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Matt. six. 1?. 

m the beginning :: 








Most gracious and dread Sovereign, 

We find it recorded for the 
everlasting honour of Theodosius the younger, 
that it was his use to a reason with his bishops 
of the things contained in the holy Scriptures, 
as if he himself had been one of their order: 
and of the emperor Alexius in latter days, that 
whatsoever 13 time he could spare from the public 
cares of the commonwealth, he did wholly 
employ in the diligent reading of God's book, 
and in conferring thereof with worthy men, of 
whom his court was never empty. How little 

a Socrat. lib. 7. hist. cap. 22. 

b Euthym. Zigaben. in Praefat. Dogmatica Panoplia. 

A 2 


inferior, or how much superior rather, your 
majesty is to either of these in this kind of praise, 
I need not speak : it is acknowledged even by 
such as differ from you in the point of religion, as 
a matter that hath added more than ordinary 
lustre of ornament to your royal estate; that you 
" do not forbear so much as at the time of your 
bodily repast, to have for the then like feeding of 
your intellectual part, your highness' table sur- 
rounded with the attendance and conference of 
your grave and learned divines." 

What inward joy my heart conceived, as oft as 
I have had the happiness to be present at such 
seasons, I forbear to utter : only I will say with 
Job, that " the' 1 ear which heard you, blessed 
you ; and the eye which saw you, gave witness to 
you." But of all other things which I observed, 
your singular dexterity in detecting the frauds of 
the Romish Church, and untying the most knotty 
arguments of the sophisters of that side, was it, 
I confess, that I admired most ; especially where 
occasion was offered you to utter your skill, not 
in the word of God alone, but also in the anti- 
quities of the Church, wherein you have attained 
such a measure of knowledge, as (with honour to 

f Jo. Biereley in his epistle before St. Augustine's Religion. 
d Job, chap. 29. ver. 11. 


God, I trust I may speak it, and without flattery 
to you) in a well studied divine we would account 
very commendable, but in such a monarch as 
yourself almost incredible. And this is one cause, 
most gracious Sovereign, beside my general duty, 
and the many special obligations whereby I am 
otherwise bound unto your majesty, which hath 
emboldened me to entreat your patience at this 
time, in vouchsafing to be a spectator of this 
combat, which I am now entered into with a 
Jesuit, who chargeth us to " disallow many chief 
articles, which the saints and fathers of the pri- 
mitive Church did generally hold to be true ;" 
and undertaketh to make good, that they of his 
side do not disagree from that holy Church, 
either in these, or in any other point of re- 

Now true it is, if a man do only attend unto 
the bare sound of the word, as in the question of 
Merit, for example, or to the thing in general, 
without descending into the particular considera- 
tion of the true ground thereof, as in the matter 
of Praying for the dead, he may easily be induced 
to believe that in divers of these controversies the 
fathers speak clearly for them, and against us : 
neither is there any one thing that hath won more 
credit to that religion, or more advanced it in 


the consciences of simple men, than the con- 
formity that it retaineth in some words and out- 
ward observances with the ancient Church of 
Christ. Whereas if the thing itself were nar- 
rowly looked into, it would be found that they 
have only the shell without the kernel, and we 
the kernel without the shell : they having re- 
tained certain words and rites of the ancient 
Church, but applied them to a new invented doc- 
trine ; and we on the other side, having relin- 
quished these words and observances, but re- 
tained nevertheless the same primitive doctrine, 
unto which by their first institution they had 

The more cause have I to count myself happy, 
that am to answer of these matters before a king 
that is able to discern betwixt things that differ, 
and hath knowledge of all these questions j " be- 
fore 6 whom therefore I may speak boldly : because 
I am persuaded that none of these things are hid 
from him." For it is not of late days that your 
majesty hath begun to take these things into your 
consideration : from a child have you been trained 
up to this warfare ; yea before you were twenty 
years of age, the Lord had taught your hands to 

" Ad-, chap, 26. ver. 26. 


fight against the man of sin, and your fingers to 
make battle against his Babel. Whereof your 
paraphrase upon the Revelation of St. John, is a 
memorable monument left to all posterity : which 
I can never look upon, but those verses of the 
poet run always in my mind : 

Caesaribus f virtus contigit ante diem ; 
Ingenium eceleste suis velocius annis 

Surgit, et ignavae fert mala damna morse. 

How constant you have been ever since in the 
profession and maintenance of the truth, your late 
protestation, made unto both the houses of your 
parliament giveth sufficient evidence. So much 
whereof as may serve for a present antidote 
against that false and scandalous oration 8 spread 
amongst foreigners under your majesty's sacred 
name, I humbly make bold to insert in this place, 
as a perpetual testimony of your integrity in this 

" What h my religion is, my books do declare, 
my profession and my behaviour do show : and 1 
hope in God, I shall never live to be thought 
otherwise ; sure I am I shall never deserve it. 
And for my part I wish that it might be written 

f Ovid. 

s Merc. Gallobelgie. ann. lO'io. 

11 His majesty's answer to the petition of the parliament touching recusant; , 
23dApril, 1024. 


in marble, and remain to posterity, as a mark 
upon me, when I shall swerve from my religion ; 
for he that doth dissemble with God, is not to be 
trusted by man. My lords, I protest before God, 
my heart hath bled, when I have heard of the 
increase of popery : and God is my judge, it hath 
been so great a grief unto me, that it hath been 
like thorns in mine eyes, and pricks in my sides ; 
so far have I been, and ever shall be, from turn- 
ing any other way. And, my lords and gentlemen, 
you all shall be my confessors ; if I knew any 
way better than other to hinder the growth of po- 
pery, I would take it ; and he cannot be an honest 
man, who knowing as I do, and being persuaded 
as I am, would do otherwise." 

As you have so long since begun, and happily 
continued, so go on, most renowned king, and 
still shew yourself to be a defender of the faith ; 
fight the Lord's battles courageously, honour him 
evermore, and advance his truth ; that when you 
have fought this 1 good fight, and finished your 
course, and kept the faith, you may receive the 
crown of righteousness, reserved in heaven for 
you ; for the obtaining of which double blessing, 
both of grace and of glory, together with all out- 

1 2 Tim. chap. 1. ver. 7, 8. 


ward prosperity and happiness in this life, you 
shall never want the instant prayers of 

Your majesty's most faithful 
Subject, and humble servant, 




It is now about six years, as I gather by the reckoning 
laid clown in the thirty-first page of this book, since 
this following Challenge was brought unto me from a 
Jesuit, and received that general answer, which now 
serveth to make up the first chapter only of this present 
work. The particular points which were by him but 
barely named, I meddled not withal at that time: con- 
ceiving it to be his part, as in the fortieth page is 
touched, who sustained the person of the assailant, to 
bring forth his arms, and give the first onset ; and mine, 
as the defendant, to repel his encounter afterwards. Only 
I then collected certain materials out of the Scriptures 
and writings of the fathers, which I meant to make use of 
for a second conflict, whensoever our challenger should 
be pleased to descend to the handling of the particular 
articles by him proposed ; the truth of every of which he 
had taken upon him to prove, by the express testimonies 
of the fathers of the primitive Church, as also by good 
and certain grounds out of the sacred Scriptures, if the 
fathers' authority would not suffice. 

Thus this matter lay dead for divers years together: 
and so would still have done, but that some of high place 


in both kingdoms, having been pleased to think far better 
of that little which I had done, than the thing deserved, 
advised me to go forward, and to deliver the judgment 
of antiquity touching those particular points in contro- 
versy, wherein the challenger was so confident that the 
whole current of the doctors, pastors and fathers of the 
primitive Church did mainly run on his side. Hereupon 
I gathered my scattered notes together, and as the 
multitude of my employments would give me leave, now 
entered into the handling of one point, and then of ano- 
ther : treating of each, either more briefly or more 
largely, as the opportunity of my present leisure would 
give me leave. And so at last, after many interruptions, 
I have made up in such manner as thou seest, a kind of a 
doctrinal history of those several points, which the Je- 
suit culled out, as special instances of the consonancy of 
the doctrines now maintained in the Church of Rome, 
with the perpetual and constant judgment of all anti- 

The doctrine that here I take upon me to defend, (what 
different opinions soever I relate of others,) is that which 
by public authority is professed in the Church of England, 
and comprised in the book of articles agreed upon in the 
synod held at London in the year MDLXII. concerning 
which I dare be bold to challenge our challenger and all 
his complices, that they shall never be able to prove, that 
there is either any one article of religion disallowed there- 
in, which the saints and fathers of the primitive Church 
did generally hold to be true, (I use the words of my 
challenging Jesuit,) or any one point of doctrine, which by 
those saints and fathers was generally held to be untrue. 
As for the testimonies of the authors which I allege, I 
have been careful to set down in the margin their own 
words in their own language (such places of the Greek 
doctors only excepted, whereof the original text could not 


be had) as well for the better satisfaction of the readers, 
(who either cannot come by that variety of books, whereof 
use is here made, or will not take the pains to enter into 
a curious search of every particular allegation) as for the 
preventing pf those trifling quarrels that are commonly 
made against translations ; for if it fall out, that word be 
not every where precisely rendered by word (as who 
would tie himself to such a pedantical observation ?) none 
but an idle caviller can object, that this was done with 
any purpose to corrupt the meaning of the author, whose 
words he seeth laid down before his eyes, to the end he 
may the better judge of the translation, and rectify it 
where there is cause. 

Again, because it is a thing very material in the histo- 
rical handling of controversies, both to understand the 
times wherein the several authors lived, and likewise 
what books be truly or falsely ascribed to each of them ; 
for some direction of the reader in the first, I have an- 
nexed at the end of this book, a chronological catalogue 
of the authors cited therein, wherein such as have no 
number of years affixed unto them, are thereby signified 
to be incerti temporis ; their age being not found by me, 
upon this sudden search, to be noted by any : and for the 
second, I have seldom neglected in the work itself, when- 
soever a doubtful or supposititious writing was alleged, to 
give some intimation whereby it might be discerned that 
it was not esteemed to be the book of that author, unto 
whom it was entitled. The exact discussion as well of 
the authors' times, as of the censures of their works, I 
refer to my Theological Bibliotheque : if God hereafter 
shall lend me life and leisure, to make up that work, for 
the use of those that mean to give themselves to that 
noble study of the doctrine and rites of the ancient 

In the mean time I commit this book to thy favourable 

TO T" R] 7 7*. 

censure, and thvself ' - _ i*- 

nestlv ac _ :hat what- other studies to 

intermittest. the earefhl and eonseionable read in g »f Gc 
book mav never bene; by the?. F . ~ er be- 

cometh of our disp fees toad _ :her antiq fies r no- 
ve": hoa m. -:and assured, that thou shalt th; 

find so much by God's ble>5 : ^. as shall be 
matp thee wise ur to* build thee up." 

sine. to gi e Ihee an inheritance among all them that are 
sanctified." ^"hich next under God 'a g he ut- 

most thing. I know, thou aimest at : and for the attain: _ 
whereunto I hearti. : Christ n: 

dwell in thee richlvj in al. wis m.** 

. Tim. chaft. 3L ra. 15- 
Ijss. ckw. i^r. IS. 

C O N T E N T - 

Chap. I. A general answer to the Jesuit's Challenge. . 9 

II. : Traditions 41 

III. Of the Real presence 

IV 0: 90 

V. Of the Prints' power to fori ans 

VI. Of Purgatory - " 

VII. Of Prayer for the dead 

VIII. Of Lim" - 7 ram. and Chris- 'fi —rent into 

Hell 278 

IX. Of Prayer 1 Saints 42 

X. Of Images - 

XI. Of Free WiU 515 

XII. Of Merits 545 





&c. &c. 

How shall I answer to a Papist, demanding this Question ? 

Your doctors and masters grant that the Church of 
Rome, for four or five hundred years after Christ, did 
hold the true religion. First then would I fain know, 
what bishop of Rome did first alter that religion, which 
you commend in them of the first four hundred years ? 
In what pope his days was the true religion overthrown in 
Rome ? 

Next, I would fain know, how can your religion be 
true, which disalloweth of many chief articles, which the 
saints and fathers of that primitive Church of Rome did 
generally hold to be true ? 

For they of your side, that have read the fathers of 
that unspotted Church, can well testify (and if any deny 
it, it shall be presently shewn), that the doctors, pastors, 
and fathers of that Church do allow of traditions; that 
they acknowledge the real presence of the body of 
Christ in the sacrament of the altar ; that they exhorted 
the people to confess their sins unto their ghostly fathers : 
that they affirmed that priests have power to forgive 
sins : that they taught that there is a purgatory ; that 
prayer for the dead is both commendable and godly ; that 
there is limbus patrum ; and that our Saviour descended 



into hell, to deliver the ancient fathers of the Old Testa- 
ment, because before his passion none ever entered into 
heaven ; that prayer to saints and use of holy images was 
of great account amongst them ; that man hath free will, 
and that for his meritorious works he receiveth, through 
the assistance of God's grace, the bliss of everlasting hap- 

Now would I fain know whether of both have the true 
religion, they that hold all these abovesaid points with 
the primitive Church ; or they that do most vehemently 
contradict and gainsay them? They that do not disagree 
with that holy Church in any point of religion ; or they 
that agree with it but in very few, and disagree in almost 

Will you say, that these fathers maintained these opi- 
nions, contrary to the word of God ? Why, you know that 
they were the pillars of Christianity, the champions of 
Christ his Church, and of the true catholic religion, which 
they most learnedly defended against divers heresies ; and 
therefore spent all their time in a most serious study of the 
holy Sci'ipture, Or will you say, that although they knew 
the Scriptures to repugn, yet they brought in the afore- 
said opinions by malice and corrupt intentions? Why, 
yourselves cannot deny, but that they lived most holy and 
virtuous lives, free from all malicious corrupting, or per- 
verting of God's holy word, and by their holy lives are 
now made worthy to reign with God in his glory. Inso- 
much as their admirable learning may sufficiently cross 
out all suspicion of ignorant error ; and their innocent 
sanctity freeth us from all mistrust of malicious cor- 

Now would I willingly see what reasonable answer may 
be made to this. For the protestants grant that the 
Church of Rome, for four or five hundred years, held the 
true religion of Christ : yet do they exclaim against the 
abovesaid articles, which the same Church did maintain 
and uphold ; as may be shewn by the express testimonies 
of the fathers of the same Church, and shall be largely 
laid down, if any learned protestant will deny it. 


Yea, which is more, for the confirmation of all the 
above mentioned points of our religion, we will produce 
good and certain grounds out of the sacred Scriptures, if 
the fathers' authority will not suffice. And we do desire 
any protestant to allege any one text out of the said Scrip- 
ture, which condemneth any of the above written points : 
which we hold for certain they shall never be able to do. 
For indeed they are neither more learned, more pious 
nor more holy, than the blessed doctors and martyrs of 
that first Church of Rome, which they allow and esteem 
of so much ; and by which we most willingly will be tried, 
in any point which is in controversy betwixt the protestants 
and the catholics. Which we desire may be done with 
Christian charity and sincerity, to the glory of God, and 
instruction of them that are astray. 

W. B. 





&c. &c. 

i o uphold the religion which at this day is maintained 
in the Church of Rome, and to discredit the truth which 
we profess, three things are here urged, by one who hath 
undertaken to make good the papists' cause against all 
gainsayers. The first concerneth the original of the errors 
wherewith that part standeth charged : the author and 
time whereof he requireth us to shew. The other two 
respect the testimony, both of the primitive Church and 
of the sacred Scriptures: which, in the points wherein we 
vary, if this man may be believed, maketh wholly for them 
and against us. 

" First then would he fain know, what bishop of Rome 
did first alter that religion, whieh we commend in them of 
the first four hundred years ? In what pope's days was 
the true religion overthrown in Rome?" To which I an- 
swer. First, that we do not hold that Rome was built in 
a day ; or that the great dunghill of errors, which now we 
see in it, was raised in an age : and therefore it is a vain 
demand, to require from vis the name of any one bishop 
of Rome, by whom or under whom this Babylonish con- 
fusion was brought in. Secondly, that a great difference 
is to be put betwixt heresies, which openly oppose the 
foundations of our faith, and that apostacy which the Spirit 
hath evidently foretold should be brought in by such as 


" speak a lies in hypocrisy." The impiety of the one is so 
notorious, that at the very first appearance it is mani- 
festly discerned : the other is a " mystery 6 of iniquity," as 
the apostle termeth it; " iniquitas, sed mystica, id est, 
pietatis nomine palliata (so the ordinary Gloss expound- 
eth the place), an iniquity indeed, but mystical, that is, 
cloked with the name of piety." And therefore they, who 
kept continual watch and ward against the one, might 
sleep while the seeds of the other were a sowing ; yea, 
peradventure might at unawares themselves have some 
hand in bringing in of this Trojan horse, commended thus 
unto them under the name of religion and semblance of 
devotion. Thirdly, that the original of errors is often- 
times so obscure, and their breed so base, that howsoever 
it might be easily observed by such as lived in the same 
age, yet no wise man will marvel, if in tract of time the 
beginnings of many of them should be forgotten, and no 
register of the time of their birth found extant. We 
read c that the Sadducees taught there were no an- 
gels : is any man able to declare unto us, under what high 
priest they first broached this error ? The Gr ecians, Cir- 
cassians, Georgians, Syrians, Egyptians, Habassines, Mus- 
covites, and Russians, dissent at this day from the Church 
of Rome in many particulars : will you take upon you to 
shew in what bishops' days these several differences did 
first arise ? When the point hath been well scanned, it 
will be found, that many errors have crept into their pro- 
fession, the time of the entrance whereof you are not able 
to design : and some things also are maintained by you 
against them, which have not been delivered for catholic 
doctrine in the primitive times, but brought in afterwards, 
yourselves know not when. 

Such, for example, is that sacrilege of yours, whereby 
you withhold from the people the use of the cup in the 
Lord's Supper ; as also your doctrine of indulgences and 
purgatory: which they reject, and you defend. For, 

a 1 Tim. chap. 4. ver. 1,2. b 2 Thess. chap. 2. ver. 7. 

c Acts, chap. 23. ver. 8. 


touching the first, Gregorius' 1 de Valentia, one of your 
principal champions, confesseth, that the use of receiving 
the sacrament in one kind began first in some churches, 
and grew to be a general custom in the Latin Church not 
much before the council of Constance, in which at last (to 
wit, two hundred years ago) this custom was made a law. 
But if you put the question to him as you do to us, What 
bishop of Rome did first bring in this custom ? he giveth 
you this answer, that it " began to be used, not by the 
decree of any bishop, but by the very use of the churches, 
and the consent of the faithful." If you further question 
with him, " Quando primum vigere coepit ea consuetudo 
in aliquibus ecclesiis ? when first did that custom get 
footing in some churches ?" he returneth you for answer, 
" Minime constat:" it is more than he can tell. 

The like doth Fisher* bishop of Rochester, and car- 
dinal* Cajetan, give us to understand of indulgences ; that 
no certainty can be had, what their original was, or by 
whom they were first brought in. Fisher also further 
addeth concerning purgatory : that in the ancient fathers 
there is either none at all, or very rare mention of it; that 
by the Grecians it is not believed, even to this day ; that 
the Latins also, not all at once but by little and little, 
received it: and that, purgatory being so lately known, it 
is not to be marvelled, that in the first times of the Church 
there was no use of indulgences ; seeing these had their 
beginning, after that men for a while had been affrighted 
with the torments of purgatory. Out of which confession 
of the adverse part you may observe : 1. What little reason 
these men have, to require us to set down the precise time 
wherein all their prophane novelties were first brought in : 
seeing that this is more than they themselves are able to 
do. 2. That some of them may come in pedetentim (as 
Fisher acknowledged purgatory did) by little and little, 
and by very slow steps, which are not so easy to be dis- 

d Valcnt. dc legit, usu euchar. cap. 10. 

e Rotten, assert. Lutheran, confutat. artic. 18. 

[ Cajet. opusc. torn, 1. tract. 15. dc indulgent, cap. 1. 


cerned, as fools be borne in hand they are. 3. That it is 
a fond imagination, to suppose that all such changes must 
be made by some bishop, or any one certain author : 
whereas it is confessed, that some may come in by the 
tacit consent of many g , and grow after into a general cus- 
tom, the beginning whereof is past man's memory. 

And as some superstitious usages may draw their ori- 
ginal from the indiscreet devotion of the multitude, so 
some also may be derived from want of devotion in the 
people ; and some alterations likewise must be attributed 
to the very change of time itself. Of the one we cannot 
give a fitter instance, than in your private mass, wherein 
the priest receiveth the sacrament alone : which Harding 1 ' 
fetcheth from no other ground, than " lack of devotion of 
the people's part." When you therefore can tell us, in 
what pope's days the people fell from their devotion; we 
may chance tell you, in what pope's days your private 
mass began. An experiment of the other we may see in 
the use of the Latin service in the churches of Italy, 
France, and Spain. For if we be questioned, When that 
use first began there ? and further demanded, Whether 1 
the language, formerly used in their liturgy, was changed 
upon a sudden? our answer must be, that Latin service 
was used in those countries from the beginning : but that 
the Latin tongue at that time was commonly understood 
of all; which afterward by little and little degenerated into 
those vulgar languages which now are used. When you 
therefore shall be pleased to certify us, in what pope's 
days the Latin tongue was changed into the Italian, 
French, and Spanish, which we pray you do for our learn- 
ing ; we will then give you to understand, that from that 
time forward the language, not of the service, but of the 
people, was altered. " Nee enim lingua vulgaris populo 

e So saith Bonfrerius, the Jesuit, of the vulgar Latin edition of the Bible. 
Pedetentim usu ipso et tacita doctorum approbatione ccepit esse in pretio, hac 
sestimatione sensim sine sensu crescente. prseloqu. in scriptur. cap. 15. sec. 2. 

h Hard, answer to the first article of Jewell's challenge, fol. 26. b. edit. Ant- 
werp, ami. 1565. 

* Allen, artic. 11. demand. 9. 


subtracta est, seel populus ab ea recessit, saith Erasmus k , 
the vulgar tongue was not taken away from the people ; 
but- the people departed from it." 

If this which I have said will not satisfy you ; I would 
wish you call unto your remembrance the answer, which 
Arnobius sometimes gave, to a foolish question propound- 
ed by the enemies of the Christian faith : " Nee 1 si nequi- 
vero causas vobis exponere, cur aliquid fiat illo, vel hoc 
modo, continuo sequitur, ut infecta fiant quae facta sunt." 
And consider whether I may not return the like answer 
unto you. If I be not able to declare unto you by what 
bishop of Rome, and in what pope's days, the simplicity of 
the ancient faith was first corrupted ; it will not presently 
follow, that what was done must needs be undone. Or 
rather, if you please, call to mind the parable in the 
Gospel, where •' the m kingdom of heaven is likened unto 
a man, which sowed good seed in his field ; but while 
men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the 
wheat, and went his way." These that slept took 
no notice, when or by whom the tares were scattered 
among the wheat ; neither at the first rising did they dis- 
cern betwixt the one and the other, though they were 
awake. But " when" the blade was sprung up, and 
brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares :" and then 
they put the question unto their master ; " Sir, didst not 
thou sow good seed in thy field ? from whence then hath 
it tares?" Their master indeed telleth them, it was the 
enemy's doing : but you could tell them otherwise, and 
come upon them thus. You yourselves grant, that the 
seed which was first sown in this field was good seed, 
and such as was put there by your master himself. If 
this which you call tares be no good grain, and hath 
sprung from some other seed than that which was sown 
here at first ; I would fain know that man's name, who 
was the sower of it ; and likewise the time in which it was 

k declarationib. ad censuias Pavisiens. tit. 12. sec. 41. 
{ Arnob. lib. 2. contra gentes. m Mat. chap. 13. ver. 24, 25. 

« Mat. chap. 13. ver. 20, 27. 


sown. Now you being not able to shew either the one or 
the other, it must needs be that your eyes here deceive 
you : or if these be tares, they are of no enemy's, but of 
your master's own sowing. 

To let pass the slumberings of former times, we could 
tell you of an age, wherein men not only slept, but also 
snorted : it was, if you know it not, the tenth from Christ, 
the next neighbour to that wherein hell° broke loose. 
That " unhappy' 1 age," as Genebrard, and other of your 
own writers term it, " exhausted both of men of account 
for wit and learning, and of worthy princes and bishops." 
In which there were " no q famous writers, nor councils ;" 
than which, if we will credit Bellarmine, there was never 
age " more r unlearned and unhappy." If I be not able to 
discover what feats the devil wrought in that time of dark- 
ness, wherein men were not so vigilant in marking his 
conveyances ; and such as might see somewhat, were not 
so forward in writing books of their observations : must 
the infelicity of that age, wherein there was little learning, 
and less writing, yea, which " for want of writers," as 
cardinal Baronius 5 acknowledgeth, " hath been usually 
named the obscure age ;" must this, I say, enforce me to 
yield, that the devil brought in no tares all that while, 
but let slip the opportunity of so dark a night, and slept 
himself for company ? There are other means left unto us, 
whereby we may discern the tares brought in by the in- 
struments of Satan, from the good seed which was sown 
by the apostles of Christ ; beside this observation of times 
and seasons, which will often fail us. " Ipsa 1 doctrina 
eorum," saith Tertullian, " cum apostolica comparata, ex 
diversitate et contrarietate sua pronuntiabit, neque apos- 
toli alicujus auctoris esse, neque apostolici : their very 
doctrine itself, being compared with the apostolic, by the 

° Apoc. chap. 20. ver. 7. 

P Infelix dicitur hoc seculum, exhaustum hominibus ingenio et doctrina Claris, 
sive etiam claris principibus et pontificibus. Genebr. chron. lib. 4. 

P Bellarm. in chronol. ann. 970. r Id. de Rom. pontif. lib. 4. cap. 12. 

' Baron, annal. torn. 10. ann. 900. sec. 1. 
1 Tertull. prescript, advers. hseret, cap. 32. 



diversity and contrariety thereof, will pronounce that it 
had for author neither any apostle nor any man aposto- 
lical." For there cannot be a better prescription against 
heretical novelties, than that which our Saviour Christ 
useth against the Pharisees ; " From" the beginning it was 
not so :" nor a better preservative against the infection of 
seducers, that are " crept in unawares," than that which is 
prescribed by the apostle Jude v , " earnestly to contend for 
the faith which was once delivered unto the saints." 

Now to the end we might" know the certainty of those 
things, wherein the saints were at the first instructed, 
God hath provided, that the memorial thereof should be 
recorded in his own book, that it might remain " for" the 
time to come, for ever and ever." He then who out of 
that book is able to demonstrate, that the doctrine and 
practice now prevailing swerveth from that, which was 
at first established in the Church by the apostles of 
Christ, doth as strongly prove, that a change hath been 
made in the middle times, as if he were able to nominate 
the place where, the time when, and the person by whom 
any such corruption was first brought in. In the apostles' 
days, when a man had examined himself, he was admitted 
unto the Lord's table, there to " eat of that bread, and 
drink of that cup :" as appeareth plainly from the first y 
to the Corinthians. In the Church of Rome at this 
day, the people are indeed permitted to eat of the 
bread (if bread they may call it); but not allowed to 
drink of the cup. Must all of us now shut our eyes, 
and sing, " Sicut z erat in principio, et nunc :" unless we 
be able to tell by whom, and when this first institution was 
altered ? By St. Paul's order, who would have all things 
done to edification, Christians should pray with " under- 
standing," and not in an unknown language : as may be 
seen in the fourteenth chapter of the same epistle to the 
Corinthians. The case is now so altered, that the bring- 
ing in of a tongue not understood, which hindered the 

u Matt. chap. 19. ver. 8. v Jude, ver. 3, 4. 

w Luke, chap. 1. ver. 4. * Isa. chap. 30. ver. 8. 

y chap. 11. ver. 28. * As it was in the beginning so now 


edifying of Babel itself, and scattered the builders 
thereof, is accounted a good means to further the edifying 
of your Babel ; and to hold a her followers together. Is 
not this then a good ground to resolve a man's judgment, 
that things are not now kept in that order, wherein they 
were set at first by the apostles : although he be not able 
to point unto the first author of the disorder ? 

And as we may thus discover innovations, by having re- 
course unto the first and best times : so may we do the 
like by comparing the state of things present with the mid- 
dle times of the Church. Thus I find, by the constant and 
approved practice of the ancient Church, that all sorts 
of people, men, women, and children, had free liberty to 
read the holy Scriptures. I find now the contrary among 
the papists : and shall I say for all this, that they have not 
removed the bounds which were set by the fathers, because 
perhaps I cannot name the pope, that ventured to make the 
first enclosure of these commons of God's people ? I hear 
St. Hierome b say, " Judith, et Tobiae, et Macchabaeorum 
libros legit quidem Ecclesia, sed eos inter canonicas scrip- 
turas non recipit : the Church doth read indeed the 
books of Judith, and Toby, and the Macchabees ; but 
doth not receive them for canonical Scripture." I see that 
at this day the Church of Rome receiveth them for such. 
May not I then conclude, that betwixt St. Hierome's 
time and ours, there hath been a change ; and that the 
Church of Rome now is not of the same judgment with 
the Church of God then : howsoever I cannot precisely 
lay down the time, wherein she first thought herself to be 
wiser herein than her forefathers. 

But here our adversary closeth with us, and layeth down 
a number of points, held by them, and denied by us : 
which he undertaketh to make good, as well by the ex- 
press testimonies of the fathers of the primitive Church of 
Rome, as also by good and certain grounds out of the 
sacred Scriptures, if the fathers' authority will not suffice. 

a scriptuv. quavis lingua non legendis, cap. 17. Bellar. lib. 2. de 
verbo Dei cap. 15. 

b Hieronym. prefat. in libros Salomon, epist. 115. 


Where if he would change his order, and give the sacred 
Scriptures the precedency, he should therein do more 
right to God the author of them, who well deserveth to 
have audience in the first place; and withal ease both 
himself and us of a needless labour, in seeking any further 
authority to compose our differences. For if he can pro- 
duce, as he beareth us in hand he can, good and certain 
grounds out of the sacred Scriptures for the points in con- 
troversy, the matter is at an end : he, that will not rest sa- 
tisfied with such evidences as these, may (if he please) tra- 
vel further, and speed worse. Therefore, as St. Augus- 
tine c heretofore provoked the Donatists, so provoke I 
him : " Auferantur chartae humanae : sonent voces Divi- 
nap : ede mihi unam Scripturse vocem pro parte Do- 
nati : let human writings be removed : let God's voice 
sound : bring me one voice of the Scripture for the 
part of Donatus." Produce but one clear testimony 
of the sacred Scripture for the pope's part, and it shall 
suffice : allege what authority you list without Scripture, 
and it cannot suffice. We reverence indeed the ancient 
fathers, as it is fit we should, and hold it our duty to 
" rise' 1 up before the hoary head, and to honour the per- 
son of the aged :" but still with reservation of the respect 
we owe to their Father and ours, that " Ancient* of days, 
the hair of whose head is like the pure wool." We may 
not forget the lesson, which our great Master hath taught 
us, " CalP no man your father upon the earth : for one 
is your Father, which is in heaven." Him therefore alone 
do we acknowledge for the father of our faith : no other 
father do we know, upon whose bare credit we may ground 
our consciences in things that are to be believed. 

And this we say, not as if we feared that these men 
were able to produce better proofs out of the writings of 
the fathers for the part of the pope, than we can do for 
the catholic cause ; when we come to join in the particu- 

c Aug. serm. 46. op. torn. S.pag. 212. ■' Levit. chap. 19. ver. 32. 
e Dan. chap. 7. ver. C. f Matt. chap. 23. ver. 9. 



lars, they shall find it otherwise : but partly to bring the 
matter unto a shorter trial, partly to give the word of God 
his due, and to declare what that rock is, upon which alone 
we build our faith, even " the g foundation of the apos- 
tles and prophets ;" from which no slight that they can de- 
vise shall ever draw us. 

The same course did St. Augustine take with the Pe- 
lagians : against whom he wanted not the authority of the 
fathers of the Church. " Which 11 if I would collect (saith 
he) and use their testimonies, it would be too long a work ; 
and I might peradventure seem to have less confidence 
than I ought in the canonical authorities, from which we 
ought not to be withdrawn." Yet was the Pelagian he- 
resy then but newly budded : which is the time wherein 
the pressing of the fathers' testimonies is thought to be best 
in season. With how much better warrant may we follow 
this precedent, having to deal with such as have had time 
and leisure enough to falsify the fathers' writings, and to 
" teach them the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans ?" 
The method of confuting heresies, by the consent of holy 
fathers, is by none commended more than by Vincentius 
Lirinensis : who is careful notwithstanding herein to give 
us this caveat. " But 1 neither always, nor all kinds of he- 
resies are to be impugned after this manner ; but such 
only as are new, and lately sprung : namely, when they 
do first arise, while by the straitness of the time itself they 
be hindered from falsifying the rules of the ancient faith ; 
and before the time that, their poison spreading farther, 
they attempt to corrupt the writings of the ancients. But 

£ Ephes. chap. 2. ver. 20. 

11 Quos si colligere, et eorum testimoniis uti, velim, et nimis longum erit, et de 
canonicis authoritatibus, a quibus non debemus averti, minus fortasse videbor 
prsesumpsisse quam debui. Aug. de nupt. et concupiscent, lib. 2. cap. 51. 

' Sed neque semper, neque omnes haereses hoc modo impugnandae sunt, sed 
novitiae recentesque tantummodo, cum primum scilicet exoriuntur ; antequam 
infalsare vetustse fidei regulas ipsius temporis vetantur angustiis ; ac priusquam, 
manante latius veneno, majorum volumina vitiare conentur. Caeterum dilatatae 
et inveteratae haereses nequaquam hac via aggrediendac sunt, eo quod prolixo 
temporum tractu longa his furandse veritatis patuerit occasio. Vincent, de 
litres, cap. 39. 


far spread and inveterate heresies are not to be dealt 
withal this way, forasmuch as, by long continuance of 
time, a long occasion hath lain open unto them to steal 
away the truth." The heresies with which we have to 
deal have spread so far, and continued so long, that the 
defenders of them are bold to make universality and dura- 
tion the special marks of their Church : they had oppor- 
tunity enough of time and place, to put in use all deceiv- 
ableness of unrighteousness ; neither will they have it to 
say that, in coining and clipping and washing the monu- 
ments of antiquity, they have been wanting to themselves. 
Before the council of Nice, as hath been observed by 
one k , who sometime was pope himself, little respect, to 
speak of, was had to the Church of Rome. If this may 
be thought to prejudice the dignity of that Church, which 
would be held to have sat as queen among the nations, 
from the very beginning of Christianity : you shall have 
a crafty merchant, Isidorus Mercator, I trow, they call him, 
that will help the matter, by counterfeiting decretal epistles 
in the name of the primitive bishops of Rome ; and bringing 
in thirty of them in a row, as so many knights of the post, to 
bear witness of that great authority, which the Church of 
Rome enjoyed before the Nicene fathers were assembled. 
If the Nicene fathers have not amplified the bounds of her 
jurisdiction, in so large a manner as she desired, she hath 
had her well-willers, that have supplied the council's negli- 
gence in that behalf, and made canons for the purpose in 
the name of the good fathers, that never dreamed of such a 
business. If the power of judging all others will not content 
the pope, unless he himself may be exempted from being 
judged by any other : another council 1 , as ancient at least 
as that of Nice, shall be suborned ; wherein it shall be 
concluded, by the consent of two hundred and eighty- 
four imaginary bishops, that no man may judge the first 
seat : and for failing, in an elder council'" than that, con- 
sisting of three hundred buckram bishops of the very self- 

k iEneas Sylvius, epist. 28S. 

1 Concil. Rom. sub Sylvest. cap. 20. Nemo enim judicabit primam sedem. 

"' Concil. Sinuessan. circa fin. 

C 2 


.same making, the like note shall be sung : " Quoniam prima 
sedes non judicabitur a quoquam ; the first seat must not 
be judged by any man." Lastly, if the pope does not think 
that the fulness of spiritual power is sufficient for his 
greatness, unless he may be also lord paramount in tem- 
poralibus ; he hath his followers ready at hand, to frame a 
fair donation, in the name of Constantine the emperor, 
whereby his holiness shall be estated, not only in the city 
of Rome, but also in the seigniory of the whole west. It 
would require a volume to rehearse the names of those 
several tractates, which have been basely bred in the 
former days of darkness, and fathered upon the ancient 
doctors of the church, who, if they were now alive, would 
be deposed that they were never privy to their begetting. 
Neither hath this corrupting humour stayed itself in 
forging of whole councils, and entire treatises of the an- 
cient writers; but hath, like a canker, fretted away divers 
of their sound parts, and so altered their complexions, 
that they appear not to be the same men they were. To 
instance, in the great question of Transubstantiation : we 
were wont to read in the books attributed unto S. Ambrose," 
" Si ergo tanta vis est in sermone Domini Jesu, ut inciperent 
esse quae non erant : quanto magis operatorius est, ut sirit 
quae erant, et in aliud commutentur ? if therefore there 
be so great force in the speech of our Lord Jesus, that the 
things which were not begun to be, (namely, at the first 
creation) : how much more is the same powerful to make, 
that things may still be that which they were, and yet be 
changed into another thing ?" It is not unknown how much 
those words, ut shit quae erant, have troubled their brains 
who maintain that, after the words of consecration, the ele- 
ments of bread and wine be not that thing which they 
were : and what devices they have found to make the 
bread and wine in the sacrament to be like unto the beast 
in the Revelation, " that was, and is not, and yet is." 
Rut that Gordian knot, which they with their skill could 
not so readily untie, their masters at Rome, Alexander- 

n De sacrameutN, II l> . 4. cap. 4. ° Apoc. chap. 17. ver. 8. 


like, have now cut asunder ; paring clean away in their 
Roman edition (which is also followed in that set out at 
Paris, anno 1G03) those words, that so much troubled 
them ; and letting the rest run smoothly after this manner : 
" Quanto magis operatorius est, ut quae erant, in aliud 
commutentur ? how much more is the speech of our Lord 
powerful to make, that those things which were should 
be changed into another thing ?" 

The author of the imperfect work upon Matthew, homily 
the eleventh, writeth thus : " Si ergo haec vasasanctificata ad 
privates usus transferre sic periculosum est, in quibus non 
est verum corpus Christi, sed mysterium corporis ejus 
continetur ; quanto magis vasa corporis nostri, quae sibi 
Deus ad habitaculum praeparavit, non debemus locum 
dare diabolo agendi in eis quod vult? if therefore it be so 
dangerous a matter to transfer unto private uses those 
holy vessels, in which the true body of Christ is not, but the 
mystery of his body is contained ; how much more for the 
vessels of our body, which God hath prepared for himself 
to dwell in, ought not we to give way unto the devil, to do 
in them what he pleaseth ?" Those words, " in quibus 
non est verum corpus Christi, sed mysterium corporis ejus 
continetur ; in which the true body of Christ is not, but 
the mystery of his body is contained ;" did threaten to cut 
the very throat of the papists' real presence ; and there- 
fore, in good policy, they thought it fit to cut their throat 
first, for doing any further hurt. Whereupon, in the 
editions of this work printed at Antwerp, apud Joannem 
Steelsium, anno 1537. at Paris, apud Joannem Roigny, 
anno 1543. and at Paris again, apud Audoenum Parvum, 
anno 1557. not one syllable of them is to be seen; though 
extant in the ancienter editions, one whereof is as old as 
the year 1487. And to the same purpose, in the nine- 
teenth homily, instead of " sacrificium panis et vini, the 
sacrifice of bread and wine," which we find in the old im- 
pressions, these latter editions have chopt in " sacrificium 
corporis et sanguinis Christi, the sacrifice of the body and 
blood of Christ." 

In the year 1608 there were published at Paris certain 


works of Fulbertus bishop of Chartres, " pertaining 1 ' as 
well to the refuting of the heresies of this time (for so 
saith the inscription), as to the clearing of the history of 
the French." Among those things that appertain to the 
confutation of the heresies of this time, there is one espe- 
cially, folio 168. laid down in these words : " Nisi man- 
ducaveritis, inquit, carnem filii hominis, et sanguinem bi- 
beritis, non habebitis vitam in vobis. Facinus vel fla- 
gitium videtur jubere. Figura ergo est, dicet haereticus, 
preecipiens passioni Domini esse communicandum tantum, 
et suaviter atque utiliter recondendum in memoria, quod 
pro nobis caro ejus crucifixa et vulnerata sit : unless (saith 
Christ) ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his 
blood, ye shall not have life in you. He seemeth to com- 
mand an outrage or wickedness. It is therefore a figure, 
will the heretic say, requiring us only to communicate 
with the Lord's passion, and sweetly and profitably to lay 
up in our memory that his flesh was crucified and wounded 
for us." He that put in those words " dicet haereticus" 
thought he had notably met with the heretics of this time : 
but was not aware, that thereby he made St. Augustine an 
heretic for company. For the heretic, that speaketh thus, 
is even St. Augustine himself: whose very words these 
are, in his third book de doctrina Christiana, the six- 
teenth chapter. Which some belike having put the pub- 
lisher in mind of, he was glad to put this among his errata, 
and to confess q that these two words were not to be found 
in the manuscript copy which he had from Petavius ; but 
telleth us not what we are to think of him, that, for the 
countenancing of the popish cause, ventured so shame- 
fully to abuse St. Augustine. 

In the year 1616. a tome of ancient writers, that never 
saw the light before, was set forth at Ingoldstad by Pe- 
trus Steuartius : where, among other tractates, a certain 
Penitential, written by Rabanus that famous archbishop 
of Mentz, is to be seen. In the thirty-third chapter of 

P Quae tani ad refutandas haereses hujus temporis, ijuam ad Gallorum hist 
'i Vide torn. 11. bibliotheca; patrum, edit. Col. pag. 44. b. 


that book, Rabanus, making answer unto an idle question 
moved by bishop Heribaldus concerning the eucharist, 
What should become of it after it was consumed, and sent 
into the draught, after the manner of other meats ? hath 
these words, " Nam r quidam nuper, de ipso sacramento cor- 
poris et sanguinis Domini non rite sentientes, dixerunt ; hoc 
ipsum corpus et sanguinem Domini, quod de Maria vir- 
gine natum est, et in quo ipse Dominus passus est in 

cruce, et resurrexit de sepulchro s cui errori quantum 

potuimus, ad Egilum abbatem scribentes, de corpore ipso 
quid vere credendum sit aperuimus : for some of late, not 
holding rightly of the sacrament of the body and blood of 
our Lord, have said ; that the very body and blood of our 
Lord, which was born of the virgin Mary, and in which 
our Lord himself suffered on the cross, and rose again 

from the grave against which error writing unto 

abbot Egilus, according to our ability, we have declared 
what is truly to be believed concerning Christ's body." 
You see Rabanus's tongue is dipt here for telling tales : but 
how this came to pass were worth the learning. Steuartius 
freeth himself from the fact, telling us in his margin, that' 
" here there was a blank in the manuscript copy ;" and 
we do easily believe him : for Possevine the Jesuit hath 
given us to understand, that manuscript" books also are to 
be purged, as well as printed. But whence was this ma- 
nuscript fetched, think you? out of the famous w monastery 
of Weingart ; saith Steuartius. The monks of Weingart 
then belike must answer the matter ; and they, I dare say, 
upon examination will take their oaths that it was no part 
of their intention to give any furtherance unto the cause 
of the protestants hereby. If hereunto we add, that He- 
ribaldus and Rabanus both are ranked x among heretics 
by Thomas Walden, for y holding the eucharist to be 

* initio pag. 669. s Vide Mabil. act. Bcned. sec. 4. par. 2. pag. 596. 
1 Lacuna hie est in MS. exemplari. 

" Adistosenim quoque purgatio pertinet. Possevin. lib. 1. biblioth. select. 
cap. 12. 

w Ex MS. cod. celeberrimi monasterii Weingartensis. 

* Wald. torn. 1. doctrinal, in prolog, ad Martinum V. 
' Id. torn. 2. cap. 19, et 61. 



subject to digestion and voidance, like other meats ; the 
suspicion will be more vehement : whereunto yet I will 
adjoin one evidence more, that shall leave the matter past 

In the libraries of my worthy friends, Sir Robert Cotton, 
that noble baronet, so renowned for his great care in col- 
lecting and preserving all antiquities, and Dr. Ward, the 
learned Master of Sidney College in Cambridge, I met 
with an ancient treatise of the sacrament, beginning thus : 
" Sicut ante nos quidam sapiens dixit, cujus sententiam 
probamus, licet nomen ignoremus ;" which is the same 
with that in the Jesuits' college at Louvain, blindly 
fathered 2 upon Berengarius. The author of this trea- 
tise, having first twitted Heribaldus for propounding, 
and Rabanus for resolving, this question of the void- 
ance of the eucharist, layeth down afterward the opi- 
nion of Paschasius Radbertus, whose writing is yet 
extant, " quod non alia plane sit caro, quae sumitur de 
altari, quam quag nata est de Maria virgine, et passa in 
cruce, et quae resurrexit de sepulchro, quaeque et pro 
mundi vita adhuc hodie offertur : that the flesh, which 
is received at the altar, is no other than that which was 
born of the virgin Mary, suffered on the cross, rose again 
from the grave, and as yet is daily offered for the life of the 
world. Contra quern, (saith he) satis argumentatur, et 
Rabanus in epistola ad Egilonem* abbatem, et Ratrannus 
quidam libro composito ad Carolum regem ; dicentes 
aliam esse : against whom both Rabanus in his epistle to 
abbot Egilo, and one Ratrannus in a book which he made 
to king Charles, argue largely ; saying that it is another 
kind of flesh." Whereby, what Rabanus his opinion was 
of this point in his epistle to abbot Egilo or Egilus, and 
consequently what that was which the monks of Weingart 
could not endure in his Penitential, I trust is plain 


1 Ant. Possevin. apparat. sacr. in Berengario Turon. 

a al. Elgionem, et, Helgimonem, male. Neque enini alius hie intelligendus, 
quam /Egil. illc, cui in Fuldensis abbatiae regimine proxime sueeessit ipse Ra- 


I omit other corruptions of antiquity in this same ques- 
tion, which I have touched elsewhere 6 : only that of Ber- 
tram I may not pass over ; wherein the dishonesty of these 
men, in handling the writings of the ancients, is laid open, 
even by the confession of their own mouths. Thus the 
case standeth. That Ratrannus, who joined with Raba- 
nus in refuting the error of the carnal presence, at the first 
bringing in thereof by Paschasius Radbertus, is he who 
commonly is known by the name of Bertramus. The 
book, which he wrote of this argument to Carolus Cal- 
vus the emperor, was forbidden to be read, by order from 
the Roman inquisition, confirmed afterwards by the council 
of Trent. The divines of Douay, perceiving that the 
forbidding of the book did not keep men from reading it, 
but gave them rather occasion to seek more earnestly after 
it, thought it better policy, that Bertram should be permit- 
ted to go abroad ; but handled in such sort as other ancient 
writers, that made against them, were wont to be. " See- 
ing therefore (say they ) we bear with very many errors 
in other of the old catholic writers, and extenuate them, 
excuse them, by inventing some device oftentimes deny 
them, and feign some commodious sense for them when 
they are objected in disputations or conflicts with our ad- 
versaries : we do not see, why Bertram may not deserve 
the same equity, and diligent revisal ; lest the heretics 
cry out, that we burn and forbid such antiquity as maketh 
for them." Mark this dealing well. The world must be 
borne in hand, that all the fathers make for the Church of 
Rome against us, in all our controversies. When we 
bring forth express testimonies of the fathers to the con- 
trary, what must then be done ? A good face must be put 
upon the matter ; one device or other must be invented to 

b De Christian. Eccl. success, et statu, vol. 2. pag. 58. et 217. 

c Quum igitur in catholicis_vcteribus aliis plurimos feramus errores, et extenu- 
enius, excusemus, excogitato commento persoepe negemus, et commodum iis sen- 
sum affingamus, dum opponunturin disputationibus,autin conflictionibus cum ad- 
versariis : non videmus, cur non eandeiu aquitatem et diligentem recognitionem 
tnereatur Bertramus ; ne li<eretici ogganniant, nos antiquitatem pro ipsis facientem 
exurere et prohiberc. Index expurg. Bclgic. pag. 5; edit. Antverp. aim. 1571. 


elude the testimonies objected ; and still it must be denied 
that the fathers make against the doctrine of the papists. 
Bertram for example writeth thus ; " The d things, which 
differ one from another, are not the same. The body of 
Christ, which was dead, and rose again, and being made 
immortal now dieth not, death no more having dominion 
over it, is everlasting ; and now not subject to suffering. 
But this, which is celebrated in the Church, is temporal, 
not everlasting ; it is corruptible, not free from corrup- 
tion." What device must they find out here ? They 
must say this is meant of the accidents or " forms e of the 
sacrament, which are corruptible ; or of the use of the sa- 
crament, which continueth only in this present world." 
But how will this shift serve the turn, when as the whole 
drift of the discourse tendeth to prove, that that, which is 
received by the mouth of the faithful in the sacrament, is 
not that very body of Christ, which died upon the cross, 
and rose again from death ? " Non male aut inconsulte 
omittantur igitur omnia haec : it were not amiss therefore 
(say our popish censurers) nor unadvisedly done, that all 
these things should be left out." 

If this be your manner of dealing with antiquity, let all 
men judge whether it be not high time for us to listen un- 
to the advice of Vincentius Lirinensis ; and not be so 
forward to commit the trial of our controversies to the wri- 
tings of the fathers, who have had the ill hap to fall into 
such huxters' handling. Yet, that you may see how con- 
fident we are in the goodness of our cause, we will not 
now stand upon our right, nor refuse to enter with you 
into this field ; but give you leave for this time both to be 
the challenger and the appointer of your own weapons. 
Let us then hear your challenge, wherein you would so 
fain be answered. " I would fain know (say you) how 

"' Quae a se differunt, idem non sunt. Corpus Christi, quod mortuum est, et 
resurrexitj et immortale factum jam non moritur, et mors illi ultra non domina- 
bitur, aternum est, nee jam passibile. Hoc autem, quod in Ecclesia celebratur, 
temporale est, non seternum ; corruptibile est, non incorruptum. Bertram, de 
corp. et sang. Dom. 

* Secundum species sacramenti corruptibiles : aut de re ipsa et usu sacra- 
menti| qui noncontingit, nisi preesenti in seculo. Index expurg. pag. 7. 



can your religion be true, which disalloweth of many chief 
articles, which the saints and fathers of that primitive 
Church of Rome did generally hold to be true? For they 
of your side, that have read the fathers of that unspotted 
Church, can well testify (and if any deny it, it shall be 
presently shewn) that the doctors, pastors, and fathers of 
that Church do allow of traditions, &c." And again: 
" Now would I fain know, whether of both have the true 
religion ; they that hold all these abovesaid points with 
the primitive Church, or they that do most vehemently 
contradict and gainsay them ? they that do not disagree 
with that holy Church in any point of religion ; or they 
that agree with it but in very few, and disagree in al- 
most all?" And the third time too, for failing : "Now 
would I willingly see what reasonable answer may be 
made to this. For the protestants grant that the Church 
of Rome, for four or five hundred years, held the true re- 
ligion of Christ : yet do they exclaim against the above- 
said articles, which the same Church did maintain and up- 
hold ; as may be shewn by the express testimonies of the 
fathers of the same Church, and shall be largely laid 
down, if any learned protestant will deny it." 

If Albertus Pighius had now been alive, as great a 
scholar as he was, he might have learned that he never 
knew before. " Who did ever yet (saith he') by the 
Church of Rome understand the universal Church ?" That 
doth this man, say I, who styleth all the ancient doctors 
and martyrs of the Church universal, with the name of 
the saints and fathers of the primitive Church of Rome. 
But it seemeth a small matter unto him, for the magnifying 
of that Church, to confound urbem and orbem : unless he 
mingle also heaven and earth together, by giving the title 
of that unspotted Church, which is the special privilege of 
the Church triumphant in heaven, unto the Church of 
Rome here militant upon earth. St. Augustine surely 
would not have himself otherwise understood, whensoever 
he speaketh of the unspotted Church : and therefore, to 

1 Quis per Romanam Ecclesiam unquam intellexit aut universalcm Ecclc- 
siam, aut generale concilium? Pigh. eccles. hierar. lib. 6, cap. 3. 


prevent all mistaking, he thus expoundeth himself in his 
retractations. " Wheresoever 5 in these books I have made 
mention of the Church not having spot or wrinkle, it is 
not so to be taken, as if she were so now, but that she is 
prepared to be so, when she shall appear glorious. For 
now, by reason of certain ignorances and infirmities of her 
members, the whole Church hath cause to say every day, 
Forgive us our trespasses." Now as long as the Church 
is subject to these ignorances and infirmities, it cannot be 
otherwise, but there must be differences betwixt the mem- 
bers thereof; one part may understand that whereof ano- 
ther is ignorant: and, ignorance being the mother of error, 
one particular Church may wrongly conceive of some 
points, wherein others may be rightly informed. Neither 
will it follow thereupon, that these Churches must be of 
different religions, because they fully agree not in all 
things : or that therefore the reformed Churches in our 
days must disclaim all kindred with those in ancient times, 
because they have washed away some spots from them- 
selves, which they discerned to have been in them. 

It is not every spot that taketh away the beauty of a 
Church, nor every sickness that taketh away the life there- 
of: and therefore, though we should admit that the an- 
cient Church of Rome was somewhat impaired both in 
beauty and in health too (wherein we have no reason to 
be sorry, that we are unlike unto her), there is no neces- 
sity, that hereupon presently she must cease to be our sister. 
St. Cyprian, and the rest of the African bishops that joined 
with him, held that such as were baptized by heretics 
should be rebaptized : the African bishops in the time of 
Aurelius were of another mind. Doth the diversity of their 
judgments in this point make them to have been of a di- 
verse religion ? Itwas the use of the ancient Church to mi- 
nister the communion unto infants : which is yet also prac- 

f Ubicunque in his libris cotrmiemoravi Ecclesiam non habentem maculam ant 
rugam, non sic accipiendum est quasi jam sit, sed quae prseparatur ut sit, quan- 
do apparehit etiam gloriosa. Nunc enim, propter quasdarn ignorantias et infir- 
mitates membrorum suorum, habet unde quotidie tota dicat : Dimittc nobis de- 
bita nostra. August, retract, lib. 2. cap. 18. op. torn. 1. pag. 48. 


tised by the Christians in Egypt and Ethiopia. The 
Church of Rome, upon better consideration, hath thought 
fit to do otherwise ; and yet for all that will not yield, that 
either she herself hath forsaken the religion of her ances- 
tors, because she followeth them not in this ; or that they 
were of the same religion with the Cophites and Habas- 
sines, because they agree together in this particular. So 
put case the Church of Rome now did use prayer for 
the dead in the same manner that the ancient Church did 
(which we will shew to be otherwise) ; the reformed 
Churches, that upon better advice have altered that usage, 
need not therefore grant, that either themselves hold a dif- 
ferent religion from that of the fathers, because they do 
not precisely follow them in this ; nor yet that the fathers 
were therefore papists, because in this point they thus 
concurred. For, as two may be discerned to be sisters 
by the likeness of their faces, although the one have some 
spots or blemishes which the other hath not : so a third 
may be brought in, which may shew like spots and ble- 
mishes, and yet have no such likeness of visage as may be- 
wray her to be the other's sister. 

But our challenger having first conceited in his mind 
an idea of an unspotted Church upon earth ; then being 
far in love with the painted face of the present Church of 
Rome, and out of love with us, because we like not as he 
liketh ; taketh a view of both our faces in the false glass 
of affection, and findeth her on whom he doteth, to answer 
his unspotted Church in all points, but us to agree with it 
in almost nothing. And thereupon " he would fain 
know, whether of both have the true religion ? they that 
do not disagree with that holy Church in any point of re- 
ligion ; or they that agree with it but in very few, and dis- 
agree in almost all?" Indeed if that, which he assumeth 
for granted, could as easily be proved as it is boldly 
avouched ; the question would quickly be resolved, whe- 
ther of vis both have the true religion ? But he is to un- 
derstand, that strong conceits are but weak proofs : and 
that the Jesuits have not been the first, from whom such 
brags as these have been heard. Dioscorus the heretic 


was as pert, when he uttered these speeches in the coun- 
cil of Chalcedon : "P am cast out with the fathers. I 
defend the doctrines of the fathers. I transgress them 
not in any point : and I have their testimonies, not barely, 
but in their very books." Neither need we wonder, that 
he should bear us down, that the Church of Rome at this 
day doth not disagree from the primitive Church in any 
point of religion ; who sticketh not so confidently to affirm, 
that we agree with it but in very few, and disagree in al- 
most all. For those few points, wherein he confesseth we 
do agree with the ancient Church, must either be meant 
of such articles only, wherein we disagree from the now 
Church of Rome ; or else of the whole body of that re- 
ligion which we profess. If in the former he yield that we 
do agree with the primitive Church ; what credit doth he 
leave unto himself, who with the same breath hath given 
out, that the present Church of Rome doth not disagree 
with that holy Church in any point ? If he mean the lat- 
ter ; with what face can he say, that we agree with that 
holy Church but in very few points of religion, and disa- 
gree in almost all ? Irenaeus, who was the disciple of 
those which heard St. John the apostle, layeth' clown the 
articles of that faith, in the unity whereof the churches 
that were founded in Germany, Spain, France, the East, 
Egypt, Libya, and all the world, did sweetly accord ; as if 
they had all dwelt in one house, all had but one soul, and 
one heart, and one mouth. Is he able to shew one point, 
wherein we have broken that harmony, which Irenaeus 
commendeth in the catholic Church of his time ? But 
that rule of faith, so much commended by him and Ter- 
tullian and the rest of the fathers, and all the articles of 
the several creeds, that were ever received in the ancient 
Church as badges of the catholic profession (to which we 
willingly subscribe), is with this man almost nothing : none 
must now be counted a catholic, but he that can conform 

h Eyw \itTo. twv TtaTtpwv iKJiaWonai. iyw avi'i<TTaf.iai roTg tuiv wclte- 
puv Boy/iaaiv. ov TTapafiaivw iv run. Kai tcivtwv rag xf>>l ffei G> 0V X 
cnr\X>g, dXX' iv fii($\ioig txw. Condi. Chalced. act. 1. pag. 97. edit. Rom. 

' Irenae. lib. 1. cap. 2, 3. Epiph. haeres. 31. 


his belief unto the creed k of the new fashion, compiled by 
pope Pius the fourth, some four and fifty years ago. 

As for the particular differences, wherein he thinketh 
he hath the advantage of us, when we come unto the 
sifting of them, it shall appear how far he was deceived in 
his imagination. In the mean time, having as yet not 
strucken one stroke, but threatened only to do wonders, if 
any would be so hardy to accept his challenge, he might 
have done very well, to have deferred his triumph, until 
such time as he had obtained the victory, For, as if he 
had borne us down with the weight of the authority of the 
fathers, and so astonished us therewith that we could 
not tell what to say for ourselves, he thus bestirreth him- 
self, in a most ridiculous manner, fighting with his own 
shadow. " Will you say that these fathers," saith he, 
who hath not hitherto laid down so much as the name of 
any one father, "maintained these opinions contrary to the 
word of God ? Why, you know that they were the pillars of 
Christianity, the champions of Christ his Church, and of 
the true catholic religion, which they most learnedly de- 
fended against divers heresies ; and therefore spent all 
their time in a most serious study of the holy Scripture. 
Or will you say, that, although they knew the Scriptures to 
repugn, yet they brought in the aforesaid opinions by 
malice and corrupt intentions ? Why, yourselves cannot 
deny, but that they lived most holy and virtuous lives, free 
from all malicious corrupting or perverting of God's holy 
word ; and by their holy lives are now made worthy to 
reign with God in his glory. Insomuch as their admi- 
rable learning may sufficiently cross out all suspicion of 
ignorant error ; and their innocent sanctity freeth us from 
all mistrust of malicious corruption." 

But by his leave, he is a little too hasty. He were best 
to bethink himself more advisedly of that which he hath 
undertaken to perform ; and to remember the saying of 
the king of Israel unto Benhadad, " Let 1 not him that 

k Forma professionis fidei, in bulla Pii iv. edit. ann. 15C4. 
1 1 Kings, clmp. 20. ver. 11. 


girdeth on his harness, boast himself, as he that putteth 
it off." He hath taken upon him to prove, that our reli- 
gion cannot be true, because it " disalloweth of many 
chief articles, which the saints and fathers of that primi- 
tive Church of Rome did generally hold to be true." For 
performance hereof, it will not be sufficient for him to 
shew, that some of these fathers maintained some of these 
opinions : he must prove, if he will be as good as his 
word and deal any thing to the purpose, that they held 
them generally ; and held them too, not as opinions, but 
tanquam de fide, as appertaining to the substance of faith 
and religion. For, as Vincentius Lirinensis well ob- 
serveth, " the 1 " ancient consent of the holy fathers is with 
great care to be sought and followed by us, not in every 
petty question belonging to the law of God, but only, or 
at least principally, in the rule of faith." But all the points, 
propounded by our challenger, be not chief articles : and 
therefore if in some of them the fathers have held some 
opinions that will not bear weight in the balance of the 
sanctuary (as some conceits they had herein, which the 
papists themselves must confess to be erroneous), their 
defects in that kind do abate nothing of that reverend 
estimation which we have them in, for their great pains 
taken in the defence of the true catholic religion, and the 
serious study of the holy Scripture. Neither do I think 
that he, who thus commendeth them for the pillars of 
Christianity and the champions of Christ's Church, will 
therefore hold himself tied to stand unto every thing that 
they have said: sure he will not ; if he follow the steps of 
the great ones of his own society. 

For what doth he think of Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and 
Epiphanius? Doth he not account them among those 
pillars and champions he speaketh of? Yet, saith cardinal 
Bellarmine, " P do not see how we may defend their 

m Antiqua sanctorum patrum consensio non in omnibus divinae legis quaestiun- 
culis, sed solum, certe praecipue, in fidei regula magno nobis studio et investi- 
ganda est et sequenda. Vincent, contra literes. cap. 39. 

" Justini, Irenaei, Epiphanii, atque Oecumenii sententiam non video quo pacto 
ab errore possimus del'endere. Bellarmin. lib. 1. de sanctor. beatit. cap. C. 

made by a jesuit in Ireland. 33 

Opinion from error." When others object that they have 
two or three hundred testimonies of the doctors, to prove 
that the virgin Mary was conceived in sin, Salmeron" the 
Jesuit steps forth, and answereth them: first, out of 
i( the doctrine of Austin and Thomas, that the argument 
drawn from authority is weak ; then, out of the word 
of God", In judicio, plurimorum non acquiesces sententia?, 
ut a vero devies : in judgment, thou shalt not be led witli 
the sentence of the most, to decline from the truth." And 
lastly telleth them, " thatf 1 , when the Donatists gloried in 
the multitude of authors, St. Augustine did answer them ; 
that it was a sign their cause was destitute of the 
strength of truth, which was only supported by the au- 
thority of many, who were subject to error." And when 
his adversaries press him, not only with the multitude 
but also with the antiquity of the doctors alleged ; " unto q 
which more honour always hath been given, than unto 
novelties :" he answereth, that indeed " every age hath 
always attributed much unto antiquity ; and every old 
man, as the poet saith, is a commender of the time past: 
but this (saith he) we aver, that, the younger the doctors 
are, the more sharp-sighted they be." And therefore for 
his part he yieldeth rather to the judgment of the younger 
doctors of Paris: among whom " none r is held worthy of 
the title of a master in divinity, who hath not first bound 
himself with a religious oath to defend and maintain the 

n Primo quidem agunt multitiidine doctorum, quos errare in re tanti momenti 
non est facile admittendum. Respondemus tamen ex Augustini libro 1. de 
morib. eccles. cap. 2. turn ex B. Thomse doctrina, locum ab authoritate esse in- 
firmum. Salmer. in epist. ad Rom. lib. 2. disput. 51. 

° Exod. chap. 23. 

P Cum Donatistae in autorum multitudine gloriarentur, respondit Augustinus ; 
signum esse causae a veritatis nervo destitute, quae soli multorum autoritati, qui 
errare possunt, innititur. Ibid. 

1 Tertio, argumenta petunt a doctorum antiquitate ; cui semper major honor 
est habitus, quam novitatibus. Respondetur, quamlibet setatem antiquitati 
semper detulissc: et quilibet senex, ut quidam poeta dixit, laudator teniporis 
acti. Sed illud asserimus ; quo juniores, eo perspicaciores esse doctores. Ibid. 

r Nam in celeberrima Parisiorum academia, nullus magistri in theologia titulo 
dignus habetur, qui priu3 etiam jurisjurandi religionc non se adstrinxerit ad 
hoc Virginis privilegium tuendum et propugnaudum. Ibid. Vid. et Laur. Sur. 
commentar. rer. in orbe gestar. ann. 1501. 

VOL. III. n 


privilege of the blessed virgin." Only he forgot to tell 
how they, which take that oath, might dispense with ano- 
ther oath, which the pope requireth them to take, that 
they " will 5 never understand and interpret the holy 
Scripture, but according to the uniform consent of the 

Pererius, in his disputations upon the epistle to the Ro- 
mans, confesseth, that " the 1 Greek fathers, and not a 
few of the Latin doctors too, have thought, and delivered 
also in their writings, that the cause of the predestination 
of men unto everlasting life is the foreknowledge which 
God had from eternity, either of the good works which 
they were to do by cooperating with his grace ; or of the 
faith whereby they were to believe the word of God, and 
to obey his calling." And yet he for his part notwith- 
standing thinketh that "this" is contrary to the holy Scrip- 
ture, but especially to the doctrine of St. Paul." If our 
questionist had been by him, he would have plucked his 
fellow by the sleeve, and taken him up in this manner : 
Will you say that these fathers maintained this opinion 
contrary to the word of God ? Why, you know that they 
were the pillars of Christianity, the champions of Christ his 
Church, and of the true catholic religion, which they most 
learnedly defended against divers heresies, and therefore 
spent all their time in a most serious study of the holy Scrip- 
ture. He would also perhaps further challenge him, as he 
doth us : Will you say that, although they knew the Scrip- 
tures to repugn, yet they brought in the aforesaid opinion 

s Nee earn unquam, nisi juxta unanimem consensum patrum, accipiam et in- 
terpvetabor. Bulla Pii IV. pag. 478. Bullarii a Petro Matthaeo edit. Lugdun. 
aim. 1588. 

1 Grseci patres, nee pauci etiam Latino-rum doctorum, arbitrati sunt, idque in 
scriptis suis prodiderunt ; causam praedestinationis hominum ad vitam aeternam 
esse praescientiam, quam Deus ab seterno habuit, vel bonorum operuvn quae fac- 
turi erant cooperando ipsius gratiae ; vel fidei, qua credituri erant verbo Dei, et 
obedituri vocationi ejus. Perer. in Rom. 8. sec. 100. 

u Sed hoc videtur contrarium divinae scriptuvae, praecipue autem doctrinac B. 
Pauli. Id. ibid. sec. 111. At enimvero proescientiam fidei non esse rationem 
praedestinationis hominum, nullius est negotii multis et apertis Scripturae testi- 
moniis ostendere. Ibid. sec. 109. 


by malice and corrupt intentions. For sure he might have 
asked this wise question of any of his own fellows, as well 
as of us, who do allow and esteem so much of these 
blessed doctors and martyrs of the ancient Church (as he 
himself in the end of his challenge doth acknowledge) : 
which verily we should have little reason to do, if we did 
imagine that they brought in opinions, which they knew 
to be repugnant to the Scriptures, for any malice or cor- 
rupt intentions. Indeed men they were, compassed with 
the common infirmities of our nature, and therefore sub- 
ject unto error ; but godly men, and therefore free from 
all malicious error. 

Howsoever then we yield unto you, that their innocent 
sanctity freeth us from all mistrust of malicious corruption ; 
yet you must pardon us if we make question, whether 
their admirable learning may sufficiently cross out all 
suspicion of error : which may arise either of affection, or 
want of due consideration, or such ignorance as the very 
best are subject unto in this life. For it is not admirable 
learning that is sufficient to cross out that suspicion: but 
such an immediate guidance of the Holy Ghost, as the 
prophets and apostles were led by, who were the penners 
of the canonical Scripture. But this is your old wont, 
to blind the eyes of the simple with setting forth the 
sanctity and the learning of the fathers : much after the 
manner of your grandfather Pelagius ; who, in the third of 
his books which he writ in defence of free will, thought 
he had struck all dead by his commending of St. Am- 
brose. " Blessed w Ambrose the bishop," saith he " in 
whose books the Roman faith doth especially appear; 
who like a beautiful flower shined among the Latin 
writers, whose faith and most pure understanding in 
the Scriptures the enemy himself durst not repre- 
hend." Unto whom St. Augustine : " Behold* with what 

w Beatus Ambrosius episcopus, in cujus proecipue libris Romana elucct fides; 
qui scriptorum inter Latinos flos quidam speciusus enituit, cujus fid cm et purissi- 
mum in Scripturis sensum ne inimicus quidem ausus est reprehendere. 

x Ecce qualibus et quantis prsedicat laudibus, quemlibet sanctum et doetuin 
virum, nequaquam tamen autboritati scripturse canonicac comparandum. Au- 
gustin. dc gratia Christi, contr. Felag. lib. 1. cap. 43. <>p. torn. 10. pag. 2 V.K 

D 2 


and how great praises he extolleth a man, though holy 
and learned, yet not to be compared unto the authority of 
the canonical Scripture," And therefore, advance the 
learning and holiness of these worthy men as much as you 
list, other answer you are not like to have from us, than 
that which the same St. Augustine maketh unto St, Hie- 
rome. " This y reverence and honour have I learned to 
give to those books of Scripture only, which now are 
called canonical, that I most firmly believe none of their 
authors could any whit err in writing. But others I so 
read that, with how great sanctity and learning soever 
they do excel, I therefore think not any thing to be true, 
because they so thought it : but because they were able 
to persuade me, either by those canonical authors, or by 
some probable reason, that it did not swerve from truth." 
Yet even to this field also do our challengers provoke 
us ; and if the fathers' authority will not suffice, they offer 
to produce good and certain grounds out of the sacred 
Scriptures, for confirmation of all the points of their reli- 
gion which they have mentioned : yea, further, they 
challenge any protestant to allege any one text out of 
the said Scripture, which condemneth any of the above 
written points. At which boldness of theirs we should 
much wonder, but that we consider that bankrupts com- 
monly do then most brag of their ability, when their estate 
is at the lowest : perhaps also, that ignorance might be it, 
that did beget in them this boldness. For if they had 
been pleased to take the advice of their learned council, 
their canonists would have told them touching confession, 
which is one of their points, that " it z were better to hold 
that it was ordained by a certain tradition of the universal 
church, than by the authority of the ]Sew or Old Testa- 

y Soliseis Scripturarum Iibris, qui jam canonici appellantur, didici hunc timo- 
rem honoremque deferre, ut nullum eorum authorem scribendo aliquid enasse fir- 
missime credam, &c. Alios autem ita lego ut, quantalibet sanctitate doctrina- 
que praepolleant, non ideo verum putem, quia ipsi ita senserunt : sed quia ntibi 
vel per illos authores canonicos, vel probabili ratione, quod a vero non abhorreat, 
persuadere potuerunt. Augustin. ep. 82. op. torn. 2. pag. 190. 

2 Gloss, in Gratian. de poenit. dist. .5. cap. 1. In pcenitentia. 


nient," Melchior Canus a could have put them in mind, 
that it is no where expressed in Scripture, that " Christ 
descended into hell, to deliver the souls of Adam, and the 
rest of the fathers which were detained there." And 
Dominicus Bannes, " that b the holy Scriptures teach, nei- 
ther expresse, nor yet impresse et involute, that prayers are 
to be made unto saints, or that their images are to be wor- 
shipped." Or, if the testimony of a Jesuit will more pre- 
vail with them, " That images should be worshipped, 
saints prayed unto, auricular confession frequented, sacri- 
fices celebrated both for the quick and the dead, and 
other things of this kind," Fr. Coster would have to 
be reckoned among divine traditions, which be not laid 
down in the Scriptures. 

Howsoever yet the matter standeth, we have no reason 
but willingly to accept of their challenge ; and to require 
them to bring forth those good and certain grounds out 
of the sacred Scriptures, for confirmation of all the arti- 
cles by them propounded ; as also to let them see, whether 
we be able to allege any text of Scripture, which con- 
demneth any of those points : although I must confess it 
will be a hard matter to make them see any thing, which 
beforehand have resolved to close their eyes ; having 
their minds so preoccupied with prejudice, that they pro- 
fess before ever we begin, they hold for certain, that we shall 
never be able to produce any such text. And why, think 
you? because, forsooth, we are neither more learned, 
more pious nor more holy, than the blessed doctors and 
martyrs of that first Church of Rome : as who should say, 
we yielded at the first word, that all those blessed doctors 
and martyrs expounded the Scriptures every where to our 
disadvantage ; or were so well persuaded of the tender- 
ness of a Jesuit's conscience, that, because he hath taken 
an oath never to interpret the Scripture, but according to 

a Can. lib. 3. loc. theolog. cap. 4. 
b Bann. in. 22. qu. 1. artic. 10. col. 302. 

c Coster, in compendiosa orthodoxy fklei demohst. propos. 5. cap. 2. pag. 1G2. 
edit. Colon, ann. 1607. 


the uniform consent of the fathers, he could not therefore 
have the forehead to say, " I d do not deny, that I have no 
author of this interpretation : yet do I so much the ra- 
ther approve it, than that other of Augustine's, though the 
most probable of all the rest, because it is more contrary 
to the sense of the Calvinists ; which to me is a great argu- 
ment of probability :" or as if lastly a man might not dis- 
sent from the ancient doctors, so much as in an exposition 
of a text of Scripture, but he must presently make him- 
self more learned, more pious and more holy, than they 

Yet their great Tostatus might have taught them, that 
this 6 argument holdeth not : " Such a one knoweth some 
conclusion, that Augustine did not know ; therefore he is 
wiser than Augustine, because, as a certain skilful physi- 
cian said, the men of our time, being compared with the 
ancient, are like unto a little man set upon a giant's neck, 
compared with the giant himself. For as that little man 
placed there seeth whatsoever the giant seeth, and some- 
what more ; and yet, if he be taken down from the giant's 
neck, would see little or nothing in comparison of the 
giant : even so we being settled upon the wits and works 
of the ancient, it were not to be wondered, nay it should 
be very agreeable unto reason, that we should see what- 
soever they saw, and somewhat more. Though yet (saith 
he) we do not profess so much." And even to the same 
effect speaketh friar Stella : that, though it be far from 
him to condemn the common exposition given by the an- 

ll Non nego me hujus interpretationis authorem neminem habere : sed hanc 
co magis probo quam illam alteram Augustini, caeterarum alioqui probabilissi- 
mam ; quod hoec cum Calvinistarum sensu magis pugnet : quod mihi magnum 
est probabilitatis argumentum. Maldonat. in Johan. cap. 6. ver. 03. 

e Sed nee ista argumentatio valet, sc. Iste homo scit aliquam conclusionem, 
quam nescivit Augustinus ; ergo est sapientior Augustine — Et, sicutquidamperitus 
medicus dixit, homines nostri temporis ad antiquoscomparantur, sicut pusillus ho- 
mo positus collo gigantis ad ipsum gigantem. Nam pusillus ibi positus videt quic- 
quid videt gigas, et insuper plus; et tamen, si deponatur de collo gigantis, pa- 
rum aut nihil videbit ad gigantem collatus. Ita et nos firmati super ingenia 
antiquorum et opera eorum, non esset admiranduni, immo foret valde rationabile 
si videremus quidquid ill i viderunt, et insuper plus : licet hoc adhuc non profi- 
lemur, Abulens. 2. part, defensor, cap. 18. 


cient holy doctors, " yet' "he knoweth full well, that pyg- 
mies, being put upon giants' shoulders, do see further than 
the giants themselves." Salmeron addeth, that " by s the 
increase of time divine mysteries have been made known, 
which before were hid from many : so that to know them 
now is to be attributed unto the benefit of the time ; not 
that we are better than our fathers were." Bishop Fisher : 
that " it 1 ' cannot be obscure unto any, that many things, as 
well in the Gospels as in the rest of the Scriptures, are now 
more exquisitely discussed by latter wits, and more clearly 
understood, than they have been heretofore, either by 
reason that the ice was not as yet broken unto the ancient, 
neither did their age suffice to weigh exactly that whole 
sea of the Scriptures ; or because in this most large field 
of the Scriptures, even after the most diligent reapers, 
some ears will remain to be gathered, as yet untouched." 
Hereupon cardinal Cajetan, in the beginning of his com- 
mentaries upon Moses, adviseth his reader, " not' to 
loath the new sense of the holy Scripture for this, that 
it dissenteth from the ancient doctors : but to search more 
exactly the text and context of the Scripture ; and, if he 
find it agree, to praise God, that hath not tied the ex- 
position of the Scriptures to the senses of the ancient 

But, leaving comparisons, which you know are odious, 

f Bene tamen scimus, pygmseos, gigantum humeris impositos, plusquam ipsos 
gigantes videre. Stella, enarrat. in Luc. cap. 10. 

s Per incrementa tempomm nota facta sunt divina mysteria, quae tamen antea 
multos latuerunt : ita ut hoc loco nosse beneficium sit temporis, non quod nos 
mcliores simus quam patres nostri. Salmeron, in epist. ad Rom. lib. 2. 

disput. 51. 

h Neque cuiquam obscurum est, quin posterioribus ingeniis multa sint, tarn ex 
evangeliis quam ex Scripturis cseteris, nunc excussa luculentius, etintellecta per- 
spicaciiis, quam fuerant olini. Nimirum, aut quia veteribus adhuc non erat 
perfracta glacies, neque sufficiebat illorum aetas totum illud Scripturarum pelagus 
ad amussim expenderc : aut quia semper in amplissimo Scripturarum campo, 
post messores quantumvis exquisitissimos, spicas adhuc intactas licebit colligere. 
RofFens. confut. assert. Luther, artic. 18. 

' Nullus itaque detestetur novum sacra; scripture sensum, ex hoc quod dis- 
sonat a priscis doctoribus ; scd scrutetur perspicacius textum ac contextum Scrip- 
ture : et, si quadrare invenerit, laudet Deuni, qui non alligavit expositionem 
stripturarum sacrarum priscorum doctorum sensibus. Cajet. in Genes, cap. 1, 


the envy whereof notwithstanding your own doctors and 
masters, you see, help us to bear off, and teach us how to 
decline ; I now come to the examination of the particular 
points by you propounded. It should indeed be your 
part by right to be the assailant, who first did make the 
challenge : and I, who sustain the person of the defen- 
dant, might here well stay, accepting only your challenge, 
and expecting your encounter. Yet do not I mean at this 
time to answer your bill of challenge, as bills are usually 
answered in the chancery, with saving all advantages to 
the defendant : I am content in this also to abridge my- 
self of the liberty which I might lawfully take, and make a 
further demonstration of my forwardness in undertaking 
the maintenance of so good a cause, by giving the first 
onset myself. 



To begin therefore with Traditions, which is your for- 
lorn hope that in the first place we are to set upon : this 
must I needs tell you before we begin, that you much mis- 
take the matter, if you think that traditions of all sorts 
promiscuously are struck at by our religion. We wil- 
lingly acknowledge that the word of God, which by some 
of the apostles was set down in writing, was both by them- 
selves and others of their fellow-labourers delivered by 
word of mouth : and that the Church in succeeding ages 
was bound, not only to preserve those sacred writings 
committed to her trust, but also to deliver unto her chil- 
dren, viva voce, the form of wholesome words contained 
therein. Traditions therefore, of this nature, come not 
within the compass of our controversy : the question being 
betwixt us de ipsa doctrina tradita, not de tradendi modo ; 
touching the substance of the doctrine delivered, not 
of the manner of delivering it. Again, it must be re- 
membered, that here we speak of the doctrine delivered as 
the word of God, that is, of points of religion revealed 
unto the prophets and apostles, for the perpetual infor- 
mation of God's people : not of rites and ceremonies, and 
other ordinances which are left to the disposition of the 
Church, and consequently be not of divine but of positive 
and human right. Traditions therefore, of this kind like- 
wise, are not properly brought within the circuit of this 

But that traditions of men should be obtruded unto us 
for articles of religion, and admitted for parts of God's 
worship ; or that any traditions should be accepted for 
parcels of God's word, beside the holy Scriptures, and 
such doctrines as are either expressly therein contained, 



or by sound inference may be deduced from thence, I 
think we have reason to gainsay : as long as for the first 
we have this direct sentence from God himself 1 , " In vain 
do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the command- 
ments of men ;" and for the second, the express warrant 
of the apostle, in the third chapter of the second to 
Timothy, testifying of the holy Scriptures, not only 
that they " are able to make us wise unto salvation" (which 
they should not be able to do, if they did not contain all 
things necessary to salvation) ; but also that by them " the 
man 1 ' of God," that is, the minister of God's word, unto 
whom it appertaineth " to c declare all the counsel of 
God," may be " perfectly instructed to every good work:" 
which could not be, if the Scriptures did not contain all 
the counsel of God which was fit for him to learn, or if 
there were any other word of God which he were bound 
to teach, that should not be contained within the limits of 
the book of God. 

Now whether herein we disagree from the doctrine ge- 
nerally received by the fathers, we refer ourselves to their 
own sayings. For ritual traditions unwritten, and for 
doctrinal traditions, written indeed, but preserved also by 
the continual preaching of the pastors of the Church suc- 
cessively, we find no man a more earnest advocate than 
Tertullian. Yet he having to deal with Hermogenes the 
heretic in a question concerning the faith, Whether all 
things at the beginning were made of nothing, presseth 
him in this manner with the argument nb authoritate ne- 
gative; for avoiding whereof, the papists are driven to fly 
for succour to their unwritten verities, " whether 1 * all 
things were made of any subject matter, I have as yet read 
no where. Let those of Hermogenes his shop shew that it 
is written. If it be not written, let them fear that Wo, which 
is allotted to such as add or take away," 

a Matt. chap. 15. ver. 9. b 1 Tim. chap. 6. ver. 11. 

c Acts, chap. 20. ver. 27. 

d An autem de aliqua subjacenti materia facta sint omnia, nusquam adhuc 
legi. Scriptum esse doceat Hermogenis officina. Si non est scriptum, timeat 
Vse illud adjicientibus aut detrahentibus destinatum. Tcrtul. advers. Hermog. 
cap. 22. 


In the two Testaments, saith Origen, " every 8 word 
that appertaineth to God may be required and discussed, 
and all knowledge of things out of them may be under- 
stood. But if any thing do remain, which the holy Scrip- 
ture doth not determine ; no other third Scripture ought 
to be received for to authorize any knowledge : but that 
which remaineth we must commit to the fire; that is, we 
must reserve it to God. For in this present world, God 
would not have us to know all things." 

Hippolytus the martyr, in his homily against the heresy 
of Noetus: " There f is one God; whom we do not other- 
wise acknowledge, brethren, but out of the holy Scrip- 
tures. For as he, that would profess the wisdom of this 
world, cannot otherwise attain hereunto, unless he read 
the doctrine of the philosophers : so whosoever of us will 
exercise piety toward God, cannot learn this elsewhere, 
but out of the holy Scriptures. Whatsoever therefore the 
holy Scriptures do preach, that let us know ; and whatso- 
ever they teach, that let us understand." 

Athanasius, in his oration against the gentiles, toward 
the beginning : " the g holy Scriptures, given by inspiration 
of God, are of themselves sufficient to the discovery of 

St. Ambrose, " The h things which we find not in the 

e In quibus liceat omne verbuin, quod ad Deum pertinet, requiri etdiscuti ; at- 
que ex ipsis omnem rerum scientiam capi. Si quid autem superfuerit, quod non 
divina scriptura decernat, nullam aliam debere tertiam scripturam ad authorita- 
tem scientiae suscipi : sed igni tradamus quod superest ; id est, Deo reservemus. 
Neque enim in praesenti vita Deus scire nos omnia voluit. Orig. in Levit. 
horn. 5. op. torn. 2. pag. 212. 

{ Unus Deus est, quem non aliunde, fratres, agnoscimus, quam ex Sanctis 
scripturis. Quemadmodum enim si quis vellet sapientiam hujus sosculi exev- 
cere, non aliter hoc consequi poterit, nisi dogmata philosophorum legat : sic qui- 
cunque volumus pietatem in Deum exercere, non aliunde discemus, quam ex 
scripturis divinis. Qusecunque ergo sanctae scripturae praedicant, sciamus ; et 
quaecunque docent, cognoscamus. Hippol. torn. 3. biblioth. patr. pag. 20, 21. 
edit. Colon. 

e AvrdpKtiQ fi'tv yap tiaiv at ayiai icai OtvTrvtvaroi ypatyai, 7rpl>g ri)v 
rijg a\i]0tiag cnrayyikiav. Athanas. 

h Quae in scripturis Sanctis non reperimus, ea quemadmodum usurparc possu- 
mus ? Ainbros. offic. lib. 1. cap. 23. 


Scriptures, how can we use them ?" And again : " I 1 read 
that he is the first, I read that he is not the second ; 
they who say he is the second, let them shew it by 

" It k is well," saith St. Hilary, " that thou art content 
with those things which be written." And in another 
place, he commendeth 1 Constantius the emperor, for " de- 
siring the faith to be ordered only according to those things 
that be written." 

St. Basil: " Believe" 1 those things which are written ; the 
things which are not written, seek not." " It" is a mani- 
fest falling from the faith, and an argument of arrogancy, 
either to reject any point of those things that are written, 
or to bring in any of those things that are not written." 
He teacheth further " that every word and action ought 
to be confirmed by the testimony of the holy Scripture, 
for confirmation of the faith of the good, and the confu- 
sion of the evil ;" and " that it is the property of a faithful 
man, to be fully persuaded of the truth of those things 
that are delivered in the holy Scripture, and p not to dare 
either to reject, or to add any thing thereunto. For if 
whatsoever is not of faith be sin, as the apostle saith, and 
faith is by hearing, and hearing by the word of God ; then 

1 Lego quia primus est, lego quia non est secundus : illi qui secundum aiunt, 
doceant lectione. Id. in virginis instit. cap. 11. 

k Bene habet ut iis quae sunt scripta contentus sis. Hil. lib. 3. de Tririit. 
op. pag. 822. 

1 In quantum ego nunc beats religiosseque voluntatis vere te, Domine Con- 
stant imperator, admiror, fidem tantum secundum ea quae scripta sunt deside- 
rantem. Id. lib. 2. ad Constantium Aug. op. pag. 122!). 

m ToTc. ytypapp:kvoig Tri(JTive, ra /.it) ytypapfiiva fit) <Z>)rtr Basil, horn, 
advers. calumniantes S. Trinitat. op. torn. 2. pag. (ill. 

" (pavipu iKTrrwaig tziutiwq, icai virepi]<paviag KaTi)yopia, tj aGtrtiv ti 
Tu>i> yty pa nn'ivwv, ij iTTtiadyitv twv /jd) ysypa(ifikv<nv. Id. de fide. op. torn. 
2. pag. 224. 

on 5ti Trdv pfjfia, fj izpayp.a ttkttovuQui Ty fiaprvpig ryg 9eoirviv(TTov 
ypaffjg, £i£ ir\i)po<popiav fitv tu>v ayaBwv, lvTpoirt)v 5k roiv novrip&v. 
Id. in ethicis. regul. 26. op. torn. 2. pag. 256. 

P Kai p,i]5kv ro\p.q.p aQirtiv, i) tTridiaracrcrtaOai. Ei yap irav, o ovk (k 
irioTHtiQ, cipapria sgtiv, iuc; <pt)a7v 6 Att6<tto\o(;, >) 5k tt'igtiq t£ dtcoi'/g, ?'/ 5k 
aKOtj Sia prjparog Qtov, wdv to iKrbg Tijg OtOTrvtvurov ypa<p7ig, ovk tic 
■KiOTiwq bv, cifiapria Iot'iv, Id. Ibid. reg. So. cap. 22. op. torn. 2. pag. 317. 


whatsoever is without the holy Scripture, being not of 
faith, must needs be sin." Thus far St. Basil. 

In like manner Gregory Nyssen, St. Basil's brother, 
layeth this for a ground, " which q no man should contra- 
dict, that in that only the truth must be acknowledged, 
wherein the seal of the Scripture testimony is to be seen." 
And accordingly in another book, attributed also unto 
him, we find this conclusion made : " Forasmuch 1- as this 
is upholden with no testimony of the Scripture, as false 
we w r ill reject it." 

Thus also St. Hierome disputeth against Helvidius. 
" As s we deny not those things that are written ; so we 
refuse those things that are not written. That God was 
born of a virgin, we believe ; because we read it : that 
Mary did marry after she was delivered, we believe not ; 
because we read it not." 

" In* those things," saith St. Augustine, ' ' which are laid 
down plainly in the Scriptures, all those things are found, 
which appertain to faith and direction of life." And again: 
" Whatsoever" ye hear from the holy Scriptures, let that 
savour well unto you; whatsoever is without them, refuse, 
lest you wander in a cloud." And in another place : " AH W 
those things which in times past our ancestors have men- 
tioned to be done toward mankind, and have delivered 
unto us; all those things also which we see, and do deliver 
unto our posterity, so far as they appertain to the seeking 

1 Kav rig dv dvrt'nroi, p,i) ovxi if rovrtj) fiovy t>)v dX>)6tiav TiGiaOw, 
ip a(j>paylg inifTTi rijg ypaQucijg fiaprvpiag. Greg. Nyss. dialog, de annua 
et resurrect, torn. 3. pag. 207. 

'' Cum id nullo Scripturae testimonio suffultum sit, ut falsum improbabimus. 
lib. de cognit. Dei, cit. ab Euthymio in panop'.ia, tit. 8. 

8 Ut hoec quae scripta sunt non negamus ; ita ea quae non sunt scripta renui- 
mus. Natum Deum esse de virgine credimus, quia legimus : Mariam nupsisse 
post partum non credimus, quia non legimus. Hieron. advers. Helvid. 

I In iis qua aperte in Scripturis posita sunt, inveniuntur ilia omnia quae con- 
tinent fidem moresque vivendi. Augustin. de doct. Christ, lib. 2. cap. 9. op. 
torn. 3. pag. 24. 

II Quicquid inde audieritis, hoc vobis bene sapiat: quicquid extra est respuite, 
ne erretis in nebula. Id. in. lib. de pastor, cap. 11. op. torn. 5. pag. 238. 

w Omnia quae presteritis temporibus crga humanum genus majores nostri 
gesta esse meminerunt, nobisque tradiderunt ; omnia etiam quae nos videmus, 
et posteris tradimus, quae tamen pertinent ad veram religionem quaerendam 
et tenendam, divina scriptura non tacuit. Id. epist,232. op. torn. 2. pag. 843. 


and maintaining of true religion, the holy Scripture hath 
not passed in silence." 

" The x holy Scripture," saith St. Cyril of Alexandria, 
" is sufficient to make them which are brought up in it 
wise, and most approved, and furnished with most suffici- 
ent understanding." And again : " That y which the holy 
Scripture hath not said, by what means should we receive, 
and account it among those things that be true ?" 

Lastly, in the writings of Theodoret we meet with these 
kind of speeches. " By z the holy Scripture alone am I 
persuaded." " I a am not so bold as to affirm any thing, 
which the sacred Scripture passeth in silence." " It b is an 
idle and a senseless thing, to seek those things that are 
passed in silence." " We c ought not to seek those things 
which are passed in silence ; but rest in the things that 
are written." 

By the verdict of these twelve men you may judge, 
what opinion was held in those ancient times, of such 
traditions as did cross either the verity, or the perfection, 
of the sacred Scripture : which are the traditions we set 
ourselves against. Whereunto you may add, if you please 
that remarkable sentence delivered by Eusebius Pamphili, 
in the name of the three hundred and eighteen fathers of 
the first general council of Nice : " Believe' 1 the things 

x Sufficit divina scriptura ad faciendum eos, qui in illaeducati sunt, sapientes 
et probatissimos, et sufficientissimam habentes intelligentiam. Cyril. 1. 7. contr. 

y 8 yap ouk uprjKtv i) Oeict ypafi) riva St rponov irapaSt^optOa, KCti iv 
to if a\i)6(l)g txovffi Ka.Takoyiovp.iQ a ; Cyril. Glaphyrorum, in Gen. 
lib. 2. 

z Eyu> yap povy mi9opai Ty 9iia ypa(py. Theod. dial. 1. ArpEnr. 

a Ov yap ovTbiQ tlpt Qpaovg, aicrrf (pcivai ri Giotyi]p'ivov Tzapd ry Qtia 
ypa(py Id. dial. 2. Acrvyxvr. 

b HepiTTov Kal av6j]rov to tu GMnyrjp'iva ^»JT£(J'. Id. in Exod. qusest. 26. 
quod in Grsecorum catena in pentateuchum, a Franc. Zephyro edita, ita exposi- 
tum legimus : Impudentis est, quod a Scriptura reticetur, velle inquirere. 

c Ov Set ?i/rav ra ataiy^p.'tva, tTripytiv Si TrponijKH ra ytypa/.ip.eva. 
Theod. in Gen. quaest. 45. 

d Tolg yeypapph'oig iridTtw tii pi) yiypap/ieva pi) ii'voti, ptjSi ?»/T£«. 
Gelas. Cyzicen. act. concil. Nicten. part, 2. cap. 19. 


that are written : the things that are. not written, neither 
think upon nor enquire after." 

If now it be demanded, In what pope's days the con- 
trary doctrine was brought in among Christians : I answer, 
that if St. Peter were ever pope, in his days it was, that 
some seducers first laboured to bring in will-worship into 
the Church ; against whom St. Paul opposing himself 6 , 
counteth it a sufficient argument to condemn all such in- 
ventions, that they were " the commandments and doc- 
trines of men." Shortly after them started up other he- 
retics, who taught, that " the f truth could not be found 
out of the Scriptures, by those to whom tradition was un- 
known : forasmuch as it was not delivered by writing, 
but by word of mouth : for which cause St. Paul also 
should say; We speak wisdom among them that be per- 

The very same text do the Jesuits g allege, to prove 
the dignity of many mysteries to be such that they require 
silence ; and that it is unmeet they should be opened in 
the Scriptures, which are read to the whole world, and 
therefore can only be learned by unwritten traditions. 
Wherein they consider not, how they make so near an 
approach unto the confines of some of the ancientest he- 
retics, that they may well shake hands together. For 
howsoever some of them were so mad as to say' 1 , that they 
were wiser than the apostles themselves ; and therefore 
made light account of the doctrine which they delivered 
unto the Church, either by writing or by word of mouth : 
yet all of them broke not forth into that open impiety ; the 
same mystery of iniquity wrought in some of Antichrist's 
forerunners then, which is discovered in his ministers 

e Coloss. chap. 2. . 

{ Quia non possit ex his inveniri Veritas, ab his qui nesciant traditionem. 
Non enim per literas traditam illam, sed per vivam vocem : ob quam causam et 
Paulum dixisse ; Sapientiamautem loquimur inter perfectos. Iren. contr. ha?res. 
lib. 3. cap. 2. 

e Bellarm. lib. 4. de verbo Dei, cap. 8. 

h Dicentes, se non solum presbyteris, sed etiam apostolis existcntcs sapientio- 
res, sinceram invenisse vcritateni, &c. Evenit itaque ncquc scripturis jam, neque 
tradition!, consentire eos. Iren. ut supr. 


now. " They' confessed indeed," as witnesseth Tertullian, 
" that the apostles were ignorant of nothing, and differed 
not among themselves in their preaching ; but they say 
they revealed not all things unto all men : some things 
they delivered openly and to all, some things secretly and 
to a few ; because that Paul useth this speech unto Timo- 
thy : O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy 
trust. And again: that good thing which was committed 
unto thee keep :" which very texts the Jesuits k likewise 
bring in, to prove that there are some traditions, which 
are not contained in the Scripture. 

In the days of St. Hierome also, this was wont to be the 
saying of heretics : " We 1 are the sons of the wise men, 
which from the beginning have delivered the doctrine of 
the apostles unto us." But those" 1 things, saith that 
father, " which they of themselves find out, and fain to 
have received as it were by tradition from the apostles, 
without the authority and testimonies of the Scriptures, 
the sword of God doth smite." St. Chrysostom 11 in like 
manner giveth this for a mark of Antichrist, and of all 
spiritual thieves, that they come not in by the door of the 
Scriptures. " For the Scripture," saith he, " like unto 
a sure door, doth bar an entrance unto heretics, safe- 
guarding us in all things that we will, and not suffering us 
to be deceived." Whereupon he concludeth, that " whoso p 

' Confitentur quideni nihil apostolos ignorasse, nee diversa inter se praedicasse ; 
sednon omnia illos volunt omnibus revelasse: qusedam enim palam et universis, 
quaedam secreto et paucis demandasse. quia et hoc verbo usus est Paulus ad Ti- 
motheum : O Timothee, depositum custodi. Et rursum : Bonum depositum 
custodi. Tertull. de prescript, advers. haeret. cap. 25. 

k Bellarm. lib. 4. de verbo Dei, cap. 5. 

1 Filii sumus sapientum, qui ab initio doctrinam nobis apostolicam tradide- 
runt. Hieron. lib. 7. in Esa. cap. 19. 

m Sed et alia quae, absque auctoritate et testimoniis Scripturarum, quasi tradi- 
tione apostolica sponte reperiunt atque confingunt, percutit gladius Dei. Id. in 
Aggeum. cap. 1. 

" Chrysost. in Johan. cap. 10. horn. 59. op. torn. 8. pag. 346. 

° ~¥>.aStaiztp yap t\q 9vpa a<J(paXi)g, ovriog anoicXeitt rule; a'tptTiKolg ri)v 
licroSov, iv acrfaXtiq, Ka6i<JT0jcra f/fiag ivepl Stv av fiovXwfitBa iravrwv, 
kciI oiiK twaa TrXai'aerOai. Ibid. 

P 6 yap firj Talg ypa<pa?g xptofiwog, dX\a avafiavwv ciXXa^oOtv, 


useth not the Scriptures, but cometh in otherwise, that 
is, betaketh himself to another and an unlawful way, he is 
a thief." 

How this mystery of iniquity wrought, when Antichrist 
came unto his full growth, and what experiments his fol- 
lowers gave of their thievish entry in this kind, was well 
observed by the author of the book De imitate Ecclesise, 
thought by some to be Waltram bishop of Naumburg : 
who, speaking of the monks q , that for the upholding of 
pope Hildebrand's faction brought in schisms and here- 
sies into the Church, noteth this specially of them ; that, 
" despising the tradition of God, they desired other doc- 
trines, and brought in masteries of human institution." 
Against whom he allegeth the authority of their own St. 
Benedict, the father of the monks in the west, writing 
thus : " The r abbat ought to teach, or ordain, or command 
nothing, which is without the precept of the Lord : but 
his commandment or instruction should be spread, as the 
leaven of divine righteousness, in the minds of his disci- 
ples." Whereunto also he might have added the testi- 
mony of the two famous fathers of monastical discipline in 
the east; St. Antony, I mean, who taught his scholars 
that " the s Scriptures were sufficient for doctrine ;" and 
St. Basil, who unto the question, " Whether it were expe- 
dient that novices should presently learn those things that 
are in the Scripture," returneth this answer : "It' is fit 

tovtegtw, eripav kavrijj nai fii) VEVOfii<Tfiivt)V Ti^ivoiV 6Sbv, ovtoq k\s7T- 
tt)q lariv. Chiysost. in Johan. cap. 10. hom. 59. op. torn. 8. pag. 34*5. 

i Quale mysterium iniquitatis praetendunt plures monachi in veste sua, per 
quos fitint et facta sunt schismata atque haereses in Ecclesia : qui etiam a matre 
filios segregant, oves a pastore sollicitant, Dei sacramenta disturbant : qui etiam, 
Dei traditione contempta, alienas doctrinas appetunt, et magisteria humans in- 
stitutionis inducunt. Lib. de unitat. Eccles. torn. 1. script. Germanic, a M. 
Frehero edit. pag. 233. 

r Ideoque nihil debet abbas extra prseceptum Domini quod sit (or rather, as 
it is in the manuscript which I use, quod absit) aut docere, aut constituere, vel 
jubere : sed jussio ejus vel doctrina, ut fermentum divinae justitia;, in discipulo- 
rum mentibus conspergatur. Benedict, in regul. 

8 Tag ypatyaQ iKavug ilvai Trpbg diSaaicaXlav. Athanas. in vita Antonii : 
quod Evagrius Antiochenus presbyter reddidit ; Ad omnein mandatorum disci- 
plinam scripturas posse sufficere. 

1 To Ttpbg rtjv \9^ av ikcigtov iKfiavQavuv Ik tijc Otonvtvarov ypatyi'ig 
ukuXovQov (cat dvayKoiov, dg re Tr\)i(>o<l>ot)iav tT)q Otoatfieiag, Kat inrip 


and necessary that every one should learn out of the holy 
Scripture that which is for his use ; both for his full set- 
tlement in godliness, and that he may not be accustomed 
unto human traditions." 

Mark here the difference betwixt the monks of St. 
Basil, and pope Hildebrand's breeding. The novices of 
the former were trained in the Scriptures, to the end they 
might not be accustomed unto human traditions : those of 
the latter, to the clean contrary intent, were kept back 
from the study of the Scriptures, that they might be ac- 
customed unto human traditions. For this, by the aforesaid 
author, is expressly noted of those Hildebrandine monks, 
that they " permitted" not young men in their monasteries 
to study this saving knowledge ; to the end that their rude 
wit might be nourished with the husks of devils, which 
are the customs of human traditions : that, being accus- 
tomed to such filth, they might not taste how sweet the 
Lord was." And even thus in the times following, from 
monks to friars, and from them to secular priests and 
prelates, as it were by tradition from hand to hand, the 
like ungodly policy was continued, of keeping the common 
people from the knowledge of the Scriptures ; as for other 
reasons, so likewise that by this means they might be drawn 
to human traditions; which was not only observed by Eras- 
mus™, before ever Luther stirred against the pope ; but 

rov fit) 7TjOO(T£0((T0i}i'ai dvQpMTTivaiQ TVapaSufftcnv. Basil, in regul. breviorib. 
ep. 95. op. torn. 2. pag. 449. 

u Qui ne pueros quidem vel adolescentes permittunt in monasteriis habere 
studium salutaris sciential : ut scilicet rude ingenium nutriatur siliquis daemonic- 
rum, qua sunt consuetudines humanarum traditionum : ut, ejusmodi spurcitiis 
assuefacti, non possint gustare quam suavis est Dominus. Lib. de unitat. Ec- 
clcs. pag. 228. 

w Verum enimvero vereor ne isti, qui velint populum nihil attingere, non tarn 
periculo commoveantur illorum, quam sui respectu : videlicet, ut ab istis solis, 
velut ab oraculis, petantur omnia. Quid hac de re scriptum est 1 Hocscriptum est. 
Quem habet sensum quod scriptum est ? Sic intellige, sic send, sic loquere. 
Atqui istuc est bubalum esse, non hominem. Fortassis movet et nonnullos, 
quoniam animadvertunt divinam scripturam parum quadrare ad vitam suam, 
malunt earn antiquari, aut certe nesciri ; ne quid hinc jaciatur in os. Et ad hu- 
manas traditiunculas populum avocant, quas ipsi ad suam commoditatem probe 
commenti sunt. Erasm. in enarrat, 1. Psalmi, edit. ann. 1515. 


openly in a manner confessed afterwards by a bitter adver- 
sary of his, Petrus Sutor, a Carthusian monk : who, among 
other inconveniences for which he would have the people de- 
barred from reading the Scripture, allegeth this also for one ; 
" Whereas" many things are openly taught to be observed, 
which are not to be expressly had in the holy Scriptures, 
will not the simple people, observing these things, quickly 
murmur, and complain that so great burdens should be 
imposed upon them, whereby the liberty of the Gospel 
is so greatly impaired ? Will not they also easily be 
drawn away from the observation of the ordinances of the 
Church, when they shall observe that they are not con- 
tained in the law of Christ ?" 

Having thus therefore discovered unto these Deuterotae 
(for so St. Hierome y useth to style such tradition-mongers) 
both their great grandfathers, and their more immediate 
progenitors ; I pass now forward unto the second point. 

* Cum multa palam tradantur observanda, quae sacris in literis expresse non 
habentur; nortne idiotae haec animadvertentes facile murmurabunt, conquerentes 
Cur tantae sibi imponantur sarcitis, quibus et libertas evangelica ita graviter ele- 
vatur ? Nonne et facile retrahentur ab observantia institutionum ecclesiastica- 
rum, quando eas in lege Christi animadverterint non contineri ? Sutor de tra- 
ditione Bibliae, cap. 22. fol. 96. edit. Paris, ann. 1525. 

y Hieronym. lib. 2. comment, in Esai. cap. 3. et lib. 9. in Esai. cap. 29. 

Li til 




How far the real presence of the body of Christ, in the 
sacrament, is allowed or disallowed by us, I have at large 
declared in another 3 place. The sum is this : That, in the 
receiving of the blessed sacrament, we are to distinguish 
between the outward and the inward action of the com- 
municant. In the outward, with our bodily mouth we re- 
ceive really the visible elements of bread and wine : in the 
inward, we do by faith really receive the body and blood of 
our Lord ; that is to say, we are truly and indeed made par- 
takers of Christ crucified, to the spiritual strengthening of 
our inward man. They of the adverse part have made such 
a confusion of these things, that, for the first, they do utterly 
deny, that after the words of consecration there remaineth 
any bread or wine at all to be received : and for the se- 
cond, do affirm that the body and blood of Christ is in 
such a manner present, under the outward shows of bread 
and wine, that whosoever receiveth the one, be he good 
or bad, believer or unbeliever, doth therewith really re- 
ceive the other. We are therefore here put to prove, 
that bread is bread, and wine is wine ; a matter, one would 
think, that easily might be determined by common sense. 
" That b which you see," saith St. Augustine, " is the 
bread and the cup : which your very eyes do declare unto 

8 Serm. at Westminst. before the house of cormnons. arm. 1620. vol. 2. 
pag. 417, 

b Quod ergo vidistis, panis est et calix : quod vobis etiam oculi vestri renun- 
ciant. Augustin. serm. 272. op. torn. 5. png. 1 103. 


you." But because we have to deal with men, that will 
needs herein be senseless ; we will for this time refer them 
to Tertullian's discourse of the five senses, wishing they 
may be restored to the use of their five wits again : and 
ponder the testimonies of our Saviour Christ, in the sixth 
of John, and in the words of the institution; which they 
oppose against all sense, but in the end shall find to be as 
opposite to this fantastical conceit of theirs, as any thing 
can be. 

Touching our Saviour's speech, of the eating of his 
flesh and the drinking of his blood, in the sixth of 
John, these five things specially may be observed. First, 
that the question betwixt our adversaries and us being 
not, Whether Christ's body be turned into bread, but, 
Whether bread be turned into Christ's body ; the words in 
St. John, if they be pressed literally, serve more strongly 
to prove the former than the latter. Secondly, that this 
sermon was uttered by our Saviour, above a year before 
the celebration of his last supper, wherein the sacrament 
of his body and blood was instituted : at which time none 
of his hearers could possibly have understood him to have 
spoken of the external eating of him in the sacrament. 
Thirdly, that by the eating of the flesh of Christ, and the 
drinking of his blood, there is not here meant an external 
eating or drinking with the mouth and throat of the body, 
as the Jews' 1 then, and the Romanists far more grossly than 
they, have since imagined ; but an internal and a spiritual, 
effected by a lively faith, and the quickening Spirit of 
Christ, in the soul of the believer. For " there 6 is a spi- 
ritual mouth of the inner man," as St. Basil noteth, 
" wherewith he is nourished, that is made partaker of the 
word of life, which is the bread that cometh down from 
heaven." Fourthly, that this spiritual feeding upon the 
body and blood of Christ is not to be found in the sacra- 

c Terlull. in lib. de anima, cap. 17. cui titulus, De quinque sensibus. 

,l John, chap. (i. ver. 52. 

' 'Eoti [t,iv Ti Kai votjTov rrrufia too tvSov avO/xoffov, ({> rpUpfTai /it- 
ra\a.uf3avb)V tov \oyou TtjQ £w»)c> '6q ioriv apTOQ t/c rot) ovpai'ov Kara/3«f. 
Basil, in Psalm. 33. op. torn. 1, pag. 144. 


ment only, but also out of the sacrament. Fifthly, that 
the eating of the flesh, and the drinking of the blood here 
mentioned, is of such excellent virtue, that the receiver is 
thereby made to remain in Christ, and Christ in him ; and 
by that means certainly freed from death, and assured of 
everlasting life. Which seeing it cannot be verified of the 
eating of the sacrament, whereof both the godly and the 
wicked are partakers ; it proveth, not only that our Sa- 
viour did not here speak of the sacramental eating ; but 
further also, that the thing, which is delivered in the ex- 
ternal part of the sacrament, cannot be conceived to be 
really, but sacramentally only, the flesh and blood of 

The first of these may be plainly seen in the text : where 
our Saviour doth not only say, "I am the bread of life," 
verse forty-eight, and, " I am the living bread that came 
down from heaven," verse fifty-one ; but addeth also in 
the fifty-fifth verse, " For my flesh is meat indeed, and 
my blood is drink indeed." Which words, being the most 
forcible of all the rest, and those wherewith the simpler 
sort are commonly most deluded, might carry some show 
of proof, that Christ's flesh and blood should be turned 
into bread and wine ; but have no manner of colour to 
prove, that bread and wine are turned into the flesh and 
blood of Christ. The truth of the second appeareth by 
the fourth verse ; in which we find, that this fell out not 
long before the passover : and consequently a year at 
least before that last passover, wherein our Saviour insti- 
tuted the sacrament of his supper. We willingly indeed 
do acknowledge, that that which is inwardly presented in 
the Lord's supper, and spiritually received by the soul of 
the faithful, is that very thing which is treated of in the 
sixth of John : but we deny that it was our Saviour's in- 
tention in this place to speak of that, which is externally 
delivered in the sacrament, and orally received by the 
communicant. And for our warrant herein, we need look 
no further than to that earnest asseveration of our Saviour 
in the fifty-third verse ; " Verily, verily I say unto you ; 
except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his 


blood, ye have no life in you." Wherein there is not only 
an obligation laid upon them for doing of this, which in 
no likelihood could be intended of the external eating of 
the sacrament, that was not as yet in being : but also an 
absolute necessity imposed, non praecepti solum ratione, 
sed etiam medii. Now to hold that all they are excluded 
from life, which have not had the means to receive the 
sacrament of the Lord's supper, is as untrue as it is un- 
charitable. And therefore many of the papists them- 
selves, as Biel, Cusanus, Cajetan, Tapper, Hessels, Jan- 
senius, and others, confess that our Saviour, in the sixth of 
John, did not properly treat of the sacrament. 

The third of the points proposed may be collected out 
of the first part of Christ's speech, in the thirty-fifth and 
thirty-sixth verses. " I am the bread of life : he that 
cometh to me shall never hunger : and he that believeth 
on me shall never thirst. But I said unto you, that ye 
also have seen me, and believe not." But especially out 
of the last, from the sixty-first verse forward. " When 
Jesus knew in himself that his disciples murmured at it, 
he said unto them ; Doth this offend you ? What then 
if you should see the Son of man ascend up where he was 
before ? It is the spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth 
nothing: the words that I speak unto you are spirit and 
life. But there are some of you that believe not." Which 
words Athanasius (or whosoever was the author of the 
tractate upon that place ; Quicunque dixerit verbum in 
filium ho minis) noteth our Saviour to have used ; that his 
hearers might learn " that 1 those things, which he spake, 
were not carnal but spiritual. For how many could his 
body have sufficed for meat, that it should be made the 
food of the whole world? But therefore it was that he 

f on li Kiyti, ok" sort aapKuca, d\\« TTVEVfUtriKa' ttotoiq yap ijpKti to 
ffwua Trpoc f3pw<nv, iva Kai tou kixtjxov iravrbg tovto rpo<p>) ykvtjrat ; 
'AXXri ?id rovro rfjf tig ffvpavoiiQ dVa/3<X(7£W£ tjxi'ijixuvtvfft tou inov too 
avQpwTrov, 'iva tyjq ff(t>jiaTiKrjs ivvoiag aiiTOvq aftXici'cni, Kai Xoittoi' t))p 
tipr]uevt]V aapua fipiooiv dvo)0tv ovpai/iov, Kai Trvtx<).iaTiKt)i> Tpotpy)v nap' 
ai'Tov Sido/Akvtjv ixdOioaiv. it ydp X.e\d\?jKa ('/"jti''). vfUVf irvev/xa tern 
icai ?cj//. Athanas. 


made mention of the Son of man's ascension into heaven, 
that he might draw them from this corporal conceit ; and 
that hereafter they might learn, that the flesh, which he 
spake of, was celestial meat from above, and spiritual nou- 
rishment to be given by him : For the words which I 
have spoken unto you, saith he, are spirit and life." So 
likewise Tertullian ; " Although^ he saith that the flesh 
profiteth nothing, the meaning of the speech must be directed 
according to the intent of the matter in hand. For, be- 
cause they thought it to be a hard and an intolerable 
speech, as if he had determined that his flesh should be 
truly eaten by them ; that he might dispose the state of 
salvation by the spirit, he premised; It is the spirit that 
quickeneth : and so subjoined, The flesh profiteth nothing ; 
namely to quicken, ike. And h because the Word was 
made flesh, it therefore was to be desired for causing of 
life, and to be devoured by hearing, and to be chewed by 
understanding, and to be digested by faith. For a little 
before he had also affirmed, that his flesh was heavenly 
bread : urging still, by the allegory of necessary food, the 
remembrance of the fathers, who preferred the bread and 
the flesh of the Egyptians before God's calling." Add 
hereunto the sentence of Origen ; " Thei-e 1 is in the New 
Testament also a letter which killeth him, that doth not 
spiritually conceive the things that be spoken. For if 
according to the letter you do follow this same which is 
said, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and 

S Etsi carnem ait nihil prodesse, ex materia dicti dirigendus est sensus. 
Nam quia durum et intolerabilem existimaverunt sermonem ejus, quasi vere 
carnem suam illis edendam determinasset : ut in spiritum disponeret statum 
salutis, praemisit ; Spiritus est qui vivificat. atque ita subjunxit, caro nihil pro- 
dest ; ad vivificandum scilicet. Tertull. de resurrect, carnis, cap. 37. 

h Quia et Senno caro erat factus, proinde in causaru vitae appetendus, et de- 
vorandus auditu, et ruminandus intellectu, et fide digerendus. Nam et paulo 
ante carnem suam panem quoque ccelestem pronuntiarat ; urgens usquequaque, 
per allegoriam necessariorum pabulorum, memori?lm patrum, qui panes et carnes 
iEgyptiorum praeverterant divinae vocationi. Idem ibid. 

' Est et in novo Testamento litera quae occidit eum, qui non spiritualiter ea 
quae dicuntur advertent. Si enim secundum literain sequaris hoc ipsum, quod 
dictum est, Nisi manducaveritis carnem meam, et biberitis sanguinem meum, 
occidit hacc litera. Orig. in Levil. horn. 7. op. torn. 2. pag. 225. 


drink his blood ; this letter killeth." And those sayings, 
which every where occur in St. Augustine's tractates upon 
John : " How k shall I send up my hand unto heaven, to 
take hold on Christ sitting there ? Send thy faith, and thou 
hast hold of him. Why 1 preparest thou thy teeth and thy 
belly ? Believe, and thou hast eaten. For" 1 this is to eat 
the living bread, to believe in him. He, that believeth in 
him, eateth. He is invisibly fed ; because he is invisibly 
regenerated. He is inwardly a babe ; inwardly renewed : 
where he is renewed, there is he nourished." 

The fourth proposition doth necessarily follow upon the 
third. For, if the eating and drinking here spoken of be 
not an external eating and drinking, but an inward parti- 
cipation of Christ, by the communion of his quickening 
Spirit ; it is evident, that this blessing is to be found in the 
soul, not only in the use of the sacrament of the Lord's 
supper, but at other times also. " It" is no ways to be 
doubted by any one," saith Fulgentius, " that every 
one of the faithful is made partaker of the body and blood 
of our Lord, when he is made a member of Christ in bap- 
tism ; and that he is not estranged from the communion of 
that bread and cup, although, before he eat that bread 
and drink that cup, he depart out of this world ; being 
settled in the unity of the body of Christ. For he is not 
deprived of the participation and the benefit of that sa- 
crament, when he hath found that which this sacrament 
doth signify:" And hereupon we see, that divers of the 

k Quomodo in ccelum manum mittam, ut ibi sedentem teneam ? Fidsm 
mitte, et tenuisti. Augustin. in evang. Johan. tract. 50. op. torn. 3. pag. 630. 

1 Ut quid paras dentes et ventrem ? Crede, et manducasti. Id. ibid, tractat. 
25. pag. 489. 

m Credere enim in emu, hoc est manducare panem vivum. Qui credit in 
eum, manducat. Invisibiliter saginatur, quia invisibilitcr renascitur. Infans 
intus est, novus intus est : ubi novellatur, ibi satiatur. Id. ibid, tract. 26. 
pag. 494. 

n Nulli est aliquatenus ambigendum, tunc unumquemque fidelium corporis 
sanguinisque Dominici participem fieri, quando in baptismate membrum Christi 
efficitur : nee alienari ab illius panis calicisque consortio, etiamsi, antequam pa- 
nem ilium comedat et calicem bibat, de hoc seculo in imitate corporis Christi 
constitutus abscedat. Sacramenti quippe illius participatione ac beneficio non 
prlvatur, quando ipse hoc, quod illud sacramentum significat, invenit. Fulgentius 
in fine libelli de baptismo iEthiopis, Augustini nomine citatus apud Bedam, in 1 
Cor. cap. 10. 


fathers do apply the sixth of John to the hearing of the 
word also ; as, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen 1 ', Eusebius 
Caesareensis, and others. " We q are said to drink the 
blood of Christ," saith Origen, " not only by way of the 
sacraments ; but also when we receive his word, wherein 
consisteth life : even as he himself saith, The words, 
which I have spoken, are spirit and life. Upon which 
words of Christ, Eusebius paraphraseth after this man- 
ner ; " Do 1 not think that I speak of that flesh wherewith 
I am compassed, as if you must eat of that-; neither ima- 
gine that I command you to drink my sensible and bodily 
blood : but understand well that the words, which I have 
spoken unto you, are spirit and life. So that those very 
words and speeches of his are his flesh and blood ; where- 
of who is partaker, being always therewith nourished as it 
were with heavenly bread, shall likewise be made parta- 
ker of heavenly life. Therefore let not that offend you, 
saith he, which I have spoken, of the eating of my flesh 
and of the drinking of my blood ; neither let the super- 
ficial hearing of those things, which were said by me of 
flesh and blood, trouble you. For these things sensibly 
heard profit nothing ; but the spirit is it, which quicken- 
eth them that are able to hear spiritually." Thus far Eu- 

° Clem. Alexan. psedagog. lib. 1. cap. 6. 

P Orig. in Levit. cap. 10. horn. 7. 

i Bibere autem dicimur sanguinem Christi, non solum sacramentorum ritu, 
sed et cum sermones ejus recipimus, in quibus vita consistit ; sicut et ipse dicit : 
Verba, quae locutus sum, spiritus et vita est. Origen in Num. horn. 10. op. torn. 

2. pag. 334. 

r Mi) yap ri)v oapica r\v TTtp'iKUjxai voj.u<yi]Tt /is Xeytiv wg S'tov avn)v 
tcrOUw, [it]l)k to a.ioQi}Tov Kai owjiariKov ai/ia irivuv v7roXafij3avaT'i fit 
irpoaraTTUv' aXX' tv itrre on tu pi/fiaTa a XtXaXtjKa vfilv izvivp.a Ian 
Kai %io>). wart clvt& flvca rd pt'ifiara Kai rovg Xoyovg aiiTov ti)v adpKct 
Kai to alfia' 6)V 6 fitrtx 107 ' <* £ ' uwavti c'ipTip ovpaviq) Tpeipoptvog, tj/C 
oupai'iov fitQeZti Zwrjg. MijSe ovv, (pi]<rl, cncavdaXiZtTa) vfidg tovto o irtpi 
fipwaeoig rjyc; tyf)£ aapicbg Kai TTOjxarog rov t/xov aifiarog t'tpijica, 
[irjSt TapaTTtTio hfiag r) irpoxtipog a/coj) tCjv irepl rfjg oapicbg Kai a'ifiaTog 
tlpilfdi'ojv p.oi. Tavra yap oiiftiv AxpiXti aiaQiiTwg aKovofieva, to Ss ttviv- 
jxa i<7Ti to Zmottoioup Tovg TCvtvp,aTiKMg clkovuv dvvapikvovg. Euseb. lib. 

3. ecclcsiast. theologiae, contr. Marcell. Ancyran. MS. in publica Oxoniensis 
academiae bibliotheca: et in privatis virorum doctissimorum, D. Richardi Mon- 
tacutii et M.Patricii Junii. (postea edit, una cum Demon. Evang. Paris. 1628.) 


sebius : whose words I have laid down the more largely, 
because they are not vulgar. 

There remaineth the fifth and last point, which is often- 
times repeated by our Saviour in this sermon ; as in the 
fiftieth verse : " This is the bread which cometh down 
from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die." 
And in the fifty-first: " If any man eat of this bread, he 
shall live for ever." And in the fifty-fourth : " Whoso 
eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life." 
And in the fifty-sixth : " He that eateth my flesh, and 
drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me and I in him." And 
in the fifty-eighth : " This is that bread which came down 
from heaven : not as your fathers did eat manna, and are 
dead : he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever." 
Whereupon Origen rightly observeth the difference that 
is betwixt the eating of the typical or symbolical (for so he 
calleth the sacrament) and the true body of Christ. Of 
the former, thus he writeth : " That 3 which is sanctified 
by the word of God, and by prayer, doth not of its own na- 
ture sanctify him that useth it. For if that were so, it 
would sanctify him also, which doth eat unworthy of the 
Lord : neither should any one for this eating be weak, or 
sick or dead. For such a thing doth Paul shew, when he 
saith : For this cause many are weak and sickly among 
you, and many sleep. Of the latter, thus : " Many' 
things may be spoken of the Word itself, which was made 
flesh, and true meat; which whosoever eateth shall cer- 
tainly live for ever : which no evil person can eat. For 
if it could be, that he who continueth evil might eat the 

s Quod sanctificatur per verbum Dei, et per obsecrationem, non suapte natura 
sanctificat utentem. Nam id si esset, sanctificaret etiam ilium, qui comedit in- 
digne Domino : neque quisquam ob hunc esum infirmus aut segrotus fuisset, 
aut obdormisset. Nam tale quiddam Paulus demonstrat, quum ait : " Propter 
hoc inter vos infirmi, et male habentes, et dormiunt niulti." Origen. in Matt, 
op. torn. 3. pag. 499. 

• Multa porro et de ipso Verbo dici possent, quod factum est caro, verusque 
cibus, quern qui comederit omnino vivet in seternurn ; quern nullus malus potest 
edere. Etenim si fieri possit ut, qui malus adhuc perseveret, edat Verbum fac- 
tum carnem, quum sit Verbum et panis vivus, nequaquam scriptum fuisset : 
Quisquis ederit panemhunc, vivct in seternurn. Id. ibid. 


Word made flesh (seeing He is the Word and the bread of 
life), it should not have been written, Whosoever eateth 
this bread shall lice for ever." The like difference doth 
St. Augustine also, upon the same ground, make betwixt the 
eating of Christ's body sacramentally and really. For, hav- 
ing affirmed, that wicked men " may u not be said to eat the 
body of Christ, because they are not to be counted among 
the members of Christ," he afterward addeth ; "Christ" 
himself saying, He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my 
blood, remaineth in me and I in him, sheweth what it 
is, not sacramentally but indeed, to eat the flesh of Christ, 
and drink his blood : for this is, to remain in Christ, that 
Christ likewise may remain in him. For he said this, as 
if he should have said : He that remaineth not in me, and 
in whom I do not remain, let not him say, or think, that he 
eateth my flesh or drinketh my blood." And in another 
place, expounding those words of Christ here alleged, 
he thereupon inferreth thus : " This y is therefore to eat 
that meat, and drink that drink : to remain in Christ, and 
to have Christ remaining in him. And by this he that 
remaineth not in Christ, and in whom Christ abideth not, 
without doubt doth neither spiritually eat his flesh, nor 
drink his blood : although he do carnally and visibly press 
with his teeth the sacrament of the body and blood of 
Christ ; and so rather eateth and drinketh the sacrament 
of so great a thing for judgment to himself, because that, 
being unclean, he did presume to come unto the sacra- 
ments of Christ." 

" Ncc isti diceiuli sunt manducare corpus Christi ; quoniam nee in membris 
computandi sunt Christi. Augustin. de civit. Dei, lib. 21, cap. 25. op. torn. 7. 
pag. 616. 

x Denique ipse dicens, Qui manducat carnem meam, et bibit sanguinem meum, 
in me manet < et ego in eo, ostendit quid sit, non sacramento tenus sed revera, 
manducare corpus Christi, et ejus sanguinem bibere : hoc est enim in Christo 
manere,ut in illo maneat et Christus. Sic enim hoc dixit, tanquam diceret : 
Qui non in me manet, et in quo ego non maneo, non se dicat aut existimet 
manducare corpus meum, aut bibere sanguinem meum. Id. ibid. 

y Hoc est ergo manducare illam escam, et ilium bibere potum ; in Christo 
manere, et ilium manentem in se habere. Ac per hoc, qui non manet in Christo, 


Hence it is that we find so often in him, and in other of 
the fathers, that the body and blood of Christ is commu- 
nicated only unto those that shall live, and not unto those 
that shall die for ever. " He z is the bread of life. He 
therefore, that eateth life, cannot die. For how should 
he die whose meat is life ? How should he fail, who hath 
a vital substance ?" saith St. Ambrose. And it is a good 
note of Macarius, that, as men use to give one kind of 
meat to their servants, and another to their children, so 
Christ, who " created a all things, nourisheth indeed evil 
and ungrateful persons : but the sons which he begat of 
his own seed, and whom he made partakers of his grace, 
in whom the Lord is formed, he nourisheth with a pecu- 
liar refection and food, and meat and drink, beyond other 
men ; giving himself unto them that have their conversa- 
tion with his Father : as the Lord himself saith : he that 
eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, remaineth in me, 
and I in him, and shall not see death.' 1 '' Among the sen- 
tences collected by Prosper out of St. Augustine, this 
also is one. " He b receiveth the meat of life, and drinketh 
the cup of eternity, who remaineth in Christ, and whose 

et in quo non manet Christus, proculdubio nee manducat spiritualiter carnem 
ejus, nee bibit ejus sanguinem, licet carnaliter et visibiliter premat dentibus sa- 
cramentum corporis et sanguinis Christi : sed magis tantae rei sacramen- 
manducat et bibit, quia immundus praesumpsit ad Christi accedere sacramenta. 
turn ad judicium sibi Augustin. in evangel. Johan. tract. 26. op. torn. 3. 
pag. 501. 

z Hie est panis vitae. Qui ergo vitam manducat, mori non potest. Quomodo 
enim morietur, cui cibus vita est ? Quomodo deficiet, qui habuerit vitalem sub- 
stantiam? Ambros. in Psal. 118. octonar. 18. op. torn. 1. pag. 1203. 

a HavTa avrbg iktmjs, kul rpscpti rovg wovrjpovg Kai dxapiorovg, to. Sk 
t'ikvci a tyhnnjerev Ik tov aTrkpp.aTog avrov Kai olg pir'tSoiKtv t/c rrjg \dpirog 
avrov, iv olg ipopQibdt] 6 Kvpiog, ISiav avairavGiv, Kai rpofi/i', Kai fip&o'iv, 
Kai tcogiv, Trapa rovg Xonrovg dvOpdjTrovg tKTpk(j>ti, Kai Sidwmv tavrbv 
avroig dvaorpetfiofitvoig ptrd tov irarpbg avrov' wg fi)ffii> b Kvpiog, 'O 
rpuiyuv pov Tr)v ffdpxa, Kai Trlvuiv pov to aipa, iv kftoi pkvtl, Ktjtyi'o iv 
avr<p, Kai Ouvarov ov fit) Otoiplprsi. Macar. Egypt, liomil. 14. 

b Escam vitae accipit, et acternitatis poculum bibit, qui in Christo manet, et 
cujus Christus habitator est. Nam qui discordat a Christo nee carnem ejus 
manducat, nee sanguinem bibit : etiamsi tantaj rei sacramentum ad judicium suae 
prxsumptionisquotidie indiffercnter accipiat. Prosp. scntent. 339. 


inhabiter is Christ. For lie, that is at discord with Christ, 
doth neither eat his flesh, nor drink his blood : although 
to the judgment of his presumption, he indifferently doth 
receive every day the sacrament of so great a thing." 
Which distinction between the sacrament and the thing 
whereof it is a sacrament, and consequently between the 
sacramental and the real eating of the body of Christ, is 
thus briefly and most excellently expressed by St. Augus- 
tine himself, in his exposition upon the sixth of John. 
" The sacrament of this thing is taken from the Lord's 
table ; by some unto life, by some unto destruction : but 
the thing itself, whereof it is a sacrament, is received by 
every man unto life, and by none unto destruction, that 
is made partaker thereof." Our conclusion therefore is 
this : 

The body and blood of Christ is received by all 

unto life, and by none unto condemnation. 
But that substance, which is outwardly delivered 
in the sacrament, is not received by all unto 
life, but by many unto condemnation. 
Therefore that substance, which is outwardly de- 
livered in the sacrament, is not really the body 
and blood of Christ. 
The first proposition is plainly proved by the texts, 
which have been alleged out of the sixth of John. The 
second is manifest, both by common experience, and by 
the testimony of the apostle d . We may therefore well 
conclude, that the sixth of John is so far from giving any 
furtherance to the doctrine of the Romanists in this point, 
that it utterly overthroweth their fond opinion, who ima- 
gine the body and blood of Christ to be in such a sort 
present, under the visible forms of bread and wine, that 
whosoever receiveth the one, must of force also really be 
made partaker of the other. 

The like are we now to shew in the words of the insti- 

c Hujus rei sacramentum, &c. de mensa Dominica sumitur ; quibusdam ad 
vitam, quibusdam ad exitium. Res vero ipsa, cujus sacramentum est, omni ho- 
mini ad vitam, nulli ad exitium, quicunque ejus particeps fuerit, Augustin. in 
Johan. tract. 25. op. torn. 3. pag. 500. 

d 1 Cor. chap, ll.ver. 17,27, 29. 


tution. For the better clearing whereof, the reader may 
be pleased to consider, First, that the words are not, This 
shall be my bod// : nor, This is made, or, shall be changed 
into my body: but, This is my body. Secondly, that the 
word this can have relation to no other substance, but 
that which was then present, when our Saviour spake that 
word ; which, as we shall make it plainly appear, was 
bread. Thirdly, that, it being proved that the word this 
doth demonstrate the bread, it must of necessity follow 
that Christ, affirming that to be his body, cannot be con- 
ceived to have meant it so to be properly, but relatively 
and sacramentally. 

The first of these is by both sides yielded unto : so like- 
wise is the third. For " this 6 is impossible," saith the 
Gloss upon Gratian, " that bread should be the body 
of Christ." And " it f cannot be," saith cardinal Bellar- 
mine, " that that proposition should be true, the former 
part whereof designeth bread, the latter the body of 
Christ : forasmuch as bread and the Lord's body be things 
most diverse." And therefore he confidently affirmeth 
that g , if the words, This is my body, did make this sense, 
This bread is my body, this sentence " must either be 
taken tropically, that bread may be the body of Christ 
significatively ; or else it is plainly absurd and impossible : 
for it cannot be," saith he, " that bread should be the body 
of Christ." For it' 1 , is the nature of this verb substantive 
est, or, is, saith Salmeron his fellow-Jesuit, " that, as often 
as it joineth and coupleth together things of diverse na- 

e Hoc tamen est impossibile, quod panis sit corpus Christi. De consecrat. 
dist. 2. cap. 55. Panis est in altari. Gloss. 

f Non igitur potest fieri, ut vera sit propositio, in qua suhjectum supponit pro 
pane, praedicatum autem pro corpore Christi. Panis enim et corpus Domini res 
diversissimsesunt. Bellarm. de eucharist. lib. 3. cap. 19. 

S Ibidem scripsit Luthcrus, verba evangelistae, Hoc est corpus meum, hunc 
facere sensum, Hie panis est corpus meum : quae sententia aut accipi debet tro- 
pice, ut panis sit corpus Christi significative; aut est plane absurda et impossibi- 
lis. nee enim fieri potest, ut panis sit corpus Christi. Id. lib. 1. de eucharist. cap. 1. 

h Quarto ducimus argumentum a verbo illo substantivo Est: cujus ingenium 
et natura est, ut quoties res diversarum naturarum, qux Latinis dicuntur dispa- 
rata, unit et copulat, ibi neccssario ad figuram et tropuni accuvrzraus. Alphons. 
Salmeron. torn. 9. tractat. 20. 


tures, which by the Latins are termed disparata, there 
we must of necessity run to a figure and trope ;" and there- 
fore " should' we have been constrained to fly to a trope, if he 
had said, This bread is my body, This wine is my blood : be- 
cause this had been a predication of disparates, as they call 
it." Lastly, doctor Kellison k also in like manner doth freely 
acknowledge, that " if Christ had said, This bread is my 
body, we must have understood him figuratively and meta- 
phorically." So that the whole matter of difference resteth 
now upon the second point : whether our Saviour, when 
he said This is my body, meant any thing to be his body, 
but that bread which was before him: a matter which 
easily might be determined, in any indifferent man's judg- 
ment, by the words immediately going before, " He 1 took 
bread, and gave thanks, and brake, and gave it unto 
them, saying : This is my body, which is given for you ; 
this do in remembrance of me." For what did he demon- 
strate here, and said was his body, but that which he gave 
unto his disciples ? What did he give unto them but what 
he brake ? What brake he but what he took ? and doth 
not the text expressly say that he took bread ? Was it 
not therefore of the bread he said, This is my body ? And 
could bread possibly be otherwise understood to have 
been his body, but as a sacrament, and (as he himself 
with the same breath declared his own meaning) a memo- 
rial thereof? 

If these words be not of themselves clear enough, but 
have need of further exposition, can we look for a better 
than that which St. Paul giveth of them' 11 , " The bread 
which we break, is it not the communion of the body of 
Christ ?" Did not St. Paul therefore so understand Christ, 
as if he had said, This bread is my body ? And if Christ 
had said so, doth not Kellison confess, and right reason 
evince, that he must have been understood figuratively ? 

1 Cogeremur ad tropum confugere, si aliter dixisset, nempe ; Hie panis est cor- 
pus meum, Hoc vinum est sanguis meus : quia esset praedicatio disparatorum, ut 
vocant. Id. ib. 

k Matt. Kellison, survey of the new religion, lib. 8. cap. 7. sec. 7. 

1 Luke, chap. 22. ver. 19. »' 1 Cor. chap. 10. ver. G. 


considering that it is simply impossible, that bread should 
really be the body of Christ. If it be said that St. Paul, 
by bread, doth not here understand tbat which is pro- 
perly bread, but that which lately was bread, but now 
is become the body of Christ ; we must remember that St. 
Paul doth not only say The bread, but The bread which we 
break; which breaking being an accident properly be- 
longing to the bread itself, and not to the body of 
Christ, which being in glory cannot be subject to any 
more breaking, doth evidently shew, that the apostle by 
bread understandeth bread indeed. Neither can the Ro- 
manists well deny this, unless they will deny themselves, 
and confess that they did but dream all this while they 
have imagined that the change of the bread into the body of 
Christ is made by virtue of the sacramental words alone, 
which have not their effect until they have all been fully 
uttered. For the pronoun this, which is the first of these 
words, doth point to something which was then present. 
But no substance was then present but bread : seeing by 
their own grounds, the body of Christ cometh not in, until 
the last word of that sentence, yea and the last syllable 
of that word be completely pronounced. "What other sub- 
stance therefore can they make this to signify, but this 
bread only ? 

In the institution of the other part of the sacrament the 
words are yet more plain"; " He took the cup, and gave 
thanks, and gave it to them, saying, drink ye all of it : 
for this is my blood of the new Testament :" or, as St. 
Paul and St. Luke relate it, " this cup is the new Testa- 
ment in my blood." That, which he bid them all drink 
of, is that which he said was his blood. But our Saviour 
could mean nothing but the wine, when he said, " Drink 
ye all of it:" because this sentence was uttered by him 
before the words of consecration ; at which time our ad- 
versaries themselves do confess, that there was nothing in 
the cup but wine, or wine and water at the most. It was 
wine therefore which he said was his blood : even the fruit 

n Matt. chap. 20. ver. 27, 28. 

vol. in. r 


of the vine, as he himself termeth it. For as in the deli- 
very of the other cup, before the institution of the sacra- 
ment, St. Luke, who alone maketh mention of that part 
of the history, telleth us, that he said unto his disciples ; 
" 1° will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the king- 
dom of God shall come :" so doth St. Matthew and St. 
Mark likewise testify, that at the delivery of the sacra- 
mental cup, when he had said, " This is my blood of the 
new Testament, which is shed for many for the remission 
of sins;" he also added: " but p I say unto you, I will not 
drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day 
that I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom." 
Now seeing it is contrary both to sense and faith, that 
wine, or the fruit of the vine, should really be the blood 
of Christ ; there being that formal difference in the nature 
of the things, that there is an utter impossibility that in 
true propriety of speech the one should be the other : 
nothing iu this world is more plain, than when our Saviour 
said it was his blood, he could not mean it to be so sub- 
stantially, but sacramentally. 

And what other interpretation can the Romanists them- 
selves give of those words of the institution in St. Paul ? 
" This q cup is the new Testament in my blood." How 
is the cup, or the thing contained in the cup, the new Tes- 
tament, otherwise than as a sacrament of it. Mark how 
in the like case the Lord himself, at the institution of the 
first sacrament of the Old Testament, useth the same man- 
ner of speech, " This 1 " is my Covenant or Testament ;" for 
the Greek word in both places is the same : and in the 
words presently following, thus expoundeth his own mean- 
ing, " it s shall be a sign of the covenant betwixt me and 
you." And generally for all sacraments, the rule is thus 

° Luke, chap. 22. ver. 18. 

p Matt. chap. 26. ver. 29. Mar. chap. 14. ver. 25. 

i Tovro rb T70Tj]piov r) Kaivrj dia9i]Kr) iarlv iv r<p ifi(p difiari. 1 Cor. 
cap. 11. ver. 25. 

r Kal avTt] r/ liaQi]Kr} i)v ciaTqpr/cniQ ava fxt<rov ifiov Kai v/j.ojv. Gen. 
cap. 17. ver. 10. 

s Kai taTaiiv <Tr]fiii({i (vel. tig (Ttjutiov) $ia9i]Kt)g ava /x'etTov ffxov Kai 
i'/xwi'. Gen. cap. 17. ver, 11. 


laid down by St. Augustine, in his epistle to Bonifacius : 
" If sacraments did not some manner of way resemble the 
things whereof they are sacraments, they should not be 
sacraments at all. And for this resemblance they do often- 
times also bear the names of the things themselves. As 
therefore the sacrament of the body of Christ is after a 
certain manner the body of Christ, and the sacrament of 
Christ's blood is the blood of Christ ; so likewise the sa- 
crament of faith is faith." By the sacrament of faith he 
understandeth baptism, of which he afterwards allege th 
that saying of the apostle", " we are buried with Christ 
by baptism into death :" andt hen addeth: " he w saith not, 
We signify his burial; but he plainly saith, We are buried. 
Therefore the sacrament of so great a thing he would not 
otherwise call, but by the name of the thing itself." And 
in his questions upon Leviticus : " The x thing that signi- 
fleth," saith he, " useth to be called by the name of that 
thing which it signifieth, as it is written: The seven ears 
of corn are seven years; for he said not, They signify 
seven years : and the seven kine are seven years : and 
many such like. Hence was that saying, The rock was 
Christ. For he said not, The rock did signify Christ ; but 
as if it had been that very thing, which doubtless by sub- 
stance it was not, but by signification. So also the blood, 
because, for a certain vital corpulency which it hath, it 

1 Si enim sacramenta quandam similitudinem earum rerum, quarum sacra- 
menta sunt, nonhaberent, omnino sacramenta non essent. Ex hac autem simi- 
litudine plerumque etiam ipsarum rerum nomina accipiunt. Sicut ergo secun- 
dum quendam modum sacramentum corporis Christ! corpus Christi est, sacra- 
mentum sanguinis Christi sanguis Christi est ; ita sacramentum fidei fides est. 
Aug. ep. 98. op. torn. 2. pag. 2C7. 

u Rom. chap. C. ver. 4. 

w Non ait, Sepulturam significamus : sed prorsus ait, Consepulti sumus. Sacra- 
mentum ergo tantae rei non nisi ejusdem rei vocabulo nuncupavit. Id. pag. 208. 

x Solet autem res quae significat, ejus rei nomine, quam significat, nuncupari, 
sicut scriptum est : Septem spica- septem anni sunt ; non enim dixit ; Scptcm an- 
nos significant ; et septem boves septem anni sunt : et multa lnijusmodi. 
Hinc est quod dictum est : Petra erat Christus. Non enim dixit, Petra signifi- 
cat Christum ; sed tanquam hoc esset, quod utique per substantiam non hoc erat, 
sed per significationem. Sic et sanguis, quoniam propter vitalem quandam corpu- 
lentiam animam significat, in sacramentis anima dictus est. Aug. in Lev. qucest. 
57. op. torn. 3. par. 1. pag. 51(3. 

r 2 


signifieth the soul ; after the manner of sacraments, it is 
called the soul." Our argument therefore, out of the words 
of the institution, standeth thus : 

If it be true, that Christ called bread his body, and 

wine his blood : then must it be true also, that the 

things, which he honoured with those names, cannot 

be really his body and blood, but figuratively and 


But the former is true ; therefore also the latter. 

The first proposition hath been proved by the undoubted 

principles of right reason, and the clear confession of the 

adverse part : the second by the circumstances of the 

text of the evangelists, by the exposition of St. Paul, and 

by the received grounds of the Romanists themselves. 

The conclusion therefore resteth firm : and so we have 

made it clear, that the words of the institution do not only 

not uphold, but directly also overthrow, the whole frame of 

that which the Church of Rome teacheth, touching the 

corporal presence of Christ under the forms of bread and 


If I should now lay down here all the sentences of the 
fathers, which teach that that which Christ called his 
body is bread in substance, and the body of the Lord in 
signification and sacramental relation ; I should never make 
an end. Justin Martyr, in his apology to Antoninus the 
emperor, telleth us, that the bread and the wine, even that 
" sanctified y food wherewith our blood and flesh by con- 
version are nourished, is that which we are taught to be 
the flesh and blood of Jesus incarnate." Irenaeus in his 
fourth book against heresies saith, that our Lord, " taking 2 
bread of that condition which is usual among us, con- 
fessed it to be his body : and the a cup likewise containing 

y HuxctpKTTrjGtlffav rpo<j>i)v, 1%, >)g alfia Kai aapictg Kara /xcrafioXyv rpk- 
Qovrai y/xwv, iictivov rov crapK07ronj6ivrog Irjffov Kai (Tapica Kai alua t£i- 
SdxOrifiev tlvai. Just, apolog. 1. pag. 83. 

z Quomodo autem juste Dominus, si alterius patris existit, hujus conditionis, 
quae est secundum nos, accipiens panem, suutn corpus esse confitebatur ; et 
temperamentum calicis suum sanguinem confirmavit Iren. pag. 270. 

a Caliccm, qui est ex ea creatura quae est secundum nos, suum sanguinem con- 
fessus est. Id. pag. 249. 


that creature which is usual among us, his blood." And 
in his fifth book he addeth : " that b cup, which is a creature, 
he confirmed to be his blood which was shed, whereby 
he increaseth our blood ; and that bread which is of the 
creature, to be his body, whereby he increaseth our bodies. 
Therefore, when the mixed cup and the broken bread 
doth receive the word of God, it is made the eucharist of 
the blood and body of Christ, whereby the substance of 
our flesh is increased and doth consist." Our Lord, saith 
Clemens Alexandrinus, " did e bless wine, when he said, 
Take, drink, this is my blood, the blood of the vine." Ter- 
tullian : " Christ d taking bread, and distributing it to his 
disciples, made it his body, saying, This is my body, that 
is, the figure of my body." Origen : " That 6 meat which is 
sanctified by the word of God, and by prayer, as touching 
the material part thereof, goeth into the belly, and is 
voided into the draught : but as touching the prayer 
which is added, according to the portion of faith it is 
made profitable ; enlightening the mind, and making it to 
behold that which is profitable. Neither is it the matter 
of bread, but the word spoken over it, which profiteth 
him that doth not unworthily eat thereof. And these 
things I speak of the typical and symbolical body," saith 
Origen. In the dialogues against the Marcionites, col- 
lected for the most part out of the writings of Maximus, 

b Eum calicem qui est creatura, suum sanguinem qui effusus est, ex quo 
auget nostrum sanguinem ; et eum panem qui est a creatura, suum corpus con- 
firmavit, ex quo nostra auget corpora. Quando ergo et mixtus calix et fractus 
panis percipit verbum Dei, fit eucharistia sanguinis et corporis Christi, ex quibus 
augetur et consistit carnis nostra; substantia. Id. pag. 291. 

c ~Eb\uyr]<Jtv ye tov olvov, litrwv, Aaj3ere, iritTf tovto jxov tori to 
al.(ia,aifia rfJQ afiniXov. Clem. Alex, pxdag. lib. 2. cap. 2. pag. 186. 

d Acceptum panem, et distributum discipulis, corpus suum ilium fecit, Hoc 
est corpus meiun dicendo ; id est, figura corporis mei. Tertull. advers. Marcion. 
lib. 4. cap. 40. 

f ' Ille cibus, qui sanctificatur per verbum Dei perque obsecrationem, juxta id 
quod liabet materiale, in ventrem abit, et in secessum ejicitur: caHerum juxta 
precationem qua; illi accessit proportione fidei fit utilis, efficiens ut perspicax fiat 
animus, spectans ad id quod utile est. Nee materia panis, sed super ilium dictus 
sermo est, qui prodest non indignc Domino coinedenti ilium. Et hsec quidem 
de typico symbolicoquc corporc. Origen. in Matt. torn. xi. op. torn. 3. pig. 


who lived in the time of the emperor- Commodus and 
Severn-, Origen, who U made the chief speaker therein, 
i brought in thus disputing against die heretics: " If f 
Christ, as these men Bay, were without body and blood, 
of what kind of flesh, or of what body, or of what kind of 
blood did be pre the bread and the cup to be images of, 
when be commanded hi- disciples by them to make a com- 
memoration of liim '.' St. Cyprian also noteth, that 8 it 

- wine, even the fruit of the vine, which the Lord said 
bis blood : and that " flour alone or water alone, can- 

' be the body of our Lord, utile--, both he united and 
coupled together, and kneaded into the lump of one 
bread.' And again: that "the 1 Lord calleth bread his 
bod), which is made up by the uniting of many corns : and 
wine his blood, which is pressed out of many clusters of 

gr B ithered into one liquor." Which I find 

also word for word in . i m inner transcribed in the com- 
mentaries Upon the Gospels, attributed unto Theophilu-. 

bop of Antioch 1 ; whereby it appeareth, that in tie 
elder times the word- of the institution were no otherwise 
conceived, than as if Christ had plainlv said, This bread is 
and 'ih>s niiir /s mi/ blood : which i. the main 
thing that we strive for with our adversaries; and for 
which the words then. are plain enough : the sub- 

.. • hereof we find thus laid down in the hannonv of 


-ui fatttv, iiTficiKdr gai ivtupoi «/r, woiat vapubs, i\ t 
rn',,fi,i-i _. /, -r null a'lfiaror, tif&vaQ Siloii ApTOV ri rtfi WOrflptOV, ivtriX- 
- r paQqra'ir ^'« ' " r 'i v &v&ji*ii0i> abrov irmiinOm; 

I) : r- '"in. I. pa 

* Qua in parte invenimus calicem mixtum tuisse (jueri. . obtulit, et w- 

63. pag. 1 OG. 
h \ • farina sola, auf itniinque 

adunatum fuerit et copulatum, et panis unius compage ^>li : I :<id. 

' ' ium pan , il.: in u: lnonun 

adunatione congestion, populum nostrum, quern portahat, indicat adunatum : et sanguinem snum vinum appellat, de hotris atque arin*- 
sum al.jue in unum coactum, gregern item nostrum .-significat, tornmixtionc 
adunatsc multitudinis copulatum. Id. t\ 

'. . ,ch. in evang. lib. 1, pag. 152. torn. 2. biblioth. patr. ti 


the Gospels gathered, as some say. by Tatianns. as others, 
by Ammonius. within the second 01 the third age of 
Christ. " Having 1 taken the bread, then afterward the 
Cup ot' wine, and testified it to be lus body and blood, lie 
commanded them to eat and drink thereof: forasmuch 
as it was the memorial of his future passion and death.*' 

To the fathers of the first three hundred years we will 
now adjoin the testimonies of those that flourished in the 
ages following. The first whereof shall be Eusebius : who 
saith that our Saviour " delivered'- 1 to his disciples the 
symbols o( his divine dispensation, commanding them to 
make the image of his own body : and appointing 11 them to 
use bread for the symbol o( his body :" and that we still 
" celebrate , upon the Lord's table, the memory of his sacri- 
fice, by the symbols o( his bod) and blood, according to 
the ordinances of the New Testament." Aoacius, who 
succeeded him in his bishoprick, saith that "the bread and 
wine sanctifieth them that feed upon that matter:" ac- 
knowledging therein . that the material part of those out- 
ward elements do Still remain. " In the Church," saith 
Maearins. " is offered bread and wine, the type of his flesh 
and blood : and they, which are partakers of the \ isiblo 
bread, ilo spiritual!) eat the flesh of the Lord." Christ, 
saith S. Hierome r , "did not offer water, bnt wine, for the 
type of his blood." St. Augustine bringeth in our Saviour 

1 M,'\ accepto pan?) deinde vini . s esse su - 

t&tus, nuidw - jttssil oi bibere : quod e* sit t\. • . 

Iis>)uo DMUKHMU Amnion. kUDMH ov.uig. loin. 8 bihti 
m | ■ - \ - , - - 

(U ■..-... . . I \ ! | S 

demonst evang. in fine, cap. t 

l . - . . . • -—..■' 

- \ 

\ Id. lib. 1. d em o ns 

* Pa . . \ - 

en. to Peat itench . interp, 

<> '!'• - J :" v .\ ■ - .. - . - rirvmv 

top K M "" • 

T l inis sni traa obtul; 



thus speaking of this matter. " You 5 shall not eat this 
body which you see, nor drink that blood which they shall 
shed that will crucify me. I have commended a certain 
sacrament unto you: that being spiritually understood 
will quicken you." The same father in another place 
writeth, that Christ " admitted' Judas to that banquet, 
wherein he commended and delivered unto his disciples 
the figure of his body and blood:" but, as he elsewhere 
addeth, " they u did eat that bread which was the Lord 
himself; he the bread of the Lord against the Lord.'' 
Lastly: " The w Lord," saith he " did not doubt to say, 
This is my body ; when he gave the sign of his body." 

So the author of the homily upon the 22d Psalm, 
among the works of Chrysostom : " This x table he hath 
prepared for his servants and hand-maids in their sight : that 
he might every day, for a similitude of the body and blood 
of Christ, shew unto us in a sacrament bread and wine 
after the order of Melchisedec." And St. Chrysostom 
himself, in his epistle written to Caesarius, against the he- 
resy of Apollinarius : " As y before the bread be sanctified, 
we call it bread ; but when God's grace hath sanctified it 

s Non hoc corpus quod videtis manducaturi estis, et bibituvi ilium sanguinem, 
quern fusuri sunt qui me crucifigent. Sacramentum aliquod vobis commendavi : 
spiritualiter iutellectum vivificabit vos. Augustin. in Psal. 98. op. torn. 4. pag. 

1 Adhibuit ad convivium, in quo corporis et sanguinis sui figuram discipulis 
commendavit et tradidit. Id. in Psal. 3. op. torn. 4. pag. 7. 

u Illi manducabant panem Dominum : ille panem Domini contra Dominum. 
Id. in evang. Johan. tract. 59. op. torn. 3. pag. 663. 

w Non enim Dominus dubitavit dicere, Hoc est corpus meum ; cum signum 
daret corporis sui. Augustin. contr. Adimant. cap. 12. op. torn. 8- pag. 124. 

x Istam mensam prseparavit servis et ancillis in conspectu eorum, ut quotidie, 
in similitudinem corporis et sanguinis Christi, panem et vinum secundum ordi- 
nem Melchisedec nobis ostenderet in sacramento. In Psal. 22. Chrysost. 

y Sicut enim antequam sanctificetur panis, panem nominamus ; divina ilium 
sanctificante gratia, mediante sacerdote, liberatus est quidem ab appellatione pa- 
nis, dignus autem habitus est Dominici corporis appellatione, etiamsi natura pa- 
nis in ipso permansit : et non duo corpora, sedunum Filii corpus praedicatur ; sic 
et hie, divina inundante corporis natura (vel potius, divina natura in corpore in- 
sidente : Graece enim IviSpvffaatjQ hie legitur, in MS. bibliothecae Florentine 
exemplari, unde ista transtulit Petrus martyr), unum Filium, imam Personam, 
utraque ha3C fecerunt. Chrysost. ad Caesarium monachum. op. torn. 3. pag. 


by the means of the priest, it is delivered from the name 
of bread, and is reputed worthy the name of the Lord's 
body, although the nature of the bread remain still in it ; 
and it is not called two bodies, but one body of God's 
Son : so likewise here, the Divine nature residing in the 
body of Christ, these two make one Son, and one Person." 
In the selfsame manner also do Theodoret, Gelasius, 
and Ephrasmius proceed against the Eutychian heretics. 
Theodoret, for his part, layeth down these grounds ; that 
our Saviour, " in 7 ' the delivery of the mysteries, called 
bread his body, and that which was mixed (in the cup) 
his blood." That " he a changed the names, and gave to 
the body the name of the symbol or sign, and to the 
symbol the name of the body." That he " honoured 15 the 
visible symbols with the name of his body and blood ; not 
changing the nature, but adding grace to nature." And 
that " this most holy food is a symbol and type of those 
things whose names it beareth, to wit, of the body and 
blood of Christ." Gelasius write th thus : " The d sacra- 
ments which we receive, of the body and blood of Christ, 
are a divine thing, by means whereof we are made par- 
takers of the divine nature : and yet the substance or 
nature of bread and wine doth not cease to be. And 

z 'Ev St y« twv iivffTt]pio)v irapaooffei, awfia tov dpTOv itcdXeot, Kal 
alfia to Kpcifia. Theod. dialog. 1. "Arpeirrot;, op. torn. 4. pag. 17. 

a 'O Sk yt awrijp 6 iiiAiTEpoQ 'tvr]\\a%E rd ovojxara' Kal Tip fiiv (Taiwan 
to tov avfifiokov TiQuKtv ovofia, Tip Se (FVjxfioXtf) to tov awfiaroQ. lb. 

b Td opw/isva aiifijioXa Ty tov awfiaTog Kal u'lfiarog Trpoa>]yopia tet[- 
(xtjuev, ov ti)v tpvaiv fiETafia\tjji>, dWa ri)v x^P lv T V 'Pvati TrpoffTtOiiKwi;. 

c <Tvfi(3o\6v ti Kal tvttov tKiivuv, wv Kal Tag 7rpoGt)yopiag iSt^avTO. 

d Certa sacramenta quse sumimus, corporis et sanguinis Christ!, divina res est, 
propter quod, et per eadem, divinae efficimur consortes naturae : et tamen esse 
non desinit substantia, vel natura panis et vini. Et certe imago et similitudo 
corporis et sanguinis Christi in actione mysteriorum celebrantur. Satis ergo 
nobis evidenter ostenditur, hoc nobis in ipso Christo Domino sentiendmn, quod 
in ejus imagine profitemur,celebramus, et sumus : ut, sicut in banc, scilicet in di- 
vinam transeant, Sancto Spiritu perficiente, substantiam, permanentes tamen in 
Silas proprietate naturas ; sic illud ipsum mysterium principale, cujus nobis effi- 
cicntiam virtutemque veraciter rcpreesentant, &c. Gelas. dc duab. natur. in 
Christo, contra Eutychen. 


indeed the image and the similitude of the body and blood 
of Christ are celebrated in the action of the mysteries, 
It appeareth therefore evidently enough unto us, that we 
are to hold the same opinion of the Lord Christ himself, 
which we profess, celebrate, and are, in his image ; that, 
as (those sacraments), by the operation of the Holy Spirit, 
pass into this, that is, into the divine substance, and yet 
remain in the propriety of their own nature : so that prin- 
cipal mystery itself, whose force and virtue they truly 
represent," should be conceived to be : namely, to consist 
of two natures, divine and human ; the one not abolishing 
the truth of the other. Lastly, EphraBmius the patriarch 
of Antioch, having spoken of the distinction of these two 
natures in Christ, and said, that " no e man having under- 
standing could say, that there was the same nature of that 
which could be handled, and of that which could not be 
handled, of that which was visible, and of that which was 
invisible ;" addeth, " and even thus, the body of Christ 
which is received by the faithful (the sacrament he mean- 
eth) doth neither depart from his sensible substance, and 
yet remaineth undivided from intelligible grace : and bap- 
tism, being wholly made spiritual, and remaining one, doth 
both retain the property of his sensible substance (of water, 
I mean), and yet loseth not that which it is made." 

Thus have we produced evidences of all sorts, for con- 
firmation of the doctrine by us professed touching the 
blessed sacrament : which cannot but give sufficient satis- 
faction to all, that with any indifferency will take the matter 
into their consideration. But the men, with whom we 
have to deal, are so far fallen out with the truth, that 
neither sense nor reason, neither authority of Scriptures or 
of fathers, can persuade them to be friends again with it : 

e 'AXX' ovdtig avt'nriiv Svvarai vovv 'i\(>)v, M£ i) avn) (pvaic xpijXwptiTov 
Kai a-^i]\a(j)^TOV, Kai bparoii Kai aoparov, ovnog Kai rb irapa twv rrKTrwu 
Xaiifiavofitvov awfxa xP l<TT °V) K(tl r »K aicQt)Tt]Q ovaiaQ ovk iZiararai 
(Schottus the Jesuit translateth this, ct sensibilis essentia non cognoscitur : 
which is a strange interpretation, if you mark it), Kai rijc vo>jrJ}e ctSiaiptTov 
fiivti \apirog: Kai rb (3diTTiai.ia Se Trvii'fiaTiKov o\ov ytvo/jevov, Kai 'iv 
virapXov, Kai rb 'ISiov Tijg a!aOr)Ti)g ouaiac, tov voarnq Xtyw, diaaut'Ctt, Kai 
d ykyoviv oiik anuKieiv. Ephrsemius de sacris Antiochi* legib. lib. 1. in 
Photii bibliothcca, cod. 229. 


unless we shew unto them in what pope's clays the con- 
trary falsehood was first devised. If nothing else will give 
them content, we must put them in mind that, about the 
time wherein Soter was bishop of Rome, there lived a 
cozening companion, called Marcus, whose qualities are 
thus set out by an ancient Christian, who' was famous in 
those days, though now his name be unknown unto us. 

~El5(jj\o7Toi€ Mapice, icai TtpctToanoire, 
'AarpoXoyuctjg ([nrsipt /ecu fiayiKijg tsxvtjg, 
At' wv KparvvtiQ rijg ttXuvtiq to. SiSdyjiara, 
"S,r]fii1a StiKvvg rolg into gov 7r\av(o[ievoig, ] 
'ATroarariKrjg Svvdfitwg sy%£tp»jjuara, 
"A vol xoprfyt! crbs TraTrjp 'S.arav dti 
At' ayytXnciJQ Swafxtajg A£a£?)A. TtouXv, 
"E^aiv ai TrpoSpo/iov avTiQkov iravovpyiaQ. 

Where first he charge th him to have been an idolmaker; 
then he objecteth unto him his skill in astrology and ma- 
gic, by means whereof, and by the assistance of Satan, he 
laboured, with a shew of miracles, to win credit unto his 
false doctrines, amongst his seduced disciples : and lastly 
he concludeth, that his father the devil had employed him 
as a forerunner of his antithean craft, or his antichristian 
deceivableness of unrighteousness, if you will have it in 
the apostle's language. For he was indeed the de- 
vil's forerunner, both for the idolatries g and sorceries, 
which afterward were brought into the east; and for 
those Romish 1 ' fornications and inchantments, wherewith 
the whole west was corrupted by that man of sin, 
" whose 1 coming" was foretold to be " after the working of 
Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders." 
And that we may keep ourselves within the compass of 
that particular, which now we have in hand : we find in 
Irenaeus, that this arch-heretic made special use of his 
juggling feats, to breed a persuasion in the minds of those 
whom he had perverted, that in the cup of his pretended 
eucharist, he really delivered them blood to drink. For, 
" feigning k himself to consecrate the cups filled with wine, 

f Vet. author, citatus ab Irenaeo, lib. 1. cap. 12. 

e Apoc. chap. 9. ver. 20, 21. h Ibid. chap. 18. ver. 3, 23. 

1 2 Thess. chap. 2. ver. 9. 

k HoTi'ipta ohxp KiKpctfuva Trpoanoiovjiivos tv\api<fTiiv, nal itti lfkiov 


and extending the words of invocation to a great length, 

he made them to appear of a purple and red colour : to 

the end it might be thought that the grace, which is above 

all things, did distil the blood thereof into that cup by his 

invocation." And even according to this precedent we 

find it fell out afterwards ; that the principal and most 

powerful means, whereby the like gross conceit of the 

guttural eating and drinking of the body and blood of 

Christ was at the first fastened upon the multitude, and 

in process of time more deeply rooted in them, were such 

delusions and feigned apparitions as these : which yet that 

great schoolman himself, Alexander of Hales, confesseth 

to happen sometimes either by " the 1 procurement of 

man, or by the operation of the devil." Paschasius Rad- 

bertus, who was one of the first setters forward of this 

doctrine in the west, spendeth a large chapter upon this 

point : wherein he telleth us, that™ Christ in the sacrament 

did shew himself " oftentimes in a visible shape, either in 

the form of a lamb, or in the colour of flesh and blood, so 

that, while the host was a breaking or an offering, a lamb 

in the priest's hands, and blood in the chalice should be 

seen as it were flowing from the sacrifice, that what lay 

hid in a mystery might, to them that yet doubted, be made 

manifest in a miracle." And specially in that place he 

insisteth upon a narration, which he found in gestis An- 

glorum, but deserved well to have been put into gesta 

Romanorum for the goodness of it, of one Plecgils or 

iKTtivwv tuv \6yov rrjg tTracXi'jfftioj;, Troptyvpta Kai tpvGpu avatyaivtaQai, 
ttoiiV wg SoKtiv rt)v dnb tov vrrep ra o\a x"-i )lv T ° cd/ia to tavr!)g ara- 
£tiv iv tw tKttv<i> TTOTiipup Sid Trjg IniKKriat tog avrov. Irenseus, lib. 1. 
cap. 13. pag. 60. 

1 Humana procuratione, vel forte diabolica operatione. Alex. Ilalens. summ. 
theolog. part. 4. quaest. 11. memb. 2. artic. 4. sec. 3. 

m Nemo qui sanctorum vitas et exempla legerit, potest ignorarc, quod saepe 
hsec mystica corporis et sanguinis sacramenta, aut propter dubios, aut certe 
propter ardentius amantes Christum, visibili specie in agni forma, aut in carnis et 
sanguinis colore, monstrata sint ; quatenus de se Christus clementer adhuc non 
credentibus fidemfaceret: ita ut dumoblata frangitur, vel offertur hostia, videre- 
tur agnus in manibus et cruor in calice, quasi ex immolatione profluere ; ut quod 
latebat in mysterio, patesceret adhuc dubitantibus in miraculo. Paschas. de 
rorp. et sangu. Dom. cap. 14. 


Plegilus a priest : how an angel shewed Christ unto him 
in the form of a child upon the altar, whom first he took 
into his arms and kissed, but ate him up afterwards, when 
he was returned to his former shape again. Whereof 
arose that jest, which Berengarius was wont to use : " This" 
was a proper peace of the knave indeed, that whom he 
had kissed with his mouth, he would devour with his 

But there are three other tales of singular note, which, 
though they may justly strive for winning of the whet- 
stone with any other, yet for their antiquity have gained 
credit above the rest : being devised, as it seemeth, much 
about the same time with that other of Plegilus, but 
having relation unto higher times. The first was had out 
of the English legends too, as Johannes Diaconus re- 
porteth it in the life of Gregory the first; of a Roman 
matron, who found a piece of the sacramental bread turned 
into the fashion of a finger, all bloody ; which afterwards, 
upon the prayers of St. Gregory, was converted to his 
former shape again. The other two were first coined by 
the Grecian liars, and from them conveyed unto the Latins, 
and registered in the book which they called Vitas Pa- 
trum : which being commonly believed to have been col- 
lected by St. Hierome p , and accustomed to be read ordi- 
narily in every monastery, gave occasion of further spread, 
and made much way for the progi'ess of this mystery of 
iniquity. The former of these is not only related there q , 
but also in the legend of Simeon Metaphrastes (which is 
such another author among the Grecians, as Jacobus de 
Voragine was among the Latins), in the life 1 " of Arsenius : 

n Speciosa certe pax nebulonis ; ut, cui oris prsebuerat basium, dentium in- 
ferret exitium. Guilielm. Malmesbur. de gestis reg. Anglor. lib. 3, 

° Jo. Diac. vit. Greg. lib. 2. cap. 41. 

P Sanctus Hieronymus presbyter ipsas sanctorum patrum vitas Latino edidit 
sermone. Pascbas. Radbert. in epist. ad Frudegard. Consule libros Carolinos, 
de imaginib. lib. 4. cap. 11. 

1 Inter sententias palrum, a Pelagio Romana? ecclesiae diacono Latine ver- 
sas, libell. 8. cui titulus De providentia vel procidentia : sive, ut in Pholii bib- 
liothecahabetur. cod. 98. Trtpi SiopaTucoiv. 

r Tom. 4. Surii, pag. 257. edit. Colon, ann. 1573. 


how that a little child was seen upon the altar, and an 
angel cutting him into small pieces with a knife, and re- 
ceiving his hlood into the chalice, as long as the priest 
was breaking the bread into little parts. The latter is of 
a certain Jew receiving the sacrament at St. Basil's hands, 
converted visibly into true flesh and blood : which is ex- 
pressed by Cyrus Theodorus Prodromus, in this Tetra- 

XpuTTiavihv Trork 7rat£« 6vr}iro\ir)v "Ef3ep vibe 
" AprovT tieopotov, Kni aWoira Kavut iw' oilvov. 
Tbv S' ujg ovv ivorjae BafftXtiou Kiap ayvbv, 
Tlopavvev 01 (paysetv, tu S' eVi Kpsag alfia t dfit'updt]. 

But the chief author of the fable was a cheating fellow, 
who, that s he might lie with authority, took upon him 
the name of Amphilochius, St. Basil's companion, and set 
out a book of his life fraught* with leasings : as cardinal 
Baronius himself acknowledged. St. Augustine's con- 
clusion therefore may here well take place : " Let u those 
things be taken away, which are either fictions of lying 
men, or wonders wrought by evil spirits. For either there 
is no truth in these reports ; or, if there be any strange 
things done by heretics, we ought the more to beware of 
them ; because, when the Lord had said, that certain 
deceivers should come, who by doing of some wonders 
should seduce, if it were possible, the very elect, he very 
earnestly commended this unto our consideration, and 
said ; Behold, I have told you before ;" yea, and added a 
further charge also, that if these impostors should say unto 
us of him, " behold w , he is in secret closets," we should 

8 Nomen Amphilochii ad mentiendum accepit. Baron, torn. 4. ann. 369. 
sec. 43. 

1 Scatens mendaciis. Id. ibid. ann. 363. sec. 55. 

u Removeantur ista vel figmenta mendacium hominum, vel portentafallacium 
spirituum. Aut enim non sunt vera quae dicuntur : aut si haereticorum aliqua 
mira facta sunt, magis cavere debemus : quod, cum dixisset Dominus quosdam 
futuros esse fallaces, qui nonnulla signa faciendo etiam electos si fieri posset 
fallerent, adjecit vehementer commendans, et ait, Ecce prsedixi vobis. Augustin. 
de unitat. eccles. cap. 16. 

» Matt. chap. 24. ver. 26. 


not believe it: which whether it be applicable to them 
who tell us, that Christ is to be found in a pix, and think 
that they have him in safe custody under lock and key, I 
leave to the consideration of others. 

The thing which now I would have further observed is 
only this, that, as that wretched heretic, who first went 
about to persuade men by his lying wonders, that he really 
delivered blood unto them in the cup of the eucharist, 
was censured for being udwXoTroibg, an idol-maker ; so in 
after ages, from the idol-makers and image-worshippers 
of the east it was, that this gross opinion of the oral 
eating and drinking of Christ in the sacrament drew its 
first breath; God having for their idolatry justly given 
them up unto " a x reprobate mind," that they might " re- 
ceive that recompence of their error which was meet." 
The pope's name, in whose days this fell out, was Gregory 
the third : the man's name, who was the principal setter 
of it abroach, was John Damascene y ; one that laid the 
foundation of school-divinity among the Greeks, as Peter 
Lombard afterwards did among the Latins. On the con- 
trary side, they who opposed the idolatry of those times, 
and more especially the three hundred and thirty-eight 
bishops assembled together at the council of Constanti- 
nople, in the year 754. maintained, that Christ " chose 2 
no other shape or type under heaven to represent his 
incarnation by, but the sacrament ;" which " he a delivered 
to his ministers for a type and a most effectual commemo- 
ration thereof;" " commanding 5 the substance of bread to 
be offered, which did not any way resemble the form of a 
man, that so no occasion might be given of bringing in 
idolatry:" which bread they affirmed to be the body of 
Christ, not fyvou, but Qlau ; that is, as they themselves 

x Rom. chap. 1. ver. 27, 28. 

y Damascen. orthodox, fid. lib. 4. cap. 14. 

z b>g ovk aXKov tlSovg kiriXixQkvrog Trap' avrov iv rij vir' ovpavbv, f) 
tv-ttov UKOvioairt)v avrov acipKoxnv Svva/itvov. 

a tig tvttov icai ava\ivt]aiv ivapytorari)v rolg avrov fivaraig Trapadt- 

b aprov ovffiav iroooiraKi irpoanp'tpioQai, ftr) ffx>mariZovGav avSpw7rov 
HOp(pt)v, 'iva fit) tl8o>\o\arptia 7rapti<ra\9r). 


expound it, " a c holy" and " a d true image of his natural 

These assertions of theirs are to be found in the third 6 
tome of the sixth action of the second council of Nice, 
assembled not long after for the reestablishing of images 
in the Church, where a pratchant deacon, called Epipha- 
nius, to cross that which those former bishops had deli- 
vered, confidently avoucheth, that none of the apostles nor 
of the fathers did ever call the sacrament an image of the 
body of Christ. He confesseth indeed, that some of the 
fathers, as Eustathius expounding the Proverbs of Solo- 
mon, and St. Basil in his Liturgy, do call the bread and 
wine avriTVTra, correspondent types or figures, before 
they were consecrated : " but f after the consecration," 
saith he, " they are called, and are, and believed to be 
the body and blood of Christ properly." Where the pope's 
own followers, who of late published the acts of the gene- 
ral councils at Rome, were so far ashamed of the ignorance 
of this blind Bayard, that they correct his boldness with 
this marginal note. " The g holy gifts are oftentimes found 
to be called antitypes, or figures correspondent, after 
they be consecrated : as by Gregory Nazianzen, in the 
funeral oration upon his sister, and in his apology ; by 
Cyril of Jerusalem in his fifth Cateches. Mystagogic. and 
by others." And we have already heard, how the author 
of the dialogues against the Marcionites, and after him 
Eusebius and Gelasius, expressly call the sacrament an 
image of Christ's body : howsoever this peremptory clerk 
denieth that ever any did so. By all which it may easily 

c to Qkau, i)toi i) Ukujp aurov ciy'ta. 

11 rale rijQ ivxapiGriag aprov, wq aipsudi] sueova ri)c, (pvffacijg aapubg, 
&c. So a little after it is called ijOtOTtapadoTOQ tiK<l>v rijg ffapicbg avrov, 
and dipsvlt/g et/iibv rT;c ivcdpKOV oiKOVOfiiag ^piarov. 

e Concil. gener. torn. 3. pag. 599, 600. edit. Rom. 

( irpb tou ayiaaOijvcu t/cX/;0jj avrlrvira, fiera Si top ayiafffibv awjia 
Kvpiiog teal aljxa %pioTov \tyovrai, Kal tioi, nai mffTevovTai. Ibid, 
pag. G01. 

s ' Avtitv 7ra fitT a. to ayiavQrivai iroWaKig tvpijTai KaXou/xera Ta liyia 
8u>pa' olov TTapd Tprjyop. rip 9eo\. Iv T(ji sic ti)v ddt\(f>t)v Ittit. Kal iv rip 
«7ToXoy. TTapd KvpiWy ItpotroX. KaTtjx- fivar. £ Kai &\\oi£. lb. in mar- 


appear, that not the oppugners, but the defenders of 
images, were the men who first went about herein to alter 
the language used by their forefathers. 

Now as, in the days of Gregory the third, this matter 
was set afoot by Damascene in the east ; so about a hun- 
dred years after, in the papacy of Gregory the fourth, 
the same began to be propounded in the west, by means 
of one Amalarius; who was bishop, not, as he is com- 
monly taken to be, of Triers, but of Metz first, and after- 
wards of Lyons. This man, writing doubtfully of this 
point, otherwhiles followeth the doctrine of St. Augustine, 
that' 1 sacraments were oftentimes called by the names of 
the things themselves ; and so the sacrament of Christ's 
body, was secundum quendam modum, after a certain 
manner, the body of Christ : otherwhiles maketh it a part 
of his belief, " that' the simple nature of the bread and 
wine mixed is turned into a reasonable nature, to wit, of 
the body and blood of Christ." But what should become 
of this body, after the eating thereof, was a matter that 
went beyond his little wit : and therefore said he, " when k 
the body of Christ is taken with a good intention, it is not 
for me to dispute, whether it be invisibly taken up into 
heaven, or kept in our body until the day of our burial, or 
exhaled into the air, or whether it go out of the body with 
the blood (at the opening of a vein), or be sent out by the 
mouth ; our Lord saying that every thing, which entereth 
into the mouth, goeth into the belly, and is sent forth into 
the draught." For this and another like foolery, de triformi 1 
et tripartito corpore Christi, of the three parts or kinds of 

11 Amalar. de ecclesiastic, offic. lib. 1. cap. 24. 

' Hie credimus naturam simplicem panis et vini mixti verti in naturam ra- 
tionabilem, scilicet corporis et sanguinis Christi. Id. lib. 3. cap. 24. 

k Ita vero sumptum corpus Domini bona intentione, non est mihi disputan- 
dum utrum invisibiliter assumatur in coelum, aut reservetur in corpore nostro 
usque in diem sepulturae, aut exhaletur in auras, aut exeat de corpore cum san- 
guine aut per os emittatur; dicente Domino, Omne quod intrat in os in ven- 
trem vadit, et in secessum emittitur. Idem in epistola ad Guitardum, MS. in 
biblioth. colleg. S. Benedict. Cantabrig. cod. 55. 

1 Id. de ecclesiast. offic. lib. 3. cap. 35. 




Christ's body, which seem to be those ineptiae de tripartite) 
Christicorpore, that Paschasius in the end of his epistle en- 
treateth Frudegardus not to follow, he was censured in a 
synod" 1 held at Carisiacum : wherein it was declared by the 
bishops of France, that " the" bread and wine are spiri- 
tually made the body of Christ ; which being a meat of 
the mind, and not of the belly, is not corrupted, but re- 
maineth unto everlasting life." 

These dotages of Amalarius did not only give occasion to 
that question propounded by Heribaldus to Rabanus, 
whereof we have spoken heretofore , but also to that 
other of far greater consequence : Whether that, which 
was externally delivered and received in the sacrament, 
were the very same body which was born of the virgin 
Mary, and suffered upon the cross, and rose again from 
the grave. Paschasius Radbertus, a deacon of those times, 
but somewhat of a better and more modest temper than the 
Greek deacon shewed himself to be of, held that it was 
the very same; and to that purpose wrote his book to 
Placidus, Of the body and blood of our Lord : wherein, 
saith a Jesuit, " he p was the first that did so explicate the 
true sense of the catholic Church (his own Roman he 
meaneth), that he opened the way to those many others, 
who wrote afterwards of the same argument." Rabanus, 
on the other side, in his answer to Heribaldus, and in a 
former writing directed to abbot Egilo, maintained the 
contrary doctrine : as hath before been noted. Then one 
Frudegardus, reading the third book of St. Augustine, De 
doctrina Christiana, and finding there that the eating of 
the flesh, and drinking of the blood of Christ, was a figura- 
tive manner of speech, began somewhat to doubt of the 

ni Flovus in actis synod. Carisiac. MS. apud N. Ranchinnm, in senatu Tolo- 
sano regium consiliarium. Vid. Phil. Morn, de miss. lib. 4. cap. 8. 

n Panis, et vinum, efficitur spiritualiter corpus Cliristi, &c. Mentis ergo est ci- 
bus iste, non ventris : nee corrumpitur, sed permanet in vitam asternam. Ibid, 

° Supra, pag. 23. 

p Genuinum ecclesiae catholicae sensum ita primus explicuit, ut viam caeteris 
aperuerit, qui de ec-ilem arguraento multi postea scripsere. Jac. Sirmond. in vita 
Radberti. Hie auctor primus fuit, qui serio et copiose scripsit de veritate corpo- 
ris et sanguinis Domini in euq)iavistia. Bellarm. de script, ecclesiast. 


truth of that, which formerly he had read in that foresaid 
treatise of Paschasius : which moved Paschasius to write 
again of the same argument, as of a question wherein he 
confesseth many q were then doubtful. But neither by his 
first, nor by his second writing, was he able to take these 
doubts out of men's minds : and therefore Carolus Calvus 
the emperor, being desirous to compose these differences, 
and to have unity settled among his subjects, required 
Ratrannus, a learned man of that time, who lived in the 
monastery of Corbey, whereof Paschasius had been abbat, 
to deliver his judgment touching these points : " Whether 1 " 
the body and blood of Christ, which in the Church is re- 
ceived by the mouth of the faithful, be celebrated in a 
mystery, or in the truth ; and whether it be the same body 
which was born of Mary, which did suffer, was dead and 
buried, and which, rising again and ascending into heaven, 
sitteth at the right hand of the Father?" Whereunto he 
returneth this answer : that " the s bread and the wine 
are the body and blood of Christ figuratively ;" that " for' 
the substance of the creatures, that which they were be- 
fore consecration, the same are they also afterward ;" that 
" they" are called the Lord's body and the Lord's blood, 
because they take the name of that thing, of which they 
are a sacrament ;" and that " there v is a great difference 

1 Quaeris enim de re ex qua multi dubitant. And again : Quamvis multi ex 
hoc dubitent, quomodo ille integer manet, et hoc corpus Christi et sanguis esse 
possit. Paschas. epist. ad Frudegard. 

r Quod in Ecclesia ore fidelium sumitur corpus et sanguis Christi, quaerit 
vestrse magnitudinis excellentia, in mysterio fiat, an in veritate, &c. et utrum 
ipsum corpus sit, quod de Maria natum est, et passum, mortuum et sepultum ; 
quodque resurgens et ccelos ascendens, ad dextram Patris consideat ? Ratrann. 
sive Bertram, in lib. de corp. et sang. Dom. edit. Colon, ann. 1551. pag. ISO. 

s Panis ille, vinumque, figurate Christi corpus et sanguis cxistit. Ibid, 
pag. 183. 

• Nam, secundum creaturarum substantiam, quod fuerunt ante consecratio- 
nem, hoc et postea consistunt. lb. pag. 205. 

u Dominicum corpus et sanguis Dominicus appellantur ; quoniamejus summit 
appellationem, cujus existunt sacramentum. lb. pag. 200. 

v Videmus itaque multa differentia scparari mysterum sanguinis et corporis 
Christi, quod nunc a fidelibus sumitur in Ecclesia, etillud quod natum est de Maria 
virgine; quod passum, quod sepultum, quod resurvexit, quod ca'los asccndit, quod 
ad dextram Patris sedet. Ibid. Pag. 222. 

G 2 


betwixt the mystery of the blood and body of Christ, which 
is taken now by the faithful in the Church, and that which 
was born of the virgin Mary ; which suffered, which was bu- 
ried, which rose again, which sitteth at the right hand of the 
Father." All which he proveth at large, both by w testimonies 
of the holy Scriptures, and by the sayings of the ancient fa- 
thers. Whereupon Turrian the Jesuit is driven, for pure 
need, to shift off the matter with this silly interrogation : 
" To x cite Bertram (so Ratrannus is more usually named) 
what is it else, but to say, that the heresy of Calvin is not 
new?" As if these things were alleged by us for any other 
end, than to shew that this way, which they call heresy, is 
not new ; but hath been trodden in long since, by such as in 
their times were accounted good and catholic teachers in 
the Church. That since they have been esteemed other- 
wise, is an argument of the alteration of the times, and of 
the conversion of the state of things : which is the matter 
that now we are inquiring of, and which our adversaries, 
in an evil hour to them, do so earnestly press us to dis- 

The emperor Charles, unto whom this answer of Ra- 
trannus was directed, had then in his court a famous 
countryman of ours, called Johannes Scotus : who wrote a 
book of the same argument, and to the same effect, that 
the other had done. This man, for his extraordinary 
learning, was in England, where he lived in great account 
with king Alfred, surnamed John the Wise : and had very 
lately a room in the martyrology y of the Church of 
Rome, though now he be ejected thence. We find him 
indeed censured by the Church of Lyons, and others in 
that time, for certain opinions which he delivered touch- 
ing God's foreknowledge and predestination before the 

B Animadvertat, clarissime princeps, sapientia vestra, quod positis sanctarum 
scripturarum testimoniis, et sanctorum patrum dictis evidentissime monstratum 
est; quod panis qui corpus Christi, et calix qui sanguis Christi appellatur, figura 
sit, quia mysteriura : et quod non parva differentia sit inter corpus quod per mys- 
terium existit, et corpus quod passum est, et sepultum, et resurrexit. Ibid. pag. 

x Caeterum, Bertramum citare, quid aliud est, quam dicere, haevesim Calvini 
non esse novam ? Fr. Turrian. de eucharist. contra Volanum, lib. 1, cap. 22. 

y Martyrolog. Rom. IV. Id. Novemb. edit. Antverp. ami. 158(5. 


beginning of the world, man's freewill, and the concur- 
rence thereof with grace in this present world, and the 
manner of the punishment of reprobate men and angels in 
the world to come : but we find not any where that his 
book of the sacrament was condemned before the days of 
Lanfranc 2 , who was the first that leavened the Church of 
England afterward with this corrupt doctrine of the carnal 
presence. Till then, this question of the real presence 
continued still in debate : and it was as free for any man 
to follow the doctrine of Ratrannus or Johannes Scotus 
therein, as that of Paschasius Radbertus, which since the 
time of Satan's loosing obtained the upper hand. " Men a 
have often searched, and do yet often search, how bread, 
that is gathered of corn and through fire's heat baked, 
may be turned to Christ's body ; or how wine, that is 
pressed out of many grapes is turned, through one bless- 
ing, to the Lord's blood :" saith ^.lfrick, abbot of Malmes- 
bury, in his Saxon homily, written about six hundred and 
five years ago. His resolution is not only the same with 
that of Ratrannus, but also in many places directly trans- 
lated out of him : as may appear by these passages follow- 
ing, compared with his Latin laid down in the notes. 

" The b bread and the wine, which by the priest's minis- 
try is hallowed, shew one thing without to men's senses, 
and another thing they call within to believing minds. 
Without they be seen bread and wine both in figure and 
in taste : and they be truly, after their hallowing, Christ's 
body and his blood by spiritual mystery. So c the holy 

''■ Lanfranc. lib. de sacrament, eucharist. contra Berengar. 

a Homilia paschalis, Anglo-Saxonice impressa Londini, per Jo. Daium : ct 
MS. inpublica Cantabrigiensis academiae bibliotheca. 

b Ille panis, qui per sacerdotis ministerium Christi corpus efficitur, alind exte- 
rius humanis sensibus ostendit, etaliud interius fidclium mentibus clamat. Ex- 
terius quidem panis, quod ante fuerat, forma praeteijditur, color ostenditur, sapor 
accipitur : ast interius Christi corpus ostenditur. Ratrann. sivc Bertram, de corp. 
et sangu. Dorn. pag. 182. 

c Considereinus fontem sacri baptismatis, qui fons vitoe non immerito nuncu- 
patur, &c. In eo, si consideretur solumniodo quod corporeus aspicit sensus, ele- 
mentum fluidum conspicitur, corruptioni subjectum ; nee nisi corpora lavandi po- 
tentiam obtinere. Sed accessit Sancti Spiritus per sacerdotis consecrationem vir- 
tus : cteffieax facta est, non solum corpora vcrum etiam animas diluere, et spin- 
tuales sordes spiritual! potentia dimovere, Ecce, in uno eodemque elemento , 


font-water, that is called the well-spring of life, is like 
in shape to other waters, and is subject to corruption : 
but the Holy Ghost's might cometh to the corruptible 
water through the priest's blessing ; and it may after wash 
the body and soul from all sin, by spiritual virtue. Behold 
now we see two things in this one creature : in true nature 
that water is corruptible moisture, and in spiritual mys- 
tery hath healing virtue. So also if we behold that holy 
housel after bodily sense, then see we that it is a creature 
corruptible and mutable. If we acknowledge therein spi- 
ritual virtue, then understand we that life is therein, and 
that it giveth immortality to them that eat it with belief. 
Much d is betwixt the body Christ suffered in, and the 
body that is hallowed to housel. The e body truly that 
Christ suffered in was born of the flesh of Mary, with 
blood and with bone, with skin and with sinews, in human 
limbs, with a reasonable soul living : and his spiritual 
body, which we call the housel, is gathered of many corns; 
without blood and bone, without limb, without soul ; and 
therefore nothing is to be understood therein bodily, but 
spiritually. Whatsoever is in that housel, which giveth 
substance of life, that is spiritual virtue, and invisible 
doing. Certainly' Christ's body, which suffered death and 

duo videmus inesse sibi resistentia, &c. Igitur in proprietate humor corruptibilis, 
in mysterio vero vir'us sanabilis. Sic itaque Christi corpus et sanguis, superficie 
tenus considerata, creatura est, mutabilitati corruptelaeque subjecta : si mysterii 
vero perpendis virtutem, vita est, participantibus se tribuens immortalitem. 
Ibid. pag. 187, 188. 

d Multa differentia separantur corpus, in quo passus est Christus, et hoc cor- 
pus, quod in mysterio passionis Christi quotidie a fidelibus celebratur. Ibid, 
pag. 212, et 222. 

e Ilia namque caro, quae erucifixa est, de virginis carne facta est, ossibus et. 
nervis compacta, et humanorum membrorum lineamentis distincta, rationalis ani- 
mae spiritu vivificata in propriam vitam et congruentes motus. At vero caro 
spirituals, quae populum credentem spiritualiter pascit, secundum speciem quam 
gerit exterius, frumei ti granis manu artificis consistit, nullis nervis ossibusque 
compacta, nulla membrorum varietate distincta, nulla rationali substantia vege- 
tata, nullos proprios potens niotus exercere. Quicquid eniin in ea vitas praebet 
substantiam, spiritualis est potentiae, et invisibilis eflicientiae, divinaeque virtutis. 
Ibid. pag. 214. 

f Corpus Christi, quod mortuum est et resurrexit, et immortale fanctum, jam 
non moritur, etmors illi ultra non doiiiinabitur : aeternum est, necjani passibile. 


rose from death, shall never die henceforth, but is eternal 
and impassible. That housel is temporal, not eternal, 
corruptible and dealed into sundry parts, chewed between 
teeth, and sent into the belly. This 8 mystery is a pledge 
and a figure : Christ's body is truth itself. This pledge 
we do keep mystically, until that we be come to the truth 
itself; and then is this pledge ended. Christ hallowed 
bread and wine to housel before his suffering, and 
said: This is my body and my blood. Yet' 1 he had not 
then suffered : but so notwithstanding he turned, through 
invisible virtue, the bread to his^ own body, and that wine 
to his blood ; as he before did in the wilderness, before 
that he was born to men, when he turned that heavenly 
meat to his flesh, and the flowing water from that stone 
to his own blood. Moses' and Aaron, and many other 
of that people which pleased God, did eat that heavenly 
bread ; and they died not the everlasting death, though 
they died the common. They saw that the heavenly meat 
was visible and corruptible : and they spiritually under- 
stood by that visible thing, and spiritually received it." 

This homily was appointed publicly to be read to the 
people in England, on Easter-day, before they did receive 
the communion. The like matter also was delivered to 
the clergy by the bishops at their synods, out of two or 

Hoc autem, quod in Ecclesia celebratur, temporale est, non seternum; corrupti- 
bile est, non incorruptum, &c. dispartitur ad sumendum, et, dentibus commolitum, 
in corpus trajicitur. Ibid. pag. 216,217. 

s Et hoc corpus pignus est et species : illud vero ipsa Veritas. Hoc enim 
geritur, donee ad illud perveniatur. ubi vero ad illud perventum fuerit, hoc re- 
movebitur. lb. pag. 222. 

h Videmus uondum passum esse Christum, &c. Sicut ergo paulo antequam 
pateretur, panis substantiam et vini creaturam convertere potuit in proprium 
corpus quod passurum erat, et in suum sanguinem qui post fundendus extabat : 
sic etiam in deserto manna et aquam de petra in suam carnem et sanguinem 
convertere prsevaluit, &c. lb. pag. 193. 

' Manducavit et Moses manna, manducavit et Aaron, manducavit et Phinees, 
nianducaverunt ibi multi qui Deo placuerunt; et mortui non sunt. Quare? 
Quia visibilem cibum spiritualiter intellcxerunt, spiritualiter esurierunt, spiritu- 
aliter gustaverunt, ut spiritualiter satiarentur. Ibid. pag. 217. ex Augustin. 
in evang. Johan. tractat. 2(5. 


three writings of the same iElfrick k : in the one whereof, 
directed to Wulffine bishop of Shyrburne, we read thus : 
" That housel is Christ's body, not bodily but spiritually. 
Not the body which he suffered in, but the body of which 
he spake, when he blessed bread and wine to housel, the 
night before his suffering ; and said by the blessed bread, 
This is my body : and again by the holy wine, This is my 
blood, which is shed for many in forgiveness of sins." In 
the other, written to Wulfstane Archbishop of York, thus : 
" The Lord, which hallowed housel before his suffering, 
and saith that the bread was his own body, and that the 
wine was truly his blood, halloweth daily, by the hands of 
the priest, bread to his body and wine to his blood, in 
spiritual mystery, as we read in books. And yet notwith- 
standing, that lively bread is not bodily so, nor the self- 
same body that Christ suffered in : nor that holy wine is 
the Saviour's blood which was shed for us, in bodily thing, 
but in spiritual understanding. Both be truly, that bread 
his body, and that wine also his blood : as was the hea- 
venly bread, which we call manna, that fed forty years 
God's people; and the clear water, which did then run 
from the stone in the wilderness, was truly his blood : as 
Paul wrote in one of his epistles." 

Thus was priest and people taught to believe, in the 
Church of England, toward the end of the tenth, and the 
beginning of the eleventh age after the incarnation of our 
Saviour Christ. And therefore it is not to be wondered, 
that, when Berengarius shortly after stood to maintain this 
doctrine, many 1 both by word and writing disputed for 
him : and not only the English, but also the French al- 
most and the Italians, as Matthew 1 " of Westminster re- 
porteth, were so ready to entertain that which he deli- 
vered. Who, though they were so borne down by the 
power of the pope, who now was grown to his height, 

k Impress. Londini cum homilia pascliali : et MS. in publica Oxoniensis aca- 
demiae bibliotheca, et colleg. S. Benedict. Cantabrig. 

1 Sigebert. Gemblac. et Guiliel. Nangiac. in chronic, arm. 1051. Conrad. 
Bruwilerens. in vita Wolphelmi, apud Surium, April. 22. 

,n Flor. histor. aim. 1087. 


that they durst not make open profession of that which 
they believed : yet many continued, even there where 
Satan had his throne, who privately employed both their 
tongues and their pens in defence of the truth ; as out of 
Zacharias Chrysopolitanus, Rupertus Tuitisensis, and 
others I have elsewhere" shewed. Until at length, in the 
year 1215. pope Innocent the third, in the council of 
Lateran, published it to the Church for an oracle : that 
" the body and blood of Jesus Christ are truly contained 
under the forms of bread and wine ; the bread being tran- 
substantiated into the body, and the wine into the blood, 
by the power of God." And so are we now come to the 
end of this controversy : the original and progress whereof 
I have prosecuted the more at large, because it is of 
gi'eatest importance ; the very life of the mass and all 
massing priests depending thereupon. There followeth 
the third point ; which is 

n De Christian. Eccles. success, et stat. vol. 2. pag. 209, 210,211, 229. 

° Cujus corpus et sanguis, in sacramento altaris, sub speciebus panis et vini 
veraciter continentur ; transubstantiatis pane in corpus, et vino in sanguinem, 
potestate divina. Concil. Lateran. cap. 1. 



Our challenger here telleth us, that the doctors, pas- 
tors and fathers, of the primitive Church, " exhorted the 
people to confess their sins unto their ghostly fathers," 
And we tell him again, that hy the public order prescribed 
in our Church, before the administration of the holy com- 
munion, the minister likewise doth exhort the people, that, 
" if there be any of them, which cannot quiet his own 
conscience, but requireth further comfort or counsel ; he 
should come to him, or some other discreet and learned 
minister of God's word, and open his grief: that he may 
receive such ghostly counsel, advice and comfort, as his 
conscience may be relieved ; and that by the ministry of 
God's word he may receive comfort, and the benefit of 
absolution, to the quieting of his conscience, and avoid- 
ing of all scruple and doubtfulness." Whereby it appear- 
eth, that the exhorting of the people to confess their sins 
unto their ghostly fathers, maketh no such wall of separa- 
tion betwixt the ancient doctors and us, but we may well 
for all this be of the same religion that they were of: and 
consequently, that this doughty champion hath more will 
than skill to manage controversies, who could make no 
wiser choice of points of differences to be insisted upon. 

Be it therefore known unto him, that no kind of con- 
fession, either public or private, is disallowed by us, that 
is any way requisite for the due execution of that ancient 
power of the keys, which Christ bestowed upon his Church: 
the thing which we reject is that new pick-lock of sacra- 
mental confession, obtruded upon men's consciences, as a 
matter necessary to salvation, by the canons of the late 
conventicle of Trent, where those good fathers put their 


curse upon every one, that either shall " deny a , that sa- 
cramental confession was ordained by divine right, and is 
by the same right necessary to salvation :" or shall " af- 
firm 1 ' that, in the sacrament of penance, it is not by the 
ordinance of God necessary for the obtaining of the re- 
mission of sins, to confess all and every one of those 
mortal sins, the memory whereof by due and diligent 
premeditation may be had, even such as are hidden, 
and be against the two last commandments of the Deca- 
logue, together with the circumstances which change the 
kind of the sin ; but that this confession is only profit- 
able to instruct and comfort the penitent, and was anci- 
ently observed, only for the imposing of canonical satisfac- 
tion." This doctrine, I say, we cannot but reject ; as being- 
repugnant to that which we have learned both from the 
Scriptures, and from the fathers. 

For in the Scriptures we find, that the confession, which 
the penitent sinner maketh to God alone, hath the pro- 
mise of forgiveness annexed unto it; which no priest upon 
earth hath power to make void, upon pretence that 
himself, or some of his fellows were not first particularly 
acquainted with the business. " I c acknowledged my sin 
unto thee, and mine iniquity have I not hid : I said, I will 
confess my transgressions unto the Lord; and thou for- 
gavest the iniquity of my sin." And lest we should think 
that this was some peculiar privilege vouchsafed to " the d 
man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God 
of Jacob," the same sweet psalmist of Israel doth pre- 
sently enlarge his note, and inferreth this general conclu- 

a Si quis negaverit, eonfessionem sacramentalem vel institutam, vel ad salu- 
tem necessariam esse jure divino, &c. anathema sit. Concil. Trident, sess. 14. 
Can. 6. 

b Si quis dixerit, in sacramento poenitentiae ad remissionem pcccatorum ne- 
cessarium non esse jure divino, confiteri omnia et singula peccata mortalia, quo- 
rum memoria cum debita et diligent] praemeditatione habeatur, etiam occulta et 
qua; sunt contra duo ultima decalogi praecepta, et circumstantias quae peccati 
speciem mutant, sed earn eonfessionem tantum esse utilem ad erudiendum et 
consolandum pcenitentem, et olim observatam fuisse tantum ad satisfactionem 
canonicam imponendam ; &c. anathema sit. Ibid. cap. 7. 

,; Psalm, 32. ver. 5. < l 2 Sam. chap. 23. ver. 1. 


sion thereupon. " For* this shall every one that is godly 
pray unto thee, in a time when thou mayest be found." 
King Solomon, in his prayer for the people at the dedica- 
tion of the temple, treadeth just in his father's steps. If 
they " turn* (saith he) and pray unto thee in the land of 
their captivity, saying, We have sinned, we have done 
amiss, and have dealt wickedly : if they return to thee 
with all their heart, and with all their soul, &c. forgive 
thy people, which have sinned against thee, all their 
transgressions wherein they have transgressed against 
thee." And the poor publican, putting up his supplica- 
tion in the temple accordingly, " God g be merciful to me 
a sinner," went back to his house justified, without making 
confession to any other ghostly father, but only " the' 1 
Father of spirits," of whom St. John giveth us this assur- 
ance, that " if 1 we confess our sins, he is faithful and 
just, to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all un- 
righteousness.'' Which promise, that it appertained to 
such as did confess their sins unto God, the ancient fa- 
thers were so well assured of, that they cast in a manner 
all upon this confession, and left little or nothing to that 
which was made unto man. Nay, they do not only leave 
it free for men to confess or not confess their sins unto 
others (which is the most that we would have) ; but some 
of them also seem, in words at least, to advise men not to 
do it at all: which is more than we seek for, 

St. Chrysostom of all others is most copious in this ar- 
gument: some of whose passages to this purpose I will 
here lay down. " It k is not necessary (saith he) that thou 
shouldst confess in the presence of witnesses : let the in- 
quiry of thy offences be made in thy thought; let this 
judgment be without a witness; let God only see thee 

c Psalm, 32. ver. G. 

f 2 Chron. chap. 6. ver. 37, 39. 1 Kings, chap. 8. ver. 47, 50. 

& Luke, chap. 8. ver. 13, 14. h Hebr. chap. 12. ver. 9. 

' 1 John, chap. 1. ver. 9. 

k Nunc autem neque necessarium praesentibus testibus confiteri ; cogitatione 
fiat delictorum exquisitio ; absque teste sit hoc judicium. Solus te Dens confi- 
tentem videat. Chrysost. homil. de pcenitent. et confession, torn. 5. edit. Latin. 
Col. 901. edit. Basil, aim. 1558. 


confessing. Therefore 1 I entreat, and beseech and pray 
you, that you would continually make your confession to 
God. For I do not bring thee into the theatre of thy 
fellow-servants, neither do I constrain thee to discover 
thy sins unto men : unclasp thy conscience before God, and 
shew thy wounds unto him, and of him ask a medicine. 
Shew them to Him that will not reproach, but heal thee. 
For although thou hold thy peace, he knoweth all. Let' 11 
us not call ourselves sinners only, but let us recount our 
sins, and repeat every one of them in special. I do not 
say unto the, Bring thyself upon the stage, nor, Accuse thy- 
self unto others : but I counsel thee to obey the prophet, 
saying, Reveal thy way unto the Lord. Confess them be- 
fore God, confess thy sins before the Judge ; praying, if 
not with thy tongue, at least with thy memory : and so 
look to obtain mercy. But" thou art ashamed to say, that 
thou hast sinned. Confess thy faults then daily in thy 
prayer. For do I say, Confess them to thy fellow-servant, 
who may reproach thee therewith ? Confess them to God, 
w T ho healeth them. For, although thou confess them not at 
all, God is not ignorant of them. Wherefore then, tell 

1 Aid rovro TrapaKaXw Kai Stomal Kai dvTtfioXuJ, i^OfxoXoytiuQai o~vvt- 
X&g to) Otip. ovSt yap rig Qiarpov at dyuj rwv GvvSovXujv twv trail', ovSi 
tKKaXlnpai rolg dvOpojirotg dvayKaZio to. d/xapTrifiara' to avvuSbg dvdir- 
Tv'iov t/.nrpoaOtv tov Qtov, Kai aliTw StiZov to. rpaiifiaTa, Kai Trap' avTov 
to. fdpjiaKa aiTijaov. AtX^ov Tip p.t) bvttSiZovTt, dXXd OtpawtvovTC kqv 
yap av aiyr\ayg, oJSev tKtlvog itiravTa. Id. circa finem hom. 5. iztpi d/cara- 
Xi'/tttov, de incomprehensib. Dei natur. op. torn. 1. pag. 490. 

m M/) dfiapTooXovg KaXw/itv iavTovg fiovov, aXXd Kai r« dfiapryfiara 
dvaXoyiL,i'oi.itda, KaT tlSog tKaarov dvaXkyovTig. Ov Xkyio aoi, tKTrofiKtv- 
aov aavToi', obit irapd Toig dXXotg KaTt]ybp>]aov, aXXd iriiBtcrOai avfxfiov- 
Xtvio Tip Trpof))Ty,XtyovTi,'ATroKdXvipov wpbg Kvptov ti)i> odov gov itti 
tov Qtov ravra bfioXoyriaov, Ini tov SiieaffTOv b/.ioXbyti Ta dfiapTlffiara, 
tvxbfitvog, ti Kai /.it) Ty yXwrry aXXd Ty \IVT\\ltj, Kai o'vtwq d^iov iXt>)0>~]- 
vai. Id. in epist. ad Hebr. cap. 12. homil. 31. op. torn. 12. pag. 289. 

" 'AW ai<T%vvy tiTTtiv, Siort i'lfiapTtg. Xtyt avrd Ka9' >)fitpav tv Ty ti'/vij 
aov. Kai ti; fit) yap Xtyto, EiVa Tip avvdovXip T(o 0V£idi%0VTi at ; tint Tip 
Otip Tip 9tpairtvovTL avrd. ov yap, lav /</) tiTryg, dyvott abra b &tvg. Id. 
in Psal. 50. hom. 2. op. torn. 5. pag. 589. 

° Tivog yap tvtKtv aiaxvvy Kai ipv9pidg, ti7rt /xot, Ta d/iapTi'i/jiara 
riwilv ; fit) ydp dvQputTTip Xiyiig, 'iva ovtiSiay crt ; fi)) yap Tip avv- 
lovXip bfioXoytlg, 'iva iKiropirtioy*; Tip StairuTy, Tip Kt]5tfiovi, Tip ft- 


me, art thou ashamed and blushest to confess thy sins? 
For dost thou discover them to a man, that he may re- 
proach thee? Dost thou confess them to thy fellow-ser- 
vant, that he may bring thee upon the stage ? To Him 
who is thy Lord, who hath care of thee, who is kind, 
who is thy physician, thou shewest thy wound. I p con- 
strain thee not, saith God, to go into the midst of the 
theatre, and to make many witnesses of the matter. Con- 
fess thy sin to me alone in private, that I may heal thy 
sore, and free thee from grief. And q this is not only won- 
derful, that he forgiveth us our sins ; but that he neither 
discovereth them, nor maketh them open and manifest, 
nor constraineth us to come forth in public and disclose 
our misdemeanors ; but commandeth us to give an account 
thereof unto him alone, and unto him to make confession 
of them." 

Neither doth St. Chrysostom here walk alone. That 
saying of St. Augustine is to the same effect : " What 1 have 
I to do with men, that they should hear my confessions, as 
though they should heal all my diseases ?" and that col- 
lection of St. Hilary upon the two last verses of the fifty- 
second Psalm, that David there teacheth us " to confess 55 to 
no other but unto the Lord, who hath made the olive 
fruitful with the mercy of hope (or the hope of mercy) for 
ever and ever." And that advice of Pinuphius the vEgyp- 

Xav8ptlnr<p, t<£ laTptjj to Tpav/xa tnidtucvvtiQ. Id. homil. 4. de Lazaro, 
op. torn. 1. pag. 757. 

P Oiik avayKciZo), fi)n\v, ci'c. /xeffov IXOtlv ae Biarpov, kui /lapriipaQ 
7ttpi(JT7)(Tai iroWovg. 'E/zoi to aixupTr]fia Ei7?i fiovtp kut' idiav, 'iva Otpa- 
ttivgoj to 4/\/co£, icai dnaWu'^d) ttjq bcvinjg. Id. ibid. pag. 758. 

1 Ob tovto Si fiovov earl to Oavfiaarrbv, on capita iv i)fxli> tu «/iopr/y- 
fiaTa, dXX' oti avTa oiwi iKicaXvirTti, ovck ttoisi aura <pavepd icai SrjXa, 
ovSt avayKa'Ca irapiXQovTaQ iiq fikoov i^tnruv rd TnivXijjj^iXr]p:iva. dXX' 
aiiTo) fiovijj oVoXoy ijcjucBai KiXivti, (cat 7rpoe. avrbv it,ojxoXoyi)ffaaOai. Id. 
Cateches. 2. op. torn. 2. pag. 210. 

r Quid mini ergo est cum hominibus ut audiant confessiones meas, quasi ipsi 
sanaturi sint omnes languores meos ? Augustin. confess, lib. 10. cap. 3. op. torn. 
1. pag. 171. 

s Confessionis autem caussam addidit, dicens ; Quia fecisti, autorem scilicet 
universitatis hujus Dominum esse confessus ; nulli alii docens confitendum, 
quam qui fecit olivam fructiferam spei niisericordia in seculum seculi. Hilar, in 
Psal. 51. op. pag. 81. 


tian abbot, which I find also inserted amongst the canons* 
collected for the use of the Church of England, in the 
time of the Saxons, under the title, De pcenitentia soli 
Deo confitenda : " Who" is it that cannot humbly say, I 
made my sin known unto thee, and my iniquity have I 
not hid ? that by this confession he may confidently adjoin 
that which followeth : and thou forgavest the impiety of 
my heart. But if shamefacedness do so draw thee back, 
that thou blushest to reveal them before men ; cease not 
by continual supplication to confess them unto Him from 
whom they cannot be hid: and to say, I know mine ini- 
quity, and my sin is against me always ; to thee only have 
I sinned, and done evil before thee : whose custom is, both 
to cure without the publishing of any shame, and to for- 
give sins without upbraiding." St. Augustine, Cassiodor, 
and Gregory make a further observation upon that place 
of the thirty-second Psalm : " I said, I will confess my 
transgressions unto the Lord ; and thou forgavest the 
iniquity of my sin ;" that God, upon the only promise and 
purpose of making this confession, did forgive the sin, 
" Mark x ," saith Gregory, " how great the swiftness is of 
this vital indulgence, how great the commendation is of 
God's mercy ; that pardon should accompany the very 
desire of him that is about to confess, before that repent- 
ance do come to afflict him ; and remission should come 
to the heart, before that confession did break forth by the 
voice." So St. Basil, upon those other words of the 

i Antiq. lib. canon. 0(5. titulorum, MS. in bibliotheca Cottoniana. 

u Quis est qui non possit suppliciter dicere, Peccatum racura coguitum tibi 
feci, et injustitiam meam non operui ? ut per banc eonfes^ionem etiam illud confi- 
denter subjungcre mereatur : Et tu remisisti impietatem cordis mei. Quod si, 
verecundia retrabente, revelare ea coram hominibus erubescis, illi, qucm latere 
non possunt, confiteri ea jugi supplicatione non desinas, ac dicere Iniquitatem 
meam ego cognosco, et peccatum meum contra me est semper : tibi soli peccavi 
et malum coram te feci : qui et absque ullius verecundiae publicatione curare, et 
sine improperio peccata donare consuevit. Jo. Cassian. collat. 20. cap. 8. 

x Attcnde quanta sit indulgentioc vitalis velocitas, quanta misericordise Dei 
commendatio : ut confitentis dcsiderium coniitetur venia, antequam adcruciatum 
perveniat pcenitentia ; ante remissio ad cor perveniat, quain confessio in voccm 
erumpat. Greg, exposit. 2. Psal. Pccnitential. op. torn. 3. par. 2. pag. 17f>. 


Psalmist, " I y have roared by reason of the disquietness 
of my heart," maketh this paraphrase : " I z do not con- 
fess with my lips, that I may manifest myself unto many ; 
but inwardly in my very heart, shutting mine eyes, to 
thee alone, who seest the things that are in secret, do I 
shew my groans, roaring within myself. For the groans 
of my heart sufficed for a confession, and the lamentations 
sent to thee my God from the depth of my soul." 

And as St. Basil maketh the groans of the heart to be a 
sufficient confession, so doth St. Ambrose the tears of the 
penitent. " Tears 3 ," saith he, " do wash the sin, which 
the voice is ashamed to confess. Weeping doth provide 
both for pardon and for shamefacedness : tears do speak 
our fault without horror, tears do confess our crime with- 
out offence of our shamefacedness." From whence, he that 
glosseth upon Gratian, who hath inserted these words of 
St. Ambrose into his collection of the decrees, doth infer, 
that, " if b for shame a man will not confess, tears alone 
do blot out his sin." Maximus Taurinensis followeth St. 
Ambrose herein almost verbatim. " The tear c ," saith 
he, " washeth the sin, which the voice is ashamed to 
confess. Tears therefore do equally provide both for our 
shamefacedness and for our health : they neither blush in 
asking, and they obtain in requesting." Lastly, Prosper, 

r Psal. 38. ver 8. 

z Ou ydp 'iva Toig TroXXolig (pavtpbt; ytvio/iat, toiq xt'iKtoiv i^o/xoXoyov- 
fiai. ivfiov fie iv auTyry Kapdia to ofijia fivtov, (Tot fiovijj rtp j3XkTrovri rd 
iv KpVTTT({), roiig tjxavTov <TTtvayp,ovg liridtiKvixx), tv ifiavr<i> upvofisvog. 
OvSe yap fiaicpujv fioi \6ywv \P e ' a V v Tp"G T"H V IZofioXoyqoiv. cnriipKOW 
yap ol artvayjxol ti]q KapSiag fiov npbg t^OfioXoyr/mv, icai oi and (3d9ovg 
^"xOc TrpoQ &£ T bv Qtbv avaTri/nro/itvoi ocvppoi. Basil, in Psal. 37. op. 
torn. 1. pag. 367. 

a Lavant lachrymse delictum, quod voce pudor est confiteri. Et venise fletus 
consulunt, et verecundise : lachrymae sine horrore culpam loquuntur; lachrymae 
crimen sine offensione verecundiae confitentur. Ambros. lib. 10. comment, in 
Luc. sec. 88. op. torn. 1. pag. 1523. 

b Unde, etsi propter pudorem nolit quis confiteri, soles lachrymae delent pec- 
cata. Gloss, de Pcenit. distinct. 1. cap. 2. Lachrymae. 

c Lavat lachryma delictum, quod voce pudor est confiteri. Lachrymae ergo 
verecundiae consulunt, pariter et saluti ; nee erubescunt in petendo, et impetrant 
in rogando. Maxim, homil. de pcenitent. Petri, torn. 5. biblioth. patr. part. 1. 
pag. 21. edit. Colon. 


speaking of sins committed by such as are in the ministry, 
write th thus : " They d shall more easily appease God, who, 
being not convicted by human judgment, do of their own 
accord acknowledge their offence : who either do discover 
it by their own confessions, or, others not knowing what 
they are in secret, do themselves give sentence of volun- 
tary excommunication upon themselves ; and being sepa- 
rated, not in mind but in office, from the altar to which 
they did minister, do lament their life as dead ; assuring 
themselves, that, God being reconciled unto them by the 
fruits of effectual repentance, they shall not only receive 
what they have lost, but also, being made citizens of that 
city which is above, they shall come to everlasting joys." 
By this it appeareth, that the ancient fathers did not 
think, that the remission of sins was so tied unto external 
confession, that a man might not look for salvation from 
God, if he concealed his faults from man: but that inward 
contrition, and confession made to God alone, was suffi- 
cient in this case. Otherwise, neither they nor we do 
debar men from opening their grievances unto the physi- 
cians of their souls ; either for their better information in 
the true state of their disease, or for the quieting of their 
troubled consciences, or for receiving further direction 
from them out of God's word, both for the recovery of 
their present sickness, and for the prevention of the like 
danger in time to come. 

" If e I shall sin, although it be in any small offence, and 
my thought do consume me, and accuse me, saying : Why 

d Deum sibi facilius placabunt illi, qui non humano convictijudicio, sedultro, 
crimen agnoscunt : qui aut propriis illud confessionibus produnt, aut nescientibus 
aliis quales occulti sunt, ipsi in se voluntaria; excomniunicationis sententiam fe- 
runt, et ab altaii cui ministrabant, non animo sed officio separati, vitam tan- 
quam mortuam plangunt ; certi quod, reconciliato sibi efficacis poenitentioe fructi- 
bus Deo, non solum amissa recipiant, sed etiam cives supernse civitatis effecti, ad 
gaudia sempiterna perveniant. Prosper, de vita contemplativa, lib. 2. cap. 7. 

e Si peccavero, etiam in quocunque minuto peccato, et consumit me cogi- 
tatio mea, et arguit me, dicens : Quare peccasti .' quid faciam ? Respondet se- 
nex : Quacunque hora ceciderit homo in culpam, et dixcrit ex corde, Domine 
Deus, peccavi, indulge mihi ; mox cessabit cogitationis vel tristitiac ilia consump- 
tio. Respons. patr. .(Egypt, aPaschasio diacono Latine ver. cap. 11. 



hast thou sinned ? what shall I do ?" said a brother once 
to abbot Arsenius. The old man answered : " Whatso- 
ever hour a man shall foil into a fault, and shall say from 
his heart, Lord God, I have sinned, grant me pardon ; 
that consumption of thought or heaviness shall cease forth- 
with." And it was as good a remedy as could be pre- 
scribed for a green wound, to take it in hand presently, 
to present it to the view of our heavenly physician, to 
prevent 1 Satan by taking his office (as it were) out of his 
hand, and accusing 5 ourselves first, that we may be justi- 
fied. But when it is not taken in time, but suffered to 
fester and rankle, the cure will not now prove to be so 
easy : it being found true by often experience, that the 
wounded conscience will still pinch grievously, notwith- 
standing the confession made unto God in secret. At 
such a time as this then, where the sinner can find no ease 
at home, what should he do but use the best means he can 
to find it abroad? " Is' 1 there no balm in Gilead? is there 
no physician there ?" No doubt but God hath provided 
both the one and the other, for " recovering of the 
health of the daughter of his people :" and St. James 
hath herein given us this direction, " Confess' your faults 
one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be 
healed. According to which prescription Gregory Nyssen, 
toward the end of his sermon of Repentance, useth this 
exhortation to the sinner. " Be k sensible of the disease 

f Novit omnia Dominus, sed expectat vocem tuam ; non ut puniat, sed ut 
ignoscat : non vult ut insultet tibi diabolus, et celantem peccata tua arguat. 
Praeveni accusatorem tuum : si te ipse accusaveris, accusatorem nullum timebis. 
Ambr. de pcenitent. lib. 2. cap. 7. op. torn. 2. pag. 428. 

M/} yap ab, GavTov tav /irj lliryg dfiaprcoXbv, ovk £'%£(£ Karqyopov 
tov FiafioXov ; TrpoXafit Kai upnaaov avTOv to d^iw/ia, iKtivov 
yap aKloj/ia to KaTtjyopelv. t'i ovv ov TrpoXa^ij3dviig avrbv, Kai Xtyeig 
ti)v cifiapTiai', Kai lZ,aXti(j>tig to dfidpTii/ia, tibwg 'on toiovtov Karqyopov 
*X a £ "'tyO " 1 A") Svva/itvov ; Chrysost. de pcenit. serm. 2. torn. 2. pag. 287. 

e Asyt ab rug avofiiag gov irpStrog, 'iva diKauoOrjg. lxx. in Esai. cap. 
43. ver. 26. et Proverb, cap. 18. ver. 17. 

b Jerem. chap. 8. ver. 22. ' Jam. chap. 5. ver. 16. 

k TLuaiaQiiTog •yii-'oi/ -rtpbg Tt)v Trcpd^ovadu ffe vogov. GUPTpi\j/ov ffai- 
tov oaov dvvaaai. Z,i\t)\gov ko.1 ddtXtywv bfioipvxwv 7rkv6og fiotiOovv Got 
7rpt>c Tt)v iXivQcpiav. dei%6v /xoi irixpbv gov Kai SaipiXig to SctKpvoi', 'iva 


wherewith thou art taken, afflict thyself as much as thou 
canst. Seek also the mourning of thy entirely affected 
brethren, to help thee unto liberty. Shew me thy bitter 
and abundant tears, that I may also mingle mine there- 
with. Take likewise the priest for a partner of thine 
affliction, as thy father. For who is it that so falsely ob- 
taineth the name of a father, or hath so adamantine a 
soul, that he will not condole with his son's lamenting ? 
Shew unto him without blushing the things that were kept 
close : discover the secrets of thy soul, as shewing thy 
hidden disease unto thy physician. He will have care 
both of thy credit and of thy cure." 

It was no part of his meaning to advise us, that we 
should open ourselves in this manner unto every hedge- 
priest ; as if there were a virtue generally annexed to the 
order, that, upon confession made, and absolution re- 
ceived from any of that rank, all should be straight made 
up : but he would have us communicate our case both to 
such Christian brethren, and to such a ghostly father, as 
had skill in physic of this kind, and out of a fellow-feeling 
of our grief would apply themselves to our recovery. 
Therefore, saith Origen, " Look 1 about thee diligently, 
unto whom thou oughtest to confess thy sin. Try first 
the physician, unto whom thou oughtest to declare the 
cause of thy malady, who knoweth to be weak with him 
that is weak, to weep with him that weepeth, who under- 
standeth the discipline of condoling and compassionating ; 
that so at length, if he shall say any thing, who hath first 

/ui£w kcci to Ifxbv. Xdfit Kai tov upka koiviovov Trjg QXiipeyg, wg vartpa. 
Tig yap ourwg irarnp iptvSijjvvfiog, »; T))v i^vx>)v dSaj.idvTii>og, u>c fii) rrvv- 
o$vpea6ai rolg rkicvoig Xvirovfikvoig ; &c. Sei^ov aorij) c'tvepvOpiacrruig rd 
KeKpyfifikvcv yifivwcrov rd r?)g ipvxrjg dnopp^ra, iog larpiii ndOog Seiki>vu)V 
KSKaXv/xfikvov. auTog itvifitXymrai. ical rrjg tvaxiiiioavvijg Kai rrjg Qtpa- 
irtiag. Greg. Nyssen. de poenitent. op. torn. 2. pag. 175, 176. 

1 Tantummodo circumspice diligentius, cui dcbeas confiteri peccatum tuum. 
Proba prius medicum, cui debeas causam Ianguoris exponcre ; qui sciat infirmari 
cum infirmante, flere cum flentc, qui condolendi et compatiendi novcrit disci- 
plinam : ut ita demum, si quid ille dixerit, qui se prius et eruditum medicum 
ostenderit et misericordem, si quid consilii dederit, facias et sequaris. Orig. in 
Psal. 37. hom. 2. op. torn. 2. pag. CSS. 

n 2 


shewed himself to be both a skilful physician and a mer- 
ciful, or if he shall give any counsel, thou mayest do and 
follow it." For, as St. Basil well noteth, " the" 1 very same 
course is to be held in the confession of sins, which is in 
the opening of the diseases of the body. As men there- 
fore do not discover the diseases of their body to all, nor 
to every sort of people, but to those that are skilful in the 
cure thereof: even so ought the confession of our sins to 
be made unto such as are able to cure them ; according to 
that which is written, Ye, that are strong, bear the infir- 
mities of the weak, that is, take them away by your dili- 
gence." He requireth care and diligence in the perform- 
ance of the cure : being ignorant, good man, of that new 
compendious method of healing, invented by our Roman 
Paracelsians, whereby a man, " in" confession, of attrite is 
made contrite by virtue of the keys ;" that the sinner need 
put his ghostly father to no further trouble than this, 
" Speak the word only, and I shall be healed." And this is 
that sacramental confession, devised of late by the priests 
of Rome, which they notwithstanding would fain father 
upon St. Peter, from whom the Church of Rome, as they 
would have us believe, received this instruction: "that 
if envy, or infidelity, or any other evil, did secretly creep 
into any man's heart, he, who had care of his own soul, 
should not be ashamed to confess those things unto him 
who had the oversight over him ; that by God's word and 
wholesome counsel he might be cured by him." And so 

™ 'H i%ay6ptv<jig twv ctfiapri]fidrii)i> tovtov t%£i tov Xoyov, ov t^ei »'; 
tTriStiliig Twv o~wj.uitikwv iraQwv. wg ovv ra iraQi] tov awfjaTog ov Traoiv 
airoKaKviTTOvaiv 01 dvOpWTroi, ovte Tolg rvj^ovtrtv, dXXd rolg tfnreipoig rijg 
tovtwv Qtpantiag' ovtw Kai »'; i^ayoptvaig twv anapT7][iaru>v yivtaOni 
6<pu\n, e7Ti twv dwctfiiviov Gepcnrtvuv, /card to yiy pa fifikvov iifielg ol 
Suvaroi, ra aoBtvimara Twv dSvvaTwv (iaaTdZsrs, tovt'wjti, aiptTi Sid 
TijQ tTTi/iiXuag. Basil, in regul. brevioribus reip. 229. op. torn. 2. pag. 492. 

" Secundum archiepisc. imo sanctum Thomam, et alios theologos, in con- 
fessione fit quis de attrito contritus, virtute clavium. Summa Sylvestrina : de 
confess, sacramental, cap. 1. sec. 1. 

Quod si forte alicujus cor vel livor, vel infidelitas, vel aliquod malum laten- 
ter irrepserit ; non erubescat, qui animse suae curam gerit, confiteri hose huic 
qui prseest: ut ab ipso per verbum Dei et consilium salubre curetur. Clem, 
epist. 1. apud Coteler. torn. 1. pag. G18. 


indeed we read in the apocryphal epistle of Clement, pre- 
tended to be written unto St. James the brother of our 
Lord, where, in the several editions of Crab, Sichardus, Ven- 
radius, Surius, Nicholinus, and Binius, we find this note also 
laid down in the margin ; " Nota de confessione sacra- 
mentali : mark this of sacramental confession." But their 
own Maldonat p would have taught them, that this note 
was not worth the marking : forasmuch as the proper end 
of sacramental confession is the obtaining of remission of 
sins, by virtue of the keys of the Church ; whereas the 
end of the confession, here said to be commended by St. 
Peter, was the obtaining of counsel out of God's word for 
the remedy of sins : which kind of medicinal confession we 
well approve of, and acknowledge to have been ordina- 
rily prescribed by the ancient fathers, for the cure of se- 
cret sins. 

For as for notorious offences, which bred open scandal, 
private confession was not thought sufficient : but there 
was further required public acknowledgment of the fault, 
and the solemn use of the keys, for the reconciliation of 
the penitent. " If 1 his sin do not only redound to his 
own evil, but also unto much scandal of others, and the 
bishop thinketh it to be expedient for the profit of the 
Church, let him not refuse to perform his penance in the 
knowledge of many, or of the whole people also ; let him 
not resist, let him not by his shamefacedness add swell- 
ing to his deadly and mortal wound :" saith St. Augustine; 
and more largely in another place, where he meeteth with 
the objection of the sufficiency of internal repentance, in 
this manner : " Let 1 no man say unto himself, I do it 

p Maldonat. disputat. de sacrament, tom. 2. de confessionis origine, cap. 2. 

'i Si peccatum ejus non solum in gravi ejus malo, sed etiain in tanto scandalo 
est aliornm, atque hoc expedire ntilitati Ecclesia; videtur antistiti, in notilia 
multorum, vel etiam totius plebis, agere pcenitentiam non recuset ; non resistat ; 
non lethali et mortiferoe plagse per pudorem addat tumorem. Augustin. serm. 
351. de pcenitentia, op. tom. 5. pag. 1359. 

r Nemo sibi dicat, Occulte ago, apud Deum ago ; novit Deus qui mihi ignoscat, 
quia in cordc meo ago. Ergo sine causa dictum est, Quae solveritis in terra, soluta 
erunt in ccelo ? Ergo sine causa sunt claves data; Ecclesia; Dei? Frustrainus 
evangclium, Frustramus verba Christi ? Promittimus vobis quod ille negat ■ 


secretly, I do it before God ; God who pardoneth me doth 
know that I do it in my heart. Is it therefore said without 
cause, Whatsoever you shall loose on earth, shall be loosed 
in heaven ? Are the keys therefore without cause given unto 
the Church of God ? Do we frustrate the Gospel of God ? 
Do we frustrate the words of Christ ? Do we promise that to 
you which he denieth you ? Do we not deceive you ? Job 
saith, If I was abashed to confess my sins in the sight of the 
people. So just a man of God's rich treasure, who was 
tried in such a furnace, saith thus : and doth the child of 
pestilence withstand me, and is ashamed to bow his knee 
under the blessing of God ? That, which the emperor was 
not ashamed to do, is he ashamed of, who is not so much 
as a senator, but only a simple courtier ? O proud neck, 
O crooked mind ! perhaps, nay it is not to be doubted, it 
was for this reason God would that Theodosius the empe- 
ror should do public penance in the sight of the people, 
especially because his sin could not be concealed : and is 
a senator ashamed of that, whereof the emperor was not 
ashamed ? Is he ashamed of that, who is no senator but a 
courtier only, whereof the emperor was not ashamed ? Is 
one of the vulgar sort, or a trader, ashamed of that, 
whereof the emperor was not ashamed ? What pride is 
this ? Were not this alone sufficient to bring them to hell, 
although no adultery had been committed ?" Thus far 
St. Augustine, concerning the necessity of public repent- 
ance for known offences : which being in tract of time dis- 
used in some places, long after this, the bishops s of France, 
by the assistance of Charles the great, caused it to be 

Nonne vos decipimus ? Job elicit : " Si erubui, in conspectu populi confiteri pec- 
cata mea." Talis Justus, thesauri divini obryzium, tali camino probatus, ista 
dicit : et resistit mihi Alius pestilentiae, et erubescit genu figere sub benedictione 
Dei? Quod non erubuit imperator, erubescit nee senator, sed tantum curia- 
lis 1 Superba cervix, mens tortuosa ! fortassis, imo quod non dubitatur, prop- 
terea Deus voluit ut Theodosius imperator ageret pcenitentiam publicam in con- 
spectu populi, maxime quia peccatum ejus celari non potuit : et erubescit sena- 
tor, quod non erubuit imperator ? Erubescit nee senator, sed tantum curialis, 
quod non erubuit imperator ? Erubescit plebeius sive negotiator, quod non 
erubuit imperator ? Quae ista superbia est ? Nonne sola sufficeret gehennas, 
etiamsi adulterium nullum esset ? Id. serm. 392. op. torn. 5. pag. 1501. 
s Concil. Arelat. IV. cap. 2G. et Cabilonens. II. cap. 25. 


brought in use again, according to the order of the old 

Neither is it here to be omitted, that, in the time of the 
more ancient fathers, this strict discipline was not so re- 
strained to the censure of public crimes, but that private 
transgressions also were sometimes brought within the 
compass of it. For whereas at first public confession was 
enjoined only for public offences ; men afterwards dis- 
cerning what great benefit redounded to the penitents 
thereby ; as well for the subduing of the stubbornness of 
their hard hearts, and the furthering of their deeper humi- 
liation, as for their raising up again by those sensible 
comforts, which they received by the public prayers of the 
congregation and the use of the keys ; some men, I say, 
discerning this, and finding their own consciences bur- 
dened with the like sins, which, being carried in secrecy, 
were not subject to the censures of the Church ; to the 
end they might obtain the like consolation and quiet of 
mind, did voluntarily submit themselves to the Church's 
discipline herein, and undergo the burden of public con- 
fession and penance. This appeareth by Origen, in his 
second homily upon the thirty-seventh Psalm : Tertullian 
in his book De pcenitentia, chapter nine : St. Cyprian in 
his treatise De lapsis, section twenty-three (or eleven, 
according to Pamelius his distinction) : St. Ambrose in 
his first book De pcenitentia, chapter sixteen: and others. 
And to the end that this publication of secret faults might 
be performed in the best manner : some prudent minister 
was first of all made acquainted therewith ; by whose di- 
rection the delinquent might understand what sins were 
fit to be brought to the public notice of the Church, and 
in what manner the penance was to be performed for 
them. Therefore did Origen advise, as we heard, that 
one should use great care in making choice of a good and 
skilful physician, to whom he should disclose his grief in 
this kind ; and " if 1 he understand (saith he) and foresee 

1 Si intellexerit, et prseviderit, talem esse languorem tuum qui in convcntu 
totius Ecclcsioe exponi debcat, ct curari, ex quo fortassis et caeteii acdificari 
potcrunt, et tu ipse facile sanari j multa hoc deliberatione, el satis perito 


that thy disease is such as ought to be declared in the 
assembly of the whole Church, and cured there, whereby 
peradventure both others may be edified, and thou thy- 
self more easily healed ; with much deliberation, and by 
the very skilful counsel of that physician, must this be 

But within a while, shortly after the persecution raised 
in the days of Decius the emperor, it was no longer left 
free to the penitent to make choice of his ghostly father : 
but by the general consent of the bishops it was ordained, 
that in every Church one certain discreet minister should 
be appointed to receive the confessions of such as re- 
lapsed into sin after baptism. This is that addition, which 
Socrates", in his ecclesiastical history, noteth to have been 
then made unto the penitential canon ; and to have been 
observed by the governors of the Church for a long time : 
until at length in the time of Nectarius bishop of Constanti- 
nople, which was about one hundred and forty years after 
the persecution of Decius, upon occasion of an infamy 
drawn upon the clergy, by the confession of a gentlewo- 
man defiled by a deacon in that city, it was thought fit it 
should be abolished ; and that liberty w should be given unto 
every one, upon the private examination of his own con- 
science, to resort to the holy communion. Which was 
agreeable both to the rule of the apostle x , " Let a man 
examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and 
drink of that cup:" and to the judgment of the more an- 
cient fathers ; as appeareth by Clemens Alexandrinus, 
who accounteth a man's own conscience to be his best y 
director in this case ; howsoever our new masters of Trent 2 

medici illius consilio procurandum est. Origen. in Psal. 37. horn. 2. op. torn. 2. 
pag. 688. 

u Ot eiriGKOiroi ruiv e/cicXjjtrtwv tcavovi tov TrpiafivTipov t'ov iici rj/c. 
uETavoiag TrpoatOtaav. Socrat. hist. lib. 5. cap. 19. 

w ciiy^wpi/frt' dt 'iicaoTOv T(f) iSUj) (juvaSoTi rwv nvffTijpiuiv fiiTtxuv. 
Socrat. ib. <Ti>y%wp£i v ekciotov, aic, tiv tavriji avvtiStit] /cai Qapptiv dvvatro, 
KOivMVtiv Tthv fivaTi]pi.(iU>. Sozom. lib. 7. hist. cap. 16. 

x 1 Cor. chap. 11. ver. 28. 

y 'Apirrri] yap irpbc; rt)v aicpifirj a'ipimi' ri Ktil <pvyi)i>, >) cvvtidtjaiQ. 
Clem. Alexandr. lib. -1. Strom. 

1 Concil. Trident, sess. 13. can. 11. 


have not only determined, that " sacramental confession 
must necessarily be premised" before the receiving of the 
eucharist ; but also have pronounced them to be excom- 
municate ipso facto, that shall presume to teach the 

The case then, if these men's censures were aught 
worth, would go hard with Nectarius, and all the bishops 
that followed him ; but especially with St. John Chrysos- 
tom, who was his immediate successor in the see of Con- 
stantinople : for thus doth he expound that place of the 
apostle : " Let a every one examine himself, and then let 
him come. He doth not bid one man to examine another, 
but every one himself; making the judgment private, and 
the trial without witnesses :" and in the end of his second 
homily Of fasting (which in others is the eighth De pceni- 
tentia) frameth his exhortation accordingly. " Within b 
thy conscience, none being present but God who seeth all 
things, enter thou into judgment, and into a search of thy 
sins; and, recounting thy whole life, bring thy sins unto 
judgment in thy mind : reform thy excesses ; and so with 
a pure conscience draw near to that sacred table, and 
partake of that holy sacrifice." Yet in another place he 
deeply chargeth ministers, not to admit known offenders 
unto the communion. " But c if one (saith he) be ignorant 
that he is an evil person, after that he hath used much 
diligence therein, he is not to be blamed ; for these things 
are spoken by me of such as are known." And we find 
both in him, and in the practice of the times following, 

a AoKifia^ETw 5k iavruv iKaarog, Kai ran. izpouiru). Kai oi>x' 'iftpov 
tripif) KiKiini SoKipuaai, aU' avTov iavrbv, aSrjpoaievTov noiwv to 
^iKadTi]piov,ufiapTvpov tov 'iXiyxov. Chrysost. in 1 Cor. cap. 11. homil. 28. 
op. torn. 10. pag. 250. 

b "Evdov iv r<p avi'tivoTi, fitjSevbs TrapoVTog, 7r\>)v tov ttcu>to. opwvrog 
Qtoii, 7TOIOV tj)v Kpimv, Kai rS>v t)p,aprt]pivuv t>)v i%tra<riv, ical ndvra 
rbv (3iov avaXoyi'iofitvog, vtto tov vov to KpiTt'ipiov aye tu Ufiaprtifiara, 
FiopOov T(\ ■n\rmiLi\iip.a.Ta, Kai ovtoj fiera KaOapov tov awtiSoTog rwg 
hpag U7TTOV Tpcnrt'OiG, i:ai Trig ayiag ^.trex* Ovviac. Id. op. torn. 2. 
pag. 326. 

c 'Ei St i)yvo>)ci't Tir top (ftavKov TroWd ntpupyatrdfitvog, ovciv tyK\ij- 
pa- Tavra yap poi ntpi riiic oijXwi 1 eipjjrai. Id. in line hoin. 82. in Matt, 
op. torn. 7. pag. 700. 


that the order of public penance was not wholly taken 
aw T ay ; but, according to the ancient discipline established 
by the apostles in the Church, open offenders were openly 
censured, and pressed to make public confession of their 
faults. Whereby it is manifest, that the liberty brought 
in by Nectarius, of not resorting to any penitentiary, re- 
spected the disclosing of secret sins only ; such as that 
foul one was, from whence the public scandal arose, 
which gave occasion to the repeal of the former constitu- 
tion. For to suffer open and notorious crimes, committed 
in the Church, to pass without control, was not a mean 
to prevent, but to augment scandals ; nay the ready way 
to make the house of God become a den of thieves. 

Two observations more I will add upon this part of the 
history. The one : that the abrogation of this canon shew- 
eth, that the form of confession used by the ancient was 
canonical, that is, appertaining to that external discipline of 
the Church, which upon just occasion might be altered ; 
and not sacramental, and of perpetual right, which is that 
our Jesuits stand for. The other : that the course, taken 
herein by Nectarius, was not only approved by St. Chry- 
sostom, who succeeded him at Constantinople ; but gene- 
rally' 1 in a manner by the catholic bishops of other places : 
howsoever the Arians, and the rest of the sectaries (the 
Novatians only excepted, who from the beginning would 
not admit the discipline used in the Church for the recon- 
ciliation of penitents), retained still the former usage ; as by 
the relation of Socrates and Sozomen more fully may 
appear. And therefore when, within some twenty-one 
years after the time wherein they finished their histories, 
and about seventy after that the publication of secret of- 
fences began to be abolished by Nectarius, certain in 
Italy did so do their penance, that they caused a writing 
to be publicly read, containing a profession of their several 
sins, Leo, who at that time was bishop of Rome, gave 
order, that by all means that 6 course should be broken off; 

d ETn)Ko\ov9r\oav Si rrxtSbv oi iravriov iirioKcnroi. Sozom. lib. 7. cap. 16. 

e Ne de singulorum peccatorum genere libellis scripta professio publice reci- 

tetur : cum reatus conscientiarum sufficiat solis sacerdotibus indicari confessione 


" forasmuch as it was sufficient that the guilt of men's 
consciences should be declared in secret confession to the 
priests alone. For although (saith he) the fulness of faith 
may seem to be laudable, which for the fear of God doth 
not fear to blush before men ; yet because all men's sins are 
not of that kind, that they may not fear to publish such of 
them as require repentance, let so inconvenient a custom 
be removed : lest many be driven away from the remedies 
of repentance, while either they are ashamed or afraid to 
disclose their deeds unto their enemies, whereby they may 
be drawn within the peril of the laws. For that confession 
is sufficient, which is offered first unto God, and then unto 
the priest, who cometh as an intercessor for the sins of 
the penitent. For then at length more may be provoked 
to repentance, if that the conscience of him who confes- 
seth be not published to the ears of the people." 

By this place of Leo we may easily understand, how 
upon the removal of public confession of secret faults, toge- 
ther with the private made unto the penitentiary, which 
was adjoined as a preparative thereunto, auricular con- 
fession began to be substituted in the room thereof: to 
the end that, by this means, more might be drawn on to 
this exercise of repentance ; the impediments of shame 
and fear, which accompanied the former practice, being 
taken out of the way. For indeed the shame of this public 
penance was such, that in the time of Tertullian, when 
this discipline was thought most needful for the Church, 
it was strongly " presumed', that many did either shun 

secreta. Quamvis enim plenitudo fidei videatur esse laudabilis, quae propter 
Dei timorem apud homines erubescere non veretur : tamen, quia non omnium 
hujusmodi sunt peccata, ut ea, quae pcenitentiam poscunt, non timeant publicare, 
removeatur tarn improbabilis consuetudo : ne multi a pcenitentiae remediis arce- 
antur, dum aut erubescunt, aut metuunt inimicis suis sua acta reserare, quibus 
possintlegum constitutione percelli. Sufficit enim ilia confessio, qua; primum Deo 
oifertur, turn etiam sacerdoti, qui pro delictis pcenitentium precator accedit. 
Tunc enim demum plures ad pcenitentiam poterunt provocari, si populi auribus 
non publicetur conscientia confitentis. Leo, epist. 80. ad episcopos Campaniae, 
Samnii et Piceni. 

f Plerosque tamen hoc opus, ut publicationcm sui, aut sirffugerc aut de die in 
diem differre, praesumo ; pudoris magis memorcs, quam salutis. TertuU. dc 
pccnit. cap. 10. 


this work as a publication of themselves, or deferred it 
from day to day, being more mindful (as he saith) of their 
shame, than of their salvation." Nay, St. Ambrose ob- 
served, that " some g , who for fear of the punishment in 
the other world, being conscious to themselves of their 
sins, did here desire their penance, were yet, for shame of 
their public supplication, drawn back after they had re- 
ceived it." Therefore the conjecture of Rhenanus' 1 is not 
to be contemned, that from this public confession the pri- 
vate took his original : which by Stapleton 1 is positively 
delivered in this manner. " Afterward this open and sharp 
penance was brought to the private and particular con- 
fession now used, principally for the lewdness of the com- 
mon lay-Christians ; which in this open confession began at 
length to mock and insult at their brethren's simplicity and 
devotion :" although it may seem by that which is written by 
Origen k , that the seeds of this lewdness began to sprout long 
before ; howsoever Tertullian 1 imagined that no member of 
the Church would be so ungracious as to commit such folly. 
The public confession therefore of secret sins being 
thus abolished by Nectarius first, for the scandal that 
came thereby unto others ; and by the rest of the catholic 

s Nam plerique, futuri supplicii metu, peccatorum suorum conscii, pceniteii- 
tiam petunt : et cum acceperint, publicae supplicationis revocantur pudore. Hi 
videntur malorum petiisse pcenitentiam, agere bonorum. Ambr. de pcenitent. 
lib. 2. cap. 9. op. torn. 2. pag. 434. 

h Porro non aliam ob caussam complurium hie testimoniis usi sumus, quam 
ne quis admiretur Tertullianum de clancularia ista admissorimi confessione 
nihil locutum : quae, quantum conjicimus, nata est ex ista exomologesi per ul- 
troneam hominum pietatem, ut occultorum peccatorum esset et exomologesis 
occulta. Nee enim usquam prseceptam olim legimus. B. Rhenan. argument. 
in lib. Tertull. de pcenit. 

• in his Fortress, part 2. chap. 4. 

k Si ergo hujusmodi homo, niemor delicti sui, confiteatur qua? commisit, et hu- 
mana confusione parvi pendat eos qui exprobrant eum confitentem, et notant 
vel irrident : &c. Origen. in Psalm. 37. homil. 2. op. torn. 2. pag. 686. 

1 Certe periculum ejus tunc, si forte onerosum est, cum penes insultaturos in 
risiloquio consistit ; ubi de alterius ruina alter attollitur, ubi prostrato superscen- 
ditur. Cseterum inter fratres atque conservos, ubi communis spes, metus, gau- 
dium, dolor, passio ; quid tu hos aliud quam te opinaris ? Quid consortes ca- 
suum tuorum, ut plausoi es fugis ? Non potest corpus de unius membri vexa- 
tione lsetum agere. Tertull. de peenitent. cap. 10. op. pag. 127. 


bishops after him, for the reproach and danger, where- 
unto the penitents by this means were laid open : private 
confession was so brought in to supply the defect thereof, 
that it was accounted no more sacramental ; nor esteemed, 
at least generally, to be of more necessity for the obtain- 
ing of remission of sins, than that other. So that what- 
soever order afterward was taken herein, may well be 
judged to have had the nature of a temporal law, which, 
according to the definition of St. Augustine, " although" 1 
it be just, yet in time may be justly also changed." Nay we 
find that Laurence bishop of Novaria, in his homily Depce- 
nitentia, doth resolutely determine, that, for obtaining re- 
mission of sins, a man needeth not to resort unto any priest, 
but that his own internal repentance is sufficient for that 
matter. God, saith he, " after" baptism hath appointed 
thy remedy within thyself, he hath put remission in thine 
own power, that thou needest not seek a priest when thy 
necessity requireth ; but thou thyself now, as a skilful and 
plain master, mayest amend thine error within thyself, 
and wash away thy sin by repentance." " He° hath given 
unto thee," saith another, somewhat to the same purpose, 
" the power of binding and loosing. Thou hast bound 
thyself with the chain of the love of wealth ; loose thy- 
self with the injunction of the love of poverty. Thou hast 
bound thyself with the furious desire of pleasures ; loose 
thyself with temperance. Thou hast bound thyself with the 
misbelief of Eunomius ; loose thyself with the religious 
embracing of the right faith." 

m Appellemus istam legem, si placet, temporalem ; quae, quamvis justa sit, 
commutari tamen per tempora juste potest. Augustin. de ib. arbitr. lib. 1. cap. 
6. op. torn. 1. pag. 575. 

" Post baptisma, remedium tuum in te ipso statuit, remissionem in arbitrio 
tuo posuit : ut non quseras sacerdotem cum necessitas flagitaverit ; sed ipse jam, 
ac si scitus perspicuusque magister, errorem tuum intra te emendes, et peccatum 
tuum pcenitudine abluas. Laur. Novar. torn. C. bibliotli. patr. part, l.pag. 337. 
a. edit. Colon. 

° Soi dtSwKE ri)v tKovffiav rov Seajitiv Kai Xvtiv. aavrbv iStjaag ry 
otipq- t7)c; (piXctpyvpiat;, oavrbv \i)(Toi> ry ivroXy tyjq 0(\o7rro»xi'ac/. aavrbv 
tSijaag r<p o'iarpo) rStV iidov&v, aaurbv Xvaov ry ao>(ppoavi>y. crabrbv i!jt)ffctg 
ry Euvofiiov KaKOTriffriq, aaurov Xuaov ry rtjg bpQo^o^iag ibatfitiq. Auth. 
homiliae in illud, Quaecunquc ligaveritis, &c. intra opera Chrysostomi, torn. 9. 
pag. 845. 


And, that we may see how variable men's judgments 
were touching the matter of confession, in the ages follow- 
ing : Bede would have us " confess p our daily and light sins 
one unto another, but open the uncleanness of the greater 
leprosy to the priest." Alcuinus, not long after him, would 
have us " confess" 1 all the sins that we can remember." 
Others were of another mind. For some, as it appeareth 
by the writings of the same Alcuinus r , and of Haymo% 
would not confess their sins to the priest ; but " said 1 it was 
sufficient for them that they did confess their sins to God 
alone," provided always that they ceased from those sins 
for the time to come. Others confessed their sins unto 
the priests, but not u fully : as may be seen in the council 
of Cavaillon, held in the days of Charles the great ; where, 
though the fathers think that this had need to be amend- 
ed, yet they freely acknowledge, that it remained still a 
question, whether men should only confess to God, or to 
the priests also : and they themselves put this difference 
betwixt both those confessions ; that the one did properly 
serve for the cure, the other for direction in what sort the 
repentance, and so the cure, should be performed. Their 
words are these : " Some w say that they ought to confess 

p In hac sententia ilia debet esse discretio ; ut quotidiana leviaque peccata 
alterutrum cosequalibus confiteamur, eorumque quotidiana credamus oratione 
salvari. Porro gravioris leprae immunditiam juxta legem sacerdoti pandamus, 
atque ad ejus arbitrium, qualiter et quanto tempore jusserit, purificari curemus. 
Bed. in Jacob, cap. 5. 

1 Volens dimittere omnia his qui in se peccaverunt, confiteatur omnia peccata 
sua, quae recordari potest. Alcuin. de divin. offic. cap. 13. in capite Jejunii. 

'' Id. epist. 26. 

s Haymo Halberstatt. in evangel. Dominic. 15. post. Pentecost. Ad illud : 
Ite, ostendite vos sacerdotib. 

1 Dicentes, sibi sufficere, ut soli Deo peccata sua confiteantur ; si tamen ab 
ipsis peccatis in reliquo cessent. Haymo, ut supra. 

u Sed et hoc emendatione egere perspeximus ; quod quidam, dum confitentur 
peccata sua sacerdotibus, non plene id faciunt. Concil. Cabilon. II. cap. 32. 

w Quidam solummodo Deo confiteri debere dicunt peccata, quidam vero sacer- 
dotibus confitenda esse percensent : quod utrumque non sine magno fructu 
intra sanctam fit Ecclesiam ; ita duntaxat, ut et Deo, qui remissor est peccato- 
rum, confiteamur peccata nostra, et cum David dicamus, Delictum meum 
cognitum tibi feci, et injustitiam meam non abscondi. Dixi, confitebor adver« 
versum me injustitias meas Domino, et tu remisisti impietatem peccati mei, 
et, secundum instittitionein apostoli, confiteamur alterutrum peccata nostra, et 


their sins only unto God, and some think that they are to 
be confessed unto the priests ; both of which, not without 
great fruit, is practised within the holy Church : namely 
thus ; that we both confess our sins unto God, who is the 
forgiver of sins, saying with David, I acknowledged my 
sin unto thee, and mine iniquity have I not hid. I said, I 
will confess against myself my transgressions unto the 
Lord : and thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin ; and, 
according to the institution of the apostle, confess our sins 
one unto another, and pray one for another, that we may 
be healed. The confession therefore, which is made unto 
God, purgeth sins ; but that, which is made unto the priest, 
teacheth in what sort those sins should be purged. For 
God, the author and bestower of salvation and health, 
giveth the same sometime by the invisible administration 
of his power, sometime by the operation of physicians." 

This canon is cited by Gratian x , out of the penitential of 
Theodoras archbishop of Canterbury, but clogged with 
some unnecessary additions : as when, in the beginning 
thereof, it is made the opinion y of the Grecians, that sins 
should be confessed only unto God ; and of the rest of 
the Church, that they should be confessed to priests ; 
where those words, ut Graeci, in Gratian, seem unto car- 
dinal Bellarmine "to z have crept out of the margin into the 
text ; and to have been a marginal annotation of some 
unskilful man, who gathered by the fact of Nectarius, 
that sacramental confession was wholly taken away among 

oremus pro invicem ut salvemur. Confessio itaque, quae Deo fit, purgat peccata : 
ea vero, quae sacerdoti fit, docet qualiter ipsa purgentur peccata. Deus namque, 
salutis et sanitatis author et largitor, plemmque hanc praebet suae potentiae in- 
visibili administratione, plerumque medicorum operatione. Ibid. cap. 33. 

x Grat. de pcenit. distinct. 1 . cap. ult. Quidam Deo. 

y Quidam Deo soluinmodo confiteri debere peccata dicunt, ut Graeci : quidam 
vero sacerdotibus confitenda esse percensent, ut tota fere sancta Ecclesia. Ibid. 

z VLdetur irrcpsisse in textum ex margine ; et marginalem annotationem im- 
pend alicujus fuisse, qui ex facto Nectarii collegit, sublatam omnino confessionem 
sacramentalem apud Graecos. Nam alioqui in ipso capitulari Theodori, unde 
canon ille descriptus est, non habentur duae illae voces ut Graci ; ncque etiam 
habentur in concilio II. Cabilonensi, cap. 33. unde Theodoras capitulum 
illud accepisse videtur : scd nee magister sentent. in 4. lib. dist. 17. eandem 
sententiam adducens, addidit illud, ut Grccci. Bellar, de pcenitent. lib. 3. cap. 5. 


the Grecians. For otherwise (saith he) in the capitular itself 
of Theodoras, whence that canon was transcribed, those two 
words ut Grceci, are not to be had ; nor are they also to be 
had in the second council of Cavaillon, chapter thirty-three, 
whence Theodoras seemeth to have taken that chapter; nei- 
ther yet doth the master of the sentences, in his fourth book 
and seventeenth distinction bringing in the same sentence, 
add those words ut Grceci" But the cardinal's conjec- 
ture, of the translating of these words out of the margin 
into the text of Gratian, is of little worth : seeing we find 
them expressly laid down in the elder collections of the 
decrees made by Burchardus a and Ivo b ; from whence it 
is evident that Gratian borrowed this whole chapter, as he 
hath done many a one beside. For, as for the capitular 
itself of Theodoras, whence the cardinal too boldly 
affirmeth that canon was transcribed, as if he had looked 
into the book himself; we are to know that no such capi- 
tular of Theodoras is to be found : only Burchardus and 
Ivo, in whom, as we said, those controverted words are 
extant, set down this whole chapter as taken out of Theo- 
dore's penitential, and so misguided Gratian ; for indeed 
in Theodoras his penitential, which I did lately transcribe, 
out of a most ancient copy kept in Sir Robert Cotton's 
treasury, no part of that chapter can be seen : nor yet any 
thing else tending to the matter now in hand ; this short 
sentence only excepted, " Confessionem suam Deo soli, si 
necesse est, licebit agere : it is lawful that confession 
be made unto God alone, if need require." And to 
suppose, as the cardinal doth, that Theodoras should 
take this chapter out of the second council of Cavail- 
lon, were an idle imagination : seeing it is well known 
that Theodore died archbishop of Canterbury in the year 
of our Lord 690 ; and the council of Cavaillon was held in 
the year 813, that is, one hundred and twenty-three years 
after the other's death. The truth is, he who made the 
additions to the capitularia of Charles the great and Lu- 
dovicus Pius, gathered by Ansegisus and Benedict, trans- 

a Burchard. decret. lib. 19. cap. 145. 
b Ivo, decret. part. 15. cap. 155. 


lated this canon out of that council into his collection : 
which Bellarmine, as it seemeth, having some way heard 
of, knew not to distinguish between those capitularia, and 
Theodore's penitential ; being herein as negligent as in his 
allegation of the fourth book of the sentences ; where the 
master doth not bring in this sentence at all, but, having 
among other questions propounded this also for one, 
" Whether d it be sufficient that a man confess his sins to 
God alone, or whether he must confess to a priest," doth 
thereupon set down the diversity of men's opinions touch- 
ing that matter; and saith, that " unto some it seemed to 
suffice, if confession were made to God only without the 
judgment of the priest, or the confession of the Church; 
because David said, / said, I will confess unto the Lord : 
he saith not, unto the priest ; and yet he sheweth that his 
sin was forgiven him." For in these points, as the same 
author had before noted, " Even 6 the learned were found 
to hold diversly : because the doctors seemed to deliver 
divers and almost contrary judgments therein." 

The diverse sentences of the doctors touching this 
question, whether external confession were necessary or 
not, are at large laid down by Gratian : who in the end 
leaveth the matter in suspense, and concludeth in this 
manner : " Upon* what authorities, or upon what strength 
of reasons both these opinions are grounded, I have 
briefly laid open. But to whether of them we should 
rather cleave, is reserved to the judgment of the reader. 
For both of them have for their favourers both wise and 
religious men." And so the matter rested undetermined 

c Addit. 3. cap. 31. edit. Pithaei. et Lindenbrogii. 

d Utrum sufficiat peccata confiteri soli Deo, an oporteat confiteri saeerdoti. 
Quibusdam visum est sufficere, si soli Deo fiat confessio, sine judicio saeerdotali 
et confessione Ecclesiae. quia David dixit; Dixi, confitebor Domino, &c. non ait, 
saeerdoti : et tamen remissum sibi peccatum dicit. Petr. Lombard, lib. 4. 
sentent. dist. 17. 

e In his enim etiam docti diversa sentire inveniuntur : quia super his varia 
ac pene adversa tradidisse videntur doctores. Ibid. 

f Quibus auctoritatibus, vel quibus rationum firmamentis, utraque sententia 
innitatur, in medium breviter exposuimus. Cui autem harum potius adhaeren- 
dum sit, lectoris judicio reservatur. Utraque enim fautores habet sapientes 
£t religiosos viros. De pcenit. dist. 1 . cap. 89. Quamvis. 

VOL. III. t 


one thousand one hundred and fifty years after Christ ; 
howsoever the Roman correctors of Gratian do tell 
us, that now the case is altered, and that " it g is 
most certain, and must be held for most certain, that 
the sacramental confession of mortal sins is necessary; 
used in that manner, and at such time, as in the 
council of Trent after other councils it is appointed." 
But the first council, wherein we find any thing deter- 
mined touching this necessity, is that of Lateran under 
Innocent the III. wherein we heard that transubstantia- 
tion was established : for there it was ordained, that 
" Omnis' 1 utriusque sexus fidelis, every faithful one of 
either sex, being come to years of discretion, should by 
himself alone, once in the year at least, faithfully confess 
his sins unto his own priest ; and endeavour according to 
his strength to fulfil the penance enjoined unto him, re- 
ceiving reverently at least at Easter the sacrament of the 
eucharist : otherwise, that both being alive he should be 
kept from entering into the church, and being dead, 
should want Christian burial." Since which determina- 
tion, Thomas Aquinas, in his exposition of the text of the 
fourth book of the sentences 1 , holdeth the k denial of the ne- 
cessity of confession unto salvation to be heresy : which 
before that time, saith Bonaventure, in his disputations 
upon the same fourth book, was not heretical ; foras- 
much as many catholic doctors did hold contrary opinions 
therein, as appeareth by Gratian. 

But Medina will not admit by any means, that 1 it should 

8 Certissimum est, et pro certissimo habendum, peccati mortalis necessariam 
esse confessionem sacramentalem, eo modo ac tempore adhibitam, quo in conci- 
lio Tridentino post alia concilia est constitutum. Rom. correct, ibid. 

h Omnis utriusque sexus fidelis, postquam ad annos discretions pervenerit, 
omnia sua solus peccata confiteatur fideliter, saltern semel in anno, proprio sacer- 
doti ; et injunctam sibi pcenitentiam studeat pro viribus adimplere, suscipiens 
reverenter ad minus in pascha eucharistiae sacramentum, &c. alioquin et vivens 
ab ingressu Ecclesiae arceatur, et moriens Christiana careat sepultura. Concil. 
Lateran. cap. 21. 

' distinct. 17. 

k Magister et Gratianus hoc pro opinione ponunt. Sed nunc, post determina- 
tionem Ecclesise sub Inn. III. factam, hseresis reputanda est. Thorn. 

1 Ideo dicendum, quod praefata assertio non est stricte hseresis, sed sapit hae- 
resim. Jo. Medina, tractat. 2. de confessione, quaest. 4. 


be accounted strictly heresy; but would have it said, that 
it savours of heresy. And for this decree of confession to 
be made once in the year, he saith that " it m doth not 
declare nor interpret any divine right of the thing ; but 
rather appointeth the time of confessing." Durand think- 
eth that it may be said, that this statute containeth " an 11 
holy and wholesome exhortation of making confession ; 
and then adjoineth a precept of the receiving of the 
eucharist, backed with a penalty :" or, if both of them be 
precepts, that " the" penalty respecteth only the precept 
of communicating (of the transgression whereof knowledge 
may be taken), and not the precept of confession ;" of the 
transgression whereof the Church can take no certain 
notice, and therefore can appoint no certain penalty for 
it. But howsoever, this we are sure of, that the canonists 
afterward held no absolute necessity of obedience to be 
required therein, as unto a sacramental institution or- 
dained by Christ for obtaining remission of sins ; but a 
canonical obedience only, as unto an useful constitution of 
the Church. And therefore where Gratian, in his first 
distinction De pcenitentia, had in the thirty-fourth chap- 
ter, and the three next following, propounded the allega- 
tions which made for them who held, that p men might 
obtain pardon for their sins without any oral confession of 
them ; and then proceeded to the authorities which might 
seem to make for the contrary opinion : Johannes Semeca, 
at the beginning of that part, upon those words of Gra- 
tian, " Alii e contrario testantur," putteth to this gloss. 

m Nam illud, quod illic dicitur de confessione semel in anno, non procedit de- 
clarando, nee divinum jus interpretando ;sed potius tempus confitendi instituendo. 
Id. ibid, quaest. 2. 

n In quo prsemittitur exhortatio sancta et salubris de confessione facienda, et 
subjungitur prseceptum de perceptione eucharistiae vallatum poena. Durand. in 
lib. 4. sentent. distinct. 17. quaest. 14. 

° Et ob hoc posset rationabiliter videri alicui, quod prrcdicta poena illius statuti 
respicit solum praeceptum de communione, de cujus transgressione constare 
potest ; et non praeceptum de confessione. Id. ibid. 

p Unde datur intelligi, quod etiam ore tacente veniam consequi possumus. 
De pcenit. dist. 1. cap. 34. Convertimini. Vid. initium ejusd. distinct, et 
glossam, ibid. verb. Sunt eniin. 

i 2 


" From* 1 this place, until the section His auctoritatibus, he 
allegeth for the other part, that sin is not forgiven unto 
such as are of years, without confession of the mouth, 
which yet is false :" saith he. But this free dealing of 
his did so displease friar Manrique, who by the command 
of Pius Quintus set out a censure upon the glosses of the 
canon law, that he gave direction these words, " which yet 
is false," should be clean blotted out ; which direction of 
his notwithstanding, the Roman correctors under Gre- 
gory XIII. did not follow : bvit, letting the words still 
stand, give them a check only with this marginal annota- 
tion. " Nay r it is most true, that without confession, in 
desire at least, the sin is not forgiven." 

In like manner, where the same Semeca holdeth it to 
be the better opinion, that confession was " ordained 5 by 
a certain tradition of the universal Church, rather than by 
the authority of the New or Old Testament ;" and infer- 
reth thereupon, that it is necessary 1 among the Latins, 
but " not among the Greeks, because that tradition 
did not spread to them ;" friar Manrique commandeth 
all that passage to be blotted out. But the Roman cor- 
rectors clap this note upon the margin for an antidote : 
" Nay u , confession was ordained by our Lord, and by 
God's law is necessary to all that fall into mortal sin 
after baptism, as well Greeks as Latins :" and for this 
they quote only the fourteenth session of the council of 
Trent ; where that opinion is accursed in us, which was 
held two or three hundred years ago by the men of their 

1 Ab hoc loco usque ad sec. His auctoritatib. pro alia parte allegat, quod 
scilicet adulto peceatum non dimittitur fine oris confessione. quod tamen falsum 
est. Gloss. 

r Imo verissimum, sine confessione in voto non dimitti peceatum. Rom. cor- 
rect, ibid, in marg. 

s Melius dicitur earn institutam fuisse a quadam universalis Ecclesise tradi- 
tione, potius quam ex novi vel veteris testamenti auctoritate. Gloss, de pceni- 
tent. ink. distinct. 5. in pcenitentia. 

1 Ergo necessaria est confessio in mortalibus apud nos, apud Grsecos non : 
quia non emanavit apud illos traditio talis. Ibid. 

u Imo confessio est instituta a Domino, et est omnibus post baptismum lapsis 
in mortale peceatum, tarn Grsecis quam Latinis, jure divino necessaria. Rom. 
correct, ibid, in marg. 



own religion : among whom Michael" of Bononia, who 
was prior general of the order of the Carmelites in the 
days of pope Urban the sixth, doth conclude strongly out 
of their own received grounds, " that confession is not 
necessary for the obtaining of the pardon of our sin:' 
and Panormitan, the great canonist, professeth that the 
opinion of Semeca doth much please him, which referreth 
the original of confession to a general tradition of the 
Church ; " because* (saith he) there is not any clear au- 
thority, which sheweth that God or Christ did clearly 
ordain that confession should be made unto a priest." 
Yea, " all v the canonists, following their first interpreter, 
say that confession was brought in only by the law of the 
Church," and not by any divine precept: if we will be- 
lieve Maldonat ; who addeth notwithstanding, that " this 2 
opinion is either already sufficiently declared by the 
Church to be heresv, or that the Church should do well if 
it did declare it to be heresy." 

And we find indeed, that in the year of our Lord 1 479, 
which was thirty-four years after the death of Panormitan, 
by a special commission, directed from pope Sixtus the 
fourth unto Alfonsus Carillus archbishop of Toledo, one 
Petrus Oxomensis, professor of divinity in the university 
of Salamanca, was driven to abjure this conclusion, 
which he had before delivered as agreeable to the 
common opinion of the doctors, " that* confession of 
sins in particular was grounded upon some statute of 
the universal Church, and not upon divine right :" and 

w Michael Angrianus in Psal. 29. 

x Multurn mihi placet ilia opinio ; quia non est aiiqua authoritas aperta, quae 
innuat Deum seu Christum aperte instituisse confessionem fiendam sacerdoti. 
Panorm. in 5. decretal, de pcenit. et remiss, cap. 12. Omnis utriusque. sec. 18. 

y Omnes juris pontificii periti, secuti primum suum interpretem, dicunt, con- 
fessionem tantum esse introductam jure ecclesiastico. Maklon. disp. de sacra- 
ment, torn. 2. de confess, orig. cap. 2. 

2 Sed tamen haec opinio aut jam declarata est satis tanquam haeresis ab Ec- 
clesia ; aut faceret Ecclesia operae pretium, si declararet esse haeresim. Id. ib. 
de praecepto confess, cap. 3. 

a Quod confessio de peccatis in specie fuerit ex aliquo statuto universalis Ec- 
clesiae, non de jure divino. Congregat. Complutcns. sub Alfonso Carillo : npud 
Cananzamin summa concil. sub Sixto IV. 


when learned men for all this would not take warning, but 
would needs be meddling again, with that which the popish 
clergy could not endure should be touched, as Johannes 
de Selva, among others, in the end of his treatise De 
jurejurando, Erasmus in divers of his works, and Beatus 
Rhenanus in his argument upon Tertullian's book De 
pcenitentia : the fathers of Trent, within seventy-two 
years after that, conspired together to stop all men's 
mouths with an anathema b , that should deny sacramental 
confession to be of divine institution, or to be necessary 
unto salvation. And so we are come to an end of that 

b Cone. Trident, sess. 14. can. 6. 






From confession we are now to proceed unto absolution : 
which it were pity this man should receive, before he 
made confession of the open wrong he hath here done, in 
charging us to deny that priests have power to forgive 
sins ; whereas the very formal words, which our Church 
requireth to be used in the ordination of a minister, are 
these : "Whose* sins thou dost forgive, they are forgiven ; 
and whose sins thou dost retain, they are retained." And 
therefore, if this be all the matter, the fathers and we shall 
ao-ree well enough : howsoever this make-bait would fain 
put friends together by the ears, where there is no occa- 
sion at all of quarrel. For we acknowledge most wil- 
lingly, that the principal part of the priest's ministry is ex- 
ercised in the matter of forgiveness of sins : the question 
only is of the manner how this part of their function is 
executed by them, and of the bounds and limits thereof, 
which the pope and his clergy, for their own advantage, 
have enlarged beyond all measure of truth and reason. 

That we may therefore give unto the priest the things 
that are the priest's, and to God the things that are God's; 
and not communicate unto any creature the power that 
properly belongeth to the Creator, who " will b not give 
his glory unto another :" we must in the first place lay 
this down for a sure ground, that to forgive sins properly, 

a The form of ordering of priests. b Isai. chap. 48. vcr. 1 1. 


directly and absolutely, is a privilege only appertaining 
unto the Most High. " I c ," saith he of himself, " even I 
am he that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own 
sake, and will not remember thy sins." " Who is a 
God like unto thee, that pardoneth iniquity ?" saith the 
prophet Micah d ; which in effect is the same with that of 
the Scribes, " Who e can forgive sins, but God alone?" 
And therefore, when David saith unto God, " Thou f for- 
gavest the iniquity of my sin ;" Gregory, surnamed the 
Great, the first bishop of Rome of that name, thought 
this to be a sound paraphrase of his words ; " Thou g , 
who alone sparest, who alone forgivest sins. For who 
can forgive sins, but God alone ?" He did not imagine 
that he had committed any great error in subscribing thus 
simply unto that sentence of the Scribes ; and little 
dreamed, that any petty doctors afterwards would arise in 
Rome or Rhemes, who would tell us a fair tale : that 
" the h faithless Jews thought as heretics now-a-days, that 
to forgive sins was so proper to God, that it could not be 
communicated unto man ;" and that " true' believers refer 
this to the increase of God's honour, which miscreant 
Jews and heretics do account blasphemy against God, and 
injurious to his majesty :" whereas in truth the faithless- 
ness of the Jews consisted in the application of this sen- 
tence against our Saviour Christ, whom they did not ac- 
knowledge to be God ; as the senselessness of these Ro- 
manists, in denying of the axiom itself. 

But the world is come unto a good pass, when we must 
be accounted heretics now-a-days, and consorted with 
miscreant Jews, for holding the self-same thing that the 
fathers of the ancient Church delivered as a most certain 
truth, whensoever they had any occasion to treat of this 

c Isai. chap. 43. ver. 25. d chap. 7. ver. 18. 

e Mark, chap. 2. ver. 7. and Luke, chap. 5. ver. 21. 
f Psalm 32. ver. 5. 

s Tu, qui solus parcis, qui solus peccata dimittis. Quis enim potest peccata 
dimittere, nisi solus Deus 1 Gregor. exposit. 2. Psalmi pcenitential. 
h Rhemists, annot. in Matt. chap. 9. ver. 5. 
» Rich. Hopkins, in the memorial of a christian life, pag. 170. edit. ann. 1G12. 


part of the history of the Gospel. Old Irenseus telleth 
us, that our Saviour in this place " forgiving k sins, did 
both cure the man, and manifestly discover who he was. 
For if none (saith he) can forgive sins but God alone, and 
our Lord did forgive them, and cured men, it is manifest 
that he was the Word of God, made the Son of man : and 
that, as man, he is touched with compasssion of us ; as 
God, he hath mercy on us, and forgiveth us our debts 
which we do owe unto God our Maker." Tertullian saith, 
that, " when 1 the Jews, beholding only his humanity, and 
not being yet certain of his Deity, did deservedly reason 
that a man could not forgive sins, but God alone :" he by 
answering of them, that " the Son of man had authority 
to forgive sins," would by this remission of sins have them 
call to mind, that he was " that m only Son of man prophe- 
sied of in Daniel", who received power of judging, and 
thereby also of forgiving sins." St. Hilary, commenting 
upon the ninth of Matthew, writeth thus : " It° moveth 
the Scribes, that sin should be forgiven by a man. For 
they beheld a man only in Jesus Christ ; and that to 
be forgiven by him, which the law could not release. For 
it is faith only that justifieth. Afterward the Lord looketh 
into their murmuring, and saith that it is an easy thing 

k Peccata igitur remitters, hominem quidem curavit, semetipsum autem 

manifeste ostendit quis esset. Si enim nemo potest remittere peccata, nisi 

solus Deus, remittebat autem haec Dominus, et curabat homines; manifestum 

est quoniam ipse erat Verbum Dei, Alius hominis factus, &c. ut quomodo homo 

compassus est nobis, tanquam Deus misereatur nostri, et remittat nobis debita 

nostra, quae factori nostro debemus Deo. lien. adv. hares, lib. 5. cap. 17. pag. 314. 

1 Nam cum Judaei solummodo hominem ejus intuentes, necdum et Deum cer- 

ti, qua Dei quoque filium, merito retractarent, non posse hominem delicta di- 

mittere, sed Deum solum, &c. Tertullian. lib. 4. adv. Marcion. cap. 10. pag. 421. 

m Ilium scilicet solum filium hominis, apud Danielis prophetiam, consecutum 

judicandi potestatem, ac per earn utique et dimittendi delicta. Id. ibid. 

n chap. 7. ver. 13, 14. 

° Movet scribas, remissum ab homine peccatum. Hominem enim tan turn 
in Jesu Christo contuebantur ; et remissum ab eo, quod lex laxare non poterat. 
Fides enim sola justificat. Deinde murmurationem eorum Dominusintrospicit, 
dicitque, facile esse filio hominis in terra peccata dimittere. Venun enim, nemo 
potest dimittere peccata, nisi solus Deus : ergo, qui remittit Deus est, quia nemo 
remittit nisi Deus. Deus, in homine manens, curationem honiini praestabat. 
Hilar, in Malt. cap. 8. op. pag. G10. 


for the Son of man upon earth to forgive sins. For it is 
true, none can forgive sins but God alone : there- 
fore he who remitteth is God, because none remitteth but 
God. God, remaining in man, performed this cure upon 
man." St. Hierome thus : " We p read that God saith in 
the prophet ; I am he that blotteth out thine iniquities. 
Consequently therefore the Scribes, because they thought 
him to be a man, and did not understand the words of 
God, accuse him of blasphemy. But the Lord, seeing 
their thoughts, sheweth himself to be God, who is able to 
know the secrets of the heart : and holding his peace after 
a sort speaketh ; By the same majesty and power, where- 
with I behold your thoughts, I am able also to forgive sins 
unto men :" or, as Euthymius expresseth it in his commen- 
taries upon the same place : "In q truth, none can forgive 
sins but one, who beholdeth the thoughts of men." St. 
Chrysostom likewise, in his sermons upon the same, shew- 
eth that Christ here declared himself to be God equal un- 
to the Father : and that, if r he had not been equal unto the 
Father, he would have said ; " Why do you attribute unto 
me an unfitting opinion ? I am far from that power." To 
the same effect also writeth Christianus Druthmarus, Pas- 
chasius Radbertus, and Walafridus Strabus in the ordi- 
nary gloss upon the same place of St. Matthew ; Victor 
Antiochenus upon the second of Mark ; Theophylact and 
Bede upon the second of Mark, and the fifth of Luke ; 
St. Ambrose upon the fifth of Luke : who in another place 
also bringeth this sentence of the Scribes, as a ground to 
prove the Deity of the Holy Ghost withal : forasmuch as 

p Legimus in propheta dicenleui Deum, Ego sum qui deleo iniquitates tuas. 
Consequenter ergo scribae, quia hominem putabant, et verba Dei non jntellige- 
bant, arguunt euno blasphemiae. Sed Dominus, videns cogitationes eorum, os- 
tendit se Deum, qui possit cordis occulta cognoscere : et quodammodo tacens 
loquitur, Eadem maj estate et potentia, qua cogitationes vestras intueor, possum 
et hominibus peccata dimittere. Hieronym. lib. 1. commentar. in Matt, 
cap. 9. 

1 Vere nullus potest remittere peccata, nisi unus, qui intuetur cogitationes ho- 
minum. Euthym. cap. 13. in Matt. 

1 E/ fit) iffog yv, EXpijf tiirtiv, ri /ioi irpoGctnTETt fit) TrpoaijKOVGav vtto- 
X tj\pi v ; iropp<i> ravTriQ kyw rrJQ dwa/jmag. Chrysost. in Matt. 9. horn. 29. 
op. torn. 7. pag. 343. Vid. etiam Basilium, lib. 5. contra Eunomium, op. torn, 1. 
pag. 299. 


" none s forgiveth sins but one God ; because it is written, 
Who can forgive sins but God alone?" as St. Cyril doth 
to prove the Deity of the Son : " For 1 this only," saith he, 
" did the malice of the Jews say truly; that none can for- 
give sins, but God alone, who is the Lord of the law:" 
and thence he frameth this argument. " If u he alone, who 
is the Lord of all, doth free us from our sins, and this agreeth 
to no other, and Christ bestoweth this with a power be- 
fitting God ; how should he not be God ?" 

The same argument also is used by Novatianus and 
Athanasius, to the self-same purpose. " For w if, when it 
agreeth unto none but unto God to know the secrets of 
the heart, Christ doth behold the secrets of the heart; 
if, when it agreeth unto none but unto God to forgive sins, 
the same Christ doth forgive sins:" then deservedly is Christ 
to be accounted God, saith Novatianus. So Athanasius de- 
mandeth of the Arians : "If x the Son were a creature, how 
was he able to forgive sins ? it being written in the Prophets, 
that this is the work of God. For who is a God like unto 
thee, that taketh away sins, and passeth over iniquities ?" 
" But y the Son," saith he, " said unto whom he would ; 

* Peccata nemo condonat, nisi unus Deus : quia aeque scriptum est; Quis 
potest peccata donare nisi solus Deus? Ambros. de Spir. Sanct. lib. 3. cap. 18. 
op. torn. 2. pag. 693. 

4 Istud enim solum malitia Judaeorum vere dicebat, quod nullus potest dimit- 
tete peccata, nisi solus Deus, qui legis Dominus est. Cyrill. Alexandr. thesaur. 
lib. 12. cap. 4. 

u Ei fiovoQ r^idg airaWarrei 6 twi> o\wj/ 6tbg irXimpiktiiAciTityv, irfptp 
■np'tnovTog rovrov firjSivi, xapL'£trai Se Kai tovto Xpiarbg /xet' i^ovaiag 
OeoTrptTTovg, Trutg ovk av tli) Oiog; Id. in lib. de recta fide ad reginas. 

" Quod si, cum nullius sit nisi Dei cordis nosse secreta, Christus secreta con- 
spicit cordis : quod si, cum nullius sit nisi Dei peccata dimittere, idem Christus 
peccata dimittit : &c. merito Deus est Christus. Novatian. de Trinitat. 
cap. 13. 

x Iluic, c*£, t'iirip Kricffia (}f Aoyog, rt)v an6(j>aaiv rov Qeov Xvaai Svvarbg 
ijv Kai aiptivcu afiapriav, yiypupfxivov Trapa to~iq irpofi/Taig, on tovto 
Qiov effTi ; Tig yap Otbg iuo-irtp <rv t^aipwv dfiapTidg, Kai V7rtpj3aiv(nv avo- 
ftiag ; Athanas. orat. 2. contr. Arian. op. torn. I. pag. 535. 

y 'O di v'ibg iXtyiv oig i)Qt\tv, aQtwvTai wot at d/iapriai gov. ut£ Kai 
tCiv 'lovSaib/v yoyyv'^ovToiv, tpyy Tt)v a<pecnv hdeiievvt, Xtyiov Tip napa- 
\vTimp, iyupat, apov t'ov Kpd/ij3qr6v <rov, Kai 'vwaye tig tov oIkov <rov. 
Id. in cpist. de synodis Arimin. ct Scleuc. pag. 7(33. Vid. etiam orat. 3. contra 
Arrian. pag. 554, et 590. 


Thy sins are forgiven thee : and when the Jews murmured, 
did demonstrate also this forgiveness indeed, saying to the 
man that was sick of the palsy ; Arise, take up thy bed, 
and go unto thine house." And therefore Bede rightly 
inferreth, that " the z Arians do err here much more madly 
than the Jews : who, when they dare not deny, being con- 
victed by the words of the Gospel, that Jesus is both the 
Christ, and hath power to forgive sins ; yet fear not for all 
that to deny him to be God :" and concludeth himself 
most soundly ; that, " if a he be God according to the 
psalmist, who removeth our iniquities from us as far as the 
east is from the west, and the Son of man hath power 
upon earth to forgive sins ; therefore the same is both 
God and the Son of man : that the man Christ by the 
power of his divinity might forgive sins ; and the same 
Christ God by the frailty of his humanity might die for 
sinners." Whereunto we will add another sweet passage, 
borrowed by him from an ancienter author : " No b 
man taketh away sins (which the law, although holy and 
just and good, could not take away), but he in whom there 
is no sin. Now he taketh them away, both by pardoning 
those that are done, and by assisting us that they may not 
be done, and by bringing us to the life where they cannot 
at all be done." 

Peter Lombard allegeth this as the saying of St. 
Augustine* 3 ; the former sentence only being thus changed : 

z Sed multo dementius errant Ariani, qui, Cum Jesum et Christum esse, et 
peccata posse dimittere, evangelii verbis devicti, negare non audeant ; nihilomi- 
nus Deum negare non timent. Bed. in Marc. lib. l.cap. 10. 

a Si et Deus estjuxta psalmistam, qui quantum distat oriens ab occasu elon- 
gavit a nobis iniquitates nostras, et filius hominis potestatemhabet in terra dimit- 
tendi peccata : ergo idem ipse et Deus et filius hominis est ; ut et homo 
Christus per divinitatis suae potentiam peccata dimittere possit, et idem Deus 
Christus per humanitatis suae fragilitatem pro peccatoribus mori. Id. ibid. 

b Nemo tollit peccata (quae nee Lex, quamvis sancta et justa et bona, potuit 
auferre), nisi Ille in quo peccatum non est. Tollit autem, et dimittendo quae 
facta sunt, et adjuvando ne fiant, et perducendo ad vitam ubi fieri omnino non 
possint. Id. in 1 Johan. cap. 3. 

c P. Lombard, lib. 4. sentent. distinct. 18. d. 

11 in quo etiam eandem demura repperi, lib. 2. contra posteriorem Juliani re- 
spons. num. 84. op. torn. 10. pag. 9S6. 


" None* taketh away sins, but Christ alone, who is the 
Lamb, that taketh away the sins of the world." Agreea- 
ble to that, which in the same place he citeth out of 
St. Ambrose : " He f alone forgiveth sins, who alone 
died for our sins :" and to that of Clemens Alexandrinus : 
"He g alone can remit sins, who is appointed our master by 
the father of all, who alone is able to discern disobedience 
from obedience:" to which purpose also, St. Ambrose 
maketh this observation upon the history of the woman 
taken in adultery' 1 ; that " Jesus 1 , being about to pardon 
sin, remained alone. For it is not the ambassador," saith 
he, " nor the messenger, but the Lord himself that hath 
saved his people. He remaineth alone, because it cannot 
be common to any man with Christ to forgive sins. This 
is the office of Christ alone, who taketh away the sin of 
the world." Yea, St. Chrysostom himself, who of all the 
fathers giveth most in this point unto God's ambassadors 
and messengers, is yet careful withal to preserve God's 
privilege entire, by often interposing such sentences 
as these. " None k can forgive sins, but God alone." " To 1 
forgive sins belongeth to no other." " To m forgive sins, is 
possible to God only. God" alone doth this ; which also 

e Nemo tollit peccata, nisi solus Christus ; qui est agnus tollens peccata mundi. 

f Ille solus peccata dimittit, qui solus pro peccatis nostris mortuus est. 

S Movog ovTog olug rs a<pitvai ra ir\r]niit\i))iaTa, vtt'o tov Trarpbg twv 
oXwv 6 Ta\f)i\g iraiSaywybg i)fiwv, fiovog 6 rfjg inraicoijg SiaicpTi'ai rtjv 
TTapaKOrjV dwaftevog. Clem. Alex, psedagog. lib. 1. cap. 8. op. tom. 1. pag. 138. 

h John, chap. 8. ver. 9. 

• Donaturus peccatum, solus retnanet Jesus, &c. Non enim legatus neque 
nuncius, sed ipse Dominus salvum fecit populum suum. Solus remanet ; quia non 
potest hoc cuiquam hominum cum Christo esse commune, ut peccata condonet. 
Solius hoc munus est Christi, qui tulit peccatum mundi. Ambros. epist. 26. ad 
Irenaeum, op. tom. 2. pag. 900. 

k OvSdg yap cvvarai a<pdvai a/iapTiag, ti fiovog 6 9tbg. Chrysost. 
in 2 Corinth, cap. 3. homil. 6. op. tom. 10. pag. 476. 

1 To yap CMpiivai a^apriag, ovStvbg tr'tpov iari. Id. in Johan. cap. 8. 
homil. 54. op. tom. 8. pag. 316. 

m afiapTi)fiara fiiv yap atyuvai fx6v(j) Gkjj Fwarbv. Id. in 1 Cor. cap. 
15. horn. 40. op. tom. 10. pag. 379. 

n 9£oc yap uovog tovto iroiii, o c>>) Kai tr T$ \oi'rp'(j r»/t- naXiyytvtcriag 
ipyaZtrai. Id. Ibid. pag. 380. 


he worketh in the washing of the new birth." Wherein, 
that the work of cleansing the soul is wholly God's, and the 
minister hath no hand at all in effecting any part of it, 
Optatus proveth at large in his fifth book against the Do- 
natists: shewing, that " none can w r ash the filth and spots 
of the mind, but he, who is the framer of the same mind ;" 
and convincing the heretics, as by many other testimonies 
of holy Scripture, so by that of Isaiah p , which he presseth 
in this manner, " It q belongeth unto God to cleanse, and 
not unto man : he hath promised by the prophet Isaiah, 
that he himself would wash, when he saith ; If your sins 
were as scarlet, I will make them as white as snow : I will 
make them white, he said ; he did not say, I will cause 
them to be made white. If God hath promised this, why 
will you give that, which is neither lawful for you to pro- 
mise, nor to give, nor to have ? Behold, in Isaiah, God 
hath promised that he himself will make white such as are 
defiled with sins ; not by man." 

Having thus therefore reserved unto God his preroga- 
tive royal in cleansing of the soul, we give unto his under- 
officers their due, when we " account r of them as of the 
ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of 
God ;" not s as Lords, that have power to dispose of spiri- 
tual graces as they please ; but* as servants, that are tied 
to follow their master's prescriptions therein ; and in fol- 
lowing thereof do but bring their external ministry (for" 
which itself also they are beholding to God's mercy and 

° Sordes et maculas mentis lavare non potest, nisi qui ejusdem fabricator 
est mentis. Optat. lib. 5. 

P chap. 1. ver. 18. 

i Dei est mundare,non hominis : ipse perprophetamEsaiam promisit se lotu- 
rum, dum ait ; Et si fuerint peccata vestra velut coccum, ut nivem inalbabo. 
Inalbabo, dixit ; non dixit, Faciam inalbari. Si hoc Deus promisit, quare vos 
vultis reddere, quod vobis nee promittere licet, nee reddere, nee habere ? Ecce 
in Esaia se promisit Deus inalbare peccatis affectos ; non per hominem. Id. 

r 1 Cor. chap. 4. ver. 1, 2. 

* Chrysost. in 1 Cor. cap. 4. horn. 10. op. torn. 10. pag. 83. 

1 Id. in 2 Cor. cap. 4. homil. 8. Ibid. pag. 492. 

u Krti yap tovto avTb,<pi]Ci,Tb SiaKOvi)<ra(rQai rovTOig,awb eXtov Kcd fj>i\- 
ai9pwTrici£. Id. ibid. 


goodness) ; God conferring the inward blessing of his Spirit 
thereupon, when and where he will. " Who w then is 
Paul," saith St. Paul himself, " and who is Apollos ? but 
ministers by whom ye believed, even as the Lord gave to 
every man ?" " Therefore," saith Optatus, " in" all the 
servants there is no dominion, but a ministry." " Cui y 
creditur, ipse dat quod creditur, non per quern creditur. 
It is he who is believed, that giveth the thing which is be- 
lieved ; not he by whom we do believe." Whereas our 
Saviour then saith unto his apostles, " Receive 2 the Holy 
Ghost; Whose sins you forgive shall be forgiven:" St. 
Basil a , Ambrose b , Augustine , Chrysostom d , and Cyril e , 
make this observation thereupon ; that this is not their 
work properly, but the work of the Holy Ghost, who re- 
mitteth by them, and therein performeth the work of the 
true God. For " indeed," saith St f . Cyril, "it belongeth 
to the true God alone, to be able to loose men from their 
sins ; for who else can free the transgressors of the law 
from sin, but he, who is the author of the law itself." 
" The 5 Lord", saith St. Augustine, " was to give unto men 
the Holy Ghost ; and he would have it to be understood, 

w 1 Cor. chap. 3. ver. 5. 

x Est ergo in universis servientibus non dominium, sed ministerium. Optat. 
lib. 5. 

* Id. ibid. Similiter et Chrysostom. in 1 Cor. cap. 3. homil. 8. Toiiro ve ai/To 
jxev icaO' tavrb, fi'tya icai noWCiv a%iov [iiatiCov TrpoQ fit to cipxtTvirov icai 
Ti)v piZav tSiv ayaQCbv, ovSlv. oil yap 6 SiaicovovfitvOQ toXq aya9o"~i£, ctW 6 
■7rape%(ov aura Kal SiSovq, ovrbg iariv 6 tvepykrrjg. 

z John, chap. 20. 

a Basil, lib. 5. advers. Eunom. op. torn. 1. pag. 299. 

b Ambros. de Spir. Sanct. lib. 3. cap. 18. op. torn. 2. pag. C93. 

c Augustin. contr. epist. Parmenian. lib. 2. cap. 11. op. torn. 9. pag. 41. et 
serm. 99. torn. 8. pag. 525. 

d Chrysost. in 2 Cor. cap. 3. horn. C. op. torn. 10. pag. 476. 

c Cyrill. Alexandr. in Johan. lib. 12. cap. 56. 

f Et certe solius veri Dei est, ut possit a peccatis homines solvere. Cui enim 
alii pravaricatores legis liberare a peccato licet, nisi legis ipsius autori ? Id. 

e Daturas erat Dominus hominibus Spiritum Sanctum : ab ipso Spiritu Sancto 
fulelibus suis dimitti peccata, non mcritis hominum volebat intelligi dimitti pec- 
cata. Nam quid es, homo, nisi aeger sanandus ? Vis mihi esse medicus ? me- 
cum quaere medicum. Augustin. serm. 99. op. torn. 5. pag. 525. 


that by the Holy Ghost himself sins should be forgiven to 
the faithful ; and not that by the merits of men sins should 
be forgiven. For what art thou, O man, but a sick man, 
that hast need to be healed ? Wilt thou be a physician 
to me ? Seek the physician together with me." So St. 
Ambrose: " Behold h , that by the Holy Ghost sins are for- 
given. But men to the remission of sins bring their mi- 
nistry ; they exercise not the authority of any power." 
St. Chrysostom, though he make this to be the exercise of 
a great power (which also he elsewhere 1 amplifieth, after 
his manner, exceeding hyperbolically), yet in the main mat- 
ter accordeth fully with St. Ambrose ; that it lieth in 
" God k alone to bestow the things wherein the priest's ser- 
vice is employed." " And 1 what speak I of priests?" saith 
he, " Neither angel or archangel can do aught in those 
things which are given by God : but the Father and the 
Son and the Holy Ghost do dispense all. The priest 
lendeth his tongue, and putteth to his hand. His™ part 
only is to open his mouth : but it is God that worketh 
all." And the reasons whereby both he, and Theophy- 
lact" after him, do prove that the priests of the law had 
no power to forgive sins, are of as great force to take the 
same power from the ministers of the Gospel : first, 
because " it is God's part only to forgive sins," which is the 
moral that Haymo maketh of that part of the history of 

h Ecce, quia per Spiritum Sanctum peccata donantur. Homines autem in re- 
missionem peccatorum ministerium suum exhibent ; non jus alicujus potestatis 
exercent. Ambros. de Spir. Sanct. lib. 3. cap. IS. op. torn. 2. pag. C93. 

1 Chrysost. lib. 3. de sacerdotib. 

k A" yap lyKtxtipiorai ° itptvg, Qtov fiovov tori SioptlaOai. Id. in Johan. 
cap. 20. homil. 86. op. torn. 8. pag. 518. 

1 Kai ri Xeyw rovg itpiig ; o'vrt ayytXog ovts apxayytXog ipycMTaoQai 
ti Svvarai tig ra StSo[iiva Tvapa rov Qtov- dXXd 7rar>)p Kai vlbg Kai 
t'iyiov irvtvjxa iravra oiKovofitl. b Si uptvg ti)v iavrov SavtlZti yXwTTav, 
Kai rt)v iavrov 7raptx il X il P a - Id. ib. 

m T6 7ra.v Trjg x^piTog tare tovtov tffriv avolKai novov to orb[ia. to 
Si ■kciv 6 Qebg ipyaZtrat, ovpfioXov ovrog TrXripui p:6vov. Id. in 2 Tim. 
cap. 1. homil. 2. op. torn. 11. pag. 671. 

n Id. in Johan. cap. 8. homil. 54. op. torn. 8. pag. 316. 

° T6 yap a(f>rjvat ctfiapriag Qtov fiovov. Theophylact. in Johan. cap. 8. 


the Gospel, wherein the lepers are cleansed by our Sa- 
viour, before they be commanded to shew themselves unto 
the priests: "because," saith he, "not the priests, but 
God doth forgive sins." Secondly, because p the priests 
were servants, yea servants of sin, and therefore had no 
power to forgive sins unto others : but the Son is the Lord 
of the house ; who " was q manifested to take away our sins, 
and in him is no sin," saith St. John, upon which saying of 
his, St. Augustine giveth this good note : " It 1 ' is he in 
whom there is no sin, that came to take away sin. For if 
there had been sin in him too, it must have been taken 
away from him, he could not take it away himself." 

To forgive sins therefore being thus proper to God only, 
and to his Christ : his ministers must not be held to have 
this power communicated unto them, but in an improper 
sense ; namely, because God forgiveth by them, and hath 
appointed them both to apply those means, by which he 
useth to forgive sins, and to give notice unto repentant 
sinners of that forgiveness. " For 5 who can forgive sins 
but God alone? yet doth he forgive by them also, unto 
whom he hath given power to forgive :" saith St. Ambrose, 
and his followers'. And " though" it be the proper work of 
God to remit sins," saith Ferus, " yet are the apostles 
(and their successors) said to remit also; not simply, but be- 
cause they apply those means whereby God doth remit sins. 
Which means are the word of God and the sacraments." 

p AobXoi K<f,Kilvoi ovtiq 01 \tpt~iQ bjiSiv, ouk ixovaiv i'iovGiav cupikvat 
dWoig u^utpTiag. Id. ib. 

i 1 John, chap. 3. ver. 5. 

r In quo non est peccatum, ipse venit auferre peccatum. Nam si esset et in 
illo peccatum, auferendum esset illi, non ipse auferret. Augustin. tract. 4. in 1 . 
Johan. cap. 3. op. torn. 3. par. 2. pag. 8.54. 

9 Quis enim potest peccata dimittere, nisi solus Deus ? qui per eos quoque 
dimittit, quibus dimittendi tribuit potestatem. Ambr. lib. 5. comment, in Luc. 
cap. 5. op. torn. 1. pag. 135. 

1 Beda, et Stratus in Marc. cap. 2. et Luc. cap. 5. 

u Quamvis Dei proprium opus sit, remittere peccata ; dicuntur tamen etiam 
apostoli remittere : non simpliciter, sed quia adhibcnt media, per qua? Deus re- 
mittit peccata. Hsec autem media sunt, verbum Dei et sacramenta. Jo. Ferus, 
annotat. in Johan. cap. 20. item, lib. 3. comment, in Matt. cap. 16. 



Whereunto also we may add, the relaxation of the cen- 
sures of the Church, and prayer : for in these four the 
whole exercise of this ministry of reconcilation, as the 
apostle w calleth it, doth mainly consist ; of each whereof it 
is needful that we should speak somewhat more parti- 

That prayer is a means ordained by God for procuring 
remission of sins, St. Chrysostom observe th x out of Job, 
chapter forty-two, verse eight ; and is plain by that of St. 
James. " The y prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the 
Lord shall raise him up : and if he have committed sins, 
they shall be forgiven him. Confess your faults one to 
another, and pray one for another, that ye may be healed : 
for the fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much." 
The latter of which sentences hath reference to the 
prayers of every good Christian, whereunto we find a 
gracious promise annexed, according to that of St. John ; 
" If z any man see his brother sin a sin which is not 
unto death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life for 
them that sin not unto death." But the former, as the 
verse immediately going before doth manifestly prove, 
pertaineth to the prayers made by the ministers of the 
Church ; who have a special charge to be the Lord's re- 
membrancers for the good of his people. And therefore, 
as St. Augustine out of the latter proveth, that one a bro- 
ther by this means may cleanse another from the conta- 
gion of sin ; so doth St. Chrysostom out of the former, 
that priests do perform this, " not b by teaching only and 
admonishing, but by assisting us also with their prayers ;" 
and the faithful prayers, both of the one and of the other, 

w 2 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 18. 

x 'EvTtvOev yivwcTKOixsv, on ei>xv Sikcliwv TrspiaipiX a/iapTtav. Chry- 
sost. in catena Grseca, in Job. cap. 42. ver. 8. 

y James, chap. 5. ver. 15, 16. 

z 1 John, chap. 5. ver. 16. 

a Quod etiam frater fratrem a delicti potent contagionemundare. Augustin. 
in evangel. Johan. tract. 58. op. torn. 3. par. 2. pag. 662. 

b oi Tip SidaoKtiv fiovov Kcti vouOtrtlv, aXKd /cat r<jj Si (.vx&v fiotjQtlv. 
Chrysost. lib. 3. de sacerd, op; torn. 1. pag. 384. 


are by St. Augustine c made the especial means, whereby 
the power of the keys is exercised in the remitting of sins : 
who thereupon exhorteth offenders to shew their repent- 
ance publicly in the Church, " that d the Church might 
pray for them, and impart the benefit of absolution unto 

In the life of St. Basil, fathered upon Amphilochius, of 
the credit whereof we have before spoken, a certain gen- 
tlewoman is brought in, coming unto St. Basil for obtaining 
remission of her sins : who is said there to have demanded 
this question of her. " Hast thou heard, O woman, that 
none can forgive sins but God alone ?" and she to have 
returned him this answer. " I have heard it, father : and 
therefore have I moved thee to make intercession unto 
our most merciful God for me." Which agreeth well with 
that which Alexander* of Hales and Bonaventure § do 
maintain ; that the power of the keys extends to the remis- 
sion of faults, by way of intercession only and deprecation, 
not by imparting any immediate absolution. And as in our 
private forgiving and praying one for another, St. Augus- 
tine well noteth, that " it' 1 is our part, God giving us the 
grace, to use the ministry of charity and humility ; but it 
is his to hear us, and to cleanse us from all pollution of 
sins for Christ, and in Christ ; that what we forgive unto 
others, that is to say, what we loose upon earth, may be 
loosed also in heaven ;" so doth St. Ambrose shew, that 
the case also standeth with the ministers of the Gospel, in 
the execution of that commission given unto them for the 

c Augustin. de baptismo contra Donatist. lib. 3. cap. 17, 18. 

d Id. serm. 392. Agite pcenitentiam qualis agitur in Ecclesia, ut oret pro vobis 
Ecclesia. op. torn. 5. pag. 1504. 

e torn. 2. vit. sanct. ab Aloysio Lipomano edit. Venet. ann. 1553. fol. 298. 
Vit. patrum, ab Her. Rosweydo edit. Antverp. ann. 1615. pag. 160. Miscellan. 
a GerardoVossio. edit. Mogunt. ann. 1604. pag. 136. 

f Alex, in summ. part. 4. quaest. 21. membr. 1. 

B Bonaventur. in lib. 4. sent. dist. 18. art. 2. qusest. 1. 

h Nostrum est, donante ipso, ministerium charitatis et humilitatis adhiberc : 
illius est exaudire, acnos abomni peccatorum contaminationemundare per Chris- 
tum, .et in Christo ; ut quod aliis etiam dimittimus, hoc est, in terra solvimus, 
solvaturet in ccelo. Augustin, in fine tractat. 58. in evangel. Johann. 



remitting of sins'. " They k make request," saith he ; "the 
Godhead bestoweth the gift : for the service is done by 
man, but the bounty is from the power above." The 
reason which he rendereth thereof is, because in their 
ministry it is the Holy Ghost that forgiveth the sin ; and it 
is God only that can give the holy Ghost. " For 1 this is 
not an human work," saith he in another place, "neither is 
the Holy Ghost given by man ; but, being called upon by 
the priest, is bestowed by God : wherein the gift is God's, 
the ministry is the priest's. For if the apostle Paul did 
judge that he could not confer the Holy Ghost by his au- 
thority, but believed himself to be so far unable for this 
office, that he wished we might be filled with the Spirit 
from God : who is so great as dare arrogate unto himself 
the bestowing of this gift ? Therefore the apostle did inti- 
mate his desire by prayer, he challenged no right by any 
authority : he wished to obtain it, he presumed not to 
command it." Thus far St. Ambrose ; of whom Paulinus 
writeth, that whensoever any penitents came unto him, 
" the m crimes which they confessed unto him, he 
spake of to none, but to God alone, unto whom he made 
intercession ; leaving a good example to the priests of 
succeeding ages, that they be rather intercessors for them 
unto God, than accusers unto men." The same also, and 

» John, chap. 20. ver. 23. 

k Isti rogant, Divinitas donat. Humanum enim obsequium, sed munificentia 
supernse est potestatis. Ambros. de Spir. Sanct. lib. 3. cap. IS. op. torn. 2. pag. 

1 Non enim humanum hoc opus, neque ab homine datur : sed invocatus a 
sacerdote, a Deo traditur : in quo Dei munus, ministerium sacerdotis, est. Nam 
si Paulus apostolus judicavit, quod ipse donare Spiritum Sanctum sua authori- 
tate non posset ; et in tantum se huic officio imparem credidit, ut a Deo nos Spi- 
ritu op tare t impleri : quis tantus est, qui hujus traditionem muneris sibi audeat 
arrogare? Itaque apostolus votum precatione detulit, non jus authoritate aliqua 
vindicavit : impetrare optavit, non imperare prsesumpsit. Id. ibid. lib. 1. cap. 
8. op. torn. 2. pag. 619. 

m Causas autem criminum, quas illi confitebantur, nulli nisi Domino soli, apud 
quern intercedebat, loquebatur : bonum relinquens exemplum posteris sacerdoti- 
bus, ut intercessores apud Deum magis sint, quam accusatores apud homines. 
Paulinus, in vita S. Ambrosii. 


in the self-same words, doth Jonas" write of Eustachius, 
the scholar of Columbanus our famous countryman. 

Hitherto appertaineth that sentence cited by Thomas 
Walden out of St. Hierome's exposition upon the Psalms, 
that the voice of God " cutteth' 1 off daily in every one of 
us the flame of lust, by confession and the grace of the 
Holy Ghost, that is to say, by the prayer of the priest 
maketh it to cease in us ;" and that which before hath 
been alleged out of Leo, of the confession offered first to 
God, and then to the priest, " who q cometh as an en- 
treater for the sins of the penitent ;" which he more fully 
expresseth in another epistle, affirming it to be " very r pro- 
fitable and necessary, that the guilt of sins (or sinners) be 
loosed by the supplication of the priest, before the last 
day." See St. Gregory 55 , in his moral exposition upon 1 Sa- 
muel, chapter 2. verse 25. Anastasius Sinaita or Nicamus, in 
his answer to the one hundred and forty-first question (of 
Gretser's edition) ; and Nicolaus Cabasilas, in the twenty- 
ninth chapter of his exposition of the liturgy : where he 
directly affirmeth, " that remission of sins is given to the 
penitents by the prayer of the priests." And therefore, by 
the order used of old in the Church of Rome, the priest, 
before he began his work, was required to use this prayer, 
" O l Lord God almighty, be merciful unto me a sinner, 

" Jonas, in vita S. Eustachii Luxoviensis abbatis, cap. I. apud Surium, torn. 
2. Mart. 20. 

° Tho. Waldens. torn. 2. de sacramentis, cap. 147. 

i' Quotidie in unoquoqne nostrum flammam libidinis, per confessionem et gra- 
tiam Spiritus Sancti, intercidit, id est, per orationem sacerdotis facit cessare. Hie- 
ronym. in exposit. Psal. 28. op. torn. 2. app. pag. 190. 

1 Qui pro dclictis pcenitentiuin precator accedit. Leo, in fin. epist, 80. ad 
episc. Campan. 

r Multum enim utile ac necessarium est, ut peccatorum reatus ante ultimum 
diem sacerdotali supplicatione solvatur. Id. epist. 91. ad Theodor. episc. 

s Gregor. in 1. Reg. lib. 2. cap. 3. ad illud: Si peccaverit virin virum, &c. op. 
torn. 3. par. 2. pag. 84. 

1 Domine Deus omnipotens, propitius esto mibi peccatori, ut condigne pos- 
sim tibi gratias agere ; qui me indignum propter tuatn misericordiam minis- 
trum fecisti sacerdotalis officii, et me cxiguum humilemque mediatorcin consti- 
tuisti ad orandum et intercedendum ad Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, pro 
peccatoribus ad poenitentiam revertentibus. Ideoque dominator Domine, qui 
omnes homines vis salvos fieri, et ad agnitionem veritatis venire ; qui non vis 


that I may worthily give thanks unto thee, who hast made 
me an unworthy one, for thy mercy's sake, a minister of 
the priestly office ; and hast appointed me a poor and 
humble mediator, to pray and make intercession unto our 
Lord Jesus Christ, for sinners that return unto repent- 
ance. And therefore, O Lord the ruler, who wouldest 
have all men to be saved, and come to the knowledge of 
the truth ; who dost not desire the death of a sinner, but 
that he may be reconciled and live ; receive my prayer, 
which I pour forth before the face of thy mercy, for thy 
servants and handmaids, who have fled to repentance, and 
to thy mei*cy." Add hereunto the prayer of Damascene, 
which is still used in the Greek Church before the receiv- 
ing of the communion. " O u Lord Jesus Christ, our 
God, who alone hast power to forgive sins, in thy good- 
ness and loving kindness pass by all the offences of thy 
servant ; whether done of knowledge or of ignorance, vo- 
luntary or involuntary, in deed, or word, or thought :" 
and that which is used after in the liturgy ascribed to St. 
James, wherewith the priest shutteth up the whole ser- 
vice ; " I w beseech thee, Lord God, hear my prayer in 
the behalf of thy servants, and as a forgetter of injuries 
pass over all their offences. Forgive them all their excess, 

mortem peccatoris, sed ut convertatur et vivat ; suscipe orationem meam, quam 
fundo ante conspectum clementiae tuse, pro famulis et famulabus tuis, qui ad 
pcenitentiam et misericordiam tuam confugerunt. Ordo Roman, antiqu. de offi- 
ciis divinis, pag. 18. edit. Rom. aim. 1591. Baptizatorum et confitentium cere- 
monise antiquse, edit. Colon, aim. 1530. Alcuin. de divin. offic. cap. 13. in capite 

u Aemrora Kvpit 'It]<rov Xpiari, 6 Otbg t)fia>i>, b fiovog tx^v kKovffiav 
cMpuvai d/xapriag, wf dyaBbg Kal (piXdvOpunrog, irdpiSi iravTa ra iv yvw- 
ou Kal dyvoia TrXijfifitXyixara, rd 'tuovaui Kal ra dtcovaia, rd kv tpyy Kal 
\(>y<{) Kai Kara Sidvoiav. Eucholog. Grsec. fol. 217. 

w Nai (5lff7rora Kvpie, iLgukovcov rijg Sirjvtug /xov v7rtp rwv dovXutv 
ffov, Kal 7rapi8i dig dfivijcrtKaKog ra iirraidfikva aur£>v uTravra- <rvyx<*>pt]- 
(tov avrolg irdv nXi)pfiiXi)jxa skovoiov rt Kal Akovoiov cnraWa^ov av - 
rovg rijg alwviov KoXdfftcog. ov yap tl 6 ivreiXdfitvog ijfilv Xeywv, on, 
baa civ ct)ffr]rt iffl ri)g yrjg, iarai Ssdsfieva iv rolg ovpavolg' Kal baa dv 
Xvarjn irrl rrjg ytjc, tarai XtXv/itva iv roig ovpavoig' on av el o Qebg iifxwv, 
Qtbg rod iXtelv Kal aw^eiv Kal diptkvai afxapriag Svvdfitvog' Kal irpiTrtt 
aoi ») S6%a avv r<f) dvdpx<{> irarpl, Kal rip £a>07roi<j> nvei'fiari, vvv Kal dtl 
Kal tig rovg aitivag rwv aidfViav. 'Afi>)v. Liturg. Jaeobi, in fine. 


both voluntary and involuntary : deliver them from ever- 
lasting punishment. For thou art he who didst command 
us, saying ; Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth, shall be 
bound in heaven : and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth, 
shall be loosed in heaven; forasmuch as thou art our God, 
a God who art able to shew mercy, and save, and forgive sins : 
and glory becometh thee, together with the Father who is 
without beginning, and the Spirit the author of life, now 
and ever, and world without end. Amen." 

Yea, in the days of Thomas Aquinas there arose a 
learned man among the papists themselves, who found 
fault with that indicative form of absolution then used by 
the priest, " I absolve thee from all thy sins," and would 
have it delivered by way of deprecation : alleging, that this 
was not only the opinion of Guilielmus Altisiodorensis, 
Guilielmus Parisiensis, and Hugo Cardinalis ; but also 
that thirty" years were scarce passed, since all did use this 
form only, " Absolutionem et remissionem tribuat tibi 
omnipotens Deus ; Almighty God give unto thee absolu- 
tion and forgiveness." What Thomas doth answer here- 
unto, may be seen in his little treatise of the form of ab- 
solution, which upon this occasion he wrote unto the 
general of his order. This only will I add, that, as well in 
the ancient rituals and in the new pontifical of the Church 
of Rome, as in the present practice of the Greek Church, 
I find the absolution expressed in the third person, as at- 
tributed wholly to God ; and not in the first, as if it came 
from the priest himself. One ancient form of absolution 
used among the Latins, was this: " Almighty 2 God be mer- 
ciful unto thee, and forgive thee all thy sins, past, present, 
and to come, visible and invisible, which thou hast coni- 

* Addit etiam objiciendo, quod vix 30. anni sunt, quod omncs hac sola forma 
utcbantur ; Absolutionem et remissionem, &e. Thorn, opusc. 22. cap. 5. 

y Pontificale Roman, edit. Rom. aim. 1595. pag. 5C7, 568. 

1 Absolutio criminum. Misereatur tui omnipotens Deus, et dimittat tibi om- 
nia peccata tua, prseterita, prsescntia et futura, quae commisisti coram •■> et 
Sanctis ejus, quae confessus es, vel per aliquam negligentiam, sen oblivionem vel 
malcvolentiam abscondisti : liberet te Deus ab omni male, hie et in futuro, con- 
servet et confirmet tc semper in omni opere bono: ct pcrducat te Christus filius 
Dei vivi ad vitam sine line nianenteni, Coufitcntium cercmoninc antiqu. edit. 
Colon, ann. 1530. 


mitted before him and his saints, which thou hast con- 
fessed, or by some negligence or forgetfulness or evil will 
hast concealed : God deliver thee from all evil, here and 
hereafter, preserve and confirm thee always in every good 
work ; and Christ, the son of the living God, bring thee 
unto the life which remaineth without end." And so 
among the Grecians: " Whatsoever 8 sins the penitent for 
forgetfulness or shamefacedness doth leave unconfessed, 
we pray the merciful and most pitiful God, that those 
also may be pardoned unto him ; and Ave are persuaded 
that he shall receive pardon of them from God :" saith 
Jeremy the late patriarch of Constantinople. Where by 
the way you may observe no such necessity to be here 
held, of confessing every known sin unto a priest, that 
if either for shame, or for some other respect, the penitent 
do not make an entire confession, but conceal somewhat 
from the notice of his ghostly father, his confession should 
thereby be made void, and he excluded from all hope of 
forgiveness : which is that engine, whereby the priests of 
Rome have lift up themselves into that height of domi- 
neering and tyrannizing over men's consciences, where- 
with we see they now hold the poor people in most miser- 
able awe. 

Alexander of Hales and Bonaventure, in the form of 
absolution used in their time, observe that " prayer b was 
premised in the optative, and absolution adjoined after- 
ward in the indicative mood ;" whence they gather, that the 
" priest's prayer obtaineth grace, his absolution presup- 
poseth it :" that by the former he ascendeth unto God, 

a offa St Sia \ijQr]v i) aiSw aveZopoXoy^Ta tdatuv, ti>xofji£8a Tip sXerjuovi 
Kai TravoiKTipfiovi Otip kcii ravru <Jvyx<jopi]9r}vai avrsjj' tea's -KiTrucfiiQa Tt)v 
avyx i * ) P r l (TiV tovtwv tK Qtov XifiptaOai. Jerem. patriarch. C. P. respons. 1. 
ad Tubingenses, cap. 11. 

b Secundum quod ascendit, habet se per modum inferioris et supplicantis : 
secundum quod descendit, per modum superioris et judicantis. Secundum pri- 
mum modum potest gratiam impetrare, et ad hoc est idoneus : secundum secun- 
dum modum potest Ecclesiae reconciliare. Et ideo in signumhujus, in forma abso- 
lutions praemittitur oratio per modum deprecativum, et subjungitur absolutio 
per modum indicativum : et deprecatio gratiam impetrat ; et absolutio 
gratiam supponit. Alexand. Halens. summ. part. 4. quoest. 21. membr. 1. et 
Bonaventur. in. 4. sentent. dist. IS. art. 2. qusest. 1. 


and procureth pardon for the fault, by the latter he de- 
scendeth to the sinner, and reconcileth him to the Church ; 
for " although a man be loosed before God," saith the 
master of the sentences," yet is he not held loosed in the 
face of the Church, but by the judgment of the priest. " And 
this loosing of men, by the judgment of the priest, is by 
the fathers generally accounted nothing else but a restor- 
ing of them to the peace of the Church, and an admitting 
of them to the Lord's table again : which therefore they 
usually express by the terms of " bringing* them to the 
communion, reconciling* them to or with the communion, 
restoring i the communion to them, admitting g them to fel- 
lowship, granting" them peace, &c. Neither do we find 
that they did ever use any such formal absolution as this, 
/ absolve thee from all thy sins : wherein our popish 
priests notwithstanding do place the very form of their late 
devised sacrament of penance ; nay, hold it to be so abso- 
lute a form, that, according to Thomas Aquinas his new 
divinity, " it' would not be sufficient to say, Almighty 
God have mercy upon thee, or, God grant unto thee 
absolution and forgiveness ;" because, forsooth, " the priest 
by these words doth not signify that the absolution is 
done, but entreateth that it may be done ;" which how it 
will accord with the Roman pontifical, where the form of 
absolution is laid down prayer-wise, the Jesuits who 
follow Thomas may do well to consider. 

I pass this over, that in the days not only of St. Cy- 

c Quia etsi aliquis apud Deum sit solutus, non tamen in facie Ecclcsiae sohth s 
habetur, nisi per judicium sacerdotis. Petr. Lombard, lib. 4. sentent. distinct. 
18. Vid. Ivon. Carnotens. epist. 228. et Anselm. in Luc. 17. 

d TrpoaayiGGai ry KnivMviq,. Concil. Laodicen. can. 2. 

e Communioni, vel communione reconciliari. Concil. Eliberitan. can. 72. 

f Reddi eis conununionem. Amb. de pcenitent. lib. 1. cap. 2. et lib. 2. cap. 
9. op. torn. 2. pag. 391, et 434. 

S Ad communicationem admittere. Cypr. epist. 53. Communicationem dare. 
Id. epist. 54. Tribuere communicationem. Id. de lapsis. Op. pag. 180'. 

'' Pacem dare ; concedere pacem. Id. ibid. 
In sacramentali absolutione non sufficerct dicere, Misereatur tui omhipotens 
Deus ; vel, Absolutionem et remissionem tribuat tibi Dens : quia per haec verba 
sacerdos absolutionem non significat fieri, sed petit ut fiat. Thoni. part. 3. 
queest. 84, art. 3. ad 1. 


prian k , but of Alcuinus 1 also, who lived eight hundred 
years after Christ, the reconciliation of penitents was not 
held to be such a proper office of the priest ; but that a 
deacon, in his absence, was allowed to perform the same. 
The ordinary course that was held herein, according 1 " to 
the form of the ancient canons, is thus laid down by the 
fathers of the third council of Toledo ; that the priest 
should " first suspend him that repented of his fault 
from the communion, and make him to have often re- 
course unto imposition of hands, among the rest of the 
penitents : then, when he had fulfilled the time of his sa- 
tisfaction, as the consideration of the priest did approve 
of it, he should restore him to the communion." And 
this was a constitution of old, fathered upon the apostles : 
that bishops " should" separate those, who said they re- 
pented of their sins, for a time determined according to 
the proportion of their sin ; and afterward receive them 
being penitent, as fathers would do their children." To 
this penitential excommunication and absolution belong- 
eth that saying, either of St. Ambrose or St. Augustine 
(for the same discourse is attributed to them both), " He°, 
who hath truly performed his repentance, and is loosed 
from that bond wherewith he was tied, and separated 
from the body of Christ, and doth live well after his re- 
pentance : whensoever after his reconciliation he shall 

k Cyprian, epist. 12. op. pag. 22. 

1 Alcuin. de divin. oflic. cap. 13. in capite Jcjunii. 

1,1 Ut secundum ibrmam canonum antiquorum dentur pceniteatiae, hoc est, ut 
prius eum, quern sui pcenitet iacti, a communione suspensum, faciat inter reli- 
quos poenitentes ad nianus impositionem crebro recurrere ; expleto auteni satis- 
factionis tempore, sicuti sacerdotalis contemplatio probaverit, eum communion!!. cap. 11. 

" Toi'Q t<p' afiapriaiQ Xkyovrag lUTai'otiv aipopiZ,uv xpovov iopiap,kvof 
Kara rt)v avakoyiav tov ctjiapvijfiaTOQ' trrurn ptTavoovvrag TrpoaXa/i- 
ftavtrrQai, tog Trarlpet; vloiig. Constitut. apostolic, lib. 2. cap. 1G. 

° Qui egerit veraciter pcenitentiam, et solutus fuerit a ligamento quo erat 
constrictus, et a Cbristi corpore separatus, et bene post pcenitentiam vixerit ; 
post reconciliationem quandocumque defunctus fuerit, ad Dominum vadit, ad re- 
quiem vadit, regno Dei non privabitur, et a populo Diaboli scparabitur. Ambros. 
in exhortat. ad pcenitent. Augustin. serin. 393. op. torn. 5. pag. 1507. et inter 
Caisarii Arelat. sermoncs, homil. 43, et 44. 


depart this life, he goeth to the Lord, he goeth to rest ; 
he shall not be deprived of the kingdom of God, and 
from the people of the devil he shall be separated." And 
that which we read in Anastasius Sinaita: " Bind 1 ' him, 
and till thou hast appeased God do not let him loose ; 
that he be not more bound with the wrath of God ; for 
if thou bindest him not, there remain bonds for him that 
cannot be broken. Neither do we enquire, whether the 
wound were often bound ; but whether the binding 
hath profited. If it have profited, although in a short 
time, use it no longer. Let the measure of the 
loosing be the profit of him that is bound :" and that ex- 
hortation, which another maketh unto the pastors of the 
Church: " Bind' 1 with separation such as have sinned 
after baptism, and loose them again when they have re- 
pented, receiving them as brethren : for the saying is true ; 
Whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed in 

That this authority of loosing remaineth still in the 
Church, we constantly maintain against the heresy of the 
Montanists r and Novatians s , who upon this pretence 
among others, that God only had power to remit sins, 
took away the ministerial power of reconciling such peni- 
tents as had committed heinous sins ; denying that the 
Church had any warrant to receive them to her commu- 
nion again, and to the participation of the holy mysteries, 
notwithstanding their repentance were ever so sound. 

P A/jitov ovv aurbv, kcu 'iw£ dv i^iXtcoay rbv Qiby, /*») capyg XiXv^iirVov, 
"iva fxr) ttXeov Se9y Ty rov Gtoii bpyy' av yap p.i) Si]ffy tu apprjKra avrbv 
fievti Sefffia' &c. dXX' ovSt yap i! iroXXdieiG tntStOri rb rpavfia, Z,i]Tovpsv , 
dXX' r) ioPt]<T8 ri b StiTfibg ; ti fiiv wcpiXrjict ical iv xpovq) fipaxt'i, ju///c£Tt 


Sinait. qusest. C. 

1 tSiiaart d^>opiiT[iip rove; jutru to (3d7TTi<T[.ia ctfiapTiiiravTac, Kctl \iaart 
avTOvQ ttiiXiv p.eravoovvrag, ioq dSiXtyovQ civtovq irpoaSex < 'f tlV0 '- dXijlh)<_: 
yap tOTiv 6 \6yof "Ooa av XiioiiTf. itti tt)q yijc, tOTai XiXv/itva iv Tip 
ovpaviji. Homil. in illud : Quaccunquc ligaveritis &c. inter opera Chrysost. 
torn. 9. pag. 845. 

r Hieron. epist. 54. contra Montanum, etlib. 2. advers. Jovinian. Tcrtullianus 
Montanizans, in lib. de pudicitia, cap. ult. 

5 Ambros. lib. 1. de pcenit. cap. 2. Socrat. lib. 1, hist. cap. 7. Sozom. lib. 1. 
cap. 21. 


Which is directly contrary to the doctrine delivered by 
St. Paul, both in the general, " If* a man be overtaken 
in a fault, they who are spiritual should restore such a one 
in the spirit of meekness ;" and in the particular, of the 
incestuous Corinthian, who, though he had been excom- 
municated for such a crime " as" was not so much as 
named amongst the Gentiles ;" yet upon his repentance 
the apostle telleth the Church, that they " ought™ to 
forgive him, and comfort him, lest he should be swal- 
lowed up with overmuch sorrow." Where that speech of 
his is specially noted and pressed, against the heretics by 
St. Ambrose x : " To y whom ye forgive any thing, I forgive 
also ; for, if I forgave any thing, to whom I forgave it, for 
your sakes I forgave it, in the person of Christ." For z as 
" in the name, and by the power" of our Lord Jesus," such 
a one was delivered to Satan ; so God ;i having given unto 
him repentance, to recover himself out of the snare of the 
devil, in the same name and in the same power was he to 
be restored again : the ministers of reconciliation stand- 
ing " in b Christ's stead ;" and Christ himself being " in c 
the midst of them that are thus gathered together in 
his name," to bind or loose in heaven whatsoever 
they according to his commission shall bind or loose 
on earth. And here it is to be noted, that Anasta- 
sius (by some called Nicasnus, by others Sinaita and An- 
tiochenus),who is so eager against them which say that 
confession made unto men profiteth nothing at all, con- 
fesseth yet that the minister, in hearing the confession, 
and instructing and correcting the sinner, doth but give 
furtherance only thereby unto his repentance ; but that 
the pardoning of the sin is the proper work of God. 
" For ri man" saith he, " cooperatcth with man unto repent- 

' Galat. chap. G. ver. 1. u 1 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 1. 

" 2 Cor. chap. 2. ver. 7. 

* Ambros. de pcenit. lib. 1. cap. 1C. op. torn. 2. pag. 413. 

y 2 Cor. chap. 2. ver. 10. z 1 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 4, 5. 

a 2 Tim. chap. 2. ver. 25, 26. b 2 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 20. 

<• Matt. chap. 18. ver. 18, 20. 

d "AvOpomog jxiv yap di'OpioTro) avripyii ti£ fieravoiav, Kcd virrjpeTEi, 


ance, and ministereth, and buildeth, and instructeth, and 
reproveth, in things belonging unto salvation, according 
to the apostle and the prophet : but God blotteth out 
the sins of those that have confessed, saying : I am he 
that blotteth out thine iniquities for mine own sake, and 
thy sins, and will not remember them." 

There followeth now another part of the ministry of 
reconciliation, consisting in the due administration of the 
sacraments : which being the proper seals of the promises 
of the Gospel, as the censurers are of the threats, must 
therefore necessarily also have reference to the " remis- 
sion 6 of sins." And so, we see, the ancient fathers f do hold 
that the commission, " Whose s sins ye remit, they are 
remitted unto them, &c." is executed by the ministers of 
Christ, as well in the conferring of baptism, as in the re- 
conciling of penitents: yet so in both these, and in all the 
sacraments likewise of both the Testaments, that the 1 ' mi- 
nistry only is to be accounted man's, but the power God's. 
For, as St. Augustine well observeth, " it' is one thing to 
baptize by way of ministry, another thing to baptize by 
way of power. The k power of baptizing the Lord 
retaineth to himself; the ministry he hath given to his 
servants. The 1 power of the Lord's baptism was to pass 

Kai oIkooo/.kI, Kai TraiStvti, Kai eXi-y^a r<i irpbg awrrjpiav, Kara tov dnoir- 
toXov Kai tov 7rpo(pljTr]v. 6 Si Oebg eZaXtltyei rag d/iapriag twi> tSo/ioXo- 
yov/xEvuv, \£yo)i>- 'Eyw el/ii 6 i£a\ti<piov rug dvofiiag gov 'ivsKiv ifiov, Kai 
rag a/iapriag ffov, Kai ov /it) fivi)(yQu>. Anastas. quaest. 6. 

e Acts, chap. 2. ver. 38. Matt. chap. 26. ver. 28. 

f Cyprian, epist. 76. op. pag. 155. Cyrill. Alexandr. in Johann. lib. 12. cap. pcenitent. lib. 1. cap. 7. Chrysost. lib. 3. de sacerdot. op. torn. 
1. pag. 383. Vid. et torn. 9. pag. 845. 

e John, chap. 20. ver. 23. 

b Augustin. quaest. in Levitic. cap, 84. Optat. lib. 5. contra Donatist. Chrysost. 
in Matt. cap. 26. homil. 82. op. torn. 7. pag. 789. in 1 Cor. cap. 3. homil. 8. op. 
torn. 10. pag. 66. et in 2 Tim. cap. 1. homil. 2. op. torn. 1 1. pag. 671. 

1 Aliud enim est baptizare per ministerium ; aliud baptizare per potcstatem. 
Augustin. in evang. Johan. tract. 5. op. torn. 3. par. 2. pag. 322. 

k Sibi tenuit Dominus baptizandi potestatem ; servis ministerium ; dedit. Id. 
ibid. pag. 323. 

1 Potestatem dominici baptismi in nullum hominem a Domino transituram, 
sed ministerium plane transiturum ; potestatem a Domino in neminem niinistro- 
rum, ministerium et in bonos et in malos. Id. ibid. 


from the Lord to no man, but the ministry was ; the power 
was to be transferred from the Lord unto none of his mi- 
nisters, the ministry was both unto the good and unto the 
bad." And the reason which he assigneth hereof is very 
good : " that 1 " the hope of the baptized might be in him, 
by whom they did acknowledge themselves to have been 
baptized. The Lord therefore would not have a servant 
to put his hope in a servant." And therefore those school- 
men argued not much amiss, that gathered this conclusion 
thence : " It" is a matter of equal power to baptize in- 
wardly, and to absolve from mortal sin. But it was not fit, 
that God should communicate the power of baptizing in- 
wardly unto any : lest our hope should be reposed in man. 
Therefore by the same reason it was not fit, that he 
should communicate the power of absolving from actual 
sin unto any." So Bernard, or whosoever was the author 
of the book intituled Scala Paradisi, " The° office of 
baptizing the Lord granted unto many, but the power 
and authority of remitting sins in baptism he retained unto 
himself alone : whence John, by way of singularity and 
differencing, said of him, He it is which baptizeth with 
the Holy Ghost." And the baptist indeed doth make a 
singular difference, betwixt the conferrer of the external, 
and the internal baptism, in saying : " Ip baptize with 
water ; but it is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost." 
While John " did q his service, God did give, who faileth 
not in giving : and now, when all others do their service, the 

m Hoe noluit ideo, ut in illo spes esset baptizatorum, a quose baptizatos agnos- 
cerent. Noluit ergo servum ponere spem in servo. Id. ibid. 

n Paris potestatis est interius baptizare, et a culpa mortali absolvere. Sed 
Deus non debuit potestatem baptizandi interius communicare ; ne spes ponere- 
tur in homine ; Ergo pari ratione nee potestatem absolvendi ab aetuali. Alex- 
and. de Hales, summ. part. 4. qusest. 21. memb. 1. 

Officium baptizandi Dominus concessit multis, potestatem vero et authorita- 
tem in baptismo remittendi peccata sibi soli retinuit : unde Johannes antonomas- 
tice et discretive de eo dixit ; Hie est qui baptizat in Spiritu Sancto. Seal. Para- 
dis. cap. 3. app. torn. C. operum Augustini. 

p Mark, chap. 1. ver. 8. John, chap. 1. ver. 26, 33. 

i Illo operante dabat Deus, qui dando non deficit. Et nunc operantibus 
cunctis, humana sunt opera, sed Dei sunt munera. Optat. lib. 5. contra Do- 


service is man's, but the gift is God's;" saith Optatus : and 
Arnaldus Bonsevallensis, the author of the twelve treatises 
De cardinalibus operibus Christi, falsely ascribed to St. Cy- 
prian, touching the sacraments in general : " Forgive- 
ness 1 of sins, whether it be given by baptism or by other 
sacraments, is properly of the Holy Ghost ; and the pri- 
vilege of effecting this remaineth to him alone." 

But the word of reconciliation is it, wherein the apostle 5 
doth especially place that " ministry of reconciliation," 
which the Lord hath committed to his ambassadors here 
upon earth. This is that key of knowledge : which doth 
both " open 1 the conscience to the confession of sin, and 
include therein the grace of the healthful mystery unto 
eternity ;" as Maximus Taurinensis speaketh of it. This 
is that powerful means, which God hath sanctified, for the 
washing away of the pollution of our souls. " Now" ye 
are clean," saith our Saviour to his apostles, " through the 
word which 1 have spoken unto you." And whereas 
every transgressor is " holden w with the cords of his own 
sins," the apostles, according to the commission given 
unto them by their Master, that " whatsoever they should 
loose on earth, should be loosed in heaven," did loose those 
cords " by the word of God, and the testimonies of the scrip- 
tures, and exhortation unto virtues :" as saith St. Hierome*. 
Thus likewise doth St. Ambrose note, that " sins 7 are 

r Remissio peecatorum, sive per baptismum sive per alia sacramenta donetur, 
proprie Spiritus Sancti est ; et ipsi soli hujus efficientiae privilegium nianet. 
Arnald. abbas Bonaavallis, tract, de baptismo Christi. 

s 2 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 18, 19. 

1 Clavis, quae et conscientiam ad confessionem peccati aperit, et gratiam ad 
seternitatem mysterii salutaris includit. Maxim. Taurin. de natali Petri et Pauli, 
horn. 5. 

u Joh. cap. 15. ver. 13. Vid. Ephes. cap. 5. ver. 26. et Augustin. in evang. 
Johann. tract. 80. 

vv Prov. chap. 5. ver. 22. 

x Funibus peecatorum suorum unusquisque eonstringitur. Quos funes atquc 
vincula solvere possunt et apostoli ; imitantes magistrum suuin, qui eis dixerat, 
Qu3ecunque solveritis super terram, erunt soluta et in ccelo. Solvnnt autem eos 
apostoli sermone Dei, et testimoniis scripturarum, et exhortationc viitutum. 
Hieronym. lib. 6. comment, in Esai. cap. 14. 

y Remiltuntur peccata per Dei verbum, cujus Levites interpres et quidam ex- 
ecutor est. Ambros. de Abel et Cain, lib. 2. cap. 4. op. torn. 1. pag. 212. 


remitted by the word of God, whereof the levite was an 
interpreter and a kind of an executor :" and in that re- 
spect concludeth, that " the 2 levite was a minister of this 
remission. As the Jewish scribes therefore, by " taking a 
away the key of knowledge, did shut up the kingdom of 
heaven against men :" so every b scribe which is instructed 
unto the kingdom of heaven, by opening unto his hearers 
the door of faith, doth as it were unlock that kingdom un- 
to them ; being the instrument of God herein " to' 1 open 
men's eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and 
from the power of Satan unto God ; that they may receive 
forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are 
sanctified by faith in Christ." And here are we to under- 
stand, that the ministers of Christ, by applying the word 
of God unto the consciences of men both in public and 
in private, do discharge that part of their function which 
concerneth forgiveness of sins ; partly operatively, partly 
declaratively. Operatively : inasmuch as God is pleased 
to use their preaching of the Gospel as a means of con- 
ferring 6 his Spirit upon the sons of men, of begetting* 
them in Christ, and of working 8 faith and repentance in 
them ; whereby the remission of sins is obtained. Thus 
John, " preaching 11 the baptism of repentance for the 
remission of sins," and teaching " the' people, that 
they should believe on him which should come after 
him, that is, on Christ Jesus" ; is said to " turn k many 
of the children of Israel to the Lord their God, and 
the disobedient to the wisdom of the just," by " giving 1 
knowledge of salvation to God's people, unto the re- 
mission of their sins." Not because he had properly any 

z Levites igitur minister remissionis est. Id. ibid. 
a Luke, chap. 11. ver. 52. compared with Matt. chap. 23. ver. 13. 
b Matt. chap. 13. ver. 52. c Acts, chap. 14. ver. 27. 

d Acts, chap. 26. ver. 18. 

e Acts, chap. 1 0. ver. 44. Gal. chap. 3. ver. 2. 2 Cor. chap. 3. ver. G. 
1 1 Cor. chap. 4. ver. 15. Gal. chap. 4. ver. 19. 

s Rom. chap. 10. ver. 17, John, chap. 17. ver. 20. 1 Cor. chap. 3. ver. 5. 
Acts, chap. 14. ver. 27. et chap. 20. ver. 18, 20. 

h Mark, chap. 1. ver. 4. ' Acts, chap. 19. ver. 4. 

k Luke, chap. 1. ver. 1C, 17. ' Ibid. ver. 77. 


power given him to turn men's hearts, and to work faith 
and repentance for forgiveness of sins when and where he 
thought good ; but because he was trusted with the mi- 
nistry of the word'" of God's grace, which is able to con- 
vert and quicken men's souls, and to give them an inheri- 
tance among all them which are sanctified : by the power- 
ful application of which word, " he" who converteth the 
sinner from the error of his way," is said to " save a soul 
from death, and to hide a multitude of sins." For howso- 
ever, in true propriety, the covering of sins, the saving 
from death, and turning of men from their iniquities, is a 
privilege peculiar to the Lord our God ; unto whom 
alone it appertaineth to " reconcile p the world to himself, 
by not imputing their sins unto them :" yet, inasmuch as 
he hath committed unto his ambassadors the " word q of 
reconciliation," they, in performing that work of their mi- 
nistry, may be as rightly said to be employed in reconciling 
men unto God, and procuring remission of their sins ; as 
they are said to " deliver 1 a man from going down into the 
pit," when they " declare unto him his righteousness :" 
and to " save 3 their hearers," when they " preach 1 unto 
them the Gospel, by which they are saved." 

For as the word itself, which they speak, is said to be 
" their" word," which yet " is w in truth the word of God :" 
so the work, which is effectually wrought by that word in 
them that believe, is said to be their work, though in truth 
it be the proper work of God. And as they that believe 
by their word are said to be " their* epistle", that is to say, 
" the epistle of Christ ministered by them," as it is ex- 
pounded in the verse following ; in like manner, forgive- 

ni Acts, chap. 20. ver. 32. Psalm 19. ver. 7. and 119. ver. 50, 93. 
" James, chap. 5. ver. 20. 

° Rom. chap. 4. ver. 6, 7. Jerem. chap. 31. ver. 1 8. Revel, chap. 1. ver. 18. 
1 Thess. chap. 1. ver. 10. Acts, chap. 3. ver. 26. Matt. chap. 1. ver. 21. 
p 2 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 19. i Ibid. 

r Job, chap. 33. ver. 23, 24. B 1 Tim. chap. 4. ver. 1G. 

* 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 1, 2. Acts, chap. 11. ver. 14. 
u John, chap. 17. ver. 20. w 1 Thess. chap. 2. ver. 13. 

x 2 Cor. chap. 3. ver. 2. 



ness of sins, and those other great graces that appertain to 
the believers, may be said to be their work, that is to say, 
the work of Christ ministered by them. For in very deed, 
as Optatus speaketh in the matter of baptism, " not y the 
minister, but the faith of the believer, and the Trinity, do 
bring these things unto every man." And where the 
preaching of the gospel doth prove "the 2 power of God 
unto salvation ;" only the weakness of the external minis- 
try must be ascribed to men, but "the 2 excellency of the 
power" must ever be acknowledged to be of God, and not 
of them : " neither b he that planteth," being here " any 
thing, neither he that watereth, but God that giveth the 
increase." For howsoever, in respect of the former, such 
as take pains in the Lord's husbandry may be accounted 
0£oO Gvvtpyoi, as the apostle termeth them, " labourers 
together with God," though that little piece of service it- 
self also be not performed by their own strength, but 
" according* 1 to the grace of God which is given un- 
to them :" yet " that 6 which followeth, of giving the in- 
crease, God effecteth not by them, but by himself. This", 
saith St. Augustine, " exceedeth the lowliness of man, this 
exceedeth the sublimity of angels ; neither appertaineth 
unto any but unto the husbandman the Trinity." 

Now as the Spirit of God doth not only work diversi- 
ties of graces in us, " distributing*" to every man severally 
as he will ;" but also maketh us to " know g the things 
that are freely given to us of God :" so the ministers of 
the New Testament, being " made' 1 able ministers of the 
same Spirit, are not only ordained to be God's instruments 

y Has res unicuique, non ejusdem rei operarius, sed credentis fides et Trinitas 
prsestat. Optat. lib. 5. contra Donatist. 

2 Rom. chap, l.ver. 16. 1 Cor. chap. 1. ver. 18. 

a 2 Cor. chap. 4. ver. 7. b 1 Cor. chap. 3. ver. 7. 

c 1 Cor. chap. 3. ver. 9. d Ibid. ver. 10. 

e Jam vero quod sequitur, Sed Deus incrementum dedit, non per illos sed 
per seipsum facit. Excedit hoc humanam himiilitatem, excedit angelicam sub- 
limitatem ; nee omnino pertinet nisi ad agricolam Trinitatem. Augustin. in 
evangel. Johann. tract. 80. op. torn. 3. par. 2. pag. 702. 

f 1 Cor. chap. 12. ver. 11. * Ibid. chap. 2. ver. 12. 

h 1 Cor. chap. 3. ver. C. 


to work faith and repentance in men, for the obtaining of 
remission of sins, but also to declare God's pleasure unto 
such as believe and repent, and in his name to certify 
them, and give assurance to their consciences, that their 
sins are forgiven, they having " received' this ministry of 
the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace 
of God ;" and so by their function being appointed to be 
witnesses, rather than conferrers, of that grace. For it is 
here with them in the loosing, as it is in the binding part 
of their ministry ; where they are brought in, like unto 
those seven angels in the book of the Revelation, which k 
" pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth;" 
having " vengeance 1 ready against all disobedience," and 
a charge from God, to " cast" 1 men out of his sight:" not 
because they are properly the avengers, for that title" 
God challengeth unto himself; or that vengeance did any 
way appertain unto them, for it is written, " Vengeance 
is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord :" but because they 
were the denouncers, not the inflicters, of this vengeance. 
So, though it be the Lord that " speaketh^ concerning a 
nation, to pluck up, and to pull down, and to destroy," 
or on the other side, " to build and to plant it ;" yet he, 
in whose mouth God put those words of his, is said to 
be set by him " over q the nations, and over the kingdoms, 
to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to 
throw down, to build, and to plant :" as if he himself were 
a doer of those great matters, who was only " ordained r 
to be a prophet unto the nations," to speak the things unto 
them which God had commanded him. Thus likewise 
in the thirteenth of Leviticus, where the laws are set down 
that concern the leprosy, which was a type of the pollu- 
tion of sin, we meet often with these speeches: " The' 

' Acts, chap. 20. ver. 24. k Rev. chap. 1G. ver. 1. 

1 2 Cor. chap. 10. ver. 6. m Jerem. chap. 15. ver. 1. 

n Psalm, 94. ver. 1. 

o Rom. chap. 12. ver. 19. Ileb. chap. 10. ver. 30. 

p Jerem. chap. 18. ver. 7, 9. 'i Jerem. chap. 1. ver. 9, 10. 

'" Jerem. chap. 1. ver. 5, 7. 

8 JPDn 1"ini0T Kai KaOapuT ahrhv 6 ttptvg. 

i. 2 


priest shall cleanse him," and, " The 1 priest shall pollute 
him:" and" " The priest with pollution shall pollute 
him :" " not w ", saith St. Hierome, " that he is the author of 
the pollution, but that he declareth him to be polluted, 
who before did seem unto many to have been clean." 
Whereupon the master of the sentences, following herein 
St. Hierome, and being afterwards therein followed 
himself by many others, observeth, that " in* remit- 
ting or retaining sins, the priests of the gospel have 
that right and office, which the legal priests had of old 
under the law in curing of the lepers. These there- 
fore" saith he, " forgive sins or retain them, whilst they 
shew and declare that they are forgiven or retained by 
God. For the priests put the name of the Lord upon the 
children of Israel, but it was he himself that blessed them, 
as it is read in Numbers." The place, that he hath re- 
ference unto, is in the sixth chapter of that book, where 
the priests are commanded to bless the people, by saying 
unto them, " The Lord bless thee," &c. and then it fol- 
loweth, in the last verse of that chapter, " So they shall 
put my name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless 

Neither do we grant hereupon, as the adversary 5 falsely 
chargeth us, that " a layman, yea or a woman, or a child, 
or any infidel, or the devil (the father of all calumniators 
and liars) or a parrot likewise, if he be taught the words, 
may as well absolve as the priest ;" as if the speech were 
all the thing that here were to be considered, and not the 

' ?nDn IXDtDl Kai fiiavti alirbv 6 itptvg. 

" in the 44th verse, Ji"Dn 13NDD* NOD fiiavaa fiiavti avrbv 6 upivg. 

* Contaminatione contaminabit eum, haud dubium quin sacerdos ; non quo 
contaminationis author sit, sed quo ostendat eum contaminatum, qui prius 
mundus plurimis videbatur. Hieron. lib. 7. in Esai. cap. 23. op. tom. 3. pag. 203. 

x In remittendis vel in retinendis culpis, id juris et officii habent evangelici 
sacerdotes, quod olim habebant sub lege legales in curandis lepi osis. Hi ergo 
peccata dimittunt vel retinent, dum dimissa a Deo vel retenta indicant et 
ostendunt. Ponunt enim sacerdotes nomen Domini super filios Israel, sed 
ipse benedixit ; sicut legitur in Numeris. Petr. Lombard, lib. 4. sentent. dist. 
14. f. 

* Bellarmin. de pcenitent. lib. 3. cap. 2. sec. ulL 


power : where we are taught, that " the 3 kingdom of God 
is not in word, but in power." Indeed if the priests by 
their office brought nothing with them but the ministry of 
the bare letter, a parrot peradventure might be taught to 
sound that letter as well as they : but we believe, that 
" God a hath made them able ministers of the New Testa- 
ment, not of the letter, but of the spirit ;" and that the 
gospel ministered by them " cometh b unto us not in word 
only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in 
much assurance." For God hath added a special beauty 
to " the c feet of them that preach the gospel of peace ;" 
that, howsoever others may bring glad tidings of good 
things to the penitent sinner as truly as they do, yet nei- 
ther can they do it with the same authority, neither is it to 
be expected that they should do it with such power, such 
assurance, and such full satisfaction to the afflicted con- 
science. The speech of every Christian, we know, should 
be employed " to d the use of edifying, that it may minis- 
ter grace unto the hearers :" and a private brother in his 
place may deliver sound doctrine, reprehend vice, exhort 
to righteousness, very commendably : yet hath the Lord, 
notwithstanding all this, for the necessary use of his 
Church, appointed public officers to do the same things, 
and hath given unto them a peculiar " power e for edifica- 
tion," wherein they may boast above others ; and in the 
due execution whereof God is pleased to make them in- 
struments of ministering a more plentiful measure of grace 
unto their hearers, than may be ordinarily looked for 
from others. These men are appointed to be of God's high 
commission ; and therefore they may " speak f and exhort, 
and rebuke with all authority :" they are God's " angels 8 " 
and " ambassadors' 1 for Christ ;" and therefore in deliver- 

* 1 Cor. chap. 4. ver. 19, 20. 

a 2 Cor. chap. 3. ver. 6. h 1 Thess. chap. 1. ver. 5. 

r Rom. chap. 10. ver. 15. d Ephes. chap. 4. ver. 2!). 

* 2 Cor. chap. 10. ver. 8. and chap. 13. ver. 10. 

' Tit. chap. 2. ver. 15. B Rev. chap. 1. ver. 20. 

h 2 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 20. 


ing their message are to be " received' as an angel of 
God ; yea, as Christ Jesus." That look how the prophet 
Isaiah was comforted, when the angel said unto him, 
" Thine k iniquity is taken away, and thy sin purged ;" 
and the poor woman in the gospel, when Jesus said unto 
her, " Thy 1 sins are forgiven." The like consolation doth 
the distressed sinner receive from the mouth of the mi- 
nister, when he hath compared the truth of God's word, 
faithfully delivered by him, with the work of God's grace 
in his own heart, according to that of Elihu, " If m there 
be an angel (or a messenger) with him, an interpreter, one 
of a thousand, to declare unto man his righteousness; 
then will God have mercy upon him, and say, Deliver 
him from going down to the pit, I have received a recon- 
ciliation." For as it is the office of this messenger and 
interpreter, to " pray" us in Christ's stead, that we would 
be reconciled to God ;" so, when we have listened unto 
this motion, and submitted ourselves to the gospel of 
peace, it is a part of his office likewise to declare unto us, 
in Christ's stead, that we are reconciled to God, and " in° 
him Christ himself must be acknowledged to speak, who 
to us-ward by this means " is not weak, but is mighty in 

But our new masters will not content themselves with 
such a ministerial power of forgiving sins, as hath been 
spoken of; unless we yield that they have authority so to 
do properly, directly, and absolutely : that is, unless we 
acknowledge that their high priest sitteth in the temple 
of God as God, and all his creatures as so many demi- 
gods under him. For we must p say, if we will be drunk 
with the drunken, " that in this high priest there is the 
fulness of all graces ; because he alone giveth a full indul- 

■ Gal. chap. 4. ver. 14. k Isaiah, chap. G. ver. 7. 

1 Luke, chap. 7. ver. 48. m Job, chap. 33. ver. 23, 24. 

n 2 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 20. ° Ibid. chap. 13. ver. 3. 

i 1 Oportet dicere, in summo pontifice esse plenitudinem omnium gratiarum ; 
quia ipse solus confert plenam indulgentiam omnium peccatorum : ut competat 
sibi, quod de primo principe Domino dicimus; Quia de plenitudine ejus nos 
oranes accepimus. De regimine principum, lib. 3. cap, 10. inter opuscula 
Thomae, num. 20. 


gence of all sins: that this may agree unto him, which we 
say of the chief prince our Lord, that Of his fulness all 
ive have received." Nay we must acknowledge, that the 
meanest in the whole army of priests, that followeth this 
king of pride, hath such fulness of power derived unto 
him, for the opening and shutting of heaven before men, 
that " forgiveness 01 is denied to them, whom the priest will 
not forgive ;" and his absolution on the other side is a 
sacramental act, which conferreth grace by the work 
ivronght, that is, as they expound it, " actively r , and im- 
mediately, and instrumentally effecteth the grace of justi- 
fication" in such as receive it : that, " as s the wind doth 
extinguish the fire, and dispel the clouds ; so doth the 
priest's absolution scatter sins, and make them to vanish 
away:" the sinner being thereby immediately acquitted 
before God ; howsoever that sound conversion of heart be 
wanting in him, which otherwise would be requisite. For 
a conditional* absolution, upon such terms as these, " If 
thou dost believe and repent as thou oughtest to do," is, 
in these men's judgment, to no purpose, and can give no 
security to the penitent ; seeing it dependeth upon an 
uncertain condition. Have we not then just cause to say 
unto them, as Optatus" did unto the Donatists, " Nolite 
vobis Majestatis dominium vendicare : intrude not upon 
the royal prerogative of our Lord and Master V No man 
may challenge this absolute power of the keys, but " he w 
that hath the key of David, that openeth and no man 
shutteth, and shutteth and no man openeth ;" he to whom 
" the* Father hath given power over all flesh," yea, " all y 
power in heaven and in earth ;" even the eternal Son of God, 

i Negatur remissio illis, quibus noluerint sacerdotes remittere. Bellann. de 
pcenit. lib. 3. cap. 2. 

'' Active, et proxime, atque instrumentaliter efficit gratiam justificationis. Id. 
de sacrament, in generc, lib. 2. cap. 1. 

8 Ut flatus extinguit ignem, ct dissipat nebulas ; sic etiam absolutio saccrdo- 
tis peccata dispeigit, et evanescere facit. Id. de pcenitent. lib. 3. can. 2. 

• Id. ibid. sec. penult. u Optat. lib. 5. cap. 7. 

w Rev. chap. 3. ver. 7. x John, chap. 17. ver. 2. 

y Matt. chap. 28. ver. IS. 


who hath in his hands ■*' the 2 keys of death," and is able to 
" quicken* whom he will." 

The ministers of the gospel may not meddle with the 
matter of sovereignty, and think that they have power to 
proclaim war or conclude peace betwixt God and man, 
according to their own discretion: they must remember 
that they are " ambassadors 6 for Christ," and therefore in 
this treaty are to proceed according to the instructions 
which they have received from their Sovereign ; which if 
they do transgress, they go beyond their commission : 
therein they do not npea^evav but TraQcnrpiofitvuv, and 
their authority for so much is plainly void. The bishop, 
saith St. Gregory, and the fathers in the council of Aquis- 
gran following him, " in c loosing and binding those that 
are under his charge, doth follow oftentimes the motions 
of his own will, and not the merit of the causes. Whence 
it cometh to pass, that he depriveth himself of this power 
of binding and loosing, who doth exercise the same ac- 
cording to his own will ; and not according to the manners 
of them which be subject unto him :" that is to say, he 
maketh himself worthy to be deprived of that power, 
which he hath thus abused ; as the master d of the sen- 
tences, and Semeca 6 in his gloss upon Gratian, would 
have St. Gregory's meaning to be expounded : and pro 
tanto, as hath been said, actually voideth himself of this 
power ; this unrighteous judgment of his given upon earth 
being no ways ratified, but absolutely disannulled, in the 
court of heaven. For, he who by his office is appointed to 
be a minister of " the* word of truth," hath no power 

z Rev. chap. 1. ver. 18. 

a John, chap. 5. ver. 21. b 2 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 20. 

c Saepe, in solvendis ac ligandis subditis, suae voluntatis motus, non autem cau- 
sarum merita sequitur. Unde fit, ut ipsa hac ligandi et solvendi potestate se pri- 
vet ; qui hanc pro suis voluntatibus, et non pro subjectorum moribus, exercet. 
Greg, in evangel, hom. 20. op. torn. 2. pag. 1555. concil. Aquisgran. sub Lu- 
dovico Pio, cap. 37. 

A Qui indignos ligat vel solvit : propria potestate se privat : id est, dignum pri- 
vatione se facit. Petr. Lombard, lib. 4. sentent. dist. 18. c. 

* Privat, id est, meretur privari. Jo. Semeca, gloss. Grat. cans. 11. qusest. 3. 
eap. CO. Ipse ligandi. 

' Ephes. chap. 1. ver. 13. James, chap. 1. ver. 18. 


given him to " do 8 any thing against the truth, but for the 
truth :" neither is it to be imagined, that the sentence of 
man, who is subject to deceive and be deceived, should 
any ways prejudice the sentence of God, whose judgment 1 ' 
we know to be always according to the truth. Therefore 
doth Pacianus, in the end of his first epistle to Symproni- 
anus the Novatian, shew that at that time absolution was 
not 1 so easily given unto penitents, as now-a-days it is : but 
" with k great pondering of the matter, and with great de- 
liberation, after many sighs and shedding of tears, after 
the prayers of the whole Church, pardon was so not de- 
nied unto true repentance, that, Christ being to judge, no 
man should prejudge him ;" and a little before, speaking 
of the bishop by whose ministry this was done, " He 1 
shall give an account (saith he) if he have done any thing 
amiss, or if he have judged corruptly and wickedly. Nei- 
ther is there any prejudice done unto God, whereby he 
might not undo the works of this evil builder : but in the 
mean time, if that administration of his be godly, he conti- 
nueth a helper of the works of God." Wherein he doth 
but tread in the steps of St. Cyprian, who, at the first 
rising of the Novatian heresy, wrote in the same manner 
unto Antonianus. " We m do not prejudice the Lord that 
is to judge, but that he, if he find the repentance of the 
sinner to be full and just, may then ratify that which 

e 2 Cor. chap. 13. ver. 8. h Rom. chap. 2. ver. 2. 

' Scio, frater, hanc ipsam pcenitentiae veniam non passim omnibus dari, &c. 
Pacian. epist. 1. 

k Magno pondere magnoque libramine, post multos gemitus effusionemque 
lachrymarum, post totius Ecclesiae preces, ita veniam verse pcenitentiae non nc- 
gari, ut judicature Christo nemo praejudicet. Ibid. 

1 Reddet quidem ille rationem, si quid perperam fecerit, vel si corrupte et 
impie judicarit. Nee praejudicatur Deo, quo minus mali aedificatoris opera re- 
scindat : interea, si piailla administrate est, adjutor Dei operuni perseverat. Id. 

m Neque enim praejudicamus Domino judicaturo, quo minus, si pcenitentiam 
plenam et justam peccatoris invenerit, tunc ratum faciat quod a nobis i'uerit hie 
statutum : si vero nos aliquis pcenitentiae simulatione deluserit, Deus, qui non 
deridetur, et qui cor hominis intuetur, de his quae nos minus perspeximus judi- 
cet, et servorum suorum sententiam Dominus emendct. Cypr. epist. 52. op. 
pag. 71. 


shall be here ordained by us : but if any one do deceive us 
with the semblance of repentance, God, who is not 
mocked, and who beholdeth the heart of man, may judge 
of those things which we did not well discern, and the 
Lord may amend the sentence of the servants." 

Hereupon St. Hierome, expounding those words " It 11 
may be God will pardon thy sins," reproveth those men 
of great rashness, that are so peremptory and absolute in 
their absolutions. " When blessed Daniel (saith he) who 
knew things to come, doth doubt of the sentence of God, 
they do a rash deed, that boldly promise pardon unto 
sinners." St. Basil also resolveth us, that " the p power 
of forgiving is not given absolutely ; but upon the obedi- 
ence of the penitent, and his consent with him that hath 
the care of his soul." For it is in loosing, as it is in 
binding. " Thou q hast begun to esteem thy brother as a 
publican," saith St. Augustine : " thou bindest him upon 
earth. But look that thou bindest him justly. For unjust 
bonds justice doth break." So, when the priest saith "I 
absolve thee," Maldonat confesseth that he meaneth no 
more thereby but, " As r much as in me lieth, I absolve 
thee:" and Suarez acknowledgeth, that it implicitly 
includeth this condition, " Unless s the receiver put 
some impediment ;" for which he allegeth the authority of 
Hugo 1 de St. Victoire, affirming, " that" this form doth 

11 Daniel, chap. 4. ver. 24. 

Cum beatus Daniel, praescius futurorum, de sententia Dei dubitet : rem te- 
merariam faciunt, qui audacter peccatoribus indulgentiam pollicentur. Hiero- 
nym. in Daniel, cap. 4. op. torn. 3. pag. 1090. 

P 'H IZovcria tov a(f>uvai ovk airoXvTwq dtSorat, o\\' tv inraicoy tov /xt- 
ravoovvTOQ, Kai avyKJuoviq, irpbg Tov eirifitXoviifvov avrov Trjg ^v^ijg. 
Basil, regul. brevior. qu. 15. op. torn. 2. pag. 419. 

1 Ccepisti habere fratrem tuum tanquam publicanum : ligas ilium in terra. 
Sed ut juste alliges, vide. Nam injusta vincula dirumpit justitia. Augustin. de 
verbis Domini, serm. 82. op. torn. 5. pag. 442. 

r Quantum in me est, ego te absolvo. Maldonat. torn. 2. de pcenitent. part. 
3. thes. 5. 

s Nisi suscipiens obicem ponat. Fr. Suarez. in Thorn, torn. 4. disp. 19. sec. 
2. num. 20. 

1 lib. 2. de sacramentis, pag. 14. sec. 8. 

" Hanc formani magis significare virtutem suani, quam eventum. Hugo. 


rather signify the power and virtue, than the event" of the 
absolution. And therefore doth the master of the sen- 
tences rightly observe, that " God v doth not evermore 
follow the judgment of the Church : which sometimes 
judgeth by surreption and ignorance ; whereas God doth 
always judge according to the truth." So the priests 
" sometimes^ declare men to be loosed or bound, who are 
not so before God : with the penalty of satisfaction or ex- 
communication they sometimes bind such as are unworthy, 
or loose them ; they admit them that be unworthy to the 
sacraments, and put back them that be worthy to be 
admitted." That saying therefore of Christ must be un- 
derstood to be verified in them, saith he, " whose merits 
do require that they should be loosed or bound. For 
then is the sentence of the priest approved and confirmed 
by the judgment of God and the whole court of heaven; 
when it doth proceed with that discretion, that the merits 
of them who be dealt withal do not contradict the same : 
whomsoever therefore they do loose or bind, using the 
key of discretion according to the parties' merits, they are 
loosed or bound in heaven, that is to say, with God : be- 
cause the sentence of the priest, proceeding in this man- 
ner, is approved and confirmed by divine judgment." 
Thus far the master of the sentences : who is followed 
herein by the rest of the schoolmen ; who generally agree, 
that the power of binding and loosing, committed to the 
ministers of the Church, is not absolute, but must be li- 
mited with Clave non errante, as being then only of force 

v Ita et hie aperte ostenditur, quod non semper sequitur Deus Ecclesiae judi- 
cium : quae per surreptionem et ignorantiam interdum judicat ; Deus autem sem- 
per judicat secundum veritatem. Petr. Lombard, sentent. lib. A. distinct. 18. f. 

w Aliquando enim ostendunt solutos vel ligatos, qui ita non sunt apud Deum : 
et pcena satisfactions vel excommunicationis interdum indignos ligant vel sol- 
vunt ; et indignos sacramentis admittunt, et dignos admitti arcent. Scd intelli- 
gendum est hoc in illis, quorum merita solvi vol ligari postulant. Tunc enim 
sententia sacerdotis judicio Dei et totius ccelestis curia; approbatur et confirmatur ; 
ciim ita ex discretione procedit,ut reorum merita non contradicant. Qtioscun- 
que ergo solvunt vel ligant, adhibentes clavem discretionis reorum mentis, sol- 
vuntur vel ligantur in ccelis, id est, apud Deum: quia divino judicio sacerdotis 
sententia sic progressa approbatur ct coufirmatur. Id. ibid. h. Vid. Gabriel Biel, 
in eand. distinct. 18. quocst. 1. lit. b. 


when" matters are carried with right judgment, and no 
error is committed in the use of the keys. 

Our Saviour therefore must still have the privilege re- 
served unto him, of being the absolute Lord over his own 
house : it is sufficient for his officers that they be esteemed 
as Moses was, " faithful* in all his house as servants." 
The place wherein they serve is a steward's place : and 
the apostle telleth them, that " it z is required in stewards, 
that the man be found faithful." They may not therefore 
carry themselves in their office, as the unjust a steward did, 
and presume to strike out their master's debt without his 
direction, and contrary to his liking. Now we know that 
our Lord hath given no authority unto his stewards, to 
grant an acquittance unto any of his debtors, that bring 
not unfeigned faith and repentance with them. " Neither 1 ' 
angel nor archangel can : neither yet the Lord himself, 
who alone can say, I am with you, when we have sinned, 
doth release us, unless we bring repentance with us :" 
saith St. Ambrose ; and Eligius bishop of Noyon, in his 
sermon unto the penitents, " Before all things it is ne- 
cessary you should know, that, howsoever you desire to 
receive the imposition of our hands, yet you cannot obtain 
the absolution of your sins, before the divine piety shall 
vouchsafe to absolve you by the grace of compunction." 
To think therefore that it lieth in the power of any priest 
truly to absolve a man from his sins, without implying the 
condition of his believing and repenting as he ought to do, 
is both presumption and madness in the highest degree. 

x Quod in terra sacerdos, clave non errante, et recto judicio procedens, retinet, 
nee dimittit, Deus etiam in ccelo retinet, nee dimittit. Tolet. comment, in 
Johann. cap. 20. 

y Heb. chap. 10. ver. 5, 6. z 1 Cor. chap. 4. ver. 2. 

a Luke, chap. 16. ver. 6, 7, 8. 

b Nee angelus potest, nee archangelus : Dominus ipse, qui solus potest dicere : 
Ego vobiscum sum, si peccaverimus, nisi pcenitentiam deferentibus non relaxat. 
Ambr. epist. 28. ad Theodosium imp. op. torn. 2. pag. 999. 

c Ante omnia autem vobis scire necesse est; quia licet impositionem manuu-m 
nostrarum accipere cupiatis, tamen absolutionem peccatoruin vestrorum conse- 
qui non potestis, antequam per compunctionis gratiam Divina pietas vos absol- 
vere dignabitur. Eligius Nuviomens, homil. 11, torn. 7. biblioth. patr. pag. 
248. edit. Colon. 


Neither dareth cardinal Bellarmine, who censureth this 
conditional absolution in us for idle and superfluous, when 
he hath considered better of the matter, assume unto 
himself, or communicate unto his brethren, the power of 
giving an absolute one. For he is driven to confess, with 
others of his fellows, that when the priest " saith (1 , I ab- 
solve thee, he doth not affirm that he doth absolve abso- 
lutely ; as not being ignorant, that it may many ways 
come to pass that he doth not absolve, although he pro- 
nounce those words : namely, if he, who seemeth to receive 
this sacrament (for so they call it), peradventure hath no 
intention to receive it, or is not rightly disposed, or putteth 
some block in the way. Therefore the minister (saith he) 
signifieth nothing else by those words, but that he, as 
much as in him lieth, conferreth the sacrament of recon- 
ciliation or absolution ; which in a man rightly disposed 
hath virtue to forgive all his sins." 

Now that contrition is at all times necessarily required 
for obtaining remission of sins and justification, is a matter 
determined by the fathers of Trent 8 . But mark yet the 
mystery. They equivocate with us in the term of contri- 
tion : and make a distinction thereof into perfect and im- 
perfect. The former of these is contrition properly : the 
latter they call attrition ; which, howsoever in itself it be 
not true contrition, yet, when the priest with his power of 
forgiving sins interposeth himself in the business, they 
tell us that " attrition f by virtue of the keys is made con- 
trition :" that is to say, that a sorrow arising from a ser- 
vile fear of punishment, and such a fruitless repentance 5 

<l Nam qui elicit, Ego te baptlzo, vel absolvo, non affirmat se absolute bap- 
tizare vel absolvere, cum non ignoret multis modis fieri posse, ut neque baptizet, 
neque absolvat, licet ea verba pronunciet : nimirum si is, qui saeramentum susci- 
pere videtur, forte non habeat suscipiendi intention 6m, vel non sit rite dispositus, 
aut obicem ponat. Igitur minister illis verbis nihil aliud significat, nisi se, quod 
in se est, saeramentum reconciliationis vel absolutionis impendere, quod vim 
habet in homine disposito peccata omnia dimittendi. Bellarmin. de poenitent. 
lib. 2. cap. 14. sec. penult. 

c Concil. Tridentin. sess. 14. cap. 4. 

1 Attritio virtute clavium fit eontritio. Roman! correctores gloss. Gratiani, 
De poenitent. distinct. 1. in principio : et alii passim. 

s Matt. chap. 27. ver. 3, 4, 5. 


as the reprobate may carry with them to hell, by virtue of, 
the priest's absolution, is made so fruitful, that it shall 
serve the turn for obtaining forgiveness of sins, as if it had 
been that " godly h sorrow, which worketh repentance to 
salvation not to be repented of." By which spiritual co- 
zenage many poor souls are most miserably deluded, while 
they persuade themselves, that, upon the receipt of the 
priest's acquittance upon this carnal sorrow of theirs, all 
scores are cleared until that day; and then, beginning 
upon a new reckoning, they sin and confess, confess and 
sin afresh, and tread this round so long, till they put off 
all thought of saving repentance ; and so, the blind' follow- 
ing the blind, both at last fall into the pit. 

" Evil k and wicked, carnal, natural, and devilish men," 
saith St. Augustine, " imagine those things to be given 
unto them by their seducers ; which are only the gifts of 
God, whether sacraments, or any other spiritual works 
concerning their present salvation." But such as are thus 
seduced may do well to listen a little to this grave admo- 
nition of St. Cyprian : " Let 1 no man deceive, let no man 
beguile himself: it is the Lord alone that can shew mercy. 
He alone can grant pardon to the sins committed against 
him, who did himself bear our sins, who suffered grief for 
us, whom God did deliver for our sins. Man cannot be 
greater than God ; neither can the servant by his indul- 
gence remit or pardon that which by heinous trespass is 
committed against the Lord ; lest to him that is fallen this 
yet be added as a further crime, if he be ignorant of that 
which is said, Cursed is the man that putteth his trust in 

h 2 Cor. chap. 7. ver. 10. j Matt. chap. 15. ver. 14. 

k Mali et facinorosi, carnales, animates, diabolici, a seductoribus suis sibi dari 
arbitrantur, quae non nisi munera Dei sunt, sive sacramenta, sive spirituales 
aliquas operationes, circa praesentem salutem. Augustin. de baptism, contra 
Donatist. lib. 3. cap. alt 

1 Nemo se fallat, nemo se decipiat : solus Dominus misereri potest. Veniam 
peccatis, quae in ipsum commissa sunt, solus potest ille largiri, qui peccata nos- 
tra portavit ; qui pro nobis doluit, quem Deus tradidit pro peccatis nostris. 
Homo Deo esse non potest major ; nee remittere aut donare indulgentia sua 
servus potest, quod in Dominum delicto graviore commissum est : ne adhuc 
lapso et hoc accedat ad crimen, si nesciat esse praedictum ; Maledictus homo 
quispemhabet in nomine. Cyprian, de lapsis, op. pag. 18S. 


man." Whereupon St. Augustine sticketh not to say, that 
good ministers do consider that " they 1 " are but ministers ; 
they would not be held for judges, they abhor that any 
trust should be put in them :" and that the power of re- 
mitting and retaining sins is committed unto the Church, 
to be dispensed therein, " not" according to the arbitra- 
ment of man, but according to the arbitrament of God." 
Whereas our adversaries lay the foundation of their Babel 
upon another ground : that " Christ hath appointed 
priests to be judges upon earth with such power, that 
none falling into sin after baptism may be reconciled with- 
out their sentence ; and hath put - the authority of binding 
and loosing, of forgiving and retaining the sins of men, in 
their arbitrament." 

Whether the ministers of the gospel may be accounted 
judges in some sort, we will not much contend : for we 
dislike neither that saying of St. Hierome, that, " having - 
the keys of the kingdom of heaven, they judge after a sort 
before the day of judgment :" nor that other of St. Gre- 
gory, that the apostles, and such as succeed them in the 
government of the Church, " obtain r a principality of 
judgment from above ; that they may in God's stead retain 
the sins of some and release the sins of others." All the 
question is, in what sort they do judge ; and whether the 
validity of their judgment do depend upon the truth of 
the conversion of the penitent : wherein, if our Romanists 

111 Ministri enim sunt ; pro judicious haberi nolunt, spem in se poni exhorres- 
cunt. Augustin. in evangel. Johann. tract. 5. op. torn. 3. par. 2. pag. 227. 

n Non secundum arbitrium hominum, sed secundum arbitrium Dei. Id. de 
baptism, contra Donatist. lib. 3. cap. 18. 

° Christus instituit sacerdotes judices super terrain, cum ea potestate ut, sine 
ipsorum sententia, nemo post baptismum lapsus reconciliari possit. Bellarm. de 
pcenit. lib. 3. cap. 2. 

p Igitur in horum arbitrio munus solvendi et ligandi, et remittendi et retinen- 
di peccata hominum, a Clnisto Domino, per Spiritum Sanctum fuisse positum, 
liquido constat. Baron, annal. torn. 1. ann. 34. sec. 197. 

'i Qui, claves regni coelorum habentcs, quodammodo ante judicii diem judicant. 
Hieronym. epist. 5. ad Heliodorum. op. torn. 4. par 2. pag. 10. 

r Principatum superni judicii sortiuntur j ut vice Dei quibusdam peccata reti- 
neant, quibusdam relaxent. Grcgor. homil. 26. in evangel, op. torn. 1. pag. 


would stand to the judgment of St. Hierome or St. Gre- 
gory, one of whom they make a cardinal and the other a 
pope of their own Church, the controversy betwixt us 
would quickly be at an end. For St. Hierome, expound- 
ing that speech of our Saviour, touching " the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven," in the sixteenth of St. Matthew ; 
" the 5 bishops and priests," saith he, " not understanding 
this place, assume to themselves somewhat of the Phari- 
sees' arrogancy : as imagining that they may either con- 
demn the innocent or absolve the guilty ; whereas it is not 
the sentence of the priests, but the life of the parties that 
is inquired of with God. In the book of Leviticus we read 
of the lepers, where they are commanded to shew them- 
selves to the priests ; and, if they shall have the leprosy, 
that then they shall be made unclean by the priest : not 
that the priests should make them leprous and unclean, 
but that they should take notice who was a leper, and who 
was not ; and should discern who was clean, and who 
unclean. Therefore, as there the priest doth make the 
leper clean or unclean ; so here the bishop or priest doth 
bind or loose : not bind the innocent, or loose the guilty ; 
but when according to his office he heareth the variety of 
sins, he knoweth who is to be bound, and who to be 
loosed." Thus far St. Hierome. 

St. Gregory likewise, in the very same place from whence 
the Romanists fetch that former sentence, doth thus de- 
clare in what manner that principality of judgment, which 
he spake of, should be exercised ; being therein also fol- 
lowed step by step by the fathers of the council of Aquis- 

" Istum locum episcopi et presbyteri non intelligentes, aliquid sibi de Phari- 
saeorum assumunt supercilio ; ut vel damnent innocentes, vel solvere se noxios 
arbitrentur : cum apud Deum non sententia sacerdotum, sed reorum vita quae- 
ratur. Legimus in Levitico de leprosis, ubijubentur ut ostendant se sacerdoti- 
bus ; et, si lepram habuerint, tunc a sacerdote immundi fiant : non quo sacerdotes 
leprosos faciant et immundos ; sed quo habeant notitiam leprosi et non leprosi, et 
possint discernere qui mundus quive immundus sit. Quomodo ergo ibi lepro- 
sum sacerdos mundum vel immundum facit ; sic et hie alligat vel solvit episco- 
pus et presbyter, non eos qui insontes sunt vel noxii, sed pro officio suo, quum 
peccatorum audierit varietates, scit qui ligandus sit quive solvendus. Hiero- 
nym. commentar. in Matt. cap. 10. op. torn. 4. par. l.pag. 75. 


gran : " The 4 causes ought to be weighed, and then the 
power of binding and loosing exercised. It is to be seen 
what the fault is, and what the repentance is that hath 
followed after the fault : that such as Almighty God doth 
visit with the grace of compunction, those the sentence of 
the pastor may absolve. For the absolution of the prelate 
is then true, when it followeth the arbitrament of the eter- 
nal Judge." And this do they illustrate by that which we 
read in the gospel of the raising of Lazarus", that Christ 
did first of all give life to him that was dead by himself, 
and then commanded others to loose him and let him go. 
" Behold'," say they, " the disciples do loose him being 
now alive; whom their Master had raised up being dead. 
For if the disciples had loosed Lazarus being dead ; they 
should have discovered a stink more than a virtue. By 
which consideration we may see, that by our pastoral au- 
thority we ought to loose those, whom we know that our 
Author and Lord hath revived with his quickening grace." 
The same application also do we find made, not only by 
Peter w Lombard, and another of the schoolmen ; but also 
by Judocus Clichtoveus, not long before the time of the 
council of Trent. " Lazarus"," saith Clichtoveus, " first 

* Causae ergo pensandae sunt, et tunc ligandi atque solvendi potestas exer- 
cenda. Videndum est quae culpa, aut quae sit pcenitentia secuta post culpam : 
ut quos omnipotens Deus per compunctionis gratiam visitat, illos pastoris sen- 
tentia absolvat. Tunc enim vera est absolutio praesidentis, cum aeterni arbitrium 
sequitur Judicis. Gregor. in evangel, homil. 2(5. op. torn. 1. pag. 1555. concil. 
Aquisgran. cap. 37. 

u John, chap. 11. ver. 44. 

v Ecce ilium discipuli jam viventem solvunt, quern magister resuscitaverat 
mortuum. Si enim discipuli Lazarum mortuum solverent, fcetorem magis os- 
tenderent quam virtutem. Ex qua consideratione intuendum est, quod illos nos 
debemus per pastoralem auctoritatem solvere, quos Auctorem nostrum cognosci- 
mus per suscitantem gratiam vivificare. Greg. op. torn. 1. pag. 1556. et Eligius 
Noviomens. homil. 11. torn. 7. biblioth. patr. pag. 248. edit. Colon. 

w I'. Lombard, lib. 4. sent, clist- 18. lit. f. Alexand. de Hales, summ. part. 4. 
quaest. 21. membr. 1. &c. 

x Sed ante prodiit redivivus Lazarus ex sepulchro, et deinde ut solveretur .a 
discipulis, et sineretur abire a Domino jussum est: quia peccatorem, etiam 
eonsuetudine committendi reatus gravatum, prius Dominus intrinsecus per sejp- 
sum vivifkat, postea vero eundem per sacerdotum niinisterium absolvit. Nulus 



of all came forth alive out of the sepulchre ; and then was 
commandment given by our Lord, that he should be loosed 
by the disciples, and suffered to go his way : because the 
Lord doth first inwardly by himself quicken the sinner, 
and afterwards absolveth him by the priest's ministry, 
For no sinner is to be absolved, before it appeareth that 
he be amended by due repentance, and be quickened in- 
wardly. But inwardly to quicken the sinner, is the office 
of God alone : who saith by the prophet, I am he that 
blotteth out your iniquities." 

The truth therefore of the priest's absolution depend- 
eth upon the truth and sincerity of God's quickening grace 
in the heart of the penitent : which if it be wanting, all 
the absolutions in the world will stand him in no stead. 
For example, our Saviour saith, " If y ye forgive men 
their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive 
you; but, if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither 
will your Father forgive your trespasses:" and in this 
respect, as is observed by Sedulius, " in z other men's 
persons we are either absolved or bound :" 

graviusque a soluti 

Nectimur, alterius si solvere vincla negamus. 

Suppose now that a man, who cannot find in his heart to 
forgive the wrong done unto him by another, is absolved 
here by the priest from all his sins, according to the usual 
form of absolution: are we to think that what is thus 
loosed upon earth shall be loosed in heaven ? and that 
Christ, to make the priest's word true, will make his own 
false ? And what we say of charity toward man, must 
much more be understood of the love of God, and the 

quippe peccator absolvendus est, antequam per dignam poenitentiam correctus, 
et intrinsecus appareat vivificatus. Vivificare autem interius peccatorem solius 
Dei munus est : qui per prophetam dicit, Ego sum qui deleo iniquitates vestras. 
Clichtov. in evangel. Joann. lib. 7. cap. 23. inter opera Cyrilli. 

y Matt. chap. 6. ver. 14, 15. et chap. 18. ver. 35. 

1 In aliorum personis aut absolvimur aut ligamur. Sedul. lib. 2. Paschalis 
operis, cap. 11. 

a Id. lib. 2. Paschal, carm. 


love of righteousness ; the defect whereof is not to be 
supplied by the absolution of any priest. It hath been 
always observed, for a special difference betwixt good and 
bad men, that the one hated b sin for the love of virtue, 
the other only for the fear of punishment. The like dif- 
ference do our adversaries make betwixt contrition and 
attrition: that c the hatred of sin, in the one, proceedeth 
from the love of God and of righteousness ; in the other, 
from the fear of punishment : and yet teach, for all this, 
that attrition 1 ', which they confess would not otherwise 
suffice to justify a man, being joined with the priest's ab- 
solution, is sufficient for that purpose : he that was attrite 
being, by virtue of this absolution, made contrite and jus- 
tified : that is to say, he that was led only by a servile fear, 
and consequently was to be ranked among disordered and 
evil persons, being by this means put in as good case for 
the matter of the forgiveness of his sins, as he that loveth 
God sincerely. For they themselves do grant, that such 6 
as have this servile fear, from whence attrition issueth, 
are to be accounted evil and disordered men, by reason of 
their want of charity : to which purpose also they allege 
that saying of Gregory, " Recti diligunt te, non recti 
adhuc timent te. Such as be righteous love thee, such as 
be not righteous as yet fear thee." 

But they have taken an order notwithstanding, that non 
recti shall stand recti in curia with them; by assuming a 
strange authority unto themselves of justifying the wicked: 
a thing, we know, that hath the curse of God f and man s 
threatened unto it ; and making men friends with God, 
that have not the love of God dwelling in them. For al- 
though we be taught by the word of God, that " perfect 1 ' 
love casteth out fear ;" that we " have 1 not received the 

b Oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore. Ilorat. lib. 1. epist. 16. 

c Fatemur enim perfectum odium pcccati esse illud, quod ex amore Dei jus- 
titiseque procedit ; et ideo dolorem, sive odium ex timore pcenae conceptuni, non 
contritionem, sed attritionem noininamus. Bellarm, lib. 2. de pcenitent. cap. 
18. d Id. ibid. 

e Argumentum recte probat eos, qui timorem servilem habent, inordinatOfl ac 
malos esse, &e. Id. ibid. 

f Prov. chap. 17. ver. 15. c Ibid. chap. 24. ver. 21. 

11 1 John, chap. 4. ver. 18. | Horn. chap. 8. ver. 15. 




spirit of bondage to fear again, but the spirit of adoption 
whereby we cry Abba, Father ;" that mount Sinai, which 
maketh k those that come unto it to fear and quake, en- 
gendereth 1 to bondage, and is to be cast out with her chil- 
dren from inheriting the promise ; and that without" 1 love, 
both we ourselves are nothing and all that we have doth 
profit us nothing : yet these wonderful men would have us 
believe, that by their word alone they are able to make 
something of this nothing ; that fear without love shall 
make men capable of the benefit of their pardon, as well 
as love without fear ; that whether men come by the way 
of mount Sinai or mount Sion, whether they have legal 
or evangelical repentance, they have authority to absolve 
them from all their sins ; as if it did lie in their power to 
confound God's Testaments at their pleasure, and to give 
unto a servile fear not the benefit of manumission only, but 
the privilege of adoption also ; by making the children of 
the bondwoman children of the promise, and giving them a 
portion in that blessed inheritance, together with the chil- 
dren of her that is free. 

Repentance" from dead works is one of the foundations 
and principles of the doctrine of Christ. " Nothing mak- 
eth repentance certain but the hatred of sin, and the love 
of God ;" and without true repentance all the priests under 
heaven are not able to give us a discharge from our sins, 
and deliver us from the wrath to come. " Except" ye be 
converted, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven : 
Except q ye repent, ye shall all perish :" is the Lord's say- 
ing in the New Testament : and in the Old : " Repent 1 , 
and turn from all your transgressions : so iniquity shall 
not be your ruin. Cast away from you all your transgres- 
sions whereby ye have transgressed, and make you a new 

k Heb. chap. 12. ver. 18, 21. ' Gal. chap. 4. ver. 24, 25, 31. 

m 1 Cor. chap. 13. ver. 2, 3, Vid. authorem libri de vera et falsa pcenitentia, 
cap. 17. inter opera Augustini, torn. 6. app. 

n Heb. chap. 6. ver. 1. 

° Poenitentiam certam non facit, nisi odium peccati et amor Dei. Augustin. 
serm. 117. app. torn. 5. pag. 213. 

P Matt. chap. 18. ver. 3. <i Luke, chap. 13. ver. 3, 5. 

r Ezek. chap. 18. ver. 30, 31. 


heart and a new spirit : for why will ye die, O house of 
Israel ?" Now put case one cometh to his ghostly father, 
with such sorrow of mind as the terrors of a guilty consci- 
ence usually do produce, and with such a resolution to 
cast away his sins as a man hath in a storm to cast away 
his goods ; not because he doth not love them, but be- 
cause he feareth to lose his life, if he part not with 
them : doth not he betray this man's soul, who put- 
teth into his head that such an extorted repentance as 
this, which hath not one grain of love to season it withal, 
will qualify him sufficiently for the receiving of an absolu- 
tion, by I know not what sacramental faculty, that the 
priest is furnished withal to that purpose ? For all do 
confess with St. Augustine, that " this s fear which loveth 
not justice, but dreadeth punishment, is servile, because 
it is carnal ; and therefore doth not crucify the flesh. For 
the willingness to sin liveth, which then appeareth in the 
work when impunity is hoped for ; but when it is believed 
that punishment will follow, it liveth closely, yet it liveth. 
For it would wish rather that it were lawful to do that 
which the law forbiddeth, and is sorry that it is not 
lawful : because it is not spiritually delighted with the good 
thereof, but carnally feareth the evil which it doth 

What man then, do we think, will take the pains to get 
him a new heart and a new spirit, and undertake the toil- 
some work of crucifying the flesh with the lusts thereof; 
if, without all this ado, the priest's absolution can make 
that other imperfect or rather equivocal contrition, arising 
from a carnal and servile fear, to be sufficient for the blot- 
ting out of all his sins ? Or are we not rather to think 
that this sacramental penance of the papists is a device 
invented by the enemy to hoodwink poor souls, and to 

* Timor namque iste quo non amatur justitiii, sed timetur poena, servilis est, 
quia carnalis est ; et ideo non crucifigit carnem. Yivit enim peccandi voluntas, 
quae tunc apparet in opere, quando speratur inipunitas. Cum vero poena credi- 
tur secutura, latenter vivit: vivit tamen. Mallet enim liceve, et dolet non licere, 
quod lex vetat : quia non spiritaliter delectatur ejus bono, sed carnaliter malum 
nictuit quod minatur. Augustin. in Psalm. 1 L8. nun. •>:>. op. turn. 1. pag. 1345. 


divert them from seeking that true repentance, which is 
only able to stand them in stead ; and that such as take 
upon them to help lame dogs over the stile after this man- 
ner, by substituting quid pro quo, attrition instead of 
contrition, servile fear instead of filial love, carnal sorrow 
instead of godly repentance, are physicians of no value; 
nay such as minister poison unto men, under colour of pro- 
viding a sovereign medicine for them ? He therefore, that 
will have care of his soul's health, must consider that 
much resteth here in the good choice of a skilful physi- 
cian ; but much more, in the pains that must be taken by 
the patient himself. For, that every one, who beareth the 
name of a priest, is not fit to be trusted with a matter of 
this moment, their own decrees may give them fair warn- 
ing ; where this admonition is twice 1 laid down, out of the 
author that wrote of true and false repentance : " He u 
who will confess his sins, that he may find grace, let him 
seek for a priest that knoweth how to bind and loose : lest, 
while he is negligent concerning himself, he be neglected 
by Him who mercifully admonisheth and desireth him, that 
both fall not into the pit, which the fool would not avoid." 
And when the skilfullest priest that is hath done his best, 
St. Cyprian will tell them, that " to w him that repenteth, 
to him that worketh, to him that prayeth, the Lord of his 
mercy can grant a pardon ; he can make good that, which 
for such men either the martyrs shall request, or the priest 
shall do." 

If we inquire who they were, that first assumed unto 
themselves this exorbitant power of forgiving sins : we 
are like to find them in the tents of the ancient heretics 
and schismatics ; who " promised 1 * unto others liberty, 

1 Decret. de pcenit. distinct. 1. cap. 88. Quem pcenitet. et dist. 6. cap. 1. Qui 

u Qui confiteri vult peccata, ut inveniat gratiam, quaerat sacerdotem scientem 
ligare et solvere : ne, cum negligens circa se extiterit, negligatur ab illo, qui eum 
miserieorditer monet et petit, ne ambo in foveam cadant, quam stultus evitare 
noluit. Lib. de ver. et fals. pcenitent. cap. 10. inter opera Augustini, torn. 6. app. 

w Pcenitenti, operanti, roganti potest clementer ignbscere ; potest in acceptum 
referre, quidquid pro talibus et pctierint niartyres, et fecerint sacerdotes. Cyprian, 
de lapsis. Op. pag. 1 93. 

x 2 Peter, chap. 2. ver. 10. 


when they themselves were the servants of corruption." 
" How y many," saith St. Hierome, " which have neither 
bread nor apparel, when they themselves are hungry and 
naked, and neither have spiritual meats, nor preserve the 
coat of Christ entire, yet promise unto others food and 
raiment ; and being full of wounds themselves, brag that 
they be physicians I and do not observe that of Moses 2 , 
Provide another whom thou maijest send ; and that other 
commandment*, Do not seek to be made a judge, lest 
peradventure thou be not able to take away iniqiity. It 
is Jesus alone, who healeth all sicknesses and infirmities : 
of whom it is writtten b , He healeth the contrite in heart, and 
bindeth up their sores." Thus far St. Hierome. 

The Rhemists, in their marginal note upon Luke, chap- 
ter seven, verse forty-nine, tell us, that " as the Phari- 
sees did always carp Christ for remission of sins in earth, 
so the heretics reprehend his Church that remitteth sins 
by his authority." But St. Augustine, treating upon the 
selfsame place, might have taught them, that hereby they 
bewrayed themselves to be the offspring of heretics, ra- 
ther than children of the Church. For whereas our Sa- 
viour there had said unto the penitent woman, " Thy sins 
are forgiven ; and they that sat at meat with him began 
to say within themselves, Who is this that forgiveth sins 
also ?" St. Augustine first compareth their knowledge 
and the knowledge of the woman thus together : " She c 
knew that he could forgive sins ; but they knew that a 

y Quanti panem non habentes et vestimenta, quum ipsi esuriant et nudi sint, 
nee habeant spirituales cibos, neque Christ! tunicam integram reservarint, aliis 
et alimonia et vestimenta promittunt ; et pleni vulneribus medicos esse se jactant : 
nee servant illud Mosaicum, Provide alium quern mittas ; aliudque mandatum, 
Ne quseras judex fieri, ne forte non possis auferre iniquitates. Solus Jesus 
omnes languores sanat et infirtnitates : dc quo scriptum est ; Qui sanat contritos 
corde, et alligat contritiones eoium. Hieronym. lib. 2. comment in Esai. 
cap. 3. op. torn. 3. pag. 37. l Exod. chap. 4. ver. 13. 

a Ecclus. chap. 7. ver. C. b Psal. 147. ver. 4. 

c Noverat ergo ilium posse dimittere peccata : illi autem Doverant hominem 
non posse peccata dimittere. Et credendum est quod omnes, id est, et illi dis- 
cumbentes, et ilia mulier accedens ad pedes Domini, onmes hi noverant hominem 
non posse peccata dimittere. Cum ergo omnes hoc nos sent : ilia, quae credidit 
rum posse peccata dimittere, plus quam hominem esse intellexit. Augusiin. serm. 
99. op. torn. 5. pag. 524. 


man could not forgive sins. And we are to believe that 
all, that is, both they which sat at table, and the woman 
which came to our Lord's feet, they all knew that a man 
could not forgive sins. Seeing all therefore knew this, 
she, who believed that he could forgive sins, understood 
him to be more than a man." And a little after, " That d 
do you know well, that do you hold well ;" saith that 
learned father : " Hold, that a man cannot forgive sins. 
She, who believed that her sins were forgiven her by Christ, 
believed that Christ was not only man, but God also." 
Then doth he proceed to compare the knowledge of the 
Jews then, with the opinion of the heretics in his days. 
" Herein 6 ," saith he, " the Pharisee was better than these 
men : for when he did think that Christ was a man, he did 
not believe that sins could be forgiven by a man. It ap- 
peared therefore that the Jews had better understanding 
than the heretics. The Jews said, Who is this that for- 
giveth sins also ? Dare a man challenge this to himself? 
What saith the heretic on the other side ? I do forgive, 
I do cleanse, I do sanctify. Let Christ answer him, not I : 

man, when I was thought by the Jews to be a man, I 
ascribed the forgiveness of sins to faith. Not I, but Christ 
doth answer thee ; O heretic, thou, when thou art but a 
man, sayest, Come, woman, I do make thee safe. I, when 

1 was thought to be but a man, said ; Go, woman, thy faith 
hath made thee safe." 

The heretics, at whom St. Augustine here aimeth, were 
the Donatists : whom Optatus also before him did thus 

d Tamen illud bene nostis, bene tenetis. Tenete, quia homo non potest pec- 
cata dimittere. Ilia, quae sibi aChristo peccata dimitti credidit, Christum non 
hominem tantum, sed et Deum credidit Id. ibid. 

e Sed in alio melior Pharisaeus ; quia, cum putaret hominem Christum, non 
credebat ab homine posse dimitti peccata. Melior ergo Judaeis quam haereticis 
apparuit intellectus. Judoei dixerunt, Quis est hie qui etiam peccata dimittit 1 
Audet sibi homo usurpare ? Quid contra haereticus ? Ego mundo, ego sanctifico. 
Respondeat illi, non ego, sed Christus. O homo, quando ego a Judaeis putatus 
sum homo, dimissionem peccatorum fidei dedi. Non ego : respondet tibi Chris- 
tus. O haeretice, tu, cum sis homo, dicis : Veni, mulier, ego te salvam facio. 
Ego, cum putarer homo, dixi, Vade, mulier, fides tua te salvam fecit. Id. ibid, 
pag. 525. 


roundly take up for the same presumption. " Under- 
stand* at length, that you are servants, and not lords. 
And if the Church be a vineyard, and men be appointed 
to be dressers of it ; why do you rush into the dominion of 
the householder ? Why do you challenge unto yourselves 
that which is God's ? Give g leave unto God to perform 
the things that belong unto himself. For that gift cannot 
be given by man, which is divine. If you think so, you 
labour to frustrate the words of the prophets, and the pro- 
mises of God, by which it is proved that God washeth" 
away sin, " and not man." It is noted likewise by Theo- 
doret, of the Audian heretics : that "they 11 bragged they 
did forgive sins." The manner of confession, which he 
saith was used among them, was not much unlike that 
which Alvarus Pelagius acknowledgeth to have been the 
usual practice of them, that made greatest profession of 
religion and learning in his time. " For 1 scarce at all," 
saith he, " or very seldom, doth any of them confess other- 
wise than in general terms : scarce do they ever specify 
any grievous sin. What they say one day, that they say 
another ; as if every day they did offend alike." The 
manner of absolution was the same with that, which Theo- 
doricus de Niem noteth to have been practised by the 
pardoners sent abroad by pope Boniface the ninth : who 
" released k all sins to them that confessed, without any pe- 
nance," or repentance ; " affirming that they had for their 

f Intelligite vos vel sero operarios esse, non dominos. Et si Ecclesia vinea est, 
sunt homines et ordinati cultures. Quid in dominium patrisfamilias irruistis ? 
Quid vobis, quod Dei est, vindicatis ? Optat. lib. 5. contra Donatist. sect. 7. 

S Concedite Deo praestare quae sua sunt. Non enim potest munus ab honiinc 
dari, quod divinum est. Si sicputatis, prophetarum voces, et Dei promissa ina- 
nire contenditis, quibus probatur, quia Deus lavat, non homo. Id. ibid. sect. 4. 

h ovtoi St atytaiv afiapTTifidroiv ■KoiiiaQai vtavuvovrai. Theodor. haeret. 
fabul. lib. 4. op. torn. 4. pag. 242. 

• Vix enim aut rarissime aliquis talium confitetur, nisi per verba generalia : 
vix unquam aliquod grave specincant. Quod dicunt una die, dicunt et altera : 
ac si in omni die sequaliter offendant. Alvar. de planet, eccles. lib. 2. artic. 
78. A. 

k Omnia peccata, etiam sine poenitentia, ipsis confitentibus relaxarunl ; super 
quibuslibct irregularitatibus dispensarunt interventu pecuniae: diccntes se om- 
neiri potestatem habere super hoc, quam Christus Petro ligandi e( solvendi con- 
tulisset in tcrris. Niem de schismatc, lib. 1. cap. G8. 


warrant in so doing, all that power which Christ gave unto 
Peter, of binding and loosing upon earth" : just as Theo- 
doret reporteth the Audians were wont to do ; who pre- 
sently " after 1 confession granted remission ; not prescrib- 
ing a time for repentance, as the laws of the Church did 
require, but giving pardon by authority." 

The laws of the Church prescribed a certain time unto 
penitents, wherein 1 " they should give proof of the sound- 
ness of their repentance : and gave order that afterwards 
they should be forgiven" and comforted, lest they should 
be swallowed up with overmuch heaviness. So that first 
their penance was enjoined unto them, and thereby they 
were held to be bound ; after performance whereof they 
received their absolution, by which they were loosed again. 
But the Audian heretics, without any such trial taken of 
their repentance, did of their own heads give them absolu- 
tion presently upon their confession : as the popish priests 
use to do now-a-days. Only the Audians had one ridicu- 
lous ceremony more than the papists ; that, having placed 
the canonical books of Scripture upon one side, and cer- 
tain apocryphal writings on the other, they caused their 
followers to pass betwixt them, and in their passing to 
make confession of their sins : as the papists, another idle 
practice more than they ; that, after they have given abso- 
lution, they enjoin penance to the party absolved : that is 
to say, as they of old would have interpreted it, they first 
loose him, and presently after bind him ; which howsoever 
they hold to be done in respect of the temporal punish- 
ment remaining due after the remission of the fault : yet 
it appeareth plainly that the penitential works, required 
in the ancient Church, had reference to the fault itself; 

1 tira rotg wjxoXoytjKofftv dwpovvrai n)v atytaiv, ov XP° V0V 6pi?6/i£VOt 
tig fiiTavoiav, KaQa KeXsvovtTiV ol rijc stacXijaiag Qtafiol, ciSX iZovcricf 7ro<- 
ovjxtvoi. Tt)v (Tvyx^P 7 ) (TiV ' Theodor. haeres. lib. 4. op. torn. 4. pag. 242. 

"' Augustin. enchirid. ad Laur. cap. 65. 

" 2 Cor. chap, 2. ver. 7. 

° Vid. Nomocanonem Nesteutse in Theod. Balsamonis collect, canon, edit. 
Paris, aim. 1G20. pag. 1101. lin. ult. et Niconis epist. ad Enclistium, ibid. pag. 
1090, 1097. et Anastas. Sinait. qiuest. 6". pag. 64, edit. Graeco-Lat. Gretseri. 


and that no absolution was to be expected from the minis- 
ter for the one, before all reckonings were ended for the 
other. Only where the danger of death was imminent, 
the case admitted some exception : reconciliation being 
not denied indeed unto them that desired it at such a time ; 
yet so granted, that it was left very doubtful whether it 
would stand the parties in any great stead or no. " If 1 ' any 
one being in the last extremity of his sickness," saith St. 
Augustine, " is willing to receive penance, and doth re- 
ceive it, and is presently reconciled, and departeth hence : I 
confess unto you, we do not deny him that which he asketh, 
but we do not presume that he goeth well from hence. I 
do not presume, I deceive you not, I do not presume. He q 
who putteth off his penance to the last, and is reconciled ; 
whether he goeth secure from hence, I am not secure. 
Penance I can give him, security I cannot give him. Do r 
I say, he shall be damned? I say not so. But do I say 
also, he shall be freed ? No. What dost thou then say 
unto me ? I know not : I presume not, I promise not, I 
know not. Wilt thou free thyself of the doubt ? Wilt 
thou escape that which is uncertain ? Do thy penance 
while thou art in health. The 5 penance, which is asked 
for by the infirm man, is infirm. The penance which is 
asked for only by him that is a-dying, I fear lest it also 

But with the matter of penance we have not here to 
deal : those formal absolutions and pardons of course, im- 

P Si quis, positus in ultima necessitate aegritudinis sure, voluerit accipere pce- 
nitentiam, et accipit, et mox reconciliatur, et hinc vadit ; fateor vobis, non illi 
negamus quod petit: sed non praesumimus quia bene hinc exit. Non prsesumo : 
non vos fallo, non prsesumo. Augustin. serm. 393. op. toin. 5. pag. 1507. Anibros. 
exhort, ad pcunitent. 

i Agens poenitentiam ad ultimum, et reconciliatus, si securus hinc exit, ego non 
sum securus, &c. Poenitentiam dare possum, securitatem dare non possum. Ibid. 

r Nunquid dico, Damnabitur? Non dico. Sed dico etiam, Liberabitur ? Non. 
Et quid dicis mihi ? Nescio : non prsesumo, non promitto, nescio. Vis te de 
dubio liberare ? vis quod incertum est evadere ? Age poenitentiam dum sanu i 

1 Pcenitcntia, quae ab inliimo petitur, infirma est. Poenitentia quae a moriente 
tantum petitur timco ne ipsa moiiatur. Augustin, serm. 2.>G. op. torn. .">. app. pag 


mediately granted upon the hearing of men's confessions, 
is that which we charge the Romish priests to have learned 
from the Audian heretics. " Some' require' penance to 
this end, that they might presently have the communion 
restored unto them : these men desire not so much to 
loose themselves, as to bind the priest ;'" saith St Ambrose. 
If this be true, that the priest doth bind himself by his hasty 
and unadvised loosing of others ; the case is like to go 
hard with our popish priests, who ordinarily, in bestowing 
their absolutions, use to make more haste than good speed. 
Wherein, with how little judgment they proceed, who 
thus take upon them the place of judges in men's consci- 
ences, may sufficiently appear by this ; that whereas the 
main ground, whereupon they would build the necessity 
of auricular confession, and the particular enumeration of 
all known sins, is pretended to be this, that the ghostly 
father having taken notice of the cause may judge righte- 
ous judgment, and discern who should be bound and who 
should be loosed ; the matter yet is so carried in this court 
of theirs, that every man commonly goeth away with his 
absolution, and all sorts of people usually receive one and 
the selfsame judgment. " If u thou separate the precious 
from the vile, thou shalt be as my mouth," saith the Lord. 
Whose mouth then may we hold them to be, who seldom 
put any difference between these ; and make it their ordi- 
nary practice to pronounce the same sentence of absolu- 
tion, as well upon the one as upon the other % 

If we would know how late it was, before this trade of 
pardoning men's sins after this manner was established in 
the Church of Rome ; we cannot discover this better, than 
by tracing out the doctrine publicly taught in that Church 
touching this matter, from the time of Satan's loosing, 
until his binding again by the restoring of the purity of 
the gospel in our days. And here Radulphus Ardens 
doth in the first place offer himself, who toward the be- 

' Nonnulli ideo poscunt pcenitentiam, ut statim sibi reddi communionem ve- 
lint : hi non tarn se solvere cupiunt, quam sacerdotem ligare. Suam enim con- 
scientiam non exuunt, sacerdotis induunt. Anib. de pcenit. lib. 2. cap. 9. 

u Jeremiah, chap. 15. ver. 19. 


ginning of that time preached this for sound divinity : 
" The w power of releasing sins belongeth to God alone. 
But the ministry, which improperly also is called a power, 
he hath granted unto his substitutes, who after their 
manner do bind and absolve ; that is to say, do declare 
that men are bound or absolved. For God doth first 
inwardly absolve the sinner by compunction : and then 
the priest outwardly, by giving the sentence, doth declare 
that he is absolved. Which is well signified by that of 
Lazarus : who first in the grave was raised up by the 
Lord ; and afterward, by the ministry of the disciples, was 
loosed from the bands wherewith he was tied." Then 
follow both the Anselms, ours of Canterbury, and the 
other of Laon in France : who in their expositions upon 
the ninth of St. Matthew, clearly teach, that none but 
God alone can forgive sins. Ivo bishop of Chartres 
writeth, that " by x inward contrition the inward Judge is 
satisfied, and therefore without delay forgiveness of the 
sin is granted by him, unto whom the inward conver- 
sion is manifest ; but the Church, because it knoweth not 
the hidden things of the heart, doth not loose him that is 
bound, although he be raised up, until he be brought out 
of the tomb ; that is to say, purged by public satisfaction :" 
and if presently upon the inward conversion God be 
pleased to forgive the sin, the absolution of the priest, 
which followeth, cannot in any sort properly be accounted 
a remission of that sin ; but a further manifestation only 
of the remission formerly granted by God himself. 

w Potestas pcccata relaxandi solins Dei est. Ministerium vero, quod impro- 
prie etiam potestas vocatur, vicariis suis concessit ; qui modo suo ligant vel absol- 
vunt, id est, ligatos vel absolutos esse ostendunt. Prius enim Deus interius pec- 
catorem per compunctionem absolvit; sncerdos vero exterius, sententiam profe- 
rendo, eum esse absolution ostendit: Quod bene significatur per Lazarum ; qui 
prius in tumulo a Domino suscitatur, et post, ministerio discipulorum, a vitiis 
(fort, vittis) quibus ligatus fuerat, absolvitor. Rad. Aniens, bomil. Dominic. 1. 
post Pascha. 

* Per internum gemitum satisfit interno judici, et idcirco indilata datur ab 
eo peccati remissio, cui manifesta est interna conversio. Ecclesia vero, quia oc- 
culta cordis ignorat, non solvit ligatum, licet suscitatum, nisi de tnonumento 
elatum; id est, publics satisfactione purgatum. Ivo Carnotens. epist. 228. 


The master of the sentences after him, having pro- 
pounded the divers opinions of the doctors touching this 
point, demandeth at last, " In y this so great variety what 
is to be held ?" and returneth for answer, " Surely this 
we may say and think : that God alone doth forgive and 
retain sins, and yet hath given power of binding and loos- 
ing unto the Church : but He bindeth and looseth one 
way, and the Church another. For he only by himself 
forgiveth sin, who both cleanseth the soul from inward 
blot, and looseth it from the debt of everlasting death. 
But this hath he not granted unto priests : to whom not- 
withstanding he hath given the power of binding and loos- 
ing, that is to say, of declaring men to be bound or loosed. 
Whereupon the Lord did first by himself restore health 
to the leper ; and then sent him unto the priests, by whose 
judgment he might be declared to be cleansed : so also he 
offered Lazarus to his disciples to be loosed, having first 
quickened him." In like manner Hugo cardinalis sheweth, 
that it is only 2 God that forgiveth sins ; and that " the a 
priest cannot bind or loose the sinner with or from the 
bond of the fault, and the punishment due thereunto ; but 
only declare him to be bound or loosed : as the Levitical 
priest did not make nor cleanse the leper, but only de- 
clared him to be infected or clean." And a great number 
of the schoolmen afterward shewed themselves to be of 
the same judgment, that to pardon the fault, and the eter- 

y In hac tanta varietate quid tenendum ? Hoc sane dicere ac sentire possu- 
mus ; quod solus Deus dimittit peccata et retinet, et tamen Ecclesiae contulit po- 
testatem ligandi et solvendi : sed aliter Ipse solvit vel ligat, aliter Ecclesia. Ipse 
enim per se tantum dimittit peccatum, qui et animam mundat ab interiori ma- 
cula, et a debito Eetemae mortis solvit. Non autem hoc sacerdotibus concessit : 
quibus tamen tribuit potestatem solvendi et ligandi ; id est, ostendendi homines 
ligatos vel solutos. Unde Dominus leprosum sanitati prius per se restituit jdeinde 
ad sacerdotes misit, quorum judicio ostenderetur mundatus. Ita etiam Lazarum, 
jam vivificatum, obtulit discipulis solvendum. Petr. Lombard, lib. 4. sentent. 
distinct. 18. e. f. 

z Solius Dei est dimittere peccata. Hugo card, in Luc. cap. 5. 

a Vinculo culpae, et pcense debitse, non potest eum sacerdos ligare vel solvere ; 
sed tantum ligatum vel absolutum ostendere. Sicut sacerdos Leviticus non facie- 
bat vel mundabat leprosum ; sed tantum infectum vel mundum ostendebat. Id. 
in Matt, cap. 16. 


nal punishment clue unto the same, was the proper work 
of God ; that the priest's absolution hath no real opera- 
tion that way, but presupposeth the party to be first jus- 
tified and absolved by God. Of this mind were, Guliel- 
mus b Altissiodorensis, Alexander of Hales, Bonaventure d , 
Ockam e , Thomas' de Argentina, Michael 8 de Bononia, Ga- 
briel' 1 Biel, Henricus 1 de Huecta, Johannes k Major, and 

To lay down all these words at large would be too te- 
dious. In general, Hadrian the sixth, one of their own 
popes, acknowledgeth, that " the 1 most approved divines 
were of this mind, that the keys of the priesthood do not 
extend themselves to the remission of the fault;" and 
Major" 1 affirmeth, that this " is the common tenet of the 
doctors." So likewise is it avouched by Gabriel Biel, that 
"the" old doctors commonly follow the opinion of the mas- 
ter of the sentences," that priests do forgive or retain sins, 
while they judge and declare that they are forgiven by 
God or retained. But all this notwithstanding, Suarez is 
bold to tell us, that " this opinion of the master is false, 
and now at this time erroneous." It was not held so the 
other day, when Ferus preached at Mentz, that man p did 

b Altissiodorens. summ. lib. 4. cap. de generali usu clavium. 

c Alexand. Halens. summ. part. 4. quaest. 21. membr. 1. 

ll Bonavent. in 4. dist. 18. art. 2. quaest. 1, et 2. 

e Guil. Ockam. in 4. sent, quuest. 9. lit. Q. 

f Argentin. in 4. sent. dist. 18. art. 3. 

S Mich. Angrian. in Psal. 29, et 31. 

>> Biel. in. 4. sent. dist. 14. quaest. 2. d. n. et dist. 18. quaest. 1. k. 

' Henr. de Oyta (al. Iota), in propositionib. apud Illyricum, in catal. test, ve- 

k Major, in 4. sent. dist. 18. quaest 1. 

1 Hadrian, in quodlibetic. quaest. 5, art. 3. b. 

m Major, in 4. dist. 14. quaest. 2. concl. 3. 

n Et illam opinionein communiter sequuntur doctores antiqui. Biel. in 1. 
dist. 14. quaest. 2. d. 

° Veruntamen haec sententia magistri falsa est, et jam hoc tempore erronea. 
Fr. Suarez. in Thom. torn. 4. disp. 19. sec. 2. num. 4. 

P Non quod homo proprie remittat peccatum ; sed quod ostendat ac certified 
a Deo remissum. Neque enim aliud est absolutio, quam ab hoinine aceipis, quam 
si dicat : En fili, certifico te tibi remissa esse peccata, atmuncio tibi te habere 
propitium Deum ; ct qusccunque Christus in baptismo et evangelio nobis promi- 


not properly remit sin, but did declare and certify that it 
was remitted by God ; so that the absolution, received 
from man, is nothing else than if he should say, Behold, 
my son, I certify thee that thy sins are forgiven thee, I 
pronounce unto thee that thou hast God favourable unto 
thee ; and whatsoever Christ in baptism and in his gospel 
hath promised unto us, he doth now declare and promise 
unto thee by me. Of this shalt thou have me to be a 
witness : go in peace, and in quiet of conscience." But 
jam hoc tempore the case is altered : these things must be 
purged out of Ferus q as erroneous ; the opinion of the old 
doctors must give place to the sentence of the new fathers 
of Trent. And so we are come at length to the end of this 
long question ; in the handling whereof I have spent the 
more time, by reason our priests do make this faculty of 
pardoning men's sins to be one of the most principal parts 
of their occupation, and the particular discovery thereof 
is not ordinarily by the writers of our side so much in- 
sisted upon. 

sit, tibi nunc per me annunciat et promittit. Jo. Ferus, lib. 2. comment, in 
Matt. cap. 9. edit. Mogunt. ann. 1559. 

1 Fer. in Matt. edit. Antverp. ann. 1559, 1570, &c. 



For extinguishing the imaginary flames of popish pur- 
gatory, we need not go far to fetch water : seeing the 
whole current of God's word runneth mainly upon this, 
that " the a blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all 
sin;" that all God's children " die b in Christ;" and that 
such as " die c in him, do rest from their labours ;" that, as 
they be " absent' 1 from the Lord while they are in the 
body," so, when they be " absent from the body they are 
present with the Lord ;" and in a word, that they " come 6 
not into judgment, but pass from death unto life." And 
if we need the assistance of the ancient fathers in this bu- 
siness, behold they be here ready, with full buckets in 
their hands. 

Tertullian, to begin withal, countetb/ it injurious unto 
Christ, to hold that such as be called from hence by him 
are in a state that should be pitied ; whereas they have 
obtained their desire of being with Christ, according to 
that of the apostle, " I s desire to depart, and to be with 
Christ." What pity was it that the poor souls in purga- 
tory should find no spokesman in those days, to inform 
men better of their rueful condition ; nor no secretary to 

a 1 John, chap. 1. ver. 7. 

b 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 18. 1 Thcss. chap. 4. ver. 16. 

c Rev. chap. 14. ver. 13. <> 2 Cor. chap. 5. ver. G, 8. 

e John, chap. 5. ver. 24. 

{ Christum laedimus, cum evocatos quosque ab illo, quasi miserandos non 
sequanimiter accipimus. Cupio, inquit apostolus, recipi jam, et esse cum Christo : 
quanto melius ostendit votum Christianorum. Ergo votum si alios consequutos 
impatienter dolemus, ipsi consequi nolumus. Tertull. lib. de patient, cap. ". 

s Philipp. chap. 1. ver. 2.'i. 



draw up such another supplication for them as this, which 
of late years Sir Thomas Moore presented in their name, 
" To 1 ' all good Christian people. In most piteous wise 
continually calleth and crieth upon your devout charity 
and most tender pity, for help, comfort and relief, your 
late acquaintance, kindred, spouses, companions, playfel- 
lows, and friends, and now your humble and unac- 
quainted and half-forgotten suppliants, poor prisoners 
of God, the silly souls in purgatory, here abiding and 
enduring the grievous pains and hot cleansing fire, &c." 
If St. Cyprian had understood but half thus much, doubt- 
less he would have struck out the best part of that fa- 
mous treatise which he wrote of mortality, to comfort men 
against death in the time of a great plague ; especially 
such passages as these are, which by no means can be re- 
conciled with purgatory. 

" It' is for him to fear death, that is not willing to go 
unto Christ : it is for him to be unwilling to go unto Christ, 
who doth not believe that he beginneth to reign with 
Christ. For it is written, that the just doth live by faith. 
If thou be just, and livest by faith, if thou dost truly be- 
lieve in Christ, why, being to be with Christ, and being se- 
cure of the Lord's promise, dost not thou embrace the 
message whereby thou art called unto Christ, and re- 
joicest that thou shalt be rid of the Devil? Simeon said, 
Lord, now lettest thou tin/ servant depart in peace, accord- 
ing to thy word : for mine eyes have seen thy salvation : 
proving'' thereby, and witnessing, that the servants of God 

'• The supplication of souls, made by Sir Thomas Moore : which seemeth to be 
made in imitation of Joh. Gerson's Querela defunctorum in igne purgatorio de- 
tentorum, ad superstates in terra amicos. part. 4. oper. edit. Paris, ann. 1606. 
col. 959. 

■ Ejus est mortem timere, qui ad Christum nolit ire: ejus est ad Christum 
nolle ire, qui se non credat cum f Christo incipere regnare. SeripCum est enim, 
justum fide vivere. Si Justus es, et fide vivis, si vere in Christum credis ; cur 
non, cum Christo futurus, et de Domini pollicitatione securus, quod ad Christum 
voceris amplecteris, et quod diabolo careas gratularis ? Cyprian, de mortalit. op. 
pag. 229. 

k probans scilicet, atque contestans, tunc esse servis Dei pacem, tunc liberam, 
tunc tranquillam quietem, quando, de istis mundi turbinibus extracti, sedis et se- 
curitatis aternae portum petimus, quando expuncta hac morte ad immortalita- 
tem venimus. Ibid. pag. 230. 


then have peace, then enjoy free and quiet rest ; when, 
being drawn from these storms of the world, we arrive at 
the haven of our everlasting habitation and security, when 
this death being ended we enter into immortality." " The 1 
righteous are called to a refreshing, the unrighteous are 
haled to torment ; safety is quickly granted to the faith- 
ful, and punishment to the unfaithful." " We™ are not 
to put on black mourning garments here, when our 
friends there have put on white." " This" is not a going 
out, but a passage; and, this temporal journey being 
finished, a going over to eternity." " Let° us therefore 
embrace the day that bringeth every one to his own house ; 
which, having taken us away from hence, and loosed us 
from the snares of this world, returneth us to paradise, 
and to the kingdom of heaven." 

The same holy father in his apology which he wrote 
for Christians unto Demetrian the proconsul of Africa, 
affirmeth in like manner, that " the p end of this temporal 
life being accomplished, we are divided into the habita- 
tions of everlasting, either death or immortality." " When q 
we are once departed from hence, there is now no further 
place for repentance, neither any effect of satisfaction ; 
here life is either lost or obtained." But if " thou 1 "," 

1 Ad refrigerium justi vocantur, ad supplicium rapiuntur injusti : datur ve- 
locius tutela fidentibus, perfidis poena. Ibid. pag. 233. 

m Nee accipiendas esse hie atras vestes, quando illi ibi indumenta alba jam 
sumpserint. Ibid. pag. 234. 

n Non est exitus iste, sed transitus ; et, temporali itinere decurso, ad eeterna 
transgressus. Ibid. pag. 235. 

° Amplectamur diem, qui assignat singulos domieilio suo ; qui nos istinc erep- 
tos, et laqueis secularibus exsolutos, paradiso restituit et regno coelesti. Ibid, 
pag. 236. 

p Donee, aevi temporalis fine completo, ad aeternae vel mortis vel immortali- 
tatis hospitia dividamur. Id. ad Demetrian, pag. 222. 

'l Quando istinc excessum fuerit, nullus jam pcenitentiae locus est, nullus satis- 
factionis effectus ; hie vita aut amittitur, aut tenetur. Id. ibid. pag. 221. 

'' Tu, sub ipso licet exitu et vita; temporalis occasu, pro delictis rogas ; et Deuni, 
qui unus et verus est, confessione et fide agnitionis ejus implores ; venia confi- 
tenti datur, et credenti indulgentia salutaris de divina pietate conceditur ; et ad 
immortalitatem sub ipsa morte transitur. Hanc gratiam Cbristus impertit; hoc 
munus misericordix suae tribuit ; subigendo mortem Irophxo cruris, redimendo 

N 2 


saith he, " even at the very end and setting of thy tem- 
poral life, dost pray for thy sins, and call upon the only 
true God with confession and faith ; pardon is given to 
thee confessing, and saving forgiveness is granted by the 
divine piety to thee believing ; and at thy very death 
thou hast a passage unto immortality. This grace doth 
Christ impart, this gift of his mercy doth he bestow ; by 
subduing death with the triumph of his cross, by redeem- 
ing the believer with the price of his blood, by reconcil- 
ing man unto God the Father, by quickening him that is 
mortal with heavenly regeneration." 

Where Solomon sayeth s , that " man goeth to his 
everlasting house, and the mourners go about in the 
streets :" St. Gregory of Neocaesarea maketh this para- 
phrase upon those words, " The 4 good man shall go 
rejoicing unto his everlasting house ; but the wicked shall 
fill all with lamentations." Therefore did the fathers teach 
that men should rejoice" at their death : and the ancient 
Christians framed their practice accordingly ; " not v cele- 
brating the day of their nativity, which they accounted to 
be the entry of sorrows and temptations ; but celebrating 
the day of death, as being the putting away of all sorrows, 
and the escaping of all temptations." And so being filled 
with " a w divine rejoicing, they came to the extremity of 
death as unto the end of their holy combats ;" where 
they did "more" clearly behold the way that led unto 

credentem pretio sanguinis sui, reconciliando hominem Deo Patri, vivificand* 
mortalem regeneratione ccelesti, Cyprian, ad Demetrian. pag. 224. 

s Ecclesiast. chap. 12. ver. 5. 

1 Kai 6 fiiv dya9bg avrjp tig aiwviov oTkov tov icivtov xa'ipiov Troptvat- 
rav ol St yt (pavXoi, irdvTa tu civtwv tpirXijciovcn Koirrvpivoi. Greg. 
Neocaesar, metaphras. in Ecclesiast. 

" At? Si tiri Qavdrip x al 9 iiV - Anton. Meliss. part. 1. serm. 58. &c. 

v Nos non nativitatis diem celebramus, cum sit doiorum atque tentationum 
introitus ; sed mortis diem celebramus, utpote omnium doiorum depositionem 
atque omnium tentationum effugationem. Author lib. 3. in Job, inter opera 
Origenis. Vide S. Basil, homil. in Psalm. 115. Op, torn. 1. pag. 374. 

w 'Ef tixppoffvt'ri Otia irpbg to tov Oavarov irkpag lamv, wg tni TtXog 
\tpwv ayujvwv. et paulo post : 'Ev ToliTotg ptv ovv // twv itpGJv tffTi icoipij- 
crig Iv tiHppoGvi'yj Kai dffaXtvroig LXiriaiv tig to twv Oeiojv ay6>vu)v cm]hk- 
vovuEVT) ir'ipag. Dionys. ecclesiast. hierarcli. cap. 7. 

x 'AW' oXovg aiirovc airo\i)'ipioQai t>)v xpurroeidii Xr^iv tlSoTtg, otciv 


their immortality, as being now made nearer, and did 
therefore praise the gifts of God, and were replenished 
with divine joy, as now not fearing any change to worse ; 
but knowing well, that the good things which they pos- 
sessed shall be firmly and everlastingly enjoyed by them." 
The author of the questions and answers attributed to 
Justin martyr writeth thus of this matter : " After y the 
departure of the soul out of the body, there is presently 
made a distinction betwixt the just and the unjust. For 
they are brought by the angels to places fit for them: the 
souls of the righteous to paradise, where they have the 
commerce and sight of angels and archangels, &c, the 
souls of the unjust to the places in hell." That " is z not 
death," saith Athanasius, " that befalleth the righteous, 
but a translation : for they are translated out of this 
world into everlasting rest ; and, as a man would go out of 
a prison, so do the saints go out of this troublesome life 
unto those good things that are prepared for them." St. 
Hilary, out of that which is related in the Gospel of the 
rich man and Lazarus, observeth, that as a soon as this 
Hfe is ended, every one without delay is sent over either 
to Abraham's bosom, or to the place of torment, and in 
that state reserved until the day of judgment. St. Am- 

tiri rb iripag tXBioGt twv ry St fiiov, ri)v rtg (npQapaiav avr&v 6S6v, wg 
iyyvTtpav ?Jt>// ytyiviju.tvi]V, ifi(pavt(JTipov bpwai, Kai Tag dwptdg Tijg Otap- 
X'«C Vfivovai, Kai Qtiag r)Sovt~fg diroTvXripovvTai, Ti)v iiri ra X l if )l ° Tpowi/v 
ovkiti StdoiKortg, dXX' tu tiSortg, otl ra KTtfi'tvTa KaXd j3tf3aiwg Kai 
aiwviwg 'iKovatv. Ibid. 

y Merd 5t Tt)v Ik too aw/xarog t%o!)ov, eii8vg yli'irai twv SiKaiwv ti 
Kai ddtKwv ») SiarrroXi}. ayovrai yap vtto twv d.yytXwv tig d^iovg aiirwi' 
Toirovg. at fiiv twv SiKaiwv ipvxai tig t'ov TrapaStiaov, ivOa (TWTV\ia 
ti Kai Q'ta dyyiXwv rt Kai dpxayyfXwv, &c. 01 dt twv clSLkwv xpvxai 
tig Toiig iv Tip iiSy ronovg. Justin, respons. ad orthodox, quffist. 75. op. 
pag. 470. 

1 OIjk iffTi yap napa Tolg ciKaioig OdvaTog,dXXd fitrdOtrrig- fitTariOiv- 
T(U yap tK tov Konfiov rovTOV, tig ti)v aiwviov avairavoiv. Kai wcnrto 
rig d.7rb (pi'XaKijg iX'tXOoi, o'vTiog Kai oi iiyioi iZ,'ipx<>VTai c'nrb Toi> pox^'iP'"' 
ftiov tovtov tig ra dyaOd tu ^TOificCVjikva aiirolg. Atlianas. de virginitatc. 
Op. torn. 2. pag. 120. 

a Nihil illic dilationis aut moras est. Judicii enim dies vcl beatitudinis re- 
tributio est seterna, vcl poena; : tempus vero mortis habet unumquemque siii: le- 
gilms, dimi ad judicium unumquemqwe aut Abraham reservat aut poena. Hilar. 
in Psalm. 2. op. pag. 51. 



brose, in his book of the good of death, teachcth us that 
death " is b a certain haven to them who, being tossed in 
the great sea of this life, desire a road of safe quietness ; 
that it maketh not a man's state worse, but such as it 
findeth in every one, such it reserveth unto the future 
judgment, and refresheth with rest :" that thereby " a c 
passage is made from corruption to incorruption, from 
mortality to immortality, from trouble to tranquillity." 
Therefore he saith, that where " fools' 1 do fear death as 
the chief of evils, wise men do desire it, as a rest after 
labours, and an end of their evils ;" and upon these 
grounds exhorteth us, that " when 6 that day cometh, we 
should go without fear to Jesus our Redeemer, without 
fear to the council of the patriarchs, without fear to Abra- 
ham our father ; that without fear we should address our- 
selves unto that assembly of saints, and congregation of 
the righteous ; forasmuch as we shall go to our fathers, 
we shall go to those schoolmasters of our faith ; that, albeit 
our works fail us, yet faith may succour us, and our title 
of inheritance defend us." 

Macarius, writing of the double state of those that de- 
part out of this life, affirmeth, that when the soul goeth 
out of the body, if it be guilty of sin, the devil carrieth 
it away with him unto his place : but when the holy ser- 
vants of God " remove f out of their body, the choirs of 

b Et quia portus quidam est eorum qui, magno vitae istius jactati salo, fidse 
quietis stationem requirunt : et quia deteriorem statum non efficit ; sed qualem in 
singulis invenerit, talem judicio futuro reservat, et quiete ipsa fovet, &c. Ambros. 
de bono'mortis, cap. 4. Op. torn. 1. pag. 395. 

c Transitu* autem a corruptione ad incorruptionem, a mortalitate ad immor- 
talitatem, a perturbatione ad tranquillitatem. Ibid. 

d Insipientes mortem quasi summum malorum reformidant : sapientes quasi 
requiem post labores et finem malorum expetunt. lb. cap. 8. pag. 403. 

e His igitur freti, intrepide pergamus ad redemptorem nostrum Jesum, intre- 
pide ad patriarcharum concilium, intrepide ad patrem nostrum Abraham, cum 
dies advenerit, proficiscamur : intrepide pergamus ad ilium sanctorum coetum, 
justorumque conventum. Ibimus enim ad patres nostros, ibimus ad illos nostra 
fidei praeceptores : ut, etiamsi opera desint, fides opituletur, defendat haereditas. 
lb. cap. 12. pag. 411. 

f 'Oral' ii,i\Qu)Oiv\airb tov (Tu>fiaTog, ot x°P 01 T ^ v ayytkoiv irapaXafi- 
fiavovaiv civtwv tclq i/^X"? tig to 'iSiov fiipog, ttc. tov Kal'apbv aldvn,Kal 
o'vtmQ avrovg Trpocrdyovan ry Kvpi<t>. Macar. yEgypt. homil. 22. 


angels receive their souls unto their own side, unto the 
pure world, and so bring them unto the Lord ;" and in 
another place, moving the question concerning such as 
depart out of this world sustaining two persons in their 
soul, to wit, of sin and of grace ; whither they shall go 
that are thus held by two parts : he maketh answer, that 
thither they shall go, where they have their mind and 
affection settled. For " the g Lord," saith he, " beholding thy 
mind, that thou lightest, and lovest him with thy whole 
soul, separateth death from thy soul in one hour, 
for this is not hard for him to do, and taketh thee into 
his own bosom, and unto light. For he plucketh thee 
away in the minute of an hour from the mouth of dark- 
ness, and presently translateth thee into his own kingdom. 
For God can easily do all these things in the minute of an 
hour ; this provided only, that thou bear est love unto him :" 
than which, what can be more direct against the dream of 
popish purgatory ? " This h present world is the time of 
repentance, the other of retribution : this of working, that 
of rewarding : this of patient suffering, that of receiving 
comfort :" saith St. Basil. 

Gregory Nazianzen, in his funeral orations, hath many 
sayings to the same purpose ; being so far from thinking 
of any purgatory pains, prepared for men in the other 
world, that he plainly denieth, that after 1 the night of 
this present life there is any purging to be expected ; and 
therefore he telleth us, " that k it is better to be cor- 

e BXt7ruiv 6 Kvpiog rbv vovv aov, on ayiovi^y, Kai ayarrag abrbv ;'i 
'6X>]g 4 IV X'I^' ^inx w (''? fl T0V Qo-varov Ik ri}£ ->pv\iig aov finji wpo: (ovk 
lari yap avriji Svffxepkg) Kai 7rpoaXapj3ai'trai at tig tovq koXttovq avrov, 
Kai tig to (pwg. apTtat,ti yap at tv poirij wpag Ik tov arnnarog rod OKorovg, 
Kai tvQ'twg fitTariOiiai at tig t'i\v fSaaiXtiav avrov' rip yap 6t<p tv poiry 
wpag itdvra thx^PH tan ■Kotijaai, [ibvov "iva rt)v dyairriv i\iiQ Trpbg 
avrov. Id. horn. 26. 

'' ovrog b aliov Ti)g (itTavoiag, tKtlvog rijg avrairocuanog' ovrog rijg 
tpyaaiag,tKtlvog rfjg fiiaQaTToSoaiag' ovrog rrjg virofiovrjg, kutZvog tT;.; 
TrapaKXijatwg. Basil, procem. in regulas fusius disputat Epyaaiag yap b trap- 
iov Kcupbg' b Si fiiXXiov dvTa7ro!)6aiojg. Greg. Nazianz. orat. 9. ad Julianlim 
rbv i^iao)Ti)v. 

' M»/(5t virip T))v viiKTa ravTi\v tan rig KaOapatg. Nazianzen, orat. 12. 
in pascha. 

k wg j3i\riov tlvai vvv iraiCtvO^vai Kai KaOapQi'ivat, t] t>) tKtWir fia- 


rected and purged now, than to be sent unto the torment 
there, where the time of punishing is, and not of purg- 
ing." St. Hierome comforteth Paula for the death of her 
daughter Blsesilla, in this manner: " Let 1 the dead be 
lamented; but such a one, whom Gehenna doth receive, 
whom hell doth devour, for whose pain the everlasting 
fire doth burn. Let us, whose departure a troop of an- 
gels doth accompany, whom Christ cometh forth to meet, 
be more grieved if we do longer dwell in this tabernacle 
of death ; because, as long as we remain here, we are pil- 
grims from God." 

By all that hath been said, the indifferent reader may 
easily discern, what may be thought of the cracking car- 
dinal, who would face us down, that " all" 1 the ancients, 
both Greek and Latin, from the very time of the apostles, 
did constantly teach that there was a purgatory," whereas 
his own partners could tell him in his ear, that " in" the 
ancient writers there is almost no mention of purgatory; 
especially in the Greek writers, and therefore that by 
the Grecians it is not believed until this day." He 
allegeth indeed a number of authorities to blear men's 
eyes withal : which, being narrowly looked into, will be 
found either to be counterfeit stuff, or to make nothing at 
all to the purpose ; as belonging either to the point of 
praying for the dead only, which in those ancient times 
had no relation to purgatory ; as in the handling of the 
next article we shall see : or unto the fire of affliction in 
this life, or to the fire that shall burn the world at the 

cravy TTapcnrtjKpQrivai, iiv'iKa KoXaaetog Kciipbg, ov KaOaponoQ. Id. orat. 
15. in plagam grandinis, indeque in locis communib. Maximi, serm. 45. et An- 
tonii, part. 2. serm. 94. 

4 Lugeatur mortuus ; sed ille, quern gehenna suscipit, quern tartarus devorat, 
in cujus pcenam aeternus ignis aestuat. Nos, quorum exitum angelorum turba 
comitatur, quibus obviam Christus oecurrit, gravemur magis, si diutius in 
tabernaeulo isto mortis habitemus. Quia, quamdiu hie moramur, peregrinamur a 
Domino. Hieronym. epist. 25. Op. torn. 4. par. 2. pag. 56. 

111 Omnes veteres Graeci et Latini ab ipso tempore apostolorum constanter do- 
cuerunt purgatorium esse. Bellarmin. de purgat. lib. 1. cap. 15. 

" Alphons. de Castro, advers. hares, lib. 8. tit. Indulgentia. Jo. Roffens. as- 
sert. Lutheran, confutat. artie. IS. Polydor. Virgil, de invent, rer. lib. 8. cap. 1. 


last day, or to the fire prepared for the devil and his 
angels, or to some other fire than that which he intended 
to kindle thereby. This benefit only have we here gotten 
by his labours, that he hath saved us the pains of seeking 
far for the forge, from whence the first sparkles of that 
purging fire of his broke forth. For the ancientest memo- 
rial that he bringeth thereof, the [places which he hath 
abused out of the canonical and apocryphal Scriptures 
only excepted, is" out of Plato in his Gorgias and Phaedo ; 
Cicero, in the end of his fiction of the dream of Scipio ; 
and Virgil, in the sixth book of his /Eneids : and next 
after the apostles' times, out p of Tertullian, in the seven- 
teenth chapter of his book De anima ; and Origen in 
divers places. Only he must give us leave to put him in 
mind, with what spirit Tertullian was led, when he wrote 
that book De anima, and with what authority he strength- 
ened that conceit of men's paying in hell for their small 
faults before the resurrection, namely of the" 1 Paraclete ; 
by whom if he mean Montanus the arch-heretic, as there 
is small cause to doubt that he doth, we need not much 
envy the cardinal for raising up so worshipful a patron of 
his purgatory. 

But if Montanus come short in his testimony, Origen, 
I am sure, pays it home with full measure ; not pressed 
down only and shaken together, but also running over. 
For he was one of those, as the cardinal knoweth full well, 
" who approved of purgatory so much, that he acknow- 
ledged no other pains after this life, but purgatory penal- 
ties only ;" and therefore in his judgment hell and pur- 
gatory being the selfsame thing, such as blindly follow 
the cardinal may do well to look, that they stumble not 
upon hell, while they seek for purgatory. The Grecians 

° Bellarmin. de purgator. lib. 1. cap. 11. 

t' Id. ibid. cap. 7, et 10. 

'i Hoc etiam Paracletus frequentissime commendavit ; si quis sermoncs ejus 
ex agnitione promissoruiii charismatum admiserit. Tertull. de anima tap. 

r Non defucrunt, qui adco purgatorium probarint, ut nullas pcenas nisi purga- 
torias post hanc vitam agnoverint. Ita Origenes sensil. Bellarmin. de purgator. 
lib. 1. cap. 2. 


profess that 5 they are afraid to tell their people of 
any temporary fire after this life ; lest it should breed in 
them a spice of Origen's disease, and put out of their 
memory the thought of eternal punishment ; and by this 
means, occasioning them to be more careless of their con- 
versation, make them indeed fit fuel for those everlasting 
flames. Which fear of theirs we may perceive not to 
have been altogether causeless, when the purgatory of 
Origen resembleth the purgatory of the pope so nearly, 
that the wisest of his cardinals is so ready to mistake the 
one for the other. And, to speak the truth, the one is 
but an unhappy sprig cut off from the rotten trunk of the 
other ; which sundry men long since endeavoured to graft 
upon other stocks, but could not bring unto any great 
perfection, until the pope's followers tried their skill upon 
it, with that success which now we behold. Some of the 
ancient, that put their hand to this work, extended the 
benefit of this fiery purge unto all men in general : others 
thought fit to restrain it unto such as some way or other 
bore the name of Christians ; others to such Christians 
only as had one time or other made profession of the 
Catholic faith ; and others to such alone as did continue 
in that profession until their dying day. 

Against all these, St. Augustine doth learnedly dispute ; 
proving that wicked men, of what profession soever, shall 
be punished with everlasting perdition. And, whereas 
the defenders of the last opinion did ground themselves 
upon that place in the third chapter of the first epistle to 
the Corinthians, which the pope also doth make the prin- 
cipal foundation of his purgatory, although it be a proba- 
tory 1 , and not a purgatory fire that the apostle there 

5 Ei St vvv sk Siov Kal irpoCKaipov ovofiaawfttv Trvp, S'tog prj tov9' uito- 
irrtvoavrtg tlvai bi ttujtoI to alwviov, Kal irav i)Sr} toiovto i'Ojj.irrw(n irvp, 
KavTtvQev ra 'Qpiytvovg vo<j>)au>tn, Kal ti)v rijg aioiviov KoXciatiog 
fivijpLijv TCjvtpvxCJv aironciauxJU', TtXog KoXafftwg Ot/itvoi. oQiv tog noWa 
fikv 'i-^erai aroirn, TroWijv St tTrtStiKovTai irtpl r?)v oiKtiav noXiTtiav 
cifitkuav, Kai ttoWjjv x°P t ]y l 'l <Tovat ^ vXqv ry alu>vi<i) KoXdati, ovStlg ay- 
voti. Gratci, in lib. de purgatoiio igne, a Bon. Vulcanio edit. 

1 Uniuscujusque opus quale sit, ignis probabit. 1 Cor. cap. 3. ver. 13. 


treateth of, St. Augustine maketh answer, that this" sen- 
tence of the apostle is very obscure, and to be reckoned 
among those things which St. Peter saith are hard to be 
understood in his writings, which men ought not to per- 
vert unto their own destruction; and freely confessed^, 
that in this matter he would rather hear more intelligent 
and more learned men than himself. Yet this he deli- 
vereth for his opinion : that by wood, hay, and stubble, 
is understood that over-great love which the faithful bear 
to the things of this life ; and by fire, that temporal tri- 
bulation which causeth grief unto them by the loss of 
those things, upon which they had too much placed 
their affections. But " whether y in this life only," saith 
he, " men suffer such things, or whether some such 
judgments also do follow after this life, the meaning 
which I have given of this sentence, as I suppose, abhor- 
reth not from the truth." And again, " Whether 2 they 
find the fire of transitory tribulation, burning those secu- 
lar affections which are pardoned from damnation, in the 
other world only ; or whether here and there ; or whether 
therefore here, that they may not find them there ; I 
gainsay it not, because peradventure it is true." And in 
another place : " That a some such thing should be after 
this life, it is not incredible ; and whether it be so it may 
be inquired, and either be found or remain hidden ; that 
some of the faithful by a certain purgatory fire, by how 
much more or less they have loved these perishing goods, 
are so much the more slowly or sooner saved." Wherein 

11 Augustin. de fide et operib. cap. 15. 

x Id. Ibid. cap. 1(5. 

v Sive ergo in hac vita tantum homines ista patiuntur, sive etiam post banc 
vitam talia quaedam judicia subsequuntur ; non abhorret, quantum arbitror, a ra- 
tione veritatis iste intellectus hujus sentential. Id. ibid. cap. l(i. pag. 

z Sive ibi tantum, sive hie et ibi, sive ideo hie ut non ibi, seeularia (quamvis 
a damnatione venialia) concremantem ignem transitoriae tribulationis inveniant ; 
non redargue-, quia forsitan verum est. Id. lib. 21. de civit. Dei, cap. 26. 

a Tale aliquid etiam post hanc vitam fieri incredibile non est, et utrum ita sit 
quaeri potest, et aut inveniri aut latere ; nonnullos fideles per ignem quondam pur- 
gatorium, quanto magis minusve bona percuntia dilcxeriint, tanto tardius citin- \ t 
salvari. Id. in enchirid. ad Laurent, cap. 69. 


the learned father dealeth no otherwise than when, in 
disputing against the same men, he is content, if they 
would acknowledge that the wrath of God did remain 
everlastingly upon the damned, to give them leave to 
think that their pains might some way or other be light- 
ened or mitigated. Which yet notwithstanding, saith he, 
" I b do not therefore affirm, because I oppose it not." 

What the doctors of the next succeeding ages taught 
herein, may appear by the writings of St. Cyril, Genna- 
dius, Olympiodorus, and others. St. Cyril, from those last 
words of our Saviour upon the cross, " Father, into thy 
hands I commend my spirit, 1 ' delivereth c this as the cer- 
tain ground and foundation of our hope. " W T e ought 
to believe that the souls of the saints, when they are de- 
parted out of their bodies, are commended unto God's 
goodness, as unto the hands of a most dear father ; and 
do not remain in the earth, as some of the unbelievers have 
imagined, until they have had the honour of burial ; 
neither are carried, as the souls of the wicked be, unto a 
place of immeasurable torment, that is, unto hell : but ra- 
ther fly to the hands of the Father, this way being first pre- 
pared for us by Christ. For he delivered up his soul 
into the hands of his Father, that from it, and by it, a 
beginning being made, we might have certain hope of this 
thing ; firmly believing, that after death we shall be in 
the hands of God, and shall live a far better life for ever 
with Christ. For therefore Paul desired to be dissolved, 
and to be with Christ." Gennadius, in a book where- 
in he purposely taketh upon him to reckon up the 

b Quod quidem non ideo confirmo, quoniam non refello. Id. de civit. Dei, 
lib. 21. cap. 24. 

c Quod nobis magnae spei fundamentum atque originem praebet. Credere 
namque debemus, quum a corporibus sanctorum animae abierint, tanquam 
in manus charissimi patris, bonitati divinae comniendari ; nee, ut quidam infide- 
lium crediderunt, in terris conversari, quousque sepulturae honoribus affectae sint ; 
nee, ut peccatorum animae, ad immensi cruciatus locum, id est, ad inferos, de- 
ferri ; itinere boc nobis a Cbristo primum pracparato : sed in manus potius Pa- 
tris evolare. Tradidit enim animam suam manibus Genitoris, ut ab ilia et per 
illam facto initio, certain bujus rei spem babeamus : firmiter credentes, in mani- 
bus Dei nos post mortem futuros, Vitamque multo meliorem ac perpetuo cum 
Cbristo victuros. Ideo enim Paulus desideravit resolvi, et esse cum Cbristo. 
Cyrill. Alexandr. in Johann. lib, 12. Op. torn. 4. pag. 10G9. 


particular points of doctrine received by the Church in 
his time, when he cometh to treat of the state of souls 
separated from the body, maketh no mention at all of 
purgatory ; but layeth down this for one of his positions : 
" After d the ascension of our Lord into heaven, the souls 
of all the saints are with Christ ; and departing out of 
the body go unto Christ, expecting the resurrection of 
their body, that together with it they may be changed 
unto perfect and perpetual blessedness : as the souls of the 
sinners also, being placed in hell under fear, expect the re- 
surrection of their body, that with it they may be thrust unto 
everlasting pain." In like manner Olympiodorus, expound- 
ing that place of Ecclesiastes, " If e the tree fall toward 
the south or toward the north, in the place where the tree 
falleth, there it shall be ;" maketh this inference there- 
upon : " In 1 whatsoever place therefore, whether of light 
or of darkness, whether in the work of wickedness or of 
virtue, a man is taken at his death, in that degree and 
rank doth he remain, either in light with the just and 
Christ the King of all, or in darkness with the wicked 
and the prince of this world." 

The first whom we find directly to have held, that " for e 
certain light faults there is a purgatory fire" provided be- 
fore the day of judgment, was Gregory the first, about 
the end of the sixth age after the birth of our Saviour 
Christ. It was his imagination, that the end of the world 
was then at hand; and that " as h when the night begin- 

d Post ascensionem Domini ad ccelos, omnium sanctorum animae cum Christo 
sunt ; et exeuntes de corpore ad Christum vadunt, expectantes resurrectionem 
corporis sui, ut ad integram et perpetuam beatitudinem cum ipso pariter ininiu- 
tentur ; sicut et peccatorum animae, in inferno sub timore positae, expectant re- 
surrectionem sui corporis, ut cum ipso ad pcenam detrudantur aeternam. Gen- 
nad. de ecclesiastic, dogmatib. cap. 79. 

e Eccles. chap. 11. ver. 3. 

f 'Ev $ d' av Toiyapovv ro7ry, tire tov <j>o>toc tire rov gkotovq, uti Tip 
rrjs KrtKinc ipyy tin Tip rfjc dptTtic, Kara\i}<pOy iv tTi rtXti'-ri) 6 
avOpuirog, iv 'tKtivtp flkvtl T<p /3a0/i<;7 Kai ry ra%tl, ?; Iv <pturi fttTa twv 
FiKaiiov Kai rov TranfiaffiXiiog Xpicrrov, ?/ iv r<p okotii /itrii Tutv afi'cwv 
Kai tov KOfffioKpdropoQ. Olympiodor. in Ecclesiast. cap. 11. 

s Sed tamen de quibusdam levibus culpis esse ante judicium purgatoriua ignis 
credendus est. Gregor. dialog, lib. 4. cap. 39. Op. torn. 2. pag. Ml. 

11 Quemadmodum cum nox finiri ct dies incipit oriri, ante solis ortum simul 


neth to be ended, and the day to spring, before the rising 
of the sun, the darkness is in some sort mingled together 
with the light, until the remains of the departing night 
be turned into the light of the following day ; so the end 
of this world was then intermingled with the beginning 
of the world to come ; and the very darkness of the re- 
mains thereof made transparent by a certain mixture of 
spiritual things." And this he assigneth for the reason, 
" why 1 in those last times so many things were made 
clear touching the souls, which before lay hid : so that 
by open revelations and apparitions the world to come 
might seem to bring in and open itself unto them." But 
as we see that he was plainly deceived in one of his con- 
ceits, so have we just cause to call into question the ve- 
rity of the other; the Scripture especially having in- 
formed us, that a people for enquiry of matters should 
not have recourse to the k dead, but to their God, to the 
law, and to the testimony: it being not God's manner to 
send men from 1 the dead to instruct the living, but to 
remit them unto Moses and the prophets, that they 
may hear them. And the reason is well worth the ob- 
servation which the author of the questions to Antiochus 
rendereth, Why God would not permit the soul of any of 
those that departed from hence to return back unto us 
again, and to declare the state of things in hell unto us ; 
lest " much error" 1 might arise from thence unto us in this 

aliquo modo tenebrse cum luce commixtae sunt, quousque discedentis noetis reli- 
quiae in luce iliei subsequentis perfecte vertantur : ita bujus mundi finis jam cum 
futuri saeculi exordio permiscetur, atque ipsae reliquiarum tenebrae quadamjam 
rerum spiritalium permixtione translucent. Id. ibid. cap. 41. pag. 445. 

■ Quid hoc est, quaeso te, quod in his extremis temporibus tarn multa de ani- 
mabus clarescunt, quae ante latuerunt ; ita ut apertis revelationibus atque osten- 
sionibus venturum sasculum inferre se nobis atque aperire videatur. Ibid. cap. 
40. pag. 445. 

k Isai. chap. 8. ver. 19, 20. ' Luke, chap. 16. ver. 29, 30. 

m IIoXXj} ivrivQtv irXavt] iv Tip /3<<£i tikticBcii t/xtXXsv tzoXXoi yap tCjv 
fiaifioviov iv oxi'ifiacnv dvBpwirwv ilxov fieraax^p-ariZtcyOai tCjv koi/xi]- 
OivTuv, Kal t/ieXXov ek viKpCjv tyi]ytp9ai civtovq Xeyttv, Kal iroXXa \pev$ij 
TTpayfiara, Kal SoypaTa irtpi tCjv IkiI iix 0v VP^ V zyKaTaairtipai irpoQ t>)v 
il^wv Tc\avt)v Kal anwXtiav. Ad Antioch. qutest. 35.Jnter opera Athanasii. 
torn. 2. pag. 275. 


life. For many of the devils," saith he, " might transform 
themselves into the shapes of those men that were de- 
ceased, and say that they were risen from the dead ; and 
so might spread many false matters and doctrines of the 
things there, unto our seduction and destruction." 

Neither is it to be passed over, that in those appari- 
tions and revelations, related by Gregory, there is no 
mention made of any common lodge in hell appointed for 
purging of the dead, which is that which the Church of 
Rome now striveth for ; but of certain souls only, that for 
their punishment were confined to baths" and other such 
places here upon earth : which our Romanists may believe 
if they list, but must seek for the purgatory they look for 
somewhere else. And yet may they save themselves 
that labour, if they will be advised by the bishops assem- 
bled in the council of Aquisgran, two hundred and forty 
years after these visions were published by Gregory ; who 
will resolve them out of the word of God, how sins are 
punished in the world to come. " The sins of men," say they, 
" are punished three manner of ways : two in this life, and 
the third in the life to come. Of those two the apostle 
saith : If we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged 
of the Lord. This is the punishment wherewith, by the 
inspiration of God, every sinner, by repenting for his of- 
fences, taketh revenge upon himself. But where the 
apostle consequently adjoineth, When we are judged, ive 
are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be con- 
demned with this loorld; this is the punishment which 

" Gregor. dialog, lib. 4. cap. 40, et 55. pag. 444, et 4G4. 

° Tribus itaque modis peccata mortalium vindicantur : duobus in hac vita, 
tertio in futura vita. De duobus ita apostolus inquit: Si nosmetipsos judicaveri- 
mus, a Domino non judicabimur. Usee est vindicta quam, inspirante Deo, om- 
nis peccator, pro suis admissis poenitendo, in seipso vindicat. Quod auteni pro- 
secutus idem apostolus infert ; Cum judicamur autem, a Domino corripimur, ut 
non cum mundo damnemur : haec est vindicta, quam omnipotens Deus misericor- 
diter peccatori irrogat, juxta illud : Deus quern amat, corripit ; flagellat autem 
omnem filium quern rccipit. Tertia autem extat valde pertimescenda atque 
terribilis, qua; non in hoc sed in futuro, justissimo Dei judicio, fiet soeculo ; quan- 
do Justus judex dicturus est : Discedite a me maledicti in ignem sternum, qui 
paratus est diabolo et angelis ejus. Capital. Aquisgran. concil. ad Pipinum miss, 
lib. 1. cap. 1. 


Almighty God doth mercifully inflict upon a sinner accord- 
ing to that saying, Whom God loveth he chasteneth, and 
he sconrgeth every son that he receiveth. But the third 
is very fearful and terrible, which by the most just judgment 
of God shall be executed, not in this world, but in that 
which is to come, when the just Judge shall say: Depart 
from me ye cursed into everlasting fire, which is prepared 
for the devil and his angels." Add hereunto the saying 
of the author of the books De vanitate saeculi, and De 
rectitudine Catholicae conversationis, wrongly ascribed to 
St. Augustine, " KnowP that when the soul is separated 
from the body, presently it is either placed in paradise 
for his good works, or cast headlong into the bottom of 
hell for his sins ;" as also of the second sermon De 
consolatione mortuorum. " When q the soul departeth, 
which cannot be seen with carnal eyes, it is received by the 
angels, and placed either in the bosom of Abraham, if it 
be faithful, or in the custody of the prison of hell, if it be 
sinful ; until the day appointed come, wherein it is to re- 
ceive the body, and render an account of the works 
thereof at the tribunal of Christ the true Judge ;" and 
that in the days of Otto Frisingensis himself, who wrote 
in the year of our Lord one thousand one hundred and 
forty-six, the doctrine of purgatory was esteemed only 
a private assertion held by some, and not an article of 
faith generally received by the whole Church, for why 
should he else write of it in this manner? " That r there is 

P Scitote, quod, cum anima a corpore evellitur, statim aut in paradiso pro me- 
ntis bonis (as it is in the one, or, pro bonis operibus, as it is in the other book : 
both importing the selfsame thing) collocatur, aut certe pro peccatis in inferni 
tartara praecipitatur. Lib. de vanit. saeculi, cap. 1. et de rectitud. catholic, con- 
versat. app. torn. 6. operum Augustini. 

1 Recedens anima, quae carnalibus oculis videri non potest, ab angelis suscipi- 
tur ; et collocatur aut in sinu Abrahae, si fidelis est, aut in carceris inferni custo- 
dia, si peccatrix est : donee veniat statutus dies, quo suum recipiat corpus, et 
apud tribunal Christi judicis veri reddat suorum operum rationem. Serm. 2. de 
consolat. mortuor. Ibid. 

r Esse apud inferos locum purgatorium, in quo salvandi vel tenebris tantum 
afficiantur, vel expiationis igne decoquantur, quidam asserunt. Otto Fris. lib. 
8. chron. cap. 26. 


in hell a place of purgatory, wherein such as are to be 
saved are either only troubled with darkness, or decocted 
with the fire of expiation, SOME do affirm ;" and lastly, 
that the purgatory, wherewith the Romish clergy doth 
now delude the world, is a new device, never heard of in 
the Church of God, for the space of a thousand years 
after the birth of our Saviour Christ. 

For the Gregorian purgatory, which reached no further 
than to the expiation of " small s and very light faults," 
would not serve these men's turn; who very providently 
considered that little use could be made of that fire, if it 
had no other fuel but this to maintain it. For such pec- 
cadilloes as these, they say, may be taken away in this 
life ; by* knocking the breast, by receiving the bishop's 
blessing, by being sprinkled with holy water, and by sucli 
other easy remedies ; that, if this were all the matter to be 
cared for, men needed not greatly to stand in fear of 
purgatory. Yea, admit they should be so extremely neg- 
ligent in their lifetime, that they forgat to use any of these 
helps ; they might for all this at the time of their death 
be more afraid than hurt : yea, this fear" alone, if there 
were nothing else, might prove a means to " purge their 
souls, at the very departing, from those faults of the light- 
est kind ;" if Gregory may be credited. Nay, which is 
more, divers of their own elder w divines, to whom we 
may adjoin cardinal Cajetan* also in these latter days, 

* Sed tamen hoc de parvis minimisque peccatis fieri posse credendum est ; 
sieut est assiduus otiosus sermo, immoderatus risus, &c. Gregor. dialog, lib. 4. 
cap. 39. op. torn. 2. pag. 444. 

* Sext. procem. in Glossa verb. Benedictionem. Francisc. a Victoria in 
summa sacramentor. eccles. num. 110. Jacob, de Graffiis, decis. cas. conscient. 
part 1. lib. 1. cap. 6. num. 10. 

u Sed plerumque de culpis minimis ipse solus pavor egredientes justorum 
anurias purgat. Gregor. dialog, lib. 4. cap. 46. op. torn 2. pag. 453. 

w Delet gratia finalis peccatum veniale in ipsa dissolutione corporis et animse ; 
&c. Hoc ab antiquis dictum est : sed nunc communiter tenetur, quod peccatum 
veniale cum bine deferatur a multis, etiam quantum ad culpam, in purgatorio pur- 
gatur. Albert. Magn. in compend. theologies veritat. lib. 3. cap. 13. Vid. 
Alexand. Halens. summ. part. 4. quast. 15. membr. 3. art. 3. Durand. lib. 4. 
dist. 45. quacst. 1. &c. 

" Cajetan. opusc. torn. 1. tract. 23. de purgator. qusest. 1. 



have taught, that all the remains of sin in God's children 
are quite abolished by final grace, at the very instant 
of their final dissolution ; so that the stain of the least 
sin is not left behind to be carried unto the other world. 

Now purgatory, as Bellarmine describeth it, is a " cer- 
tain place, in which as in a prison those souls are purged 
after this life, which were not fully purged in this life ; 
that, being so purged, they may be able to enter into 
heaven, whereinto no unclean thing can enter. And of 
this," saith he, " is all the controversy." If that be so, 
their own doctors, you see, will quickly bring this con- 
troversy unto an end. For if the souls be fully purged 
here from all spot of sin, what need have they to be 
sent unto any other purgatory after this life ? Yes, say 
they, although the fault be quite remitted, and the soul 
clearly freed from the pollution thereof: yet may there 
remain a temporal punishment due for the very mortal 
sins that have been committed ; which, if relief do not 
otherwise come, by the help of such as are alive, must be 
soundly laid on in purgatory. But why in purgatory, say 
we, seeing here there is no more purging work left: for 
the fault and the blot being taken away already, what 
remaineth yet to be purged ? The punishment only, they 
say, is left behind : and punishment, I hope, they will 
not hold to be the thing, that is purged away by punish- 
ment. Again, we desire them to tell us, what father or 
ancient doctor did ever teach this strange divinity ? that a 
man being clearly purged from the blot of his sin, and 
fully acquitted here from the fault thereof, should yet in 
the other world be punished for it with such grievous tor- 
ments, as the tongue of man is not able to express. And 
yet, as new and as absurd a doctrine as it is, the pope 
and his adherents have builded thereupon both their 
guileful purgatory, with which it suiteth as evil-favouredly 
as may be ; and their gainful indulgences, which, by their 

y Locus quiclam, in quo tanquam in carcere post banc vitam purgantur animse, 
quae in hac non plene purgatse fuerunt : ut nimirum sic purgatoe in coelum in- 
gredi valeant, quo nihil intrabit coinquinatum. De hoc est tota controversia. 
Bellarmin. de purgator. lib. 1. cap. 1. 


own doctrine, free 2 not a man from the guilt of any fault, 
either mortal or venial, but only from the guilt of the 
temporal punishment, which remaineth after the fault 
hath been forgiven. 

When Thomas Aquinas and other friars had brought 
the frame of this new building unto some perfection, and 
fashioned all things therein unto their own best advan- 
tage, the doctors of the Greek Church did publicly oppose 
themselves against it. Matthaeus Quaestor by name wrote 
against Thomas herein : whose book is still preserved 
in the emperor's library at Vienna* So Athanasius his 
disputation against purgatory is (or lately was) to be seen 
in the French king's library ; and the like of Germanus, 
patriarch of Constantinople ; and others elsewhere. The 
apology of the Grecians, touching the same subject, is 
commonly to be had ; which was penned by Marcus* 
Eugenicus archbishop of Ephesus, and presented b to 
cardinal Cusanus and the deputies of the council of Basil, 
in the year one thousand four hundred and thirty-eight, 
the fourteenth of June ; the c very same day wherein Bes- 
sarion archbishop of Nice disputed with the Latins of the 
same matter, in the council assembled at Ferrara. In 
that apology, the Grecians begin their disputation with 
this proposition. " A' 1 purgatory fire, and a punishment 
by fire which is temporal, and shall at last have an end ; 
neither have we received from our doctors, neither do we 
know that the church of the East doth maintain." They 

z Id. de indulgent, lib. 1. cap. 7. prop. 1. 

a Sixt. Senens. lib. 6. biblioth. sanct. annotat. 259. 

b Rcsponsio Graecorum ad positionem Latinorum, opinionem ignis purgatorii 
fiindantium et probantium. Quae lecta et data fuit reverendiss. et reverendis 
patribus, et dominis deputatis, die sabbati, xiv. mensis Junii, 1438. in sacristia 
fratrum minorum, Basilese, praesentata Nicolao Cusano. Martin. Crusiusin Turco- 
Graecia, pag. 186. ex libro MS. Jobann. Capnionis. 

c Act. concil. Florentin. 

d Flf'/) KaOapriipiov icai KoXairtv Sid irvpbc wp6<lKaipov Kat r/Xoc 'tZot>- 
aav oXioc, vftlg vnb tmv fffitrkpatv ol> TrapuXiypapii' BtSa<TK&\ntv, ovdi 
n)v tii<: AvaroXris liac\i)<riar i'rr/ufi' <l>povov<7ctv. Apolog. Groecor. de purg- 
ator. a Donav. Vulcan, edit, 

o 2 


add further: " Neither 6 have we received it from any of 
our doctors ; and moreover no small fear doth trouble 
us, lest, by admitting a temporary fire both penal and pur- 
gatory, we should destroy the full consent of the Church." 
And thereupon they conclude very peremptorily : " For f 
these reasons therefore, neither have we ever hitherto 
affirmed any such thing, neither will we at all affirm it." 

Yet within a year after, the pope and his ministers 
prevailed so far with them in the council at Florence, that 
they were content for peace sake to yield, that " the g 
middle sort of souls were in a place of punishment ; but 
whether that were fire, or darkness and tempest, or 
something else, they would not contend." And accord- 
ingly was the pretended union betwixt them and the 
Latins drawn up: that " if h such as be truly penitent die 
in God's favour, before they have satisfied for their 
sins of commission and omission by worthy fruits of 
penance, their souls are purged after death with purga- 
tory punishments ;" neither fire, nor any other kind of 
punishment being specified in particular. But neither 
would Marcus the bishop of Ephesus, who was one of 
the legates of the patriarchs of Antioch and of Jerusalem, 
consent to this union: neither could the Greek Church 
afterwards by any means be drawn to yield unto it. And 
so unto this day, the Romish purgatory is rejected, as 
well by the Grecians as by the Muscovites and Russians, 
the Cophtites and Abassines, the Georgians and Arme- 

e 'On jxrjTt Trapa nvbg tu>v SiCaGKaXwv avrd irapuX^a^iv, tin re icai 
<poi3og oil /iiicpbg inroQpvirTti t), (ir) nvp TrpoaKcitpov InroQi^iivoi irapaSi- 
kov Tt teat Ka6apTt)piov,T<p navrl XvfiyvafjitGa rijg tKKXriaiag TrXjjpwfiaTi. 

f Aia ravra ovv ovS'iirort f*i%P l T0 ^ J '" v iiph K < l } ltv toiovtov ovdiv, ovd' 
oXiog tpovpev. Ibid. 

s at Sk fAEGai vTzap-^ovai jiiv iv jSaffaviffrj/piw, xai tire Trvp lariv, tiTt 
Zotyog tcai OvtXXa, t'irk n trtpov, oil ^la^tpop^tQa. Concil. Florentin. sess. 25. 

h Si vere pcenitentes in Dei charitate decesserint, antequam dignis pcenitentiae 
fructibus de commissis satisfecerint et omissis, eorum animas pcenis purgatoriis 
post mortem purgari. Eugenii IV. Bulla Unionis. ibid, cujus avroypafov etiam 
inter ica/ir/Xta Cottoniana vidimus. 


nians, together with the Syrians and Chaldeans that are 
subject to the patriarchs of Antioch and Babylon, from 
Cyprus and Palasstina unto the East-Indies. And this 
may suffice for the discovery of this new found creek of 





Prayer for the dead, as it is used in the Church of 
Rome, doth necessarily suppose purgatory : and there- 
fore whatsoever hath been alleged out of the Scriptures 
and fathers against the one, doth stand in full force 
against the other : so that here we need not actum agere, 
and make a new work of overthrowing that which hath 
been sufficiently beaten down already. But on the 
other side, the admittal of purgatory doth not necessarily 
infer prayer for the dead : nay, if we shall suppose with 
our adversaries that purgatory is the prison", from whence 
none " shall come out until they have paid the utmost 
farthing ;" their own paying, and not other men's praying, 
must be the thing they are to trust unto, if ever they look 
to be delivered out of that jail. Our Romanists indeed 
do commonly take it for granted, that " Purgatory 5 and 
prayer for the dead be so closely linked together, that the 
one doth necessarily follow the other" : but in so doing, 
they reckon without their host, and greatly mistake the 
matter. For howsoever they may deal with their own 
devices as they please, and link their prayers with their 
purgatory as closely as they list : yet shall they never 
be able to shew, that the commemoration and prayers for 
the dead, used by the ancient Church, had any relation 

3 Matt. chap. 5. vcr. 2C. 

b Bishop against Perkins reform, catholic, part. 2. pag. 149. 


unto their purgatory ; and therefore, whatsoever they 
were, popish prayers we are sure they were not. I easily 
foresee, that the full opening of the judgment of the fa- 
thers, in this point, will hardly stand with that brevity 
which I intend to use in treating of these questions : the 
particulars be so many, that necessarily do incur into the 
handling of this argument. But I suppose the reader 
will be content rather to dispense with me in that behalf, 
than be sent away unsatisfied in a matter, wherein the 
adversary beareth himself confident beyond measure, that 
the whole stream of antiquity runneth clearly upon his 

That the truth then of things may the better appear: 
we are here prudently to distinguish the original institu- 
tion of the Church, from the private opinions of particular 
doctors, which waded further herein than the general in- 
tendment of the Church did give them warrant ; and di- 
ligently to consider, that the memorials, oblations and 
prayers, made for the dead at the beginning, had reference 
to such as rested from their labours, and not unto any 
souls which were thought to be tormented in that Uto- 
pian purgatory, whereof there was no news stirring in 
those days. This may be gathered, first, by the practice 
of the ancient Christians, laid down by the author of the 
commentaries upon Job, which are wrongly ascribed unto 
Origen, in this manner. " We c observe the memorials of 
the saints, and devoutly keep the remembrance of our 
parents or friends which die in the faith; as well rejoicing 
for their refreshing, as requesting also for ourselves a 
godly consummation in the faith. Thus therefore do 
we celebrate the death, not the day of the birth : 
because they which die shall live for ever: and we cele- 

c Proptcrea et memorias sanctorum facimus, et parentum nostrorum vel ami- 
corum, in fide morientium, devote memoriam agimua ; tarn illorum refrfgerio gau- 
dentes, quam etiam nobis piam consummationem in fide postulantes. Celebra- 
mus nimirum, religiosos cum sacerdotibus convocantes, fideles una cum clero* 
invitantes adhuc egenos et pauperes, pupilloa et viduas saturantes : ul fiat feed- 
vitas nostra in memoriam requiei defunctis animabus, nobis autem efilciatur in 
odorem suavitatia in conspectu octerni Dei. Lib. 3. commcntar. in Job, inter opera 
Origenis, torn. 2. png. 902. 


brate it, calling together religious persons with the priests, 
the faithful with the clergy ; inviting moreover the needy 
and the poor, feeding the orphans and widows : that our 
festivity may be for a memorial of rest to the souls de- 
parted, whose remembrance we celebrate, and to us may 
become a sweet savour in the sight of the eternal God." 
Secondly, by that which St. Cyprian writeth of Lauren- 
tinus and Ignatius : whom he acknowledgeth to have re- 
ceived of the Lord palms and crowns for their famous 
martyrdom ; and yet presently addeth, " We d offer sacri- 
fices always for them, when we celebrate the passions and 
days of the martyrs with an anniversary commemoration." 
Thirdly, by that which we read in the author of the Ec- 
clesiastical Hierarchy, set out under the name of Diony- 
sius the Areopagite. For where the party deceased is 
described by him to have departed out of this life " reple- 
nished 6 with divine joy, as now not fearing any change to 
worse," being come unto the end of all his labours ; and 
to have been both privately acknowledged by his friends, 
and publicly pronounced by the ministers of the Church, 
to be a happy man, and to be verily admitted into the 
" society f of the saints that have been from the beginning 
of the world :" yet doth he declare, that the bishop made 
prayer for him, (upon what ground we shall afterward 
hear), that " God g would forgive him all the sins that he 
had committed through human iufirmity, and bring him 
into the light and the land of the living, into the bosoms of 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, into the place from whence 
pain and sorrow and sighing flieth." Fourthly, by the fu- 
neral ordinances of the Church, related by St. Chrysos- 

d Sacrificia pro eis semper, ut meministis, offerimus ; quoties martyrum pas- 
siones et dies anniversaria commemoratione celebramus. Cyprian, epist. 34 . op. 
pag. 47. 

e Vid. supr. pag. ISO, et 181. 

f u)Q Koivoivbv ovtwq bvra rmv air' alwvoQ dy'iwv, itpdiq avaiciipVTTOfit- 
vov. Dionys. Ecclesiast. hierarch. cap. 7. Op. tom. 1. pag. 266. 

S 'H piv ovv tvx>), T VC S^npxiKrjg dyaQoTr)TOQ Sdrai iravra ptv diptivai 
ra Si av9p(i)7rivt)v cujQ'ivnav rjpaprrjpkva Tqj KiKOiptjptvip, Karard^ai Si 
ctvrbv iv tpojTi icai X^P a ^wcrwv, tig kuXttovq 'Afipadp, Kai 'lactate, icai 
'l«K(')/3, iv Tony oil dneSpa oSvvt) Kai Xvnr) Kai crtvaypbe;. Ibid. pag. 267. 


torn : which were appointed to admonish the living, that 
the parties deceased were in a state of joy, and not of grief. 
" For 1 ' tell me," saith he, " what do the bright lamps 
mean? do we not accompany them therewith as cham- 
pions ? What mean the hymns ?" " Consider' what thon 
dost sing at that time. Return my soul unto thy rest ; 
for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee. And again, 
/ will fear no evil, because thou art with me. And again, 
Thou art my refuge from the affliction that compasseth 
me. Consider what these psalms mean." 

Fifthly, by the forms of the prayers, that are found in 
the ancient liturgies : as in that of the Churches of Syria, 
attributed unto St. Basil : " Be k mindful, O Lord, of them 
which are dead, and are departed out of this life ; and of 
the orthodox bishops which, from Peter and James the 
apostles until this day, have clearly professed the right 
word of faith ; and, namely, of Ignatius, Dionysius, Ju- 
lius, and the rest of the saints of worthy memory. Be 
mindful, O Lord, of them also which have stood unto 
blood for religion, and by righteousness and holiness have 
fed thy holy flock :" and, in the liturgy fathered upon the 
apostles, " We 1 offer unto thee for all the saints which 
have pleased thee from the beginning of the world, patri- 

h 'Enri yap juoi ri fiouXovrai at Xa/nrdStg at Qaiopai ; ovx «£ dOXtjrdg 
avrovQ TrpoTTtfiTTOfiiv ; n (V oi 'vpvoi ; Chrysost. in epist. ad Hebr. horn. 
4. op. torn. 12. pag. 46. 

* 'Evvbr\aov tI if/fiXXtif Kara rbv Kaipbv tKtivov. 'ETriarptxpov, ipvx>) 
fiou tig ttjv avairavaiv ffov, tin Kupiog tiu/pytnjo^ <re. icai 7rdXiv, Ov 
<l>o(li)9r']<TOfiai kp.ku, oti av fitr' ifiOv ti. icai wdXiv, So" fiov d KaTafvyn 
d-rrb OXtiptojg rfje. Trcptex ov(Tr i^ /**• Ivvorjaov ri (iovXovrai ouroi oi xpaX- 
fioi. Id. ibid. pag. 47. 

k Memento etiam, Domine, eonim qui decesserunt migraruntque ex hac vita, et 
episcoporum orthodoxorum qui inde a Petro et Jacobo apostolis, ad hunc usque 
diem, rectum fidei verbum clare sunt professi ; et nominatim Ignatii, Dionysii, 
Julii, ac reliquorum divorum Iaudabilis memorise. Memento, Domine, eorum 
quoque qui usque ad sanguinem pro religione steterunt, et gregem tuum sacrum 
per justitiamet sanctitatem pavcrunt, &c. Basilii anaphora, ab Andr. Masio, ex 
Syriaco conversa. 

1 "En Trpootyipoiiiv coi Kai !>nip irdvrwv tu>v an' aiwvoQ tvaptirrrtiudv- 
rtov (rot dyio)V, narpiapxwv, npoftjnov, Siicaiiov, dnooroXiov, paprvputv, 
bfioXoyrjrCJv, iirivicoirw)', irpiTpuTtpuv, haKOVuv, &c. Constitut. apostolic, 
lib. 8. cap. 12. 


archs, prophets, just men, apostles, martyrs, confessors, 
bishops, priests, deacons, &c." And in the liturgies of 
the Churches of Egypt, which carry the title of St. Basil, 
Gregory Nazianzen, and Cyril of Alexandria ; " Be m 
mindful, O Lord, of thy saints : vouchsafe to remem- 
ber all thy saints, which have pleased thee from the 
beginning, our holy fathers, the patriarchs, prophets, 
apostles, martyrs, confessors, preachers, evangelists, 
and all the souls of the just, which have died in the 
faith : and especially the holy, glorious, the evermore- 
virgin Mary, the mother of God ; and St. John the fore- 
runner, the baptist and martyr; St. Stephen the first 
deacon and martyr ; St. Mark the apostle, evangelist and 
martyr, &c." and, in the liturgy of the Church of Constan- 
tinople, ascribed to St. Chrysostom; " We 11 offer unto 
thee this reasonable service, for those who are at rest in 
the faith, our forefathers, fathers, patriarchs, prophets and 
apostles, preachers, evangelists, martyrs, confessors, re- 
ligious persons, and every spirit perfected in the faith : but 
especially for our most holy, immaculate, most blessed 
lady, the mother of God and aye-virgin Mary" : which 
kind of oblation for the saints sounding somewhat harshly 
in the ears of the Latins, Leo Thuscus in his translation 
thought best to express it to their better liking after this 
manner; " We offer unto thee this reasonable service 

m Memento, Domine, sanctorum tuorum : dignare ut recorderis omnium sanc- 
torum tuorum, qui tibi placuerunt ab initio, patrum nostrorum sanctorum, patri- 
archarum, prophetarum, apostolorum, martyrum, confessorum, evangelizantium, 
evangelistarum, et omnium spirituum justorum, qui obieruntin fide : et imprimis 
sanctae, gloriosae, semperque virginis Dei genitricis, Maria; ; et sancti Johannis 
preecursoris, baptistse et martyris ; sancti Stephani protodiaconi et protomartyris ; 
sancti Marci apostoli, evangelistae et martyris ; &c. Liturg. JEgyptiac. Basil. Greg, 
et Cyrilli, a Victorio Scialach ex Arabico convers. pag. 22, 47, et CO. edit. August, 
aim. 1004. 

n "En ■Kpoa^'ipojiiv trot rt)v XoyiK))v TavTi\v Xarptiav virtp twv iv -k'kj- 
rti avairavoaftevuv, irpOTraripiov, irarspwv, iraTpuiQX^ 3V > Tpfxpijriov Kai 
(nrovTvXwv, Kt]pVK(i)V, fvayytXiarCJv, fiaprvpwv, ii^oXoyi]TCov, iyKpaTiv- 
twv, Kai navTOQ nvii'iiaroQ iv irtoru riTtXiaafiiVOV. i'£,aipiro>Q rt)Q irav- 
ayiag, axpavrov, virfptvXoy>)iJ.iv>iQ ?icnoivi]Q rjfiwv, Oiotokov, Kai 
aiinapOivov Mapiag. Chrysost. liturg. Grace. 

° Adhuc offerimus tibi rationabile hoc obsequium, pro fidelitcr dorniientibus 


for the faithfully deceased, for our fathers and forefathers, 
the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, confessors, and 
all the saints interceding for them." As if the phrase of 
offering 11 for the martyrs were not to be found in St. 
Chrysostom's own works; and more universally " for q the 
just, both the fathers and the patriarchs, the prophets 
and apostles, and evangelists and martyrs and confessors, 
the bishops, and such as led a solitary life, and the whole 
order ;" in the suffrages of the Church, rehearsed by Epi- 
phanius, yea, and in the western Church itself ; " for r the 
spirits of those that are at rest, Hilary, Athanasius, Mar- 
tin, Ambrose, Augustine, Fulgentius, Leander, Isidorus, 
&c." as may be seen in the Muzarabical office used in 
Spain. , 

Sixthly, this may be confirmed out of the funeral orations 
of St. Ambrose ; in one whereof, touching the emperor 
Valentinian and his brother Gratian, thus he speaketh ; 
" Let 3 us believe that Valentinian is ascended from the 
desert, that is to say, from this dry and unmanured place 
unto those flowery delights ; where, being conjoined with 
his brother, he enjoyeth the pleasure of everlasting 
life. Blessed are you both : if my orisons shall prevail any 
thing ; no day shall overslip you in silence ; no oration of 
mine shall pass you over unhonoured ; no night shall run 
by, wherein I will not bestow upon you some portion of 
my prayers. With all oblations will I frequent you." In 

pro patribus et proavis nostris ; intervenientibus patriarchis, prophetis, apostolis, 
martyribus, confessoribus, et omnibus Sanctis. Chrysost. liturg. Latin. 

P Ti out to vjrip jxaprtipojv irpoff<j>ept(rOai; Chrysost. hoinil. 21. in Act. 
op. torn. 9. pag. 176. et torn. 12. pag. 765. 

1 'YTrtp Si SikciUov, Kai Trartptov Kai TraTpiap\MV, 7rpo<p>'iT<i)v Kai c'nrou- 
tuXiov, Kai ivayyt\i<JTwv icai (laprvpwv Kai o/io\oy>/rwi>, iTriaKoirwv r't 
Kai avaxupHT&v, Kai iravrog too rayfiaTOQ. Epiphan. hseres. 75. 

r Pro spiritibus pausantiuni, Hilarii, Athanasii, Martini, Ambrosii, Augustini, 
Fulgentii, Leandri, Isidori, &c. Offic. Muzarab. apud Eugen. Roblesium, in 
vita Francisci Xinienii. 

8 Credamus quia ascendit a deserto, hoc est, ex hoc arido et inculto loco ad 
illas florulentas delectationes, ubi cum fratre conjunctus sterna vitx fruitur vo- 
luptate. Bcati ambo: si quid mese orationes valebunt : nulla dies vos silcntio 
prseteribit. Nulla inhonoratos vos mea transibit oratio. Nulla nox uon dona- 
tes aliqua precum mearum contexione transcurret. Omnibus vos oblationibus 
frequentabo. Ambros. de obitu Vulculiniani imp. op. torn. 2. pag. 1191. 



another, he prayeth thus unto God : " Give* rest unto 
thy perfect servant Theodosius, that rest which thou hast 
prepared for thy saints" ; and yet he had said before of 
him ; " Theodosius" of honourable memory, being freed 
from doubtful fight, doth now enjoy everlasting light and 
continual tranquillity ; and for the things which he did in 
this body, he rejoiceth in the fruits of God's reward: be- 
cause he loved the Lord his God, he hath obtained the 
society of the saints." And afterward also : " Theodosius* 
remaineth in light, and glorieth in the company of the 
saints." In a third, he prayeth thus for his brother Saty- 
rus : " Almighty God x , I now commend unto thee his 
harmless soul, to thee do I make my oblation ; accept mer- 
cifully and graciously the office of a brother, the sacrifice 
of a priest ;" although he had directly pronounced of him 
before, that " he y had entered into the kingdom of hea- 
ven, because he believed the word of God," and excelled 
in many notable virtues. Lastly, in one of his epistles he 
comforteth Faustinus for the death of his sister, after this 
manner. " Do z not the carcasses of so many half-ruined 
cities, and the funerals of so much land exposed under one 
view, admonish thee ; that the departure of one woman, 
although a holy and an admirable one, should be borne 
with great consolation ? especially, seeing they are cast 

' Da requiem perfecto servo tuo Theodosio, requiem quam praeparasti 
Sanctis tuis. Id. de obitu Theodosii imp. Op. torn. 2. pag. 1207. 

u Absolutus igitur dubio certamine, fruitur nunc augustae memoriae Theodo- 
sius luce perpetua, tranquillitate diuturna ; et, pro iis quae in hoc gessit corpore, 
munerationis divinae fructibus gratulatur. Ergo quia dilexit augustae memoriae 
Theodosius Dominum Deum suum, meruit sanctorum consortia. Id. ibid. 

" Manet ergo in lumine Theodosius, et sanctorum ccetibus gloriatur. Ibid. 

x Tibi nunc, omnipotens Deus, innoxiam commendo animam, tibi hostiam 
meam offero : cape, propitius ac serenus, fraternum munus, sacrificium sacer- 
dotis. Id. dc obitu fratris. Op. torn. 2. pag. 1135. 

y Intravit in regnum ccelorum, quoniam credidit Dei verbo, &c. Id. ibid. 

z Tot igitur semirutarum urbium cadavera, terrarumque sub eodem conspectu 
exposita funera ; non te admonent unius, sanctae licet et admirabilis, foeminae de- 
cessionem consolabiliorem habendam ? praesertim cum ilia in perpetuumprostrata 
ac dirutasint; haec autem, ad tempus quidem erepta nobis, meliorem illic vitam 
exigat. Itaque non tarn deplorandam, quam prosequendam orationibus reor : 
nee mcestificandam lachrymis tuis, sed magis oblationibus animam ejus Domino 
commendandam arbitror. Id. epist. 39. Op. torn. 2. pag. 944. 


down and overthrown for ever : but she, being taken from 
us but for a time, doth pass a better life there. I there- 
fore think, that she is not so much to be lamented, as to be 
followed with prayers ; and am of the mind, that she is not 
to be made sad with thy tears, but rather that her soul 
should be commended with oblations unto the Lord." 
Thus far St. Ambrose. Unto whom we may adjoin Gregory 
Nazianzen also ; who, in the funeral oration that he made 
upon his brother Caesarius, having acknowledged that he had 
" received 11 those honours that did befit a new created soul, 
which the Spirit had reformed by water," (for he had been 
but lately baptized before his departure out of this life), 
doth notwithstanding pray, " that b the Lord would be 
pleased to receive him." 

Divers instances of the like practice, in the ages follow- 
ing, I have produced in another place : to which I will 
add some few more, to the end that the reader may from 
thence observe, how long the primitive institution of the 
Church did hold up head among the tares that grew up 
with it, and in the end did quite choke and extinguish it. 
Our English Saxons had learned of Gregory to pray for 
relief of those souls, that were supposed to suffer pain in 
purgatory : and yet the introducing of that novelty was 
not able to justle out the ancient usage of making prayers 
and oblations, for them which were not doubted to have 
been at rest in God's kingdom. And therefore the breth- 
ren of the Church of Hexham, in the anniversary comme- 
moration of the obit of Oswald king of Northumberland, 
used "to d keep their vigils for the health of his soul;" and, 
having spent the night in praising of God with psalms, " to 
offer for him in the morning the sacrifice of the sacred ob- 
lation," as Beda writeth : who telleth us yet withal, that 

a rijc viokt'kttov 4>vxve, i)v rb irvtvfia Si'vSaTOQ avtfiopQwaEV, d£ia ra 
ykpa KapTTOv/xtvoQ. Greg. Nazianz. in fun. Ceesarii, orat. 10. op. torn. 1. 
pag. 167. 

b NOv n'tv c5fx oto Kaiffapiov. Ibid. pag. 176. 

c Discourse of the religion professed by the ancient Irish. 

d Vigilias pro salute animae ejus facere; plurimaque psalmorum laudc celebrate, 
victimam pro eo mane sacrse oblationis offeree. Bed. HI). 3. hist, ecclesiast. 
cap. 2. 


" lie reigned with God in heaven," and by his prayers 
procured many miracles to be wrought on earth. So like- 
wise doth the same Bede report f , that, when it was disco- 
vered by two several visions, that Hilda the abbess of 
Streansheal, or Whitby in Yorkshire, was carried up by 
the angels into heaven ; they which heard thereof pre- 
sently caused prayers to be said for her soul. And Os-- 
berne relate th the like of Dunstan ; that, being at Bath, 
and beholding 8 in such another vision the soul of one, that 
had been his scholar at Glastenbury, to be carried up in- 
to " the palace of heaven ; he straightway commended the 
same into the hands of the Divine piety," and entreated the 
Lords of the place where he was to do so likewise. 

Other narrations of the same kind may be found among 
them that have written of saints' lives : and particularly in 
the tome published by Mosander, page sixty-nine, touch- 
ing the decease of Bathildis queen of France ; and page 
twenty-five, concerning the departure of Godfry earl of 
Cappenberg : who is said there to have appeared unto a 
certain abbess, called Gerbergis, and to have acquainted her, 
"thatMiewas now without all delay, and without all danger of 
any more severe trial, gone unto the palace of the Highest 
King; and, as the son of the Immortal King, was clothed 

e Id. ibid. cap. 12, et 14. f Id. lib. 4. hist. cap. 23. 

? Repente ad superna raptus, cujusdam discipuli nobiliter a se apud Glestoniam 
educati animam, innumcra angelorum frequentia hinc hide stipatam, atque im- 
mensi luminis fulgore perfusam, ad coeli palatium provehi conspexit. Moxque 
in manus Divinoc pietatis earn commendans, dominos quoque loci ad commen- 
dandum invitat. Osbernus, in vita S. Dunstani. MS. in biblioth. Cottoniana et 
Bodleiana. Notandum vero, in Jo. Capgravii Legcnda (in qua prior narrationis 
hujus pars ad verbum ex Osberno, ut alia de Dunstano complura, descripta cerni- 
tur) posteriorem hanc sententiam omitti penitus : in Eadmero vero (ex quo, non au- 
tem ex Osberno vel Osberto, vita Dunstani quse Mai. 19. apud Surium legitur, est 
desumpta) ita tantummodo referri. Qui pro tanta gloria fratris ultra quam dici 
queat exultans, et immensas corde et ore Deo cunctipotenti gratias agens ; sociis 
quid accident manifesta voce exposuit, et diem ac horam transitus ejus notari 

h Noveris, ait, me modo sine ulla dilatione, aut ullo scverioris examinis peri- 
culo, ad Summi Regis palatium commigrasse, atque tanquam Regis Immortalis 
filium beata immortalitate vestitum. Vit. Godefrid. cap. 13. a Jac. Mosandro 
edit. Colon, aim. 15S1. 


with blessed immortality" : and the monk that wrote the 
legend, addeth, that she* presently thereupon " caused the 
sacrifice of the mass to be offered for him," which how fabu- 
lous soever it may be for the matter of the vision, yet doth 
it strongly prove, that within these five-hundred years (for 
no longer since it is that this is accounted to have been 
done) the use of offering, for the souls of those that were 
believed to be in heaven, was still retained in the Church. 
The letters of Charles the Great unto OfFa king ofMer- 
cia are yet extant ; wherein he wisheth k that intercessions 
should be made " for the soul of pope Adrian" then lately 
deceased ; " not having any doubt at all", saith he, " that 
his blessed soul is at rest ; but that we may shew faithful- 
ness and love unto our most dear friend : even as St. Au- 
gustine also giveth direction, that intercessions ought to 
be made for all men of ecclesiastical piety ; affirming, that 
to intercede for a good man doth profit him that doeth 
it." Where the two ends of this kind of intercession are 
to be observed : the one to shew their love to their friend ; 
the other to get profit to themselves thereby, rather than 
to the party deceased. Lastly, pope Innocent the third, 
(or the second rather), being inquired of by the bishop of 
Cremona, concerning the state of a certain priest that died 
without baptism, resolveth him out of St. Augustine and 
St. Ambrose, that " because 1 , he continued in the faith of 
the holy mother the Church, and the confession of the 
name of Christ ; he was assoyled from original sin, and 
had attained the joy of the heavenly country." Upon 

1 Mox fratribus Cappenbergensibus indicavit beati viri obitum, ct pro co 
missae sacrificium offerendum curavit. Ibid. 

k Deprecantes ut diligenter jubeatis intercedere pro anima illius : nullam ha- 
bentes dubitationcm, beatam illius animam in requie esse ; sed ut fidem et di- 
lectionem ostendamus in amicum nobis cbarissimum : sicut et beatus pracipit 
Augustinus, pro omnibus ecclesiasticoe pietatis intercessiones fieri debere : asse- 
rens, pro bono intercedere, facienti proficere. Carol. M. epist. ad Offani, inter 
epistolas Alcuini MS. in bibliotheca Cottoniana. Vid. Guil. Malmesburiens. de 
gest. reg. Anglor. lib. 1. cap. 4. et Matt. Westmonastcr. ann. Dom. 797. 

1 Quia in sanctae matris Ecclcsiac fide, et Christi nominis confessione perseve- 
ravit, ab originali peccato solutum, et coelcstis patriae gaudium esse adeptum, 
asserimus incunctanter. Decretal, lil). 3. tit. 43. dc presbytero non baptizato, 
cap. 2. Apostolicam. et collect. 1. Bernaidi papiensis, lib. 5. tit. 35. cap. 2. 


which ground at last he maketh this conclusion ; " Ceas- 
ing 1 " therefore all questions, hold the sentences of the 
learned fathers ; and command continual prayers and sa- 
crifices to be offered unto God in thy Church, for the fore- 
said priest." 

Now having thus declared, unto what kind of persons 
the commemorations ordained by the ancient Church did 
extend, the next thing that cometh to consideration is, 
what we are to conceive of the primary intention of those 
prayers, that were appointed to be made therein. And 
here we are to understand that, first, prayers of praise and 
thanksgiving were presented unto God for the blessed 
estate that the party deceased was now entered upon ; 
whereunto were afterwards added prayers of deprecation 
and petition, that God would be pleased to forgive him 
his sins, to keep him from hell, and to place him in the 
kingdom of heaven : which kind of intercessions, howso- 
ever at first they were well meant, as we shall hear, yet in 
process of time they proved an occasion of confirming men 
in divers errors; especially when they began once to be 
applied not only to the good, but to evil livers also, unto 
whom by the first institution they never were intended. 

The term of ei»Yapior/;p{oc £wx*?' a thanksgiving prayer, 
I borrow from the writer of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy ; 
who, in the description of the funeral observances used of 
old in the Church, informeth us, first, that the friends of 
the dead "accounted" him to be, as he was, blessed; because 
that according to his wish he had obtained a victorious 
end :" and thereupon " sent forth hymns of thanksgiving 
to the author of that victory ; desiring withal, that they 
themselves might come unto the like end :" and then that 
the° bishop likewise offered vip a prayer of thanksgiving 

m Sopitis igitur qusestionibus, doctorum patrum sententias teneas : et in Ec- 
clesia tuajuges pieces hostiasque Deo offerri jubeas pro presbytero memorato. 

n ai/Tov rt '6g rig (vel olog) tan, fiaKapi^ovcri, irpbg to vacljQopov tinc- 
Ta'nog cHpiK.6fif.vov TeXog, icai r<£ Trjg v'iK-qg air Ltj) x a P'- ,T ' ! ">iP' 0V C wS&G ava- 
TCiiiirovai, Trpoa'iri ical avrovg a(j)i.ictff9ai Trpbgrijv bfioiav tv\6nivoi \rj%ii'. 
Dionys. ecclesiast. hierarch. cap. 7. Op. torn. 1. pag. 265. 

° E<r« TtXtl ty)v irpbg Qtbv tvxapicrrripiov ti>xv v ° lf papX'l£- Ibid. 


unto God ; when the dead was afterward brought 1 ' unto 
him, to receive as it were at his hands a sacred coronation. 
Thus at the funeral of Fabiola, the praising of God by 
singing of psalms -, and resounding of Halleluia, is specially 
mentioned by St. Hierome : and the general practice and 
intention of the Church therein is expressed and earnestly 
urged by St. Chrysostom in this manner ; " Do r not we 
praise God, and give thanks unto him, for that he hath now 
crowned him that is departed, for that he hath freed 
him from his labours, for that quitting him from fear, he 
keepeth him with himself? Are not the hymns for this 
end ? Is not the singing of psalms for this purpose ? All 
these be tokens of rejoicing." Whereupon he thus presseth 
them that used immoderate mourning for the dead : 
" Thou s sayest, Return, O my soul, unto thy rest, for the 
Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee; and dost thou 
weep ? Is not this a stage-play ? Is it not mere simulation ? 
For if thou dost indeed believe the things that thou sayest, 
thou lamentest idly ; but if thou playest and dissemblest, 
and thinkest these things to be fables, why dost thou then 
sing ? Why dost thou suffer those things that are done ? 
Wherefore doest thou not drive away them that sing ?" and 
in the end he concludeth somewhat prophetically ; that he 
" very' much feared, lest by this means some grievous dis- 
ease should creep in upon the Church." 

Whether the doctrine now maintained in the Church of 

i 1 Kajiovrtg Si axirbv tiri t>)v Upapx^f ayovGiv, wg iiri Grtipavwv 'upwv 
Sogiv. Ibid. 

i Sonabant psalmi ; et aurata tecta templorum reboans in sublime quatiebat 
Alleluia. Hieronym. in epitaphio Fabiola, epist. 30. 

r Ovxi T0V ®tbv So£,d%optv, Kai (.bxapiorovpiv, on Xoiirbv iGTtQdvioGe 
rbv airtXQovra, on rwv irovtav air i)XXa£,iv , on Tijg StiXiag tKpaXuiv t'x« 
Trap' kavrm; oh Sid rovro vpvoi ; ov Sid tovto i^aXpipSiai ; tcivtu Trdvra 
Xaipovnuv tffTiv. Chrysost. in epist. ad Hebr. horn. 4. op. torn. 12. pag. 46. 

s 'Eiri<TTpe\l/ov,Tpvxfl pov, tig r>)v dvawavaiv gov, 'on Kvptog tiijjpyf)- 
TJjffs Gt, Xtytig, Kai Saxpviig- ov\l gkijvt} ravrd Igtiv, ob% viroKpiGig ; 
tl fiiv yap bvriog iriGTidtig olfi Xkytig, Tripirrwg irtvQsiQ' iLSk Trai'Ctig, Kai 
viroKpivy, Kai pvQovg alird iivai vopi^tig, ri KaixpdXXtig; ri Kai Avexy tuiv 
rcapayivop'ivwv ; Sid ri pi) u7TtXavvtig rovg \f/&XXovTug ; Id. ibid. pag. 17. 

1 Kai yap puZovug StSoiKa, pi) rovnp Tif> rpoJry \aXi7T)) rig vbaog i v 
r>) tKicXiiGia v7TtiaiX0y. Ibid. 



Rome, that the children of God, presently after their de- 
parture out of this life, are cast into a lake that burnetii 
with fire and brimstone, be not a spice of this disease ; and 
whether their practice in chanting of psalms (appointed 
for the expression of joy and thankfulness), over them 
whom they esteem to be tormented in so lamentable a 
fashion, be not a part of that scene and pageant at which 
St. Chrysostom doth so take on ; I leave it unto others 
to judge. That his fear was not altogether vain, the 
event itself doth shew. For, howsoever in his days the 
fire of the Romish purgatory was not yet kindled : yet were 
there certain sticks then a gathering, which ministered 
fuel afterwards unto that flame. Good St. Augustine, 
who then was alive, and lived three and twenty years 
after St. Chrysostom's death, declared himself to be of 
this mind ; that the oblations and alms usually offered in 
the Church " for" all the dead that received baptism, were 
thanksgivings for such as were very good, propitiations for 
such as were not very bad ; but as for such as were very 
evil, although they were no helps of the dead, yet were 
they some kind of consolations of the living." Which al- 
though it were but a private exposition of the Church's 
meaning in her prayers and oblations for the dead ; and 
the opinion of a doctor too, that did not hold purgatory to 
be any article of his creed; yet did the Romanists in times 
following greedily take hold thereof, and make it the main 
foundation, upon which they laid the hay and stubble of 
their devised purgatory. 

A private exposition I call this: not only because it is 
not to be found in the writings of the former fathers, but 
also because it suiteth not well with the general practice 
of the Church, which it intendeth to interpret. It may in- 
deed fit in some sort that part of the Church service, 
wherein there was made a several commemoration, first, of 

u Cum sacrificia, sive altaris sive quarumcunque eleemosynarum, pro baptizatis 
defunctis omnibus offeruntur, pro valde bonis gratiarum actiones sunt, pro non 
valde malis propitiationes sunt ; pro valde malis, etsi nulla sunt adjumentamortuo- 
rum, qualescunque vivorum consolationes sunt. Augustin. enchirid. ad Lau- 
rent, cap. 110. 


the patriarchs, prophets, apostles and martyrs, after one 
manner ; and then of the other dead, after another : which, 
together with the conceit that " an w injury was offered to 
a martyr, by praying for him," was it that first occasioned 
St. Augustine* to think of the former distinction. But in 
the " supplications y for the spirits of the dead, which the 
Church under a general commemoration was accustomed 
to make, for all that were deceased in the Christian and ca- 
tholic communion ;" to imagine that one and the same act 
of praying should be a petition for some, and for others a 
thanksgiving only, is somewhat too harsh an interpreta- 
tion : especially where we find it propounded by way of pe- 
tition, and the intention thereof directly expressed, as in 
the Greek liturgy, attributed to St. James the brother 
of our Lord; "Be 3 mindful, O Lord God of the spi- 
rits and of all flesh, of such as we have remembered, 
and such as we have not remembered, being of right 
belief, from Abel the just until this present day. Do 
thou cause them to rest in the land of the living, in 
thy kingdom, in the delight of paradise, in the bosoms 
of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, our holy fathers ; 
whence grief and sorrow and sighing are fled, where the 
light of thy countenance doth visit them, and shine for 
ever:" and in the offices compiled by Alcuinus ; "O 
Lord*, Holy Father, Almighty and everlasting God, we 

" Augustin. de verbis apostoli. serin. 159. op. torn. 5. pag. 7C5. 

x Id. ibid, et in evang. Johann. tractat. 84. 

y Non sunt praetermittendae supplicationes pro spiritibus mortuorum : quas 
faciendas pro omnibus in Christiana et catholica socictate defunctis, etiam tacitis 
nominibus quoruinque, sub general] commemoratione suscepit Ecclesia. Id. de 
cura pro mortuis, cap. 4. 

z Mvi)(t9i]ti, Kvpu 6 9tog twv nviv^aTotv Kai Trd(F>]£ (rapKug, o>v t/iviirr- 
Otj/iEV, icai <x>v ovk ifivi)(TOiiniv, dpOoeoKwv, curb 'A/3iX to? diKaiov id\pi 
TtfQ (n'm$pov l'l/xepag. aiirbg IksI civtovq avawavoov Jtv r;/ fiaaXeip aov, 
iv ry Tpv(pij tov irapa^tiaov, iv role koKitoiq 'Afipadfi Kai 'laaaK Kai 'la- 
kw/3, rStv ayiujv TraTtpuiv f/fldv. oBtv an'tSpa blvvi), Xinri) Kai tTTtvayjubg. 
'ii'Qa iiridKOiTti to (j>wg tov irpoaunrov aov, Kai Kara\d/.nrii cui Travrbf. 
Jacob, liturg. 

a Te, Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, eeterne Deus, supplices deprecamur 
pro spiritibus famulorum et famularum tuarum, quos ab origine seculi liujus ad 
te accersire praeeepisti : ut digneris, Domine, dare eis locum lucidum, locum r< - 
frigerii et quietis ; et ut liceaJ eis transire portaa infernorum, et via- tenebrarum, 

p 2 


humbly make request unto thee for the spirits of thy ser- 
vants and handmaids, which from the beginning of this 
world thou hast called unto thee : that thou wouldest 
vouchsafe, O Lord, to give unto them a lightsome place, a 
place of refreshing and ease, and that they may pass by 
the gates of hell, and the ways of darkness, and may abide 
in the mansions of the saints, and in the holy light 
which thou didst promise of old unto Abraham and his 

So the commemoration of the faithful departed, re- 
tained as yet in the Roman missal, is begvin with this 
orison : " Eternal 6 rest grant unto them, O Lord : and 
let everlasting light shine unto them." Whereunto we 
may add these two prayers, to omit a great number more 
of the like kind, used of old in the same Church : " Re- 
ceive , O holy Trinity, this oblation, which we offer unto 
thee for all that are departed in the confession of thy 
name : that, thou reaching unto them the right hand of 
thy help, they may have the rest of everlasting life ; 
and, being separated from the punishments of the wicked, 
they may always persevere in the joy of thy praise:" and, 
" This d oblation, which we humbly offer unto thee for the 
commemoration of the souls that sleep in peace, we be- 
seech thee, O Lord, receive graciously ; and of thy good- 
ness grant, that both the affection of this piety may profit 

maneantque in mansionibus sanctorum, et in luce sancta quam olim Abrahss 
promisisti et semini ejus. Alcuin. offic. per ferias, col. 228. oper. edit. Paris, 
ami. 1617. 

b Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine : et lux perpetua luceat eis. Introitus 
missae, in commemorationc omnium fidelium defunctorum. Agenda mortuorum, 
in Antiphonario Gregorii, circa finem. op. torn. 3. pag. 725. 

c Suscipe, sancta Trinitas, banc oblationem, quam tibi offerimus pro omni- 
bus in tui nominis confessione defunctis : ut, te, dexteram auxilii tui fpor- 
rigente, vitae perennis requiem habeant ; et a pcenis impiorum segregati, semper 
in tuae laudis laetitia perseverent. Missa Latina antiqua, edit. Argentin. ann. 
1557. pag. 52. 

li Hanc igitur oblationem, quam tibi pro commemoratione animarum in pace 
dormientium suppliciter immolanms, quoesumus, Domine, benignus accipias ; et 
tua pietate concedas,, ut et nobis proficiat hujus pietatis affectus, et illis impetret 
beatitudinem sempiternam. Offic. Gregorian, torn. 3.'oper. Gregor. Liturg. Pa- 
melii, torn. 2. pag. 610. et prsefation. vetust. edit. Colon, ann. 1530. num. 111. 


us, and obtain for them everlasting bliss." Where you 
may observe, that the souls unto which everlasting bliss 
was wished for, were yet acknowledged to rest in peace, 
and consequently not to be disquieted with any purgatory 
torment : even as in the canon of the mass itself, the 
priest in the commemoration for the dead prayeth thus ; 
" Remember 6 , O Lord, thy servants and handmaids, 
which have gone before us with the ensign of faith, and 
sleep in the sleep of peace. To them, O Lord, and to all 
that are at rest in Christ, we beseech thee that thou 
wouldest grant a place of refreshing, light, and peace." 

Nay, the Armenians in their liturgy entreat God to 
" give' eternal peace," not only in general " unto all that 
have gone before us in the faith of Christ ;" but also in 
particular to the patriarchs, apostles, prophets, and mar- 
tyrs : which maketh directly for the opinion of those, 
against whom Nicolaus Cabasilas 5 doth dispute, who held, 
that these commemorations contained " a supplication for 
the saints unto God," and not a thanksgiving only ; as also 
do those forms of prayer, which were used in the Roman li- 
turgy in the days of pope Innocent the third : " Let h such an 

e Memento etiam, Domine, famulorum famularumque tuarum, qui nos prae- 
eesserunt cum signo fidei, et dormiunt in somno pacis. Ipsis, Domine, et om- 
nibus in Christo quiescentibus, locum refrigerii, lucis et pacis, ut indulgeas, de- 
precamur. Canon, missae, in officio Ambrosiano et Gregoriano, et missali Ro- 
mano. In Groeca tamen liturgia B. Petro attributa, pro commemoratione de- 
functorum posita hie cernitur commemoratio viventium. 'EvravQa Ava/peptt 
rovQ Ziovtuq. et in vetustissimis quibusdam Romanis missalibus manuscriptis, 
haec mortuorum commemorationis formula nusquam extat : P. Vireto teste lib. 
5. de adulterat. Ccen. Dom. et missae myster. cap. IS. ac nominatim in vetustis- 
simo canone Gregoriano, qui in Tigurinae abbatiae bibliotheca habebatur, ex au- 
thentico libro bibliotheca; cubiculi descriptus ; apud Hemic. Bullinger. lib. 2. de 
origine erroris, cap. 8. 

f Per banc etiam oblationem da seternam pacem omnibus, qui nos praecesse- 
runt in fide Christi, Sanctis patribus, patriarchis, apostolis, prophetis, martyribus, 
&c. Liturg. Armeii. edit. Cracoviae, Andrea Lubelczyck interpr. 

e 'A\X' IvravQa rtvie rjirarriGfioav ui'K tvxapioriav dW iKtaiav inrkp 
Tioi> ayiiov tt(>o<2 rbv Oiiiu t>)v fivrifiijv avT&v tli>ai vof/LiaavrtQ. Cabasil. 
exposit. liturg. cap. I!). 

h Prosit vel proficiat, huic sancto vel illi, talis oblatio ad gloriam. [nnocent. 
III. epist ad archiep. Lugdun. lib. 3. decretal, til. 11. de celebrat. missar, cap. 
C. Cum Martha'. 


oblation profit such or such a saint unto glory :" and especial- 
ly that for St. Leo, which is found in the elder copies of the 
Gregorian sacramentary ; " Grant" unto us, O Lord, that 
this oblation may profit the soul of thy servant Leo ;" for 
which the later books have chopt in this prayer ; " Grant k 
unto us, O Lord, that by the intercession of thy servant 
Leo this oblation may profit us." Concerning which alte- 
ration, when the archbishop of Lyons propounded such 
another question unto pope Innocent, as our chaHenger at 
the beginning did unto us : " Who 1 it was that did change it, 
or when it was changed, or why?" the pope returneth 
him for answer: " That m who did change it, or when it 
was changed, he was ignorant of; yet he knew, upon what 
occasion it was changed : because that where the autho- 
rity of the holy Scripture doth say, that he doth in- 
jury unto a martyr who prayeth for a martyr, (which 
is a new text of holy Scripture, of the pope's own 
canonization), the same by the like reason is to be held of 
other saints." The gloss upon this decretal layeth down 
the reason of this mutation a little more roundly : " Of" 
old they prayed for him, now at this day he prayeth for 
us ; and so was the change made." And Alphonsus Men- 
doza telleth us, that the old prayer was deservedly dis- 
used, and this other substituted in the room thereof; 
" Grant unto us, we beseech thee, O Lord, that by 
the intercession of thy servant Leo this oblation may 

■ Annue nobis, Domine, ut animse famuli tui Leonis haec prosit oblatio. 
Gregor. oper. tom. 3. pag. 111. 

k Annue nobis, Domine, ut intercessione famuli tui Leonis hose nobis prosit 
oblatio. Liturg. Pamelii, tom. 2. pag. 314. 

1 Tertio loco tua fratemitas requirit, quis mutaverit, vel quando fnit mutatum, 
aut quare, quod in secreta beati Leonis, secundum quod antiquiores codices con- 
tinent, &c. Innocent. III. in collect. 3. decretal. Petri Beneventani lib. 3. tit. 
33. cap. 5. 

m Super quo tibi taliter respondemus : quod quis illud mutaverit, aut quando 
mutatum fuerit, ignoramus ; scimus tamen, qua fuerit occasione mutatum. quia 
cum sacrae scripturae dicat auctoritas, quod injuriam fecit martyri, qui orat pro 
martyre : idem est ratione consimili de Sanctis aliis sciendum. Ibid. 

n Olim orabatur pro ipso : hodie ipse orat pro nobis ; et ita mutatum est. 
Cap. Cum Marthae, extra, de celebr. missar. in glossa. 

° Alphons. Mendoz. controvers. theolog. quaest. 6. scholastic, num. 7. 


profit us ;" which prayer indeed was to be found hereto- 
fore in modernioribus sacramentariis, as pope Innocent 
speaketh, and in the Roman missals that were published 
before the council of Trent, as namely in that which was 
printed at Paris, in the year one thousand five hundred and 
twenty-nine ; but in the new reformed missal, wherewith, it 
seemeth, Mendoza was not so well acquainted as with his 
scholastical controversies, it is put out again, and ano- 
ther prayer for Leo put in ; that by the celebration of 
those " offices 1 " of atonement, a blessed retribution might 
accompany him." Neither is there any more wrong done 
unto St. Leo, in praying for him after this manner, than 
unto all the rest of his fellows in that other prayer of the 
Roman liturgy : " We' 1 have received, O Lord, the divine 
mysteries ; which as they do profit thy saints unto glory, 
so we do beseech thee that they may profit us for our 
healing ;" and nothing so much as is done unto all the 
faithful deceased, when in their masses for the dead they 
say daily, " Lord 1 " Jesus Christ, King of glory, deliver the 
souls of all the faithful that are departed, from the pains 
of hell, and from the deep lake ; deliver them from the 
mouth of the lion, that hell do not swallow them up, that 
they fall not into darkness." So that, whatsoever commo- 
dious expositions our adversaries can bring for the justi- 
fying of the Roman service, the same may we make use 
of, to shew that the ancient Church might pray for the 
dead, and yet in so doing have no relation at all unto 
purgatory ; yea, and pray for the martyrs and other saints 

p Ut per haec pise placationis officia, et ilium beata retrilmtio comitetur, ct no- 
bis gratioe tuae dona conciliet. Missal. Roman, in decreto concil. Tridentin. resti- 
tut. in fest. S. Leonis. 

'i Sumpsimus, Dominc, divina mysteria: quae, sicut sanctis tuis prosunl ail 
gloriam, ita nobis, quaesumus, proficiant ad medelam. Bellarm. de purgator, 
lib. 2. cap. 18. Sixt. Senens. lib. C>. biblioth. sanct annotat. 17. ex Gregorii sa.- 

r Domine Jesu Christe, rex gloriae, libera animas omnium fidelium defunc- 
torum de poenis inferni, el de profundo lacu: libera eas de ore leonis, no absor- 
beat eas Tartarus, ne cadant in obscurum. Missa in commemorat omnimn fi- 
deliuni defunctorum, et in mis»is quotidianis defuiictorum, in offertorio. 


that were in the state of bliss, without offering unto them 
any injury thereby. 

For the clearing of the meaning of those prayers which 
are made for Leo, and the other saints, to the two exposi- 
tions brought in by pope Innocent, cardinal Bellarmine 
addeth this for a third: " that 5 perad venture therein the 
glory of the body is petitioned for, which they shall have 
in the day of the resurrection. For although (saith he) 
they shall certainly obtain that glory, and it be due unto 
their merits ; yet it is not absurd to desire and ask this 
for them, that by more means it may be due unto them." 
Where, laying aside those unsavoury terms of debt and 
merits, whereof |we shall have occasion to treat in their 
proper place, the answer is otherwise true in part ; but 
not full enough to give satisfaction unto that which was 
objected. For the primary intention of the Church in- 
deed, in her prayers for the dead, had reference unto the 
day of the resurrection : which also in divers places we 
find to have been expressly prayed for: as in the Egyp- 
tian liturgy, attributed unto St. Cyril, bishop of Alexan- 
dria ; " Raise* up their bodies, in the day which thou 
hast appointed, according to thy promises, which are true 
and cannot lie : grant unto them, according to thy promises, 
that which eye hath not seen, and ear hath not heard, 
and which hath not ascended into the heart of man, which 
thou hast prepared, O Lord, for them that love thy holy 
name : that thy servants may not remain in death, but may 
get out from thence ; although slothfulness and negligence 
have followed them :" and in that which is used by the 
Christians of St. Thomas, as they are commonly called, 

s Adde tevtio, fortasse peti gloriam corporis, quam habebunt in die resurrec- 
tionis. Nam etiamsi gloriam itlam certo consequentur, et debetur eorum men- 
tis ; tamen non est absurdum hoc illis desiderare et petere, ut pluribus modis 
debeatur. Bellarmin. de purgator. lib. 2. cap. 13. 

1 Resuscita corpora eorum, in die quern constituisti, secundum promissiones 
tuas veras et mendacii expertes : concede eis, secundum promissa tua, id quod 
non vidit oculus, et auris non audivit, et quod in cor hominis non ascendit, quod 
prseparasti, Domine, amatoribus nominis tui sancti ; ut famuli tui non permaneant 
in morte, sed ut inde emigrent, etiamsi persecuta sit eos pigritia aut negligentia, 
&c. C'yrill. liturg. a Victorio Scialach ex Arabico convers. pag. 62. 


in the East Indies : " Let" the Holy Ghost give resurrec- 
tion to your dead at the last day, and make them worthy 
of the incorruptible kingdom." Such is the prayer of St. 
Ambrose for Gratian and Valentinian the emperors : " I w 
do beseech thee, most high God, that thou wouldest raise 
up again those dear young men with a speedy resurrec- 
tion ; that thou mayest recompence this untimely course 
of this present life with a timely resurrection :" and that 
in Alcuinus : " Let* their souls sustain no hurt ; but, when 
that great day of the resurrection and remuneration 
shall come, vouchsafe to raise them up, O Lord, together 
with thy saints and thine elect :" and that in Grimoldus 
his sacramentary ; " Almighty y and everlasting God, 
vouchsafe to place the body, and the soul and the spirit, 
of thy servant N. in the bosoms of Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob ; that, when the day of thy acknowledgement shall 
come, thou mayest command them to be raised up among 
thy saints and thine elect :" and that which the Syrians 
do use; " Cause 2 , Lord God, their souls and their spi- 
rits and their bodies to rest ; and sprinkle the dew of 
mercy upon their bones." 

But yet the cardinal's answer, that the glory of the 

" Itesurrectionem faciat defunctis vestris in die novissimo ; ct dignos faciat 
illos regno incomiptibili Spiritus Sanctus. Missa Angamallensis, ex Syriaco 
convers. in Itinerar. Alexii Mensii. 

vv Te quaeso, summe Deus, ut charissimos juvenes matura resurrectione sus- 
cites et resuscites ; ut immaturum hunc vitse istius cursum matura resurrectio- 
ne compenses. Ambros. de obit. Valentiniani : in ipso fine. 

x Nullam laesionem sustineant aniniae eoruin ; sed cum magnus ille dies re- 
surrectionis ac remuneration^ advenerit, resuscitare eos digneris, Domine, una 
cum Sanctis et electis tuis. Alcuin. Offic. per ferias ; oper. col. 228. Preces ec- 
clesiast. a Georg. Cassandro collect, pag. 384. oper. 

y Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, collocare dignare corpus et animam et spiritum 
famuli tui N. in sinibus Abrahae, Isaac, et Jacob ; ut, cum dies agnitionis Hue venc- 
rit, inter sanctos et electos tuos eum resuscitari prsecipias. Grimojd. sacramentar. 
torn. 2. liturgic. Pamel. pag. 45G, 457. Habetur eadem oratio in missali Ro- 
mano nondum refbrmato (nam in novo ex decreto concilii Tridentini restituto 
nusquam comparet), corporis tantum mentione omissa : et, tomo 3. oper. Gregorii, 
corporis simul et spiritus QOminibu.8 praetermissis. 

* xbxD Dm pnnjDi pnnnm prim-Da xnbx xnv tvm 

PiTOIJ by Nftrni Orat. pro defunctis, in Syriaca: lingua; primis clcmtn- 
tis, ab Alb. WidmansUulio edit. Vienna-, aim. 1555. 


body may be prayed for, which the saints shall have at 
the day of the resurrection, cometh somewhat short of 
that which the Church used to request in the behalf of 
St. Leo. For in that prayer express mention is made of 
his soul : and to it is wished, that profit may redound by 
the present oblation. And therefore this defect must be 
supplied out of his answer unto that other prayer, which 
is made for the souls of the faithful departed, that they 
may be delivered out of the mouth of the lion, and that 
hell may not swallow them up. To this he saith ; that 
" the* church doth pray for these souls, that they may 
not be condemned unto the everlasting pains of hell: not 
as if it were not certain, that they should not be condemned 
unto those pains, but because it is God's pleasure that 
we should pray, even for those things which we are cer- 
tainly to receive." The same answer did Alphonsus de 
Castro give before him: that " very b often those things 
are prayed for, which are certainly known shall come to 
pass as they are prayed for ; and that of this there be very 
many testimonies :" and Johannes Medina, that " God d 
delighteth to be prayed unto, even for those things, which 

a Ecclesiaorat pro animabus, quae in purgatorio degunt, ne damnentur ad poe- 
nas Gehenna: sempiternas ; non quidem quod certum non sit, eas non damnandas 
ad eas pcenas, sed quia vult Deus, nos orare etiam pro iis rebus, quas certo ac- 
cepting sumus. Bellarm. de purgator. lib. 2. cap. 5. 

b Seepissime petuntur ilia, qua certo sciuntur eventura ut petuntur : et hujus 
rei plurima sunt testimonia. Alphons. Castr. contr. haeres. lib. 12. de purgator. 
heer. 3. 

c One whereof may be that prayer of the prophet, in the 9 th of Daniel : where- 
upon S. Hierome writeth thus : In cinere et sacco postulat impleri quod promi- 
serat Deus : non quo esset incredulus futurorum ; sed ne securitas negligentiam, 
et negligentia pareret offensam. Op. torn. 3. pag. 1107. 

d Gaudet Deus orari, etiam pro his, qua; alioqui facturus esset. Decreverat 
enim De-us, post peccatum Adee,'carnem sumere ; decrevitque tempus, quo ven- 
turus erat : et grata? illi fuerunt orationes sanctorum pro sua incarnalione et ad- 
ventu orantium. Decrevit etiam Deus omni peccatori pcenitenti veniam dare : 
et tamen grata est illi oratio, qua vel ipse pcenitens pro se, vel alius pro illo orat, 
ut ejus pcenitentiam Deus acceptare dignetur. Decrevit etiam Deus, et promisit, 
Ecclesiam suam non deserere, et conciliis legitime congregatis adesse : et tamen 
grata est Deo oratio, et hymni, quibus ejus pra;sentia, et favor "et gratia, ipsi 
concilio et Ecclesise imploratur. Jo. Medin. de pcenit. tract. 6. qusst. 6. codi- 
cis dc oratione. 


otherwise he purposed to do. For God had decreed 
(saith he) after the sin of Adam, to take our flesh, and he 
decreed the time wherein he meant to come : and yet the 
prayers of the saints, that prayed for his incarnation and 
for his coming, were acceptable unto him. God hath also 
decreed to grant pardon unto every repentant sinner ; and 
yet the prayer is grateful unto him, wherein either the 
penitent doth pray for himself, or another for him, that 
God would be pleased to accept his repentance. God 
hath decreed also and promised, not to forsake his 
Church, and to be present with councils lawfully assem- 
bled : yet the prayer notwithstanding is grateful unto 
God, and the hymns, whereby his presence, and favour 
and grace, is implored both for the council and the 
Church." And whereas it might be objected, that, howso- 
ever the Church may sometimes pray for those things which 
she shall certainly receive, yet she doth not pray for those 
things which she hath already received ; and this she hath 
received, that those souls shall not be damned, seeing they 
have received their sentence, and are most secure from 
damnation: the cardinal replieth, that this objection may 
easily be avoided. " For e although those souls," saith he, 
" have received already their first sentence in the particu- 
lar judgment, and by that sentence are freed from hell: 
yet doth there yet remain the general judgment, in which 
they are to receive the second sentence. Wherefore the 
Church, praying that those souls in the last judgment may 
not fall into darkness, nor be swallowed up of hell, doth 
not pray for the thing which the soul hath, but which it 
shall receive." Thus these men, labouring to shew how 
the prayers for the dead used in their Church may stand 
with their conceits of purgatory, do thereby inform us 
how the prayers for the dead, used by the ancient Church, 
may stand well enough without the supposal of any pur- 

e Nam etsi animoe purgatoriijam accepcrint primani sententiam injudicio par- 
ticulari, eaque sententia libcrae sint a Gehenna: tamer) adhuc super est judicium 
generale, in quo secundam sententiam aceepturae sunt. Quocirca Ecclesia orans, 
ne in judicio cxtreroo animac iliac cadant in obscurum, neve absorbeantur a tarta- 
ro, non orat pro ea re quam acccpit, sed pro en quani acceptura est annua. 
Bellarm. ut supr. , 


gatory at all. For if we may pray for those things, which 
we are most sure shall come to pass ; and the Church, hy 
the adversary's own confession, did pray accordingly, that 
the souls of the faithful might escape the pains of hell at 
the general judgment, notwithstanding they had certainly 
been freed from them already by the sentence of the par- 
ticular judgment: by the same reason, when the Church 
in times past besought God to " remember f all those that 
slept in the hope of the resurrection of everlasting life," 
which is the form of prayer used in the Greek liturgies, 
and to give unto them rest, and to bring them unto the 
place where the light of his countenance should shine 
upon them for evermore ; why should not we think that it 
desired these things should be granted unto them by the 
last sentence at the day of the resurrection, notwith- 
standing they were formerly adjudged unto them by the 
particular sentence at the time of their dissolution ? 

For as " that 8 which shall befall unto all at the day of 
judgment, is accomplished in every one at the day of his 
death ;" so on the other side, whatsoever befalleth the 
soul of every one at the day of his death, the same is 
fully accomplished upon the whole man at the day of the 
general judgment. Whereupon we find, that the Scrip- 
tures every where do point out that great day unto us, as 
the time wherein mercy and forgiveness, rest and refresh- 
ing, joy and gladness, redemption and salvation, rewards 
and crowns, shall be bestowed upon all God's children, 
as; "The h Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesipho- 
rus : the Lord grant unto him, that he may find mercy of 
the Lord in that day." "Who' shall also confirm you unto 
the end, that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord 
Jesus Christ." " Repent k ye therefore, and be converted, 
that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of re- 
freshing shall come from the presence of the Lord. It 1 

f MV))Cj9>]Tl Kl'lVTbtV tCi)V 7T(00/C£KOI^ 1)flk VWV I7r' l\TTtdl avaOTaotoiQ %u)r)Q 

a'uoviov. Liturg. Basil, et Chrysost. 

6 Quod enim in die judicii futurum est omnibus, hoc in singulis die mortis 
impletur. Hieronym. in Joel, cap. 2. 

h 2 Tim. chap. 1. ver. 1 C, 18. i 1 Cor. chap. 1. ver. 8. 

k Acts, chap. 3. ver. 19. '2 Thess. chap. 1. ver. 6, 7. 


is a righteous thing with God, to recompense unto you 
which are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus 
shall be revealed from heaven, with his mighty angels." 
" That'" I may rejoice in the day of Christ, that I have not 
run in vain, neither laboured in vain." "For 11 what is our 
hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing? are not even ye in 
the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ at his coming ?" 
" Who are kept by the power of God through faith unto 
salvation, ready to be revealed in the last time." " That 1 ' 
the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus." 
" Grieve q not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed 
unto the day of redemption." " When r these things begin 
to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads ; for 
your redemption draweth nigh." "Henceforth 5 thereislaid 
up forme a crown of righteousness ; which the Lord, the 
righteous Judge, shall give me at that day." And " Thou 1 
shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the just." 

And that the Church, in her offices for the dead, had 
special respect unto this time of the resurrection, appear- 
eth plainly ; both by the portions of Scripture appointed 
to be read therein, and by divers particulars in the 
prayers themselves, that manifestly discover this intention. 
For there "the" ministers," as the writer of the Ecclesias- 
tical Hierarchy reporteth, " read those undoubted pro- 
mises, which are recorded in the divine Scriptures, of our 
divine resurrection : and then devoutly sang such of the 
sacred Psalms, as were of the same subject and argu- 
ment," And so accordingly, in the Roman missal, the 
lessons ordained to be read for that time, are, " Behold w , 
I tell you a mystery : We shall all rise again, &c." 
" The x hour cometh, wherein all that are in the graves 

m Philipp. chap. 2. ver. 16. " 1 Thess. chap. 2. ver. 19. 

1 Peter, chap. 1. ver. 5. P 1 Cor. chap. 5. ver. 5. 

1 Ephes. chap. 4. ver. 30. ' Luke, chap. 21. ver. 28. 
s 2 Tim. chap. 4. ver. 8. ' Luke, chap. 11. ver. H. 

u Ot Xfirovpyoi Tag iv TOig Qtioig Xoyioig ifKpepOflkvaS &4>evdiXg tTraj- 
yiXiag it i pi rijg \ipag ij/iw)/ avaaraotiiig avayvovrtg, iip&g dcoum Tag 
ofioXoyovg icai ravToduvapovg tuiv ipaXpiKwv Xnyiujv t'oiag. Dionys. liic- 
iarch. ecclesiast. cap. 7. op. tom.l. pag. 265. 

w 1 Cor. chap. !.">. x John, chap. 5. 


shall hear his voice ; and they that have done good shall 
come forth unto the resurrection of life, &c." " Breth- 
ren 3 ^ we would not have you ignorant concerning them 
that sleep, that ye sorrow not, as others which have 
no hope." " I z am the resurrection and the life : he that 
believeth in me, although he were dead, shall live." 
" Judas a caused a sacrifice to be offered for the sins of 
the dead ; justly and religiously thinking of the resurrec- 
tion." " This b is the will of my Father that sent me ; 
that every one that seeth the Son, and believeth in him, 
may have life everlasting : and I will raise him up at the 
last day." And, "He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my 
blood, hath life everlasting : and I will raise him up at 
the last day." And lastly, " I c heard a voice from hea- 
ven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which 
die in the Lord, from henceforth now, saith the Spirit, 
that they may rest from their labours ; for their works 
follow them." Wherewith the sequence also doth agree, 

Dies d irae, dies ilia, 
Solvet saeclum in favilla: 
Teste David cum Sibylla : 

and ending, 

Lacrymosa dies ilia, 
Qua resurget ex favilla 
Judicandus homo reus. 
Huic ergo parce, Deus. 
Pie Jesu Domine, 
Dona eis requiem. 

Tertullian, in his book De monogamia, which he wrote 
after he had been infected with the heresy of the Monta- 
nists, speaking of the prayer of a widow for the soul of 
her deceased husband, saith, that " she 6 requesteth re- 

s' 1 Thess. chap. 4. z John, chap. 11. 

a 2 Maccab. chap. 12. b John, chap. G. 

c Apoc. chap. 14. 

11 Missal. Rom. in commemorat. omnium fidelium defunctor. 
e Enimvero et pro anima ejus orat, et refrigerium interim adpostulat ei, et in 
prima resurrectione consortium. Tertull. de Monogam. cap. 10. 


freshing for him, and a portion in the first resurrection." 
Which seemeth to have some tang of the error of the 
Millenaries, whereunto not Tertullian f only with his pro- 
phet 5 Montanus, but Nepos h also, and Lactantius 1 , and 
divers other doctors of the Church did fall ; who, misun- 
derstanding the prophecy in the twentieth chapter of the 
Revelation, imagined that there should be a first resur- 
rection of the just, that should reign here a thousand 
years upon earth ; and after that a second resurrection of 
the wicked, at the day of the general judgment. " They k 
that come not to the first resurrection, but are reserved 
to the second, shall be burned until they fulfil the times 
betwixt the first and the second resurrection ; or, if they 
have not fulfilled them, they shall remain longer in pu- 
nishment. And therefore let us pray, that we may ob- 
tain to have our part in the first resurrection :" saith St. 
Ambrose. Hence in a certain Gothic missal I meet with 
two several exhortations made unto the people, to pray 
after this form: the one, that God would " vouchsafe' 
to place in the bosom of Abraham the souls of those that 
be at rest, and admit them unto the part of the first 
resurrection :" the other, which I find elsewhere also 
repeated in particular, that he would " place" 1 in rest the 

1 Id. tie resurrect, carnis, cap. 25. 

s Id. advers. Marcion. lib. 3. cap. ult. 

h Sicut Nepos docuit, qui primam justorum resurrectionem, et secundam im- 
piorum confinxit. Gennad. de Ecclesiast. dogmat. cap. 55. Idem in catalogo 
scriptor. ecclesiastic, de Tichonio Donatista. Mille annorum rcgni in terra jus- 
torum, post resurrectionem futuri, suspicionem tulit : neque duas in came mortuo- 
rura resurrectiones futuras, imam justorum, et aliam injustorum, sed imam et 
semel omnium, ostendit. 

" Lactant. institut. divin. lib. 7. cap. 21, 24, et 26. 

k Qui non veniunt ad primam resurrectionem, sed ad secundam reservantur ; 
isti urentur, donee impleant tempora inter primam et secundam resurrectionem : 
aut, si non impleverint, diutius in supplicio perniancbunt. ideo ergo rogemus, ut 
in prima resujxectione partem habere mereamur. Ambros. in Psal. 1. ver. 5. 

1 Quiescentium aninias in sinu Abrahac collocare dignetur, et in partem prima; 
resurrectionis admit tat. Missal. Gottic. torn. C. bibliotli. patr. edit. Paris, aim. 
1589. col. 251. 

"> Deum judicem universitatis, Deum coelestium terrestrium et Lnfernorum, 
fratres dilectissimi, depreccmur pro spiritibus charorum nostrorum, qui noa in 
Dominica pace praecesserunt ; ut eos Dominus in requie collocare dignetur, et in 


spirits of their friends, which were gone before thenl in 
the Lord's peace, and raise them up in the part of the 
first resurrection." And, to come nearer home, Asserius 
Menevensis, writing of the death and burial of iEthelred 
king of the West Saxons, and Burghred king of the Mer- 
cians, saith that they " expect" the coming of the Lord, 
and the first resurrection with the just." The like doth 
Abbo Floriacensis also write of our Cuthbert . Which 
how it may be excused otherwise, than by saying that at 
the general resurrection " the p dead in Christ shall rise 
first," and then the wicked shall be raised after them ; 
and by referring the first resurrection unto the " resur- 
rection' 1 of the just," which shall be at that day ; V cannot 
well resolve. For certain it is, that the first resurrection, 
spoken of in the twentieth chapter of the Revelation of 
St. John, is the resurrection of the soul from the death 
of sin and error in this world ; as the second is the 
resurrection of the body out of the dust of the earth, in 
the world to come ; both which be distinctly laid down by 
our Saviour, in the fifth chapter of the gospel of St. John : 
the first in the twenty-fifth verse, " The hour is coming, 
and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son 
of God, and they that hear shall live ;" the second in the 
twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth, " Marvel not at this : 

parte primae resurrectionis resuscitet. Ibid. col. 257. Gregor. oper. torn. 5. 
col. 228. edit. Paris. Preces ecclesiast. a Geor. Cassandro collect, pag. 385. 

11 Adventum Domini, et primam cum justis resurrectionem expectat. Asser. 
de yElfredi rebus gestis, ann. 871, et 874. 

° Sanctus Domini Cuthbertus incomparabilis confessor, et episcopus, non solum 
adhuc expectat diem prima? resurrectionis incorrupto corpore ; sed etiam perfusus 
quodam blando tepore. Abbo Floriac. praefat. in vita S. Eadmundi regis, ad Dun- 

P 1 Thess. chap. 4. ver. 16. i Luke, chap. 14. ver. 14. 

r Ita Origenes, inEsai. lib. 28. (citatus in Pamphili pro eo apologia) : Licetom- 
nes resurgant, et unusquisque in suo online resurgat ; considerandum est tamen, 
propter ilium sermonen Joannis, Apocal, cap. 20. ne forte dividi omnis resurrec- 
tionis ratio in duas partes possit ; id est, in eos qui salvandi sunt justos, et in eos 
qui cruciandi sunt peccatores : ut sit una quidem bonorum, qua; dicitur prima ; 
ilia vero quoe est miserorum, secunda dicatur. Hieronym. in Psalm. 1. ver. 5. 
Si non resurgunt peccatores in concilio justorum ; diversa est peccatorum jus- 
torumque resurrectio. 


for the hour is coming, in which all that are in the graves 
shall hear his voice, and shall come forth : they that have 
done good, unto the resurrection of life ; and they that 
have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation." 

And to this general resurrection, and to the judgment 
of the last day, had the Church relation in her prayers ; 
some patterns whereof it will not be amiss to exhibit here, 
in these examples following. " Although/ 5 the condition 
of death brought in upon mankind doth make our hearts 
and minds heavy ; yet by the gift of thy clemency we are 
raised up with the hope of future immortality ; and, being 
mindful of eternal salvation, are not afraid to sustain the 
loss of this light. For by the benefit of thy grace life is 
not taken away to the faithful, but changed: and the 
souls, being freed from the prison of the body, abhor 
things mortal, when they attain unto things eternal. 
Wherefore we beseech thee, that thy servant N. being 
placed in the tabernacles of the blessed, may rejoice that 
he hath escaped the straits of the flesh, and in the desire 
of glorification expect with confidence the day of judg- 
ment." " Through* Jesus Christ our Lord, whose holy 
passion we celebrate without doubt for immortal and well 

■ Quamvis humano generi morris illata conditio pectora nostra mentesque 
contristet, tamen clementiae tuae dono spe futurse immortalitatis erigimur ; ac, me- 
mores salutis seternse, non timenms lucis hujus sustinere jacturam : quoniam be- 
neficio gratiae tuae fidelibus vita non tollitur, sed mutator ; atque animae, corpo- 
reo ergastulo liberatae, horrent mortalia, dum immortalia consequuntur. Unde 
quaesumus, ut famulus tuus N. in tabernaculis beatorum constitutus, evasisse se 
carnales glorietur angustias, diemque judicii cum fiducia voto glorificationis ex- 
pectet. Praefat. antiqu. edit. Colon, ann. 1530. num. 106. torn. 2. liturgic. Pa- 
mel. pag. 608. et torn. 5. oper. Gregorii, edit. Paris. 1619. H betur et pricr 
praefat. hujus pars in missa Ambrosiana, tomo 1. liturg. Pamel. pag. 450, 451. 
posterior in altera pra'fat. ibid. pag. 449. et oper. Gregor. col. 2.32. a. 

1 Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Cujus sacram passionem pro immortc- 
libus et bene quiescentibus animabus sine dubio celebramus : pro his praecipue, 
quibus secundae nativitatis gratiam pra>stitisti ;qui, exemplo ejusdem Jesu Cbristi 
Domini nostri, cceperunt esse de resurrectione securi. Quippe qui fecisti quae non 
erant, potes reparare quae fuerant: et resurrectionis futurse nobis documenta 
non solum per propheticam et apostolicam doctrinam, sed per ejusdem unigeniti 
tui Redemptoris nostri resurrectionem dedisti. Praefat. antiqu. 112, et 107. Gri- 
mold. sacramentar. torn. 2. liturg. Pamel. pag. 460, 461. et torn. 5. oper. Gregor. 
col. 235. 



resting souls : for them especially, upon whom thou hast 
bestowed the grace of the second birth : who, by the ex- 
ample of the same Jesus Christ our Lord, have begun to 
be secure of the resurrection. For thou, who hast made 
the things that were not, art able to repair the things that 
were: and hast given unto us evidences of the resurrection 
to come, not only by the doctrine of the prophets and 
apostles, but also by the resurrection of the same thy only 
begotten Son our Redeemer." " O u God, who art the 
Creator and maker of all things, and who art the bliss of 
thy saints ; grant unto us who make request unto thee, 
that the spirit of our brother, who is loosed from the 
knot of his body, may be presented in the blessed resur- 
rection of thy saints." " O v Almighty and merciful God, 
we do entreat thy clemency, forasmuch as by thy judg- 
ment we are born and make an end, that thou wilt re- 
ceive into everlasting rest the soul of our brother, whom 
thou of thy pity hast commanded to pass from the dwell- 
ing of this world, and permit him to be associated with 
the company of thine elect, that together with them he 
may remain in everlasting bliss without end." " Eternal w 
God, who in Christ thine only begotten Son our Lord 
hast given unto us the hope of a blessed resurrection ; 
grant, we beseech thee, that the souls, for which we offer 
this sacrifice of our redemption unto thy Majesty, may of 

u Deus, qui universoram es Creator et conditor, quique tuorum es beatitudo 
sanctorum ; praesta nobis petentibus, ut spiritum fratris nostri, corporis nexibus ab- 
solution, in beata resurrectione facias prsesentari. Prec. ecclesiast. Cassandr. 
oper. pag. 385. torn. 5. Gregor. col. 228. c. 

v Omnipotens et misericors Deus, tuam deprecamur clementiam, quia judicio 
tuo et nascimur et finimur ; ut animam fratris nostri, quern tua pietas de incolatu 
hujus mundi transire praecepit, in requiem aeternam suscipias, et in consortio 
electorum tuorum in resurrectione sociari permittas, ut in aeterna beatitudine una 
cum illis sine fine permaneat. Alcuin. offic. per ferias, oper. pag, 230, 231. 
collat. cum simili, tomo 5. Gregor. col. 228. c. d. et in operib. Cassandr. 
pag. 3S5. 

w iEterne Deus, qui nobis in Christo unigenito filio tuo Domino nostro spem 
beatoe resurrectionis concessisti ; praesta, quaesumus, ut animae, pro quibus hoc 
sacrificium redemptionis nostras tuae offerimus majestati, ad beatae resurrectionis 
requiem, te miserante, cum Sanctis tuis pervenire mereantur. Praef. antiqu. 110. 
edit. Colon, ami. 1530. torn. 2. liturg. Pamel. pag. GO;), torn. 5. Gregor. col. 23G. 


thy mercy attain unto the rest of a Messed resurrection 
with thy saints." " Let* this communion, we beseecli 
thee, O Lord, purge us from sin ; and give unto the 
soul of thy servant N. a portion in the heavenly joy, that, 
being set apart before the throne of the glory of thy Christ, 
with those that are upon the right hand, it may have 
nothing common with those that are upon the left." 
"Through y Christ our Lord. At whose coming when thou 
shalt command both the peoples to appear, command thy 
servant also to be severed from the number of the evil : 
and grant unto him, that he may both escape the flames 
of everlasting punishment, and obtain the rewards of a 
righteous life, &c." Lastly, abbot Berengosius, speak- 
ing of Constantine the great, " Forasmuch 2 ," saith he, 
" as hitherto he hath not the full perfection of his future 
rest, but rather doth hope as yet with us to find a better 
resurrection ; we are to pray, that he who by his blood 
was pleased to sanctify the banner of the quickening 
cross, would hereafter bring unto perfect rest both us and 

In these, and other prayers of the like kind, we may 
descry evident footsteps of the primary intention of the 
Church in her supplications for the dead : which was, that 

x Haec nos communio quaesumus, Domine, purget a crimine: et animae famuli 
tui N. coelestis gaudii tribuat consortium, ut ante thronum glorioa Christi tui se- 
gregata cum dextris, nihil commune habeat cum sinistris. torn. 5. Gregor. col. 
233. c. 

y Per Christum Dominum nostrum. In cujus adventu, cum geminam jusseris 
sistere plebem, jubeas et famulum tuum a numero discerni malorum. Quern 
una tribuas pcenae aeternae evadere flammas, et justae potius adipisci pracmia vitac ; 
&c. Offic. Ambrosian. tomo 1. liturgic. Pamel. pag. 450. 

z Quoniam ipse futurse quietis plenariam nondum habet perfectionem, sed 
nobiscum potius mcliorcm adhuc sperat invenire resurrectionem ; orandum est 
nobis, ut ipse, qui per sanguinem suum vivificae crucis voluit sanctificare vexil- 
lum, ad perfectam requiem nos pcrducat quandoque el ilium. Berengos. de 
invent, et laude crucis, lib. 2. cap. 11. cum quo conferendum ct illud Cassiodori, 
in Psalm. 24. Quiajustis hominibus exutis corpore non statim perfecta beatitudo 
datur, quae Sanctis in resurrectione promittitur; animani tamcn ejus dicit in bonis 
posse remorari : quoniam, etsi adhuc prrcmia ilia suspensa sunt, quae Dec oculua 
vidit nee auris audivit, nee in cor hominis asccndil ; modo tamen futuri pnemil 
certissima spei dclectatione paScuntur. 

Q 2 


the whole man (not the soul separated only) might receive 
public remission of sins, and a solemn acquittal in the 
judgment of that great day ; and so obtain both a full 
escape from all the consequences of sin, " the a last enemy 
being now destroyed, and death swallowed up in victory ,'' 
and a perfect consummation of bliss and happiness : all 
which are comprised in that short prayer of St. Paul for 
Onesiphorus, though made for him while he was alive ; 
" The b Lord grant unto him, that he may find mercy of 
the Lord in that day." Yea, divers prayers for the dead 
of this kind are still retained in the Roman offices : of 
which the great Spanish doctor Johannes Medina thus 
writeth, " Although I have read many prayers for the 
faithful deceased, which are contained in the Roman 
missal ; yet have I read in none of them, that the Church 
doth petition, that they may more quickly be freed from 
pains : but I have read that in some of them petition is 
made, that they may be freed from everlasting pains." For 
beside the common prayer that is used in the mass for the 
commemoration of all the faithful deceased, that " Christ 
would free them from the mouth of the lion, that hell 
may not swallow them up, and that they may not fall into 
the place of darkness ;" this prayer is prescribed for the 
day wherein the dead did depart out of this life. " O d 
God, whose property is always to have mercy and to 
spare ; we most humbly beseech thee for the soul of thy 
servant N. which this day thou hast commanded to depart 
out of this world : that thou mayest not deliver it into the 
hands of the enemy, nor forget it finally ; but command it 

a 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 26, 27. b 2 Tim. chap. 1. ver. 18. 

c Etsi quamplures orationes fidelium defunctorum legerim, quae in missali Ro- 
mano continentur ; in nulla tamen earum legi per Ecclesiam peti, ut citius a pce- 
nis liberentur : legi tamen in nonnullis peti ut ab aeternis pcenis liberentur. Jo. 
Medin. in codice de oratione, quaest. 6. 

d Deus, cui proprium est misereri semper et parcere, te supplices exoramus 
pro anima famuli tui N. quam hodie de hoc seculo migrare jussisti : ut non tra- 
das earn in manus inimici, neque obliviscaris in finem ; sed jubeas earn a Sanctis 
angelis suscipi, et ad patriam paradisi perduci : ut, quia in te sperayit et credidit, 
non pcenas inferni sustineat, sed gaudia seterna possideat. Orat. in die obitus 
sen depositions defuncti : in missali Romano reformato. 


to be received by the holy angels, and brought unto the 
country of paradise ; that, because he hath trusted and 
believed in thee, he may not sustain the pains of hell, but 
possess joys everlasting:" which is a direct prayer, that 
the soul of him which was then departed might immedi- 
ately be received into heaven, and escape, not the tempo- 
rary pains of purgatory, but the everlasting pains of hell. 
For, howsoever the new reformers of the Roman missal 
have put in here poena s inferni, under the generality per- 
adventure of the term of the pains of hell intending to 
shrowd their purgatory, which they would have men 
believe to be one of the lodges of hell, yet in the old 6 
missal, which Medina had respect unto, we read ex- 
pressly pocnas ccternas, everlasting pains ; which by no 
construction can be referred unto the pains of purgatory: 
and to the same purpose, in the book of the ceremonies 
of the Church of Rome, at the exequies of a cardinal, a 
prayer is appointed to be read, that by the assistance of 
God's grace he might " escape' the judgment of everlast- 
ing revenge, who while he lived was marked with the seal 
of the holy Trinity." 

Again, " there® be other prayers," saith Medina, " where 
in petition is made, that God would raise the souls of the 
dead in their bodies unto bliss at the day of judgment." 
Such, for example, is that which is found in the Roman 
missal: "Absolve 11 , we beseech thee, O Lord, the soul 
of thy servant from all the bond of his sins : that in the 

e Missal. Rom. edit. Paris, ann. 1529. 

f Gratia tua illi succurrente, mereatur judicium evadere ultionis actemae, qui 
dum viveret insignitus est signaculo Sauctse Trinitatis. lib. 1. sacr. ceremoniar. 
Rom. Eccles. sec. 15. cap. 1. fol. 152. b. edit. Colon, aim. 1574. 

s Sunt alioe orationes, in quibus petitur, ut Deus animas defunctorum in cor- 
poribus ad bcatitudincm in diejudicii suscitet. Jo. Medin. ut supra. 

h Absolve quoBsumus, Domine, animam famuli tui ab omni vinculo delicto- 
rum : ut in resurrectionia gloria inter sanctos et elcctos tuos resuscitatus respi- 
ret. Orat. pro defunct, in missali Romano, vetere et novo, nee non in Gregorii 
sacramentario, torn. ,2. liturgic. l'amelii, pag. 386'. et torn. 5. oper. Grcgor. pag. 
229, 230. edit. Paris. 1619. Similis etiam oratiuncula habeturin Gregorii Antiphu- 
nario, pag. 175. l'amelii, col. 62. edit. Paris. Erne, Domine, aninras eoriiin ab 
omni vinculo delictorum : ut in rcaurrectionis gloria inter sanctos tuos resusci- 
tari mereantur. 


glory of the resurrection, being raised among thy saints 
and elect, he may breathe again," or be refreshed. And 
that other in that Roman pontifical ; " O 1 God, unto whom 
all things do live, and unto whom our bodies in dying do 
not perish, but are changed for the better ; we humbly 
pray thee, that thou wouldest command the soul of thy 
servant N. to be received by the hands of thy holy angels, 
to be carried into the bosom of thy friend the patriarch 
Abraham, and to be raised up at the last day of the great 
judgment : and whatsoever faults, by the deceit of the 
devil, he hath incurred, do thou of thy pity and mercy 
wash away by forgiving them." Now forasmuch as it is 
most certain, that all such as depart in grace, as the ad- 
versaries acknowledge that all in purgatory do, are sure to 
escape hell, and to be raised up unto glory at the last day ; 
Medina perplexeth himself exceedingly in according these 
kind of prayers with the received grounds of purgatory ; 
and, after much agitation of the business to and fro, at last 
resolveth upon one of these two desperate conclusions : 
that, touching these " prayers k which are made in the 
Church for the dead, it may first of all be said, that it is 
not necessary to excuse them all from all unfitness.. For 

1 Deus, cui omnia vivunt, et cui non pereunt moriendo corpora nostra, sed 
mutantur in melius ; te supplices deprecamur, ut suscipi jubeas animam famuli 
tui N. per manus sanctorum angelorum tuorum deducendam in sinum amici tui 
Abrahoe patriarchse, resuscitandamque in novissimo judicii magni die : et quic- 
quid vitiorum, diabolo fallente, contraxit, tu pius et misericors abluas indulgendo. 
Pontifical. Roman. Clem. VIII. jussu edit. Romae aim. 1595. pag. 685. et Venet. 
ann. 1572. fol. 220. col. 4. lib. 1. sacr. ceremon. Rom. eccles. sec. 15. cap. 1. fol. 
153. b. edit. Colon. Oper. Gregorii, torn. 5. col. 329, 230. edit. Paris. 1619. 
Prec. ecclesiast. a G. Cassandro edit. pag. 384. operum. 

k Respondetur, quantum ad orationes qua; pro defunctis in Ecclesia fiunt, 
posse primo dici, non esse necessarium omnes eas ab omni ineptitudine excusare. 
Multa enim in Ecclesia legi permittuntur, qua;, quamvis non omnino vera sint, 
vel omnino apta, conferunt tamen ad fidelium devotionem excitandam et augen- 
dam. Talia multa credendum est contineri in historiis non sacris, et in Legendis 
sanctorum, et in opinionibus doctorum et scripturis ; quae omnia tolerantur in 
Ecclesia interim, dum super illis nulla movetur qusestio, nullumque insurgit scan- 
dalum. Ac proinde non mirum, in orationibus pradictis aliquid minus aptum 
contineri, et ab Ecclesia tolerari : cum tales orationes fact3B sint a personis 
privatis, non a conciliis, nee per concilia omnino sint approbata:. Jo. Medin. u 


many things are permitted to be read in the Church, 
which, although they be not altogether true, nor altoge- 
ther fit, yet serve for the stirring up and encreasing the 
devotion of the faithful. Many such things," saithhe, " we 
believe are contained in the histories that be not sa- 
cred, and in the legends of the saints, and in the opinions 
and writings of the doctors : all which are tolerated by the 
Church in the mean time, while there is no question moved 
of them, and no scandal ariseth from them. And there- 
fore it is no marvel, that somewhat not so fit should be 
contained in the foresaid prayers, and be tolerated in the 
Church : seeing such prayers were made by private per- 
sons, not by councils, neither were approved at all by 

And we easily do believe indeed, that their offices and 
legends are fraught not only with untrue and unfit, but 
also with far worse stuff: neither is this any news unto 
us. Agobardus, bishop of Lyons, complained about eight 
hundred years ago, that the antiphonary used in his 
Church, had "many 1 ridiculous and fantastical" things in it; 
and that he was fain to m cut off from thence such things as 
seemed to be " either superfluous, or light, or lying, or 
blasphemous." The like complaint was made not long 
since by Lindanus, of the Roman antiphonaries and mis- 
sals : " wherein" not only apocryphal tales," saith he, 
" out of the Gospel of Nicodemus, and other toys are thrust 
in ; but the very secret prayers themselves are defiled 
with most foul faults." But now that we have the " Ro- 
man missal restored according to the decree of the coun- 
cil of Trent, set out by the command of Pius V. and re- 

I Multa ridiculosa et phantastica. Agobard. ad cantores Lugdunens. de cor- 
rect. Antiphonarii, pag. 39(5. edit. Paris. 

111 Hac de causa et Antiphonarium pro. viribus nostris magna ex parte correxi- 
mus : amputatis his, qua; vel superflua, vel levia, vel mendacia, aut blaspbema- 
videbantur. Id. ibid. pag. 392. 

II Ubi noii Apocrypha modo ex evang. .Nieodemi et aliis nugis sunt infarta ; 
sed ipsae adco secreta; preces (imo ipse, pro pudoi et dolor ! canon et varians el 
redundans) sunt mendis turpissimis conspurcatee. Wil. Lindan. de opt gen. 
interpr. script, lib. 3. cap. 3. 

Missale Romanum ex decreto sacrosancti concilii Tridentini restitutum, I'ii 


vised again by the authority of Clemens VIII." I doubt 
much whether our Romanists will allow the censure 
which their Medina hath given, of the prayers con- 
tained therein. And therefore, if this will not please 
them, he hath another answer in store : of which though 
his countryman Mendoza 1 ' hath given sentence, that it 
is indigna tiro theologo, unworthy of any man that bear- 
eth the name of a divine ; yet such as it is, you shall 
have it. Supposing then, that the Church hath no inten- 
tion to pray for any other of the dead, but those that are 
detained in purgatory : this he delivereth for his second 
resolution. " The q Church, knowing that God hath power 
to punish everlastingly those souls by which, when they 
lived, he was mortally offended ; and that God hath not 
tied his power unto the Scriptures, and unto the promises 
that are contained in the Scripture (forasmuch as he is 
above all things, and as omnipotent after his promises, as 
if he had promised nothing at all) : therefore the Church 
doth humbly pray God, that he would not use this his 
absolute omnipotency against the souls of the faithful, 
which are departed in grace ; therefore she doth pray that 
he would vouchsafe to free them from everlasting pains, 
and from revenge and the judgment of condemnation, and 
that he would be pleased to raise them up again with his 

But leaving our popish doctors, with their profound 
speculations of the not limiting of God's power by the 
Scriptures, and the promises which he hath made unto us 
therein : let us return to the ancient fathers, and consider 

V. pont. max, jussu editum, et Clementis VIII. auctoritate recognitum. Rom. 
ann. 1G04. Paris. 1605. 

P Alphons. Mendoz. controvers. theolog. quaest. 6. scholastic, num. 5. 

•1 Sciens Ecclesia, Deum potestatem habere puniendi aeternaliter animas illas, 
per quas, cum viverent, fuerat mortaliter offensus; quodque Deus potestatem 
suam non alligaverit Scripturis, et promissis quae in Scriptura continentur ; quan- 
doquidem ipse super omnia est, et tarn omnipotens post promissa, ac si nil pre- 
misisset: ideo Ecclesia simpliciter Deum orat, ne ilia absoluta omnipotentia con- 
tra animas fidelium, qui in gratia decesserunt, utatur ; ideo orat, ut eas ab aeter- 
nis poenis, et a vindicta, et judicio condemnationis liberare, et ut eas cum suis 
electis resuscitare, dignetur. Jo. Medina, utsupr. 



the differences that are to be found among them, touching 
the place and condition of souls separated from their bo- 
dies : for according to the several apprehensions which 
they had thereof, they made different applications and 
interpretations of the use of praying for the dead ; whose 
particular intentions and devotions, in that kind, must of 
necessity therefore be distinguished from the general in- 
tention of the whole Church. 

St. Augustine, that I may begin with him who was, as 
the most ingenious, so likewise the most ingenuous of all 
others in acknowledging his ignorance where he saw 
cause, being to treat of these matters, maketh this pre- 
face beforehand unto his hearers : " Of r hell neither have 
I had any experience as yet, nor you ; and peradventure 
it may be, that our passage may lie some other way, and 
not prove to be by hell. For these things be uncertain ;" 
and, having occasion to speak of the departure of Nebri- 
dius his dear friend, " Now 5 he liveth," saith he, " in 
the bosom of Abraham, whatsoever the thing be that is 
signified by that bosom ; there doth my Nebridius live." 
But elsewhere he directly distinguished this bosom from 
the place of bliss, into which the saints shall be received 
after the last judgment. " After* this short life," saith he, 
fi thou shalt not as yet be where the saints shall be, unto 
whom it shall be said, Come, ye blessed of my Father, re- 
ceive the kingdom which was prepared for you from the 
beginning of the world. Thou shalt not as yet be there : 
who knoweth it not ? But now thou mayest be there, 
where that proud and barren rich man in the midst of his 

r Infernum nee ego cxpertus sum adhuc nee vos : et fortassis alia via erit, et 
non per infernum erit. Incerta sunthaec. Aug. in Psal. 85. op. torn. 4. pag. 912. 

8 Nunc ille vivit in sinu Abraham, quicquid illud est quod illo signiluatur 
sinu ; ibi Nebridius mens vivit. Id. confession, lib. 9. cap. 3. op. torn. 1. pag. 159. 

' Post vitani istam parvam nondura eris ubi erunt samti, quibus dicetur ; 
Venite, benedicti Patris mei, percipite regnum quod vobis paratum est ab initio 
mundi. Nondum ibi eris: quis nescit ? Sed jam poteris |ibi esse, ubi ilium 
quondam ulcerosum panperem dives ille superbus et sterilis, in tnediia Miis tor- 
mentis, vidit a longe requiescentem. In ilia requie positus, certe sei urus expe< - 
tas judicii diem; quando recipias el corpus, quando immuteris ut angelo ceque- 
ris. Id. in Psalm. 36. cone. 1. op. torn. 4. pag. 2C3. 


torments saw afar off the poor man, sometime full of 
ulcers, resting. Being placed in that rest, thou dost 
securely expect the day of judgment ; when thou may- 
est receive thy body, when thou mayest be changed 
to be equal unto an angel." And for the state of 
souls, betwixt the time of the particular and general 
judgment, this is his conclusion in general: " The w time 
that is interposed betwixt the death of man and the last 
resurrection, containeth the souls in hidden receptacles ; as 
every one is worthy either of rest or of trouble, according 
unto that which it did purchase in the flesh when it 
lived." Into these hidden receptacles he thought the souls 
of God's children might carry some of their lighter faults 
with them ; which, being not removed, would hinder them 
from coming into the kingdom of heaven, whereinto no 
polluted thing can enter ; and from which, by the prayers 
and alms-deeds of the living, he held they might be released. 
But of two things he professed himself here to be igno- 
rant. First, What* those sins were, which did so hinder 
the coming unto the kingdom of God, that yet by the 
care of good friends they might obtain pardon. Secondly, 
Whether y those souls did endure any temporary pains in 
the interim betwixt the time of death and the resurrection. 
For howsoever in his one-and-twentieth book of the City 
of God, and the thirteenth and sixteenth chapters (for the 
new patch which they have added to the four-and-twen- 
tieth chapter is not worthy of regard), he affirm, that some 
of them do suffer certain purgatory punishments before 
the last and dreadful judgment ; yet, by comparing these 

w Tempus autem, quod inter hominis mortem et ultimam resurrectionem in- 
terpositum est, animas abclitis receptaeulis continet ; sicut unaquaeqne digna est 
vel requie vel aerumna, pro eo quod sortita est in carne cum viyeret. Id. enchi- 
rid. ad Laurent, cap. 108. 

x Sed quis iste sit modus, et quae sint ipsa peccata, quae ita impediunt perven- 
tionem ad regnum Dei, ut tamen sanctorum amicorum mentis impetrent indul- 
gentiam ; difficillimum est invenire, periculosissimum definire. Ego certe us- 
que ad hoc tempus, cum inde satagerem, ad eorum indaginem pervenire non 
potui. Id. lib. 21. de civit. Dei, cap. 27. 

? See before, pag. 187. 


places with the five z -and-twentieth chapter of the twen- 
tieth hook, it will appear, that by those purgatory punish- 
ments he understandeth here the furnace of the fire of 
conflagration, that shall immediately go before this last 
judgment, and, as he otherwhere describeth the effects 
thereof, " separate 1 some unto the left hand, and melt out 
others unto the right." 

Neither was this opinion of the reservation of souls in 
secret places, and the purging of them in the fire of con- 
flagration at the day of judgment, entertained by this fa- 
mous doctor alone : divers others there were, that had 
touched upon the same string before him. Origen in his 
fourth book 7T£f>i apy&v, as we have him translated by 
Ruffinus (for both in the extracts 6 selected out of him by 
St. Basil and St. Gregory, and in St. Hierome's fifty-ninth 
epistle ad Avitum, we find the place somewhat otherwise 
expressed), saith, that " such c as depart out of this world, 
after the common course of death, are disposed of accord- 
ing to their deeds and merits, as they shall be judged to 
be worthy ; some into the place which is called hell, others 
into Abraham's bosom, and through divers either places 
or mansions." And in his commentaries upon Leviticus 
he addeth further : " Neither d have the apostles them- 
selves as yet received their joy; but even they do expect, 

z Ex his quae dicta sunt videtur evidentius apparere, in illo judicio quasdam 
quorundam purgatorias pcenas futuras ; &c. Verum ista quaestio de purgatoriis 
pcenis, ut diligentius peitractetur, in tempus aliud differenda est. nempe, ubi ad 
librum 21. perventum fuerit. 

a Hoc aget caminus : alios in sinistram separabit, alios in dexteram quodam- 
modo eliquabit. Augustin. in Psalm. 103. cone. 3. op. torn. 4. pag. 1154. 

b Ol ivTivOiv Kara rhv koivov Qavarov a-KoQvi\nKOVTtq, Ik tCiv IvravOa 
Treirpayuivuv oiKOVOfiovvTar tl KpiQtitv a£ioi rov icaXoi'fiii'ov \iofjiov a$ov, 
roiriov ftiatpopiov Tvy^avuv Kara d)v dvaXoyiav tSiv afiapTi)[iaT(i)v. 
Origenis Philocalia, cap. 1 . 

c De hoc mundo secundum communem mortem istam recedentes, pro actibus 
suis et mentis dispensantur, prout digni fuerint judicati ; alii quidem in locum 
qui dicitur infernus, alii in sinum Abrahae, et per diversa quaeque vcl loca vel 
mansiones. Orig. de principiis, lib. 4. cap. 2. op. torn. 1. pag. 185. 

d Nondum receperunt laetitiam suam, ne apostoli quidem ; sed et ipsi expec- 
tant, ut et ego lactitioe eonini particeps fiam. Neque c nim decedentes tunc Bancti 
continuo integra meritoruirj suorum prasmia consequuntur ; eed expectant etiam 
nos, licet morante?, licet desides. Id. horn. 7. in Lev. cap, 10. op. torn 'J. 
pag. 222. 



that I also may be made partaker of their joy. For the 
saints departing from hence] do not presently obtain 
the full rewards of their labours ; but they expect us like- 
wise, howsoever staying, howsoever slacking." Then, touch- 
ing the purging of men after the resurrection, he thus de~ 
livereth his mind in his commentaries upon Luke. " I 
think that, even after our resurrection from the dead, we 
shall have need of a sacrament to wash and purge us : for 
none can rise without pollutions :" And upon Jeremy, " If f 
any one be saved in the second resurrection, he is that 
sinner which needeth the baptism of fire, which is purged 
with burning ; that whatsoever he hath of wood, hay, and 
stubble, the fire may consume it;" which, in his fifth book 
against Celsus, he doth explicate more at large. 

Neither doth Lactantius shew himself to vary much 
from him in either of those points ; for thus he writeth : 
" When g God shall judge the righteous, he will examine 
them by fire. Then they, whose sins shall prevail either 
in weight or number, shall be touched with the fire, and 
burned: but they, whom perfect righteousness and the 
ripeness of virtue hath thoroughly seasoned, shall not 
feel that fire; for from thence have they something in them, 
that will repel and put back the force of the flame : so 
great is the force of innocency, that that fire shall fly back 
from it without doing any harm ; which hath received this 
power from God, that it may burn the wicked, and do 

e Ego puto, quod et post resurrectionem ex mortuis indigeamus Sacramento 
eluente nos atque purgante : nemo enim absque sordibus resurgere potent. Id. 
in Luc. homil. 14. op. torn. 3. pag. 948. 

i Si quis in secunda resurrectione servatur, iste peccator est qui ignis indiget 
baptismo ; qui combustione purgatur, ut quicquid habuerit lignorum, foeni, et 
stipulae, ignis consumat. Id. in Jerem. horn. 2. op. torn. 3. pag. 139. 

S Sed et justos cum judicaverit, etiam igni eos examinabit. Turn quorum 
peccata vel pondere vel numero prsevaluerint, perstringentur igni, atque ambu- 
rentur ; quos autem plena justitia et maturitas virtutis incoxerit, ignem ilium 
non sentient : habent enim in se aliquid inde, quod vim flammse repellat ac res- 
puat. Tanta est vis innocentise, ut ab ea ignis ille refugiat innoxius ; qui accepit 
a Deo banc potestatem, ut impios urat, justis obtemperet. Nee tamen quisquam 
putet, animas post mortem protinus judicari. Omnes in una communique cus- 
todia detinentur, donee tempus adveniat, quo maximus Judex meritorum facia* 
examen. Lactant. institut. divin. lib. 7. cap. 21. 


service to the righteous. Yet notwithstanding let no man 
think that the souls are presently judged after death. All 
of them are detained in one common custody until the 
time come, wherein the great Judge doth make trial of 
their doings." In like manner doth St. Hilary write of 
the one part : " All 1 ' the faithful, when they are gone out 
of the body, shall be reserved by the Lord's custody for 
that entry into the heavenly kingdom, being in the mean 
time placed in the bosom of Abraham, whither the wicked 
are hindered from coming by the gulf interposed betwixt 
them ; until the time of entering into the kingdom of 
heaven do come." And thus of the other : " Being' to 
render an account of every idle word, shall we desire the 
day of judgment, wherein that unwearied fire must be 
passed by us, in which those grievous punishments for ex- 
piating the soul from sins must be endured ?" for " to k such 
as have been baptized with the Holy Ghost, it remaineth 
that they should be consummated with the fire of judg- 

In St. Ambrose also there are some passages to be 
found, which seem to make directly for either of these 
points; as these for the former: "The 1 soul is loosed 
from the body ; and yet after the end of this life it is held 
as yet in suspense, with the uncertainty of the future 
judgment: so that there is no end, where there is thought 
to be an end." " We m read in the books of Esdras, that 

h Exeuntes de corpore, ad introitum ilium regni ccelestis, per custodiam Do- 
mini fideles omnes reservabuntur, in sinu scilicet interim Abralise collocati : quo 
adire impios interjectum chaos inhibet, quousque introeundi rursum in regnuni 
coelorum tempus adveniat. Hilar, in Psalm. 120. op. pag. ;S8.'J. 

' An cum ex omni otioso verbo rationem sumus prsestituri, diem judicii con- 
cupiscemus, in quo nobis est ille indefessus ignis subeundus, in quo subeunda 
sunt gravia ilia expiandac a peccatis animae supplicia? Id. in Psalm. 118. 
octonar. 3. op. pag. 201. 

k Salutis igitur nostra? et judicii tempus designat in Domino, diccns ; Ille bap- 
tizabit vos in Spiritu Sancto et igni : quia baptizatia in Spiritu Sancto reliquum 
sit consummari igne judicii. Id. in Matt. cap. 2. op. pag. 616. 

1 Solvitur corpore anima, et post finem vitae hujus, adhuc tamen futuri judicii 
ambiguo suspenditur. Ita finis nullus, ubi finis putatur. Ambr. de Cain et 
Abel, lib. 2. cap. 2. op. torn. 1. pag 209.. 

m Siquidem et in Esdra; lilnis legimus; quia, cum venerit judicii dies, reddel 
terra defunctorum corpora, et puivia reddet eas qua; in tumulia requiescunt, reli- 


when the clay of judgment shall come, the earth shall restore 
the bodies of the deceased, and the dust shall restore the 
relics of the dead which do rest in the graves ; and the 
habitacles shall restore the souls which were committed to 
them ; and the most High shall be revealed upon the seat 
of judgment." Also" that Scripture " nameth the habi- 
tacles of the souls, promptuaries (or secret receptacles) ; 
and meeting with the complaint of man, that the just 
which have gone before may seem to be defrauded, until 
the day of judgment which is a very long time, of the 
reward due unto them, saith wonderfully, that the day of 
judgment is like unto a crown, wherein as there is no slack- 
ness of the last, so is there no swiftness of the first. For 
the day of crowning is expected by all ; that within that 
day both they who are overcome may be ashamed, and 
they who do overcome may obtain the palm of victory." 
" Therefore , while the fulness of time is expected, the souls 
expect their due reward. Pain is provided for some of 
them, for some glory ; and yet in the mean time neither 
are those without trouble, nor these without fruit." And 
these for the latter : " With p fire shall the sons of Levi 
be purged, with fire Ezechiel, with fire Daniel. But these, 
although they shall be tried with fire, yet shall say : We 
have passed through fire and water. Others shall remain 
in the fire." " And q if the Lord shall save his servants, 

quias mortuorum. Et habitacula, inquit, reddent animas quae his commendatae 
sunt : et revelabitur Altissimus super sedem judicii. Ambros. de bono mortis, 
cap. 10. ex 4. Esdr. cap. 7. ver. 32, 33. op. torn. 1. pag. 407. 

11 Denique et Scriptura habitacula ilia animarum promptuaria nuncupavit : 
quae occurrens querelas humanae, eo quod justi qui praecesserunt, videantur 
usque ad judicii diem debita sibi remuneratione fraudari, mirabiliter ait, 
coronae esse similem judicii diem, in quo sicut novissimorum tarditas, sic non 
priorum velocitas. Coronae enim dies expectatur ab omnibus ; ut intra eura 
diem et victi erubescant, et victores palmam adipiscantur victorias. Id. ibid, 
ex 4. Esdr. cap. 4. ver. 35. et cap. 5. ver. 41, 42. 

Ergo dum expectatur plenitudo temporis, expectant animae remunerationem 
debitam. Alias manet poena, alias gloria : et tamen nee illse interim sine inju- 
ria, nee istae sine fructu sunt. Ibid. 

p Igne ergo purgabuntur filii Levi, igne Ezechiel, igne Daniel. Sed hi, etsi 
per ignem examinabuntur, dicent tamen : Transivimus per ignem et aquam. 
Alii in igne remanebunt. Id. in Psalm. 36. op. torn. 1. pag. 789. 

i Et si salvos faciet Dominus servos suos, salvi erimus per fidem ; sic tamen 
salvi quasi per ignem. Etsi non exuremur, tamen uremur. Id. ibid. 


we shall be saved by faith ; yet saved as it were by fire. 
Although we shall not be burned up, yet shall we burned." 
" After 1 the end of the world, when the angels shall be 
sent to separate the good and the bad, this baptism shall 
be ; when iniquity shall be burnt up by the furnace of fire, 
that in the kingdom of God the righteous may shine as 
the sun in the kingdom of their Father. And if any one 
be as Peter, or as John, he is baptized with this fire." 
Seeing therefore " he s that is purged here, hath need to be 
purged again there; let him purge us there also, when 
the Lord may say, Enter into my rest : that every one of us 
being burned with that flaming sword, not burned up, when 
he is entered into that pleasure of paradise, may give 
thanks unto his Lord, saying : Thou hast brought us into 
a place of refreshment." 

Hereunto we may adjoin that observation of Suarez the 
Jesuit: " They' who think that the souls of men are not 
judged at their death, nor do receive reward or punish- 
ment, but are reserved in hidden receptacles until the 
general judgment, do consequently say, that, as men do 
not receive their last reward or punishment, so neither are 
they also purged, until the general resurrection and judg- 
ment do come : from whence they might say with reason- 
able good consequence, that men are to be purged with 
the fire of conflagration." And with as good consequence 

r Siquidem post consummationem seculi, missis angelis qui segregent bonos 
et malos, hoc futurum est baptisma : quando per caminum ignis iniquitas exure- 
tur, ut in regno Dei fulgeant justi, sicut sol, in regno patris sui. Et si aliquis 
ut Petrus sit, ut Joannes, baptizatur hoc igni. Ambros. in Psalm. 118. serin. 3. 
op. torn. 1. pag. 997. 

8 Sed quia hicpurgatusiterum necesse habetillic purificari, illic quoque nos puri- 
ficet, quando dicat Dominus ; Intrate in requiem meam. ut unusquisque nostrum 
ustus romphaea ilia flammea, non exustus, introgressus in illam paradisi amcenita- 
tem, gratias agat domino suo : Induxisti nos in refrigerium. Id. ibid. Vid. et 
serm. 20. in eund. Psalm. 118. et enarrat. Psalm. 1. supr. pag. 22.3. 

1 Qui opinantur, animas hominum non judicari in morte, nee praemium aut 
pcenam recipere, sed reservari in abditis receptaculis usque ad judicium univer- 
sale, consequenter dicunt, sicut non accipiunt homines ultimum premium vel 
poenani, ita neque etiam purgari, donee sit facta gencralis rcsurrcctio, et judi- 
cium : ex quo satis consequenter diccre potuerunt, purgandos esse homines igne 
conflagrationis. Fr. Suarez. in 3. part. Thorn, quoest. 59. art. C. disput, 57. 
sec. 1. 


also, may we further add, that prayers were not to be 
made for the delivery of the souls of the dead from any 
purgatory pains, supposed to be suffered by them betwixt 
the time of their death and their resurrection, which be 
the only prayers which are now in question. " In u the 
resurrection, when our works, like unto clusters of grapes, 
shall be cast into the probatory fire as it were into the 
winepress ; every man's husbandry shall be made mani- 
fest," saith Gregorius Cerameus, sometime archbishop of 
Tauromenium in Sicilia. And, " No w man as yet is en- 
tered either into the torments of hell or into the kingdom 
of heaven, until the time of the resurrection of the bo- 
dies ;" saith Anastasius Sinaita : upon whom Gretser be- 
stoweth this marginal annotation, that this is the " Error" 
of certain of the ancient, and of latter Greece." And we 
find it to be held indeed both by some of the ancient (as 
namely in Caius, who lived at Rome when Zephyrinus was 
bishop there ; and is accounted to be the author of the 
treatise falsely fathered upon Josephus, 7repi Trjg rov irav- 
toq alriag, a large fragment whereof hath been lately pub- 
lished by Hseschelius in his notes upon Photius his biblio- 
theca) : and by the latter Grecians ; in whose name Marcus 
Eugenicus, archbishop of Ephesus, doth make this pro- 
testation against such of his countrymen as yielded to the 
definition of the Florentine council. 

" We y say, that neither the saints do receive the king- 

u 'Ei' t~i iraXiyy (.vtaia, twv tpywv i)fiwv fliKijv fSorpvuyv Tip (Wi/trtcmic^ 
Trvpi TtOetTiov wg tv Xi] vij>, Kardd )]Xoq >'/ ytwpyla iKaurov yiviTai. Gregor. 
Ceram. homil. in indictionis sive novi anni principium. 

w 'On obSilg cbdkirw obSt tv ytkvvy ovSt iv fiaaiXiiq EiariXOev, 'iwg rov 
Kaipov twv awfidrwi' avaaTaatwg. Anastas. Sinait. (al. Nicsen.) qusest. 


x Error veterum quorundam, et recentioris Gra;ciae. Gretser. ibid, in marg. 

pag. 501. edit. Ingolstad. 

y Kal r'lfit'ig p.iv ovrtrovg ciyiovg airoXa(3eTv rr)v qroi/taff/isvijv abrolg 
fiaffiXilav, Kal rd dn6ppr)Ta ay add, ovrt rovg dpaprwXovg tig Tt)v yt'iv- 
vav efnrtffuv i)£t), <pap,tv. dXX' tKd£x i(J 6 al T0V "<$ l0V ttcaripovg KXijpov, 
Kal tlvai tovto Kaipov rov fitXXovrog fitrd n)v dvdaratriv Kal n)v Kpiffiv. 
ovtoi Si fitrd twv Aarlvwv rox>g filv abr'iKa fitrd Qavarov dnoXafitlv 
?/£»; rd fear' dliav WtXovai, rolg ds jiiaoig tlrovv rot£ iv fitTavola rtrt- 
XtvrtjKOffi irvp avrol KaOdpciov, 'irtpbv ti r7)g yftvvqg virdpxov avanXd- 


dom prepared for them, and those secret good things, 
neither the sinners do as yet fall into hell : but that either 
of them do remain in expectation of their proper lot ; and 
that this appertaineth unto the time that is to come after 
the resurrection and the judgment. But these men, with the 
Latins, would have these to receive presently after death 
the things they have deserved: but unto those of the 
middle sort, that is, to such as die in penance, they assign 
a purgatory fire, which they feign to be distinct from that 
of hell, that thereby, say they, being purged in their 
souls after death, they likewise may be received into the 
kingdom of heaven together with the righteous." And 
therefore, as the Latins in their prayers for the dead have 
respect to the delivery of souls out of purgatory ; so the 
Grecians in theirs have relation to that other state which 
is to determine with the resurrection ; as in that prayer 
of their Euchologe, for example : " The 2 body is buried 
in the earth, but the soul goeth in unknown places, wait- 
ing for the future resurrection of the dead ; in which, O 
gracious Saviour, make bright thy servant, place him to- 
gether with the saints, and refresh him in the bosom of 
Abraham :" the condition of which unknown places they 
do thus further explicate in another prayer. Forasmuch 
as by thy divine will thou hast appointed " the a soul to 
remove thither, where it received the first being, until 
the common resurrection; and the body to be resolved 

auvTEQ cnroSiSovaiv, 'iva St avrov, (pqcri-, KaOaipoutvot tuij \f/vxu£ (lira 
tiavarov, iiri ti)v fiao-tXiiuv Kal avroi jitra twv Sikuuov inroKaTaGTwot. 
Marc. Ephesius'; in epistola encyclica contra concil. Flurcntin. Vid. et Gennadium 
Scholarium, in defcns. concil. Florcntin. cap. 3. sec. 2. 

z TkdniTTai rrwua uiv iv -yy, >'/ \pvxv Si iv aS>)Xoir Tropsvtrat, npoaava- 
fdvovaa Tt)v ko~OflkvT]V vtKpuiv dvatSTamv. iv y, (piXdvUptoirt ffior>)p, Xap- 
Trpvvaq tov SovXov gov, aytolQ ovvTa^ov Kal iv koXttoic Aj3padft Stavd- 
■Kavaov. Eucholog. Grsec. fol. 138. 

a ti)v Si xpvxnv iKtlOiv x uj P (tv t tv9a Kal to tivat irpoatXdjitTO, f*txP l 
rtjc KOiin/g dvaardo-uoc, Kal to oStua elg to. i!£ uiv (rvveriOij ctvaXvtirOat. 
eta rovro Sto/uOn row uvdpxov iraTpor, Kal rov uovoytvovc gov v'tov, Kai 
rov iravayiov Kal bfioovaiov Kal '^oionotov aov 7rvtvftarog,'iva'fi>) TrapiStjg rb 
gov TrXufua KaraTCo9i]vai ry cnrioXtiq, c'tXXa to aoiua StaXvBifVai tic rd 
t£ wv aovtTtOi), t>)v Si \f/vxyi KaraTay7]vai iv t<[> x°PV t ^ >v SiKaiwv. 
Ibid. fol. 151. b. 



into that of which it was composed : therefore do we be- 
seech thee, the Father without beginning, and thine only 
begotten Son, and thy most holy and consubstantial 
and quickening Spirit, that thou wilt not permit thine 
own workmanship to be swallowed up in destruction; but 
that the body may be dissolved into that of which it was 
composed, and the soul placed in the choir of the right- 

That barbarous impostor, as Molanus b rightly styleth 
him, who counterfeited a letter, as written by St. Cyril 
bishop of Jerusalem unto St. Augustine, touching the mi- 
racles of St. Hierome, taketh upon him to lay down the 
precise time of the first arising of this opinion among the 
Grecians, in this manner : " After c the death of most glo- 
rious Hierome, a certain heresy or sect arose amongst the 
Grecians, and came to the Latins also : which went about 
with their wicked reasons to prove, that the souls of the 
blessed until the day of the general judgment, wherein 
they were to be joined again unto their bodies, are de- 
prived of the sight and knowledge of God, in which the 
whole blessedness of the saints doth consist ; and that the 
souls of the damned, in like manner, until that day are 
tormented with no pains. Whose reason was this ; that, 
as the soul did merit or sin with the body, so with the 
body was it to receive rewards or pains. Those wicked sec- 
taries also did maintain, that there was no place of purga- 
tory, wherein the sovds, which had not done full penance 

b Jo. Molan. histor. imag. lib. 3. cap. 36. 

c Post obitum gloriosissimi Hieronymi, quaedam haeresis inter Gra-cos, id est, 
secta surrexit, quae ad Latinos usque devenit : qua suis nefandis nitebatur ra- 
tionibus probare, quod animae beatorum usque ad universalis judicii diem, in 
quo eorum corporibus erant iterum conjungendffi, visione et cognitione divina, 
in qua tota constitit beatitudo sanctorum, privabuntur ; et damnatorum anim.-e 
similiter ad diem ilium nullis cruciabuntur pcenis. Quorum ratio talis erat ; 
Sicut anima cum corpore meruit vel peccavit, ita cum corpore recipit praemia 
sive pcenas. Asserebant etiam illius sectae nequissimi, nullum fore purgatorii 
locum, in quo animae, quae nondum de suis peccatis in mundo plenam egissent 
pcenitentiam, purgarentur. Qua quidem secta pestifera crebrescente, tantus in 
nos dolor irruit, ut nos amplius pigeret vivere. Pseudo-Cyrillus, app. torn. 2. ope- 
rand Augustini, epist. 19. et sub finem tomi 4. opcrum Hieronymi edit. Basil, 
vel. 9. ut a Mariano Victorio tomi sunt dispo^iti. 



for their sins in this world, might be purged. Which pes- 
tilent sect getting head, so great sorrow fell upon us, that 
we were even weary of our life." Then he telleth a wise 
tale ; how St. Hierome, being at that time with God, for 
the confutation of this new-sprung heresy, raised up three 
men from the dead, after that he had first " led d their 
souls into paradise, purgatory, and hell, to the end they 
might make known unto all men the things that were done 
there :" but had not the wit to consider, that St. Cyril 
himself had need to be raised up to make the fourth man 
among them. For how otherwise should he who died 
thirty years before St. Hierome, as is known to every one 
that knoweth the history of those times, have heard and 
written the news which those three good fellows, that 
were raised by St. Hierome after his death, did relate 
concerning heaven, hell, and purgatory? Yet is it nothing 
so strange to me, I confess, that such idle dreams as these 
should be devised in the times of darkness, to delude the 
world withal ; as that now in the broad daylight, Binsfel- 
dius e and Suarez*, and other Romish merchants, should 
adventure to bring forth such rotten stuff as this, with 
hope to gain any credit of antiquity thereby unto the new 
erected staple of popish purgatory. 

The Dominican friars, in a certain treatise written by 
them at Constantinople in the year one thousand two 
hundred and fifty-two, assign somewhat a lower begin- 
ning unto this error of the Grecians; affirming, that they 
" followed g therein a certain inventor of this heresy, named 
Andrew,"archbishop sometime of Ca?sarea in Cappadocia: 
who said, that the souls did wait for their bodies, that to- 

A Nam (ut mihi postmodum interroganti dixerunt) beatus Hieronymus eos 
conduxerat secum in paradisum, purgatorium, et infernum : ut qux ibi ageban- 
tur, patefacerent universis. Ibid. 

e Binsfeld. de condition, animar. post mortem, see. 5. 

f Fran. Suarez, in 3. part. Thorn, torn. 4. disput. 45. sec. 1. num. 1. 

e Sequentes quendam hujus haereseos inventorem, archiepiscopum quondam 
Csesareae Cappadocia, Andream nomine; qui dixit, propria corpora preestolari, 
ut cum eis, cum quibus bona vel mala commiaerint, retributiones similiter facto- 
rum recipiant. Tractat. contra Grsecos : in tomo auctorum a Petro Steuartio 
edit. Ingolstad. aim. Kilfi. pag. .">(>:>. 

R 2 


gether with them, with which they had committed good 
or evil, they might likewise receive the recompense of 
their deeds." But that which Andrew saith herein, he 
saith not out of his own head ; and therefore is wrongfully 
charged to be the first inventor of it : but out of the judg- 
ment of many godly fathers that went before him. " It 1 ' 
hath been said," saith he, " by many of the saints, that all 
virtuous men, after this life, do receive places fit for them, 
whence they may certainly make conjecture of the glory 
that shall befall unto them." Where Peltanus bestoweth 
such another marginal note upon him, as Gretser his fel- 
low-Jesuit did upon Anastasius. " This' opinion is now 
expressly condemned and rejected by the Church." And 
yet doth Alphonsus de Castro acknowledge, that " the k 
patrons thereof were famous men, renowned as well for 
holiness as for knowledge :" but telleth us withal, " that 
no man ought to marvel that such great men should fall 
into so pestilent an error; because, as the apostle St. 
James saith, he that qffendeth not in word is a perfect 

Another particular opinion, which we must sever from 
the general intention of the Church in her oblations and 
prayers for the dead, is that which is noted by Theophy- 
lact upon the speech of our Saviour 1 ; in which he wisheth 
us to observe, that he™ did not say, " Fear him who after 

h TloXXoig yap tCov ay'uiiv rovro t'tptjTai, x L ' } P 0V Q a<Ziovg tiXi]<pevai rwv 
TrJQ aptrijg tpyarwv iKaorov, Si wv Kal ntpl ri]g [itXXovaijg aiiriov SoZijg 
TSKfiaipovrai. Andr. Caesar, cap. 17. commentar. in Apocalyps. 

' Haec sententia diserte est jam condemnata, et ab Ecclesia proscripta. Theod. 
Peltan. ad marginem Latinai suae versionis. 

k Sunt adhut alii hujus erroris patroni, viri quidem illustres, sanctitate per- 
inde ac scientia clari : Irenaeus videlicet beatissimus pro Christo martyr, Theo- 
phylactus Bulgariae episcopus, beatus Bernardus. Nee mirari quisquam debet, 
si tanti viri in tarn pestiferum errorem sunt lapsi : quoniam, ut beatus Jacobus 
apostolus ait, Qui non offendit in verbo, hie perfectus est vir. Alphons. Castr. 
lib. 3. advers. haeres. verbo, Beatitudo, haer. 6. 

1 Luke, chap. 12. ver. 5. 

m bpa yap oti ovk eItte, $o(H)9t}TI rbv jitra rb cnroKTtlvai fiaXXovra tig 
Tt)v ykivvav, d\\' l^ovaiav t%ovra fiaXtlv. ov yap navTiog ol airoQv^a- 
icovrtg afiaprioXol (3aXXovrai tig Tr/v yktvvav, dXX' iv rrj t^ovaia Ktirai 
tovto tov Qtov, uxTTt Kal to (Jvy^iopCiv rovro dt Xiycx) Std rag kiri roig 


he hath killed casteth into hell," but " hath power to cast 
into hell. For the sinners which die," saith he, " are not 
always cast into hell : but it remaineth in the power of 
God to pardon them also. And this I say for the obla- 
tions and doles which are made for the dead, which do not 
a little avail even them that die in grievous sins. He doth 
not therefore generally," after he hath killed, cast into 
hell, but hath power to cast. Wherefore let us not cease 
by alms and intercession to appease him who hath power 
to cast, but doth not always use this power, but is able 
to pardon also." Thus far Theophylact : whom our ad- 
versaries do blindly bring in for the countenancing of 
their use of praying and offering for the dead ; not consi- 
dering that the prayers and oblations, which he would up- 
hold, do reach even unto such as die in grievous sins, 
which the Romanists acknowledge to receive no relief at 
all by any thing that they can do ; and are intended for 
the keeping of souls from being cast into hell, and not 
for fetching them out when they have been cast into pur- 
gatory: a place that never came within the compass of 
Theophylact's belief. His testimony will fit a great deal 
better the prayer of St. Dunstan ; who", as the tale goeth, 
having understood that the soul of king Edwin was to be 
carried into hell, never gave over praying until he had 
gotten him rid of that danger, and transferred unto the 
coast of penitent souls ; where he well deserved, doubt- 
less, to undergo that penance which Hugh bishop of Co- 
ventry and Chester on his death-bed imposed upon liim- 

KeKoifiriukvoif; ytvofikvag Trpoafyopag Kai Tag SiaSoffug, al ou /xiKpa avvrt- 
Xovai Tolg Kai iv ct/iapTtatg fiaptiaig atroQavovcnv. ou wavTwg ovv fitra 
to aTTOKTilvai fidWti tig ti)v y'ttvvav, aW t^ovalai' t\n (3a\tlv. M /) 
Toivvv tWei-ipw/j.ei' i/utlg <ntou?aZ,ovTtg St t\tt)flOVVvS}V Kai Trpta(iuu>v 
l^iXtouaOai tuv i'iouaiav fiev i\ovTa j3a\tlv, ou wavTiog £k Ty tZovcria- 
ravTy xP l ''l liV0V > a\\a Kai auy^iaotiv Swafuvov. Theopli. in Luc. cap. 12. 

n Osbem, et Eadmer. (et ex eis, Capgrav. et Suriiis) in vita Dunstani. Vid. 
Guilielm. Malmesburiens. ile gestis regum Anglor. lil). 2. fol. 30. b. et lib. 1. dc 
gestis pontific. Anglor. fol. 1 1 ">. b. edit. Londin. 

° Injungatis milii, ut secundum voluntatem Dei sim in pecnis purgatorii 
usque in diem judiui. Roger. Wendover. et Matt. Paris, hist. Angl. ann. 


self; even to lie in the dungeon of purgatory, without hail 
or mainprise, until the general jail delivery of the last 

Another private conceit, entertained by divers, as well 
of the elder as of middle times, in their devotions for the 
dead, was, that an augmentation of glory might thereby 
be procured for the saints ; and either a total deliverance, 
or a diminution of torment at least-wise, obtained for the 
wicked. " If p the barbarians," saith St. Chrysostom, 
" do bury with their dead the things that belong unto 
them : it is much more reason that thou shouldest send 
with the deceased the things that are his ; not that they 
may be made ashes, as they were, but that they may add 
greater glory unto him : and, if he be departed hence a 
sinner, that they may loose his sins ; but if righteous, that 
an addition may be made to his reward and retribution." 
Yea, in the very latter days, Ivo Carnotensis, writing 
unto Maud queen of England, concerning the prayers 
that were to be made for the king her brother his soul, 
saith, that " it q doth not seem idle if we make interces- 
sions for those who already enjoy rest, that their rest 
may be encreased." Whereupon pope Innocent the third 
doth bring this for one of the answers, wherewith he la- 
boureth to salve the prayers which were used in the 
Church of Rome, " that such or such an oblation might 
profit such or such a saint unto glory : that many r repute 
it no indignity, that the glory of the saints should be aug- 
mented until the day of judgment; and therefore that in 
the mean time the Church may wish the increase of their 

p Et yap ftdf>(3apoi cuyicaraKaiovGi toiq d7rtX9ov(n rd ovra, ttoXX(^ 
ficiXXov at ovvcnrooTilXai ru> TtXtvri)KOTi Sikcliov rd avrov. oux iva. 
TE(ppa ysvrjTai, KaOairtp iKtiva, dXX' 'iva irXtiova tovtm 7Tfpt/3a,\»; t?o£- 
civ nai ll fiiv dfiaprojXog O7r;"}\0£)' 'iva rd ufiapT-iifiaTa \vay ti Si SiKaiOQ, 
iva irpuaOi'iKi) yiin}Tcu /.itaBov nai dvriSufftwQ. Chrysost. in Matt. 
homil. 31. Op. torn. 7. pag. .'562. 

i Non videtur otiosum, si pro his intercedimus, qui jam requie perfruuntur, ut 
eonun requies augeatur. Ivo. epist. 174. 

'' Licet plerique reputent non indignura, sanctorum gloriam usque ad judicium 
augmentari : etideo Ecclesiam interim sane posse augmentum glorificationis 
eorum optare. Innoc. III. epist. ad archiep. Lugdun. cap. Cum Marthse. Extra, 
de celebr. missar. 


glorification." So likewise for the mitigation of the pains 
of them, whose souls were doubted to be in torment, this 
form of prayer was of old used in the same Church, as in 
Grimoldus his sacramentary may be seen ; and retained 
in the Roman missal itself, until in the late reformation 
thereof it was removed. " O Almighty and merciful God, 
incline, we beseech thee, thy holy ears unto our poor 
prayers, which we do humbly pour forth before the sight 
of thy Majesty, for the soul of thy servant N. that, foras- 
much as we are distrustful of the quality of his life, by the 
abundance of thy pity we may be comforted ; and if his 
soul cannot obtain full pardon, yet at least in the midst of 
the torments themselves, which peradventure it suffereth, 
out of the abundance of thy compassion it may feel re- 
freshment ;" which prayer whither it tended, may appear 
partly by that which Prudentius writeth of the play- 
days, which he supposeth the souls in hell sometimes do 
obtain : 

Sunt' et spiritibus saepe nocentibus 
Poenarum celebres sub Styge feriae, &c. 
Marcent suppliciis Tartara mitibus, 
Exultatque sui careeris otio 
Umbrarum populus, liber ab ignibus ; 
Nee fervent solito flumina sulphure : 

partly by the doubtful conceits of God's merciful dealing 
with the wicked in the world to come, which are found in 
others", but especially by these passages that we meet 
withal in the sermons of St. Chrysostom. 

5 Omnipotens et misericors Deus, inclina, quaesumus, venerabiles aures tnas 
ad exiguas preces nostras, quas ante conspeetuiri majestatis tuae pro anima fa* 
muli tui N. humiliter fuudirnus : ut, quia de qualitate vitae ejus diffidimus, de 
abundantia pietatis tuae consolemur ; et si plenam veniam anima ipsius obtinere 
non potest, saltern vel inter ipsa tormenta, quae forsitan patitur, refrigeriuirj de 
abundantia miserationum tuaruni sentiat, Orat. pro defunct, in missali Roma- 
no, edit. Paris, ami. 1529. Grimold. sacramentar. toui. 2. liturgic. Pamelii, 
pag. 457. 

' Prudent, lib. cathemerinon, hymn. 5. 

11 Augustin. enchirid. ad Laurent, cap. MO, 112, 113. Hieronym. lib. I. 
contra Pelag. et in line commentarior. in Esai. Gregor. Nazianz. orat. 
baptismo. ti ji>) rq* <pi\ov KcivruvOa I'oilv tovto tpt\av0(no7rvriiioi', k<u tov 


" This w man hatli spent his whole life in vain, neither 
hath lived one day to himself, but to voluptuousness, to 
luxury, to covetousness, to sin, to the devil. Tell me 
therefore, shall we not mourn for him ? shall we not en- 
deavour to pull him out of these dangers ? For there be 
means, if we will, whereby his punishment maybe made 
light unto him. If then we do make continual prayers for 
him, if we bestow alms ; although he be unworthy, God 
will respect us." For " many" have received benefit by the 
alms that have been given by others for them ; and found 
thereby, although not a perfect, yet some consolation." 
" This y therefore is done, that, although we ourselves 
be not virtuous, we may be careful to get virtuous compa- 
nions and friends, and wife and son ; as looking to reap 
some fruit even by them also : reaping indeed but little, 
yet reaping some fruit notwithstanding." " Let 2 us not 
therefore simply weep for the dead, but for such as are 
dead in their sins : these be worthy of lamentations and 

KoXd^ovrog irra^iwg. Vide etiam Johannis Metropolitans vota ad Christum, 
pro salute Platonis et Plutarchi : pag. 32. edit. Anglican. 

"' Kai ovtoq irdaav rr/v £an)v et/cij KariKOTTi], ovSe fiiav iifitpav i^rfdiv 
iaVT(jJ, dXXd ry rpvtyy, ry daeXyiia, ry TrXtovtEia, ry d/xapria, r<£ SiafioXqi. 
Tuvrov ovv oo 9pi]vii<toiiiv, x tins fioi; ov Trtipauo/jitOa twv kivSvvwv 
i'iap-Kaaai ; (the Latin edition rendereth this, not very faithfully, Hoc igitur 
non plorabimus, die, oro ? non tentabimus nos ab his periculis eripere ?) iffrt 
yap, iGTiv, iav GeXwpw, K0v<prjv aiir<p ytvkaOai Tr\v KohaGiv. av ovv 
ii'xdg iirtp aiiTov Troiwfitv o-vvsxtie, av lXtt)/ioo'vvr}v SiSwLitv. Kav £k£(- 
vog dvd^iog y,i)iidg 6 Osbg SvawiryatTai. Chrysost. in Act. hom. 21. torn. 9. 
pag. 174. 

x noXXoi Ka'i Ik to>v v<p' irepwv dt avroig ytytvijpsvwv tXtr)Lioo*vvu>v 
cnriovavTO. ti yap icai fit) TtXtbv, dXX' o/xwg irapa/ivOiav tvpov Tiva. 

y Tovro ovv yivtrai, 'ivu kqv avroi pi) wiitv ivdptroi, aTTOvSa^w/itv 
traipovg Kal (piXovg IvapeTovg ix £lv > Ka ' yvvalKa Kal vibv, wg Kapiroi Litvoi 
ti Kal cY aiiruiv. fiiKpbv li'ev Kapnoiifitvoi, KapirovjAivoi St o/iug. 

z M») To'ivvv aTrXdg KXaiio/xw Tovg diroQavovrag, dXXd rovg iv d/xap- 
riaig. ovtoi 9pr)vu>v d£ioi, ovroi KOTTtT&v Kai SaKOvotv. Troia yap tXirlg, 
tint fioi, fierd dpapTij/xdnov dniXQtiv, tv6a ovk iariv a/tapr/j/xarrt dwo- 
SvaaaQar twg fiiv yap 7/aav ivravOa, taiog yv irpocrdoKia 7ro\X»/, on iit- 
rafiaXovvrai, oti fitXriovg ttrovrai. av St d7rkX9io<nv tig rbv q.Si]V, ivOa 
oiik tanv divb (itTavoiag KipSdvai ti ('Ev yap ry $Sy, <prjui, rig i'iofio- 
XoyyjrrtTai o~oi ;) nCbg ov Opijviov a^toi ; Id. in epist. ad Philipp. hom. 3. op. 
torn. 11. pag. 216. 


bewailings and tears. For what hope is there, tell me, 
for men to depart with their sins, where they cannot put 
off their sins ? for as long as they were here, there was 
peradventure great expectation that they would be al- 
tered, that they would be bettered ; but, " being gone unto 
hell, where there is no gaining of any thing by repent- 
ance, for in hell, saith he, who shall confess unto thee i 
how are they not worthy of lamentations?" Let a us there- 
fore weep for such, let us succour them to our power, let 
us find out some help for them, little indeed, but yet such 
as may relieve them. How and after what manner? both 
praying ourselves, and entreating others to make prayers 
for them, and giving continually unto the poor for them ; 
for this thing bringeth some consolation." 

The like doctrine is delivered by Andrew 1 ', archbishop of 
Crete, in his sermon Of the life of man, and of the dead ; 
and by John Damascene, or whosoever else was author of 
the book ascribed unto him, concerning them that are de- 
parted in the faith : where three notable tales are told, of 
the benefit that even infidels and idolaters themselves 
should receive by such prayers as these. One, touching 
the soul of the emperor Trajan, delivered from hell by the 
prayers of pope Gregory: of the truth whereof lest any 
man should make question, he affirmeth very roundly, that 
no less than " the c whole east and west will witness that 
this is true and uncontrolable." And indeed in the east 
this fable seemeth first to have risen ; where it obtained 
such credit, that the Grecians to this day do still use this 
form of prayer: " As d thou didst loose Trajan from pun- 

a KXaiWjuri' oui' tovtovq, ftoi)0u)^iv avroig Kara Svvapiv, tirivoi'iaw- 
fitv axiToiQ riva /3o>/0£iai', /iiKQav /itv, j3oT)9tiv St o/xwg SwaflkviJV. TTutg 
Kai rivi rpojrw ; ai'iroi re tv\6fitvoi, Kai iriaovQ izapaKaXovvTiq tv\at; 
vTrcp avriuv iroulaUai, 7tsi'j/itij> virin ciutwv SiSojtkj <TWfx<*>C' *X £l r "'<« 
rb vpayfia TrapufivDiav. Ibid. 

b Andr. Hierosolymitan. elg tov avOpibirivov (3iov, Kai tic. Koi/itjOtfrac 
pag. 69, 70. edit. Meursii. 

c Kai oTt tovto yvi\<siov niXti Kai ahujiXtiTov, paprvc iipa naaa Kai 
iffnepior. Damascen. serni. de defunctis. 

d 'Qc tXv<raQ rijQ uatTTiyog Tpaiavbv (V tKTtvovg lprtv£ta)Q tov SovXov 
aov rpijyopiov tov AiaXoyov, trraKovtrov Kai r//to>i' Sio/ieviDV (tov, Eucho- 
log. Grsec. cap. 10. ut citat Meursiua: vol 96. ut Baronius, aim. 604. sec. M. 



ishment, by the earnest intercession of thy servant Gregory 
the dialogue-writer, hear us likewise who pray unto 
thee." And therefore to them doth Hugo Etherianus 
thus appeal, for justifying the truth of this narration : 
" Do e not, I pray you, say in your hearts, that this is false 
or feigned. Inquire if you please of the Grecians: the 
whole Greek Church surely doth testify these things." 
He might, if he had pleased, being an Italian himself, have 
inquired nearer home of the Romans, among whom this 
feat was reported to have been acted ; rather than among 
the Grecians, who were strangers to the business. But 
the Romans, as we understand by Johannes*" Diaconus in 
the life of St. Gregory, found no such matter among their 
records; and when they had notice given them thereof 
out of the legends of the Church of England, for from 
thence received they the news of this and some other such 
strange acts reported to have been done by St. Gregory 
among themselves ; they were not very hasty to believe it : 
because they could hardly be persuaded that St. Gregory, 
who had taught them, that " infidels g and wicked men, 
departed out of this life, were no more to be prayed for 
than the devil and his angels, which were appointed unto 
everlasting punishment," should in his practice be found 
to be so much different from his judgment. 

The second tale toucheth upon the very times of the 
apostles : wherein the apostless Thecla' 1 is said to have 
prayed for Falconilla, the daughter of Tryphaena, whom 
St. Paul saluteth', " a k Gentile and an idolatress, altoge- 

quanquam in euchologio impresso Venetiis ann. 1600. nusquam invenerim. lit 
suspicio sit a Romanis censoribus inde fuisse sublata. 

e Nolite, qu»so, dicere in cordibus vestris, falsum boc aut fictum esse. Qnae- 
rite, si placet, apud Graecos : Graeca certe omnis testator haec Ecclesia. Hug. 
Etherian. de regressu animar. ab inferis, cap. 15. 

f Jo. Diacon. vit. Gregor. lib. 2. cap. 44. 

s Gregor. moral, in Job, lib. 34. cap. 19. op. torn. 1. pag. 1133. quod pene ad 
verbum descriptum etiam habetur lib. 4. dialogor. cap. 44. torn. 2. pag. 

h r»}f /.iciKapiae 6s/c\»/c tT)Q awoaroKov icai fiaprvpoQ. Basil. Seleuc. in 
ipso initio commentarii de vita Thecloe. 

' Rom. chap. 16. ver. 12. 

k 2/co7r£i 6i ndXiv, vntp rwoc >) airj/<n£, on vnip iWrfviSog, tiSut- 


ther profane, and a servitor of another god," to this ef- 
fect : " O 1 God, Son of the true God, grant unto Try- 
phaena according to thy will, that her daughter may live 
with thee time without end ;" or, as Basil bishop of Seleu- 
cia doth express it, " Grant 111 unto thy servant Tryphaena, 
that her desire may be fulfilled concerning her daughter : 
her desire therein being this, that her soul may be num- 
bered among the souls of those that have already believed 
in thee, and may enjoy the life and pleasure that is in pa- 

The third tale he produceth out of Palladius his histo- 
rical book written unto Lausus ; although neither in the 
Greek set out by Meursius and Fronto Ducaeus, nor in the 
three several Latin editions, of that history published be- 
fore, there be any such thing to be found ; touching a dead 
man's skull, that should have uttered this speech unto 
Macarius the great Egyptian anchorite : " When" thou 
dost offer up thy prayers for the dead, then do we feel 
some little consolation." A brainless answer you may well 
conceive it to be, that must be thought to have proceeded 
from a dry skull lying by the highway side : but, as brain- 
less as it is, it hath not a little troubled the quick heads of 
our Romish divines, and put many an odd crotchet into 
their nimble brains. Renatus Laurentius telleth us, that 
" without all doubt it was an angel that did speak in this 
skull." And " I u say," quoth Alphonsus Mendoza, " that 
this head, which lay in the way, was not the head of one 

XoXarpiSbg re, kcu ircifiirav dvupov Kal dWorpiov Ki'piov IpycirwoQ. 

1 Qtt, vii Otou aiptvcovg, Sbg Tpv<paivy Kara rb abv OkXti/xa, wort r>)i> 
aurijQ Ovyarkpa rbv aiwvov 'Cyv irapa ffoi x9 ovov - Simeon Metaphrase 
in vita Theclae. 

"' Abe Kal ry SovXy ffov Tputpaivy rbv irri ry Qvyarpl vXt]pb)6ijVat 
■nbOov. ttuOoq Si aury to rt)v IkeiVjjC ipvx>)v rali; tCjv ?;<">/ aol -rrnriOTiv- 
kotwv ivapi9fii)0r]i>ai tyvxcUG, kci'i ri]Q tv napaPtiffip SialrrfQ Kal rpvtpijc 
iiTToXautiv. Basil. Selena lib. 1. de vita Theclae. 

" "OrtvTrtp ru>i> vtKpwv rag Stt)<rtig TrpoaQipitc, t6 n irapafivBias /"- 
Kpag aiffQavofttOa. Damasc. 

Non dubium est quin fuerit angelus, qui in cranio loqueretur. Renat 
Laurent, annotat. in Tertullian. dc anima, cap. 33. 

P Ad rem itaquc dico, caput illud, quod, ut habctur in D. Damasceno, in via 


that was damned ; but of a just man remaining in purga- 
tory : for Damascene doth not say in that sermon, that it 
was the head of a Gentile, as it may there be seen." And 
true it is indeed, he neither saith that it was so, neither 
yet that it was not so : but the Grecians generally relate 
the matter thus ; that " Macarius' 1 did hear this from the 
skull of one that had been a priest of idols, which he 
found lying in the wilderness, that, by his prayers, such as 
were with him in punishment received a little ease of 
their torment, whensoever it fell out that he made the 
same for them." And among the Latins, Thomas Aqui- 
nas, and other of the schoolmen take this for granted ; 
because they found in the lives of the fathers, that the 
speech which the dead skull used was this, " I r was a 
priest of the Gentiles," so John the Roman subdeacon 
translateth it ; or, as Ruffinus is supposed to have ren- 
dered it, " I was the chief of the priests of the idols, 
which dwelt in this place ; and thou art abbot Macarius, 
that art filled with the Spirit of God. At whatsoever hour 
therefore thou takest pity of them that are iu torments, 
and prayest for them, they then feel some consolation." 
Well, saith Mendoza then, " if 5 St. Thomas, relating this 
history out of the lives of the fathers, doth say that this 
was the head of a Gentile, he himself is bound to untie 
this knot." And so he doth ; resolving the matter thus, 
that 1 the damned get no true ease by the prayers made for 
them ; but such a fantastical kind of joy only as the devils 

jacebat, non fuisse hominis damnati, sed justi existentis in purgatoiio: nam Da- 
mascenus non dicit in illo sermone, quod fuerit hominis Gentilis, ut ibi patet. 
Alphons. Mendoz. controv. theolog. qua;st. 6. seholast. sec. 5. 

1 Tlapa Kpai'iov iv ry iprj/Kp kujjlIvov lipiwQ rwv ti.5u)\(t)V yeyovoTOQ, 
tovto ciKi'iKoi, rale; Trpoatv^cilg abrov fiixpop tovq iv ry KoXdati aurov 
av'uadai ttjq fiaaavov, orav rv%oi ravrag TroitiaOai vntp avrwv. Mense. 
Graec. Januar. 19. 

r Vit. patrum, edit. Lugdun. ann. 1515. fol. 105. col. 3, 4. et fol. 143. col. 1, 
2. et edit. Antverp. ann. 1615. pag. 526, et 656. 

s Quod si D. Tho. hanc historiam referens ex vitis patrum, dicit fuisse caput 
Gentilis, ipse nodum hunc tenetur enodare. Alphons. Mendoz. ut supr. 

' Thom. Aquin. in lib. 4. sentent. distinct. 45. quaest. 2. artic. 2, ad 4. et Du- 
rand. in eand. qucest. num. 15. 


are said to have, when they have seduced and deceived 
any man. " But u peradventare," saith cardinal Bellarmine 
for the upshot, " the things which are brought touching 
that skull, might better be rejected as false and apocry- 
phal." And Stephen Durant, more peremptorily : " The" 
things which are told of Trajan and Falconilla, delivered 
out of hell by the prayers of St. Gregory and Thecla, and 
of the dry skull spoken to by Macarius, be feigned and 

Which last answer, though it be the truest of all the rest, 
yet is it not to be doubted for all that, but that the general 
credit which these fables obtained, together with the 
countenance which the opinion of the Origenists did re- 
ceive from Didymus, Euagrius, Gregory Nyssen, if he be 
not corrupted, and other doctors, inclined the minds of 
men very much to apply the common use of praying for 
the dead unto this wrong end, of hoping to relieve the 
damned thereby. St. Augustine doth shew, that in his 
time not only some y , but exceeding many also, did out of 
an humane affection take compassion of the eternal pains 
of the damned ; and would not, believe that they should 
never have an end. And notwithstanding this error was 
publicly condemned afterwards in the Origenists by the 
fifth general council held at Constantinople, yet, by idle 
and voluptuous persons was it still greedily embraced, as 
Climacus 2 complaineth; and " even* now also," saith St. 
Gregory, " there be some, who therefore neglect to put 

u At fortasse melius rejicerentur, ut falsa et apocrypha, quae afferuntur de illo 
cranio. Bellarmin. de purgator. lib. 2. cap. i.S. 

x Quare quod de Trajano et Falconilla (quos liberatos ex inferno orationibua 
S. Gregorii et Theclae, ex Damascene), et quibusdam aliis, vulgo fertur) ; quae 
item de cranio arido interrogate a Macario, ex historia Palladii ad Lausum refe- 
runtur ; ficta et commentitia sunt. Steph. Durant. de ritib. Eccles. lib. 2. cap. 
43. sec. 12. 

y Frustra itaque nonnulli, inio quaniplurimi, eeternam damnatorum pcenam, 
et cruciatus sine intermissione perpctuos, huniano miserentur affectu ; atque ita 
futurum esse non credunt. Augustin. enchirid. ad Laurent, cap. 1 12. 

7 Johann. Climac. in fine 5. gradus BCals suae. 

a Sunt enim nunc etiam, qui idcirco peccatissuis ponerc finein negligunt, quia 
habere quandoquc finein futura super se judicia suspicantur. Gregor, moral, 
in Job, lib. 34. cap. 19. op. torn. 1. pag. 1132. 


an end unto their sins, because they imagine that the 
judgments which are to come upon them shall sometime 
have an end," Yea, of late days this opinion was main- 
tained by the Porretanians 5 as Thomas calleth them, and 
some of the canonists' 5 , the one following therein Gilbert 
Porreta bishop of Poictiers, in his book of theological 
questions ; the other, John Semeca, in his gloss upon 
Gratian ; that, by the prayers and suffrages of the living, 
the pains of some of the damned were continually dimi- 
nished, in such manner as infinite proportionable parts 
may be taken from a line, without ever coming unto an 
end of the division : which was in effect to take from them 
at the last all pain of sense, or sense of pain. For, as 
Thomas observeth it rightly, and Durand d after him, " in 
the division of a line, at last we must come unto that which 
is not sensible, considering, that a sensible body cannot 
be divided infinitely ; and so it would follow, that, after 
many suffrages, the pain remaining should not be sen- 
sible, and consequently should be no pain at all." 

Neither is it to be forgotten, that the invention of All- 
souls' day, of which you may read, if you please, Polydore 
Virgil, in his sixth book of the inventors of things, and 
the ninth chapter, that solemn day, I say, wherein our 
Romanists most devoutly perform all their superstitious 
observances for the dead, was occasioned at the first by 
the apprehension of this same erroneous conceit, that the 
souls of the damned might not only be eased, but fully 
also delivered, by the alms and prayers of the living. The 
whole narration of the business is thus laid down by 
Sigebertus Gemblacensis in his chronicle, at the year of 
our Lord nine hundred and ninety-eight : " This e time," 

b Gloss, in Gratian. caus. 13. quaest. 2. cap. 23. Tempus. Durand. in lib. 4. 
sent. dist. 45. quaest. 2. num. 7. Haec est sententia aliquorum juristarum. 

c Quia in divisione lineae tandem pervenitur ad hoc quod non est sensibile : 
corpus enim sensibile non est infinitum divisibile. Et sic sequeretur, quod post 
multa suffragia poena remanens propter sui parvitatem non sentiretur ; et ita 
non esset poena. Thorn, in 4. sentent. dist. 45. quaest. 2. art. 2. 

d Durand. in. 4. d. 45. quaest. 2. num. 8. 

e Hoc tempore quidam religiosus ab Hierosolymis rediens, in Sicilia reclusi 
cujusdam humanitate aliquandiu recreatus, didicit ab eo inter caetera, quod in 


saith he, " a certain religious man returning from Jeru- 
salem, being entertained for a while in Sicily by the cour- 
tesy of a certain anchorite, learned from him, among other 
matters, that there were places near unto them that used 
to cast up burning flames, which by the inhabitants were 
called the Pots of Vulcan, wherein the souls of the re- 
probate, according to the quality of their deserts, did suf- 
fer diverse punishments ; the devils being there deputed 
for the execution thereof: whose voices, angers and ter- 
rors, and sometimes bowlings also, he said he often heard; 
as lamenting that the souls of the damned were taken out 
of their hands by the alms and prayers of the faithful ; 
and more at this time by the prayers of the monks of 
Cluny, who prayed without ceasing for the rest of those 
that were deceased. The abbot Odilo, having understood 
this by him, appointed throughout all the monasteries under 
his subjection, that, as upon the first day of November the 
solemnity of all the saints is observed, so upon the day 
following, the memorial of all that rested in Christ should 
be celebrated. Which rite, passing into many other 
Churches, made the memory of the faithful deceased to be 

For the elect, this form of prayer was wont to be used 
in the Roman Church: " O f God, unto whom alone is 
known the number of the elect that are to be placed in 

ilia vicinia essent loca eructantia flammarum incendia, qua; loca vocantur ab 
incolis Ollae Vulcani, in quibus animae reproboruni luant diversa pro meritorum 
qualitate supplicia ; ad ea exequenda deputatis ibi daemonibus : quorum se cre- 
bro voces, iras, et terrores, saepe etiam ejulatus audisse dicebat, plangentium 
quod animae damnatorum eriperentur de manibus eoruni per eleemosynas e i 
preces fidelium ; et hoc tempore magis per orationes Cluniacensium, orantium 
indefesse pro defunctorum requie. Hoc per ipsum abbas Odilo comperto, con- 
stituit per omnia monasteria sibi subjecta, ut, sicut primo die N.ovembris solem- 
nitas omnium sanctorum agitur, ita sequenti die memoria omnium in Christo 
quiescentium celebretur. Qui ritus, ad multas Ecclesias transiens, fidelium de- 
functorum memoriam solemnizari fecit. Sigebert. chron. ami. 998. 

f Deus, cui soli cognitus est numerus electorum in superna felicitate locan- 
dorum, tribue, quaesumus, ut universorum, quos in oratione commendatos sus- 
cepimus, vel omnium fidelium nomina, beatae praedestinationis liber asscripta re- 
tineat. Grcgor. oper. torn. 5. col. 220. Alcuin. lib. sacramentor. cap. IS. oper. 
col. 1190. missal. Roman, edit. Paris, aim. 1.520. inter orationes communes. 


the supernal bliss ; grant, we beseech thee, that the book 
of blessed predestination may retain the names of all those 
whom we have undertaken to recommend in our prayer, 
or of all the faithful that are written therein." And to 
pray, that the names of all those that are written in the 
book of God's election, should still be retained therein, 
maybe somewhat tolerable; considering, as the divines of 
that side have informed us, that those things may be 
prayed for, which we know most certainly will come to 
pass. But hardly, I think, shall you find in any ritual a 
form of prayer answerable to this of the monks of Cluny 
for the reprobate : unless it be that whereby St. Francis is 
said to have obtained, that friar Elias should be made ex g 
prcescito prcedestinatus, an elect of a reprobate. Yet' 1 it 
seemeth that some were not very well pleased, that what was 
done so seldom by St. Francis, the angel 1 of the friars, and 
that for a reprobate yet living, should be so usually practised 
by the followers of St. Odilo the archangel k of the monks, 
for reprobates that were dead ; and therefore, in the com- 
mon editions of Sigebert's chronicle, they have clean struck 
out the word damnatorum, and instead of reproborum 
chopt in defu net or um; which depravation may be de- 
tected, as well by the sincere edition of Sigebert, pub- 
lished by Aubertus Miraeus out of the manuscript of Gem- 
blac abbay, which is thought to be the original copy of 
Sigebert himself, as by the comparing of him with Petrus 
Damiani in the life of Odilo, whence this whole narration 
was by him borrowed. For there also do we read, that 
in those flaming places " the 1 souls of the reprobate, ac- 

s Raphael Volaterran. commentar. Urban, lib. 21. 

h So Alanus de rupe would fain persuade fools, quod reprobi et prasciti per 
devotionem rosarii vitam aeternam assequantur : that very reprobates by the de- 
vout use of the rosary might obtain everlasting life. But the friars of his own 
order were so much ashamed thereof, that in the revival of his work of the ro- 
sary, set out by Coppenstein, and printed at Mentz, anno 1C24. they have quite 
cut it off and extinguished it. 

' Bonaventur. in prologo vita Francisci. Bernardin. de Busto, rosar. torn. 2. 
serm. 27. part. 2. 

Fulbert. Carnotens. epist. 66. 

1 In quibus etiam locis animse reproborum diversa luunt pro meritorum qua- 
litate tormenta. Petr. Damian. in vit. Odil. tomo 1. Surii, Januar. 1. 


cording to the quality of their deserts, did suffer divers 
torments:" and that the devils did complain, " that" 1 by 
the alms and prayers of Odilo and others, the souls of the 
damned were taken out of their hands." 

By these things we may see what we are to judge of 
that which our adversaries press so much against us out 
of Epiphanius : that he " nameth" an obscure fellow, one 
Aerius, to be the first author of this heresy, that prayers 
and sacrifice profiteth not the departed in Christ." For 
neither doth Epiphanius name this to be an heresy ; nei- 
ther doth it appear that himself did hold, that prayers and 
oblations bring such profit to the dead as these men dream 
they do. He is much deceived, who thinketh evei*y thing 
that Epiphanius findeth fault withal in heretics is es- 
teemed by him to be an heresy, seeing heresy cannot be 
but in matters of faith ; and the course which Epiphanius 
taketh in that work is not only to declare, in what special 
points of faith heretics did dissent from the Catholic doc- 
trine ; but in what particular observances also they re- 
fused to follow the received customs and ordinances of the 
Church. Therefore at the end of the whole work he 
setteth down a brief, first of the faith, and then of the 
ordinances and observances of the Church ; and among 
the particulars of the latter kind he rehearseth this : 
" For' 1 the dead, they make commemorations by name, per- 
forming (or, when they do perform) their prayers, and 
divine service, and dispensation of the mysteries ;" and 
disputing against Aerius touching the point itself, he doth 

111 Quod orationibus et eleemosynis quorundam, adversus eos infoederabiliter 
eoncertantium, frequenter ex eorum manibus eripcrentur animse damnatorum. 
Inter caetera de Cluniacensium coetu permaximam et eorum abbate querinioniani 
faciunt, quia quam saepe per eos sui juris vernaculos perdunt. Ibid. 

n Allen, of purgatory and prayer for tbe dead, book 2. chap. 14. 

° Kai H [liv irtpi Tviartwc t^n avri] i) floVT) ku9o\ik>) S-KicXiifrirt, &c. 
ovi>t6[uoc 'i<pr)fiev. TTtoi Tt Trarpbg Kai utofi Kai ayi'ot' irvtVfiaTOQ ojxooviji- 
6tt)toq , Krtt Tripi r/;C ivffdpKov xpitrrov Kai TtXtiag Trap ova Lac;, Kai dXXutv 
fitpiov t?i<; TriGTuoQ. \ltpi Ot(T[iG)v ck ri)c airrJQ iv 6\ly<fi fisv //oi trrri 
ttuKiv dvayKi) rov TrapaUi-ijOai rwv avTtov Otff/iioi' ctirb /itpovg to tldot;. 
Epiphan. in fine Panarii, Op. toni. 1. pag. 1103. 

P 'Eni Sk ruiv TiXtvTrjvdi'Ttijv, i$ ovofiarog Tag ^ivijfiag iroiotn'rat, 
Trpomv^dg TtXovvTig Kai \arptiag Kai oiKOVOfiias. Ibid. pag. 1106. 



not at all charge him with forsaking the doctrine of the 
Scriptures, or the faith of the Catholic Church concerning 
the state of those that are departed out of this life ; but 
with rejecting the order observed by the Church in her 
commemorations of the dead ; which being an ancient in- 
stitution, brought in upon wonderful good considerations, 
as he maintaineth, should not by this humorous heretic 
have been thus condemned : " The q Church," saith he, 
doth necessarily perform this, having received it by tra- 
dition from the fathers ; and who may dissolve the ordi- 
nance of his mother, or the law of his father ?" and again : 
" Our r mother the Church hath ordinances settled in her, 
which are inviolable, and may not be broken. Seeing 
then there are ordinances established in the Church, and 
they are well, and all things are admirably done : this se- 
ducer is again refuted." 

For the further opening hereof, it will not be amiss to 
consider both of the objection of Aerius, and of the an- 
swer of Epiphanius. Thus did Aerius argue against the 
practice of the Church : " For 5 what reason do you com- 
memorate after death the names of those that are de- 
parted ? He that is alive prayeth, or maketh dispensa- 
tion (of the mysteries) : what shall the dead be profited 
hereby ? And if the prayer of those here do altogether 
profit them that be there, then let no body be godly, let 
no man do good ; but let him procure some friends, by 
what means it pleaseth him, either persuading them by 

i 'Avaynaicog // £K/c\»;<Tia tovto tniTtXti, irapdSoGiv Xaflovoa irapd 
7rar6pwi' - Tig Si Svvr)<TeTai 9tfffibv fiijTpbg KaTaXvtw, »/ vn/iov Trarpog ; 
Id. haeres. 75. pag. 912. 

'' i) Si ii!]T?ip ijpi' i) 4KicXjj(7ia £i%£ OtGfiovg Iv avTy iccifisvovg, dXvrovg, 
fir) Svvafiivovg KaTaXvQijvai. TiTayukvwv roivvv twv ev Ty ek/cXj/ch'^ 
QiGuCov, teal tcaXwg ixovrwv, fcai twv irdvrwv OavfiairiwgyivouivaiPjiXi)- 
Xacrai -nciXiv teal ovrog 6 irXdvog. Ibid. 

s Tin r<p \6y<£) fierd Bdvarov 6vopa^£7£ bvouara Tt9vi<l>rwv; fw%f rai 
yap 6 %u>v t] oiKovou'iav t7r<m/<7£, tL w(peXt]9i](T£Tai 6 rtQvtojg; d Si oXiog 
ii>Xn Toiv ivravQa rovg tictlffs wvrjffcv, dpa yoDv /ijjSeig tvcrtjSeirw fitjSi 
dya9o7rouirco, dXXd KrjjcracrQw (piXovg rivdg, Si ov fiovXtTai Tpoirov, fjroi 
Xpt'lfiaffi Triiaag, i'/toi ipiXovg d^noaag tv Ty tsXevtij, tcai t'ux'iaQuHJav 7repl 
avTOv, 'iva fit) ti ttctT ndtiy, firfdi Ta vtt' ai)Tov ysi'6/.itva twv dj'ijKtcrTiov 
duapTiiudTioi> tKs»;~»7^y- Aerius, apud Epiphan. lb. pag. 908. 


money, or entreating friends at his death ; and let them 
pray for him that he may suffer nothing there, and that 
those inexpiable sins, which he hath committed, may not be 
required at his hands." This was Aerius his argumenta- 
tion : which would have been of force indeed, if the whole 
Church had held, as many did, that the judgment after 
death was suspended until the general resurrection, and 
that in the mean time the sins of the dead might be taken 
away by the suffrages of the living. But he should have 
considered, as Stephanus Gobarus, who was as great an 
heretic as himself, did, that the doctors were not agreed 
upon the point: some of them maintaining, " that* the 
soul of every one that departed out of this life received 
very great profit by the prayers and oblations and alms 
that were performed for him ; and others on the contrary 
side, that it was not so ;" and that it was a foolish part of 
him to confound the private opinion of some, with the 
common faith of the universal Church. That he reproved 
this particular error, which seemeth to have gotten head 
in his time, as being most plausible to the multitude, and 
very pleasing unto the looser sort of Christians, therein he 
did well : but that thereupon he condemned the general 
practice of the Church, which had no dependance upon 
that erroneous conceit, therein he did like unto himself, 
headily and perversely. For the Church, in her comme- 
morations and prayers for the dead, had no relation at all 
unto those that had led their lives lewdly and dissolutely ; 
as appeareth plainly, both by the author" of the Ecclesi- 
astical Hierarchy, and by divers other evidences before 
alleged-; but unto those that did end their lives in such a 
godly manner, as gave pregnant hope unto the living that 
their souls were at rest with God ; and to such as these 
alone did it wish the accomplishment of that which re- 

1 'On iravroQ TiQveioros 4 /v X > ) uftXtiTca p'tyiora diet riov v-rrtp <</'rm> 
iTTiTiXopivuv tvx^v, Kai npoatyopoiv, Kai t\t>ipotjvvioi> Kai tx roii aVTiicei- 
fi'tvov, on oux ovrui. Gofoar. in Photii bibliotheca, vol. 232. 

u Kaiydpovde tovto koivov tern roli; ifj»o7c rt Kai avispoig. Di> 
eccles. hierarch. cap. 7. init. Et postea: A<6 Toig &VUpoi£ ovk iTttvxirai 

TCtVTa KtKOllUjpil'Otr. 




mained of their redemption; to wit, their public justifi- 
cation and solemn acquittal at the last day, and their per- 
fect consummation of bliss, both in body and soul, in the 
kingdom of heaven for ever after : not that the event of 
these things was conceived to be any ways doubtful ; for 
we have been told that things may be prayed for, the 
event whereof is known to be most certain : but because 
the commemoration thereof was thought to serve for spe- 
cial use, not only in regard of the manifestation of the af- 
fection of the living toward the dead (he that prayed, as 
Dionysius noteth, " desiring 1 * other men's gifts as if they 
were his own graces") ; but also in respect of the consola- 
tion and instruction which the living might receive there- 
by ; as Epiphanius in his answer toAerius, doth more par- 
ticularly declare. 

The objection of Aerius was this: the commemorations 
and prayers used in the Church bring no profit to the 
dead ; therefore, as an unprofitable thing, they are to be 
rejected. To this doth Epiphanius thus frame his answer : 
" As x for the reciting of the names of those that are de- 
ceased, what can be better than this ? what more commo- 
dious, and more admirable ? that such as are present do 
believe, that they who are departed do live, and are not 
extinguished, but are still being and living with the Lord : 
and that this most pious preaching might be declared, that 
they, who pray for their brethren, have hope of them as 
being in a peregrination." Which is as much in effect as 
if he had denied Aerius his consequence ; and answered 
him, that, although the dead were not profited by this 
action, yet it did not therefore follow that it should be 
condemned as altogether unprofitable, because it had a 

w irri to 9eo/iiu7]Tov dyadotiSiog iKTvnovptvog, Kai Tag iTipiov Swptdg 
&>g oiKtiag t^aiToiv ^aptraf. Id. ibid. 

% Tltpi rov ovofiara Xeytiy rwv TtXevrrjaavTuv, ti av liij tovtov irpovp- 
ytairepov ; ri tovtov Kaipi(iiTipoi> Kai QavfiaauoTtpov ; ■kkttivuv fiiv rovg 
napovTag, on 01 cnrtXOovTig X,S>ai, Kai iv di'virapZiq. ovk tiaiv, aWa liai 
icai £di<T( irapa r<£ StanoT-g, Kai onwg av to aep-vorarov Ktjpvypa Sujyi}- 
coito, wc tkirig ia-iv inrip afieXfwv iv%Ofikvoig tog iv cnrodiin'iq rvy%a- 
vovtojv. Epiphan. hares. 75. pag. Oil. 


singular use otherwise : namely to testify the faith and the 
hope of the living concerning the dead : the faith, in 
" declaring 3, them to be alive," for so doth Dionysius also 
expound the Church's intention in her public nomination 
of the dead, " and, as divinity teacheth, not mortified, but 
translated from death unto a most divine life ;" the hope, 
in that they signified hereby, that they accounted their 
brethren to have departed from them no otherwise than 
as if they had been in a journey, with expectation to meet 
them afterward : and by this means made a difference be- 
twixt themselves and " others 2 which had no hope." Then 
doth Epiphanius proceed further in answering the same 
objection, after this manner: " The a prayer also which 
is made for them doth profit, although it do not cut off all 
their sins : yet, forasmuch as whilst we are in the world, we 
oftentimes slip both unwillingly and with our will, it serv- 
eth to signify that which is more perfect. For we make 
a memorial both for the just and for sinners: for sinners, 
entreating the mercy of God ; for the just, both the fa- 
thers and patriarchs, the prophets, and apostles, and evan- 
gelists, and martyrs, and confessors, bishops also and ancho- 
rites, and the whole order, that we may sever our Lord 
Jesus Christ from the rank of all other men, by the ho- 
nour that we do unto him, and that we may yield worship 
unto him." Which, as far as I apprehend him, is no more 
than if he had thus replied unto Aerius. Although the 

y rovg ciwg ^wvrag dvaKijpvTTOvaa, Kai wg i) OtoXoyia <p>irriv, ov vik- 
pwOivTag, dXX' tig Quotciti)!' Z,m>)v Ik Bavdrov utratpoiTt'icravTag. Dionys. 
eccles. hierarch. cap. 3. Oi yap Bt<ji TreiruTTtvicoric, edv /cat KoifirjcrBwnii', 
ovk tlcri vtKpol. Clem, constitut. apost. lib. C. cap. 29. 

1 1 Thess. chap. 4. ver. 13. 

a 'Q<ptXtl St Kai »; inrip avrCov yivopli'r) ti'X'h £( ' Ka ' Ttl bXa t&v airta- 
fiarwv fir) airoKOTrror dXX' ovv yi Cut to noXXdicig iv KOfffKf) I'lficig ovrag 
atpdXXtaOai (iKovrriwg re Kai tKovoiijjg, 'iva to ivriKi-nrtpov <Tti/iav9r}. Kai 
yap [i>7rff>] fiiicaiiov troiov/jLiOa ti)v fivfi/irfv, Kai vir'tp d/iaprioXwv virip 
fitv djiapToiXwv, inrip IXtovg Biov Otofitvot. (f. dtofiBVOi.) vTrip Si SiKaiojv, 
Kai TraTtpix)V Kai iraTpidpxwv, 7rpn(f>7)To)V, Kai airoffToXwv, Kai f i'dyyi Xicj- 
rwv, Kai fiaprvpwi', Kai 6/to\oy»/ro)r, iiri<TK6iru>V Tt Kai avax<t>pt]TU}V, Kai 
iravToQ tov Tayp.arog,'iva rbv xtipiov 'lqrrovv XpitTrbv atpopiffutptv airb 
r>)g Tuiv ctvOpiInroii' ra£t(tig did Ti)g npbg abrbv Ti/njC, Kai aifiag avTiji 
aTTocCofiii'. Epiphan. hser. 75. pag. 911. 


prayer that is made for the dead do not cut off all their 
sins, which is the only thing that thou goest about to 
prove, yet doth it profit notwithstanding for another pur- 
pose : namely, to signify the supereminent perfection of 
our Saviour Christ above the rest of the sons of men, who 
are subject to manifold slips and falls, as long as they 
live in this world. 

For as well the righteous with their involuntary slips, 
as sinners with their voluntary falls, do come within the 
compass of these commemorations, wherein prayers are 
made, both for sinners' 5 that repent, and for righteous 
persons that have no such need of repentance. For sin- 
ners ; that, being by their repentance recovered out of the 
snare of the devil, they may find mercy of the Lord at the 
last day, and be freed from the fire prepared for the devil 
and his angels. For the righteous ; that they may be re- 
compensed in the resurrection of the just, and received into 
the kingdom prepared for them from the foundation of the 
world. Which kind of prayer, being made for the best 
men that ever lived, even the patriarchs, prophets, apos- 
tles, evangelists, and martyrs themselves, Christ only ex- 
cepted, sheweth that the profit, which the Church in- 
tended should be reaped therefrom, was not so much the 
taking away the sins of the parties that were prayed for, as 
the honouring of their Lord above them ; it being hereby 
declared, " that c our Lord is not to be compared unto 
any man, though a man live in righteousness a thousand 
times and more; for how should that be possible, consi- 
dering that the one is God, and the other man (as the 
praying to the one, and for the other, both discover) : and 
the one is in heaven, the other in earth, by reason of the re- 
mains of the body yet resting in the earth," until the day 
of the resurrection, unto which all these prayers had spe- 

b Luke, chap. 17. ver. 7. 

c 'Ei> Ivvoicf, ovrtg, ort ovk tariv i^i<rovfiivog 6 Kvpiog rivi tmv civQpw- 
ttmv Kciv rs /xvpia teat ineKUVu iv ducaioout/y virapx*) (kcigtoq dvOpwirwv. 
ttwq yap olovrt th] tovto ; 6 fiiv yap iari Otbg, 6 Si avOpioiroQ. icai 6 fiiv 
h> vl'pavtp, 6 t?£ 47ri rijg y^dia ra ini yT/g Xdipava. Epiph. contr. Aer. 
ha-r. 75. pag. Oil. 


cial reference. This do I conceive to be the right meaning 
of Epiphanius his answer ; as suiting best both with the 
general intention of the Church, which he taketh upon 
him to vindicate from the misconstruction of Aerius, and 
with the application thereof unto his objection, and with 
the known doctrine of Epiphanius, delivered by him else- 
where in these terms : " After d death there is no help to 
be gotten, either by godliness or by repentance. For La- 
zarus doth not go there unto the rich man, nor the rich 
man unto Lazarus : neither doth Abraham send any of 
his spoils, that the poor may be afterward made rich 
thereby ; neither doth the rich man obtain that which he 
asketh, although he entreat merciful Abraham with instant 
supplication. For the garners are sealed up, and the time is 
fulfilled, and the combat is finished, and the lists are voided, 
and the garlands are given: and such as have fought are 
at rest, and such as have not obtained are gone forth, and 
such as have not fought cannot now be present in time, 
and such as have been overthrown in the lists are cast out ; 
and all things are clearly finished, after that we are once 
departed from hence." 

And for the general intention of the Church, beside 
what already hath been at large declared of the times 
past, let us a little compare the ancient practice of pray- 
ing for the dead, maintained by Epiphanius, with the foot- 
steps which remain thereof in the Euchologe used by the 
Grecians at this very day. For first, that the parties 
prayed for are not supposed to be in any place of tor- 
ment, appeareth by that speech which they apply to the 
party deceased, even in the midst of the prayers which 
they make for the forgiveness of his sins, and the resting 

'' Oi'ts jiiv 7r op t<T/.t of ihatfltiar, ovrt fitTavoiaQ, ptrd Qdvarov. ov yap 
Kd'^apoq dnipxETat npoQ tov nXovaiov ticel, ovrt 6 nXovmot; irpbg tov 
Ad'£apoi>,oi'<rt Af}padjt a7ro(TTfXXti (TKvXwi'rbv iz'tV)\Ta TrXoDTijuat varipm-, 
ovrt 6 TrXovmog wv ahitrai, Kainip ptrd 'ikmtiuq rbv iXtlifiova Afipadp 
irapaKaXtauQ' intypayinrat yap rd rapiua, Kai TrtnXiipwrai o xpovoi;, Kal 
b dyoiv trtXiaOti, Kai tKivuiBt) to dKafifxa, Kal oi ar'ttyuvot io69tjoav t Kai 
dyioviadptvoi dviwdyifrtav, Kal o'i pt) <l>0d<T(ti>rf{; iZfJKCLV, Kai oi pi) dyo)Vl- 
adptvoi o\ik'(,ti evirapovm, Kal o\ iv rtfi cricajujuari fimfiivrtQ i^cjSX^dqffav, 
Kal ra rcavra <ra<j>CoQ TtTiXtioirat, ptrd ti)v ivrivQtv iKOtj/Jiiav. Id. contra 
Cathar. hasres. 59. pag. 502. 


of his soul. " Blessed* is the way wherein thou art going 
to day, brother ; for to thee is prepared a place of rest ;" 
and by the prayer following : " He f is from hence de- 
parted breathless, thither, where there is the reward of his 
works; thither, where there is the joy of all the saints : with 
whom rest thou this deceased person, O God, of thy 
mercy and loving kindness." Secondly, that they make 
these prayers as well for the righteous as for sinners ; this 
orison, among others, doth demonstrate: " The 5 faithful 
which have left this life holily, and removed to thee their 
Lord, receive benignly, giving them rest out of thy tender 
mercy." Thirdly, that in these prayers they aim at those 
ends expi-essed by Epiphanius, as well the testifying their 
belief of the peregrination of their brethren and their liv- 
ing with the Lord, as the putting a difference betwixt 
Christ our Saviour and all other men how blessed soever 
(in respect the one is God, the other but men; the one 
after his glorious resurrection remaineth now immortal in 
heaven, the other continue yet in the state of dissolution, 
with their bodies resting in the earth, in expectation of the 
resurrection ; the purity and perfection of the one is most 
absolute, the manifold failings of the very best of the other 
such, that they stand in need of mercy and pardon) ; this 
prayer following may witness. 

" Receive' 1 , O Lord, our prayers and supplications, 

e MaKapia r) bSbg ijv Troptvi] aljiitpov, dctX(pt, on >}roi/ta<r0f; aoi rorrog 
dvaTravaaog. Eucholog. Grsec. edit. Venet. aim. 1G00. fol. 118, et 125. 

f "Arcvovg t%i)X6t, cnrtj\0ti> sk rwv ivGivSt, tKtl ottov b fiiadbg rwv tp- 
yiov virapxer tKti ottov i) X a P" iravTWV rwv dy'nov /.it6' iov dvdnavaov 
rbv K(KOip))nei'ov 6 9tbg i>Q tXtijpwv Kai (jiiXavdoonrog. Ibib. fol. 126. a. 

S 'Isp&g rovg rbv fiiov drcoXirrovrag rnarovg, Kai rrpbg at rbv Stairo- 
Ttjv ntTa\Mpii<TavTag, ct^ai Trpoaijvujg, dvanavutv wg tvarrXayxvog. Ibid. 
fol. 110. b. 

h Ai'iai, SeffTrora, fitijatig Kai iKtcriag iiptrepag, Kal avcnravaov rrdvrag 
rovg rrartpag iKaarov Kai ji^r'tpag, Kai dStXtyovg Kai dStX^xig Kai t'ekvu, Kal 
tin iiXXo bfioytvigKai b/.i6(jii'Xov Kai rrdaag Tag npoavarravaafitvag-^/vxag, 
ire' tXTrict di'aardatwg aiwviov Kai Kardra^ov Trvsvfiard rd avrwv Kai rd 
aiupara tv /3i/3X(/j £w>")£, Iv KoXrroig ' Afipadfi Kai 'laaaK Kai 'laKwfi, tv \m- 
paig Ziovnov, tig fiaaiXtiav ovpaviov, tv 7rapaStia<ii rpv^fig. cid ru>v Qcorti- 
vSjv dyyiXvjv aov tiadyiov arruvrag tig rag dyiag aov fiovdg. avv'tytipov 
Kai tu (Ti-ifxara >)faov tv ijn'tpct >j oipiaag, Kara tag dyiag aov Kai dxptvdtXg 


and give rest unto all our fathers and mothers, and breth- 
ren and sisters, and children, and all our other kindred 
and alliance, and unto all souls that rest before us in hope 
of the everlasting resurrection ; and place their spirits and 
their bodies in the book of life, in the bosoms of Abraham 
and Isaac and Jacob, in the region of the living, in the 
kingdom of heaven, in the paradise of delight, by thy 
bright angels bringing all into thy holy mansions. liaise 
also our bodies together with theirs, in the day which 
thou hast appointed, according to thy holy and true pro- 
mises. It is not a death then, O Lord, unto thy servants, 
when we flit from the body and go home to thee our God : 
but a translation from a soiTOwful state unto a better and 
more delightful, and a refreshment and joy. And if we 
have sinned in any thing against thee, be gracious both 
unto us and unto them ; forasmuch as no man is clean 
from pollution before thee, no, though his life were but 
of one day ; thou alone excepted, who didst appear upon 
earth without sin, Jesus Christ our Lord, by whom we all 
hope to obtain mercy and pardon of our sins. Therefore, 
as a good and merciful God, release and forgive both us 
and them ; pardon our offences, as well voluntary as in- 
voluntary, of knowledge and of ignorance, both manifest 
and hidden, in deed, in thought, in word, in all our con- 
versations and motions; and to those that are gone before 
us grant freedom and release ; and us that remain bless, 
granting a good and a peaceable end both to us and to all 
thy people." Whereunto this other short prayer also for 

i7rayytXiag. ovk 'iariv ovv, Kvpit, role FotiXoic gov Qd^aroe, iKdi/fiovv- 
rufv r\u.5>V dirb rov awfiarog, Kai Trpbc. oi rbv Otbv ivdrijiovVTiav dX\d 
fiiraGraGig XvTn)poripwvini rd xptiGToripa Kai Qvfi)\iiGTipa, Kai drdirav- 
Gic Kai X a P a - 3Ei Si Kai ri ijpdprofitv £t£ a\, 'iXtioc yevov fj/juv rt Kai av- 
toiq' ciori ovdiicKaBapbc. cnru pinrov ivtoniov gov, ovc' av fiia t'ifiipa i; £w/) 
alirov f arii', ti fit) fibvoe av 6 eirl yijg (pavtig dvafidprijrog, b Kvpxoq i)fiCJi> 
'IrjGovg Xpiorbg,Ci' ou irdvrig iXni^opiv iXiovg TVj^iiv Kai dipiatwg dfiao- 
riS)V. Aia rovro r)fiiv rt Kai ailTOiq, a»t' dyaObg Kai (j)iXdi>Opii)iroe Otbg, aver, 
d(j>tc, (rvyxvp'I'Tov rd Trapairrwfiara ffflwv, rd iKOixria, Kai rd aKOvoia, 
rd iv yvwGfi Kai iv dyvoia, rd TrpodrjXa, rd XavOdvovra, rd iv npd^ii, rd 
iv ciavoiq, rd iv Xoyip, rd iv irdoatg fffi&v Talc Avaarpoipaic Kai rote 
KlVTfuafff Kai rolg fiiv irpoXafiovaiV IXlvQtpiav Kai uvigiv Supqirai. >'//tai 
(i rove ntpiovrac tvXoyrjGov, riXog dyaObv Kai tiprjViKbv rrapi\6iitV0i rt Kai wavri r*p Xa<[i gov. Ibid. fol. 17'i. Ij. 


one that is deceased may be added : " None', no not one 
man, hath been without sin, but thou alone, O Immortal. 
Therefore, as a God full of compassion, place thy servant 
in light with the choirs of thine angels; by thy tender 
mercy passing over his iniquities, and granting to him the 

Lastly, that these prayers have principal relation to the 
judgment of the great day, and do respect the escaping 
of the unquenchable fire of Gehenna, not the temporal 
flames of any imaginary purgatory ; is plain, both by these 
kind of prosopopoeias, which they attribute to the party 
deceased : " Supplicate k with tears unto Christ, who is to 
judge my poor soul, that he would deliver me from that 
fire which is unquenchable." " I 1 beseech all my acquaint- 
ance and my friends ; make mention of me in the day of 
judgment, that I may find mercy at that dreadful tribunal." 
" Bemired" 1 with sins, and naked of good deeds, I that am 
worms' meat cry in spirit : Cast not me wretch away from 
thy face, place me not on thy left hand who with thy 
hands didst fashion me ; but give rest unto him whom thou 
hast taken away by thy command, O Lord, for thy great 
mercy's sake ;" and by these prayers, which are accordingly 
tendered for him by the living: " When" in unspeakable 
glory thou dost come dreadfully to judge the whole world, 
vouchsafe, O Redeemer, that this thy faithful servant, 

' OvSrig dvafidpT^rog, ovStig rwv dv9poJ7rwv y'tyovtv, d /xi) av ftovt 

ClQaVOLTS. (U6 TOV SovXoV GOV, WQ 6tbg OIKTipflMV, tV <pl>JTl KClTtlTClZov dVV 

raig xopoffraffinff dyy'tXiov aov ry tu<JTr\ctyx v ' ( , 1 ffou vntpfiaivuiv dvofiij- 
/j,ara,Kal ira.pkx i0V avT(p rrjv dvdaraaiv. Ibid. fol. 121. b. 

k Tbv tyovra Kp'ivat n)v rairtivr)V p.ov ipvx>)v, avv Idupvai Xpiarbi' 
tKtrtvaarc, oTT(og /as Trvpbg l^tXijrai rov dajikarov. Ibid. fol. 134. b. 

1 \.ketevo> izdvrag rove y vwarovg ko.1 Trpoa<piXtTg fiov, fiviiav 7roulre fiov 
sv iffikpq. icpiatiog, 'iva Evpa) iXtog *7ri rov (Hjfiarog ttctivov rov (po[3cpov. 

m ptfiopfioptofitvog rrtig dfiapr'iaig, kcu yiyvfiviofitvog icaropOo>fidrioi>, 
KpavyaZ,ti) T<p TrviVfian, >'/ jiopd t&v atzoXifKuv fii) fie n)v rdXaivav 
cnropp'fibqe, enrb rov gov irpoawirov, fir] fit t£ tvwvvfiu) an)at]g 6 X i P ai aov 
fie irXdaag. dXX' dvd-rravaov ov irpofftXdfiov rrj irpoard^ei aov, Kvpie, £<d 
rb fieya aov TXioq. Ibid. fol. 138. b. 

n 'A<ppdar<i> ri) Sofy aov orav 'iX9>]g <po(3tpwg uplvai rbv Koa/iov uiravra, 
iv vi<ptXaig iveotcijaov Xvrpiord (paiftpwg incavT)jaai aoi, ov Ik yijg wpoaiXd- 
flov, niarbv BovXov aov. Ibid. fol. 116. a. 


whom thou hast taken from the earth, may in the clouds 
meet thee cheerfully." " They who have been dead from 
the beginning, with terrible and fearful trembling stand- 
ing at thy tribunal, await thy just censure, O Saviour, and 
receive God's righteous judgment. At that time, O Lord 
and Saviour, spare thy servant who in faith is gone unto 
thee ; and vouchsafe unto him thine everlasting joy and 
bliss." " None? shall fly there the dreadful tribunal of thy 
judgment. All kings and princes with servants stand to- 
gether, and hear the dreadful voice of the Judge, con- 
demning the people which have sinned into hell ; from 
which, O Christ, deliver thy servant." " Af> that time, O 
Christ, spare him whom thou hast translated hence." 
" O r Lord, our only King, vouchsafe, we beseech thee, thine 
heavenly kingdom to thy servant whom thou hast now 
translated hence : and then preserve him uncondemned, 
when every mortal wight shall stand before thee the Judge, 
to receive their judgment." 

We are to consider then, that the prayers and obla- 
tions, for rejecting whereof Aerius was reproved, were 
not such as are used in the Church of Rome at this day ; 
but such as were used by the ancient Church at that time, 
and for the most part retained by the Greek Church at 
this present : and therefore as we, in condemning of the 
one, have nothing to do with Aerius or his cause, so the 
Romanists, who dislike the other as much as ever Aerius 
did, must be content to let us alone, and take the charge of 
Aerianism home unto themselves. Popish prayers and ob- 

° Tp6[lt{) Tip <PpiKTlZ KClt foj3tptp [it)[.iaTl Tip (Tip TTaptUTOTlQ, 01 an' atlOVOQ 

vtKpoi, ip7)<pov avap'tvovoi T})v o>)v lueaiav, "S.ioT))p, Kai Tt)v Vital' iic£L- 
\ovrai FiKaioKpuriav. Tort ipt'iirai rov covXov ffov, iriaru tuv irpoC ot 
fiiTaoTavTOQ, Kai Tfjg a'iciov rpviprjc; gov Kai paKapibri]Tor dfuiHTOV. Ibid. 
fol. 122. a. 

v OvStig iK<t>tvKfTai tKtl to tyofitpbv Ti\g Kpiaiiog cov /3j//j«. /3«o-i\ti<\ 
Ivvaorai aTravTtij, avv rotg foiiXoig apa irapioTai'Tai, Kai <pu>vi)g koituv 
Qoftipag, Toi'Q apapTt)iTai>TagXaovg tig Kpiaiv yitvvtg t? jJj,*, Xpiffri, pvcrai 
rov SovXov aov. Ibid. fol. 130. b. 

'i Tort ^ntrai, Aoyc,roti 'ivQa ptTatrravrog. Ibid. fol. 13.3. a. 

r Kvpn, i-iovt fiaTiXiv ftaiTiXeiac oiipaviov, a^iwaov ov vvv pir'tar^auc 
-rrtirrbv (rov CovXov, TrapuKaXovpiv ae, Kai aKaraKpirov avrbv Tort diarr)- 
ptjToi', y)viKa cnrag fiporbg irapaarij aoi rip npiry piXXwv KplvtoBat. Ibid. 
fol. 130. a. 


lations for the dead, we know, do wholly depend upon 
the belief of purgatory : if those of the ancient Church did 
so too ; how cometh it to pass, that Epiphanius doth not 
directly answer Aerius, as a papist would do now, that 
they brought singular profit to the dead, by delivering their 
tormented souls out of the flames of purgatory ? but, for- 
getting as much as once to make mention of purgatory, the 
sole foundation of these suffrages for the dead, in our ad- 
versaries' judgment, doth trouble himself and his cause, 
with bringing in such far-fetched reasons as these ; that 
they who performed this duty did intend to signify thereby, 
that their brethren departed were not perished, but re- 
mained still alive with the Lord ; and to put a difference 
betwixt the high perfection of our Saviour Christ, and the 
general frailty of the best of all his servants. Take away 
popish purgatory on the other side, which in the days of 
Aerius and Epiphanius needed not to be taken away, be- 
cause it was not yet hatched, and all the reasons produced 
by Epiphanius -will not withhold our Romanists from ab- 
solutely subscribing to the opinion of Aerius ; this being 
a case with them resolved, that, " if s purgatory be not ad- 
mitted after death, prayer for the dead must be unprofit- 
able." But though Thomas Aquinas and his abettors de- 
termine so, we must not therefore think that Epiphanius 
was of the same mind ; who lived in a time wherein prayers 
were usually made for them that never were dreamed to 
have been in purgatory, and yieldeth those reasons of 
that usage, which overthrow the former consequence of 
Thomas every whit as much as the supposition of Aerius. 
For Aerius and Thomas both agree in this ; that prayer 
for the dead would be altogether unprofitable, if the dead 
themselves received no special benefit thereby. This doth 
Epiphanius, defending the ancient use of these prayers in 
the Church, shew to be untrue, by producing other pro- 
fits that redound from thence unto the living ; partly by 

8 Ad hoc etiam est universalis Eeclesias consuetude-, quae pro defunctis orat : 
quae quidem oratio inutilis esset, si purgatorium post mortem non ponatur. 
Thorn, contr. Gentiles, lib. 4. cap. 91. 


the public signification of their faith, hope, and charity 
toward the deceased ; partly by the honour that they did 
unto the Lord Jesus, in exempting him from the common 
condition of the rest of mankind. And to make it appear 
that these things were mainly intended by the Church in 
her memorials for the dead, and not the cutting off of the 
sins which they carried with them out of this life, or the 
releasing of them out of any torment; he allegeth, as we 
have heard, that not only the meaner sort of Christians, 
but also the best of them without exception, even the 
prophets, and apostles, and martyrs themselves, were com- 
prehended therein ; from whence, by our adversaries' good 
leave, we will make bold to frame this syllogism. 

They who reject that kind of praying and offering 
for the dead, which was practised by the Church 
in the days of Aerius, are in that point flat 
But the Romanists do reject that kind of praying 
and offering for the dead, which was practised by 
the Church in the days of Aerius. 
Therefore the Romanists are in this point flat 
The assumption or second part of this argument, for the 
first we think nobody will deny, is thus proved : 

They who are of the judgment, that prayers and 
oblations should not be made for such as are be- 
lieved to be in bliss, do reject that kind of pray- 
ing and offering for the dead, which was prac- 
tised by the ancient Church. 
But the Romanists are of this judgment. 
Therefore they reject that kind of praying and of- 
fering for the dead, which was practised by the 
ancient Church. 
The truth of the first of these propositions doth appear by 
the testimony of Epiphanius ; compared with those many 
other evidences whereby we have formerly proved, that it 
was the custom of the ancient Church to make prayers 
and oblations for them, of whose resting in peace and 
bliss there was no doubt at all conceived. 'I he verity of 


the second is manifested by the confession of the Roman- 
ists themselves ; who reckon this for one of their Catholic* 
verities, that suffrages should not be offered for the dead 
that reign with Christ : and therefore that ancient " form" 
of praying for the apostles, martyrs, and the rest of the 
saints, is by disuse deservedly abolished," saith Alphon- 
sus Mendoza. Nay, to v offer sacrifices and prayers to 
God for those that are in bliss, is " plainly absurd and 
impious," in the judgment of the Jesuit Azorius : who 
was not aware that thereby he did outstrip Aerius in con- 
demning the practice of the ancient Church, as far as the 
censuring it only to be unprofitable (for ri io(j)e\^diiaeTat 
6 TtOvtwg ; what shall the dead be profited thereby ? was 
the furthest that Aerius durst to go) cometh short of reject- 
ing it as absurd and impious. And therefore our adver- 
saries may do well to purge themselves first from the blot 
of Aerianism, which sticketh so fast unto them, before 
they be so ready to cast the aspersion thereof upon 

In the mean time, the reader who desireth to be rightly 
informed in the judgment of antiquity, touching this point, 
is to remember, that these two questions must neces- 
sarily be distinguished in this inquiry. Whether prayers 
and oblations were to be made for the dead ? and, Whe- 
ther the dead did receive any peculiar profit thereby ? In 
the latter of these he shall find great difference among the 
doctors : in the former, very little, or none at all. For 
" howsoever^ all did not agree about the state of the 


1 Fr. Suarez. torn. 4. in 3. part. Thorn, disp. 48. sec. 4. num. 10. 

u Ilia formula precandi pro apostolis, martyribus et caet. merito per desuetudi- 
nem exolevit. Alphons. Mendoz. controvers. theologic. quacst. 6. scholastic, 
sec. 7. 

v Grseci sacrificia et preces offerunt Deo pro mortuis ; non beatis certe, neque 
damnatis ad inferos, quod plane esset absurduin et impium. Jo. Azor. institut. 
moral, torn. 1. lib. 8. cap. 20. 

w Quamvis de statu illo animaruin, quibus hsec prodessent, non satis constaret, 
nee inter omnes conveniret : omnes tamen'hoc ofHcium, ut testimonium charita- 
tis erga defunctos, et ut professionem fidei de innnortalitate animarum et futura 
resurrectione, Deo gratum et Ecclesiae utile essejudicarunt. Cassand. consultat. 
ad Ferdinand. I. et Maximilian. II. artic. 24. 


souls," saith Cassanuer, an indifferent papist, " which 
might receive profit by these things ; yet all did judge 
this duty as a testimony of their love toward the dead, 
and a profession of their faith touching the soul's im- 
mortality and the future resurrection, to be acceptable 
unto God, and profitable to the Church." Therefore for 
condemning the general practice of the Church herein, 
which aimed at those good ends before expressed, Aerius 
was condemned ; but for denying that the dead received 
profit thereby, either for the pardon of the sins which be- 
fore were unremitted, or for the cutting off or mitigation 
of any torments that they did endure in the other world, 
the Church did never condemn him. For that was no new 
thing invented by him ; divers worthy men before and 
after him declared themselves to be of the same mind, and 
were never for all that charged with the least suspicion of 
heresy. " The* narration of Lazarus and the rich man," 
saith the author of the questions and answers in the works 
of Justin martyr, " presenteth this doctrine unto us : that, 
after the departure of the soul out of the body, men can- 
not by any providence or care obtain any profit." Then y , 
saith Gregory Nazianzen, " in vain shall any one go 
about to relieve those that lament. Here men may have 
a remedy, but afterwards there is nothing but bonds," or, 
"all things are fast bound." For, " after 2 death the pun- 
ishment of sin is remediless," saith Theodoret ; and, " the a 
dead," saith Diodorus Tarsensis, " have no hope of any 
succour from man;" and therefore St. Hierome doth con- 

x "Eoti Se to Trepi rov AaZ,apov Kal rov irXovaiov c^o/y >'iua, intorvirwaig 
Xoyov SicaaKaXiav txovrog, rov jxt) SvvaffOai /xetci rt)v Ik tov iroiparog 
i£o8ov rrjg xpvxfie, Kara irpovoiciv rtva 7] aTrovSr/v, w(ptXelag rivbg ri'xtTv 
rovg av9pwTT0vg. Justin, resp. ad ortliod. quaest. fiO. Op. pag. 4GG. 

y Tfj/MOg oSvpofitvoicnv irwaia Tig kev auvvai. 

'EvOdo' a.Kog ficnoTTto-cn, ra 8' 'varara SEff/iut iravra. 
Greg. Nazianz. in carm. de rebus suis. Op. torn. 2. pag. 36. 

z Post mortem poena pcccati est immedicabilis. Theodoret. qua-st. in lib. 2. 
Reg. cap. 18, 19. 

a Oi vtKpoi iXiri'Covaiv ovk'eti j3oi)0uav avOpuir'un)v oiSs/ilav. Diodor. 
eaten. Grace, in Psalm. 87. ver. 5. MS. in publica Oxonicnsis academic biblio- 


elude : " that 6 , while we are in this present world, we may 
be able to help one another, either by our prayers or by 
our counsels; but when we shall come before the judg- 
ment-seat of Christ, neither Job, nor Daniel, nor Noah, 
can entreat for any one, but every one must bear his own 

Other doctors were of another judgment; that the dead 
received special profit by the prayers and oblations of the 
living, either for the remission of their sins, or the ceas- 
ing of their punishment : but whether this were restrained 
to smaller offences only, or such as lived and died in great 
sins might be made partakers of the same benefit ; and 
whether these men's torments might be lessened only 
thereby, or in tract of time quite extinguished ; they did 
not agree upon. Stephanus Gobarus, whom before I al- 
leged, made a collection of the different sentences of the 
fathers : whereof c some contained the received doctrine of 
the Church, others the unallowable opinions of certain of 
the ancient that varied therefrom. Of this latter kind he 
maketh this sentence to be one : " that 1 ' such sinners, as 
be delivered unto punishment, are purged therein from 
their sins, and after their purging are freed from their 
punishment : albeit not all who are delivered unto punish- 
ment be thus purged and freed, but some only ; whereas 
the true sentence of the Church was, that none at all was 
freed from punishment." If that were the true sentence 
of the Church, that none of those, who suffered punish- 
ment in the other world, were ever freed from the same; 

b Obscure licet docemur, per banc sententiolam, novum dogma quod latitat : 
dum in prsesenti saeculo sumus, sive orationibus sive consiliis inviceni posse nos 
coadjuvari; cum autem ante tribunal Christi venerimus, non Job, non Daniel, 
nee Noe rogare posse pro quoquam : sed unumquemque portare onus suum. 
Hieronym. lib. 3. commentar. in Galat. cap. C. 

c iov ai fiiv to tKicXticnaaTiKbv (ppoviifia, at Sk avvtKpoTOW to u7ro/3\i;- 
tov. Phot, biblioth. volum. 232. op. torn. 3. pag. 

d 'On oi ry KoXacru. Trapali^ofitvoi twv d/iapTtoXaiv KaOaipovrai rag 
KaKiag iv avTy, Kai fiird t>)v KaOapaiv aTroXvovTcu tTjc KoXacreiog' ical toi 
ov irdvTtg TrapaSoOivTEQ Ty KoXdffst KaOaipovTai Kai aTroXvovrai, dXXd 
Tivig. Kai on, 07rsp iaTiv aXqOtg Tijg tKicXijaiag <ppoi>>][ia, oiifiilg diroXvi- 
tcli Ttjg KoXd(Ti(i>g. Ibid. 


then the applying of prayers to the helping of men's souls, 
out of any such punishments, must be referred to the er- 
roneous apprehension of some particular men, and not to 
the general intention of the ancient Church ; from which 
in this point, as in many others beside, the latter Church 
of Rome hath swerved and quite gone astray. The ancient 
writer of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, handling this matter 
of praying for the dead professedly, dotlr° by way of ob- 
jection move this doubt : " To what purpose should the 
bishop entreat the divine goodness to grant remission of 
sins unto the dead, and a like glorious inheritance with 
those that have followed God ?" seeing by such prayers he 
can be brought to no other rest, but that which is fitting 
for him, and answerable unto the life which he hath 
here led. If our Romish divinity had been then acknow- 
ledged by the Church, there had been no place left to 
such questions and doubts as these. The matter might 
easily have been answered, that, though a man did die in 
the state of grace, yet was he not presently to be admitted 
unto the place of rest, but must first be reckoned withal ; 
both for the committal of those smaller faults, unto which 
through human frailty he was daily subject, and for the 
not performance of full penance and satisfaction for the 
greater sins into which in this life he had fallen : and pur- 
gatory being the place wherein he must be cleansed from 
the one, and make up the just payment for the other; 
these prayers were directed unto God for the delivery of 
the poor soul, which was not now in case to help itself out 
of that place of torment. 

But this author, taking upon him the person of St. 
Paul's scholar, and professing to deliver herein " that f 

e QaitiQ S' dv 07T(i»e, ravra opOutQ ilpijaGai nap' ///tJJi/" dnopuv Se 
otov iviKa rjjc QtapxiKijQ dya66ri]TOQ 6 iepdpxWQ SeiTai, ru>v f)jxapTt]- 
{livwv alrwv rtp KeKotpuj/jh'^i ti)v utyiatv, kcu rfiv role QeotiSiaiv bfiora- 
yij kcu favordrifv dnoK\!ipii>oiv. Dionys. eccles. hierarch. cap. 7. op. toni. 
1. pag. 267. 

f Tlepi Sk ri/c,' t!pi]pfvr)Q ti'X'H' qv o \tpdpxr)£ itrivxirai rip KiKOt^t)- 
fi'tvt{j, ri)i> £('<,• n'lfidc tXOovaav Ik twv ivOiwv ij/xwi' KaOiiyipoi'wv izapdSo- 
aiv, iintiv ivayxaiov. 'O Qtlog UpapxvS iKfavropiK6s lOTiv, we. r& 



tradition which he had received from his divine Masters," 
saith no such thing ; but giveth in this for his answer : 
" The divine bishop, as the Scriptures witness, is the in- 
terpreter of the divine judgments, for he is the angel of 
the Lord God Almighty. He hath learned therefore out 
of the oracles delivered by God, that a most glorious and 
divine life is by his just judgment worthily awarded to 
them that have lived holily : his divine goodness and kind- 
ness passing over those blots which by human frailty he 
had contracted; forasmuch as no man, as the Scriptures 
speak, is free from pollution. The bishop therefore, know- 
ing these things to be promised by the true oracles, pray- 
eth that they may accordingly come to pass, and those 
sacred rewards may be bestowed upon them that have 
lived holily." The bishop at that time belike did not 
know so much as our popish bishops do now, that God's 
servants must dearly smart in purgatory for the sins where- 
with they were overtaken through human infirmity : he 
believed that God of his merciful goodness would pass by 
those slips, and that such after-reckonings as these should 
give no stoppage to the present bestowing of those holy 
rewards upon the children of the promise. " Therefore 5 
the divine bishop," saith our author, " asketh those things 
which were promised by God, and are grateful to him, 
and without doubt will be granted ; thereby as well mani- 
festing his own good disposition unto God, who is a lover 
of the good, as declaring like an interpreter unto them 

Xoyia <pi]<?i, To)v 9eapxtKioi> biKaicofidrcov dyyeXog yap Kvplnv Travroicpa- 
ropog 9eoi> iari nepd9i]ictv oiiv tK tCov Oto-jrapaSoTwv Xoyi'wv, oti rolg 
bcriwg fiidiffatTiv, ■>) (pavoTart) Kal Qiia £ai>) icar' d^lav iiirb tmv biKaiord- 
Tiitv 'Cvyiov dvriSLSorai Trapopiooiig dyaQurrjTi ri)g Btapxiici'ig <piXav9put- 
iriag, rag iyytvofikvag aurolg i% ai>9pioTrLvr]g d<?9tveiag KfiKiSaQ. eirt'nrsp 
ovSEig, d)g to. \6yia(pij(Tt, Ka9apbg airb pvTtov. Tavra /isv ovv 6 lepdpxvg 
olSev £TT>)yyt\uh'a irpbg rwv dXtj9<JHv Xoyiuv alrtl be aura. yivkaOui, Kal 
Supt}9i]vai ToTg baiujg fiubcraai rag itpdg avriboaeig. Id. ibid. pag. 268. 

S Ovkovv 6 9tlog hpapx>lQ iZairtl rd 9eiwbwg iTrr)yytXjxkva Kal <pi\a 
9ew, Kal Travriog Sa)pi]9i](r6pEva, Kal rd rijg olictLag dya9oeidovg t£,to)g 
iTTibiiKVvg rw <pi\ayd9(p 9t(p, Kal rolg irapovffiv iK(pavropiKiog l/i^alvhiv 
rd rolg boioig taopei'a bwpa. ovra) Kal Tag dcpopicrriKag txovaiv ol updp- 
%ai bvvdpug, u>g tK<pavropiKol rwv 9tio>v FiKauo/idrioi', &c. Id. ibid. pag. 


that be present the gifts that shall befall to such as are 

He further also addeth, that " the bishops have a se- 
parating power, as the interpreters of God's judgments, 
according to that commission of Christ : Whose sins ye 
remit, they are remitted unto them ; and whose you shall 
retain, they are retained; and Whatsoever^ thou shalt bind 
upon earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever thou 
shalt loose upon earth shall be loosed in heaven" Now 
as in the use of the keys the schoolmen 1 , following St. 
Hierome, do account the minister to be the interpreter only 
of God's judgment, by declaring what is done by him in the 
binding or loosing of men's sins ; so doth this author here 
give them power only to " separate 1 " those that are al- 
ready judged of God," and by way of " declaration 1 and 
convoy, to bring in those that are beloved of God, and to 
exclude such as are ungodly." And if the power, which 
the ministers have received by the foresaid commission, do 
extend itself to any further real operation upon the living, 
pope Geiasius will deny that it may be stretched in 
like manner unto the dead ; because that Christ saith, 
Whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth. " He" 1 saith, Upon 
earth : for he that dieth bound is no where said to be 
loosed;" and, " That" which a man remaining in his body 
hath not received, being unclothed of his flesh, he cannot 
obtain," saith Leo. 

Whether the dead received profit by the prayers of the 
living, was still a question in the Church. Maximus, in his 
Greek scholies upon the writer of the Ecclesiastical Hier- 
archy, wisheth us to " mark , that even before that 

h Vid. Eucholog. Graec. fol. 151. b. et 152. a. 

' See above, pag. 148, 174, 175. 

K tovq KiKOijiivovQ 9i(p kut' d^iav a(popiZ,6i>TMV. Dionys. ut supra. 

I tic<pavTopiKwg teal SiaTropO/ievriKwg tovq ts QtotyiXug irpoait^iivov, Kai 
tovq ad'tovg d7roicXj/(OoD)'TOf. Id. ibid. 

1,1 Super terrain, itiquit : nam in hac ligatione defunctuni nusquam dixit ab- 
eolvi. Gelas. in commonitorio ad Faustum. 

II Quod manens in eorpore non receperit, consequi exutus came non poterit. 
Leo, epist. 89. vel 91. ad Theodoruni. 

" Kai at]p.i'u<)(rui,oTi Kai 7rpo avTQv t£»/r»)(hj to anopov rovro, Maxim- 
Bchol. in eccles. hierarch. cap. 7. 

T 2 


writer's time this doubt was questioned." Among the 
questions wherein Dulcitius desired to be resolved by 
St. Augustine, we find this to be one, " Whether? the 
offering that is made for the dead did avail their souls any 
thing?" and that " Many q did say to this, that if herein 
any good were to be done after death, how much rather 
should the soul itself obtain ease for itself, by its own 
confessing of her sins there, than that for the ease thereof 
an oblation should be procured by other men." The like 
also is noted by Cyril, or rather John bishop of Jerusa- 
lem ; that he " knew r many who said thus : What profit 
doth the soul get that goeth out of this world, either with 
sins or not with sins, if you make mention of it in prayer?" 
and by Anastasius Sinaita, orNicaenus: " Some s do doubt, 
saying, that the dead are not profited by the oblations that 
are made for them ;" and, long after them, by Petrus Clu- 
niacensis, in his treatise against the followers of Peter 
Bruse in France : " That 1 the good deeds of the living 
may profit the dead, both these heretics do deny, and some 
Catholics also do seem to doubt." Nay in the west, not 
the profit only, but the lawfulness also, of these doings for 
the dead was called in question ; as partly may be collected 
by Boniface archbishop of Mentz his consulting with pope 
Gregory, about seven hundred and thirty yeai-s after the 
birth of our Saviour, " Whether" it were lawful to offer 
oblations for the dead ;" which he should have no reason 

P Utrum oblatio, quae sit pro quiescentibus, aliquid eorum conferat animabus ? 
Augustin. ad Dulcit. quaest. 2. op. torn. 6. pag. 128. 

1 Ad quod multi dicunt, Quod si aliquis beueficii in hoc locus possit esse post 
mortem ; quanto magis sibi anima ferret ipsa refrigeria, sua per se illic confitendo 
peccata, quam in eorum refrigerium ab aliis oblatio procuratur. Ibid. 

r OJSa yap iroWovg rovro Xeyovrag' ri wtjttXiiTat ipv%>), fit9' ci/xopr//- 
fMiTiov aTraWaaaofiiv)] rovSt tov Kofffiov, j; oil fitO' afiapTtjuariov, iav 
IttI Ttjg Trpofftvxfjc fivrinovtvrjTC ; Cyrill. cateches. 5. mystagogic. Op. pag. 

8 ' A/Kpif3a\\ov(Ti tiveq XkyovrtQ, on ouk lucptXot'n'Tai ol veKpoi tic tuiv 
yivofikvwv avva£to)v bwip avriZv. Anastas. fin. pag. 540. edit. Graeco-Lat. 

' Quod bona vivorum mortuis prodesse vateant, et hi hseretioi negant, et quidam 
etiam catholici dubitare videntur. Petr. Cluniac. epist. contra Petrobrusianos. 

u Pro obeuntibus quoque consuluisse dignosceris, si liceat oblationes auferre. 
Gregor. II. vel III. epist. ad Bonifac. in tomis conciliorum. 


to do, if no question had been made thereof among the 
Germans; and is plainly delivered by Hugo Etherianus, 
about one thousand one hundred and seventy years after 
Christ, in these words: " Pknow that many are deformed 
with vain opinions, thinking that the dead are not to be 
prayed for ; because that neither Christ, nor the apostles 
that succeeded him, have intimated these things in the 
Scriptures. But they are ignorant, that there be many 
things, and those exceeding necessary, frequented by the 
holy Church, the tradition whereof is not had in the Scrip- 
tures : and yet they pertain nevertheless to the worship of 
God, and obtain great strength." Whereby it may ap- 
pear, that this practice wanted not opposition even then, 
when in the papacy it was advanced unto his greatest 
height. And now is it high time, that I should pass from 
this article unto the next following. 

w Scio plerosque vanis opinionibus deformari, putantes non esse orandum pro 
mortuis ; eo quod neque Christus, neque apostoli ejus successores heec scriptis 
intimaverint. Nesciunt quidem illi plura esse, ac persumme necessaria, quea 
sancta Ecclesia frequentat, quorum traditio ex scripturis non habetur : nihilo 
tamen minus ad cultum Dei pertinent, et vigorem maximum obtinent. Hug. 
Etherian. de animar. regress, ab infer, cap. 13. 








Here doth our challenger undertake to prove against 
us, not only " that there is Limbus Patrum," but " that 
our Saviour also descended into hell, to deliver the ancient 
fathers of the Old Testament ; because before his passion 
none ever entered into heaven." That there was such a 
thing as Limbus Patrum, I have heard it said : but what 
it is now, the doctors vary ; yet agree all in this, that 
Limbus it may well be, but Limbus Patrum sure it is not. 
" Whether 8 it were distinct from that place, in which the 
infants that depart out of this life without baptism are now 
believed to be received, the divines do doubt ; neither is 
there any thing to be rashly pronounced of so doubtful a 
matter:" saith Maldonat the Jesuit. The Dominican 
friars, that wrote against the Grecians at Constantinople 
in the year one thousand two hundred and fifty-two, re- 
solve, that " into b this Limbus the holy fathers before the 

a An ab eo loco distinctus fuerit, in quo nunc infantes sine baptismo de vita 
decedentes recipi creduntur, theologi dubitant ; nee est quicquam de re dubia 
temere pronuntiandum. Jo. Maid, comment, in Luc. cap. 16. ver. 22. 

b In quern (limbum), ante adventum Christi, sancti patres descendebant ; nunc 
vero pueri, qui absque baptismo decedunt, sine poena sensibili, detinentur. Trac- 
tat. contr. Greec. in tomo auctorum a P. Steuartio edit. pag. 565. 


coming of Christ did descend ; but now the children, that 
depart without baptism, are detained there ;" so that in 
their judgment, that which was the Limbus of fathers, is 
now become the Limbus of children. The more common 
opinion is, that these be two distinct places, and that the 
one is appointed for unbaptized infants ; but the other 
" now c remaineth void," and so " shall' 1 remain, that it 
may bear witness as well of the justice as of the mercy of 
God." If you demand, How it came to be thus void, and 
emptied of the old inhabitants ? the answer is here given ; 
that our Saviour descended into hell purposely to deliver 
from hence the ancient fathers of the Old Testament. 
But " Hell e is one thing, I ween," saith Tertullian, " and 
Abraham's bosom," where the fathers of the Old Testa- 
ment rested, " another ;" " neither* is it to be believed, that 
the bosom of Abraham, being the habitation of a secret 
kind of rest, was any part of hell," saith St. Augustine. 
To say then, that our Saviour descended into hell, to de- 
liver the ancient fathers of the Old Testament out of 
Limbus Patrum, would by this construction prove as strange 
a tale, as if it had been reported, that Caesar made a 
voyage into Britain, to set his friends at liberty in Greece. 
Yea, but " before Christ's passion none ever entered 
into heaven," saith our challenger. The proposition that 
cardinal Bellarmine taketh upon him to prove, where he 
handleth this controversy, is, " that 5 the souls of the 
godly were not in heaven before the ascension of Christ." 
Our Jesuit, it seemeth, considered here with himself, 
that Christ had promised unto the penitent thief upon the 
cross, that not before his ascension only, but also before 

'" Nunc vacuus remanet. Bellarm. de purg. lib. 2. cap. G. 

A Manet autem, manebitque, licet vacuus, hie infernus ; ut testimonium per- 
hibeat turn justitiae, turn misericordia: Dei. Hen. Vicus, de descensu Christi ad 
infer, sec. 41. Vid. Abulens. paradox. 5. cap. 188. 

e Aliud enim inferi, ut puto ; aliud quoque Abraboe sinus. Tcrtull. advers. 
Marcion. lib. 4. cap. 34. 

f Non utique sinus ille Abraboe, id est, secrete cujusdam quietis habitatio, 
aliquapars ihferorum esse credenda est. Augustin. epist. 164. ad Euodium. 

g Quod animae piorum non fuerint in ccelo ante Christi ascensionem, Bel- 
larm. de Christ lib. 1. cap. I I- 



his resurrection, even that' 1 day he should be with him in 
paradise : that is to say, in the kingdom of heaven ; as 
the' cardinal himself doth prove, both by the authority of 
St. Paul k , making paradise and the third heaven to be 
the self-same thing, and by the testimony of the ancient 
expositors of the place. This, belike, stuck somewhat in 
our Jesuit's stomach: who, being loth to interpret this of 
his Limbus Patrum, as others 1 of that side had done, 
and to maintain that paradise, instead of the third 
heaven, should signify the third or the fourth hell, 
thought it best to shift the matter handsomely away, by 
taking upon him to defend, that not before Christ's as- 
cension, lest that of the thief should cross him, but before 
his passion, none ever entered into heaven. But if none be- 
fore our Saviour's passion did ever enter into heaven, 
whither shall we say that Elias did enter? The Scripture 
assureth us, that he " went m up into heaven ;" and of 
this Mattathias put his sons in mind upon his death-bed : 
that " Elias", being zealous and fervent for the law, was 
taken up into heaven." Elias, and Moses both, before 
the passion of Christ, are described to be " in° glory;" 
Lazarus p is carried by the angels into a place of comfort, 
and not of imprisonment. In a word, all the fathers ac- 
counted q themselves to be strangers and pilgrims in this 
earth, seeking for a better country, that is, an heavenly, 
as well as we r do ; and therefore, having ended their pil- 
grimage, they arrived at the country they sought for, as 
well as we. They believed s to be saved through the grace 

h Luke, chap. 23. ver. 43. 

' Vera ergo expositio est Theophylacti, Ambrosii, Bedse, et aliorum, qui per 
paradisum intelligunt regnum ccelorum. Bellarm. de sanct. beatit. lib. 1. 
cap. 3. 

k 2 Cor. chap. 12. ver. 2,4. 

1 Henr. Vic. de descens. ad infer, sec. 41. pag. 129. Vid. Thom. in 3. part, 
summ. qusest. 52. art. 4. ad 3. et Lyranum. in Luc. cap. 23. ver. 43. 

m 2 Kings, chap. 2. ver. 11. 

n HXi'ac. Iv r<p 'OjXoiffai ^/jjXov vo/iov, dve\r]<p9t) Jewc, tig top ohpavbv. 
1 Maccab. cap. 2. ver. 58. 

Luke, chap. 9. ver. 31. p Ibid. chap. 1C. ver. 22, 25. 

i Heb. chap. 11. ver. 13, 14, 1C. r Ibid. chap. 13. ver. 14. 

• Act. chap. 15. ver. 11. 


of our Lord Jesus Christ, as well as we ; they lived 1 by 
that faith, as well as we ; they 11 died in Christ as 
well as we ; they received remission™ of sins, impu- 
tation of righteousness, and the blessedness arising there- 
from, as well as we ; and the mediation of our Saviour 
being of that present efficacy, that it took away sin, 
and brought in righteousness from the very beginning of 
the world ; it had virtue sufficient to free men from the 
penalty of loss, as well as from the penalty of sense, and 
to bring them unto him, in whose " presence" is fulness 
°f J } 7 ?" as to deliver them from the " place y of torment," 
where 2 there is weeping and gnashing of teeth. 

The first that ever assigned a resting-place in hell to 
the fathers of the Old Testament was, as far as we can 
find, Marcion the heretic ; who a " determined that both 
kind of rewards, whether of torment or of refreshing, was 
appointed in hell for them that did obey the law and the 
prophets." Wherein he was gainsayed by such as wrote 
against him ; not only for making that the place of their 
eternal rest, but also for lodging them there at all, 
and imagining that Abraham's bosom was any part of 
hell. This appeareth plainly by the disputation, set out 
among the works of Origen, betwixt Marcus the Marcion- 
ite, and Adamantius the defender of the catholic cause : 
who, touching the parabolical 15 history of the rich man and 
Lazarus, in the sixteenth of St. Luke, are brought in rea- 

I Habak. chap. 2. ver. 4. Rom. chap. 1. ver. 16, 17. 

II 1 Thess. chap. 4. ver. 16. 

w Rom. chap. 4. ver. 6, 7, 8, 9. Gal. chap. 3. ver. 8, <). 

x Psal. 16. ver. 11. y Luke, chap. 16. ver. 28. 

7 - Matt. chap. 8. ver. 11, 12. 

a Sed Marcion aliorsum cogit, scilicet utramque mercedem Creatoris, sive tor- 
menti sive refrigerii, apud inferos determinat eis positam qui legi et prophetis 
obedierint ; Christi vero et Dei sui coelestem definiat sinum et portum. Ter- 
tullian. lib. 4. contr. Marcion. cap. 34. Vid. etiam lib. 3. cap. 24. 

b Jo. D. Bezae Graeco-Latino evangcliorum venerandae vetustatis exemplari, 
(quod olim in S. Irenaei Ca'nol)io Lugdunensi, liodie in publica Cantabrigiensia 
academiae bibliotheca asservatur) historian huic prscmittitur ista pra-fatio. Elire 
St Kal trtpav irapaftoXi'ii' : Dixit autem aliani parabolam. Cui similis etiam 
in missali Romano (feria 5. post Dominicam '2. Quadragesima) legebatui i 
Dixit Jesus discipulis suis parabolam banc. Vcrum in missali reformato dute 
postrcma; voces sublatae nupcr sunt. 


soning after this manner. " Marcus . He saith that 
Abraham is in hell, and not in the kingdom of heaven. 
Adamantius. Read whether he saith that Abraham was 
in hell. Marc. In that the rich man and he talked one to 
the other, it appeareth that they were together. Ada- 
mant. That they talked one with another, thou nearest ; 
but the great gulf spoken of, that thou nearest not. For 
the middle space between heaven and earth he calleth a 
gulf. Marc. Can a man therefore see from earth unto 
heaven ? it is impossible. Can any man lifting up his eyes 
behold from the earth, or from hell rather see into 
heaven ? if not ; it is plain, that a valley only was set be- 
twixt them. Adamant. Bodily eyes use to see those 
things only that are near, but spiritual eyes reach far ; 
and it is manifest that they, who have here put off their 
body, do see one another with the eyes of their soul. 
For mark how the Gospel doth say, that he lifted up his 
eyes : toward heaven one useth to lift them up, and not 
toward the earth." In like manner doth Tertullian d also 
retort the same place of Scripture against Marcion, and 
prove that it maketh a plain difference between hell and 
the bosom of Abraham. " For it affirmeth (saith he) both 
that a great deep is interposed betwixt those regions, and 

c MAPKOS.'Ev no iioy ilirey tlvai tov ', ovk iv tq (iaaiXiiq. tCjv 
ovpavwv. AAAMANTI02. 'AvdyvuOi on iv Tip dSy Xiyti tov ' 
MAPK. ' Anb tov avvo/iiXtlv aiirw tov ttXovoiov, SuKvvvTai bfiov bvTtg. 
AAAMANT. To bfiiXilv npbg dXXijXovg iJKOvoag, to Si Xtybfiivov \ci(Tfia 
fieya ovk ijKOVcrag. tov yap ovpavov Kal rijc JVC T i> fi'toov x a(7 i la ^tytt. 
MAPK. SiivaTai ovv rigairb rijg yijg tiog ovpavov bpav ; dSvvarov iTrdpag 
rovg 6<p9aXfiovg aiirov iStlv Svvarai rig dnb yijg, »/ fidXXop dnb tov aSov 
tig tov ovpavov bpav ; ti ftii) orfKov on (pdpayZ, yv iv fuaq) aiiTuiv. AAA- 
MANT. Oi (TwjiaTiKOi 6<p9aXfiol rd tyyiora povov iri<pvKao~iv bpa'v o< Si 
ipvxiKoi tig fiijKog a7roTtivovTai. icai SijXov, on to awfia evrtvQsv drro- 
Bifitvoi, role T^g ipvx?i£ ofifiaoiv bpwffiv dXXijXovg. lipoaxtg yap, TriSg 
Xiyti to tvayytXiov, on iirdpag rovg b(f>9aXfiovg aiirov, tig tov ovpavov 
Tri(pVKtv iiraiptiv, icai ovk tig ti)v yrjv. Orig. dial. 2. contr. Marc. Op. torn. 
1. pag. 827. 

d Respondebimus, et hac ipsa scriptura revincente oculos ejus, quae ab infernis 
discernit Abrahae sinum pauperi : aliud enim inferi, ut puto, aliud quoque 
Abrahae sinus. Nam et magnum ait intercedere regiones istas profundum, et 
transitum utrinque prohibere. Sed nee allevasset dives oculos, et quidem de 
longinquo, nisi in superiora, et de altitudinis longinquo per immensam illani dis- 
tantiam sublimitatis et profunditatis. Tert. advers. Marcion. lib. 1. cap. 34. 


that it suffereth no passage from either side. Neither 
could the rich man have lifted up his eyes, and that afar 
off, unless it had been unto places above him, and very 
far above him, by reason of the mighty distance betwixt 
that height and that depth." Thus far Tertullian : 
who, though he come short of Adamantius, in making 8 
Abraham's bosom not to be any part of heaven, although 
no member at all of hell ; yet doth he concur with him in 
this, that it is a place of bliss, and a common receptacle 
wherein the souls of all the faithful, as well of the New as 
of the Old Testament, do still remain in expectation of 
the general resurrection : which quite marreth the Limbus 
Patrum of our Romanists, and the journey which they 
fancy our Saviour to have taken, for the fetching of the fa- 
thers from thence. 

With these two doth St. Augustine also join in his 
ninety-ninth epistle to Euodius : concerning whose judg- 
ment herein, I will not say the deceitful, but the exceed- 
ing partial, dealing of cardinal Bellarmine can very hardly 
be excused. " Although/ Augustine," saith he, " in his 
ninety-ninth epistle do seem to doubt, whether the bosom 
of Abraham, where the souls of the fathers were in times 
past, should be in hell, or somewhere else; yet in the 
twentieth book of the City of God, the fifteenth chapter, 
he afnrmeth that it was in hell, as all the rest of the fa- 
thers have always taught." If St. Augustine in that epis- 
tle were of the mind, as he was indeed, that Abraham's 
bosom was no part of hell, he was not the first inventor of 
that doctrine ; others taught it before him, and opposed 
Marcion for teaching otherwise. 2uv tz Sv Ip-^ofdvut' 
alone he went not, two there were at least, as we have 

c Earn itaque regionem sinum dico Abrahae, etsi non coelestem, BUblimiorem 
tamen inferis, interim refrigerium prsebituram animabus justorum, donee con- 
summate rerum resurrectionem omnium plenitudine mercedis expungat. Id. 

f Augustinus, etsi in epist. 99. ambigere videtur, an unus Abraham, ubi eranl 
animae patrum olim, in inferno esset, an alibi : tamen lib. 20. dc chit. Dei, cap. 
15. affirmat in inferno fuisse ; utcseterioinnes panes semper docuerunt. Bellarm, 
de Christ, lib. 1. cap. 11. in fine. 


seen, that walked along with him in the same way. But 
for that which he is said to have doubted of in one place, 
and to have affirmed in another ; if the indifferent reader 
will be pleased but to view both the places, he shall 
easily discern that the cardinal looked not into these 
things with a single eye. In his ninety-ninth epistle, from g 
that speech of Abraham : " Between you and us there is 
a great gulf fixed," he maketh this inference : " In these 
words it appeareth sufficiently, as I think, that the bosom 
of so great happiness is not any part and member of hell." 
These seem unto the cardinal to be the words of a doubt- 
ful man : with what words then, when he is better resolved, 
doth he affirm the matter? AVith these forsooth. " If h 
it do seem no absurdity to believe that the old saints, which 
held the faith of Christ to come, were in places most re- 
mote from the torments of the wicked, but yet in hell ; 
until the blood of Christ, and his descent into those 
places, did deliver them ; truly from henceforth the good 
and faithful, who are redeemed with that price already 
shed, know not hell at all.'' If, " satis ut opinor apparet, 
it appeareth sufficiently, as I think," must import doubt- 
ing, and " si non absurde credi videtur, if it do seem no 
absurdity to believe," affirming : I know not, I must con- 
fess, what to make of men's speeches. 

The truth is : St. Augustine in handling this question 
discovereth himself to be neither of the Jesuit's temper 
nor belief. He esteemed not this to be such an article of 
faith, that they who agreed not therein must needs be 
held to be of different religions ; as he doth modestly pro- 
pound the reasons, which induced him to think that Abra- 

s Quanquam in his ipsis tanti magistri verbis, ubi ait dixisse Abraham, Inter 
vos et nos chaos magnum firmatum est ; satis, ut opinor, appareat non esse 
quandam partem et quasi membrum inferorum tantae itlius felicitatis sinum. 
Augustin. epist. 99. al. 164. Op. torn. 2. pag. 575. 

11 Si enim non absurde credi videtur, antiquos etiam sanctos, qui venturi 
Christi tenuerunt fidem, locis quidem a tormentis impiorum reinotissimis, sed 
apud inferos fuisse, donee eos hide sanguis Christi, et ad ea loca descensus erueret : 
profecto deinceps boni fideles eftuso illo pretio jam redempti, prorsus inferos nes- 
ciunt, donee etiam receptis corporibus bona rccipiant quae merentur. Id. dc 
civit. Dei, lib. 20. cap. 15. 


ham's bosom was no member of hell : so doth he not 
lightly reject the opinion of those that thought otherwise, 
but leaveth it still as a disputable point. " Whether 1 that 
bosom of Abraham where the wicked rich man, when he 
was in the torment of hell, did behold the poor man rest- 
ing, were either to be accounted by the name of paradise, 
or esteemed to appertain unto hell, I cannot readily af- 
firm," saith he in one place; and in another : " Whether^ 
Abraham were then at any certain place in hell, we cannot 
certainly define ;" and in his twelfth book, de Genesi ad 
literam : " I 1 have not hitherto found, and I do yet in- 
quire ; neither do I remember that the canonical Scrip- 
ture doth any where put hell in the good part. Now that 
the bosom of Abraham, and that rest, unto which the 
godly poor man was carried by the angel, should not be 
taken in the good part, I know not whether any good man 
can endure to hear ; and therefore how we may believe 
that it is in hell, I do not see." Where it may further 
also be observed, that St. Augustine doth here assign no 
other place to this godly poor man, than he doth unto the 
souls of all the faithful, that have departed since the com- 
ing of our Saviour Christ : the question with him being 
alike of them both, whether the place of their rest be 
designed by the name of hell or paradise. Therefore he 
saith, " I' n confess I have not yet found that it is called 
hell, where the souls of just men do rest;" and again, 
" How" much more after this life may that bosom of 

' Utrum sinus ille Abrahse, ubi dives impius cum in tormentis esset inferni 
requiescentem pauperem vidit, vel paradisi censendus vocabulo, vel ad inferos 
pertinere existimandus sit : non facile dixerim. Id. epist. 187. Op. torn. 2. pag. 


k Etenim apud inferos utrum in locis quibusdam fuisset jam Abraham: non 
satis possumus definire. Id. in Psal. 85. Op. torn. 4. pag. 912. 

1 Proinde, ut dixi, nondum inveni, et adhuc quaero, nee mihi occurrit inferos 
alicubi in bono posuisse Scripturam duntaxat canonicam. Non autem in bono ac- 
cipiendum sinuin Abrahoe, et illam requiem, quo ab angelis pius pauper ablatus 
est, nescio utrum quisquam possit audire : et ideo, quo modo eum apud inferos 
credamus esse, non video. Id. de Gen. ad lit. lib. 12. cap. 33. Op. torn. 3. pag. 321. 

nl Quanquam et illud me nondum invenisse confiteor, inferos appellatos, ubi 
justorum animae requiescunt. Id. ibid. 

" Quanto magis ergo post banc vitam etiam .sinus ille AbraKse Paradisus <H< :i 


Abraham be called paradise ; where now there is no temp- 
tation, where is so great rest after all the griefs of this 
life ? For neither is there wanting there a proper kind 
of light and of its own kind, and doubtless great ; which 
that rich man out of the torments and darkness of hell, 
even from so remote a place, where a great gulf was 
placed in the midst, did so behold, that he might there 
take notice of the poor man whom sometime he had de- 
spised." And elsewhere expounding in the sixteenth of 
St. Luke, " The° bosom of Abraham," saith he, " is the 
rest of the blessed poor, whose is the kingdom of heaven, 
in which after this life they are received." 

Bede, in his commentaries upon the same place, and 
Strabus in the ordinary gloss, do directly follow St. Au- 
gustine in this exposition ; and the Greek interpreter of 
St. Luke, who wrongly beareth the name of Titus Bos- 
trensis, and Chrysostom, for proof thereof produceth the 
testimony of Dionysius p Areopagita, " affirming, that by 
the bosoms of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, those blessed 
resting-places are designed, which do receive the just unto 
their never-fading and most blessed perfection." The 
words that he hath relation unto be these, in the seventh 
chapter of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy : " The q bosoms 
of the blessed patriarchs and of all the rest of the saints 
are, as I think, the most divine and blessed resting-places, 
which do receive all such as are like unto God, into that 
never-fading and most blessed perfection that is therein." 

potest ; ubi jam nulla tentatio, ubi tanta requies post omnes dolores vitae hujus ? 
Neque enim et lux ibi non est propria qusedani et sui generis, et profecto 
magna ; quam dives ille de tormentis et tenebris inferorum, tam utique de lon- 
ginquo cum magnum cbaos esset in medio, sic tamen vidit, ut ibi ilium quondam 
contemptum pauperem agnosceret. Id. ibid. cap. 34. pag. 321. 

° Sinus Abrahae requies est beatorum pauperum, quorum est regnum ccelorum, 
in quo post banc vitam recipiuntur. Id. quaest. evangel, lib. 2. cap. 38. Op. torn. 
3. par. 2. pag. 264. 

p KoXnovg ct tov ', Kal tov 'laaaic, teal tov 'laicwfi. 6 Aioviaiog 
'ApEOTrayLTTje Tag /xaicapiag Xrj^tig <pr]ai Tag vTroStxofi'tvag Tovg SiKaiovg 
tig Tt]V ai)Twv ayrjpw Kai fiaKapi(i)TaTt]v TtXtiwaiv. Tit. Bostr. in fin. cap. 
16. Lucae. 

1 KoXttoi Se tioiv, o>g o7/iai,Twv fiaicapiiov iraTpiapx&v Kai twv Xonriliv 
ayiwv aircivTiav a\ QtioTarai Kai fiaKapicrrai Xij^tig, ai rovg OtotiStlg viro- 
dsxofitvai iravrag, tig rt)v tv avralg ayrjpio Kai fiaicapuorarriv TsXtitoffiv. 
Dionys. eccl. hier. cap. 7. 


Hitherto appertain those passages in St. Ambrose : 
" Come' into the bosom of Jacob ; that, as poor Lazarus 
did in the bosom of Abraham, so thou also mayest rest in 
the tranquillity of the patriarch Jacob. For the bosom 
of the patriarchs is a certain retiring-place of everlasting 
rest." " We s shall go where holy Abraham openeth his 
bosom to receive the poor, as he did receive Lazarus ; in 
which bosom they do rest, who in this world have en- 
dured grievous and sharp things." " Into' paradise is an 
ascent, into hell a descent. Let them descend, saith he, 
quick into hell. And therefore poor Lazarus was by the 
angels lifted up into Abraham's bosom." " Behold" that 
poor man abounding with all good things ; whom the 
blessed rest of the holy patriarch did compass about." 
" Lazarus w , lying in Abraham's bosom, enjoyed everlast- 
ing life." 

St. Chrysostom, or whosoever else was the author of 
that homily touching the rich man and Lazarus, upon 
those words of the text, that the rich man lifting up his 
eyes beheld Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, moveth this 
question : " Why x Lazarus did not see the rich man, as 
well as the rich man is said to see Lazarus ?" and giveth 
this answer thereunto : " Because y he that is in the light 


r Veni in gremium Jacob : ut, sicut Lazarus pauper in Abrahse sinu, ita etiam 
tu in Jacob patriarchae tranquillitate requiescas. Sinus enim patriarcharum re- 
cessus quidam est quietis aeternae. Ambros. orat. de obitu Valentiniani imp. 

s Ibimus ubi sinum suum Abraham sanctus expandit, ut suscipiat pauperes, 
sicut suscepit et Lazarum : in quo sinu requiescunt, qui in hoc seculo gravia at- 
que aspera pertulerunt. Id. de bono mortis, cap. 12. Op. torn. 1. pag. 411. 

1 In paradisum ascenditur, in infernum descenditur. Descendant, inquit, in 
infernum viventes. Ideoque Lazarus pauper per angelos in Abrahse sinum est 
elevatus. Id. in Psalm. 48. Op. torn. 1. pag. 953, 

u Vide ilium pauperem bonis omnibus abundantem, quern sancti patriarchae 
requies beata circumdabat. Id. ibid. 

w Lazarus, in Abrahse sinu recumbens, vitam carpebat aeternam. Id. in 
Psalm. 118. serm. 3. Op. torn. 1. pag. 998. 

x Aid Tt yaf) fii) Aa'Capog USt rbv ttXovciiov ; iTTtidi) b iv r<p (pwTi vtrdp- 
\iov rbv iv rip okotii EGTwra oi) fikiirii, ak\' o iv rql UKurti rbv iv T<ji 
<pu)Ti bvra bpq,. Chrysost. homil. in Divit. et Lazar. Op. torn. 8. pag. 115. 
y E tenebris autem quae sunt in luce tuemur : 
Quod contra facere in tenebris e lu cuiequimus. Lucret. de rer. nat. lib. 4. 


doth not see him that standeth in the dark: but he that is 
in the dark beholdeth him that is in the light ;" taking it 
for granted, that Abraham's bosom was a place of light, 
and not of darkness. He that wrote the homily upon the 
sentence of that Psalm, " What man is he that would 
have life, and desireth to see good days?" who is com- 
monly also, though not rightly, accounted to be Chrysos- 
tom, goeth further, and saith, that the rich man " lifted 2 
up his eyes unto heaven out of the place of torments, and 
cried unto father Abraham ;" yea, he expressly affirmeth 
there, that " the a blessed poor man did go unto heaven, 
and the rich man covered with purple did remain in hell :" 
which agreeth well with that undoubted saying of St. 
Chrysostom himself: " Lazarus b , who was worthy of 
heaven and the kingdom that is. there, being full of sores, 
was exposed to the tongues of dogs, and strove with per- 
petual hunger ;" and with that which he writeth else- 
where : that " after c famine, and sores, and lying in the 
porch, he enjoyed that refreshing which is impossible to 
be expressed by speech, even unspeakable' 1 good things." 
Whereunto may be added that collection of his out of the 
words of our Saviour : " Many 6 shall come from the east 
and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac 
and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven :" that this king- 
dom is designed 1 here by a new term of the bosom of 
Abraham ; and the consummation of all good, called by 
the name of the bosoms of the patriarchs. 

1 Erexit oculos in ccelum de loco tormentorum, et clamavit ad patrem Abra- 
ham. Homil. in illud, Psalm. 33. Quis est homo inter, oper. Chrysost. 

a Beatus pauper migravit ad ccelum ; et dives, purpura tectus, mansit in infer- 
no. Ibid. 

b Kai Aa'Capog /ikv, b rail' oupavuiv a'£iog kcu r»/c fiaffiXsiaQ tt)Q IkiT 

tWlCWflEVOQ TCUQ TWV KVVOJV TTpOlKElTO yXitlTTtttQ, XljUfp |U«X°/' f J '°£ SlIJVEKli 

Chrysost. lib. Provident, ad Stagir. Op. torn. 1. pag. 170. 

c Meto. rbv Xifibv icai to. sKki) kcii n)v iv np ttvXuivi KardicXiffiv, rjjc 
diroppi]TOvtKtivt]gdviasiogKaiovSiX6y(ji epprjvtvOijvai Swafievrje /iet- 
tt^£. Id. in illud : Intrate per angust. port. Ibid. pag. 796. 

d rwv aTroppi'iTwv ayaOwv diroXavovra. Ibid. 

e Matt. chap. 8. ver. 11. 

f r<p rovg KoXirovg ' Afipadp avri ttjq fiaoiXeiag e'itteIv. Id. in Matt, 
hom. 26. Op. torn. 7. pag. 319. 

s 6 yap tovq -rrarpiapxciQ 9avftd^(x>v, Kal \rj%iv dyctcdwv rovg eke'ivuiv 
koXttovq KaXoiv. &c. Ibid. 


St. Basil, in his sermon of fasting, placeth Lazarus in 
paradise : " Dost h not thou see Lazarus how he entered 
by fasting into paradise?" and the ancient compiler of the 
Latin sermon translated from thence, frameth this ex- 
hortation accordingly : " Let 1 us therefore use this way, 
whereby we may return unto paradise. Thither is La- 
zarus gone before us." Asterius bishop of Amasea 
placeth him in " a k sweet and joyous state ;" Cyril bishop 
of Alexandria, in "unexpected 1 delights;" Salvianus, in 
" bliss and everlasting wealth." " The" 1 poor man," saith 
he, " bought bliss with beggary ; the rich man, punish- 
ment with wealth. The poor man, when he had just 
nothing, bought everlasting riches with penury." Gre- 
gory Nazianzen saith, he " was" enriched with refresh- 
ment in the bosoms of Abraham," that are so much to be 
desired . Prudentius, in his poetical vein, describeth him 
to be there hedged about with flowers, as being in the 
garden of paradise, even in the same paradise wherein 
pure souls do now rest since the ascension of Christ ; for 
thus he writeth : 

Sed' 1 dum resolubile corpus 
Revocas, Deus, atque reformas ; 
Quanam regione jubebis 
Animam requiescere puram '! 

11 Ol>x' bpdg rbv Aa'£apov ttiZq Sid vt)artiag i!<rijXQiv tig rbv Trapddsi- 
aov ; Basil, hom. 1. de Jejunio. 

1 Utamur ergo et nos hac via, qua rediri ad paradisum potest, &c. Illuc prse- 
cessit Lazarus. Serm. de Jejunio, Zenoni Veronensi perperam attributum. 

k T<i> o" e/csi fj.ox9t)<Tavri Kai TraT^Oivri Kai TTiKpaig dvaaxopivqi r, lf 
ivoapKov £*)»}£, yXvKtia rig Kai Eixppaivovaa »; Iv9d5e dirEvepi)9t) Karci.- 
araaig. Asterius, in hom. de divit. et Lazaro. 

1 'O [itv Ad^apog >}i> tv dcoKi'iroig Tpvtyalg' b Sk TrXovaiog arrvvij9<x>g, Iv 
tpXoyi Kai ftaffTi^i. Cyril. Alexand. homil. paschal. 1 1. 

m Pauper beatitudinem emit mendicitate ; dives suppliciiun facilitate. Pauper 
cum penitus nil haberet, emit seternas divitias egestate. Salv. Massil. lib. 3. ad 
eccles. Cathol. advers. avaritiam. Prior etiam sententia habetur apud authorem 
serm. 306. torn. 5. app. Oper. Augustini. 

n AdZapog (TwZerai, Kai rrKovrti n)v iv KvXTroig ' Aftpadji ivdirawiv. 
Gregor. Nazianz. orat. 10. de pauper, amore, pag. 262. 

° Twv uptKrwv 'Afipadp. ki'iXttojv. Id. orat. 44. in Pentecost, pag. 711. 

P Prudent. Cathemerinwn. hymn. 10. 



Gremio senis abdita sancti 
Recubabit, ubi est Eleazar ; 
Quem floribus undique septum 
Dives procul adspicit ardens. 

Sequimur tua dicta, Redemptor, 
Quibus atra e mor.te triumphans, 
Tua per vestigia mandas 
Socium crucis ire latronem. 

Of Abraham, the Jew Philo wrifeth : that " having q 
left this mortality, he was adjoined to God's people, en- 
joying immortality, and made equal to the angels :" even 
as our Saviour speaketh of the children of the resur- 
rection 7 . So where Job saith : " Naked came I out of 
my mother's womb, and naked shall I return thither;" 
the Greek schools expound it thus : " Thither, namely 5 
unto God, unto that blessed end and rest, unto 1 the place 
that is free from sorrow ;" which the author of the com- 
mentaries upon Job ascribed to Origen, expresseth thus 
at large: " Thither" will I go, saith he, where are the 
tabernacles of the righteous, where the glories of the 
saints are, where is the rest of the faithful, where is the 
consolation of the godly, where is the inheritance of the 
merciful, where is the bliss of the undented, where is the 
joy and consolation of such as love the truth. Thither 
will I go, where is light and life, where is glory and jo- 
cundness, where is joy and exultation : whence grief and 

1 'Afipadfi IkXittwi' ra 9v)]~d, Trpoariderca rip Qeov Xa^, KctpnovfiEVog 
a<p9ap<Tiai>,'i<Tog dyysXotc. yeyoi'cog. Philo, in lib. de sacrifk. Abelis et Cain ; 
non procul ab initio. 

r Luke, chap. 20. ver. 36. 

s Nimirum ad Deum ; ad ilium, inquam, beatum finem et requietem. Ca- 
tena Graec. in Job, cap. 1. a P. Comitolo conversa. 

' Ei£ tov tottov tov tt'evQovq i\tv9spo v. Caten. MS. D. Augustini Lindselli. 

u Illo, inquit, ibo, ubi sunt tabernacula justorum, ubi sunt sanctorum gloriae, 
ubi est fidelium requies, ubi est piorum consolatio, ubi est misericordium haere- 
ditas, ubi est immaculatorum beatitudo, "ubi est veracium laetitia et consolatio. 
Illuc ibo, ubi est lux et vita, ubi est gloria et jucunditas, ubi est laetitia et exulta- 
tio ; vel unde aufugit dolor, tristitia et gemitus, ubi obliviscuntur priores tribula- 
tiones has quae sunt in corpore super terrain. Illuc ibo ubi est tribulationum 
depositio, ubi est remuneratio laborum, ubi Abrahae sinus, ubi Isaac proprietas, 
ubi Israel familiaritas, ubi sanctorum animae, ubi angelorum chori, ubi archan- 
gelorum voces, ubi Spiritus sancti illuminatio, ubi Christi regnum, ubi aeterni 
Dei patrig infecta gloria atque beatus conspectus. Orig. in Job, lib. 1. 


heaviness and groaning fly away, where they forget the 
former tribulations that they sustained in their body upon 
the earth. Thither will I go, where there is a laying aside 
of tribulations, where there is a recompence of labours, 
where is the bosom of Abraham, where the propriety of 
Jacob, where the familiarity of Israel ; where be the 
souls of the saints, where the choir of angels, where the 
voices of archangels, where the illumination of the Holy 
Ghost, where the kingdom of Christ, where the endless 
glory and blessed sight of the eternal God the Father." 
What difference, I pray you now, is there betwixt this 
limbus patrum and heaven itself? 

Of Abraham's bosom Gregory Nyssen writeth after this 
manner : " As x by a certain abuse of speech we call a 
bay of the sea an arm or bosom : so it seemeth to me that 
the word doth signify the exhibition of those immeasur- 
able good things by the name of a bosom ; into which 
good bosom, or bay, all men that sail by virtuous course 
through this present life, when they loose from hence, 
put in their souls, as it were, into a haven free from 
danger of waves and tempests." And in another place, 
" If y one hearing of a bosom, as it were a certain large 
bay of the sea, should conceive the fulness of good things 
to be meant thereby where the patriarch is named, and 
that Lazarus is therein, he should not think amiss." 
True it is indeed, that divers of the doctors, who make 
Abraham's bosom to be a place of glory, do yet distin- 
guish it from heaven ; but it is to be considered withal, 
that they hold the same opinion indifferently, of the place 
whereunto the souls of all godly men are received, as well 

* "QffTTip ovv rffv iroiav rov TriXayoiiQ nepiypa(p>)v Ik Karaxpiiotioq ti- 
vbg dvofiiiZofiEV koXttov, ovtw Soki'i tSiv Aftttprirmv Ikfiviov nyaQoiv tjji> 
'ivdu'iiv 6 Xoyoi; rip rod koXttov eiacninaivtiv ovofxaTi, o> iravrtg o'i Si apt- 
rijg tov Trapavra licnrXkovrtQ (3iov, orav IvtbvQiv cnrtipunrtv, io<nrep iv 
UKaTaKXei(T-<i> Xipivi r<l> ayaOoi ic6Xtti{> tuc ^"X«C ti>opfii'£ovrai. Greg. 
Nyssen. dialog, de anima et resurrect, oper. torn. 3. pag. 21!). 

y KoXirov yap aKOixrac, oiov nvd tbpt>xttipov irtXayovc; ircpio^fjv, to r<Sv 
aya9oji> TrX))puip.a, cjq tniovopacrOti 6 nnrpinpx'li', vo'))crac, t\q, ovk av 
auaproijkv if) Kai Ad'Capog ylvtrai. Id. tractat. 2. de Psalmor. inscript. cap. 
6. oper. torn. 1. pag. 301. 

v 2 


under the state oftheNewas of the Old Testament. For 
they did not hold, as our Romanists do now, that Christ 
by his descension emptied limbus, and removed the bosom 
of Abraham from hell into heaven : their limbus is now as 
full of fathers as ever it was, and is the common recep- 
tacle wherein they suppose all good souls to remain until 
the general resurrection ; before which time they admit 
neither the fathers nor us unto the possession of the king- 
dom of heaven. " For 2 Abraham," saith Gregory Nyssen, 
" and the other patriarchs, although they had a desire to 
see those good things, and never left seeking that hea- 
venly country, as the apostle saith, yet are they notwith- 
standing that, even yet in expectancy of this favour, God 
having provided some better thing for us, according to 
the saying of St. Paul, that they without us should not 
be made perfect." So Tertullian: "It a appeareth to every 
wise man that hath ever heard of the Elysian fields, that 
there is some local determination, which is called Abra- 
ham's bosom, to receive the souls of his sons, even of the 
Gentiles ; he being the father of many nations that were 
to be accounted of Abraham's family, and of the same 
faith wherewith Abraham believed God, under no yoke of 
the law, nor in the sign of circumcision. That region 
therefore do I call the bosom of Abraham, although not 
heavenly yet higher than hell, which shall give rest in the 
mean season to the souls of the righteous, until the con- 
summation of things do finish the resurrection of all, with 

z Kai yap 01 7rtpi tov ' A^paajx iraTpiapxai, tov fikv iSttv tol ayaQd 
r>)v iiriOv(.dav i'tr^oi', ical ok avijicav tTri'OiTOvvTeg r>)v kirovpaviov 
iraTpiSa, KaQi'tQ cpr/cnv 6 cittootoXoc' dW o/xwc, iv T<p s\iri£«v in rrjv 
X«(Hf tlffi, tov Qeov KpeiTTov ti Trept i)p.ojv TrpofiXiipa/xivov, Kara rr/v 
tov IlavXov <pi»V))v, 'iva [ir], (pijai, ^ W P*£ I'lfiwv TiXtnoOdcri. Greg. Nyssen. 
de Hominis opificio, cap. 22. op. torn, I. pag. 103. 

a Unde apparet sapienti cuique qui aliquando Elysios audierit, esse aliquam 
localem determinationem, quae sinus dicta sit Abrahae, ad recipiendas animas fi- 
liorum ejus etiam ex nationibus, patris scilicet multarum nationum in Abrahae cen- 
sum deputandarum, et eadem fide qua et Abraham Deo credidit, nullo sub jugo 
legis, nee in signo circumcisionis. Earn itaque regionem sinum dico Abrahae, etsi 
non ccelestem, sublimiorem tamen inferis, interim refrigerium praebituram ani- 
mabus justorum, donee consummatio rerum resurrectionem omnium plenitudine 
mercedis expungat, Tert. lib. 4. contr. Marcion. cap. 34. 


the fulness of reward." And we have heard St. Hilary 
say before, that " all b the faithful, when they are gone out 
of the body, shall be reserved by the Lord's custody for 
that entry into the heavenly kingdom ; being in the mean 
time placed in the bosom of Abraham, whither the wicked 
are hindered from coming by the gulf interposed betwixt 
them, until the time of entering again into the kingdom of 
heaven do come;" and again: " The c rich and the poor 
man in the Gospel do serve us for witnesses : one of whom 
the angels did place in the seats of the blessed and in 
Abraham's bosom ; the other the region of punishment 
did presently receive." " For d the day of judgment is the 
everlasting retribution either of bliss or pain : but the 
time of death hath every one under his laws, while either 
Abraham or punishment resei M eth every one unto judg- 

The difference betwixt the doctors in their judgment 
concerning the bosom of Abraham, and the resting of the 
ancient fathers therein, we find noted in part in those 
expositions upon the Gospel, which go under the name of 
Theophilus bishop of Antioch, and Eucherius bishop of 
Lyons. "In e that the rich man," say they, " did in hell 
behold Abraham, this by some is thought to be the reason : 
because all the saints before the coming of our Lord Jesus 

b Exeuntes de corpore ad introitum ilium regni coelestis per custodiam Do- 
mini fideles omnes reservabuntur : in sinu scilicet interim Abrahae collocati, quo 
adire impios interjectum chaos inhibet, quousque introeundi rursum in regnum 
ccelorum tempus adveniat. Hil. in Psal. 120. op. pag. .383. 

c Testes nobis evangelicus dives et pauper : quorum unum angeli in sedibus 
beatorum et in Abrahae sinu locaverunt, alium statim pcenae regio suscepit. Id. 
in Psalm. 2. pag. 52. 

<l Judicii enim dies, vel beatudinis retributio est aeterna vcl pccnae. Tempus 
vero mortis habet unumquemque suis legibus, dum ad judicium unumqucmque 
aut Abraham reservat aut pcena. Id. ibid. 

e In hoc quod apud infernum Abrahamum vidit, haec subesse a quibusdam 
ratio putatur ; quod omnes sancti ante adventum Domini nostri Jesu Christ i 
etiam ad inferna, licet in refrigerii locum, descendisse dicuntur. Alii opinantui 
locum ilium in quo Abraham crat, ab illis inferni locis seorsim in superiori- 
bus fuisse constitutiun : propter quod dicat Dominus de illo divite, quod elevans 
oculos suos cum esset in tormentis, vidit Abraham de longe. Thcophil. An- 
tioch. allegor. in Johan, lib. 1. Eucher. Lugd. de qusestionib. novi Testam, in 


Christ, are said to have descended into hell, although 
into a place of refreshment. Others think that the place 
wherein Abraham was, did lie apart from those places of 
hell, situated in places above, for which the Lord should 
say of that rich man, that lifting up his eyes when he was 
in torments, he saw Abraham afar off." The former of 
these opinions is delivered by some of the doctors doubt- 
fully, by others more resolutely. Primasius setteth it 
down with St. Augustine's qualifications : " It f seemeth 
that without absurdity it may be believed." The author 
of the imperfect work upon St. Matthew saith, that " per- 
adventure g the just did ascend into heaven before the 
coming of Christ ; yet that he doth think, that no soul 
before Christ did ascend into heaven, since Adam sinned, 
and the heavens were shut against him, but all were de- 
tained in hell ;" and, "as h I do think," saith the Greek ex- 
positor of Zachary's hymn likewise, " even our fathers, 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the whole choir of the 
holy prophets and just men, did enjoy the coming of 
Christ." Of which coming to visit the fathers in hell, St. 
Ilierome 1 , RufHnus k , Yenantius Fortunatus 1 , Gregory" 1 , 
Julianus Toletanus", and Eusebius Emissenus (as he is 
commonly called) interpret that question propounded by 

f Si non absurde credi videtur. Primasius, lib. 5. in Apocalyps. cap. 20. se- 
cutus Augustinum, lib. 20. de civit. Dei, cap. 15. 

S Vis autem manifesto scire, quoniam ante Christum cceli si aperiebantur, 
iterum claudebantur. Nam justi quidem forsitan ascendebant in ccelum : pec- 
catores autem nequaquam. Ideo autem dixi, forsitan, ne quibusdam placeat 
etiam ante Christi adventum justorum animas ascendere potuisse in ccelum. 
Alioqui nullam animam ante Christum arbitror ascendisse in ccelum, ex quo 
peccavit Adam, et clausi sunt ei cceli : sed omnes in inferno detentas. Op. 
imperf. in Matth. homil. 4. inter opera Chrysostomi. 

h Ut enim arbitror, etiam patres nostri, Abraham, Isaac, et Jacob, et totus 
chorus sanctorum vatum et justorum, Christi adventu perfruiti sunt. Catena 
Grseca in cantica utriusque Testament!, ab Ant. Carafa convers. torn. 1. ope- 
rum Theodoreti, pag. 729. edit. Colon. 1573. 

1 Hieron. epist. ad Algas. qusest. Let lib. 2. commentar. in Matth. cap. 11. 

k Ruffin. in exposit. Symboli. ' Ven. Fortunat. in exposit. Symboli. 

m Gregor. lib. 1. in Ezech. horn. 1. et in evang. horn. 6. op. torn. 1. pag. 1176. 
et 1453. 

n Julian. Tolet. lib. 2. contra Judseos. 

° Euseb. homil, in evangel. Dominic. 3. adventus. 


the baptist unto our Saviour : " Art' 1 thou he that should 
come, or look we for another:" which exposition is by St. 
Chrysostom q justly rejected, as utterly impertinent and 
ridiculous. Anastasius Sinaita affirmeth very boldly, that 
" all r the souls as well of the just as the unjust were under 
the hand of the devil, until Christ descending into hell 
said unto those that were in bonds, Come forth ; and to 
those that were in durance, Be at liberty." For " he s 
did not only," saith he in another place, " dissolve the 
corruption of the bodies in the grave ; but also delivered 
the captivity of the souls out of hell, wherein they were by 
tyranny detained, and peradventure not by tyranny nei- 
ther, but for many debts ; which being payed, he that 
descended for their delivery, brought back with him a 
great captivity ;" and thus was "hell* spoiled, and Adam 
delivered from his griefs." Which is agreeable to that 
which we read in the works of Athanasius : that " the" 
soul of Adam was detained in the condemnation of death, 
and cried continually unto the Lord ; such as had pleased 
God, and were justified in the law of nature, being de- 
tained together with Adam, and lamenting and crying out 
with him :" and that the devil, " beholding™ himself 

P Matt. chap. 11. ver. 3. Luke, chap. 7. ver. 10, 20. 

i Chrysost. in Matth. cap. 11. horn. 36. op. torn. 7. pag. 100. 

r 'Y7r6 Ttjv X e 'P a T °v StafioXov v7rijpxov ^acrai al ipvxai twv dyiiov 
Kai twv anapTwXwt', ewg ov kcitiXOcov iv rip q,?y 6 Xpurrbt; eItte role, iv 
dtffiioig, 'EKeX9ete, Kai toIq Karexofitvoig, IXtvOtpwOijTe. Anastas, Sinait. 
(al. Nicaen.) quaest. 112. 

s Oi> yap fiovov tijv tiov ffwpariov ipBopdv iv Tip TCHpy SUXvgev dXXd 
Kai tt)v twv i^vx<-<>v alxp-aXoxy'iav Ik tov tfSov aTriXvUEV tvOa KartixovTO 
rvpai'voi'nei'at, ij rdxa, ov rvpavvov/xeinti, dXX' dvriKaTixofiEvai ttoXXwv 
l)(pXi}fiaTwv uTrip Karadtig, 6 Sid to XvTpi'orraaOai Kardfidg, [avt'iyaye 
TroXXrjv alxp-aXwaiav. Anastas. Sinait. de rcct. doginatib. orat. 5. 

' 'Ev aiiry 6 $,8r)Q IitkvXivOii' iv ahry 6 'ASd/x twv oSvvwv dTrtjXXdyrj. 
Id. in Hexaemer. lib. 7. 

u TJje tov ' ASd/i if/vxije tv KaraS'iKy Oavdrov KaTExop.EVt]Q Kai ftowaijg 
Trpbc tov iavTrjc dtoirorijv SiarravroQ, (sive Sit]VEK(Sg) Kai twv Evapcrrii- 
cdvTiov Tip Oetp, Kai SiKaiwQsvrwv iv Tip tpvniKtp vofiip, avyKaTix°l itvt >' v 
rip'ASd/i avjiKivdoin'Tiov ts Kai ovpfiowvTwv. salutar. advent. 
Christi, advers. Appollinar. op. torn. 1. pag. 17. 

" Kai yap bpwv tat tov <TKvXtv6ftevov kiitIkoivtev iavrbv' bpwv Si Kai 
roue ttoti KXaiovrac vn' abrbv, vvv ipaXXovrag iv KVpiift, iii(ip>in<T(v 
iavrbv. Author, serm. in passion, et crucem Domin. inter opera Athanas. 


spoiled, did bemoan himself; and beholding those that 
sometime were weeping under him, now singing in the 
Lord, did rend himself." 

Others are more favourable to the souls of the fathers, 
though they place them in hell ; for they hold them to 
have been there in a state of bliss, and not of misery. 
Thus the author of the Latin homily concerning the rich 
man and Lazarus, which is commonly fathered upon Chry- 
sostom, notwithstanding he affirmeth that Abraham* was 
in hell, and that before the coming of Christ, none ever 
entered into paradise : yet doth he acknowledge in the 
mean time, that Lazarus did remain there in a kind of 
paradise. For " the y bosom of Abraham," saith he, " was 
the poor man's paradise;" and again: ' " Some 2 man may 
say unto me, Is there a paradise in hell ? I say this, that 
the bosom of Abraham is the truth of paradise : yea, and 
I confess it to be a most holy paradise." So Tertullian, 
in the fourth book of his verses against Marcion, placeth 
Abraham's bosom under the earth, but in an open and 
lightsome seat, far removed from the fire and from the 
darkness of hell : 

sub eorpore terrae 

In parte ignota quidam locus exstat apevtus, 
Luce sua 3 fretus ; Abraha? sinus iste vocatur, 
Altior a tenebris, longe semotus ab igne, 
Sub terra tamen. 

Yea, he maketh it to be one house with that which is 
eternal in the heaven, distinguished only from it, as the 
outer and the inner temple, or the sanctum and the 

x Simulque considerandum, quod Abraham apud inferos erat : necdum enim 
Christus resurrexerat, qui ilium in paradisum duceret. Antequam Christus 
moreretur, nemo in paradisum conscenderat, nisi latro. Rhomphaea ilia flammea, 
et vertigo ilia claudebat paradisum. Non poterat aliquis intrare in paradisum, 
quern Christus clauserat : latro primus cum Christo intravit. Homil. in Luc. cap. 
1C. de divite, torn. 2. oper. Chrysost. Latin. 

y Paradisus pauperis, sinus erat Abrahae. Ibid. 

2 Dicat mihi aliquis : In inferno est Paradisus ? Ego hoc dico, quia sinus 
Abrahae Paradisi Veritas est : sed et sanctissimum Paradisum fateor. Ibid. 

» Confer locum ex Augustino, de Genesi ad liter, lib. 12. cap. 24. supra cita- 
tum, pag. 285. 


sanctum sanctorum, were in the time of the Law, hy the 
veil that hung between : which veil being rent at the pas- 
sion of Christ, he saith these two were made one ever- 
lasting house : 

Tempore divisa et spatio, et ratione ligata 

Una domus, quamvis velo partita videtur. 

Atque adeo passo Domino velamine rupto, 

Ccelestes patuere plagae, ccelataque saneta : 

Atqne duplex quondam, facta est domus una perennis. 

Yet elsewhere he maketh up the partition again : main- 
taining very stiffly, that the gates of heaven b remain still 
shut against all men, until the end of the world come, 
and the day of the last j udgment. Only paradise he 
leaveth open for martyrs (as that other author of the 
Latin homily seemeth 1 ' also to do), but the souls of the 
rest of the faithful he sequestereth* into hell, there to re- 
main f in Abraham's bosom until the time of the general 

b Nulli patet ccelum terra adhuc salva, ne dixerim clausa. Cum transactione 
enim mundi reserabuntur regna ccelorum. Tertull. de anima, cap. 55. 

c Quomodo perpetua fortissinia martyr sub die passionis in revelatione para- 
disi, solos illic commartyres snos vidit ; nisi quia nullis romphsea paradisi jani- 
trix cedit, nisi qui in Christo decesserint ? Tota paradisi clavis tuus sanguis est. 
Ibid. Vid. etiam lib. de resurrect, carnis, cap. 43. 

d Si persecutio venerit, imitemur latronem : si pax fuerit, imitemur Lazarum. 
Si martyrium fecerimus, statim intrabimus paradisum : si paupcrtatis poenani 
sustinuerimus, statim in sinum Abrahae. Habet et sanguis, habet et pax loca 
sua : habet et paupertas martyrium suum, et egestas bene tolerata facit marty- 
rium ; sed egestas propter Christum, non propter necessitatem. Homil. de divite, 
inter opera Chrysost. 

e Habes etiam de paradiso a nobis libellum, quo constituimus omnem animam 
apud inferos sequestrari in diem Domini- Tertul. de anim. cap. 55. Omnes 
ergo animas penes inferos ? inquis. Velis ac nolis, et supplicia jam illic et refri- 
geria habes, pauperem et divitem, &c. Cur enim non putes animam et puniri 
et foveri in inferis, interim sub expectatione utriusque, judicii in quadam usur- 
patione et Candida ejus ? Ibid. cap. ult. 

f Quod si Christus Dcus, quia et homo, mortuus secundum scripturas, et se- 
pultua secundum easdem, hie quoque legi satisfecit, forma humanae mortis apud 
inferos functus; nee ante ascendit in sublimiora ccelorum, quam descendit in 
inferiora terrarum, ut illic patriarchaa et prophetas compotes sui faceret : babes, 
et regionem inferum subterranean! credere, et illos cubito pellere, qui satis 
superbe non putent animas fidelium inferis dignas ; servi super Dominum, el 
discipuli super magistrum, aspernati forte in Abrahx sinu, expeetandte resur- 
rectionis solatium carpere. Ibid. cap. 55. 


resurrection. And to this part of hell cloth he imagine 
Christ to have descended, not with purpose to fetch the 
souls of the fathers from thence, which is the only er- 
rand that our Romanists conceive he had thither, but, 
" ut illic patriarchas et prophetas compotes sui faceret, 
that he might there make the patriarchs and prophets 
partakers of his presence." 

St. Hierome saith, that " our g Lord Jesus Christ de- 
scended into the furnace of hell, wherein the souls both 
of sinners and of just men were held shut; that without 
any burning or hurt unto himself, he might free from the 
bonds of death those that were held shut up in that 
place :" and that he " called h upon the name of the Lord 
out of the lowermost lake, when by the power of his divi- 
nity he descended into hell, and having destroyed the 
bars of Tartarus, (or the dungeon of hell) bringing from 
thence such of his as he found there, ascended conqueror 
up again." He saith further, that " Hell 1 is the place of 
punishments and tortures, in which the rich man that was- 
clothed in purple is seen : unto which also the Lord did 
descend, that he might let forth those that were bound 
out of prison." Lastly, " the k Son of God," saith he, 
following Origen, as it seemeth, too unadvisedly here, 
" descended into the lowermost parts of the earth, and 
ascended above all heavens, that he might not only fulfil 

S Dominus noster Jesus Christus ad fornacem descendit inferni ; in quo 
clausae, et peccatorum et justorum animae tenebantur : ut absque exustione 
et noxa sui, eos qui tenebantur inclusi, mortis vinculis liberaret. Hieronym. 
lib. 1. in Daniel, cap. 3. 

h Invocavit ergo Redemptor noster nomen Domini de lacu novisslmo, cum in 
virtute divinitatis descendit ad inferos, et destructis claustris Tartari, suos quos 
ibi reperit eruens, victor ad superos ascendit. Id. lib. 2. in Lament. Jerem. 
cap. 3. 

1 Infernus locus suppliciorum atque cruciatuum est, in quo videtur dives pur- 
puratus : ad quem descendit et Dominus, ut vinctos de carcere dimitteret. Id. 
lib. 6. in Esai. cap. 14. 

k Descendit ergo in inferiora terrse, et ascendit super omnes coelos filius Dei : 
ut non tantum legem prophetasque compleret, sed et alias quasdam occultas 
dispensationes, quas solus ipse novit cum patre. Neque enim scire possumus, 
quomodo et angelis et his qui in inferno erant, sanguis Christi profuerit ; et 
tamen quin profuerit, nescire non possumus. Id. lib. 2. in Ephes. cap. 4. 


the law and the prophets, but certain other hidden dis- 
pensations also, which he alone doth know with the Fa- 
ther. For we cannot understand, how the blood of Christ 
did profit both the angels and those that were in hell ; 
and yet that it did profit them, we cannot be ignorant." 
Thus far St. Hierome, touching Christ's descent into the 
lowermost hell : which Thomas and the other schoolmen 
will not admit that he ever came unto. 

Yet this must they of force grant, if they will stand 
to the authority of the fathers : " It 1 remained," saith 
Fulgentius, " for the full effecting of our redemption, 
that man assumed by God without sin, should thither de- 
scend, whither man separated from God should have 
fallen by the desert of sin, that is, unto hell, where the 
soul of the sinner was wont to be tormented ; and to the 
grave, where the flesh of the sinner was accustomed to be 
corrupted ; yet so, that neither the flesh of Christ should 
be corrupted in the grave, nor his soul be tormented with 
the pains of hell. Because the soul free from sin, was not 
to be subjected to such punishment; neither ought cor- 
ruption to taint the flesh without sin." And'" this he saith 
was done for this end : " that by the flesh of the just 
dying temporally, everlasting life might be given to our 
flesh ; and by the soul of the just descending into hell, 
the pains of hell might be loosed." 

It is the saying of St. Ambrose, that " Christ" being- 
void of sin, when he did descend into the lowermost parts 

1 Restabat tamen ad plenum nostrse redemptionis effectum, ut illuc usque 
homo sine peccato a Deo susceptus descenderet, quousque homo separatus a 
Deo, peccati merito cecidisset ; id est, ad infernum, ubi solebat peccatoris anima 
torqueri, et ad sepulchrum, ubi consueverat peccatoris caro cbrrumpi : sic tamen, 
ut nee Christi caro in sepulchro corrumpcretur, nee inferni doloribus anima tor- 
queretur. Quouiam anima immunis a peccato, non erat subdenda supplicio : 
et carnem sine peccato non debuit vitiate corruptio. Fulgent, ad Trasimund. 
lib. 3. cap. 30. 

111 Hoc autem ideo factum est, ut per morientem temporaliter carnem justi, 
donaretur vita aeterna carni ; et per descendenteni ad infernum animam justi, 
dolores solverentur inferni. Ibid. 

n Expers peccati Christus, cum ad tartari ima descendens, seras inferni janu- 
asque confringens, vinctas peccato animas, mortis doininatione destructa, e diaboli 
faucibus revocavit ad vitam. Ambros. de mysterio Paschx, cap. 


of Tartarus, breaking the bars and gates of hell, called 
back unto life, out of the jaws of the devil, the souls that 
were bound with sin, having destroyed the dominion of 
death:" and of Eusebius Emissenus, or Gallicanus (or 
whoever was the author of the sixth paschal homily 
attributed to him) that " the° son of man laying aside his 
body, pierced the lowest and hidden seats of Tartarus : 
but where he was thought to have been detained among 
the dead, there binding death, did he loose the bonds of 
the dead." " Presently therefore 13 ," saith Caesarius, in his 
third paschal homily, which is the same with the first of 
those that go under the name of the former Eusebius, 
" the everlasting night of hell at Christ's descending shined 
bright : the gnashing of the mourners ceased, the burthens 
of the chains were loosed, the bursted bands of the 
damned fell from them. The tormentors astonished in 
mind were amazed : the whole impious shop trembled to- 
gether, when they beheld Christ suddenly in their dwell- 
ings." So Arnaldus Bonaevallensis in his book De car- 
dinalibus operibus Christi, commonly attributed to St. 
Cyprian, noteth, that at that time " there* 1 was a cessa- 
tion from infernal torments," which by Arator r is thus 
more amply expressed in verse : 

pavidis resplenduit umbris 

Pallida regna petens, propria quem luce coruscum 
Non potuit fuscare chaos. Fugere dolores, 
Infernus tunc esse timet, nullumque coercens 
In se pcena redit, nova tortor ad otia languet : 
Tartara mcesta gemunt, quia vincula cuncta quiescunt. 
Mors ibi quid faceret, quo vitse portitor ibat ? 

° Deposito quidem corpore imas atque abditas Tartari sedes filius hominis 
penetravit : sed ubi retentus esse inter mortuos putabatur, ibi vincula mortuo- 
runi ligata morte laxavit. Euseb. homil. C. de Pascha. 

P Confestiin igitur seterna nox inferorum Cliristo descendente resplenduit ; 
siluit stridor lugentium ille, soluta sunt onera catenarum, dirupta ceciderunt 
vincula damnatorum. Attonitae mentis obstupuere tortores : omnis simul impia 
officina contremuit, cum Christum repente in suis sedibus vidit. Ibid, homil. 1. 
Csesarius Arelatens. de Pasch. horn. 3. 

i Ab infernalibus tormentis cessatum est. Arnald. abb. Bonsevallis, act. de 
unctione chrismatis in fine. 

r Arator, historiee apostolicee, lib, 1. 


St. Augustine doth thus deliver his opinion touching 
this matter : " That s Christ's soul came unto those places 
wherein sinners are punished, that he might loose them 
from torments, whom by his hidden justice he judged fit 
to be loosed, is not without cause believed." " Neither* 
did our Saviour, being dead for us, scorn to visit those 
parts, that he might loose from thence such as he could 
not be ignorant, according to his divine and secret justice, 
were to be loosed." But" whether he loosed " all that 
he found in those pains, or some whom he thought worthy 
of that benefit, I yet enquire. For that he was in hell, 
and bestowed the benefit upon some that did lie in the 
pains thereof, I do not doubt." Thus did St. Augustine 
write unto Evodius, who enquired of him, whether " our v 
Saviour loosed all from thence, and emptied hell;" which 
was in those days a great question, and gave occasion to 
that speech of Gregory Nazianzen, " If w he descend into 
hell, go thou down with him, (namely in contemplation and 
meditation) learn the mysteries of Christ's doings there, 
what the dispensation, and what the reason was of his double 
descent, (to wit, from heaven unto earth, and from earth 
unto hell :) whether at his appearing he simply saved all, or 
there also such only as did believe." What Clemens Alex- 
andrinus his opinion was herein, every one knoweth, that 

s Christi animam venisse usque ad ea loca, in quibus peccatores cruciantur 
ut eos solveret a tormentis, quos esse solvendos occulta nobis sua justitia judi- 
cabat, non immerito creditur. Augustin. de Genesi ad literam, lib. 12. cap. 33. 
1 Nee ipsam tamen rerum partem noster Salvator mortuus pro nobis visitare 
contempsit, ut inde solveret quos esse solvendos secundum divinam secretamque 
justitiam ignorare non potuit. Ibid. cap. 34. 

u Sed quia evidentia testimonia et infernum commemorant et dolores ; nulla 
causa occurrit, cur illo credatur venisse Salvator, nisi ut ab ejus doloribus salvos 
faceret. Sed utrum omnes quos in eis invenit, an quosdam quos illo beneficio 
dignos judicavit, adhuc require. Fuisse tamen eum apud inferos, et in eorum 
doloribus constitutis hoc beneficium pra;stitisse, non dubito. Id. epist. 164. ad 
Evodium. op. torn. 2. pag. 57C. 

v Si omnes inde solvit Salvator, et sicut rcquirens scripsisti, exinanivit inferna. 
Item : Si, ut qua-rendo dicis, exinaniti sunt inferi. Ibid. 

w "Ai> el£ acov icar'ty, avyKarikOf yi'uiOi icai to. lictioi roTi Xpurrov /.iva- 
rrjpia, rig >'; oiKOVOfiia riig dinXfig Kara/3d<T£wc, rig 6 \6yog- uttXwq ow£ti 
itavrag tTTitpavtig, r) Kq.Kii rovg Tviartvovrag. Greg. Nazianz. orat. 12. 
quaest. 2. in Pasch. op. torn. 1. pag. GD3. 


" our* Lord descended for no other cause into hell, but 
to preach the Gospel," and that such y as lived a good life 
before the time of the Gospel, whether Jews or Grecians, 
" although they were in hell and in durance, yet hearing 
the voice of our Lord, either from himself immediately, or 
by the working of the apostles, were presently converted 
and did believe ;" in a word, that in z hell things were so 
ordered, " that even there all the souls, having heard 
this preaching, might either shew their repentance, or ac- 
knowledge their punishment to be just, because they did not 
believe." Hereupon, when Celsus the philosopher made 
this objection concerning our Saviour : " Surely 3 you will 
not say of him, that when he could not persuade those that 
were here, he went into hell to persuade those that were 
there." Origen, the scholar of Clemens, sticketh not to 
return unto him this answer: " Whether 15 he will or no, 
we say this, that both being in the body he did persuade, 
not a few, but so many, that for the multitude of those 
that were persuaded by him he was laid in wait for : and 
after his soul was sepai*ated from his body, he had con- 
ference with souls departed from their bodies, converting 
of them unto himself stich as would, or such as he dis- 
cerned to be more fit for reasons best known unto him- 

x Ei y ovv 6 Kvpiog Si ovStv tTtpov tig q.Sov KaTijXOtv, r] Sid To tvay~ 
ytXiffaaOai, uieirtp KarqXQtv, &c, Clem. Alexandr. lib. 6. Strom, pag. 763. 

y Ai)X6v ttov Kal Tovg tKTog vop.ov ytvop,kvovg, Sid n)v tijq (pwvrjg (leg. 
tyvotiDQ) iSioTijra opOwg fiefiKOKoTag, d Kal iv q.Sov trvxov bvrig Kal kv 
tppovpa, iiraKovaavTag rr\g tov Kvpiov (pojpijg, tin rrjg aH)tvTiKr\g, tire 
Kal rfjg Sid rwi> cnrooToXuv avspyovarjg, y rdxog i-niorpaQrivai te Kal 
TTiorivaai. Ibid. pag. 764. 

z Oi>x' Kai % v $Sov »J o-vti) ykyovtv o'lKOVopia ; 'iva Kq.KtZ iraffai ai ipvxal, 
cLKovaaoai tov Kiipvyfiarog, ti)v pitrdvoiav IvSiiZiavrai, ?; Tr/v KoXacriv 
SiKaiav tivai, Si 5>v ovk iiriGTtvoav, bpoXoyljaioai. Ibid. pag. 765. 

a Ov Stjttov <pt]<JiTt irtpl avTov, on prj irtiaag rovg (pSt bvrag, iffTtXXtTo 
tig aSov ntlooiv rovg iKti. Cels. 

b Ka~v p.?) flovXijrai, tovto <pap:'tv, on Kal tv uw/zan (of ovk oXiyovg tTrti- 
fftv, AXXd ToaovTOvg, wg Sid to nXi^Oog tCjv irtiQop.kvu>v ijrifiovXtvOiji'ai 
uvtov Kal yvfivy owfiarog ytvofitvog ^t'X'J' Talg yvpvaTg ffwfidrwv a>/u- 
Xti ipv^dlg, liri<TTpk<pti>v koIkuvuv rdg fiovXopEvag -rrpbg avTov, tj &g iwpa 
Si ovc ySti avrbg Xoyovg tniTr]StioTEpag. Origen. lib. 2. contra Celsum. 


The like effect of Christ's preaching in hell, is deli- 
vered by Anastasius Sinaita c , Jobius u or Jovius, Damas- 
cene, CEcumenius f , Michael Glycas 8 , and his transcriber 
Theodoras Metochites' 1 . The author of the commentary 
upon St. Paul's epistles, attributed to Ambrose, saith, that 
" having' triumphed over the devil, he descended into the 
heart of the earth, that the shewing of him might be the 
preaching of the dead, and that as many as were desirous 
of him might be delivered." Procopius saith, that " he k 
preached to the spirits that were in hell, restrained in the 
prison house, releasing them all from the bonds of neces- 
sity ;" wherein he folio we th St. Cyril of Alexandria, wri- 
ting upon the same place, " that 1 Christ went to preach 
to the spirits in hell, and appeared to them that were de- 
tained in the prison house, and freed them all from bonds, 
and necessity, and pain, and punishment." The same 
St. Cyril in his paschal homilies affirmeth more directly, 
that our Saviour, " entering™ into the lowermost dens of 
hell, and preaching to the spirits that were there," 
" emptied" that unsatiable den of death, spoiled hell of 
spirits ;" and having thus " spoiled'' all hell, left the 

c Anastas. Sinait. vel Nicam. qusest. 111. 

ll Jobius, de verbo incarnato. lib. 9. cap. 38. in Photii bibliotheca, volum. 

e Jo. Damascen. de orthodoxa fide, lib. 3. cap. ult. et in serm. de defunct. 

f (Ecumen. in 1. Petr. cap. 3. 

e Mich. Glyc. part. 3. annalium. 

h Theodor. Metochit. in historia Romana, a Meursio nuper edita : quae ex 
Glyca tota est desumpta. 

1 Triumphato diabolo descendit in cor terrae, ut ostensio ejus praedicatio esset 
mortuorum, ut et quotquot cupidi ejus essent, liberarentur. Ambros. in Ephes. 
cap. 4. 

k 'O di civtoqkcii To'tQ^tv q.oov, KaOeipypsvoig tv oi'/cy <pv\q,icrjc, tKt'jpv^e 
irvivjiaaiv, sk Sefffidv avdyKr/g iravrag dvtig. Procop. in Esai. cap. 42. 

1 Quod spiritibus in inferno praedicatum abierit et detentis in domo custodiac, 
apparuerit Christus, et omnes vinculis liberaverit, et necessitate, et poena, et sup- 
plicio. Cyrill. Alcxand. fin. lib. 3. in Esai. cap. 42. 

m KaOiKOfiEVog iv rolg Karondroig rov q.Sov pvxo~ig, Kai diaKt]pvZag 
toiq iKtlat TTvevnam. Id. Ilomil. Paschal. 20. 

» Tbv uir\ri<JTov rov Qavdrov Kevwaag fivxov. Id. hom. 11. 

° 2«crir\)jro Tuiv irvtvfiaTwv 6 qSqg. Id. liom. G. 

p "0\ov yap tb9vg <JKvl\tboag tov (ictjv, Kai Tag d(pvKT0vg roig twv 


devil there solitary and alone." For q when " Christ de- 
scended into hell," saith Andronicus, " not only the souls 
of the saints were delivered from thence, but all those 
that before did serve in the error of the devil, and the 
worship of idols, being enriched with the knowledge of 
God, obtained salvation, for which also they gave thanks, 
praising God." Whereupon the author of one of the 
sermons upon the ascension, fathered upon St. Chrysos- 
tom, bringeth in the devil complaining, that the Son of 
Mary, " having r taken away from him all those that were 
with him from the very beginning had left him desolate ;" 
and in another sermon, held to be his indeed, our Sa- 
viour is said to " have s made the whole prison of hell de- 
solate." Whereas the undoubted Chrysostom writing 
upon the eleventh of St. Matthew, doth at large confute 
this fond opinion, censuring the maintainers thereof, as 
the " bringers 1 in of old wives' conceits and Jewish fa- 
bles." Yea, Philastrius u , and St. Augustine w out of him, 
doth brand such for heretics, whose testimony also is 
urged by St. Gregory against George and Theodore, two 
of the clergy of Constantinople, who held in his time, as 

KtKoini}n'tvo>v Trvtv^affiv avairtTaaaQ ttvXciq, tpi)iiov rs ical \idvov, afytlq 
iKilcre rbv $iaf3o\ov, av'tart) rpiijfjLepog. Cyril. Alexand. horn, paschal. 7. 

*> Nam Christo ad inferos descendente, non sanctorum animae tantum liberatse 
sunt inde ; sed omnes adeo prius in diaboli errore, et simulachrorum cultu servi- 
tutem servientes, aucti agnitione Dei, salutem sunt consecuti : quare et gratias 
agebant, Deum laudantes. Andronic. dialog, contra Judseos, cap. 60. 

r Omnibus, qui jam inde ab initio apud me fuerant, tanquam accipiter celeri- 
ter advolans, abreptis ; desertum me reliquit. Chrysost. in Ascens. Domini, serm. 
8. a Ger. Vossio edit. 

8 "EirkoTi), r(jj $S7j ipi]fiov avrov r>)v <pv\aKi)v t7roit]atv aTraaav. Id. 
Horn, in nomen Ccemeterii et in crucem, op. torn. 2. pag. 399. 

I M>) 8r) roiavra \oiirbv ttffayufiev Soy/xaTa yp$w$t) icai fivQovq 'Iow- 
Sa'iKOvg. Chrysost. in Matth. homil. 36. op. torn. 7. pag. 411. 

II Alii sunt hceretici, qui dicunt Dominum in infernum descendisse, et omni- 
bus post mortem etiam ibidem renunciasse (se nunciasse, corrigendum est ex 
Gregorio) ut confitentes ibidem salvarentur. Philastr. Brixiens. de Haeresib. 
cap. 74. ubi respicere videtur ad ilia Clementis Alexandrini verba, libro 6. Stro- 
mat. pag. 764. owOi'jffovrat Tzavrtq oi TnffTivffavree, k^v i% Wvuv ovTtq 
tvx^oiv, iKojj.o\oyr)adiisvoi tfdi] iictl. 

w Alia (haeresis) descendente ad inferos Christo credidisse incredulos, et om- 
nes inde existimat. liberatos. Augustin. de hseresib. cap. 79. 


many others did before and after them, that " our x om- 
nipotent Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ descending into 
hell, did save all those who there confessed him to be 
God, and did deliver them from the pains that were due 
unto them;" and when Clement, our countryman, about 
one hundred and fifty years after, did renew that old 
error in Germany, that " the y Son of God descending 
into hell, delivered from thence all such as that infernal 
prison did detain, believers and unbelievers, praisers of 
God and worshippers of idols ;" the Roman synod 7 held 
by pope Zachary, condemned him and his followers 
for it. 

But to leave Clemens Scotus, and to return unto Cle- 
mens Alexandrinus, at whom Philastrius may seem to 
have aimed specially: it is confessed by our adversaries, 
that he fell into this error, partly being deceived 3 with 
the superficial consideration of the words of St. Peter, 
touching " Christ's b preaching to the spirits in prison," 
partly being deluded with the authority of Hermes , the 
supposed scholar of St. Paid, by whose dreams he was 

x Omnipotentem Dominum Salvatorem nostrum Jesum Christum ad inferos 
tlescendentem, omnes qui illic confiterentur eum Deum, salvasse atque a poenis 
debitis liberasse. Vid. Gregor. lib. 6. epist. 15. et in evangel, horn. 22. 

* Qui contra fidem sanctorum contendit, dicens ; quod Christus filius Dei 
descendens ad inferos, omnes quos inferni career detinuit inde liberasset, credu- 
los et incredulos, laudatores Dei simul et cultores idolorum. Bonifac. Moguntin. 
ad Zachariam. P. epist. 135. 

z Dominum Jesum Christum descendentem ad inferos, omnes pios et impios 
exinde praedicat abstraxisse, ab omni sit sacerdotali officio nudatus, et anathe- 
matis vinculo obligatus ; pariterque Dei judicio condemnatus, vel omnis qui 
ejus sacrilegis consenserit praedicationibus. Synod, ltomana sub Zachaiia 1'. 
arm. 745. habita : Ibid, et Concilior. torn. 3. 

a Deceptus fuit superficie vcrborum Petri ; quern non animadvertit longe dis- 
tinctius loqui, atque prima facie videatur. Ilenric. Vicus, de descens. Christi ad 
inferos, sec. 43. 

'• 1 Pet. cap. 3. ver. 19. 

c Delusus authoritate Hermetis, putat Christum evangelium proedicass-c dam- 
natis, et eorum aliquos liberasse, qui ex gcntilibus sancte vixcrant. Alphons. 
Mendoz. in controv. theologic. quoest. 1. positiv. sec. 4. secutus Andradium, lib. 
2. Defens. fidci Tridentinac. 

rt Oe dnoirroXot (cat SicdcncaXoi, oi Kt}pu'iavTiQ to ovofin rov uioD rov 
btov, Kai Koifii)0'fVTt(;, rjj Kai ry iriarii avrov iKiipv^av ro7f 
7rpoK(Koifii)fiti'oig- Kai <(!>rui iowKav aurott; ti)v crtypaylda rov Kripvypa- 



persuaded to believe, that not only Christ himself, but 
his apostles also did descend into hell, to preach there 
unto the dead, and to baptize them. But touching the 
Avords of St. Peter, is the main doubt, whether they are 
to be referred unto Christ's preaching by the ministry of 
Noah unto the world of the ungodly, or unto his own 
immediate preaching to the spirits in hell after his death 
upon the cross. For seeing that it was the spirit of Christ 
which spake in the prophets, as St. Peter 6 sheweth in this 
same epistle, and among them was " Noe f a preacher of 
righteousness," as he declareth in the next, even as in St. 
Paul, Christ is said to have " come 8 and preached to the 
Ephesians," namely, by his spirit in the mouth of his 
apostles ; so likewise in St. Peter may he be said to have 
gone and preached to the old world, by h his spirit in the 
mouth of his prophets, and of Noah in particular, when 
God having said that his " Spirit 1 should not always 
strive with man, because he was flesh," did in his long 
suffering wait the expiration of the time which he then 
did set for his amendment, even an hundred and twenty 
years. For which exposition the Ethiopian translation 
maketh something, where the Spirit, by which Christ is 
said to have been quickened and to have preached, is by 
the interpreter termed tf^cCh • ^"J^h Manephas Kodus, 
that is, the Holy Spirit : the addition of which epithet we 
may observe also to be used by St. Paul in the mention of 
the resurrection, and by St. Luke in the matter of the 

toq. Kart(3>i(Tav ovv p,ir' avruiv slg to vStop, Kal iraKiv avej3>i(rav a\V 
ovroi fiiv Z,G)VTtg KaTijirjaav, Kal ircikiv Z,Zvtiq avij3)]ffav tKtlvoi St ol 
■7rpOKiKoi[irin'ivoi, viKpol /ear£/3»j<ra»', ^wvrtQ Sk avifirjaav Sid tovtojv ovv 
t%(i)OTroii]9)]ffai>, Kal tTrsyvutaav to ovop,a tov viov tov OtoE* Sid tovto nal 
avvavtfitjffav flit' ai)Tixiv Kal avvi)pp.oaav tiQ tt)v otKodofitjv tov irvpyov 
Kal a\aT6/ii)T0i ovvii>Ko8op,ii9ri<Tav,oTi ii> SiKaioavvi] tK0ip.i]Qt]aav Kal iv 
(ifyaXy dyveia, p.bvi\v Si ti)v o~<ppayiSa TavTr\v ovk 'la^ov. Hermes in Pas- 
tore, lib. 3. similitud. 9. Citatur a Clemente Alexandrine lib. 2. Stromat. 

e 1 Pet. chap. 1. ver. 11. f 2 Pet. chap. 2. ver. 5. 

8 Ephes. chap. 2. ver. 17. 

11 Nehem. chap. 2. ver. 30. Zach. chap. 7. ver. 12. 2 Sam. chap. 23. ver. 2. 

' Gen. chap, 6. vev. 3. 


preaching of our Saviour Christ ; for of the one we read 1 , 
that he was " declared to be the Son of God, with power, 
according to the Spirit of holiness," or, the most holy 
Spirit, " by the resurrection from the dead ;" and of the 
other" 1 , that he " gave commandments to the apostles by 
the holy Spirit." 

Thus doth St. Hierome relate, that " a" most prudent 
man," for so he termeth him, did understand this place : 
" He° preached to the spirits put in prison, when the pa- 
tience of God did wait in the days of Noah, bringing in 
the flood upon the wicked ;" as if this preaching were then 
performed, when the patience of God did expect the con- 
version of those wicked men in the days of Noah. St. 
Augustine more directly wisheth us to " consider?, lest 
haply all that which the apostle Peter speaketh of the 
spirits shut up in prison, which believed not in the days 
of Noah, pertain nothing at all unto hell, but rather to 
those times which he compareth as a pattern with our 
times." For " Christ," saith he, " before q ever he came 
in the flesh to die for us, which once he did, came often be- 
fore in the spirit to such as he pleased, admonishing them 
by visions in the spirit as he pleased, by which spirit he 
was also quickened, when in his passion he was mortified 
in the flesh." Venerable Bede, and Walafridus Strabus 
in the ordinary gloss after him, set down their minds 
herein yet more resolutely : " He r who in our times co- 

1 Rom. cliap. 1. ver. 4. m Act. chap. 1. ver. 2. 

■ Vir prudentissimus. Hieronym. lib. 15. in Esai. cap. 54. 

° Praedicavit spiritibus in carcere constitutis, quando Dei patientia expectabat 
in diebus Noe, diluvium impiis inferens. Ibid. 

l' Considera tamen, ne forte totum illud, quod de conclusis in carcere spiiiti- 
bus, qui in diebus Noe non crediderant, Petrus apostolus dicit, omnino ad inferos 
lion pertineat ; sed ad ilia potius tempora, quorum formam ad haec tempora 
transtulil. August, ep. 104. op. torn. 2. pag. 578. 

i Quoniam priusquani veniret in carne pro nobis moriturus, quod semel fecit, 
saepe antea veniebat in spiritu ad quos volebat, visis eos admonens sicut volebat 
utique in spiritu ; quo spiritu et vivificatus est, cum in passione esset came mor- 
tificatus. Ibid. pag. 580. 

'' Qui nostris temporibus in carne veniens iter vita: mundo procdicavit, ipse 
etiam ante diluvium eis qui tunc increduli erant et carnaliter vivebant, spkitu 
veniens procdicavit. Ipse enim per spiritum sanctum crat in Noe, ceetcrisque 

x 2 


ming in the flesh, preached the way oflife unto the world, 
even he himself also before the flood, coming in the Spirit, 
preached unto them which then were unbelievers and 
lived carnally. For by his holy spirit he was in Noah, 
and the rest of the holy men which were at that time ; 
and by their good conversation, preached to the wicked 
men of that age, that they might be converted to a better 
course of life." The same exposition is followed by An- 
selmus Laudunensis in the interlineary gloss, Thomas 
Aquinas s in his Sum, and diverse others in their com- 
mentaries upon this place. Yea, since the council of 
Trent, and in a book written in defence of the faith of 
Trent, Doctor Andradius professeth that he thinketh this 
to be the plain meaning of the place. " In* which spirit 
he himself long since coming, that we may not imagine, 
that he now first undertook the care of his church, did 
preach unto those spirits, which now in prison do suffer 
the deserved punishment of their infidelity ; forasmuch as 
they would not believe Noah giving them good counsel, 
and building the ark by God's appointment, notwithstand- 
ing the patience of God did wait for them very long, to 
wit, an hundred years or more ;" which accordeth fully 
with that interpretation of St, Peter's words, which is de- 
livered by the learned of our side : "In which spirit he 
had gone and preached to them that now are spirits in 
prison," because they " disobeyed when the time was : 
when the patience of God once waited in the days of Noe, 
while the ark was a preparing"." 

But there were divers apocryphal Scriptures and tradi- 

qui tunc fuere Sanctis ; et per eorum bonam conversationem, pravis illius sevi 
hominibus, ut ad meliora converterentur praedicavit. Bed. in 1 Pet. cap. 3. et 
Gloss, ordinal - , ibid. 

* Thom. 3. part. Sum. quaest. 52. artic. 2. ad 3. 

* In quo spiritu jam olim ipse veniens (ne nunc primum eeclesise curam eum 
suscepisse arbitraremur) praedicavit spiritibus illis, qui nunc in carcere meritas 
jam infidelitatis suae pcenas luunt ; quippe qui Noe recta monenti, et arcam Dei 
jussu construenti, fidcm habere nunquam voluerunt, quamvis Dei illos patientia 
diutissime, hoc est, centum aut eo amplius annus expectaret. Andrad. defens. 
Tridentinae fidei, lib. 2. 

« 1 Pet. chap. 3. ver. 1 9, 20. 


lions afoot in the ancient Church, which did so possess 
men's minds with the conceit of Christ's preaching in 
hell, that they never sought for any further meaning in 
St. Peter's words, as that sentence especially, which was 
fathered upon the prophet Isaiah or Jeremy ; and from 
whence, if cardinal Bellarmine's w wisdom may be heard, 
" It is credible that St. Peter took his words, namely, 
The x Lord the holy one of Israel remembered his dead, 
Avlrich slept in the earth of their graves; and descended 
to them, to preach unto them his salvation ;" and that 
blind tradition, which Anastasius Sinaita doth thus lay 
down, immediately after his citation of St. Peters's text : 
" It y is now related among the old traditions, that a cer- 
tain scholar using many opprobrious speeches against 
Plato the philosopher ; Plato appeared unto him in his 
sleep, and said : Man, forbear to use opprobrious speeches 
against me : for thereby thou hurtest thyself. That I 
was a sinful man I do not deny : but when Christ de- 
scended into hell, in very deed none did believe in him 
before myself." Nicetas Serronius reciteth this out of the 
histories of the fathers : " which 2 whether it be to be be- 
lieved or no, I leave," saith he, " to be judged by the 
hearers;" as if any great matter of judgment should be 
requisite for the discerning of this to be, as Bellarmine 
doth censure it, a fable a , or, as Dionysius Carthusianus 

w Bellarm. lib. 4. de Christo cap. 13. 

x 'Efiin)n6)] di Kiipiog 6 ayiog 'lapai'/X twi> vikowv avrov tCjv KtKoifiiJid- 
VbiV dg yijv xuparog, (cat Kare/3?; 7rp6c. aliTovg tvayytXhaffOat abrolg 
to aiori)piov avrov. Citatur a Justino martyre in dialogo cum Tryphonc : ct 
Irenaeo, lib. 3. cap. 23. lib. 4. cap. 39. et lib. 5. cap. 31. 

y Kat viiv (jitperai tig ap\aiag irapaSbatig, otl rig ffxoXairriKog iroWA 
KaTtjpaoaro rbv HXarujva, tov <piX6ao(f>ov. 'baivtrai ovv abnp KaO' vtt ■ 
vovg, b HXanjv, Xkyiov. "AvOpwirt Tzavaai rov Karapaadai fit, otavrbv 
yap fiXairrtig- on piv uvOpionog a^iaprwXbg ytyova ovk apvovfiai. HX>)i> 
KaTtXOuvrog rov Xpiarov iv r<ji qSti, bi'rutg ovdtig iwiortvoi irpb tfiov tig 
avrov. Anast. Sin. vcl Nicoen. qtuest. 111. 

z Hoc de Platone commemoratut : quod crcdendum sit nccuc, auditoiibusju- 
dicandum relinquo. Nicct. commentar. in Gregor. Nazianz. oral. 2. de Paa- 

a Quarc inter fabulas numcranda est ilia nan alio, quam in historiis patrum 
circumferri dicit Nicetas, &c. lla;c quidem tabula est. Bellarm. lib. 1. d. 
Christo, cap. 16. 


before him, an b apocryphal dream. The like stuff is 
that also which was vented heretofore unto the world in 
the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus, to say nothing of 
that sentence which is read in the old Latin editions of 
the book of Ecclesiasticus ; " I c will pierce all the lower- 
most parts of the earth, and behold all that are asleep, and 
enlighten all them that hope in the Lord ;" which al- 
though it be not now to be found in the Greek original, 
and hath perhaps another meaning than that to which it 
is applied ; yet is it made by the author of the imperfect 
work upon Matthew, one of the chief inducements which 
led him to think that our Saviour descended into hell, to 
visit there the souls of the righteous. 

The tradition that of all others deserveth greatest con- 
sideration, is the article of the creed touching Christ's 
descent into hell, which Genebrard a affirmeth to have 
been so hateful to the Arians, that, as Ambrose report- 
cth upon the fifth chapter of the epistle to the Romans, 
they struck it quite out of the very creed of the apostles. 
But neither is there the least footstep of any such matter 
to be seen in St. Ambrose ; and it sufficiently appeareth 
otherwise, that the Arians did not only add this article 
unto their creeds, but also set it forth and amplified it 
with many words, so far off were they from being guilty 
of suppressing it. For as the fathers of the first general 
council, held in the year of our Lord three hundred and 
twenty-five at Nice, in Bithynia, did publish a creed 
against the Arians ; so the Arians on the other side, in 
the year three hundred and fifty-nine, set out a creed of 
their own making, in a synod purposely kept by them at 

b Istud inter Apoeryphorum computandum est somuium. Dionys. Carthu- 
sian, in I Pet. cap. 3. 

c Penetrabo omnes inferiores partes tense, et inspiciam onines dormientes, et 
illuminabo omnes sperantes in Domino, vel at ab authore operis imperfecti in 
Matth. (inter opera Chrysostomi) homilia 4. eitatur. Descendam ad inferiores 
partes terrae, et visitabo omnes dormientes, et illuminabo sperantes in Deum. 
Ecclesiastic, cap. 24. ver. 45. 

d Ambrosius in quintum caput ad Romanos auctor est Arianos huic articulo 
ita fuisse adversatos, ut eum de symbolo apostolorum expungerent. Gilbert. 
Genebrard. lib. 3. de Triuitate ; in symboli Athanasiani expositione. 


Nice in Thracia, that 6 by the ambiguity of the council's 
name, the simpler sort might be more easily induced, to 
mistake this Nicene for that other Catholic Nicene creed. 
And whereas the true Nicene fathers had in their creed 
omitted the article of the descent into hell, which, as we 
shall afterwards hear out of Ruffinus, was not to be had 
in the symbols of the eastern churches, these bastard fa- 
therlings in their Nicene creed, did not only insert this 
clause : " He f descended to the places under the earth ;" 
but added also for further amplification, " Whom hell it- 
self trembled at." The like did they, with the words a 
little altered, in another creed 5 set out in a conven- 
ticle gathered at Constantinople : and in a third creed 
likewise, framed by them at Sirmium, and confirmed the 
same year in their great council at Ariminum, they put it 
in with a more large augmentation, after this manner: 
" He h descended to the places under the earth, and dis- 
posed things there, whom the keepers of hell gates seeing, 
shook for fear." If therefore any fault were committed 
in the omission of this article, it should touch the orthodox 
fathers of Nice, and Constantinople rather, whom the 
Latins', disputing with the Grecians in the council of 
Ferrara, do directly charge with subtracting this article 
from the apostles' creed ; although they free them from 
blame in so doing, " because they that took it away did 
not deny it, nor fight against the truth." 

But first they should have shewed that the fathers of 

e Sozomen. lib. 4. hist. cap. 18. Nicet. Thesaur. lib. 5. cap. 17. 

f Kot e!q to. KctraxOovia kutiXOovtci, ov auTog 6 aSin; trpv/iaZt. Theo- 
doret. lib. 2. hist. cap. 21. 

B Kai tig to. KnTax^ovia Stt\ti\v06ra'6v Tiva Kai abrbQ 6 fStiS tirrrj^e. 
Athanas. in epist. de synodis Ariniini ct Scleucia. Socrat. lib. 2. hist. cap. 41. 
edit. Graic. vel. 32. Latin. 

11 Kai tie rd KciTaxOovia KctrtXOovra, Kai rd bceiffs otKOvofii'iffavra, ut> 
nvXiopoi qSov IdSvree t(ppi£av. Athanas. ibid. Socrat. lib. 2. cap. 37. edit. 
Graec. vel 29. Latin. The speech is taken from Job, chap. 38. ver. 17. in the 

' Constat ex hoc, nihil esse de symbolo apostolorum subtrahcnduni. Sub- 
tracting tamen est illnd : Desccndit ad inferos. Veruni qui detraxerunt, id non 
negabant, neque cum vcritate pugnabant. Joann. l'oroliviensis cpisc. in session. 
10. concil. Ferrar. 


Nice and Constantinople did find this article of Christ 's 
descent into hell in the apostles' creed, before they ex- 
cused them from taking it away from thence. For the 
creed of the council of Constantinople, which commonly 
goeth under the name of the Nicene creed, being much 
larger than our common creed, and itself also, no less 
than the other, being heretofore both accounted 11 and 
named 1 the apostles" creed, it is not to be thought that it 
would leave out any article, which was then commonly be- 
lieved to have been any parcel of the creed received from 
the apostles. Add hereunto the ingenuous confession of 
Busaeus the Jesuit, in his positions touching Christ's de- 
scent into hell: " St. Cyprian'' 1 or Ruffinus rather, in his 
exposition of the creed, denieth that this article is read 
in the creed of the church of Rome, or the churches 
of the East : and some of the most ancient fathers, while 
they gather up the sum of the Christian faith, or expound 
the creed of the apostles, have omitted this point of doc- 
trine. But at what time it was inserted in the creed, it 
cannot certainly be determined." The first particular 
church that is known to have inserted this article into her 
creed, is that of Aquileia, which added also the attri- 
butes of invisible? and impassible, unto God the Father 
Almighty in the beginning of the creed; as appeareth by 
Ruffinus. who framed his exposition of the creed accor- 
ding to the order used in that church. But whether any 

k Epiphan. in 'AyKvpior. pag. 51S. Ain; pkv // —iffrtg —apt£69i] cnrb twv 
ayimv cnroaToXiov. 

1 In missa Latina antiqua, edit. Argentin. ann. 1557. pag. 41. post recitatum 
symbolum Constantinopolit. subjicitur. Finito symbolo apostolorum dicat sa- 
cerdos. Dominus vobiscum. 

m Beatus Cyprianus, vel potius Ruffinus, in expositione symboli, negat hunc 
articulum legi in ecclesiae Romans symbolo, et orientis ecclesiis : et vetustis- 
simi patres quidam, dum vel summam fidei Christians, vel symbolum apostoli- 
cum exponunt, hoc dogma praetermiserunt. Quando autem insertum sit sym- 
bolo, certe constitui non potest. Jo. Busse. de descensu Christi ad inferos, 
Thes. cap. 33. 

D Omnipoteutem. His additur : Invisibilem et impassibilem. Sciendum 
quod duo isti sermones in eccle»is Romans symbolo non habentur. Constat 
autem apud nos additos haereseos causa Sabellii. Ruffin. eposit. symb. 

Has tamea ilium ordinem sequimur, quern in Aquileiensi ecclesia perlava- 
cri gratiam suscepimus. Id. ibid. 


other church in the world for five hundred years after 
Christ, did follow the Aquileians in potting the one of 
these additions to the apostolical creed, more than the 
other, can hardly, I suppose. l>e shewed by any approved 
testimony of antiqui' . 

Cardinal Bellarmine noteth. that " St. Augustine 7 in hi^ 
book De fide et symbolo, and in his four books. De sym- 
bolo ad Catechumenos, maketh no mention of this part, 
when he doth expound the whole creed five several time - 
Nay, Petrus Chrysologus, who was archbishop of Ra- 
venna four hundred and fifty years after Christ, doth s . 
several times go over the exposition of the creed, and yet 
never meddleth with this article. The like al=o may be 
observed in Maximus Taurinensis r his exposition of the 
creed. For as for the two Latin- expositions thereof that 
go under the name of St, Ch: - stem, the latter whereof 
hath it, the former hath it not, and the others that are 
found in the tenth tome of St. Augustine's works among 
the sermons De tempore four of which do repeat it, and 
two" do omit if, because the authors of them, together 
with the time wherein they were written, be altogether un- 
known, they can bring us little fight in this inquiry. Only 
for the Greek symbol this is certain, that as it is not found, 
in the recital which Mareellus Ancyranus maketh thereof 
in his epistle^ to Julius bishop of Rome : so is it likewise 
wanting in the Greek creed written in Saxon characters, 
which is to be seen at the end of king .Llthelstan's psal- 
ter in Sir Robert Cotton's rare treasury. And after it 
came to be admitted more generally into the Latin, as it 
was there at first Descendit T ad inferna. and at la-: D- 

c Angosturas in libra de fid t Ao. et quitnor libris de svmbolo ad C 

chumenos, non meminit hojns partis, coin totmn symbolum qnuMpnes exponas, 
Bellarm. de Christo, lib. 4. cap. 6. 

. Chrysolog. seroL " " ' 'j2. 

* Maxim. homiL de traditione symbol!. 

* T :m. 5. oper. Chrysost. Latin. 

1 Serin, de tempore. 115. 131. 151. 195. 

■ Senn. 119. et IS 

w Epiphan. haeres. 72. op. torn. 1. pag. S36. 

* 1 tern ordinem Romanum ; et Innocentium III. de n 
- rap. 15. 



scendit ad inferos : so with a like diversity do I find the 
same added to the Greek also; KareXOovTa tig to. KartoTara 
being put to express the one, and KareXdovra elg aSov to 
answer the other ; the latter whereof is to be seen in our 
common printed copies : the former in a manuscript of 
Bennet college library in Cambridge, where the symbol 
of the apostles, together with the whole psalter is set down 
in Greek and Latin, but the Greek written in Latin letters. 
Neither is there by this which hath been said any whit 
more derogated from the credit of this article, than there 
is from others, whose authority is acknowledged to be 
undoubted and beyond all exception, as namely that of 
our Saviour's death, and the Communion of Saints ; the 
one whereof as sufficiently implied in the article of the 
crucifixion as a consequent, or the burial as a necessary 
antecedent thereof; the other as virtually contained in 
the article of the Church, we find omitted not in the Con- 
stantinopolitan symbol alone, and in the ancient apostoli- 
cal creeds expounded by Ruffinus, Maximus, and Chry- 
sologus, but also in those that are extant in Venantius 
Fortunatus y , five hundred and eighty, and in Etherius 2 
and Beatus, seven hundred and eighty-five years after 
Christ; as in the two Greek ones likewise, that of Mar- 
cellus, and the other written in the time of the English 
Saxons. In all which likewise may be noted, that the 
title of Maker of heaven and earth is not given to the 
Father in the beginning of the creed, which out of the 
creed of Constantinople we see is now every where added 
thereunto. Of which additions, as there is now no ques- 
tion any where made, so by a the consent of both sides, 
this of the descent into hell also is now numbered among 
the articles of the apostles' Creed. For the Scripture 15 
having expressly testified that the prophecy of the Psalm- 

y Fortunat. lib. 11. num. 1. exposit. symboli. 

1 Ether, et Beat. lib. 1. contra Elipandum Toletan. pag. 51. edit. Ingol- 

a Descensum ad inferos nunc, consentientibus sectariis, inter gerrnanos sym- 
boli apostolici articulos numeramus. Jo. Busseus, de descens. Thess. cap. 33. 

b Act. chap. 2. ver. 27. 31. 


ist, " Thou c shalt not leave my soul in hell," was verified 
in Christ ; St. Augustine's conclusion must necessarily be 
inferred thereupon. " Who d therefore but an infidel will 
deny that Christ was in hell?'' Thus " all 6 agree, that 
Christ did some manner of way descend into hell," saith 
cardinal Bellarmine : " but the whole question is touch- 
ing the exposition of this article." The common exposi- 
tion which the Romish divines give thereof, is this : that f 
by hell is here understood, not that place wherein the 
wicked are tormented, but the bosom of Abraham, where- 
in the godly fathers of the old Testament rested, for 
whose delivery from thence, they say, our Saviour took 
his journey thither. But St. Augustine in that same 
place, wherein he counteth it a point of infidelity to deny 
the going of Christ into hell, gainsayeth this exposition 
thereof, professing that he could find the name of hell no 
where given unto that place wherein the souls of the 
righteous did rest. " Wherefore 8 ," saith he, " if the holy 
Scripture had said, that Christ being dead did come unto 
the bosom of Abraham, not having named hell and the 
pains thereof; I marvel whether any would have been so 
bold as to have avouched that Christ descended into hell. 
But because evident testimonies do make mention both of 

Fsalm. 16. ver. 10. 

d Quis ergo nisi intidelis negavcrit fuisse apud inferos Christum ? Augustin. 
epist. 1G4. op. torn. 2. pag. 574. 

c Ac primum omnes conveniunt, quod Christus aliquo modo ad inferos de- 
scenderit, &c. At quaestio tota est de explicatione hujus articuli. Bellarm. de 
Christo,lib. 4. cap. C. 

f In 3. sent. dist. 22. D. Thom. Bonavent. Richard. Gab. Pallud. et Marsil. 
quaest. 13. et reliqui in hoc conveniunt, quod ad locum damnatorum non de- 
scendit. Fr. Suarez, torn. 2. in 3. part. Thom. disp. 43. sect. 4. Non descendit 
ad inferos rcproborum ac in perpetuum damnatorum, quoniam ex eo nulla est 
redemptio : igilur ad cum locum descendit, qui vel Sinus Abraho?, vol communi- 
tcr Limbus patrum appellator. Fr. Fcvardent. dialog. 6. contr. Calvinian. pag. 
509. edit. Colon. 

s Quapropter si in ilium Ahrahsc sinum Christum mortuorum venisse sancta 
scriptura dixisset, non nominato inferno cjusque doloribus : miror .si quisquam 
ad inferos cum descendisse asserere auderct. Scd quia evidentia testimonia e( 
infernum commemorant et dolorcs ; nulla caussa occurrit, cur illo credatur ve- 
nisse Salvator, nisi ut ah ejus doloribus salvos faccrct. August, epist. 104. op. 
torn. 2. pag. 570. 


hell and pains, I see no cause why our Saviour should be 
believed to have come thither, but that he should deliver 
men from the pains thereof." And " therefore 11 what be- 
nefit he brought unto those just men that were in the 
bosom of Abraham when he did descend into hell, I have 
not yet found." Thus far St. Augustine. 

For the better understanding of this, we are to call 
unto mind that saying of the philosophers 1 , that " they 
who do not learn rightly to understand words, use to be 
deceived in the things themselves." It will not be amiss 
therefore, to consider somewhat of the name of hell, that 
the nature k of the word being rightly understood, we may 
the better conceive the truth of the thing that is signified 
thereby ; carrying always in remembrance that necessary 
rule delivered by Severus, bishop of Antioch, in his ex- 
position upon Job, chapter thirty-eight, verse twenty- 
eight, that " it 1 is fit we should understand names ac- 
cording to the quality of the matters subject, and not re- 
gulate the truth according to the abuse of words." We 
are to know then first of our English word hell, that the 
original thereof is by divers men delivered diversly. 
Some derive it from the Hebrew word Sheol, either sub- 
tracting the first letter, or including it in the aspiration. 
For " this" 1 letter S" saith Priscian, " hath such an affi- 
nity with the aspiration, that the Boeotians in some words 
were wont to write H for S, saying Muha for Musa." 
Others bring it from the Greek word 'iXog, which signi- 
fieth a lake : others from the English hole, as signifying 

h Unde illis justis qui in sinu Abrahse erant, cum ille in inferna descenderet, 
nondum quid contulisset inveni ; a quibus cum secundum beatificam praesentiam 
suae divinitatis nunquam video recessisse. August, ep. 1C4. op. torn. 2. pag. 576. 

■ "Apiara Xeyerat 7rapdro7g <pt\oab<j>oiQ, rb tovq /iy fiavOdvovTaq bpdwg 
cikouuv 6vo[xdro)v, Ka/cwc, xP^^ - 1 Kal TOl £ Plutarch, in lib. de 
Iside et Osiride. 

k "Of dv rd bvofiaTa tidy, t'iatrai Kal rd irpdyfiara. Plato, in Cratylo. 

1 IlX>;v Kal rd ovofiara TrpoaijKti votiv Trpbg ti)v twv inroKtifttvoji' 
irpayp.aTii)v Troibrtjra, Kal ov Trpbg tj)v Kardxprjffiv riov \i%t(ov t' d\r)9i) 
KavoviZ,tiv. Sever, in Catena Graeca in Job, pag. 491. edit. Venet. 

111 Adeo autem cognatio est huic literae, id est S, cum aspiratione ; quod pro ea 
in quibusdam dictionibus solebant Bceoti pro S, H scribere, Muha pro Musa di- 
centes. Priscian. lib. 1. 


a pit-hole; others from hale, as noting the place that 
haleth or draweth men unto it. Some say, that in the old 
Saxon or German, hell signifyeth deep, whether it be 
high or low. But the derivation given by Verstegan", is 
the most probable, from being helled over, that is to say, 
hidden or covered. For in the old German tongue, from 
whence our English was extracted, hil° signifyeth to hide ; 
and hiluh, in Otfridus Wissenburgensis, is hidden. And 
in this country, with them that retain the ancient lan- 
guage which their forefathers brought with them out of 
England, to hell the head is as much as to cover the 
head ; and he that covereth the house with tile or slate, 
is from thence commonly called a hellier. So that in the 
original propriety of the word, our hell doth exactly an- 
swer the Greek (ISng, which denoteth tov di'Sf/ tottov, 
the place which is unseen or removed from the sight of 

We are in the second place therefore to observe, that 
the term of hell, beside the vulgar acception, wherein 
it signifieth that which 1 ' is called the place of torment, is, 
in the ecclesiastical use of the word, extended more 
largely to express the Greek word Hades, and the Latin 
Inferi, and whatsoever is contained under them. Con- 
cerning which St. Augustine giveth this note : " The'' 
name of hell is variously put in Scriptures, and in many 
meanings, according as the sense of the things which are 
entreated of doth require." And Master Casaubon, who 
understood the property of the Greek and Latin words as 
well as any, this other : " They r who think that Hades 
is properly the state of the damned, be no less deceived 

n Rich. Versteg. restitution of English antiquities, chap. 7. 

° Vid. Goldasti animadvers. in Winsbekii Paraeneses, pag. 400. 

p Luke, chap. 16. ver. 28. 

1 Varie in scripturis ct sub intellectu multiplici, sicut rerum de quibus agitur. 
sensus exigit, noraen ponitur inferorum. Augustin. quacst. super, numer. 
cap. 29. 

r Qui tySt/v proprie scdcm damnatorum esse existimant, non minus balluci- 
nantur, quam illi qui cum legunt apud Latinos scriptores, inferos, de eodem loco 
interpretantur. Casaub. in Gregor. Nyssen. epist. ad Eustath. Ambros. et 
Basiliss. not. 110. 


than they who, when they read Inferos in Latin writers, do 
interpret it of the same place." The less cause have we 
to wonder, that hell in the Scripture should be made the 
place of all the dead in common, and not of the wicked 
only, as : " Remember 3 how short my time is : wherefore 
hast thou made all men in vain ? what man is he that li- 
veth, and shall not see death : shall he deliver his soul 
from the hand of hell?" and : "Hell 1 cannot praise thee, 
death cannot celebrate thee, they that go down into the 
pit cannot hope for thy truth. The living, the living, 
he shall praise thee, as I do this day." Where the op- 
position betwixt hell and the state of life in this world, is 
to be observed. Now as the common condition of the 
dead is considerable three manner of ways, either in re- 
spect of the body separated from the soul, or of the soul 
separated from the body, or of the whole man indefinitely 
considered in this state of separation : so do we find the 
word Hades, which by the Latins is rendered Infernus or 
Inferi, and the English hell, to be applied by the an- 
cient Greek interpreters of the old Testament to the 
common state and place of the body severed from the 
soul, by the heathen Greeks to the common state and 
place of the soul severed from the body, and by both of 
them to the common state of the dead, and the place 
proportionably correspondent to the state of dissolution. 
And so the doctors of the Church, speaking in the same 
language which they learned both from the sacred and 
the foreign writers, are accordingly found to take the 
word in these three several significations. 

Touching the first we are to note, that both the Sep- 
tuagint in the Old Testament, and the apostles in the 
New u , do use the Greek word "ASrjc, Hades, and answer- 
ably thereunto, the Latin interpreters the word Infernus 
or Inferi, and the English the word hell, for that which 
in the Hebrew text is naned b)XV, Sheol : on the other 
side, where in the New Testament the word Hades is 

s Psalm 89. ver. 47, 48. l Esai. chap. 38. ver. 18, 19. 

u Acts, chap. 2. ver. 27. 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 55. 


used, there the ancient Syriac translation doth put ^Oaj», 
Shejul, and the Ethiopian rt,AA, Siolo, instead thereof. 
Now the Hebrew Sheol, and so the Chaldean, Syriac, 
and Ethiopian words which draw their original from 
thence, doth properly denote the interior parts of the 
earth, that lie hidden from our sight, namely whatsoe- 
ver tendeth downward from the surface of the earth unto 
the centre thereof. In which respect we see that the 
Scripture describeth Sheol to be a deep place, and op- 
poseth the depth thereof unto the height of heaven™. 
Again, because the bodies that live upon the surface of 
the earth, are corrupted within the bowels thereof; " the x 
dust returning to the earth as it was ;" therefore is the word 
commonly put for the state and the place wherein dead 
bodies do rest, and are disposed for corruption. And in 
this respect we find that the Scripture doth oppose Sheol 
not only unto heaven, but also unto this " land of the 
living" wherein we now breathe y ; the surface of the earth 
being the place appointed for the habitation of the living, 
the other parts ordained to be the chambers of death. 
Thus they " that are in the graves 2 " are said to " sleep 1 
in the dust of the earth." The Psalmist, in his prophecy 
of our Saviour's humiliation, termeth it " the b dust of 
death ;" which the Chaldean paraphrast expoundeth 
KJYTOp JV3, the house of the grave; interpreting Sheol 
after the selfsame manner, in Psalm thirty-one, verse 
eighteen, and Psalm eighty -nine, verse forty-nine. In the 
Hebrew dictionary, printed with the Complutensian Bible, 
in the year one thousand five hundred and fifteen, the word 
^lNty, Sheol, is expounded Infernus sive inferus, aut fovea, 
vel sepulchrum, hell, the pit, or the grave. R. Mar- 
dochai Nathan in his Hebrew concordance giveth no other 
interpretation of it, but only *lip, or, the grave. R. 

w Job. chap. 11. ver. 8. Psalm 139. vcr. 8. Amos, chap. 9. ver. 2. 

x Eccles. chap. 12. ver. 7. Job, chap. 34. ver. 15. 

y Esai. chap. 38. ver. 10, 11. Ezech. chap. 32. 27. 

2 John, chap. 5. ver. 28. a Dan. chap. 12. ver. 2. 

b Psalm 22. ver. 15. 


Abraham Aben-Ezra in his commentary upon those words, 
" I c will go clown into sheol unto my son mourning; 1 ' 
write th thus : " Here d the translator of the erring persons 
(he meaneth the vulgar Latin 6 translation vised by the 
Christians) erreth, in translating Sheol hell or gehenna : 
for behold, the signification of the word is ">3p, or the 
grave;" for proof whereof he alledgeth divers places of 
Scripture. Where by the way you may note, that in the 
last edition of the Masoritical and Rabbinical Bible, 
printed by Bombergius, both this and divers other pas- 
sages elsewhere have been cut out by the Romish cor- 
rectors, which I wish our Buxtorfius had understood, 
when he followed that mangled and corrupted copy in his 
late renewed edition of that great work. R. Salomo Jarchi, 
writing upon the same words f saith, that " according g to 
the literal sense, the interpretation thereof is the grave : 
(in my mourning I will be buried, and I will not be com- 
forted all my days), but after the Midrash or allegorical 
interpretation, it is gehenna." In like manner, R.David 
Kimchi expounding that place 1 ', " The wicked shall turn 
into hell, and all the nations that forget God ;" acknow- 
ledgeth, that by the Derash, or allegorical 1 exposition, into 
hell is as much to say, as into gehenna ; but according to 
the literal meaning he expoundeth it, ^3pV, into the 
grave ; intimating withal, that the prophet useth k here 
the term of turning or returning, with reference to that sen- 
tence, " Dust 1 thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return." 
Out of which observation of Kimchi we may further 
note, that the Hebrews, when they expound Sheol to be 
the grave, do not mean so much thereby an artificial 
grave (to wit, a pit digged in the earth, or a tomb raised 

9 Gen. chap. 37. ver. 35. 

11 -Dim SltW onrw D»>rtaS Qjnno nyn ns>i Aben Ezra, in Gen. cap. 37. 

e An D'U'ttS ibi positum pro D'J'tiS) id est > Latinorum ? 

' Gen. chap. 37. ver. 35. 

g jam wnoai »d» Sa an;nt< vh\ -opt* ^Saaa svi -op prS ltwsa Salom. 

Jarchi, in Gen. chap. 37. 

'■ Psalm 9. ver. 17. ' Elias in Tischbi, verb. W\1- 

k -awn i&y Sxi 10D law "tONV Kimchi in Psal. 9. 
' Gen. chap. 3. ver. 19. 


above ground) as a natural sepulchre : such as Maecenas 
speaketh of in that verse : 

Nec m tumulum euro, sepelit natura relictos. 

And Seneca in his controversies : " Nature" hath given a 
burial unto all men : such as suffer shipwreck the same 
wave doth bury that cast them away ; the bodies of such 
as are crucified, drop away from the crosses unto their 
burial ; to such as are burned alive their punishment 
is a funeral." For this is the difference that is made by 
authors, betwixt burying and interring; that " he° is un- 
derstood to be buried who is put away in any manner, but 
he to be interred who is covered with the earth." Hence 
different kinds of burials p are mentioned by them, accor- 
ding to the different usages of several nations ; the name 
of a sepulture being given by them, as well to the burning q 
of the bodies of the dead, used of old among the more civil 
nations, as to the devouring of them by dogs, which was 
the barbarous custom of the Hyrcanians r . Therefore 
Diogenes 5 was wont to say, that if the dogs did tear him, 
he should have an Hyrcanian burial : and those beasts 
which were kept for this vise, the Bactrians* did term in 

m Scnec. epist. 92. 

n Omnibus natura sepulturam dedit ; naufragos idem fluctus qui expulit, sepe- 
lit ; suffixorum corpora crucibus in sepulturam suam defluunt : eos qui vivi 
uruntur, poena funerat. Annaeus Senec. Jib. 8. controvers. 4. 

° Sepultus intelligitur quoquo modo conditus : humatus vero humo contcctus. 
Plin. lib. 7. nat. hist. cap. 54. 

p AitXopevoi Kara t6vi) rag ra<pdg, b p,iv"EXXr]v ticavcrev, 6 Si IHpatig 
tQa\ptv, b ci 'Ivvbg udX^ 7r£pixP'«> o Si S/cuOj/c. kciteoQui, ragi\E\iti di 6 
Aiyinrriog. Lucianus, de luctu. 

i Nee dispersis bustis humili sepultura crematos. Cicer. Philippic. 1 1. 'E- 
ui fiiv Kai rovg ifiovc iraldag rode to Trvp Odxj/if inquit uxor Asdrubalis, 
apud Appianum in Punicis : Vide et Ctesiam (in Photii bibliotheca, col. 129. 
edit. Gra:co-Lat.) trtpi rod Qd\pavTog t'ov naripa 5t& tov irvpbg. 

r Earn que optimam ill i censent esse sepulturam. Cicero, lib. 1. Tuscul. 


8 "EXtyev 6 Aioyivijg, on av flip Kvvtg aurbv (nrapd^ioo'iv, 'Ypicavia 
icrrai y ratjjt). Stobaeus. 

' Toi'f yap aTrupiiKoTar cut vocrov, i) yijpag Zwvrac Trapa[idXXi<rOai 
TQt^ofiivoig Kvaiv, iTririjSeg irpbg tovto, org irrnfiarug KaXouai ri) iru- 
rpwa yXd)TTij. Strabo Geograph. lib. 11. 

VOL. in. Y 


their language sepulchral clogs, as Strabo relate th out of 
Onesicritus. So in the Scripture, the prophet Jonas 
calleth the belly of the whale, wherein he was devoured, 
" the" belly of Sheol," that is, of hell or the grave. For 
Jonas", saith Basil of Seleucia, " was carried in a living- 
grave, and dwelt in a swimming prison ; dwelling in the 
region of death, the common lodge of the dead and not 
of the living, while he dwelt in that belly which was the 
mother of death;" and in the prophecy of Jeremiah, 
king Jehoiakim is said to be " buried v , (although with 
the burial of an ass), when his carcass was drawn and cast 
forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem." 

capit 7 omnia telltis 

Quae genuit : coslo tegitur, qui non habet urnam. 

The earth which begetteth all, receivcth all : and he that 
wanteth a coffin, hath the welkin for his winding sheet. 
The a earth is our great mother ; 

Omniparens 1 ' eadcm rerum commune sepulcrum. 

The common mother, out of whose womb as naked we 
came, so " naked c shall we return thither :" according to 
that : " His' 1 spirit goeth forth, he retnrneth to his earth:" 
and : " Thou e takest away their breath, they die, and turn 
to their dust." And this is the Sheol which Job waited 
for when he said, " Sheol f or the grave, (for that is the 
hell which is meant here, as is confessed not by Lyranus 
only, but by the Jesuit Pineda also) is mine house ; I 

" Jon. chap. 2. ver. 2. 

x 'llv Iu>i>(ig iv Z,wvti rc\(p<p (pspofier'og vt]\6fuvnv oikwv deff/iWTijpiov, 
iyKtvovfitvov (pctpay'tZi davarov ^Lopiov o'ikwv, vsicpwv Trav^o^iiov oh Z,wv- 
tojv, c'ikmv yaaTEpa OavuTov fii}Ttpa. Basil. Seleuc. orat. 12. qua; in Jonam 
est prima. 

y Jer. chap. 22. ver. 19. z Lucan. lib. 7. ver. 818. 

a Magna parens terra est. Ovid. 1. metamorph, 

b Lucret. de rer. natur. lib. 5. ver. 260. c Job, chap. 1. ver. 21. 

d Psalm 146. ver. 4. ° Ibid. 104. ver. 29. 

f Job, chap. 17. ver. 13, 14. 


have made my bed in the darkness. I have said to cor- 
ruption, Thou art my father : to the worm, Thou art my 
mother, and my sister." 

This is that common sepulchre, non factum sed natum, 
not made by the hand of man, but provided by nature it- 
self: betwixt which natural and artificial grave these dif- 
ferences may be observed. The artificial may be appro- 
priated to this man or that man. " The K patriarch David 
is both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is with us unto 
this day," saith St. Peter, and : " Ye h build the tombs of 
the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righte- 
ous :" saith our Saviour. But in the natural there is no 
siich distinction. It cannot be said, that this is such or 
such a man's Sheol : it is considered as the common re- 
ceptacle of all the dead, as we read in Job : " I 1 know 
that thou wilt bring me to death, and to the house ap- 
pointed for all living." For k , " to every man," as Olym- 
piodorus writeth upon that place, " the earth itself is ap- 
pointed as a house for his grave." There 1 " the pri- 
soners rest together," saith Job, " they hear not the 
voice of the oppressor. The small and great are there : 
and the servant free from his master." Again, into a 
made grave a man may enter in alive and come out alive 
again, as Peter" 1 and John did into the sepulchre of Christ : 
but Sheol either findeth men dead when they come into it, 
which is the ordinary course, or if they come into it alive, 
which is a n new and unwonted thing, it bringeth death 
upon them, as we see it fell out in Korah and his accom- 
plices, who are said to have gone down "alive into Sheol, 
when the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them 
up ." Lastly, as many living men do go into the grave 
made with hands, and yet in so doing they cannot be said 

« Acts, chap. 2. ver. 29. '' Matth. chap. 23. ver. 29. 

1 Joh, chap. 30. ver. 23. 

k Cuilibct enim homini domus pro sepulchro, ipsa terra est constituta. Olym- 
piodor. Caten. Grsee. in illud Job, cap. 30. ver. 23. secundum LXX. oikih yap 
■Kavr't 0v))tu) yrjk 

1 Job, chap. 3. ver. 18, 19. '" John, chap. 20. ver. 6. 8. 

" Num. chap. 10. ver. 30. ° Ibid. ver. 30. 33. 



to go into Sheol, because they come from thence alive 
again : so some dead men also want the honour of such a 
grave, as it was the case of God's servants, whose 1 ' bo- 
dies were kept from burial, and yet thereby are not kept 
from Sheol, which is the way that all flesh must go : for, 
" all q go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all turn 
to dust again." We conclude therefore, that when Sheol 
is said to signify the grave ; the term of grave must be 
taken in as large a sense, as it is in that speech of our 
Saviour, " All 1 that are in the graves shall hear his voice, 
and shall come forth ; they that have done good, unto the 
resurrection of life ; and they that have done evil, unto 
the resurrection of damnation ;" and in Isaiah, chapter 
twenty-six, verse nineteen, according to the Greek read- 
ing : " The dead shall rise, and they that are in the graves 
shall be raised up." Upon which place Origen writeth 
thus : " In s this place, and in many others likewise, the 
graves of the dead are to be understood according to the 
more certain meaning of the Scripture, not such only as 
we see are builded for the receiving of men's bodies, 
either cut out in stones, or digged down in the earth ; 
but every place wherein a man's body lieth, either entire 
or in any part, albeit it fell out that one body should be 
dispersed through many places ; it being no absurdity at 
all, that all those places in which any part of the body 

P Psalm 79. ver. 2, 3. Rev. chap. 11. ver. 8, 9. 

•i Eccles. chap. 3. ver. 20. and chap. 6. ver. 6. 

r John, chap. 5. ver. 28. 
, s Sepulchra autcm mortuorum in hoc loco, similiter ct in mnltis aliis, secun- 
dum ceitiorem scriptiirse sensum accipienda sunt, non solum ea quae ad deposi- 
tionem humanorum corporum videntur esse constructa, vel in saxis excisa, aut 
hi terra defossa ; scd omnis locus in quocunquc vel integrum humanum corpus, 
vel ex parte aliqua jacet : etiam si accidat ut unum corpus per loca multa disper- 
sing sit, absurdum non erit omnia ea loca in quibus pars aliqua corporis jacet, 
sepulchra corporis ejus dici. Si enim non ita accipiamus resurgere de sepulchris 
suis mortuos divina virtute : qui nequaquam sunt sepultures mandati, neque in 
sepulchris depositi, sed sive nautragiis, sive in desertis aliquibus defuncti sunt 
locis, ita.ut sepultnrae mandari non potuerint ; non videbuntur annumerari inter 
eos, qui de sepulchris rcsuscitandi dicuntur. Quod utique valde absurdum est. 
Origen. in Esai. lib. 2S. citatus a Pamphilo, vel Eusebio potins, in apologia pro 


lieth should be called the sepulchres of that body. For 
if we do not thus understand the dead to be raised by the 
power of God out of their graves, they which are not 
committed to burial, nor laid in graves, but have ended 
their life either in shipwrecks or in some desert places, so 
as they could not be committed to burial, should not seem 
to be reckoned among them who are said should be raised 
up out of their graves, which would be a very great ab- 
surdity." Thus Origen. 

Now you shall hear, if you please, what our Romish 
doctors do deliver touching this point, " There 1 be two 
opinions," saith Pererius", " concerning this question. 
The one of the Hebrews, and of many of the Christians in 
this our age, but especially of the heretics, affirming that 
the word Sheol signifieth nothing else in the Scripture, 
but the pit or the grave, and from thence reasoning falsely, 
that our Lord did not descend into hell." " The x other 
opinion is of undoubted and certain truth : that the He- 
brew word Sheol, and the Latin Infernus, answering to it, 
both in this place of Scripture and elsewhere oftentimes 
doth signify, not the pit or the grave, but the place of 
hell, and the places under the earth, wherein the souls 
are after death." " Wheresoever Ilierome," saith Augus- 
tinus Steuchus y upon the same place, " and the Septuagint 
have translated hell, it is in the Hebrew, Sheol, that is, 
the pit or the grave. For it doth not signify that place, 
wherein antiquity hath thought that the souls of the 
wicked are received." " The Hebrew word properly sig- 

1 Duoe super hac questione sunt sententioe. Una est Hebraeorum, et do 
Christianis multorum in hac setate nostra, niaxime vero haercticorum affirman- 
tium vocem Sheol non significare aliud in scriptura nisi fossam she sepulchrum, 
et ex hoc falso argumentantium, Dominum nostrum non descendisse ad infer- 
nuni. Perer. in Genes, cap. 37. sect. 1)2. 

" Upon Genes, chap. 37. ver. 35. 

x Altera est sententia cxploratae certjeque veritatis ; vocem Hebraeam Sheol, 
et Latinam ci respondentem infernus, et in hoc loco scriptura', et alibi saepenu- 
mcro significare non fossam vel sepulchrum, sed locum inferorum, et subterranea 
loca, in quibus sunt animse post mortem. Perer. in Genes, cap. 37. sect. !<(i. 

y Hebraicc, ubicunque Ilicronymus ac Septuaginta infernum-interpretati sunt, 
est Sheol, hoc est, fossa sivc sepulchrum. Ncquc cnim significat cum locum, ubi 
Bcelcratorum animas recipi antiquitas opinata est. Aug. Steuch, in Gun. cap. 37. 


nifieth the grave :" saith Jansenius 2 . " The grave properly, 
and hell only metaphorically," saith Arias Montanus, in 
his answer unto Leo a Castro ; and, " in a the old Testa- 
ment, the name of hell doth always almost import the 
grave:" saith Alphonsus Mendoza. The Jesuit Pineda 
commendeth one Cyprian 1 ' a Cistercian monk, as a man 
famous for learning and piety, yet holdeth him worthy to 
be censured, for affirming that " Sheol or hell is in all the 
old Testament taken for the grave." Another croaking 
monk, Crocquet they call him, crieth out on the other 
side, that we shall never he able to prove, by the " pro- 
ducing of as much as one place of Scripture, that Sheol 
doth signify the grave." Cardinal Bellarmine is a little, 
and but a very little, more modest herein. The Hebrew 
Sheol, he saith, " is d ordinarily taken for the place of 
souls under the earth : and either rarely or never, for the 
grave :" but the Greek word 6 " Hades always signifieth 
hell, never the grave." But Stapleton will stand to it 
stoutly, " that f neither Hades nor Sheol is in the Scrip- 
tures ever taken for the grave, but always for hell." 
" The 8 word Infernus, Hades, Sheol," saith he, " is never 
taken for the grave. The grave is called in Greek rd(pog, 

z Upon Proverbs, chap. 15. ver. 12. 

a Fere semper inferni nomen sepulchrum sonat in veteri testamento. Al- 
phons. Mendoz. controvers. theologic. quasst. 1 . positiv. sect. 5. 

b Illud non praeteribo, parum considerate (ne graviori inuram nota) Cypria- 
mim Cisterciensem (virum alioqui doctrina et pietate conspicuum) affirmasse, 
Sheol, id est, inferos vel infernum in toto veteri testamento accipi pro sepulchro. 
Jo. Pined, in Job, cap. 7. ver. 9. num. 2. 

c Et ne vehementius sibi placeant ob suum illud Sheol : nunquam efficient 
ut uno saltern scripturse loco prolato praeclaram illam interpretationem sepulchri 
confirment. Aiidr. Crocquet. cateches. 19. 

(1 Ordinarie accipitur pro loco animarum subterraneo ; et vel raro vel nun- 
quam, pro sepulchro. Bellarm. lib. 4. de Christo, cap. 10. 

c Vox $dt]£ significat semper infernum, nunquam sepulchrum. Ibid. cap. 12. 

f Contra Bezam late ostendimus, nee q[<)t]v, nee Sikv pro sepulchro unquam, 
sed pro inferno semper in scripturis accipi. Stapleton. antidot. in 1 Corinth, cap. 
15. ver. 55. et Act. cap. 2. ver. 27. 

S Caeterum pro sepulchro vox infernus, ySijc, SwttS nunquam accipitur. Se- 
pulchrum Greece Tufog, Hebraice -\3p vocatur. Quare et onincs paraphrastsc 
Hebrscorum illam vocem SiN\y cxplicant per vocem gehennre ; ut late ostendit 
Gencbrardus lib. 3, dc Trinitate. Ibid, in Act. cap. 2. ver. 27. 


in Hebrew "Dp. Wherefore all the paraphrasts of the 
Hebrews also do expound that word Shcol by the word 
Gehenna ; as Genebrard doth shew at large in his third 
book of the Trinity." Where yet he might have learned 
some more moderation from Genebrard himself, unto 
whom he referreth us : who thus layeth down his judg- 
ment of the matter in the place by him alleged. " As h 
they be in an error who contend that Sheol doth never 
design the grave : so have they a shameless forehead, who 
deny that it doth any where signify the region of the 
damned or Gehenna." 

It is an error therefore in Stapleton, by his own author's 
confession, to maintain that Sheol is never taken for the 
grave ; and in so doing, he doth but bewray his old wrang- 
ling disposition. But lest any other should take the 
shameless forehead from him, he faceth it down, that all 
the paraphrasts of the Hebrews do interpret Sheol by the 
word Gehenna. Whereas it is well known, that the two 
paraphrasts that are of greatest antiquity and credit with 
the Hebrews, Onkelos the interpreter of Moses, Jonathan 
ben Uzziel of the Prophets, never translate it so. Beside 
that of Onkelos, we have two other Chaldee paraphrases 
which expound the harder places of Moses; the one called 
the Targum of Jerusalem, the other attributed unto Jo- 
nathan: in neither of these can we find, that Sheol is ex- 
pounded by Gehenna; but in the latter of them we see it 
twice 1 expounded by »3 NmiZlp, the house of the grave. 
In the Arabic interpretations of Moses, where the k trans- 
lator out of the Greek hath ^?^\ al-giahimo, hell ; there 
the 1 translator out of the Hebrew putteth u £*fl al-tharay, 

h Quemadmodum in errore versantur, qui cam vocem nunquam sepulchrum 
designare contendunt : sic fronte sunt perfricta, qui uspiam Gehenna: regioncm 
negant significare. Genebrard. de Trinitat. HI). 3. in syniboli Athanasiani cxpo- 

' Gen. chap. 37. ver. 35. et chap. 1 1. ver. 29. 

k Genebrard. in Genesi, quam cum commentavio Arabico MS penes me ha- 
beo : et Deutcronom. cap. 32. ver. 22. 

1 Fcntatcuch. Arabic, ab Erpcnio, edit. ann. 10'22. 


which signifyeth earth or clay. Jacobus Tawosius™, in 
his Persian translation of the Pentateuch, for Sheol cloth 
always put Gor n , that is, the grave. The Chaklee para-' 
phrase upon the Proverbs keepeth still the word Vvttf de- 
flected a little from the Hebrew : the paraphrast upon 
Job useth that word thrice ; but *ni3p v and Kmup% 
which signifieth the grave, instead thereof five several 
times. In Ecclesiastes the word cometh but once 1 ': and 
there the Chaklee paraphrast rendereth it Nmmp J1'3 the 
hovise of the grave. R. Joseph Caucus doth the like in 
his paraphrase upon Psalm 31. ver. 17. and 89. ver 48. 
In Psalm 141. ver. 7. he rendereth it by the simple 
*<mt3p, the grave : but in the 15th and IGth verses of the 
49th Psalm, by D3iT3, or Gehenna. And only there, and 
in Cantic. 8. ver. 6. is Sheol in the Chaklee paraphrases 
expounded by Gehenna : whereby if we shall understand 
the place, not of dead bodies (as in that place of the Psalm 
the paraphrast maketh express mention of the bodies s 
waxing old or consuming in Gehenna) but of tormenting 
souls, as the Rabbins* more commonly do take it, yet do 
our Romanists get little advantage thereby, who would 
fain have the Sheol into which our Saviour went, be con- 
ceived to have been a place of rest, and not of torment ; 
the bosom of Abraham, and not Gehenna, the seat of the 

As for the Greek word Hades, it is used by Hippo- 
crates to express the first matter of things, from which 
they have their beginning, and into which afterwards 
being dissolved they make their ending. For having said, 
that in nature nothing properly may be held to be newly 
made, or to perish, he addeth this : " But" men do think, 

m Pentateuch, quadrilingu, a Jiidccis Constantinopoli excus. 

11 Jer apud Armenios et Turcas terrain significat. 

° Job, chap. 11. ver. 8. et chap. 24. ver. 19. et chap. 26. ver. G. 

P Ibid. chap. 21. ver. 13. 

'1 Ibid. chap. 7. ver. 9. et chap. 14. ver. 13. et chap. 17. ver. 13. 16. 

r Eccles. chap. 9. ver. 10. 

9 •D3HU3 vhsTV ri.TBIJ P sal - 49. ver. 15. Chald. 

I Elias in Tischbi, verb. bj,i»j 

II Nojui£trai dk napa twv avOpuiruji', to ftiv i% qdov ti'c, <pwg au'i>]0iv 


that what doth grow from Hades into light, is newly made ; 
and what is diminished from the light into Hades, is pe- 
rished ;" by Light understanding nothing else but the visi- 
ble structure and existence of things : and by Hades, that 
invisible and insensible thing which other philosophers 
commonly call v\t)v, Chalcidius w the Platonic translate th 
sylvam, the Aristotelians more fitly materiam primam ; 
whence also it is supposed by Master Casaubon x , that 
those passages were borrowed, which we meet withall in 
the books that bear the name of Hermes Trismegistus. 
" In y the dissolution of a material body, the body itself is 
brought to alteration, and the form which it had is made 
invisible :" " and z so there is a privation of the sense made, 
not a destruction of the bodies. I a say then that the world 
is changed, inasmuch as every day a part thereof is made 
invisible, but never utterly dissolved ;" wherewith we may 
compare likewise that place of Plutarch in his book of 
Living privately. " Generation 15 doth not make any of the 
things that be, but manifesteth them : neither is corrup- 
tion a translation of a thing from being to not being, but 
rather a bringing of the thing that is dissolved unto that 
which is unseen. Whereupon men, according to the an- 
cient traditions of their fathers, thinking the sun to be 
Apollo, called him Delius and Pythius : (namely from raa- 

ytvtoOai- to Si Ik rov <pdtog tig aStjv LieuoQiv, dizoXiaOai. Hippocrat. 
de diaeta, sive victus ratione. lib. 1. 

w Chalcid. in Timacunr Platonis. 

x Casaub. in Baron, exercit. 1. cap. 10. 

y UpCJTov fiiv Iv Tij avaXiau rov cwfiarog tov vXikov, 7rapaSiSioaiv 
avrb to criofxa tig dXXoiojaiv, Kai tu t'iSog o tlx.iv d<pavtg yh'STai. Henri. 
Poemand. serm. 1. 

z Kai o'vtu) OTfp»j(nc yivsrai T?]g aiaQiiatkog, ovk airwXtia tCov (Tw/iarwr. 
Id. serm. 8. 

a Kai tov Koff/iov fij/d ntra(5dXXto0ai, Sid to yivtaOai fiipog avrov 
icaO' iKuaTijv iipepav iv T<f> thjiavtl, (irjStTrort Si XvtaOai. Id. serm. 1 1. 

b Oi» yap Tvoiu twv ytvon'tvo)!' ikcigtov, uXXa SsiKVVfflV ioffirtp ouSi i) 
(liOopii too bvTOQ, dpaig tig to p.i) ov iariv, uXXa fidXXov tig to dSi/Xov 
drray<i)y>) rov SiaXvO'tVTog. vOtv Si) tov p.iv i'/Xiov AffoXXojra Kara rovg 
iraTpiovg Kai iraXaiovg 0'tcrp.ovg vofii'Covrtg, A))Xiov Kai HvOiov irpoaa- 
yoptvovav tov 8k ryg ivavriag KVplOv ftoipag, tiTt Oiog, tin Saifiiov 
l<TTiv,"Adt)v 6vo[iu£ov<nv, wc civ tig dtiStg Kai doparov fj/xwy/orav SiaXv- 
6wptv, fiaSi'CovTuv. Plutarch, in illud, AdOt fiiilxrai. 


nifesting of things) : and the ruler of the contrary destiny, 
whether he be a God, or an angel, they named Hades ; 
by reason that we, when we are dissolved, do go unto an 
unseen and invisible place." By the Latins this Hades is 
termed Dispiter or Diespiter : which name they gave unto 
this " lower air that is joined to the earth, where all 
things have their beginning and ending; quorum quod 
finis ortus, Orcus dictus," saith Varro. " All d this 
earthly power and nature," saith Julius Firmicus, " they 
named Ditem patrem, because this is the nature of the 
earth, that all things do both fall into it, and taking their 
original from thence, do again proceed out of it." Whence 
the earth is brought in, using this speech unto God, in 
Hermes : " I e do receive the nature of all things. For I, 
according as thou has commanded, do both bear all things, 
and receive such as are deprived of life." 

The use which we make of the testimony of Hippo- 
crates, and those other authorities of the heathen, is to 
shew, that the Greek interpreters of the old Testament 
did most aptly assume the word Hades, to express that 
common state and place of corruption which was signified 
by the Hebrew Sheol, and therefore in the last verse of 
the seventeenth chapter of Job, where the Greek maketh 
mention of descending into Hades ; Comitolus f the Jesuit 
noteth that St. Ambrose renderethit, " in sepulchrum, into 
the grave ;" which agreeth well with that which Olympio- 
dorus writeth upon the same chapter : " Is g it not a 
thing common unto all men, to die ? is not hell (or Hades) 

c Idem hie Diespiter dicitur, infimus aev, qui est conjunctus tcrrse, ubi omnia 
oriuntur, ubi aboriuntur : quorum quod finis ortus, Orcus dictus. Varro, do 
lingua Latin, lib. 4. cap. 10. 

d Terrenam vim omnem atqne naturam, Ditem patrem dicunt : quia ha?c 
est natura terrae, ut et recidant in earn omnia, et rursus ex ea orta procedant. 
Jul. Finnic. Matern. de errore profan. relig. ex Ciceron.lib. 2. de natur. Deor. 

e Xwpw S' iyio Kal (pvoiv Travriov a'vrrj yap, u>C °v 'ifpoakra^aq, Kal 
<p'tpu) izavra, Kal ra (povsvOevra Fix !*™- Herm. Minerva Mundi, apud Jo. 
Stobaeum in eclogis physicis, pag. 124. 

f Paul. Comitol. Caten. Graee. in Job. cap. 17- ult. 

S Ov KOivbv uTraaiv dvOpioTToic to dnoOavtlv ; Ovx' $tys iiiraot v 
oikoc; Ovk ikiZ iravriQ rwv h>0ace KciTaXrjyovai twv vovwr ; Olympiod. 
Caten. Grocc. in Job, cap. 17. 


the house for all ? doe not all find there an end of their 
labours ?" Yea, some do think, that Homer himself doth 
take aSiig either for the earth or the grave, in those verses 
of the eighth of his Iliads : 

"H fiiv iXtuv, piipu) ig rdprapov 7)tp6svra, 
TijXe fj,d\' yxi (3<x9i<ttov virb x^ovbg tort (3£pe9pov. 
"EvOa oiSqpnai re ttvXcii, kui xdXKEog ouSbg, 
Toacrov tvepQ' diSeto, ocrov ovpavog tar dirb ydiijg. 

I'll cast him down as deep 

As Tartarus (the brood of night) where Barathrum doth steep 
Torment in his profoundest sinks ; where is the floor of brass, 
And gates of iron : the place, for depth as far doth hell surpass, 
As heaven for height exceeds the earth. 

For Tartarus being commonly acknowledged to be a part 
of Hades, and to be the very hell where the wicked spi- 
rits are tormented: they think the hell from whence 
Homer maketh it to be as far distant as the heaven is from 
the earth, can be referred to nothing so fitly as to the 
earth or the grave. It is taken also for a tomb in that 
place of Pindarus : 

"Arep6t h Si irpb tf&i- 

fidrojv tripoi XaxbvTsg dlSav 
RaffiXeeg lepol 

" Other sacred kings have gotten a tomb apart by them- 
selves before the houses," or before the gates of the 
city. And therefore we see that 'AiSag is by Suidas in 
his lexicon expressly interpreted 6 rdtyog, and by Hesy- 
chius, Tv/xfior, rd(pog, a tomb, or a grave ; and in the 
Greek dictionary set out by the Romanists themselves, 
for the better understanding of the Bible, it is noted, that 
Hades 1 doth not only signify that which we commonly call 
hell, but the sepulchre or grave also. Of which, because 

'' Tindar. Pyth. Od. 5. ver. 129. 

1 "Ao//c, Orcus, Tartarus, scpulclnum. Lcxic. Gia:co-Lat. in sacro apparatu 
biblior. regior. edit. Antwerp, aim, 1572. 


Stapleton and Bellarmine do deny that any proof can 
be brought : these instances following may be consi- 

In the book of Tobit, " I k shall bring my father's old 
age with sorrow, tig %.§ov, unto hell :" what can it import 
else, but that which is in other words expressed, " I 1 shall 
bring my father's life with sorrow, tig tov rd<j>ov, unto the 
grave?" In the 93d, and 113th Psalms, according to the 
Greek division, or the 94th, and 115th, according to the 
Hebrew ; where the Hebrew hath non, the place of si- 
lence, meaning the grave, as our adversaries themselves 
do grant, there the Greek hath Hades, or hell. In Isaiah, 
chap. 14. ver. 19. where the vulgar Latin translated out of 
the Hebrew, " Descenderunt ad fundamenta laci, quasi ca- 
daver putridum : They descended unto the foundations of 
the lake or pit, as a rotten carcass :" instead of the He- 
brew *10, which signifieth the lake or pit, the Greek, both 
there and in Isaiah, chap. 38. ver. 18. puttethin Hades, or 
hell ; and on the other side, Ezechiel, chap. 32. ver. 2 1 . where 
the Hebrew saith, " The strong among the mighty shall 
speak to him out of the midst of Sheol, or hell ;" there 
the Greek readeth, tig fddOog Xcikkov, or tv (dddti j560pov, 
in the depth of the lake, or pit: by hell, lake and pit, 
nothing but the grave being understood ; as appeareth by 
comparing this verse with the five that come after it. So 
in these places following, where in the Hebrew is Sheol, 
in the Greek Hades, in the Latin Infernus or Inferi, in 
the English Hell, the place of dead bodies, and not of 
souls is to be understood. " Ye m shall bring down my 
grey hairs with sorrow unto hell ;" and " Thy" servants 
shall bring down the grey hairs of our father with sorrow 
unto hell ;" where no lower hell can be conceited, into 
which grey hairs may be brought, than the grave. So 
David giveth this charge unto Solomon concerning Joab : 
" Let not his hoary head go down to hell in peace;" and 

k Chap. 3. ver. JO. > Chap. 6. ver. 11. 

m Gen. chap. 44. ver. 29. n Ibid. ver. 31. 

n 1 Kings, chap. 2. ver, C. 


m the ninth verse concerning Shimei : " His hoary head 
brine- thou down to hell with blood." " Our 11 bones are 
scattered at the mouth of hell." " Thy q pomp is brought 
down to hell : the worm is spread under thee, and the 
worms cover thee." " In r death there is no remembrance 
of thee : in hell who shall give thee thanks ?" of which 
there can be no better paraphrase, than that which is 
given in Psalm 88. " Shall s thy loving kindness be de- 
clared in the grave ? or thy faithfulness in destruction ? 
Shall thy wonders be known in the dark ? and thy righte- 
ousness in the land of foreetfulness ?" 

Andradius in his defence of the faith of the council of 
Trent, speaking of the difference of reading which is 
found in the sermon of Saint Peter, " where 1 God is said 
to have raised up our Saviour, " loosing the sorrows of 
death," as the Greek books commonly read, or " the sor- 
rows of hell," as the Latin, saith for reconciliation thereof, 
that " there 11 will be no disagreement betwixt the Latin 
and Greek copies, if we do mark that hell in this place is 
used for death and the grave, according to the Hebrews' 
manner of speaking : as in the 15th Psalm, which Peter 
presently after citeth ; Because thou wilt not leave my 
soul in hell; and Isaiah, chap. 48. For hell cannot 
confess unto thee. For when he disputeth," saith he, " of 
the resurrection of Christ, he confirmeth by many and 
most evident testimonies of David, that Christ did suffer 
death for mankind in such sort, that he could not be over- 
whelmed with death, nor long lie hidden among the dead. 

i 1 Psalm 141. ver. 7. ^ Esai. chap. 14. vcr. 1 1. 

r Psalm 6. ver. 5. s Ver. 11, 12. 

1 Acts. chap. 2. ver. 24. 

" Nullum crit inter Latina Gra?caquc exemplaria dissidium, si animadvertamus 
infernum hoc loco pro mortc atquc scpulchro, Hebraeorum dicendi more, usur- 
pari : ut Psal. 15. quern mox Petrus citat ; Quoniam non dereliquisti ani- 
mam meam in inferno. Et Esai. cap. 38. Quia non infernus confitebitur tilii. 
Nam cum tie Christ] resurrectione disserat ; multis atque apertissimis Davidis 
testimoniis confirmat, ita pro liumano gencre mortem Christum obiisse, ut mortc 
obrui et delitescere inter mortuos diu non posset. Videtur autem mihi per do- 
lores inferni sivc mortis, mortem doloris atque miscriarum plenam, Hebrseorum 
dicendi more, significant : sicut Matthaei cap. 24. abominatio desolationis accipi- 
tur pro desolatione abominanda, Andrad. dcfens. Tridentin, fid. lib. 2. 


And it sccmeth to me, that by the sorrows of hell or 
death, a death full of sorrow and miseries is signified, 
according to the Hebrews' manner of speaking : as in 
Matthew, chap. 24. the abomination of desolation is 
taken for an abominable desolation." Thus far Andradius : 
clearly forsaking herein his fellow-defenders of the Tri- 
dentine faith, who by the one text of loosing the sorrows 
of death, would fain prove Christ's descending to free the 
souls that were tormented in purgatory ; and by the other 
of not leaving his soul in hell, his descending into Limbus 
to deliver the souls of the fathers that were at rest in 
Abraham's bosom . 

The former of these texts v , is thus expounded by Ri- 
bera the Jesuit : " God w raised him up, loosing and 
making void the sorrows of death, that is to say, that 
which death by so many sorrows had effected ; namely, 
that the souls should be separated from the body." His 
fellow Sa interpreteth " the loosing of the sorrows of 
death" to be the " delivering x of him from the troubles of 
death : although sorrow," saith he, " may be the epithet 
of death, because it useth to be joined with death." The 
apostle's speech hath manifest reference to the words 
of David, 2 Samuel, chap. 22. ver. 5, 6. and Psalm 18. 
(al. 17.) ver. 4, 5. where in the former verse mention 
is made of DID 'V^n, the sorrows of death, in the latter 
of b)XW 'Vnn, which by the Septuagint is in the place of 
the Psalms translated wcnveg qSov, the sorrows of hell; in 
2 Samuel, chap. 22. ver. 6. w<5lvtg y Oavdrov, the sorrows 
of death ; according to the explication following in the 
end of the self same verse. The sorrows of hell com- 
passed me about ; the snares of death prevented me ; and 
in Psalm 116. ver- 3. The sorrows of death compassed me, 

» Acts, chap. 2. ver. 24. 

w Susciiavit ilium Deus, solvens et irritans dolores mortis, hoc est, quod per 
tot dolores mors effecerat, ut scilicet anima separaretur a corpore. Fr. Ribera, 
in Hose. cap. 13. num. 23. 

x Quasi dicat, ereptum a mortis molestiis : has enim dolores vocat, quanquam 
mortis epitheton possit esse dolor ; quod morti conjungi soleat. Emman. Sa, 
notat. in Act. cap. 2. ver. 24. 

y In edit. Aldina et Vaticana; nam Complutensis habet \oivia <pSou. 


and the pains of hell found me, or, got hold upon me ; 
where Lyranus hath this note : " In z the Hebrew for 
hell is put Sheol : which doth not signify only hell, but 
signifieth also the pit, or the grave ; and so it is taken 
here, by reason it followeth upon death." The like ex- 
plicatory repetition is noted'" 1 also by the interpreters to 
have been used by the prophet, in that other text alleged 
out of Psalm 16. ver. 10. as in Psalm 30. (al. 29.) ver. 3. 
Avi'iyaytg t£ aSov rijv \pvx>)v /.iov, ZcrioociQ /me airo tCjv Kara- 
ficuvovTtov hq Xcikkov. Thou hast brought up my soul 
from hell, thou hast kept me safe (or alive) from those that 
go down to the pit." And Job, chap. 33. ver. 22. " "Hy- 
yicre 6e tig Odvarov i) ipv\i) avrov, i) <5e £<o?) avrov iv aSij ; 
His soul drew near unto death, and his life unto hell ;" 
whence that in the prayer of Jesus the son of Sirach is 
taken, w "HyytoW 3 ew? Oavdrov i) \pvy$ fxov, koli ?j £w?/ /liov 
riv crvvryyvg ctSov kutw. My soul drew near unto death, 
and my life was near to hell beneath." And therefore for 
hell doth Pagnin in his translation of the sixteenth Psalm, 
put the grave (being therein also followed in the inter- 
lineary Bible approved by the censure of the university of 
Louvain) and in the notes upon the same, that go under 
the name of Vatablus, the word soul is (by comparing of 
this with Leviticus, chap. 21. ver. 1.) expounded to be the 
body. So doth Arias Montanus directly interpret this 
text of the Psalm : " Thou' 1 shalt not leave my soul in the 
grave, that is to say, my body;" and Isidorus Clarius in 
Jiis annotations upon the second of the Acts, saith that, 

z In Hebraeo pro inferno ponitur Sheol : quod non solum significat infernum, 
scd etiam significat fossam, sive sepulturam ; et sic accipitur hie, eo quod sequi- 
tur ad mortem. Nic. de Lyra, in Psal. 114. 

a -niaW mSca ^jy S33 R- Dav. Kimchi in Psal. 1ft ver. 10. Hoc melius ex 
sua consuetudine cxplicans, exaggeransque ; Nee dabis sanctum tuum vidcrc 
corruptionem. Aug. Steuchus. 

b Ecclcsiasticus, chap. 51. 

c Censorum Lovanicnsium judicio cxaminata, et academiee suffiragio compro- 
bata. Biblia interim, edit. ann. 1572. 

d Non rclinqucs animam meam in sepulchro. Psalm. 10. ver. 10. id est, 
corpus meum. Ar. Montan. in Hebraicae lingua: idiotismis, voc. anima. in sacr. 
bibl. apparat, edit. ann. 1572. 


" my soul in hell," in that place is according to the man- 
ner of speech used by the Hebrews, put for " my e body 
in the grave or tomb," lest any man should think that 
Master Beza was the first deviser or principal author of 
this interpretation. 

Yet him alone doth cardinal Bellarmine single out here, 
to try his manhood upon : but doth so miserably acquit 
himself in the encounter, that it may well be doubted 
whether he laboured therein more to cross Beza, than to 
strive with himself in the wilful suppressing of the light of 
his own knowledge. For whereas Beza in his notes upon 
Acts, chap. 2. ver. 27. had shewed out of the 1st and 11th 
verses of the 21st chapter of Leviticus, and other places 
of Scripture, that the Hebrew word I£>D3, which we trans- 
late soul, is put for a dead body : the cardinal, to rid him- 
self handsomely of this which pinched him very shrewdly, 
telleth us in sober sadness, " that f there is a very great 
difference betwixt the Hebrew WDi, and the Greek iLvxh- 
For t^Di," saith he, " is a most general word, and sig- 
nifieth without any trope as well the soul as the living 
creature itself, yea and the body itself also ; as by very 
many places of Scripture it doth appear." And therefore 
in Leviticus, where that name is given unto dead bodies, 
" one part is not put for another, to wit, the soul for the 
body ; but a word, which doth usually signify the body 
itself: or the whole at leastwise is put for the part, namely, 
the living creature for the body thereof. But in the se- 
cond of the Acts, ipvxn is put, which signifieth the soul 
alone." Now did not the cardinal know, think you, in 
his own conscience, that as in the second of the Acts, 
ipvxh is P ut > where the original text of the Psalm there al- 

e Heb. pro corpus raeum in sepulchro vel tumulo. Isid. Clarius, in Act. 
chap. 2. 

f Dico, multum inter rSJ et tyvxyv interessc. Nam tfBJ est generalissima 
vox, et significat sine ullo tropo tarn animam, quam animal, immo etiam corpus ; 
ut patet ex plurimis scripturse locis, &c. Itaque in Levitico non ponitur pars 
pro parte, id est, anima pro corpore; sed vocabulum, quod ipsum corpus signifi- 
care solet : aut certe ponitur totum pro parte, id est, vivens pro corpore. At 
Actor, cap. 2. ponitur ^i<x'), qua? animam solam significat. Bellarm. de Christ. 
lib. \. cap. 12. 


legecl hath t£>D3, so on the other side, in those places of 
Leviticus, which he would fain make to be so different 
from this, where the original text readeth WDi, there the 
Greek also putteth *pvx>) ? Do we not there read, 'Ev 
raXg \pv\alg ov (juavOfytTovTai, and g in the eleventh verse : 
' £7ri 7rat7)j xpv\ij TereXevTrjKVia oi)K elcreXeixrirai, He shall 
not go into any dead soul," that is, to any dead body ? The 
cardinal himself bringeth in Numbers, chap. 23. ver. 10. 
and chap. 31. ver. 35. and Genesis, chap. 37. ver. 21. 
and Numbers, chap. 19. ver. 13. to prove that ttfD3 doth 
signify either the whole man, or his very body : and must 
not the word ^pvxh, which the Greek bible useth in all 
those places, of necessity also be expounded after the 
same manner ? Take, for example, that last place, 
which is most pertinent to the purpose : Ilac h 6 cnrrofiEvog 
rov rtdmjKOTog (nrb \pv\jiQ avOptJirov, which the vulgar La- 
tin rendereth, " Omnis qui tetigerit humanae animae mor- 
ticinum :" and compare it with the eleventh verse ; " 'O 


that toucheth any soul of a dead man (that is, as the vulgar 
Latin rightly expoundeth the meaning of it, Qui tetigerit 
cadaver hominis, He that toucheth the dead bod// of any 
man) shall be unclean seven days." And we shall need no 
other proof, that the Greek word \pvxh> being put for tli2 
Hebrew ttfDJ, may signify the dead body of a man : even 
as the Latin anima also doth, in that place of the heathen 
poet, " animamque 1 sepulchro Condimus. We buried his 
soul in the grave." The argument therefore drawn from 
the nature of the word ipvxi), doth no way hinder that in 
Acts, chap. 2. ver. 27. "Thou wilt not leave my soul," 
should be interpreted, either " Thou wilt not leave me 
(as in the thirty-first verse following, where the Greek 
text saith that his soul was not left, the old Latin hath, 
he was not left) or, Thou wilt not leave my body," as the 
interpreters, writing upon that place k , " All the souls that 
came with Jacob into Egypt which came out of his loins," 

B Leviticus, chap. 21. ver. 1. " Numbers, chap. 19. ver. 13. 

' Virgil. iEneid. lib. 3. k Genesis, chap. 40. ver. 20. 



do generally expound it, either by a Synecdoche, where- 
by the one part of the man is put for the whole person 1 , 
or by a Metonymy, whereby that which is contained 
is put for that which doth contain it ; for illustration 
whereof, St. Augustin very aptly bringeth in this example : 
" As m we give the name of a church unto the material buil- 
ding, wherein the people are contained, unto whom the 
name of the church doth properly appertain ; by the 
name of the church, that is, of the people which are con- 
tained, signifying the place which doth contain them : so 
because the souls are contained in the bodies, by the souls 
here named the bodies of the sons of Jacob may be un- 
derstood. For so may that also be taken, where the Law 
saith that he 11 is defiled, who shall go into a dead soul, 
that is, to the carcase of a dead man ; that by the name 
of a dead soul, the dead body may be understood which 
did contain the soul : even as when the people are absent, 
which be the church, yet the place nevertheless is still 
termed the church." 

Yea but " the word Hades," saith Bellarmine, " as 
we have shewed, doth always signify hell, and never the 
grave. But the body of Christ was not in hell : therefore 
his soul was there." If he had said, that the word Hades did 
either rarely or never signify the grave, although he had 
not therein spoken truly, yet it might have argued a little 

1 As we may see in the commentaries upon Genesis attributed to Eucherius, 
lib. 3. cap. 31. Alcuinus in Genes, interrog. 269. Anselmus Laudunensis in the 
interlineary gloss, Lyranus and others. 

m Sicut ergo appellamus ecclesiam basilicam, qua continetur populus, qui 
vere appellatur ecclesia ; ut nomine ecclesiae, id est, populi qui continetur, sig- 
nificemus locum qui continet : ita quod animae corporibus continentur, intelligi 
corpora filiorum per nominatas animas possunt. Sic enim melius accipitur etiam 
illud quod lex inquinari dicit eum, qui intraverit super animam mortuam, hoc 
est, super defuncti cadaver ; ut nomine animae mortuse, mortuum corpus 
intelligatur, quod animam continebat : quia et absente populo, id est ecclesia, 
locus tamen ille nihilominus ecclesia nuncupatur. August, epist. 190. ad 
Optat. op. torn. 2. pag. 705. 

n Leviticus, chap. 21. ver. 11. 

Vox $St)q, ut supra ostendimus, significat semper infernum, nunquam se- 
pulchrirm. At corpus Christi non fuit in inferno : ergo anima ibi fuit. Bellarm. 
lib. 4. de Christo, cap. 1 2. 


more modesty in him, and that he had taken some care 
also, that his latter conceits should hold some better cor- 
respondency with the former. For he might have remem- 
bered, how in the place unto which he cloth refer us, he 
had said, that the p Seventy-two seniors did every where in 
their translation put Hades instead of Sheol : which, as he 
there hath told us, " is ordinarily taken for the place of 
souls under the earth, and either rarely or never for the 
grave." But we have shewed, not only out of those dic- 
tionaries, unto which the cardinal* 1 doth refer us, having 
forgotten first to look into them himself, but by allegation 
of divers particular instances likewise, unto none of which 
he hath made any answer, that Hades in the translation 
of the Seventy-two seniors is not rarely, but very usually 
taken for the place of the dead bodies. So for the use of 
the word Infernus in the Latin translation ; Lyranns no- 
teth, that it is " taken r in the Scripture, not for the place 
of the damned only, but also for the pit wherein dead men's 
carcases were laid." And among the Jesuits, Gaspar 
Sanctius yieldeth for the general, that " Infernus s or hell 
is frequently in the scripture taken for burial :" and in 
particular, Emmanuel Sa confesseth it to be so taken, in 
Genesis, chap. 42. ver. 38. 1 Samuel, chap. 2. ver. 6. 
Job, chap. 7. ver. 9. and chap. 21. ver. 13. Psalm 29. 
ver. 4. and 87. ver. 4. and 93. ver. 1 7. and 113. ver. 
17. and 114. ver. 3. and 140. ver. 7. (according to the 
Greek division) Proverbs, chap. I. ver. 12. and chap. 23. 
ver. 14. Ecclesiastes, chap. 9. ver. 10. Canticles, chap. 
8. ver. 6. Ecclesiasticus, chap. 51. ver. 7. Isaiah, chap. 
28. ver. 15. and chap. 38. ver. 10. Baruch, chap. 2. ver. 
17. Daniel, chap. 3. ver. 88. in the hymn of the three 

v Clnisto lib. 4. cap. 10. 

1 Consulantur omnia dictionaria. Ibid. cap. 12. 

r Accipitur infernus in scriptura dupliciter, uno modo pro fossa, ubi ponuntur. 
mortuoium cadavera. Alio modo pro loco ubi dcscendunt animcc damnatorum 
ad purgandum, et gcneralitcr illorum, qui non admittuntur statim ad gloriam. 
Lyran. in Esai. cap. 5. 

8 Est in scriptura frequcns infernum pro sepultura, at que adco pro morte 
sumi. Gasp. Sanct. commentar. in Act. cap. 2. sect. 50. 

Tf O 


Children, and 2 Maccabees, chap. 6. ver. 23. in all which 
places, Hades being used in the Greek, and Inferi or infer- 
nus in the Latin, it is acknowledged by the Jesuit 1 , that 
the grave is meant: which by Bede u also is termed Infer- 
nus exterior, the exterior hell. So Alcuinus, moving the 
question, how that speech of Jacob should be understood, 
" I v will go down to my son mourning into hell," maketh 
answer : that " these w be the words of a troubled and 
grieving man, amplifying his evils even from hence, or else, 
(saith he) by the name of hell he signified the grave : as 
if he should have said, I remain in sorrow, until the earth 
do receive me, as the grave hath done him." 

So Primasius, expounding the place, Hebrews, chap» 
13. ver. 20. " God x the Father," saith he, " brought his 
son from the dead, that is to say, from hell ; or from the 
grave, according to that which the Psalmist had fore- 
told; Thou wilt not suffer thine holy one to see corruption." 
And Maximus Taurinensis saith, that " Mary Magda- 
lene 7 received a reproof, because after the resurrection 
she sought our Lord in the grave, and not remembering 
his words, whereby he had said that the third day he 
would return from hell, she thought him still detained by 
the laws of hell." And therefore, saith he, while " she 2 
did seek the Lord in the grave among the rest of the 

* Emm. Sa, notat. in scriptur. u Bed. in Psalm. 48. 

v Genes, chap. 37. ver. 35. 

w Perturbati et dolentis verba sunt, mala sua etiam hinc exaggerantis ; vel 
etiam inferni nomine sepulchrum significavit, quasi diceret : in luctu maneo do- 
nee me terra suscipiat, sicut ilium sepulchrum. Alcuin. in Gen. interrog. 

s Deus ergo pater eduxit filium suum de mortuis : hoc est, de inferno, vel de 
sepulchro, juxta quod Psalmista prasdixerat : Non dabis sanctum tuum videre 
corruptionem. Primas. in Hebr. cap. 13. 

y Maria Magdalene non leviter fuit objurgata, cur post resurrectionem Domi- 
num qusereret in sepulchro ; et non reminiscens verborum ejus, quibus se ab in- 
feris tertia die rediturum esse dixerat, putaret eum inferni legibus detineri. 
Maxim. Taurin. de sepultur. Dom. homil. 4. 

z Unde et ilia Maria Magdalene, quae Dominum inter caeteros defunctos in se- 
pulchro quaerebat, arguitur, et dicitur illi : Quid quaeris viventem cum mortuis ? 
hoc est, quid quseris apud inferos, quern rediisse jam constat ad superos ? Id. de 
ead. homil. 3. 


dead, she is reprehended, and it is said unto her : Why 
seekest thou him that liveth, among the dead ? that is to 
say, Why seekest thou him among th°m that are in the 
infernal parts, who is now known to have returned unto 
the supernal ? For 8 he that seeketh for him either in the 
infernal places, or in the graves, to him it is said : Why 
seekest thou him that liveth among the dead ?" And to 
the same purpose he applieth those other words of our 
Saviour unto Mary ; " Touch me not, for I am not yet 
ascended unto my Father." As if he had said, " Why b 
dost thou desire to touch me, who while thou seekest me 
among the graves, dost not as yet believe that I am as- 
cended to my Father : who while thou searchest for me 
among the infernals, dost distrust that I am returned to 
the celestials ; while thou seekest me among the dead, 
dost not hope that I do live with my Father ?" Where his 
Inferi and inferna, do plainly import no more but tumulos 
and sepulchra. 

Hereupon Ruffinus in his exposition of the Creed, hav- 
ing given notice, " That , in the symbol of the church of 
Rome there is not added, He descended into hell, nor in 
the churches of the East neither ;" adjoineth presently : 
" Yet the force or meaning of the word seemeth to be the 
same, in that he is said to have been buried." Which 
some think to be the cause, why in all the ancient symbols 
that are known to have been written within the first six 
hundred years after Christ (that of Aquileia only excepted, 
which Ruffinus followed) where the burial is expressed, 
there the descending into hell is omitted ; as in that of 

a Nam qui eum aut in infernis requirit, aut tumulis, dicitur ei ; Quid quacris 
viventem cum mortuis ? Maxim. Taurin. de sepultur. Dom. homil. 3. 

b Quid me contingere cupis, quae me dum inter tumulos quaeris, adhuc ad pa- 
trem ascendisse non credis : quae dum me inter inferna scrutaris, ad ccelestia 
rediisse difRdis ; dum inter mortuos quaeris, vivere cum Deo patre meo non spe- 
ras ? Ibid, homil. 4. 

c Sciendum sane est, quod in ecclesiae Romanae symbolo non habetur addi- 
tiim : Descendit ad inferna : sed neque in orientis ecclesiis habetur hie sermo. 
Vis tamen verbi eadem videlur esse in co quod sepultus dicitur. Ruffin. in cx- 
posit. symbol. 


Constantinople, for example, commonly called the Nicene 
creed : and on the other side, where the descent into hell 
is mentioned, there the article of the burial is past over ; 
as in that of Athanasius. And to say the truth, the terms 
of burial and descending into hell in the Scripture phrase 
tend much to the expressing of the self-same thing : but 
that the bare naming of the one doth lead us only to the 
consideration of the honour of burial, the addition of the 
other intimateth unto us that which is more dishonourable 
in it. Thus under the burial of our Saviour may be com- 
prehended his £fra^ta(Tjuoc and Ttupi), his feneration 
and his interring : which are both of them set down in 
the end of the nineteenth chapter of the gospel according 
to St. John, the latter in the two last verses, where Joseph 
and Nicodemus are said to have "laid him in a new se- 
pulchre, wherein was never man yet laid :" the former in 
the two verses going before, where it is recorded that they 
" wound his body in linen clothes, with spices, Kadcog: 
Wog £oti rote 'IoueWotc tvra^ta^eti', as it is the manner of 
the Jews to bury." For to the Ivratpiaafibg or funeration 
belongeth the embalming of the dead body, and all other 
offices that are performed unto it while it remains above 
ground. So d where physicians are said to have embalmed 
Israel ; the Greek translators render it : Ivtrafyiaaav oi 
Ivra^iaaToi tov 'IapajjA. And when Mary poured the pre- 
cious ointment upon our Saviour, himself interpreteth this 
to have been done for his funeration 6 or burial. "For f it 
was a custom in times past," saith Eusebius, commonly 
called Emissenus, " that the bodies of noblemen being to 
be buried, should first be annointed with precious oint- 
ments, and buried with spices." And " who 8 knoweth 
not," saith Stapleton, " that a sepulchre is an honour to 

& Genesis, chap. 50. ver. 2. 

e Matth. chap. 26. ver. 12. Mark, chap. 14. ver. 8. John, chap. 12. ver. 7. 

f Mos enim antiquitus fuit, ut nobilium corpora sepelienda unguentis pretiosis 
ungerentur, et cum aromatibus sepelirentur. Euseb. Emiss. homil. Dominic, in 
Ramis Palmarum. 

8 Quis nescit sepulchrum mortuo honori esse, non dcdecori ; et quorundam 
ijecleribus sepulchra negari ? Stapleton. Antidot. in 1 Cor. cap. 15. ver. 55. 


the dead, and not a disgrace?" But the mention of 
Sheol, which hath special relation, as hath been shewed, 
to the disposing of the dead body unto corruption, and so 
of Hades, infernus, or hell, answering thereunto, carrieth 
us further to the consideration of that which the apostle 
calleth the sowing of the body in corruption and disho- 
nour 11 . For which, that place in St. Augustine is worth 
the consideration. " Did' not the hells (or the grave) 
give testimony unto Christ, when losing their power, 
they reserve Lazarus, whom they had received to dissolve, 
for four days together ; that they might restore him safe 
again, when they did hear the voice of their Lord com- 
manding it ?" where you may observe an hell appointed 
for the dissolution of dead men's bodies : the descending 
into which (according to Ruffinus his note) differeth little 
or nothing from the descending into the grave. 

In the thirteenth of the Acts, St. Paul preacheth unto 
the Jews, that God raised up his Son from the dead, 
" not k to return now any more unto corruption :" and yet 
presently addeth, that therein was verified that prophesy 
in the Psalm; " Thou 1 wilt not suffer thy Holy one to see 
corruption ;" implying thereby, that he descended in some 
sort for a time into corruption, although in that time he 
did not suffer corruption. And " do™ not wonder," saith 
St. Ambrose, " how he should descend into corruption, 
whose flesh did not see corruption. He did descend in- 
deed into the place of corruption, who pierced the hells ; 
but being uncorrupted he shut out corruption." For as 
the word nnw, which the prophet useth in the Psalm, 

h 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 42, 43. 

1 Nonnc interna Christo testimonium perhibuerunt, quando jure suo perdito 
Lazarum, quern dissolvendum acceperant, per integrum quatriduum reservavc- 
runt ; nt incolumem redderent, cum vocem Domini sui jubentis audirent ? Orat. 
contra Judaeos, Pagan, et Arian. cap. 17. opcr. Augustin. torn. 8. app. pag. 18. 

k MijKtrt /liXXovra inrtxrTfi'KJittv etc, ^in<p6o(iuv. Act. cap. 13. ver. 34. 

1 Oil SioffiKj tov offioV gov iStlv <5ia<l>9opai'. Ibid. ver. 35. ex Psal. 1C. 
ver. 10. 

1,1 Ne mireris quomodo descended! in corruptionera j cujus caro non vidit 
corruptionem. Descendil quidem in locum corruptions, qui penetravit infema ; 
sed corruptionem incorruptus exclusit. Aminos, de virginib, lib, 3. 


doth signify as well the pit or place of corruption, as the 
corruption itself: so also the word Siacpdopa, whereby 
St. Luke doth express the same, is used by the Greek in- 
terpreters of the old Testament to signify not the corrup- 
tion itself alone, but the very place of it likewise. As 
where we read " He" is fallen into the pit which he 
made :" and, " The heathen are sunk down in the pit 
that they made :" and, "Whoso p diggeth a pit, shall fall 
therein." Aquila in the first place, the Septuagint in the 
second, Aquila and Symmachus in the third, retain the 
Greek word SuicpOopa. So that our Saviour descending 
into Sheol, hades, or hell, may thus be understood to have 
descended into corruption, that is to say, into the pit or 
place of corruption, as St. Ambrose interpreteth it, al- 
though he were free in the mean time from the passion of 
corruption. And because b)XV and nnttf, o'Srje and diatft- 
Oopa, hell and corruption, have reference to the self-same 
thing : therefore doth the Arabic interpreter, translated - 
by Junius, in Acts, chap. 2. ver. 31. (or, as the Arabian 
divideth the book, Acts, chap. 4. ver. 10.) confound them 
together, and retain the same word in both the parts of 
the sentence, after this manner : " He was not left in per- 
dition, neither did his flesh see perdition ;" even as in the 
twenty-ninth Psalm (or the thirtieth according to the di- 
vision of the Hebrews) the Arabic readeth, a^sS^I al- 
giahymo 1 ' or hell, where the Greek hath SuitpBopav, the 
Hebrew niTitf, and the Chaldee paraphrase DO KXl*>Dp, 
that is, the house of the grave. 

Athanasius in his book of the incarnation of the Word, 
written against the Gentiles, observe th that when God 
threatened our first parents, that whatsoever day they did 

11 Psalm 7. ver. 15. ° Psalm 9. ver. 16. 

p Proverbs, chap. 26. ver. 27. 

i Ann. 1578. although in the Arabic Testament, printed by Erpenius anno 

1616. the terms he varied: A'LUM al-hawiyato being put for hell, and 

IJU-J phasada for corruption. 
r Psalter Arabic, edit. Genua;, ann. 1516. et Roma;, ann. 1619. Verum in 

duobus meis RISS. exemplaribus habetur hie. t^l g^'l al-halaco, quod per- 
ditionem vel internum notat. 


eat of the forbidden fruit they should "die the death;" 
by " dying 8 the death," he signified, " that they should not 
only die, but also remain in the corruption of death :" and 
that our Saviour coming to free* us from this corruption, 
" kept his own body uncorrupted, as a pledge and an evi- 
dence of the future resurrection of us all," which hath 
wrought such a contempt of death in his disciples, that, 
as he addeth afterwards, we may " see u men which are 
by nature weak, leaping or dancing unto death, being not 
aghast at the corruption thereof, nor fearing the descents 
into hell." So the Grecians sing in their liturgy at this 
day : " The w corruption-working palace of hell was dis- 
solved, when thou didst arise put of the grave, O Lord." 
And again ; " The* stone is rolled away, the grave is 
emptied. Behold corruption is trodden under by life. 
That which was mortal is saved by the flesh of God. 
Hell mourneth." For God, saith Origen y " will neither 
leave our souls in hell, nor suffer us to remain for ever in 
corruption : but he that recalled him after the third day 
from hell, will recall us also in fit time ; and he who 
granted unto him, that his flesh should not see corruption, 

s To Ct Qavdrijj a-rroQaviiadt, ri dv aXXo thj t) to (lij fiovov cnroOvt'je- 
kuv, dXXd ical iv Ty tov Qavdrov fyQopq. cia/x'tvuv ; Athan. de incarnat. Verbi, 
oper. torn. I. pag. 50. 

1 Tovro yap i)v Kara tov Qavarov rpoiraiov, Trdvrag iriVTwaaoOat 
ri]V Trap' avrov ytvo/j.kvijv Trjg <p9opag cnrdXtiipiv, /cat \oi7roi' ti)v tujv 
aujxarwv d<p9apaiav, tjg iraoiv uxnrtp ivtxvpov Kai yvwpi<r/j.a rijg tirl 
■Kavrag taoixtvrjg dvao~Tao~twg TtTi)pi]iciv a<p9aprov to tavrov ffwua. 
Ibid. pag. 66. 

" "Orav yap I5y Tig avOptoirovg ciaQivtig ovTag Ty <pvffti, TrpoTDjdCiVTag 
tig rbv QavaTov, Kal jir) KaTairr i)Tffovrag avrov ti)v <p9opdv, /it/dt Tag 
iv q.Sov KaGoSovg SuXiwvTag, &c. Ibid. pag. 72. 

"' KareXv9ij Kal rb tov qSov <f>9opoivoibv fiaaiXtiov, avaorai'Tog Ik 
Ta<pov aov Kvpit. Graeci in Octoecbo Anastasimo. 

x 'OXi9og KticvXiGTai, 6 rcupog KtKtva>Taf iSeTt Tt)v tyQopdv Ty ZvS Ta- 
T)]Qt?<rav, &c. to Ovijtov oiaioaTai aapKi 9iov- 6 aSt/g 0pi)vti. Cumulas, in 
Grsecorum Penteeostario. 

y Ncque nostras animas derelinquet in inferno nee dabit nos in corruptione in 
perpetuum manere : sed qui ilium post diem tertiuin revocavit ab inferis, et 
nos revocabitin tempore opportuno ; et qui illi donavit, ut non videat caro ejus 
corruptioncm, nobis donabit, non quidern ut non videat caro nostra eorruptionem, 
sed ut liberetui a corruptione tempore opportuno. Origen. tract. 35. in Matth. 
cap. 27. 



will grant also unto us, not that our flesh shall not see 
corruption, but that in fit time it shall be freed from cor- 

It may here also further be observed, that although the 
Grecians do distinguish the funeration, whereof we spake, 
and the interring, by the different terms of lvra(j)ia(Tfxbg 
and T<x<l>ri : yet the Latins do vise the self-same word of se- 
pulture to denote the one as well as the other. And 
therefore in Genesis, chap. 50. ver. 2. where we read ac- 
cording to the Hebrew, that " Joseph commanded his 
servants the physicians to embalm his father :" the an- 
cient Latin translation made out of the Greek, expressed it 
thus ; " Dixit Joseph servis suis sepultoribus, ut sepelirent 
patrem ejus. Joseph gave order to his servants the bury- 
ers, that they should bury his father." Upon which place 
St. Augustine giveth this note : " The z Latin tongue doth 
not find how it should fitly express the Greek word ivra- 
(piaaTUQ. For they are not they that bury, that is, commit 
to the earth the bodies of the dead : which is not in 
Greek tvtra^iaaav, but Waipav. Those £vta<pia<TTa\ there- 
fore do that which is performed to the bodies that are to 
be interred, either by seasoning or drying or lapping or 
binding them : in which work the care of the Egyptians 
exceedeth all others. Where therefore it is said that 
they buried him, we ought to understand that they dressed ' 
him: and what is spoken of his forty days' burial, is to be 
taken for this cure or dressing. For he was not buried, 
but where he commanded himself to be buried :" namely, 
in flie land of Canaan, not, where this was done, in the 
land of Egypt. 

And thus in the New Testament we will find this tvracpi- 
a<T/xbg in the vulgar Latin rendered by the term of sepul- 

'■ Non invenit lingua Latina quemadmodum appellaret IvraipiaciTaQ. Non 
cnim ipsi scpeliunt, id est, terras mandant corpora mortuorum : quod non est 
Graece IvtTCHpiaaav, sed tOaipav. Illi ergo IvraQiaorai id agunt quod exhi- 
betur corporibus humandis ; vel condiendo vel siccando, vel involvendo ct alli- 
gando : in quo opere maxinie ./Egyptiorum cura praeccllit. Quod ergo dicit 
etiam sepelierunt, curaverunt intelligere debcnius. Et quod dicit quadraginta 
dies sepulturae, ipsius curationis accipiendse sunt. Sepultus enim ille non est 
nisi ubise mandaveiat sepeliri. Augustin. Locution, de Gencsi, num. 203. 


ture, and in our common English translations by the word 
of burial. As in the speech of our Saviour touching his 
anointment by Mary, " Ad z sepeliendum me fecit. She 
did it for my burial." " Praevenit a ungere corpus meum 
in sepulturam. She is come aforehand to anoint my body 
to the burying." " Sinite b illam, ut in diem sepulturae meae 
servet illud." Which we translate : " Let her alone, 
against the day of my burying hath she kept this." And 
in the history afterwards, " Acceperunt c ergo corpus 
Jesu, et ligaverunt illud linteis cum aromatibus, sicut mos 
est Judasis sepelire. Then took they the body of Jesus, 
and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the man- 
ner of the Jews is to bury." Which rite of funeration 
being so carefully recorded by the evangelists, and by the 
old Latin interpreter expressly named his sepulture, and 
withal made a distinct act from his laying in the grave : 
their opinion wanteth not some probability, who think that 
in the Latin creed (for that which we commonly call the 
creed of the apostles was proper to the Latin Church, 
and both for the brevity of the matter and the frame of 
the words diverse from the eastern symbols) in the Latin 
creed, I say, Sepultus, or buried, might answer to the fu- 
neration, as in those texts cited out of the gospel, and 
" Descendit ad inferna or inferos, He descended into hell," 
to his laying in the grave : which two distinct things, Ra- 
mus' 1 also noteth in the French tongue to be expressed by 
two distinct words, Ensevelir and Enterrer. 

Neither is it any whit strange unto them that are con- 
versant in the writings of the ancient doctors, to hear that 
our Saviour by his going to the grave, descended into hell, 
spoiled hell, and brought away both his own body and the 
bodies of the saints from hell. We find the question 
moved by Gregory Nyssen, in his sermon upon the resur- 
rection of Christ ; " how e our Lord did dispose himself at 

z Matt. chap. 26. ver. 12. a Mark, chap. 14. ver. 8. 

b John, chap. 12. ver. 7. e Ibid. chap. 19. ver. 40. 

'' P. Ramus, iacommentar. relig. Christ, lib. 1. cap. 14. 
e 'Li\rtiv yap rovg (piXofiaOtffTtpovg tiicbg, irwgiv nji aitriji XP'^V Tpuriv 
iavrbv 6 Kvpiog didwvii', t>j rt Kapdia rijg yijg, Kut Tip napadtivy avv t<[> 


the same time three manner of ways ? both in the heart 
of the earth f , and in Paradise with the thief g , and in the 
hands of his Father 11 ." " For 1 neither will any man say," 
quoth he, " that Paradise is in the places under the earth, 
or the places under the earth in Paradise, that at the 
same time he might be in both ; or that those (infernal) 
places are called the hand of the Father." Now for the 
last of these, he saith the case is plain k , that being in Pa- 
radise he must needs be in his Father's hands also : but 
the greatest doubt he maketh to be, how 1 he should at the 
same time be both in Hades and in Paradise. For with 
him, the heart of the earth, the places under the earth, 
and Hades or hell, are in this question one and the same 
thing. And his final resolution is, that in this hell Christ 
remained with his dead body, when with his soul he 
brought the thief into the possession of Paradise. " For 111 
by his body," saith he, " wherein he sustained not the 
corruption that followeth upon death, he destroyed him 
that had the power of death : but by his soul he led the 
thief into the entrance of Paradise. And these two did 
work at the self-same time, the Godhead accomplishing 
the good by them both : namely, by the incorruption of 
the body, the dissolution of death, and by the placing of 

Xi/crry, Kai raig narpi^aig X'f 1 '* Greg. Nyss. in Pascha, ct Christi resurrect. 
oper. torn. 3. pag. 391. 

f Matth. chap. 12. ver. 40. £ Luke, chap. 23. ver. 43. 

'' Luke, chap. 23. ver. 46. 

' Ovrt ydpiv viro%9ovloi<; t'i7roi rig av rov TrapdStiaov, ovrt iv irapa- 
Sl'iaif) rd vTTOxQovia {loan Kara ravrbv iv dpforipoig riven) ?"/ x f V rt T0V 
irarpbg Xeye<r6ai Tavra. Greg. Nyss. in Pascha, et Christi resurrect, op. torn. 
3. pag. 391. 

k A/;\ov ori b iv 7rajio(5ti(T(^ ytvofitvog raig irarptfiaig ir&PTUig ivSiaird- 
rai TraXdfiaig. Ibid. pag. 393. 

1 Ulutg Kara ravrbv Kai iv rip ySy Kai iv rip 7rapaSti<r<f) 6 Kvpiog. Ibid, 
pag. 392. 

111 Aid \iiv yap rod au>p,arog, iv ip r>)v tK rov Oavdrov Kara<p9opdv ovk 
idiZaro, tcari}py>}<Tt tov ixovra rov Oavdrov rb icpdrog, Sid Si rijg 4/vx>ig 
oiSoiro'ujut rip Xriory r>)v ini rov irapdSiiaov ilaoSov Kai rd Siio Kara 
ravrbv ivipytirai, Si dfuporipiov rjjfi Qi6rr\rog rb dyaObv KaropOovaijg- 
did iiiv rfjg rov aiouarog d<p9apaiag, rt)v rov Oavdrov KardXvaiv, Sid Si 
rrjg ^/vxug, T, "?C rrpog r>)v iviav tariav £7riiyop,tvr)g, ri)v em rov rrapaCti- 
vovrwv dvOpwTTUiv indvoSov. Ibid. pag. 393. 


the soul in his proper seat, the bringing back of men unto 
Paradise again." 

The like sentence do we meet withal in the same Fa- 
ther's epistle unto Eustathia, Ambrosia, and Basilissa. 
" His" body he caused by dispensation to be separated from 
his soul : but the indivisible Deity being once knit with 
that subject, was neither disjoined from the body, nor the 
soul, but was with the soul in Paradise, making way by 
the thief for an entrance unto mankind thither ; and with 
the body in the heart of the earth, destroying him that 
had the power of death." Wherewith we may compare 
that place, which we meet withal in the works of St. Gre- 
gory, bishop of Neocsesarea: wherein our Saviour is 
brought in speaking after this manner : " 1° must de- 
scend into the very bottom of hell, for the dead that are 
detained there. I must by the three days' death of my 
flesh overthrow the power of long continuing death. I 
must light the lamp of my body unto them which sit in 
darkness and in the shadow of death." And that of 
St. Chrysostome, who is accounted also to be the author 
of that other sermon attributed unto St. Gregory : " How p 
were the brazen gates broken, and the iron bars burst ? 
By his body. For then appeared first a body immortal, 

n To fiiv (Jujfia r>jg ipvXVG Sta%tvxQi)vai kcit okovofiiav liroirjatv t) St 
d/i'tpicrrog Qtortjg KiraZ dvaKpaQtiaa rif viTOKtiflivq), ovrt rov ffibfiarog, 
ovrt rrjg i^wx»JC avtairaoQif dXXd fitrd fitv rrjg ^vxnQ tv r<p TrapaStiaif) 
yivtrai bSonoiovaa Sid rovXTjarov rolg dvQpwtrivoig rijv 'tlaoSov Sid Si 
rov ffibfiarog tv ry KapSiq rijg yijg, dvaipovffa rbv rb tcparog ixovra 
rov Qavarov. Greg. Nyss. in epist. ad Eustath. in Pascha et Christ! resur- 
rect, oper. torn. 3. pag. 659. 

° At! fit KartXQiiv Kai tig avrbv rbv rov q.Sov TrvQfi'tva, Sid rovg tKti Ka- 
Ttxofi'tvovg vtKaovg- Sti fit ry rpirjfitpq) rtXtvry ri"ig ifi^g ffaQKog KaQtXtiv 
rov no\vxpov'iov Qavarov rb icpdrog, Sti fit rov ffibfiarog fiov rbv Xvxvov 
dvd\pai rolg tv ffKorti Kai ff/cip' Qavarov KaQtj/itvoig. Gregor. Neocses. 
serm. in Theophania, pag. 111. oper. edit. Mogunt. ct inter opera Chrysost. torn. 
7. edit. Savilian. pag. 060. 

P Ilwg ovv ovvtrpifiifitav rrvXai xiXkuI, Kai fioxXoi ffiSijpoZ ffvvtQXdff- 
Orjffav; Sid rov ffibfiarog avrov' rbrt yap npCjrov iStixQi) ff&fia dQdvarov 
Kai SiaXvov abrov Qavarov ruv rvpavviSa' dXXiog St, rovro StiKWffi rov 
Qavarov rt)v iffxbv dvyptj/iivrfv, ov rail/ rrpb rijg irapovffiag abrov rtXtv- 
r)]ic6rwv rd dfiapr>ifiaraXtXvfih>a. Chrysost. in Matth. cap. 11. hom. 36. 
op. torn. 7. pag. 410. 


and dissolving the tyranny of death itself: whereby was 
shewed, that the force of death was taken away, not that 
the sins of those who died before his coming were dis- 
solved," and that which we read in another place of his 
works : " He* 1 spoiled hell, descending into hell : he made 
it bitter, when it tasted of his flesh. Which Esaiah un- 
derstanding before hand, cried out, saying : hell was made 
bitter, meeting thee below. (So the Septuagint render the 
words, Isaiah, chap. 14. ver. 19.) It was made bitter: 
for it was destroyed. It was made bitter : for it was mock- 
ed. It received a body, and light upon God : it received 
earth, and met with heaven : it received that which it saw, 
and fell from that which it did not see." 

Thus Caesarius expounding the parable 1 ', wherein the 
kingdom of God is likened unto leaven which a woman 
took, and hid in three pecks of flour, till all was leavened : 
saith that " the s three pecks of flour are, first the whole 
nature of mankind, secondly death, and after that, Hades; 
wherein the divine body being hidden by burial, did lea- 
ven all unto resurrection and life." Whereupon he bring- 
eth in our Saviour in another place speaking thus : "I* 
will therefore be buried, for their sakes that be in Hades : 
I will therefore as it were with a stone strike the gates 
thereof, bringing forth the prisoners in strength, as my 
servant David hath said." So St. Basil asketh, " How 11 

1 'EkoXuge tov aS>]v 6 KaTtXQwv tig tov aSijv tTt'iKpavtv avrbv, ytvad- 
fitvog {ytvodfitvov reponendum, ex MS. Constantinopolitano) T?]g trapKog 
avrov. Kai tovto 7rpoXa(3iov 'Hcraiac, l(56i)OEi>. 'O aSi]g, fi)Oiv, tiriKpav- 
8>], (TvvavTt'iaag croi Kcirac iniKpavOt], Kaiydp Ka9i]pt9>y lirwpavQti, Kai yap 
tvETraixQr)' 'iXaj3e ffw/xa Kai Oeip mpitTvxtv tXa(3e y?)V, Kai avvi}vrt]atv 
ovpavi^' tXaj3tv o-irtp tfiXtirt, Kai TrinTWKtv Wtv ok ij3Xe7rt. Orat. cate- 
chetic. in S. Pascha ; op. torn. 8. app. pag. 250. et in Graecorum Pentecostario : 
nbi pro prima voce tKoXaat rectius habetur tcKvXtvcre. 

1 Luke, chap. 13. ver. 21. 

s 'AXtvpov St oara Tpia, Ttpwrov fiiv t) trdaa flpoT&v tpvffig, StvTtpov 
Si 6 GavaTog, [itTa tovto 6 q,Sr)g' iv <£ tyicpv<piv Sid rafyiig to Qtlov awfia, 
iatyvpt TtavTa. tig dvduTaoiv Kai '£u)l]v. Caesarius, dialog. 4. quaest. 197. 

I TovTif) Ta<pii<rofiai Sid rovg iv aoy Tvy^dvovTag' rovry oiovti ir'tTpq, 
TraTaKw tKtivov TrvXag, iKdywv "KnrtSrm'tvovg tv dvSptia, KaOwg <j>i]criv 6 
AaviS 6 oik&tijq fiov. Id. dialog. 3. quaest. 166. 

II TLwg ovv KdropQovjitv T-qv tig qSrjv kuQoSov ; lu/ioifitvoi ri)v ratynv 
tov XpiGTOv, did tov fiaTTTiaiiaTog' oiovel yap ivQdnTtTai t$ vSaTi tCov 
fiarrTtZofitvojv rd aiofiaTa. Basil, de spiritu sancto cap. 15. 


we do accomplish the descent into hell?" and answereth, 
that we do it in " imitating the burial of Christ, in bap- 
tism. For the bodies of those that be baptized, are as it 
were buried in the water :" saith he. St. Hilary makcth 
mention of " Christ's flesh* quickened out of hell by him- 
self." And Arator in like manner : 

Infernum" Dominus cum destructurus adiret, 
Detulit inde suam spoliato funere carnem. 

When the Lord went to hell to destroy it, He brought 
from thence his own flesh, spoiling the grave." 

Philo Carpathius y addeth, that " in his grave he spoil- 
ed hell." Whereupon the emperor Leo in his oration 
upon the burial of our Saviour, wisheth us to honour 2 it, 
by adorning ourselves with virtues and not by putting 
him in the grave again. " For it behoved," saith he, 
u that this should be once done, to the end that hell might 
be spoiled : and it was done." And the Grecians retain 
the commemoration hereof in their liturgies unto this day : 
as their Octoechon Anastasimon and Pentecostarion do 
testify ; wherein such hymns and prayers as these are 
frequent : " Thou a didst receive death in thy flesh, work- 
ing thereby immortality for us, O Saviour : and didst 
dwell in the grave, that thou mightest free us from hell, 
raising us up together with thyself." " When b thou wast 

w Et haec vermis, vel non ex conceptu communium originum vivens, vel e pro- 
fundis terra; vivus emergens, ad significationem assumptoe et vivificata: per se 
etiam ex inferno carnis professus est. Hilar, de Trinitat. lib. 11. op. pag. 109. 

x Arator. histor. apostolic, lib. 1. 

y Philo in Cantic. cap. 5. ver. 2. 'Eyui kciQevBu), Kai y KapSia fxov dypvTT- 
vd. 'Ev T<p Ta<p<i> OKvXivovaa rbv aidy, inter fragmenta Eusebii in Cantic. a 
Mcursio edita, pag. 52. 

z Tifiyawfiev Si Kai y/ulg Tt)v Qtiav rafyv rifii/adi fiiv Si ovk 696- 
vaig avrbv ntniTTiWovrtQ, ovde rd<pij> KaraTiQtvTig- unaK yap tovto 
vTTtp rov OKv\tv9yvai rbv ajStjv i-Sti ytv'ioQai, Kai yiyovtv dW quag 
avTovg irepifidWovTiQ dpercuQ. Leo imp. hom. 1. 

a OdvaTOV KareSeZio aapici, yjiiv aQavaoiuiv TrpayjiaTtv(rdj.uvoQ, <rw- 
r>)p, Kai tv rd<p<i> ijJKyoaQ 'iva i)fidc rov oiFov i\tv9tpio(ri]g ovvavaOTyaaq, 

b "EfpiXav oJSov TrvXwpoi, ore iv Tip nvyfieiii> w£ 9vi}t6q KaTtTtOijQ- Kai 
yap tov 9avdrov Karapyyrrag ti)v (V^t'V ToTg Tt9i>tu><n ndviv d<p9apaiav 
"Kap't(T\iQ ry dvaffrctaei <rov. 


put in the tomb as a mortal man, the keepers of hell-gates 
shook for fear : for, having overthrown the strength of 
death, thou didst exhibit incorruption to all the dead by 
thy resurrection." "Although thou didst descend into 
the grave as a mortal man, O giver of life, yet didst thou 
dissolve the strength of hell, O Christ, raising up the 
dead together with thyself, whom it had also swallowed ; 
and didst exhibit the resurrection, as God, unto all that in 
faith and desire do magnify thee." " Thou' 1 who by thy 
three days' burial didst spoil death, and by thy life-bring- 
ing resurrection didst raise up corrupted man, O Christ 
our God, as a lover of mankind : to thee be glory." 
" Thou 6 who by thy three days' burial didst spoil hell, and 
by thy resurrection didst save man ; have mercy upon me." 
" By f thy three days' burial the enemy was spoiled, the 
dead loosed from the bands of hell, death deaded, the pa- 
laces of hell voided. Therefore in hymns do we honour 
and magnify thee, O giver of life." " Thou" wast put in 
the tomb, being voluntarily made dead ; and didst empty 
all the palaces of hell, O immortal King, raising up the 
dead with thy lesurrection." " Thou h who spoiledst hell 
by thy burial, be mindful of me." 

Hitherto also belongeth that of Prudentius, in his Apo- 
theosis : 

c Ei Kal iv Ta.(pij) KaTrjXdeg wg 6vt]Tog, £a>oror«, «AAa tov qdov ti)v 
ioxvv FiiXvGag ~S.piori, GWtytipag vtKpovg, oBg Kal GvyKaTiizif icai 
avaVTaGiv irdai 7r«peff%f£ wg dsbg, rolg iv iriani Kal tt66<o ae /iiyaXv- 

d T>) Tpir)y.kpif) Ta<p?j gov GKvXevGag tov, Kal <p6ap'tvTa Tov 
c'ivdpuTTOv tij %w)](p6p<{) iy'tpGti aov dvaGTi'iaag, XpiGTt 6 6tbg, dig tyiXdv- 
6pw7rog, SoKa o~oi. 

e 'OTpu)fiep<i> Tacpy gov GKvXtvGag rbv a$t]V, Kal Ty iyepGti gov GwGag 

TOV dvdptlJTTOV, lXtt]GUV fli. 

f Tpn]fitp<i> gov ra<pij tGKvXtvOi] 6 i-^Opbg, Ik twv tov qiSov StGfiCjv 
<nrt\i)6}]Gav veKpol, vtvtKpwTai b ddvarog, tKtinoO)] tci fiaaiXtta tov 
iHod' did gi ZiooSora iv vfivoig rijj.i7>VTtg fxtyaXuvofuv. 

ft 'Eridijg iv /.ivt)[iei(jj b tKOvaiwg ytvo/ievog VEKpbg, Kal to. flaa'CXita tov 
qiSov, fiaGiXii) addvaTs, q.Travra tKevwaag, vtKpovg Ty avaoraoei iyeipag 
ry Gy. 

11 Mv1]g6i)ti fiov b tov (iStjv GKvXtvaag Ty ra(py gov, Tom. C. bibliothec. 
Patr. edit. ami. 1589. col. 128. 


tumuloque inferna refringens 

Regna, resurgentes secuni jubet ire sepultos. 
Coelum habitat, terris intervenit, abdita rumpit 
Tartara. Vera fides, Deus est, qui totus ubique est. 

Where, in saying that our Saviour " by his grave did 
break up the infernal kingdoms," and " commanded those 
that were buried to rise up with him ;" he hath reference 
unto that part of the history of the gospel, wherein it is 
recorded that " The graves were opened, and many bodies 
of the saints which slept arose, and came out of the 
graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, 
and appeared unto many 1 ;" upon which place St. Hilary 
writeth thus, " Enlightening 1 " the darkness of death, and 
shining in the obscure places of hell ; by the resurrectior 
of the saints that were seen at the present, he took away 
the spoils of death itself." To the same effect writeth 
St. Ambrose also : " Neither 1 did his sepulchre want a 
miracle. For when he was anointed by Joseph, and bu- 
ried in his tomb ; by a new kind of work, he that was dead 
himself did open the sepulchres of the dead. His body 
indeed did lie in the grave ; but he himself being free 
among the dead, did give liberty unto them that were 
placed in hell, dissolving the law of death. For his flesh 
was in the tomb, but his power did work from heaven." 
Which may be a sufficient commentary upon that sentence, 
which we read in the exposition of the creed attributed 
unto St. Chrysostom : " He" 1 descended into hell, that 

* Mattb. chap. 27. ver. 52, 53. 

k Illuminans enim mortis tenebras, et infernorum obscura collustrans ; in 
sanctorum ad pra.'sens conspicatorum resurrectione mortis ipsius spolia detrahe- 
bat. Hilar, in Matth. Canon. 33. 

1 Sed nee sepulchrum quidem ejus miraculo caret. Nam cum esset unctus a 
Joseph, et in ejus moiuimento sepultus ; novo opere quodam, ipse defunctus 
defunctorum scpulchra reserabat. Et corpus quidem ejus jacebat in tumulo, ipse 
autem inter mortuos liber, remissioneni in inferno positis, soluta mortis lege 
donabat. Erat enim caro ejus in monumento, sed virtus ejus operabature coelo. 
Ambros. de incarnat. cap. 5. 

1,1 Descendit ad internum, ut et ibi a miraculo non vacaret. Nam multa cor- 
pora sanctorum resurrexerunt cum Christo. Homil. 2. in symbol, torn. 5. Latin, 
oper. Chrysostom. 



there also he might not want a miracle. For many bodies of 
the saints arose with Christ," namely, " Hell" rendering 
up the bodies of the saints alive again :" as either the 
same, or another author that goeth under the like name 
of Chrysostom, doth elsewhere directly affirm, which is a 
further confirmation of that which we have heard deli- 
vered by Ruffinus, touching the exposition of the article 
of the descent into hell ; that the substance thereof seem- 
eth to be the same with that of the burial. For what 
other hell can we imagine it to be but the grave, that thus 
receiveth and giveth up the bodies of men departed this 

And hitherto also may be referred that famous saying 
of Christ's descending alone and ascending with a multi- 
tude : which we meet withal in four several places of an- 
tiquity. First, in the heads of the sermon of Thaddaeus, 
as they are reported by Eusebius out of the Syriac re- 
cords of the city of Edessa : " He was crucified, and 
descended into Hades or hell, and brake the rampier never 
broken before since the beginning ; and rose again, and 
raised up with him those dead, that had slept from the 
beginning : and descended alone, but ascended to his 
Father with a great multitude." Secondly, in the epistle 
of Ignatius unto the Trallians : " He p was truly, and not 
in opinion, crucified, and died ; those that were in heaven, 
and in earth, and under the earth, beholding him: those 

n Reddunt inferi corpora rediviva sanctorum ; et in occursum authoris inferos 
penetrantis, temporalem accipiunt beatee animse commeatum. Homil. 4. de Pro- 
ditore, et Pass. Dominic, torn. 3. Latin, oper. Chrysost. 

° Jldig iaravp<i>9r), Kai (care/3/j tig tov q.St]V, /cai duaxtcre < tov 
i£ aiwvog fit] <tx«70e»t«, Kai dviurt], Kai avvr/yEipt vtKpovg Tovg air ctiui- 
viov KtKoifiiifitvovg' Kai iraig /cars/3/j /xovog, ave(3q Si fitrd iroWov o^Xou 
7rpbg rbv varkpa avrov. Thaddaeus, apud Euseb. lib. 1. hist. Eccl. cap. ult. 

P A\r]9ujg fit, Kai ou fiott)i<Tti, iaravpwQr), Kai dir't9avt, (3\tir6vTa>v ov- 
paviuv, Kai iiriyt'nov, icai KaraxOoviiuv ovpaviojv fiiv, u>g rwv daiojiciTiov 
tfixrtwv iiriytiwv Si, 'lovSa'uov Kai 'Puifiaiiov, Kai twv TvapovTiov /car' 
iKtivov Kaipov, aravpovfikvov tov JCvptov KaraxQov'nav Si, ug tov n\r]9ovg 
rov ffwavaiTTiivrog raJ Kvpi'y. IloWd yap, <j>>i<Ji, awfjiaTa riov KtKOifit)- 
liivojv dyiiov rjykp9i], tHjv fivrjptiojv avt(i>x9kvr(i>v /cai KaT))X9ev tig q.Si)V 
pbvog, dvijXOt Si fitTa TrXf)£ovg, Kai iax l,Ti T0V < * 7r ' aiwvog <, Kai 
to ptvoToixov avrov 'iXvcrt. I^nit. epist. 2. ad Trallian. 


in heaven, as the incorporeal natures : those in earth, to 
wit, the Jews and the Romans, and such men as were 
present at that time, when the Lord was crucified ; 
those under the earth, as the multitude that rose up 
together with the Lord: for many bodies, saith he, 
of the saints which slept arose, the graves being open- 
ed. And he descended into Hades or hell alone, but re- 
turned with a multitude, and brake the rampier that 
had stood from the beginning, and overthrew the parti- 
tion thereof." Thirdly, in the disputation of Macarius 
bishop of Jerusalem, in the first general council of Nice : 
" After q death we were carried into Hades or hell. Christ 
took upon him this also, and descended voluntarily into 
it ; he was not detained as we, but descended only. For 
he was not subjected unto death, but was the Lord of 
death. And descending alone, he returned with a multi- 
tude. For he was that spiritual grain of wheat, falling 
for us into the earth, and dying in the flesh ; who by the 
power of his Godhead raised up the temple of his body, 
according to the Scriptures, which brought forth for fruit 
the resurrection of all mankind." Fourthly, in the catechi- 
ses of Cyril bishop of Jerusalem : whose words are these : 
" I r believe that Christ was raised from the dead. For 
of this I have many witnesses, both out of the divine 
Scriptures, and from the witness and operation even unto 
this day of him that rose again : of him, I say, that de- 

<i<pip6/it9a fitru rov Qdvarov tig rov q,Si)V. 'AvtStKaro Kai rovro, 
Kai Kar?)\Qiv iKovrriwg tig avrbv ov Kartivi.\Qr} KaOdirtp rffiEig, dXXd Ka- 
rfjXGtv ov yap t)v vicoKtiutvog rty Oavdri^, dXX' i%ovaiaan)g rov Bavdrov. 
Kai fiovog KartXOwv, fitra irXijBovg dvtXt'iXvBtv avrbg yap r/v o votpbg 

KUKKOQ TOV tj'lTOV, 6 VTTtp T]UU>1> 1Tt<7(x)l> tig Tl)v y))v, Kai dlToBavCoV (TrtjOKI, Of 

ry t?)q OtoTTjrog abrov dvi'fifiei dviortjat rbv ffojuariKov avrov vabv, 
Kara Tag ypa<pdg, Kap7ro<j>opi}aavra rtjv rov -Kavrbg dvBpioTTtiov y'tvovg 
dvdaracnv. Macar. Hierosolym. apud Gelasium Cyzicen. in act. cone. Nicaen. 
lib. 1. cap. 23. al. 24. 

r Hicrrtvw on Kai Xptarbg tK vticpwv lyrjytprav rroXXdg yap ?^w rag 
irtpi rovrov uaprvpiag, Ik re rwv Btiuiv ypa(pwv, Kai sk rrjg fitxpi o-i)ftepov 
rov dvaardvrog fiaprvpiag Kai tvtpytiag' rov /iovov fiiv Kara(3dvrog tig 
qifirjv, TroWoorov 8k avafidvrog- KarijXGt yap tig rov Qdvarov, Kai 7ro\\a 
otouara rSv KtKOi/xijuivdJV dyiwv lyipOt] Si avrov. Cyrill. Hierosol. Cate- 
ches. 14. op. pag. 214. 




scended into Hades or hell alone, but ascended with many. 
For he did descend unto death ; and many bodies of the 
saints that slept were raised by him." Which resurrec- 
tion he seemeth afterward to make common unto all the 
saints that died before our Saviour. " All 8 the righteous 
men," saith he, " were delivered, whom death had devour- 
ed. For it became the proclaimed King to be the deliverer 
of those good proclaimers of him. Then did every one of 
the righteous say, O death where is thy victory ? O hell 
where is thy sting? for the Conqueror hath delivered us;" 
wherewith we may compare that saying of St. Chrysostom: 
" If 1 it were a great matter, that Lazarus being four days 
dead should come forth : much more, that all they who 
were dead of old should appear together alive, which was 
a sign of the future resurrection. For many bodies of the 
saints which slept, arose, saith the text ;" and those other, 
attributed unto him in the Greek Euchologe : " The u 
monuments (or graves) were opened, and they that were 
dead from the beginning arose." The Lord " descend- 
ing v into Hades, and shaking out the monuments thereof, 
freed all those that were detained bound therein, and 
called them unto himself ;" and these articles of the con- 
fession of the Armenians : " According w to his body, 

s 'EXvrpovvro iravTtQ 01 diicaiot, ovg Kartiruv 6 QavaroQ' tCei yap tqv 
KijpvxOkvTa fiamXta, rwi' KaXoiv Kt)pvK(OV ytvkoQai XvTpMTiyv EItu sVacr- 
Tog twv dttcaitoi/ i\tyc wov gov Qavart to v~ikoq ; ttov gov q.St) to Kivrpov ; 
tXvTpwGctTO yap t)fiag 6 vtK07rotbg. Cyril. Hierosol. cateches. 14. op. pag. 214. 

1 Ei' yap to TtTapralov l%,iX9ilv Aa^apov, jusya' 7ro\\(£ jiaXXov to irav- 
rag dOpowg rovg iraXai KOijur/Otj'rac, <pavr]vai ZwvTag' d T)jg iGOf.nvr)g 
ctvaGTc'iGttog Gi/puov t)i'. IloXXd yap tratyuara twv KtKOip,i)p.'tvu)v ayiiov 
i)yep6t] s (j»]Gi. Chrysost. in Matt. 27. hom. 88. op. torn. 7. pag. 826. In edit. 
Latina interpres vertit : Multo niajus profecto est multosjam olim mortuos in 
vitam reduxisse. 

u T« pviintla yvt^x^riGav, Kal oi air' alwvog Qavivrig av'tGTr\Gav. Eu- 
cbolog. fol. 166. b. 

v "O Karafiag tig rov $t?j)i> Kal to. ixv^fitia avrov ticriva£ag Kal iravTag 
rovg iv avT(p Kartxofih'ovg StGfiiovg iXiuQepwGag, Kal TrpbgtavTov avaKa- 
XiGafitvog. Ibid. 

w Ergo et in sepulchrum quoad corpus, quod mortuum erat, descendit : juxta 
vero divinitatem, quae vivebat, infernum interea devicit. Tertio die resurrexit : 
sed et animas fidelium secuni una suscitavit ; et dedit spem corporibus etiam a 



which was dead, he descended into the grave : but ac- 
cording to his divinity, which did live, he overcame hell in 
the mean time. The third day he rose again : but withal 
raised up the souls (or persons) of the faithful together 
with him, and gave hope thereby, that our bodies also 
should rise again like unto him at his second coming." 

Of those who arose with our Saviour from the grave, 
or, as anciently they used to speak, from hell, two there 
be whom the fathers nominate in particular : Adam and 
Job, unto whom Eusebius x also thinketh fit that David 
should be added. Of Job, St. Ambrose writeth in this 
manner : " Having y heard what God had spoken in him, 
and having understood by the Holy Ghost, that the Son 
of God was not only to come into the earth, but that he 
was also to descend into hell that he might raise up the 
dead, which was then done, for a testimony of the present, 
and an example of the future : he turned himself unto the 
Lord and said : O that thou wouldest keep me in hell, that 
thou wouldest hide me until thy wrath be past, and that 
thou wouldest appoint me a time in which thou wouldest 
remember me z ." In which words he affirmeth that Job 
did prophecy, " that a he should be raised up at the pas- 
sion of our Lord ; as in the end of this book, saith he, he 
doth testify ;" meaning the apocryphal appendix, which 
is annexed to the end of the Greek edition of Job, where- 
in we read thus : " It 1 ' is written, that he should rise again, 

morte resurgendi sibi similiter in secundo adventu. Confess. Armen. artic. 122. 
123, 124. 

x Euseb. in Psal. 3. ver. 5. in Catena Danielis Barbari et Aloysii Lippomani. 

• v Audito igitur quid locutus esset in eo Deus, et cognito per spiritual sanctum 
quod filius Dei non solum veniret in terras, sed etiam deseensurus esset ad inferos, 
ut mortuos resuscitaret, (quod tunc quidein factum est ad testimonium proesen- 
tium, et exemplum futurorum) conversus ad Dominum, ait: Utinam in inferno 
conservares, absconderes autem me donee desinat ira tua, et statuas mini tempus 
in quo memoriam mei facias. Ambros. de interpellations Job, lib. 1. cap. S. 

z Job, chap. 14. ver. 13. 

a Quod in passione Domini rcsuscitandus foret ; sicut in fine hujus libri tesla- 
tur. Ibid. 

'' T'typairrai Si avrbv nc'ikiv dvnarlirranOai, jitO' Stv 6 Kvpiog ai>i<JTi)rri 
vel avtarrifff. Append, ad Job. Vid. Clement. Constitut. apostolic, lib. 5. 
cap. (>. 


with those whom the Lord was to raise ;" which although 
it be accounted to have proceeded from the Septuagint ; 
yet the thing itself sheweth, that it was added by some 
that lived after the coming of our Saviour Christ. Touch- 
ing Adam, St. Augustine affirmeth, that " the m whole 
Church almost did consent, that Christ loosed him in hell; 
which we are to believe (saith he) that she did not vainly 
believe, whencesoever this tradition came ; although no 
express authority of the canonical Scriptures be produced 
for it." The only place which he could think of that 
seemed to look this way, was that in the beginning of the 
tenth chapter of the book of Wisdom : " She kept him 
who was the first formed father of the world, when he was 
created alone, and brought him out of his sin ;" which 
would be much more pertinent to the purpose, if that 
were added, which presently followeth in the Latin" text 
(I mean in the old edition : for the new corrected ones 
have left it out) " Et eduxit ilium de limo terras, and 
brought him out of the clay of the earth ;" which being 
placed after the bringing of him out of his sin, may seem 
to have reference unto some deliverance (like that of Da- 
vid's : " He brought me up out of the horrible pit, out of 
the miry clay") rather than unto his first creation out of 
the dust of the earth. So limus terra? may here answer 
well unto the Arabians' ^iW, al-tharay: which properly 
signifying moist earth, or slime or clay, is by the Arabic 
interpreter of Moses used to express the Hebrew ^Wttf p , 

m Et de illo quidem primo homine patre generis humani, quod eura ibidem 
solvent, Ecclesia fere tota consentit : quod earn non inaniter credidisse creden- 
dum est, undecunque hoc traditum sit, etiamsi canonicarum scripturarum hinc 
expressa non proferatur authoritas. Aug. epist. 99. 

n In Bibliis Complutensibus, et regiis edit. Antwerp, ann. 1572. et magnis 
Latinis Bibliis edit. Venet. ann. 1588. ubi in hanc particulam habentur notse 
Glossse interlinealis et Nic. Lyrani. 

° Psalm 40. ver. 2. 

P Fr. Rapheleng. in lexico Arabico, pag. 53. et 55. np et snn sepulchrum, 
infernus, Sitf\p male : inquit Erpenius, in observation, ad hunc locum, significat 
lerram humidam. Verum Raphelengium ab hac reprehensione vindicat Arabs 
Pentateuchi interpres ab ipso Erpenio editus : qui Sheol vertit Tharay, Gen. 
cap. 37. ver. 35. et cap. 44. ver. 29. 31. item. Num. cap. 16. ver. 30. 33. et 
Deut. cap. 32. ver. 22. 


which we translate hell or grave. And as this place in 
the book of Wisdom may be thus applied unto the raising 
of Adam's body out of the earth wherein he lay buried : 
so may that other tradition also, which was so current in 
the Church, be referred unto the self same thing, even to 
the bringing of Adam out of the hell of the grave. 

The very liturgies of the Church do lead us vinto this 
interpretation of the tradition of the Church : beside the 
testimony of the fathers, which discover unto us the first 
ground and foundation of this tradition. In the liturgy of 
the church of Alexandria, ascribed to St. Mark, our Sa- 
viour Christ is thus called upon: " O q most great King, 
and coeternal to the Father, who by thy might didst spoil 
hell, and tread down death, and bind the strong one, and 
raise Adam out of the grave by thy divine power, and the 
bright splendour of thine unspeakable Godhead." In the 
liturgy of the church of Constantinople translated into 
Latin by Leo Thuseus, the like speech is used of him : 
" He r did voluntarily undergo the cross for us, by which 
he raised up the first formed man, and saved our souls 
from death." And in the Octoechon Anastasimon and 
Pentecostarion of the Grecians at this day, such sayings 
as these are very usual : " Thou s didst undergo burial, 
and rise in glory, and raise up Adam together with thee, 
by thy almighty hand :" " Rising 1 out of thy tomb, thou 
didst raise up the dead, and break the power of death, 
and raise up Adam." " Having" slept in the flesh as a 
mortal man, O King and Lord, the third day thou didst 

'1 "Ava% fikyirrre, Kai Tqj narpi avvdvapx*, <> T V a V ' ; P« r( * rbv #S)]v 
0Kv\tvOag, Kai tov Qavarov TraTi}uag, Kai rbv Irrxvpbv Si(Tp.tvaag, Kai rbv 
'ASd/j. tK Tci<pov dva(TTi}(Ja<; rij OeovpytKy aov vvvdfitt Kai (jxotkttikij a'iyXy 
Trig aiig apprjTOV Gtortjrog. Marci Liturg. 

r Crucem sponte pro nobis subiit, per quam resuscitavit protoplastum, et a 
morte animas nostras salvavit. Chrysost. liturg. Latin. 

s Ta(pt)v KaraSe^dfitvoc, Kai avaaTug iv 86'!;>i, avvavauTi'iffag tov 'Add/z 
Xttpi iravrodvvdfMp. Nov. Antholog. Graec. edit. Iiomae, aim. 1598. pag. 
235. b. 

' E'^avatrTag tov iivi)p.aTog roiff rtdveStrac I'lyapag, Kai tov Oardrov to 
KpaTOQ ovvETQiipaz, Kai tov 'Addfi aviori)Oa£. Ibid. fin. pag. 239. 

" Snpict vnvioaag <i>£ Ovijtos 6 fia<n\ii<(; Kai ki'iowq, rpi>'///fpof k%aviffryc 
'AFdptyeipag Ik <p9opdg, Kai Karapyi'iaag Qavrirov. Ibid. pag. 262. b. 


arise again ; raising Adam from corruption, and abolish- 
ing death." " Jesus w the deliverer, who raised up Adam 
of his compassion, &c." Therefore doth Theodorus Pro- 
dromus begin his tetrastich upon our Saviour's resurrec- 
tion with 

"Eypeo 7rpii)r6Tr\ctGTi irakaiyiviQ, typto Tvfifiov. 

Rise up, thou first formed old man, rise up from thy 

St. Ambrose pointeth to the ground of the tradition, 
when he intimateth that Christ suffered in " Golgotha x , 
where Adam's sepulchre was, that by his cross he might 
raise him that was dead; that where in Adam the death of 
all men lay, there in Christ might be the resurrection of 
all." Which he received, as he did many other things 
besides, from Origen : who writeth thus of the matter : 
" There* came unto me some such tradition as this, that 
the body of Adam the first man was buried there, where 
Christ was crucified : that as in Adam all do die, so in 
Christ all might be made alive ; that in the place which is 
called the place of Calvary, that is, the place of the head, 
the head of mankind might find resurrection with all the 
rest of the people, by the resurrection of our Lord and 
Saviour, who suffered there and rose again. For it was 
unfit, that when many which were born of him did receive 
forgiveness of their sins and obtain the benefit of resur- 
rection, he who was the father of all men, should not 

w '.Itjaovg 6 XvTpuri)^, 6 iytipae rov 'ASd/i ry tvoirXayxviq, avrov. Nov. 
Antholog. Graec. edit. Romae, aim. 1598. pag. 278. b. 

x Quam suscepit in Golgotha Christus, ubi Adae sepulchrum, ut ilium mor- 
tuum in sua cruce resuscitaret. Ubi ergo in Adam mors omnium, ibi in Christo 
omnium resurrectio. Ainbros. lib. 5. epist. 19. 

>' Venit ad me traditio qusedam talis, quod corpus Adae primi hominis ibi se- 
pultum est ubi crucifixus est Christus : ut sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur, sic 
in Christo omnes vivificentur ; ut in loco illo qui dicitur Calvaries locus, id est 
locus capitis, caput human! generis resurrectionem inveniat cum populo universo 
per resurrectionem Domini Salvatoris, qui ibi passus est, et resurrexit. Incon- 
veniens enim erat, ut cum multi ex eo nati remissionem acciperent peccatorum, 
et beneficium resurrectionis consequerentur ; non magis ipse pater omnium ho- 
minum hujusmodi gratiam consequeretur. Origen. tractat. 35. in Matth. cap. 27- 


much more obtain the like grace." Athanasius, (or who 
ever else was author of the discourse upon the passion of 
our Lord, which beareth his name) referreth this tradi- 
tion of Adam's burial place unto the report of the doctors 2 
of the Hebrews, from whom belike he thought that Origen 
had received it, and addeth withal, that it was very fit, 
that where it was said to Adam, " Earth thou art, and to 
earth thou shalt return ;" our Saviour finding him there, 
should say unto him again : " Arise thou that sleepest, 
and stand up from the dead, and Christ shall give thee 
light." Epiphanius a goeth a little further, and findeth 
out a mystery in the water and blood that fell from the 
cross upon the relics of our first father lying buried under 
it : applying thereunto both that in the Gospel, of the 
" arising of many of the saints b ," and that other place in 
St. Paul, " Arise c thou that sleepest, &c." Which strange 
speculation, with what great applause it was received by 
the multitude at the first delivery of it, and for how little 
reason ; he that list may read in the fourth book of 
St. Hierom's commentaries, upon the twenty-seventh of 
St. Matthew, and in his third upon the fifth to the Ephe- 
sians ; for upon this first point, of Christ's descent into 
the hell of the grave, and the bringing of Adam and his 
children with him from thence, we have dwelt too long 

In the second place therefore we are now to consider, 
that as Hades and inferi, which we call hell, are applied 
by the interpreters of the holy Scripture, to denote the 
place of bodies separated from their souls : so with fo- 
reign authors, in whose language, as being that where- 
with the common people was acquainted, the Church also 
did use to speak, the same terms do signify ordinarily the 
common lodge of souls separated from their bodies, whe- 

z "OOtv oiiSt a\X«^oD naaxu, ovSk elg dWov tottov aravpoiirai i) tt'c 
t'ov Kpaviov To7rov, ov 'Ej3paih)V 01 SiSchtkciKoi faai tov 'Adap rivai ra$ov. 
Athanas. in passion, et cruceni Domini, op. torn. 2. pag. 90. 

a Epiphan. contr. Tatian. hares. 46. Vide etiam Pauls et Eustochii epist. 
ad Marcellam ; epist. 17. tomo \. oper. Hieronymi, pag. 517. 

b Matth. chap. 27. ver. 52. ' Ephcs. chap. 5. vcr. 11. 


ther the particular place assigned unto each of them be 
conceived to be an habitation of bliss or of misery. For as 
when the grave is said to be the common receptacle of 
dead bodies, it is not meant thereby that all dead carcasses 
are heaped together promiscuously in one certain pit : so 
when the heathen write that all the souls of the dead go 
to Hades, their meaning is not, that they are all shut up 
together in one and the self same room : but in general 
only they understand thereby the translation of them into 
the other world, the extreme parts whereof the poets 
place as far asunder as we do heaven and hell. And this 
opinion of theirs St. Ambrose doth well like off (wishing d 
that they " had not mingled other superfluous and unpro- 
fitable" conceits therewith) " that 6 souls departed from 
their bodies did go to $S»Kj that is, to a place which is 
not seen : which place," saith he, " we in Latin call in- 
fernus." So likewise saith St. Chrysostom : " The f Gre- 
cians, and barbarians, and poets, and philosophers, and all 
mankind do herein consent with us, although not all alike ; 
and say that there be certain seats of judgment in Hades: 
so manifest and so confessed a thing is this." And again : 
" The g Grecians were foolish in many things, yet did they 
not resist the truth of this doctrine. If therefore thou 
wilt follow them, they have granted that there is a certain 
life after this, and accounts, and seats of judgment in 

d Atque utinam non superflua his et inutilia miscuissent. Ambros. de bono 
mortis, cap. 10. 

e Satis fuerat dixisse illis, quod liberatae animse de corporibus aifirjv peterent, 
id est, locum qui non videtur. Quern locum Latine infernum dicimus. Ibid. 

f 'AXXa Kal'EXXrivtg, Kai j3dp(3apoi, Kai iroirjTal, Kai <pi\6<ro<poi Kai irav 
avOpMTrwv y'tvog ffviKpwvovaiv iv rovroig r}fiiv,tL Kai p,i) oftoib>s s Kai tpafftv 
ilvai Tiva diKaarijpia iv ijj,8ov o'vtw (pavtpbv, Kai wfioXoyiifi'tvov to irpdy- 
fia tan. Chrysost. in 2 Cor. hom. 9. op. torn. 10. pag. 502. 

S Toaavra iXt]pr)<rav"EXXt]Vig, dXX' ofiug irpbg ttjv rov Soyfiarog rov- 
tov ovk dv-kar?]ffav dXijOsiav dXX' si Kai avrolg aKoXovOrjatig, Ofuog 
iSwkciv riva fiETa ravra /3i'ov, Kai liiQvvag, Kai diKaarJjpia tv qidov, Kai 
KoXacrtig, Kai Ti/idg, Kai xpi'jfovg, Kai Kpictig' Kq.v 'lovoaiovg tpioTi)o-r]g, 
k$.v aiOETiKovg, k$v ovriva avOoiairov, ai<sxvvQi)<JiTai rov Soy/iarog r>)v 
dXi)0iiav, Kai tl Kai Iv dXXoig 8ia<pipovrai, dXX' iv Tovr<[> travrtg cxvfi- 
<pwvov<Ti Kai Xiyovai tlvai rwv IvravQa yiyivrin'ivbtv tiiOvvag tKtl. Chry- 
sost. de fato et providentia, orat. i. op. torn. 2. paj. 766. 


Hades, and punishments, and honours, and sentences, 
and judgments. And if thou shalt ask the Jews or 
heretics, or any man, he will reverence the truth of 
this doctrine : and although they differ in other things, 
yet in this do they all agree and say, that there are 
accounts to be made there of the things that be done 
here." Only among the Jews, " the Sadducees, ivhich h 
say that there is no resurrection, neither angel nor 
spirit ,■" rag tcaO^ q$ov Ti/xiopiag koX Ti/uidg avaipovai, take 
away the punishments and honours that are in Hades :" 
as is noted by Josephus 1 . For which wicked doctrine 
they were condemned by the other sects of the Jews, who 
generally acknowledged, that there was JTlDlfin D^iy, 
Olam hanneshamoth, (for so k do they in their language 
until this day call that, which Josephus in Greek termed 
hades) that is to say, the world of spirits, into which they 
held that the souls were translated presently after death, 
and there received their several judgments. 

The same thing doth Theodoret suppose to be signified 
by that phrase of being " gathered to one's people," 
which is so usual in the Word of God. For it being said 
of Jacob, before he was buried, that he gave up the ghost, 
and was gathered unto his people 1 , Theodoret observeth, 
that " Moses™ by these words did closely intimate the 
hope of the resurrection. For if men," saith he, "had 
been wholly extinguished, and did not pass unto another 
life, he would not have said, He was gathered to his 
people." So likewise where it is distinctly noted of Abra- 
ham", first, that " he gave up the ghost and died," then, 
that " he was gathered to his people," and lastly, that 
" his sons buried him:" cardinal Cajetan and the Jesuit 

h Act. chap. 23. ver. 8. 

■ Joseph, dc Bello Judaic. lib. 2. cap. 12. circa fincni. 

k Elias Levita in Tischi, verb. N3!-| dS"iV- 

1 Genes, chap. 49. ver. 33. 

m Aid tovtiov tiov \6y<ov yi'i^aro rt)v IKiriSa rijc avaoraoutiQ. Ft 
yap iravrutraai fte^Oiipovro, Kal fit) i'iq tripov fiir'iftaivov ftiov, ovk civ 
dire, UpofftriQt] irpbg TovXabv avrov. Theodoret. in Gen. qusest. 109. 

n Genes, chap. 25. ver. 8, 9. ° Cajetan. in Gen. cap. 25. 


Lorinus p interpret the first cle compositi totius dissolu- 
tion, of the dissolution of the parts of the whole man, 
consisting of body and soul ; the second of the state of 
the soul separated from the body ; and the third of the 
disposing of the body parted from the soul. Thus the 
Scriptures' speech of being gathered to our people should 
be answerable in meaning to the phrase used by the hea- 
then of descending into hell or going to Hades : which, as 
Synesius q noteth out of Homer, was by them opposed ry 
iiKpifiearaTij airioXtia, to a most absolute extinguishment as 
well of the soul as of the body. And forasmuch as by 
that term, the immortality of the soul was commonly sig- 
nified : therefore doth Plato in his Phaedo disputing of 
that argument, make this the state of his question : "Whe- 
ther 1 " the souls of men deceased be in Hades or no ?" and 
Olympiodorus, the Alexandrian deacon, affirmeth of Job, 
that he delivered " the s most excellent doctrine of the 
immortality of the soul ;" by teaching, " that souls are 
not extinguished together with their bodies, but do remain 
in Hades ;" and some others also of our ecclesiastical 
writers do from thence fetch a difference between death 
and Hades. " You 1 shall find," said Theophylact, " that 
there is some difference between Hades and death : namely 
that Hades containeth the souls, but death the bodies. 
For the souls are immortal." The same we read in Ni- 
cetas Serronius's" exposition of Gregory Nazianzen's se- 
cond paschal oration. Andreas Caesareensis doth thus 
express the difference: " Death w is the separation of the 

i 1 Lorin. in Act. cap. 13. ver. 36. 1 Synes. epist. 4. 

r E'lre apa ii> g,doo tialv at ipvxai TtXtvTtjTavTwv rwi' avQpioiriov, 
Art Kai ov ; Plat. Phaedon. op. torn. 1. pag. 70. 

s Htpl a9ai'aaia£ ■<p v X'l£ KciWurrov iifft]ytlrai /id9)]na' cV tiiv FiSdaKii, 
fit) ffwa-rroWvadai roXai awfiaai rag i^uxag, d\X' iv aSov Tvy\-dvtiv. 
Olynipiodor. Protheori. in Job. K«p. S. 

1 Comperies aliquod esse inferni et mortis discrimen : videlicet, quod animas 
infernus contineat, mors vero corpora. Nam immortales suntanimse. Theophy- 
lact. in 1 Cor. cap. 15. 

" Hoc differunt mors et infernus : quod ilia corpora, hie animas detineat. 
Nicet. in Greg. Nazian. orat. 42. 

w Qdvarog fiiv x«piT/u6c. \//(»xi/t" xal ffiofiarog' a^t)Q Si, tottoc t)fuv dtiH i)c 


soul and the body. But Hades is a place to us invisible 
or unseen and unknown, which receiveth our souls when 
they depart from hence." The ordinary Gloss, following 
St. Hierome upon the thirteenth of Hosea, thus : " Death x 
is that, whereby the soul is separated from the body. Hell 
is that place, wherein the souls are included, either for 
comfort or for pain." 

The " soul y goeth to Hades," saith Nicetas Choniates 
in the proceme of his history: " but the body returneth 
again into those things of which it was composed." Caius, 
(or whoever else was the author of that ancient fragment, 
which we formerly signified to have been falsely fathered 
upon Josephus) holdeth that " In z Hades, the souls both 
of the righteous and unrighteous are contained:" " but a 
that the righteous are led to the right hand by the angels 
that await them there, and brought unto a lightsome re- 
gion, wherein the righteous men that have been from the 
beginning do dwell, and this we call Abraham's bosom," 
saith he : " whereas the wicked are drawn towards the 
left hand by the punishing angels, not going willingly, but 
drawn as prisoners by violence." Where you may ob- 
serve how he frameth his description of Hades, according 
to that model wherewith the poets had before possessed 
men's minds. 

ijyovv cKpavijQ Kai dyvworog, 6 Tag ^vxdg yfiwv ii>rtvQtv itcSii^iovaag St- 
Xo/ttvog. Andr. Csesareens. in Apocalyps. commentar. cap. 64. edit. Grsec. 63. 

* Mors est, qua separatur anima a corpore, infernus est locus ubi recluduntur 
animae, vel ad refrigerium, vel ad pcenani. Strabus in Gloss, ordinal - , ex Hie- 
ron. lib. 3. in Ose, cap. 13. 

y Kai tov fiiv ig gSov fiifiiiKtv t) \f.vx)), irpbg Si rd t£ u>v i)pj.i6a9i], to 
ow/ia iTraXtvcpo/xriTf. Nicct. init. bistoriae. 

z ITepi Si q,Sov, iv <(> rrvvixovrai \pvxai SiKaiotv ts Kai dSiKwv, dvay- 
Kaiov tlirtlv. Caius in fragmcnto de causa sive essentia universi : de quo su- 
pra, pag. 240. 

a 'AW o'i fiiv SiKaioi, tig Si^id (pwTayojyovptvot, Kai vtto twv i<pt(Tru>- 
tiov Kara tottov dyyiXuv vp,vovfitvoi, dyovrai tig x^plov tpwrtivbv iv </5 
ot an apxnQ SiKaioi TroXtrtvovrai, &c. rovrqi Si bvofia KinXt'iffKOfiiv koX- 
■kov 'Appacifi- o'i Si dSiKoi tig dpicrrtpd 'iXKOVTai vnb dyyiXwv KoXaOTwv, 
ovKtTi tKOvtriutg Troptuo/itvoi, dXXd fitra (Stag wg Sirr/uoi iXicofttvoi. 


Dextera b , quae Ditis magni sub mcenia tendit ; 
Hac iter Elysium nobis : at laeva malorum 
Exercet poenas, et ad impia Tartara mittit. 

The right hand path goeth underneath the walls of Pluto deep ; 
That way we must, if paths to paradise we think to keep : 
The left hand leads to pain, and men to Tartarus doth send. 

For " as c we do allot unto good men a resting place in 
Paradise, so the Greeks do assign unto their heroes the 
Fortunate islands, and the Elysian fields :" saith Tzetzes. 
And as the Scripture borroweth the term of Tartarus 11 
from the heathen : so is it thought by Tertullian e and 
Gregory Nazianzen f , that the heathen took the ground of 
their Elysian fields from the Scripture's paradise. 

To heap up many testimonies out of heathen authors, 
to prove that in their understanding all souls went to 
Hades, and received there either punishment or reward 
according to the life that they led in this world, would be 
but a needless work : seeing none that hath read any thing 
in their writings can be ignorant thereof. If any man de- 
sire to inform himself herein, he may repair to Plutarch's 
consolatory discourse written to Apollonius : where he 
shall find the testimonies of Pindarus g and many others 
alleged, 7repi rwv Eu<r£j3ewv iv q.Bov, touching the state of 
the godly in Hades. Their common opinion is sufficiently 
expressed in that sentence of Diphilus, the old comical 
poet : " In h Hades we resolve there are two paths : the 
one whereof is the way of the righteous, the other of the 

b Virgil. ./Eneid. 6. conferend. cum Platonis narratione lib. 10. de republ. 
paulo post citanda. 

c "Qairip i'/fitTg rijv Iv Trapa?ti<r<i> Tolg dyaQolg dvSpdffiv diroKXrjpov/juv 
HiaTpifii)v,ovT(i) rolg ripioaiv dTrovkjxovatv "EWevfc, rag nctKapoiv vriaovg, 
teal to yXixnov TreSiov. Jo. Tzetz. in Hesiodi "Epy. 

d Sfipaif %6cpov raprapioaag. 2 Pet. cap. 2. ver. 4. 

e Tertull. apologetic, cap. 47. f Greg. Naz. orat. 20. in laud. Basilii. 

S Pindar. Olymp. Od. 2. ubi etiam scholiastes ejus meminit riov iv $5ov (Ti- 

h Kai yitp kciQ' dSrjv 5vo rpifiovg vo/ii^Ofisv. 
Miav, SiKaiwv irkpav 5' doif5u>v tiv 6S6v. 
Diphil. apud Clem. Alexandrin. lib. 5. Stromat. inde que apud Euseb. proep. 
Evangelic, lib. 13. pag. 683. et authorem libri de monorchia apud Justinum 
martyr, qui Philemoni hoc attribuit. 



wicked ; which by Theodoret' is commended for true phi- 
losophy indeed : as the like in the stoical philosophy of 
Zeno, is by Lactantius k pronounced to be consonant to 
the doctrine of the prophets and the verity of our reli- 
gion. But as in this general they agreed together both 
among themselves and with the truth : so touching the 
particular situation of this Hades, and the special places 
whereunto these two sorts of souls were disposed, and the 
state of things there, a number of ridiculous fictions and 
fond conceits are to be found among them, wherein they 
dissented as much from one another, as they did from the 
truth itself. So we see, for example, that 1 the best souls 
are placed by some of them in the company of their Gods 
in heaven, by others in the Galaxias or milky circle, by 
others about the moon, by others in the lower air, by 
others beyond the ocean, and by others under the 
earth : 

Yldvrag m ufitig Ovtjrovg tig diStjg Six eTal " 

Yet one Hades notwithstanding was commonly thought to 
have received them all. 

Plato relateth this, as a sentence delivered by them 
who were the first ordainers of the Grecian mysteries : 
" Whosoever" goeth to Hades not initiated and not 
cleansed, shall lie in the mire ; but he that cometh thither, 
purged and initiated, shall dwell with the Gods." So 
Zoroaster, the great father of the Magi in the east, 
is said to have used this entrance into his discourse 
touching the things of the other world : " These things 

• Theodoret. in Therapeutic, ad Graec. lib. 8. pag. 88, 89. 

k Lactant. institut. lib. 7. cap. 7. 

1 Vid. Tertullian. deanima, cap. 54, 55. et Macrob. in Somn. Scipionis, lib. 1. 
cap. 10, 11, 12. 

m Antholog. lib. 1. cap. 37. et lib. 3. cap. C. Ei'c, koivov "Adr/v travrtg 
r}%ovoi (ipoToi. 

n "Oc. av ical drtXtrrrog tig a'Sov d(j>iict]Ta.i, iv (iopfiop^ Ktiacrnf 
6 Sk KiKaQapjxkvog rt Kai TiTiXtVjdvog, iKiivt d^iKo^uvog, /xiru Qiiov oi'k/;- 
ffti. Plat. Phaedon. op. torn. 1. pag. 69. 

° 'Yd ?k ffwiypa^i Ziopodurpijg 6 ' Ap/itviov, to yivog lldfi<t>v\og, tv 


wrote Zoroaster, the son of Armenius^ by race a Panl- 
phylian, having been dead in the war, which I learned of 
the Gods, being in Hades," as Clemens Alexandrinus re- 
lateth in the fifth book of his Stromata: where he also 
noteth, that this Zoroaster is that Er, the son of Arme- 
nius, a Pamphylian, of whom Plato writeth in the tenth 
book of his Commonwealth ; that being slain in the war 
he revived the twelfth day after, and was sent back as a 
messenger to report unto men here the things which he 
had heard and seen in the other world; one part of whose 
relation was this, that he saw certain gulfs 1 ' beneath in the 
earth, and above in the heaven, opposite one to the other, 
and that the just were commanded by the Judges that 
sat betwixt those gulfs, to go to the right hand up to- 
ward heaven, but the wicked to the left hand and down- 
ward ; which testimonies Eusebius q bringeth in, among 
many others, to shew the consent that is betwixt Plato 
and the Hebrews in matters that concern the state of the 
world to come. 

Next to Zoroaster cometh Pythagoras : whose golden 
verses are concluded with this distich: 

"Hv r 3' cnroXeiij/ag aw/ia, ig aiQkp tXtvOepov t\9yg, 
"Eaatai aQavarog Oebg, apj3porog, ovk tri Optjrog. 

" When thou shalt leave the body, and come unto a free 
heaven, thou shalt be an immortal God, incorruptible, and 
not subject to mortality any more." So Epicharmus the 
scholar of Pythagoras : " If s thou be godly in mind, thou 
shalt suffer no evil when thou art dead ; thy spirit shall 

Tro\kp.(p Tt\evri)(Tag, o<ra Iv qiSi) ytvop,ivog LSaqv Trapa Gtiov. Zoroaster, 
apud Clem. Alexandr. lib. 5. Stromat. indeque apud. Euseb. proepar. Evang. 
lib. 13. pag. 675. 

P Plato, lib. 10. derepub. op. torn. 2. pag. 614. 

1 Euseb. Praepar. Evang. lib. 1 1. pag. 563. Vide et Origenem contra Celsum, 
lib. 2. pag. 72. edit. Gra>c. 

r Pyihagor. aur. Carm. cum commentar. Hieroclis, pag. 14. 

■ Eufftfifjg vip irityVKiog, ob iraQoig y' ovSh' icaicov KarQavwv av(o rb 
irvtvpa Sia/xsvii icar' ovpavov. Epicharm. apud Clement. Alexandr. lib. 4. 


remain above in heaven ;" and Pinclarus : " The* souls of 
the ungodly fly under the heaven (or under the earth) in 
cruel torments under the unavoidable yokes of evils. But 
the souls of the godly, dwelling in heaven, do praise that 
great blessed one with songs and hymns :" 

'aOcivutoiq aWoiaiv bfikcrioi, 

as Empedocles" speaketh, " conjoined in the same dwel- 
ling with other immortal wights." Whereunto we may add 
these Greek verses of Moschion (in Stobaeus) : 

'Eaff«r' yci] yy Ka\v<p9r)vai vtKpovg' 
"Odtv 8' iKaarov tig to aibfi cupiiciTO, 
'EvravQ' aniKQilv, irvivna fikv irpbg aW'tpa, 
To awfia b" tig yi/v. 

" Suffer now the dead to be covered with earth ; and 
whence every thing came into the body, thither to return 
again : the spirit to heaven, the body to the earth." and 
compare them with the like Latin of Lucretius™ : 

Cedit enim retro, de terra quod fuit ante, 

In terras : et quod missum est ex aetheris oris, 

Id rursum cceli relatum templa receptant. 

" For that which was before of the earth, goeth back 
again into the earth : and what was sent down from the 
heavenly regions, that do the temples of heaven again re- 
ceive transmitted thither." 

Cicero in his Tusculan questions allegeth the testi- 
mony of Ennius x , approving the common fame, that " Ro- 

' tyvxai S' aoifitjv virovpavioi (al. vtt' ovv roi) ya'iq, Trwrtavrai iv u\- 
ytffi (povioiQ, vnb %tvy\aig atyvKTOig kclkuiv. Eu<7ej3a>v be iirovpavioi vaovffi 
(al. iv obpavoig vaiovrrai) fioXTralg p.uK((pa jxkyav cuibova' iv v/ivotg. Pin- 
dar, apud Clement. Alexandr. lib. 4. Stromat. op. torn. 1. pag. 640. et apud 
Theodoret. in Therapeutic, ad Graecos, serm. 8. 

11 Empedocl. apud Clement. Alexandrin. lib. 5. Stromat. op. torn. 2. pag. 722. 

" Lucret. de rer. natur. lib. 2. 998. 

x Romulus in ccelo cum diis agit oevum : ut famce assentiens dixit Enniua. 
Cic. Tuscul. quaest. lib. 1. 



mulus did lead his life in heaven with the Gods ;" and in 
the sixth book of his commonwealth, he bringeth in Scipio 
teaching that " unto y all them which preserve, assist, and 
enlarge their country, there is a certain place appointed 
in heaven, where they shall live blessed world without 
end." " Such 2 a life," saith he, " is the way to heaven, 
and into the company of those, who having lived and are 
now loosed from their body, do inhabit that place which 
thou seest;" pointing to the Galaxias or milky circle, 
whereof we read thus also in Manilius a : 

An fortes animae, dignataque nomina coelo 
Corporibus resoluta suis, terraeque remissa ; 
Hue migrant ex orbe, suumque habitantia ccelum, 
jEthereos vivunt annos, mundoque fruuntur ? 

With Damascius the philosopher of Damascus, this circle 
" is b the way of the souls that go to the hades in heaven." 
Against whom Johannes Philoponus doth reason thus, 
from the etymology of the word : " If c they pass through 
the Galaxias or milky circle ; then this should be that 
aiStiQ, or hades, that is in heaven : and how can that be 
hades, which is so lightsome?' 1 To which, they that main- 
tained the other opinion, would peradventure oppose that 
other common derivation of the word from the Doric 
liSstv, which signifieth to please or to delight; or that 
which Plato d doth deliver in the name of Socrates, awb 

y Omnibus, qui patriam conservarint, adjuverint, auxerint, certum esse in 
coelo ac definition locum, ubi beati aevo sempiterno fruantur. Cic. in Somnio 

z Ea vita, via est in ccelum, et in hunc ccetum eorum, qui jam vixerunt, 
et corpore laxati, ilium incolunt locum quern vides (erat autem is splendidissimo 
candore inter flammas elucens circulus) quern vos, ut a Graiis accepistis, orbem 
lacteum nuncupatis. Ibid. 

3 Manil. astron. lib. 1. 756. 

b 'O bdog tan to ydXa tu>v ?iairooivop.ivo}v tov iv ovpavip 6JS)]V. Da- 

c Ej ovv tov yaXa^iav otairopivovrai, ovtoq av t'ii) b iv oupavtp diStjs' 
Kai 7twq g.Srjgb o'vroj (pioreivbg. Philopon. in 1. Meteor, fol. 104. b. 

d Kai to ytovofia b"Adt]Q, a» 'Epfioytveg, 7roXXof; del airb tov dtiSovQ 
ir<i)vona<jQai % dXXa 7ro\v fidXXov curb tov TravTa tci Kct\a tlSevai, air b 


tov elSivai, from seeing or knowing all good things ; for, 
there did Socrates look to find such things ; as appeareth 
by that speech which Plato in his dialogue of the soul 
maketh him to use the same day that he was to depart 
out of this life. " The e soul, being an invisible thing, 
goeth hence into such another noble and pure and invi- 
sible place, to Hades, in truth, unto the good and wise 
God : whither, if God will, my soul must presently go." 
Which place is alleged by Eusebius 1 ", to prove that " in s 
the things which concern the immortality of the soul, 
Plato doth differ in opinion nothing from Moses." The 
tale also which Socrates there telleth of the pure 1 ' land 
seated above in the pure heaven, though it have a number 
of toys added to it (as tales use to have) yet the founda- 
tion thereof both Eusebius and Origen do judge to have 
been taken from the speeches of the prophets, touching 
the land of promise and the heavenly Canaan : and for 
the rest, Origen referreth us to Plato's interpreters, af- 
firming that " they 1 who handle his writings more gravely, 
do expound this tale of his by way of allegory." 

Such another tale doth the same philosopher relate in 
the dialogue which he intituleth Georgias : shewing, that 
" among k men he that leadeth his life righteously and 
holily, shall when he is dead go unto the Fortunate islands, 
and dwell in all happiness, free from evils ; but he that 

tovtov vtto tov vo/xoOtrov "ASijg tic\)'i9if Socrat. apud Platon. in Cratylo. 
op. torn. 1. pag. 404. 

e \H St i/'i'xv dpa to dtiSig, to tig toiovtov tottov tTtpov oixop-tvov, ytv- 
vaiov Kai KaQapbv Kai dtiSij, tig q.8ov, wg dX?i8wg, irapd tov dyaBbv Kai 
<ppovi[ior dtov 61, dv Qtbg iOiXy, aiiTiKa Kai tjj ipyipvxy ireov. Id. apud 
eund. in Phaedon. pag. 80. 

f Euseb. Praep. Evangel, lib. 11. pag. 553. 

S 'Ev toXq Trtpl 4 /v X'IS dOavaffiag, ovStv Moxrtugo UXoitojv cu)(Tti]ke t>J 
S6£y. Ibid. pag. 550. 

11 Plat. Phaedon. op. torn. 1. pag. 109. 

1 Tov fitv ovv Trapd IlXarwj't dXXqyopovvrtg jxvQov oi fftfivortpov rd 
tov (piXoaotyov i'itiXqfyoTtg Sujyovvrat. Origen. lib. 7. contra Celsum, op. 
torn. 1. pag. 715. 

k Twv dvQpilnroiv tov p,iv SiKaiiog tov fiiov SuXOovTa Kai ba'uog, tirti- 
Sdv TtXivTr)<Jy, elg paKanuiv vi'jaovg diriovTa, o'tKtiv Iv nday thSaijiovicf. 
tKTog (ca/cuiv tov Si dSiKwg Kai dQitog, tig to rqg Tiatwg te Kai SiKtjg Stcrftw- 
T))pio)', o Si) Tdprapoi KaXovmv, uvea. Plato, in Gorg. op. toni. 1. pag. 523. 

BB 2 


leatleth it unrighteously and impiously, shall go unto the 
prison of punishment and just revenge, which they call 
Tartarus." Which Theodoret bringeth in, to prove 
that "Plato 1 did exactly believe that there were judgments 
to pass upon men in Hades. For being conversant with 
the Hebrews," saith he, " in Egypt, he heard without 
doubt the oracles of the prophets:" and " taking™ some 
things from thence, and mingling other things there- 
with out of the fables of the Greeks, made up his 
discourses of these things." Among which mixtures, 
that which he hath of the Fortunate islands, is reckoned 
by Theodoret" for one, whei'eof you may read in Hesiod , 
PindarusP, Diodorus Siculus q , Plutarch 1 ", and Josephus s 
also; who treating of the diverse sects that were among 
the Jews, sheweth that the Essenes borrowed this opi- 
nion (of the placing of good men's souls in a certain plea- 
sant habitation beyond the ocean) from the Grecians. But 
the Pharisees (as he noteth elsewhere 1 ) held that the 
place, wherein both rewards were given to the good and 
punishments to the wicked, was under the earth : which 
as Origen u doth declare to have been the common opinion 
of the Jews, so doth Lucian shew that it was the more 
vulgar opinion among the Grecians. For among them 
" the x common multitude, whom wise men," saith he, 

1 Ovt(i)q aKpifiwg tTciarevev 6 UXdruv tivai ra iv q.Sov Kpirr)pia~ ivrvx^v 
yap 'Ej3paioig Iv AiyvTTT<p, tCjv TTpotl>)]TcKiov irdvroog Xoyiioi> iTrrjKOvae. 
Theodoret. Therapeutic, ad Grsec. serm. 11. op. torn. 4. pag. 649. 

m Td n'tv kKtWtv Xa/3wr, ra ce Ik tS>v 'FAXijvikuiv dvap,i^ag fivBoji', rovg 

TTtpl TOVTlilV t7T0l))(TaTO Xoyovg. Ibid. 

" Ibid. pag. 651. ° Hesiod. in "Epy. 

P Pindar. Olymp. Od. 2. et Grsec. scholiast, ibid. 

i Diodor. biblioth. lib. 3. r Plutarch, in vita Sertorii. 

s Joseph, de bello Jud. lib. 2. cap. 8. op. torn. 2. pag. 1064. 

1 ' ABdvarov re iaxi'v Talg ipv%aig Trio-rig avro'ig tivai, ical vtto xBovbg 
liKaioiaeig re Kal rip.dg olg dperfig rj Kaiciag iTrirr^evoig iv rip (3i(p y'e- 
yove. Id. lib. 18. antiquit. cap. 1. torn. 2. pag. 793. 

u UijXikov Se to, axeS'ov afta yiv'iati Kal avfiirXtjpuxrci rod \6yov diSdtr- 
ictvOai alrrovg rr/v rijg 4 ,V X^IG dBavaaiav, Kal rd inrb yrjv CiKaiu)ri)pia, 
Kal rag Tifidg twv Ka\a>g fStj3iwK6rix>v. Orig. contr. Cels. lib. 5. op. tom. 1. 
pag. 610. 

x 'O fttv ci) noXvg opiXog, ovg iStwrag oi ao<pot koXovoiv, 'Ofiriptp re Kal 
'llffiodio, Kal ToTg aXXoig pvBovoiolg irtpl rovritiv 7reiB6/ievoi,ical vnpov Be- 


" call simple people, being persuaded of these things by 
Homer and Hesiod, and such other fabulous authors, and 
receiving their poems for a law, took hades to be a certain 
deep place under the earth." The first original of which 
conceit is by Cicero derived from hence : " The y bodies 
falling into the ground, and being covered with earth, 
(whence they are said to be interred) men thought that the 
rest of the life of the dead was led under the earth. Upon 
which opinion of theirs," saith he, " great errors did 
ensue, which were increased by the poets." Others do 
imagine, that the poets herein had some relation to the 
spherical 2 situation of the world : for the better under- 
standing whereof, these particulars following would be 
considered by them that have some knowledge in this kind 
of learning. 

First, the material spheres in ancient time were not 
made moveable in their sockets, as they are now, that 
they might be set to any elevation of the pole: but were 
fixed 3 to the elevation of thirty-six degrees ; which was 
the height of the Rhodian climate. Secondly, the hori- 
zon which divided this sphere through the middle, and 
separated the visible part of the world from the invisible, 
was commonly esteemed the utmost bound of the earth : 
so that whatsoever was under that horizon, was accounted 
to be under the earth. For neither the common people, 
nor yet some of the learned doctors of the Church (as 
Lactantius b , St. Augustine , Procopius d , and others) could 
be induced to believe that which our daily navigations 
find now to be most certain, that there should be another 
southern hemisphere of the earth, inhabited by any anti- 

fitvot tyjv 7roi>;eriv avrwv tottov tivci vtto Ty yy jiaQvv " ' Acijv uTrttXi'ifam. 
Lucian. de luctu. 

v In terrain enim cadentibus corporibus, bisque liumo toctis, ex quo dictum 
rst liumari ; sub terra censebant reliquam vitam agi mortuorum ; quam eorum 
opinioncm mtgni errorcs consecuti sunt : quos auxerunt poetae. Cic. Tuscul, 
qusest. lib. 1. 

1 Heraclid. Pontic, de allegor. Horner. Servius, in Virgil. ./Eneid. lib. (>. 

a \lpoQydp tovto rb'iv Kkifia Kai a\ KptKiorai atyalocu KaratTKtvqZovTcii 
xai at ryrtptai. Geminus, in Pha-noincn. cap. 13. 

h Lactant. instit. lib. 3. cap. 23. ' Aug. dc civil. Dei, lib. 16. cap. 9. 

rf Procop. in Genes, cap. I. 


podes, that did walk with their feet just opposite unto 
ours. Thirdly, the great ocean was supposed to be the 
thing in nature which was answerable to this horizon 
in the sphere. Therefore it is observed by Strabo e that 
Homer, and by Theon f , Achilles Statins 8 , and others, that 
Aratus, and the rest of the poets, do put the ocean for 
the horizon : and thereupon where the astronomers say 
that the sun or the stars at their setting go under the 
horizon, the common phrase of the poets is, that they do 
tingere se oceano, dive themselves into the ocean. For 
as they took the earth to be but half a globe, and not a 
whole one, so they imagined that demi globe to be as it 
were a great mountain or island seated in, and environed 
round about with the ocean. Thus the author of the 
book De mundo, affirmeth that " the 11 whole world is one 
island, compassed about with the Atlantic sea :" and Dio- 
nysius Alexandrinus, in the beginning of his geography : 

MvijffOfiai 'QKtavolo j3a0vppbov tv yap tKtlvoi 
Ila&a \9ior, lire vijaog dwtipaTog, tOTtipdvwTai, 

Wherein he followed Eratosthenes, as his expositor Eus- 
tathius there noteth : who compareth also with this, that 
place of Orpheus, tv tm 7T£pi Aibg tear "Hpoc, 

— kvkXov anafiarov KaXXtppoov 'CtKtavolo, 
"Og yalav Slvgai Trkpi%.tx tl d^ttXiKac. 

e Strabo, Geograph. lib. 1. ad quem doctiss. Casaubonus banc ex grammaticis 
Oceani defmitionem produrit. 'QKtavog Igti kvkXoq dixd'Cuiv twoiipartKiog 
t>)v olpaviav otyaTpav kcitu ItroTtjTa rov Trjg yijg iirivkdov, Kai Ttfiviov 
* l X*i Kar ' * irivoiav avrbv, tig rt To hnlp y!jv Kai tig to ii7r6 yt)v ypirrtpai- 
piov, Kai Fid tovto bpi'Cwv Xtybjitrog. 

{ 'Qictavbv dt tov bpiC.ovra b "Aparog Xtyti 7rou}TtKu>g. Theon, in Arat. 
pag. 6. 'QKtavbg yap b 6pi'£wi\ Ibid. pag. 59. edit. Paris. 

3 AiytTai bt bpiZ,iov, Iioti bpiZ,ti to vitb yO'' Kat vir'tp yrjv imiff<paipiov 
Tripi yap T>)v <r<palpav t^ojOtv u>)>, ra%iv tx n T0V wk'tawD, bgtkoiQtv Tctpi- 
kXvZ,u tTjv yi)v, ti(f ov dvaT&XXav Kai tig ov Sbvtiv doKtl rd dffrpa. oQtv Kai 
" ApaTog wKtavbv avTov KaXti. Aehill. Stat, in Arat. pag. 93. edit. Florent. 
ubi etiam alius scholiastes, pag 115. de horizonte similiter notat. Oi bi irou}- 
rai wKtavbv avrbv KaXovui. 

h 'On Kai ij ffvfiiracra (olKOVfxivij) /.ila vt)(t6g t<rriv,virb T>)g'ATXavTiKijc 
KaXovfikvrig OaXdaaijg Trtptpptofiivr], Aristot. de mundo, cap. 3. 


Whereunto answereth that of Euphorion', or (as Achilles 
Statius k citeth it) of Neoptolemus Parianus, in his Tpi- 

'Qictavbg, r<£ naffa Trtpippvrog li'StSerai x®^ v - 

And this opinion of theirs the fathers of the Church did 
the more readily entertain, because they thought it had 
ground from Psalm 1 24. ver. 2. and 136. ver. 6. and such 
other testimonies of holy Scripture. " That™ the whole 
earth," saith Procopius Gazeeus, "doth subsist in the wa- 
ters, and that there is no part of it which is situated under 
ns void and cleared of waters, I suppose it be known unto 
all. For so doth the Scripture teach : Who stretcheth 
out the earth upon the waters, and again : He hath 
founded it upon the seas, and prepared it upon the floods. 
Neither is it fit we should believe, that any earth under us 
is inhabited, opposite unto our part of the world." The 
same collection is made by St. Hilary", Chrysostom", 
CaesariusP, and others. Fourthly, it was thought by the 
ancient heathen, that the ocean (supplying the place of 
the horizon) did " separate* 5 the visible world from the 
kingdom of Hades ; and therefore that such as went to 
Hades," or the world invisible to us, " must first pass the 
ocean;" whence that of Horace 1 ": 

1 C'itat. ab Arati scholiaste, edit, cum Hipparcho, Florent. aim. 15G7. pag. 

k Achill. Stat, in Arateis, ibid. pag. 93. 

1 Vid. Augustin. quaest. 132. in Genesim, et in enarrat. Psalm 135. 

m Quod autem uni versa terra in aquis subsistat, nee ulla sit pars ejus, quae infra 
nos sita est, aquis vacua et denudata, omnibus notum reor. Nam sic docet 
scriptura : Qui expandit terram super aquas. Etiterum : Quia ipse super ma- 
ria fundavit earn, et super flumina praeparavit earn. &c. Nee decet ut credamui 
aliquam terram infra nos coli nostro orbi oppositam. Procop. in Genes, cap. I. 

n Hilar, in Psal. 2. 

Chrysostom. in Genes, cap. 2. horn. 12. 

p Caesar, dialog. 1. 

i Hap' wKiavbv St o'ikiIv XkytaBai, rbv hopit,ovra rbv voijrbv rbnov, 
anb rijg tov $Sov fiaaiXtiag. ov Kal irpwrov mpaiovaOai rov<; tir adov 
■n-optvofiivovg. Proclus Diadoch. in Hesiod. "Epy. ab Hugone Sanfbrdo cita- 
tus; qui complura veterum leslimonia hue facientia diligenter congessit. 

r Horat. Epodon. lib. Od. lfi. 


Nos manet Oceanus circumvagus ; arva, beata 
Petamus arva, divites et insulas. 

And that the pole antarctic was seen by them there, as the 
arctic, or north pole is by us here, according to that of 
Virgil in his Georgics : 

Hie vertex nobis semper sublimis : at ilium 

Sub pedibus Styx atra videt, manesque profundi. 

Fifthly, as they held that Hades was for situation placed 
from the centre of the earth downward ; so betwixt the 
beginning and the lowest part thereof they imagined as 
great a space to be interjected, as there is betwixt heaven 
and earth. So saith Apollodorus of Tartarus, the dun- 
geon of torment : " This s is a dark place in Hades, having 
as great a distance from the earth, as the earth from the 
heaven." And Hesiod in his Theogonia (agreeably to 
that which before we heard from Homer) 

Toggov tvepB' into yfjg boov ovpavbg lor' airb yahjg' 
""Ivov yap' t enrb yijg ig rdprapov >)tputvTa' : . 

"It is as far beneath the earth, as heaven is from the 
earth : for thus equal is the distance from the earth unto 
dai'k Tartarus." Whereunto that of Virgil may be added, 
in the sixth of the yEneids : 

turn Tartarus ipse 

Bis patet in praeceps tantum tenditque sub umbras, 
Quantus ad aethereum cceli suspectus Olympum. 

then Tartarus itself, that sink-hole steep 

Two times as low descends, two times as headlong downright deep 
As heaven upright is high, 

s To7roc, 5k ovrogtptfiiijdric; ioriv tv ij.5ov, roaovrov arcb yfjt; ixmv $ido- 
rtjpa, ooov an ovpavov yij. Apollodor. bibliothec. lib. 1. 

' To <>s fiaOoz to ttoXXov tov r/epog, raprapog KaXtirai. Lucian. irtp'i 


that, see how high the heaven is over us, when we look 
upward to it ; the downright distance from thence to Tar- 
tarus, should be twice as deep again. For so we must 
conceive the poet's meaning to be, if we will make him to 
accord with the rest of his fellows. 

These observations I doubt not, will be censured by 
many to savour of a needless and fruitless curiosity : but 
the intelligent l'eader for all that will easily discern, how 
hereby he may be led to understand, in what sense the 
ancient both heathen 11 and Christian writers did hold 
Hades to be under the earth, and upon what ground. For 
they did not mean thereby (as the schoolmen generally do, 
and as Tertullian w sometime seemeth to imagine) that it 
was contained within the bowels of the earth, but that it 
lay under the whole bulk thereof, and occupied that whole 
space, which we now find to be taken up with the earth, 
air, and firmament of the southern hemisphere. " The* 
inhabitants of which infernal region and vast depth" are 
thereupon affirmed by St. Hilary to be " non intra terrain 
sed infra terram," not within the earth but beneath the 
earth. And this proceeded from no other ground, but 
the vulgar opinion, that the southern hemisphere of the 
earth was not inhabited by living men, as our northern is. 
In so much that some of the heathen atheists, finding the 
contrary to be true by the discourse of right reason, en- 
deavoured to persuade themselves from thence, that there 
was no such place as Hades at all. " Lucretius y for the 

u Ita apud Pindarum, in Olymp. Od. 2. illud Kara yag, exponit scholiastes, 
vtto yjjv, rovr'tOTi, kciG' lldov. 

w Nobis inferi non nuda cavositas, nee subdivalis aliqua mundi sentina cre- 
duntur : sed in fossa terrae et in alto vastitas, et in ipsis visceribus ejus abstrusa 
profunditas. Tertull. de anima, cap. 55. 

x Esse autem hujus infernae regionis vastaeque abyssi incolas plures, beati Jo- 
annis Apocalypsi docemur, &c. Hilar, in Psalm. 2. 

y Lucretius ex majore parte et alii intcgre docent, inferorum rcgna ne esse 
quidem posse. Nam locum ipsorum quern possumus dicere ; cum sub terris di- 
cantur esse Antipodes? in media vero terra eos esse, nee soliditas patitur, nee 
centrum terra; ; quae terra si in medio mundi est ; tanta ejus esse profunditas non 
potest ut in medio sui habcat inferos, in quibus est Tartarus: de quo legitur, 
Bis patet in prasceps tantum, &c. Servius, in Jineid. G. 



greater part," saith Servius, " and others fully teach, 
that the kingdoms of hell cannot as much as have a being. 
For what place can we say they have, when under the 
earth our antipodes are said to be ? and that they should 
be in the midst of the earth, neither will the solidity per- 
mit, nor the centre of the earth. Which earth if it be 
in the middle of the world, the profundity thereof cannot 
be so great, that it may have those inferos within it, in 
which is Tartarus : whereof we read, 

Bis patet in prseceps tantum, tenditque sub umbras, 
Quantus ad aethereum coeli suspectus Olympum. 

But Christian men, being better instructed out of the 
word of God, were taught to answer otherwise. " If 
thou dost ask me," saith St. Chrysostome, " of the situa- 
tion and place of Gehenna, I will answer and say, that it 
is seated somewhere out of this world, and that it is not to 
be inquired in what place it is situated, but by what means 
rather it may be avoided." 

In the dialogue betwixt Gregory Nyssen and that ad- 
mirable woman Macrina, St. Basil's sister, touching the 
soul and the resurrection, this point is stood upon at large : 
the question being first proposed by Gregory in this 
manner: " Where a is that name of Hades so much spoken 
of? which is so much treated of in our common conversa- 
tion, so much in the writings both of the heathen and our 
own, into which all men think that the souls are trans- 
lated from hence as into a certain receptacle. For you 
will not say that the elements are this Hades." Where- 
unto Macrina thus replieth : " It b appeareth that thou 

z Si de situ et loco quaesieris, respondebo, dicamque extra terrarum orbem 
hunc aliquo esse positain. Non ergo erit, quo fuerit haec loco sita, quin magis 
quo pacto evitari possit, quaerendum. Chrysostom. de prsemiis sanctor. torn. 3. 
oper. Latin. 

a Ilov iictZvo ro Tro\v9pii\\iiTov rov aSov bvofia' tcoXv fiiv ti> t?j avv)]- 
Qtia. rov fiiov, 7ToA.ii Se iv toiq avyypafalg raig rt i^wOtv Kai toiq t'tfiirs- 
patg iripi<pip6fitvov ; tig o ■Kavrtg otovrai KaOcnrep So-^tiov tvOivSe tuq 
ipvxuQ fiiTaviaraadaf ou yap av Ta <fT0i\iia rov iih}v Xtyoig. Gregor. 
Nyssen. in Macriniis, oper. torn. 3. pag. 209. 

b AijXog y n>) Xiav 7rpo(rtcrx>;Kwc Tiji Xoy^" t>)v yap Ik tov bpoifitvov 


didst not give much heed to my speech ; for when I spake 
of the translation of the soul from that which is seen, unto 
that which is invisible, I thought I had left nothing behind 
to be inquired of Hades. Neither doth that name, wherein 
souls are said to be, seem to me to signify any other thing 
either in profane writers or in the holy Scripture, save 
only a removing unto that which is invisible and unseen." 
Thereupon it being further demanded : " How c then do 
some think, that a certain subterraneal place should be so 
called, and that the souls do lodge therein?" for answer 
thereunto it is said, that there is no manner of difference 
betwixt the lower hemisphere of the earth, and that 
wherein we live : that as long as the principal doctrine of 
the immortality of the soul is yielded unto, no controversy 
should be moved touching the place thereof; that local 
position is proper to bodies, and the soul being incorporeal 
hath no need to be detained in certain places. Then the 
place objected from Philippians, chap. 2. ver. 10. of those 
under the earth that should bow at the name of Jesus, 
being largely scanned, this in the end is laid down for the 
conclusion : " These 11 things being thus, no man can con- 
strain us by the name of things under the earth to under- 
stand any subterranean place : forasmuch as the air doth 
so equally compass the earth round about, that there is 
no part thereof found naked from the covering of the air." 
Both these opinions are thus propounded by Theophylact e , 

irpbg to deiSig jxtrdaraaiv rrjg i/^xi/c tiirovGa, ovSiv i^fxtjv d7roXtXonrkvai 
ilg rb irtpi rov aSov £r)rov[itvov duSkv dXXo rl fioi SoictX rrapd ri twv t£oi- 
Qiv teal irapd rr\g Quag ypatyrigrbbvopa tovto Siaffrifiaivtiv, ivy rdgi^vxag 
ylvtoQai Xkyovai, irXi/v ilg to deiSig Kai d<pavig p.ersx°v^iv. (fort. utroiKi]- 
civ.) Gregor. Nyssen. in Macriniis, torn. 3. pag. 209, 210. 

c Kai ttwq t'ov vttoxQoviov y^wpov oiovrai rivtg ovrio XiytaOai, Kai tv 
avrip Kq.Ktivutv Tag ipvxdg wavdoxtvt.iv ; ibid. pag. 210. 

'' Tovtojv o'vTuig ixovrwv, ovkst' av rig r't/iag dvayKu'£ot Tip r&v KaTa- 
x9ovi(x>v bvofian rbv biroyuov Ivvotiv ^wpov tTriffi]g too akpog iravraxo- 
Oev irtpiKexvjxivov ry yy, u>g fxi]Siv avrrjg fitpog yVfxvbv rijg TtpifioXtjg 
rov akpog KaTaXanfidviaOat. Ibid. pag. 212. 

c Ti Si b qSijg ; Oi [itv avrov <paai x^>pov vTCoytiov OKOTUvbw oi Si ri\v 
c'nroTOv ifujiavovg tig to d<pavig Kai deiSig fiirdaraaiv rrjg TpvxwC #St)v 
icpaaav dxpi l*iv yap iv owfiari tariv ?'/ ^/vx>), <paivtrai Sid tuji> oiKiiwv 
tvtpyeiwv, fisraardva Si rov nuijiarog dtiSi)g yivtrat, rovro yovv ifyavav 
ilvai rov ftSqv. Theoph. in Luc. cap. 16. op. torn. 1. pag. 410. 


and by Hugo Etherianus f after nim : " What is Ha- 
des, or hell ? Some say, that it is a dark place under 
the earth. Others say, that it is the translation of the 
soul from that which is visible unto that which is unseen 
and invisible. For while the soul is in the body, it is seen 
by the proper operations thereof: but being translated 
out of the body, it is invisible ; and this did they say was 

So where the author of the ecclesiastical Hierarchy 
defineth death to be a separation of the united parts, and 
the bringing of them dg to ?jjuTv a<pavlg, unto that which 
is invisible to us : his scholiast Maximus noteth thereupon, 
that " this 5 invisible thing some do affirm to be Hades ; 
that is to say, an unseen and invisible departure of the soul 
unto places not to be seen by the sense of man." Hi- 
therto also may be referred the place cited before 11 out of 
Origen in his fourth book 7rept apx^v : which by St. Hie- 
rome is thus delivered: " They 1 who die in this world by 
the separation of the flesh and the soul, according to the 
difference of their works obtain diverse places in hell." 
Where by Hades, inferi, or hell, he meaneth indefinitely 
the other world : in which how the souls of the godly 
were disposed, he thus declareth in another place : " The k 

( Infemum autem hi quidem putant regionem sub terra caliginis et tenebia- 
rum, &c. Alii vero infemum ex apparitione ad disparitionem animae nominave- 
runt. Quandiu anima est in corpore, per proprias videtur actiones : sed ubi a cor- 
pore discessum est, omnibus modis incognita nobis existit. Hugo Etherian. de 
animar. regress, ab Inferis, cap. 1 1 . 

e Tovto to apavsQ nveg tfrjcrav ilvcu rbv <f,li]V Tovricrri rbv anSi} icai 
cHpavii ytvofitvov r>Jc. 4 /v XVS X M P lff l M0V > "£ tottovc aoparovg toTq aurO/y- 
toIq. Maxim, in Dionys. ecclesiast. Hierarch. cap. 2. 

h Supra, pag. 235. 

■ In isto mundo qui moriuntur separatione carnis et animae, juxta operum dif- 
ferentiam di versa apud Inferos obtinent loca. Origen. de principiis, lib. 4. apud 
Hieronym. epist. ad Avitum. 

k Relinquit anima mundi hujus tenebras, ac naturae corporeae caccitatem, et 
transfertur ad aliud saeculum : quod vel sinus Abrahae, ut in Lazaro, vel Para- 
disus, ut in latrone qui de cruce credidit, indicatur ; vel etiam si qua novit 
Deus esse alia loca, vel alias mansiones, per quae transiens anima Deo credens, 
et perveniens usque ad flumen illud quod laetificat civitatem Dei, intra ipsum 
sortem promissae patribus haereditatis accipiat. Origen. in Nurner. 31. ho- 
mil. 26. 


soul leaveth the darkness of this world, and the blindness 
of this bodily nature, and is translated unto another world, 
which is either the bosom of Abraham, as it is shewed in 
Lazarus, or paradise, as in the thief that believed upon 
the cross ; or yet if God know that there be any other 
places, or other mansions, by which the soul that believeth 
in God passing, and coming unto that river which maketh 
glad the city of God, may receive within it the lot of the 
inheritance promised unto the fathers." For touching the 
determinate state of the faithful souls departed this life, 
the ancient doctors, as we have shewed, were not so tho- 
roughly resolved. 

At this time, all the question between us and the Ro- 
manists is, whether the faithful be received into their 
everlasting tabernacles presently upon their removal out 
of the body, or after they have been first " purified to the 
point," (as Allen speaketh) in the furnace of purgatory : 
but in the time of the fathers, as St. Augustine noteth, 
the " great 1 question was, whether the receiving of them 
into those everlasting tabernacles were performed pre- 
sently after this life, or in the end of the world, at the re- 
surrection of the dead, and the last retribution of judg- 
ment." And so, concerning hell the question was as great 
among them, whether all, good and bad, went thither or 
not? whereof the same St. Augustine is a witness also: 
who upon that speech of Jacob™, " I will go down to my 
son mourning into hell," writeth thus: " It" useth to be a 
great question, in what manner hell should be understood : 
whether evil men only, or good men also when they are dead 
do use to go down thither. And if evil men only do, how 

1 Ilia receptio utrum stalim post istam vitam fiat, an in resurrectione mortuo- 
rum, atque ultima retributione judicii ; non minima quaestio est. Augustin. 
question, evangel, lib. 2. cap. 38. 

m Genes, chap. 37. ver. 35. 

" Solet esse magna quaestio, quomodo intelligatur infenius : utrum illuc mali 
tantum, an etiam boni mortui descendere soleant. Si ergo tan turn mali : quo 
modo iste ad filium suum se dicit lugentem descendere ? Non enim in pcenis 
inferni eum esse credidit. An perturbati et dolentis verba sunt, mala sua etiam 
hinc exaggerantis ? Augustin. qusestion. 126. in Gencsim. ct Eucher. in Genes. 
lib. 3. cap. 18. 


doth he say that he would go down unto his son mour- 
ning? for he did not believe that he was in the pains 
of hell. Or be these the words of a troubled and grieving 
man, amplifying his evils from hence ?" and upon that 
other speech of his, " You shall bringdown mine old age 
with sorrow unto hell." " Whether 15 therefore unto hell, 
because with sorrow? Or although sorrow were away, 
speaketh he these things as if he were to go down into 
hell by dying ? For of hell there is a great question : and 
what the Scripture delivereth thereof, in all the places 
where it hath occasion to make mention of it, is to be ob- 
served." Hitherto St. Augustine, who had reference to 
this great question, when he said, as hath been before - al- 
leged : " Of hell neither have I had any experience as 
yet, nor you : and peradventure there shall be another 
way, and by hell it shall not be ; for these things are un- 
certain." Neither is there greater question among the 
doctors of the Church concerning the hell of the fathers of 
the Old Testament, than there is of the hell of the faithful 
now in the time of the New ; neither are there greater 
differences betwixt them touching the hell into which our 
Saviour went (whether it were under the earth or above, 
whether a darksome place or a lightsome, whether a pri- 
son or a paradise) than there are of the mansions wherein 
the souls of the blessed do now continue. 

St. Hierome, interpreting those words of King Eze- 
chias, " I r shall go to the gates of hell :" saith that this is 
meant, " either s of the common law of nature, or else of 
those gates, from which that he was delivered, the Psalm- 

° Genes, chap. 42. ver. 38. 

p Utrum ideo ad infernum, quia cum tristitia ? An etiam si abesset tristitia, 
tanquam ad infernum moriendo descensurus hsec loquitur ? De inferno enim 
magna quaestio est : et quid hide scriptura sentiat, locis omnibus ubi forte hoc 
commemoration fuerit, observandum est. Augustin. quaestion. 142. inGenesim. 
et Eucher. in Genes, lib. 3. cap. 27. 

1 Supra, pag. 233. 

r Isaiah, chap. 38. ver. 10. 

s Vel communi lege naturae, vel illas portas, de quibus quod liberatus sit, 
Psalmista decantat : Qui exaltas me de portis mortis, ut annunciem omnes lau- 
dationes tuas in portis filiee Sion. Hieron. lib. 11. in Esai. cap. 38. 


ist singeth ; Thou r that liftest me up from the gates of 
death, that I may shew forth all thy praises in the gates 
of the daughter of Sion." Now as some of the fathers do 
expound our Saviour's going to hell, of his descending 
into Gehenna : so others expound it of his going to hell 
according to the common law of nature ; the common law 
of nature, I say, which extendeth itself indifferently unto 
all the dead, whether they belong to the state of the New 
Testament or of the Old. For as Christ's soul was in all 
points made like unto ours (sin only excepted) while it 
was joined with his body here in the land of the living : so 
when he had humbled himself unto the death, it became 
him in all things to be made like unto his brethren, even in 
that state of dissolution. And so indeed the soul of Jesus 
"had 8 experience of both. For it was in the place of hu- 
man souls, and being out of the flesh did live and subsist. 
It was a reasonable soul therefore, and of the same substance 
with the souls of men; even as his flesh is of the same sub- 
stance with the flesh of men, proceeding from Mary :" 
saith Eustathius the Patriarch of Antioch, in his expo- 
sition of that text of the Psalm ; " Thou wilt not leave my 
soul in hell." Where by "Adr^g or hell, you see, he under- 
standeth yuypiov twv avOpoMrivwv ipvx.Cov, the place of hu- 
man souls (which is the Hebrews' niDttf Jn Dbty or world of 
spirits) and by the disposing of Christ's soul there after 
the manner of other souls, concludeth it to be of the same 
nature with other mens' souls : So St. Hilary in his expo- 
sition of the hundred and thirty-eighth Psalm : " This 
is the law of human necessity," saith he, " that the bodies 
being buried, the souls should go to hell. Which descent 

»• Psalm 9. ver. 13, 14. 

8 'A\\« [liv t) rov'lrjffov tKarepwv iriipav i<f%i. yeyovt yap Kal tv Ttji 
X(opi<{i twv uvQpdiTrivoiv \[/vxwv, Kal rr)c anpicbc Iktog yti>o\i't.v)] %y Kal 
v(j>k<jT)]Kf \oyiKi) apa Kal rale 4"'X a ^^ T ^ v ai'dpwirwv ofioovmo^, uxnrtp Kal 
i) aapi, ofioovaioq rij tCjv avBpwTrwv aapKi Tvy\avtt, Ik tijq Ma/oiac Ttpo- 
t\9ovcta. Eustathius Antiochen. in Psal. 15. citatus a Theodoreto in 'ArptTrr^, 
Dialog. 1. 

' Humana; ista lex necessitatis est, ut consepultis corporibus ad inferos animae 
descendant. Quam descensionem Dominus ad consunmiationem veri hominis 
non recusavit. Hilar, in Psal. 138. 



the Lord did not refuse, for the accomplishment of a true 
man." And a little after he repeateth it, that " de super- 
nis ad inferos mortis lege descendit," he " descended from 
the supernal to the infernal parts by the law of death." 
And upon the fifty-third Psalm more fully : " To 11 fulfil 
the nature of man he subjected himself to death, that is, 
to a departure as it were of the soul and body; and 
pierced into the infernal seats, which was a thing that 
seemed to be due unto man." 

So Leo, in one of his sermons upon our Lord's passion : 
" He v did undergo the laws of hell by dying, but did dis- 
solve them by rising again : and so did cut off the perpe- 
tuity of death, that of eternal he might make it temporal." 
So Irenaeus, having said, that our Lord " conversed w 
three days where the dead were ;" addeth, that therein he 
" observed 31 the law of the dead, that he might be made 
the first begotten from the dead ; staying until the third 
day in the lower parts of the earth, and afterward rising 
in his flesh." Then he draweth from thence this general 
conclusion : " Seeing y our Lord went in the midst of the 
shadow of death, where the souls of the dead were, then 
afterward rose again corporally, and after his resurrection 
was assumed : it is manifest that the souls of his disciples 

11 Ad explendam quidem hominis naturam etiam morti se, id est, discessioni 
se tanquam animae corporisque subjecit ; et ad infernas sedes, id quod homini 
debitum videtur esse, penetravit. Hilar, in Psalm. 53. 

v Leges infemi moriendo subiit, sed resurgendo dissoluit: et ita perpetuitatem 
mortis incidit, ut earn de seterna faceret temporalem. Leo de passion, serm. 8. 

w Nunc autem tribus diebus conversatus est ubi erant mortui. Irenaeus, lib. 
5. cap. uit. 

x Dominus legem mortuorum servavit, ut fieret primogenitus a mortuis, et 
commoratus usque ad tertiam diem in inferioribus terrae, post deinde surgens in 
carne, ut etiam figuras clavorum ostenderet discipulis, sic ascendit ad patrem. 

y Cum enim Dominus in medio umbrae mortis abierit, ubi animae mortuorum 
erant, post deinde corporaliter resurrexit, et post resurrectionem assumptus est : 
manifestum est quia et discipulorum ejus, propter quos et haec operatus est Do- 
minus, animae abibunt in invisibilem locum, definitum eis a Deo, et ubi usque ad 
resurrectionem commorabuntur, sustinentes resurrectionem ; post recipientes 
corpora et perfecte resurgentes, hoc est, corporaliter, quemadmodum et Domi- 
nus resurrexit sic venient ad conspectum Dei. Nemo enim est discipulus super 
magistrum : perfectus autem omnis erit. sicut magister ejus. Ibid. 


also, for whose sake the Lord wrought these things, shall 
go to an invisible place appointed unto them by God, and 
there shall abide until the resurrection, waiting for the re- 
surrection ; and afterwards receiving their bodies, and ri- 
sing again perfectly, that is to say corporally, even as our 
Lord did rise again, they shall so come unto the presence 
of God. For there is no disciple above his master: but 
every one shall be perfect, if he be as his master." The 
like collection doth Tertullian make in his book of the 
soul. " If z Christ being God, because he was also man, 
dying according to the Scriptures, and being buried ac- 
cording to the same, did here also satisfy the Law, by per- 
forming the course of an human death in hell, neither did 
ascend into the higher parts of the heavens, before he de- 
scended into the lower parts of the earth, that he might 
there make the patriarchs and prophets partakers of him- 
self : thou hast, both to believe that there is a region of 
hell under the earth, and to push them with the elbow, 
who proudly enough do not think the souls of the faithful 
to be fit for hell ; servants above their lord, and disciples 
above their master, scorning perhaps to take the comfort 
of expecting the resurrection in Abraham's bosom." And 
in the same book, speaking of the soul : " What a is that," 
saith he, " which is translated unto the infernal parts (or 
hell) after the separation of the body ? which is detained 
there, which is reserved unto the day of judgment, unto 
which Chri&tby dying did descend, to the souls of the patri- 
archs, I think." Where he maketh the hell unto which 
our Saviour did descend, to be the common receptacle not 
of the souls of the patriarchs alone, but also of the souls 
that are now still separated from their bodies : as being 
the place " quo universa humanitas trahitur," as he speak- 
eth elsewhere 11 in that book, " unto which all mankind is 

1 Tertullian, de anima, cap. 55. vid. supra, pag. 297. 

a Quid estillud quod ad inferna transfertur post divortium corporis, quod dc- 
tinetur illis, quod in diem judicii reservatur, ad quod et Cliristus moriendo des- 
fcndit, puto ad anitnas Patriarcharum. Ibid. cap. 7. 

b Tertullian. de anima, cap. 58, 




So Novatianus after him, affirmeth that the very places 
" which lie under the earth be not void of distinguished 
and ordered powers. For that is the place," saith he, 
" whither the souls both of the godly and ungodly are led, 
receiving the fore-judgments of their future doom." Lac- 
tantius saith that our Saviour d rose again ab inferis, from 
hell : but so he saith also that the dead saints shall be 
raised e up ab inferis at the time of the resurrection. St. Cy- 
ril of Alexandria, saith, that the Jews " killed f Christ, 
and cast him into the deep and dark dungeon of death, 
that is, into Hades :" adding afterward, that " Hades g may 
rightly be esteemed to be the house and mansion of such 
as are deprived of life." Nicephorus Gregoras in his fu- 
neral oration upon Theodorus Metochites, putteth in this 
for one strain of his lamentation : " Who' 1 hath brought 
down that heavenly man unto the bottom of Hades ?" And 
Andrew archbishop of Crete, touching the descent both 
of Christ and all Christians after him even unto the dark 
and comfortless Hades, writeth in this manner: " If 1 he, 
who was the Lord and Master of all, and the light of them 

c Quae infra terrain jacent, neque ipsa sunt digestis et ordinatis potestatibus 
vacua. Locus enim est, quo piorum animae impiorumque duountur, futuri ju- 
dicii praejudicia sentientes. Novatian. de Trinitat. cap. 1. 

ll Lactant. institut. lib. 4. cap. 19. 

e Id. lib. 7. cap. 24. vid. et cap. 22. 

r ' ATTSKTovacri yap, Kal uHnrep itg riva Xukkov KaQrjKav oi SeiXaioi to 
(ia9v Kal gkothvov tov Qavarov (5dpa9pov, tovt'egti tov adi/v. Cyrill. 
Glapbyr. in Genes, lib. 6. op. torn. 1. pag. 191. 

8 Titiv yap ZtD^Q i<jr))pi)jj,ki>wv vodlr av iiKOTwg 6 aSrjg oTicog, te Kaltv- 
3iairi]pa. Ibid. 

h Tiff rov ovpdviov avQpojTrov ig ftdov 7rv9p,svag Kari/v'tyKE. Niceph. 
Gregor. histor. Roman, lib. 10. 

* Ei ovv Kal avrog e'iXeto, Kvpiog wv tov izaVTog Kal 5tcnr6rr]g, Kai <pwg 
tuiv iv ffKOTti, Kal £ci»») Twv airavTiov, Qavarov ytvaaadai, Kal rr\v tig 
cf.Sov Kardfiaaiv lirib"i'£aa9ai, wg av Kara iravra i)p.1v 6fioi<i)9>j, %wp<c 
apapriag, Kal tov dfieioij rov q.Sov xwpov, tov dtyiyyl) Xtyut Kal GKoreivbv, 
WKTOTpirifitpov £ie\r]Xv0s' tI %svov, d/.iapru)Xovg bvrag, Kal VEKOobg ij^i] 
Tolg TzapairTWfiaoi, Kara rov fi'iyav dirovroXov, rovg vtto ykvioiv Kal <p9o- 
pav, Bavaroj jxiv TrpoffOfiiXtfcrat, Kal (idov rd (Tkoteivu did /XEcrtjg ^i'X»7ff 
a7rt\9tlv Karayojyia, ov ovk 'ictTi (ptyyog losiv, o'vdk bpa"v %wi)v fiporuJv, wff 
vpoXeXsKTai ; fit) yap virlp tov StawoTijV rjfJtslg, i) rujv ayiwv Kptirrovg, oi 
tov ojxoiov i)fiXv vTTtXijXvOaffi rpoTTov rd fipkripa. Andre. Hierosolymitan. 
serm. in vitam humanarn, et in defunctos. 



that are in darkness, and the life of all men, wouid taste 
death, and undergo the descent into hell, that he might 
be made like unto us in all things, sin excepted ; and for 
three days went through the sad, obscure, and dark re- 
gion of hell : what strange thing is it, that we who are sin- 
ners, and dead in trespasses (according to the great apostle) 
who are subject to generation and corruption, should 
meet with death, and go with our soul into the dark 
chambers of hell, where we cannot see light, nor behold 
the life of mortal men ? For are we above our Master, or 
better than the saints, who underwent these things of ours 
after the like manner that we must do ?" 

Juvencus intimateth, that our Saviour giving up the 
ghost sent his soul unto • heaven, in those verses of 
his : 

Tunc k clamor Domini magno conaniine missus, . 
./Ethereis animam comitem commiscuit auris. 

Eusebius Emesenus collecteth so much from the last 
words which our Lord uttered at the same time ; " Father 
into thine hands I commend my spirit." " To irvivjxa avw," 
saith he 1 , " koX to aCyfia tin. aravpov vttIo fifxwv. His spirit 
was above, and his body remained upon the cross for us." 
St. Chrysostom, or whoever else was the author of that 
sixth paschal homily, making three distinct parts of the 
whole man, out of the sentence of the apostle" 1 , converteth 
thus his speech unto our Saviour : " Let n the heavens 
have thy spirit, paradise thy soul, (for to day, saith he, will 
I be with thee in paradise) and the earth thy blood," or 
thy body rather ; for that answereth to the third member 
of his division. In the Greek exposition of the Canticles, 
collected out of Eusebius, Philo Carpathius and others, 
that sentence in the beginning of the sixth chapter, " My 

k Juvenc. histor. Evangel, lib. 4. 

1 Euseb. Emesen. a Theocloreto citatus in 'Aira9. dialog. 3. 

1,1 1 Thess. chap. 5. ver. 23. 

n 'ExtTiixrav ffov to wtvfia oi ovpavoi, 6 Sk irapaHtMTOs Ti)v if/v\t)v 
(<Ti)iiipov yap, (ptj(Tiv, 'inofiai fifTii gov iv ti ( j TrapaSiiay) to Bk alfia (an ffw- 
p.a potius?) »'/ yij. Me/.upi<Trai 6 dfitpt)<:, &c. Chrysost. torn. 5. edit. Savil. 
pag. 939. 

cc 2 


beloved is gone down into his garden," is interpreted of 
Christ's going " to the souls of the saints in Hades ;" which 
in the Latin collections that bear the name of Philo Car- 
pathius is thus more largely expressed: "By p this de- 
scending of the bridegroom, we may understand the de- 
scending of our Lord Jesus Christ into hell, as I suppose : 
for that which followeth proveth this, when he sayeth : To 
the beds of spices. For those ancient holy men are not un- 
fitly signified by the beds of spices, such as were Noah, Abra- 
ham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Job, David, Samuel, Elisaeus, Da- 
niel, and very many others before the Law, and in the Law : 
who all of them, like unto beds of spices, gave a most sweet 
smell of the odours and fruits of holy righteousness. For 
then as a triumpher did he enter into paradise, when he 
pierced into hell. God himself is present with us for a 
witness in this matter, when he answered most graciously 
to the thief upon the cross, commending himself unto him 
most religiously, To day shalt thou be with me in para- 
dise." Lastly, touching this paradise, the various opi- 
nions of the ancient are thus laid down by Olympiodorus ; 
to seek no farther : " It q is a thing fit to inquire, in what 

° Karl/3/j tig k^ttov civtov' irpbg rag iv ySov tSiv ayiiov \ltv\ag. 
Euseb. in Cantic. pag. 68. 

P Per descensum sponsi quem patruelem appellat, Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi descensum ad inferos possumus intelligere, ut arbitror : nam et haec 
sequentia probant, cum dixit ; Ad aromatum phialas sive areolas. Prisci 
enim illi sanctissimi viri per phialas aromatum non ineptc significantur ; 
quales fuere, Noe, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Job, David, Samuel, Eli- 
zasus, Daniel, aliique quam plurimi ante Legem et in Lege : qui quidem om- 
nes, veluti aromatum phialse sive areolae, sanctissimae justitise odores ac fructus 
suavissime oluerunt. Tunc enim paradisum triumphator ingressus est, cum ad 
inferos penetravit. Adest nobis ipse Deus hac in re testis, cum in cruce latroni 
(sese illi ipsi religiosissime commendanti) clementissime respondit; Hodie mecmn 
eris in paradiso. Philo Carpath. in Cantic. 6. 

1 ZtjTrjadi Sk TrpoarjKti, nov vtto tov ijXioy Tvyx&vovoiv 0l tvfftfitlg' 
t't'OijXov on iv t<7) TtapaStiffip, Kara tov tipijKOTaHwrfjpa r<jj Xi]OTy, ffyfit- 
pov fiir' ip,ov iffy iv i (>> TrapaStia^)' kcii Stl tidevai on r) piv luropia tov 
7rupaStiffov iizi yijg tivai SiSdffKir Tivig Bi tcpijffav oti Kai 6 ■napaStiaog iv 
T(p q,Sy Tvyx<i-vtc Sio (pijffi, ical 6 TrXovmog tlSt tov Aa^apov, dXX' avTog 
irov Kara) rvyxdviov, intivov avo) tzov (/i£7-') ' Ajipau^i iOttopquc o iriog S' 
av txy Tavra, StSaffKoptQa Kai iic tov wapovTog p»/rof), Kai £k ndffqg Ttjg 
Otiag ypa(piig,iv tlnraOtiaig tivai tov tiifft(3rj, rbv St dSiKov iv ralg icaraX- 
XijXoig KoXdcrtffiv irkpoig Si tSo^t tov TrapdSsiffov iv ci>pavS> tivai' b St 

made by a je-suit in Ireland. 589 

place under the sun are the godly placed. Certain it 
is, that in paradise ; forasmuch as our Saviour said unto 
the thief ; This day shalt thou be with me in paradise. 
And it is to be known, that the history teacheth paradise 
to be upon earth. But some have said that paradise also 
is in Hades, and therefore," say they, " the rich man saw 
Lazarus : but he being somewhere below, beheld the 
other with Abraham somewhere above. Yet howsoever 
the matter goeth ; this we are taught, as well out of Ec- 
clesiastes as out of all the sacred Scripture, that the godly 
man is in a good estate, and the wicked on the other side 
in torments. Others again have been of the mind, that 
paradise is in heaven, &c." Hitherto Olympiodorus. 

That "Christ's soul went into paradise," Doctor Bishop 1 " 
saith, being " well understood, is true. For his soul in 
hell, had the joys of paradise : but to make that an expo- 
sition of Christ's descending into hell, is to expound a 
thing by the flat contrary of it." Yet this ridiculous ex- 
position, he affirmeth to be " received of most Protes- 
tants." Which is even as true as that which he avoucheth 
in the same place ; that this article of the descent 
into hell is to be found " in 8 the old Roman creed ex- 
pounded by Ruffinus :" where Ruffinus (as we have heard) 
expounding that article, delivereth the flat contrary, that 
it is " not found added in the creed of the Church of 
Rome." It is true indeed, that more than most Protestants 
do interpret the words of Christ uttered unto the thief 
upon the cross 1 , of the going of his soul into paradise : 
where our Saviour meaning simply and plainly, that he 
would be that day in heaven", Master Bishop would have 
him so to be understood, as if he had meant that that day 
he would be in hell. And must it be now held more ridi- 

('nrXuvg iKK\i)<Tta<Jri)g ciKo\ov9r)(Tii fiaWov rij \arof)!<f. Olympiod. in ecc'.e- 
siast. cap. 3. 

r Bishop's answer to Perkin's advertisement, pag. 9. 

6 Ibid. pag. 8. 

1 Luke, chap. 23. ver. 43. 

u Suarez. torn. 2. in 3. part. Tho. qu»st. 46. art. 1 1. et quaest. 52. art. 8. dis- 
put. 43. sect. 4. Bellarmin. de sanctor. beatitud. lib. 1. cap. 3. tcstim. 4. Sec 
before, pag. 280. 


culous in Protestants, to take hell for paradise, than in 
Master Bishop to take paradise for hell ? KanXOovra tig 
aSov, be the words of the apostles' creed in the Greek : 
and, KareXdiov ug tov qSriv, in the symbol of Athanasius v . 
Some learned Protestants do observe, that in these words 
there is no determinate mention made either of ascending 
or descending, either of heaven or hell (taking hell accord- 
ing to the vulgar acception) but of the general only, 
under which these contraries are indifferently compre- 
hended: and that the words literally interpreted import 
no more but this ; He went unto the other world. 
Which is not " to expound a thing by the flat contrary of 
it," as Master Bishop fancieth, who may quickly make 
himself ridiculous, in taking upon him thus to censure the 
interpretations of our learned linguists, unless his own 
skill in the languages were greater than as yet he hath 
given proof of. 

Master Broughton (with whose authority he elsewhere 
presseth us, as of a man " esteemed™ to be singularly seen 
in the Hebrew and Greek tongue") hath been but too for- 
ward in maintaining that exposition, which by D. Bishop 
is accounted so ridiculous. In one place, touching the 
term hell, as it doth answer the Hebrew Sheol, and the 
Greek Hades, he write th thus : " He x that thinketh it ever 
used for Tartaro or Gehenna, otherwise than the term 
death may by Synecdoche import so, hath not skill in He- 
brew or that Greek, which breathing and live Graecia spake, 
if God hath lent me any judgment that way." In y another 
place he allegeth out of Portus's dictionary, that the 
Macedonian Greek usually termed heaven Haiden: and 
that our Lord's prayer in the vulgar Greek saith : " Our 

v Tom. 2. oper. Athanas. pag. 729. vel, KaTijXQtv iv q.Cov ut habetur in 
Horis B. Mariae virginis, secundum consuetudinem Romanae curiae, Graece ab 
Aldo editis, sive, Kar^XOtv it'g q.dov, ut rectius habent editiones alia?. A than, 
op. torn. 2. pag. 731. 

" Bishop's preface to the second part of his Reformat. ofPerkin's Catholic, 
pag. 19. 

x Brought, in his epistle to the nobility of England, edit. ann. 1597. pag. 38. 

y Require of Consent, edit. ann. 1611. pag. 21. 


3 ( Jl 

Father which art in Haides." One of his acquaintance 
beyond the sea, reporteth that he should deliver, that in 
"many 2 most ancient manuscript copies, the Lord's prayer 
is found with this beginning, Tldrtp -qfxwv 6 Iv «8y, Our 
Father which art in Hades ;" which I for my part will then 
believe to be true, when I shall see one of those old copies 
with mine own eyes. But in the mean time for Hades, 
it hath been sufficiently declared before out of good au- 
thors, that it signifieth the place of souls departed in ge- 
neral, and so is of extent large enough to comprehend 
under it, as well tov Iv ovpavu) aSrjv, as Damascius speaketh, 
that part of Hades which is in heaven, as that which by 
Josephus a is called o'Srjc tTKOTuorepog, the darker Hades, 
and in the GospeP to gkotoq to e^wrspov, outer darkness; 
and therefore, as the word flesh, in the vulgar acception 
of the term, is opposed to fish, but as it is taken to express 
the Greek word oixpZ,, is of so ample a reach, that it fetch- 
eth within the compass thereof both the one and the other: 
(so that we say, that there is one "flesh of beasts, and ano- 
ther of fishes:") in like manner also the word hell, though 
in the vulgar use it be taken for that which is opposite to 
heaven, yet as it is applied to represent the signification of 
the Greek word qSng, Master Broughton might well defend, 
that it is of so large a capacity, that heaven itself may be 
comprised within the notion thereof. Heaven, I say, not 
considered as it is a place of life and perfection, nor as it 
shall be after the general resurrection : but so far forth only, 
as Death (the last d enemy that shall be destroyed) hath any 
footing therein ; that is to say, as it is the receptacle of the 
spirits of dead men, held as yet dissevered from their bodies : 
which state of dissolution, though carried to heaven itself, 

z Inveniri insuper asserit in multis vetustissimis exemplaribus MSS. oratio- 
nem Dominicam in hunc modum: Udrep t)jj.S)v 6 iv &5t], Pater noster qui es in 
inferno, &c. Veteres quoque Macedones aliter orationem Dominicam numquam 
precatos fuisse. Jo. Rodolph. Lavator. de descensu ad inferos, lib. ]. part. 1. 
cap. 8. 

a Joseph, de Bello Judaic, lib. 3. cap. 25. pag. 7S5. 

b Matth. chap. 8. ver. 12. et chap. 22. ver. 13. et chap. 25. ver. 30. 

c 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 26. '' Ibid. chap. 15. ver. 20. 


is still a part of Death's victory* 1 , and the saints' imper- 
fection 6 . 

As for KarzXOtiv the other word, in the Acts of the 
apostles it is used ten times, and in none of all those 
places signifieth any descending from a higher place unto 
a lower, but a removing simply from one place unto ano- 
ther. Whereupon the vulgar Latin edition (which none 
of the Romanists " upon f any pretence may presume to 
reject,") doth render it there by the general terms of 
' abeo g , venio 1 ', devenio 1 , supervenio k ;" and where it re- 
taineth the word descendo 1 , it intendeth nothing less than 
to signify thereby the lower situation of the place unto 
which the removal is noted to be made. If descending 
therefore in the Acts of the apostles imply no such kind 
of thing, what necessity is there, that thus of force it must 
be interpreted in the creed of the apostles ? " Menelaus 
declared unto us, fiovXeaQat KareXOovrag vfiag yivecrQai -rrpbg 
Tolg iSlotg ;" saith king Antiochus, in his epistle unto the 
Jews™, " Velle vos descendere ad vestros," it is in the 
Latin edition ; whereby what else is meant, but that they 
had a desire to go unto their own ? So the Hebrew word 
TV, which answereth to this of descending, the Septua- 
gint do render by epxofiai n , diepxofxaL , and £to-tpx°i uatP : 
and in the self same place, and with the self same breath 
as it were, express it both by Kara/3«ivo> and iropzvofim, 
descending*! and going ; yea by icaraj3atvw and avafialvu 

d 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 54, 55. e Hebr. chap. 11. ver. 40. 

f Nemo illam rejicere quovis preetextu audeat, vel praesumat. Coucil. Tri- 
dent, sess. 4. 

S Acts, chap. 13. ver. 4. 

h Ibid. chap. 18. ver. 5. and chap. 27. ver. 5. 

' Ibid. chap. 9. ver. 32. 

k Ibid. chap. 11. ver. 27. and chap. 21. ver. 10. 

1 Ibid. chap. 8. ver. 5. and chap. 12. ver. 19. and chap. 15. ver. 1. and chap, 
18. ver. 22. 

m 2 Maccab. chap. 11. ver. 29. 

" 1 Sam. chap. 29. ver. 4. and 2 (or 4) Kings, chap. 2. ver. 2. 

Joshua, chap. 1 6. ver. 3. P 1 Sam. chap. 26. ver. 6. 

1 Genes, chap. 43. ver. 4, 5. Ei [itv ovv cnrooTiWijQ top ade\<poi> if/iwv 
/n9' fi/xwv, KarafiiiaoniQa. ii $i /n) aTrooriWyc rbv aSiXfbv i)[ii>jv /«e0' 
>lfnoi', ov iropivoojiiQa. 


too, descending 1 " and ascending promiscuously 8 . I omit the 
phrases of descending in prcelium, in forum, in campum, 
in amicitiam, in causam, &c. which are so usual in 
good Latin authors: yea, and of descending into heaven 
itself, if that be not a jest which the poet breaketh upon 
Claudius : 

praecordia 1 pressit 

Ille senis, tremulumque caput descendere jussit 
In coelum. 

But sure I am that the daughter of Jephthah spake in 
sad earnest, what is related in the book of Judges" : 
CD'inn — by >rn*Vl rP^NV which the Septuagint render, kol 
TropeiKTo/nai, kol Karafiiiaofxai £7ri to. oprj : Tremellius, " ut 
abeam descendens in istos montes ; that I may go and de- 
scend unto those mountains." A like place whereunto is 
found in the same book, where it is said, that three thousand 
men of Judah, CDtD'y y^>D D'yD— ^>N 1TV, " descended' unto 
the top of the rock Etam." 

Others add unto this, that the phrase of descending ad 
inferos, is a popular kind of speech, which sprung from 
the opinion that was vulgarly conceived of the situation of 
the receptacle of the souls under the earth : and that ac- 
cording to the rule of Aristotle in his Topics, we must 
speak as the vulgar, but think as wise men do. Even as 
we use to say commonly, that the sun is under a cloud, 
because it is a vulgar form of speech : and yet it is far 
enough from our meaning for all that, to imagine the cloud 
to be indeed higher than the sun. So Cicero, they say, 
wherever he hath occasion to mention any thing that con- 
cerneth the dead, speaketh still of inferi, according to the 
vulgar phrase : although he misliked the vulgar opinion, 
which bred that manner of sj^eaking, and professed it to 

r Ruth, cap. 3. ver. 3. Kai dvafiijey iiri rbv Ji\w' t ct vcv. 6. Kai 
KaTtftt) tig rbv aXw atque in uno et eodem versu, Jonae, cap. 1. ver. 3. Kai 
Kartj3ii ilg 'Iotttt^v, Kai ivpt -k\<hov, Kai avifit) tig avrb. 

* Ruth, chap. 3. ver. 3. 6. 

• Juvenal, sat. G. G20. " Judg. chap. 11. ver. ,!7. 

v Judg. cap. 15. ver. II. Dcsccndentcs ad scopulum pctrse Hethani. Tre- 


be his judgment, that " the w souls when they depart out 
of the body are carried up on high," and not downward 
unto any habitations under the earth. So Chrysostom 
and Theophylact think that the apostle termed the death 
and hell unto which our Saviour did descend, " the lower 
parts of the earth, cnrb* rrje rwv avdpwirwv virovotag, 
from y the common opinion of men ;" as in the translation 
of the holy Scripture, St. Hierom sheweth that we use 
the names of Arcturus and Orion, not approving thereby 
the ridiculous and monstrous figments of the poets in this 
matter, but expressing the Hebrew names of these con- 
stellations "by the words of heathenish fables;" be- 
cause " we z cannot understand that which is said, but by 
those words, which we have learned by use, and drunk in 
by error." 

And just so standeth the case with this word Hades, 
which in the dictionary set out with the Complutense Bible, 
in the year MDXV. for the understanding of the New 
Testament, is interpreted infernus and Pluto. This Pluto 
the heathen feigned to be the God of the dead under the 
earth : the Grecians terming him so airb tov ttXovtov, as the 
Latins Ditem a divitiis,from riches, "because* that all things 
coming to their dissolution, there is nothing which is not 
at last brought unto him, and made his possession." Thus 
Homer and Hesiod, with Plato b and others after them, 
say that Rhea brought forth three sons to Saturn : Jupiter, 

'I<p9ifji6v c T' 'Ait$i]V, oq vnb x^ovi Wftara vaiei, 

"And mighty Hades, who inhabiteth the houses under the 

"' Aninios cum e corpore excesserint, in sublime ferri. Cic. lib. 1. Tusculan. 

x Chrysost. in Ephes. homil. 11. op. torn. 1. pag. 82. 

y Theophylact. in Ephes. cap. 4. op. torn. 2. pag. 395. 

z Qui non possumus intelligere quod dicitur, nisi per ea vocabula, quae usu 
didicimus, et errore combibimus. Hieronym. lib. 2. in Amos. cap. 5. 

a Phurnutus de natura Deor. in Plutone. 

b Plato in Gorgia. c Hesiod. in Theogonia. 155. 


earth, having a merciless heart ;" for that attribute cloth 
Hesiod give unto him, because Death spareth no man. 
So Homer : 

Tpiraroq^ S' 'AiSrjQ ivkpouriv dvdaawv 

Which is also the description that Hesiod maketh of him in 
that verse : 

Tpsa<r' e 'At£r]G 6' tvipoiai Kara(p9ipivoio~iv dvaaauv, 

" Hades was afraid, who reigneth over them that lie dead 
in the earth." Philo Byblius relateth out of Sanchonia- 
thon (a more ancient writer than either Homer or Hesiod) 
not only that he was the son of Saturn and Rhea, but 
also that his f father did canonize him after his death, and 
that the Phoenicians call him both Pluto and Muth, 
which answereth to the Hebrew DIO, and in their lan- 
guage signifieth death. The Grecians, who had from 
the Phoenicians their first gods, as well as their first let- 
ters, tell us further, that this " Hades g (or Pluto) was he 
who shewed men those things that did concern burials, 
and funeral rites, and honours of the dead, of whom no 
such care was had before his time : and that for this 
cause he was esteemed the god that bare rule over the 
dead ; the dominion and care of them being assigned unto 
him by antiquity." Whence we may see how the word 
Hades with them was transferred to signify Death (which 
was the name that the Phoenicians gave him) together 
with the place into which, either the bodies (of the so- 

'• Homer. Iliad, o. 188. e Hesiod. Theogon. 850. 

f "Erspov avTov ira'iSa dirb "Piag MovG dtroOavovra d(j>tt- 
pol. Odvarov Si tovtov Kai XlXovrwva QoivuztQ bvopd'Covai, Phylo 
Bybl. lib. 1. histor. Phaenic. apud. Euseb. lib. 1. praeparat. Evangelic, pag. 38. 

B Tbv 8' "ASijv Xtytrai tu iripi rag ratyaQ Kai rag tK<popdc Kai ripag 
twv TtBvtwrwv KaraSti^ai rbv irpbg rbv xpbvov pi)di/iiag ovffjjfi iniptXtiag 
TVtpi a bro //(,"• ftib Kai Twv TtTtXtVTtjKOTWV b Oibg ovtoq TrapiiXijTrrai Kvpi- 
ivtiv, dwov(pt]0ii(Ti]g to TraXatbv avrip rijg tovtiov dp\VS Kai tppovridog. 
Diodor. Sicul. lib. 5. bibliothec. pag. .'386. 


lemn sepulture whereof hte was thought to have first 
shewed the way) or the souls, over which he was ima- 
gined to have the sovereignty, of dead men were re- 

Now that KareXOuv tig aSov in the creed is a phrase 
taken from the heathen, and applied to express a Chris- 
tian truth, the very grammatical construction may seem 
to intimate : where the noun is not put in the accusative 
case, as otherwise it should, but after the manner of the 
Greeks in h the genitive case, implying the defect of ano- 
ther word necessarily to be understood, as if it had been 
said, " He went unto the place or house of Hades :" as 
the poets use to express it, sometimes defectively tig 
aiSao, and sometimes more fully tig aiSao So/jlov' ovSofiovg^, 
" into the house or chambers of Hades." Thus then, they 
that take Hades for the common receptacle of souls, do in- 
terpret the context of the creed, as cardinal Cajetan before 
did the narration of Moses, touching Abraham's giv- 
ing up the ghost, being gathered to his people, and being 
buried 1 , that the article of the death is to be referred to 
the whole manhood, and the dissolution of the parts 
thereof; that of the burial, to the body separated from 
the soul, and this of the descending into Hades, to the 
soul separated from the body ; as if it had been said, He 
suffered death truly, by a real separation of his soul from 
his body : and after this dissolution, the same did befal 
him that useth to betide all other dead men : his lifeless 
body was sent unto the place which is appointed to re- 
ceive dead bodies, and his immortal soul went unto the 
other world, as the souls of other men use to do. 

Having now declared how the Greek Hades, and so the 
Latin inferi, and our English hell, is taken for the place 

ll Ita Apollodorus, lib. 1. bibliothecae, de Orpheo : KaTijXQev ti'c ydov. h. e. 
ad Plutonis descendit : ut vertit Latinus interpres, Benedictus jEgius Spolceti- 

' Ei'c 'Aidao So/jiov Kar'tjia. Pindar. Pytli. od. 3. 

k Nui/ $k (tv fiiv, dltfao d6[iov(; inrb kevQeoi yairjc, 'E|0\£rt(. Homer. 
Iliad, x- 483. 

1 Gen. chap. 25. ver. 8, 9. 


of the bodies and of the souls of dead men severally, it 
followeth that we show how the common state of the dead 
is signified thereby, and the place in general which is 
answerable unto the parts of the whole man thus indefi- 
nitely considered in the state of separation. Concerning 
which, that place of Dionysius, wherein he setteth forth 
the signification of our being dead and buried with Christ 
by baptism, is to be considered. " Forasmuch" 1 as death 
is in us, not an utter extinguishment of our being, as 
others have thought, but a separation of the united parts, 
brinorino- them unto that which is to us invisible : the soul 
as being by the depravation of the body made unseen, 
and the body as either being covered in the earth, or by 
some other of the alterations that are incident unto bo- 
dies, being taken away from the sight of man : the whole 
covering of the man in water is fitly assumed for an image 
of the death and burial which is not seen." Thus Dio- 
nysius, concerning the separation of the united parts by 
death, and bringing of them unto that which is invisible : 
according" whereunto, as his paraphrast Pachymeres 
noteth, " it is called Hades, that is to say, an invisible 
separation of the soul from the body." And so indeed 
we find as well in foreign authors, as in the Scriptures, 
and the writings of the Greek and Latin fathers, that 
Hades and inferi are not only taken in as large a sense as 
death (and so extended unto all men indifferently, whe- 
ther good or bad) but are likewise oftentimes indiffer- 
ently used for it. For proof whereof, out of heathen au- 
thors these testimonies following may suffice. 

m 'E7T£ic») Oavarog kariv i<p' I'ifiCJv, ov Trjg ovaiag avvirapZia, Kara to 
36E,ai> irkpoig, d\\' i) rwv t)vu)ii'ivii)v SuiKptaig, eig to i)fuv aipavig ayoixra, 
ri)v ip v XW" y- tv &Q IV ^rtpijaet <ru>narog aeiSrj yiyvo[itvt)v, to rriofia. Si, 
wc. iv yy KaXvTrrofxtvov, j) Ka9' iripav Tiva tCiv crojfxaTOiiSwi' aXXoiw- 
ffiwv, Ik rrjc, /car' avQpunrov ISeag atpaviZofitvov oiKtiwg t) Si'vSarog 6Aio) 
KaKvxpig tig ti)v tov Gcivqitov Kai tov rijg r«0i)c. atiSovg tlicova Trapti\>)TT- 
rai. Dionys. ecclesiastic, hi er arch. cap. 2. op. torn. 1. pag. 173. 

n Kara rovro yap Kai $<J»JC Xkytrat, tovt 'iaTiv 6 a<pav>)g ^upta 
t//ux»/s « 7ro cw/uaroc. Georg. Pachymer. ibid. 


'A'i5a° toi XaOsTcti 
"Apfteva irpa^ag avfip' 

saith Pindarus. " The man that cloth things befitting him, 
forgetteth hades:" meaning, that the remembrance of 
death doth no whit trouble him. And again : 

ToiaifftvV opyalg fi»%trnt 
' Avridcag cuSav yrj- 
pag re SkZaaOai ttoXiov 
'O KXtoviKOV Traig. 

" The son of Cleonicus wisheth that with such manners 
he may meet and receive hades," that is, death, "and hoar 
old age." The like hath Euripides in his Alcestis : 

7r\»/<7iov (idag, 

Sicoria 5' iir ovookjiv vi>% i(pkpTrei. 

Death is near hand, 
And darksome night doth creep upon mine eyes. 

And another poet, cited by Plutarch q : 

T Q Oavare traiav larpbg jiaXoig. 
Aipijv yap ovrwg alSag civ alav. 

" O death, the sovereign physician, come : for hades is in 
very truth the haven of the earth." So the saying, 
" That the best thing were, never to have been born, and 
the next to this, to die quickly ;" is thus expressed by 
Theognis, in his elegies : 

II av r w v r fiiv fir) tyvvai tTTixOoviotffiv apiarov, 

Mt)5' scndtlv avyag oZtog ijiXiov. 
fyvvra S' owwg wKitrra TrvXag aWao rcipitaai, 

Kai KtlcrOai iroXXijv yt)v eTrafii]oap.evov. 

8 Pindar. Olymp. od. 8. 95. i 1 Id. Isthm. od. 6. 20. 

i Plutarch, de Consolat ad Apollon. 
r Al. ' Apx»)v. 


Sophocles in the beginning of his Trachiniae, bringeth 
in Deianira affirming that, howsoever it were an old say- 
ing among men, that none could know whether a man's 
Jife were happy or unhappy " before he were dead :" yet 
she knew her own to be heavy and unfortunate " before 
she went to Hades." 

'Eyw Si rbv iftbv, Kai npiv elc; aSov /xoXeIv, 
"E£ot<5' ixovaa Svarv^Jj te Kai ftapvv. 

where 7rpiv elg (/Sou juoAeTv, is the same with irpb Oavarov, 
before death, as both the ancient scholiast and the matter 
itself doth shew. So in his Ajax, 

Kpeiaaojv yap qjda kev- 
9iop, j) voawv fiarav. 

11 He is better that lieth in Hades," that is to say, he that 
is dead, o reOvrjKwg, as the scholiast rightly expoundeth 
it, " than he that is sick past recovery ;" and in his An- 
tigone : 

M))Tpo£ S' iv aSov Kai Trarpbg kekev96toiv, 
Ovk tar dSeXtpbc 'bang av (IXaaroZ ttot'e. 

" My father and mother being laid in Hades, it is not pos- 
sible that any brother should spring forth afterward." 
Wherewith Clemens Alexandrinus 8 doth fitly compare 
that speech of the wife of Intaphernes in Herodotus* : 
Tlarpbg cl kol firirpbg ovk sti fX£v Zojovtcov, aStXcptbg aXXog 
ouSeiu Tpoirio yivoiTO : " My father and mother being now 
no longer living, another brother by no manner of means 
can be had." So that Iv aSov KtKevOoriov or r£7£uprwv, 
being in Hades, with the one, is the same with ovk %ti £w- 
ovThiv, not now living, in the other ; or as it is alleged by 
Clemens, ovk eV ovt<dv, not now being : which is the 
Scripture phrase of them that have left this world", used 
also by Homer in his Bceotia : 

8 Clem. Stromat. lib. 6. ' Herodot. histor. lib. 3. 

u Genes, chap. 5. ver. 24. and chap. 42. ver. 36. Psalm 39. ver. 13. Jerem. 
chap. 31. ver. 15. and chap. 49. ver. 10. 


Qv yap It Oh'ijog /xeyaXi'iTopog vaeg ijffav, 
Ovd' dp Hr' avrbg hp', Qavt Si ZavQ'og MiXiaypog. 

Touching the use of the word hell in the Scriptures, 
thus writeth Jansenius, expounding those words, " Hell w 
and destruction are before the Lord : how much more 
then, the hearts of the children of men?" " It x is to be 
known, that by hell and destruction (which two in the 
Scriptures are often joined together) the state of the dead 
is signified ; and not of the damned only, as we commonly 
do conceive when we hear these words, but the state of 
the deceased in general." So Sanctius y the Jesuit, with 
Sa his fellow, acknowledged^ that hell in the Scripture is 
frequently taken for death. Therefore are these two 
joined together, " I z have the keys of hell and of death ;" 
or, as other Greek copies read, agreeably to the old Latin 
and ./Ethiopian translation, of " death and of hell ;" and 
" We a have made a covenant with death, and with hell 
we are at agreement." Where the Septuagint, to show 
that the same thing is meant by both the words, do 
place the one in the room of the other after this man- 
ner : " We have made a covenant with hell, and with 
death an agreement." The same things likewise are 
indifferently attributed unto them both : as that they are in- 
satiable, and never full; spoken of hell in the book of Pro- 
verbs 1 ', and of death by the Prophet ; So the gates of hell' 1 , 
are the gates of death*, the not being justified until hell 
or Hades f the same with not having their iniquity remitted 
until deaths And therefore where we read in the book 

w Proverbs, chap. 1 5. ver. 1 1 . 

x Sciendum quod per infernum (pro quo dictio Hebraica proprie significat se- 
pulchrum) et perditionem, quae duo in scripturis ssepe conjunguntur, significatur 
status mortuorum ; et non solum damatorum, ut nos fere ex his vocibus auditis 
concipimus, sed in genere status defunctorum. Cornel. Jansen. in Proverb, 
cap. 15. 

y Gasp. Sanct. in Act. cap. 2. sect. 16. 

z Revel, chap. 1. ver. 18. a Isaiah, chap. 28. ver. 15. 

b Proverbs, chap. 27. ver. 20. c Haback. chap. 2. ver. 5. 

•' Isaiah, chap. 38. ver. 10. 

c Psalm 9. ver. 13. and Psalm 107. ver. 18. 

f Ecclesiasticus, chap. 9. ver. 17. S Isaiah, chap. 22. ver. 14. 


of Wisdom: " Thou 1 ' leaclest to the gates of hell, and 
bringest back again;" the vulgar Latin translateth it, 
" Thou' leadest to the gates of death, and bringest back 
again." So the sorrows of death k , are in the verse fol- 
lowing termed the sorrows of hell ; and therefore the Sep- 
tuagint, as hath been shewed, translating the self same 
words of David, do in the Psalm render them " the sorrows 
of hell ;" and in the history 1 , where the same Psalm is re- 
peated, " the sorrows of death." Whence also that dif- 
ference of reading came, Acts, chap. 2. ver. 24. as well in 
the copies of the text as in the citations of the ancient fa- 
thers : which was the less regarded, because that variety 
in the words bred little or no difference at all in the sense. 
Therefore Epiphanius in one place, having respect to the 
beginning of the verse, saith that Christ loosed " wSivag™ 
OavuTov, the sorrows of death;" and yet in another, citing 
the latter end of the verse, " because it was not possible 
he should be holden by it," addeth this explication there- 
unto, " rovr(ariv n vtto tov aSou, that is to say, by hell." 
And the author of the sermon upon Christ's passion, among 
the works of Athanasius, one where saith that he loosed 
the sorrows of hell°, and otherwhere that he loosed the 
sorrows of death 1 '. Unto whom we may adjoin Bede, who q 
is in like manner indifferent for either reading. 

In the Proverbs, where it is said : " There 1 ' is a way 
which seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are 
the ways of death :" the Septuagint in both places for 
death put " -rrvQfxiva adov, the bottom of hell:" and on the 

11 Kara-yac. ei£ nuXag qcov, icai avayiiQ. Sapient, cap. 16. ver. 13. 

' Deducis ad portas mortis, et reducis. Latin, ibid. 

k Psalm 18. ver. 4. ' 2 Sam. chap. 22. ver. 6. 

m Epiphan. in Anacephaloeosi, op. torn. 2. pag. 155. 

n Id. in Anchorato, Ibid. pag. 59. Vid. etiam eund. contra Ariomanit. hoeres. 
69. torn. 1. pag. 790. 

° Athanas. oper. torn. 2. pag. 101. 

P Ibid. pag. 105. 

<i Solutos per Dominum elicit dolorcs inferni, sive mortis. Bed. retract, in 
Act. cap. 2. 

r Proverbs, chap. 14. ver. 11. and chap. 16. ver. 25. 



other side, where it is said, " Thou s shalt beat him with 
the rod, and shalt deliver his soul from hell :" they read, 
" rrjv \pv\riv avrov Ik Oavarov pvcnj: Thou shalt deliver 
his soul from death." So in Hosea*, where the Hebrew and 
Greek both read: " I will deliver them from the hand of 
hell :" the vulgar Latin hath, " De manu mortis liberabo 
eos, I will deliver them from the hand of death." Which 
St. Cyril of Alexandria sheweth to be the same in effect, 
for " he u hath redeemed us," saith he, " from the hand 
of hell," that is to say, " from the power of death." So 
out of the text, Matth. chap. 16. ver. 18. Eusebius 
noteth, that the Church doth " not x give place to the gates 
of death, for that one saying which Christ did utter : 
Upon the rock I will build my Church, and the gates of 
hell shall not prevail against it." St. Ambrose also from 
the same text collecteth thus, that " faith? is the founda- 
tion of the Church. For it was not said of the flesh of 
Peter, but of the faith, that the gates of death should 
not prevail against it : but the confession (of the faith) 
overcame hell." The " dissolution 2 of the soul from the 
body," saith Chrysostom, " is not only called death, but 
hell, or Hades, also. For listen to the patriarch Jacob 

s Proverbs, chap. 23. ver. 14. » Hosea, chap. 13. ver. 14. 

11 AeXvrpwrat de i)indg Ik \etp6g q,dov, tovticttiv, Ik rfjg tov Oavarov 
Karadwaoreiag. Cyrill. in Hoseam, op. torn. 3. pag. 187. 

AW ovde ralg tov Gai'drov TrvXalg inroxwQovoa' did fiiav eKeivrjv, ijv 
avrog inretyyvaro Ai£u', uttujv, 'EttI t>)v -niTpav oiKodo/iiio-oD fjiov ti)v Ik- 
K\i]<riai>, Kal nvXai q,dov ov KaTi<rx v <?ov(Tiv avrfjg. Euseb. lib. 1. praeparat. 
evangelic, pag. 8. 

y Fides ergo est Ecclesiae fundamentum. Non enim de carne Petri, sed de 
fide dictum est, quia porta; mortis ei mon praevalebunt ; sed conlessio vicit 
infernum. Ainbros. de incarnat. sacrament, cap. 5. 

z Ov fiovov de Bdvarog s/caXtiro i) didXvaig rijc 4' v X'i^ ^ 7ro rov c«V rt " 
rog, aXXd Kal ad>]g. "Akove ydp tov fikv iraTpidpxov 'laKtltfi Xeyovrog, 
KaraZere to yr/pdg p,ov /.terd Xvttijq elg qSov. tov de irpo<pijTov ndXiv, 
Exavev o ojdijg to aTo/ia avrov' Kai ndXiv irkpov Trpo<pi)Tov Xeyovrog, 
'Pvaerai fie 1%, q.dov Karwrdrov Kal iroXXaxov evpi)<?eig Inl ri)g TraXalag 
Oavarov Kal ydtjv KaXovp.'evr)v r>)v IvrevOev [xtrdaraffiv. Chrysost. homil. 
in Pascha, op. torn. 3. pag. 751. Vide et homil. 81. in nomen Ccemiterii et 
Crucem, op. torn. 2. pag, 398. 


saying : Ye a shall bring mine old age with sorrow to hell. 
And the prophet again: Hell h hath opened her mouth. 
And again another prophet saying : He c will deliver me 
from the lowest hell. And in many places shall you find 
in the Old Testament, that our translation from hence is 
called death and hell." 

So Theodoret noteth, that the name d of hell is given 
unto death, in that place, " Love e is strong as death, 
jealousy is hard or cruel as hell ;" which in the writings 
of the fathers is a thing very usual. Take the poems of 
Theodoras Prodromus for an instance, where delivering 
an history out of the life of St. Chrysostom, of a woman 
that had lost four of her sons, he saith that they four were 
gone unto Hades, 

7tsvt' irtKtg, a\\' a'iSoQ Ss 

Ot iriavpcg utTtfiav, Kai 6 TrifiTTTog dy\6Qi tcotjiov. 

and relating how St. Basil had freed the country of Cap- 
padocia from a famine, thus he expresseth it : 

"Ay?£ <T£ KarriraSoKi] Trtivtjg fipoxoQ' djx<pi Sk ^£i\of 
Bdipe Xvypou Bavaroio' %fpf£ 5' dyvai BaaiXeiov 
"Apiraaav tic a' 'AiSao. 

and shewing how Gregory Nazianzen, when he was a 
child, was recovered from death by being brought to the 
communion table, he saith he was brought unto the sun 
from Hades : 

Kai rax' ttv t% d'iSao fiiOiCtrai t)'t\i6v St. 

Gregory himself likewise in his poems, setting out the 
dangers of a seafaring life, saith that " the f greater part 

a Genes, chap. 42. ver. 38. b Isaiah, chap. 5. ver. 14. 

c Psalm 86. ver. 13. 

d Infernum autem ex opinione, quae invaluit, usurpavit ; hoc etiam morti no- 
men imponens. Theodoret. in Cantic. cap. 8. 

e Cantic. cap. 8. ver. 6. 

f novTOTropojv to tt\eov hV alSy. Nazianz. Carm. 15. de vitsc itinerib. 
torn. 2. pag. 91. 



of them that sail the seas is in Hades ;" and the Grecians 
in their prayer for the time of the plague, complain that 
" all g are taken together miserably, and sent unto Hades." 
Basil of Seleucia, speaking of the translation of Enoch 
and Elias, saith in one place, that " Enoch 11 remained out 
of death's net, Elias obeyed not the laws of nature ;" and 
in another, that " Elias' remained superior to death, 
Enoch by translation declined Hades :" making death and 
Hades to be one and the same thing. So he maketh 
Elias to pray thus, at the raising of the widow's son : 
" Shew k , O Lord, that death is made gentle towards 
men, let it learn the evidences of thy humanity ; let the 
documents of thy goodness come even to Hades." And 
as he there noteth that death 1 received an overthrow from 
Elias : so in another place he noteth that Hades" 1 received 
a like overthrow, by Christ's raising of the dead. Where- 
upon he bringeth in St. Peter, using this speech unto our 
Saviour : " Shall 11 death make any youthful attempt 
against thee, whose voice Hades could not endure ? The 
other day thou didst call the widow's son that was dead; 
and death fled, not being able to accompany him unto the 
grave whom he had overcome : how shall death therefore 
lay hold on him, whom it feareth ?" and our Saviour him- 
self speaking thus unto his disciples : " 1° will arise out of 

k Tldvruv aTrXOJg 6/iov <pQtipop'ivMv tXttiv&g, Kal TTapaTTfpTropkvwv 
rot adit). Grsec. Eucholog. fol. 197. 

'■ 'EvtH>x 'iptviv t^w rijg rov Gavdrov oayrjvrjg, 'HXiag rolg rrjg (f>vaswg 
ovx vtti'ikovgi vopoig. Basil. Seleuc. in Jonam, orat. 2. op. pag. 75. 

1 'HXi'ac. dviorepu) Gavdrov ptpkvi]Ktv, 'Evw^ ptraGsaa rbv qJSijv s|e- 
kXive. Id. in illud : Ecce ascendivmis Hierosolym. pag. 168. 

k AiiZov w Skarrora Kal Gdvarov wpog dvGpuTrovg >)pipovptvov, pavGa- 
vfTio rd rfjg ai)Q <piXavQpio7riag yviopicrpara, tfiQaviru) Kal a\pig QSov rd 
rijg ffrjg ayaGorijrog fioypara. Id. in Eliam, pag. 65. 

1 'O kclt' ai'Opiinriov d))r>)rrog Gdvarog, ri/v i)rrav did rbv 'HXiav 
IpdvGavt. Ibid. 

m Nf/cpoc OZijjpiyvt'iro rov aSov r>)v i)rrav. Id. in illud : Ecce ascendi- 
mus Hierosolym. pag. 166. 

n Kara crov 7'savitvotrai Gdvarog, ov <pd)vi]v ovk iyveyKiv $£»;£ ; npioyv 
iKaXstrag riGvi]Kora rbv rfjg \i]pag viov, Kal 6 GdvaroQ lipvytv ovfa) pk- 
Xpi rov rd<pov irapodtvaai r<p KtKparrjpkvip Svvdpevog' 7rwg ovv ov ■Kityb- 
ftrirai, SiKtrai Qdvarog. Ibid. pag. 167. 

° 'Avaari'jaopai rdtpov Kaivovpywv rrjv dvdaraciv fafa\%<.o rbv aSrjv fad- 


the grave, renewing the resurrection : I will teach Hades 
that it must expect the resurrection to succeed it. For in 
me both death ceaseth, and immortality is planted." So 
saith St. Cyril of Alexandria : " Christ 1 ' was raised up for 
us ; for he could not be detained by the gates of Hades, 
nor taken at all by the bonds of death." And therefore 
Cyril of Jerusalem having said that our Saviour did de- 
scend' 1 into Hades, doth presently add as an explanation 
thereof, " jcarf/Afo yap tig tov Oavarov. for he did descend 
into death." He " descended 1 into death as a man :" 
saith Athanasius. The " divine 8 nature," saith Ruffinus, 
meaning the divine person, " by his flesh descended into 
death ; not that according to the law of mortal men he 
should be detained of death, but that rising again by 
himself he might open the gates of death." " When* 
thou didst descend into death, O immortal life," say the 
Grecians in their liturgy, " thou didst then mortify Hades 
or hell, with the brightness of thy divinity." 

And thus, if my memory do not fail me, (for at this pre- 
sent I have not the book which I used) is the article ex- 
pressed in the Hebrew creed, which is printed with Pot- 
ken's Ethiopian Syllabary", " DioV^ TV, He descended 
into the shadow of death." Where the Hebrew inter- 
preter doth render Hades by " the shadow of death : 

^o\ov 7ripifitvtiv dvaaramv iv e/ioi yap icai Qdvarog iravtrai, Kai dOava- 
ffi'n tyvTivirai. Basil. Seleuc. in illud : Ecce ascendimus Hierosolym. pag. 

P 'Eyi'iyiprai vnip fjfiwv 6 Xpiorog' ou yap y'tyovt. Karoxog tcus #Sov 
irvXaig, ovte /xiv tig dnav tjXwTolg (leg. ?';\w rolg) tov Oavarov ctrT/to'ig. 
Cyrill. Alexand. Glaphyr. in Genes, lib. 5. op. torn. 1. pag. 148. 

1 Cyrill. Hierosol. Cateches. 14. op. pag. 214. 

r 'i2g dvGpionog ilg tov Oavarov Karafidg. Alhan. de Incarnat. vcibi, 
contra Gentes. 

4 Divina natura in mortem per carnem descendit ; non ut lege mortalium 
detineretur a niorte, sed ut per se resurrecturus januas mortis aperiret. Ruffin. 
in exposit. symbol. 

1 "Ore icarrjXOtg rrpbg Oavarov, >'; ?oj») >'/ dOdvarog, rort Tt)v qiSt/v tvt- 
Kowaag ry [darpairy rfjc Oiorijrog. Octoech. Anastasim. Grsec. et liturg. 
Chrysostom. Latin, a Leone Thusco edit. 

u Syllabar. /Ethiopic. quod habetur in quibusdam exemplaribus Psalteiii, 
edit. Hebraic. Graec. Latin, et /Ethiopic. in fol. 



as the Greek interpreters, in that text (which by the 
fathers x is applied to our Saviour's descent into hell) 
Job, chap. 38. ver. 17. do render the shadow of death by 
Hades. For where the Hebrew hath " niftVlf nyw, The 
gates of the shadow of death," they read, " riuXwpoi adov 
iSovTsg at tWrj^av, The keepers of the gates of hades seeing 
thee, shrunk for fear." The " resurrection? from the dead" 
therefore being the end of our Saviour's suffering, as Euse- 
bius noteth, and so the beginning of his glorifying, the first 
degree of his exaltation would thus very aptly answer unto 
the last degree of his humiliation ; that as his resurrec- 
tion is an arising from the dead, so his descending unto 
Hades or ad inferos, should be no other thing but " a 
going to the dead." For further confirmation whereof, 
let it be considered, that St. Hierome in the vulgar Latin 
translation of the Bible, hath " ad z inferos deducentur," 
where the Hebrew and Greek read, " to the dead :" and in 
like manner a , he hath ad inferos again, where D'XDI is in 
the Hebrew ; which being a word that sometimes signi- 
fieth the dead, and sometimes giants, the Septuagint do 
join both together and read, " -rraga rw «oy /xera riovyrjye- 
vwv, In Hades with the giants." So in the Sybilline 
verses cited by Lactantius b , 

'iva (pOtPOfiiVoiai XaXijiJij, 

" That he may speak unto the dead ;" is in Prosper trans- 
lated, " Ut inferis loquatur:" and those other verses 
touching our Saviour's resurrection. 

* Athanas. orat. 3. contra Arian. torn. 1. pag. 603. serm. in passion, et cruc. 
Dom. torn. 2. pag. 100. qusest. ad Antioch. torn. 2. pag. 321. Euseb. lib. 5. 
Demonstrat. Evangelic, pag. 247. et lib. 10. pag. 502. Caesarius. dialog. 3. pag. 
1132. edit. Basil. See before, pag. 311. 

y TeXoc, 8k rod waOovg i) tic vtKpwv avaoraviQ yv. Eusebius, Demon- 
strat. Evangelic, lib. 10. pag. 493. 

z Ecclesiastes, chap. 9. ver. 3. a Proverbs, chap. 2. ver. 18. 

b Lactant. institut. lib. 4. cap. IS. 

c Prosper, de promiss. et prscdict. part. 3. cap. 20. 


Kai' 1 tot dnb fQifxiviov avaKVipag tig (pang ij^et 
TlpuJTog dvaardatdog kXijtoTq dpx,i)v viroSti^ag. 

11 Then coming forth from the dead, &c." are thus turned 
into Latin in Prosper : " Tunc 6 ab inferis regressus, ad 
lucem veniet primus resurrectionis principio revocatis 
ostenso. Then returning from hell, he shall come unto 
the light, first shewing the beginning of the resurrection 
unto those whom he shall call back from thence ;'" for 

' Christ f returning back a conqueror from Hades unto 
life," as Basil of Seleucia writeth, " the dead were taught 
the reviving again unto life." His " rising g from the 
dead, was the loosing of us from Hades :" saith Gregory 
Nazianzen. " He 1 ' was raised from Hades (or from the 
dead,) and raised me being dead with him :" saith Necta- 
rius, his successor in the see of Constantinople. There- 
fore is he called " The' first begotten of the dead, because 
he was the first that rose from Hades, as we also shall rise 
at his second coming :" saith the author of the treatise of 
Definitions, among the works of Athanasius. 

To lay down all the places of the fathers, wherein our 
Lord's " rising again from the dead," is termed his 
" rising again from Hades, inferi or hell," would be a 
needless labour ; for this we need go no further than to the 
canon of the Mass itself, where in the prayer that follow- 
eth next after the consecration, there being a commemo- 
ration made of " Christ's passion, resurrection, and as- 
cension ;" the second is set out by the title " ab inferis 
resurrectionis," of the " resurrection from hell." For as 
the liturgies' 1 of the eastern churches do here make men- 
tion, " rrig Ik veKpCfv avavTUGnoc;, of the resurrection from 

tl Lactant. instit. lib. 4. cap. 19. e Prosp. de prom, et praed. part. 3. cap. 20. 

f At' t}g (ffaf)Kog) ol vikqoi rt)v tig fliov dvafiiojaiv tSi&dxQi]0~av, cY ijg 
i £ q.Sov viKr)<p6(iog irphg 'c,wt)v dvi\i\\vQ(. Basil. Seleuc. in Jonani, prat. 2. 

e >) Si (leg. S' Ik) vikomv tytpaig, Ig aSov Xuaig. Gregor. Nazian. in De- 
finitionib. Iambic. 1.5. op. torn. 2. pag. 201. 

h Excitatus est ab inferis, meque mortuum sinnil excitavit. Nectar, orat. 
in Tbeodor. martyr, a Perionio convers. 

1 WooroTOKog ytvofltvoQ tic twv vtKp&W Start dviori) npioTog Ik tov 
aSov, KctQoig Kai i)jifig fiiWo/iev avioraaQcu sv ry Stvripy iranou/jiii. 
Tract, de Definit. oper. Athanas. torn. 2. pag. 21!). 

k Litnrg. Jacobi, Marci, dementis, Basilii, et Gregorii Theologi. 



the dead ;" so those of the west' retain that other title of 
the resurrection ab inferis, that is, rijg Ik tov aSov lyip- 
(TEivg, (as it is in the liturgy that goeth under the name of 
St. Peter) or tijq ek tov (iSov avaaTaaewg, as it is in the 
Gregorian office, translated into Greek by Codinus. If 
then the " resurrection from the dead" be the same with 
the " resurrection from Hades, inferi or hell :" why may 
not the " going unto Hades, inferi or hell," be interpreted 
by the same reason, to be the " going unto the dead ?" 
whereby no more is understood, than what is intimated in 
that phrase which the Latins use of one that hath left this 
world ; Abiit ad plures : or in that of the Hebrews, so 
frequent in the word of God : he " went m or was gathered 
unto his people, he went or was gathered unto his fa- 
thers ;" which being applied unto a whole generation 11 , 
as well as in other places unto particular persons, must of 
necessity denote the common condition of men departed 
out of this life. 

Now, although death and Hades, dying and going to 
the dead, be of near affinity one with the other, yet be 
they not the same thing properly, but the one a conse- 
quent of the other, as it appeareth plainly by the vision , 
where Hades is directly brought in as a follower of death. 
Death p itself, as wise men do define it, " is nothing else 
but the separation of the soul from the body ;" which is 
done in an instant : but Hades is the continuation of the 
body and soul in this state of separation, which lasteth all 
that space of time which is betwixt the day of death and 
the day of the resurrection. For as the state of " life q is 

1 Ambros. de Sacrament, lib. 4. cap. 6. offic. Ambrosian. torn. 1. liturgic. 
Pamelii, pag. 302. sacramentar. Gregorian, torn. 2. pag. 181. 

m Genes, chap. 25. ver. 8. compared with chap. 15. ver. 15. Numb. chap. 20. 
ver. 24. and chap. 27. ver. 13. &c. 

n Judges, chap. 2. ver. 10. ° Revel, chap. 0. ver. 8. 

p Mortem nihil aliud esse definiunt sapientes, nisi separationem animae a 
corpore. Origen. tractat. 35. in Matth. cap. 27. Vid. Tertullian. de anima, 
cap. 27. et 51. et Aug. de Civit. Dei, lib. 13. cap. 6. 

i Tjjc, £w»/£ rjpwv Svo iripaoiv iKaripioQiv 5aiKi}p,/ievrjQ, to kcito. t>)v 
apxyjv <pt)[ii, Kcii to reXof. Gregor. Nyssen. orat. Catechetic. cap. 27. op. torn. 
3. pag. 86. 


comprehended betwixt two extremes, to wit, the begin- 
ning thereof and the ending ;" and there be " two r mo- 
tions in nature answerable thereunto, the one whereby 
the soul concurreth to the body," which we call s genera- 
tion, " the other whereby the body is severed from the 
soul," which we call death ; so the state of death, in like 
manner, is contained betwixt two bounds, the beginning, 
which is the very same with the ending of the other ; and 
the last end, the motion whereunto is called the resurrec- 
tion, whereby the body and soul formerly separated are 
joined together again. Thus there be three terms here, 
as it were in a kind of a continued proportion, the mid- 
dlemost whereof hath relation to either of the extremes, 
and by the motion to the first a man may be said to be 
natus, to the second denatus, to the third renatus. The 
first and the third have a like opposition unto the middle, 
and therefore are like betwixt themselves ; the one being 
a generation, the other a regeneration. For that our 
Lord doth call " the' last resurrection the regeneration." 
St. Augustine" supposeth that no man doubteth. Neither 
would our Lord himself have been stiled " 6 V ttqwtotokoq 
Ik tCjv viKpwv, the first born from the dead," unless the 
resurrection were accounted to be a kind of a new nati- 
vity, whereof he himself was in the first place to be made 
partaker, " that w among all or in all things he might have 
the preeminence;" the rest of " the x sons of God being 
to be children of the resurrection" also, but in their due 
time, and in the order of Post-nati. 

The middle distance betwixt the first and second term, 
that is to say, the space of life which we lead in this world 

'' Tbv Sk Qedv <pa^.iv iv iKaripq. ytytvrj9at ry rijg Qvffiiog iijxiov Kivi'iait, 
$t rjg i'/re i/'i'X') npoQ to awfxa avvrpkxu, to te ffiofia Tijg 4 ,V KVC BiaicpL- 
vtTai. Gregor. Nyssen. orat. Catechetic. cap. 1G. op. torn. 3. pag. 72. 

s 'H 7row7-»j kiVj/Uic, ijv yivtcnv dvo^a^o/iiv. Ibid. 

* Matth. chap. 19. ver. 28. 

" Regenerationem quippe hoc loco, ambigente nullo, novissimam resurrectio- 
nem vocat. Aug. contra duas epist. Pelagian, lib. 3. cap. 3. 

v Revel, chap. 1. ver. 5. 

,v "Og iariv (ipX')> irpotToroKog sk riov vticpwW 'iva yivijTcn iv nciaiv av- 
rbg TrpMTtvwv. Coloss. cap. 1, ver. 18. 

x Luke, chap. 20. ver. 36. 


betwixt the time of our birth and the time of our death, 
is opposite to the distance that is betwixt the second and 
third term, that is to say, the state of death under which 
man lieth from the time of his departure out of this life 
unto the time of his resurrection : and see what difference 
there is betwixt our birth, and the life which we spend 
here after we are born, the same difference is there be- 
twixt death and Hades in that other state of our dissolu- 
tion. That which properly we call death, which is the 
parting asunder of the soul and the body, standeth as a 
middle term betwixt the state of life and the state of 
death, being nothing else but the ending of the one, and 
the beginning of the other : and as it were a common 
mear between lands, or a communis terminus in a geome- 
trical magnitude, dividing part from part, but being itself 
a part of neither, and yet belonging equally unto either. 
Which gave occasion to the question moved by Taurus 
the philosopher: " When y a dying man might be said to 
die, when he was now dead, or while he was yet living?" 
Whereunto Gellius returneth an answer out of Plato : 
that 2 his dying was to be attributed neither to the time of 
his life nor of his death, because repugnances would arise 
either of those ways, but to the time which was in the 
confine betwixt both : which Plato calleth to* t^ai^vng, a 
moment or an instant, and denieth to be properly any 
part of time at all. Therefore death doth his part in an 
instant, as hath been said, but Hades continueth that work 
of his, and holdeth the dead as it were under conquest, 
until the time of the resurrection, wherein 1 ' shall be brought 
to pass the saying that is written: " O death, where is 
thy sting? O Hades, where is thy victory? "For " these 

y Quandomoriens moreretur ; cum jam in morte esset, an turn etiam cum in 
vita foret. Taur. 

z Plato neque vitae id tempus, neque morti dedit (vidit quippe utrumque 
esse pugnans) sed tempori in confinio. A. Gell. Noct. Attic, lib. 6. cap. 13. 

a To yap t£ai(pi>i)C toiootvv ri 'ioiKt or)p,aivnv, wc i.%, Ike'ivov [itTafidX- 
Xov tig erepov. (al. iKanpov.) Plato in Parmenide, op. torn. 3. pag. 150. 

b 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 54, 55. 

c Hsec juste dicentur tunc, quando mortalis hsec et corruptibilis caro (circa 
quam et mors est, qua; et quodam dominio mortis pressa est) in vitam conscen- 


things shall rightly he spoken then," saith Irenaeus, 
" when this mortal and corruptible flesh (about which death 
is, and which is holden down by a certain dominion of 
death) rising up unto life shall put on incorruption and 
immortality ; for then shall death be truly overcome, when 
the flesh that is holden by it, shall come forth out of the 
dominion thereof." Death then, as it importeth the sepa- 
ration of the soul from the body (which is the proper ac- 
ception of it) is a thing distinguishable from Hades, as 
an antecedent from his consequent : but as it is taken for 
the whole state of death, and the domination which it 
hath over the dead (rwv veicpwv dscnrordav, Basilius Se- 
leuciensis calleth it, in his oration upon Elias) it is the 
self same thing that Hades is, and in that respect, as we 
have seen, the words are sometimes indifferently put, the 
one for the other. 

As therefore our Saviour, that we may apply this now 
unto him, after he was fastened and lifted up on the 
cross, if he had come down from thence (as d the standers 
by in mocking wise did wish him to do) might be truly 
said to have been crucified, but not to have died : so 
when he gave up the ghost, and laid down his life, if he 
had presently taken it up again, he might truly be said 
to have died, but not to have gone to the dead, or to have 
been in Hades. His remaining under the power of death 
until the third day, made this good. '■ Whom God did 
raise up, loosing the sorrows of death, forasmuch e as it 
was not possible that he should be holden of it :" saith 
St. Peter; and " Christ being raised from the dead, dieth 
now no more, death/ hath no more dominion over him :" 
saith St. Paul, implying thereby, that during the space of 
time that passed betwixt his death and his resurrection, 
he was holden by death, and death had some kind of do- 
dens, induerit incorruptalem et immortalitatem. Tunc enim vere erit victa 
mors, quando ca quae continetur ab ea caro, exierit de dominio ejus, Irenae. lib. 
5. cap. 13. 

<* Matth. chap. 27. ver. 40, 41, 42. 

e KaOoTi ovk r\v Svvarbv KpartTaOcu avrbv vir' aiirov. Act. cap. 22. 
ver. 24. 

f Qdi'arog avrov ovk in Kvpuvti. Rom. cap. 6. ver. 9. 


ruination over him. And therefore Athanasius (or whoever 
else was author of that writing to Liberius the Roman 
bishop) having reference unto the former text, affirmeth 
that " he g raised up that buried body of his, and pre- 
sented it to his Father, having freed it from death, of 
which it was holden." And Maximus (or he that collected 
the dialogues against the Marcionites, under the name of 
Origen, out of him) expounding the other text: " Over h 
whom then had death dominion ?" saith he. " For the 
saying that it hath no more dominion, sheweth that before 
it had dominion" over him. Not that death could have 
any dominion over the 1 Lord of Life, further than he 
himself was pleased to give way unto it : but as when 
death did at the first seize upon him, " his k life indeed was 
taken from the earth," yet " none 1 could take it from 
him, but he laid it down of himself;" so his continuing to 
be death's prisoner for a time, was a voluntary commit- 
ment only, unto which he freely yielded himself for our 
sakes, not any yoke of miserable necessity that death was 
able to impose upon him. For " he m had power to lay 
down his life, and he had power to take it again:" yet 
would he not take it again, before he had first, not laid 
himself down only upon death's bed, but slept also upon 
it ; that arising afterward from thence, he might become 
" the" first fruits of them that slept." In which respect, 
the fathers apply unto him that text of the Psalm, " J? 

8 'Eytipag tKtivo to Ta<ptv, TrpoaijviyKt r<p ttcitqi, tXtvOipwaag ov tKpa- 
tiito Oavdrov. Athanas. rescript, ad Liberium, op. torn. 2. pag. 665. 

h Tivog ovv eKvpitvaev 6 Odvarog ; to yap timlv ovksti Kvnuuii,tSii%iv 
on TrpoTtpov tKvpitvatv. Orig. Dialog. 3. 

• Acts, chap. 3. ver. 15. k Ibid. chap. 8. ver. 33. 

1 John, chap. 10. ver. 18. m Ibid. 

n 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 20. 

° Cyprian, testimon. advers. Judaeos, lib. 2. sec. 24. Lactant. Institut. lib. 4. 
cap. 19. Ruffin. in exposit. symbol. Augustin. de civit. Dei, lib. 17. cap. 18. Cy- 
rillus : cujus in hunc locum (in catena MS. Nicetae Serronii) verba sunt ista. 
'EicoifirjBt} fx'tv yap kirl row oravpov, to nvivfia T(j> iraripi 7rapa9i/jiii>og, 


Tepog avr'ov Ik twv nv\£jv tov Oavarov viptocavTog. 
F Psalm 3. ver. 5. 


laid me down and slept, I awaked, for the Lord sustained 
me." And Lactantius that verse of Sibyll, 

Kai Qavarov fidlpav rtXkffsi rpirov ?iixap vTrvaicxag, 

The term of death he shall finish, 

when he hath slept unto the third day. 

His dying, or his burying at the farthest, is that which 
here is answerable unto his lying down : but his ra^j) 
rpn/juepoe or rpni/xfpovuKroe, (as Dionysius q calleth it) his 
three days' burial, and his continuing for that time in the 
state of death, is that which answereth unto his sleeping 1 " 
or being in Hades. And therefore the fathers of the 
fourth council of Toledo, declaring how in baptism " the s 
death and resurrection of Christ is signified," do both 
affirm, that " the dipping in the water is as it were a de- 
scension into hell, and the rising out of the water again, a 
resurrection;" and add likewise out of Gregory, with 
whom many other doctors' do herein agree, that 11 the 
three-fold dipping is used to signify the three days' burial. 
Which differeth as much from the simple burial, or put- 
ing into the earth, as /dtToiKia/jibg doth from fxerotKia, the 
transportation or leading into captivity from the detaining 
in bondage, the committing of one to prison from the 
holding of him there, and the sowing of the seed from the 
remaining of it in ground. 

i Dionys. ecclesiast. hierarch. cap. 2. 

r T6 Se, vtvvuxju), rr/c. /cara/cXitrswc. iiriraaiQ iarlv. Euthym. in Psalm. 
4. ver. 9. 

s Et ne forte cuiquam sit dubium hujus simpli mysterium sacramenti ; videat 
in eo mortem et resurrectionem Christi significari. Nam in aquis mcrsio, quasi 
in infernum descensio est ; et rursus ab aquis emersio resurrectio est. Concil. 
Toletan. IV. cap. 5. (al. 6.) 

1 Dionys. eccles. hierar. cap. 2. Cyrill. vel Johan. Hierosolymitan. cateches. 2. 
Mystagogic. Petrus Chrysologus, serm. 113. Leo I. epist. 4. cap. 3. Paschasius 
de Spiritu S. lib. 2. cap. 5. Joh. Damascen. orthodox, fid. lib. 4. cap. 10. Ger- 
manus in rer. ecclesiast. theoria. Walafrid. Strab. de reb. ecclesiastic, cap. 2G. 
Theophylact. in Johan, cap. 3. 

u Nos autem quod tertio mergimus,triduana: sepulturoe sacramenta signamus : 
ut dum tertio infans ab aquis educitur, resurrectio triduani temporis exprimatur. 
Concil. Toletan. ex Gregorio, lib. 1. registri, epist. 41. 


And thus have I unfolded at large the general accep- 
tions of the word Hades and inferi, and for the ecclesi- 
astical vise of the word hell answering thereunto : which 
being severally applied to the point of our Saviour's de- 
scent, made up these three propositions that by the 
universal consent of Christians are acknowledged to be of 
undoubted verity. " His dead body, "though free from 
corruption, yet did descend into the place of corruption," 
as other bodies do. His soul, being separated from his 
body, " departed hence into the other world," as all other 
men's souls in that case use to do. " He went unto the 
dead, and remained for a time in the state of death," as 
other dead men do. There remaineth now the vulgar 
acception of the word hell, whereby it is taken for the 
place of torment prepared for the devil and his angels : 
and touching this also, all Christians do agree thus far, 
that Christ did descend thither at least wise in a virtual 
manner : as " God w is said to descend, when he doth any 
thing upon earth, which being wonderfully done beyond 
the usual course of nature may in some sort shew his 
presence," or when he otherwise " vouchsafeth x to have 
care of human frailty." Thus when " Christ's? flesh was 
in the tomb, his power did work from heaven:" saith 
St. Ambrose. Which agreeth with that which was before 
cited out of the Armenian's confession : " According 2 to 
his body which was dead, he descended into the grave ; 
but according to his divinity, which did live, he over- 
came hell in the mean time ;" and with that which was 
cited out of Philo Carpathius, upon Cantic. chap. 5. ver. 
2. " I sleep, but my heart waketh: in a the grave spoiling 
hell ;" for which, in the Latin collections that go under 

w Descendere dicitur, cum aliquid facit in terra, quod praeter usitatum naturae 
cursum mirabiliter factum praesentiam quodam mode- ejus ostendat. Augustin. 
de civit. Dei, lib. 16. cap. 5. 

x Descendere dicitur Deus ; quando curam humanse fragilitatis habere digna- 
tur. Aug. serm. 70. de tempore. 

y Erat caro ejus in monumento ; sed virtus ejus operabatur e ccelo. Ambros. 
de incarnat. cap. 5. 

*■ Supra, pag. 35G. a Supra, pag. 351. 


his name, we read thus : " I b sleep, to wit on the cross, 
and my heart waketh: when my divinity spoiled hell, 
and brought rich spoils from the triumph of everlasting 
death overcome, and the devil's power overthrown." The 
author of the imperfect work upon Matthew, attributeth 
this to the Divinity, not clothed with any part of the 
humanity, but naked as he speaketh. Seeing the devils 
" feared him," saith he, " while he was in the body, 
saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus the son of 
the high God ? art thou come to torment us before our 
time? how shall they be able to endure his naked divi- 
nity descending against them? Behold after three days 
of his death he shall return from hell, as a conqueror 
from the war." 

This conquest others do attribute to his cross, others to 
his death, others to his burial, others to the real descent 
of his soul into the place of the damned, oth