, in March, 1781, she quitted this retreat for the 
palace of Cardinal York, at the Cancellaria, his 
Eminence meanwhile residing at Frascati. The 
Countess of Albany, who was of a strong literary turn, 
wished to have her library sent down from Florence, 
and asked the Cardinal to request the Chevalier, her 
husband, to forward the books. Charles, in a letter 
full of animosity against Louisa, replied that the 
books were being got ready for transmission, and 
enclosed a list of them 'maide by Abbs' Sipolita, 
Language Master, and of Mathemastiques (sic) to ye 
Queen, being a very honest man, Chamellen (sic) to 
ye grande Duke.' 

During the greater part of the year 1781 Cardinal 

78 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

York had something far more important to attend to 
than the miserable domestic quarrels which were 
embittering his brother's last years. As Vice- 
Chancellor of the Apostolic See, and Camerlengo, 
there devolved upon him much of the government of 
Home during the absence of the Pope, who had gone 
to Vienna to remonstrate in person with the Emperor 
Joseph II. for his attacks on the rights of the Church. 

The Emperor, who had been left sole ruler of tha 
Austrian dominions by the death of his mother, the 
pious Maria Theresa, was unhappily smitten with that 
love of innovation which so deeply characterized the 
age, and, imbued with the anti-Christian principles 
of the French ' philosophes,' he resolved on that 
oppression of the Church which has attached such 
an unenviable notoriety to his name. 

The religious Orders, as generally happens when 
' reform ' is made the cloak for plunder, were the first 
to suffer. By imperial decree, all monastic and 
conventual establishments, save those engaged in 
teaching and works of charity, were suppressed, and 
their property confiscated. Other edicts, striking at 
the unity of the Church, followed in quick succession. 
No Bishop was hi future to apply to Rome for conse- 
cration ; no Bull, Brief, or Rescript of the Holy See 
was to be introduced without leave of the Govern- 
ment ; and diocesan seminaries were replaced by two 
colleges, where doctrines condemned by the Church 
were freely taught. Finally, marriage was reduced 
to a civil contract, and members of the hierarchy 
were forbidden to accept the rank of Cardinal. 

With the exception of a few courtly Bishops, the 
whole body of the Austrian episcopate raised its voice 

Cardinal Duke of York 79 

in protest against this shameful attempt to place the 
Church under the heel of the State. The Pontiff 
remonstrated against these proceedings through 
Cardinal Migazi, the legate a latere at Vienna. But 
the arts of diplomacy and entreaty were exhausted in 
vain ; and at length Pius announced his intention of 
going to confer in person with the Emperor, in spite 
of the disapprobation of a majority of the Cardinals, 
who considered such a proceeding derogatory to the 
Papal dignity. 

The result of that resolution is well known. The 
Pope quitted Rome on February 27, 1782, and arrived 
at Vienna towards the end of March. His journey 
was a veritable triumph, Protestants and Catholics 
everywhere vying with each other to show honour to 
the head of the Church. So great was the influx of 
persons into the Austrian capital to do homage to the 
august Pontiff, that it was feared that a famine would 
ensue. The visit of Pius extended over six weeks, 
and on leaving he was, as on his arrival, escorted a 
considerable part of the way by the nobility, headed 
by the Emperor himself. Joseph promised to do 
nothing prejudicial to the unity of the Church, and 
as an earnest of his sincerity presented the Holy 
Father with a gold cross set with brilliants, valued 
at 20,000. 

The journey of the Pontiff to Vienna was far from 
being the fruitless undertaking that some modern 
historians would have us believe. The extraordinary 
tokens of love and loyalty manifested towards the 
Holy Father by millions of his spiritual children was 
an emphatic proof of how little a hold the infidel 
sophistries and corrupt example of the times had on 

80 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

the great mass of Catholics ; while his short stay in 
Vienna was a distinct gain for the Church. Among 
the multitude of persons whom the advent of the 
first of Bishops attracted to the capital of the northern 
Csesars was a large number of noble and wealthy 
Lutherans, of whom three thousand, either at the 
time or shortly afterwards, embraced the Catholic 

The Emperor Joseph lived to bitterly repent his 
ecclesiastical innovations, and when on his death- bed 
wrote to Pius with his dying hand, seeking his for- 
giveness and asking him to exert his authority to 
calm the turbulence of the Belgians, whom the 
Emperor's officious meddling with the venerable 
institutions of Church and State had driven into 
revolt. The Pontiff, it need scarcely be said, freely 
forgave his repentant son, and used his influence to 
compose the troubles that were threatening the 
remote States of the Empire. 

Early in 1782 an adventurer, bearing the appro- 
priate name of Venture, called upon Mr. Caryll, Prince 
Charles's steward, who happened to be in Paris, and 
claimed the support of Cardinal York on the ground 
that he was the natural son of his Eminence's father, 
the Old Chevalier. Mr. Caryll at once wrote to the 
Cardinal, informing him of the circumstances, and 
the latter, with that love of justice which was one of 
his most marked characteristics, requested Mr. Caryll 
to inquire into the truth of the man's story, and 
report to him in writing. The result of the investi- 
gation proved the utter falsehood of Venture's story. 
The impostor, amongst other wild statements, had 
asserted that he had fought in Prince Charles's army 

Cardinal Duke of York 81 

during the rebellion, although facts made it clear 
that he could not have been more than a child when 
the rising took place. To set the mind of the 
Cardinal completely at rest on the subject, Caryll 
wrote his Eminence a letter early in the spring, con- 
taining further proofs of the imposture, and con- 
cluding with these words : ' As the falsehood of his 
pretensions is so clearly demonstrated, I am hopeful 
that the fable of his origin will not give your Royal 
Highness a moment more of uneasiness, as it certainly 
will never gain credit with any who are the least 
informed of the character of the King.' 

The visit of Gustavus III., King of Sweden, and 
his brother, Prince Charles, to Rome in 1783 is an 
event of some importance in the history of the last 
Stuarts. The royal visitors, who were received with 
every mark of distinction by the Pontifical Govern- 
ment, devoted much attention to the valuable 
museums of natural and artificial curiosities which 
the fine taste of Pius VI. and his immediate prede- 
cessors had constructed. But it is with the good 
offices of Gustavus towards Prince Charles Edward that 
we are mainly concerned. Shortly after his arrival 
in Rome the Cardinal seized on the presence of the 
Swedish Monarch in Rome as an excellent opportunity 
for making some final settlement with regard to his 
brother's affairs. Gustavus readily acquiesced, and 
sought to restore concord to the family of his host's 
brother. Gustavus had already met Charles Edward 
at Florence, and his noble and generous nature had 
been deeply moved by the melancholy condition of one 
in whose veins ran the blood of so many generations of 
kings. In conjunction with the Cardinal, he laboured 


82 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

to bring about a reconciliation between the Chevalier 
and his consort. His efforts, however, were not 
attended with success, and all the kind - hearted 
monarch could do was to smooth the way for a, legal 
settlement by a separation a mensa et thoro, which was 
duly agreed upon by Charles and his Countess, and 
ratified by the Pope on April 7, 1784. By this arrange- 
ment the Countess gave up her allowance of 15,000 
crowns per annum, formerly settled on her by her 
husband, as well as the 4,000 allowed her by Cardinal 
York, who now made over this sum to his brother. 
The loss of these sums was compensated by a pension 
of 2,500 a year which her brother-in-law, the Duke 
de Berwick (FitzJames) procured for her from Marie 
Antoinette, Queen of France. On this allowance the 
Countess lived till the French Revolution deprived 
her of it. When the Revolution occurred, however, 
she was the wife of Vittorio Alfieri, the wealthy 
Florentine poet, whom she married after Prince 
Charles's death. She and her husband subsequently 
travelled in England, and were received in audience 
by George III. and his Queen. On their return to 
Florence she received a pension of 2,000 a year from 
the British Government, which was continued down 
to her death in 1824. After the death of Alfieri, in 
1804, she is said to have married the French painter, 
Xavier Fabre, who survived her, and who, on his 
death, in 1837, bequeathed the fine library of the 
Countess, and many valuable relics of the Stuarts and 
Alfieri, to the museum of Montpellier, his native town. 
So much for the subsequent history of Louisa 
Countess of Albany. 

In February, 1783, Charles Edward was seized with 

Cardinal Duke of York 88 

an illness from which it was thought that he could 
not recover. The malady was a complication of 
inflammation and dropsy, and it was deemed ex- 
pedient to summon his brother from Rome. Cardinal 
York left instantly for Florence, travelling via Sienna, 
where he stopped one night, and reaching his brother 
on the following day. He lodged in a monastery, 
near the house of the Chevalier, to whom he adminis- 
tered the last Sacraments of the Church. He pro- 
longed his stay in Florence till his brother's recovery 
several weeks later, and then returned to Rome. In 
January Charles Edward had another attack of his 
malady, aggravated by apoplexy, and was indeed in 
so critical a condition that for two days he lay at the 
point of death. The Cardinal hastened to his bed- 
side, but the end was not yet. 

At about this time the province of Calabria, in the 
kingdom of Naples, was devastated by one of the 
most terrible series of earthquakes ever recorded. 
The towns of Messina, Tropea, and Reggio were 
reduced to ruins, the cultivation and industries of 
entire districts destroyed, and large portions of land 
near the coast violently projected into the sea. It is 
estimated that upwards of forty thousand persons lost 
their lives in this fearful calamity, while a vast number 
of others were plunged into the greatest suffering. 
To relieve their necessities extraordinary efforts were 
made throughout Italy. The Pope forwarded large 
sums of money to assist the work of relief, and by 
special Brief allowed the revenues of the Neapolitan 
monasteries to be applied for the same purpose. 
Cardinal York, with his accustomed generosity, set 
aside a considerable portion of his income for the 


84 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

same end, and encouraged the people of his diocese 
to contribute liberally towards the relief fund. 

At the beginning of 1786 the Chevalier, who was 
now somewhat better in health, removed to Home. 
He seldom appeared in public. Most of his evenings 
were spent in the society of the great musician, 
Domenico Corri, who has left us a sad picture of the 
last days of the unfortunate Prince. The Chevalier 
would sit for hours in an apartment hung with old 
red damask, and dimly lighted by two candles in 
silver sconces, while the maestro, his companion, 
played on the violoncello or pianoforte snatches of the 
music that had cheered the ' children of the mist ' 
long long ago in the battle, the bivouac, and the 
march. There was not unfrequently on the table a 
pair of silver-mounted pistols, which the Chevalier 
would often take up and examine, for since the 
attempt on his life in 1751, by Grossart, the Whig 
fanatic, he had never remained unarmed. After 
satisfying himself that the pistols were properly 
primed and loaded, the Prince would replace them on 
the table, and then sink back again, and meditate in 
silence on the memories which the strains of mourn- 
ful music recalled. 

In the spring of 1786 he had another attack of his 
complaint, and recovered with difficulty. When con- 
valescent he retired to his brother's villa at Albano, 
where numbers of the peasantry came to him to be 
touched for the King's evil. He rarely received 
visitors, though distinguished strangers, like Mr. 
Greathead, the friend of Charles James Fox, were 
sometimes admitted to see him. This gentleman 
was desirous of hearing the narrative of the Scotch 

Cardinal Duke of York 86 

rebellion from the lips of its chief actor, and on the 
occasion of his visit to the Chevalier studiously led the 
conversation up to this topic. Charles entered with 
zest into the subject, but the strain was too great, a 
fit overcame him, and he fell swooning to the floor. 

Early in January, 1788, the Prince was stricken 
with a severe stroke of paralysis, and by the middle 
of the month was confined to his bed. Cardinal 
York, assured that his brother's life was now 
about to terminate, was assiduous in his attendance 
upon him. As the Irish Franciscan Fathers had 
ministered to Prince James in his last illness, the 
Cardinal requested the same worthy friars to attend 
his dying brother, and administer to him the last 
Sacraments of the Church. In accordance with his 
Eminence's wishes, Fathers James and Francis Mac- 
Cormick, O.S.F., took up their temporary residence 
at the palazzo of Charles Edward, and carefully pre- 
pared him for his rapidly approaching end. 

Though the death of the Prince was now early 
expected, it took place, as a matter of fact, with an 
unexpected suddenness, and in consequence the 
Cardinal was not present at the closing scene of his 
brother's eventful career. 

On January 31, 1788, the day following the anni- 
versary of the execution of his great-grandfather, 
Charles I., the Chevalier had a final attack of his 
malady, and at half-past nine at night he expired. 
He had received the last Sacraments of the Chur ch 
and made an exemplary end.* 

The Cardinal requested the Pope to allow the 

* 'Tales of the Century,' by Chas. Edward and John Sohieski 
Stuart. London, 1846. The date of the Prince's death is given 
as the thirtieth, but this is a mistake. Author. 

86 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

deceased Prince the honours of a royal funeral. The 
Holy Father, while condoling with his Eminence on 
his sad loss, refused to grant his request, on the 
ground that Charles had never been acknowledged 
as King during his life. But the Cardinal was still 
free to inter his brother as a Prince of blood royal, 
and preparations for a magnificent funeral were com- 
menced without delay. The body, after its embalm- 
ment, lay in state in the Stuart palace in Home, 
pending its removal to Frascati. Six altars were 
erected in the ante-chamber of the chapelle ardente, 
and during the thirty hours following the decease 
upwards of thirty Masses of requiem were offered. 
The Office for the Dead was chanted every evening in 
the presence of the body by the Irish Franciscans. 
When the arrangements for the obsequies were com- 
pleted, the corpse was removed to the Cathedral of 
Frascati, where a catafalque, surmounted by a canopy 
and armorial bearings, had been prepared for its 
reception. A large concourse of persons, including 
many of the Italian and British nobility, filled the 
church, and it was observed that everyone wore deep 
mourning. So great a number of persons sought 
admission to the Cathedral that it was found neces- 
sary to place troops in the square outside to prevent 
the danger of overcrowding. The Cardinal, though 
weighed down by grief, was the celebrant at the 
requiem, assisted by several bishops and prelates. 
When the absolution had been pronounced, the coffin 
was borne to the crypt accompanied by the clergy, 
choir, and most of the congregation, chanting the 
final anthem, ' In paradisum deducant te Angeli.' 
By the directions of the Cardinal, the site of the tomb 

Cardinal Duke of York 87 

was marked by a marble slab with a Latin inscription, 
of which the following is the translation : ' Here lies 
Charles Edward, the eldest son, heir and successor of 
the royal dignity and paternal right of James III., 
King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, who, 
having taken up his abode in Rome, was styled the 
Count of Albany. He lived sixty-seven years and one 
month, and departed in peace the day before the 
Kalends of February in the year 1788.' The heart of 
the Chevalier, after being enclosed in a silver urn, 
was deposited in a niche in the vault, where the body 
of the Prince reposed till its transference shortly after- 
wards to St. Peter's at Rome. 

As a formal assertion of his claims to the British 
throne, Cardinal York took two proceedings which in 
method and effect were in strong contrast to the war- 
like measures undertaken by his father and brother. 
The first of these was to cause himself to be silently 
proclaimed to the world as Henry IX. of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, by the issue of accession 
medals; the second to declare Prince Emanuel of 
Sardinia his successor to these claims. With respect 
to the first, he ordered a number of medals in gold 
and silver to be struck by his jeweller, Signer 
Hamerani, after the style of those issued by himself 
in 1774, when acting as Vice-Chancellor of the Holy 
See on the death of Clement XIV. Specimens of 
the new issue were presented to the Sovereign Pontiff, 
the Cardinals, and the leading personages of rank 
and talent in Rome. When the Duke of Sussex, 
George III.'s son, visited Rome some years later, his 
Eminence, who entertained a great esteem for him, 
gave him one of the impressions in gold, which the 

88 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Duke at his death in 1844 bequeathed, with his other 
property, to his niece, her present Majesty the Queen. 
These famous medals are about two inches broad, 
and have on the obverse the bust of Prince Henry 
in Cardinal's robes, while around runs the legend: 
' Hen. IX. Mag. Brit. Fr. et Hib. Rex Fid. Def. Card. 
Ep. Frasc.' (' Henry IX., King of Great Britain, France, 
and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Cardinal Bishop 
of Frascati'). On the reverse is represented an alle- 
gorical figure of Religion holding a Bible and cross ; 
at her feet is the British lion, and in the distance a 
view of Rome and St. Peter's. The inscription com- 
pletes that of the obverse : ' Non desideriis Hominum 
sed voluntate Dei ' (' By the will of God, but not by 
the desire of men '). 

With the assumption of the title of King, his 
Eminence did not relinquish that of Cardinal, although 
it had previously been the custom for members of the 
Sacred College to omit the title of Cardinal on suc- 
ceeding to the honours of a throne. Thus, after the 
death of Henry III. of France in 1589, the Cardinal 
de Bourbon was exclusively styled Charles X., till he 
terminated his nominal reign of a few days' duration 
by voluntarily abdicating in favour of his nephew, 
the renowned Henri Quatre. Cardinal York, though 
retaining his ecclesiastical style and rank, insisted 
upon receiving regal honours in his household, and 
a sure way for a visitor, especially an Englishman, 
to find ready favour with his Eminence was to 
address him as ' Your Majesty.' 

The other proceeding taken by the Cardinal with 
regard to his claims to the British throne was to 
publish a manifesto, which had been drawn up as 





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Cardinal Duke of York 89 

far back as 1764 by Signer Cataldi, the Cardinal's 
attorney. This document had been composed at a 
time when there was a likelihood that Prince Charles 
would die unmarried. The deed declared that in 
default of the Chevalier's heirs, the right to the 
Crown should pass, on the death of both the brothers, 
to Prince Emanuel, afterwards King Emanuel IV. of 
Sardinia, the representative of Charles I. of England, 
being the direct descendant of his youngest daughter, 
Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans. This claim is now 
represented by the Princess Maria Theresa, wife of 
the eldest son of Prince Ludwig of Bavaria. In the 
course of the year 1791, forty years after the bequest 
of the Old Chevalier to the Society of Santa Maria 
in Campitelli for the return of England to the 
Catholic faith, news arrived in Rome of the abolition 
of the penal laws in England after an existence of two 
centuries and a half. From this date the heavy cloud 
that had cast so deep a gloom on so many generations 
of adherents of the ancient faith rapidly rolled away, 
to make way for an epoch of ever-increasing religious 
liberty. These glad tidings were announced to the 
Holy Father by Cardinal York, to whom also fell 
the happy task of congratulating the students of the 
English College, the successors of those heroic students 
who, when departing for the land of persecution, had 
been hailed as the flowers of the martyrs by St. 
Philip Neri. 

In the 'Life of Cardinal Consalvi,' published at 
Paris in 1864, there is given a full account of a 
nomination to the Vicariate of St. Peter's, which 
occasioned something like a contest between the Pope 
and Cardinal York. Early in 1792 Monsignor Zondari, 

90 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

who held the office of Vicar of the Basilica, was 
promoted to the Archbishopric of Sienna ; whereupon 
the vacant vicariate reverted to Cardinal York, as the 
Archpriest. His Eminence, desirous of giving pre- 
ferment to his friend and former protege, Monsignor 
Consalvi, nominated him to the post. But before the 
new incumbent could take possession,. it was intimated 
to the Cardinal that the Holy Father wished the 
appointment to be given to Monsignor Brancadoro, 
the Nuncio at Brussels, who had just then been 
recalled to Eome as Secretary to the Propaganda. 
It was also objected by the Archivist of the Chapter 
of St. Peter's that Consalvi, as Auditor of the Rota, 
was ineligible for the office, and this objection was 
forwarded in writing to Cardinal York. His Eminence, 
who discovered on investigation that the report of 
the Archivist was not correct, at once wrote a sub- 
missive letter to the Pontiff, pointing out this fact, 
and citing many cases where Vicars of the Basilica 
had also been Auditors of the Rota. The Pope, how- 
ever, was not to be put off, and, summoning Consalvi 
to his presence, informed him that the vicariate must 
be filled up without delay, and requested him to write 
to this effect to Cardinal York. The Holy Father 
added significantly that he did not intend to insist 
on the election of any special candidate, as he was 
sure the goodwill of his Eminence would prompt him 
to select a candidate likely to give satisfaction to the 
Holy See. Consalvi wrote as desired, and the Cardinal, 
seeing that the wish of Pius could not be in politeness 
opposed any longer, replied that, using the liberty the 
Holy Father had granted him, he had resolved upon 
presenting the vacant vicariate to Monsignor Branca- 

Cardinal Duke of York 91 

doro. Next morning Consalvi announced this decision 
to the Pontiff, who remarked : ' The Cardinal Duke 
has made a good choice, and we derive much satisfac- 
tion from it ; he will find that it answers the purpose 
well ; tell him that from me.' 

This deference to the Pontifical wishes involved a 
great sacrifice to the good Cardinal, who had long 
desired to bestow some substantial mark of favour on 
Consalvi, in whom he had from the first discerned 
evidence of that genius which was to shine forth with 
such surpassing splendour a few years later. Shortly 
after this occurrence, Cardinal York, in view of his 
advancing years, and the natural desire he felt of 
leaving his domestic and other affairs in perfect order, 
resolved on drawing up his last will and testament. 
In this document he appointed as executors Mon- 
signors Consalvi and Cesarini, the latter being a Canon 
of the Cathedral at Frascati, rector of the Seminary, 
and subsequently Bishop of Milesi, in partibus in- 
fidelium. The will was duly drawn up by a notary, 
with the exception of those clauses which related to 
the aforesaid two prelates, and these the Cardinal 
wrote with his own hand. To Cesarini he left the 
interest on a sum of six hundred Roman scudi, or 
three thousand francs, and to Consalvi six thousand 
francs, payable on demand. Consalvi, whilst thanking 
his Eminence for this handsome legacy, declined to 
accept it, saying that he considered the fact of being 
executor to his Eminence a quite sufficient token of 
his esteem. The Cardinal, who was not very well 
pleased with this refusal, replied that his mind was 
fully made up, and Consalvi was constrained to 
submit. Nine years later, when Minister of State to 

92 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Pius VII., and involved in the engrossing negotiation 
of the Concordat with Napoleon, Consalvi begged His 
Royal Highness to release him from the obligations of 
executorship, as these duties might interfere with the 
sole and undivided attention which affairs of State 
demanded. Cardinal York at once agreed, and drew 
up another will, by which he gave the executorship to 
Monsignor Cesarini alone. His Eminence, however, 
did not forget his old pupil in the disposal of his 
property. After the Cardinal's death, Consalvi dis- 
covered that he had been left the original sum of six 
thousand francs, together with His Royal Highness's 
sapphire ring, a jewel of great value. He accepted 
the ring as a precious souvenir of his old friend and 
patron, but made over the money to certain old 
servants of Cardinal York's. 

Meanwhile, the French Revolution was rushing on 
with fearful and startling rapidity. What the fall of 
the Bastille and the creation of a Constituent Assembly 
had commenced, the close of the year 1792 saw 
accomplished; and a republic rose on the ruins of 
the ancient and splendid monarchy of France. On 
January 21, 1793, the descendant of Henri Quatre 
and the Grand Monarque mounted the scaffold, and 
Europe was plunged into mourning for Louis XVI. 
At Rome a solemn requiem was sung for the French 
King at St. Peter's, and an allocution pronounced by 
Pius VI. on the truly Christian virtues and edifying 
life of the royal victim to democratic fury. Cardinal 
York, in whose veins ran the royal blood of France, 
by the union of his great-grandfather, Charles I, with 
Henrietta Maria, daughter of King Henry IV., caused 
requiems to be sung in the Cathedral at Frascati, at 

Cardinal Duke of York 93 

which all the honours customary at the obsequies of 
kings were duly rendered. 

During 1794, and part of 1795, the Cardinal was 
engaged in correspondence with the Most Honourable 
Charles Stuart, seventh Earl of Traquair, on the 
subject of certain mines in Spain to which his lordship 
considered he had a right. The Traquair family, 
though it had not openly espoused the Jacobite cause, 
was by sentiment and tradition entirely in sympathy 
with it; and one of its near relatives was William 
Maxwell, Earl of Nithsdale, who escaped the block, 
after the rising of 1715, by leaving the Tower in a 
disguise supplied him by his heroic wife, who remained 
behind in his place. The Earl of Traquair now wrote 
to the Cardinal to obtain his good offices as mediator 
in an application he had made to the Spanish Govern- 
ment for a concession of the exclusive right of working 
certain coal-mines in the peninsula. ' The Earl,' so 
runs the account of this negotiation, ' seems to have 
entertained the idea of having conferred upon him a 
grandeeship, and a suitable establishment in Spain, 
because a cadet of his family had formerly gone to 
that country and allied himself to one of its noble 
houses.' To the communication of his lordship the 
Cardinal replied as follows : 

' In answer to your obliging letter of January 10, 
you may be assured that I have full cognizance of the 
merits and prerogatives of your family, but I cannot 
but remark that it is the first time in all my lifetime 
I have ever seen your signature or that of anyone 
belonging to you. That, however, has not hindered 
me from writing a very strong letter to the Duke of 

94 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Alcudia in your favour, and I have also taken other 
means to facilitate the good success of your peti- 
tion. I heartily wish my endeavours may have their 
effect in regard of you and your son, and mean- 
while be assured of my sincere esteem and kind friend- 
ship. A thousand compliments to your lady and 

' HENRY B., Cardinal' 

Frascati, Feb. 24, 1795.' 

The Duke of Alcadia, to whom the Cardinal wrote 
on behalf of the Earl, was the famous Manuel de 
Godoy, who has obtained an unenviable notoriety in 
history by his intrigues with the great Napoleon, to 
whom he betrayed his country. 

On November 7 of the same year the Cardinal again 
wrote as follows : 

' I received with all possible satisfaction your kind 
letter of the 23rd Sep bre> and am glad to find you are 
so much satisfied with the attentions you and your 
family receive from the First Minister, which persuade 
me your affairs will have a successful termination. 
For what regards the medals I got struck some years 
ago, I send you one of each sort ; but am now seven 
years older, though, God be praised, in better health 
than I could well expect. My most kind remem- 
brance to Lady Traquair and your children, and, for 
what regards myself, you may be certain of my sin- 
cere esteem and constant kind friendship. 

' HENRY R., Cardinal. 

' Frascati, November 7, 1795.' 

Cardinal Duke of York 95 

With regard to this negotiation, nothing, so far as 
we have been able to ascertain, ever came of it beyond 
the formation of a closer acquaintance between the 
venerable Cardinal and his remote kinsman. 

The time has now arrived for narrating the story of 
the misfortunes which, in pursuance of the strange 
fatality that overhung every generation of the House 
of Stuart, now befell its last representative, just as he 
was preparing to end his days in peace. 

It was not long before the revolutionists, who had 
already attempted to uproot the Catholic religion in 
France, sought a pretext for attacking the Holy See 
itself. One was soon found in an incident which 
occurred at Home in January, 1793. A young 
Republican officer named Hugo Basseville, while on 
his way to the embassy of his country at Naples, 
made a short stay in Rome, and attempted to dis- 
seminate Republican ideas among the inhabitants of 
the Eternal City by distributing revolutionary tracts. 
A riot ensued, and before the police could interfere 
Basseville was killed. Several of the rioters were 
arrested, and condignly punished. But the French 
Directory refused to be satisfied, and declared that 
it held the Roman Government responsible for the 
officer's murder. 

Pius VI., understanding that nothing short of the 
seizure of the patrimony of St. Peter was meditated 
by the French Republic, allied himself with the 
coalesced Powers of England, Austria, and Prussia. 

In 1794 a detachment of British troops was 
stationed at Civita Vecchia, in the Roman States, 
to aid the Papal Government in checking the growth 
of revolution. 

96 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

And here we may well pause to consider the wonder- 
ful manifestation of Providence, as shown in these 
events. The Roman Pontiff is no sooner abandoned 
by the Catholic Powers than an alliance mainly com- 
posed of Protestant States rushes to his aid. England, 
for over two centuries the most implacable enemy of 
the Apostolic See, no sooner beholds the object of its 
inveterate hate menaced by its foes than she sends 
her armies to uphold the threatened tiara, and form a 
serried phalanx round the Pontifical throne !* 

In 1796 Napoleon Bonaparte, then rapidly rising to 
the front rank of the many brilliant commanders who 
everywhere led the armies of France to victory, invaded 
Italy, and by a series of the most astonishing successes, 
gained in the very districts where Hannibal had so 
repeatedly routed the legions of Rome, made himself 
master of the whole of the Austro-Italian territories. 
General Vaubois, with a powerful army, marched 
towards the Papal States, which were thrown into 
the greatest confusion at his approach. The aged 
Pontiff alone remained unmoved amidst the general 
panic, relying for aid on that Almighty power which 
has ever preserved the Holy See in the hour of danger. 
To save his people from the horrors of pillage, he 
consented to the enormous exactions of the French 
General, and agreed to hand over the sum of 
20,000,000 francs, a large quantity of horses and 

* In the South Kensington Museum there is a fine painting 
representing several British officers in the act of being presented 
to Pius VI. Their names were : Major, afterwards General 
Brown Clayton, Captain Head, and Lieutenant the Hon. Pierce 
Butler. The Holy Father is depicted placing a plumed dragoon 
helmet on the head of Major Brown Clayton, and at the same 
time offering up a prayer for the King of England and the 
welfare of the noble British nation. 

Cardinal Duke of York 97 

provisions, and a number of the finest paintings and 
statues the galleries of Rome possessed. Before these 
conditions could be fulfilled, the French were forced 
to retire before a relieving army of Austrians ; but 
the check was only momentary. After the victories 
of the Republican armies at Senico and Ancona, the 
Pope found himself required to pay an additional sum 
of 30,000,000 francs as a penalty for the encourage- 
ment he was supposed to have given the Austrians. 
The resources of the Pontifical treasury were strained 
to the utmost to meet these monstrous demands, and 
the nobility and wealthy classes of Rome disposed of 
their private jewels that they might contribute to the 
amount demanded. Cardinal York, as his share in 
the good work, parted with a magnificent ruby, the 
size of a pigeon's egg, valued at 60,000, once the 
property of John Sobieski. These concessions delayed, 
but could not avert, the fatal day. On December 28, 
1797, a handful of revolutionists, headed by General 
Duphot, sought to revive the insane attempt of Basse- 
ville, and plant ' the banner of freedom on the Capitol.' 
A collision with the troops ensued, and Duphot and 
several of his associates were shot. The Directory, 
glad of this opportunity for finally annexing the 
States of the Church, gave orders to General Berthier 
to march on Rome with an army of 18,000 men. 

No resistance was made to the advancing host, 
and on February 10, 1798, the French troops poured 
into the Eternal City. The cannon of the invaders 
thundered along the deserted streets, the tree of 
liberty was planted on the Campo Vecino, and the 
' Roman Republic, the sister and ally of France,' 
was proclaimed from the Capitol, amidst the roar 


98 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

of artillery, the strains of the Marseillaise, and the 
invocation of the names of Brutus and Cato. Mean- 
while the halls of the Vatican resounded with the 
shouts of an exultant soldiery eager in the work of 
pillage. The apartments were stripped to the bare 
walls, and the Vicar of Christ stood alone amidst 
flashing sabres and bristling bayonets. The very 
ring was torn from his finger, while, in tones of 
angry menace, the renunciation of temporal power 
was demanded from him. For response, the old man 
fearlessly replied that, though they hewed him in 
pieces, never would he surrender one jot or tittle of 
the Church's patrimony, of which he was not the 
master, but the guardian. He was led away to die 
in captivity at Valence ; the tricolour waved over the 
Castle of St. Angelo, and an exulting world triumph- 
antly declared that the Papacy was no more. 

At the time the French troops pillaged Rome, the 
Cardinal was living quietly at his villa near Frascati, 
his life being spent in the discharge of his episcopal 
duties, and in the exercise of charity. The entrance 
of the invaders was the signal for a number of 
disaffected persons to rise in revolt, in the hope of 
the plunder. The villas of the Cardinals, nobility, 
and wealthy classes, which studded the fair expanse 
of the Campagna were marked out as the objects of 
immediate attention, and among these, of course, that 
of Cardinal York. His Eminence, who apprehended 
an attack from the revolutionary banditti, took steps 
to save at least some portion of his property from 
seizure by hiding as much of it as he could so dispose 
of among the cottages of the neighbouring peasantry, 
whose affection for the good Cardinal was unbounded. 

Cardinal Duke of York 99 

On February 9 news was hastily brought that a 
large mob of revolutionists was in the neighbourhood. 
The aged Cardinal was compelled to forsake the Villa 
Muti at once, and leave his beautiful house, with its 
wealth of historic and artistic treasures, to the mercy 
of the pillagers. Fortunately for him, and all those 
who were flying from the revolutionists, General 
Mack, the Austrian commander, held the district 
between Albano and Naples, to which city the 
Cardinal now directed his journey. There he might 
have rested at least, for a tune had not the dis- 
graceful behaviour of Mack's soldiers at Terni opened 
the road to Naples to the French, with the result that 
the Court of Naples was forced to betake itself to 
flight. On the night of December 21 the King and 
Queen, with the royal family and ministers, embarked 
on board the British fleet for Sicily. Cardinal York, 
at the special invitation of their Majesties, accom- 
panied them, and in due course the fugitives arrived 
at Messina. 

It was now the intention of his Eminence to make 
for Corfu, a locality sufficiently remote from the 
revolutionary troubles, and thence to proceed to 
Venice. He was, however, prevented from starting 
immediately by contrary winds, but after consider- 
able delay was enabled to set sail in a Greek merchant- 
vessel. On his arrival at Corfu he delayed starting 
for Venice till he should receive further intelligence 
concerning the progress of the Republican cause in 
Italy. On being informed that no change for the 
better had taken place in the political outlook, he 
sailed for Venice, which he reached early in May. 
On landing in this city, the Cardinal took up his 



100 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

residence in a humble lodging near the Rialto, where 
he maintained himself for a time by the sale of some 
silver plate which he had brought with him. His 
scanty means were soon exhausted, and at length this 
aged Prince, the last of a race of Kings, Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the Holy See, and Cardinal of the Holy 
Roman Church, was forced to seek the assistance of a 
neighbouring monastery to prevent himself from 
perishing from sheer want ! 

The Times newspaper, in a leading article, in its 
issue for February 28, 1800, two years later, thus 
commented on the series of events that had reduced 
this representative of British royalty to such distress : 

'The Cardinal of York, the brother of Charles 
Edward, early dedicated himself to a life congenial 
with the habits of his mind. Placid, humane, and 
temperate, he sought consolation for the misfortunes 
of his ancestors in a scrupulous observance of the 
duties of his religion, apparently secured in his re- 
tirement from the storms and vicissitudes but too 
often attendant upon political life. The malign 
influence of the star which had so strongly marked 
the fate of so many of his illustrious ancestors was 
not exhausted ; and it was peculiarly reserved for the 
Cardinal of York to be exposed to the shafts of 
adversity at a period of life when least able to struggle 
with misfortune. At the advanced age of seventy- 
five he is driven from his episcopal residence, his 
house is sacked, his property confiscated, and con- 
strained to seek his personal safety in flight upon the 
seas under every aggravated circumstance that could 
affect his health or fortune.' 

What, indeed, would have been the ultimate fate 

Cardinal Duke of York 101 

of the last male descendant of Robert Bruce, had 
not an intercessor been happily found to represent 
his case in the most effective manner to the British 
Government, we cannot say. This timely spokesman 
was the famous Cardinal Stephen Borgia, who, like 
Cardinal York, was living in exile at Venice. A 
member of the historic family of Borgia, his Eminence 
was born at Velletri in 1731, and at the age of nineteen 
had established his reputation for learning sufficiently 
to be elected a member of the Etruscan Academy of 
Cortona, one of the many societies devoted to the 
study of antiquities and elegant literature which were 
then to be found in every town and city of Italy. Of 
easy fortune and abundant leisure, he had ample 
opportunity for collecting a fine museum of antique 
bronzes, cameos, coins, and medals, which soon 
acquired a European reputation. In 1770 Pope 
Clement XIV. made him Secretary to the Propaganda, 
a post which enabled him to acquire a valuable stock 
of Oriental idols, curiosities, and manuscripts. His 
splendid talents as an antiquarian scholar were at 
length fitly rewarded in 1789, when Pius VI. bestowed 
upon him the red hat as Cardinal Priest. When the 
Revolution drove him from Rome he betook himself, 
with the majority of the other fugitives, to Venice, 
where he discovered his old friend Cardinal York in 
the forlorn condition we have described. 

Among the numerous Englishmen who claimed the 
happy privilege of friendship with Cardinal Borgia 
was Sir John Coxe-Hippisley, M.P., who played an 
important part in the politics of the day, as an 
advocate of Catholic emancipation. To Sir John, 
therefore, Cardinal Borgia now addressed himself in 

102 Life q/ Henry Benedict Stuart 

the following letter, which gives a full account of the 
many losses and calamities undergone by Cardinal 

' It is greatly affecting to me to see so great a 
personage, the last descendant of his royal house, 
reduced to such distressed circumstances, having 
been barbarously stripped by the French of all his 
property ; and if they deprived him not of his life 
also, it was through the mercy of the Almighty, who 
protected him in his flight both by sea and land ; the 
miseries of which, nevertheless, greatly injured his 
health at the advanced age of seventy-five, and pro- 
duced a very grievous sore in one of his legs. Those 
who are well informed of this most worthy Cardinal's 
domestic affairs have assured me that since his flight, 
having left behind him his rich and magnificent 
movables, which were all sacked and plundered both 
at Rome and Frascati, he has been supported by the 
silver plate he had taken with him, and which he 
began to dispose of at Messina, and I understand that 
in order to supply his wants a few months ago in 
Venice he has sold all that remained. Of the jewels 
he possessed very few remain, as the most valuable 
had been sacrificed in the well-known contributions 
to the French, our destructive plunderers ; and with 
respect to his income, after having suffered the loss of 
48,000 Roman crowns annually, by the French Revolu- 
tion, the remainder was lost also by the fall of Rome, 
namely, the yearly sum of 10,000 crowns assigned him 
by the Apostolic Chamber, and also his particular funds 
in the Roman banks. The only income he has left 
is that of his benefices in Spain, which amounts to 

Cardinal Duke of York 103 

14,000 crowns, but which, as it is only payable at 
present in paper, is greatly reduced by the disadvan- 
tage of exchange, and even that has remained unpaid 
for more than a year, owing, perhaps, to the inter- 
rupted communication with that kingdom. But here 
it is necessary that I should add that the Cardinal is 
heavily burdened with the annual sum of 4,000 
crowns for the dowry of the Countess of Albany, his 
sister-in-law; 3,000 to the mother of his deceased 
niece ; and 15,000 for divers annuities of his father 
and brother. Nor has he credit to supply the means 
of acquitting these obligations. This picture, never- 
theless, which I present to your friendship may well 
excite the compassion of everyone who will reflect on 
the high birth, the elevated dignity, and the advanced 
age, of the personage whose situation I now sketch in 
the plain language of truth, without resorting to the 
aid of eloquence ! I will only entreat you to com- 
municate it to those distinguished persons who have 
influence in your Government, persuaded as I am 
that the English magnanimity will not suffer an illus- 
trious personage of the same nation to perish in 
misery ! But here I pause, not wishing to offend 
your national delicacy, which delights to act from its 
own generous dispositions rather than from the im- 
pulse and urgency of others.' 

On the receipt of Cardinal Borgia's letter, Sir John 
conveyed it to his friend, Mr. Andrew Stewart, a near 
relative of Mr. Archibald Stewart, and weh 1 known in 
his day for his letters on the famous Douglas peerage 
case, which took up the attention of the law lords 
from 1771 to 1790. Mr. Stewart, who entered warmly 

104 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

into the affair, drew up a memorial on the subject, 
which Mr. Dundas, afterwards Lord Melville, presented 
to the King. His Majesty George III, whose friendly 
dispositions towards his unfortunate relatives the 
Stuarts had long been so well and widely known, was 
deeply affected at the melancholy account of the 
destitution into which the venerable Cardinal of 
York had fallen, and at once expressed his intention 
of making a suitable allowance to his Eminence as 
long as he should be pleased to avail himself of it. 
This assistance, it may be added, was at first only 
intended to be paid until the straitened circumstances 
of the Cardinal should improve, though in the sequel 
the royal pension was continued to the time of His 
Royal Highness's death. 

Such, then, being the resolution of the King, His 
Majesty immediately desired Lord Minto, the English 
Ambassador at Vienna, to request the Cardinal in as 
delicate terms as possible to accept an annual sum of 
5,000 as a proof of hio Sofeeignte affection and 
esteem. This Lord Minto was the Gilbert Elliot 
familiar to all readers of Sir Walter Scott's poems, 
whose services as a diplomatist were rewarded with 
an earldom shortly before his death in 1814. 

Upon receipt of the King's commands, Lord Minto 
despatched one of his attaches, Mr. Charles Oakeley, 
son of Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart., to convey the royal 
will and pleasure to Cardinal York, whose sentiments 
on this occasion are described in the following letter 
written by him to the English Ambassador : 

* With the arrival of Mr. Oakeley, who has been 
this morning with me, I have received by his dis- 

Cardinal Duke of York 105 

courses, and much more by your letter, so many 
tokens of your regard, singular considerations, and 
attention for my person, as obliges me to abandon all 
ceremony, and to begin abruptly to assure you, my 
dear Lord, that your letters have been most acceptable 
to me in all shapes and regards. I did not in the 
least doubt of the noble way of thinking of your 
beneficent sovereign ; but I did not expect to see in 
writing so many and so obliging expressions, and well 
calculated for the persons who receive them and under- 
stand their force, to impress in their minds a most 
lively sense of tenderness and gratitude, which I own 
to you oblige me more than the generosity spontane- 
ously imparted. ... I am much obliged to you to have 
indicated to me the way I may write unto Coutts, the 
Court bankers, and shall follow your friendly insinu- 
ations. In the meantime I am very desirous that you 
should be convinced of my sentiments of sincere esteem 
and friendship, with which, my dear Lord, with all my 
heart I embrace you. 

1 HENRY, Cardinal.' 

His Eminence did not neglect to send his sincerest 
thanks to Sir John Coxe-Hippisley for his kind and 
opportune representation of his case to the English 
Court. A few weeks before the conclusion of the 
Conclave which elected Pius VII. to the Papal throne, 
vacated by the death of Pius VI., he addressed the 
following letter to him : 

VENICE, February 26, 1800. 

' Your letters fully convince me of the cordial 
interest you take in all that regards my person, and 

106 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

I am happy to acknowledge that principally I owe to 
your friendly efforts and to those of your friends the 
succour generously granted to relieve the extreme 
necessities into which I have been driven by the 
present dismal circumstances. I cannot sufficiently 
express how sensible I am to your good heart, and 
write these few lines in the first place to contest 
to you these my most sincere and grateful sentiments, 
and then to inform you that by means of Mr. Oakeley, 
an English gentleman who arrived here last week, I 
have received a letter from Lord Minto from Vienna, 
advising me that he had orders from his Court to remit 
to me at present the sum of 2,000, and that in the 
month of July next I may again draw, if I desire it, 
for another equal sum. The letter is written in so 
extremely genteel and obliging a manner, and with 
expressions of singular regard and consideration for 
me, that I assure you excited in me most particular 
and lively sentiments, not only of satisfaction for the 
delicacy with which the affair has been managed, but 
also of gratitude for the generosity which has pro- 
vided for my necessity. I have answered Lord Minto's 
letter, and gave it on Saturday last to Mr. Oakeley, 
who was to send it by that evening's post to Vienna, 
and have written in a manner that I hope will be to 
his Lordship's satisfaction. I own to you that the 
succours granted could not be more timely, for with- 
out it it would have been impossible for me to subsist, 
on account of the absolutely irreparable loss of all my 
income ; the very funds being also destroyed, so that 
I would otherwise have been reduced for the short 
remainder of my life to languish in misery and 
indigence. I would not lose a moment's time to 

Cardinal Duke of York 107 

apprize you of all this, and am very certain that your 
experimented good heart will find proper means to 
make known in an energetical and proper manner these 
sentiments of my grateful acknowledgments. The 
signal obligations I am under to Mr. Andrew Stuart 
for all that he has with so much cordiality on this 
occasion done to assist me, renders it for me indis- 
pensable to desire that you may return him my most 
sincere thanks, assuring him that his health and 
welfare interest me extremely ; and that I have with 
great pleasure received from General Heton [query, 
Seton] the genealogical history of our family, which 
he was so kind as to send me, and hope that he will 
from the General have already received my thanks 
for so valuable a proof of his attention to me. In the 
last place, if you think proper, and occasion should 
offer itself, I beg you to make known to the other 
gentlemen who also have co-operated my most grate- 
ful acknowledgments, with which, my dear Sir John, 
with all my heart I embrace you. 

' Your best of friends, 

' HENRY, Cardinal.' 

' To SIR J. 0. HIPPISLEY, Bart., 
' London.' 

In the following May, just after the Conclave, the 
Cardinal again writes : 

1 VENICE, May, 1800. 

' I have not words to explain the deep im- 
pression your obliging favour of March 31 made on 
me, your and Mr. Andrew Stuart's most friendly and 
warm exertions hi my behalf, the humane and 

108 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

benevolent conduct of your Ministers, your gracious 
Sovereign's noble and spontaneous generosity, the 
continuance of which, you certify me, depends on my 
need of it, were all ideas which crowded together on 
my mind, and filled me with the most lively senti- 
ments of tenderness and heart-felt gratitude. What 
return can I make for so many and so signal proofs of 
disinterested benevolence ? Dear Sir John, I confess 
I am at a loss how to express my feelings. I am sure, 
however, and very happy that your good heart will 
make you fully conceive the sentiments of mine, and 
induce you to make known in an adequate and con- 
venient manner, to all such as you shall think proper, 
for me my most sincere acknowledgments. 

' With pleasure I have presented your compliments 
to the Cardinals and other personages you mention, 
who all return you their sincere thanks ; the Canon, 
in particular, now Monsignore, being a domestic 
prelate of His Holiness, begs you to be persuaded of 
his constant respect and attachment to you. 

' My wishes would be completely satisfied, should I 
have the pleasure, as I most earnestly desire, to see 
you again at Frascati, and be able to assure you by 
word of mouth of my most sincere esteem and affec- 
tionate gratitude. 

' Your best of friends, 

' HENRY, Cardinal.' 

' Grosvenor Street, London.' 

The bestowal of the pension on the Cardinal by 
King George III. caused the greatest satisfaction 
among all classes, and at the annual banquet of the 
Literary Fund for the year 1800 the following lines 

Cardinal Duke of York 109 

in praise of the royal beneficence were recited by 
Mr. Fitzgerald : 

' Illustrious Isle I Fair Freedom's last retreat ! 
The throne of honour 1 pure Beligion's seat I 
Object of Europe's envy and her hate, 
Still sh alt thou stand amidst the nations great ; 
Still shall the persecuted stranger find 
Thy happy shores the refuge of mankind, 
And the last Prince of Darnley's house shall own 
His debt of gratitude to Brunswick's throne 1* 

It must be stated, indeed, that the Cardinal had a 
very just claim for assistance on the Government of 
this country. A large part of the sum voted by 
Parliament for his grandmother, Queen Mary, consort 
of James II., had never been paid, although several 
efforts had been made by the Cardinal's family, 
through the Court of France, to recover it. The 
pension now granted his Eminence had, however, no 
reference to this outstanding claim, but was made 
purely from the liberality and goodwill of the King 
of England towards an unfortunate member of his 
own family.* 

With regard to the Conclave to which we have 
referred, a few words will suffice. On August 29, 
1799, the aged Pius VI. expired at Valence, worn out 
by the sufferings of mind and body he had lately 
undergone. The enemies of the Papacy exulted over 
the supposed annihilation of the Holy See, but the 
Cardinals assembled at Venice and calmly proceeded 
to elect another Pontiff. 

About thirty-five members of the Sacred College 
were able to comply with the invitations of the Car- 
dinal Dean, John Francis Albani, to repair to the 

* One account, however, says that out of delicacy to the 
Cardinal the pension of King George III. was paid him as if in 
discharge of this debt. 

110 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Church of San Georgio at Venice, where the Conclave 
was to assemble under the protection of the allied 
Powers. Cardinal York acted as Sub-Dean during the 
proceedings of the election, while Cardinal Consalvi, 
as Auditor of the Rota, was selected as Secretary. 

At the outset of the election the voting went very 
much in favour of Cardinal Bellisoni, Bishop of 
Cesena, and formerly Nuncio at Lisbon, a prelate 
much esteemed for his amiability and many virtues, 
but towards the conclusion the votes were transferred 
to Cardinal Gregorio Chiaramonti, who, after the final 
scrutiny, taken on March 13, 1800, was declared elected 
to the throne of St. Peter, and on the following day 
was proclaimed to the astonished world as Pius VII. 

The new Pope, thus unexpectedly raised up by 
Providence to rule the Church amidst many tribula- 
tions, was a Benedictine monk, who had been 
honoured with the cardinalitial purple by Pius VI. 
One of the first acts of the Holy Father, after the 
Conclave, was to raise Consalvi from the rank of 
Cardinal Deacon to that of Cardinal Priest, with the 
title of Santa Maria ad Martyres, an event which gave 
great satisfaction to that distinguished prelate's old 
friend Cardinal York, whose desire to see his un- 
doubted genius receive the recognition it deserved 
has already been commented upon in these pages. 

We must now pass on quickly to the account of 
Cardinal York's return to his beloved diocese. On 
July 3, 1800, the Pope re-entered Eome in triumph, 
and the Holy City quickly assumed its normal aspect. 
One of the first to follow Pius VII. was Cardinal York, 
who made the homeward journey by easy stages, and 
reached his episcopal residence a few weeks after the 

Cardinal Duke of York 111 

Pontifical occupation of the Vatican. The greatest 
enthusiasm prevailed in and about Frascati. His 
Eminence's carriage was drawn into the town by the 
inhabitants, who at night illuminated the entire place 
in honour of their beloved Bishop's safe return. 
Most of his splendid effects had been lost beyond 
recall. But such as could be recovered were quickly 
back again in the Cardinal's palace, which the restora- 
tion of his benefice and the King of England's pension 
enabled him to once more furnish and appoint in a 
style worthy of a Prince of royal and ecclesiastical rank. 
Rome being restored to order and tranquillity, we 
may proceed to contemplate the last of the Stuarts as 
he was in the seclusion of private life, surrounded by 
his household and the many friends who came to visit 
him at Frascati. 

Valentine, Lord Cloncurry, in his ' Life and Times,' 
published in 1849, has left us some highly interesting 
details of Cardinal York in these his closing days. 
His lordship, who had become involved in the Irish 
troubles of 1798, was advised by his friends to spend 
a few years on the Continent till such time as his 
indiscretion had become forgotten by the Government. 
He passed a good deal of his time in Italy, and while 
in Rome was a frequent guest at the table of Cardinal 
York, who liked to have about him young men of 
talent and originality, such as Lord Cloncurry un- 
doubtedly was. It is from the accounts which he has 
given of these visits that the following details are 
mostly drawn. 

"With regard to money matters, the Cardinal, in 
spite of his heavy losses during the period of the 
Revolution, was extremely well off. In addition to 

112 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

the emoluments from his offices and benefices, he had 
the income provided by George III., which alone in 
Italy was equal to 20,000 a year at least. His 
Eminence, when at Frascati, often amused himself 
and his friends by little dramatic entertainments, per- 
formed in his drawing-room by some of the students 
of the college attached to his seminary. A favourite 
piece with the Cardinal was the scene representing 
Sancho Panza and his physician during the reign of 
the Squire in the island of Barataria. 

His Royal Highness, being now an invalid, was 
placed under strict regimen by his medical advisers, 
but this did not prevent him from occasionally striving 
playfully with the attendants, as he sat at table, for 
certain savoury dishes of which he was fond, but 
which the physicians absolutely forbade him to touch. 

During one of his visits to Frascati Lord Cloncurry 
gave the Cardinal a telescope, to which the latter had 
taken a fancy, and received in return one of the large 
medals struck by his Eminence in honour of his 
* unsubstantial throne.' The value of the telescope 
was greatly enhanced in the eyes of the Cardinal by 
the fact that it was of English manufacture, goods 
made in this country being then highly prized on the 
Continent for their finish and excellence. As an 
instance of this appreciation of English manufactures 
it is recorded that an ordinary English dressing-case 
given by Lord Cloncurry's sister to the Princess 
Messina was the envy and admiration of all the ladies 
of Rome, to whom it was occasionally shown as a 
great favour. 

Mr. Forsyth, the celebrated Scotch traveller, in his 
work entitled ' Italy,' says that on being presented to 

Cardinal Duke of York 113 

his Eminence on one occasion, during the summer of 
1802, his introducer, an Irish gentleman living in 
Rome, either pronounced his name badly, or else the 
Cardinal did not catch it aright, for his Eminence 
remarked facetiously that although he had heard of 
* second sight ' in Scotland, he had never heard of 
' Foresight ' in England ; whereupon the few by- 
standers who knew English laughed heartily. Learn- 
ing from Mr. Forsyth that his grandfather had fallen 
on behalf of the Stuarts, the Cardinal at once took 
great interest in him, drove him in his carriage to 
Frascati, and invited him to dinner, where he placed 
him on his right hand. The other guests present at 
table were a Bishop, a Sardinian Duke, and several of 
the lesser Roman nobility. His Eminence sat with 
an interval for one person on each side an honour 
due to his dual rank. The Cardinal used the plainest 
table-ware, although the rest of the company were 
served on gold and silver plate. Even his coffee-cup 
was of inferior material to the cups used by his guests. 
He showed Mr. Forsyth a dog, adding significantly 
that it was a ' King Charles.' The dog in question 
attached itself to his Eminence one day as he was 
leaving St. Peter's, and as it was of the breed just 
named, the Cardinal often referred to it as a proof of 
his royal blood, since dogs of this species are fabled 
to detect instinctively members of the House of 
Stuart. The costume of His Royal Highness on this 
occasion is described by Mr. Forsyth as being 
alternately of red and black, viz., red skull-cap, black 
coat lined with red silk, black knee-breeches, and red 
silk stockings. In features, says the same informant, 
he was ruddy and handsome. 


114 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

To the very last Cardinal York insisted on being 
paid sovereign honours, and Lord Cloncurry never 
omitted to address him as 'Your Majesty,' thus 
going a step farther than the Duke of Sussex, who 
always styled him ' Your Royal Highness.' Augustus 
Frederick, Duke of Sussex, as most of our readers are 
aware, was the sixth and most estimable of all the 
sons of George III. After completing his studies at 
the University of Gottingen, he resided for some years 
in Rome, where he was warmly received by the 
reigning Pontiff, Pius VI., who caused every honour 
and attention to be shown him. It was while in 
Rome that he married the Lady Augusta Murray, 
daughter of the Earl of Dunmore, a marriage which 
was rendered null and void by the tyrannous Royal 
Marriage Act of 1772. From the first the Duke had 
encountered serious obstacles to his projected union. 
The Catholic Church, while tolerating marriages 
between Catholics and Protestants, does not allow her 
clergy to perform the ceremony between two Protes- 
tants ; and although the Duke applied to all the 
priests in Rome, and had several interviews with his 
friend Cardinal York on the subject, he could, of 
course, obtain no suspension of this important law. 
After much delay he was married in the palace where 
he was staying by the Rev. Mr. Gunn, an Anglican 
clergyman, who happened to be in Rome on business. 

The Duke of Sussex was not the only member 
of the House of Hanover who sought the friendship 
of the last of the race which that House had sup- 
planted on the British throne. Like all the princes 
of his family, Cardinal York claimed to possess the 
power of touching for the King's Evil, and, on the 

Cardinal Duke of York 115 

death of his brother, caused a number of touch pieces 
to be made for the purpose. These were small medals 
of gold, having on the obverse the figure of St. Michael 
trampling Satan under foot, with the legend, 'Soli 
Deo Gloria.' On the reverse was stamped a ship 
of war in full sail, and the inscription in Latin : * The 
most Reverend Henry IX., by the Grace of God King 
of Great Britain, France, Ireland, and Wales, Bishop 
of Frascati.' It is said on good authority that one of 
the brothers of George III. took a journey to Frascati 
to receive in orthodox fashion from the hand of 
Henry IX. the healing touch which had been denied 
to the rulers of his own dynasty. The Master of 
Ceremonies to the Cardinal did not, according to 
this statement, know how to settle the question of 
reception and introduction ; but finally it was arranged 
so that the two princes should meet one another while 
out driving. The plan succeeded admirably, for, the 
carriages having met, the Cardinal was attracted by 
the royal arms of England on the panels of the 
stranger's coach, and on being informed that the 
brother of ' the Elector of Hanover ' was within, 
at once invited him to his villa, where the Prince 
underwent the ceremony of receiving the royal touch, 
though with what result history sayeth not. 

When the Cardinal went to Frascati for the first 
time after his accession to the empty title of King, a 
great number of peasants brought their children or 
relatives to be cured of the scrofula (the veritable 
King's Evil), and it is said that the gold pieces with 
which the rite was performed are treasured as precious 
relics in the families of many of their descendants to 
this day. 


116 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Of the popularity of Cardinal York among all 
classes of persons we have already spoken. The 
late Cardinal Wiseman, in his ' Recollections of the 
Last Four Popes,' says that when he first went to 
Frascati, which was shortly after his arrival in Rome 
as a student of the English College, in 1818, the place 
was full of kindly reminiscences of the last of the 
Stuarts, 'all demonstrative of his singular goodness 
and simplicity of character.' This is well illustrated 
by the following story told of His Royal Highness by 
the same informant : 

' When he first came to Rome, so ignorant was he 
of the value of coins that once, having been shown 
some place or object of curiosity, he was asked what 
should be given to the attendant. As he was puzzled, 
his chamberlain suggested : " Shall I give him a 
zecchino ?" a gold piece worth about ten shillings. 
Thinking that the diminutive termination must indi- 
cate small coin, the Duke replied : " I think that is 
too little ; give him a grosso " a silver fivepence.' 

It must be remarked that in the early part of his 
life the Cardinal of York left the management of his 
monetary and other temporal affairs to his Vicar- 
General and Grand Chamberlain ; but even allowing 
this, it is scarcely possible that he could have been so- 
indifferent to mundane matters as to be ignorant of 
the value of current coin, so the story may be looked 
upon either as apocryphal or, at least, very much 
exaggerated. What has been said of the Cardinal's 
kindness, liberality, and genial disposition, certainly ill 
accords with those accounts which have described his 
Eminence as ' a dull, bigoted man/ or which represent 
Pius VI. as declaring, after an intervi3w with the 

Cardinal Duke of York 117 

Cardinal, that he did not wonder the English had been 
glad to get rid of so tiresome a race as the Stuarts. 

The complete difference wrought in his fortune and 
family affairs by the great political and social change 
that had come over Europe since 1792 made it 
necessary for his Eminence to make a fresh disposal 
of his property, especially as his executor, Monsignor 
Cesarini, was in indifferent health, and his other 
executor, Cardinal Consalvi, had been released from 
his obligation. Cardinal York therefore caused a 
second will to be drawn up on July 15, 1802. It 
commences thus : 

' We, Henry Benedict Mary, son of James III., King 
of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Cardinal of 
the Holy Roman Church, Bishop of Frascati, con- 
sidering that we are mortal, and not knowing the 
time and the hour when Almighty God will be 
pleased to call us to Him, have resolved, now that we 
are in good health and in the full enjoyment of our 
faculties, to make our last disposition, and to provide 
as well as to that which relates to our funeral, as for 
the salvation of our soul and our temporal affairs.' 

The will, which is of considerable length, declared 
Monsignor Cesarini, Bishop of Milesi, ' our universal 
proprietary heir, with full liberty to enjoy and to 
dispose of our inheritances, moveable and real goods, 
rights as above named, without any condition or 
restriction whatever.' The will concludes : 

'Finally, it is our intention to renew here and 
to consider as expressly inserted in it our protest 
deposited in the Acts of the notary Cataldi, on the 

118 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

27th of January, 1764, and published on the 30th of 
January, 1788, at the death of our most serene brother, 
relative to the transmission of our rights of succession 
to the throne and crown of England in behalf of the 
Prince, on whom they devolve by right (de jure), by 
proximity of blood, and by right of succession. We 
declare to remit these rights to him in the most 
explicit and solemn form. Such is our last will and 
testamentary disposition, dictated word by word (de 
verbo ad verbum). It is our will that it have 
perpetual validity, and the best and most valid title 
competent to us (to give it). 

' Given at our residence in Frascati, on the fifteenth 
day of July, 1802. 


The last extract quoted from the Cardinal's will 
refers to the King of Sardinia, whose relationship with 
the Stuarts has been already mentioned. Monsignor 
Cesarini did not long survive his Eminence, dying at 
Rome early in 1808, when his place as executor was 
taken by a Mr. Tassoni, a gentleman in whom he had 
the utmost confidence. Mr. Tassoni also received the 
entire quantity of State papers and private documents 
belonging to the Stuarts, amounting to over half a 
million in number. A certain Dr. Robert Watson, 
who, it is said, had been secretary to Lord George 
Gordon during the riots of 1780, entered into negotia- 
tions with Tassoni for the purchase of these, and the 
bargain was already concluded when the Papal 
Government intervened, on the ground that the papers 
in question were too valuable for any subject to possess. 

In 1817 Cardinal Consalvi, the Minister of State, 

Cardinal Duke of York 119 


presented them to the Prince Regent, afterwards 
George IV., by whom they were in great part placed 
in the royal library at Windsor. 

In the September of 1803 Cardinal Albani, whose 
abilities and attainments have been already noted, 
and who since 1775 had filled the offices of Bishop 
of Ostia and Dean of the Sacred College, died at his 
episcopal residence, in the eighty-fourth year of his 
age. By the decease of this illustrious Prince of the 
Church, the deanship of the Cardinals and the See of 
Ostia and Velletri devolved on the Duke of York, who 
was in consequence formally translated to the superior 
See on November 20. His Eminence, who had been 
now Bishop of Frascati for over forty years, was much 
grieved at the prospect of having to quit a town which 
had become so dear to him by reason of long associa- 
tions and the attachment of its inhabitants to his 
person. He communicated his regret to the Holy 
Father, and Pius VII., pleased at being able to show 
a proof of his regard for the venerable Cardinal, at 
once granted him a special privilege by which he 
might retain the episcopal palace of Frascati, although 
no longer Bishop of the town. 

During the last four years of his life Cardinal York 
spent nearly the whole of his time at Frascati, rarely 
going to Rome, except when business of especial 
necessity called him. His house, as has been before 
mentioned, was ever open to such of his countrymen 
as cared to avail themselves of his hospitality, while 
his ample fortune was largely employed in succouring 
those whom misfortune or folly had reduced to 

Throughout the two years immediately preceding 

120 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

his death the Cardinal suffered very much from the 
mild form of epilepsy known as petit mal, which 
caused him long lapses of memory, and almost 
debarred him from performing even the least arduous 
of his episcopal duties. The administration of the 
diocese during this time was attended to by his 
coadjutor and Vicar-General. 

To the very last his Eminence continued to take 
the liveliest interest in the seminary at Frascati, of 
which institution he might in truth be called the 
second founder, and although it was no longer under 
his jurisdiction, the Cardinal made over to it consider- 
able sums of money as endowments in perpetuity. 

About a year after his translation to the See of 
Ostia, his Eminence lost his old and devoted friend, 
Cardinal Stephen Borgia, whose letter to Sir John 
Coxe-Hippisley had been instrumental in drawing 
the attention of the Court of St. James's to the mis- 
fortunes of His Royal Highness. This excellent 
Cardinal died at Lyons on November 23, 1804, while 
accompanying the Pope to Paris for the" coronation of 
Napoleon as Emperor of the French. 

The narrative of events has brought us now to the 
closing scene in the life of Prince Henry Stuart. 

Cardinal York was seized with his mortal sickness 
towards the end of June, 1807. The fever for such 
was the complaint gradually gained upon his aged 
and enfeebled frame, so that, before the end of the 
month his physicians assured him that his death was 
near. From the first day of his illness his Eminence 
caused an altar to be erected in his apartment, at 
which his chaplain, Monsignor Cesarini, said Mass 
every morning. The Pope, Pius VII., expressed the 

Cardinal Duke of York 121 

utmost concern for the critical condition of the 
venerable Cardinal, and had himself informed by 
frequent couriers of the progress of the disease. As 
days passed by and the final dissolution was hourly 
expected, the road between Rome and Frascati 
became covered with carriages of prelates, princes, 
and others, who came to make inquiries at the palace 
gates concerning the condition of the dying Cardinal. 
On the morning of July 13 the last agony com- 
menced, and the entire household was summoned to 
his Eminence's bedside. The Recommendation of a 
Departing Soul and the other prayers proper for this 
solemn occasion, were recited alternately by Cardinal 
Doria, who had succeeded the Duke in the See of 
Frascati, and Monsignor Cesarini. These devotions 
were continued till the Duke breathed his last, early 
in the afternoon. 

The death of the Cardinal Duke of York occurred 
on the anniversary of his translation to the See of 
Frascati, when he had been a member of the Sacred 
College sixty years and ten days. As he was at the tune 
of his decease Vice- Chancellor of the Apostolic See, 
the Holy Father gave orders that the lying in state 
of the Cardinal should take place in the palace of the 
Cancellaria, under the shadow of the mighty dome 
beneath which the last princes of the ancient Stuart 
line have found a final resting-place. In pursuance 
of the Pontifical order, the body of the deceased was 
taken to Rome on the evening of July 16. A large 
number of coaches swelled the funeral cortege, and 
the hearse was accompanied by a troop of cavalry. 
In the great reception-hall of the Cancellaria a bed of 
state was prepared, and the whole apartment was 

122 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

transformed into a suitable mortuary chamber by 
means of velvet hangings, hatchments and candelabra. 
The body of the dead Cardinal was vested in the full 
robes pertaining to his exalted rank as Prince of the 
Church, and at the feet were placed the mitre and 
crozier, together with the Cardinal's hat, and a coat- 
of-arms emblazoned with the armorial bearings of 
England. A company of the Swiss Guard kept watch 
and ward round the catafalque, and the stream of 
spectators who came to gaze upon all that was mortal 
of the titular Henry IX. passed behind a strong 
wooden barrier draped with black velvet. The lying 
in state terminated on the evening of the nineteenth. 

The last solemn rites accorded the Cardinal were in 
every way worthy of one whose death brought to a 
close a dynasty that had filled a throne for upwards of 
four centuries. So dense was the crowd that thronged 
St. Peter's that one might have thought all Rome had 
gathered together to assist at the last sad offices. 

Cardinal Doria, who now succeeded His Royal High- 
ness as Dean of the Sacred College, pontificated, in 
the presence of the Sovereign Pontiff, more than thirty 
Cardinals, and a large number of Bishops and lesser 
prelates. The foreign ambassadors in Rome occupied 
their accustomed places, and the number of titled and 
distinguished personages was unusually great. On 
the same day another solemn Mass of requiem for the 
repose of the Cardinal's soul was sung in the cathedral 
at Frascati, which was filled to the very doors. The 
celebrant was the dean, and the funeral oration was 
pronounced by Father Marco Mastrofini, Professor of 
Philosophy at the seminary. 

When the last sad rites had been brought to a close 

Cardinal Duke of York 123 

at St. Peter's, the coffin was removed to the crypt and 
interred with the other members of the Stuart family 
in that hallowed spot which to the remotest times 
must make every Englishman who visits the mighty 
Basilica pause and reflect on the ashes it contains. 
The body of Charles Edward had already been re- 
moved from its temporary resting-place at Frascati, 
and in close proximity to the mouldering dust of 
James III. and Charles III. the body of Henry IX. 
was now laid. Masses continued to be said for the 
deceased, both at Rome and Frascati, for many days 
after the interment, but no monument marked for 
many years to come the place where rested in peace 
the mortal remains of the three Kings of England by 
the Grace of God but not by the will of man. 

With the exception of benefactions to his servants, 
and some donations to various charities, the bulk of 
Cardinal York's large fortune went to found bursaries 
for the education of students of the Scots College in 
Rome, of which institution he is considered one of the 
foremost benefactors.* 

One more remark on the subject of the Cardinal's 
testamentary dispositions may not be without interest. 
When James II. fled from England in 1688 he carried 
with him, amongst other hastily-collected treasures, 
the crown and coronation-ring insignia destined 
never again to be worn by his descendants. As some 
sort of acknowledgment of the bounty shown him by 
the House of Hanover, the Cardinal on his death-bed 

* Among the bequests of the Cardinal to the Scots College 
was the original copy of the proclamation which Charles Edward 
caused to be read from the town cross at Edinburgh in 1745, 
proclaiming his father as James III. and himself Prince Regent. 
It now hangs in the hall of the College. 

124 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

entrusted these jewels, together with the badges of 
the Garter and the orders of SS. George and Andrew, 
worn by the same unfortunate monarch, to Monsignor 
Cesarini, for transmission to England, as a personal 
gift to the Prince of Wales. These sad mementoes 
were duly forwarded by Cardinal Consalvi and suit- 
ably acknowledged by the royal recipient. 

The years sped on. An empire called into existence 
by the sword vanished amidst the thunder of Waterloo, 
and with the return of peace the Prince who directed 
England's destinies had leisure to remember the 
illustrious dead. A renowned sculptor was commis- 
sioned to prepare a suitable monument to mark the 
resting-place of the last of the Stuarts, and in 1819 the 
great masterpiece of Canova, with its guardian genii, 
was completed. Since that time what countless 
strangers from these realms have mused before that 
sculpture on the lives its stone commemorates, and 
read its simple epitaph : 


Jacob! II., Magnae Brit. Regis Filio, 

Et HENRICO, Decano Patrum Cardinalium, 

Jacobi III. Filiis, 
Begise Stirpis Stuardise Postremis, 

" Beati Mortui qui in Domino moriuntur." 

Son of James II., King of Great Britain, 

And HENRY, Dean of the Cardinals, 

The sons of James III., 
Last of the royal race of Stuart, 

" Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord." '* 

* See remarks on the Stuart monument, p. 129 (Appendix). 


CARDINAL YORK'S villa passed after his death into 
the hands of trustees, who let it as a residence to 
visitors attracted by the historic interest of the house, 
and the romantic beauty of the situation. In May, 
1832, Sir Walter Scott, when seeking to recruit his 
shattered health in Italy, visited the villa, and was 
much pleased with all he saw and learned there of 
the last of his country's ancient kings. Mr. Edward 
Cheney, a Scotch gentleman, was at the time the 
occupant of the property, which still contained several 
interesting relics of the Stuart family, notably a 
portrait of Charles I., busts of Cardinal York and his 
father, the Old Chevalier ; also a painting of a fe" te 
given by Cardinal York in the Piazza dei Santi 
Apostoli shortly after his elevation to the purple, and 
a small ivory head of Charles I. which had served as 
the top of his Eminence's walking-stick. These and 
other valuable souvenirs remained at the villa till the 
early forties, when they were disposed of by auction. 
We subjoin a list of articles which formerly belonged 
to Cardinal York, together with the names of their 
present owners : 

1. Gold and tortoise-shell box, with a miniature of 
Cardinal York. (Recently purchased by Her 

126 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

Majesty the Queen from Mr. Frederick Litch- 
field, of the Sinclair Galleries, Shaftesbury 

2. Cardinal York's mitre. (Captain Anstruther 


3. Case for mitre, with arms. (Captain Anstruther 


4. A scarlet biretta. (Captain Anstruther Thomp- 


5. Speech of the Lord High Steward (Lord Cowper) 

at the trial of the Lords Derwentwater, Wid- 
drington, Nithsdale, Carnwarth, Kenmure and 
Nairne. Printed by Jacob Tonson, London, 
1715, fol. (Belonged to Cardinal York. Now 
in the possession of Lord Braye.) 

6. Snuff-box of gold and red enamel. (Lord Napier 

and Ettrick.) 

7. Bronze medal of Cardinal York. (Captain Ans- 

truther Thompson.) 

8. Silver trowel and case used by Cardinal York at 

the Jubilee, on the walling up of the Porta 
Sacra. (Lord Braye.) 

9. Medal of Pius VII., belonged to Cardinal York. 

(Lord Braye.) 

10. Note-book of Cardinal York. (Lord Braye.) 

11. Touch-pieces of James III. and Henry IX. (Cap- 

tain Anstruther Thompson.) 

12. Cardinal York's seal. (B. R. Townley Balfour, 


13. Status Animarum Almse Urbis, Anni 1764. An 

account of the parishes of Rome. MS. bound 
in vellum, with Cardinal York's arms on the 
cover. (The Misses Boyle.) 

Appendix 127 

14. Maps of the invasion of Scotland by Prince 

Charles Edward in 1745. Printed by Juillot, 
Geographer Royal to Louis XV. They after- 
wards passed into the possession of Cardinal 
York. (Lord Braye.) 

15. I Principi di Scozia Alessandro e Matilde. A 

drama by Count Giuseppe Sebastiani, dedicated 
to Cardinal York, whose arms are on the 
cover, 1780. (Lord Braye.) 

16. Engraving of the Funeral Procession of King 

James III. at Rome, 1766. (Lord Braye.) 

17. A pair of spectacles and case of Cardinal York. 

(Mrs. C. Markham.) 

18. Diamond buckle given by Cardinal York to Sir 

John Coxe-Hippisley. (Henry H. Almack, 

19. Two gold keys, used by Cardinal York at the 

Jubilee. (Lord Braye.) 

20. Snuff-box of Cardinal York. (Lord Napier and 


21. Gold episcopal ring, set with an amethyst, of 

Cardinal York. (Rev. F. G. Lee, D.D.) 

22. Amber flask of Cardinal York (B. R. Townley 

Balfour, Esq.) 

23. Silver medal of Cardinal York, with the legend, 

' Non desideriis hominum sed voluntate Dei, 
1788.' (Duke of Leinster.) 

24. Copper medal of Cardinal York. (Duke of 


25. Two large pictures by Leone Ghezza, one repre- 

senting the marriage of the Old Chevalier and 
the Princess Maria Clementina by the Bishop 
of Montifiasconi (Sebastian Bonaventura) , on 

128 Life of Henry Benedict Stuart 

September 1, 1719, and the other the baptism 
of Prince Charles Edward by the same prelate, 
on December 31, 1720, in the presence of the 
Stuart Court, several Cardinals, prelates, and 
the representatives of the British and native 
nobility. (Both these fine historic paintings 
belonged to Cardinal York, but are now in the 
possession of the Earl of Northesk.) 

26. Scent-bottle, with gold stopper, belonging to 

Cardinal York. (B. R. Townley Balfour, Esq.) 

27. Various miniature portraits of the Stuart family, 

from Robert II., King of Scotland (died 1390), 
to the Princess Louisa of Stolberg. (These 
were collected by Cardinal York, and are now 
in the possession of the Earl of Galloway.) 

Some Portraits of Cardinal York. 

1. The Cardinal when very young. Small life size, 

three-quarters length figure in three-quarters 
view to spectator's left ; eyes to front, right 
hand on helmet, left on hip ; powdered hair, 
steel breastplate, buff sleeves and gloves, blue 
ribbon, badge of Thistle on the breast, ermine 
cloak. Size, 48 in. by 38 in. Painted by T. 
Blanchet. (In the possession of W. J. Hay, 
Esq., of Duns.) 

2. The Cardinal when a boy. Whole length, life 

size, in court dress, with greyhound by his 
side. (Belonging at present to the Earl of 

3. Portrait of the Cardinal. Life size, three-quarter 

length figure, view to left, holding an open 
book with both hands, and turning towards the 

Appendix 129 

front as if to read aloud. Cardinal's cape 
(mozetta), crown and mitre on cushion in 
front. (Duke of Hamilton, K.T.") 

4. Portrait of the Cardinal in cappa magna. Half- 

length size, three-quarters view to right, hold- 
ing paper in his hand. The same as the 
picture now in the National Portrait Gallery, 
of which a copy is given at the commencement 
of this work. (Lord Braye.) 

5, The same as preceding, except that by the side of 

his Eminence appears a crown resting on a 
marble table. (Now belonging to Blair's 
College, Aberdeen.) 


Though generally attributed to the munificence of 
George IV., the monument to the Stuarts in St. 
Peter's, at Rome, was erected almost entirely at the 
expense of Pius VII., since the contribution of the 
Prince Regent amounted to only fifty guineas. 

The remains of those whom this fine piece of 
sculpture commemorates do not lie immediately 
beneath, but under the dome, in that part of the vast 
Basilica called the ' Grotte Vecchie.' There, in the 
first aisle, on the left of the entrance, against the wall, 
is a plain marble slab announcing the fact that ' here 
is the actual resting-place of James III., Charles III., 
and Henry IX., Kings of England.' Just opposite is 
the monument to Queen Maria Clementina, consisting 
of a porphyry pyramid by Filippo Barigioni and Pietro 
Bracci, erected by the Fabric of St. Peter's at a cost 
of 18,000 scudi. Notes and Queries, February 25, 


130 Appendix 


The following are the principal sources of informa- 
tion from which the present work has been compiled : 

1. ' Female Fortitude Exemplified,' a narrative of 

the elopement of the Princess Clementina, 
published in London in 1722. 

2. 'An Account of the Funeral Ceremonies per- 

formed at Rome in honour of the Princess 
Clementina Sobieski.' (A contemporary publi- 
cation translated from the Roman Journal for 
January 29, 1735.) 

3. Professor Ewald's * Life and Times of Prince 

Charles Stuart ' (Chatto and Windus). 

4. ' Scottish Soldiers of Fortune,' by James Grant. 

5. The Letters of the poet Gray. 

6. * An Incident in the History of the Stuarts,' by 

Father John Morriss, S.J. (In the Month, 
August, 1887.) 

7. ' History of the Rebellion of 1745-46,' by W. and 

R. Chambers. 

8. Tales of a Grandfather,' by Sir Walter Scott. 

9. Lord Mahon's ' History of England.' 

10. Diary of Cardinal York, in the Library of Stony- 

hurst College, Lancashire. 

11. Notes and Queries for the years 1849-56. 

12. Historical MSS. Commission Reports, 1872 to 


13. 'Memoirs of the Jacobites,' by Mrs. Thompson 

(London, 1846). 

14. ' Italy,' a descriptive work by Joseph Forsyth 

(London, 1812). 

Appendix 181 

15. ' Six Months in Italy,' by George Stillman Hil- 

lard (London, 1853). 

16. Letters of Sir Horace Mann, British Envoy at the 

Ducal Court of Tuscany from 1763 to 1784. 

17. Various letters of Cardinal York written between 

1767 and 1800. 

18. ' Records of the English Province ' (vols. vii., xii.), 

by Brother Foley, S.J. 

19. ' West Grinstead et les Caryll/ by M. Max de Tren- 

quale"on (London : Burns and Gates ; Paris : 
Chez Monsieur Torre 1 , 51, Rue Sainte Anne). 

20. ' Pontificate of Clement XIV.,' by Fr. Augustine 

Theiner (Paris : Didot Frferes, 1852). 

21. 'Life of St. Paul of the Cross/ by the Hon. and 

Rev. Father Ignatius Spencer, of the Passionist 
Congregation (London, 1860). 

22. ' Tales of the Century,' by Charles Edward and 

John Sobieski Stuart ' the sham Stuarts ' 
(London, 1846). 

23. ' Life of Hercules, Cardinal Consalvi ' (Paris, 1864). 

24. ' The Captive of Valence ' (London, 1802). 

25. ' Life and Times of Valentine,, Lord Cloncurry ' 

(published 1849). 

26. The descriptive catalogue of the Stuart Exhibition 

at the New Gallery, Regent Street, London, 




ABBEYS, French, of Cardinal York, 41 

Acquaviva, Cardinal, 25 

Act, Royal Marriage, 142 

Adrianople, See of. See Lercari. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of, 40 

Albaui, Cardinal, 49 

Albano, Lake, 55 

Albano, Palazzo, 24 

Albany, Count of. See Stuart, Charles Edward. 

Albany, Louisa Countess of, 68, 69, 76, 77, 82 

Albany, Peerage of, 56 

Alberoni, Cardinal, the younger, 52 

Alcudia, Duke of. See Godoy. 

Alfieri, Vittorio, poet, 82 

Alford, Lord. See Graham. 

Allied Powers and the Papacy, 95, 96, 110 

Allocution of Benedict XIV. to the Cardinals, 33 

Almack, H., Esq., and Stuart relics, 127 

Altieri, Order of, and Prince Charles, 54 

Amasia, Archbishop of. See Gamberucci. 

America, Highlanders emigrate to, 71 

Ancona, Battle of, 116 

Andrew, St., Order of, 124 

Angelo, St., Castle of, 14, 43 

Antoine, St., Chateau de, 30 

Apoplexy, Prince Charles subject to, 83 

Apostoli, Sti., Church of the, 14, 28, 45 

Apostolico, Palazzo, 44 

Arcangelo, birthplace of Clement XIV., 65 

Archpriest of St. Peter's. See Cardinal York. 

Atheism in France, 59 

Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, 15 

Augustus, King of Poland, 19 

Index 183 

Austria and Pius VI., 78, 79 

Austria defended by John Sobieski, 13 

Austrian Succession, War of, 23 

Aylesbury, Earl of, 68 

Aymon-Boche, Cardinal, 70 

Azpuru, Monsignor, bearer of the Veto, 63 


Balfour, Townley B. B., Esq., and Stuart relics, 126, 127 

Baptism of Cardinal York, 14 

Baptism of Prince Charles (picture of), 127 

Barigioni, Filippo, 129 

Basseville, killed at Borne, 95 

Bastille, Prince Charles in the, 41 ; taken, 109 

Batoni, Pompeo, painter. See Frontispiece. 

Bavaria opposes Maria Theresa, 23 

Beaufort, Cardinal, 83 

Belgium revolts against Joseph II., 80 

BelHsoni, Cardinal, 110 

Benedict XIII., Pope, baptizes Prince Henry, 14 ; visits Queen 

Clementina, 14 

Benedict XIV., 41 ; religious toleration encouraged by, 42 
Benevolence of Cardinal York, 67 
Berkeley, Bev. Dr., tutor of the Stuart Princes, 17 
Berwick, Due de (Fitzjames), 82 
Biretta of Cardinal York, 126 
Bishoprics, Irish, and the Propaganda, 54 
Bishops, Austrian, resist Joseph II., 78 
Bishops, French, defend the Jesuits, 59 
Blair's College, Aberdeen, 129 
Bologna, Cardinal York at, 44 
Bonaparte. See Napoleon. 
Borghese, Cardinal, 44 
Borgia, Cardinal, 101, 120 
Borromeo, St. Charles, 33 
Bouillon, Duo de, 36 
Boyle, the Misses, and Stuart relics, 126 
Bracci, Pietro, 129 
Bracciano family and Joseph II., 62 
Brancadoro, Monsignor, 90 
Braye, Lord, and Stuart relics, 76, 126, 127, 129 
British colleges in Borne, Bectors of exiled, 55 
British officers and Pius VI., 96 
Broughton, Murray of. See Murray. 
Bruce, Bobert, ancestor of the Stuarts, 28, 101 
Brutus, name of, invoked, 98 
Buckle diamond of Cardinal York, 127 
Bulls, Papal, forbidden in Austria, 78 ; disregarded in France, 60 

134 Index 


Calabria, earthquake in, 83 

Camerlengo, office of, 41 

Cameron of Lochiel, 27 

Campitelli. See Santa Maria in Carnpitelli. 

Cancellaria, Palace of the, 77, 121 

Canova's monument to the Stuarts, 124 

Cappa magna of Cardinals, 33, 61, note 

Capraola, 25 

Caraccioli, Cardinal, 61 

Cardinalate, Prince Henry raised to the, 28 

Cardinals, origin of, 35 ; robes of, 61 ; titles of, 35 

Carlisle taken by Prince Charles, 27 

Carnival at Florence, 76 

Carnwarth, Lord, 126 

Caryll of West Grinstead, Mr., 76, 80, 90 

Cataldi, Signer, lawyer of Cardinal York, 89, 117 

Cato's name invoked, 98 

Cavalchini, Cardinal, 61 

Cavo, Mount, Passionist monastery on, 74 

Cervini, Monsignor, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 22 

Cesarini, Monsignor, 91, 117, 120, 124 

Cesi, Cardinal, founds seminary of Frascati, 48 

Chalice, gold, presented by Cardinal York, 39 

Charles I. of England, 85, 92, 125. 

Charles III. See Stuart, Charles Edward. 

Charles V., Emperor, 61 

Charles VI., Emperor, 23 

Charles X. (Cardinal de Bourbon), 88 

Charles Edward. See Stuart, Charles Edward. 

Charles, King, dog, 113 

Cheney, Mr. Edward, and Cardinal York's Villa, 125 

Chiaramonti. See Pius VII. 

Cisterna, 24 

Clans, Highland, join Prince Charles, 27 ; victorious, 27 ; 

routed at Culloden, 28 

Clayton-Brown, General, and Pius VI., 96, note 
Clement VI., Pope, 29 
Clement XII., Pope, 20 
Clement XIII., Pope, elected, 43 ; refuses to acknowledge Prince 

Charles as King, 53 ; supports the Jesuits, 63 ; sudden 

death of, 60 ; monument to, 60 
Clement XIV. (Ganganelli), Pope, elected, 64; character and 

learning, 65 ; receives the Duke of Gloucester, 70 ; and the 

Jesuits, 71 ; death, 72 
Clement, St., Cardinal, 22 
Clementina, Queen, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20j 
Clifton, skirmish at, 27 

Index 185 

Cloncurry, Lord, and Cardinal York, 111, 112 

College, Apostolic, choir of the, 52 

Conclave, 43, 60, 73, 110 

Confirmation administered by Cardinal York at Frascati, 47 

Confirmationis Litterae read at Frascati, 45 

Consalvi, Cardinal, 49, 89, 91, 92, 110, 118 

Consistory, 34 

Constance, Bishop of, 22 

Conti, Cardinal, 61 

Cordara, S.J., Father, 24 

Corfu, Cardinal York at, 99 

Corinth, Cardinal York made Archbishop of, 43 

Coronation ring of James II., bequeathed by Cardinal York to 

the Prince Regent, 123 

Corri Domenico, musician, and Prince Charles, 84 
Corsini, Cardinal, 61 
Cortona, Etruscan Academy of, 101 
Coutts, Messrs., bankers, 105 
Cross, gold, given to Pius VI. by Joseph II., 79 
Crown Jewels of James II., bequeathed to Prince Regent, 123, 


Culloden, Battle of, 28 
Cumberland, William Duke of, 27 
Cypress wine, Prince Charles's liking for, 76 
Gyrene, Bishop of, 22 


D'Aguillon, French Minister, and Prince Charles, 68 

D'Aragona, Donna, 21 

Darnley, Lord, 57 

D'Aubeterre, M., French ambassador in Rome, 54 

Deanship of the Sacred College and Cardinal York, 119 

Death, effigies of, 52 

Death of Cardinal York, 121 

.. James III., 51 

Prince Charles, 85, 86 

,, Queen Clementina, 19 
De Bourbon, Cardinal (Charles X.), 88 
Decrees, French, against Jesuits, 59 
Derby, Prince Charles at, 27 
Derwentwater, the Earl of, 13, 126 
Dettingen, Battle of, 23 
Directory, French, and Papal States, 95, 97 
Dissensions in Prince Charles's camp, 27 

in the Stuart household, 15, 16 

Dog, King Charles, pet of Cardinal York, 113 

belief concerning, 118 

Domestic life of Cardinal York, 111, et seq. 

186 Index 

Dominic, St., Order of, and Queen Clementina, 21 

Dominican nuns, or Bianchetti, 76 

Dominus ac Eedemptor noster, Brief, 71 

Doria, Cardinal, 121 

Douglas peerage case, 103 

Dramatic performances at Frascati, 112 

Drunkenness, Cardinal York on, 56 

Dundas, Mr. See Melville, Lord. 

Duns Scotus, Ganganelli lectures on, 65 

Duphot, General, riot in Rome by, 97 ; shot, 97 


Edinburgh, Prince Charles in, 27, 123, note 
Education of Prince Charles and Henry, 16, 17 
Elliot, Gilbert. See Minto, Lord. 
Elopement of Princess Clementina Sobieski, 13 
Emanuel of Sardinia and the Stuart Claims, 89, 118 
England, Society for the conversion of, 40 
English College in Eome, 21 et passim. 
English goods esteemed in Italy, 112 
English visitors in Eome, 42, 43 
Epitaph on the Stuart monument, 124, 129 
Erskine, Cardinal, 50, 
Etruscan Academy, 101 
Evil, Bong's, or scrofula, 115 
,, ,, touching for the, 84, 115 


Fabre, Xavier, painter, marries Countess of Albany, 82 

Falkirk, Prince Charles's victory at, 27 

Families, poor, relieved by Cardinal York, 57 

Fenelon, Archbishop, converts the Chevalier Eamsay, 17 

Fitzgerald, Mr., lines on Cardinal York by, 109 

FitzJames, Due de, 68, 82 

Flask, amber, of Cardinal .York, 127 

Flodden-field, Battle of, 56 

Florence, Prince Charles at, 75, 76, 83 

Countess of Albany at, 82 
Fogliano, Lake, 26 

Forsyth, Mr., and Cardinal York, 112, et seq. 
Fox, Charles James, 84 

Franciscan Fathers, Irish, prepare Prince Charles for death, 85 
Frascati, Cardinal York translated to, 45 ; described, 45 

,, funeral of Prince Charles at, 86 ; Cardinal York flees 
from, 99 ; returns to, 110, 111 

,, seminary at. See Seminary. 

Index 187 

Frederick the Great seizes Silesia, 23; consults Benedict XIV., 


French Revolution. See Revolution. 
French troops enter Rome, 97 
Funerals. See Obsequies. 


Galloway, Earl of, and Stuart relics, 128 

Galloway, S.J., Father, 67 

Gamberucci, Monsignor, Archbishop of Amasia, 21 

Gandolfi, Castel, 24, 72 

Ganganelli. See Clement XIV. 

Gardes Fran9ais seize Prince Charles, 41 

Gaunt, John of, 83 

Gaydon, Major, 13 

Genoa, Prince Charles at, 25 

George, St., Order of, 124 

George I., 12 ; II., 27 ; III., 55, 104, 108; IV., 124 

Georgio, San, Church of, at Venice, 110 

Gerden-Stolberg, Louisa of. See Albany, Countess of. 

,, ,, Prince Gustavus of, 68 

German College, Rome, 49 
Ghezza, Leone, painter, 127 
Ghost, Holy, Mass of the, 60 
Glenaladale. See Macdonald of Glenaladale. 
Godoy, Manuel de, 94 
Gordon, Admiral, 18 ; Lord George, 118 
Graham, Mr. (Lord Alford), 51 
Gray, Thomas, poet, 19 

Greathead, Mr., interviews Prince Charles, 84 
Gregorian chant, 49 

Grossart attempts life of Prince Charles, 84 
Guadagni, Cardinal, 44 
Guidobono-Cavalchini, Cardinal, 65 
Gunn, Rev. Mr., officiates at the marriage of the Duke of Sussex 

in Rome, 114 
Gustavus of Sweden, King, 81 


Hamilton, the Duke of, and portrait of Cardinal York, 129 

Hamilton, Sir William, envoy at Naples, 57 

Hannibal, 96 

Hawkins, S. J., Father, 67 

Hawley, General, routed at Falkirk, 27 

Hay, Bishop, assists the crofters of South Uist, 70 

Hay, Colonel (Inverness), 15, 16, 18 

Head, Captain, and Pius VI., 96, note 

Henrietta Maria, Queen, 92 

138 Index 

Henry Benedict. See York, Cardinal. 

Henry III., of France, 88 

Henry IV., of France, 88, 92 

Henry IX. See York, Cardinal. 

Heton, General (Seton ?), 107 

Hierarchy, Austrian, protests against Joseph II., 78 

Hieropolis, Archbishop of, 22 

Hillard-Stillman, Mr., traveller, 46 

Hippesley-Coxe, Sir John, 101, et seq. 

Hochkirchen, battle of, 18 

Holyrood, Prince Charles at, 27 


Income of Cardinal York, 41, 57, 102, 103, 104, 111 

Indian curios collected by Cardinal Borgia, 101 

Intemperate habits of Prince Charles, 55, 76 

Inverness, Earl of. See Hay, Colonel. 

Inverness, Prince Charles retreats to, 27 

Irish College, Borne, 21, et passim. 

Irish Sees, nomination to, transferred to the Propaganda, 54 

Isaias quoted, 35 


James II., King, 12, 53, 57, 68, 123 

James III. (James Francis Stuart), 12, 19, 21, 28, 36, 44, 51, 52, 

89, 123 

James V., King of Scotland, 56 
James's, Court of St., and the Papacy, 53 
Jerusalem, Patriarch of. See Cervini. 
Jesuits at Frascati, 49, 72 

in France, 59 ; and Voltaire, 59 

in the eighteenth century, 59 

in Spain and Portugal, 60 

suppression of, 71 ; restored, 72, note 
Jewels of Cardinal York, 116, 123 
Joseph II. of Austria, 61, 62, 63, 73, 79, 80 
Jubilee in Borne, 75 
Jupiter Latialis, temple of, destroyed by Cardinal York, 74 


Kaunitz-Bittburg, Count. See Bittburg. 

Keith, George. See Marischal, Lord. 

Keith, James, Prussian General, 18, 38 

Kenmure, Lord, 126, 158 

Keys, gold, used by Cardinal York, 127 

King, title of, refused Prince Charles by the Pope, 53 

' King's Evil.' See ' Evil, King's.' 

Index 139 


Lanti, Cardinal, 61 

Lebanon, Mount, Christians of, and Clement XTV., 66 
Lee, Rev. Frederick George, and Stuart relics, 160 
Legouz, Abbe", tutor of Princes Charles and Henry, 17 
Leinster, the Duke of, and Stuart relics, 127 
Leonard, St., of Port Maurice, 20 
Leonardi, Blessed Father, 35 
Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, 61, 76 
Leprotti, Signer, Papal physician, 21 
Lercari, Monsignor, 44 
Lestock, Admiral, 29 

Letter, forged, of Prince Charles to his brother, 37 
Leuthen, Battle of, 68 
Literary Fund banquet, 108 
Loch-na-Nuagh, 27, 29 
Louis XIV., King, 12 
Louis XV. and Cardinal York, 31, 41 
Louis XVI., execution of, 92 
Louisa. See Albany, Countess of. 
Lucullus, Roman General, 48 
Ludwig of Bavaria, Prince, 89 
Lumsden, Mr., 57 
Luxembourg, Cardinal de, 33 


M'Connick, James and Francis, Fathers, 85 
Macdonald of Boisdale, 70 

,, of Glenaladale, 71 

Macerata, Prince Charles's marriage at, 69 
Mack, General, 99 

Malta, Prior of the Order of, and Prince Charles, 54 
Manchester, Prince Charles at, 27 
Manifesto of Cardinal York, 89 
Mann, Sir Horace, 181 

Maps of Scotland used by Prince Charles, 127 
Mar, Earl of, 15 
Marciana, Bishop of, 22 
Marefoschi-Campagnoni, Cardinal, 67, 69 
Maria Santa ad Martyres, 110 

,, in Cainpitclli, 35, 44, 50 

in Trastevere, 45 

Marie Antoinette and Countess of Albany, 82 
Marischal, Lord (Keith), 18 
Markham, Mrs., and Stuart relics, 127 
Marriage of Prince Charles, 68, 69 
Marriages in Austria degraded to a civil contract, 78 
Martorelli, Monsignor, 66 

140 Index 

Mary of Modena, Queen, 12, 109 

Medals of Cardinal York, 73, 87, 88 

Medals of Pius VII., 126 

Melville, Lord (Dundas), 104 

Mendicant Friars at Queen Clementina's funeral, 21 

Messina, Cardinal York at, 99 

Messina, Princess, and Lord Cloncurry, 112 

Messina, town of, destroyed by earthquake, 83 

Migazi, Cardinal, legate a latere at Vienna, 79 

Minto, Lord (Elliot), 104 

Missa Cantata, Cardinal York's first, 39 

Modena, Queen Mary of, 12, 109 

Montalto, Villa, 48 

Montgomery, Mr., 57 

Montpellier, Stuart relics at, 82 

Morlaix, Prince Charles at, 30 

Mother of God, Congregation of, 35 

Murray, Lady Augusta, marries the Duke of Sussex in Borne, 


Murray, Lord, 15 
Murray, of Broughton, Mr., 38 

Museum, South Kensington, picture of Pius VI. in, 96, note. 
Museums founded by Pius VI., 81 
Music, Prince Charles's love of, 84 
Muti Savorelli palace, 12 ; villa, 46, et passim. 


Napier, Lord, and Stuart relics, 127 

Naples, Cardinal York's flight to, 99 

Napoleon Bonaparte, 50, 96, 120 

Neapolitan monastic revenues applied to relieve distressed 

Calabrians, 83 
Negroni, Cardinal, 50, 67 
Neri, St. Philip, 89 
Nithsdale, Lord, 93, 126 
Nobles, Austrian, escort Pius VI., 79 
Northesk, Earl of, and Stuart portraits, 14, 128 
Note-book of Cardinal York, 126 


Oakeley, Mr. Charles, 104, 106 

Obsequies of Cardinal York, 121, 122 
Charles Edward, 86, 87 
James III., 51, 52 ; picture of the, 159 
Queen Clementina, 21, 22 

Officers, British, and Pius VI., 96, note 

Opera, Prince Charles Edward at the, 76 

Index 141 

Orders, religious, suppressed in Austria, 78 
Orford, Earl of, and Stuart relics, 128 
Orleans, Henrietta, Duchess of, 89 
Orsini, Cardinal, receives Charles as King, 54 

,, ,, and Joseph II., 61 ; limits the veto, 63 

Ostia and Velletri, See of, Cardinal York translated to the, 119 
O'Toole, Major, assists the Princess Clementina to elope, 13 
Oxburgh Hall, Lancashire, 67 


Palace, Stuart, in Rome, 12, et passim 

Pallavicini, Cardinal, 66 

Panza, Sancho, represented, 112 

Paolucci, Cardinal, 45 

Papers, Stuart, their disposal, 118, 119 

Paris, Cardinal York at, 29 

Prince Charles at, 23, 31, 41, 68 
Passionist Order, 73, 74 
Paul of the Cross, St., 73, 74 
Penal Laws abolished in England, 89 
Pension assigned Cardinal York by George III., 104, 109 
Perelli, Cardinal, 61 
Peter's, St., Church of, 22, el passim, 
Pious Schools, Congregation of, 44 
Pisani, Cardinal, 67 
Pistols used by Prince Charles, 84 
Pius VI. elected, 73 ; goes to Vienna, 79 ; pacifies Belgium, 80 ; 

appoints Monsiguor Brancadoro to the Vicariate of St. 

Peter's, 90, 91 ; panegyric of, on Louis XVI., 92; receives 

British officers, 96, note ; placed under contribution by the 

French, 96 ; taken prisoner by them, 98 ; dies at Valence, 


Pius VII. elected at Venice, 110 
Pius IX. canonizes B. Leonard of Port Maurice, 20 ; advice to 

the Jesuits, 72 

Planetas presented by Cardinal York, 47 
Poland, crown of, and Prince Henry (Cardinal York), 19 
Pole, Cardinal, 33 
Port Maurice, St. Leonard of, 20 
Porta Sacra, walling up of the, 75, 76 
Portraits of Cardinal York, 128 
Portugal and the Jesuits, 60 

Papacy, 66 

Preston Pans, Battle of, 27 
Pretender, the Old. See James III. 

the Young. See Stuart, Charles Edward. 
Protestants, three thousand, join the Catholic Church, 80 

142 Index 

Prussia, King Frederick of, seizes Silesia, 15; consults Bene- 
dict XTV., 42 


Ramsay, the Chevalier, 17 

Rebellion of 1715, 12 ; of 1745, 27, 28 

Receptions given by Cardinal York, 34 

Rectors of British colleges receive Prince Charles as King, 54 

Reggio destroyed by an earthquake, 83 

Relics of Cardinal York, 125 

Religious Orders, superiors of, congratulate Cardinal York, 32 

Religious Orders suppressed in Austria, 78 

Republic, Roman, established, 97 

Revolution in France, 92 ; in Rome, 97 

Rezzonico, Cardinal, 61 

Rialto, Venice, Cardinal York lodges near, 100 

Ricci, S.J., Father, 72 

Ring, episcopal, of Cardinal York, 127 

Ring of the Fisherman, 43 

Rings, sapphire, worn by Cardinals, 34, 62 

Rittburg-Kaunitz, Count, ambassador to Rome, 63 

Riviera, Cardinal, 41 

Robert II. of Scotland and the peerage of Albany, 56 

Robes of Cardinals, 61, note 

Rosary, jewelled, given to Prince Charles by the Pope, 58 

Roscoff, Prince Charles lands at, 30 

Rota, auditorship of the, dispute concerning, 90 

Royal Cardinals, English, 33 

Ruby, large, sold by Cardinal York, 97 

Ruffo, Cardinal, 34 


Sapphire rings worn by Cardinals, 34, 62 note 
Savorelli Muti, Palace of, 12 et passim. 
Scotland invaded by James III., 12 

,, ,, by Prince Charles, 27 

Scots College, Rome, 21, et passim. 
Scott, Sir Walter, at Cardinal York's villa, 125 
Scrofula, or King's Evil, 143 
Seal of Cardinal York, 126 
Second sight, 113 

Seminaries, diocesan, suppressed in Austria, 78 
Seminary at Frascati rebuilt by Cardinal York, 47, 48 

,, course of studies in, 48 

Senate, Roman, congratulate Cardinal York, 34 
Senico, Battle of, 97 
Seven Years' "War, the, 74 
Shelburne, Lord, 57 
Sheridan, Sir Thomas, 17, 25 

Index 143 

Shield, gold, presented to John Sobieslu, 53 

Silesia seized by Frederick the Great, 28 

' Siren of Borne,' The (Cardinal Consalvi), 49 

Sistine Chapel, 33 et passim. 

Snuff-box used by Cardinal York, 126 

Sobieski, King John, 13, 53, 67 
Prince James, 19 

Southesk, Lady, 16 

Spectacles used by Cardinal York, 127 

Speech of Lord Cowper at the trial of the Jacobite lords, 126 

Spinola, Cardinal, 62 

Sport, Prince Charles's love of, 55 

Stafford, Mr., 25 

Steffanucci, S.J., Father, Cardinal York's Vicar-General, 47, 49 

Stewart, Mr. Andrew, 103, 107 

Stewart, Mr. Archibald, 103 

Stolberg. See Gerden, and Albany, Countess oft 

Strozzi, the Duchess, 21 

Stuart, Prince Charles Edward, birth, 14 ; education, 17 ; at 
his mother's funeral, 22 ; leaves Eome, 25 ; in France, 26 ; 
lands in Scotland, 26 ; campaign in Great Britain, 27 ; 
defeated at Culloden, 28 ; in France, 29 ; at Versailles, 31 ; 
estrangement with his brother, 36 ; expelled from France, 
41 ; refused title of King by the Pope, 53 ; received as King 
by Roman society, 54 ; intemperate habits of, 55 ; violence 
at Albano, 55 ; styled Count of Albany, 56 ; pensioned by 
Cardinal York, 57 ; visits Clement XJIL, 58 ; receives 
present from the Pope, 58 ; marriage negotiations, 68 ; goes 
to Paris, 68 ; married at Macerata, 69 ; wishes to attend 
Jubilee, 75 ; retires to Florence, 75 ; his behaviour there, 
76 ; deserted by his consort, 76 ; separation from his Countess, 
81 ; taken ill at Florence, 82 ; settles in Eome, 84 ; his 
evenings with Corn the musician, 84; taken ill, 84; at 
Albano, 84 ; interview with Mr. Greathead, 84 ; last ill- 
ness and death, 85, ; funeral, 86, 87 ; meets Gustavus of 
Sweden, 81 

Stuart, Henry Benedict. See York, Cardinal. 

Stuart, James Francis. See James III. 

Sussex, the Duke of, 87, 88, 114 

Swiss Guard, the Papal, 21, 43, 122 

Synod at Frascati, 47 


Table service of Cardinal York, 113 

' Tales of the Century,' 85, note 

Tassoni, Signor, 118 

Tencin, Cardinal, assists Prince Charles, 23 

Term, Austrians defeated at, 99 

144 Index 

Thompson, Anstruther, Captain, and Stuart relics, 125 

Times, The, on Cardinal York, 100 

' Titles ' of Cardinals, 35 ; of Cardinal York, 35 

Toleration, religious, encouraged by Pope Benedict XIV., 42 

Tomb of Stuarts, 124, 129, Appendix 

Tonsure, Prince Henry receives the, 32 

Tortoiseshell box of Cardinal York, 128 

' Touching ' for the King's Evil, 84, 114, 115 

Touch-pieces, 115, 126 

Traquair, Earl of, 93, 94 

Trastevere, St. Cecilia in convent of, 16 

Trastevere, Santa Maria in. See Santa Maria in Trastevere. 

' Tree of Liberty ' planted in Rome, 97 

Trent, Council of, and ecclesiastical discipline, 48 

Tropea destroyed by earthquake, 83 

Trowel, silver, used by Cardinal York, 75, 76, 126 

Tuscany, Leopold of, 61, 76 

Tusculum. See Frascati. 


Uist, South, the crofters of, 70, 71 
Ursuline Convent, Countess of Albany retires to the, 76 
,, Queen Clementina at the, 16 


Valence, Pius VI. dies at, 109 
Valenti, Cardinal, 38 
Van Lint, painter, 12 
Vaubois, General, invades Rome, 96 
Vecino, Campo, tree of liberty planted on the, 97 
Velletri. See Ostia and Velletri. 
Venice, Cardinal York at, 99 et aeq. 
Venice, Conclave at, 109, 110 
Venice, Republic of, and Clement XIV., 66 
Venture, an impostor, 80 
Versailles, Prince Charles at, 31 
Verses on Cardinal York, 109 
Veto, the, and the Conclave, 60, 63 
Vicariate of St. Peter's, contest about, 89, 90, 91 
Vice-Chancellorship of the Holy See. See York, Cardinal. 
Victoria, H.M. Queen, and Cardinal York's relics, 88, 125 
Vienna, Pius VI. at, 79 

Villa, Cardinal York's, described, 46 ; pillaged, 98, 99 ; subse- 
quent history, 125 
Violet robes of Cardinals, 21, 61 
Vittoria Via, Ursuline Convent in the, 77 
Voltaire and Christianity, 59 

Index 145 


Watson, Dr. Robert, and the Stuart papers, 118 
Wedding present given by Cardinal York, 69 
Widdrington, Lord, trial of, 126 
Will of Cardinal York, 91, 117 

Wiseman, Cardinal, anecdotes of Cardinal York by, 116 
Wogan, Mr. Charles, brings the Princess Clementina Sobieski to 
Bologna, 13 


York, Henry Benedict Stuart, Cardinal, birth, 14 ; baptism, 14 ; 
education, 17 ; early character, 17, 18 ; attends mother's 
funeral, 22 ; at Cisterna, 25 ; goes to Paris, 29 ; assists his 
brother to escape, 29 ; meets his brother, 30 ; letter to 
James III., 30; leaves Paris for Rome, 32; enters the 
Church, 32 ; created Cardinal, 32 ; his honours and bene- 
fices, 34, 39 ; takes Holy Orders, 38 ; sings first Missa 
Ca/ntata, 39 ; and High Mass, 39 ; made Archpriest of St. 
Peter's, 39 ; presents gold chalice to, 39 ; receives two 
abbeys from Louis XV., 41 ; made Camerlengo, 41 ; created 
Archbishop of Corinth, 43 ; estrangement with his father, 
44 ; goes to Bologna, 44 ; translated to Frascati, 45 ; takes 
possession of his See, 46 ; charity to the poor, 46 ; convokes 
Synod, 47 ; rebuilds seminary, 48 ; patronizes Consalvi, 49 ; 
and Erskine, 50 ; attends father's affairs, 51 ; attends at 
father's death-bed, 51 ; advocates his brother's claims, 54 ; 
receives his brother as King, 54 ; endeavours to reform his 
brother, 55 ; letter on Prince Charles, 55 ; advises Charles 
to renounce title of King, 56 ; benevolence to the poor, 57 ; 
introduces his brother to the Pope, 58 ; his policy in the 
Conclave, 61 ; visited by Joseph II., 62 ; oration to 
Clement XIV., 66; created Vice-Chancellor, 66; attitude 
towards the Jesuits, 67 ; receives his brother and consort in 
Rome, 69 ; his present to the latter, 69 ; assists the crofters, 
71 ; medals issued by him during the Conclave, 73 ; case of 
Father Paul of the Cross, 74 ; builds Passionist monastery, 
74 ; present ab the walling up of the Porta Sacra, 75 ; his 
brother's conduct, 76 ; letter to the Countess of Albany, 77 ; 
assists in governing Rome, 78 ; orders concerning Venture, 
80 ; receives the King of Sweden, 81 ; stops at Sienna, 83 ; 
attends his brother, 83 ; succours the Calabrians, 83 ; in- 
structs the Franciscan Fathers to attend his dying brother, 
85 ; pontificates at his brother's funeral, 86 ; formal claim to 
the British throne, 87 ; announces abolition of penal laws 
to the Pope, 89 ; disposes of the Vicariate of St. Peter's, 
89, 91 ; draws up will, 91 ; Mass for Louis XVI., 92 ; corre- 
sponds with the Earl of Traquair, 93, 94 ; sells large ruby 

146 Index 

to assist Papal treasury, 97 ; villa pillaged, 98 ; flees to 
Naples, 99 ; to Messina, 99 ; to Corfu, 99 ; arrives in 
Venice, 99 ; the Times on his misfortunes, 100 ; Cardinal 
Borgia makes his case known, 101 ; Cardinal York's 
pecuniary losses, 102; pensioned by George III., 104; 
letters to Sir John Coxe-Hippesley, 104 et seq. ; verses on 
Cardinal York, 109 ; his claim on the British Government, 
109 ; at the Conclave in Venice, 110 ; returns to Prascati, 
110 ; private life of Cardinal York, 111, et seq. ; friendship 
with Lord Cloncurry, 111 ; and Mr. Forsyth, 112, 113 ; 
with Augustus, Duke of Sussex, 114 ; touches for King's 
Evil, 114, 115 ; renews will, 117 ; translated to Ostia, 119 ; 
his benevolence, 119 ; last illness, 120 ; death, 121 ; lying 
in state, 121, 122 ; funeral, 122 ; villa and relics sold, 125 ; 
list of personal property of Cardinal York, 125 et seq. 
portraits of, 128, 129 


Zondari, Monsignor, promoted to the Archbishopric of Sienna, 

Zuchetto, or skull-cap, of Cardinals and Prelates, 62, note 




SIR, With reference to the above the following may be of interest. 
The Battle of the Nile was fought on August 1-2, 1/98, and the news 
of the victory arrived in Naples a few weeks later. As our Minister to 
the Neapolitan Court, Sir William Hamilton, husband of "Nelson's 
Enchantress," was on his way to announce the news to the King, he met 
the Cardinal Duke of York out driving and introduced himself as 
follows : "I beg pardon of your Eminence for stopping your carriage, 
but I am sure will be glad to hear the good news which I have to com- 
municate." The Cardinal : " Pray, Sir, to whom have I the honour of 
speaking?" "To Sir William Hamilton." The Cardinal, much 
pleased, ihen heard the account of Nelson's triumph. He charged 
Captain Capel, who was about to proceed with dispatches to England, 
to inform his countrymen " that no man rejoices more sincerely than I 
do in the success and glory of the British Navy." 

Nelson made his triumphal entry into Naples on September 22, when 
the whole Court and population came forth to welcome " the saviour of 
Italy." As the Cardinal did not go to Venice till about May, 1799, he 
was undoubtedly among the noble personages who personally congra- 
tulated the illustrious hero. When the Duke of Sussex, son of George 
III., was at Rome in 1793, Cardinal York, who conceived a great esteem 
for him, presented the Duke with a cavalry sword which had been 
carried by his brother, Prince Charles Edward, during the rebellion of 
1745-6. The Duke afterwards wore this sword when in command of 
the " Loyal North Britons." It may well be that the last of the Stuarts 
bestowed a similar mark of favour on the Victor of the Nile, though 
Southey, whose well-known " Life " is rather circumstantial, makes no 
mention of the Cardinal and Nelson having ever met a somewhat 
unfortunate omission, if the contrary were the case. 

Whilst engaged in researches for the short Memoir of Cardinal York 
which I published some years ago, I could find no assertion or even 
suggestion that his Royal Highness was ever on board the British Fleet, 
though the Mediterranean Squadron did receive positive orders to 
rescue Pope Pius VI., the reigning Pontiff, from the hands of the 
French. When the advance of the invaders compelled the Cardinal to 
fly from Naples, he appears to have journeyed to Venice in a Greek 

Considering Lord Nelson's long sojourn in Naples, a stay extending 
to some twenty months, it is in every way likely that he must have met 
his titular Sovereign at the Court and in general society many times. 
The recent victory was regarded as a direct intervention of Providence 
by all classes of the population ; and showers of presents on Nelson 
were the order of the day. Such being the case, is it not strongly pro- 
bable that the de jure Henry IX. showed his sense of appreciation of 
the great event, by bestowing on the illustrious Admiral the silver- 
mounted dirk associated with his own unfortunate brother, and the 
memories of the '45 ? Apologising for thus trespassing on your space, 
I am yours faithfully, 


St, Anthony's, North Cheam.