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THE present translation of the Life of 
Saint Porphyry is based on the Greek text 
published in the Teubner series by the members 
of the Bonn Philological Society in 1895. My 
thanks are due to Messrs. Teubner for their 
courtesy in allowing me to make use of this 
text, the pages of which are indicated by 
figures preceded by the letter T in the 
margin of this translation. I have written 
a short introduction dealing with certain 
points arising out of the subject, and have 
added a few notes, which make no claim to 
originality. Some of these give the Greek 
text in cases where technical phrases are used, 
or where I have realized that the original 
might, perhaps, by scholars more conversant 
than myself with the Greek of the period, be 
more adequately rendered. In the notes are 
also given the chronological data, and the 
equivalents in weight of gold of the various 


iv Preface 

sums of money mentioned in the text ; to 
attempt to estimate their purchasing power 
would be futile. For the translation, at the 
risk of recalling the atmosphere of Wardour 
Street, a more or less Biblical English has been 
employed. Such a style seemed naturally to 
impose itself, in spite of certain inevitable 
incongruities. The references to the Bible 
under the text are given first to the English 
Authorized Version, and then, in brackets, to 
the Septuagint, where the latter requires a 
different citation. In the rendering of such 
quotations I have not followed any English 
version consistently, so that probably no 
reader is likely to be satisfied. 

The bibliography records the books which 
I have specially consulted, together with the 
various editions of the Latin translation by 
Hervet. It does not, however, contain general 
books, such as those of Harnack and Duchesne, 
which must be at the side of every student 
of the period ; nor can it express the amount 
of my indebtedness to the admirable little 
dissertation by A. Nuth. Finally, I should 
like to express my thanks to Mr. H. I. Bell, 

Preface v 

Mr. Walter Ashburner, and the Rev. C. F. 
Rogers for their kind assistance in various 
difficulties ; to Mr. J. A. Herbert, who has 
made various valuable suggestions in reading 
the translation and Introduction ; and above 
all to Mr. Norman H. Baynes, who has 
throughout freely placed his great knowledge 
of Byzantine literature at my disposal, and 
has read the Introduction and Notes. For the 
defects in these, as in the translation, I am, 
however; of course wholly responsible. 

G. F. H. 

Aug. 1912. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY ..... viii 
INTRODUCTION ..... xiii 

NOTES .113 

INDEXES . . . . * 145 


H= Jerusalem, Patriarchal Library, Cod. S. Seput- 

chri I, x cent. 

B= Oxford, Baroccianus grace. 238, xi cent. 
V= Vienna, hist, grace. 3, x or xi cent. 
Vatican, Ottobonianus grace, 92, xvi cent, [a copy 


P=Paris, Bibl. Nat. 1452, x cent. (Epitome). 
M=Moscow, 184 (376), xi cent. (Epitome). 

On these see the Introduction to the Teubner 
edition, and Nuth's dissertation, pp. I f. 


A. Greek 

Editio Princeps, from V, by M. Haupt, in Abhand- 
lungen BerL Akad. d. Wiss., 1874, PP- I 7 I # 

Marci Diaconi Vita Porphyrii Episcopi Gazensis. 
ediderunt Societatis Philologae Bonnensis So- 
dales. Lipsiae (Teubner). 1895. Contains also 
the text of P and M. 

B. Latin 

Translation by Gentian Hervet (1499-1584) from 

V, in 
A. Lipomanus, de Vitis Sanctorum (1581), i, 

PP. 332-9. 



Laur. Surius, Vita* Sanctorum (1617), Feb., 
pp. 200-13. 

Bollandius et Henschenius, Ada Sanctorum (1736), 
Feb. t. iii, pp. 643-61, with Mazochi's annota- 

Gallandius, Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum (1773), 
t. ix, pp. 259-77. 

Migne, Patrologia Graeca, t. Ixv (1858), pp. 1211 sq. 

Bollandists' A eta Sanctorum, t. iii (1865), Feb. 26, 
pp. 649-66. 

C. Russian 

Translation by Pomyalovsky, from Haupt's text, 
in Part V of the Palestinsky Paterik (Impera- 
torskoe Pravoslavnago Palestinskoe Obstthestvo) ; 
2d. edition, St. Petersburg, 1899. 

D. English 

Translation of cc. 3749 by J. B. Bury in his Later 
Roman Empire, i, pp. 200-5 ( J ^^9) 

Lenain de Tillemont, Mem. pour servir a Vhist. 

eccles. (1705), t. x, pp. 703-16. 
Ceillier, Auteurs s acres (most conveniently in the 

edition of 1860), vi, pp. 329-30. 
A. Eberhard in Bur slants Jahresbericht, iii (1877), 

pp. 544-6 (review of Haupt's text). 
H. Usener in Legenden der heiligen Pelagia (1879). 
J. Draeseke in Hilgenf eld's Zeitschrift fur w is sen- 

scbaftliche Theologie, xxxi (1888), pp 352-74. 

x Bibliography 

The same in Zeitsc brift fur kircblicbe Wissenscbaft 

und kircbliches Leben (1888), pp. 20-40. 
The same in his Gesammelte patristische Unter- 

sucbungen (1889), pp. 208 sq. (reprint of the 

previous article). 
The same in Wochenschrift fur dassische Philologie, 

1896, p. 374 (review of the Teubner edition). 
A. Ehrhard in Byzantinische Zeitscbrift, 1897, 

pp. 170-2 (review of the Teubner edition). 
A. Nuth, de Marci Diaconi vita Porphyrii episcopi 

Gazensis quaestiones bistoricae et grammaticae. 

Bonn Dissertation, 1897. Review of the same 

by K. Dieterich in Byzantinische Zeitscbrift, 

1899, PP- 197, J 98. 


K. B. Stark, Gaza und die pbilistdiscbe Kuste, Jena, 

Drexler, art. Mamas in Roscher's Ausfuhrlicbes 

Lexikon der griecb. u. rom. Mythologie, ii. 2377 ^- 


M. A. Meyer, History of the City of Gaza, New 

York, 1907. 
Benzinger, art. Gaza in Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, 

Real-Encyclopadie der class. Alter tumswiss. vii. 

880 ff. (1910). 
G. F. Hill, Some Palestinian Cults of the Graeco- 

Roman Age, in Proc. Brit. Acad. y v. 1912. 



city of Gaza, in which most of the 
A events related by Mark the Deacon took 
place, had in his day passed the meridian of 
its long history. It is first heard of some nine- 
teen hundred years before that time, when 
we learn that it opened its gates to the 
Pharaoh Thothmes III on his way to the 
conquest of Syria. He made it his base of 
operations on this campaign. Whenever the 
city is mentioned during the next three 
centuries, it is as a possession of the Egyptians. 
And even to the present day, lying as it does 
on the borders of Palestine towards Egypt, 
it retains a strong Egyptian element in its 
character. After the Egyptians, however, 
about 1 200 B.C., came another conquering 
race, the Philistines, making on the city an 
impression which it preserved even through 
later Egyptian or Syrian domination down to 
the period of the Roman Empire. To most 
of us, whose only authority for the history 

xiv Life of Porphyry 

of Palestine is the Bible, Gaza is essentially 
the city of the Philistines ; and not without 
reason, although we must remember that it 
was of earlier origin, and that the earliest 
stratum, Canaanitish or Syrian or Arabian, 
or whatever it may have been, always under- 
lay the Egyptian and the Philistine. To 
understand the history of the place it is even 
more important to realize that the Jewish 
element did not enter into its making. In 
fact Gaza, much more than her sister Ascalon, 
showed herself consistently hostile to the Jews 
whenever she came into contact with them. 
We need not go back, for our present pur- 
poses, earlier than to Hellenistic times. When 
Jonathan Maccabaeus, at the time of the wars 
between Demetrius II and Antiochus VI, 
made an expedition through Philistia, the 
people of Ascalon * met him honourably. 
From whence he went to Gaza, but they of 
Gaza shut him out ; wherefore he laid siege 
unto it, and burned the suburbs thereof with 
fire, and spoiled them. Afterward, when they 
of Gaza made supplication unto Jonathan, he 
made peace with them, and took the sons of 

Introduction xv 

their chief men for hostages, and sent them 
to Jerusalem'. In 96 B.C., after a desperate 
siege of a year's duration, Alexander Jannaeus 
succeeded by treachery in getting possession 
of the place. He destroyed it utterly : venit 
calvitium super Gazam. Whether the new 
city which arose about a generation after- 
wards was founded on the same site, or, as is 
more probable, at some distance off, is a moot 
point. But, however that may be, it flourished 
not a little. It reckoned its years from the 
autumn of 61 B.C. ; doubtless that was the 
time when it was decided to refound the place. 
Pompeius had granted the Gazaeans their 
' freedom ', and the foundation of the new 
city is generally attributed to Aulus Gabinius, 
who went to Syria as proconsul in 57 B.C. ; 
but the adoption of the era of 61 shows that 
plans for the foundation must have been laid 
earlier. Gaza had not only an era, but (like 
Ascalon) a calendar of its own, which con- 
tinued in use at least down to the sixth 
century after Christ, and probably until the 
Arab conquest in 635. 

The place remained proud of its indepen- 

xvi Life of Porphyry 

dence. The all-absorbing Herod the Great, 
it is true, acquired it in 30 B.C.; but after 
his death it again became autonomous, in the 
limited sense in which autonomy was under- 
stood of cities in a Roman province. Under 
the Roman government, Philistine and Jew 
perforce controlled their hatred of each other; 
but it is characteristic of their relations that 
when an opportunity occurred in the First 
Revolt against Rome, in 66, the Jews attacked 
and plundered and at least partly burned the 
hated city. 

Hadrian, who took a great interest in this, 
as in all the cities of the provinces, visited it 
more than once ; the most important occa- 
sion was in 130. For a short time the coins 
of the city bear a double date, one reckoned 
by the ordinary era, the other from the year 
of this visit. A public festival, the c Hadrianic 
panegyris ', was long celebrated annually in 
his honour ; and it is probable that the coins 
bear this special date because they were issued 
annually to supply the unusual demand 
created by the influx of visitors to the festival. 
It is true that the Paschal Chronicle attributes 

Introduction xvii 

the foundation of the panegyris to an earlier 
visit of the Emperor in 119, but the com- 
mencement of the new era in 130 is against 
it. To one of Hadrian's visits, also, we may 
conjecturally assign the foundation of the 
great temple of the god Mamas, which Mark 
describes with a mixture of pride and abhor- 
rence. For the temple is first represented on 
the coins of Hadrian himself. The ' Olym- 
pian ' Emperor who founded the great temple 
of Zeus on the sacred mountain Gerizim of 
the Samaritans would not be slow to recognize 
the claims of the ' Cretan Zeus ' of the 
Gazaeans. It is said that after the suppression 
of a revolt of the Jews in A.D. 119, Hadrian 
selected Gaza as the place at which to sell 
his Jewish captives ; the Gazaeans doubtless 
appreciated this privilege. 

For centuries the city continued to prosper 
exceedingly. It was officially recognized by 
the imperial government as a sacred and 
autonomous city, enjoying the right of asylum. 
Eventually, we do not know exactly when, 
it attained the rank of a Roman 'colony'. 
Mark's praise of the city may be read in his 

546-20 b 

xviii Life of Porphyry 

fourth chapter. Antoninus Martyr, about 
a century and a half later, calls it civitas 
splendid a deliciosa. In the fifth and sixth 
centuries it was the home of a school of 
rhetoric in which Procopius and Choricius 
are the most important names. It is, perhaps, 
not altogether unfortunate that Mark the 
Deacon lived too early to come under the 
influence of this school. 

We can easily understand that in a place 
with a history of this kind Christianity had 
a harder struggle than was usual to gain a 
footing. The Philistines were even more 
stiff-necked than the Jews. It was only 
natural that in all towns where interests, not 
merely religious or sentimental, but also 
financial, were involved in the pagan worships, 
the conditions affecting the establishment of 
the new religion, even though recognized by 
the imperial government, should have been 
more arduous than in country places. But 
when the town had the peculiar individuality 
of Gaza, the fight must have been especially 
hard. So it came about that Gaza was one 
of the last strongholds of Paganism to fall 

Introduction xix 

before the advance of Christianity. The 
history of that fall is told by Mark. 

Unable at first to make much impression 
on Gaza itself (for even if Philip entered 
there, his mission hardly had any permanent 
result), the Christians, so to speak, drew their 
lines around it. Little Christian communities 
sprang up in the surrounding villages. A 
gradually increasing number of believers was 
to be found in the city ; though when a person 
is described as ' of Gaza ' it is not always 
possible to say whether he belonged to the 
city or to its district. It may be that, as 
Duchesne thinks, the persecution under Dio- 
cletian was not so severe in Palestine as else- 
where. But of what persecution there was, 
Gaza and its district had a respectable share. 
Of the seven Gazaean virgins (mentioned by 
the Bollandists, August 31) who were put to 
the sword, we know no details, not even 
whether they suffered in the great persecu- 
tion or at another time. But we have the 
story of a Christian maiden from the neigh- 
bourhood of Gaza, who, threatened with the 
stews, protested against the tyrant who 

xx Life of Porphyry 

allowed such monsters to represent him in 
the government of his dominions. She was 
put to the torture and burned, together with 
another poor woman, Valentina, who had 
protested on her behalf. Other martyrs con- 
nected with Gaza who figure in the calendar 
are Major, apparently a soldier of the Maure- 
tanian legion (martyred about 303, and com- 
memorated on February 15), Agapius, Thecla, 
and Timotheus (all commemorated on August 
19) ; and Thee and Maiour (December 19). 
Thecla was apparently a native of Bizya in 
Thrace, but probably suffered at Gaza under 
Diocletian, being thrown to wild beasts. 
Agapius' s place of martyrdom is doubtful, but 
whether he suffered at Gaza or at Caesarea, 
he is mentioned by Eusebius along with 
Thecla in a way that seems to connect him 
with the former place. As to Timotheus, 
Eusebius definitely assigns his martyrdom to 
Gaza in the second year of the persecution, 
that is to say, 304. It is he whose shrine 
the Christians of Gaza visited on the occasion 
of their prayers for rain, as described by 
Mark in c. 20. Thee and Maiour (also men- 

Introduction xxi 

tioned in the same passage as sharing a shrine 
with Timotheus) belong to the later stage of 
the persecution, having suffered in 308, under 
Maximin II. It is probably a mere coinci- 
dence that another Timotheus, a deacon who 
was martyred far away in Mauretania, is also 
commemorated on the same day with them ; 
the idea that it is this martyr whose shrine 
is mentioned by Mark in c. 20 is almost 
certainly mistaken. Mention is due also to 
Alexander, as one of the six misguided en- 
thusiasts who, with hands tied, thrust them- 
selves on the notice of Urbanus, the governor 
of the province, protesting that they were 
ready to fight with beasts. It is to be hoped 
that they were satisfied when he beheaded 
them at Caesarea. But the foremost figure 
among the Christians of Gaza in these days 
was Silvanus, an army-veteran, and a presby- 
ter and confessor of the neighbourhood of the 
city. In the fifth year of the persecution he 
was sent to the mines at Phaeno, to the south 
of the Dead Sea ; for such transportation had 
by this time begun to replace more violent 
measures of repression. At Phaeno he seems 

xxii Life of Porphyry 

to have been ordained bishop. Duchesne 
suggests that this may have been one of the 
irregular ordinations due to Meletius. It 
must, however, be noted that Eusebius in one 
place calls him * bishop of the churches round 
Gaza '. When the colony at Phaeno was 
broken up in 310, the military commandant 
got rid of Silvanus by beheading him. The 
Christians doubtless regarded him as a martyr, 
but Duchesne notes that his execution differs 
in kind from the ordinary martyrdom. 

Throughout the Great Persecution the 
Christians in Gaza itself doubtless continued 
to meet secretly for worship, and we hear of 
a meeting being raided by the police, and the 
prisoners subjected to torture and mutilation. 

Of all the places in the neighbourhood of 
Gaza, its port, Maiumas, was the most fruitful 
field for the work of the Christians. Gaza, it 
must be remembered, lay some two and a half 
miles inland. The population of ports, the 
1 nautical rabble ', is notoriously susceptible 
to innovating influences. The old-fashioned 
upper class of Gaza, people like that family 
which Saint Porphyry converted ^# bloc , as Mark 

Introduction xxiii 

tells us in one of his most graphic episodes, 
must have looked down with contempt on 
the people of Maiumas, most of whom were 
probably concerned in the Egyptian trade. 
Mark, indeed, lets fall a significant observa- 
tion when he says (c. 58) that the Christians 
from the seaport were more numerous than 
those in the city because there were many 
Egyptian wine-merchants there. The Chris- 
tianizing influence doubtless came rather from 
Alexandria than from Caesarea or any other 
place in Palestine, Maiumas was so far out 
of sympathy with Gaza in matters of religion, 
that doubtless in response to an appeal on 
the part of the inhabitants, and at any rate 
on the ground that it was predominantly 
Christian Constantine made it an indepen- 
dent city with its own bishop, and named 
it after his sister Constantia (according to 
Eusebius) or his son Constantius (according 
to Sozomen). But if he called it Constantia, 
Mark and other writers such as Sozomen 
(himself very familiar with the neighbour- 
hood) continue to use the old name. That 
is not entirely due to the fact that, as we 

xxiv Life of Porphyry 

shall see, Julian the Philosopher revoked Con- 
stantine's grant. In such matters most Syrian 
cities were extraordinarily conservative, and 
with rare exceptions the original Semitic name 
has survived the Greek or Roman into modern 
times ; and the name of the port is still pre- 
served in the form Maimas. 

Besides ordinary communities in the towns 
and villages, we hear also of settlements of 
hermits and monasteries all round Gaza, 
especially at Bethelia. These seem to have 
first sprung up in Palestine under the influence 
of Saint Hilarion, a native of Thabatha, a few 
miles south of Gaza, and the chief figure in 
the history of Christianity in this region during 
the middle of the fourth century. Born 
about 290 or 300, the son of heathen parents, 
he was educated in Egypt. There he became 
a Christian. But, finding the hermit life, as 
represented in Egypt by Saint Antony and 
his disciples, to be far from solitary, he returned 
at a comparatively early age to Palestine. He 
set up as a hermit in a less populous ' desert ', 
about seven miles from Maiumas. But even 
here solitude was not to be found. His 

Introduction xxv 

hermitage was greatly frequented ; his dis- 
ciples, hermits like himself, are said to have 
been many thousands in number. Among 
the many miracles which are attributed to 
this fantastic ascetic was that of releasing the 
racing-chariot, drawn by horses trained by 
a Christian of Maiumas, from the influence 
of spells cast upon it by his heathen rivals 
with the aid of their god Mamas. Hilarion 
long remained a centre of popular attraction ; 
but before the disturbances in Julian's reign 
began he had left Palestine to wander about 
the world, and to die in Cyprus. His remains 
were translated to Maiumas. Saint Jerome 
wrote his life, on the strength of information 
supplied by Epiphanius of Salamis, who had 
known him both in Palestine and in Cyprus. 
Of the official history, so to speak, of the 
Church during this period, we can only glean 
a little information from a few incidental 
references. At the Council of Nicaea in 325, 
Gaza or at any rate the district round it 
was represented by Bishop Asclepas, who was 
on the side of Athanasius. He had been 
bishop in the time of the great persecution ; 

xxvi Life of Porphyry 

whether he was actually able to live as such 
in Gaza itself is uncertain, although it seems 
clear that even then there must have been 
a small community of Christians in the city. 
But now, probably soon after 325, arose the 
first church, which Mark in c. 20 calls the 
' old church '. As regards Asclepas, his ortho- 
doxy exposed him to the attacks of the 
Arianizing Eastern bishops, who actually de- 
posed him (on the ground of having over- 
thrown an altar), perhaps as early as 326, 
appointing in his place one Quintianus. 
Nevertheless, he appeared at the Council of 
Tyre in 335 ; and, from the encyclical letters 
afterwards written by the Eastern bishops 
when they retired from the Council of Sar- 
dica, it would appear that he had returned to 
his see, and violent scenes had ensued. Like 
Athanasius and many other objects of Arian 
persecution, he betook himself to Pope Julius 
at Rome. The Roman Council of 340 quashed 
the judgement against him, and again in 
342 if that is the date of the Council of 
Sardica he was once more declared inno- 
cent, and returned to Gaza. 

Introduction xxvii 

Julian the Philosopher (360-3) thought 
Constantine's action in regard to Maiumas 
of sufficient importance to require that he 
should reverse it ; and the port was once 
more made subject to Gaza. Sozomen tells 
us that the Gazaeans brought a suit against 
the people of Maiumas, and that Julian 
decided against the latter, which was deprived 
of its former name (by which is doubtless 
meant Constantia, not Maiumas) and received 
the appellation of e seaside quarter of Gaza '. 
That description is used by Mark, sometimes 
alone, once with the explanation that it is 
the same as Maiumas. Both places were under 
the same civil governors and officials. But 
ecclesiastically they remained distinct ; for 
of course Julian simply ignored the Christian 
Church in any reconstitution of affairs. An 
attempt by a later Bishop of Gaza (some time 
in the last quarter of the fourth century) to 
absorb Maiumas into his diocese was met by 
the declaration of the provincial synod that 
Maiumas, as the elder of the two places in 
the Christian faith, should not be deprived of 
its independence. So Maiumas continued to 

xxviii Life of Porphyry 

be governed by its own bishops until the fifth 
century, and perhaps later. The only occupant 
of the see known to fame in the fourth century 
is Saint Zeno, who died about 400. 

Julian's reactionary measures were accom- 
panied by an anti-Christian outbreak. The 
basilica of Gaza, like those of Ascalon, 
Berytus, and other cities, was burned, and 
some blood was shed. From Theodoret and 
the Paschal Chronicle we learn that in 362 
presbyters and virgins were murdered and 
their corpses given to be devoured by swine. 
Sozomen tells vividly the story of the rioting, 
and of the martyrdom of Saints Eusebius, 
Nestabus, and Zeno. When the riot broke 
out, these men were dragged from the house 
in which they had taken refuge, and cast into 
prison. The citizens then held an uproarious 
meeting in the theatre, after which they ran 
to the prison, took the unfortunate Christians 
out, and murdered them with every circum- 
stance of brutality. Another Christian, 
Nestor, was maltreated at the same time, but 
his personal beauty excited the compassion 
of the mob, who cast him out of the city 

Introduction xxix 

before he was quite dead. He was carried 
to the house of Zeno, the cousin of the three 
other murdered men, and afterwards Bishop 
of Maiumas ; but he died while his wounds 
were being dressed. This Zeno, himself in 
danger of the same fate, had fled to the neigh- 
bouring Anthedon. There the heathen, more 
merciful than the Gazaeans, only scourged 
him ; he was able to escape to Maiumas, 
where he lay hid until the danger had passed. 
The bodies of Eusebius, Nestabus, and Zeno 
were burned by the heathen, who, knowing 
the Christian affection for relics, and doubt- 
less fearing their efficacy, mingled such bones 
as escaped the flames with the bones of camels 
and asses. But their precaution, the legend 
says, was vain ; for the identity of the bones 
was divinely revealed to a Christian woman 
who was living at Gaza (though she was not 
a native of the city). She gathered them 
reverently together in a pot and conveyed 
them to the future Bishop of Maiumas still 
divinely directed, for she knew him not before. 
Zeno kept the bones until, in the reign of 
Theodosius, he was ordained bishop ; then 

xxx Life of Porphyry 

he built a house of prayer outside the walls 
of the city, and placed under the altar the 
bones of the three martyrs and of Nestor the 

The governor of the province very properly 
arrested the ringleaders of the riot and held 
them to trial for sedition and murder. But 
he was reckoning without his Emperor. 
Julian, we are told, remarking that the 
Gazaeans had only retaliated on the Gali- 
laeans for past offences, relieved the too 
zealous governor of his office. 

If Sozomen is to be believed, Saint Hilarion 
also narrowly escaped death on the same occa- 
sion ; but his enemies found him fled. There 
is, however, some reason to think that he may 
have left Palestine some time before. 

Saint Ambrose (writing in 388) attributes 
the burning of the churches at this time to the 
Jews, but the ordinary Gazaean population 
scarcely needed their assistance in such an 

It would seem that the basilica was not 
utterly destroyed, unless that which Mark 
calls the ' old church ' was a second building, 

Introduction xxxi 

which is hardly probable. Bishop Irenion, 
who was present at the Synod of Antioch in 
363, and died about 393, built the bishop's 
house, and also a church which was called 
< Peace ' (c. 18). It was during his occupation 
of the see that Saint Paula, Jerome's friend, 
visited Gaza (in 386). His successor Aeneias 
filled the see for a very short time, being 
followed by Porphyry in 395. 

Thus, when Porphyry came upon the scene, 
there were already two churches and a bishop's 
house in existence. Yet the Christians were 
very few in numbers. And the pagans had 
no less than eight temples for public worship, 
not to mention the idols in private houses 
and in the villages. 

Most of the heathen deities with whom 
the Christians had to contend in Gaza are 
familiar to all students of antiquity the Sun, 
Aphrodite, Apollo, the Maiden (i.e. Perse- 
phone, rather than the consort of Mamas), 
Hecate, the Fortune of the City, and some 
hero who was worshipped at a shrine 
called the Heroon. These are all mentioned 
by Mark (c. 64). The Fortune of the City 

xxxii Life of Porphyry 

was represented, as Stephanus of Byzantium 
and Eustathius tell us, with a heifer beside 
her, for lo ; and so indeed she appears on 
local coins. 

But the chief god of Gaza, as is abundantly 
evident, was Mamas, the ' Cretan Zeus '. 
Though he is forgotten now, his worship was 
of the greatest importance in Palestine. A 
dedication to him has been found at Canatha 
in the Hauran. It is significant that, as 
Lampridius incidentally records, the Syrian 
Emperor Severus Alexander invoked Mamas 
and Jupiter in the same breath. 

This deity is of sufficient historical interest 
to justify some discussion of his nature in this 
place. His name is generally explained as of 
Syrian origin, and equivalent to ' Our Lord '. 
Of the truth of this etymology there is grave 
doubt ; the Syrian appearance of the word is 
probably fortuitous. Nor need we look to 
any connexion with a word for rain ; Mark's 
statement (c. 19) that Mamas was regarded 
as the lord of rain means no more than that 
he was a sky-god or a god of fertility, as every 
local ' Zeus ' or ' Baal ' was. The true con- 

Introduction xxxiii 

nexion is more likely to be with a Cretan 
word, which is preserved in the forms marna 
(recorded as the word for * maiden'), and 
' Britomartis ' (which is glossed as ' sweet 
maiden'). But how, it will be asked, can 
a word meaning ' maiden ' have anything to 
do with Zeus ? The answer is that the name 
c Mamas ' must stand to 'marna ' as c Kouros', 
the young man (under which name we know 
that the Cretans worshipped the young Zeus), 
to ' Kora ', the maiden goddess. Mamas and 
Marna, then, would be the young Zeus and 
his young consort. Now the worship of a 
young Zeus, coupled in legend with a goddess 
or nymph, sometimes called Europa, some- 
times Dictynna, sometimes Britomartis, is 
especially characteristic of Crete. Dictynna 
or Britomartis is a sort of maiden goddess of 
the woods and wilds ; the Greeks identified 
her naturally with Artemis the huntress. As 
the lover of Britomartis we find Minos ; but 
Minos is merely a hypostasis of the Cretan 

Were it not supported by other evidence, 
one might hesitate to press the philological 

546-20 C 

xxxiv Life of Porphyry 

connexion of Mamas with Crete (for philo- 
logical speculations are notoriously precarious, 
and the weight of the opinion of Semitic 
scholars is probably against us). But first 
comes the definite statement, found in more 
than one ancient writer, that Marnas was the 
Cretan Zeus. Next, there is the tradition 
that Gaza itself was a Cretan foundation. It 
was actually called Minoa, as having been 
founded by Minos. True, our authority for 
this statement, Stephanus of Byzantium, is 
late ; but when his statements are not in 
themselves absurd or contradictory of known 
facts, they are to be treated with respect. 
That the people of Gaza, in Roman times at 
least, believed in the tradition, is certain ; 
they actually represented Minos on their 
coins. This tradition has been treated with 
contempt by scholars of the class, now happily 
decreasing in numbers, who believe that Greek 
tradition is never based on fact of any kind, 
and is not worth considering in the light of 
archaeological evidence. We have been told 
that the tradition is an invention of antiquaries 
of the Graeco-Roman age. If so, then those 

Introduction xxxv 

antiquaries must have possessed a curious 
faculty of divination. They can hardly have 
been acquainted with the old identification 
of the Cherethites with the Cretans, or with 
Jeremiah's significant description of the 
Philistines, as ' the remnant of the country 
of Caphtor ', any more than they can have 
guessed at what the spade has lately revealed 
to us. 

Recent archaeological research in Crete and 
Philistia proves, beyond any possible doubt, 
a connexion between the two countries in 
Minoan times. Whether the Philistines went 
to Crete from Palestine or came to Palestine 
from Crete (which is the more likely), the 
connexion between the two countries is now 
definitely established by the pottery which has 
been found in excavations such as those at 
Gezer, Bethshemesh and Tell-es-Safi (Gath). 

So much for the general connexion between 
Crete and Philistia. Now for Marnas. Al- 
though the coins on which he is represented 
are miserable works of art, and it is difficult 
to be certain of details, yet this much seems 
to be established. First, he seems to be a 


xxxvi Life of Porphyry 

youthful god. The attributes which he holds 
are so obscure that it is perhaps preferable 
not to conjecture what they are ; but one of 
them looks like a bow, and his general aspect, 
like that of the young Zeus Kasios at Pelusium, 
is Apolline. Secondly, as the figure on the 
title-page of this book shows, he is accompanied 
in his temple by a goddess in the attitude and 
with the attributes of the Greek huntress- 
goddess, Artemis. After what we have read 
of the Cretan Britomartis, will it be doubted 
that we have here, in Mamas and the Artemis- 
like goddess, any other than the Cretan Zeus 
and his consort Britomartis, or Dictynna : 
Kouros and Kora ? 

The Zeus Kasios of Pelusium, just men- 
tioned, is connected by more than coincidence 
with Zeus-Marnas of Gaza. They are both 
young, Apolline gods. Further, when Epi- 
phanius is describing the worship of human 
beings as gods by the heathen, two of the 
instances he chooses are ' Mamas the slave of 
Asterios ' at Gaza (be it noted that Asterios 
is one of the names of the Cretan Zeus) and 
* Kasios the ship-owner at Pelusium '. What 

Introduction xxxvii 

euhemeristic interpretation of these two cults 
he had in his mind is unfortunately unknown 
to us ; but the juxtaposition of the two is 
suggestive. Rather more vague in its sugges- 
tion, but not negligible, is the statement of 
Stephanus and Eustathius that the stretch of 
sea from Gaza to Pelusium was known as the 
Ionian Sea. It is true that they derive the 
name from lo, who was worshipped at Gaza. 
But in all probability it really means the 
Greek sea, the sea of Javan, the coast of which 
received colonists (and their cults) from the 
western isles, such as Crete. 

The fall of the Marneion removed the last 
stronghold of Paganism in this part of the 
world. The Serapeion at Alexandria had 
fallen, in 391 ; the destruction of the temples 
of Heliopolis and Apameia had followed soon 
after. * Now ', wrote Jerome to Laeta from 
his cell at Bethlehem, ' the Egyptian Serapis 
also has become Christian ; Marnas at Gaza 
mourns in prison, and expects in dread the 
instant destruction of his temple.' And later, 
in his commentary on Isaiah, in 411, he 
triumphantly proclaims : ' the Serapeum at 

546.20 C 3 

xxxviii Life of Porphyry 

Alexandria and the temple of Mamas at Gaza 
have risen up again into churches of the 
Lord.' With that, although it would be idle 
to pretend that Paganism was rooted out, we 
may say that it ceased to be an established 
faith. And by about a century later it seems 
to have completely disappeared from Gaza, 
for the biography of Peter the Iberian, Bishop 
of Maiumas in the fifth century, written 
about 500, shows no sign of it. 

Of Mark's book, as literature, it is not 
necessary to say much. Draeseke has sug- 
gested that the writer may have been ac- 
quainted with the works of Dionysius the 
Areopagite ; but the resemblances (as of the 
vision of Porphyry in the Place of the Skull 
to the vision of Carpus related by Dionysius 
in his eighth Letter) on which he bases his 
theory seem quite insufficient to support it. 
We must take the book as it is. Its trans- 
parent sincerity has won for it admiration, 
even in the bald Latin translation by which 
alone it was known until the first publication 
of the Greek text by Haupt in 1874. Graces 
of style it has none ; the vocabulary is limited 

Introduction xxxix 

and monotonous. Nevertheless, after the 
somewhat clumsy introduction, there is not 
a dull line in it, and it is unsurpassed in direct- 
ness and vividness of narration by any bio- 
graphy of a similar subject. The author's 
point of view is, of course, narrow ; the great 
events of his time do not interest him, except 
in so far as they touch the interests of his 
little corner of Palestine. But the statements 
that Praylius was Bishop of Jerusalem when 
Porphyry was ordained presbyter, and that 
Theodosius II was proclaimed Emperor from 
his birth, seem to be the only positive historical 
errors in the text. On the date of the birth 
of Theodosius II it would appear that he is 
right, and the great majority of other writers 
wrong. His omissions are, however, somewhat 
extraordinary. Draeseke has pointed out, for 
instance, how astonishing it is that he makes 
no mention of the death of Eudoxia, to whom 
the Christians of Gaza were so deeply in- 
debted, and who did not live to hear of the 
completion of the church which was named 
after her. Yet she had said in his hearing, 
* Remember always me and my child.' 

xl Life of Porphyry 

It is hardly necessary to say that the 
genuineness of the book has been impugned ; 
but the names of the sceptics, whose argu- 
ments were sufficiently refuted long ago, need 
not be disinterred from the obscurity in which 
they lie. 

Mark tells us little about himself, save that 
he was by profession a calligrapher, and came 
from Asia to Jerusalem, where he became the 
disciple of Porphyry. The saint sent him to 
Thessalonica to settle his affairs. About 397 
he was ordained deacon, and in the next year 
sent on a mission to Constantinople, to obtain 
a decree against the pagan temples of Gaza. 
He accompanied Porphyry again to Con- 
stantinople on the more successful mission of 
401-2. His book, in which he reported at 
length the dispute between Porphyry and the 
unfortunate Manichaean Julia, is lost to us. 
It must have been interesting, but one doubts 
whether it would have been impartial. For 
Mark has the faults of his qualities, and one 
can hardly expect him to show mercy to 
Arian or Manichaean, any more than to 
' them of the idol-madness '. He has a bound- 

Introduction xli 

less admiration for the irrepressible Barochas. 
Barochas, indeed, is the second hero of the 
book. Whenever he appears he seems to be 
either smiting the heathen hip and thigh or, 
more often, being beaten by them to within 
an inch of his life. ' Quel homme, ce Baruch ! ' 
we exclaim with Lafontaine. But if Mark is 
carried away by enthusiasm for the godly zeal 
of this champion of the faithful, or for the 
ascetic extravagances of Porphyry or Salamtha, 
the old Adam is by no means dead in him. 
We catch a glimpse of him when we read 
(c. 42) of the beauty of the blushing Eudoxia 
or (c. 88) of the handsome young men and 
women who support the Manichaean Julia ; 
and it is clear to any one who reads with 
intelligence the story of Salamtha that Mark 
was, innocently enough, affected by the charm 
of the maid. It is this sympathy in the writer 
which is his most attractive quality to the 
modern reader. 

The picture of Porphyry which Mark draws 
is singularly human. It would be absurd to 
judge the bishop by modern standards, as does 
the German historian who complains of his 

xlii Life of Porphyry 

brutality in the persecution of the heathen. 
It is true that he paved the street with sacred 
stones from the Marneion, and that he cursed 
the Manichaean Julia, so that she fell down 
in a fit and died. He thus even surpassed the 
Christian sophist Aetius, whose victory in 
debate over Aphthonius the Manichaean 
caused the latter to die of chagrin, though, 
it would seem, not so suddenly as Julia. Such 
remarkable sensitiveness on the part of the 
Manichaeans to defeat in argument (or abuse) 
may have helped to console their Christian 
adversaries for the fact that Diocletian's 
decree, imposing the death penalty on adher- 
ence to the doctrines of Manes, was never 
carried into effect. ' There is no hostilitie so 
excellent ', said Montaigne, ' as that which is 
absolutely Christian.' Nevertheless, one has 
read of more brutal saints than Porphyry ; 
and usually, if Mark is not a downright liar, 
he acted under considerable provocation : 

Get animal est tres mediant ; 
Quand on 1'attaque, il se defend. 

From the data given by his biographer, it 
is calculated that Porphyry must have been 

Introduction xliii 

born at Thessalonica about A.D. 347 ; for he 
was about forty-five years old when he was 
made presbyter ; he was ordained bishop after 
being a presbyter for three years, and died in 
420 after having filled the see for very nearly 
twenty-five years. For all the events of his 
life Mark is almost the only authority. He 
fails, however, to mention that the bishop was 
present in 415 at the Council of Diospolis, 
at which the Pelagian heresy was condemned. 
He appears to have been succeeded (though 
perhaps not directly) by Natiras or Netoras, 
who is known to have been bishop in 431. 

Saint Porphyry is commemorated on Feb- 
ruary 26. 




IT is a good thing to behold with our own 
eyes the contendings of holy men, and their 
godly zeal and desire, for the sight thereof 
causeth us to love them. Nevertheless the 
narrations of such as have known them truly 
likewise furnish no small profit, stealing into 
the souls of them that listen. Sight indeed 
is more trustworthy than hearing, but hearing 
also persuadeth, if the tale be told by such as 
be worthy of belief. If then in the narration 
of profitable matters no heedlessness were 
found, neither were the seed of falsehood sown 
among the truth, the writing down of such 
things were superfluous ; for the truth would 
suffice for edification, seeing that the seed 
thereof would be sown continually and the 
ears of one generation receive it from another. 
But seeing that time breedeth corruption, 
either through forgetfulness or through heed- 
lessness, I am of necessity come to the present 
B ^ 

4 Life of Porphyry 

writing, in order that in the long course of 
time so saintly a man, I mean the holy T 2 
Porphyry, may not be forgotten. For to 
remember his righteous deeds is a medicine 
and a defence unto them which hear. 

For it is strange that tragic poets and other 
such writers should spend their speech on 
laughter and old wives' fables, but that we 
should suffer men who are saints and worthy 
of remembrance to be given over to forget - 
fulness. What punishment shall I not justly 
suffer, if I commit not to writing the life of 
a man, so beloved of God, that may teach 
us to love wisdom through him, who strove 
zealously after the heavenly life ? We shall tell 
the history of his wars and his standing up 
not only against the leaders and champions of 
the madness of idols, but even against a whole 
people filled full of all madness. For he 
remembered the words of the blessed apostle, 
whereby he saith : l ' Take up the whole 
armour of God, that ye may be able to with- 
stand in the terrible day, and having overcome 
all to stand.' Having put on this whole 
1 Eph. vi. 13. 


armour the said apostle went in unto the 
fight ; but Porphyry also, having like adver- 
saries, and as mighty, and being set to a con- 
flict like unto the apostle's, was crowned with 
an equal victory, and did raise up a trophy in 
the midst of the city of the Gazaeans, even 
that holy church of Christ which he did found. 
T 3 But that which gave him the victory was not 
his human nature, but his purpose, which 
drew unto itself the divine grace : for the 
love of Christ being exceeding hot within him, 
he had power to suffer and to do all things. 
How many warlike onslaughts did this man 
abide at the hands of his adversaries ; how 
many plottings and mockings did he endure ! 

But because it is not possible to tell fully 3 
all things concerning that famous man, since 
they are many, and to the many seem to be 
incredible, I will set forth a few things which 
I remember, having lived with him for a long 
time, and enjoyed converse with that blessed 
and awful soul that now dwelleth with the 
angels. Who then would not justly praise 
this man, who possessed in himself all 
manner of virtue ? I know indeed that no 

6 Life of Porphyry 

words could attain unto the virtue of such 
a man ; nevertheless I must endeavour, being 
of good courage through his holy prayers. 
But I will write his praises not in high-sound- 
ing words ; for elegant words are not wont to 
adorn the life of such men, but rather doth 
the virtue of their works magnify the speech 
itself wherein they are told. Wherefore I also, 
being encouraged by the holy prayers of the 
said saintly man, do approach this writing, 
asking through them for grace and help from 
the Lord Jesus Christ, that I may be able, 
whatsoever be the occasion, to set forth the 
virtue of the holy man. But I pray them, 
who do chance to read this writing, not to 
disbelieve the things that are said therein ; 
for I was an eye-witness of the virtue of the 
man, living with him and faring with him by T4 
sea, and being evil entreated with him until 
the last day of his life in this world. But here 
let me make a beginning of the telling of my 

4 Gaza is a city of Palestine that is on the 
borders of Egypt ; and it is of no small 
account, being a populous city and notable. 

Bishop of Ga^a 7 

But there flourished in it about that time the 
madness of men after idols. The bishopric 
of this city did Porphyry, of whom we tell the 
praise, receive. For his country indeed he 
had in heaven Jerusalem (for therein was his 
name written) and on earth Thessalonica ; 
and his family was noble. Now there came 
upon him a divine desire to leave his country 
and the splendour of his family and countless 
riches, and to cleave unto the solitary life; and 
taking ship from the city of the Thessalonians 
he cometh unto Egypt. And straightway he 
went to Scetis, and after a few days is deemed 
worthy of the honourable habit. And when 
he had sojourned there with the holy fathers 
for the space of five years, again there entered 
into him another divine desire to worship 
the holy and venerable places of God ; and 
when he had gone thither and worshipped, 
he departed into the parts about Jordan and 
dwelt in a cave, sojourning there also likewise 
five years in much affliction. And by reason 
of the great dryness and changeableness in 
those parts, he fell into a great sickness. But 
seeing himself to be sick unto death, by the 

8 Life of Porphyry 

dispensation (of God) he beseecheth one of 
his acquaintance to take him up to Jerusalem. 
Now his disease was a hardening of the liver 
with a continuous fever, very slight. And 
though such a disease prevailed over him and 
pierced his entrails without ceasing, and his 
body was consumed away, yet he ceased not 
daily to go around the holy places, being bowed 
down and without strength to hold his body 
upright, but leaning upon a staff. 

Now at that time it chanced that I also 
came by ship from Asia to worship the 
venerable places, and having come there 
I sojourned a long time, living by the work of 
,/ my hands ; for I was skilled in the art of hand- 
writing. And beholding the holy man going 
continually to the Resurrection of Christ and 
to the other places of prayer, I marvelled 
that in so great weakness of body he forbore 
not so to vex himself. 

^ And on a day meeting him on the steps of 

x the Testimony, that was founded by the 

blessed Emperor Constantine, seeing that he 

could not go forward on his feet, I ran and 

stretched forth my hand to him and besought 

Bishop of Ga^a 9 

him to lean upon it and go up the steps. But 
T6he would not, saying: 'It is not just that 
I who go my way to ask pardon for my sins 
should lean upon the hands of another ; but 
let God see my labour, brother, that in his 
unspeakable compassion he may have pity on 
me also.' Therefore he went his way and 
hearkened to the divine sayings, lending ear 
unto the doctors, and partaking always of the 
mystic table he would return again to his 
lodging. What manner of life he lived, 
indeed, was manifest, for he despised his sick- 
ness in such wise that one accounted him to 
have the disease not in his own but in another 
man's body ; for the hope of God made it 
light for him to bear. 

But this alone did grieve and hurt him, 6 
that his superfluity should remain and not 
be sold, according to the saying of the 
Gospel, and distributed among the poor. 1 
Now the cause of this hindrance was that 
his brethren were children when he departed 
out of his own country. Being therefore 
grieved about this matter, he asketh me, who 
1 Matt. xix. 21. 

io Life of Porphyry 

was now familiar with him (for I served 
him because of his weakness), to take ship to 
Thessalonica and divide his possessions with 
his brethren ; and giving me a letter with 
his commandments and commending me unto 
the Lord he let me depart, giving me a very 
little for my expenses ; for he had but small 
wealth at that time. Straightway I went 
down to Ascalon and found a ship and put 
to sea, and after thirteen days, having made 
a fair voyage, we came to Thessalonica ; and T 7 
having shown the written commandment 
I divided the possessions with his brethren. 
And I sold to them the goods which were my 
lot for three thousand pieces of gold, but the 
raiment and the silver vessels I brought with 
me and other pieces of gold, a thousand and 
four hundred ; and when I had gathered all 
together in the space of three months I put 
to sea again, and came after twelve days to 
the port of Ascalon ; and there having hired 
beasts of burden and laden them I went up 
unto the holy city. And straightway when he 
beheld me the thrice blessed man embraced 
me with joy and tears (for joy also can cause 

Bishop of Ga^a 1 1 

tears to flow) ; but I knew him not ; for his 
body was very strong and his countenance 
ruddy. And I turned my eyes about looking 
often upon him ; but he, seeing it, smiled 
pleasantly and said : * Marvel not, brother 7 
Mark, seeing me whole and strong, but learn 
the cause of my being healed and then marvel 
exceedingly at the unspeakable loving-kindness 
of Christ, how the things whereof men have 
despaired are by him made straight. 5 And 
I besought him to tell me the cause of his 
being healed and how he had cast out such a 
disease. And he answered me : ' About forty 
days ago when I was keeping the vigil of 
the holy day of the Lord, an unspeakable 
pain of the liver gat hold upon me, and being 
T8 unable to endure the anguish I went and lay 
down near the sacred Skull, and by reason of 
the great pain I fell as it were into a trance. 
And I see the Saviour nailed upon the Cross 
and one of the thieves with him hanging 
upon another cross, and I begin to cry out 
and speak the words of the thief : l " Lord, 
remember me when thou comest into thy 
1 Luke xxiii. 42. 

12 Life of Porphyry 

kingdom/' And the Saviour answereth and 
aaith to the thief that is hanging : " Go down 
from the cross and save him that is lying there, 
even as thou wast saved." And the thief 
came down from the cross and took me in his 
arms and kissed me, and stretching forth his 
right hand raised me up, saying, " Come to 
the Saviour." And straightway I rose up and 
ran to him, and I see him coming down from 
the Cross and saying to me, " Take this wood 
and keep it." And I took the same precious 
wood and lifted it up, and straightway I came 
to myself out of my trance, and from that same 
hour there was no more pain in me, neither 
is the place of the disease manifest.' 
8 But I, when I had heard these things, 
marvelled exceedingly, and glorified God, who 
ever sheweth mercy unto them that call upon 
him, and much more unto them that truly 
and sincerely pray to him. 

But from thenceforth I did more diligently 
serve the man (for I held him to be verily the 
servant of God). And when I had restored 
unto him all the things that I had brought, 
I abode with him, serving him and enjoying 

Bishop of Ga%a 1 3 

his spiritual conversation. For he was verily 
a blameless man, very meek, pitiful, having 
also, if ever any man, skill to judge the Holy 
T 9 Scripture and to resolve the hard questions 
therein (nay, neither was he lacking in out- 
ward learning), answering and stopping the 
mouths of unbelievers and heretics, a lover 
of the poor, compassionate, easily moved to 
tears, honouring old men as fathers, 1 and 
young men as brethren, and little ones as his 
own children, behaving himself gently, and 
lowly in spirit and in speech, not for a pre- 
tence but in truth (for there was no guile 2 
in him), exceeding temperate, so that he was 
delivered utterly from all passions, knowing 
not anger, remembering not evil, letting not 
the sun go down upon his wrath, 3 having all 
his passions dead, save only that indignation 
which he stirred up against the enemies of the 

Now when he had received from me the 9 
money and the other things which I had 
brought, and sold the raiment and had made 

1 Cp. i Tim. v. i. * Cp. John i. 47. 

* Cp.Eph.iv,26. 

14 Life of Porphyry 

precious vessels out of the more part of the 
silver money, he gave away the remainder 
within a little time to them that were in need, 
not only in the holy city, but also in other 
cities and villages and monasteries, especially to 
them that are in Egypt ; for the monasteries 
there were very poor. But to the strangers 
also that dwelt in the place he became 
a second Abraham. 1 Thus it came to pass 
that in a very short time he gave away all his 
superfluity, so that he himself was in want of 
his daily food. Therefore he applied himself 
unto the craft of the shoemaker, dressing and 
sewing hides, in all ways after the pattern T 10 
of that divine apostle, 2 who would not eat 
bread for naught ; and notwithstanding he 
could have earned his living from some other 
handicraft, yet he desired in all things to 
follow the example of the aforesaid glorious 
man, in afflictions and labours and persecu- 
tions and perils by sea and risings up of the 
heathen. 3 But I besought him to live with 
me in common (for I had a superfluity out of 

1 Cp. Gen. xviii. i f. 2 Cp. 2 Thess. in. 8. 

8 Cp. 2 Cor. vi. 4 ; xi. 26, 

Bishop of Ga\a i y 

mine occupation), but he suffered it not, 
saying, < We brought nothing into this world, 
neither can we carry anything out.' l And 
again he would say, ' If a man worketh not, 
neither shall he eat.' 2 But I waxed bold, and 
said unto him, ' Wherefore then when thou 
hadst plenty didst thou not work nor suffer 
me to work ? ' And he answered me, ' That 
former work which I did was greater by many 
times than that which I do now ; for this 
present work sustaineth one or two, but the 
former did sustain countless numbers, and not 
only those multitudes, but did also provide 
spiritual sustenance for mine own soul/ 

Now these things being so, Praylius, who 10 
held the bishopric of the holy places, heard 
of the name and the life of the saintly Por- 
phyry, and sending for him very instantly 
ordained him to the office of Elder, and more- 
over committed unto him the safe-keeping of 
the precious wood of the Cross. Then did 
T 1 1 we know that those things had been fulfilled 
for him which he heard in his trance, when he 
beheld the Lord on the Cross and the robber 
1 j Tim. vi, 7 V * 2 Thess. iii. 10. 

1 6 Life of Porphyry 

with him, and the Master saying, * Take this 
wood and keep it for me.' But the blessed 
Porphyry, when he received this ordination, 
was about forty and five years old, But 
though he was deemed worthy of this honour, 
he changed not his former manner of life, but 
continued in mortification and affliction of 
the body, in fasting and watching. 1 His food 
was foul bread and herbs, and these after the 
going down of the sun ; but on the other 
holy days he ate at the sixth hour, partaking 
also of oil and cheese and steeped pulse ; 
and he would take withal one cup of wine 
mixed with water, and this by reason of 
sickness in his bowels. 2 This course and rule 
did he keep continually for all the days of 
his life. 

ii Now after three years that he had been 
ordained, it falleth out that the bishop of the 
afore-mentioned city of Gaza passed away from 
this life ; he was Aeneias, who was bishop for 
a very short time. And before Aeneias was 
Irenion, who also himself hath become a 
fellow-citizen of the angelic powers, whose 
*- Cp. 2 Cor. vi. 5. a Cp. i Tim. v. 23. 

Bishop of Ga^a 1 7 

praises it is not possible to go aside from this 
matter and write, but a special treatise were 
necessary to describe in order the life of the 
said glorious Irenion, and we leave it for other 
writers who have full knowledge of his life. 
When therefore the afore-mentioned holy 
T 12 man had been laid to sleep, they who were 
then Christians, being few and easily to be 
numbered, were gathered together with the 
clergy, and took counsel for certain days into 
whose hands they should commit the bishopric, 
but achieved nothing ; for contention pre- 
vailed among them, some desiring some of the 
clergy, and others some of the lay-folk ; for 
in sooth among the lay-folk also there were 
some of honourable and holy life. When 
therefore there arose a great confusion and 
the matter went nothing forward, at last they 
agreed that five of the clergy and as many 
of the notable lay-folk should go out to the 
metropolitan high-priest and ask of him a 
bishop, whomsoever the Holy Ghost might 
reveal unto him. 

Now he that held the high-priesthood at 12 
that time was John, who also was a man of 

546-20 C 

1 8 Life of Porphyry 

good repute and adorned with all virtue. 
When therefore the Gazaeans came unto him, 
they besought him to give them a priest which 
should be able by deeds and by speech to with- 
stand the idolaters. And when he had heard 
them he straightway proclaimed a fast, and 
after three days the Lord revealed to him 
concerning the blessed Porphyry ; and he 
writeth a letter to the afore-mentioned holy 
Praylius, the bishop of Jerusalem, to send 
the blessed Porphyry to him, because of a 
certain question concerning the Scripture 
which was required to be explained by him. 
For the blessed man was skilful to explain 
everything that was accounted difficult in the 
Holy Scripture, and this power he had by 
the grace of the Holy Ghost. And Praylius, 
beloved of God, putting faith in the writing T 13 
of the blessed John, sent Porphyry away, en- 
joining him that he should not tarry more 
than seven days. But when the blessed 
Porphyry heard the signification of the letter 
that was written by the most holy John, at 
first he was troubled, but afterward he said : 
* The will of God be done.' And having 

Bishop of Ga%a 1 9 

called me to him on that evening he saith to 
me : ' Brother Mark, let us go and worship 
the holy places and the precious Cross ; for 
much time shall pass away before we shall 
worship them again.' And I said : ' Where- 
fore sayest thou thus, Father ? ' And he 
answered and said : ' Yesternight I beheld 
the Saviour, saying unto me, " That which 
I committed unto thy trust restore thou 
again. For I desire thee to be joined unto 
a woman who is lowly indeed but virtuous. 
Do thou take her and adorn her, that she may 
forget her former poverty. For though she 
chance to be lowly, yet is she not a stranger 
unto me, but mine own sister. But do thou 
watch carefully lest, having a wife and taking 
care of thine house, thou bring therein aught 
of injustice or violence or unlawfulness ; for 
thou wilt both kindle my wrath and grieve 
her ; for she also hath no pleasure in such 
things. But do thou only have a goodly zeal, 
and all things shall be provided unto thee 
from whence thou hast no expectation." 
These things did my Master Christ reveal unto 
me yesternight, and I fear lest, desiring in 
c 2 

20 Life of Porphyry 

some way to make atonement for mine own T 14 
sins, atonement for the sins of many others 
also be laid upon me. Nevertheless it is not 
possible to gainsay the will of God.' 
14 Having said this he went forth, and I with 
him, and when we had worshipped the holy 
places and the precious Cross, and he had 
prayed and wept much, he placed in the 
golden coffer the precious and life-giving Cross 
and made it fast, and went forth ; and going 
to the blessed Praylius, the bishop, he com- 
mitted unto him the keys, and having received 
from him a blessing, and a commendation 
unto God, he went forth. So coming to 
our lodging, we make ourselves ready. And 
having hired three beasts, and taking provision 
for the journey, we went forth ; but the pro- 
visions were all that was in the house. And 
there were five of us on the journey, the 
blessed man himself and I and two ass-drivers, 
and another young servant, called Barochas ; 
whom the blessed man a little time before 
found in the street, cast out and in the utter- 
most peril, and taking him up he received him 
into his house, and having spent much upon 

Bishop of Ga^a 21 

him, by the help of Christ he made him whole. 
Thereafter, then, he abode with him, serving 
him with me. But the things which happened 
to the God-fearing Barochas I will declare as 
my story proceedeth. 

Now having journeyed on that day, on the 
next we came to Caesarea. But our presence 
was bruited abroad through all the city ; for 
the blessed man was well known because he 
loved the poor. And we went to the inn that 
was there. 

But when the blessed John, the archbishop, 15 
heard it, he came running to us, and having 
greeted each other and prayed a little, they 
sate down. And the archbishop said unto 
him : ' Rise up, Brother, for the Lord's sake, 
and take food with me, that speedily we may 
rise up to keep the vigil of the Holy Day.' 
For we had entered on the evening of the 
Sabbath. But the blessed Porphyry besought 
him to let him go for the evening, by reason 
of his weariness after the journey ; and he 
said that after his first sleep he would rise up 
to keep the vigil. But when the archbishop 
would not be persuaded, the blessed man rose 

22 Life of Porphyry 

up and went forth with him, taking also me 
(for we left brother Barochas in the inn with 
our cloaks) ; and at his exhortation we did 
sup. And having conversed much concerning 
things spiritual, and slept a little, we rose up 
to keep the vigil. 

1 6 But in that night the blessed John sendeth 
for the Gazaeans and saith unto them : ' Ye 
shall be ready to come forth ; for to-day ye 
receive your priest, the man whom the Lord 
hath shown, without blame, beloved of God, 
boiling over with the faith.' And when it 
was morning they seized the blessed man and 
ordained him bishop of Gaza. But he wept 
much, and would not be satisfied of his tears ; 
for he said that he was unworthy of such 
a priesthood. And being with difficulty com- 
forted by the Gazaeans and the Christians 
which were there, he held his peace. And 
when we had performed the sacred office of T 16 
the Lord's Day, we were again bidden to 
taste food with the archbishop. 

17 But he enjoined us to depart with all speed, 
and when we had spent one other day we 
departed. And we slept at Diospolis, and 

Bishop ofGa^a 23 

thence we came late at night and slowly into 
Gaza, being exceeding weary and afflicted. 
And the cause of the affliction was this. Hard 
by Gaza there are villages beside the road 
which are given to the madness of idols. So 
the dwellers in these villages agreed together 
and strewed all the road with thorns and 
prickles, so that one could not pass by, and 
poured out filth, and made smoke of other 
evil-smelling things, so that we were choked 
by the stench and went in peril of being 
blinded. Hardly escaping therefore, about the 
third hour of the night we entered into 
the city. Now this vexation was caused to 
the blessed man by a visitation of demons ; 
but it vexed him not, for he knew it to be an 
ambush of the devil, because he desired to turn 
away the just man from his entering in. 

So we went to the bishop's house, which 18 
was founded by the afore-named saint 
Irenion, the bishop, together with the holy 
church that is called Irene (Peace). Con- 
cerning the occasion whereby it received its 
name there be two tales. For the people of 
Gaza say that when the city was taken by 

24 Life of Porphyry 

Alexander the Macedonian, the war by a 
certain covenant was there brought to an 
end, whence the place was called Peace. This 
place the blessed Irenion found to be held in 
honour by the Gazaeans, and therein founded Ti; 
the church. So whether for the said reason 
or because of the name of the founder, it hath 
continued to be so called until the present 
time. Thither then went we, unto the 
bishop's house founded by him, the which 
was passing small. 

19 But in that year it fell out that there was 
a drought, and all they of the city imputed the 
thing to the coming of the blessed man, saying 
that ' It was revealed unto us by Marnas that 
the feet of Porphyry bring bad luck to the 
city '. But when God continued to send no 
rain through the first month, which they 
call Dios, and also through the second, which 
is Apellaios, they were all afflicted. And 
they of the idol-madness gathered together 
in the Marneion, and made many sacrifices and 
prayers for this matter ; for they said that 
Marnas was lord of the rains (and they say that 
Marnas is Zeus). And they continued seven 

Bishop of Ga^a 2j- 

days saying hymns and going forth with- 
out the city to a place called the Place of 
Prayer, but they returned again unto their 
own works, cast down in spirit, having achieved 
naught. After this had so fallen out, the 
Christians came together, with men, women, 
and children, to the number of two hundred 
and four score, and besought the holy Por- 
phyry to come forth with them to the Place <*** 
of Prayer- aa^make supplication that the rains 
might be sent down (for there was already 
a famine), and they besought him the motfe 
because the people imputed the drought to 
the coming of the blessed man. 

So the holy man was persuaded, and having 20 
T 18 proclaimed a fast he bade them all to be gathered 
together at even in the holy church, that we 
might keep the vigil there. And we made 
through the whole night thirty prayers and 
as many bendings of the knee, besides singing 
and the readings. And when it was morning, 
taking the sign of the precious Cross to go 
before us, we went out with hymns to the 
ancient church that is in the west of the city, 
which they say was founded by the most 

26 Life of Porphyry 

holy and blessed Asclepas, the bishop, who 
suffered many persecutions for the true faith ; 
whose life and works are written in the Para- 
dise of delight. So when we had come to the 
said church, we made as many prayers there 
also, and departing thence we went to the 
holy shrine of the glorious martyr Timotheus, 
wherein are laid also other relics of Maiour the 
martyr and Thee the confessor, and having 
there made as many prayers and bendings of 
the knee we returned again unto the city, 
having made on the way three prayers and 
three bendings of the knee. But coming nigh 
unto the city we found it shut (it was the 
ninth hour) ; for the idol-madmen did this, 
desiring to scatter the people abroad, in order 
that we might not fulfil our supplication. 
But when we had abode two hours before the 
gate, and there was none to open to us, God 
seeing the patience of the people and the 
groans and the untold tears, especially of the 
holy man, is moved with compassion, as in 
the time of the mighty Elias the prophet, 1 T 19 
and stirreth up a south wind, and the heaven 
1 i [3] Kings xviii, 45- 

Bishop of Ga^a 27 

is covered with clouds, and lightnings and 
thunders begin with the going down of the 
sun, and a great rain descendeth, so that it 
seemeth to be not drops of water but hail 
descending from heaven. But we for our 
much joy scarce felt it ; for we had fallen 
upon each other's necks. 

But certain of the Greeks, when they beheld 21 
what marvellous works God wrought for us, 
believed and opened the gate and mingled 
with us, crying out : ' Christ alone is God, 
he alone halh conquered.' And they came 
together with us to the holy church ; and 
thence the blessed man let them depart in 
peace, having sealed them with the seal of 
Christ. They were in number one hundred and 
twenty and seven, being men seventy-eight, 
and women thirty-five, and children fourteen, 
of which five were maidens. And we, when 
we had offered the perfect sacrifice of thanks- 
giving, returned each man in joy and peace 
unto his own place. But so mighty a rain 
descended in that night and on the next day 
that all men were afraid lest houses should 
fall in ; for the more part of them were made 

2 8 Life of Porphyry 

of unbaked bricks. And our Lord Jesus 
Christ caused the rain to continue unceasingly 
from the eighth day of Audynaios until the 
tenth. Now Audynaios with them is the 
month of January according to the Romans, 
but their months are earlier by five days than 
the Roman months. And on the eleventh we 
celebrated the day of the Theophany of our 
Master Jesus Christ with joy, singing hymns 120 
and giving thanks for all the things that his 
loving-kindness had wrought for us. And 
there were added unto the fold of Christ in 
this same year, over and above the hundred 
and twenty and seven, other one hundred and 

But they of the idol-madness ceased not to 
lie in wait for the blessed man and the other 
Christians. For whensoever they could find 
a governor that was a Greek, they secretly 
persuaded him, either with money, or through 
their godless religion, to distress the Christians, 
so that the most blessed man suffered no 
common affliction therefrom. Therefore he 
prayed continually night and day unto the 
merciful God that he might turn them from 

Bishop of Ga^a 29 

the error of their ways unto his own truth. 
Now since I have made mention above of the 22 
blessed Barochas, I will relate the rest of the 
story concerning him. This man, if any, was 
possessed of godly zeal ; for he suffered many 
hard things from the idolaters. For once he 
went out to a village not far from the city, on 
account of a certain payment to the church. 
Now he that owed the payment was an idolater, 
and when he was asked for payment he sought 
to tarry and put off the matter ; but the 
God-fearing Barochas would not suffer him. 
Thereupon strife arose between them, and 
the wicked husbandman calleth certain fellow 
villagers like unto himself, and they begin to 
beat the blessed Barochas with clubs ; and 
taking him up half dead they cast him forth 
T2i out of the village into a desert place ; and he 
lay there without speech or sense. But on the 
next day, by the mercy of God, there passeth 
through that place Cornelius the deacon with 
other two Christians, and finding Barochas, 
beloved of God, they knew him and took him 
up and bare him into the city. But when they 23 
of the idol-madness saw him being carried, 

3 o Life of P orphyry 

supposing him to be a corpse, they fell into 
a frenzy, because it was accounted pollution 
to bring a corpse into the city ; and snatching 
him from the shoulders of them who bare him, 
they begin to beat the deacon Cornelius, 
beloved of God, and the two Christians ; and 
fastening a rope to the foot of the blessed 
Barochas they dragged him along. In the 
meanwhile certain of the brethren come and 
tell the blessed bishop, and he being troubled 
calleth me and other three brethren who are 
present with him, and saith unto us : ' Take 
courage, Brethren, and run ; for the occasion 
to bear witness is at hand.' Now when we 
had come to the place where they had bound 
the blessed man, the multitude ran together, 
and some spake despitefully of the most holy 
bishop ; but others, seeing his patience, how, 
when men spake despitefully of him, he waxed 
not wroth, but did on the contrary exhort 
every man, saying that they should not thus 
defile and insult a body of like nature to their 
own, these others come over to our side ; and 
so they turn against each other, even to blows. 
But we, seeing that there was much confusion, T22 

Bishop of Ga^a 3 i 

took up Barochas, beloved of God, and went 
back into the holy church. And seeing that 
there was still breath in him, we gave him 
tendance. And all the evening and the night 24 
there was instant prayer over him ; for all the 
brethren were gathered together. And the 
holy bishop ceased not from weeping and 
praying unto God for him ; for he knew how 
godly a zeal he had. But when God saw the 
tears of the holy priest, and the entreaties of 
the people (for they held him to be a second 
Phineas 1 against the idolaters), he quickened 
his mercy towards him, and in that night he 
openeth his eyes, and beginneth to speak, and 
to ask that drink be given to him. But I, who 
sate beside him, straightway ran to tell the 
blessed bishop ; for by reason of my great joy 
I forgat to give him the drink ; even as hap- 
pened 2 to the maid with the blessed apostle 
Peter, when, hearing the voice of Saint Peter, 
for joy she opened not the door but left him 
there and first went and told them who were 
in the house. Somewhat after this manner 
was it also, with me. But when the blessed 
1 Num. xxv. u. * Actsxii. 14. 

3 a Life of Porphyry 

bishop heard it, he was not moved by affection 
but continued steadfast in prayer ; and we 
perceiving his firmness and immovableness 
left him, and went away, I and the deacon 
Cornelius, beloved of God ; for he was sitting T 23 
with me beside the blessed Barochas. But 
when the most holy bishop had ended his 
prayers and the whole office, he also came and 
sate with us, and questioned the God-fearing 
Barochas how it had happened to him from 
the beginning, and he told us all things in 
25 order. Now while we were taking counsel 
what should be done, the day dawneth ; and 
lo ! the public advocate with the guardians 
of the peace and the two chief councillors, 
Timotheus and Epiphanius, and many others 
come and begin to cry out against us and make 
a tumult, saying : ' Why brought ye a corpse 
into the city, seeing that the laws of our fathers 
forbid this ? ' And at the same time they spake 
despitefully of the blessed bishop. But we, 
hearing the tumult, came out, and seeing us 
they begin to beat me and Cornelius the 
deacon, beloved of God. But when we pro- 
tested, calling the public officers to witness, 

Bishop of Ga^a 3 3 

the most holy bishop restrained us, exhorting 
and admonishing every one, that we should 
not be thus wroth without reason. But the 
godless men, the more they were exhorted, 
the more mad did they become, and spake 
despitefully of the holy man. So the tumult 
continued ; but Barochas, beloved of God, is 
strengthened and filled with godly zeal, and 
riseth up and snatcheth a piece of wood, and 
beginneth to smite the bystanders ; and fear 
falleth upon them all, and they begin to fall 
over each other in flight ; and he continued 
Ta 4 pursuing them as far as the temple of Mamas 
that then was ; and so our new Samson 
returneth again, having won a great victory, 
and himself laid low a thousand of the Gentiles. 
From that time therefore they of the idol- 
madness feared him, and could not endure to 
hear his name. 

Now after a little time we were accounted 
worthy to be ordained deacons, I and Barochas, 
beloved of God, I indeed being greatly 
unworthy, but he full worthily and justly 
receiving this gift. 

But the saint Porphyry, seeing the unlawful 26 

546-20 D 

34 Life of Porphyry 

things that were done daily by the idolaters, 
taketh counsel with himself to send me unto 
Byzantium to ask the Emperors that the tem- 
ples of the idols be destroyed. For they still 
gave oracles in Gaza, especially that which 
was called the Marneion. And having indited 
so ^^ OVV s letters to the most saintly and holy John, 
who was at that time bishop of Constanti- 
nople, whose glory and praise is remembered 
of all men, he sent me away in a ship, and after 
twenty days we arrived, and having delivered 
the letters to the blessed John I explained unto 
him the whole matter by word of mouth. 
And straightway, when he had heard it, he 
declared it unto Eutropius the chamberlain, 
who ai that time prevailed greatly with the 
Emperor Arcadius. And when he had read 
unto him the letter of the blessed bishop and 
asked of him to be favourable unto that which 
was written therein, he took his leave of him 
and came forth, and saith unto me : ' Have 
patience, my child ; for I hope in our Master 
Christ that he will show mercy unto us as he T 25 
is wont.' 
27 And I ceased not daily to remind him, and 

Bishop o 

he would send and importune Eutropius. 
And after seven days there is uttered a divine 
decree that the temples of the idols in the city 
of the Gazaeans should be shut and no longer 
give oracles. And a certain Hilarius, an 
adjutant of the Master of the Offices, is en- 
trusted with this ordinance. And I after 
three days set sail from Byzantium, and come 
in ten days unto the city of the Gazaeans, 
seven days before the coming of Hilarius. And 
I found the most holy Porphyry sick. But 
when I gave him the answer of the most blessed 
John, the bishop of Constantinople, and read 
it unto him, he was filled with joy, and the 
fever left him and he was cured. But he said 
that the sickness had taken him by reason of 
the much affliction wherewith the idolaters 
afflicted him. Now after seven days cometh 
the said Hilarius, having two officers of the 
consular court and many guards out of Azotus 
and Ascalon, and all the pomp of office. And 
straightway he seized the three councillors 
of the city and took sureties from them and 
declared unto them the divine decree, which 
commanded that the temples of the idols in 

D 2 

3 6 Life of Porphyry 

the city of Gaza should be shut up on pain of 
the death of the chief men of the same city ; 
and he overturned all the idols in them and 
shut them up. But the temple of Mamas 
he suffered secretly to give oracles ; for he 126 
received therefor a great sum of money. 
And they of the idol-madness began again to 
do unlawful things, as they were wont. 
28 Now it falleth out that another marvellous 
thing cometh to pass, calling many to come 
to the knowledge of the truth. For God, 
being compassionate, findeth occasions to 
turn the race of men unto his light that 
enlighteneth the mind. The thing that 
happened was on this wise. A certain lady 
of the notable people of the city, called 
Aelias, being about to give birth to a child, 
fell into great peril ; and the cause of the 
peril was this. Her child came not forth 
after the natural manner, but was turned aside 
contrary to nature, and having put forth 
one hand the rest of his body could not be 
delivered ; for it lay crosswise in the womb 
and the midwives availed not to move it 
into the natural place. But the pain that 

Bishop ofGa^a 37 

was upon the woman was unspeakable, since 
in the throes of her travail she sought to 
bring forth the child ; and her labours 
increased the more when the second day 
followed after the first ; and the third day 
likewise was more painful than the second. 
And her labours endured unto seven days, 
the evil being ever increased. But the 
physicians also desired to cut the child out of 
her, and when they beheld how her strength 
was fallen away, they despaired of her life. 
Her parents, therefore, and her husband 
Heros, being superstitious, offered up sacrifice 
each day for her, and they brought in also 
enchanters and soothsayers, thinking to profit 
her thereby, but accomplished naught. Now 29 
she had a nurse that was a believer, who being 
exceeding grieved made petitions for her in 
the houses of prayer. So on a certain day 
when she was praying in the church with 
tears, there came in Saint Porphyry about the 
ninth hour, and I with him. And he seeth 
the old woman in great affliction, praying 
unto God with tears, and standing still he 
inquired after the reason. And she looking 

3 8 Life of Porphyry 

upon him fell at his feet, beseeching him to 
pray unto Christ for her. And when the 
saint knew the cause of the woman's grief, he 
himself wept ; for he was exceeding com- 
passionate. And he saith to the nurse : 
* I hear concerning that house that it is 
idolatrous, and can hardly be saved ; but, 
nevertheless, to God all things are possible ; 
for he findeth occasion to save them which 
are about to perish. Depart, therefore, and 
gather together all her kinsfolk and her parents 
and her husband, and say unto them : " Seeing 
that there is here an excellent physician who 
can cure her, if he cause her to escape from 
this peril, what reward will ye give him ? " 
And they will of a surety promise thee many 
things. Then say unto them this also : "If 
he cure her, give me your word withal that 
ye will not turn aside from him nor depart 
from him unto another." Cause them all 
to lift up their hands to heaven and give their 
word that they will perform all the things 
that they have promised. And when they T 28 
have done this, say unto the woman that 
travaileth before them all: "Jesus Christ, 

Bishop of Ga^a 39 

the Son of the living God, healeth thee ; 
believe on him and live." ! 

So when the old woman had heard the 30 
words of the blessed bishop, and he had com- 
mended her unto God, she ran to the house, 
and finding them all weeping and the woman 
in uttermost peril, she exhorted her parents 
and her husband to be of good courage, and 
said unto them that ' An excellent physician 
sent me unto you, that ye may give me your 
word that if she be cured ye will not deny 
him.' And when her parents and her husband 
heard it they said : ' If he wish to take all 
our possessions, we shall not withhold them, 
only let us see our daughter live.' And the 
nurse said : c Lift up your hands unto heaven, 
and give me this promise that ye will not 
deny the physician.' And they eagerly and 
with tears lifted up their hands, saying that 
* Nay, all that is ours shall be his all the days 
of our life ; for what comfort shall we have if 
she die ? ' For she was their only child, and 
fair and pleasant in her ways above all others. 
But the nurse, when she heard their words, 
said with a loud voice before them all : ' Thus 

40 Life of Porphyry 

saith the great priest Porphyry : " Jesus 
Christ, the Son of the living God, healeth 
thee ; believe on him and live." ' And straight- 
way the woman shrieked aloud, and brought 
forth the child alive. 

31 And all they that were there were astonied, 
and cried out : ' Great is the God of the 
Christians ; great is the priest Porphyry.' 
And on the next day the parents of the 129 
woman and her husband and all her family 
and kinsfolk went unto the blessed Porphyry 
and fell at his feet, asking to be sealed in 
Christ. And the blessed man having sealed 
them and made them catechumens sent them 
away in peace, exhorting them to make 
attendance in holy church ; and after a little 
time, when he had instructed them, he 
baptized them, together with the woman and 
the child. And they called his name Por- 
phyry. And they that were enlightened 
through the occasion of this woman were in 
number sixty and four. 

32 But they of the idol-madness, the more 
they saw the Christians increasing in numbers, 
the more wroth did they become, and suffered 

Bishop ofGa^a 41 

them not to hold any civil office, but entreated 
them as naughty slaves. And the blessed 
Porphyry, seeing again the great wrong that 
was done to the Christians and enduring it 
not, beholding how despitefully they were 
entreated, departeth to Caesarea unto the 
blessed John, the archbishop, and beseecheth 
him with tears to let him go ; for he said he 
could no longer bear the outrageous things 
that were done by the Gazaeans. But when 
the blessed John heard it he exhorted him 
to be of a stout heart and not to forsake the 
bishopric. And the most holy Porphyry 
answered and said unto him : * I call thee 33 
to witness before the unseen God, and by our 
hope which is Jesus Christ the Lord of all 
creation, and the Holy Ghost which we 
worship and which giveth life to all things, 
neglect not my petition, that the destruction 
of countless souls be not imputed unto us. 
But I pray thee, Father, to take ship with me 
unto the Imperial City, that we may petition 
the Emperors, if the King of Heaven consent, 
to overturn the temples of the idols.' But 
the blessed John said unto him : ' My son, 

42 Life of Porphyry 

thy prayer is just, but the time is not fitting, 
for the season groweth worse towards the 
winter solstice.' And the blessed Porphyry 
answered : ' If God will that we should be 
saved and convert the multitudes of Gaza, 
he is able to preserve us even in winter. 
But do thou, Father, take courage in his 
mercy and be willing, and we shall have a fair 
voyage.' The blessed John saith unto him : 
6 The will of Christ be done.' 
34 So the blessed Porphyry, having taken his 
commands, writeth to me to come with all 
speed to Caesarea and to bring with me 
three books and three and forty pieces of 
money, the which chanced to remain over 
from the revenues of the holy church. And 
I, having received his letter, took the books 
and the money and straightway departed, 
and coming to Caesarea I found the most 
holy bishops making ready for the voyage ; 
and after two days we put to sea and sailed 
on the twenty-eighth day of Gorpiaios 
(which is according to the Romans the 
twenty-third of September), and by the 
mercy of Christ making a fair voyage 

Bishop of Ga^a 43 

after ten days we put in at the island of 

Now there was then in the island, living 
solitary in the remote parts thereof, a man 
named Procopius, who is now numbered 
with the angels ; for he fell asleep five years 
ago, having lived a blameless life in fasting 
and watching and utter poverty. He had 
also the gift of prophecy and the power of 
casting out devils. So when we had put in 
at Rhodes, as hath been said, and heard tell 
of the manner of life of the holy man, we held 
it necessary not to pass him by, but to enjoy 
his angelic company ; and having inquired 
where he had his abode we journeyed unto 
him, sailing along the coast in a small boat, 
and came and knocked at his door. And he 
straightway came forth himself and opened 
to us, albeit he had with him another, a 
disciple. But when he beheld the most 35 
holy bishops, he fell upon his face and wor- 
shipped them ; then rising up he kissed me 
also and the God-fearing Eusebius the deacon, 
whom the holy John the archbishop brought 
with him. And leading us into the place of 

44 Life of Porphyry 

prayer he went behind us, giving the foremost 
place to the most blessed bishops, saying : 
' It is fitting that ye, being priests, should have 
the foremost place, and I, being lowly and 
not even thought worthy of ordination, the 
hindmost.' Then knew we that the most 
holy Procopius possessed the gift of vision ; 
for albeit he had never beheld us nor heard 
concerning us, he knew by the spirit that 
the most blessed John and Porphyry were 
bishops ; therefore gave he to them the 
honour of the first place at prayer. Then 
after the prayer we sate down, and when he 
had spoken with us of many things profitable 
to our souls, he inquired of the reason of our 
travelling. And the blessed Porphyry related 
to him all things concerning the Gazaeans, 
how madly they are given unto idols, and how 
many terrible things the Christians suffer 
from them, and that for this reason they are 
going up to pray the Emperors that the 
temples of the idols may be overturned. 
36 But when Saint Procopius, the anchorite, 
heard it he wept and said : ' Lord Jesus 
Christ, turn thy servants from the deceits of 

Bishop of Ga^a 47 

the devil unto the light of thy faith.' Then 
saith he to the most holy bishops : c Be 
not discouraged, Fathers ; for God, who 
knoweth the zeal of your faith, will prosper 
your way and give you all the desires of your 
hearts. Hearken, therefore, while I counsel 
you as the Lord hath revealed it unto my 
lowliness. When ye come up to Byzantium, 
join yourselves first to the most holy bishop 
John, and make petition with him unto God, 
and impart the matter unto him ; and he 
also himself will counsel you according as 
the Lord revealeth it unto him. For he can- 
not have speech in the Palace, seeing that 
the Empress Eudoxia is wroth with him. He 
therefore commendeth you unto Amantius, 
the chamberlain of the Lady, a man that f eareth c 
God and honoureth the habit of the priests ; 
and he bringeth you in to the Empress, and 
when ye go in to her she will receive you 
kindly. Impart then unto her the whole 
matter and take your commands of her and 
go forth. And when ye come before her 
the second time, after ye have reminded her 
of the matter, say unto her that " We hope 

\6 Life of Porphyry 

in Christ the Son of God, if thou art zealous 
in the present matter, that he will give thee 
a male child." And when she heareth this, 133 
she will be exceeding joyful (for she is great 
with child, and this is the ninth month since 
she conceived) and she will do all things that 
she may accomplish the matter for you, if 
God will' 

37 And we having heard the words of the 
holy man and believed on that which he 
said, received his blessing and departed ; 
and putting to sea on that day, we sailed and 
after other ten days came to Byzantium. 
And having taken a lodging, on the next 
day we went to the most holy archbishop 
John. And he, when he knew who we were, 
received us with much honour and tendance. 
And he inquired of us for what reason we had 
endured to travel, and we related it unto him. 
And when he knew it, he remembered that 
some time before we had made this same prayer 
unto him by letters ; and he knew me again and 
saluted me kindly. But he exhorteth us not to 
be discouraged, but to have hope in the mercies 
of God. And he said to us : 'I indeed have 

Bishop of Gaty 47 

not power to speak with the Emperor ; for 
the Empress hath kindled his wrath against 
me, because I accused her concerning a posses- 
sion which she desired and took away by force. 
To me indeed it maketh no matter, that he 
is wroth therefor, neither do I give heed 
unto it, for they hurt themselves, not me ; 
for even if they hurt my body, they profit 
my soul much more. Howbeit, let us leave 
this thing to the tender mercy of God. But 
concerning your ordinance, if it shall seem 
good to the Lord, to-morrow I send for the 
T 34 eunuch Amantius, who is the chief officer" 
of the Empress, having much favour in her 
eyes, and verily a servant of God ; and I 
impart the matter unto him, and he will be 
exceeding zealous, if Christ will.' And 
we, having received from him these com- 
mands and his blessing, departed unto our 

On the next day we went to the holy man, 38 
and find with him the chamberlain Amantius ; 
for he had paid heed to our business and sent 
for him and instructed him concerning us. 
And when we entered, and Amantius knew 

48 Life of Porphyry 

that we are they concerning whom he spake 
to him, he rose up and worshipped the most 
holy bishops, bowing down his face to the 
ground ; and they knowing who he was fell 
upon his neck and kissed him. And the most 
saintly archbishop John bade them also out 
of their own mouths to instruct the chamber- 
lain concerning their business. So the most 
holy Porphyry related to him all things con- 
cerning the idolaters, how boldly they do 
unlawful things and how they trouble the 
Christians. And he hearing it wept, and being 
filled with godly zeal saith unto them : 'Be 
not discouraged, Fathers ; for the Lord 
Christ shall be a shield unto his religion. 
Pray ye, therefore ; and I speak to the 
Augusta, and have hope in the God of all 
things, that he will show us his mercy after 135 
his wont. And on the next day I bring you 
in also to her, and do ye instruct her out of 
your own mouth as much as ye wish, and ye 
shall find her instructed of me beforehand.' 
And when he had said this he bade us farewell 
and returned again, and we, having had much 
spiritual conversation with the most holy 

Bishop of Ga%a 49 

archbishop John, and received his blessing, 
returned to our lodging. 

On the next day the chamberlain Amantius 39 
sendeth two beadles to bring us to the Palace, 
and rising up speedily we went thither. And 
we found him waiting for us, and he took the 
two bishops and led them in to the Augusta 
Eudoxia. And when she beheld them, she 
saluted them first, saying * Grant me your 
blessing, Fathers ; ' and they worshipped her. 
And she sate upon a golden couch, and saith 
unto them : ' Pardon me, priests of Christ, 
by reason of the necessity of my belly that 
oppresseth me ; for it behoved me to go to 
the antechamber to meet your holiness. 
But for the Lord's sake pray for me, that 
I may bring forth happily that which is in 
my belly.' But the most holy bishops, mar- 
velling at her condescension, said : * May he 
that blessed the womb of Sarah and of 
Rebecca and of Elizabeth, bless that which 
is in thy belly and cause it to live.' And when 
they had had other spiritual conversation 
also, she saith unto them : c I know for what 40 
reason ye have made this journey ; for 


yo Life of Porphyry 

Amantius the chief officer hath instructed me 
beforehand. But if ye also wish to instruct 
me, say your bidding, Fathers.' So, being 
commanded, they explained all things con- 
cerning the idol-madmen, how they do 136 
fearlessly impious deeds and how they oppress 
the Christians, suffering them not to hold 
any civic office, nor to till their own fields, 
'from which they pay public taxes unto your 
government.' But when the Empress heard 
it, she said : * Be not discouraged, Fathers ; 
for I hope in the Lord Christ, the Son of God, 
that I may persuade the Emperor to do that 
which is fitting for your holy faith, and to 
send you away hence comforted. Depart, 
therefore, and refresh yourselves, for ye are 
aweary, and pray that God may favour my 
petition.' And when she had thus spoken, 
she commanded money to be brought, and 
taking three handfuls each she gave to the 
most holy bishops, saying : ' Take this for 
the meanwhile against your expenses.' And 
the bishops received it and, having called 
upon her many blessings, went forth. And 
as they came forth, the greater part of the 

Bishop of Ga^a jr 

coins they distributed to the beadles who 
stood at the doors, so that but little was 
left to them. But the Empress, when the 
Emperor came in to her, told him the business 
of the bishops, and asked him that the temples 
of Gaza might be destroyed. But the 
Emperor, when he heard it, was vexed, and 
said : ' I know that that city is idolatrous, 
but it is well-disposed in the matter of the 
paying of taxes, contributing much money. 
If therefore we come suddenly upon them, 
and affright them, they will flee and we shall 
lose so much tribute. But if it seem good, 
T37 we shall afflict them piecemeal, taking away 
the dignities from the idol-madmen, and the 
other civic offices, and will command their 
temples to be shut up and to give oracles no 
longer. For when they are afflicted and 
brought altogether into a strait place, they 
will acknowledge the truth. For a change 
that is over-sudden is a heavy thing for 
subjects to bear.' But the Empress when she 
heard it was sore grieved (for she was fervent 
in the faith), but answered not the Emperor 
save only this : ' The Lord is able to succour 


y 2 Life of Porphyry 

his servants the Christians, whether we wish 
it or whether we wish it not.' These things 
the God-fearing Amantius, the chamberlain, 
related unto us. 

42 On the next day the Augusta sent for us, 
and having first after her wont saluted the 
holy bishops bade them sit down. And after 
they had spoken much of spiritual matters, 
she saith unto them : c I spake unto the 
Emperor and he was a little vexed. But be 
not discouraged ; for, if God will, I will not 
cease until ye be satisfied and depart having 
accomplished your desire which is of God.' 
And the bishops, when they heard her words, 
worshipped her. And our Saint Porphyry, 
being sore moved, and remembering the 
words of the thrice blessed Procopius, the. 
anchorite, said to the Empress : 4 Do thou 
labour for Christ, and he shall grant thee for 
thy labour a son, who shall live and reign, for 
thee to see and enjoy many years.' And when 
the Empress heard his words she was filled 
with joy and blushed, and the beauty which 138 
was in her countenance was increased ; for 
the things which are apparent make manifest 

Bishop of Ga^a ^3 

the things which are unseen. Then saith 43 
she unto the most holy bishops : ' Pray ye, 
Fathers, that according to your words by 
God's will I may bring forth the male child, 
and if this come to pass, I promise you to do 
all that ye ask. And another thing which ye 
did not ask I purpose to do, with Christ's 
will ; for I will found a holy church in Gaza 
in the midmost of the city. Depart ye, there- 
fore, in peace and abide quietly, praying con- 
tinually for me that my travail may be happy ; 
for this is the ninth month and it is nigh to 
be fulfilled.' So the bishops having taken 
their leave and commended her to God went 
forth from the palace. And prayer was made 
that she should bring forth a male child ; 
for we trusted in the words of the holy 
Procopius, the anchorite. And we went daily 
to the most holy John, the archbishop, and en- 
joyed his holy words, which were sweeter than 
honey and the honey-comb. 1 And Amantius 
the chamberlain came continually to us, some- 
times bringing us answers from the Empress, and 
sometimes for the sake of our conversation. 
1 Cp. Ps. xix. 10 [xviii. n]. 

f4 Life of Porphyry 

44 Now after a few days the Empress bringeth 
forth the male child, and they call his name 
Theodosius, after the name of his grand- 
father Theodosius the Spaniard, who was 
Emperor with Gratian. But the young 
Theodosius when he was born was brought 139 
forth in the purple, wherefore even from his 
birth he was proclaimed Emperor. And there 
was much rejoicing in the city, and messengers 
were sent forth to bear the good tidings unto 
the cities, with gifts and favours. But the 
Lady, when she had brought forth the child 

J . and was risen from childbed, sent to us 
Amantius, saying to us by him : ' I give thanks 
to Christ that through your holy prayers 
God hath granted me the son. Pray ye, there- 
fore, Fathers, for his life and for me, the 
lowly one, that I may fulfil those things 
which I promised unto you, if Christ himself 
again will, through your holy prayers.' 

45 And when the seven days of her lying-in 
were fulfilled, she sendeth for us, and cometh 
to meet us at the door of the bedchamber, 
carrying also the child in the purple. And 
she bowed her head, saying : * Draw nigh, 

Bishop of Ga%a yy 

Fathers, to me and to the child which God 
hath granted unto me through your holy 
prayers.' And she also gave the child into 
their hands that they might seal him. And 
the holy bishops sealed both her and the child 
with the seal of the cross ; and when they had 
prayed, they sate down. And after they had 
had much heart-stirring speech together, the 
Lady saith unto them : ' Know ye, Fathers, 
what I am resolved to do concerning your 
business ? ' And my lord Porphyry answered 
and said : ' Whatsoever thou hast resolved, 
thou hast resolved with God ; for in this night 
it was revealed unto my worthlessness by 
a vision that I was in Gaza, and that I stood 
in the house of the idols there that is called the 
Marneion, and that thy Piety gave unto me 
the Gospel, and said unto me : " Take, read." 
And I having opened the book found the por- 
tion in which the Lord Christ saith unto 
Peter : " Thou art Peter, and upon this 
rock 1 I will build my church, and the gates 
of hell shall not prevail against it." And 
thou, Lady, didst answer and say : " Peace be 
1 Matt. xvi. 18. 

f6 Life of Porphyry 

upon thee, be strong and quit thee like a man." 
And upon this I awakened, and by this am 
I persuaded that the Son of God will work 
with thee for thy purpose. Now tell us, 
Lady, what thou hast resolved.' 

46 The Empress answered and said : ' If it 
seem good unto Christ, after a few days it 
behoveth that the child receive holy baptism. 
Depart ye, therefore, and make a petition and 
request, setting down in order therein all 
things that ye desire, and when the babe 

^ cometh forth after the precious baptism, 
give the petition unto him that carrieth it ; 
and I will teach him what to do, and I hope 
in the Son of God that he will order the whole 
matter according to the will of his compas- 
sion.' And we, having received these com- 
mands, called many blessings upon her and 
upon the child, and went forth and departed 
and made the petition, setting down many 
things in the paper, not only the overturning 
of the idols, but also privileges for the holy 
church and the Christians, and a revenue to 
be provided ; for the holy church was poor. 

47 Now the days ran past, and the day came 

Bishop o 

on which it was purposed that the young 
Emperor Theodosius should be enlightened. 
And all the city was hung with garlands and 
adorned with silks and gold vessels and all 
manner of other adornments, so that no man 
could describe the splendour of the city ; 
nay, one might behold the multitudes of the 
inhabitants like the waves of the sea, various 
with all sorts of garments. But it is not in 
my power to express the glory of that splen- 
dour, but belongeth to those who are prac- 
tised in speech ; but I will be about the 
present true history. When the young 
Theodosius had been baptized and came forth 
from the church to the Palace, then again 
might one behold the goodliness of the multi- 
tude of them that went before, and their 
shining raiment ; for they were all clad in 
white, so that it seemed as though the multi- 
tude were covered with snow. There went 
first Patricians, and Illustres, and every 
dignity, together with the troops of soldiers, 
all bearing candles, so that it seemed as 
though stars were shining on the earth. And 
nigh unto the babe that was carried was the 

f 8 Life of Porphyry 

Emperor Arcadius himself, whose counten- 
ance was glad and bright, even brighter than 
the purple that he wore ; and one of the 
nobles carried the babe in bright raiment. 
And we marvelled, seeing so great glory. And 
Saint Porphyry saith unto us : 'If things that 142 
are of the earth and after a little time vanish 
away have such glory, how much more the 
heavenly things, which are prepared for the 
worthy, which neither eye hath seen * nor ear 
heard, neither have they entered into the 
heart of man.' Now we stood in the vestibule 
of the holy church, having also the paper of 
48 the petition, and when he came forth after the 
baptism, we cried out saying : c We make 
petition of thy Piety,' stretching forth also the 
paper. And he that carried the babe, behold- 
ing it, and knowing our business (for he had 
been taught beforehand by his mistress), com- 
manded that the paper be shown unto him, 
and when he received it, he stood still. And 
he commanded that there should be silence, 
and opened the paper and read a portion, 
and having rolled it up he placed his hand 
1 i Cor. ii. 9. 

Bishop o 

under the head of the babe, and bowed it, 
and cried out before all the people : ' Their 
Majesty hath commanded that the things 
which are in the petition be done.' And all 
they that beheld marvelled and worshipped 
the Emperor, calling him blessed, because 
he was found worthy to see in his own days 
a son reigning ; and he was lifted up with 
pride when he heard them. And tidings were 
brought beforehand to the Empress Eudoxia 
also of that which had been done by her 
child, and she was glad and fell upon her 
knees and gave thanks to God. 

But when the child came into the Palace, 49 
the Lady met him and received and kissed him, 
and taking him up greeted the Emperor also, 
saying : ' Blessed art thou, my Lord, because 
of the things that thine eyes have seen in thy 
743 lifetime.' And the Emperor rejoiced when 
he heard her. And the Empress, seeing that 
he was glad, said : ' If it please thee, let us 
learn what is contained in the petition, that 
the things that are therein may be fulfilled.' 
And the Emperor bade read the paper, and 
when it was read, he said : ' Hard indeed is 

6o Life of Porphyry 

the request to perform, but harder to refuse, 
since it is even the first command of our son.' 
And the Lady saith unto him : ' Not his first 
command only, but arrayed in this holy 
garment hath he given it, and the petition 
is made for the sake of piety and of holy men.' 
But the Emperor consented hardly, though 
the lady was very instant with him. All these 
things did Amantius, beloved of God, report 
unto us. 

50 On the morrow the Empress sendeth for 
us, and having according to her custom first 
saluted the holy bishops bade them sit, and 
saith unto them : c By your prayers hath God 
laid upon me your business, and with his help 
hath it been done, and ye have seen what 
means I did use. But if it seem good on the 
morrow I will send for the quaestor, and before 
your faces I will bid him make according to 
the signification of your petition a divine 
rescript in the name of the two Emperors, 
and, to speak plainly, whatsoever ye say unto 
him he shall do.' And the bishops when they 
heard this also called many blessings upon her, 
and on her son and the Emperor, and when 

Bishop ofGa^a 61 

they had conversed on many other matters 
profitable to the soul they took their leave 
and went forth. And on the morrow she sent 
T44 for the quaestor and for us, and saith unto 
him : c Take this paper and according to its 
signification draw out a divine rescript.' And 
the quaestor, taking the paper, speedily 
dictated the divine rescript, while we were 
yet present. And we put it into his mind 
that he should appoint captains and con- 
sulars for our defence, and troops under them. 
But when the divine rescript was complete 
and signed, we besought the Lady that the 
matter should be committed into the hands 
of some man among the nobles. And she 
bade Amantius seek out a man that was a 
zealous Christian, to whom it should be com- 
mitted. For many of them which were in 51 
high places held the faith but in pretence ; on 
whom the divine judgement came afterwards. 
For when the Emperors knew that they were 
not righteous men of undefiled faith, they took 
away from them their dignities, and punished 
them in their bodies and with amercements. 
But these things happened before this time ; 

62 Life of Porphyry 

wherefore the Augusta commanded that a 
man of true faith be entrusted with our 
business. And he that was entrusted was one 
called Cynegius, one of the consistory, an 
admirable man and fervent in the faith. And 
having called him to her, the Augusta com- 
manded him to overturn all the temples of 
the idols unto their foundations and burn 
them with fire. And she granted him money 
also from her own hand, saying : ' Take 
these for thine expenses, and see that thou 
take nothing from the most holy bishops.' 
And when he had received these command- 
ments from his mistress, he went forth, being 
filled with greater zeal. 

52 Now when we had passed the rest of the 
winter and spent the holy Paschal days and 145 
the day of the Resurrection, we made ready 
to sail away. And we asked the admirable 
Amantius to make known our departure unto 
his mistress that we might take leave of 
her. And he when he heard it was grieved 
that we intended to sail away ; for he loved 
us so much, that he himself asked his mistress 
to give him leave that he might go to make 

Bishop of Ga^a 6$ 

his prayers at the holy and venerable places. 
But his mistress feared to give him leave, 
lest when he came thither he should become 
a monk and remain there ; for she knew the 
manner of life of the man. For he was in 
sooth blameless, giving much alms, and always 
fasting, and entertaining many strangers and 
ready to help the necessities of the pious. 
So much concerning Amantius, beloved of 
God. But he brought knowledge of us to his 
mistress and we went in to her, and she saith 
to the most holy bishops : ' When, with 
God's will, do ye sail ? ' And they said, ' For 
this reason have we come hither, to take 
leave of your Majesty.' And she said : 
' Remember always me and my child,' 

And straightway she commanded money 53 
to be brought, and when it was brought 
she said to my lord the bishop Porphyry : 
* Father, take these two hundreds and found 
the holy church which we promised to found 
in the midst of Gaza, and make known to me 
if thou requirest yet more money, and I 
will send it straightway. And found also a 
guest-house, that thou mayest receive the 

<*4 Life of Porphyry 

brethren that come to sojourn in the city and T46 
mayest provide them with their expenses for 
three days.' And she gave also to the most 
holy John one thousand pieces of gold and to 
both of them precious vessels, and for their 
expenses she gave unto them each an hundred 
pieces of gold. And the aforesaid most holy 
John, bishop of Caesarea, obtained what- 
soever privileges he desired on account of his 
own church. And when they had prayed and 
called many blessings on the Empress and her 
son and the Emperor, they went forth. 
54 But they asked that they might go in unto 
the Emperor also ; and the Emperor asked 
them whether they were wholly quit of their 
business, and whether the Empress had 
bestowed upon them any gifts. And they 
said that ' We are wholly quit, God saving 
your Piety, and your spouse, most beloved 
of God, and your son, whom God preserve, 
and many and great are the gifts that we have 
received.' And straightway the Emperor also 
bade the prefects to grant unto them out 
of the public revenues of Palestine twenty 
pounds of gold apiece. And he himself also 

Bishop of.Ga^a 6$ 

gave unto them on account of their expenses 
one handful each, which was found to be 
fifty pieces of money for each. And when 
they had called many blessings on him also, 
they went forth. But we spent in the city 
other three days, until we received the grant 
of the forty pounds, and after three days we 
went aboard and set sail, on the three and 
twentieth day of Xanthikos, according to the 
Gazaeans, but according to the Romans the 
eighteenth of April. And the most illustrious 
747 Cynegius departed after us, using the public 

Now we came to Rhodes in five days. And 55 
we were desirous to go out to the saint 
Procopius, the anchorite ; and though we 
earnestly besought the owner of the ship to 
allow us three hours, he would not allow it, 
saying that ' I shall not find so fair a wind '. 
But we said unto him that c The prayers of 
the holy man are able both to preserve us and 
to give us a fair wind '. But the owner of 
the ship hardened his heart and would not 
accept our request ; but when we had taken 
in water, we put out to sea. And we were 

546.20 F 

66 Life of Porphyry 

sore grieved, that we had failed of this meeting. 
We besought him, therefore, by prayer to 
pardon us and to pray for us, that we might 
be preserved and fulfil the work which we had 
taken in hand. 

56 So when we had sailed from Rhodes and made 
a good voyage for two days, the weather being 
fair, of a sudden a storm ariseth, winds and 
lightnings and thunders, and very great waves, 
and the waves were uplifted and became as 
high mountains, and the ship was tossed on 
high so that we seemed to touch the clouds. 
And there were cries and tears and prayers to 
God, and we besought also the prayers of the 
holy Procopius, the anchorite. And when the 
evening came and the storm abated not, we 
continued without sleep the whole of that 
night. But about dawn, being wearied with 
their great affliction, the most holy bishops 148 
fell asleep for a little while ; and in his sleep 
my lord Porphyry seeth Saint Procopius, the 
anchorite, saying unto them : ' Instruct the 
owner of the ship and seal him again (for he 
is of the abominable heresy of Arius) and 
prepare him to call Arius accursed and his 

Bishop of Ga^a 67 

evil faith, and straightway this so great tem- 
pest shall cease. For it is because he is of the 
said heresy that he would not suffer you to 
come unto me. However, do ye instruct 
him, for he will receive the true doctrine 
from you.' 

When he heard these things our holy 57 
Porphyry awoke, and calling us related the 
things that he had seen in his sleep. And 
straightway calling the owner of the ship we 
said unto him : ' Dost thou wish that thy 
ship should be saved, and all we and before all 
things thine own soul ? ' And he saith, ' Of 
this there is no question.' And the bishops 
said unto him : ' Deny thine evil faith and 
believe on the true faith, and be saved, thou 
and thy ship and all of us.' The owner of the 
ship saith unto them : ' Since I see that ye 
have foreknowledge (for ye have understood 
that which is in my heart although no man 
hath informed you), behold I say unto you : 
I believe as ye believe and I deny the heresy 
of Arius and Arius himself. But I beseech 
you that when there is time ye show me the 
light out of the Holy Scriptures unto the true 
F 2 

68 Life of Porphyry 

faith.' And the holy bishops took and sealed 
him again, making a prayer over him, and 
made him also to partake of the divine 
mysteries. And in the meanwhile also the 149 
tempest ceased and toward evening the wind 
turned, and we sailed fairly, and having spent 
on the sea other four days, on the fifth at 
dawn we came unto the seaport of the land 
of the Gazaeans, which they call Maiumas. 
58 And when we were come ashore, the 
Christians there when they knew it received 
us with psalm-singing ; and likewise also they 
of the city when they heard it came to meet 
us, having with them the sign of the precious 
Cross, themselves also singing psalms. And 
the people from the two places were mingled 
together, and there wa's no small number ; 
for they from the seaside were the more, 
because they had many Egyptians who were 
merchants of wines. But they of the idol- 
madness, when they saw the things which 
happened, were cut to the heart ; but they 
dared not to do aught, since they heard how 
great honour the most holy bishops had 
received from the Emperors, and that the 

Bishop of Ga^a 6$ 

idols were to be overturned ; and they were 
sore disquieted and cast down. 

But when we came into the city, in the 59 
place that is called the Four Ways, there was 
a statue of marble which they said was a 
statue of Aphrodite ; and it was upon a base 
of stone, and the form of the statue was of 
a woman, naked, and having all her shame 
uncovered. And all they of the city did 
honour to the statue, especially the women, 
T 50 kindling lamps and burning incense. For they 
reported concerning it that it giveth answer 
in dreams unto those who wish to make trial 
of marriage, but they deceived each other, 
speaking falsely. And oftentimes, being 
bidden by the demon to make a contract of 
marriage, they were so unfortunate that they 
came even to divorce, or lived together in 
evil wise. These things did we learn from 
them which turned aside from error and 
acknowledged the truth. But some of the 60 
idolaters also, being unable to bear the calamity 
of the grievous marriages whereunto they had 
been led by the bidding of the demon of 
Aphrodite, were indignant and confessed the 

70 Life of Porphyry 

deceit. For even such are the demons, to 
deceive and say naught at all that is true ; 
for it is not in them to know of a certainty, 
but by guesses they delude and win over the 
people which are enslaved unto them. For 
how can they speak truly who are fallen away 
from the truth ? Even if they happen to 
prophesy aright in aught, it is by chance that 
this cometh about, even as among men it 
chanceth oftentimes that one foretelleth con- 
cerning a matter and it cometh about by 
chance. When therefore they foretell the 
event aright by chance, seeing that this is 
but seldom, we marvel ; but though they err 
continually, of this we are silent. Thus much 
concerning demons and their error. 
6 1 Now when we had come out of the ship 
unto the city as hath been said, when we came 
unto the place where was the aforesaid idol of T 51 
Aphrodite (but the Christians were carrying 
the precious wood of Christ, that is to say 
the figure of the Cross), the demon that 
dwelt in the statue beholding and being 
unable to suffer the sight of the sign which 
was being carried, came forth out of the 

Bishop ofGa^a 71 

marble with great confusion and cast down 
the statue itself and brake it into many pieces. 
And it fell out that two men of the idolaters 
were standing beside the base on which the 
statue stood, and when it fell, it clave the 
head of the one in twain, and of the other it 
brake the shoulder and the wrist. For they 
were both standing and mocking at the holy 
multitude. And many of the Greeks when 62 
they beheld the sign which had come to pass, 
believed, and mingled with the lay-folk and 
entered with them into the holy church which 
is called Peace. And there was great joy 
among the Christians on that day for three 
reasons ; in the first place because they 
received back their priest in good health, and 
having done according to his desire; and in 
the second place because the gods of the 
heathen were dashed in pieces and become 
as dust that is scattered from the summer 
threshing-floor, 1 and also they who were like 
unto them were broken because they trusted 
in them ; and in the third place, and before 
all others, because moreover souls that were 

Dan. ii. 35. 

7 2 Life of Porphyry 

gone astray were saved and added unto the 
fold of Christ. And when he had sealed them 
the bishop let them go in peace, bidding them 
make attendance in the holy places of prayer. 
And they were in number thirty-two men 152 
and seven women. And when the archbishop 
John had spent other two days in Gaza he 
departed unto Caesarea, all the Christians and 
the holy bishop bringing him on his way for 
two miles. 

63 But after the tenth day came the admirable 
Cynegius, having with him the consular and 
the captain and a great band of soldiers and 
civil officers. But many of the idolaters had 
foreknowledge of this and departed out of 
the city, some into the villages, and some 
into other cities ; and they were the more 
part of the rich men of the city. And 
the said Cynegius quartered the soldiers in the 
houses of them which had fled. And on the 
next day having called to him the people of 
the city, the captain and the consular being 
present, he uttered unto them the imperial 
letter, which commanded that the idols and 
their temples be overturned and given unto 

Bishop of Ga^a 73 

the fire. And straightway when they heard, 
the idolaters cried out with a loud voice, so 
that the governors were wroth and threatened 
them, sending soldiers among them, who beat 
them with clubs and staves. But the Chris- 
tians with great joy shouted aloud, prais- 
ing the Emperors and the governors. And 64 
straightway they went with the governors 
and the troops and overturned the places 
of the idols of Gaza. Now there were in the 
city eight public temples of idols, of the Sun 
T53 and of Aphrodite and of Apollo and of the 
Maiden and of Hecate and the temple called 
of the Hero, and the temple of the Fortune 
of the City, which they called the Tychaion, 
and the Marneion, which they said was the 
temple of the Cretan-born Zeus, which they 
accounted to be more famous than all the 
temples in the world. And there were, also 
other very many idols in the houses and in 
the villages, whereof no man could reckon the 
number. For the demons having taken hold 
upon the will of the Gazaeans, a people easily 
led astray, had filled with error all their 
city and the parts round about it. But this 

74 Life of Porphyry 

they suffer because of their great simplicity; 
wherefore when they are converted unto the 
holy faith they become zealous Christians. 
65 Thus much concerning the Gazaeans. Being 
commanded, therefore, the soldiers with the 
Christians of the city and of the part of it 
that is by the sea went forth against the idols. 
And desiring first to overthrow the Marneion, 
they were set back ; for the priests of that 
idol, having heard beforehand, did bar the 
doors of the inner temple within with great 
stones, and taking down into the place 
called the sanctuary that none may enter 
whatsoever precious vessels were in the 
temple, and moreover the very images of the 
gods themselves, they hid them there, and 
escaped through the same sanctuary by other 
ways up ; for it was said that from the 
afore-mentioned sanctuary there were many 
ways going up into divers places. Being 
therefore set back, as I said before, they 
turned against the other places of idols, and 
some they overthrew, and others they gave 
unto the fire, having seized all the precious 154 
vessels that were therein. But Saint Porphyry 

Bishop of Ga^a 75 

had laid a curse in the church upon every 
Christian citizen that should take aught from 
the places of the idols unto his own profit ; no 
man, therefore, of the citizens that believed 
took aught, save only the soldiers, and such 
strangers as were sojourning there. Therefore 
there went about with the lay-folk devout men 
of the clergy and the holy bishop Porphyry 
himself, restraining them that they should take 
nothing for themselves. 

So they spent ten days overthrowing the 66 
temples of the idols, and after the said days 
they took counsel concerning the Marneion 
also, how they should deal with it. For 
some said that it should be digged down, 
and others burned down, and others that 
the place should be purified and conse- 
crated unto a church of God, and there 
was much searching out of this matter. 
And at the last the holy bishop proclaimeth 
a fast to the people, and a prayer, that the 
Lord may reveal unto them how they must 
do. And having fasted on that day and 
prayed unto God concerning this matter, 
in the evening they celebrated the Holy 

76 Life of Porphyry 

Communion. But during the celebration of 
the Communion, a child of about seven years, 
which was standing with his own mother, 
cried out suddenly, saying : ' Burn ye the 
inner temple unto the foundation ; for many 
terrible things have been done in it, especially 
the sacrifices of human beings. And after this 
manner burn ye it : bring liquid pitch and 
sulphur and fat of swine, and mingle the three 
and anoint the brazen doors and set fire to 155 
them, and so shall all the temple be burned ; 
for otherwise is it not possible. But the 
outer temple leave ye with the court. And 
after the burning, having purified the place, 
found there a holy church.' And he said 
also this : ' I swear unto you before God, 
otherwise may it not be done ; for neither 
is it I that speak, but Christ who is within 
me.' These words did he speak in the 
language of the Syrians. But when they 
heard they all marvelled and glorified God. 
67 And this marvel came also unto the hearing 
of the holy bishop, and stretching forth his 
hands to heaven he glorified God and said, 
' Glory be unto thee, Holy Father, that thou 

Bishop of Ga^a 77 

hast hid these things l from the wise and 
understanding and hast revealed them unto 
babes.' And he commanded that the child 
and his mother, after the people had been 
dismissed from the church, should be present 
in the bishop's house ; and having put the 
child apart, he said to the woman : ' I adjure 
thee by the Son of the living God to say 
whether it was thou or some other, thou 
knowing him, who did put it into the mind 
of thy child to utter those words which 
he said concerning the Marneion.' And 
the woman said : ' I yield myself up unto 
the terrible and dreadful judgement-seat of 
Christ, if I foreknew aught of the things 
which my son did utter this day. But, if 
it seem good unto thee, lo ! take the child 
and examine him with threats, and if any one 
hath put it into his mind to speak these words, 
T 56 he will be afraid and confess, but if he will 
say nothing else, it is manifest that he was 
filled with the Holy Ghost.' And the bishop 
having heard the speech of the woman and 
thought it good, said that she should be taken 
1 Matt. xi. 25. 

/8 Life of Porphyry 

apart for a little, and the child be brought 
in ; and the boy being set there he said unto 
him : ' Who put it into thy mind to utter 
in the church those things which thou spakest 
concerning the Marneion ? ' And the child 
was silent. Then the most holy bishop com- 
manded that a scourge should be brought, 
and the child be stretched out, that he 
might be made afraid. And he that held 
the scourge lifted up his voice and cried out, 
saying : ' Who told thee to speak ? Say, lest 
thou be smitten with the scourge.' But the 
boy stood dumb, uttering no word. Then 
we that stood around him said the same to 
him with threats ; but he was not moved. 
68 At the last, after we had all ceased, the boy 
opened his mouth and said in the Greek 
dialect : ' Burn ye the inner temple unto the 
foundation ; for many terrible things have 
been done in it, especially the sacrifices of 
human beings. And after this manner burn 
ye it : bring liquid pitch and sulphur and fat 
of swine, and mingle the three and anoint 
the brazen doors and set fire to them, and so 
shall all the temple be burned ; for otherwise 

Bishop ofGa^a 79 

is it not possible. But the outer temple 
leave ye with the court. And after the burn- 
757 ing, having purified the place, found there 
a holy church. I swear unto you again before 
God, otherwise may it not be done. For it is 
not I that speak, but Christ who is within me.' 
And the most holy bishop Porphyry mar- 
velled, and all they that were with him, when 
they heard the bold saying of the boy, and 
how plainly he spake ; and calling his mother, 
the bishop asked her whether she or her son 
knew the Greek tongue ; but she affirmed 
with oaths that neither she nor her child 
knew Greek. And when he heard it, again 
the most holy Porphyry glorified God, and 
bringing three coins gave them to the woman. 
But the boy beholding the coins in the hand 
of his mother cried out, saying in the Syriac 
tongue : ' Take them not, Mother, lest thou 
also sell the gift of God for gold.' And we 
hearing it marvelled again exceedingly. But 
the woman gave back the three coins saying 
to the bishop, ' Pray for me and my child 
and commend us unto God.' And the holy 
bishop sent them away in peace. 

8 a' Life of Porphyry 

69 But at dawn he called together the God- 
fearing clergy and the Christ-loving lay-folk, 
and likewise the admirable Cynegius and the 
governors, and told them how the boy had 
spoken concerning the Marneion. And when 
they heard they were astonied and with one 
mind said that according to the saying of the 
boy, even so it should be burned. Taking, 158 
therefore, the liquid pitch and the sulphur and 
the swine's fat and mingling the three they 
anointed the inner doors, and having made 

a prayer they kindled the fire, and straightway 
all the temple took fire and was burned. And 
as many of the soldiers and of the strangers 
as were able seized out of the fire whatsoever 
they found, whether it was gold or silver or 

70 iron or lead. But there was a man there, one 
of the officers of the soldiers, which they call 
a tribune, being appointed to oversee the 
burning of the temple. Now in appearance 
he was a Christian, but unknown to the 
many he was an idolater. He standing by and 
seeing the burning and the plundering by the 
soldiers was cut to the heart, and making a 
show to punish their disorderliness did scourge 

Bishop of Ga^a 8 1 

unmercifully one whom he found bearing away 
some of the spoil. Now while these things 
were happening and the walls were being 
destroyed, of a sudden out of the fire a burning 
beam falleth upon the tribune and bringeth 
upon him a twofold death ; for it brake his 
head and burned the rest of his body. And 
straightway the soldiers which believed and 
the Christ-loving folk, knowing the man, that 
his heart was inclined unto the idols, glorified 
God and said that psalm 1 which saith : ' Why 
doth the tyrant boast himself in mischief ? 
All the day long thy tongue hath imagined 
T59 wickedness ; like a sharp razor thou hast 
wrought deceitfully. Thou hast loved mis- 
chief above goodness, iniquity more than to 
speak righteousness. Thou hast loved all 
words of destruction, a deceitful tongue. 
Therefore may God destroy thee for ever, 
may he pluck thee out and remove thee from 
thy dwelling-place and thy root out of the 
land of the living ; ' and the rest of the psalm. 
But the temple continued to burn for many 
days. And after this, search was made in the 71 
1 Ps. Hi. [li.] i f. 

546.20 O 

8 2 Life of Porphyry 

houses also (for there were many idols in most 
of the courts), and of those which were found 
some were given to the fire and others were 
cast into the jakes. And there were found 
also books filled with witchcraft, which they 
called sacred, out of which they of the idol- 
madness performed their mysteries and other 
unlawful things. And unto these was done 
even as unto their gods. 

72 But many came running unto the holy 
faith, and some indeed from fear, but others 
condemning their former life, and unto all 
the holy church did open her doors ; for she 
remembered the holy scripture which saith : l 
' Unto him that knocketh it shall be opened, 
and he that seeketh findeth,' and again : 2 
' whether in pretence or in truth, Christ is 
preached.' But some of the believers also 
said unto the holy bishop that it behoved him 
to receive not those who came out of fear, 

73 but those whose purpose was good. But the 
holy bishop said to them which spake thus : T 60 
c There be also virtues which come by chance 
unto men from circumstances. For even as 

1 Matt. vii. 7. 2 Phil. i. 18. 

Bishop of Ga%a 8 3 

a man who hath gotten a froward servant first 
admonisheth him by all means to behave him- 
self wisely and to serve him with a simple 
heart, but when he findeth him nowise 
obedient unto his admonition, then there- 
after of necessity he layeth upon him fear 
and blows and bonds and other such things, 
desiring not to destroy him but that he should 
be saved and acknowledge that which be- 
hoveth him ; even such may ye suppose God 
to be, enduring our frowardness with long- 
suffering, and oftentimes persuading us for 
our profit both through the scriptures and 
through other holy men ; but when we are 
not persuaded, desiring in all things like a good 
and merciful master to keep us and not to 
thrust us away, he layeth upon us his fear and 
his teaching, calling us of necessity to acknow- 
ledge that which behoveth us. Therefore the 
divine scripture saith : l " When he slew them, 
then they sought him, and they returned and 
inquired early after God." And again 2 it 
saith concerning them who behave themselves 
unruly and stiffen their necks against God : 

1 Ps. Ixxviii. [Ixxvii.] 34. a Ps. xxxii. [xxxi.] 9. 

G 2 

84 Life of Porphyry 

" With muzzle and bridle ye shall hold in their 
jaws lest they come nigh thee." It is needful 
^therefore, my children, that mankind be ad- 
monished by fear and threats and discipline. 
Therefore again l it saith : " It is good for me T6i 
that thou hast humbled me, that I may learn 
thy statutes." These things have I said because 
of those who desire to come unto our holy 
faith. For even if they come doubting, time 
is able to soften their hearts, if Christ consent, 
But, that I may tell you yet another thing, 
even though they be not seen to be worthy 
of the faith, having been already in a state 
of evil, they that are born of them can be 
saved, by having converse with the good.' 
74 Thus spake the holy Porphyry, and having 
persuaded the brethren he received all those 
that desired to be enlightened, having in- 
structed them for many days not only before 
the baptism, but also thereafter ; for he con- 
tinually taught the people, not speaking high- 
sounding words, desiring to make a show, but 
teaching in plain speech and explaining all 
things out of the scripture. There were added, 
1 Ps. cxix. [cxviii.] 71. 

Bishop of Ga%a 8 y 

therefore, unto the fold of Christ in that year 
about three hundred persons, and thenceforth 
in each year the numbers of the Christians 
received an increase. 

Now when the Marneion was wholly burned, 75 
and the city was set in order, the blessed 
bishop took counsel with the holy clergy and 
the Christ-loving lay-folk, to found a holy 
church in the place that was burned, as it 
had been revealed unto him when he was 
in Constantinople ; for which reason also he 
received the money from the Empress Eudoxia, 
most beloved of God. Having sent away the 
T62 governors, therefore, and the Christ-loving 
lay-folk, he kept with him some of the soldiers, 
lest there should be any uprising after their 
departure ; yet not only for this cause, but 
also that they might help in the bringing 
together of the materials for the building of 
the said holy church. Some then counselled 
that it should be built after the fashion of 
the temple of the idol ; for the shape of it 
was round, being set about with two porticoes, 
one within the other ; but the midst of it 
was a dome spread out and stretching up on 

8tf Life of Potpkyry 

high ; and it had also other things becoming 
unto idols, and convenient for the abominable 
and unlawful deeds which were done by the 
idol-madmen. After this fashion, then, some 
said that the holy church should be built, but 
others said the contrary, saying that the very 
remembrance of the fashion thereof should 
be destroyed ; and they who said this per- 
suaded all men, as speaking well. But the 
holy bishop said : ' This also let us leave to 
the will of God.' But while yet the place is 
being made clear, there cometh a servant of 
the Master of the Offices bringing an imperial 
letter from Eudoxia, whose memory endureth 
for ever, and the letter contained greeting 
and made request for prayers for herself and 
for the Emperors, her husband and her child. 
And there was in another paper within the 
letter the plan of the holy church, shaped 
like a cross, even as now with God's help it 
is to be seen, and it was written in the letter 
that the holy church should be founded 163 
according to the plan. And the saint Por- 
phyry rejoiced when he read and beheld the 
plan ; for he knew that this also came to pass 

Bishop of Ga^a 87 

by divine revelation, and remembered the 
scripture which saith : l * The king's heart is 
in the hand of God.' And the letter said 
furthermore that precious pillars and marbles 
were about to be sent. 

When, therefore, the ashes were carried 76 
away and all the abominations were destroyed, 
the rubbish that remained of the marble work 
of the Marneion, which they said was sacred, 
and in a place not to be entered, especially 
by women, this did the holy bishop resolve 
to lay down for a pavement before the temple 
outside in the street, that it might be trodden 
under foot not only of men, but also of women 
and dogs and swine and beasts. And this 
grieved the idolaters more than the burning 
of the temple. Wherefore the more part of 
them, especially the women, walk not upon 
the marbles even unto this day. 

But after a little time, he proclaimeth a fast 
on a certain day, and when the people were dis- 
missed after the morning prayers, the bishop, 
beloved of God, bade every man that loved 
Christ to bring each one mattocks and shovels 
1 Prov. xxi. i. 

88 Life of Porphyry 

and other such tools. This had he proclaimed 
in the evening before, that all should be found 
ready in the morning, as indeed it came to pass. T 64 
77 But when the people were come together 
with the said tools in the holy church that 
is called Peace, he bade them all singing 
together to go to the place where the Mar- 
neion was aforetime, and he himself followed 
after, carrying the sacred gospel-book and 
having around him the holy clergy, verily 
after the likeness of Christ with his disciples. 
And before the people went Barochas, whose 
memory endureth alway, bearing the figure 
of the precious Cross, and on either side of 
the people were the soldiers which were left 
behind for the good government of the city. 
And as they went they sang, and in the place 
of the division of the psalm they said the 
Alleluia ; and this was the psalm l which they 
said : ' O come, let us rejoice before the Lord, 
let us make a joyful noise unto God our 
saviour. Let us come before his presence 
with thanksgiving, and make a joyful noise 
unto him with psalms. For God is a great 
1 Ps. xcv. [xciv.] 1-7. 

Bishop of Ga^a 89 

lord and a great king over all the earth ; for 
in his hand are the ends of the earth and the 
high places of the hills are his ; for his is the 
sea and he made it, and his hands fashioned 
the dry land. O come let us worship and fall 
down before him, let us cry aloud before the 
Lord our maker ; for he is our God and we 
are the people of his pasture and the sheep 
of his hand.' 

And they said other psalms also until they 78 
came unto the Marneion. Now Saint Porphyry, 
165 the bishop, had persuaded a certain Rufinus, 
an architect of Antioch, a believer and well 
skilled, by whom the whole of the building 
was accomplished. He taking gypsum marked 
out the fashion of the holy church according 
to the form of the plan which was sent by 
the Augusta Eudoxia, most beloved of God. 
And when the most holy bishop had made 
a prayer and bending of the knee, he bade 
the people dig. And straightway all with one 
mind and with the same zeal began to dig, 
crying : ' Christ hath conquered.' And there 
was no difference to be seen between man 
and woman, or old man or child, but their zeal 

90 Life of Porphyry 

gave unto all of them the same strength, and 
some digged and others carried away, so that 
in a few days all the places were digged and 
cleared out. 

79 And having made ready beforehand the 
materials for the building, both very great 
stones from the hill that is called Aldioma 
toward the west of the city, and other material, 
the saint brought together again the Christ- 
loving folk, and having made many prayers 
and much singing of psalms at the place, he 
himself girt up his loins and began the first 
to carry stones and put them into the founda- 
tions ; and then also the clergy, beloved of 
God, and all the lay-folk, rejoicing and singing 
with a loud voice, so that the sound was heard 
three miles from the city. 

80 But a great marvel came to pass on that 
day. There be wells within the enclosure of 
the temple, whereof there is one to the south- 
ward of the present holy church of God, 
having no small depth. Now three boys, 
being athirst, went aside to drink, and coming T66 
nigh to the mouth of the well bended over, 
leaning upon the wood that was over the 

Bishop of Ga^a 9 1 

mouth, as children do ; and the wood brake, 
and the three fell into the well. And some 
who were there went and told the people of 
that which had come to pass ; and there was 
no small tumult, all men running together 
to the well. But when he learned what had 
come to pass, the most holy Porphyry himself 
also ran to the place, and bade them keep 
silence, and when they were silent he began to 
pray and beseech God with many tears that 
he would keep the children alive and un- 
harmed, and especially because of the idol- 
madmen, that they may not say : ' Where is 
their God on whom they hoped ? ' And when 
he had spent one hour lying upon the ground, 
he arose and bade some one go down by the 
ropes of the buckets, to make search for the 
boys. For the multitude were shouting out, 
calling the children, and there was none that 
gave ear to them from below out of the well. 

But when the man went down the three 8c 
boys were found sitting upon a great stone 
unharmed and of good cheer, talking with 
each other. And when the man beheld them 
he marvelled exceedingly and glorified God, 

92 Life of Porphyry 

and shouted out from below and said : ' Glorify 
the Lord, for the three boys live.' And when 
the saintly and holy bishop heard, and the 
people, they rejoiced, and sending down a 
great basket bade the three to be brought up 
together. For they were little children of 
about six or seven years. And he that was 
below having received the basket and fastened T6y 
it safely set the three therein, exhorting them 
to shut their eyes until they should come to 
the top, and to say : ' Jesus Christ, save us.' 
And having done this he shouted out to pull 
the rope steadily ; and as they pulled they said 
the hymn of the three children : 1 ' Blessed 
art thou, Lord God of our fathers.' And 
when they came up and the saintly bishop 
beheld them (for he was standing at the mouth 
of the well and holding the rope) he was filled 
with joy and wept and cried out, saying : 2 
' All ye works of the Lord, praise the Lord, 
sing unto him.' And when they had lifted 
them out of the basket, they searched them, 
lest any part of their body were bruised ; and 
there was no hurt found in them. But we 
1 [Dan. iii. 52.] 2 [Dan. iii. 57.] 

Bishop of Ga^a 93 

beheld a great marvel ; for the three were 82 
found to have marks shaped like to a cross, 
as it were scratched with a needle, the one 
in the midst of his forehead, the second upon 
his right hand about his fingers, and the other 
on his right shoulder. And the little crosses 
were fairly fashioned, neither crooked nor 
awry, but of one measure, so that they were 
manifest signs of God ; for neither did they 
cause any pain to the children, nor was there 
any blood, but they were as it were stamped 
with vermilion. And they remained on them 
a sufficient time that all might see and marvel ; 
for many also of the strangers when they 
beheld them believed. And the man also 83 
that went down for the children, when he 
T 68 was brought up, affirmed with oaths, saying 
that ' When I put them in the basket and 
they were borne up I beheld as it were 
lightning round about them until they came 
unto the mouth of the well.' And there was 
joy among the Christians on that day, but 
among the idolaters grief and offence. 

But the building went forward day by day, 
all men working with zeal and haste ; for no 

94 Life of Porphyry 

man was deprived of his wages, but he 
rendered them more than their due, giving 
freely to the labourers ; for he said : ' It 
behoveth that blessing and not a curse should 
be upon all the work of the building. 5 

84 And in the next year the Empress Eudoxia 
sendeth the pillars which she promised, mar- 
vellous and great, in number two-and-thirty 
(and they are called Carystian), the which 
are in the holy church shining like emeralds. 
But when they came into harbour, there 
was shown forth again the zeal and eagerness 
of the Christ-loving folk ; for all when they 
heard it straightway ran to the shore, not 
only the men, but also women and children 
and old men (for the desire of the faith 
enabled all of them), and bringing wagons 
they laid each pillar upon a wagon and drew 
it and set it in the open part of the temple, 
and turned again and conveyed another until 
they had conveyed them all. Of these matters 
thus much. 

85 But about that time there came to sojourn 

in the city a certain woman of Antioch called T6Q 
Julia, who was of the abominable heresy of 

Bishop o 

them which are called Manichaeans ; and 
knowing that certain persons were but lately 
enlightened and not yet stablished in the 
holy faith she wrought secretly and corrupted 
them, bewitching them by her doctrine, and 
much more by gifts of money. For he that 
invented the said godless heresy was not able 
to catch any otherwise than by the bestowing 
of money. For unto those who have under- 
standing their doctrine is filled full of all 
blasphemy and condemnation and old wives' 
fables that entice foolish womenfolk and 
childish men of vain mind and wit. For out 
of divers heresies and opinions of the Greeks 
did they build up this their evil belief, desiring 
by wickedness and craft to take hold on all 
men. For they say that there be many gods, 
that they may be acceptable unto the Greeks ; 
and moreover they acknowledge nativities and 
fate and the science of the stars, in order 
that they may sin without fear, holding that 
the commission of sins is not in us, but cometh 
from the necessity of fate. But they confess 86 
Christ also, for they say that he was made 
man in appearance ; for they themselves in 

9<f Life of Porphyry 

appearance are called Christians. For the 
matters which are worthy of laughter and ill 
words I pass by, that I may not fill the ears 
of them which light upon them with things T 70 
very grievous to hear and monstrous tales. 
For taking opinions from Philistion the maker 
of plays and from Hesiod and others that are 
called philosophers and mingling them with 
the opinions of the Christians they builded 
up their own heresy. For even as a painter 
making a mixture of divers colours perfecteth 
the appearance of a man or a beast or some 
other thing for the deceit of them that behold 
it, that it may seem to them that are foolish 
and without understanding to be true, but 
to them that have understanding it is a shadow 
and a deceit and an invention of man ; so 
also the Manichaeans having drawn out of 
divers opinions did perfect their own evil 
belief, nay rather, having gathered together 
and mingled the venom of divers serpents, did 
prepare a deadly poison for the destruction 
of the souls of men. But, as aforesaid, that 
pestilent woman having come to the city, 
certain persons were led away by her deceitful 

Bishop of Ga^a 97 

teaching. But after some days Saint Porphyry, 87 
having been informed by certain of the be- 
lievers, sent for her and questioned her, who 
she was and whence and what manner of 
belief she held. And she confessed both her 
country and that she was a Manichaean. And 
when they that stood around him were moved 
with wrath (for there were certain devout 
men with him), the blessed man besought 
them not to be angered, but with patience 
to exhort her a first and a second time^ 
observing the saying of the holy apostle. 1 
Then saith he to the woman: 'Abstain, 
Sister, from this evil belief ; for it is of Satan*' 
But she answered : * Speak and hear, and 
either persuade or be persuaded.' And the 
blessed man said : < Prepare thyself against 
the morrow and present thyself here.' So she 
took her leave and departed. But the blessed 
man, having fasted and prayed much unto 
Christ that he would shame the devil, pre- 
pared himself against the next day, and called 
certain of the devout, both clergy and lay- 
men, to hear the dispute between himself 
1 Tit. iii. 10. 

546-20 H 

98 Life of Porphyry 

i and the woman. And on the morrow the 
woman presenteth herself, having with her 
two men and as many women ; they were 
young and fair to look upon, and the faces 
of them all were pale ; but Julia was old in 
years. And they all did build their reasoning 
upon the teaching of this world, and much 
more Julia than the others. And their guise 
was lowly and their manner gentle, but, as 
it is said, they were outwardly sheep, 1 and 
inwardly ravening wolves and venomous 
beasts ; for hypocrisy is in all their words 
and deeds. Then being bidden to sit down 
they inquired into the matter. And the saint, 
holding the holy gospels and having made the 
sign of the Cross on his mouth, began to ask 
her to declare her belief, and she began to 
speak. And brother Cornelius the deacon, of 
whom mention was made a little time before, 
being skilled in the shorthand of Ennomus, 
did at the bidding of the most blessed bishop 
note all that was said and disputed, I and 
brother Barochas reminding him. But I have 
not written the dispute in this book, seeing 

1 Matt. vii. 15. 

Bishop of Ga%a 99 

that it was long, and desiring to make the 
present writing brief ; but in another book 
I have set it forth for them that desire to 
know both the wisdom that was given of God 
unto the most holy Porphyry, and the old 
wives' fables which the marvel-monger and 
magician Julia spake in her foolishness. 

On whom the divine justice came quickly. 89 
For after she had said many vain things for 
many hours and spoken the customary blas- 
phemies against the Lord and God of all, 
Saint Porphyry, being moved by divine zeal, 
when he saw him that comprehendeth all 
things both seen and unseen blasphemed by 
a woman possessed of the devil and submitting 
herself unto his will, gave forth his sentence 
against her, saying : ' God, who made all 
things, who alone is eternal, having neither 
beginning nor ending, who is glorified in 
trinity, shall smite thy tongue and muzzle 
thy mouth, that thou mayst not speak evil 
things.' And straightway with the sentence 90 
followed also the punishment ; for Julia began 
to tremble and her countenance to be changed, 
and continuing as in a trance for a certain 

H 2 

ioo Life of Porphyry 

time she spake not, but was without voice or 
motion, having her eyes open and fastened 
upon the most holy bishop. But they that 
were with her, beholding that which she 
suffered, were sore afraid, and sought to 
awake her spirit and sang charms into her T 73 
ear ; and there was no speech and there was 
no hearing. And after she had been for a 
certain time without speech, she gave up the 
ghost, departing unto the darkness which she 
honoured, holding it to be light, according 
to the scripture which saith : 1 ' Woe unto 
them that make the sweet bitter and the 
bitter sweet ; that put darkness for light and 
light for darkness.' And the saint bade that 
her body should be laid out and committed 
unto a grave, taking pity on her human 
nature ; he was exceeding compassionate, 
91 And as many as heard that which had come 
to pass marvelled exceedingly, not only they 
of our faith, but also the strangers. And the 
two men which were with her, and the women, 
and as many as had been corrupted by her, 
came running and fell at the feet of the most 
1 Isa. v. 20. 

Bishop of Ga%a i o i 

blessed bishop, saying, ' We have erred,' and 
asked penance. But the blessed man caused 
them all to curse Manes, the author of their 
heresy, after whom also they were called 
Manichaeans, and having instructed them for 
many days he brought them into the holy 
catholic church. And by the means of those 
persons others also of the strangers repented 
and were enlightened. 

But after the space of five years the work 92 
of the great holy church was accomplished, 
and it was called Eudoxiana after the name 
of the Empress Eudoxia, most beloved of God. 
And the most holy Porphyry consecrated it 
on the day of the Resurrection of holy Easter 
T 74 very sumptuously, sparing not expense ; but 
having gathered together all the monks, to 
the number of about a thousand persons, 
with other devout people, of the clergy and 
laymen and bishops, he made good cheer all 
the days of holy Easter. And there were to 
be seen angelic choirs not only in the office 
of the church, but also in the hours when they 
did eat their food. For their table was not 
only a visible, but also a spiritual table ; for 

102 Life of Porphyry 

after the meat was said a psalm, and after the 
drink an hymn. But when they of the idol- 
madness saw that which came to pass, their 
hearts were melted. For strangers came from 
every quarter to see the beauty and greatness 
of the said holy church ; for it was said to 
be greater than all the churches of that time. 
93 For this reason, when he laid the foundations 
at the beginning he was accused of certain of 
the faithful, because he made it great, although 
the Christians in the city were few ; and the 
most holy Porphyry answered and said : ' Let 
not your faith be little ; for I am of a good 
hope in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of 
God, that he will multiply his flock and will 
make this house greater, because it shall not 
be able to contain the multitudes of the 
Christians. For the belief of the Christians 
is not of man, that it may be seen for a season 
and be brought to an end, but it is of God, 
and receiveth increase.' These and such-like 
words did the blessed man ever speak unto 
the faithful, not only in the church, but also 
in every place, enlightening and succouring T 75 
the Christ-loving folk. And after the days of 

Bishop of Ga^a 103 

the feast he sent away the multitudes in peace, 
each to his own place. 

But after the foundation and consecration 94 
of the said holy church, he ordered that there 
should be given unto each stranger sojourning 
in the city his expenses for one day, and he 
furnished also unto each poor man, both 
stranger and citizen, for each day the sum of 
six obols ; besides which he himself provided 
out of his own substance, unto those that 
came unto him, garments and silver and gold, 
providing unto each' according to his worth ; 
and no one of those that required aught was 
without part in his gifts. But in the days of 
the fasts of the holy Paschal season he furnished 
unto each poor man the sum of ten obols for 
forty days. And having given commandment 
in his pious testament that the said ten obols 
should by all means be given for the forty days, 
and set apart revenue out of which he desired 
that they should be given, in the said testament 
he ordered that if these things should not be 
furnished each year, the said revenue should 
go unto the holy church of Caesarea. But 
these things came to pass afterwards. 

io4 Life of Porphyry 

95 But they of the idol-madness, the more 
they beheld Christianity to prosper, the more 
mad did they become, and sought earnestly to 
hurt the Christians and before all their holy 
shepherd Porphyry. For once a contention 
having arisen about lands between the steward 

of the holy church and Sampsychus, the chief T 76 
city councillor, Barochas, beloved of God, 
seeing the steward spoken of despitefully, 
came to succour him and began to speak 
despitefully of the said Sampsychus. And 
when the rest of the council heard it they 
gathered together and went against the 
steward and Barochas, beloved of God ; and 
there went up together with the councillors 
many of the citizens, having found an occasion 
to hurt them of the faith and, as one might 
say, from a little spark so great a fire was 
kindled and did burn up, that all the Christians 
were in danger to be destroyed. For so 
furiously did the idolaters rage that they 
lifted up even swords and clubs and slew 

96 seven persons and smote many others. Then 
not being contented with this they went 
against the shepherd himself. But some, who 

Bishop of Ga^a i o j 

rejoiced in that which is good, ran beforehand 
and brought tidings to the most holy bishop 
of the onset of the multitude. And when the 
blessed man heard it, he called me to him 
and said : ' Let us flee, Brother, and hide our- 
selves a little while, until the wrath of the 
Lord be passed.' And having climbed the 
wall we fled by the roofs. But the idol- 
madmen brake the doors of the bishop's house 
and entered in, and when they found not 
Saint Porphyry they spoiled all that they found 
there. But I and the blessed Porphyry fleeing 97 
T77 over the roofs found a maiden of about four- 
teen years, who knew the holy bishop and fell 
at his feet. But the blessed man asked her 
who she was and who were her parents. And 
the maiden answered and said that she was 
an orphan both of father and of mother ; but 
she said that she had a grandmother that was 
an old woman and infirm in body, and she 
herself did labour, and sustain herself and her 
grandmother. And he asked her whether she 
was a Christian, and she again said that she 
was not, but had desired it a long time, ' if 
indeed I be worthy.' And the compassionate 

Life of Porphyry 

Porphyry hearing the speech of the maiden 
was pricked in heart and wept, saying : c How 
ready to receive the good is the race of the 
Gazaeans. But the adversary is earnest to 
hinder such a purpose ; whom the Lord shall 
smite with the word of his mouth.' * And he 
said to the maiden : ' Bring unto us hither 
a mat in this roof-chamber, that we may 
abide here until the tumult of the city be 
stilled, and tell no man that we are here. 
And she affirmed with oaths that she would 
not reveal them, not even unto her grand- 
98 mother. And going down through a little 
room into her own dwelling she brought the 
mat and a pillow of chaff, and having spread 
the mat put the pillow under it ; and falling 
at the feet of the blessed man she besought 
him to taste of her scant food, and not to be 
offended because of her poverty ; for it was 
towards evening. But the holy man, desiring 
to follow the example of the great prophet T 78 
Elias, 2 said to the maiden : ' Haste thee, 
daughter, and bring it, that the Lord may 
render unto thee through me spiritual food 
1 Cp, 2 Thess. ii. 8. 2 Cp, i [3] Kings xvii. 10. 

Bishop ofGa^a 107 

and food for the flesh.' And she hastened and 
went down and going forth bought bread 
and olives and cheese and steeped pulse and 
wine, and brought them all and set them 
before us saying, ' Take, my Lords, and bless 
my poverty.' And the blessed man again was 
pricked in his heart and wept, foreseeing how 
great faith she was like to have in Christ. 
And when we had risen up and made the 
customary prayers and sate down I partook 
of both cheese and wine, but the holy man 
of bread and steeped pulse and water. And 
when we had sent the maiden away to her 
grandmother we slept in the roof-chamber ; 
for it was the summer season. And we asked 
also the name of the maiden, and she said 
' Salaphtha ', which is being interpreted in 
Greek Irene (Peace). And we spent also the 
next day on the roof, the fair Irene doing us 
all service with much zeal. But when we 99 
knew that the tumult of the city was stilled, 
we went by night into the holy church, and 
going up into the bishop's house found naught 
in it, save only Barochas, beloved of God, 
179 lying nigh unto death by reason of the wounds 

io8 Life of Porphyry 

that he had gotten from the godless and 
impious idolaters. But after a few days the 
consular (who was called Clarus), having 
learned that which had come to pass in the 
city, sendeth an officer with many soldiers, 
and putteth in ward those against whom the 
public officers informed him, and sendeth 
them unto Caesarea ; and some he punished, 
and some he sent away after scourging them 
with whips ; and so, having caused no little 
terror, he stilled the city. 

100 But after a few days Saint Porphyry remem- 
bered that good maiden who received us, and 
sent for her by me ; and she came running, 
having with her also another woman, whom 
she said to be her aunt. And they coming 
in to the blessed bishop fell at his feet ; who 
received them kindly as a loving father. And 
he said to the maiden : ' Daughter, dost thou 
truly desire to become a Christian ? ' And 
she answered and said : ' Already told I thee, 
my Lord, that I have had this desire long 
time, and now I have brought a witness, even 
mine aunt, who also herself hath the same 
desire.' And he was exceeding joyful and 

Bishop of Ga^a 109 

said to her : ' Quit thee like a man and be 
strong, my child/ And having called the 
steward of the holy church he bade him 
furnish to her and her grandmother four 
miliaresia of silver each day, and to her aunt 
he gave one piece of money, and having sealed 
T8o them with the sign of the Cross he let them 
depart, bidding them to spend their time in 
prayer and in receiving the instruction of the 
catechumens. And he sent also unto her 
house the God-fearing Timotheus the Elder 
and Instructor, and bade him seal the grand- 
mother of the maiden ; for as I said before 
she was stricken in body. And when they 
had received instruction the three after a little 
time were deemed worthy of precious baptism. 
But after they had put off the sacred dress, 101 
the holy man having called the said maiden 
unto him said unto her : ' Desirest thou that 
we should join thee unto a man in lawful 
marriage ? for thou art of age to have a 
husband. For neither is honourable marriage 
forbidden of our Scripture.' Then the maiden, 
hearing the words of the holy man, began to 
weep and to say : * Good father, after that 

no Life of Porphyry 

thou hast joined me unto a mighty husband, 
wouldst thou put me away from him and give 
me unto one that is lowly and of no worth ? 
In no wise, my lord, do this thing.' But the 
saint, being amazed, said : ' And who is this 
whom I have joined unto you ? ' And she 
answered: * Jesus Christ, the saviour of our 
souls, my true bridegroom, for ever and ever, 
from whom I shall never be put away.' But 
the saint, hearing her words, was sore moved 
and wept, so that out of the fullness of his 
heart he embraced the maiden and kissed her 
head ; for in sooth he was altogether without 
passion and out of the great tenderness of his 
heart easily moved to tears. And we who 
stood nigh him beholding the grace of the 
Holy Ghost that was given unto the maiden, T8i 
beloved of God, did glorify God who granteth 
wisdom and grace unto his elect. But on 
that day he let the maiden depart. 
1 02 And in these same days it came to pass 
that the old woman rested from her labours 
and went unto the Lord. Then having called 
unto him the maiden he sent for the God- 
fearing deaconess Manaris, which also being 

Bishop of Ga^a in 

. interpreted according to the Greek tongue is 
Photine (Bright) ; to whom he commended 
Salaphtha, giving unto her the habit of the 
rule ; and having commended them unto God 
he let them depart in peace. But she took 
a way of life such as no other woman took 
in that time, fasting daily, and after the fast 
partaking of a little bread with salt and 
steeped pulse or chopped herbs and water 
only ; for of wine she partook not at all. 
But on the feast-days she partook of oil and 
did eat olives, but did taste of naught else 
of the food that is prepared with fire ; and 
for all the forty days of fasting on every 
second day she ate steeped pulse or chopped 
herbs without bread ; and the whole Paschal 
week she endured partaking of naught, save 
only on the holy fifth day, after the Holy 
Communion, of hot water. And so sore did 
she consume her body that they that saw her 
seemed to behold a shadow. And she became 
an ensample unto many other women also ; 
for they followed zealously after the life and 
way of the holy maiden Salaphtha. Who 
seemeth to live until now ; for unto the world 

ii2 Life of Porphyry 

she is dead, but unto Christ she liveth and is T8a 
with him through all time ; of whose holy 
prayers may we be partakers. And so far be 
it told concerning the holy maiden Salaphtha. 
103 But the most blessed bishop Porphyry, 
having stablished the rule of the church and 
all the office, lived other few years after the 
consecration of the great church. And falling 
sick he drew up a pious testament, bequeath- 
ing gifts unto many ; and, commending unto 
God all them of the Christ-loving folk, he 
fell asleep with the saints in peace, on the 
second day of the month Dystros, in the year 
four hundred and fourscore according to the 
reckoning of the Gazaeans, having held his 
bishopric four and twenty years and eleven 
months and eight days, and fought the good 
fight unto the end against the idol-madmen 
until the day of his falling asleep. And now 
he is in the Paradise of delight, being an 
ambassador for us with all the saints ; by 
whose prayers may we obtain mercy from 
God the Father, with the Son and Holy 
Ghost, unto whom be glory and power for 
ever and ever. Amen, 



2. other such writers, i.e. especially writers of 
comedy, to whom, by a chiastic construction, the 
* laughter ' refers, while 4 old wives' fables ' refers 
to the writers of tragedy. 

that may teach us. Literally: the life of a 
man so beloved of God, a life, teaching philosophy, 
of him who strove earnestly after the heavenly life. 

madness of idols. ctSwXo/xavta and the corre- 
sponding adjective -/xavifc are used by Mark, though 
not exclusively, in preference to the milder ei&oAo- 
Xarpta, -Xarp^s. 

terrible day. Mark's text has foftepa (probably 
by a mere slip of memory) instead of TrovTypa, which 
is the reading of the New Testament MSS. 

holy church, dytav e/c/cX^o-tav. The epithet 
here seems to have a purely general sense. Usener 
(Legenden der heiligen Pelagia, p. 38), commenting 
on the phrase where it occurs in c. 20, says that it 
means the chief church in the city, under the 
immediate control of the bishop. But in many 
places, as in the phrase <rxoAa ctv rfj dyi'a c/cKX^o-ia 
(c. 31), it can hardly have any such special sense ; 
and here, although the church founded by Porphyry 
happens to have been the cathedral church, the 
I 2 

1 1 6 Life of Porphyry 

addition of the qualification rov Xpiorov seems to 
indicate that the adjective is used quite generally. 

3. awful soul. <o/3e/)as : the sense of this adjec- 
tive, like that of the English awful, has weakened 
down to that of flar/moros. See Nuth, p. 37. 

whatsoever be the occasion, ota S^TTOTC Trpo^ao-ci : 
possibly * by whatsoever means '. The two senses 
come very close together, as in c. 31. 

4. to leave his country. About 372, when he was 
about twenty-five years old. 

Scetis. The most desert of the monastic settle- 
ments in the district of the Wady Natron or Valley 
of Nitria, about sixty miles south of Alexandria. 
See Dom C. Butler's edition of Palladius, Hist. 
Lausiaca, ii, p. 187 ; Duchesne, Hist, of Early 
Christian Church, vol. ii (Eng. ed. 1912), p. 391 f. 

honourable habit. TI///OV Trpoo-x^aros, the 
monastic habit. The epithet is also used by Mark 
of the Cross and of baptism, and may there be 
translated * precious '. In all connexions it is 
doubtless merely ornamental. 

when he had gone thither. About 377. 

changeableness. Of temperature (between 
night and day, rather than between the seasons). 

by the dispensation (of God), OIKOVO/U'O. is used 
(without flcov), like Trpovota, for God's providence 
(Nuth, p. 54 f.) The reason for the use of the 
phrase here is not obvious ; it does not appear why 
the decision to return to Jerusalem was more provi- 
dential than any other of Porphyry's actions. 

Notes 117 

to take him up to Jerusalem. About 382. 

a hardening of the liver with a continuous fever, 
very slight. ova/aw/m (or o-Ki/opa>//,a) is, Sir Clifford 
Allbutt informs me, a general word for 'induration' 
(cp. Dioscor. de Mat. Med. i. I. 3, and Pollux 
Onom. iv. 198 Ka/)KiVo>//,a, cr/ctppw/xa /xcra $A.c- 
ypovfjs 7raAyes). XcTrrdrarov seems to be merely 
* very slight ', rather than ' subtle ' in the sense of 
c insidious '. 

/ also came. Before 392. 

the Resurrection of Christ. The Anastasis, a 
circular building containing the Holy Sepulchre, 
a portion of the buildings connected with Con- 
stantine's basilica erected on the site of the former 
temple of Astarte. See the plans in ' The Churches 
of Constantine at Jerusalem ' (Library of the Palest. 
Pilgrims Text Soc., vol. i). 

5. Testimony. The Martyrion, the basilica of 
Constantine, is said to have been so called as being 
built over the place that bore witness to the Resur- 
rection. See Eusebius, Vita Const, iii, c. 28 ; and 
Saint Cyril's Catechetical Lectures, xiv. 6. It stood 
actually over the spot where the Cross was found ; 
while the reputed site of the Crucifixion was 
supposed to lie between it and the Anastasis. 

6. pieces of gold. The ordinary nomisma or soli- 
dus of the time, weighing 4.55 grammes, being -^ 
of the Roman pound. Three thousand of these 
would be equivalent in weight to over 1,700 
sterling ; and 1,400 to about 800. 

1 1 8 Life of Porphyry 

7. cos tout. Tre/oie'ypai^ev, in the sense of 'reject'. 
the sacred Skull. So, too, in Luke xxiii. 33 TOV 

TOTTOV TOV KaAov/Aevov /c/oavt'ov ; the more common 
designation is ' the place of the skull '. 

the same precious wood. TO avro TI/AIOV |vAov, 
perhaps for avrb TO T. f ., ' the precious wood itself '. 

8. did more diligently serve. Trepio-crorcpov ot/covo- 

cts. This seems to be the sense (through 
the sense of a steward) ; Mark became 
his * familiar '. 

outward learning. Tys 2w0v TratoVas, the 
learning of this world. 

in spirit and in speech. TO rjOos (character) 
KCU TOV Adyov (its expression in language), OVK ev 
Trpoo-iroirjcrei dAA' aXrjOtia (the reading of H). 
from all passions. See the note on c. 101. 

9. precious vessels. Presumably church plate. 
the monasteries there were very poor, but accord- 
ing to the Historia Lausiaca (ed. Butler, p. 30) 
Pambo told his steward Origenes to distribute 
Saint Melania's gifts of money in Libya and the 
islands, but not in the more wealthy Egypt (Sta TO 
evTropwTcpav ctvat r^v ^wpav). 

That former work. The point seems to be : 
6 1 did work then, and the work which I did 
then,' &c. 

10. Praylius, who held the bishopric, lepwo-vv^v, 
as in c. 4, of Porphyry as Bishop of Gaza. This 
appears to be a mistake. From 386 to about 417 
the Bishop of Jerusalem was John ; he was sue- 

Notes 1 1 9 

ceeded by Praylius. In c. 12 Mark still more 
definitely speaks of Praylius as ' bishop of Jeru- 
salem '. It is possible that the words describing 
Praylius in c. 12 are a later addition by some one 
who knew that he became bishop of Jerusalem. 
Then by ' priest of the holy places ' Mark may 
mean chorepiscopus, suffragan. It seems unlikely 
that, writing about 420, Mark should have for- 
gotten that Praylius only became bishop of Jeru- 
salem about 417. 
Porphyry was ordained presbyter in 392. 

wood of the Cross. This was preserved in a 
special oratory in the court behind the great 

in mortification, &c. cv rfj CUTK^TIKI} KaKOTraOcia. 

after the going down of the sun. It was quite 
a usual practice as for instance in the monasteries 
under the rule of Pachomius to eat but once a 
day ; but apparently the more ascetic form of the 
practice was to take the meal after sunset. So did 
Saint Antony of the Desert. And so did one 
Theodore (Fitae patrum, x. 154, Migne, Ixxiii. 
198) who boasted : 'Habeo viginti duo annos, ex 
quo praeterquam Sabbato et Dominico die nun- 
quam me sol comedentem vidit.' 

the other holy days. ' other ', deleted by Eber- 
hard and Draeseke, is otiose but textually correct. 

steeped pulse. /fyeKTwv oo-TrptW : see H. Gelzer, 
Leontios* von Neapolis Leben des h. Johannes (1893), 
index under oo-Trpcov ; cp. Palladius, Hist. Laus. 

120 Life of Porphyry 

1051 A (p. 48, ed. Butler) : Macarius of Alexander 
is described as eating only raw vegetables and 
oo-TT/otW yS/oeKTwi/, where the variant reading OO-TT/H- 
8tW is not recorded by Butler. 

1 1 . Aeneias died at the end of 394 or beginning 

of 395- 

Irenion died about 393. He is given in the 
Martyrologium Romanum on Dec. 16 ; Gazae 
in Palaestina sancti Irenionis Episcopi (ed. 1873, 
p, 187). 

angelic powers. On the claim of the monk to 
the angelic TroXtrcta see Usener, Der heilige Tbeo- 
dosios, p. 121 f. 

of honourable and holy life. /?ia> KCU (TC/XVOTT;T( 

the metropolitan high-priest. That is, the 
Archbishop of Caesarea, the metropolitan church 
of Gaza. 

12. John died before 404 and was followed by 
Eulogius, who presided in 415 at the synod of 
Diospolis. He had succeeded Gelasius, who had 
succeeded Euzoius, who was expelled under Theo- 
dosius I ; Lequien, Oriens Christ, iii. 561-3. 

bishop of Jerusalem. See Usener, Leg. d. heiL 
Pelagia, p. 33 ; the use of bishop, not archbishop, 
corresponds to the conditions before the year 451, 
after which the synod of Chalcedon granted the 
higher title (J. Gildemeister, Acta S. Pelagiae 
(1879), P; *)' 

13. bring therein, &c. p,rj . . . e dStKtas 17 /?tag 

Notes 121 

rj Trapavo/uas crwayay^s. The sense of the last 
word is obscure ; but it seems to mean * to bring 
(into the house, as a concubine) along with (the 
legitimate wife) '. Or there may be a reminiscence 
of some such prohibition as the third canon of the 
Nicene Council, forbidding the clergy to have 
* spiritual sisters ' living with them : o/T 

KOL06\OV f} fAtydXrj CrVVoSoS, ////T CTTlOTCOTrO), . . . 
oA(OS TWl TWV CV TO) fcA^/aW, C^ctvot OWClVaKTOV 
yWOLlKO, ^(tV, KT\. 

14. Barochas. Apparently the same as Baruch 
(inn) = Blessed. 

on that day. March 16, 395. 

1 6. when it was morning. This was Sunday, 
March 18, 395. Mark, however, appears to reckon 
Porphyry's tenure of the see from his entry into 
Gaza on the next Wednesday (see p. 112, c. 103). 

ordained him bishop. txtipoTovyvav ^TTLCTKOTTOV. 
The word is used both of the people and of the 
clergy for electing to a dignity, creating. But for 
the bishop the word is ^etpo^crctv, the laying on 
of hands. 

17. we departed. March 20, 395. The reason 
for haste was that they should be at Gaza for 
Easter (March 25). 

we entered into the city. March 21, 395. 

1 8. was taken. Alexander besieged Gaza for two 
months in 332 B.C. on his way into Egypt. 

whether for the said reason, &c. There was 
a Church of Peace at Byzantium at the beginning 


Life of Porphyry 

of the fourth century ; and the church of Hippo 
bore the same name in 393 (Duchesne, Early 
History of the Christian Church, Eng. ed. 1912, 
ii, p. 67). The name was not an unnatural one to 
give to a Christian place of prayer founded after 
the close of the Great Persecution. 

19. feet . . . bring bad luck. KaKOTroSivos eorii/, 
the opposite of *Aya0o7rous, boni pedis homo, on 
which see R. Herzog in Philologus, Ivi (1897), p. 46. 
The same idea is contained in the English ' first 
foot ', the person who first enters a house after 
the beginning of the new year. 

continued to send no rain. From the end of 
October 395 to January 3, 396. 

first month, which they call Dios. The Gazaean 
year consisted of twelve months bearing the same 
names as in the Syromacedonian calendar, and 
counting thirty days in each. The first day of 
their year was our 28th of October. There 
were also five intercalary days (six in every fifth 
year) which were intercalated between Loos and 
Gorpiaios, the tenth and eleventh months. We 
thus get the following correspondences, in ordinary 
years : 

October 28= Dios i. 

November 27=Apellaios I. 

December 27=Audynaios I. 

January 26 = Peritios I. 

February 25 =Dystros i. 

March 27 = Xanthikos i. 

Notes 123 

April 26=Artemisios i. 

May 26= Daisies I. 

June 25=Panemos I. 

July 25 =Loos I. 

August 23= Loos 30. 

August 24-8= intercalary days. 

August 29 = Gorpiaios I. 

September 28=Hyperberetaios I. 

Mamas. Mazochi saw long ago that this passage 
does not imply that the name Marnas means ' rain- 
god '. At the same time he points out that the 
Hebrew moreh (iTflB) means * rain ' (Joel ii. 23) ; 
the resemblance in sound may have suggested that 
Marnas was a rain-god. The generally accepted 
interpretation given by Mazochi himself con- 
nects the name with the Syrian Marna ' Lord '. 
But its origin, as I have tried to indicate elsewhere, 
is probably western (' Some Palestinian Cults ', 
Proc. Brit. Acad. v ; and the Introduction to this 
volume, p. xxxii). 

Place of Prayer. Trpoo-cvx^s. proseucha is 
the word used by Juvenal (iii. 296) for a place 
of prayer belonging to some despicable sect, 
probably either the Jewish or the Christian. It was 
probably a common term for such places, whether 
Jewish or Pagan or Christian (cp. c. 62) ; and there 
is no ground for Mazochi' s theory that the place 
mentioned by Mark was necessarily a Jewish, or a 
Pagan praying-place modelled on a Jewish one. 
In Egypt, it is true, the term meant a Jewish 

1 24 Life of Porphyry 

synagogue : see Mitteis u. Wilcken, Grundzuge u. 
Chrestomathie der Papyruskunde, I. i, p. 112. 

20. sign of the precious Cross, cny/xctov. Mark is 
careful to use this word or eKTVTrw/xa (c. 77), in 
order to distinguish the object from the true Cross. 
Duchesne (Early History of the Christian Church, 
Eng. ed. 1912, ii, p. 64 note) remarks that Eusebius 
uses the same word ' sign ' of the supposed actual 
true Cross which was worshipped at Jerusalem, 
perhaps because he doubted its authenticity. 

Asclepas. Also called Asclepius. See Intro- 
duction, p. xxv. 

the Paradise of delight. Gen. iii. 23. Com- 
pare the c paradise of delights ' in Saint John 
Chrysostom's prayer for the faithful departed in the 
Syro- Jacobite liturgy (J. M. Neale, Liturgies of 
St. Mark, &c., 1869, p. 253) ; ' the garden of delight ' 
(Marquess of Bute, The Coptic Morning Service, 
1882, p. 98) ; and the inverted phrase in the liturgy 
of Saint James and in various forms of the Greek 
burial service (lv rpv^rj HapaScicrov Karao-K^i/coo-ov) . 

Timotheus. See Introduction, p. xx. 

ninth hour. About 2.30 p.m. 

two hours. That is, until about 4.10 p.m. 

going down of the sun. About 5 p.m. 

21. sealed, ox^payicras rrj TOV X/o. cr^paytSt. This 
is the word used for the preliminary signing of the 
converts with the sign of the Cross. They then 
became catechumens, and after due instruction 
were baptized (cp. e. 31). But it must be remem- 


bered that the words o-^payi's, ox^/oayi^cu/ are also 
used by other writers in connexion with the actual 
baptismal ceremony. 

sacrifice of thanksgiving. cuxapurriav. 

from the eighth day of Audynaios. i.e. from 
January 3-5, 396. 

earlier by Jive days. Not always ; see note on 
c. 19. 

Tbeopbany. That is, the Epiphany, January 6. 

find. Lit. lay their hands on. See Gelzer, 
Leontios* von Neapolis Leben des h. Johannes, index, 
s. v. Spduro-o/xcu. 

22. payment to the church. e 
vos. The Moscow Metaphrasis uses 
instead of the second word. It is clear that the 
churches in Palestine at this time were landowners 
(their estates being managed by the ot/covo/xot : see 
c. 95 and Gelzer, Leontios' von Neapolis Leben des 
h. Johannes, p. 121), and that their tenants were 
not necessarily Christians. The collectors of these 
canons were called canonicarii. 

24. by affection. VTTO rov TraOovs, in the general 
sense, of emotion. But it may also have something 
of the other meaning of the word, ' accident ' or 
unexpected development. 

office. aKoXovOiav. 

25. public advocate. 8r;/>tK8tKo>v, generally as- 
sumed to be the same as the official otherwise 
called CKSIKOS rfjs TroAccos, defensor civitatis ; c des 
Raths und gemeiner Burgerschaft Schirmvogt ' 

i 2.6 Life of Porphyry 

(Draeseke). These officials are first heard of in the 
Augustan age, when they act as intermediaries 
between the government and the cities. They 
were elected by the citizens and confirmed by the 
praefectus praetorio. They held office for two years, 
and had jurisdiction in ordinary crimes and civil 
cases under 300 aurei. They are to be distinguished 
from the permanent crvvSiKot (Philippi in Rhein. 
Mus. viii. 508 ; art. e/cStKos in Pauly-Wissowa- 
Kroll, Realencycl. ; and cp. L. Mitteis u. V. 
Wilcken, Grundziige u. Chrestomathie der Papyrus- 
kunde, I. i, p. 81). The Church had repre- 
sentatives called KK\r)<nK$iKoi (Gelzer, op. cit. 
p. 122), whose duties were connected with church- 
discipline. It seems uncertain whether the 
&KWV is quite the same as the CK&KOS TT/S 
he may possibly be a representative of the 
as distinct from the /JouA?/. 

guardians of the peace, dpyvapx&v. ' Irenar- 
chae quoque, qui disciplinae publicae et corri- 
gendis moribus praeficiuntur,' Dig. 1. 4. 18. Cp. 
M. Gelzer, Studien zur byz. Verwaltung A gyp tens, 
p. 58. 

councillors. TrpwrcvovTwv. The Egyptian 
papyri provide some evidence about the corre- 
sponding authorities in Egyptian communities ; in 
the villages the title TT/OCDTCVOITCS is, however, less 
commonly employed than Trpwro/cw^Tat. Their 
special function was to act as local taxation authori- 
ties, but also, it would seem, they were responsible 

Notes 127 

for the government of the village. They formed 
a Koworys, a sort of f parish council ', with an acting 
committee called the Ko>/*apx at ' Thus in Pap. 
Cairo 67006 recto, 3, the Trpwrcvovrcs wish to impose 
on a woman state-services to which she is not 
liable ; in Pap. Lond. 1073, the comes of Arcadia 
is asked to instruct the TrpwroKw/x^rat to protect 
some persons engaged in building. In the case of 
a city with a /3ov\7j, the term TrpwrcvovTes, accord- 
ing to Maspero, is sometimes used for the ftovXcvrat 
or decurions. See Mitteis u. Wilcken, op. cit. I. i, 
p. 84 ; Maspero in Bull, de PInst.franf. d'Arcbeo- 
logie orientale, vi, p. 42 ; and, for older evidence, 
Ducange, Gloss. Graec. 

In this biography the term appears again in c. 27 
and in c. 95. In the latter instance Sampsychus 
is supported by ' the rest of the council ' ; but in 
the former Mark speaks as if there were no more 
than three Trpwrcvovrcs altogether. It is possible 
then that he uses the word in a sense corresponding 
to the Egyptian Kw/xapxat, as a committee of the 

26. John, who was at that time bishop of Con- 
stantinople. Saint John Chrysostom was consecrated 
February 26, 398. On July 27 of the same year 
Eutropius quarrelled with him, and carried a law 
depriving the churches of the right of asylum. 
Mark's visit therefore falls between February 26 
and July 27, 398. According to Theodoret (Hist. 
EccL v. 29), John showed special zeal against 

n8 Life of Porphyry 

heathen temples in Phoenicia, procuring decrees 
from the Emperor and subscriptions to the cam- 
paign from wealthy and pious ladies. 

Eutrofius the chamberlain. The eunuch Flavius 
Eutropius, praepositus sacri cubiculi and patricius, 
who was in 399 consul (the first of his kind to attain 
this dignity) with Manlius Theodorus. He was in 
the same year deposed by the party of Gainas and 
beheaded at Chalcedon. Zosimus (v. 12. l) says 
that he ruled the weak Arcadius as if he were 
a beast of the field (KaOdircp /Joo-K^aros). 

27. adjutant of the Master of the Offices. <rov/3a- 
8iov/?a, subadiuva. The Magister Officiorum had 
as his assistants an adiutor and a subadiuva adiutoris. 
On the Master of the Offices and his functions see 
Cassiodorus Far. vi. 6 (Hodgkin, Letters of Cassio- 
doruSy p. 302). 

One Hilarius, possibly the same man, was 
governor of Palestine about 387, 

officers of the consular court. KOfjicvraprjo-Lovs 
rrj<s vTraTiKrjs. These commentarienses were officers 
of the governor's court, who received the formal 
charge against an accused person, and were respon- 
sible for securing him, bringing him before the 
judge, keeping the records of the trial, and finally 
seeing that sentence was executed. 

For the ' consulars ', see note on c. 50. 
councillors of the city. See note on c. 25. 

28. that enlighteneth the mind, ets TO VOTJTOV 
avrov <(09, as distinct from the light perceived by 
the physical eye. 

Notes 129 

Aelias. The text is AiA.ias ; the Moscow 
Metaphrasis has AiAias. This is an unusual form 
for a female name ; but for that very reason it is 
improbable that it should be a corruption of AtAi'a, 
so common a name. It is just possible that ovofjuari 
AiAias may be a construction analogous to the 
English ' by the name of Aelia ', though I can give 
no parallels from Greek. But the Moscow Meta- 
phrast evidently understood AiAias as a nominative. 

since . . . the child, T<OV /cara wpav <o8iva>i/ TO 

29. inquired after the reason. The Moscow Meta- 
phrasis has ' although he was not ignorant of the 
reason, yet he inquired '. The addition is charac- 
teristic of the later writer's idea of necessary 
improvements to Mark's sincerer narrative. Mark 
implies immediately afterwards that the saint did 
not know the cause. 

for her. i. e. for her mistress. 

31. make attendance in holy church. <rxoAafeit/, 
i. e. to go constantly to receive instruction previous 
to baptism. 

and the child. Reading r<S /Spcc^ci with H, 
instead of TO /?pc<os. 

enlightened. Possibly here used only in the 
general sense of ' converted ', but often, as in cc. 47, 
74, for baptized '. 

32. departeth to Caesar ea. September 401. 

33. / call thee to witness before the unseen God. 
Reading /xaprvpo/*at ore withH, for 

546.20 K 

130 Life of Porphyry 

for the season, fj yap ^ct/^eptos rpowr] XOLTTOV 
7rtAa/*/3avTcu, the winter solstice is yet to come, 
the weather is getting worse. Nuth quotes Fried- 
lander, Sittengesch. ii 5 , p. 20 sq., showing that from 
November 1 1 to March 5 practically all navigation 

34. pieces of money, i/o/xtor/xara, gold solidi 
(of normally 4-55 grammes), 43 of which would 
be equivalent in weight to about 24^ English 

straightway departed. September 22, 401. 

the twenty-eighth day of Gorpiaios. September. 
According to Nuth, H reads fipcpa 67807; /cat ct/caSt 
fopiriaiou Kara Be 'PwjJiaious leTrrejjippiu) (sir) 
eiKciSt TpLTrj. The other manuscripts omit the 
words here given in heavy type ; Henschen con- 
jectured Ilcpmov for rptrr}, with the result that 
the whole chronology was thrown out until the 
right reading was restored by Nuth from H. At 
the same time, Nuth argues that rpiry should be 
Tre'fwrny. Mark has applied his rule that the Gazaean 
calendar is five days in advance of the Roman to 
all months, whereas it is only true of January and 
April ; in the other months the advance is only 
three or four days. 

They set sail therefore on September 25, 401, 
and arrived at Rhodes about October 6. 

five years ago. That is, in 415 or 416, for this 
life was doubtless written in 420 or 421. 

35. the most blessed John and Porphyry. Mark uses 

Notes 131 

the circumlocution ot TTC/OI TOVS /x. 'I. K. II., ' the 
company of the most blessed,' &c. ; but obviously 
it cannot include the whole company, unless ' KCU 
SiaKovot 9 has fallen out. 

travelling. TOV cr/cvX/xov, a word, like our own 
' travel ', expressing the hardship of voyaging ; 
cp. cc. 37, 40. 

36. Amantius. Probably the same man who was 
afterwards the favourite of Theodosius II (Nuth, 
p. 29 note). 

37. after other ten days. i.e. about October 1 6, 

a possession. The estate of the widow of 
Theognostus, which was seized by the empress. 
See Draeseke, Gesamm. Patr. Untersuchungen, 
pp. 227, 241 fL, where other references are given. 

chief officer. /caorpT/o-tov, castrensem. The full 
title is comes et castrensis sacri Palatii. The office 
was probably one of those instituted by Diocletian. 
As the name shows, the castrensis was in essence 
and origin a quartermaster ; but he was responsible 
for a great part of the domestic administration and 
also for the upkeep of the buildings of the Palace. 

38. On the next day. October 18, 401. 

39. On the next day. October 19, 401. 
beadles. Sc/cavwv. These were the lowest 

rank of court-officials, employed as janitors and 
messengers, a large corps, under three primicerii, 
and ultimately under the magister officiorum. 
They are first mentioned towards the end of the 


1 3 2 Life of Porphyry 

fourth century. Seeck in Pauly-Wissowa, Real- 
encyclopadie, s.v. 

happily, /xcra <iAav#/3a>7rtas. This is probably 
not equivalent to Kara <iXai/0pa>7rtav 0eov, ' by the 
mercy of God,' but rather used in a more general 
sense of a ' happy ' or { kindly ' delivery. The same 
phrase occurs in c. 42. 

42. On the next day. October 20, 401. 

for thee to see. Since Eudoxia died in Septem- 
ber 404, Porphyry's prophecy was not fulfilled in 
all particulars. 

the beauty. Lit. ( there was added to her 
countenance beauty above that which she had.' 

43. this is the ninth month. The same had been 
said by Procopius about October 6 (c. 34). There- 
fore Theodosius must have been born late in 
October or early in November. Eudoxia had so 
far borne : (i) Flaccilla, 397 ; (2) Saint Pulcheria, 

399 > (3) Arcadia, 400. The last was born on 
April 3, 400 ; therefore if Theodosius was born in 
October or November, it must have been, not in 

400 (as has been supposed), but in 401, which 
entirely agrees with the rest of the chronology of 
Mark's narrative. The whole question is ably 
worked out by Nuth, pp. 12 f. 

the most holy John, the archbishop. Saint John 
Chrysostom is not mentioned again, probably 
because he went to Asia Minor to inquire into 
the charges against Antoninus, Bishop of Ephesus. 
This he must have done in the winter of 401-2, 

Notes 133 

not early in 400 as generally supposed. See Nuth, 
pp. 14 f. 

44. was proclaimed Emperor. Here Mark seems 
to be in error. It appears from the Paschal 
Chronicle that the solemn inauguration of the 
infant Emperor took place on January 10, 402, 
when he was more than two months old. At any 
rate it is clear from the story that he was already 
Augustus when he was carried out after the 
baptismal ceremony. It is true that the phrase 
(c. 46) l after a few days ' looks as if it was at least 
intended that the baptism should take place very 
soon after the Empress had finished her lying-in. 
But, on the other hand, the phrase ' the days ran 
on ' (c. 47) indicates a rather greater lapse of time ; 
and Mark's use of oAiyos is peculiar. He says, for 
instance (c. 103), that Porphyry lived ' a few years ' 
after the consecration of the Eudoxiana, and we 
know that these few years were no less than thir- 
teen ! (Nuth, p. 30 note). 

the cities, i.e. of the provinces. 

47. enlightened, <om'ecr0cu, i.e. 'baptized'. See 
note on c. 3 1 . On the various synonyms for baptism 
see F. E. Warren, Liturgy and Ritual of Ante-Nicene 
Church, 2nd ed. (1912), p. 54. 

them that went before, r&v Trporjyovjjicvwv, 
Bury (Later Rom. Emp. i, pp. 200 f.) translates 
' magnates ', which would be attractive if the order 
were TU>V irp. TOV irAiytfovs, instead of rov irXrjO. 
TWV Trp. In the next sentence Trporryovvro can only 

134 Life of Porphyry 

mean ' led the procession ', so probably Mark is 
not using the participle in a technical sense. 

Patricians and Illustres. Patricius is the title 
of a dignity instituted by Constantine. Unattached 
to any office, it was the culmination of the cursus 
honorum, and ranked next to the lowest imperial 
dignity (nobilissimus). See E. A. Stiickelberg, Der 
Constantinische Patriciat (1891). Illustris was 
another of the titles borne by palatine dignitaries 
and the highest military officers ; below the 
illustres came the spectabiles, and below these the 
clarissimi. In later times, as in the seventh 
century, these titles seem to have lost a good deal 
of their dignity. 

48. after the baptism. He appears to have been 
baptized by Severianus of Gabala, in the absence 
of Saint John Chrysostom (Nuth, p. 16). 

49. harder to refuse. Reading fiapvrtpa Sc f) 
TrapaiVtyo-is with H and the Paris Epitome. 

this holy garment. The white baptismal dress 
worn by the baptized for a week (cp. c. 101, p. 109, 
and see Usener, Legenden der Pelagia, p. 48). 

50. quaestor. Perhaps chancellor is the nearest 
English equivalent to this title. 

consular s* i. e. persons of consular rank, which 
they received from the Emperor whether they had 
actually been consuls or not. They were sent to 
govern the provinces as imperial legates. 

51. they took away. Tillemont refers this to the 
banishment of Eutropius (399), Nuth (p. 26 note) 

Notes 13? 

to the time after the disturbances of Gainas (July I, 
400). In TOJVTOL 8e Trpo TOVTOV lirpdxOrj, TOVTOV 
refers to the present story, ravra to the punish- 
ment of the unorthodox. 

Cynegius. Otherwise unknown ; not Cynegius 
the praetorian prefect, who died in 388 when consul 
(Nuth, p. 30 note). 

consistory. He was, that is, a comes consistent, 
as the Paris Epitome calls him ; in other words, 
one of the regular members of the imperial council. 
52. Resurrection. April 6, 402. 

he was in sooth blameless. To Amantius is 
attributed the foundation of the Church of 
Saint Thomas the Apostle at Constantinople. 

53- hundreds, /cevnyvapta. The centenarium is 
generally taken to represent 100 Roman pounds of 
gold, i. e. 7,200 solidi, the equivalent in weight of 
about 4,100 English. But the identification is not 
quite certain. See Kubitschek in Pauly-Wissowa, 
Realencycl. s.v., and in Numismatische Zeitschrift 
(Vienna), 1911, p. 190. 

one thousand pieces of gold. The equivalent in 
weight of about 570 sterling. 

54. were wholly quit. This appears to be the 
sense of reActW airrjXXdyrjcray. 

prefects, iirdpxo^. 

twenty pounds. The equivalent in weight of 
about 820 sterling. 

fifty pieces of money, i. e. gold pieces ; the total 
sum being equivalent in weight to 28 IOJ". sterling. 

1 1 6 Life of Porphyry 

eighteenth of April. It would appear that the 
interview with the Emperor was on April 12, since 
two intervals of three days each are mentioned, 
and the arrangements for the interviews with the 
Empress and Emperor had taken a week, since 
Easter was on April 6. 

55- in five days. i.e. on April 23, 402. 

57- the divine mysteries. That the materials for 
the Eucharist were carried on board ship by the 
faithful is shown by Saint Ambrose (de excessufratris 
sui Satyri, i. 43) ; Gregor. Magn. Dial. iii. 36, and 
cp. the note in Migne on the former. Since the 
converted Arian was allowed to communicate, the 
first stage of signing with the Cross was evidently 
allowed, in this emergency, to qualify him, although 
under ordinary circumstances he would have had 
to wait until he had been fully baptized. Or is 
Mark using ava.a-^pa.yL&iv here in the sense of 
' re-baptize ' ? 

on the fifth, i.e. May I, 402. 

59. Four Ways. The Leipzig editors compare 

the Acta Martyris Anastasii Persae, ed. Usener 

23 8 9, * the Tetrapylon that is in the middle of 

the city.' It is the crossing of the four main roads 

in the centre of the town. Cp. also 

(Ducange, A pp. ad Gloss. Graec.). 

upon a base, or, above an altar 

giveth answer in dreams. Draeseke (Zeitschr. 

f. wiss. Theol. xliv. 1901, pp. 8286) supposes this 

to be a case of incubation, i. e. of the practice of 

Notes 1 3 7 

sleeping in temples in order to receive the assistance 
of the deity. But, since this statue was in a street, 
he admits that the actual incubation must have 
taken place elsewhere, i.e. in the temple of 
Aphrodite (c. 64). If so, one would have expected 
the offerings to have been made to the cultus- 
statue in the temple. On the practice of incuba- 
tion in antiquity, see Mary Hamilton, Incubation 
(St. Andrews, 1906). 

61. come out of the ship. e/cTrXcvcravro)]/, usually 
meaning ' set sail from '. 

62. places of prayer. o-^oXcx^tv rat? ay tat? 
7rpo<rvxcus. This is parallel to cr\. TV) ayia eK/cXr/crta 
(c. 31), and Trpoo-tvxrj is therefore to be translated 
c place of prayer ', not merely ' prayer '. See note 
on c. 19 (p. 123). 

63. after the tenth day. May 13, 402. 

64. eight public temples, &c. See Introduction, 
pp. xxxi f. 

66. ten days. May 14-23, 402. 

sacrifices of human beings. The charge was 
probably unfounded. See Draeseke, Zeitschr. f. 
wiss. Tbeol. xliv. 1901, p. 85. 

liquid fitch, i.e. raw, distinct from * dry 
pitch ' which was thickened by re-heating (Plin. 
N. H. xxiv. 7. 23, Dioscorides, i. 94, 97). 

67. after the people had been dismissed from the 
church. /xTa rrjv a-TroXvcriv TTJ<S cK/cX^crta?. The 
word aTToXvo-is is evidently used in the general 
sense, and not as equivalent to miss a. In c. 76 

138 Life of Porphyry 

rr/9 d. ruJv eo>0u/tov cvxwv it is slightly more 
specialized, though even there it is better rendered 
4 dismissal ' or ' departure '. 

68. the Greek tongue, which indeed seems to have 
been little known to the lower classes in Palestine 
at any time. See E. Schiirer, Gesch. desjud. Folkes* 
ii, p. 85. 

coins. The word is i/o/xtV/xara, i. e. the 
ordinary gold solidi of the time. Three such 
would be equivalent in weight to i 14^. sterling. 

69. Christ-loving lay-folk. Here for the first 
time Mark uses this phrase (6 <iAoxpicrTos Xao?, 
sometimes in the amplified form o! TOV <. A.). 
The word Xaos in this phrase is not necessarily 
always opposed to /cX^/ao?, though it is sometimes, 
as here and in c. 75. 

71. cast into the Jakes, ets fiopfiopov. This was 
the crowning insult to any religious image. There 
is a legend (supposed to go back to Saint Jerome) of 
a Jew who tried to defile an image of the Virgin 
in this manner (J. A. Herbert, British Museum 
Catalogue of Romances, ii, p. 612). 

73. virtues which . . . from circumstances. TTC/H- 
oraTiKai d/aerat o~v/ji/3aivov(rai. rots avOpwTrois. 

74. persons. 6vo/xara. Cp. Acts i. 15. On this 
usage see Nuth, p. 42, and Dieterich in Byz. 
Zeitschr. viii, 1899, p. 198. Psychological subtleties 
in explanation of the usage are, however, unneces- 
sary; the name represents the person, and name 
can therefore be used for person. A good instance 

Notes 139 

of the substitution is afforded by the Greek coins 
of Lysimachus, King of Thrace, and other rulers, 
where Victory is represented placing a wreath on 
the name of the king (G. F. Hill, Hist. Greek Coins, 
P- 123). 

75. Having sent away . . . lay-folk. These 
Christians who were dismissed were clearly only 
those who had come up for the time from Maiumas 
(see c. 65). 

the shape of it was round. See references to the 
literature of this subject in my paper on ' Some 
Palestinian Cults ' (Proc. Brit. A cad. vol. v). 

76. after the morning prayers, rfjs cbroAva-ews 
TUV ew0u/<ov tvyuv yi/o//,ev>7S. See above, note on 
c. 67. 

78. gypsum. On this method of making plans, 

see Haupt in Hermes, iv (1869), p. 29. The plan 

of Alexandria was similarly marked out with flour. 

fashion. tfecris here means the actual plan 

on the site, as distinct from the plan on paper 

79- Aldioma. Mazochi compares Etym. Mag. 
rj v AXSos, 6 Zev9, os ev Td^rj r^s 2tvpias 
i, irapa TO dASatVw, TO av^avw* 6 CTTI TT/S 
(5v KapTraJv. Me0oSios. He suggests, 
among other things, that it may be connected 
with *i7n, perfodere, since there were quarries there. 
80. spent one hour. TrotT/cras wpav />uW. No 
twisting of the words will do away with this singular 
instance of belief in the efficacy of prayer as 
opposed to action. 

140 Life of Porphyry 

84. in the next year. A.D. 403. 

Carystian. ' Cipollino ' from Carystus in 
Euboea. See G. R. Lepsius, Griechische Marmor- 
studien, Abh. der k. Akad., Berlin, 1890, p. 41. 
Professor J. L. Myres, to whom I owe this reference, 
informs me that the quarries are still open, several 
of them belonging to an English firm. 

came into harbour. /caraTrXcvo-avTwv. ButNuth, 
p. 47, maintains that the word here means ' were 
taken out of the ship ', which seems very doubtful. 

open part of the temple, cv TO) V7rat0po> rov 
icpov. The double portico had been left standing, 
and Mark apparently uses the word which techni- 
cally would mean the roofless nave of the temple 
for the whole space within the circle of the portico. 

85. Julia. The Moscow Metaphrasis calls her 

86. in appearance. This opinion (Docetism) was 
held by various Christian sects, including Marcio- 
nites and Gnostics, as well as by the Manichaeans. 

Philistion the maker of plays. Draeseke sug- 
gests that this may be the writer of mimes, a native 
of Sardes, Magnesia or Nicaea, who lived in Rome 
in the time of Tiberius. See W. Christ, Gesch. 
d. griech. Litt?, p. 625. 

88. Ennomus. This person is unknown ; but 
there is no reason to suspect a corruption in the 
text. Haupt suggested TO. Iv vo/xw <n;/xta, for 
4 legal shorthand ', but it is doubtful whether the 
words could bear that meaning. 

Notes 141 

in another book, which has not survived. The 
' Acta Archelai ' profess to report a similar dispute 
(on which see EncycL Brit. 11 xvii, p. 577), and were 
probably Mark's chief literary source for Mani- 
chaeism, if he had anything but hearsay to go upon. 

92. Easter. April 14, 407. 

93. Let not your faith be little, reading /xr; . . . 
oXiyrj as a single sentence. 

94. six obols . . . ten obols. The obol was at this 
time a bronze coin, the Latin name for it being 

follis. It was probably the largest of the current 
bronze coins, slightly smaller than a shilling. Its 
value in relation to the solidus at this time is not 
recorded ; later, in the sixth century, it was -^-Q. 

95. councillor. See note on c. 25. 

97- roof -chamber. Sw/xcmov, a garret, or some 
slight construction on the roof of the building. 
Mazochi compares Mart. Polycarpi, vii, where 
the martyr is found cv nvi Sw/xarto) Kara/cct/xevos 
vTrcpaxi). It was evidently exposed, for Mark notes 
in c. 98 that they were able to sleep there because 
it was summer-time. 

98. Salaphtha. Mazochi notes that the true 
name may have been Salamtha (the Paris Epitome 
has Salantha). In Syriac NHD^ is ' Peace '. 

doing us all service. Troiovcn/s fjiuv Traorav 
aTroKpuTiv. For this mediae valism cp. Doctrina 
lacobi nuper baptizati (ed. N. Bonwetsch, Abh. d. 
k. Gesellsch. d. Wiss. zu Gottingen, N.F., xii. 
Nr. 3), P. 9> I- 

142 Life of Porphyry 

99. officer. Kofjicvrapijcriov. See note on c. 27. 
public officers. S^/AOO-ICVOVTCS : possibly sub- 
ordinate police-officers, who in Egyptian villages 
seem to have been called fypoo-ioi : see M. Gelzer, 
Studien zur byzantinischen Ferwaltung A gyp tens, 

P . 58. 

100. steward. OIKOVO//,OV. See note on c. 22. 
miliaresia. The miliarense was a silver coin, 

introduced by Constantine, worth Q Q Q of the 
Roman pound of gold, and weighing the same as 
his gold solidus, i.e. % lb. or about f of a modern 
shilling. The * one piece of money ' mentioned in 
the next clause is the ordinary gold nomisma, in 
weight equivalent to about us. 6d. sterling. 

stricken in body. TO crw/xa ct^cv (ru/ATrcTrap/xeVoy, 
* transfixed '. 

101. the sacred dress. See above, note on c. 49. 
forbidden of our Scripture. The reference is to 

Heb. xiii. 4. 

amazed. o-vvapTrayeis, ' caught ', ' rapt '. 
Usener, Legenden der Pelagia, 57 : cru ct 6 8dAtos 
o<is 6 ... VTmcreA^wv rfj Eva /cat crvvapTracra? 
avrrjv. Cp. Luke viii. 29 ; Prov. vi. 25. 

without passion. aTra&fc. The text may be 
defended. The passage tallies with c. 8, where it 
is said that Porphyry attained rrjv rcXctav aVafeiav. 
It is true that in the same chapter he is described 
as o-ufjLTraOrjriKos* But the point here seems to 
be that Mark is anxious that Porphyry's emotion 
should not be wrongly interpreted ; it was no 

Notes 143 

human passion that moved him. Yet it must be 
admitted that the passage is very clumsy. Haupt 
suggests tvTraOrjs, the Teubner editors </A7ra0^9, 
which is better. 

102. Manaris. Mazochi connects with "11 J = 
lucere, Heb. "lUD = lamp. 

the habit of the rule. TO KCWOVIKOV (r^/xa. 
endured partaking of naught. The expressive 
word is eTA/cci/, ' dragged along '. 

103. other few years. No less than thirteen. 

in the year four hundred and fourscore. Dystr. 2, 
480 A.G. is February 26, 420 A.D. 

four and twenty years, &c. i.e. 25 years less 
22 days. Therefore he began his tenure of the see 
on Dystr, 25 = March 21, 395 A.D. See above, 
note on c. 16. 



Aelias, wife of Heros, 
miraculous delivery of, 
36-40. ; her name, 129. 

Aeneias, bishop of Gaza, 
xxxi, 1 6, 1 20. 

Aetius, Christian sophist, 

Agapius, martyr, xx. 

Aldioma, hill near Gaza, 
90, 139. 

Alexander Jannaeus de- 
stroys Gaza, xv. 

Alexander of Gaza, mar- 
tyr, xxi. 

Alexander the Great takes 
Gaza, 24, 121. 

Amantius the eunuch, 45, 
47-5> 53 f -j 60-3, 131, 

J 35- 

Anastasis, church of the, 


Aphrodite : worshipped at 
Gaza, xxxi, 73 ; oracu- 
lar statue of, 69-71. 

Aphthonius the Mani- 
chaean, xlii. 

Apollo, worshipped at 
Gaza, xxxi, 73. 

Arcadius, Emperor of Con- 
stantinople, 34 ; in- 
duced by Eudoxia to 
suppress idolatry in 
Gaza, 51, 59 f., 64. 

Arians, xxvi, 66 f. 

Artemis, Cretan, consort 
of young Zeus, xxxiii, 

Ascalon : submits to 
Jonathan Maccabaeus, 
xiv ; basilica at, burnt, 
xxviii ; port of, 10. 

Asceticism, 16, in, 119. 

Asclepas, bishop of Gaza, 
xxv f., 26, 124. 

Asterios, Zeus, xxxvi. 

Baptism, 125, 133 f., 136. 

Barochas : his character, 
xli ; fights with the 
heathen, 20, 29-33, 104, 
107 5 ordained deacon, 
33 ; leads procession at 
foundation ceremony, 
88 ; present at dispute 
with Julia, 98 ; mean- 
ing of name, 121. 

Britomartis, Cretan god- 
dess, xxxiii, xxxvi. 

Byzantium : Mark's mis- 
sion to, 34 f . ; Porphyry 
and John at, 46-64. 

Caesarea : metropolitan 
church of Gaza, 17, 120 ; 
Porphyry leaves rever- 
sion of money to, 103 ; 

Index 1 

Porphyry at, 21, 415 
Clams sends prisoners 
to, 1 08. 

Calendar : see Gaza. 

Carystian marble, 94, 140. 

Castrensis, 131. 

Catechumens, 124. 

Cherethites Cretans, 


Choricius of Gaza, xviii. 

Clarus, consular, 108. 

Commentarienses, 128. 

Communion, Holy, 27, 
75 f., 136. 

Constantia Maiumas, 

Constantine : makes 

Maiumas independent 
of Gaza, xxiii ; his basi- 
lica at Jerusalem, 8. 

Constantinople : see By- 

Consulars, 134. 

Cornelius, deacon, 29, 32 ; 
writes shorthand, 98. 

Cretan : Zeus-Marnas of 
Gaza, xxxii ; worship 
of young Zeus and 
maiden consort, xxxiii ; 
foundation of Gaza, 
xxxiv ; connexion with 
Philistia, xxxv. 

Cross : the true, Porphyry 
custodian of, 15, 20, 
119; red crosses found 
on children rescued 
from well, 93 ; sign 
(== reproduction) of the 
Cross, 124. 

Cynegius: count of the 
consistory, 62, 135 ; 
suppresses idolatry at 
Gaza, 72, 80. 

Dionysius the Areopagite, 

Diospolis : council of, 
xliii, 120; Porphyry 
passes through, 22. 

Docetism, 140. 

Dream-oracles, 69, 136. 

Egyptian : element in 
Gaza, xiii, xxiii ; mo- 
nasteries, 7, 14, 118; 
wine-merchants at 
Maiumas, 68. 

Enlighten = convert or 
baptize, 129, 133. 

Ennomus, his system of 
shorthand, 98, 140. 

Epiphanius, councillor of 
Gaza, 32. 

Eudoxia, Empress, wife of 
Arcadius : her quarrel 
with John Chrysostom, 
45 ; her reception of 
and dealings with the 
bishops, 49-64 ; founds 
church at Gaza, 85 f. ; 
gives marble pillars for 
it, 94; her children, 
132; her death, 132. 

Eudoxiana, church of 
Gaza : its building, 85- 
94 ; consecration, 101 f. 

Eulogius, archbishop of 
Caesarea, 120, 

Index I 

Eusebius, deacon, of Cae- 
sarea, 43. 

Eusebius of Gaza, martyr, 
xxviii f . 

Eutropius (Flavius), cham- 
berlain of Arcadius, 
34 f., 127 f. 

Euzoius, archbishop of 
Caesarea, 120. 

Fasting, 16, in, 119. 
Fortune, worshipped at 

Gaza, xxxi f., 73. 
Four Ways, 136. 

Gaza : passim ; history 
of, xiii-xxxi ; cults of, 
xxxi f., 69, 73 ; era and 
calendar of, xv, 24, 28, 
65, 122, 130; martyrs 
of, xix-xxii ; churches 
of, xx vi, xxviii, xxx f. ; 
Cretan origin of, xxxiii- 
v 5 its importance, 6 ; 
its bishops, xxvf., 16; 
taken by Alexander the 
Great, 24 ; the supersti- 
tious character of its 
people, 73. 

Gelasius, archbishop of 
Caesarea, 120. 

Greek, little spoken in 
Palestine, 79, 138. 

Gypsum used for marking 
out plan of church, 89, 

Hadrian visits Gaza, xvi f.; 
founds the Marneion, 

xvii; panegyris in his 

honour, xvi. 
Hecate worshipped at 

Gaza, xxxi, 73. 
Hermits : in neighbour- 
hood of Gaza, xxiv f . ; 

Procopius of Rhodes : 

see Procopius. 
Herod the Great acquires 

Gaza, xvi. 

Heroon of Gaza, xxxi, 73. 
Heros of Gaza, husband of 

Aelias, 37. 
Hesiod, source of Mani- 

chaean doctrine, 96. 
Hilarion of Thabatha, 

xxiv f., xxx. 
Hilarius, subadiuva of the 

Master of the Offices, 

35, i*8. 

Illustres, 134. 
Incubation, 136. 
lo at Gaza, xxxii. 
Ionian Sea (from Gaza to 

Pelusium), xxxvii. 
Irene : see Peace, Salaph- 

Irenion, bishop of Gaza, 

xxxi, i6f., 23 f:, 120. 

Jannaeus : see Alexander. 
Jerome on the fall of the 

Marneion, xxxvii f. 
Jerusalem, bishops of, 

120; Porphyry at, 8- 

Jews, hostility of Gaza to, 

L 2 


Index I 

John, archbishop of Cae- 
sarea, 17-22, 41, 120; 
goes to Byzantium 
with Porphyry, 42 ff. ; 
returns to Caesarea, 72. 

John Chrysostom, bishop 
of Constantinople, 34 f., 
127, 1325 his quarrel 
with Eudoxia, 45, 47 ; 
receives the bishops, 46 

ff-> 53- 
Julia the Manichaean, xl, 

xlii, 94-100. 
Julian the Philosopher, 

his treatment of Gaza, 


Kasios, Zeus, xxxvi. 
Kouros, young Zeus, 
xxxiii, xxxvi. 

Land, ownership of, by 
churches, 125. 

Maccabaeus, Jonathan, 
subdues Gaza, xiv. 

Maiden, the (Persephone), 
worshipped at Gaza, 
xxxi, 73. 

Maiour of Gaza, martyr, 
xx, 26. 

Maiumas : relations with 
Gaza, xxii 5 name 
changed to Constantia, 
xxiii ; its treatment by 
Julian, xxvii ; Zeno, 
bishop of, xxviii f. ; 
reception of Porphyry 
at, 68. 

Major, martyr, xx. 

Manaris (Photine), dea- 
coness, no, 143. 

Manichaeans : debates of 
Christians with, xlii ; 
Julia, 94-100; their doc- 
trines, 95 f. 

Mark the deacon : passim ; 
his book, xxxviii ; his 
trustworthiness, xxxix ; 
his life and character, 
xl f. ; lost report of dis- 
pute with Julia, xl. 

Marna = maiden, xxxiii. 

Mamas, god of Gaza, xvii, 
xxxii-xxxvi, 123 ; the 
Cretan Zeus, xxxii ff., 
73 ; his maiden consort, 
xxxiii ; relation to Zeus 
Kasios, xxxvi ; lord of 
the rains, 24, 123. 

Marneion at Gaza, xvii, 
xxxvii, 24, 33, 36, 55, 
73 ; attacked by Chris- 
tians, 74 ; its destruc- 
tion, 76-81 ; its form, 
85 j its stones used for 
paving, 87. 

Marriage-oracles, 69. 

Martyrion, 117. 

Master of the Offices, 128. 

Miliaresion, 142. 

Minos, the Cretan Zeus, 
xxxiii; founder of Gaza, 

Miracles : Hilarion dis- 
solves a pagan spell, 
xxv ; revelation of 
bones of Eusebius, Nes- 

Index I 


tabus, and Zeno, xxix; 
cure of Porphyry, 1 1 f . ; 
rain in answer to prayer, 
26 ; delivery of Aelias, 
36 ff. 5 calming of storm 
at sea, 66 ff. ; heathens 
slain by falling statue, 
71; child reveals method 
of burning Marneion, 
76 ff. ; wicked tribune 
killed by falling beam, 
8 1 ; three boys fall 
down a well unhurt, 
90 ff. ; sudden death of 
Julia the Manichaean, 

Natiras, bishop of Gaza, 

Nestabus of Gaza, martyr, 

xxviii f . 
Nestor of Gaza, confessor, 


Netoras, bishop of Gaza, 


Nicaea, council of, xxv. 
Nomisma, or solidus, 117, 

130, 138. 

Obol, 141. 

Paradise of delight, 124. 

Patricians, 134. 

Paula visits Gaza, xxxi. 

Peace, church of: in 
Gaza, xxxi, 23 f., 71, 
88; at Byzantium, 121 ; 
at Hippo, 122. 

Peace, Gazaean virgin : 

see Salaphtha. 
Persecution of Christians 

in Gaza, xix-xxii, 

xxviii f . 

Persephone : see Maiden. 
Phaeno, the mines of, 

xxi f . 
Philistines of Gaza, xiii f . ; 

relations with Crete, 


Philistion, playwright, 
96, 140. 

Photine : see Manaris. 

Pompeius liberates Gaza, 

Porphyry, bishop of Gaza : 
passim ; his character, 
xli f . ; 13, no; career, 
xliii ; origin, 7 ; power 
of explaining the Scrip- 
tures, 13, 1 8 ; asceti- 
cism, 1 6. 

Porphyry, son of Heros,4o. 

Prayer, place of, 25, 123, 


Praylius, bishop of Jeru- 
salem, xxxix, 15, 1 8, 20, 

Procopius, hermit of 
Rhodes, 43-6, 65 ; ap- 
pears in a vision to Por- 
phyry, 66. 

Procopius of Gaza, xviii. 

Pulse, steeped, 119. 

Quaestor, 134. 
Quintianus, Arian bishop 
of Gaza, xxvi. 


Index 1 

Resurrection of Christ, 
church of the, 8, 117. 

Rhodes, Porphyry and 
John of Caesarea at, 

Rome, council of (A. 0.340), 

Rufinus of Antioch, archi- 
tect of the Eudoxiana, 

virgin, shelters Por- 
phyry and Mark, 105-7 > 
becomes a Christian and 
ascetic, 108-11 ; mean- 
ing of name, 141. 

Sampsychus, city coun- 
cillor, 104. 

Sardica, council of, xxvi. 

Scetis in Egypt, Por- 
phyry at, 7, 1 1 6. 

Seal = sign with the Cross, 

Severianus of Gabala, 134. 

Shorthand, 140. 

Silvanus, presbyter and 
confessor, xxi f. 

Skull, place of the, u, 118. 

Solidus : see Nomisma. 

Sun, worshipped at Gaza, 
xxxi, 73. 

Testimony, church of the, 

Thecla of Bizya, martyr, 

Thee of Gaza, martyr, xx, 

Theodosius II : birth of, 
xxxix, 54; proclaimed 
Emperor, ib., 133 ; bap- 
tized, 57 ff. ; his first 
decree, 59. 

Theophany Epiphany, 

Thessalonica : Porphyry's 
birth-place, 7 ; his pro- 
perty at, 10. 

Timotheus, councillor of 
Gaza, 32. 

Timotheus, deacon, mar- 
tyred in Mauretania, 

Timotheus, elder and in- 
structor, 109. 

Timotheus, martyr of 
Gaza, xx, 26. 

Tychaion of Gaza, 73. 

Tyre, council of, xxvi. 

Valentina, martyr, xx. 

Zeno, bishop of Maiumas, 

xxviii f . 
Zeno of Gaza, martyr, 

xxviii f . 
Zeus : Cretan, see Mar- 

nas ; Kasios of Pelu- 

sium, xxxvi. 


ayla ef 
v AX5or, 


Zevy, 139. 
, 136. 


*, 137, 139. 
wv, 125. 


, 126. 
rrjs 7ro\a>$ 9 125. 

K8lKOS 9 126. 


vvr), 1 1 8. 


KCKTTpTjatOS, 131. 

/caraTrXetr, 140. 
Kfvrrjvdpiov, 135. 

i 9 128. 

, 127. 

'dai, 1 1 8. 

ia ($eou), 1 1 6. 


person, 138. 
o(T7rpidiov, 119. 

OtTTTplOl/, 119. 
7Tpiypd(f)CW, 1 1 8. 

TTpoyyovfjifvot, 133. 
7rpoo-V^, 123, 137. 

7Tp(tiTVOVTS, 126. 


/3a, 128. 

l, 126. 

iv, 124. 
ii/, 129. 

TLfJLlOSy 1 1 6. 


Of, 138. 
(poftepos, 1 1 6. 






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