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Full text of "Life of Rev. A. Crooks, A.M"


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LIFE 



OP 



REV. A. CROOKS. A. M. 



WRITTEN AND COMPILED BY" HIS WIFE, 



MRS. E, W. CROOKS. 



" Servant of God, well done ; 

Rest from thy loyed employ ; 
The battle fought, the victory won ; 

Enter thy Master s joy." 



SYRACUSE, N. Y . : 

PUBLISHED BY D. 8. KINNEY^ WESLEYAN METHODIST 
PUBLISHING HOUSE. 

1875. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



The present work is issued to perpetuate the precious 
memory of ADAM CROOKS, as well as respond to the gener 
al demand of a stricken people. Thrown upon the stage 
of action when the world of morals was being shaken in 
Church and State by priests and politicians, who held that 
the right of American Slavery was not to be questioned, 
the subject of this memoir, though still in his youth, 
withstood the baseless claims of this vaunting Goliah. 

This early stand for God and humanity started him upon 
the pathway of independence of thought and action, which 
characterized all his after life. 

His sense of honor, his dignified manhood, his fidelity to 
the truth, his faith in God, his deep piety, his practical 
common sense, his unflinching fortitude, his tender sympa 
thies, his breadth of thought, his care for the common weal, 
and his philanthropic spirit made him a natural leader. Men 



IV INTRODUCTORY. 

felt like trusting him, and no man ever felt that trust be 
trayed. 

This memoir has been prepared, for the most part, by 
her whose journey for nearly twenty-two years has been at 
hi& side. That her deepest interest has entwined around 
the objects of his toils and fortunes, it is eminently fitting 
that to these pages should be given that careful and truth 
ful expression of the facts of history, which her intimacy 
with him will warrant. 

And now that his dust so quietly rests in his hillside 
home, no one will wonder that she feels deeply bereaved 
as she still takes up the burden of life, and walks the 
rough ways of the world all alone. Still anxious for the 
dear people whom he loved so much and left so soon, 
with his companions in arms, we know she still prays that 
each may be loyal to duty, until one by one all may join 
him again in the Paradise of God. 

L. N. S. 



TO THE 

FAITHFUL SOLDIEKS IN THE MORAL 

CONFLICT; HIS ASSOCIATES IN 

THIS HOLY WAR : 

TO THOSE 

WHO FELL AROUND HIM, AND TO THOSE 

WHO SURVIVE, AND UNTO 

HIM 

TO WHOM WE DEDICATE OUR SABBATHS, 
OUR SANCTUARIES, AND OURSELVES, 

THIS VOLUME 

IS FAITHFULLY AND LOVINGLY 

INSCRIBED. 



LIFE 



OF 



REV. ADAM CROOKS, A, M 



EARLY HISTORY, 



ADAM CROOKS was born in Leesville) Carroll 
County, Ohio, on the 3rd of May, A. D., 1824. He 
was the son of William and Elizabeth Crooks, and 
the fourth child of a family of thirteen. His father 
was a man of the world, but taught his family the 
strictest honesty and truthfulness. But that blessed 
gift of Heaven, a godly mother, by her uniform pie 
ty and the agency of the Holy Spirit, often awak 
ened in him the most pungent convictions of sin, 
and led to secret prayer and solemn promises of 
reformation, but nothing further. 

When some fourteen years of age, a singular in 
cident occurred, which was destined, under Divine 
Providence, to shape his future course. His broth 
er William, some four years his senior, was some- 



THE LIFE OF 

what skeptical as to the divine origin of Christianity, 
remarked, in a careless manner, " I do not believe 
in religion. I believe those who profess it are 
hypocrites ; but if I should ever go to the altar for 
prayers, I should never leave it until I knew for 
certain." Although not a Christian himself, yet 
Adam secretly prayed with all the fervor of his 
heart that William might be constrained to go to 
the altar. For he thought his brother s conversion 
a thing very desirable. It was not an hour until 
William was most deeply convicted, and at the 
altar the next evening he found salvation. He be 
came an exemplary Christian, and a devoted min 
ister of the Gospel; and on February 14th, 1847,. 
went up to glory. 

From the hour of his brother s conversion, Adam 
became a secret seeker of personal salvation, fre 
quently praying twenty times a day, but seemingly 
to no effect; for he thus wandered in darkness for 
months. But the blessed hour of deliverance came. 
It was one Spring morning, he was returning from 
his place of secret prayer, across his father s farm. 
Just as the sun spread his golden mantle over field 
and forest, and saluted his eyes, his faith took hold 
on God, and the Sun of righteousness poured in His 
rays upon the new-born soul. Nor was this light 
evanescent. It was the incessant dawn of an eter 
nal day. Prayer was almost momentary; spirit 
ual communion was constant ; stated hours of 
prayer were observed, and with his brother William 
lie fasted every Friday. The genuineness of early 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 

piety and the conversion of children is illustrated 
in his conversion, which occurred at the age of 
fourteen years, and might have been earlier ; his 
convictions and knowledge being equal to it. 

The early educational advantages of this promi 
nent Christian worker, like that of many before 
him, were only medium. Attending school during 
the Winters, and working hard on his father s farm, 
of which he had principal charge from unusually 
early years, he became inured to hard-handed toil. 
But he had an insatiable thirst for knowledge ; sel 
dom in the house, if only for a few minutes, with 
hands empty of a book, and often arising before 
day to master some difficult lesson. When about 
twenty years of age he spent two Summers at an 
academy under the auspices of the Presbyterians, 
some two miles from home. 

Among his papers is found a report of his stand 
ing while at this school. 

" STUDIES. 

Arithmetic, English Grammar, Geography, Watts on 
the Mind/ and Ancient History. 

Absent from Prayers Never, 

lt " Recitation Never. 

Application Excellent. 

Improvement Excellent. 

REMARKS. 

Anything that may be said by us of Mr. Crooks, must be 
of a commendatory character. His course, while with us^ 
has been that of a gentleman and of a Christian. His tal 
ents are good, and his promises of usefulness are flattering. 
JAS. MATHEWS ) 

A. SWANEY, j 



10 THE LIFE OF 

But having been a student through life, he has 
mastered a thousand lessons to which many a col 
legian has failed to give his attention. The " di 
vine desire to know" will convert field, or forest, 
or lake, or landscape, or island, or ocean, or conti 
nent into a university. 

He united with the Methodist Protestant Church, 
of which his parents were members, while his 
brother William joined the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He was much the youngest of any in the 
Church, yet willing thus early to walk alone, so 
long as it appeared to be the path of duty. Always 
generous toward other denominations, and willing 
to point sinners to the Cross at any altar where 
Christ appeared, he attended religious meetings, 
far and near, irrespective of denominations. He 
deeply deplored the want of spirituality among his 
own people. 

When about sixteen years of age, he deeply felt 
the need of a more thorough Christian experience. 
He was greatly profited by reading the " Life of 
William Carvosso," and sought, with ceaseless anxi 
ety, the blessing of entire sanctification. He sought 
it as distinctly as justification. He trusted fully in 
Jesus as a Savior from all taint of, and tendency to 
sin, and realized the speechless joy of complete sal 
vation. This, like conversion, was effected when 
alone, and free from the pressure of external ex 
citement. 

Convinced of the complicity of the Methodist 
Protestant Church with chattel slavery, it ceased to 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 11 

be a congenial home to one who had nothing ia 
view but God and his glory, and man s well-being, 
The heart longed for an opportunity to free itself 
by change of church-relationship. This opportuni 
ty was presented when the venerated Edward Smith 
organized a Wesleyan Methodist Church in his na 
tive village, July 25th, 1843. That day Brother 
Crooks was elected class-leader. This change of 
church-home, and open antagonism to slavery, no 
perils nor privations ever caused him to regret. 



EARLY MINISTRY. 

His call to the Gospel ministry was an ever-liv 
ing and ineffaceable conviction. Yet it greatly 
distressed his mind : First, by fears that it was 
a fire of his own kindling. Second, by an oppres 
sive sense of his own incapacity ; hence, for years, 
it was the subject of earnest solicitude and prayer. 
These embarrassments were held in abeyance by 
the firm purpose to do every duty at whatever cost, 
and the assurance that God would call to no duty 
in which he would not, in some way, supply all de 
ficiencies. But his soul found complete rest only 
in the settled purpose to await and cheerfully con 
form to the opening of God s providence. And 
this became the key to his entire subsequent life : 
to, in all things follow the united leadings of God s 
providence, Spirit and Word. 

The 4th of May, 1844, being just twenty years of 



12 THE LIFE OF 

age, he accepted license to exhort. Under this, 
however, he always took a text and preached, as 
systematized thought was more natural and easy to 
his type of mind. 

August, 1845, he joined the Allegheny Confer 
ence, and went as junior preacher to the Erie cir 
cuit. Here came a trial to his Christian fidelity. 
The headquarters of the Erie circuit was Erie city. 
There was not a white member in the Church, and 
this feeble colored Church was the only one on this 
circuit of two preachers. The prospect was forbid 
ding, indeed. The first Sabbath morning in Erie 
made a deep impression. Thoughts of " Sweet 
home," and pleasant social position there, and of 
the intense prejudice against any white man, whose 
motives, however Christ-like, showed practical 
sympathy for the then hated colored race. A pain 
ful sense of isolation caused tears unbidden to flow- 
But thoughts of Jesus th mockings, scourging 
and cast-off purple, and forsaken in that dreadful 
" hour of the powers of darkness," dried them all 
away. 

He found them very poor many of them fugi 
tives from slavery, and very ignorant. He consent 
ed to become one of them, to lift them up. He es 
tablished a night-school, for their instruction was 
earnest in arousing their ambition to become in 
telligent as well as good. They were very grate 
ful, and thought they never before had found such 
a friend. His stay among them was brief, as at the 
expiration of six weeks he was called to Allegheny 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 13 

City, to labor in concert with his brother William, 
then in the second year of his ministry, boarding 
with Rev. B. Longhead, who long has been a mem 
ber of the Allegheny Conference. This became a 
pleasant and profitable year. 

On the following year he went as junior preacher 
to the Zanesville circuit, in company with Rev. G. 
Richey, preacher in charge, and now President of 
the Central Ohio Conference. 

Brother Richey, in a funeral discourse preached 
at Leesville, the home of his boyhood and youth, 
says : " He was rny co-laborer on the Zanesville 
circuit. My house, during that year, was his prin 
cipal home. I knew him well and loved him much. 
Indeed, it was only necessary to know him well in 
order to love him. He was not only an amiable 
Christian, but an affable gentleman. He seemed to 
possess the wisdom of the serpent, and harmless- 
ness of the dove. In morals he had the innocence 
of the lamb, and the courage of the lion. This year 
his brother in the flesh, in the Lord, and in the 
ministry William loved more than life itself, was 
called from earth to heaven. 



CALL TO THE SOUTH. 

"The Allegheny Conference, held at Mesopota 
mia, Ohio, September, 1847, received an urgent 
letter from North Carolina, asking for a minister- 
Every eye seemed to turn to Brother Crooks as the 



14 THE LIFE OF 

man for that place. After a season of devout, earn 
est, silent prayer, in which the entire Conference 
engaged, Brother Crooks arose his cheeks pale as 
marble and said, I will go, sustained by your 
prayers. In the name of my Savior I wilt go to 
North Carolina. " 

He has often said, " The question presented 
itself to me, can you give your life for the cause ? 
I felt that I could, and went." He gave his life 
when he consented to go. 

He was ordained Elder at that Conference, Sep 
tember 21st, one year in advance of the rules, in 
order to fit him for the work on his mission. His 
parchment is signed, " T. Guy, President of Con 
ference." 

Four years of toil, self-sacrifice, peril and success 
ensued. By the close of the first year, an opening 
in Grayson County, Virginia, called for another 
man. Jarvis C. Bacon responded. The work ex 
tended both in Virginia and North Carolina. New 
doors opened, calls to " Come over and help us/ 
multiplied, arid at the expiration of the second year, 
Jesse McBride took the field already opened, leav 
ing Brother Crooks to go more deeply " into the 
regions beyond." The history of these years will 
be given in extracts from letters to the Wesleyan, 
written on that moral battle-field. 

More fitting than anything we can present are 
the following pen pictures drawn by himself, of his 
journey south, and his labors amid the scenes of 
slavery with its Bibles and whips and slave-pens. 



REV. ADAM BROOKS. 15 

Circumstances not unfrequently contribute large 
ly in rendering recorded events interesting. The 
circumstance of my appointed field of labor being 
in a slave-holding State, may give importance to a 
few notes by the way. It would be in vain to es 
say to give a description of the deep emotions that 
thrill the soul when taking the parting hand of an 
affectionate father, a kind mother, dear brothers 
and sisters, and friends beloved; when bidding 
adieu to the hills, valleys, and streamlets, that were 
the associate of one s juvenile sports, and childish 
perambulations; the most vivid imagination and 
nervous language, are utterly inadequate to the 
task. Such reflections as these are very natural. 
Am I looking upon these people the last time ? 
Shall I ever again meet a father s smile, or have the 
seal of maternal affection stamped on my cheek? 
May J ever again drink the sweet waters which 
flow in the channel of the society of those endear 
ed by the tender ties of consanguinity ? With 
these peculiar feelings and cogitations, on the 
morning of the 1st of October, I turned my face 
to go to the far South, to pronounce that Gospel 
which proclaims liberty to the captive, and the open 
ing of the prisons to them that are bound. 

I must needs go through Zanesville for my books 
and clothes, (it being my former field of labor.) 

On Saturday evening I arrived at Zanesville, 
was kindly received by brother J. and family. On 
Sabbath evening spoke a short time from viiith chap, 
ter, 9th verse, second Corinthians. In improving 



16 THE LIFE OF 

the subject, I tried to show that Christ is our ex 
ample we must have His spirit if we would be 
His it is a spirit to labor, suffer, for the good of 
mailj we must be willing to sacrifice property ; He 
became poor. Reputation, He made Himself of no 
reputation ; and person, He was wounded, bruised? 
chastised, and all for man, yea, for His enemies. 
He suffered patiently, suffered not unnecessarily, 
but in harmony with the will of His Father. Those 
who do not imitate Him are riot Christians, whether 
individuals or organizations. Dear reader, how 
much are you willing to sacrifice ? How much have 
you suffered in property, reputation or person, for 
the good of your race ? Wherein have you denied 
yourself daily ? of what to-day ? 

I was detained till Thursday, waiting for a boat 
As none came, I mounted the stage on Friday morn 
ing for M:, a town at the juncture of the Muskingum 
and Ohio rivers, sixty miles below Zanesville, The 
day was wet, cold and gloomy, and the road 
rough. But as it followed the river, a person hav 
ing large individuality, would delight himself in ob 
serving the flowing river ; its little islands, adorned 
with the waving willow ; the fading foliage bedeck 
ing its bank; together with the craggy hills, the 
rolling forest, the rich fields and green meadows, 
which variegate every succeeding prospect, Who 
can witness such a scenery and not mark the foot 
steps of the power, wisdom and goodness, of Him 
who bridles the waters, plows their channels, and 
determines their courses ? 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 17 

I arrived at M. about 9 o clock, P. M., and not 
wishing to travel on Sabbath morning, I sought out 
the residence of Brother P., where I was made very 
welcome, and was able to feel at home, Brother 
P. is an efficient agent in the underground railroad. 
M. is the oldest town in* Ohio ; it is beautifully situ 
ated, built (in some respects) after the eastern style. 
There are a great many anti-slavery Methodists in 
this place, but they do not seem to see the incon 
gruity of coming out of a pro-slavery political 
party, and remaining in fellowship with a pro- 
slavery Church. The Methodist Episcopal friends 
had their Quarterly Meeting on Saturday morning 
at 10 o clock. M. T. Young, Presiding Elder, 
preached from Matthew xiv:23. Subject, Private 
Prayer. In descanting on what we should pray for, 
he named the prosperity of" the Church. On this 
point he manifested great earnestness, referred them 
to the past prosperous condition of the M. E. 
Church, compared it to the stone of prophesy cut 
out of the mountain, it had rolled on gloriously. 
That evening I had the happiness to see Ephraim 
Cutler, the only man living who helped to frame the 
Constitution of Ohio, He claims the honor of mak 
ing it a free State ; he sat up a whole night to frame 
arguments to accomplish that object. Honor to his 
life ! When dead, peace to his ashes ! 

Sabbath, 11 o clock, A. M., preached in town hall 
of Harmer, (H. is on the other side of the Musk- 
ingnm from M.,) from Matthew vi: 9. After meet 
ing, a Mr. S., Presbyterian, accosting me, said I 



18 THE LIFE OF 

must have the Methodist house that evening, It 
was obtained for 4 P. M. I spoke from Matthew 
vi:10. Here I tried to make it appear that the 
means ordained by Heaven for the establishment of 
Christ s kingdom were, the preaching of the Gos 
pel, the whole Gospel, the practice of every duty, 
the right and faithful exercise of discipline, by 
which every sinner, of whatever kind, would be kept 
out of the pale of the Church ; and those organiza 
tions which do not use those means cannot effect the 
object for which they organize. This was my last 
Sabbath in Ohio. I then waited (though very im 
patiently) for a boat, which did not come until 
Tuesday morning, 11 o clock. In a very few min 
utes I was sailing down the beautiful Ohio. The 
day was wet and cold, a great many passengers, 
and an amount of vanity displayed, though I was 
pleased by the order observed. 

On Tuesday night we were landed on the Vir 
ginia shores, at the mouth of the Great Kanahwa ; 
here again we were detained until Thursday morn 
ing for a boat to go to C., sixty miles up this rapid 
river. 

Thursday night got to C. in time to give our 
selves to the faithful keeping of Morpheus, at 
about 1 o clock, A. M. 

Friday took stage for Lewisburgh, one hundred 
miles from C. After riding about thirty miles over 
a good road we found ourselves at the base of the 
Green Briar Mountain. The prospect now be 
comes indescribably romantic. The traveler seems 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 19 

to be environed at every point of the compass, by 
great piles of earth, covered with pines, which lift 
their hundred arms on high, as though they would 
grasp the clouds, or sweep the sky. The complete 
symmetry with which these piles are formed, com 
ing to a peak with the order of a pyramid, will 
strike the admiration of every beholder. I would 
advise every one who travels this road to visit the 
Hawk s Nest, a precipice of rock piled on rock, to 
the height of nine hundred feet. Here you will 
fancy yourself at the jumping off place. To look 
down you seem to be lifted far above the earth, the 
head reels. The country is under very poor 
cultivation, and the minds of the inhabitants are 
no better. An old revolutionary soldier, bend 
ing beneath the weight of time, and trembling 
with age, got in to ride a few miles; he stated 
that they are beginning to raise wheat. (They 
formerly lived on bear s meat, and pone.) I 
remarked to the old gentleman, it was a long 
road from C. to L., one hundred miles, without 
any towns or villages; he replied, there was no 
place to put them. We lodged a few hours fifty 
miles from C., and by 1 o clock, A. M., was in the 
stage again. 

To-day, Saturday, feelings of deep sorrow, min 
gled with emotions of profound indignation, swell 
my bosom, while surveying the fallen and corrupt 
state of the Churches of our land, while I see them 
chattelizing humanity, and driving the iron chariot 
of oppression over her breast, while its massive 



20 THE LIFE OF 

wheels squeeze hissing streams of blood from the 
tender cords of her great heart. 

Saturday evening arrived at L., where we spent 
the Sabbath. In the morning I attended meeting 
at the Methodist Episcopal Church ; listened to 
a sermon from John 1st chapter, 38th verse. 
The body of the discourse was very well propor 
tioned, but if I am a judge, the body was all there 
was of it ; I do not think it had any soul. 

Monday morning, 1 o clock, took stage for Fin- 
castle. Our road was over the Allegheny ridge of 
mountains. |The scenery was magnificently sublime. 
The air is highly salubrious, and the mountaineers 
are the Goliah s of the land. We had a few hours 
.rest, about 12 o clock mounted the stage for Lynch- 
burgh. We crossed the range called the Blue 
Ridge, before day ; here the sun rose on us in Old 
Virginia. The peaks of Otter on the Blue Ridge, 
are the highest of the Allegheny; being four 
thousand, two hundred and sixty feet high. A 
circumstance transpired here worthy of note. A 
colored woman was put in the stage at F., who 
said she was on her way to L., a town about thirty 
miles from F. On being interrogated, she "in 
formed us that she had been sold to a negro trader 
in L., her former master lived in F. She was 
leaving a husband, a mother, brothers and sisters?, 
and the grave of a child. Are not such acts of 
cruelty enough to make us " sick of humanity, and 
blush to know ourselves men." She was a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he, the 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 21 

man who sold her, of the Episcopalian Christians 
(by profession) selling God s own image, the pur 
chase of the Savior s death, and the temple of the 
Holy Ghost, as beasts in market. Oh Shame, 
where is thy blush ! I asked her if she did not 
mourn the loss of her babe ! and the emphasis with 
which she responded No ! made my blood run 
cold. She continued, I am glad it is gone, for it 
is a stranger to my sorrows. 

What a horrible comment, this, upon the cruel 
ties of slavery. The slave-mother s joy begins not 
like that of other mothers ; " when a man is born 
into the world;" but when her infant is hurried 
out of existence, and its first faint cry is hushed in 
the silence of death! Why this perversion of 
nature ? Ah ! that mother knows the agonies, the 
torments, the wasting woes of a life of slavery, and 
by the bowels of a mother s love, and the yearn 
ings of a mother s pity ; she rejoices to know her 
babe shall never experience the same. 

But will God be avenged on such a nation as 
this ? The withering displeasure of heaven can be 
seen standing out in bold relief upon the whole 
face of the country. Their soil is rendered sterile 
by the burning foot of slavery. Their fields are 
converted into forests; their fences, their houses and 
their barns, are dilapidated, and the very air 
poisoned with the effluvia from the mangled body 
of humanity which lies bleeding on every planta 
tion. In a word, slavery, like the mighty incubus, 
standing with one foot on the neck of the master, 



22 THE LIFE OF 

a,nd the other on that of the slave, crushes them 
physically, intellectually and morally into the very 
earth, and leaves them leaves them, did I say ? 
No ! keeps them there struggling for life. 

The^evening of October 23d, I found myself at 
Indiana, having terminated a fatiguing journey of 
six hundred and fifty miles. I rested till Sabbath j 
in the evening, preached in the Methodist Episco 
pal house; I tried to enforce the doctrine of 
universal love and the duty of doing unto others 
as we would have them do to us, without reference 
to class, color or condition, etc. Some of them 
said " That was just what they always believed. 
There is much more anti-slavery sentiment in this 
part of North Carolina than I had supposed. 
This is owing, in a great measure, to the influence 
of the society of Friends. It is said the treatment 
of the slaves is much modified by their presence ; 
and as they are numerous in this community, 
slavery is seen in its mildest form. It is some 
what amusing too, that I am taken for a Quaker, 
go wherever I will. I attended their meeting 
Sabbath morning, after my arrival, and even the 
Friends themselves, thought I was one. After 
hearing me preach in the Methodist Episcopal 
house, some of them asked if I was not a Friend. 
I went to Toledo last week, lectured on temper 
ance, and there, again. I was thought to be a 
Quaker. This, I suppose, is owing some to the 
doctrine I inculcate, and partly to my plain coat. 
Upon the whole, the prospect is pretty encourag. 



EEV. ADAM CROOKS. 23 

ing; the hearts of many are open to receive the 
truth ; and by the help of God s grace, I mean to 
sow the seed of the word, praying that the great 
head of the Church may give a large increase. 
And now, at the commencement of my labors, let 
me call upon the whole Church, and every lover of 
God, and friend of man, to send up their earnest, 
faithful, importunate and prevailing prayers, that 
Heaven would smile propitiously upon the cause in 
North Carolina ; the good of our common Christi. 
anity and common country ; the sacred demands of 
the trembling, weeping, bleeding, perishing slave, 
and the high and holy claims of the Holy One 
require it; yea, and future posterity will say, 
Amen. 

It is not a little interesting, and amusing, to 
trace the rise and progress of the Church, in our 
state. Dr. Stanton, a Quaker, brought into this 
country some pamphlets, containing the address 
delivered by brother E. Smith, in the Sixth 
Presbyterian Church, in Cincinnati, March 19? 
1843, from Rom. xiii, 10, two thousand of which, 
were printed at the expense of the Society of 
Friends. The printer neglecting to state the office 
in which it was printed, Mr. C., the Methodist 
Episcopal preacher then traveling the Guilford 
Circuit, (who was silenced by a Conference, held 
at G. a few weeks ago,) faithfully charged his 
hearers not to read them, or even suffer them to 
come into their houses. He stated they contained 
no truth were a mass of pernicious errors were 



24 THE LIFE OF 

anonymous, and that it was not known where they 
were printed, etc. But alas ! for him that he was 
not a Pope, for then would his Bull, have been 
Law. Nor would he have resuscitated these per. 
nicious errors, and buried himself in the tomb he 
intended for them. What he said served to excite 
the curiosity of his hearers, which led many of 
them to procure the interdicted pamphlet, before 
they went home. They were read with avidity, 
and circulated with industry. The result was, 
they aroused the public mind with all the potency 
of truth, and many who had defended Slavery from 
the Bible, changed their language, and said, "No 
Slaveholder can be a Christian I" Brother Smith 
said, at Conference, he wished himself young, that 
he might go to N. C., but he was here several 
years before me, through the agency of his address. 
The next circumstance leading the way to 
secession here, was the division of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. The delegate from N. C., to 
the Southern Convention, was instructed to oppose 
a split, but he was influenced by the members of 
said Convention, to vote with the South, so that 
the N. C. Conference was voted into the southern 
division, contrary to her wish, and instructions. I 
have been told the feelings of this Conference were 
so exasperated, that it refused to submit, and could 
not hold its succeeding session. Be that as it may, 
one thing is certain, it tamely consented for Bishop 
Andrew to preside at its last session. But when 
the division took place, the cherished hopes of 



REV ADAM CROOKS. 25 

many, that the Methodist Episcopal Church would 
eventually free herself of the sin of making mer 
chandise " of slaves, and souls of men/ were 
completely blasted. Their first expedient was, to 
join the Northern Division, but soon found it im 
practicable. They then resolved, (some of those 
many,) to form a third Church, which they did, and 
called it the Free Methodist Church. 

" Up to this time, they had no knowledge of the 
existence of the Wesleyan Methodist Connection. 
By some unknown agency, (perhaps an angel of 
mercy,) they became apprised of it, sent for our 
Discipline, met in Convention, read, approved, 
and adopted it, and at their request, came under 
the supervision of the Allegheny Conference. 
Since then, they, like an ocean rock, have stood 
unmoved, while the mighty waves of opposition 
have spent their furious power, in vainly essaying 
to overwhelm them ; and blessed be God, they still 
stand, or rather move forward, despite of all that 
would oppose. On my arrival, the cry of < amal. 
gamation, nigger-thief, abolition, which are synon- 
omous terms here, went careering in frantic alarm 
through the entire community ; but that has measur 
ably subsided. On the svhole I cannot complain, 
other churches have been pretty courteous, in 
opening their pulpits, especially the Protestant 
Methodist. Calls for me to preach are numerous - 
Congregations generally large. I seldom preach 
without denouncing the peculiar institution; mostly 
I have slave-holders to hear. We held our first 



26 THE LIFE OF 

quarterly meeting on the third Saturday and Sab 
bath in December; congregations full, and very 
attentive. Sabbath morning at 11 o clock we had a 
meeting, weeping and rejoicing time. It was the 
first communion held by the Wesleyans in North 
Carolina. The Lord strengthened and comforted 
our hearts. 

" Last Sabbath I read our general rules, to a 
large and deeply attentive concourse ; indeed it was 
affecting to witness the profound interest with 
which young and old stood and listened for near 
two hours j 1 say stood, for there was room for 
only about half of the congregation in the house ; 
so that I was under the necessity of standing in 
the door to be heard by those out as well as inside 
the house. When I read our rules on slavery, 
I pledged to prove before I took my seat that 
the Wesleyans occupy the platform erected by 
primitive Methodists, on the subject of slavery, 
viz. : that they made slaveholding a test of member 
ship. To prove which I read from Robert Emeroy s 
History of Discipline, stating the authority I gave 
was written by a Methodist Episcopal hand, printed 
on a Methodist Episcopal press, published under 
Methodist Episcopal authority, and issued from 
a Methodist Episcopal Book-room. After having 
shown from that, the action of the Church, before, 
at, and after, its origination, I claimed to have 
redeemed my pledge, with the clearness of demon 
stration, and if the countenance is to be taken as 
an index to the mind, I think the congregation was 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 27 

ready to give a verdict in our favor. We have 
subscriptions for the erection of three houses of 
worship ; the parcels of ground on which they are 
to stand, are donated, and I think the prospects 
for success encouraging. It is the opinion of some 
of the most intelligent men of North Carolina that 
she will be a free State before many years ; and 
that in the event of a dissolution of the Union, 
North Carolina will go with the North. The great 
spirit of Liberty is beginning to breathe upon the 
people. If her hosts but rally under her standard, 
inspired by a generous patriotism and noble 
philanthropy, resolved with the Spartan soldier, to 
return l with our shields, or upon them/ the day is 
not far distant, when, under the smiles of the God 
of Liberty, her fair tree will shoot its top to the 
sun, and cast its cooling shades over the oppressed 
of every land. We believe the death warrant of 
American slavery is sealed in heaven, and the 
angel of mercy commissioned to execute it speed- 

iiy- 

"I think I never enjoyed more deep and constant 
communion with my Savior than since I came to 
North Carolina. < Jesus all the day long is my 
joy and my song. My daily prayer is, < 0, Lord, 
revive thy work. I long to see the pillar of 
divine glory rise, and the ark, and people of the 
covenant move forward. May the Lord speed the 
day. 



28 THE LIFE OP 



DEDICATION OF THE FIRST WESLEYAN METH 
ODIST CHURCH IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

" With grateful emotions, I take my pen to give 
the readers of your excellent sheet, a scatement of 
the dedication of the first Wesleyiui Methodist 
Church in North Carolina, with a brief history of 
our success. Our Second Quarterly Meeting, which 
commenced the third Saturday in March, was held 
in a new house erected for the worship of Almighty 
God, through whose sovereign clemency, and the 
liberality of the friends of God and Man, in the 
community, it was completed. The dedicatory 
discourse was pronounced from 1st Tim. iii: 15. 
The use made of the text was, to show The office of 
the Church, viz. first, to support as a pillar, 
secondly, to elevate, and thirdly, in times of trial, 
to stay, IHE TRUTH. This is to be done, first, by 
not shunning to declare the whole counsel of God, 
secondly, by the practice of all Christian duty, 
thirdly, by i\\Q faithful execution of Discipline, and 
lastly, if need be, meekly and patiently suffering, 
for so doing. 

" The position was taken, that an ecclesiastical 
organization, not maintaining the whole truth, must 
support some error, there being no neutral ground 
on any moral question. * He that is not /or, is 
against me. He that gathereth not with me, 
scattereth abroad/ said Jesus. From all this, the 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 29 

following conclusion is unavoidable : That it is the 
imperative duty of Christians^ to disconnect themselves 
from corrupt Churches ! To be in connection with 
such a Church, is to support it, to support it is to 
support error ; for IT is the pillar and stay of error: 
hence, the solemn command from Heaven contained 
in Rev. xviii : 4. 

" The Quarterly Conference gave me leave to vis 
it Virginia, some time this Summer, as I received a 
call from the mother of Presidents to that effect. 
Sabbath, I spoke to a large, attentive, and deeply 
affected concourse, from Isaiah xxv, 1 : I am told 
it had the happy effect of killing much prejudice. 
We were favored with the acceptable labors of our 
worthy brother, D. Wilson. He is one of the 
Spartan-like band, who dared to brave the popular 
current, and boldly fling the Wesleyan flag to the 
breeze, and manfully maintain its claims. Brother 
W. preached on Sabbath night, when the Lord 
graciously poured out His Spirit and dedicated 
the house, by filling it with His glory, and one 
professed to find peace. The meeting was pro 
tracted ten days. I have no recollection of having 
witnessed such displays of the virtue of love divine? 
to subdue the carnal mind. An incident occurred 
on Wednesday, worthy of note. A woman, who 
had belonged to the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
a number of years, became so deeply convicted at 
home, she had to quit work sent for her neigh, 
bors to pray for her said she had been trying, 
for a long time, to get to Heaven in her own way; 



30 THE LIFE OF 

but saw she could not succeed. She came to meet 
ing that night, and as I arose to preach, her feelings 
so completely overcame her, that without regard 
to the order of the meeting, she arose and made 
her way to the altar. I invited the mourners for- 
ward, stating the Lord would not let me preach 
that night. The house and surrounding country 
was soon rendered vocal with the cries of seekers, 
and the shouts of saints. During the meeting? 
twelve touched by faith, the sceptre of mercy and 
were at peace. The same number joined. nine 
from the world, two from the Primitive Methodists; 
and one from the Episcopal Methodists. All glory 
to Him whose wing of love overshadowed us. 

" On last Sabbath I formed a class of twelve 
members in E. county, which promises an abundant 
increase. Father Briles, who has been a standard- 
bearer in the Methodist Episcopal Church for 
about forty years, said, we must build a large 
church, oh ! I feel such an interest I could almost 
build it myself. An old gentleman, who had seen 
me but once, rode ten miles to hear me preach, 
gave us his name. I asked him if he enjoyed the 
comforts of religion, he answered satisfactorily. 
Are you coming from another church ? I inquired. 
No, said he, 1 1 never could join in consequence 
of war and slavery ! There has been thirty-two 
accessions this year. We have raised the walls of 
a second church. It is not yet covered. Blessed 
be Israel s Keeper, while watering others, I have 
felt the refreshing showers of grace in my own 



RET. ADAM CROOKS. 31 

soul. 1 want to be more and more given up to 
Ood, more and more conformed to his likeness 
every day. The opposition is great, but He that 
is for us, is greater than all that can be against us. 
He that binds the mighty deep with sand, saying 
thus far shalt thou come, and here shall thy proud 
waves be stayed, has decreed that the wrath of 
man shall praise him, and the remainder of that 
wrath he will restrain. I would earnestly call oa 
the readers of this, to join with me in praying for 
our enemies, and blessing those who curse us, 
remembering the prayer that went up from the 
cross, Father forgive, they know not what they do, 
I subscribe myself, the servant of God, and friend 
of Man, 

OPPOSITION. 

" I need not say that the opposition to my course 
is great. My image was tarred and feathered in 
this town. [Jamestown.] I saw it the next day 
as I rode by the place. It was leaning up against 
the fence. Some of my friends are beginning to 
tremble for my personal safety but my trust is in 
the Friend of the poor, the Deliverer of the op 
pressed. 

" The law is very strict with regard to the circu 
lation of papers, etc. Efforts have been made to 
put those laws into execution on me, but failed,, 
Meeting-houses are generally closed against me> 
unless it is the Friend s, I have received upwards 



32 THE LIFE OF 

of fifty members. We now number between nine 
ty and one hundred. I expect to visit Grayson 
county, Va., in a few weeks. 

" I will tell you a little about the pious slave 
holders. One man, a member of the Presbyterian 
Church, said he would shoot his slaves before they 
should be free. (See how these Christians (?) 
love SLAVERY.) A Methodist preacher tied up his 
slave, whipped him a while, and then prayed for 
him ; then whipped and prayed for him, whipping 
and praying alternately. (His name is Lumsden.) 
Another by the name of St. Clair took his wife and 
child with him around his circuit, and his slave 
girl must frequently run through the mud and cold 
barefoot, in the Winter. Another instance of cru 
elty : A slave-trader was passing through this 
county last Winter with a drove of negroes. One 
of them, (a man,) got an axe and cut his hand ; 
several licks drove the axe through it, thus ren. 
dering it useless, doubtless, for ever. For this he 
was beaten and kicked without mercy. These 
things transpire where slavery exists in its mildest 
form, and if this is its little finger, what are its 
untold horrors ? It seems to me I hate slavery 
more every day. 

" Let the note of l The Clarion 1 wax louder and 
louder ; and as the walls of Jericho fell by the sound 
ing of rams horns, so by the proclamation of the 
truth lay the walls of slavery to their foundations^ 

"As I write on business, I would say for the 
satisfaction of our Zioiij and in Eeform generally, 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 33 

that the state of our work, in these parts, is eru 
couraging. Our Third Quarterly Meeting was 
held last Saturday and Sabbath. We had a feast 
of fat things. Two joined. One was Wm. An 
derson, a licensed preacher from the Primitive 
Methodists, the other from the Methodist Episco 
pal Church. The meeting was held at Flint Hill 
School-house, where a Church of twenty-three 
members has been recently formed, and trustees 
elected prospectively. I think the circuit is in 
the most prosperous condition it has experienced 
since its formation. We number about one hun 
dred members, fifty-eight of whom have united this 
year. The harvest is great, but the laborers are 
few. My exertions have been more than my 
physical abilities justify, and yet calls for service 
are multiplying. Some think there is a field for 
two or three active men. 

" I propose visiting Virginia next week, and may, 
perhaps, stay a month. If I succeed in forming a 
circuit, or mission, in that part, (Grayson county,) 
of the Old Dominion, it will greatly advance the 
cause here, by having two fields sufficiently adja 
cent, to enable the preachers to visit and assist 
each other in holding meetings, &c. 

VISIT TO VIRGINIA. 

On the morning of the 17th of June, I set out to 
plant the standard of reform, on the tops of the moun 
tains of Grayson County, Virginia. It is one hun- 
2* 



34 THE LIFE OF 

drcd miles from this. The journey was somewhat 
lonely, having no company, but it is good at times 
to be alone. I passed at the base of Mount Ararat, 
or the pilot mountain. This is North Carolina s 
greatest natural curiosity. It is not attached to 
any chain of mountains is near a mile in height, 
and on its brow, is a stupendous rock, rising near 
ly perpendicular to the height of three hundred 
feet. It is a matter of surprise to look to the tops 
of the loftiest peaks which seem to touch the sky) 
and find them under cultivation. The daring 
mountaineer builds his house where the thunder s 
fiery bolt leaps in sportive vengeance from brow to 
brow. The evening of the next day found me com 
fortably seated in the very hospitable residence of 
Isaac Moore. I need scarcely say the sparkling 
eye, beaming countenance, and warm embrace of 
the old veteran for truth, almost made me forget 
the fatigue of my journey. I here obtained the fol 
lowing information, viz : When the question of the 
division of the Methodist Episcopal Church was 
pending, the preacher in charge of Grayson Circuit 
gave the members liberty to vote to which part, 
North or South, they wished to belong. The Pre 
siding Elder on hearing this, and that many were 
opposed to the separation, issued his lull interdict 
ing such procedure, thereby disfranchising those 
who had not voted. I am not sure that such a 
course is in strict accordance with < Neither be ye 
lords over God s heritage. It produced a shock 
from which many never recovered. 



&EV. ADAM CROOKS. 36 

" A goodly number believing that slavery was the 
great wedge that split the Church, resolved to be 
disconnected from all Church organization until 
they found one free from the wedge of gold and 
Babylonish garment. The majority of the Hope- 
well Church took this stand. Here I organized a 
Wesleyan Church, first numbering eight members* 
During the next week, there were six accessions ; so 
that when I left it numbered fourteen members, 
one of whom, (Isaac Moore) is an Elder. During 
my stay which was sixteen days, the spirit of the 
Lord was poured upon us, the Church was revived, 
and six professed to have found peace in believing* 
To God be all the praise. 

"I am much pleased with this people. Their 
hearts, houses, and purses are open. Indeed, their 
kindness borders on enthusiasm. But the best of 
all is, they are full of faith and the Holy Ghost 
A preacher is asked for the coming year. This 
will be a pleasant field in which to operate. My 
faith is strong that a glorious harvest may be reaped 
from these mountains. 

" We held our fourth Quarterly Meeting, com 
mencing on the fourth Saturday of July. I was un 
der the necessity of leaving on the Tuesday morning 
following. At that time five were hopefully convert 
ed, and twenty-one had joined : ten from the world, 
and eleven from other Churches. Bless God, the 
bright rainbow of promise still spans our horizon. 
At the commencement of the year, there were four 
Churches, and forty members in North Carolina. 



36 THE LIFE OF 

At present there are eight Churches ; and including 
Virginia, one hundred and forty members. We 
have an increase of one hundred. I calculated when 
I came, if we held our own the first year, we would 
do well; but instead of the waves of opposition 
beating us back, the Lord has more than trebled 
our number. May we not join with the Psalmist ? 
and say, By this I know that thou favorest us, be 
cause our enemies do not triumph over us. 

" As you are reappointed to the editorship of our 
Church organ, and I to my previous field in Caroli 
na, I am happy in the anticipation of extending my 
acquaintance with you as an editor; and while I re 
turn you my hearty thanks, for former indulgence 
extended to a young correspondent, I would beg 
the continuance in future of the same indulgence 
promising to aim at improvement. 

"Brother Bacon and myself left our friends on the 
morning of the 2nd of October, to go to our re 
spective fields ; his, in Grayson County, Virginia, 
mine in Guilford, North Carolina. We came by pri 
vate conveyance, and found it much more pleas 
ant and less expensive than by public ; although 
not so expeditious. After having contended 
against hills, mountains and distances for fifteen 
days, on the evening of the 17th of the above writ 
ten month, we had the gratification of being seated 
around the familiar hearth of the hospitable resi 
dence of my good friend Richard Menderihall, 
in Jamestown. The same evening we visited 
our worthy brother John Sherwood, (also of 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 37 

Jamestown,) and found him over his press, laud 
ably employed in printing Free-soil Tickets. The 
folio wirg Saturday, we commenced our first Quar 
terly Meeting (in the first Wesleyan Methodist 
church built in the State,) and protracted it six 
days. The congregations were large and deeply 
attentive. Brother Bacon preached with great 
power and acceptability. While breaking the 
bread of life to others, his own soul feasted on the 
rich blessings of the Gospel. During the progress 
of the meeting, the spirit of the Lord was gracious. 
ly poured upon the people ; ten professed to obtain 
peace in believing, and seven joined. On the next 
Saturday, we proceeded to Sandy Ridge. Here we 
held a few days meeting, at which we were favored 
with the presence and labors of our good brother 
Arnos Moore, from Virginia. The meeting resulted 
in the hopeful conversion of five, and addition of 
seven to the Church. To God be all the glory. In 
a sermon preached on Monday from John xv : 5, 
" For without me ye can do nothing," Brother Ba 
con, in a very lucid light, showed up the grand in 
consistency in which those involve themselves who 
say of a practice it is sinful, and yet claim that it is 
proper to acknowledge the Christian character of 
persons living in the habitual indulgence of that 
sinful practice. It was a most happy effort ; which 
with his other labors of love here, will not be soon 
forgotten by us. While he was here, which was 
thirteen days, he delivered fourteen sermons which 
were crowned with fifteen conversions and fourteen 



38 THE LIFE OF 

accessions. I think the prospects for our future sue* 

cess good ; arid that we may bless Q od and take 

courage." 

THE CAMP-MEETING. 

" With grateful emotions, I lift my pen to in 
form the friends of Zion of what great things the 
Lord has done for us, that we may be thankfully 
glad. In harmony with the expressed wishes of 
our third Quarterly Conference, we appointed a 
Camp-meeting to be held at Union Meeting House, 
Ghiilford County, in conjunction with our fourth 
Quarterly Meeting. 

"In a little time there appeared many prophets in 
the land, who were wroth, and mocked the Wesley* 
ans, saying, What do these feeble Wesleyans? 
Will they fortify themselves ? Will they sacrifice ? 
Will they make an end in a day ? Even that which 
they build if a fox go up, he shall even break down 
their stone wall. 

"But we prayed to our God, (for we were de- 
gpised) and built our tents, and all the tents were 
formed together unto the half thereof, for the peo 
ple had a mind to work. Our meeting was to 
commence on Friday evening, 10th of August, at 
candle-lighting. By sundown, Brothers J. C. Bacon, 
Amos Moore, from Virginia, and myself arrived at 
the place of our feast of Tabernacles ; found a good 
ly number assembled for Divine worship. Brother 
Bacon preached to an attentive and deeply alfected 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 39 

congregation. Saturday 11, A. M., 1 tried to 
preach on the subject of prayer. At the conclusion 
the congregation, by rising to their feet, pledged to 
pray for a glorious revival during the meeting. 

" Five, P. M., the rules for the government of the 
Meeting were read, and the entire congregation, 
and all succeeding ones, appointed a committee to 
see that they were strictly observed; (and I must 
give honor to whom honor is due.) So faithful 
were they in the discharge of their official duties 
that I had no cause to reprove an individual during 
the whole meeting. This was most agreeable. At 
candle light, Brother Bacon delivered a solemn dis 
course from 2nd Peter, iii and 9, l The Lord is 
not slack, &c., to a serious congregation, after 
which the good work begun. A number came for. 
ward for prayers, and some professed to obtain mer 
cy in believing. The meeting increased in interest 
as it progressed. More or less present for prayers 
every opportunity. The Angel of Conviction and 
voice of pardon went from the stand to the tents, 
from the tents to the houses, and from the houses to 
the fields and gold mines. AVhat was it but heaven 
in miniature ? for the voices of old and young, male 
and female, fathers and mothers, husbands and 
wives, parents and children, neighbors and friends, 
to go up ia bursts of hallelujah to God and the 
Lamb, Sweet was our camp-meeting, which lasted 
from the evening of the 10th till the morning of the 
20th inst., during which about one hundred and fif 
ty professed to be converted and seventy-six joined. 



40 THE LIFE OP 

This was the best meeting I have ever attended. It 
was characterized throughout by large and atten 
tive congregations, by far the best order I have ever 
seen at camp-meetings, deep and general convic 
tions and clear and numerous conversions. The 
conclusion was awfully impressive. A people about 
to part who will not all meet again in time ! 
The congregation assembled at the stand. Brother 
Bacon delivered a benedictary from Thessalo- 
nians. Brother Moore followed in some feeling 
appeals. The congregation in tears. The wri. 
ter occupied a few minutes in returning his com 
pliments to the audience for their good conduct 
through the meeting, to brothers Bacon and Moore 
for their attendance and labors at the meeting, and 
thanks to God for the out-pouring of his Spirit on 
the meeting, made allusion to Brother Bacon s trial 
which was to come in a few days, requested the au 
dience to acknowledge their obligations to the 
brethren from Virginia, by promising to pray for 
them, which they almost unanimously did, with 
great feeling; then forming a procession, the 
preachers in advance, marched around in front of 
the tents, singing an appropriate hymn. The 
preachers halted at a specified spot, and received 
the hand of, and pronounced their blessing on all 
and parted, to meet not again, till we pass the por 
tals of death, when we hope to strike glad hands 
and tune our harps to immortal songs, in the sweet 
grove of heaven, no more to sigh nor shed a tear, 
no more to suffer pain or fear, but sing anthems of 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 

praise, and doxologies, glory to God and the Lamb. 
Amen. It is reserved for the light of eternity and 
disclosures of judgment alone, to reveal the good 
done at the first Wesleyan Methodist Campmeeting, 
held in North Carolina, but I think we may safely 
conclude that the gospel has been preached, sinners 
have been convicted, mourners have been comfort 
ed, believers strengthened, the cause of reform ad 
vanced prejudice crucified, (died a most ignomini 
ous death,) Christ to some extent has seen of the tra 
vail of his soul and is satisfied, pious intelligence 
gratified, and God s name glorified. The cause has 
been prosperous from its commencement. The in 
crease of its membership the first year from forty 
to one hundred and forty, including fourteen who 
joined in Virginia last Fall, when brother Bacon 
took charge of Grayson Circuit. It reduced the 
Guilford Charge fourteen, leaving one hundred and 
twenty-six, There has been an increase this year 
of one hundred and forty-nine ; so that, at this time, 
there are two hundred and seventy-five members on 
Guilford Circuit. Brother Bacon s Charge, last 
Fall numbered eighteen. It has increased to one 
hundred and eleven ; so that the Wesleyans in the 
South, two years ago, counted forty, all told, enjoy 
ing the labors of one man the first, and but two the 
second year, now number three hundred and eighty- 
six, giving an increase of three hundred and forty- 
six. What now becomes of the objection that we 
can do no good in the South? Echo answers, 
what ! And this is our infancy, while the Herods 



42 THE LIFE OF 

of the South have been trying to murder us. 
Blessed be the Most High, the Wesleyan Ship still 
bears up against wind and tide. 

"I know I do not write with the feelings of a 
proud boaster, or unkindness for such as oppose 
our progress, but with sentiments of the greatest 
respect for all men, and of the most profound grat 
itude to God, the God in whom David trusted? 
when he encountered Goliath of Gath. And I 
write for the purpose of convincing our foes, that 
they have judged us wrongly, and treated us ac 
cordingly ; and of inspiring in our friends a confi 
dence, which the correctness of our principles, the 
rectitude of our procedure, the holiness of our 
cause, and the certainty of its triumph, through the 
omnipotence of truth, would warrant, and courage 
in proportion to that confidence ; that they may 
lift their standard anew, unfurl its bright banner 
along the sky, with this glorious motto written in 
blazing characters of Love, glowing on its ample 
folds, l Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace, 
and good will to man. That, under Jesus, the 
Captain of our Salvation, we may travel to certain 
victory, with the panoply of heaven to cover, and 
glory imperishable to crown us." 



TROUBLE. 

"It is among the probabilities that the readers 
of your luminous periodical begin to inquire, 
What has become of our missionary at the 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 43 

South? Is he dead? Has he left his post? 
Why does he not write ? &c. He is yet at 
his post. His reasons for not writing sooner 
are part for want of matter, and part, perhaps, 
from neglect. I will take liberty to say some 
thing of Guilford Circuit, under the zealous 
and very efficient labors of brother Me Bride. 
It is, and has been, in a very prosperous state. 
During this Conference year, quite a number 
have professed to obtain peace in believing, and 
seventy-four have joined the Church. The pros 
pects for a rich harvest this year are flatter 
ing. The heart and hands of its pastor are full of 
hope and of work. 

" A few words relative to the mission, and only 
a few. As I accompanied brother Me Bride in 
his first visit round the Circuit, I did not strike 
out till the first of January. I have not as yet 
organized any Clnrches but expect to soon. 
There are six appointments which we will call 
regular, and several incidental. The extremes 
are about eighty miles apart. 

"I am extending my operations Southward. 
Numerous are the misrepresentations ; the opposi 
tion is violent, and some threats are being made. 
I will give you an instance : On the evening 
of the llth instant I preached in Montgomery 
county. After the benediction, a couple of notes 
were given me. One signed by B. W. Simmons, 
stated that the writer had just returned from 
the courts of Montgomery and Stanly counties, 



44 THE LIFE OP 

and was requested to say to me by many citi 
zens of those counties that should I attempt to 
preach at or near Lane s Chapel, in Montgome 
ry county, my person would be in danger, as 
it was understood in those counties that I am 
an Abolitionist and Free-soiler. The other, written 
by the same hand and signed "Many Citizens 
of the counties of Montgomery and Stanly," reads 
as follows : 

REV. MR. CROOKS : Sir 

u I have heard that you are out preaching the True 
Wesleyan doctrines. I doubt it not, though am fully im- 
formed that you are acting behind the curtain a l wolf in 
sheep s clothing" that you are preying upon the minds of 
the weak and innocent, and inducing them to believe that 
slave- holding is not only an oppression to the slaves, but to 
all those who do not hold slaves. The slaves hereabout 
are in much better condition than their masters or other 
citizens. Your doctrine, if carried out, would bring down 
vengeance upon the heads of your followers by amalgama 
tion and otherwise. 

l Our different denominations here are at peace with 
and among themselves. We do not believe you to be sound , 
but conscientiously believe you to be worse than a traitor. 
We are in hopes you will return from whence you came, or 
you will be dealt with according to the dictates of our con 
sciences. 7 ;; 

" The above needs no comment. Suffice it to say 
that by it we are reminded of the charge preferred 
against our Savior, of casting out devils by Beelze 
bub. In harmony with the wishes of many in that 
community, I left another appointment. The lan 
guage of my heart is, The Lord is my light and 



REV. ADAM CROOK9. 

my salvation ; who shall I fear ? < TheLord God 
is a sun and shield. " Truth is mighty and must 
prevail, though its enemies may triumph for a little 
season. 

" My earnest prayer is that the Great Head of 
the Church may guide us unto truth. Brother Mc- 
Bride and myself start for Virginia next Monday, 
to brother Bacon s trial, which conies on the first 
of April, and his third Quarterly meeting, which 
commences the first Saturday of April. Your 
readers will be advised of the result of the trial as 
soon as practicable. 

IN BONDS. 

"A few days since brother Me Bride advised 
your readers of his arrest and my indictment. 
Another step has been taken. 

" As the writer left the pulpit, the second Sab 
bath of this month, he was introduced to two men, 
one of whom informed him that he must consider 
himself his prisoner, until he gave security in one 
thousand dollars for his appearance at the Superior 
Court of Forsyth county, on the second Mon 
day after the fourth Monday of September next. 
Though in a community where my acquaintance is 
limited, the Lord raised up friends who gave bonds 
for my forthcoming at the above written time and 
place. 

" The charge is MISDEMEANOR. I do not know 
what is t^e specification I presume it is for being 



46 . THE LIFE OF 

in company when brother Me Bride gave the Ten 
Commandments to the little girl. What the sequel 
of these things will be, is for time, the great advo 
cate and publisher of truth to tell. It will do to 
say, I have labored to live in all good conscience 
before God until this day. This being the case, I 
am careful for nothing, but in all things make 
my request unto God. Thanks to his name, my 
mind has been kept in perfect peace. We may be 
condemned by wicked men, our backs given to the 
scourge, our joints to the pillory, and our persons 
to a gloomy cell, and it matters but little, it matters 
nothing prisons would palaces prove, for Jesus 
would dwell with us there. Let our destiny be 
what it may, the bonds of our habitations be where 
they may, the cause of God will be advanced. The 
wrath of man shall praise Him. Let the potsherds 
of the earth strive with the potsherds of the earth ; 
but let not man contend with his Maker. The 
Psalmists prays, . let not man prevail. But shall 
man prevail ? What says reason ? Reason answers^. 
Not until he clothe himself in thunder, and make 
the lightning his girdle ; till he wear the sun for a 
crown, the moon for a breastplate; the stars costly 
jewels encircling his brow, and the rainbow as his 
phylactery ; not until his ipsedixit cause the imrnove- 
able pillars and imperishable foundations of the 
throne of the universe to crumble, and his breath 
extinguish the fires of immortality which glow in 
the bosom of Diety. 

"You have been advised of our arrest under 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 47 

charge of Misdemeanor, for giving the l TEN COM- 
MANDMEXTS to a little girl in Liberty, a village on 
the suburbs of Salem, the capital of Forsyth county. 

"To answer the above charge, accompanied by 
Bro. Bacon, Bro, McBride and the writer made our 
way to Salem Forsyth county, on the 7th inst. This is 
a Moravian town of a population of perhaps fifteen 
hundred rather a beautiful place for this country. 
The inhabitants are generally of Dutch descent. 
Though the Moravians, and even this Church in Sa 
lem, were once opposed to the peculiar institution 
of the South, many members of Salem Church are 
slave-holders. We had been in the place but a 
short time ere the news took the wings of electrici 
ty, and flew through the entire town, The preach 
ers have come!! The abolitionists are here!!! 
Great was the excitement among the people. Some 
said, They ought to be lynched! others, They 
ought to be hung! and other some, No attorney 
ought to appear for them, &c., <fcc. 

u Perhaps it would be interesting to the reader to 
have an introduction to his Honor, the judge who 
presided, and the lawyers who plead at the trial. 

" The judge (Manly) is of medium size, elegant 
form, slightly round-shouldered, perhaps about 
forty-five years of age, bright keen eyes, large 
intellectual faculties, has great self-possession, and 
presides with dignity. From his decisions and 
charges to the jury, &c., the reader is left to infer 
his sense of justice. 

"Messrs, Giliner and Waddell were employed on 



48 THE LIFE OF 

the part of the State ; the prosecuting attorney, Mr 
Pondeqter, did nothing but assist in managing. 

" The defendants employed two attorneys Messrs 
Morehead and Mendenhall the largest slave-hold 
ers in Guilford county. Mr. Morehead is brother 
to Ex-Governor Morehead, of N. C., fs rising six 
feet in hight, a very giant-like man; a full brain, 
gigantic mind, great courage, and is said to be the 
best judge of law in the State. 

" Mr. Mendenhall is a little over six feet, well pro 
portioned, very straight, has a round, high head, 
light auburn hair, mechanical and intellectual pow 
ers large; is a good reasoner, and quite gentle 
manly in his manners. 

THE INDICTMENT. 

"Contains two specifications. The first charges 
1 Jesse McBride and Adam Crooks of, with force 
and arms, knowingly, wickedly and unlawfully, 
with intention to excite insurrection, conspiracy, , 
and resistance in the slaves or free negroes and 
persons of color within the State, bringing into the 
State with intent to circulate, a printed pamphlet 
named and styled the Ten Commandments, the 
evident tendency of which pamphlet would be and 
is to excite insurrection, conspiracy and resistance 
in the slaves or free negroes and persons of color 
within the State, containing, with others, the follow 
ing incendiary clauses : (Here are inserted some 
extracts from the pamphlet) . . Contrary to Act of 
Assembly, &c. .... and against the peace and dig 
nity of the State. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 49 

"The second specification charges the said Jess .1 
McBride and Adam Crooks of, with force and arms: 
wickedly, seditiously, knowingly and intentionally 
circulating said pamphlet within the State, with an 
intent to incite insurrection, conspiracy and resist 
ance in the slaves or free negroes and persons of 
color within the State ; which pamphlet, with other 
seditious teachings and doctrines, contains the fol 
lowing: (Then follow various extracts from the 
pamphlet) which taken separately, or with the bal 
ance and other parts, have an evident tendency to 

excite, &c against the Act of Assembly, &c.> 

and against the peace and dignity of the State. 
WITNESSES 

" On the part of the State (the defendants had no 
witnesses) sworn and testify the following: 

Washington Kenedy. - That defendants stayed 
over night at my house in Liberty. I left early in 
the morning; returned in the evening and found 
the pamphlet at my house. They behaved Ifee 
ministers. 

Lora Kenedy. McBride gave me the pamphlet 
in the absence of Crooks. He said nothing to me 
when he gave it. I think this is the one he gave 
me ; I put no mark on it by which to distinguish it 
from any other pamphlet of the same name. I go 
to Sabbath School ; there are no colored persons at 
school or at home. 

Just here, by permission from the Judge, Wad- 
dell read the pamphlet in open court. This was 
done to identify it. 



50 THE LIFE OF 

"Mr. Shore. 1 1 saw this book at my house. I da 
not know who brought it. I did not read it or 
mark it. James Kenedy came to my house one 
morning and got it. I think this is the same. 

"James W. Kenedy. I saw McBride give a little 
book to my sister Lora. I was in the yard. Crooks 
was not in the house. My father sent nic to Mr. 
Shore s after it. I brought it to Belo s store. 

" Edward Belo. I got this book of James W. 
Kenedy, It is the same ; I put my name on it. 

" Henry Marshall. I heard McBride preach at 
. He said he was not in favor of amalga 
mation or insurrection; was opposed to war of all 
kinds; would not have the slaves take swords and 
guns and murder their masters; he was the friend 
both of the slave and his master. And he invited 
us to come to his trial at Salem ; he was indicted 
for giving a little white girl the Ten Command 
ments. 

" David Idle. Never had got a book, pamphlet, 
or tract from either McBride or Crooks. 

" Smith s testimony about the same as Marshall s. 

" George Fulk knew nothing definite. 

"Newel Sapp. Heard McBride say he would 
preach the truth independently, and Crooks that 
he would suffer his right arm to be cut off rather 
than with-hold the truth. 

" Witnesses through ; go to dinner ; return ; now 
pleading commences. 

MR. MOREHEAD, 

" In behalf of the defendants, commenced his lum- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 51 

inous plea by raising the following point of law < 
Though the indictment charges us with Misdemean 
or, the statute makes it a Felony. Now in misde 
meanors all are principals ; but this is one of those 
felonies which admits of accessories. On this 
ground I demand an acquittal of Crooks. In order 
to convict him as an accessory, you must not only 
prove that he was in company at the time the pam 
phlet was given, but also that he was employed in 
advising or assisting to give it ; but the very con 
trary is proven. This is necessary to make him an 
a ccessory, but he is charged of being a principal. 
But, gentlemen of the jury, the State has made a 
complete failure in point of sufficient evidence to 
convict McBride. It has not been proven that the 
pamphlet was brought into the State by McBride, 
so that it is impossible to convict him on the first 
charge, 

"I now institute a question. It is this : What 
constitutes a violation of the Act ? I maintain the 
pamphlet must have been given with a wicked in 
tent. If this is not so, then the lawyers, etc., who 
have been handing this pamphlet to and fro to each 
other are every one subject to indictment. The 
jury cannot convict McBride, unless it is in testi 
mony that he gave it with an intent to bring about 
the evils which the law is intended to prevent. To 
prove this I refer you to the very familiar case of 
the law in England as to blood-letting. The law 
required that every man who let blood in the streets 
of London, should be hung. Now, though the de- 



52 THE LIFE OF 

sign of the law is plain, that it was to prevent mur 
der which so much prevailed in that populous city, 
yet there were actually three physicians hung for 
letting blood in the streets in order to save the lives 
of persons who were thrown from their carriages. 
This led to a change of the law, so that it required 
a compound offence, or the overt act with a crimi 
nal intent, to violate that law. I hold that this case 
is precisely parallel. Now. what is the evidence 
that McBride gave the pamphlet with a wicked 
intent ? It was not given to a child whose par 
ents held slaves, or where there were slaves. 
Lora Kenedy did not go to school where there 
were slaves; no slaves or colored persons about. 
McBride did not advise Lora to make an improper 
use of it. 

" But again : if the pamphlet is an exposition of 
the Ten Commandments then, sirs, the defendants* 
are innocent. All Churches have an absolute right 
to publish their sentiments to the world. The pam 
phlet is not addressed to slaves, but their masters 
and freemen. (Here the speaker s manner grew 
quite animated.) The Constitution of the United 
States, and of this State, secures to every man the 
right to worship Almighty God according to the 
dictates of his own conscience. All the Churches 
but one of which I have any knowledge are, or pro 
fess to be opposed to slave-dealing some more, 
some less, between the two extremes. Why toler 
ate all others and proscribe this? He showed, in 
a strong and happy light peculiar to himself, the 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 53 

glorious advantages of free discussion ; said it had 
saved our necks from the galling yoke of the Church 
of Rome, Without free discussion we have no 
Protestant Church; we have no America. 

" The Ten Commandments is innocent in a politi 
cal point of view. The liberty of speech and of 
the press are and ought to be tolerated. Upon 
this proposition the speaker mesmerized the tre 
mendous concourse who were listening with mouth 
and ears. (Brother McBride at my side, whispered, 
1 What a pity he is not a preacher. ) 

" Mr. M. said witnesses were brought as a kind 
of key to show the intent of the circulation of the 
pamphlet, and they all show Mr. McBride to be an 
innocent and prudent man. Every man is an abo 
litionist who dare say one word about slavery. I 
have been called an abolitionist because I dared 
present a Quaker petition to the Legislature of this 
State, though every man is sworn to present every 
petition sent him. Slavery is a question we have a 
perfect right to discuss. Strange, indeed, if we 
dare not speak our sentiments. Not one of these 
men had at any time conversed with slaves in a low, 
sneaking way. Mr. M. s speech occupied about an 
hour. 

MR. GILMER 

"Said he did not arise out of antipathy to the de 
fendants, but from a sense of duty, &c. Said we 
had a right to speak of slavery privately, but never 
in the presence of slaves ; that " knowingly " made 
the design of the law obvious ; that Post Masters 



54 THE LIFE OP 

might hand out an anti-slavery document ignorant- 
ly, but the design of the law is to prohibit any 
and all circulation of anti-slavery publications, eith 
er among white or colored persons ; that the law 
was established just after the Southampton insurrec 
tion, and was made with great care and caution ; 
that these men certainly brought the Ten Com 
mandments into the State. McBride was recently 
from the State of Ohio, and the fact that he had it 
in his possession was legal evidence that he brought 
it into the State. A man found in possession of 
stolen goods was in law considered the thief, until 
he showed how he came by them. So, unless they 
show how they got this book, they must be consid 
ered the guilty persons. 

"But it has been argued that the pamphlet was 
not given with an evil Intent. The law supposes 
a man to intend all that may legitimately flow from 
his conduct. Look at the manner in which the 
pamphlet was given the child. That he did not 
say one word to* her shows clearly his intentions in 
giving her the book. He did not ask her to read 
it when he gave it to her, nor did he on his return, 
at the time of giving the pamphlet to the other 
children, say, ^ Lora, have you read your little 
book? how do you like it? " or anything of the 
kind. No ! but in a sneaking and sly way, when 
all were out but the little girl, slips to his trunk, 
and hands her this little book. Crooks, in order 
that he might appear innocent, stepped out of the 
house. No doubt but he was knowing and con- 



KEY. ADAM CROOKS. 55 

sentive to it all y and hence accessory. The fact of 
their having two buggies and separate trunks does 
not clear him. They travel together; what one 
does the other agrees to. (With great emphasis.) 
McBride says he will go ahead independently, law 
or no law. Crooks says he will suffer his right 
arm to be cut off before he will give up circulating 
such pamphlets. 

" The speaker, rising in feeling, spoke of the dread 
ful consequences of circulating such incendiary pub 
lications; of McBride s preaching^ said it would 
bring on insurrection. Knives, guns, swords, burn- 
Ing houses, cruelties and barbarities, were largely 
and fearfully described. Spoke about forty-five 
minutes. 

MR. H. TVADDELL 

" Said I have often stood in defence of criminals, 
but never felt so awfully as I do at this time. I 
am not defending one life, but thousands of lives, 
I am pleading for my country, for the security 
and safety of our wives and children The 
northern people are the last men to teach us mor 
als on the slavery question, since many of them 
have got rich by selling their slaves. The aboli 
tion of slavery has been put off by Northern fanat_ 
ics. I have heard a Rev. Mr. McDonnell give a 
full description of the Southampton insurrection 
a day or two since. He witnessed this horrible 
scene; at least he saw mothers and innocen^ 
babes lying in their blood, exposed to the flies, too 
numerous to bury. I think, said Mr. W., Nat 



56 THE LIFE OF 

Turner must have been a Wesleyan, and felt lie 
was commissioned from on High to deliver his breth 
ren. Read from Webster s Dictionary the defini 
tions of the terms insurrection, conspiracy, and re 
sistance; commented largely. Said though slaves 
were not in the pamphlet, advised to resist, yet, to 
let a slave know that he had no right to have 
his sweat and blood extracted, was calculated to 
make him resist. 

" Why do we want men from Ohio to come and 
teach us morals ? We have preachers enough of 
our own. Ohio is nearly or quite as bad a place 
on account of abolition as New England. Paul 
sent Onesimus home, but McBride would not. 
McBride called people cowards. What language 
fora preacher!! He (McBride) is a bold man. 

" Here some pretty strong epithets were used, E. 
G. In speaking of anti-slavery doctrines, the speak 
er called them hellish principles, &c. The sympa 
thies and fears of the jurors were loudly appealed 
to. Mr. W. said if these men may go unpunished 
then have no law against the midnight assassin. 
The speaker called attention to, as supremely ex 
ceptionable, the words of Rev. John Wesley, in the 
pamphlet where he speaks as follows : l Whatever 
it costs put a stop to its cry before it be too late 
INSTANTLY. The word instantly, Mr. W. thought 
was very significant. It seemed to be the Speak 
er s misfortune, during his entire speech of about 
an hour, to be so much excited as not to be able to 



REV. ADAM CROOKS, 57 

master his feelings, arid of course neither the jury, 
the audience, nor his subject. 

G. C. MENDENHALL 

" Arose with a countenance bespeaking mingled 
feelings of a profound sense of responsibility, and 
a deep determination to discharge his duty with 
firmness and integrity. Spoke of the great ex 
citement and even prejudice against the defend 
ants even counsel is denounced within this bar, for 
appearing for them. Said Mr. M., with thrilling 
emphasis God forbid that the time should ever 
come that a man, an American, arraigned before a 
court in North Carolina, shall appear without coun 
sel because no man at the bar will open his mouth 
for him. The man who has license in his pocket, 
or at home, and when called upon refuses to step 
forward in behalf of a criminal, and demand the 
court to show cause why he should be convicted, 
ought to be denounced everywhere, and scouied 
from the North Carolina bar. 

"In the discharge of my duty as* an Attorney, I 
appear to see that these men have a full, fair trial. 
Nor do I arise to try and please those around me, 
or to make half a plea. Said Mr. M. Even 
this jury has been threatened, provided they did 
not convict these men. Mr. Waddell informed you 
that l if you clear them, you may see the day you 
will bitterly regret it. It has been charged upon 
them that they have come into our midst unasked 
for. Why, does not that gentleman know they are 

here as regular ministers of the Gospel ; that they 

3* 



58 THE LIFE OF 

were sent for by your own citizens ; that one has been 
here three years, and the other not quite so long? 
They preach against intemperance, and the Morav 
ians ought not to oppose them on this ground ; and 
against war, just as the Moravians once did. The 
Quakers, from which I sprung protest, and have for 
a hundred years, against slavery. 

" For doing nothing more, these men must be 
dragged up before this court as felons, and com 
pared with Nat Turner. I am sorry that a man 
(alluding to Waddell) who ventured to bring so 
large a book as Webster s Dictionary before this 
court, to teach us the meaning of words and we 
acknowledge ourselves duly informed knows no 
more about modern history than not to know the 
defendants are ministers of the Church organized 
in 1843. Here was given a short history of the 
Wesleyan Church. 

"Is it in testimony that these men have at any 
time interfered with slaves ? Where is the man 
who gave such evidence ? Let us look at the in 
tention of giving the pamphlet. By raking and 
scraping their Camp-meetings,, and McBride s meet 
ins: at Bethlehem, not one word has been brought 
to show that they have any sympathy with insur 
rection, but right to the contrary. Is it in testi 
mony that the pamphlet was circulated with an in. 
tent to have it get among, or into the hands of 
negroes ? No such advice was given the little gir], 
who was herself a white girl ; her father held no 
slaves and there were none about the house. These 



fcEV. ADAM CROOKS. 59 

men have a right to use means to gain proselytes ; 
and believing, as they do, that slavery is sinful, 
they have a right to convince masters and freemen 
that it is wrong. Mr. Waddell says, < such a hell 
ish firebrand as the Ten Commandments was never 
circulated in this country. I ll show him that oth 
er ministers have brought and circulated things as 
bad as this little pamphlet, and that every intelli 
gent Methodist minister keeps and circulates books 
equally as strong against slavery. Presbyterians and 
Quakers do the same. And I ll show, too, that 
none of them are incendiary. 

"Here, by permission of the court, Mr. M. read 
and commented on extracts from the writings and 
sayings of the following distinguished statesmen 
and divines, viz., Patrick Henry and Thomas Jeffer 
son, the brightest stars which Virginia has pro 
duced : The narrative of the doings of the North 
Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends on the subject 
of Slavery within its limits; Husbands separated 
from their wives, parents from their children ? 
printed in Greensboro in 1848: Wm. Pinkney; 
Clarke s Commentary on 1st Cor., vii:23; Peti 
tion of the Presbyterians to their General Assem 
bly printed in AVashington and circulated every 
where, and equally as strong as the t Ten Command 
ments; John Randolph; Win. West; Dr. Paley; 
Dr. Burgess; Bishop Horseley; John Jay; Broad- 
nax, of Virginia ; Clark s Theology ; Governor 
Swain, of North Carolina, scorching; Digest of 
the Presbyterian General Assembly, as strong as 



60 THE LIFE OF 

the English language can make it ; Address of Hon, 
Wm. Gaston, before the students at Chapel Hill, 
N. C. clear, masterly, and pithy circulated every 
where, admired by everybody. Fourth edition, 
printed at Raleigh, capital of North Carolina. 

Now, gentlemen of the jury, I have not read these 
things to convince you that slavery is wrong, but to 
show you that if the Ten Commandments is incen 
diary, then these are equally so, and to show you 
that the defendants have done nothing more than 
other ministers do. 

But it cannot be that these men design to raise 
an insurrection ; for they are here to suffer with us j 
and for what have they come ? to set the slaves 
at butchering their masters ? No ! But having 
brought all their earthly crowns and laid them at 
their Master s feet, have come here as humble min 
isters of the Gospel of the meek Redeemer. Why, 
it is plain this pamphlet was not intended to 
go among slaves; for it is not addressed to 
them, but their masters. Again, the slaves can 
not read, and there is no evidence that McBride 
advised the little girl to read it to them, but di. 
rectly the contrary. I venture the assertion, that 
if this pamphlet had been given out by a Metho 
dist Episcopal preacher, there would not have been 
one word said about it. And why is it, gentlemen 
of the jury, they have indicted Crooks ? There is 
not one particle of evidence against him. Not any^ 
I fear the object was to influence the jury to com 
promise, acquit one and convict the other. I have 



REV. ADAM C&DOKS. 61 

seen too many such compromises. Where is the 
witness to testify that either of these men brought 
the pamphlet into North Carolina? The State 
would have you believe that we must prove our 
selves innocent ; that the fact of possession is evi 
dence. Have they nothing ? did they never have 
anything but what they brought into the State ? There 
is something remarkable about the prosecution ; 
here are three of the wealthiest men in Salem, pro 
secutors. Was not one enough ? But that would 
not give sufficient character to all this excitement. 
I fear, and I awfully fear, there is too much ground 
of fear, that there is a design in all this, to force a 
conviction on these men. Mr. Waddell, with the 
appearance of sincerity, told you not to suffer your 
selves to be influenced by any appeals which had 
been made or which may be made on either side. 
No, no j that gentleman would not have you become 
excited. I bring up burning houses, streaming 
blood and dying men, women and children, but 
don t suffer yourselves to be excited. " 

"Mr. M. after reading from his notes fifteen reasons 
why the defendants should be acquitted, about 
8 o clock at night concluded his last manly de~ 
fence of three hours and a half, which was deliver 
ed in a clear, dignified, and masterly manner ; and, 
notwithstanding its length, was heard by all with 
the most profound interest and breathless attention. 
The pleading closed; the Judge delivered his 

CHARGE TO THE JURY, 

which was as follows : after reading the law, 



62 IKE LIFE OP 

the Judge observed, The indictment contains two 
charges. The first, of bringing into the State, with 
intent to circulate, a printed pamphlet, the evident 
tendency of which, would be to excite insurrection, 
conspiracy, and resistance in the slaves. The 
second charge is, of circulating said pamphlet with 
in the State, and so on. We will reverse the thing, 
and take the latter charge first. You will first consid 
er the contents of the pamphlet. Has it an evi 
dent tendency to excite insurrection, or is it 
an argument couched in respectful language as to 
the morality of slavery, or of the best method of 
doing it away. 

1 You will then consider the evidence in regard 
to circulating the pamphlet. Did he give (lifting 
the Ten Commandments ) this pamphlet to the lit 
tle girl ? Next, is this the same pamphlet ? As 
to the contents of this book, after the most serious 
and critical examination, I give it as my judgment, 
that it does have an evident tendency to excite in. 
surrection. As to the question of his giving 
the pamphlet to the girl there can be no doubt. 
It is not my opinion that to violate the law, is nec 
essary to circulate incendiary publications among 
the blacks. The design of the Legislature, no 
doubt, was to prevent the circulation of such things 
among the white, as well as the black portion of 
the community. Such productions tend to excite 
the master to treat his slave in such a manner as 
to create dissatisfaction in the slave with the treat 
ment of his master. That this is the same pain- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. G3 

plilet which McBride gave the girl, seems to" be 
clearly proven by all the witnesses, who testified 
to that point. 

If Mr. Crooks was present and advising, or aid 
ing Mr. McBride to give out the pamphlet at the 
time it was given, he is equally guilty, but I be 
lieve the testimony is, he was not present. If from 
the evidence you think the defendants brought the 
pamphlet into the State, say so, and if not, say so. 
Giving the jury the papers he ordered them to be 
conducted to their room. 

"The court arose, to sit next forenoon at 10 o clock. 
Bro s Bacon, McBride and the writer retired to 
our lodgings ; committed ourselves to God ; slept 
securely till morning; at ten o clock returned to 
Court: the Judge in the chair; the Jury report 
they are agreed upon a 

VEKDICT 

That < Crooks is not guilty. McBride not guilty 
of the first, but guilty of the second charge, and 
ask for him the mercy of the Court. The sentence 
was not immediately pronounced. About eleven 
o clock Bro. McBride s counsel, Mr. Morehead 
moved for a new hearing, and required the State 
to show cause why it should not be granted. A 
new hearing being refused, the Judge passed 

SENTENCE 

That Brother McBride shall stand at the pillory one 
hour, receive twenty stripes, and be imprisoned in 
the county jail one year, and that the Sheriff pro- 



64 THE LIFE OF 

ceed to inflict the penalty immediately. Where 
upon an 

APPEAL 

was taken to the Supreme Court of the State, 
which holds its session at Raleigh, on the 30th of 
December next. 

GROUNDS OF THE APPEAL. 

" We think the court erred in the following : 

1st. The court permitted the whole of the pam 
phlet to be read ia evidence, when only a part of 
it was set forth in the indictment. 

2d. That giving the little book to a child was 
not putting the same into circulation under the act 
of Assembly. 

3d. As a matter of law, the evident tendency of 
the book was not to excite to insurrection, conspir 
acy, and resistance. 

4th. That the penalty of the A^.t was incurred 
by circulating the book among white persons, with 
out reference to an intention that it should be cir 
culated among persons of color. The appeal being 
entered, 

A MOTION TO FORBID PREACHING AND CIRCULATING 
BOOKS. 

"By Mr. Waddell it was moved that the court for 
bid Mr. McBride to preach or circulate books till 
the next session of the court, or for six months, on 
which he made a fiery appeal to the passions of the 
court, and ad capta.ndum vulgus. 

"Followed by Morehead in a thrilling address, in 
which he commenced by saying, Surely we have 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 65 

got into strange cities/ spoke in a pathetic manner 
of McBride s innocence, of his great loss and yore 
affliction in the death of his companion; of his sep 
aration from a lovely daughter; called upon them 
to point to an immoral act of his life, or an improp 
er word from his lips. 

"Mr. Waddell was very reluctant to protract 
this unhappy discussion, but he had been called up 
on to l point out an immoral act. The speaker 
referred to the meeting in Jamestown, published by 
Montgomery. McBride might be honest he was sure 
he was misguided. I, said W./ revere the holy re- 
ligion of the Bible as much as any man ... .1 know 
no master but the law, and that we make ourselves/ 
<fcc., to the end. The court decided it was not 
proper to forbid McBride from preaching as he 
had not been tried for that ; but he should consid 
er himself $1000 in debt to the State of North 
Carolina, if he did not appear at this court at its 
next session, or did circulate the l Ten Command 
ments/ or anything similiar, between this and then. 
Securities given. We went out from Salem, pray 
ing God s blessing upon His enemies and ours, and 
if not rejoicing that we were counted worthy to 
suffer for his name s sake/ at least. 

Submissive, I trust to the will Divine. 

" The moral elements are in commotion, but God 
rules the storm, bless His name ! He has thus far 
said to our hearts fear not. Let all who truly 
fear God and love man, join us in praying and la 
boring, and if need be. suffering, to bring on that 



66 THE LIFE OF 

happy day, when every system which arrays one 
portion of the human family against the other shall 
be extinct, and love s golden chain bind all in its 
sacred inclosure. 

OTHER PERSECUTIONS. 

"Ecclesiastical history not imfrequently furnishes 
matter alike interesting to the Christian and lovers 
of the novel. The following may to some extent be 
of this character. 

" Meetings are held in this State under the inno 
cent name of Fairs, at which pilgrims from various 
parts of North and South Carolina assemble ; some 
for the laudable purpose of selling various articles 
of food, and other some for the less praiseworthy 
motive of gambling, horse swapping, trafficing and 
drinking intoxicating liquors. At these almost 
every thing is fair. 

" On one of these noted occasions, in Montgomery 
Co., a council was held to fix upon some plan to 
stay the progress of Wesleyanisni in these parts* 
which resulted in the appointment of a Committee 
to wait on the writer, and request him to absent 
himself from the State of North Carolina by the 1st 
of February next. Accordingly, on the 27th of 
December, eight souls, the number saved in the ark ? 
sought, but found not the object of pursuit, he not 
being at his usual boarding-house; so they left a 
letter, stating if they did not get an answer they 
would meet me at one of my appointments. The 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 6 

following is a copy of their letter, including orthog 
raphy and prosody. 

" North Carolina, Montgomery Co. 

I We the undersigned Committee having been appointed, 
by a large meeting of the citizens of Montgomery, and the 
adjoining Counties, to wait On Adam Crooks, abolitionist? 
and request him peaceably to leave the State of North Car 
olina, by the 1st of February next, and we demand posi 
tive answer from the said Crooks whether or not he intends 
to comply with the requirements of these few lines, this 
27th of December, 1850. [Signed by eleven names.] 

II An answer was prepared, but not being sent, on 
Sabbath, the 12th inst., nix men came to the meet 
ing-house just as services commenced, but did not 
come into the house. Meeting being concluded, 
Mr. B. desired Mr. Byrns to introduce him to the 
preacher. 

1 I ll do no such tiling ; why did you not come in 
to the house like a man ? 

1 Is your name Crooks ? 

1 That is my name. 

1 My name is Bright. I wish to have a word 
with you. We are appointed by a meeting of 
Montgomery county, to request you to leave the 
State of North Carolina. We think you are doing- 
no good, and for the sake of the peace and harmo 
ny of the community, we desire you to leave. 

I received a letter to that purport a few days 
since. 

Yes, but we got no answer. 

I prepared an answer, but had no opportunity 
of sending il. I am of the same mind as when I 
wrote it; and in it I decline complying. 



68 THE LIFE OP 

Then you do not ask any set time, only till yon 
see cause to leave ? 

All I ask is the rights of any other preacher of 
the Gospel. All we ask is the rights of the" State. 
I have not, nor do I have any disposition to violate 
these rights. Good day, gentlemen. 

"All left, but Mr. 0., the writer of the above note. 

1 Mr. 0., I believe you are the writer of the let 
ter received. 

1 Yes, sir. 

1 I have written an answer, and as I hold your 
letter, you can have the answer, if you desire it. 

I should like to have it. " 

" Whereupon the following was given. 

< Valentine Moore s, Mont. Co., Jan. Qth, 1851. 

"To the Committee appointed by a large meeting 
of the citizens of Montgomery and adjoining coun 
ties, to wait on Adam Crooks, abolitionist, and re. 
quest him peaceably to leave the State of North 
Carolina, by the 1st of February next. 

K Sirs : Your by no means polite note, bearing 
date, of December 27th, is before me, which I will 
endeavor to answer, in the meekness of humility, 
and kindness of charity, as well as in the frankness 
of honesty and plainness of sincerity. 

"And 1st: As to the language of your letter, it 
is well calculated to extort the exclamation, Mirabile 
dictu! You begin with a request, and conclude 
with an absolute demand, which your own good 
sense must teach you had not the least shadow of 
a right to make. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 09 

u 2d : To the implied charge of abolitionism, I am 
free to acknowledge, I believe with Benjamin Frank 
lin, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick 
Henry, William Pinkncy, John Wesley, Richard 
Watson, Adam Clarke, and others, philosophers, 
statesmen and divines, to whom the- world owes a 
large debt of gratitude, and to whose names poster 
ity will gladly pay its devoir, of a place on the fair 
est page of fame, on the subject of American sla 
very. In the fullest sense, I subscribe to that ever 
memorable instrument, the Declaration of Independ 
ence; written, using the language of figure, with 
the point of the sword in the blood of the heroes of 
seventy-six, who appealing to the Searcher of hearts 
to witness the rectitude of their intentions, with 
the American flag majestically floating in heaven s 
free air over their heads, and the watchword LIBER 
TY, blazing in capitals from its ample folds, nobly 
wrote : f We hold these truths to be self-evident, 
that all men are created equal, and endowed by 
their Creator with inalienable right to life, liberty, 
and the pursuit of happiness; that to maintain 
these rights, governments are instituted among 
men, deriving their just powers from the will of 
the governed. 

" And is this, in the estimation of their sons, an 
offense, a crime meriting exilement ? If so, as Croe 
sus cried out, Solon! Solon! Solon! may not 
we with equal propriety, though opposite emotions, 
exclaim l Fathers of the revolution ! Fathers of 
the revolution ! Fathers of the revolution ! 



70 THE LIFE OP 

"3rd. With regard to your requestor three rea_ 
sons I can not comply. 

" First. There is no insignificant number of as loy 
al citizens, and some as orderly Christians as crown 
this or any other State, desire my ministerial ser 
vices ; and because I can not be false to these, false 
to myself, false to my office, to the Church, and 
above all, false to God, I can not comply. 

" Second. As an American citizen, pursuing a 
laudable, not to say charitable occupation, to a 
self-constituted tribunal, recognized by no law-gov 
erning civilized nations, I can not yield the right to 
try without notice, convict without a hearing, and 
banish without crime. To do so would be to oifer 
a base indignity to our nature as men, and charac 
ter as Americans. 

" In the third place, I can not comply with so 
unreasonable a request, because as a Christian and 
Christian minister I will not surrender to any 
earthly power, and more especially to illegally as 
sumed authority, the right given by our Almighty 
Creator, and secured by the government under 
which it is our privilege to live, to worship Al 
mighty God according to the dictates of conscience. 

" I am bold to declare that no true American or 
genuine Christian, will either make or submit to 
such demands. The pen which recorded the sur. 
render, would be quite as dark as the page which 
chronicled the requirement. What would such 
procedure be, but a re-establishment of Inquisitorial 
Councils ? the re-kindling the consuming fires of re. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 71 

luriom: intolerance ? the annihilation of the Protes. 
tant reformation and all its glorious blessings, and 
the resurrection of all the bloody cruelties of the 
Papal persecution ? Would you have the ignomiui. 
ous tragedy of the reign of Henry VIII, Queen 
Alary, and James II the reign of terror re-acted 
on American soil? If so, who will tell the mourn 
ful catastrophe ? Who will give assurance that 
your children s children will not drink the fatal 
dregs of the poisonous cup first presented by their 
erring fathers ? If there are such things as weep 
ing in heaven, and sorrow in the tomb, might not 
sainted spirits find occasion here to drop a tear 
over the grave of slaughtered freedom, and the 
bosoms of illustrious dead to heave a sigh for de. 
parted glory ? 

" Than that such should be the case that the 
clarion of freedom should cease to whisper in our 
breezes, and murmur along our stream s, the free 
born conscience enslaved; liberty s self murdered, 
in the house of her friends, and by hands which 
should cherish her ; her garments stained, and home 
drenched with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus ; 
the name of our loved, our idolized America, should 
be written on the page of infamy, and be a hissing 
and by-word among kings, princes, and autocrats ; 
every man s hand of the American people be turned 
against his fellow, and they fall victims to the evils 
of intestine broils, and the ravages of international 
wars ; I say, before these things come upon us, let 
the sun refuse to look upon us; the stars repre- 



72 THE LIFE OF 

sented on our country s flag, withdraw from the 
firmament; let the American name be blotted from 
the archives of nations ; the American people fall 
beneath the devouring pestilence from God; our 
fair cities, flourishing towns, and peaceful hamlets* 
become one unbroken desolation; and fruitful 
fields, green meadows, and majestic forests, a thea 
ter of the sports of wild beasts, and return to the 
uninterrupted dominion of the untutored savage. 

" Permit me to ask, in all kindness and candor, 
may not your procedure, if prosecuted, prove to be 
the precursor and even the prelude, to all these 
dreadful calamities ? 

" That the above indifferently described evils be 
averted, and their opposite blessings secured, may 
the American people, ever proverbially sensitive to 
the least seeming encroachment on their individual 
or national rights, insure their enjoyment to them 
selves and posterity by uniformly respecting, as no 
less sacred, the rights of each other ; worshiping as 
seemeth good unto them, and allowing their neigh 
bors the peaceable enjoyment of that exalted privi" 
lege. And if at any time they differ in opinion, as 
in our imperfect state we will be certain to do, let 
us pray for and reason one with another ; thus at 
once obeying the heavenly command, and imitating 
the glorious example of Him who causes His sun 
to shine on the evil and the good, and rain to bless 
the just and unjust, and died for us when we were 
enemies, remembering that if any man have not His 
spirit he is none of His. 



HEY, ADAM CROOKS. 73 

v 

""I will conclude this scroll, the length of which 
please excuse, by referring you to the wise advice 
of Gamaliel, Acts v : 33-39 ; the woe pronounced 
against the offender, Matthew xviii:l-7; please 
ponder well Matthew xxv: 31-46. 

" We have erected two meeting-houses this Win 
ter, one in Montgomery and the other in Randolph 
Co. We anticipate a visit from our deeply injured; 
but highly esteemed Brother McBride on the first 
and second Sabbath of the next inst., at which time 
we purpose holding protracted meetings. May the 
Lord greatly revive his work. Amen." 

It was during this visit of Brother McBride s, in 
February, 1851, that, as they were going from one 
appointed place of meeting to another, each in 
his own carriage, as they came to the top of a 
high hill, they saw in the valley below, three men, 
armed with guns, standing across the road. EvL 
dently they were waiting for them. Brother 
McBride said, 

" Crooks, do you see those men ?" 

Mr. Crooks answered, " Yes." 

That was all that passed between them, but 
their hearts were lifted in silent prayer to One 
who is ever ready to help his children in time of 
danger. When they came to the place where the 
men stood, two passed to one side of the road, and 
one to the other. 

Mr. Crooks said, " Good morning, gentlemen." 

The men answered, " Good morning," 
4 



74 THE LIFE OF 

As they ascended .the opposite hill, before they 
passed out of sight, they glanced back, and saw two 
other armed men coming. They heard afterwards 
that five men had pledged themselves to meet there, 
and waylay and kill Mr. Crooks, as he regularly 
passed that way to attend his appointments. Two 
of their number were tardy. McBride was a 
stranger. The three probably feared to act alone 
and through Providence their plans were brought 
to nought- 

KELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE IN NORTH CA11O- 
LINA. 

Nothing in all the book of common sayings is 
more true than that Coming events often cast their 
shadows before them/ " In nature the morning star 
proclaims the approach of the superior splendor of 
the solar orb. The semi-decomposition of his rays 
forming divergent milk-colored lines in the vapory 
air, precedes the darkening heavens, the red light 
ning, roaring thunder, dashing rain, and the sweep, 
ing tornado. The rumbling of the volcano is pre 
cursory to the vomitings of the clouds of smoke and 
ashes, showers of burning stones and rivers of 
fiery lava. 

" In the progress of human affairs, circumstances 
intrinsically of little or no importance, in their re 
lations to mighty movements, are fraught with in 
terests boundless in extent arid endless in duration 

" The fact that pieces of carved wood, a canoe 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 75 

and two human bodies differing in complexion from 
Europeans, bad been driven by westerly winds up 
on the shores of islands contiguous to Europe, was 
important only as to its influence upon the observ 
ing mind of Columbus, in leading to the discovery 
of an unknown hemisphere, 

" The falling of an apple is a simple and common 
occurrence, yet it taught Newton, priest of nature, 
the great law of attraction by which the mighty 
God governs the grand machinery of the heavens. 

" The burning of Andrew Oliver in effigy, in Bos 
ton, on the 14th of August, 1765, and the break 
ing open of three hundred and forty-two chests of 
tea, and emptying their contents into the ocean, 
the 18th of December, 1773, trifling as they are, 
serve as a thermometer to indicate feelings which 
throbbed through the veins and arteries, and nerv 
ed the arm of the United Colonies feelings which 
brightened till they produced throes which shook 
the foundations of the mightiest throne on earth, 
and gave birth to a nation no less powerful. 

"And the formation of the Jacobin club in France 
in 1790, in itself appeared unimportant; yet it was 
the shadow of coming events which convulsed the 
world. Considered as the unobserving eye of the 
multitude beholds human transactions separate 
and disconnected, uninfluenced and uninfluencing, 
the subject of this communication is comparatively 
local and unimportant. But viewed as the true 
philosopher, wise statesman, and enlightened Chris 
tian are wont to look upon passing incidents con- 



76 THE LIFE OP 

nected, linked, bound to, influenced by, and infiu 
encing all the movements of men ; and as a mile 
stone marking the progress of civilization, and en 
lightened liberal and Christian principles, or of 
political and religious degeneracy, it is infinitely 
otherwise. 

" It is the seizure and forcible commitment to 
prison, in Montgomery Co., North Carolina, on the 
Sabbath, by professors of Christianity and officers 
of the law, without the iornis of law ; refusing bail 
of a free born American and Minister of the Gospel 
uncondemned, which it is the painful task of my 
pen to record. 

The morning of Sabbath, the 15th of June, as if 
unwilling to be a spectator of the transactions of 
the day, the sun arose behind a cloud. The air 
was cool, as if chilled by the inhospitality of the 
hearts of the oppressors. 

"The rumor that a mob was to be at the Lovejoy 
Chapel, to transport him beyond the limits of the 
county, induced him to leave his horse at Brother 
Y. Moore s about a mile from the Chapel, and go 
to meeting early before the mob could arrive. By 
ten o clock quite a number of the loyal band land 
ed, and fifteen minutes to eleven, the balance, num 
bering in all according to their supposition one 
hundred and seventy-five ; ten of whom were magis 
trates. The preacher was sitting in the pulpit, 
when the mob, headed by S. Christian, a "Justice 
of the Peace" and a negro-trader as their orator, 
approached and accosted Mm with : 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 



77 



" Is your name Crooks ?" 

" That is my name." 

" My name is Christian. The Methodist Episco 
pal Church North and South are divided. They 
have agreed on a line, and this very subject of 
slavery has divided them. The North would not 
have a slave-holding bishop. Andrew, being a slave 
holder, was deprived of his office, and on this ac 
count the Church split. The slavery question is 
agitating this whole nation." 

" Yes," said Crooks, " it is convulsing it from 
center to circumference." 

"And you have come amongst us preaching 
against slavery violating our laws breeding dis 
turbance. I have no doubt you preach the Gospel, 
but we are not heathens, we are a Christianized 
people. You are making interruptions in families, 
in neighborhoods, and Churches, (wonder if he is 
not a regular descendant of some chivalric knight,) 
and causing us to abuse our servants; for they 
have got to know you are preaching that they 
ought to be free, and it makes them unruly ; so that 
they have to be abused. And now, what WQ want 
of you is a solemn promise that you will leave the 
county forthwith, and never preach in it again." 

" You, Mr. Christian, are mistaken as to Bishop 
Andrew being deposed. He was a bishop at the 
rise of the General Conference of 1 844. In an 
swer to three questions it was ordered that his 
name should remain with the other bishops he 
should receive a bishop s pay ; the work he did to 



THE LIFE OF 

be subject to his discretion in view of the action of 
that Conference. But that matters not, it being 
merely a fact of ecclesiastical history. As to my 
having violated your laws, your conduct to-day vnr 
dicates me from that charge." 

" I think not." 

" Evidently," continued Crooks, for had I brok 
en your laws, you would not have been under the 
necessity of violating them and adopting the sub 
lime modus operandi of Mob Law to punish me." 

" Some of the company. We did not come here 
to have a debate. " 

" Certain charges have been preferred, and it is 
the undisputed right of every man to be heard be 
fore being judged; and I am going to be heard. 
As to breaking the peace ; you have acknowledged 
I preached the gospel. As to your not being heath 
ens but a Christianized people, your conduct in 
trying to drive out of the county a man for preach 
ing the gospel, is more like that of heathens than 
of Christians. Not a drop of blood warms my 
heart, or courses iny veins in favor of insurrection. 
Were you to take my advice there would be no 
danger of such an event," 

" What would that be ? " 

" Do by your slaves as you would they should do 
to you," 

"Explain." 

" It needs no explanation. It is so plain a way 
faring man though a fool shall not err therein." 

" Now, see there !" 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 

" With regard to leaving the county, etc., it is 
my right, in common with American citizens, to 
come and go at pleasure. The Constitution of the 
United States says, the citizens of each State shall 
have all the privileges and immunities of the citi 
zens of the several states." 

" Mr. Cogins, [a magistrate and slave-holder, was 
once class-leader in the M. E. Church, is not now 
a Church-member.] " Did you not agree to leave 
Ouilford, and never return?" 

" Mr. Cogins, I do not wish to be interrupted, 
but I answer, I did not." 

" I am informed you did." 

" I know what I did, and I know I did not. 
To give a promise nerer to preach in this county, 
is a demand you have no right to make, and one to 
which I as a Christian minister have no right to 
submit. I trust I shall ever be ready to go where 
God commands, and should I feel it my duty to 
preach in Montgomery County, by His grace as 
sisting I shall try. The right to worship accord 
ing to dictates of conscience, with other rights, was 
purchased at the expense of blood, lives and treas 
ures, of our revolutionary fathers, and should not 
be surrendered but with life. The Constitution of 
North Carolina, which some of this company have 
taken a solemn oath to support, secures this right. 
Here a number of persons commenced asking ques 
tions at the same instant, having one employed in 
penning down the answers given." 

T. Halton " Brother Crooks" 

" O, don t call him brother." 



80 THE LIFE OF 

" Yes, let us call him brother. Brother Crooks, 
did you not preach to servants not to obey their 
masters ? " 

"I did not." 

" I did not hear you, but heard you did." 

H. Hulen to Haltom " Don t you interrupt the 
man," 

" Haltom, much excited, shook his fist, stamped 
his foot to the floor, and striking the book-board r 
declared he was at home on his own premises. 

Crooks, " O, men ! keep calm !" 

0. Hulen. " Men, are we in Court? If so let 
the judges call the court to order ; and if we came 
to worship God, let us do it." 

Mr. Bright. " 0, men, do your duty for which 
you come here." 

Mr. Christian. " Well, can you comply with our 
request ? " 

" I have answered that question," 

" We have extended the olive branch of peace to 
you, and if you do not receive it, you must abide 
the consequences." 

" Crooks now for the first time rises from his- 
seat; "I extend the olive to all men. I have 
lived in all good conscience to God and man since 
I came amongst you feel resolved despite of all 
oppOvSition, to do the will of God and make my 
home in the cloudless regions of undying delight." 

Mr. Cogins [in an excited tone.] " Who are 



REV, ADAM CROOKS. 81 

3 T ou what were you before you come here, have 
you papers to show ?" 

"I have." 

" By whom are they signed ; the Governor of 
the State ? " 

" By members and ministers of the Methodist 
Episcopal and Methodist Protestant Church, and 
the treasurer of the County Court. I have them in 
my pocket, if you wish you can see them." 

\Vho knows by whom they are signed." 

" Mr. Christian : Aaron Burr was once a good 
man and afterwards guilty of treason. 

" Crooks : Aaron Burr was once a good man 
and afterwards guilty of treason, therefore, 0. 
Hulen is a bad man, Aaron Burr was once a 
good man and afterwards turned traitor, therefore 
S. Christian is a bad man. Is not that strange 
logic ?" 

"Mr. Bright: men, perform the duty for 
which you came !" 

" Mr. Cogins : Were you sent for to come to 
this State ?" 

" I was." 

" By whom ?" 

"Forty persons .in Guilford." 

" Name some of them." 

" Well, Mr. John Sherwood of Jamestown, and 
Rev. D. Wilson of Guilford." 

"Was Wilson a preacher in the Methodist 
Church." 

"He was." 

4* 



82 THE LIFE OF 

Mr. Bright: "Did he not apply for license, and 
it being refused, get mad and leave the Church ? " 

" He was a preacher of the M.-E. Church." 

" I heard it otherwise." 

Mr. Cogins : "Did not the Annual Conference 
pass resolutions condemnatory of your course ? " 

" Yes sir. The North Carolina Yearly Confer 
ence of the Methodist Protestant Church did pass 
sentence of condemnation upon us." 

" No, but one of the Northern Conferences of 
the Wesleyan Methodist Church." 

" No sir." 

" The papers say they did." 

" If they do, they say that which is untrue." 

" Did you not write to the editor of the WES 
LEYAN, that 0. Hulen told you of a man in this 
county tying up his slave, putting a log of wood 
between his feet and whipping him to death ? " 

" I wrote no such thing." 

" No, not that he whipped him to death, but 
gave him five hundred lashes," 

" If you, Mr. Cogins, have a paper having such 
an article, and my name attached to it, perhaps I 
wrote it." 

" Now, just see there." 

" One of the crowd ; " 0. Hulen is here, he can 
speak for himself." 

" 0. Hulen, did you give Mr. Crooks such in 
formation ?" 

" Are we in court ? Who is the Judge ? " 

" One says, " Christian ; let him show his au- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 83 

thority. Oh we have nothing against Mr. Hulen." 

"During a miscellaneous interchange between 
the contending parties. Mr. Crooks, resuming his 
seat, seemed to lift his heart in devout but silent 
prayer. 

" As the preacher had but one answer to their de 
mand, four men were ordered to take him from 
the stand. Orders were instantly obeyed. 

" O. Hulen. Men, take notice who takes hold of 
that man by violence." 

" Crooks wished to get his hat and books, 

" From the crowd. i Yes, let him get them, " 

" As they descended the pulpit, Wm. Hurley 
wished to know what they were going to do. 

" Oh, get out of our way !" 

u But stop, you don t run over me. What are 
you going to do with the preacher ? " 

" Going to take him to Troy." 

" Well, can t you take bail ? " 

"We want no bail." 

" Crooks is led or rather dragged from the pul 
pit into the yard. All is confusion. Some are 
rushing for their horses, others are screaming, and 
still others prostrated, motionless and speechless. 

"Where is Crooks horse; where is his horse j 
where is your horse ? " 

" Where I left him, I expect." 

41 Where did you leave him ? " 

" Where he is welcome." 

" Has any person a horse and buggy to take- 
9 this man to Troy ? " 



84 THE LIFE OF 

" He is taken to Luther s vehicle. Luther is ai 
magistrate, a slave-holder and one of the brave 
four. 

" Let us have help to put this man in the buggy." 

Oh, he will get in-! Get in !" 

Crooks remaining motionless and silent. 

" Let us have help to put this man in the buggy, r 

"Oh, he ll get in, he ll get in !" 

" Crooks remaining motionless and silent. 

" Let us help to put this man in the buggy." 

" Oh, he ll get in, he ll get in !" 

a With emphasis and anger < Get in, get in I 
Come here, some four or five men and help to put 
this man in the buggy ! " 

" He is hoisted to a seat. 

" 0. Hulen. Men, take notice who forces this 
man into that buggy/ 

" Mr. Cogins, I will help to put him in, now do 
your d ndest. ?: 

" Said Crooks, is there no means of conveyance 
for Sr W. L., my friend from Randolph ? None be 
ing obtained, in company with three brethren, L, 
walked to Troy, a distance of six miles. But one 
of Crooks friends (0. Hulen,) in company from 
the Chapel to Troy, those on foot taking a shorter 
way. 

[" Conversation om the way.] 

" Crooks. There is a day approaching when 
there will be an account to meet for this day s 
work. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 85 

"Luther. Yes, and you will have to answer for 
your conduct. 

" C. I hope I shall be prepared to do so. 

"L. Those who have taken you have done God a 
service. 

"C. Our Saviour has told us the time would come 
when those who kill his followers, would think 
they did God service. But that question will be 
settled at the Judgment, and the Judge will con 
sider treatment to his servants as done unto Him. 
Now if he were on earth again would you drive 
Him from the county ? 

" L. l l don t know what we might do, if he were 
an abolitionist. We are going to have perilous 
times, and we are bound to keop them off as long 
as we can. You would bring them on before the 
time. " 

" C. That s what the devils said to Jesus "Thou 
art come hither to torment us before the time. " 
But if you would take my counsel all danger of 
perilous times would vanish. Your conduct to 
your slaves make them your enemies. Were you 
to treat them with justice and kindness they would 
become your friends. You remind me of the say 
ing of a heathen philosopher. < Whom the gods 
would destroy they first make mad. To prevent 
an insurrection you banish a man for advising you 
to pursue the only course which can secure you 
against such a disaster. 

" Nothing can be more certain than that slavery 
will prove fatal to the South if it is not peaceably 



86 THE LIFE OF 

abolished. The war between the antagonistic prin 
ciples and interests of liberty and slavery, is bound 
to go on till one destroys the other. As well at 
tempt to reconcile God and the devil, as to estab 
lish peace upon a permanent basis between liberty 
and slavery, and it is for every man to say which 
side he will take in the contest. Slavery will de 
stroy the country if the country does not destroy 
slavery. 

"L. I have some slaves, but I wish there was not 
one in the United States. " 

"C. And yet you will drive from the County a 
man for advising you what you wish was done. 
But I notice when a slave concludes to leave, you 
do all in your power to bring him back. 

"L. The slaves of the South in general, are much 
better off than the free niggers of the North, and 
men of intelligence and candor from the North ad 
mit it. 

" C. Perhaps these intelligent and candid gen 
tlemen are not competent judges : one thing is un 
deniable, and that is, there is not a single instance 
of a negro s fleeing from liberty to slavery, while 
there are numerous cases of an opposite character. 

" L. I treat my. slaves as well as I could wish 
them to treat me. 

" C. Were you a slave, would you not wish to 
be free. 

"L. Yes. 

"C. Why, then, do you say you use them as you 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 87 

Would be used, while you refuse them their free 
dom ? 

"L. 0. If I were blade t 1 don t think I would wish 
to be free. Your preaching makes the slaves dis 
satisfied, [They are wonderfully well satisfied] 
we have the gospel preached by others. 

"C. Well, it has been admitted that I preach the 
gospel. Why punish me for doing that for which 
you honor others ? 

"L. They preach the gospel of peace. 

"C. If they do you have a poor way of obeying 
them. 

" Christian, with an affected smile, I heard quite 
a good joke the other day about you and myself. 

"Crooks, very seriously Ah ! what was that ? 

Why, I heard that you are m my employ ; preach 
ing against slavery, that I may purchase below par j 
and then we divide profits. 

" C. That is doubtless as true as many other 
things you have heard. 

" Now, Mr. Crooks, you must know that your 
preaching is contrary to our laws, for they are in 
favor of, and you preach against slavery. 

" Not any more contrary to law, Mr. Christian, 
than for temperance lecturers to proclaim against 
the license law, and for Whigs to denounce laws 
enacted by Democrats, or vica versa the law does 
not enjoin but permits slavery. 

" But you violate the law by disturbing the peace 
of Churches. 

" You, Mr. Christian, cannot be ignorant of the 



88 THE LIFE OF 

fact that the law establishes no form of Church 
government. 

" C. Yes. it does. 

" Show the chapter, section, and paragraph. Our 
laws allow all Churches the privilege of fixing their 
own terms of communion and membership, and 
every individual the right to worship according to 
the dictates of conscience. You say you believe 
slavery is right. I believe it is wrong. The law 
allows us an equal right to our faith. 

"You know your course is contrary to law, for 
McBride was convicted of a violation of 1 aw. 

"True it is, a jury of twelve men gave it as their 
opinion that McBride had broken the law, but an 
appeal being taken to the Supreme Court, his pros 
ecutors unwilling to abide its decision, raised a 
mob and drove him from the State. They knew 
right well he was an innocent man : the leaders 
of the mob acknowledged they believed him to be 
a gentleman and Christian ; and one of them said, 
as soon as he saw the grounds of appeal, he knew 
they could not convict him by law. The means 
you adopt to support your cause is a virtual ac 
knowledgement. You must not be offended, Mr. 
Christian, at me a prisoner, for talking so plainly 
to you, for really I feel I am conversing with an 
equal, and nothing more. 

"C. No, not at.all ; I travel a great deal; I have 
been in almost all the States in the Union. Don t 
you believe George Washington is in Heaven ? 

"Well, what if I do? 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 89 

"Why, he was a slave-holder. 
" George Washington willed his slaves their 
freedom. 

" C. No, he did not. 

" He most certainly did ; I know whereof I af 
firm. 

" Are you in favor of the Fugitive Slave Law ? 

"Iain not. Now, you see that was passed by 
Congress, and it is the best thing that has ever 
been done; had not that law passed, the Union 
would have been dissolved, and if it is repealed it 
will be dissolved. 

" That is a matter of opinion, and I very much 
differ with you. I have never been able tr per 
suade myself, the South is so foolish as to dissolve 
the Union. I would be opposed to the Fugitive 
Bill, if for no other reason, because it does not re 
spect the rights of conscience. 

"[Luther. Mr. Christian, where will we stop? 
Mr. Crooks says he is hungry, and I wan t my 
dinner. 

" Christian. Well, he must have dinner, Where 
do you usually stop ? " 

" Where it happens." 

" The prisoner was taken to Luther s, and after 
washing himself, was desired to read from two 
papers relating to the notorious abolitionists, Mc- 
Bridc and himself, one of which articles was head 
ed in large letters, " DAMN CROOKS," which he did. 

" C. I had noticed how that was headed ; it must 
be by mistake. 



90 THE LIFE OP 

" Prisoner. I suppose it was intended for a bur 
lesque, but it matters nothing. 

"Seated at the table, Christian requests Crooks 
to ask a blessing, which he did. 

" Dinner over ,Mr. J., an official member in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and one of the mob, 
thought it a reasonable request which had been 
made; wished to know the meaning of abolition; 
was informed by the prisoner it was a derivation 
from abolish, which means to destroy, to do away, 
and is most commonly applied to slavery. 

" Sheriff Sanders. (also a member of the Metho 
dist Episcopal Church, and one of the mob.) " Yes, 
that is its meaning." 

" C. You, Mr. Crooks, must know that your 
Church is contrary to our laws, for they favor slav 
ery, and your Church opposed it. 

" C. As before stated, Churches are at liberty to 
make a^y terms of membership they see proper, 
and individuals to worship as they may deem is 
right. If you believe it right to hold slaves, there 
are Churches where you will be readily received. 
We believe we are equally entitled to a Church 
whose doctrine and discipline prohibit slave-hold 
ing -a Church according with our religious convic 
tions. 

u But if the Wesleyan organization is contrary to 
your laws, because it makes slave-holding a test of 
membership, what will you do with the Quakers 
Church which does the same ? 

a C. Oh ! the Quakers hold slaves. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 91 

" Under what circumstances ? Dying persons 
sometimes make them their agents in securing the 
freedom of their slaves ; this, at times, proves the 
occasion of law-suits ; they hold them till the suit is 
decided, and if in favor of the slaves their liberty 
is given them. 

" C. If it is right to hold them a little while, it 
is right to hold them always. 

Sanders. [spoke in the positive] " Almost 
all the Quakers hold slaves. They are in favor of 
slavery." [A strange declaration for a professed 
Christian to make.] 

" C. I stayed over night with Mr. H., a Quaker, 
and he said they were as much opposed to the 
Wesleyans as to any dfenorni nation ; that he be- 
licvi d there are many slaveholders good Christians, 
and that he would advise e\erybody to keep the 
ANVsleyan preachers out of their houses. [It is 
never necessary to make false statements to sup 
port a righteous cause.] 

" C. Why do you not go to South Carolina. 

" I have never been invited, nor have I felt it my 
duty to go. 

" You talk about duty. What if you should feel 
it your duty to tell my slave to kill me. 

" C. Should you find me about your stables steal 
ing your horses, or about your kitchens, or any 
where else violating the law, I refuse not to suffer 
in a legal manner. You talk of violating your laws, 
and you have every one broken your own laws 



92 THE LIFE OF 

this very day, and you know it, and you know that 
I know it. 

" Sheriff Sanders. If we have we are willing to 
abide the consequences. 
" Crooks. So I say." 

" To Win. Hurley. What is the reason you 
could not stay in the Church you first joined ? 

" Why, I have ever been opposed to this thing. 

"What thing? 

" Why, slavery ; but I wished to belong to -some 
Church, and as there was none in my reach that 
suited me better, I joined the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

" Well, if you believe slavery to be wrong, you 
need not hold them, it does not hurt you. 

"Well, but for me to support a thing I do not 
believe in would not be right. And you can have 
your privileges and let us have ours. 

"Would you receive a slave-holder into your 
Church. 

" No, that is not our way. 

" Well, would you receive a slave ? 

" Yes, if we believed him to be a Christian. 

"What ! receive a nigger and not a white man ? 
That is a grand insult depriving us of our rights. 

" Not at all. We do not say you shall not hold 
slaves ; all we want is to keep clear of supporting it. 

" Well, if that is your principle you ought to 
leave the State. 

" I was born and raised here pay for my privi- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 93 

leges under the law, and it is a hard case if I am 
to l>e deprived of them. 

"(To S. W. L.) Well sir, where are you from. 

u Randolph County. 

" What business have you here? 

" I thought I was a freeman. 

" Sheriff. Well, but you are here violating o :r 
laws. 

" I am not convinced of having violated your laws. 

" Do you ever preach ? 

" No sir. 

"Do you exhort? 

" I never have. 

"Do you ever hold meetings ? 

" Xo sir. 

" Squire Harris. Well, you pray for him some 
times when he asks you to, don t you ? 

" I have done the like. [What an incorrigible 
sinner.] 

" A voice. He came to see Crooks out ; we will 
serve him the same as we do Crooks. 

" During the foregoing there was much anger as 
well as insolence exhibited. 

" Well, Mr. Crooks, will you give us a promise 
that you will leave the county and never preach 
in it again ? 

" That question has been answered. When you 
found me, you found me a free man; when ^you 
leave me, you will leave me either a free or 
a dead one. 



94 THE LIFE OF 

"Christian. [to mob] Well, it will not do to 
commence a thing- and not go through with it. 

"After a few minutes consultation, four magis 
trates ordered the Sheriff to take the preacher 
to jail. 

" The Sheriff. I command all present to assist 
me. 

" (To L.) Do you wish to go to jail ? 

" I believe not. 

" Orders are immediately obeyed. 

" The Sheriff. We are not going to allow bail ; 
this case is too bad for that. 

" Well, Paul was imprisoned. 

"Yes, but them times was different from these. 

" And these times are no less different from 
those. 

"After ascending a pair of stairs. 

" Sheriff. [to jailor.] Where shall I put him? 

"Put him where you please, I will keep him where 
you put him. [Hesitating a few minutes whether 
to commit him to the dungeon or debtor s room.] 

" Well we will put him in here, [the debtor s 
room.] 

" Introduced to Mr. Gad, a young man awaiting 
his trial for assault and battery. How do you do, 
Mr. Gad? A hissing sneer, such as devils use 
when they receive to their dark abode alost spirit, 
was. indulged in by the rabble. 

" The doors are locked, Crooks is confined in a 
gloomy prison. 

" Now we have got him and we are going to keep 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 95 

him, and North Carolina, not Montgomery County, 
will have to pay the expenses. 

" L. is left to choose between leaving the place in 
fifteen minutes and going to jail. As he had noth 
ing to detain him he chose to leave. 

" The room in which the preacher was confined, 
is about 9x13 and 7 leet to the ceiling above. His 
fare, or" more properly his foul, was, for bedding, 
some blankets directly from the dungeon, which 
were ponderous with dust, and so offensive as to be 
sickening; these spread upon the floor. His por 
tion was two meals per day ; breakfast and dinner. 
The food was passable, the floor was his table, 
his finger served instead of a fork, and pocket- 
knife for a table-knife; a plate and bowl his dishes. 
His friends mi.u;ht furnish him with superior if they 
saw proper, which they were going to do. 

"A committee was appointed to read any and all 
writings whicli passed between him and his friends, 
who were not permitted to visit him. 

" None but his enemies could enter that sanctum 
sanctorum. The committee was further instructed 
not to release their prisoner till he signed a bond 
like McB ride s. 

" Monday, A. M., the jailor, or rather his deputy, 
who was one of the mob, and addicted to habits of 
inebriation, entered the jail about 7 o clock. 

" Good morning, Mr. Crooks. 

" Good morning, sir. 

" How does your pulse beat by this time in regard 
to leaving? 

" As it did on yesterday. 



96 THE LIFE oP 

" You had better leave ; they are determined you 
shall not preach any more in the county. 

" Ah, indeed ! 

"Nine o clock, some seven or eight persons among 
whom were Mr. L., a merchant in the place, and 
Mr. H., a Baptist, both slave-holders, and principal 
men in the mob, visited Mr. Crooks ; were very 
sorry to see him in that unhappy situation ; had 
no doubt that every man of honorable feelings and 
and honest heart was sorry. 

" Mr. C. No doubt of it at all, 

"You are being imposed upon by your professed 
friends ; you are a stranger and they pretend they 
will do a great many things ; but they are not to be 
depended on 5 they are the very dregs of the coun 
ty. You cannot get them to be any thing that ia 
good ; those who are against you are the best men 
of the county. They are determined you shall 
preach no more in the county. There is no more 
possibility of success j you can t get justice, and 
you had as well attempt to set this jail on fire with, 
cold water as to accomplish any gopcL 

" You say I cannot get justice ; I will be convicted! 
whether there is anything proven or not; will noli 
men respect their oaths? If my friend* are as^ 
ignorant and wicked as you say, they are the very 
people who need preaching. What I wish to know 
is, what is my duty ; at present I do not think I 
can ever say, I will never pleach, ia 
County, or any where else.. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 97 

" You will have to come to that at last. Well, 
good morning, 

(Jood morning. 

"After remaining from Sabbath till Tuesday P. M,, 
consulting his friends, who advised him to do all 
his conscience would permit to get his liberty, and 
being fully convinced that his rights would be pro 
tected neither in the court, or out of it, he desired 
an interview with the committee appointed by the 
mob, which was readily granted. 

" Dr. C. I am very sorry, Mr. Crooks, to see a 
man of your profession and qualifications for use 
fulness in your situation. 

" To be taken from my work, my friends ; my 
liberties taken from me, and I confined in this 
gloomy cage, is sir, by no means congenial to my 
feelings. But here I have been put, and here it 
appears I must stay. 

" Dr. C. Oh, we would be happy to release you; 
it can be a pleasure to no one to see you here. 

" Nor can it be a pleasure for me to remain ; nor 
would I do so, were I permitted to leave upon con 
ditions not involving a surrender of my liberties as 
a man but more especially as a Christian minister. 

" Of course we will require nothing unreasonable. 

" It lias been done. 

" Well, AVC will ask nothing that we Carolinians 
consider unreasonable. 

" I have been trying to look at things as they are, 
and to invoke the Divine guidance, and have come 
to the conclusion that I can be more extensively 



98 THE LIFE OF 

useful elsewhere than in this county, and hence to 
leave, intending not to preach in this county 
again. 

" We were instructed to require a bond. 
"jl do not believe the bond, if given, would be 
worth a fig. Nor should I consider any instru 
ment of writing more binding than my word. 

" We believe you will do anything you promise, 
but we must go according to orders. 

" I should like to assist in wording the bond. 
" We will write the bond and then you can see 
if you can sign it. 
"Very well. 

Whereupon the following was drawn : 
"Now the condition of the above bond is such : 
That, whereas the above bounden Adam Crooks bas 
been advocating and preaching abolition doctrine 
contrary to our laws and institutions, and this hav 
ing been made known to him and strictly enforced 
on him to desist and leave this county ami never 
again to preach in said county, and he having 
agreed to do so * * * to be done in ten days. 

". After the reading of which, Crooks stated that 
two things must be changed before he could sign 
the bond. 

First : You say, I have advocated and preached 
abolition doctrine contrary to our laws and institu 
tions; laws must be struck out. I do not believe 
I have violated your laws, and a man is judged 
innocent till proven guilty. 

Dr. C. I suppose he does not like to leave the 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 99 

county under the stigma of having broken the law. 

" That is not the point with me, doctor. It is a 
matter of veracity. Not believing I have violated, 
I cannot say I have. 

" William McKay the [jailor, and he who 
drew the bond.] We think you have. 

" I do not ask you to say I have not, but to re 
lieve me from saying I have. 

" Being put to vote, all but one voted not to 
have it erased. 

" Well, said one, we can discuss the question. 

" Crooks. The question being decided, is no 
longer open for discussion ; to bring it before you 
for that purpose a motion to reconsider must be 
made by one who voted with the majority. 

" The matter dropped here, and laws struck out. 

" The second change which must be made before 
I can sign this bond is, the conjunction " and " 
must be erased, and the participle "intending" in 
serted, so as to read 4 <and leave this county in 
tending never to preach in said county again, in 
stead of "leaving this county and never," <fcc. 

" My reason for asking this is, because, as a min 
ister called of God to preach his gospel, I have no 
right to, nor can I say 1 never will preach any 
where, 

" Believing I can be more useful elsewhere than 
in this county, it is my present intention to leave in 
tending not to preach in it again; this I can say, 
or have it written down. Duty may require, and 



100 THE LIFE OF 

things may so change as for it to be desirable that 
I should preach in the county. 

"This change also being made, the bond was 
signed, and Crooks permitted to go forth again to 
mingle in the mighty conflict which now convulses 
the moral world. His heart was deeply pained to 
leave the Church in Montgomery ; nor would he 
have done so, only from a clear persuasion that he 
would not have been permitted to be useful to it. 

" I was released from confinement in the Mont 
gomery jail, on the evening of the 17th of June. 
While visiting and bidding adieu to the much 
injured friends in that county, there was an in 
stance of moral heroism which it affords pleasure to 
record. After taking my leave of Brother Y. 
Moore s family, I was called back to write in the 
class-book, the name of his daughter C., who be 
longed to the Methodist Episcopal Church, but 
would continue such connection no longer joined 
the Wesleyans, though deprived of the privilege of 
preaching, and threatened to be of holding prayer 
and class meetings. 

" On the ensuing Saturday and Sabbath, I had 
meeting at Bethel, in Randolph Co., a mile or two 
from the Montgomery line. The congregations 
were large, and appeared to be deeply afflicted ; 
one brother joined the Church. 

" A portion of the Montgomery mob, met some 
distance from the meeting, but concluding they 
were too few, disbanded. Being invited, I agreed 



REV. ADAM CROOKS, 101 

to attend a funeral in Davidson, to be preached 
the following Sabbath, by B. L. and A. K., Baptist 
ministers, I too preached after them, and before 
the congregation dispersed. This meeting was to 
be held in a neighborhood where I had never been. 
Threats were made if Crooks came he should be 
tarred and feathered inside and out, and such 
like. 

" The hour for meeting arrived, and with it an 
overwhelming congregation ; two officers were on 
the ground to see that the laws were respected, 
and the rights of the writer protected. The mob 
did not appear. While speaking from 2d Cor. 4th 
and 5th, a glorious unction rested on the audience. 

" By this time, a feeling of deep indignation and 
strong opposition towards the conduct of the mobs 
began to develop itself; indeed, ere I came out of 
prison, without my agency, or even knowledge, 
a company was being raised to get me out peacea 
bly if they could, forcibly if they must. Forcible 
resistance or violence I felt it my duty to discourage. 

" Tuesday, had a meeting in Davidson, but about 
a half mile from the Montgomery line. Violent 
threats were made on both sides. One party swore 
if Crooks attempted to preach so near to Mont 
gomery, he should be taken back to Troy. Anoth 
er, if they come for that purpose they should have 
hot shot. This meeting also passed without 
interruption. 

"Next day, meeting at Union, in Randolph Coun 
ty. There Z. N. made un effort to get up a riot* 



102 THE LIFE OF 

but failed. Thank God, his royal presence was 
signally displayed. 

" The following Saturday and Sabbath, meeting at 
Franklinsville. Saturday a Doctor from Chatham 
came to town for the purpose of raising a mob ; but 
not succeeding, he came to meeting and appeared 
during the sermon, to be much agitated with men 
tal agony. 

" From the 17th of June to this, the 6th of July, 
I traveled alone. Brother William Vestal now, 
became my traveling companion. 

" Tuesday, we had a precious time at Freedom 
Hill, in Chatham County. Two joined the Church, 
whom may God bless. The house at this place 
was threatened, but I guess it stands yet. 

"Wednesday,! had the pleasure of meeting Broth 
er Wilson, who is employed on Guilford circuit, 
with whom we went to Cool Spring, in Randolph 
County, preached a funeral sermon to a large and 
deeply attentive auditory. The funeral was of a 
child, a namesake. 

" Thursday, Brother W. preached (I was sick and 
unable to preach) at Craven s School-house, where 
some months since my buggy was much abused. 
A good sermon and a good meeting. 

"Sabbath, meeting at Caraway. Text, "Finally, 
brethren, farewell." A large and tender con 
gregation. 

" Report said, the Guilford mob was going to be 
there, and join a wing from Randolph, but to the 
credit of Randolph, I will say it was not disgraced 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. fj 103 

by a mob, nor did, it to any considerable extent, 
sympathize with mobocracy. No interruption, ex 
cept some conversation during worship outside of 
the house. 

" Wednesday evening, we went to Abel Guarde- 
ner s in Guilford. 

" Thursday, went to Jamestown. News is im 
mediately conveyed to Greensboro, that A. Crooks 
is at Jamestown. Here I saw and conversed for a 
few minutes with G. C. Mendenhall, our counsel, 
who informed me he could not get Me Bride s case 
before the Supreme Court. One man gave me 
quite a philipic, on learning thaft was a preacher, 
and taking it for granted that I was a pro-slavery 
one, but on learning who I was, offered his ser 
vices to head a company of armed men, and pro 
tect my person wherever I might wish to go. This, 
of course, I did not wish to encourage. 

" We, Vestal and myself, left town, the sun about 
fifty minutes above the horizon ; thought of lodg 
ing with Mr. B., about a mile from town, but con 
cluded my property, if not my person, would be in 
danger that distance from town ; went three miles 
to Brother P s., did not yet feel satisfied, and trav 
eled eight miles to Brother W. s, and in Randolph 
staid till next evening, when we went to Wrn. L. s. 

" Saturday morning, went eleven miles to T. P. s, 
in the neighborhood of whom, on the Sabbath, I 
organized a Church of ten members. 

Monday, I went to the S. W. part of Randolph 
County, to my post-office, and got a letter from 



104 THE LIFE OF 

Brother Bacon, stating that all things were peace 
able on his charge, and that he expected to remain 
another year, etc. 

" Tuesday morning, early, received by private 
conveyance a letter from G. C. Mendenhall, Esq., 
urging me for my own sake, for the sake of my 
friends, the public peace and of religion, to desist 
attending a Quarterly-meeting which was to bo 
held at Union, Guilford County, the following 
Saturday and Sabbath ; a meeting which that gen 
tleman knew I designed attending; and if I enter 
tained any doubts as to my duty, to come and see 
him forthwith* If I desired he would come out 
of Guilford, the county in which he lives, into Ran 
dolph to see me, etc. I started immediately to see M. 
u Mr. Mendenhall assured me that such was the ex 
citement in the public mind, that my presence in 
Union, on Saturday or the Sabbath would be the oc 
casion of bloodshed, that there were two parties 
equally determined, one that I should be arrested, 
and the other that I should not. That no pains 
had been spared in making preparations for my ar 
rest, that the probability was, there would be thous 
ands from Alamance, Chatham, Randolph, David 
son, Forsyth, Rockingham and Guilford counties 
for that purpose, that not a few looked upon the 
conduct of the mob as contrary to law, in violation 
of the Constitution and their rights as citizens, 
which the Constitution and those laws were de 
signed to protect, and who were determined to die 
in their defense ; that these were not Wesley ans> 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 105 

and in order to prevent the most sanguinary scene 
that has ever transpired in the county, it was the 
wish and request of my friends for me not to come 
to the meeting. 

" I suggested that perhaps the Constitutionalists 
might be dissuaded from their purpose to resist. 

" All present agreeing with Mendenhall that if I 
were at Union no earthly power could prevent the 
effusion of blood, and that I ought not to go. I 
gave Mr. Menderrhall leave to make it known that 
I would not be at the meeting, and of my purpose 
to start for Conference shortly. 

" On receipt of this information, Mr. Gilmer de 
clared I should not be interrupted according to law 
or otherwise till the 10th of August, and that he 
would make every possible effort to prevent the 
meetings from being interrupted. In view of every 
circumstance, I thought it would not be amiss to 
let my whereabouts remain a secret, which I did, 
I was confirmed in this belief by information from 
a friend on Friday, that the day before, some men 
came to Mr. L. s, inquired for Crooks, said they 
had a warrant, and it was their business and duty 
to arrest him, made search, and left " without aid 
or comfort." 

" Saturday morning, ten o clock, a company num 
bering about three hundred, came from different 
counties armed with clubs, pistols, dirks, etc., not 
expecting, as they said, to find Crooks, but they 
heard that Bacon would be there, and were re- 



106 THE LIFE OP 

solved that no Northern Abolitionist should preach 
in the Country. 

"A company was also there armed with guns, etc. 
determined that Bacon, nor any orderly man, should 
be abused if they could prevent it. Besides these 
there was a large congregation who had come with 
other intentions from different parts of the circuit. 

" Before separating, the mob arranged to have a 
circular printed and scattered broadcast, in which 
they entered into a resolution to give their con 
tinued and united efforts to expel ADAM CROOKS 
and J. C. BACON from our State peaceably, if we 
can, and forcibly, if we must. And to affix a reward 
of two hundred dollars ($200.) for their apprehen 
sion, or one hundred ($100.) for either of them, if 
taken anywhere in the State, after the 5th of 
August. 

" On Monday morning I commenced getting ready 
to depart for Conference ; took my buggy to R. s, 
about five miles from Greensboro, to get it repair 
ed ; staid at R. s till Tuesday, A. M. j then started 
for my trunk in the south-west of Randolph. On 
my return, when passing a house, I spied Mr. Stead, 
making towards his barn, which is about eighty 
yards from the road, as I came opposite which, 
from behind a stack issued stones which fell around 
but did not hit me. These were hard arguments, 
but are never needed in defense of a good cause. 

"When I landed in Guilford, I was informed that, 
notwithstanding the mob had entered into resolu 
tion to give me to the 5th of August to make my 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 107 

arrangments to leave, and that I should not be in 
terrupted according to law or otherwise, till after 
the 5th, an effort was made to raise a company in 
Greensboro, on Monday night, to take me at R. s, 
and that on Tuesday morning a slave came to R. s 
shop, inquired if he had a large two-horse carriage 
for sale, a thing never made in that country unless 
ordered. Seeing me, the boy asked if that was 
Crooks ; was answered in the affirmative. About 
an hour after, the officer in company with the slave, 
his master, and others, rode up to R. s, inquired if 
Crooks was there. William R. s son answered, 
" He is not," This seemed to cause great; surprise ; 
and the officer manifesting a disposition to search 
the house, was told if he attempted it without a 
search-warrant he must kill or be killed. He did 
not insist. William told the truth; I was not 
there, being on my way after my trunk ; a happy 
escape from officers of injustice, while disappoint 
ment was the reward of their faithfulness to their 
own resolution. 

" The object in getting out the warrant was not to 
give me the benefit of a trial according to law, but 
as a pretext why I should be taken without resist 
ance, and when they once had me in their power, 
they could do as they pleased with me. Some 
threatened to hang, and others to tie a rope around 
my neck, fasten me to a buggy, and take me where 
I could be transported to an uninhabited island, 
from whence I would never return to North Caro 
lina, No doubt they intended not to let me leave 



108 THE LIFE OF 

without at least entering into bonds not to return, 
But they did not get me, and may I not say with 
the Psalmist, Bj this I know thou fayorest me, be 
cause mine enemies do not triumph over me. 

" Saturday evening the second of August, left 
B s., a distance of about nine miles, for my buggy; 
got to R s. by twelve at night, and deeming it un 
safe to remain, accompanied by my friends, I started 
for J. Stanley s, a distance of thirteen miles, where 
we landed all in safety at break of day, and from 
which on the morning of 4th., of this instant, I 
started for this place, where I landed after a lonely 
journey of five hundred miles, performed in eleven 
and a half days and was cheered by the smiles of 
my relatives and friends, among whom, besides my 
parents, and brothers and sisters, I will name Rev. 
J. Phillips, Rev. J. McBride, and Rev. A. R. Demp 
ster. 

" As this letter is already too lengthy, I forbear 
indulging remarks as to the happy effects the con 
duct of the mobs has had in directing the public 
eye to the enormities of a system which has long 
warred against the throne of God, and rights of 
man. They intended to prevent investigation, but 
God, who causes the wrath of man to praise him, 
and taketh the wise in their own craftiness, has 
caused it to have the very opposite effect. Never 
did the Carolinians think as much on that subject 
as they now do. Never did they hate Slavery as 
they do now. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 109 

"I entertain the confident hope, that ere long< 
American Slavery will expire amid a nation s joy." 

OBSERVATIONS. 

Mr. Crooks finished his Conference year fully. 
During all his difficulties, he never neglected one 
of his own appointments. Those meetings he was 
persuaded not to attend, were upon brother Mc- 
Bride s work. He had numerous calls, which he 
did not and could not obey. During those four 
years of arduous labor and almost constant danger, 
his mother fasted twice a week and prayed for the 
advancement of the cause, and the preservation of 
her son. He left North Carolina with sorrow and 
sadness, feeling that the friends of Jesus and suffer 
ing humanity were left as sheep without a shep 
herd, and among wolves. He left many warm 
personal friends. Among them he counted one of 
the lawyers employed in his trial, George Meiiden- 
hall, Esq., and his estimable wife. They were ex 
tensive slave-holders. Their slaves came into the 
family by a former wife. The present Mrs. Men- 
denhall, was a Friend, and opposed to chattalizing 
human beings. As soon as they could do so they set 
their slaves all free. Their riches consisted in 
slaves and land. The earnings of the slaves were 
carefully saved, and as soon as enough money was 
accumulated, a company was started for Ohio and 
Indiana. Thus they liberated nearly eighty thou 
sand dollars s worth. They were years in doing 
the work, and it was not all accomplished when the 



110 THE LIFE OF 

South seceded at the commencement of our last 
war. The last load was ready and started, hoping 
to be allowed to cross the lines, but they were sent 
back. They were in the care of Mrs. Mendenhall. 
We received a visit from Mr. and Mrs. Menden 
hall, when we were living on Delaware Circuit. 
The journey from the South was made in carriages 
and covered wagons. When at our house they 
had about twenty slaves, old and young, with them. 
Several years before the work was all accomplished, 
Mr. Mendenhall was drowned while attempting to 
ford a swollen stream. When found his arms were 
thrown upon the bank, and in his hands he held 
his satchel containing manumission papers for all 
his slaves, who were still in the South. The fami 
ly were very great sufferers during the war. When 
Mr. Crooks bade them farewell, to come North, 
Mrs. Mendenhall placed in his hands a paper, con 
taining the following poem, beautifully engrossed. 

May He whose care 

Surrounds the little sparrow when it falls 
Who hears the nestling raven when it calls, 

Still prompt thy prayer ! 

For He will own 

All that His holy Spirit inly breathes 
That through the windings of the heart enwreathea 

A sigh a groan. 

Look round and see 
The passive dew-drop on the lily rest ; 
The active lightning flash from east to west ; 

So may st thou be. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. Ill 

So be thou taught 
* Instant; in season, out of season" too, 
Vocal like thunder, silent like the dew 

With blessing fraught. 

! let thy will, 

Thy all of self upon the cross be slain, 
That all of death may die, that Christ may reign, 

And man t be still ! 

Words may not tell 
Not e en the unseen, silent, parting tear, 
How earnestly we bless thee brother, dear ! 
Farewell! Farewell! 

D. E. M. 
Guilford, N. C., 7th mo., 1851. 

FURTHER ACTIVITIES. 

The first year after his return, he was appointed 
to Zanesville Charge. As the membership was 
small, they were riot able to support even a " single 
man." He told them if they would board him, he 
would teach school, in order to earn enough to 
defray his other expenses. He commenced a pri 
vate school. Yery soon he gained such a reputa 
tion for managing bad boys, that his school was 
largely composed of boys who had been expelled 
from the public schools of the city. He was very 
much interested in the teacher s work. 

In August, 1852, he was appointed preacher in 
charge of Medina, or what was called the Granger 
and Hunting-ton Circuits. Rev. George W. Bai- 
num was his assistant. He was also elected one 



112 THE LIFE OF 

of the delegates to the General Conference, which 
held its session in Syracuse, within a few weeks. 
The appointments on his charge were many 
miles apart, making long, hard rides. His home 
was at River Styx, Medina County, in the family of 
brother Turner. He could be there but little, as 
the work on the different parts of the field re 
quired his presence. During the Winter, they 
held several protracted meetings, with good suc 
cess. At Lodi there were numerous accessions, 
and in the Spring following, a new edifice was 
built. 

HIS MARRIAGE. 

The third of May, 1853, he was married to Eliz 
abeth Willits, student and teacher of Leoni Insti 
tute. In a book presented to his bride, these lines 
are written : 



A HUSBAND S GIFT 

TO 
MRS. E. W. CROOKS, 

Presented on our wedding-day, 

Which as you see, 
Is the third of May, 

Eighteen fifty- three. 

And as my parents say 
The same is my l>irth-day, 
In eighteen twenty -four. 
Which makes me one score, 
Plus nine, and no more. 

As the gentle shovrer 
Descending from above, 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 113 

Cheers the bright May-flowers ; 
So shall I, my dear, 
Seek thy heart to cheer 
By kindnesses of love. 

For eight years he had been a traveling minister 
without home or home-comforts, literally fulfilling 
the injunctions "Take neither purse nor scrip, 
for your journey." "Eating what is set before you 
asking no questions." Sometimes faring sumptu 
ously, and sometimes otherwise; meanwhile labor 
ing hard in the vineyard, and resting wherever 
night overtook him. 

In speaking of this experience he said, " He 
learned to call each sweet spot a home, and 
every man a brother." He always said he never 
felt like complaining, for he fared better than his 
Master, who had not where to lay his head. He al 
ways found a friendly roof to shelter him. Though 
at times very poor in this world s goods, yet the 
kind Father always provided for his necessities. 

At the Conference held August, 1853, he was ap 
pointed to Huntington Circuit alone. Here, the 
last of September, his own humble home was first 
established. Here his own family altar was first 
erected, upon which ever since, continually have 
been offered sacrifices to the Most High the fire 
upon that altar never grew dim. The house-keep 
ing was commenced, as a light purse would dictate 
very plainly. It was a settled principle, " There 
shall be no debts." If there was not ready money 
to get all we wante/1, we denied ourselves, or waited 



114 THE LIFE OF 

until means were given. He remained on this cir 
cuit two years. Quite a number were added unto 
the Lord, and a new church-edifice was built at 
Huntington. We found many devoted friends; 
among them were Timothy Burr and wife, of pre 
cious memory. It was hard to leave them ; but as 
there was some difficulty in supplying the work of 
the Conference, and this Charge could be supplied 
by those who lived near, and did not wish to move, 
we were appointed to Delaware Circuit. Here 
three years were spent pleasantly, and with profit 
Several new appointments added to the field, and 
some of the old ones were greatly enlarged. 

TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS . 

At Betmington, the house of brother Marcus 
Philips was used for service. The congregation 
was small, but they had precious meetings. Not 
far away, at the corners, stood an old, dilapidated 
Methodist Episcopal meeting-house. There had 
been some difficulty. The ministers had left, 
taking the church records even the class-book. 
For eighteen months the house had been opened 
only for funeral services. Some of the Christians 
in the neighborhood sent an invitation to Mr. 
Crooks to come and preach to them. A pro 
tracted meeting was held, souls were saved, Chris 
tians were encouraged. By request, the appoint- 
ment at brother Philip s was changed to the church. 
The membership greatly increased. By this time, 
the Methodist Episcopal brethren thought the peo 
ple ought to be looked after. They sent a preacher 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 

once in two weeks, and where there was no 
service at all, now the pulpit was supplied every 
Sabbath. They reorganized their class, and some 
thought should close their doors upon us ; but we 
had sympathy of the community, and they waited 
until they thought it would be safe. When there 
was a change in the pastor, they shut their house 
against us. The result was, we were able to 
to build a beautiful new church. 

A meeting of great interest was held in a new 
pla^.c, (Fairview,) lasting seven weeks. There 
was a Presbyterian church in the village, and not 
far away a Baptist, but no Methodist. There had 
been no revival there for many years. Eighty 
professed to find the Savior. There was scarcely 
a family in the whole neighborhood, but were 
subjects of the Spirit s influence. There were 
many heads of families. Many homes were 
changed. The world had held sway, but now 
God was worshiped. Fourteen were sprinkled, 
and seventeen immersed in one day. A class was 
organized, and a church built. Some of those 
brought to Jesus then, are now singing his praise 
around " The great white throne on high." 

The woodland home of the Rev. Edward Smith 
was near Bloomfield, where his remains are now 
interred. We visited him -several times. During 
his last sickness, we spent three days with him. 
He sent word to the brethren, that " If I die of 
this attack, all is well." He died July 6th, 1856. 
Mr. Crooks preached his funeral discourse from 



116 THE LIFE OF 

2 Timothy iv : 6, 7, 8. The sermon was repeated 
by request during Conference, at the memorial 
service. In his death, the cause of reform lost one 
of its most fearless advocates, and the Church of 
God one of its strongest pillars, Mr. Crooks was 
one of the delegates to the General Conference 
held in Cleveland, in the Fall of 1856. 

At the Conference of 1857, Mr. Crooks was 
Chairman of Committee on Reforms. This is what 
he wrote then, eighteen years ago. 

ON SLAVERY. 

"Resolved, That all our former declarations of hatred 
and opposition to the system of American Slavery, are by 
us most emphatically re-affirmed. We still believe slavery 
to be evil, and only evil, opposed to the well-being of the 
enslaver, as well as the enslaved ; opposed to the prosperi 
ty of the nation, to the spread of the Christian religion, and 
to the salvation of men. 

Resolved, That there is a oneness of sentiment, on 
the subject of slavery, among the Wesleyan Methodist 
Churches j that we have peace in all our borders, while 
other denominations are convulsed throughout, in conse 
quence of this accursed system having a place within thei r 
pales. 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with our much 
beloved brother, John G. Fee, of Kentucky, in the recent 
outrages that have been committed upon his person ; and 
shall most earnestly pray the God of Daniel to keep him 
from the power of the enemies of truth and righteousness, 
while thus pursuing his labors of love, in planting the 
standard- of the Redeemer in that land of bondage. 

Resolved, That the recent decision of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, in the Dred Scott Case, in 
which it is declared that l the Negro has no rights that the 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 

white inau is bound to respect/ is a disgrace and a burn 
ing shame to the nation, at war with the Christian religion, 
and strikes a blow at the rights of man, and should there 
fore be disregarded and scouted by every lover of the Bible. 

ON SECRET SOCIETIES. 

Resolved, That we will firmly maintain our disciplinary 
rule against the admission or retention in our Churches of 
persons holding connection with secret oath-bound socie 
ties. 

Resolved, That we believe the principle of secrecy, as 
developed in the various secret organizations of the day, 
to be fraught with evil, dangerous to political purity, to 
national virtue, to the rights of man, inimical to the cause 
of liberty to the oppressed millions of our land, and above 
all, opposed to the spread of that light which is the life of 
men. 

ON TEMPERANCE. 

Resolved, That we are as much as ever convinced of 
the great evil of the sale and use of ardent spirits as a 
beverage And 

That we will oppose it in every reasonable, and lawful 
way. We will lecture, preach, pray, and vote against it, 
and recommend to all those over whom we may be able to 
exert an influence, to forsake, and oppose these evils." 

About this time be furnished a number of articles 
for the WESLEYAN, on " True Politics ;" also, took 
some part in a discussion upon the question, " Is 
the Twenty-first Section of Discipline, on Secret 
Societies, law ?" He was present at the General 
Conference when this subject was discussed, passed, 
and by a majority declared to be law. He took the 
position in his argument, that if it was not law, we 
should spend our time and talents in making it 
such, not in attempting to prove it a nullity. 



118 THE LIFE OF 

The next Conference year was spent on Licking 
Circuit. The friends were very pleasant, but 
during the Winter, the Small Pox raged in the 
village where we resided. Great fright prevailed, 
and there would have been great suffering, only 
that Mr. Crooks, (who had this disease while in 
Allegheny City) spent a part of each day visiting 
the sick, burying the dead, and encouraging the 
living. A number said they believed they should 
have died of fright, if it had not been for his 
words of comfort and hope. As a matter of 
course he could not attend his appointments, for 
the inhabitants of the country and towns adjacent, 
would not attend Church. Thus the year passed 
without any marked revival, yet the children of 
God seemed to gain strength and grace. During 
this year, Mr. Crooks spent all his leisure time in 
reveiwing President Finney s Systematic Theology. 
Afterwards, parts of this review were given in the 
WESLEYAN. He has since said that " this close 
consecutive thought was a school to fit him for his 
work years after." 

LABORS AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

In the fall of 1859, he left Licking Circuit to 
become pastor of the Church in Cleveland, Ohio; 
five years were spent with this good people; 
true hearts were found noble men and women ; 
those who for the right and truth were willing to 
be " little and unknown," if the cause of God and 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 119 

humanity could only be advanced. For years, 
this Church had stood a moral " beacon light" to 
all other Churches in the city. Here the first 
church edifice was built by the " people called 
Wesleyans." When it required moral stamina to 
bear the name Abolitionist, here was a band of 
braves, who boldly flung to the breeze the banner 
of liberty to all alike. 

Soon after we arrived in Cleveland, John Brown 
made his raid into Virginia, was taken prisoner, 
and the 2d day of December, 1859, witnessed the 
death of this earnest friend of enslaved humanity. 
We assisted in the preparations for appropriate 
memorial services. The following is an extract 
from a daily paper of the times : 

"IN ME MORI AM. 

EXERCISES COMMEMORATIVE OF THE 8AC2IF.CE 
OF 

JOHN BROWN." 

11 Across Superior Street, from the Bermet House to the 
Rouse s Block, WHS stretch a banner deeply bordered with 
black, with the words- of Brown, I do not ihiiik I can 
better honor the cause I love than to die for it. 7 

" Several places of business iu the city were closed dur 
ing the day. 

" Melodeon Hall was draped in mourning for the meet 
ing held there in the evening. The stage was hung with 
heavy folds of crape caught up with white rosettes. 
Around the gallery were folds and festoons of crape with 
white rosettes. Festoons of crape hung from the walls, 
the girders and the chandeliers, while the pillars were 
wound with the insignia of mourning. 



120 THE LIFE OP 

"Over the center of the stage hung a large and fine 
photograph of the Hero of Harper s Ferry, encircled with 
a wreath. Above this was the motto : 

" AMARICUS HUMANIS GENERIS. 

"On the left of the picture was John Brown, the 
Hero of 1859, and on the right He being dead, yet 
speaketh. Still further to the right were the following 
The end crowns the work. If I had interfered in be 
half of the great, the wealthy and the wise, no one would 
have blamed me. John Brown to the Court of Virginia ; 
and on the loft the following Remember them that are 
in bonds as bound with them. His noble spirit makes 
despots quail, and freedom triumph. 

" The whole was arranged with fine effect, and showed 
that the ladies had been in no wise inattentive. 

" THE MEETING. The number of persons present, and 
the character of the meeting is stated as follows by the 
Cleveland Morning Leader : 

" As early as half -past six o clock the dense throng 
crowding into the "Melodeon" testified the universal interest 
felt in the nature and objects of the meeting, and at seven 
o clock there was not a vacent seat in the Hall, and the 
standing places were all occupied. There were not less 
than 1400 persons in the Hall, about one -third of whom 
were ladies. The strictest attention was given to the 
exercises throughout deep, earnest attention. 

" J. H. W. Toohey called the meeting to order, and 
introduced tl-e Rev. Mr. Brewster, of the Weslejan 
Church, who read the following passages of Scripture 
" Epistle of James, v : 1 to 18; First Timothy, iv : 10 to 
18 ; First Corinthians, xv : 19 to 34." 

"The Throne of Grace was then addressed by Rev. Mr. 
Crooks, in an eloquent .prayer, acknowledging the hand 
of God in all the events of life, arid his dealings with the 
children of men. We, as a nation, the ministers, the 
Churches and people, are guilty of the crime that has 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 121 

"this day been done, in the execution of him who, respond 
ing to his promptings of conscience, endeavored to set the 
bondmen free. He closed with the prayer that all pres 
ent might so live that they might die in the hope of the 
Gospel. " 

Mr. Crooks was one of the speakers of the eve 
ning. He also prepared a sermon to be delivered 
to his own people the next Sabbath evening, but 
was invited to use the hall, which he did. There 
was a full house, and close attention. His text 
was < He that departeth from evil maketh him 
self a prey" Isaiah lix: 15. From this sermon, 
the following are a few extracts : 

Again, how are we to honor Lafayette, who, from pure 
and unselfish devotion to the holy cause of human free 
dom, left the security and quietude of a princely home, 
came to a land not his own, and threw himself into all the 
dangers and hardships of tent and field, that he might be 
stow upon an oppressed people, the priceless boon of free 
dom ; and then brand with "traitor" an American citi 
zen for a devotion no less pure, and a bravery and a mag 
nanimity equally exalted ? Why cry a crown for one, and 
a halter for the other? Or, how are we to transmit to 
posterity, as worthy of imperishable glory, the names of 
Eaton and Decatur, who displayed such distinguished 
bravery for the rescue of enslaved American citizens, from 
Tripolitan masters ; and then, upon the same page, seek 
to couple the name of Brown with lasting infamy and 
substantial disgrace ? Or, how lavish our sympathies 
upon Poland, Hungary, or any of the European nations 
struggling for freedom, and then unsparingly ceusure 
Brown for his more practical sympathy for the oppressed 
millions of onr land ?" 
*##* * * * * 

6 



122 THE LIFE OF 

" He had seen that the purpose of the party dominant 
in the nation is to, as far as possible, enlarge the area of 
slavery, legislate directly for its protection in the Territo 
ries, and to re-open the piratical foreign traffic in human 
beings. He had seen the ermine of the Supreme Federal 
Judges stained by a decision which would have shocked 
the moral sensibility of even the Jefferies making the 
administration of justice depend upon complexion ! He 
had seen that slavery is an element of discord and strife 
in the bosom of this Nation, and the mortal foe to the 
prosperity and even the perpetuity of this Confederacy. 
He had seen that there is no political party, of any con 
siderable numerical strength, which even professes to 
seek the overthrow of this monster iniquity. And last, 
but not least, he saw that the vile man -thief enjoys unob 
structed access, to even the "high places" of our popular 
Zion, and that the oil of our incense is largely mixed with 
the sweat, blood and tears of the poor oppressed. Know 
ing and seeing all this as a last forlorn hope, he and his 
less than Spartan band, made deadly assault upon the 
reyriad robbers of their brothers right. And, like Leoni- 
das, he fell a sacrifice to his native bravery and noble love 
of liberty; and like him, he fell to be loved and honored. 
Henceforth let Harper s Ferry be styled the Thermopylae, 
and John Brown the Leonidas of this nation. 

"But the truth, alike shameful and apparent, is unde 
niable ; that it is owing to the pro-slavery character and 
action of this Government, together with the faithlessness 
of the popular Churches, that John Brown, and his unfor 
tunate coadjutors died upon a Virginia scaffold. 
# # # # ##### 

But American Slavery cannot be eternal. God s justice 
will not sleep forever; and God is against slavery. His 
word is against it ; His government, both moral and provi 
dential, is against it ; the prayers of his people are against 
it; the common, unperverted conscience of mankind is 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 123 

against it: and the cry of the poor oppressed is going up 
continually against it. It is doomed to a speedy, and, 
possibly, violent dissolution. 

" The iron chariot of oppression is not always to roll its 
ponderous cylinders over the prostrate but sacred form of 
humanity, squeezing hissmg streams of blood from the 
life-cavities of her great heart. God is already shaking 
the nation, and the pro-slavery Churches, from center to 
circumference. Speaking from his throne, ere long, he 
will say, as anciently : I have seen ; I have seen the 
afflictions of my people, and am come down to deliver 
them. 7 

"And when that time comes, as come it must, the 
names of Pierce, Douglass, Buchanan, and H. A. Wise, 
together with all those of the servile tools of the Slave- 
power, will be but synonymous with cruelty, infamy, 7 
and " misanthropy," and suggestive of whatsoever is 
odious; while that of John Brown, associated with the 
names of those who have been distinguished for fidelity 
alike to God and humanity, will be resplendent with the 
imperishable honors of Corinthian Laurel." 

At no time during his labors in Cleveland was 
there a great revival; yet there was a steady 
growth, both in spirit and in numbers. Souls were 
converted, and there were quite a number of ac 
cessions to the Church. The church-edifice was 
removed, repaired and refurnished. The congre 
gation was much increased. All seemed to have 
renewed zeal to labor for God. A prayer and 
class meeting was established in the suburbs 
where a number were converted. An appoint 
ment, five or six miles in the country, for preaching 
Sabbath afternoons, was added to the work. 

Several of the early supporters of this Church 



124 THE LIFE OP 

have received their " summons to the mansions 
above." They have laid aside the weapons of 
warfare, and have gone to that home where the 
" wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are 
at rest." Their record is on high. In that great 
day of final account, Jesus shall say to them : 
" Well done. Enter thou into the joy of thy 
Lord." 

During our residence here, our Nation became 
involved in our last " terrible war." All loyal 
hearts were burdened for the salvation of our 
Country. Our sympathies were greatly enlisted 
for our " brave boys in blue," and for their dear 
ones at home. A number of those dear to us 
were called to sacrifice their loved ones for their 
Country s good. With aching hearts and tearful 
eyes we carried them to their last resting place. 

Many tokens of kindness and sympathy were 
received from the friends here, and it was with 
sorrowful hearts we left them, knowing little of 
the trials, burdens, and conflicts before us ; but the 
path of duty seemed to lead us away. 

In July, 1863, Mr. Crooks received the follow 
ing letter from Adrian College I 
ADRIAN, Mich., July 3, 1863. 
REV. A. CROOKS, CLEVELAND, OHIO : 

Dear Brother: At the late Annual Meeting of the 
Trustees of Adrian College, you were regularly elected to 
the honorary degree of " Master of Arts," together with 
Rev. L. C. Matlack, W. W. Lyle, and Jas. J. White, of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, which was duly announced by the 
President at our recent Commencement. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS, 125 

The Board is pleased to tender this expression of es 
teem for yourself personally, and to convey to the public 
this assurance of confidence in your literary and moral 
standing in society. Respectfully and Truly Yours, 
JOHN McELDOWNEY, Sec y. 

ELECTION TO THE EDITORSHIP. 

The General Conference, held at Adrian, Mich 
igan, June, 1864, elected Mr. Crooks Editor of 
the AMERICAN WESLEYAN. Had he felt free to 
follow his own preferences, he would have still re- 
mained a pastor. His heart was in that work. He 
had been told that in all probability he would be 
one of the candidates for the office of Editor. He 
did not believe it would result in his election. Among 
his last words, as he left for the Conference, were 
these : " Do not feel troubled about this matter, 
for I am confident that there are those who will 
stand before me in the minds of our people. There 
is no danger of my being called upon to occupy 
that position." He stated to the Conference his 
preference to remain in the pastoral work. But 
the Conference decided to elect him Editor. He 
always made it a principle to follow the leadings 
of Providence to walk in the path opened before 
him. He accepted the position, returned to Cleve 
land, and commenced arranging his affairs, prepa 
ratory to leaving, as he was needed at the office 
immediately. His Church and congregation were 
wholly unprepared for this change. Some of them 
felt that it ought not so to be j and to human eyes it 



126 THE LIFE OF 

seemed to require great self-sacrifice. The Church 
was in a prosperous condition, spiritually and tem 
porally. The house of worship had been put in 
good repair. All was pleasant between pastor and 
people. " Peace was in all her borders, and pros 
perity within her walls." But God, who sees the 
end from the beginning, and judges righteously, 
knows what is best for his children, and where he 
can use them for his own glory, and the upbuilding 
of his cause and kingdom on the earth. It is his 
prerogative to guide, and ours to follow. 

June 23d, he left Cleveland to commence his 
duties in the office of the AMERICAN WESLEYAN, in 
Syracuse, N. Y., and on the 28th of June appeared 
the following : 

" SALUTATORY." 

" In entering upon the untried duties of his of 
fice, the * new Editor will be expected to state, at 
least in general outline, his views of the objects to 
be secured, and of the principles and policy which 
should govern, in the performance of those duties. 
As this expectation is most reasonable, it shall be 
met at once. Then, 

" 1. Being the organ of a Connection of Chris 
tian Churches, tine primal objects of the AMERICAN 
WESLEYAN should be the success of Christian 
enterprise the spread of scriptural holiness, 
over these lands - consisting in piety and purity, 
correct faith, genuine experience, and correspond 
ing practice. i Holiness unto the Lord should ra 
diate from ever issus. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 127 

"2. As the organ of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Connection of America, the paper should more im 
mediately serve the interests of this particular 
Christian denomination, promoting its peace, puri 
ty, unity and prosperity, advocating its doctrines, 
propogating its principles, and chronicling its 
triumph. Yet at the same time, as a public re 
ligious journal, it will take pleasure in recording 
the acheivements, moral and spiritual, of sister 
denominations. It should be a medium for the 
diffusion of general Christian intelligence, 

" 3. The organ of a denomination eminently 
reformatory, as heretofore, so in time to come, the 
AMERICAN WESLEYAN should speak no ambiguous 
language respecting the great reforms of the day. 
As our Connectional banner battle-torn though it 
be it must continue to float from the foremost and 
highest battlements of Zion, defiant of all sin, as 
when first given to the breeze. These .are not the 
times in which to haul down our flag, use Quaker 
ordnance, fire-blank cartridges or offer truce or 
amnesty to rebels in arms against any claim of 
God or interest of humanity. Slavery must not 
be allowed to revivify. Its utter extinction must 
be rendered certain. Unrelenting warfare must be 
waged against the monster iniquity Intemperance. 
The spirit of violence must be rebuked and checked 
the arbitrament of the sword, treated as a ca 
lamity finding its dreadful necessity only in sin, 
and to be remedied by the Gospel ; and all unfruit- 



128 THE LIFE OF 

ful works of darkness must be < reproved/ AH 
this means work and conflict. The apostolic or 
der, First pure, then peaceable/ is not to be es 
teemed either obsolete or inappropriate. 

" Most obviously, dissensions and needless divi 
sions among Christians are to be deplored as de 
pleting, uneconomical and schismatic. From the 
first, our existence as a distinct organization was 
felt to be a painful necessity. Union, both in fact 
and form, among the disciples of one Lord/ is to- 
be encouraged and promoted. Yet it should not 
be forgotten that true Christian unity the unity 
of the spirit is accordant with, and tolerant of 
variety, and hence, in some sense, of dissimilarity. 
At the same time it should be remembered, that 
any real union between moral opposites is not pos 
sible; and if even possible, yet not desirable. 
Our motto shall be,- Union at the expense of right, 
never ; but for the sake of right, always and every 
where. 

" The loyalty of the AMEKICAN WESLEYAN shall 
be unconditional. Committed to the support of 
no political party, merely as such, it shall yet not 
be indifferent to < that part of ethics which con 
sists in the regulation and government of a nation 
or state for the promotion of its safety, peace and 
prosperity; comprehending the defense of its ex 
istence and rights against foreign control and con 
quest, the augmentation of its strength and re 
sources, and the protection of citizens in their 
rights, with the preservation and improvment of 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 129 

their morals. (See Webster s Definition of Politics.) 
It shall oppose as destructive of the interests ot 
the Nation, all corruption, whether of private mor 
als or in public life ; and inculcate, as a Christian 
duty, the exercise of the elective franchise for the 
elevation to positions of honor and trust l men 
who fear God and hate covetousness. It shall 
seek to fan the fires of intelligent patriotism 
strengthen the hands of the Government in its ef 
forts to suppress rebellion ; and especially a re 
bellion having fur its object the establishment of a 
government, the chief corner stone of which, is 
the iniquitous system of human chattelization. It 
shall denounce, as taritors to God and enemies of 
mankind, all, of every latitude, who either openly 
or covertly sympathize with the present rebellion. 
And it shall seek to nerve the heart and arm of 
the living, and speak words of comfort to the 
dying patriot soldier; and bestow upon his friends 
at home, its warmest and most Christian sympa 
thies. Most happily, in all these respects, the 
Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America, is a 
unit. Thank God, there is not a traitor in the 
entire body. 

" The principles governing in the composition of 
the AMERICAN WESLEYAN, shall be such as most 
fully accord with the foregoing objects. 

" Its spirit and policy shall be liberal. Both 
sides of all questions proper to be considered 
shall be heard at reasonable length. This being 
6* 



130 THE LIFE OF 

the case, the Editor is not to be held responsible 
for any sentiment which he does not pertonally en 
dorse. Christian courtesy must characterize style 
and matter. Investigation, rather than disputation, 
shall be encouraged. General interests, and not 
individual wishes, are to be consulted in determin 
ing what shall be admitted and what excluded. 
The rule shall be to disallow the discussion of all 
merely local and personal differences. The door 
may not readily open for the admission of careless 
writers. Records of grace victorious, whether as 
seen in marked conversions, beautiful lives, or 
triumphant deaths, are insured a hearty welcome. 
" It is with great diffidence and self-distrust 
that the new Editor assumes the duties and re 
sponsibilities to which he has been called, and es 
pecially so, in view of the corps of able editors 
preceding; Scott, Lee, Matlack, andPrindle. But 
when he remembers that the inexperience in the 
chair is fully atoned by the large experience of our 
excellent Agent. Bro. Prindle ; that, adopting mili 
tary phraseology, he is to be supported by such 
staff officers as Dr. Lee, W. W. Crane, W.H.Brew- 
ster, L. C. Matlack, W. W. Lyle, and H. B- 
Knight, as Corresponding Editors, together with 
many competent field officers in the form of con 
tributors ; and that his readers are too intelligent 
and liberal minded to either require or expect per 
fection in any human production, his heart is more 
than doubly assured. For mere frigid critics, he has 
neither fear nor fellowship, but only indifference. He 



fcEV. ADAM CROOKS. 131 

fcan promise only to do Ms best to send to its readers 
the AMERICAN WESLEY AN laden with < food con 
venient to make them intelligent, hopeful, happy, 
zealous, efficient, and mature Christians. Then, 
trusting not to his own, but to Divine wisdom, and 
asking and expecting the sympathies, counsels, and 
above all, prayers of his readers, the new Editor 
assumes the duties and responsibilities of his 
office." 

The work was new, and his duties arduous from 
the first; for in connection with his editorial 
work, he had all the proofs of the two papers to 
read and correct. Very soon calls to attend Quar 
terly Meetings were received, to which he respond 
ed. He and Dr. Prindle together supplied the 
pulpit at Seneca Falls, for a number of months. 

His heart was alive to the condition of our 
Nation, For years, dangers had threatened on 
every hand; traitors were at home and abroad, 
Only confidence in the wisdom and power of that 
God who never fails, kept up his courage .From an 
editorial, published July 20, 1864, we give a few 
leading heads : 

"THE DEMAND OF THE TIMES." 

" 1. A primary demand of the times is, that the 
masses be made to comprehend the events tran 
spiring, <to know in this our day, the things 
which make for our peace. In times of such 
weighty significance, this is often important even 
in a Monarchical Government ; in a Eepublic, it is 
absolutely indispensable. Ours is a government 



132 THE LIFE OP 

of the people, and the hands of the people must be 
made skillful to guide the Ship of State amid rocks? 
and darkness and tempest. They should be made 
intelligent not only in history, and the philosophy 
of history, but in the rich and deep philosophy of 
the eventful present. They should be made intelli 
gent as to the wicked moral forces which have 
caused this rebellion, the hellish purposes of its 
guilty leaders ; and its inevitable results if success 
ful, upon their position, pecuniary and social, and 
even liberties for generations to come. And that 
the people may be thus instructed, the very air 
should be rendered vocal with truth uttered from 
street, and cottage, and counter, and platform, and 
pulpit, and press. This is no time for either indif 
ference, silence, or inaction. 

" 2. The popular conscience needs to be enlight 
ened. The nation needs to be taught the inviola 
bility of the Divine law that though hand joined 
with hand, the wicked shall not go unpunished f 
and that no nation can long survive persistent de 
parture from the eternal principles of rectitude. 
Upon this subject -we must have < precept upon 
pi ecept, precept upon precept ; line upon line, line 
upon line," until this truth permeates the national 
heart, and becomes a sovereign sentiment. 

" 3. The times imperatively demand that posi 
tions of public trust be filled with men of incor- 
nij: ible patriotism, broad, enlightened and stales- 
iwi-like views, and of inflexible integrity; while 
all unprincipled demagogues and political gam- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 133 

biers, of whom it may well be said, as of Leo X., 
that they l get into office like a fox, rule like a lion, 
and die like a dog/ should have their part in the 
place kept for the burial of strangers. They 
should be esteemed the Nation s worst enemies, 
and treated accordingly. 

" 4. An all-ruling and undying patriotism, a 
patriotism which endweih all things, is another re 
quisite of the times. The rebellion with which the 
Nation is grappling in life struggles is of unprece 
dented proportions. Hundreds of thousands of 
lives ; husbands, fathers, sons, brothers and hun 
dreds of millions in money have already been given, 
and the end is not yet. Hundreds of thousands more 
of husbands, fathers, sons, and brothers, and hun 
dreds of millions more of money may yet be re 
quired before we realize the right solution of the 
grave problem If the Nation is to live ; if Free 
dom is to die ! Heaven grant that our integrity to 
the interests involved may abide the seven-fold 
heated furnace. 

" 5. The times demand a United North. " Di 
vide, and conquer was the motto which shaped 
the policy of ancient Rome. United, Carthage 
and Syracuse would have been invincible against 
Rome, but enemies, and divided, they fell victims 
to their common foe. For the last fifty years, the 
South has practiced this policy against the North* 
and in the interests of slavery. The political 
parties have unwittingly been our Carthage and 
Syracuse. 



134 THE LIFE OP 

" There are those in our midst, whose names 
need not be written, but who share the protection 
of our laws, enjoy the immunities and benefits of 
our liberal institutions, and subsist upon the 
bounties of our plentiful Country, who nevertheless, 
like ingrates, prove themselves enemies in this, the 
hour of our Country s peril. To us, these are far 
from being an element of strength, but like others, 
they can expect to stand only upon their good 
behavior. For the Nation s sake, for the sake of 
the blood and treasure already expended; for the 
sake of coming generations, and for the sake of 
the dearest interests of humanity, { as far as lieth in 
us, let there be a United North. Let not the pro 
phetic words of our Washington be unheeded, that 
United, we stand, divided, we fall. 1 

" 6. Another demand of the times is continued lib 
erality. We say continued* for in the past, in the 
form of the Sanitary and Christian Commissions, 
and the numerous other concerted and individual 
schemes for the protection and comfort of our 
brave soldiers, say nothing of what has been done 
for their families at home, there has been a munifi 
cence of liberality displayed, for which the history 
of the world has no parallel. This should not be 
allowed to suffer any abatement. 

" 7. The times demand an unfaltering faith in 
God, and in the final triumph of the right. l This 
is the victory that overcometh, even your faith, 
In the absence of faith there can bejieither cour 
age, nor purpose, nor endurance nor efficiency. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 135 

The times require that in all these respects we 
show ourselves men. 

"8. Our manifold sins of profanity, pride, self- 
adulation, worldliness and oppression, together 
with the fearful retributions of Heaven, call loudly 
for deep humiliation and true penitence, including 
a purpose and determination to i break every yoke 
and let the oppressed go free. 

" 9. Last, but not least, the demands of the 
times must fail of being met, without a stronger 
faith, more fervent piety, more all-consuming zeal, 
and a deeper baptism of the Holy Spirit." 

In an editorial, written after our national skies 
were brightening, giving our position as a 
nation a few years before, and our then present 
prospects, he says : 



" Through our highest courts we had declared 
that a l man of color has no right which a white 
man is bound to respect; and in violation of 
plighted faith, we had opened the virgin soil of 
Kansas to the ingress of slavery, and persistently 
employed the powers of the Government for the 
infliction of slavery with all its untold horrors 
upon an unwilling people. And with but few noble 
exceptions, the religious bodies of the land were 
acquiescent. Thus both Church and State were 
criminally in the interests of slavery. Here is 
where we were when the present war commenced. 
But we thank God, a brighter record awaits us. 



136 THE LIFE OF 

" Maryland has enrolled herself among the Free 
States ; Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana and Alabama 
are moving in the same direction. The Metho 
dist E. Church has closed its communion against all 
slave-holders ; other Churches are uttering words 
of denunciation against the system, merited and 
distinct ; and as a crowning act, by a large ma 
jority of both Houses of Congress, the infamous 
Fugitive Bills of 1193 and 1850 are wiped from 
the statute books of the Nation, and the repealing 
act approved and signed by the President." Three 
years ago, in the eyes of the Nation, slavery was 
legitimate, petted and defended ; now it is well 
nigh esteemed an outlaw and rebel against God, 
the Nation, and the interests of humanity. 

"More than twenty years ago, Orange Scott, 
and other true prophets of the Lord, clearly saw 
and foretold, that < the days of American Slavery 
were numbered ; that its death-warrant was sealed 
in Heaven. We had hoped, however, to bring 
about the work of repentance to the extent that 
its execution would not subject the Nation to pun 
ishment, nor peril its existence. But in this re 
spect our hopes were not to be realized. We were 
doomed to disappointment, sad and grievous. 
God be praised that we are learning obedience by 
the things we suffer. Fruitless regrets aside, God 
does not needlessly afflict the children of men- 
1 True and righteous are his judgments. May we, 
as a nation, speedily show mercy to all the afflicted, 
that mercy may be shown us. Amen !" 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 137 

Later he said : 

" The dark clouds are fast lifting from our 
Country s horizon. Victory seems to crowd upon 
the heels of victory. Let grateful thanksgiving 
continuously go up to God for benefits bestowed, 
together with fervent prayers for the speedy be 
stowal of a righteous and perpetual peace." 

Still later he wrote, as follows : 



" Watchman, what of the night ? Is there hope 
for the Nation ? After all that has been expended 
in blood and treasure must we still perish ? We 
have survived the conflict of arms ; shall we be 
adequate to the perils of peace ? These are 
questions of appalling significance. Our enemies 
in Europe answer, No ! Is the wish parent to the 
prediction ? We believe that the lap of the future 
is freighted with good for our Country. Reasons : 

" 1 The Nation is forever redeemed from the 
curse of slavery. The war, the Proclamation, and 
the Constitutional Amendment settle that question 
beyond all peradventure. Liberty is now and 
ever shall be in the ascendant. Thank God, in 
this Country she has secured a continental home. 
We shall never have another rebellion in the in 
terest of slavery. The body politic is forever re 
lieved of this great element of unrest. 

" 2. The Nation is likewise purged of the es 
sentially disintegrating element of the doctrine of 
State Sovereignty, in its perverted application. 

" 3. The aristocrats, anti-republicans and fac- 



138 THE LIFE OF 

tionists of the South, who have ruled the Country 
for the last half-century, are forever dethroned. 

" 4. In this Country patriotism is no longer to 
be an empty name ; but is to be a living sentiment 
forever entempled in the Nation s heart. 

" 5. In our own eyes, in the eyes of the world, 
and in reality, we are stronger to-day than ever 
before. Stronger, because relieved of those inter 
nal elements of revolt, slavery, perverted state 
sovereignty, and their fruits and necessary ad 
juncts; pride, contempt for honest tr-il, impatience 
of restraint and the spirit of domination. 

" 6. It is to be hoped that politicians have learned 
a lesson of prudence and caution. Hereafter, let 
political leaders adhere to the truth, address rea 
son, and not appeal to blind passion. 

" 7. Not only has the Nation been purged, poli 
ticians taught wisdom, but we rejoice to believe 
that our religion and our Churches have been im 
proved. Thank God, that at last the distinct ut 
terances of the Pulpit, the religious Press, Doctors 
of Divinity, and ecclesiastical assemblies, are no 
longer in the interest of the wealthy and proud 
oppressor, but unqualifiedly in favor of the poor 
and oppressed. This single truth lights the whole 
national heavens with a glow of promised good ! 
Let heaven and earth rejoice at once over a disen 
thralled Nation and Church, 

"Finally, There is hope for our Counrty, because, 
as our national currency attests, In God we trust. 
He has not put us in the furnace for destruction, 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 139 

but for purification. A brighter era is just before 
us ! This glorious truth murmurs in every brook 
and streamlet, whispers in every breeze, and makes 
glad music in the interior of every soul. God has 
great thoughts and purposes of good for this Na 
tion. There is hope for our Country, for our chil 
dren in coming generations, and for liberty in all 
lands ! 

DENOMINATIONAL UNION MOVEMENT. 

Mr. Crooks had not been in the chair editorial 
many months, before the subject of our union with 
some other denomination began again to be agi 
tated and as the prospect of our Nation s final 
release from the " sum of all villainies" became 
more and more apparent, the matter was urged 
more and more earnestly. When freedom to the 
millions of slaves was proclaimed, the friends of 
the " union movement" said : " Slavery, the primal 
cause of our organization as a body of Churches, 
is dead, and there is nothing to be gained by our 
continued existence. We can now disband con 
sistently." They forgot that in destroying our 
little Zion, they were destroying the religious 
home of our people, the most of whom had never 
known any other. For this cause they had fought 
" many a battle sore," had " many a trial," " made 
many a sacrifice." and the little home, though hum 
ble, was very dear to their hearts. Many could 
not, in conscience, go to any other, and would be 



140 THE LIFE OF 

left homeless and uncared for during their journey 
to the better land. 

It was asserted, time and again, by those who 
ought to have known the truth, that " Our people, 
as a mass, are ready for the change." Under these 
circumstances, Mr. Crooks could do nothing but 
" let the people speak for themselves, and decide 
for themselves." 

The battle raged long and fiercely. Many 
seemed to forget that Jesus taught: "And unto him 
that smiteth thee on the one cheek, offer also the 
other." Some of us then learned the lesson If we 
hope to be forgiven we must forgive. 

He stood between the two fires, and tried, with 
constant, unceasing prayer to God for help, to hold 
the balances. If ever man soughttodeal justly in 
this matter, he did. God alone knows the trials 
of those days and months ; God alone knows the 
heavy blows which fell upon his devoted head, arid 
burdened heart. When I remember those days of 
conflict, I am filled with wonder ; how could he 
have borne all be did ? He could not, only God 
was with him. 

In looking over files of letters, I find copies of 
some of his replies to those who wrote him on the 
subject of the Union." I give a few extracts to 

show his spirit : 

JUNE 8, 1869. 

"Wholly aside from any conviction of right and wrong 
in the case, I cannot but regard it [the Union Move 
ment ] as unfortunate at this time. Reasons : 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 141 

"1. It is not spontaneous with our people. It origi 
nates with the few; hence, the many are not ready for it. 

" 2. It involves a question which has heretofore dis 
tracted us, and concerning which many of our people are 
strongly bound in conscience. 

"3. This being true, it puts the unity of our own 
people in imminent peril. Unless the greatest prudence is 
exercised, we are to be exploded, and with all the prudence 
possible, we are to be distracted and alienated. This at a 
time when we should be joyful over past achievements, and 
active in doing the work of the hour for the freed men. 

" 4. It puts Adrian College, now iu its infancy, in jeop 
ardy, when it needs all the help of all the people. W hen 
our attention should be eminently fixed upon it, we are oc 
cupied with this l Union matter. Thus our people are 
distracted, and in suspense, and indeed, being alienated, 
when they should be a unit, both in heart and effort. 
The Convention (Cleveland) must not ignore the voice of 
the people, and Adrian College must act so as not to lose 
the confidence of our people. 

u 5. Five years ago, when every prominent man among 
us favored the l Union, it could not be effected. These 
facts have their significance, and on these accounts I 
tremble for results. God help us all to act wisely." 

July 24, 1865. 

" I shall be as prudent as possible, but violate my con 
science, or be dishonest I will not. The Lord helping me." 

March 21, 1866. 

" God is witness, I have tried to be impartial. If I am 
supposed to be opposed to the publication of anything on 
either side calculated to throw light on the subject of duty 
as to this matter, I am the worst misunderstood man in 
the Connection. I have been pained ten-foldmore be 
cause of the profound silence of the authors of the Union 
Movement, on the subject in its moral aspect, than by all 
other considerations combined. No, I shall most gladly 



142 THE LIFE OF 

welcome truth from either side. My heart has been as a 
furnace, because of the aforesaid silence. I wish you would 
immediately send a statement of facts as to what was done 
respecting Adrian College. If anything decisive has been 
done, it loots badly. 1st, Because of profound silence. 
2d, It looks like an attempt to almost force Union mat 
ters, and 3d, To make the College practically sure to 
those who go into the < Union, and as a denominational 
enterprise lost to those who do not go in. It has a terrible 
bad countenance. If a full statement of the facts will 
satisfy our people, you do yourselves and them great wrong 
in withholding it. If it will not, then God help us. 

Another point : Our people are far from being ready 
for concerted action. Not a tew are opposed to the 
< Union 7 entirely ; others favor a union of all Methodists, 
and others of only non-Episcopal bodies. In a very few 
years lay delegation will be incorporated into the Metho 
dist Episcopal Church. This will make the existence of 
the new body either sickly or temporary. 

"In view of all these facts, is it wise to press the 
Union Movement to a speedy consummation ? I cannot 
so regard it. Rocky roads require slow and careful driv 
ing j rapid driving will be damaging, may be fatal to the 
vehicle. There are times when it is the dictate of the 
highest wisdom to make haste slowly. Delay may se 
cure concert; haste will surely be fatal." 

MAY 10, 1866. 

" You know my heart in relation to this great question j 
how I desire that God should guide you and me and all 
of us in the right way. . . As to our l fate being sealed 

tna t < we cannot live I do not believe a word of it. If 

we but do the work of a Church of Jesus Christ, we will 
be subject to the law of increase." 

MARCH 27, 1867. 

11 By some I may be judged as self-seeking. God for 
bid ! I do not seek ease, nor shun toil. Following the 
pillar of God s providence, I went and remained in North 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 143 

Carolina at the peril of my life, and now I am where God 
and the brethren have put me. I never sought position, 
and I shall antagonize nothing nor any one, but as duty 
may seem to impel. 

" I would not let myself think otherwise of thee, my 
brother. His will as known, to be our law, may He 
keep us ever in this spirit. With you, I do not know 
what I shall do, only that I shall seek to please God." 

Also, in another of the same date, but to an 
other person, he says : 

" In an emergency it is no time to seek new friends, 
bnt to depend upon old ones, true and tried. When those 
who have been sapping the foundation of confidence in 
our perpetuity, get through with that kind of work, if 
they ever do, then we may hope to succeed in enlarging 
our list. You say you want the WESLEYAN to live. 
Those with whom you are in correspondence, boast that 
1 the Way of Holiness has gone down, and the WESLEY 
AN soon will. 7 If I wanted a house to stand, be assured, 
I would not keep incessantly digging away its founda 
tion. 

tl Reverse our position and relations, and let me pursue 
the course you have and are pursuing, and as a man of 
sense, I ask you what you would think of me ? [Would 
you still think me acting the part of a brother?] 1 allude 
both to your conversation and correspondence " 

In October, 1866, Dr. Prindle resigned his po 
sition as Agent, at the meeting of the Book Com 
mittee. At the same meeting, Mr. Crooks was 
appointed Agent. His first editorial after his 
agency commenced, was 

" EARNEST WORDS TO WESLEYANS." 

" BELOVED BRETHREN AND SISTERS : Just at 
this point in our history there are evils to which 



144 THE LIFE OP 

we are greatly exposed and against which we 
should be strongly fortified. We will name some 
of them. 

" With us as a denomination, the last twenty 
months have been months of earnest, and in some 
instances, we are sorry to say, caustic controversy. 
As in the case of Paul and Barnabas, the conten 
tion became l sharp. There is danger of pro 
tracting these contentions to our own injury, as also 
of fostering feelings not compatible with Christian 
charity and fraternity. Having been thoroughly 
canvassed, may not these questions of controversy 
be profitably dismissed, at least from the field of 
disputation? We are confident that this is in 
tensely desired by a large majority of our people. 
And awarding integrity of motive to all, shall we 
not rise to an altitude of Christian charity and 
magnanimity which will keep our hearts united in 
unabated Christian fellowship and esteem? We 
are brethren. Wesleyans must not fall out by the 
way. In matters of such vast moment, blind pas 
sion may not innocently be consulted. Let us 
earnestly covet and devoutly pray for the l best 
gift that without which by the verdict of inspira 
tion, we are nothing. 

"We should give no place to needless discourage 
ments. We cannot free ourself from the conviction 
that undue emphasis has already been given to dis 
couragement. We have even heard it more than 
whispered, that our continued existence as a sepa 
rate organization is not possible, Duly sensible 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 145 

as we believe we are to all that tends to discourage, 
our faith in the possibility of a continued useful ex 
istence has never for one moment faltered. Viewed 
and judged from a merely human stand-point, our 
prospects are vastly better than were those of Isra 
el at the Red Sea, or the disciples after the Cruci 
fixion, or of Luther at Worms, or yet of the Wes- 
leys when they first entered upon their career of 
grand spiritual achievement and triumph. What, 
if for some years past we have been under the law 
of diminution : the same is true of larger, sister de 
nominations. These have been years of special 
trial to all Churches. Moreover, there is a dimi 
nution which contributes to strength and perpetuity. 
All new bodies are less or more the victims of a 
kind of floating capital, to be relieved of whicli is 
a real deliverance. Of this class of character, Wes- 
leyans have had their full share. If we will but 
faith f tdiy do the work of a Christian Church, multiply 
converts and build up believers in all the Christian 
graces, we will quickly pass from under the law of 
diminution and come under that of increase. Our con 
tinuance and growth under G-od, therefore, is with 
ourselves. If we deserve an existence our extinc 
tion is not possible. 

"As in former times, God has made us his van 
guard in his great battle for the temporal deliver 
ance of his oppressed poor, may ho not have in 
reserve for us a future of a still higher and more 
glorious significance; the calling of his people to 
7 



146 THE LIFE OF 

a larger spiritual liberty ? For years there has 
been imbedded in the Christian consciousness the 
conviction that the Churches are signally failing 
to fulfill the great mission of evangelizing the 
world. We have churches and pulpits, and preach 
ers, and learning and talents and sermons enough; 
but conversions are few, and in too many instances 
only partial. A higher and better state of things 
must be inaugurated, or otherwise the conversion 
of the world is not even the subject of reasonable 
hope. What is the great defect ? The ready an 
swer comes, Want of the spirit of power on the 
part of God s minister s and people. Other rea 
sons there are ; but the great foundational and all 
comprehensive reason is found here. Not by 
might nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the 
Lord. God will not share his glory with another. 
In the work of saving men too much must not be 
awarded to human, nor too little to Divine agency. 
Hence, in his great wisdom God chose the l foolish 
things of this world to confound the wise; and 
God hath chosen the weak things of the world to 
confound the things which are mighty ; and base 
things of the world, and things which are despised, 
hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, 
to bring to naught things that are. Hence, too, 
men of great power with God, are invariably men 
of much prayer. To us it was cause of exceeding- 
joy as we visited the Conferences at their recent 
sessions, to find that many of our ministers are 
coming to the apprehension of this great and vital 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 147 

truth. It was in harmony with this apprehension, 
that having resolved to continue its present eccle 
siastical relations, the Iowa Conference immediate 
ly adopted the following : Here and now, to the 
glory of God and for the salvation of souls, we 
consecrate ourselves renewedly to the work and 
service of Christ, trusting not in forms or usages, 
but in the Holy Ghost, for success. Also many 
of the members of the Michigan Conference re 
newed their ordination vows ; and the gracious 
influences of the Holy Spirit descended and rested 
richly upon them. Yet as it respects this subject, 
we only see men as trees walking. May the entire 
ministry renew their, covenant vows; and may 
Heaven bestow upon us and upon all the Churches, 
abundantly, the baptisim of zeal and of power ! 
And let all the people say, Amen !" 
Part of editorial, January, 1867. 

" UNION MOVEMENT CALLED CONFERENCE. 
"From the first we deprecated the Union 
Movement, so called ; fearing it could only work 
disaster. The sequel proves that these fears were 
well founded. But we supposed that in the ab 
sence of general harmony, the enterprise would be 
abandoned. In this we were sadly disappointed. 
Opposition soon began to develop. Both sides 
were allowed an impartial hearing. For many 
months the contest raged around our head, and we 
remained silent. It becoming apparent that op 
position was formidable, Conference after Confer- 



148 THE LIFE OF 

ence resolved, 1st. Not to compromise any of our 
positions on moral questions; and, 2d. Not to de 
stroy our own denominational unity. Hence, we 
were confident that the Cincinnati Convention 
would meet, consult, and pray over the general 
subject of Christian union, and part, leaving each 
denomination with integrity unimpaired ; just as 
brother Matlack afterwards said he advised. But 
as is well known, this was not the policy adopted 
by the Convention. Soon it became apparent that 
in the Convention there was disagreement on 
moral, and even patriotic questions. We believe 
that no single paper introduced by a Wesleyan on 
either of these subjects, passed in the Convention 
without encountering opposition. As must have 
been the case, Conference succeeding Conference 
which had hitherto favored the movement, now 
withdrew that favor. Some individuals still felt 
themselves bound in honor and in conscience to 
press the measure to consummation. As a con 
certed movement it is now abandoned. This move 
ment was for a union of all the non-Episcopal 
Methodist bodies in this Country. 

In this issue of our paper will be found a Call 
for a Conference of all Wesley ans in favor of 
uniting with the Methodist Episcopal Church. We 
give the Call insertion, not because we can go into 
such Conference, but for the reason that we regard 
religious denominations as voluntary associations, 
and for the further reasons, that however regretful 
we may be, yet we are willing that all those whose 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 149 

tastes or convictions of duty would lead to the 
Methodist Episcopal, or any other Church, should 
conform to those tastes or convictions. 

" What we would desire, is that those who go 
out from us do it quietly and peaceably. There is 
no beauty in, nor just occasion for distracting or 
mutilating. The Methodist Episcopal Church 
needs neither our ministers nor members. And on 
the other hand, we would have no one, minister 
or member, leave the Connection as the mere re 
sult of panic, Stand still, and see the salvation 
of the Lord. There is no necessity for haste. 
Do nothing now which may lay the foundation for 
future fruitless regrets. Let no Church, minister, 
or private member leave, merely because they hear 
that others in other localities, are going to do so. 
Such rumors may or may not be true. Let every 
one be fully persuaded in his own mind, and act 
out his highest convictions of right. And let no 
one fear to do right. A religious denomination 
fully devoted to the edification of its members in 
all the Christian graces, and in the salvation of 
sinners, may duplicate in three years. < Trust in 
the Lord, do good, so shalt thou dwell in the land, 
and verily thou shalt be fed. They that trust in 
the Lord shall be as Mount Zion, that cannot be 
moved. The Lord give us the victory of Faith. 

" In these days we are ever and anon reminded 
of the appalling report by the spies sent by Israel 
to spy out the land of Canaan. There were great, 
walled cities. There were giants in the land. 



150 THE LIFE OF 

They said l we were in our own sight as grass 
hoppers, and so we were like grasshoppers in 
their sight ; we had better return to Egypt. Also 
are we reminded of the inockings of Sanballat and 
Tobiah < What do these feeble Jews ? will they 
fortify themselves ? will they sacrifice ? will they 
make an end in a day ? will they revive the stones 
out of the heaps of rubbish which are burned ? 
That which they build, if a fox go up, he shall 
even break down their stone wall. The sequel of 
both of these cases is well known to the Biblical 
student. But we confess that we are growing 
weary of hearing our own funeral sermon repeated 
so often. The good folks will please desist, and 
neither administer upon our estate, nor any part of 
it ; nor yet observe our funeral rites until our de 
mise is officially announced. 

" Men and women of God, the world is before 
us. Souls are perishing all around us. In many 
places Zion is a waste. Life is but brief. Time 
is swiftly passing. What we do to rescue the 
perishing, or edify the Church, which is the body 
of Christ, must be done quickly. Then l rich in 
faith, strong in purpose, and led by the great Cap 
tain of our Salvation, 

1 Indissolubly joined, 
To battle all proceed : 
But arrn yourselves with all the mind 
That was in Christ, your Head. " 

" And if, in the providence of God, our forces 
are in the future to be united with other cohorts, 



fcEV. ADAM CROOKS, 151 

we should hold ourselves in cheerful readiness for 
such event. But Providence should never be an 
ticipated ; only patiently awaited." 

THE RALLY AND RESTORATION OF CONFI 
DENCE. 

The people rallied bravely. Expressions of 
confidence were given. Every man who remained 
seemed to feel he had something to do. His 
labors were very arduous, having all the editorial 
and publishing interests to care for, and at the 
same time, be prepared with weapons furnished by 
faithful brethren, and his own, to meet all the 
attacks made by those who had said we must dis 
band ,* and of course we would have to do so, if 
they, by any possibility, could bring it to pass. 
In connection with all the rest of his labors, he 
served the Church in Syracuse as pastor, one year, 
and at the same time, attended regularly a tem 
perance meeting, held on Sabbath afternoon, in 
one of the Halls of the city. This last organization 
being in its infancy, he was anxious that it should 
be a success. He often addressed it, and served 
it one term as President. He continued to meet 
with it until his frequent absences from the city 
made it impossible to do so longer. 

He seldom rested one Sabbath, for his calls to 
the Churches became more numerous than he 
could respond to. Far and near he went to at 
tend Quarterly-meetings, and encourage 



152 THE LIFE OF 

Churches to rally to the work. Of course, 
made extra work requiring very much night, or 
early morning work. He would not write even 
ings, because so weary. After a few hours sleep, 
he would awake refreshed, and could accomplish 
much more in a short time. Many mornings he 
has arisen at one o clock to write, or prepare 
" copy." Indeed, nearly all his editorials during 
these years of conflict, were written by lamp-light,, 
in early morning. The matter for the paper 
must be furnished in time the affairs of the Office 
must be attended to, supplies must be kept on 
hand. Thus the dollars must be made to go as 
far as possible. Retrenchments in every way must 
be made. All his energies, all his time and talents 
were given to the cause. He could talk of noth 
ing, think of nothing beside, and the burden of his 
prayers was for direction and help in the work 
before him. Memory brings to mind seasons of 
earnest pleadings for wisdom, for a constant guid 
ance, for he did not want to go forward except he 
heard the command " Go forward/ from his 
leader, God. 

During one of the sessions of the Allegheny 
Conference, the way seemed blocked. The pow 
ers of darkness for a time appeared to prevail, 
He felt that he could not go forward unless he 
had some token, that it was Lord s will. He 
spent the entire night in prayer. Alone, nearly 
all the time with God, like one of old, he felt he 
could not let him go except he bless. His prayer 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 153 

Was, " Oh Lord shout me the path of duty. Give me 
the light to walk in. If it is thy will that we, as a 
denomination, should disband, make it plain to me ; 
if not, open the way. 1 cannot give it up I must 
know thy will. I cannot I will not go forward 
unless thou dost direct the way." All night was 
spent on his knees pleading. Just as daylight 
appears to drive away nature s darkness, so the 
11 light of God" shone around him, making duty 
plain. Almost an audible voice said " Go for 
ward ; I will never leave thee nor forsake thee." 
From that time, no matter what the opposition, or 
how great the obstacles, he felt the calm assur 
ance that God was with us, and " who can be 
against us." He walked constantly in " that light," 
feeling that " one with God, is a majority." He 
would often hear of unkind letters having been 
written, unkind personal remarks having been 
made, but I never knew him to manifest a spirit 
of retaliation. He almost always used to say " I 
am so sorry for them, they are not happy, or they 
would not say such things." Many times he used 
this language in his prayers, " Lord, bless our 
enemies, if we have any. Touch their hearts, 
change their language and save their souls." 

One who left the Wesleyans during this move 
ment, said to him, " Now, brother Crooks, you are 
ambitious, and you can take a high position in 
other Churches, and why do you remain with those 
who are left. They are poor, illiterate and huin- 
7* 



THELTFEOF 

ble, and you cannot expect eminence if you i emaiii 
with them." His answer was," I am ambitious 
only to do God s will. I want to fill the place he 
has for me ; to do the work he gives me to do. 
God will take care of me and my reputation." 

When our people took courage, and began to 
build churches, he was sent for, far and near to 
dedicate them. I think it was in the Winter of 
1867, he went to Iowa. It was extremely cold, 
He had to work early and late, to be able to leave 
the Office. He was gone six days, of which he 
rode five days and nights. He took his luncheon 
along to save expenses, as they were not able to 
do more than barely defray his expenses. In 
1873 he went to the same State, was gone seven 
days, and rode five days and nights. He never 
spared himself if he thought the cause of God 
needed his labors. If expostulated with, he would 
say, " It is labor here and rest hereafter." There 
was so much to be done so much that would 
have to go undone, if he did not step forward and 
do it, that he could not rest. It is easy to stand 
and look on, and enjoin care of self, but it is hard 
for an earnest worker to see the cause of Christ 
suffer for the want of efficient laborers, or for the 
want of means to pay others for doing the work. 
Many, very many times he stepped forward to lift 
the burdens for others, when he ought to have been 
relieved. During his ten years and over, of hard 
labor at the Wesleyan Office, and his attention to 
the interests of the Connection, he never had one 



"REV. ADAM CROOKS. 155 

week^s rest ; not one week in which he could lay 
his cares aside and seek repose. When the pastors 
of the various Churches of this city would be tak 
ing their Summer vacations among green fields and 
pleasant surroundings, it was a heavy cross for me 
to see my precious one toiling on, regardless of 
heat or dust weariness of body or mind every 
day using all his strength. Sometimes it seemed to 
me that all the change for him was added care, or 
a little more work. 

At the General Conference held in Cleveland^ 
Ohio, in the fall of 1867, he was re-appointed 
Editor and Agent. For more than five years 
he had the entire charge of the Connectional inter 
ests. He was editor of two papers ; manager of 
finances, both of Publishing Association and Mis* 
sionary Society. He also carried on an extensive 
correspondence with all parts of the work. He 
was ready to entertain all who came, and had a 
cheerful, hopeful word for every one. During 
these years he often had ague and fever,- also, was 
subject to attacks of billious colic, when, for a few 
hours, he was a terrible sufferer. He did not take 
much medicine ; for rest of body and of mind was 
what he most needed. He could not believe that 
his constitution was being undermined ; that the 
seeds of disease were being sown, which would 
destroy his strong, healthy body. His heart and 
hands were so full of "labors more abundant/ 
that he did not take time to realize his danger. 



15& THE LIFE OF 

When sick, his greatest anxiety was to get well 
for fear the work would suffer. 

In the spring of 1868 the first National Anti- 
Secret Convention met in Pittsburg, Pa. He wa& 
a delegate, and in 1869, a State Convention of the 
same kind was held in Syracuse, over which he 
presided. I give the resolutions passed by the 
State Convention held in Rochester a few days 
after his death; also a few of his reasons why 
Christians should oppose those societies. 

PEEAMBLE AND KESOLUTIONS. 

11 WHEREAS : In the midst of our rejoicings in prosperi 
ty, the pall of an inexpressible sadness has been recently 
spread over us, in the event of the death of Rev. Adam 
Crooks, one of the most able and efficiert members of our 
State Association, And, 

"WHEREAS: In early life Brother Crooks identified 
himself with the cause of reform, and with heart, and 
pen, and voice, has ever stood in the forefront of every 
great moral conflict, battling for God and the right ; and 
he attended the first National Convention Opposed to Se 
cret Societies, held at Pittsburgh, Pa., and was elected 
one of the officers of the National Association then and 
there organized, And, 

" WHEREAS: From his early association with this 
work of reform, and the great abilities and devout piety 
he brought to the work, we had learned to look to him 
as one of our most honored and trusted leaders, And, 

" WHEREAS : A God of infinite wisdom and unbound 
ed goodness has called our dear brother from the conflicts 
of earth to the rest of heaven, your Committee have ap 
pended the following resolutions if it please the Conven 
tion for their adoption : 

" ResolvedI. That in the death of Rev. Adam Crooks, 



REV, ADAM CROOKS. 157 

from his great force of personal character, his superior 
abilities, the efficiency of his pen, we feel deeply, as a Con 
vention, oar great loss. 

11 Resolved 2. That inspired by the example of Brother 
Crooks, and others who have fallen at their posts, we will 
close ranks, lock shields, and press in the name of God to 
victory. 

"Resolved 3* That our warmest sympathies are tendered 
to the widow of Brother Crooks, and all afflicted in the 
death of members of this association during the year last 
past ; and we do most earnestly pray that Divine grace 
may prove their sufficient support and consolation. 
All of which is most respectfully submitted. 

N. WARDNER, CWn Com. 

D. KIRKFATRICK, Pres. 

EDWIN BARNETSON, Sedy." 

EXTRACT FROM SUPPLEMENT TO " AN INQUI 
RY INTO FREEMASONRY AND ODDFEL- 
LOWSHIP." 

"The Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America 
does antagonize those fraternities. In all kind 
ness, yet with much plainness, the following pages 
set forth some of the prominent reasons for such 
attitude. We write with the single object of 
serving the interests of Christ s kingdom. Eead 
and ponder with the candor of Christian honesty. 

" I. In its pretensions to great antiquity as also 
in the history of its degrees, Masonry evidences a 
criminal disregard for truth. Instance a few ex 
amples ; and only a few. As every person intel 
ligent upon the subject knows, Masonry professes 
to date back to the days of Adam and Enoch, and 
narrates how by the agency of the latter its 



158 THE LIFE OF 

precious jewels were preserved through the 
flood. That it has its A. L. Year of Light, dat 
ing back 5874 years, That it teaches that Solo 
mon and cotemporaries, Hiram Abiff, the Widow s 
son, and Hiram, King of Tyre, were three Grand 
Master Masons, That Hiram Abiff was cruelly 
murdered by three Felloe Crafts, Jubela, Jubelo, 
Jubelum, for firmly refusing to give them the Mas 
ter s word, and for which they respectively suffered 
the dreadful penalties of the first three degrees of 
Masonry, That anciently the Word of God was 
preserved from being lost through Masonry, -That 
the omission of the name of Jesus in the Blue 
Lodge prayers is owing to the fact that Masonry is 
more ancient than Christianity, That the two 
Saints, John the Baptist and John the Evangelist 
were patrons ot Masonry,- and very much more of 
like character. 

" Speaking in unvarnished terminology, the Editor 
of the American Freemason, a Monthly, published in 
the interest of the Fraternity, said of the story of 
the murder of Hiram Abiff, parroted as history in 
the lodges every week, that its every sentence is 
a lie. And as every scholar knows, Jubela, Jube* 
lo, Jubelum, who according to Masonic lore murder 
ed Hiram Abiff, are not Tyrean but Latin names, 
and that the Latin language did not have existence 
till some three hundred years after Solomon and 
the two Hirams ; and that therefore the story is not 
only false, but ridiculous. But in the presence of 
such boastful pretensions to antiquity, what are we 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 159 

to think of the following confessions to the recent 
nativity of Masonry ? Steinbrenner, an able Ma 
sonic historian, admits that Speculative Freema 
sonry dates no further back than 1717 less than 
160 years. Now what becomes of the stories 
about Enoch, and Solomon, and Hiram Abiff, and 
Jubela, Jubelo, Jubelum, and the preserving the 
Word of God from being lost, and of the omission 
of the name of Jesus because of the superior an 
tiquity of Masonry, and of the two Saints John, and 
of its < Year of Light? But Dr, Dalco, compiler 
of the book of Constitutions for the State of South 
Carolina, meets these pretentious claims with a 
direct contradiction. He says, Neither Adam, 
nor Noah, nor Nimrod, nor Moses, nor Joshua, nor 
David, nor Solomon, nor Hiram, nor St. John the 
Baptist, nor St. John the Evangelist, were Free 
masons. Hypothesis in history is absurd. There 
is no record, sacred or profane, to induce us to be 
lieve that those holy men were Freemasons j and 
our traditions do not go back to those days. 
To assert that they were Freemasons may make the vul . 
gar stare, but will rather excite the contempt than the 
admiration of the wise. 1 

" II. Profanity is specifically forbidden in the 
Word of God. < Thou shalt not take tjie name of 
the Lord thy God in vain ; for the Lord will not 
hold him guiltless who taketh his name in vain. 
Ex. xx : 7. Jesus is very specific and minute. 
But I say unto you, Swear not at all, neither by 
heaven, for it is God s throne ; nor by the earth, 



160 THE LIFE OP 

for it is his footstool j neither by Jerusalem, for it 
is the city of the Great King; neither shalt thou 
swear by thy head ; because thou canst not make 
one hair white or black. But let your communica 
tion be Yea, yea ; Nay, nay ; for whatsoever is 
more than these, cometh of evil. Matt, v : 34, 35, 
36. And St. James emphasizes this prohibition in 
the words following : l But above all things, my 
brethren, swear not; neither by heaven; neither 
by the earth; neither by any other oath." Jas. v: 
12. The duty of the Church to prohibit profanity 
no person of common intelligence can doubt. But 
Freemasonry is built upon swearing. Every dis 
tinct obligation in every degree is taken by swear 
ing. In the first seven degrees there are over 
half a hundred distinct oaths. And this terrible 
swearing is going on throughout the Country in all 
the Lodges, every week ! Every person must know, 
upon a moment s j-eflection, what must be the in 
fluence of such familiar use of the name of Deity. 
With so much swearing in the Lodges, no marvel 
that the earth almost groans beneath abounding 
profanity. Hence, in -so-far as it is the duty of 
the Church to prohibit profanity, it is her duty to 
protest and oppose Freemasonry ; seeing that every 
stone in this superstructure, from foundation to 
cap-stone, is laid in profanity swearing authorized 
by no law, either human or divine. 

"III. The obligations of Freemasonry are taken 
in ignorance, and under circumstances which pre 
clude the possibility of the due consideration of 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 161 

their character. Still further: The higher degrees 
rest upon and are supported by the lower ; and the 
members of the lower degrees are assumed to be 
in utter ignorance of the obligations of the higher. 
Thus, by the very organic structure of the institu 
tion, the members of the lower degrees are sup 
porting under oath and death-penalty, they know not 
what. That the Church cannot innocently tolerate 
such reckless disregard of the sacred obligations of 
morality and the valued interests of mankind, is 
self-manifest. 

" IV. But not only are the obligations of Free 
masonry assumed and supported in ignorance, but 
some of these obligations are essentially criminal. 
We instance the obligation to keep the secret of a 
brother Master Mason, communicated as such, as 
inviolable as in his own breast, murder and treason 
only excepted ; and in the Royal Arch degree, 
murder and treason not excepted/ that to flee 
to the relief of a brother Master Mason giving the 
sign of distress, at the risk of life ; and this wholly 
irrespective of what may be the occasion of his 
distress and that to espouse the cause of a com 
panion Royal Arch Mason engaged in any difficul 
ty, so far as may be necessary to rescue him there 
from, whether he be right or wrong. [See Morgan s 
Expose of Freemasonry, pp. 74, 75 ; Light on Ma 
sonry, pp. 74, 75; Finney s Letters, pp. 90, 91. 
Also xiii Wendell, pp. 9 26.] Palpably, such 
obligations are alike incompatible with the duties 
of the citizen and the Christian, obstructive of the 



162 THE LIFE OP 

just administration of civil and ecclesiastical law ; 
and therefore essentially subversive of both Church 
and State. Civil Government is as really ordained 
of God as is the marriage relation; and hence, it 
is as much the duty of the Church to maintain the 
former as the latter. Therefore, by all that binds 
the Church to maintain its own purity and life, as 
also the integrity of the State, it is bound to an 
tagonize Freemasonry, 

" V. Everywhere the Scriptures teach to hold in 
sacred regard, human life. But everywhere Masonry 
pawns the lives of its votaries. We enumerate 
some of its horrid penalties. The throat cut 
across the tongue torn out by the roots the left 
breast torn open and the heart and vitals taken 
thence the body severed in the midst and the 
bowels burned to ashes tongue split from tip to 
root the skull smote off, &c., &c. No reflecting 
inind can fail to see how essentially anti-Christian 
and barbarous are such penalties ; nor yet how 
barbarizing the influence of making the mind fa 
miliar with such monstrous mutilations. What 
kind of imprecations are these for civilized men; 
saying nothing of Christians and Christian minis 
ters ? Thus while Christianity enjoins lo ve, bless 
ing, and forgiveness of enemies, Freemasonry 
binds to VENGEANCE and MURDER ! 

" VI. But this thought gathers additional empha 
sis from the well-authenticated facts of history that 
Secret Societies have been the foster-nests of Jacob 
inism, Communism, Political Revolution and every 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 163 

form of Skepticism. Read Barruel s four volumes, 
and Robinson s Evidences of Conspiracy against 
both Civil Government and the Christian Religion. 
.Hence, naturally enough, Voltaire, D Alambert, Did 
erot, Condorcet, Robespierre and fellow conspira 
tors, called into requisition secrecy, for the effectu 
ation of their diabolical purposes. Even Commun 
ism is but Freemasonry gone to seed. For, from 
the Masonic position of a belief in some God, but 
utter indifference as to which, there is but a single step 
to the position of no God. Hence, to an extent 
which the masses but little suspect, Freemasonry 
and free thinking (Skepticism) are confederates. 
And this connection is both philosophic and historic. 
Hence, too, Communists are Atheists of the coars 
est type. Only think ! in his great work on Mod 
ern Doubt and Christian Belief, page 30, Christ- 
lieb makes note of a Secret Society in a Prussian 
gymnasium, consisting of boys between thirteen 
and fifteen years of age, the very first paragraph 
of its rules commencing with l Any one believing 
in a God is thereby excluded from this society. 
Thus, boys in their first teens are committed to 
the dogma, fatal as it is senseless, of no God ! 
But none can doubt that this society is modeled 
after one whose initiates are boys of larger 
growth. Hence, as the divinely appointed con 
servator of all interests sacred to either God or 
humanity, it is the high duty of the Christian 
Church to antagonize such fraternities . 
" VII. Again : As Secret Societies are organized 



THE LIFE OF 

favoritism, which ever and anon pushes justice 
from her throne ; puts one up, and another down 
not because of personal merit, but the senseless, 
figments of grips, signs and pass-words; thus un-. 
settling the eternal sub-basis of the whole social 
fabric community, Church and State; and, as 
the God-appointed work of the Church is to es 
tablish judgment in the earth, in the very nature 
of the case, her divine mission cannot be accom 
plished without the overthrow of these societies. 
This single fact makes her duty plain. 

" VIII. The Bible teaches everywhere the insep- 
arableness of purity and acceptable worship. If we 
regard iniquity in our heart, the Lord will not 
hear us, Holiness becometh thine house, Lord, 
forever. < Worship the Lord in the beauty of 
holiness. <He that turneth away his ear from 
hearing the law, even his prayer shall be abomi 
nation. But aside from its caricature of the Bi 
ble narrative of Moses and the burning bush, where 
puny man is heard saying, < I am that I am, as in 
the Royal Arch degree; aside from their mixing 
repeated falsehood with the exclamation i Holi 
ness unto the Lord ! as in the pretended finding 
of the Ark of the Lord containing the Law, the 
manna and the rod that budded ; from the admix 
ture of prayer and unmanly mummery ; and aside 
from the mimic performances of the visions of the 
Revel ator, as in Rev. v, vi, and vii : in which four 
old men with inflated bladders, represent the four 
angels of God, having in command the four winds 



REV. ADAM CROOKS, 165 

of heaven, and worthy Masons in white robes, 
coming up to the throne, having washed their 
robes in their own blood ! Aside from all these 
performances, revolting to every sentiment of rev 
erence, these secret orders divorce, in the sanctu 
ary of the soul, the divinely united ideas of purity 
and worship, by frequently appointing lips notori 
ously profane to parrot prayers into the ears of 
Jehovah; thus perverting the heart and mind in 
their deepest fountains obliterating all just con 
ceptions of acceptable worship. This single fact 
might well cause holy angels to weep, and suffi 
ciently defines the duty of the Christian Church. 

" IX. By all its multitudinous oaths, frightful 
death-penalties, and tormenting dread of the vari 
ous vengeance of the Craft, Freemasonry seeks to 
bind the soul for life, in the holy sanctuary of its 
convictions of right. It may be filled and thrilled 
with horror in view of its obligations and associa 
tions, and yet find itself fastened to this body of 
death by cords of more than steel. This lament 
able truth addresses itself not only to the con 
science of every Christian, but also to the heart of 
every true American. The true Church every 
where cries out Loose the human conscience, 
and let it go free. 

" X. While seeming to reverence the Bible, as 
containing the revealed will of God, Freemasonry 
in reality degrades it to a level with the 
Veda, the Shaster, the Koran, the Zen Davesta, 
and the sacred books of all nations. In this re- 



166 THE LIFE OF 

gard, no distinction is made between the true and 
the false, the clean and the unclean. With this in 
stitution, all are of like authority ; or rather want 
of authority, as having the Divine sanction. Proof: 
Chase s Digest of Masonic Lav^ page 207: ( In 
fact, Blue Lodge Masonry has nothing whatever to 
do with the Bible. Of course he means, as of di 
vine authority. In Masonic Jurisprudence, Mackey 
lajs it down as a fundamental Landmark in Masonry, 
that a i Book of the Law shall constitute an indis 
pensable part of the furniture of every Lodge. 
That is, i that volume which, by the religion of the 
country is believed to contain the revealed will of 
the Grand Architect of the universe. Pages 33, 
34. Mark believed < by the religion of the 
country not by the Masons. To tamely acquiesce 
in this degradation of God s Holy Word to the 
level of the Hindoo Sbaster, the Zen Davesta of 
the worshipers of fire, and the oracles of all the 
false religions would outrage even manly honor, to 
say nothing of Christian consistency. 

" XI. The religion of Freemasonry is a rival to 
Christ s religion. That it intrudes upon the do 
main of Religion is manifest from its creed, altar, 
prayer, priesthood, &c. Chalmers I. Paton, an 
English Masonic writer says : It needs little 
proof to show that Freemasonry is essentially and 
thoroughly of a religious nature. i Religion is 
inwrought into the whole system of Masonic cere 
monies. Again: It everywhere exhibits the 
same religious nature. [See his work on its 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 167 

{ Symbolism, Religious Nature and Law of Per 
fection/ page 447, and first paragraph in Preface.] 
Rev. Geo. Oliver, Lieutenant Grand Commander 
of the Supreme Grand Council of the Thirty-third 
Degree for England and Wales, says < Freema 
sonry was revealed by God himself to the first 
man. l Masonry, in the first ages of the world, 
was therefore a pure religion. The Order of 
the Royal Arch is founded exclusively on religion. 
Star in the East, pages 2 and 8. Now, if a reli 
gion at all, it must be a rival religion (1) By 
claiming time, attention, money, devotion. (2) By, 
in some sense, ministering to man s religious na 
ture and thus tending to satisfy it. (3) By 
claiming to do for man all that Christ proposes 
found a universal brotherhood establish univers 
al peace regenerate free from sin insure a 
passport from the Lodge below to the Grand 
Lodge above. We have room for but a few 
quotations. Mackey in his Lexicon of Freemasonry, 
page 16, says thus: < ACACIAN A- term derived 
from anctKia) l innocence, signifies a Mason, who, 
by living in strict obedience to the obligations and 
precepts of the fraternity, is free from sin. 1 In a 
recent work by L. E. Reynolds, P. M., and P. H. P., 
and recommended by the Masonic Trowel of June 
15, 1870, as void of ostentation, candid in state 
ment, and worthy the study of every Mason who 
desires to take a comprehensive and philosophical 
view of great principles, and all students and rea- 
soners will be delighted with its unfoldings and 



168 THE LIFE OP 

processes/ we find the following remarkable avow 
als : Masonry does not deal with the perversions 
of things, but is only illustrative of the regenerate 
man. A Lodge in general signifies heaven, or 
the dwelling-place of the Lord, and includes all on 
earth who are being prepared for heaven. < Each 
man who is about to be regenerated, is led by his 
guardian angel to the door of the Lodge, of which 
it is said, Seek and ye shall find ; knock and it 
shall be opened. Regeneration or Masonry 
proceeds in progressive order or states (degrees.) 
1 Man cannot work or correct the irregularities of 
life, until he is clothed with innocence or the badge 
of a Mason. He then becomes a divine, spirit 
ual man or Master Mason. pp. 101, 237, 188, 
219, 214, 131. Now, is not this very candid, and 
unostentatious, and philosophical ? And in his l Sys 
tem of Speculative Masonry, page 79, Salem Town 
says : l Then (in the fourth degree) the Freemason 
is assured of his election and^ma/ salvation. But 
(4) It claims superior merit. Steinbrenner, in 
Origin of Masonry, pages 13, 14, styles it that 
higher religion, which indeed embraces the lower 
religion of creeds and sects ; and in the category 
of sects, it places the Christian religion. And Re- 
bold, in the History of Freemasonry, decries the 
Christian, Jewish, Mohammedan, and all other reli 
gions, and extols Masonry as destined to supplant 
them all, and become the ( Universal Religion. 
And finally : As a matter of positive experience, in 
both Germany and France, the Lodge is largely 



REV. ADAM CROOKS, 169 

supplanting the Church; especially in the larger 
towns and cities. Thus, just as the Lodge goes 
up the Church goes down. And John D. Caldwell, 
< Grand Secretary of Select Masters in Ohio, 
frankly avowed that in this Country also ; Mason 
ry is DISINTEGRATING THE CHURCH. Shall the 
Church of Christ tolerate, caress, jand warm into 
life this destructive rival ? Shall its life-blood con 
tinue to be drained thus, as by a vampire ? Shall 
it commit suicide by default, and basely and unre 
sistingly deliver to its enemies the last hope of 
humanity ? May a merciful God avert such dire 
calamity ! Surely all true Christians must say, 
Amen. 

" XII. Being a rival to Christ s religion, it is a 
false religion, and lures to ruin. 

" 1. Its claims to establish a Universal Brother 
hood are false. (1) In its very nature it is re 
stricted to the few. Excluding all women and 
children, all cripples, and all the aged and indi 
gent, it cannot be universal. (2) The basis is 
false seeking to unite moral repellents light 
and darkness, Christ and Belial. Where is the 
wisdom of attempting such impossibility? (3) 
The basis is wrong, if even possible. To treat the 
true and false, the good and the bad all alike, is 
shockingly horrible ; yet this is the Masonic mode 
of treating all religions. 

"2. Its boastful claims of being cosmopolitan 
and of mutual toleration of all religions is also 
8 



170 THE LIFE OF 

false. The Christian law requires prayer only in 
the name of Jesus. No man cometh unto the 
Father but by me. To such prayer in the Lodges 
the Jew, Infidel, Parsee, &c., object. Mutual con 
cession would plainly say Let the Christian pray 
in the name of Jesus, when he leads, and the Jew, 
&c., without it. A concession, by the way, Christ 
ians have no right to make. But does Masonry do 
this ? By no means, The conscience of the Jew 7 
Infidel, Parsee, &c., must be held sacred, but the 
law and conscience of the Christian must go into 
the dust , Thus does Masonry, down to the sev 
enth degree, discriminate against our only Lord 
and Savior; and in favor of his enemies. 

"3. Its professions to save, are also false. As seen 
above, it professes to free from sin, regenerate, 
make a man divine, and insure k final salvation. 
But there is no other name under heaven given 
among men, whereby we must be saved but that 
of Jesus. Acts, iv : 12. This name the religion of 
Masonry rejects. 

" This conducts to the final proposition, viz : Free 
masonry is essentially anti- Christ. Christianity pro 
poses to bring man back to God by Jesus Christ as 
the only way. There is one God, and one Media 
tor between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. 
1 Tim. ii: 5, There is no other name under 
heaven given among men, whereby we must be 
saved. Acts, iv: 12. No man cometh unto the 
Father but by me. John, xiv : 7. Whatsoever 
ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the 



HEV. ADAM CROOKS. 171 

Lord Jcsns. Col. iii: 17 That at the name of 
Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, 
and things in earth, and things under the earth ; 
and that every tongue should confess that Jesus 
Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 
Phil, ii: 10, 11. He is anti-Christ that denieth 
the Father and the Son. Whosoever denieth the Son, 
the same hath not the Father. 1 John, ii : 22, 23. 
< There shall be no false teachers among you, who 
privily ( stealthily and unobserved ) shall bring 
in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that 
bought them, and bring upon themselves swift de 
struction. 2 Pet. ii: 1. But he that denieth me 
before men, shall be denied before the angels of 
God. Luke, xii : 9. In the face of all these pas 
sages of the Inspired Word, and others which 
might be quoted, Freemasonry sets up a religion 
professing to save men ; but denies Jesus disal 
lowing the use of his name even in its approaches 
to God ; and thus assails Christianity in its divine 
Centre. Indeed, in the seventh degree, it does not 
hesi;ate to cut his name from passages of his Holy 
Word which it professes to quote. [See Sickles 
Freemasons Monitor, pp. 50, 51.] True, prayer 
is sometimes offered in the Lodges in the name of 
Jesus, but only by sufferance, and in violation of the 
promise to cheerfully conform to all the ancient 
established usages and customs of the fraternity. 
"Now, unless Christianity is & farce and a cheat, 
to ignore Jesus Christ in our approaches to God 
in prayer, is jio less an abomination than are bold 



172 THE LIFE OP 

blasphemy and idolatry ; and Freemasonry is de 
fined and proven to be both <a deceiver and an an 
ti-Christ: But in the degree of Knights Adepts 
of the Eagle or Sun, The Key of Masonry the 
fraternity speaks for itself. Hear its words. Be 
hold, my dear brother, what you must fight against 
and destroy, before you can come to the knowledge 
of the true good and sovereign happiness? Well, 
what is it ? Harken ! < Behold this monster, which 
you must conquer a serpent which we detest as an 
idol that is adored by the idiot and vulgar under the 
name of RELIGION!!! (Revealed religion is 
meant.) l Light on Masonry, pp, 270, 271. 

" There you have it in a nutshell, in their own 
words ! Is it any marvel that the Lodge < disinte 
grates the Church ? Is not this sufficiently anti- 
Christ ? 

"And it is but due to state that Odd Fellowship 
also excludes the name of Jesus from its authorized 
formulas of prayer. The same, we believe, is true 
of some of the Good Templar and Granger prayers. 
All these things being true, it follows with the force 
of irresistible sequence : 

" 1. That whatever there may be in Freemasonry 
and kindred institutions that is commendable, it 
cannot compensate for their demerits and essentially 
anti- Christian character, 

" 2 That it is the sacred duty of all who are not 
entangled in the meshes of Masonry and kindred 
Christ-rejecting institutions to keep themselves for 
ever free therefrom. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 173 

" 3. That it is the sacred duty of all, especially 
of every patriot, Christian and Christian minister 
thus entangled, to immediately and forever terminate 
his connection therewith. 

" That it is duty to repent of and not perform a 
wicked oath is palpable. Instance the oath of 
Herod to Herodias dancing daughter, resulting in 
the cruel murder of John the Baptist, that of the 
forty men to kill Paul ; and that of David to slay 
Nabal, and all the strength of his house. 1 Sam. 
xxv : 22. See also, Lev. v: 4, 5. 

" 4. That as Christianity is not only negative, but 
radically positive, it is the most sacred duty of 
every Christian, Christian minister and Church, to 
in every legitimate way, both by teaching and dis 
cipline, testify against and antagonize a religion 
which is at once without equity aud without a 
Christ. 

" 5. That it is the plainly enjoined duty of every 
true Christian, whether minister or layman, to 
withdraw fellowship from all religious denomina 
tions which persistently refuse to thus testify 
against monstrous sin. The Apostle, in a manner 
the most solemn, says: Now we command you, 
brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that 
walketh disorderly. 2 Thes. iii : 6. Again : And 
I heard a voice from heaven, saying, Come out of 
her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her 
sins, and that ye receive not her plagues. Rev. 
xviii : 4. Thus it is clear that to remain in fellow- 



174 THE LIFE OF 

ship with religious bodies which tolerate great and 
crying sins, is to become partaker of such sins is 
to virtually endorse them as not sins. 

tl The power we oppose is mighty. The princes 
and peoples of all provinces fall before it, as be 
fore the image of gold upon the plains of Dura. 
The populace have learned to list with silent awe 
and bated breath to its thundering laudations. It 
has superinduced its potent influence upon tongue, 
and type, and pulpit, and press, and platform, and 
colleges, and courts, and Congresses every forma 
tive force in society and thus well-nigh bound 
both Church and State as with fetters of iron. 
There is no moment to be lost in taking cowardly 
counsel of unmanly fears. If this foe is mighty, 
truth is almighty. Enough to know that our cause 
is just ; and that immortal interests are involved, 
If we can innocently ignore Christ in prayer once, 
we can always. And there is no neutral ground. 
We must take sides. To surrender Christ, is vir 
tually to surrender Christianity. In the name of all 
that is sacred in human destiny, these pages plead 
against a surrender so costly. With such a cause, 
shall we plead in vain ? Ministers of the gospel, 
with the vows of God upon your souls, what do 
you say ? Reader : the one question for you to set 
tle is WILL YOU AT ANY COST BE LOYAL TO JESTJS 
CHRIST ? He is appointed our final Judge. If we 
deny Him, He will deny us. The verdicts of 
Time are of little account. Be sure that your an 
swer is such, as the decisions of Eternity will appro- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 175 

bate. Heaven, in mercy, impart the grace needed 
to fearlessly, and by all legitimate means, antago 
nize banded treason against the purity of the 
Church, integrity of the State, and the world s only 
Savior." 

In June 1870, he wrote as follows: 

DUTY RESPECTING^ THE TEMPERANCE MOVE 
MENT. 

" Now that the Heaven-insulting and Man- 
victimizing crime of chattel slavery has been 
abolished in this Country, the patriot, philanthro 
pist and Christian can bestow more exclusive 
attention upon the soul-and-body-destroying evil 
of the ruin -traffic. Human duty is one of the 
greatest thoughts that can occupy human attention- 
And duty respecting the temperance movement is 
well worthy the most candid and careful consid 
eration. 

" Begin with self. We need scarcely say that 
it is the individual duty to be consistently temper 
ate. No man has a right to mar and sear the 
handy-workmanship of his Creator by self-inflic 
tions in any form. Intemperance involves the 
highest possible inflictions upon the entire man, 
It is murder by protracted process, perpetrated 
upon his physical being, his social nature, his in 
tellectual powers, and upon his deathless spirit. 
It is a matchless wrong inflicted upon self, which 
no man has, or can have, a right to perpetrate. 
Murder is the greatest wrong that can possibly be 



176 THE LIFE OF 

inflicted; and drunkenness is self-murder in the 
worst possible form. 

u - Next to -personal, is parental duty. Those 
who are false to self, will not be true to family, or 
any other interest. Heaven has committed to 
parents the fearful responsibility of training their 
children. Upon them devolved the unspeakably 
delicate duty of laying the foundation stones in the 
superstructure of their children s character, and 
thus to an extent in the presence of which an. 
angel might well tremble, determine their children s 
destiny, both for this and the future world. The 
fiery cup of death and damnation should be care 
fully kept from their tender lips. Early In life, 
upon the father and mother s knee they should be 
made Intelligent as to its dreadful effects, and 
taught to shim it as they would the bite of a ser 
pent, or sting of an adder. All domestic wines or 
juices, having the least particle of alcohol should 
be excluded the domestic circle, as Satan and his 
legions were excluded from heaven. The principle 
of total abstinence from all that can intoxicate 
should be inwrought into the very web-work of 
their souls. What parent would not welcome the 
deadly knife of the assassin to the heart of his 
child, rather than the thrice deadly fang of this 
liquid serpent of perdition and the woeful fate of 
the drunkard? Then, by the love you bear for 
those precious, priceless jewels of immortal worth, 
see that no efforts are untried to fortify them 
against all possibility of a doom so dreadful. As 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 177 

Hamilcar pledged his son Hannibal, when but 
nine years old, to eternal hostility against Rome, 
so in like manner, let all our children be pledged 
to ceaseless war upon this chief enemy of God and 
man. By every consideration sacred to a parent s 
heart, we solemnly adjure them all to the faithful 
performance of this duty. 

" But the sphere of duty is not confined to self 
and the home-circle. There is the place to begin, 
but not to stop. We are interwoven with the 
warp and woof of society. In spite of ourselves, 
our lives must, for weal or for woe, affect the 
fortunes of others. This fact constitutes the sub- 
basis of an enlarged area of obligation. (1.) We 
are to do others no harm. (2.) We are to do all 
possible good, both to their souls and bodies ; and 
(3.) We are to protect them against wrong at the 
hands of others. Not enough that we do our 
neighbor no harm. Not enough that we do him 
all the good we can personally. We may not in 
nocently stand by and permit the infliction of 
injuries by others. These principles are funda 
mental to the social compact; and applied to the 
subject of Temperance, they (1.) Forbid all 
agency, direct or indirect, in the manufacture, sale, 
purchase, or use of intoxicating liquors, as a 
beverage. (2.) Require that we should do our 
utmost to influence all others to practice habits of 
strictest temperance. (3,) That, by forces, both 
moral and legal, we prevent all others from the 
8* 



178 THE LIFE OF 

worse than murderous traffic in liquors that can 
intoxicate. And while it is our most boundeu 
duty to do thus personally, it is no less our duty, 
in all ways that are proper, to combine and co-act 
with others for the realization of these results, 
As we would drive the demon, alcohol, from the 
paradise of home, so should we banish it from the 
Eden of the neighborhood and community. 

" The Churches have a duty to do in this regard. 
No pulpit can be innocently silent on this subject. 
The ministry may not imitate the example of the 
Priest and Levite and quietly pass by the poor 
drunkard who has fallen among thieves, and been 
stripped not only of money and clothing, but of 
reputation, reason and manhood as well, and left 
more than half-dead. To the limits of ability, they 
must be good Samaritans, and employ their utmost 
powers, personal and official, for the speedy over 
throw of this monstrous iniquity. They should 
put themselves in personal contact with the miser 
able drunkard and his wretched family, and by all 
means possible, seek their salvation. They should 
not only denounce drunkenness, but with rebukes 
doubly blasting, brand to blistering, the infamous 
traffic which causes it all ; and with scourge, made 
of large or small cords, they should drive from the 
temple all engaged in the infernal commerce. It 
is a most disgraceful sight to see the poor victim 
of inebriety shut within the limits of gloomy prison 
walls, while his more guilty destroyer is welcomed 
to the highest and softest seat in the synagogue. 



&EV. ADAM CROOKS. 179 

The cry of the^ slave rent the heavens, and the 
popular Churches of the land were deaf to his cry- 
In the name of God and humanity let them not sin 
in like manner in relation to intemperance. 

"Three things are necessary to the compassment 
of this reformation. (1) Public sentiment must 
be toned up to fully meet the demands of the hour. 
This must be done by the triple power of the 
pulpit, the platform and the press. (2) The en 
forcement of the laws already in existence against 
the rum-traffic: and (3) The enactment and en 
forcement of all such laws as are needed. Nothing 
short of this covers the whole ground. 

"But all this means work. Forces must be or 
ganized, monies must be raised and appropriated. 
There must be work in the Churches in pulpit 
and pew in the Sabbath-schools, in the communi 
ties, in families and everywhere. Results as dif 
ficult as they are vast, are to be realized. And ia 
this God-honoring, and man-saving work, let no 
Wesleyan minister or member be found in the rear 
of the foremost of God s embattled hosts. The 
forces of the enemy are organized and massed. 
Their attitude is insolently defiant. Hence, we 
must organize, mass forces, and " up and at them." 
Let us have " organized victory," and with the 
blessing of God, have it without delay." 

In July, 1870, he wrote this editorial : 

ENTIRE CONSECRATION. 

41 Under this impressive caption we wish to an- 



180 THE LIFE OF 

swer two questions. First Whatsit? Second- 
Why should we make it? 

" What is entire Consecration ? To Consecnite 
is to set apart; to dedicate to a holy purpose. En 
tire Consecration is the setting apart of all, with 
out reservation or qualification; to the service of 
God. 

"1. It implies an open, public committal to the 
service of God. Secret discipleship is excluded, 
No person can make entire Consecration to Go<J 
and keep that fact in concealment. This light can 
not be put under a bushel. If the act of Consecra 
tion is kept in concealment, that very fact proves 
that it is not entire. The cross of public avowal 
is not taken up. 

"2. It implies the Consecration of the whole be 
ing. All the powers of affection, all of learning, 
of logic, of oratory, of social or civil position ; all 
of friends and friendship -all that immediately ap 
pertains to the person, must be fully at the Divine 
disposal. No part of the price must be kept back, 
No separate interest no antagonizing will is al 
lowable. Its language is, without qualification or 
mental reservation, Lord, here am I; send me/ 
Send me to a hard place or an easy one, a high po 
sition or a low one, along a rough road or smooth 
one ; give me many or few friends ; let me be rich 
or poor, sick or well, at home with its quiet and 
plenty and comforts, or on desert wastes, or amid 
mountains of perpetual ice and snow ; in hunger- 
ings or thirstings, in weariness and labor, in perils 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 181 

by land, in perils by sea, or in perils among false 
brethren ; in prison or in palaces, in enthronement 
or martyrdom, in service or sacrifice, just as God 
shall order. The Divine will must be enthroned 
supreme in all that appertains to our person. 
Obedience must be unqualified and universal. 
Every duty faithfully performed ; every suffering 
patiently endured; even life itself must not be 
withheld. 

- 3. Having said thus much, it is scarcely neces 
sary to say that time, and property, and all 
property interests, must be wholly given to God. 
Every day and every dollar must be esteemed and 
used as belonging to Him, and in such manner as 
in our best judgment will most conduce to His high 
est glory. Of course this necessarily involves the 
life-calling and the bounds of our habitation. In 
settling these questions we must have primal refer 
ence to the Divine glory, 

" 4. All this is to be done, not mechanically or 
reluctantly, but cheerfully and heartily from a clear 
apprehension that it is our "reasonable service." 
Here is voluntary and perpetual self-abnegation 
the deeding, signing, sealing, conveying and deliv 
ering, of all and singular, of self and appurte 
nances, forever, to God. 

" This continuous act of Consecration finds faint 
illustration in the enlistment and vows of the sol 
dier. Having enlisted and assumed his obligation, 
the soldier is the exclusive property of the Govern 
ment all his powers, all his interests, all his 



1 82 THE LIFE OP 

services, and even his life, are its property. But 
the services, sacrifices, and sufferings of the soldier 
are coersive ; whereas all the Christian gives, does 
or endures in the cause of his Master through life, 
is voluntary, from the promptings of apprehended 
obligation and of supreme preference. 

" But why this entire Consecration ? 

" 1. Because it is right. We belong to God. 
He has made us. In Him we live, and move, and 
have our being. We live at His expense. And 
we are His purchased possession. He bought us 
with a price. And oh, what a price ! Thus, all 
we are and all we have, belong, of right, to God. 
What can be more reasonable than that we render 
unto God that which is his due ? 

"2. It is our reasonable service because it is 
the best use we can make of our powers. It is not 
only right, but it is wise. To live with any other 
intent, to any other purpose, is to prostitute our 
powers to all that is calamitous to self and to oth 
ers, with reference to both time and eternity. This 
is infinite madness. But entire consecration is the 
devotion of our powers to the highest and holiest 
of all purposes is to make them productive of the 
greatest good possible to self and all others, both 
for this and the future state. The wisdom of this 
is equalled only by the folly and utter madness of 
its opposite. Here holiest duty and highest inter 
est are co-alescent. 

" 3. But God requires nothing more of us than 
he has done and proposes to do for us. He gave 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 183 

His Son to service, to suffering, and to death, for 
us. He kept back no part of the price. He drank 
the cup to its utmost dregs. With his expiring 
breath, he declared that the work of our redemp. 
tion l is finished. And for the future, lie offers 
all that is possible for Heaven to bestow. If we 
will but become his people, he will become our 
God ; Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and all 
things become ours. What an enriching con 
tract is this ! How little we give ! How much we 
receive ! Human thought cannot conceive. Angel- 
tongue cannot tell. 

"4. But entire Consecration is an unalterable 
condition of salvation. This lesson is not sufficient 
ly taught; and surely it is not sufficiently appre 
hended. It is usually conceded that a few eminent 
Christians and ministers of the Gospel should be 
thus wholly consecrated, but not so with ordinary 
Christians. It is to be feared that so-called ordi 
nary Christians are not Christians at all. Is not 
the evidence but too conclusive, that too many pro 
fessed Christians and Christian ministers live to 
themselves? <By their fruits ye shall know 
them, True, for the most part, young converts 
have but limited views of entire Consecration ; but 
the Consecration is fully up to the conception. 
This must be true in all after life. As the concep 
tion of Consecration, in import and duty, develops, 
the act of Consecration must become proportion 
ately more complete. 

" 5. Consecration is the precise point of union 



184 THE LIFE OF 

between the human and the Divine. When all is 
placed on the altar, then comes down the Baptism 
of power. Are not this Consecration Jand attend 
ant baptism the great want of the Church ? Is not 
this the key to its want of general efficiency ? 

" This matter is eminently personal. Reader ; 
How is this with you ? Are you consecrated - 
saved unqualifiedly obedient ; or is the work but 
partial and superficial ? Have you the baptism of 
power? Will you now make the Consecration 
complete ? Until this is done there is a contro 
versy between God and thee. Oh, terminate this 
controversy at once ; and become the material of 
vhich martyrs are made, which is a blessing to 
earth, and for which await the awards of an end 
less heaven 1" 

CONVERSION OF CHILDREN. 

He was very much interested in the conversion 
of children. He was earnest in his teachings on 
this subject. "Bring the children early to Jesus" 
was his plea. I give a few extracts from his- 
writings on Early Piety. 

11 There is nothing more beautiful, more import 
ant, nor that should be promoted with greater 
assiduity than early piety. With what pleasura 
ble interest we read of Joseph, and Samuel, and 
David, and Josiah, and of Timothy who knew the 
holy Scriptures from a child. No marvel that 
David said, l Come ye children, hearken unto me, 
I will teach you the fear of the Lord; nor that 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 185 

Solomon counseled remembrance of the Creator 
in the days of youth; nor that Jesus said to the 
coining generations, Suffer little children to come 
unto me, and forbid them not. 

" For years we have been deeply impressed with 
the conviction, that neglect of the children has 
been a most fruitful source of the weakness and 
inefficiency of the Church. Baptized children 
should sustain a relation to the Church similar to 
that sustained by the Catechumen to the Primitive 
Church. They should be esteemed and treated 
as candidates for its full fellowship and immuni 
ties. It is not to be doubted that childhood is 
the fulcrum, and early religious instruction and 
discipline, the more than Archimedean lever with 
which the moral world is to be turned over. 
Persia educated her children to temperance, in 
dustry, and a prudent economy, and thereby gave 
strength, greatness and perpetuity to the State. 
Let the Church but educate her children to an in 
telligent and vigorous piety, and she will soon 
overthrow the great Babylon of sin. And the 
sooner the Church comes to fully understand this 
concealed magazine of power, the better. 

" But we wish to speak more immediately of the 
great advantages of early piety. And, 

" 1. It is always genuine. Children know but 
little of those sinister motives which may induce 
to a mercenary, and hence, hypocritical piety. 
Their eye is single ; and hence, the whole body is 
full of light. This is of primal consideration. 



186 THE LIFE OF 

" 2. Children do not have to overcome the force 
of evil habits early formed, nor unlearn what they 
have learned amiss. The soil of their hearts has 
not been pre-occupied with those noxious weeds. 
When once permitted to spring up, the roots strike 
deep, and adhere with most troublesome tenacity. 
Those who early become pious are at once saved 
immense labor and annoyance. And this is a most 
happy economy. 

" 3. Early piety is the only safeguard against 
the adverse influences of a world which is no friend 
to grace. Dangers stand thick through all the 
ground. They throng man s pathway from the 
cradle to the grave. The human heart naturally 
gravitates to earth and to sin. The heart of the 
young is most prolific, susceptible and unsuspect 
ing. Nothing but positive piety can render the 
child proof against the joint action of unfriendly, 
internal and external forces. If you would not 
have the souls of the dear children polluted by sin, 
their characters stained by crime, and would have 
their eternal interests secure from most imminent 
peril, early sow the seeds and vigilantly cultivate 
the plants of piety in their young and tender 
hearts. 

" 4. Principles first imbibed and habits first 
formed are at once the most powerful and the 
most lasting. Hence, the nervous language of the 
Wise Man : " Train up a child in the way he 
should go ; and when he is old he will not depart 
from it." But a child left to himself bringeth 



REV. ADAM CROOKS, 187 

his mother to shame. How immensely important 
that Satan should not, and that God and the soul 
should have the benefit of this fundamental law of 
our being. 

" 5. Jf persons do not become pious while young, 
there is danger they never will ; and this danger 
increases with each successive day and hour of sin. 
Nothing is more true than that continuance in sin 
hardens men in it. Conscience becomes callous, 
pasnion inflamed, sensibilities corrupted and per 
verted, and the will more and more perverse, until 
the case becomes appalling hopeless. Sin is fear 
fully self-perpetuating. 

" 6. In addition to all this, there is but a step- 
between every human personality and death-r-young 
as well as old. 

Great God ! on what a slender thread 

Hang everlasting things I 
Th eternal state of all the dead 

Upon life s feeble strings ! 

" 7. Early piety alone can promise time in which 
to develop to maturity the Christian graces, and 
hence to furnish the world with the most admirable 
specimens of Christian character. 

" If the harvest is either rich or abundant, the 
sowing must be seasonable. All agree that child 
hood and youth are life s seed-time. Those who do 
not become pious until mature in life, must needs 
contend against a double disadvantage. First, they 
have but little time in which to grow up to the 
fullness of the stature of men and women in Christ 



188 THE LIFE OF 

Jesus ; and second, they have the stubborn force 
of long continued habit against which to contend. 
Much more to do, and less time for the work. 

" 8. Time and opportunity to labor in the vine 
yard of the Lord to bless the world, and to make 
life a grand practical success, make their plea for 
early piety. How deep and painful the regrets of 
those who worse than throw away a large portion 
of a life so brief. How blessed to give all of time 
and strength and life, to cheerful co-operative effort 
with God and all the good in the great work of hu 
man salvation. An entire offering on this holy altar , 
\ow good and acceptable to God. 

9. Early piety affords the best foundation for 
a substantial character. It makes strong in knowl 
edge, in faith, in deep and varied experience, in 
purified affections, in husbanded energies, high pur 
poses, holy habits, and joyful anticipations ! Strong 
to resist evil. There was divine wisdom displayed 
in permitting those who had grown up amid the 
idolatrous practices of the Egyptians to die in the 
Wilderness, and in leading their children who knew 
not these practices, into the land of Promise. So 
does early piety give strength to grapple with the 
great crimes of any age to exterminate moss- 
covered errors, and raze to their foundations the 
temples of time-honored crimes. 

If Christian parents and the Church would re 
spond to this urgent call, then must they do as 
commanded in Deut. xi: 18 21. Lay up the 
words of the law in their hearts and their souls, 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 189 

and bind them for a sign upon their hands, and let 
them be as frontlets between their eyes ; and teach 
them to the children, speaking of them when they 
sit in the house, when they walk by the way, when 
they lie down and when they rise up, and write 
them upon the door-posts of the house and upon 
the gates. Alsoxxxi: 11 13. When they come 
to appear before the Lord in the place which he 
shall choose, (in their religious assemblages,) they 
shall gather the people together, men, women and 
children, and the strangers within the gate, that 
they may hear, and learn, and fear the Lord, and 
observe to do all the words of the law." 

CHRISTIAN PATIENCE. 

From an editorial upon this subject, I clip the 
following : 

" The man of tranquil, patient perseverance is in 
himself a moral host; whereas, without patience, 
although in intellect a giant, yet in moral force he 
can be but a pigmy. So, if we would be God-like, 
we must be patient. How through the heavy 
tramp of the ages, God works and waits. How 
during four thousand years he laid the foundation 
for redemption. In this great work there is no 
haste. Christ did not come till the fullness of 
time. And how he yet works and waits for the 
consummation of the redemptive scheme. He is in 
no haste ; nor need he be. The ages to come are 
his in which to work. Sitting on the circle of the 



190 THE LIFE OF 

heavens, he surveys the thousand millions of 
earth, witnesses their deadly quarrels, brethren 
cheating brethren, the wildness and greed for gold, 
the thankless ingratitude which never sees the 
hand that feeds them, the oppression and enslave 
ment of millions, the madness and slaughter of 
red-visaged war, the world lying in the wicked 
one, yet there comes no outcry irom the heavens 
to still all this unrest; but gently, and patiently, 
the ministry of nature and of Providence proceeds 
from year to year; as gently, patiently, and un 
remittingly as if universally greeted with gratitude 
and praise. Then, Reformer, Lover of Mankind, 
Christian Minister, take for your model the Great 
God, and work and wait. But finally Patient 
continuance in well doing alone, is crowned with 
glory, honor, immortality and eternal life. Then, 
let patience have her perfect work." 

From an editorial upon "Does God Work by 
Great or Small Means ?" 

" These enumerated examples of Divine interpo 
sition indicate with unerring accuracy, the place of 
the power by which the achievements of the Chris 
tian Church, in her entire history, have been ac 
complished. Accordingly, we read : Not by 
might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, saith the 
Lord of enduement with power from on high 
of earthen vessels being chosen, that the excel 
lence of the power 1 may be of God, arid not of 
men and of l weak things, and things that are 
not bringing to naught things that are mighty. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 191 

The disciples were weak, and yet they triumphed. 
Primitive Christians were weak, and yet they 
triumphed. Luther was weak, and yet he triumph 
ed. Wesley and coadjutors were weak, and yet 
they triumphed. Early Abolitionists were weak, 
and yet they triumphed. So, numerically, we 
Wesleyans are weak, and the things to be confound 
ed are mighty, but if we know the place of the hid 
ing of God s power, we shall triumph. UNION 

WITH GOD ALOXE, IS THE PLACE OP POWER. If in 

any case, this union is not complete, LET IT BE 

MADE SO WITHOUT DELAY." 

In 1871 the General Conference convened in 
Syracuse. Mr. Crooks was chosen President. At 
this Conference Rev. L. N. Stratton was elected 
associate editor with Mr. Crooks, who was also 
reappointed Agent. This Conference recommended 
that as soon as possible arrangements should be 
made to build a new and more commodious pub 
lishing house. They authorized the Agent to open 
a subscription immediately for the purpose of rais 
ing the needed funds. This work was commenced 
at once. "The people had a mind to work," 
and rallied nobly. A few months after, among his 
editorials, I find the following, aimed at the " love 
of money": 

FOLLY S CARNIVAL. 

" Folly s Carnival ! What is it ? Is it spending 
the long, long nights in the frenzied whirl of the 
giddy dance ? Without dispute, this is bad enough, 



192 THE LIFE OF 

and quite too much savors of the senseless pleas 
ures of the night or savage life to find place or 
favor in the noon-day of Christian civilization. But 
this is not what is meant. Then, is it the uncom- 
pensated surrender of life, liberty and the pursuit 
of intelligent and virtuous happiness at the debas 
ing shrine of fashion, heartless as it is fickle ? While 
it must be admitted that this is bad beyond the 
possibilty of proper characterization, yet it is not 
the thing intended. Nor yet is it the desperate 
madness which impels an immortal being in pursuit 
of substantial good amid the dehumanizing slums of 
beastly sensuosity ; nor firey floods of intemperance ; 
nor yet the desolating waves of red-visaged war, 
after which this earnest mission is sent. The thing 
of which we write, is none other than that almost 
universally dominant love of money which an in 
spired Apostle so fitly styles the root of all evil. 
For who does not know that pre-eminently, money 
is the Moloch of America? The name of its wor 
shipers is -Legion; for they are many. In the 
nervous language of Pollock, never more true than 
now : 

Gold many hunted sweat and bled for gold ; 
Waked all the night, and labored all the day. 
And what was this allurement, dost thou ask ? 
A dnst dug from the bowels of the earth, 
Which, being cast into the fire, came out 
A shining thing that fools admired, and called 
A god ; and in devout and humble plight 
Before it kneeled, the greater to the less ; 
And on its altar sacrificed ease, peace, 



"RET. ADAM CROOKS. 193 

Truth, faith, integrity, good conscience, friends, 

Love, charity, benevolence, and all 

The sweet and tender sympathies of life} 

And to complete the horrid murderous rite 

And signalize their folly, offered up 

Their souls, and an eternity of bliss, 

To gain them what I an hour of dreaming joy, 

A feveri&h hour that hasted to be done, 

And ended in the bitterness of woe. 

* * * * 

Of all God made upright. 
And in their nostrils breathed a living soul, 
Most fallen, most prone, most earthly, mostdebased^ 
Of alt that sold Eternity for Time, 
None bargained on so easy terms with death. 
Illustrious fcol! Nay, most inhuman wretch I 
He sat among his bags, and with a look 
Of which hell might be ashamed, drove the poor 
Away utialmsed ; and midst abundance died 
Sorest of evils ! died of utter want. 

"The root of all evil. The infernal fountain 
which feeds every form of vice and crime. The 
accursed rock on which countless thousands make 
shipwreck of immortal wealth. The debasing altar 
before which demonizing worship is offered at the 
expense of an eternity of bliss. Alas, that un 
numbered thousands bearing the name of a sinless 
Christ crowd the broad aisles of this temple ac 
cursed and abandoned of God. and whose open 
doors are the gilded gates to perdition. 

" How this insatiable greed for gold congeals the 
liquid streams of mercy for the poor. How it 
paralyzes the arm of Christian enterprise, whether 

home or foreign. How it withholds tithes from the 
9 



194 THE LIFE OF 

Lord s bouse, dooms to penury his ministry, and 
impoverishes to beggary the coffers of Christian 
charity. How it repels from all place in God s 
sanctuary the wretched children of poverty, but 
welcomes to highest seat the man with gold ring or 
woman in costly apparel. How un-Christ-like it 
renders all things bearing his name. How it feasts 
the flesh, but dooms the soul to endless Lent Star 
vation ! How its hoarded heaps blight the bloom 
ing hopes of fond parents, by withholding from the 
children the needed stimulants to healthful enter 
prise, and meanwhile dooming them the envied 
victims of the consuming vices of costly idleness, 
thus entailing the double curse of dwarfing the 
beautiful and good, and developing to horrid pro 
portions the sordid and selfish. Hence, the all- 
prevalent lameness and blasting throughout the 
borders of the Zion of this money-worshiping age. 
Heaven pity us 1 This is indeed Folly s dreadful 
Carnival. 

" Dear reader : Introvert your attention ; and 
answer to your conscience and your God ! Does 
the fatal virus of this firey serpent circulate death 
through all the parts and powers of your soul ? 
By all that is hallowed in eternal interests, let not 
this be so." 

ONCE MORE IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

" Here I am, safe and sound in old North Caio 
Una, after an absence of twenty-one years. I have 
not been to visit old familiar scenes, but matters 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 195 

have greatly changed, I assure you. The man at 
whose hotel I stop was foreman of an United States 
Grand Jury which indicted six hundred Ku-Klux, 
all under bonds, to be tried in September. Some 
of these, ministers of the M. E. Church, South. 
Am feeling quite like an American citizen here, 
where slavery once ruled as with a rod of iron and 
a knife of steel. 

" Twenty-five years ago the coming September, 
we came to North Carolina. Then Slavery, both 
in fact and spirit, was dominant. The Southern 
wing of the Methodist Episcopal Church had seced 
ed, because the North was unwilling to have a 
slave-holding Bishop. Hearing that the Wesleyan 
Methodists were anti-slavery, forty citizens of Guil- 
ford county met in convention and adopted the 
Wesleyan Methodist discipline, and applied to the 
Allegheny Conference for a man to feed them on 
the bread of life. To this call we responded, 
knowing well that it was at the peril of life. Al 
though an entire stranger and threatened with every 
violence, yet God gave us prosperity. 

* * * * * 

" Jesse McBride was called to cultivate the 
ground already occupied in Carolina, and we gave 
ourself to the work of extending our borders into 
fields beyond. Another year of peril and prosper 
ity throughout the whole work. Several camp- 
meetings were held, and with excellent results. 
Brother Bacon entered upon his third year in Vir 
ginia, McBride upon his second and we our fourth, 



196 THE LIFE OF 



in Carolina. But increased prosperity was attend 
ed with increased danger. All the time violence 
had been threatened; but now threats were more 
frequent and more fierce. The enemy saw clearly 
that they must dig up the sapling quickly or other 
wise they would be unable to cut down the tree. 

# # # * * 

" Just as we knew they would be, flushed by this 
victory in driving McBride, with ten-fold determina 
tion they turned their batteriea upon us ; and by 
threats, and mobbings, and a reward offered for our 
arrest, they waged war upon us from May until Au 
gust, the close of the Conference year, when with 
sadness, we turned our face to home and friends, 
leaving in this slavery-ruled land six Wesleyan 
Meeting-houses, and some five hundred members. 
Very many sold out and moved into States not 
cursed with the withering blight of Slavery. 

" Yielding to successive calls, four years later, 
Daniel Worth returned to his native State, preached 
extensively for several months, was arrested for 
circulating Helper s Impending Crisis, and after 
some months imprisonment, returned to the free 
North and West. But Bacon and McBride and 
Worth are all dead. Died doubtless as the results 
of labors performed and hardships experienced in 
the South. Of these four, the writer alone survives. 

* # # * * 

" The war came on and freed the slaves. The 
seeds of truth sown in other years still live in many 
hearts. Hence, repeated calls again for Wesleyan 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 



197 



preachers. Last autumn, the Missionary Board of 
the Indiana Conference and the Connectional Board 
jointly, responded by sending brethren E. Brook 
shire and R. L. Fisher to rebuild the walls of our 
spiritual Jerusalem. 

"Immediately upon arrival they engaged in a 
revival at Shady Grove, resulting in nearly one 
hundred conversions and seventy-two accessions. 
At this place, Sabbath, the 21st July, we had the 
pleasure of dedicating to the worship of Almighty 
God a neat and well-proportioned frame structure? 
fourteen feet from floor to ceiling, and twenty-four 
by thirty-four; when all painted and furnished, to 
be the best Methodist rural meeting-house in three 
counties. And better still, notwithstanding the 
sore pressure of the times, when all completed, is 
to be free from debt. No one not knowing the cir 
cumstances, can appreciate how great this achieve 
ment is. The membership is composed of excellent 
material, substantial heads of families, and godly, 
zealous young men and women. A revival in pro 
gress this week ; and up to this Thursday, a number 
of conversions and twenty-fire accessions. In all, 
they have three meeting-houses, and deeds covering 
thirteen acres, including a four-acre-lot on which a 
fourth meeting-house is to be erected. The entire 
membership is about one hundred and twenty-five ; 
and new and inviting fields are still opening; so 
that at the close of the first year, prospects are 
good for a bright future. 

"Although we have been worked pretty hard, 



198 THE LIFE OP 

averaging a sermon for each day, our visit has been 
a real pleasure." 

HIGH POINT, N. C., July, 1872. 
Mr. Crooks was absent from the office fourteen 
days, and in that time preached fourteen sermons. 
More than one-half of that time, day and night, 
was spent traveling, and in July, too. He was not 
well when he returned and did not fully recover 
from the journey before he commenced the round 
of Fall Conferences. He was soon taken sick, and 
for a number of weeks was a great sufferer ; yet 
he attended all the Conferences and with the help 
of kind brethren sold his books and transacted the 
usual amount of Conference business, beside press 
ing the claims of the fund for the new Publishing 
House. He had nearly recovered from the effect 
of his illness when he returned and was ready for 
the work waiting for him at the office. 

The following article was written in August, 
1873. Mr. Crooks felt more and more the impor 
tance of our continued existence as a denomination. 
He could see a vast field of labor, which we might 
occupy if we would only step forward in the line 
of duty. He saw those fields < already white for 
the harvest," but the laborers were few." It seem - 
ed to him that there was a great work to be done 
by us especially. As in the past we had to stand 
almost single-handed in opposing the popular sins 
of the day, so in the present we were in the front 
ranks of the battle between Christ and Belial, be 
cause other denominations are not willing to bold- 



fcEV. ADAM CROOKS. ID 9 

ly confront sin in high places, and follow the " meek 
and lowly Jesus," whithersoever he goetL 

" OUR WORK NOT FINISHED. 

In connection with, and immediately subsequent 
to the recent " reunion" held by a few ex-Wesley- 
ans in Cleveland, Ohio, very strong asseverations 
are being made that our distinctive work as a de 
nomination is finished, and that therefore our con 
tinued existence involves schism , and heace, sin 
against God and his Church. A grave allegation 
indeed ! We repel it. Hear us patiently. 

" At this reunion Rev. John McEldowney is re 
ported as saying < To me, it is dishonoring to God 
for brethren remaining, not to recognize the work 
as finished. I cannot see how it is possible that 
a fraction can maintain a schism by remaining sepa 
rate. The New York Christian Advocate takes up 
the above pronunciamento in the words following: 
We fail to see any good reason for the mainte 
nance of the separate existence of the < Wesleyan 
body, now that they have gained every point upon 
which they originally dissented and separated. 
And Dr. Crooks of The Methodist, also of New 
York, prolongs the refrain in the following lusty 
language: Of all our separatists, the Wesleyans 
would seem to have the least reason to remain out 
of the old family. In a case like theirs, it becomes 
a grave question whether continued disunion is a 
mere matter of expediency or whether it is not sin ! 
The conscience of the Church needs to be ap- 



200 THE LIFE OF 

pealed to on this subject not merely its prejudices 
or its interests. Charity, fellowship, brotherhood/ 
co-operation are these not virtues in the kingdom 
of Christ on earth ? Many a banner-bearer of sec 
tarian division will find himself recognized, at the 
last day. as only a traitor to the common cause of 
the common Master. 

" There, we like that close-jointed way of putting: 
this great subject this appeal to conscience, and 
the judgment. Doctor Crooks is right in placing 
our Church relationship just where the Bible places 
it, and just where we have held it for many years 
and stiU ho d it upon the firm basis of eternal 
right. And we add ; this is exactly what has kept 
us out of the old family of the Methodist Episco 
pal Church, and still keeps us out. 

11 But these good Doctors will please make note 
that their sword is double-edged cutting both 
ways. While it is conceded to be duty to hold 
fellowship with true Christians, on the other hand 
it is equally duty to refuse fellowship to those wha 
are not. And while we may not innocently split 
the Church the body of Christ neither may we 
innocently wed that body to sin, and thus commit 
high sacrilege. l Charity, fellowship, brotherhood,, 
co-operation, are beautiful all of them beautiful 
but they must not find ultimate foundation in 
compromise with :dn, nor in truce with the devil. 
Hence the pungent language of the Apostle What, 
fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness ? 
What communion hath light with darkness ? And 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 201. 

what concord has Christ with Belial ? Wherefore 
come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith 
the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I 
will receive you, and will be a Father unto you, 
and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the 
Lord Almighty/ Thus plainly, our being the 
children of God is conditioned upon our being sep 
arate from the unclean. Again : the Spirit through 
the Revelator says And I heard another voice 
from heaven sajing, Come out of her my people, 
that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye 
receive not her plagues. And with solemn em 
phasis the Apostle says I command you in the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ that you withdraw 
yourselves from every brother who walketh disor 
derly/ Moral lepers have no more place in the 
fellowship of the saints than physical lepers had in 
the camp of Israel. To affiliate religiously with 
evil doers is to become partner both in their sins 
and their plagues. Hence, we may < dishonor 
God and become f traitors to the common cause of 
the common Master by seeking to promote unity at 
-the expense of purity. 

"And mark well, this trinity of Doctors teach 
the duty to return, but only upon the hypothesis 
that our distinctive work is finished that every 
point of original dissent has been gained. The 
plain implication of their language is, that if our 
work is not finished, our continued existence is all 
right. We think exactly so, and are glad to agree 
9* 



202 THE LIFE OF 

with these learned Doctors on this central principle, 
But are their assumed facts well founded ? Is 
our work finished? Has every point of original 
dissent been gained ? These are the questions 
pertinent. But before answering, we wish to pre 
mise, 

" (1.) No marvel that Doctors Crooks and Curry , 
and such as they, sec no cause for our continued 
existence ; for years ago they were denouncing as 
schismatics, the very men whom they now laud as 
the greatest of moral heroes. Such laudation is 
of questionable commendation. 

"(2.) If even all the points of original dissent 
have been gained, it does not therefore follow that 
there are now no valid reasons for our separate 
existence. Other causes may have arisen during 
the past thirty years ; or other good reasons may 
have existed then, not incorporated into the orig 
inal platform. This is self-manifest. 

"(3.) Every one of these Doctors know that 
Schism, as originally used, had no allusion to de 
nominational unity that denominational lines do 
not bound the area of Christian fellowship ; and 
that this talk about schism in such connection, is 
unworthy their learning. And as to the talk about 
our return to the bosom of the old family, it is a 
family with which the majority of us never found 
domicile. 

"But we now come to the facts. What are they ? 
Is our work finished ? Has every point of origi- 



fcEV. ADAM CROOKS. 203 

na,l dissent been gained ? The facts are substan 
tially these: 

" 1. It is true that chattle slavery no longer ex 
ists in this Country. But it is equally true that 
while it did exist, it found sanctuary in the Meth 
odist Episcopal Church. True, also, that when at 
last it was abolished by the war-power of the na 
tion, instead of sackcloth and penitent confession 
of complicity with the monstrous iniquity, we hear 
boastful thanks to God for long continued position 
in the front ranks of anti-slavery Churches, Such 
vaunting sacrilege might well appall heaven ! This 
is the manner in which that point was gained. 

" 2. Great credit is claimed for having adopted 
lay delegation in General Conference. But what 
kind of lay delegation is it ? Is it equal represen 
tation, as is ours ? It is not. No more than two 
laymen can be elected from within the bounds of 
any one Annual Conference ; whereas no such re 
striction obtains in relation to the ministry. But 
even these lay delegates are not elected by nor 
representatives of the unofficial laity. They are 
elected by Electoral Colleges; and the members 
of these Colleges are elected by the Quarterly 
Conferences, as the representatives of the Quar 
terly Conferences, which are the creatures and 
agents of preachers rather than of the people. 
In the Government of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church the unofficial laity have no voice are a 
nullity* Only think of a million of members totally 
disfranchised! This is all that has been gained. 



204 THE LIFE OF" 

Just this ; and nothing more. And is not this lay 
representation with a vengeance ? Something over 
which to vociferate, The work finished ! The work 
finished ! In great haste truly, to have the work 
finished. 

" This article is long enough : but we must be 
heard further. These Doctors accuse us denomi 
nationally, of high crime against the Church of 
Christ. We have given credit for what has been 
done. Now let us see what has not been done. 

"Well, (1.) The Episcopacy has been neither 
abolished nor modified. The Board oi Bishops is 
larger now than ever before. And they still pos-- 
sess the same unlimited power over the time, labors 
ard place of habitation of all the thousands of 
their ministers, as in the past. (2.) There still 
exists the three orders in their ministry, of Deacon, 
Elder and Bishop ; while with us it is fundamental 
that there is but one order that of Elder and 
that all Elders are equal. (3.) With us the local 
Churches are independent in all questions of merely 
local interest. Our Churches receive and disci 
pline their own members choose their own pastors^ 
and each Class elects its own leader. But not one 
of these rights is known in the Methodist Episco 
pal Church. (4.) With us the pastoral relation is 
matter of mutual agreement between pastor and 
people. And even the congregations of the Old 
Catholics in Germany have this free right of choice 
of the men who minister to them in things holy. 
But in the Methodist Episcopal Church here in 



fcEV. ADAM CROOKS. 205 

Republican America, no such right is allowed ! In 
this Church neither of the parties most directly in 
terested has any voice. With her, twelve men 
called Bishops absorb this sacred right of all the 
pastors and congregations of this Church of more 
than a million. (5.) With us is secured by disci 
plinary provision, the rights of all our ministers 
and members irrespective of complexion or race ; 
and while by Constitutional amendment a similar 
equality of rights is secured to citizens of the 
United States, yet up to this date, the Methodist 
Episcopal Church has no such provision* (6.) In 
our Yearly Conferences the laity have an equal 
voice with the ministry. But lay representation is 
not known in the Annual Conferences of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. (7.) So also in our 
General Conference is equal lay representation. 
But as shown above, in the General Conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church there is only a 
kind of quasi Quarterly Conference representation. 
In affairs of Government in the Methodist Epis 
copal Church, the non-official laity are a nonentity. 
They have only the right to pay and iv pray. 

11 But an anti-scriptural and anti-Republican pol. 
ity is not all. All through this and other countries 
savage and civilized, is a Secret Fraternity laying 
higii claims to antiquity, morality and religion. In 
all its degrees every obligation is taken with an 
oath. In its first seven degrees, with the Holy 
Book, which says swear not at all, before him on 
the altar at which he kneels, blindfolded and cable" 



206 THE LILE OF 

towed, each candidate takes over half a hundred 
distinct oaths this going on each week in thou 
sands of lodges no marvel that profanity abounds, 
and that because of swearing, the land mourneth/ 
Monstrous obligations are taken, alike inconsistent 
with the duties of the citizen and the precepts of 
morality ; horrid and murderous penalties are in 
voked ; such as having the throat cut across the 
tongue torn out by the roots the left breast torn 
open and the heart and vitals taken thence the 
body severed in the midst and the bowels burned 
to ashes tongue split from tip to root the skull 
smote off, and-so-forth ; thus familiarizing the 
mind with murder, and mutilation horrible to con 
template. And what, if possible, is worse than all, 
this motly mixture of fact and fiction, mummery 
and murder, profanity and prayer, while ignoring 
the mediation of the Blessed Lord and Savior in 
its very prayers, yet holds out a false light ; prom 
ising its votaries deliverance from sin and a home 
in the < house not made with hands, eternal in the 
heavens. And dreadful to contemplate, while 
these terrible practices are prevalent throughout 
the land, and thousands being decoyed into these 
mystic meshes, not only are the pulpits and presses 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church silent as the 
grave on the subject, but still more awful, thou 
sands of her ministers and members statedly wor 
ship at these Christ-rejecting altars ! A thousand 
times NO; the work of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Connection of America is not JinisJied. It is not 



HEV. ADAM CROOKS. 207 

* dishonoring to God to be inflexibly loyal to Jesus 
Christ; and the arbitraments of eternity will so 
decide. Let others do as they will, to be holy, 
we must warn men against false lights, antag 
onize all sin, and be loyal to Jesus Christ, We 
cannot do otherwise. God help us." 

CHARACTER AND CHARACTERISTICS OF 
REV. A. CROOKS. 

BY REV. L. N. STRATTON. 

The image of Minerva, towering above the Par 
thenon in Athens, and the^ Sphynx, which looks 
inquisitively over the unansweriug sand plains of 
Egypt, were coarsely formed images. The distant 
observer deemed them cleanly cut and smooth. 
But it is said that close inspection revealed in them 
many a flaw and seam. Children at play with a 
pocket telescope are wont to place the large end 
of the instrument to the eye, in looking at coarse, 
uncomely objects. This, it is observed, gives them 
a fineness of form and finish which nature itself 
has failed to furnish. So is it with some men; 
close observation is detrimental to appreciation. 
But turn the small end of the telescope towards 
them, and " Distance lends enchantment to the 
view." 

Not so with Adam Crooks. He would bear 
close inspection. He appeared well at a distance, 
but much better on a near approach. And if to 
any he seemed distant, it was only in that seeming 



208 THE LIFE OF 

which the mind instinctively grants to manly dig* 
nity and true worth. 

His nature was confiding, and his judgment good ; 
so that multitudes came to his side, both for coun 
sel and consolation. He was a <\lose observer of 
men and things. He read character as a man 
would read a book. And though he came to his 
more weighty opinions slowly, when he did reach 
them, they were usually correct. This Napoleonic 
habit of studying characters, methods, facts of cur 
rent history and events, made him a man of the 
living present. It shaped his thought in instruc 
tion ; it regulated his business policy ; it aided 
his opinions, as to the turn which national and 
ecclesiastical affairs would take, and which opinions 
usually proved to be well founded. Although by 
nature he was a student, and read the best part of 
the best books, yet of him it might be said, as of 
Abraham Lincoln : " He read not many, but much." 
But of all his reading, aside from God s Word, 
with the utmost care he "read the signs of the 
times." This made him a wise counselor and a 
careful adviser. He never leaped at conclusions. 
If mists were too thick to penetrate, and the course 
improbable, he always went slowly and with cau 
tion. Had he been a General, he would have been 
a hard one to defeat. He would not be drawn into 
ambush, nor strike a strong blow at a shadow. 
Careful and prudent to find the position of the ene 
my, then never underestimating his strength, those 
who knew him would look for a stroke of masterly 



REN. ADAM CROOKS. 209 

power which would sweep ever) thing before it. 
These faculties made him a wise and successful 
leader. 

There was one more trait of character which 
wove the web of his career with sunshine. That 
was his hope. He was never disheartened at a 
seeming failure. His face never grew long and 
gloomy over a seemingly backward turn of the 
wheel of fortune. If an honest effort failed of its 
anticipated results, and covered other souls with 
clouds, they were not his. Both his faith and better 
judgment drove them away. His faith said : "This 
is God s work and none of my business, only I am 
to do my best to save the day." And his reason 
said: "Who has ever undertaken any great and 
good enterprise and seen it flourish from the first. 7 

u The noblest plan is, when we fail, 
To rise and try again." 

This formed the basis upon which rested that 
genial, hopeful trait of character which set every 
true heart at ease in his presence. No such man 
as he ever sat down in despair, or sold out at half 
price, or sought to shift his pain of heart to his 
stomach by a dose of stramonium or ratsbane. 
Such a man, with such a faith and such a hope can 
never be a coward, or commit suicide. Labor was 
nothing, pain was nothing, long midnight rides over 
rough roads and through drenching rains, were 
trifles scarcely worth mentioning the next day. To 
mortal fear he was a stranger; and a close analysis 



210 THE LIFE OF 

of his mental and well developed physical consti 
tutions, makes it appear as less a wonder why, 
Spartan-like, he had so little regard for physical 
suffering, and seemed fearless of death. His un 
wavering Christian hope, founded upon an abiding 
faith in Him who said : " I will never leave thee 
nor forsake thee," and "All things work together 
for good to them that love God," were enough for 
him. He knew these were God s words, and he 
depended upon them. Current events and transac 
tions in human society were only surface incidents, 
liable to many phases and changes, while God s 
word, on which his faith was founded, was more 
than the solid rock which girdles the globe. Hea 
ven and earth shall pass away, but not that word. 
His figure was straight, and stood about five feet 
eleven inches high ; his weight was from two hun 
dred and five to two hundred and twelve pounds. 
His eye was a bluish hazel, and his hair, by age 
and toil, was turned to an iron-grey. His long, 
full beard, his round, full face, his clear, intelligent 
countenance and his erect and manly form, left the 
impression upon the strangers of a crowd, or the 
passengers of a railway train, that a man of more 
than ordinary gifts and position was among them. 
His habits were steady, his methods were uniform, 
his course one day, or in one case of business or 
advice, all things being equal, suggested what it 
would be on the next day and occasion. So he 
seldom turned up in unlocked for ways and places. 
He was not moody. He did not do things "just as 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 211 

it happened." People would not say of him, in a 
case which he was to decide : " It will be just as 
it happens to strike him." He decided from the 
law and the testimony. In his position, it is won 
derful how many questions of importance there 
were to decide. And on his "Yes" or "No, 
turned the fate of ministers and Churches. To 
him this was a great care. His course was that of 
a conciliator. His efforts "made for peace." One 
of the last things he did, was to write several let 
ters to save a pastor and a Church. He was very 
anxious for both. And often he was called in to 
aid in matters which others should have done for 
themselves, without taxing his physical endurance 
to its utmost limit. But people found him a frank 
and genial friend, and sought his advice as natu 
rally as they would that of an elder brother. 
And he made them feel so welcome and at ease, 
giving to all liberally and upbraiding not, that it 
ceases to be strange that so many sought his 
counsel. 

He never sought to put himself ahead, or to push 
himself upon public attention. He did not need 
to. His natural modesty caused him to desire to 
be unnoticed. But men who found him seeking 
seclusion in the public congregation, called him 
forth to take a place and part at the front. 

His voice was clear and deep. Few men could 
be so well heard and understood. He filled the 
remotest point of the most spacious halls with his 
clear and measured utterances. His thought usu- 



212 THE LIFE OF 

ally was very methodical. His speeches and ser 
mons were cumulative. His texts were his sermons 
in a nutshell, and his sermons were only about 
their texts and their natural corollaries and ad 
juncts. His texts were always revealed to him. 
He did not reason them out from the apparent 
needs, as some of us do, but he had depended from 
the early times in his ministry upon receiving by 
some sudden impression, his text. He studied his 
sermons thoroughly, and usually noted their heads 
on slips of paper, which he placed in a long pock- 
et-book in his side pocket, ready for use. 

With care he wrote his articles for the press. 
As there has never been a skillful master of any of 
the fine arts who leaped from the bottom to the top 
round of the ladder at a single bound, but has 
toiled through patient and steady effort to climb 
round by round, so the most successful writers have 
gained their eminence by care and toil. His friends 
and readers know how closely and clearly every 
thing he wrote was written. Lest all might not 
easily follow the long steps he found it so easy to 
make, I have seen him lay aside sheet after sheet 
of well written manuscript, and write it again arid 
again. Oh, could his readers have known the cost 
to him of brawn and brain and life-forces, they 
would have read what he wrote with even more 
solicitude. Not that it was difficult for him to 
write, but in what he wrote he was so pains-taking 
that when it was done, it was finished, and like 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 218 

Gray s "Elegy," few persons could suggest an im 
provement in any particular. 

Perfection was his aim in all respects. It was 
seen in his neat dress ; in his deportment at the 
fireside and the table; in his salutation of his 
friends ; in short, in tongue and pen, in public and 
private, in moral position and spiritual life, his aim 
was perfection. And while he enjoyed the sweets 
of a Christian life, it expressed itself, as in many 
other cases, in his lively, pleasant countenance. 
He was not a sad, gloomy, sorrowful, long-faced 
Christian. He lived above the clouds, in the sun 
shine, and like the parent eagle he sought to lead 
and lure others there. At times his quiet humor, 
and cheerful, playful words, sent glintings of sun 
shine down through many a chasm of gloom and 
cloud, to light up many a heart. 

He was a firm bejiever in the superintendence of 
a Divine Providence over the minutiae of life. His 
personal history was full of incidents which proved 
his faith, and exhibited his trust. He transferred 
this same confidence from himself to the denomina 
tion which he served so faithfully arid well. He 
believed that God had an especial use yet for Wes- 
leyan Methodists. And as an agent of the will of 
Heaven, he sought with an unfaltering faith and 
fortitude to perfect the workings of the denomina 
tion. And as his labors drew to a close, he was 
firmly of the opinion that the true power of the 
Church, and the agencies at its command were ad 
vancing. A few days before his death he said : 



214 THE LIFE OF 

"Brother Stratton, I feel greatly encouraged by our 
denominational prospects. The Conferences which 
I attended last Fall manifested such faith and zeal, 
and gave such evidences of a love of hard work 
as I never saw "before among them. Ministers are 
better supported, both in finances and influence in 
the communities where they are located. Then, 
there are so many able, efficient young men coming 
on, who within five years will be capable of filling 
any position in the gift of the Connection, that I 
feel more encouraged than at any other time for 
the past ten years. While lying sick in Iowa, I 
looked over the ground carefully, and I thought and 
said to my attendants, that never in my entire life had 
I seen a time, when, if it pleased God to take me, that 
1 could be so well spared as now" 

An incident transpired while on his way from 
his sick bed in Iowa to Wasioja, the seat of the 
Minnesota Conference. He had been sick at the 
Michigan, Illinois and Iowa Conferences, with a 
run of Typhoid Fever. At the seat of the latter 
he remained, confined in his sick room, and a part 
of the time delirious, while JBro. D. F. Shepardson 
attended for him the Kansas Conference. This 
over and he arose from his sick bed, and unattend 
ed, cheerfully and hopefully started for Minnesota. 
The cross-roads are usually unsteady and irregular. 
At one point he found that the regular train had 
gone, and he must wait twelve or fifteen hours for 
the next run, and then ride through the cheerless 
hours of a chilly night. There was a freight train, 



RET. ADAM CROOKS. 215 

with a wretched " caboose" in the rear, going out 
in a lew minutes. He could scarcely think it pru 
dent to expose himself to the constant draft of 
such a car. He prayed God to help him. The con 
ductor came around. He told this official who he 
was, and the importance of his business, and that 
he scarcely felt able to ride in that car, else he 
cheerfully would. The Conductor reported the 
matter to the General Superintendent, who was at 
hand. A special car, with a neat state-room, was 
immediately attached, and a beautiful bed made up 
of high-piled hair cushions and ample coverings. 
He was aided into it, and said he slept like an in 
fant for one hundred and fifty miles. He believed 
it to be a special providence of his ever-loving 
Father in Heaven, who notes the fall of a sparrow 
and hears the young raven s cry. 

His health never appeared better than during the 
Summer prior to the last visits he made to the Fall 
Conferences. How clearly do I seem to see him, 
with a clear and somewhat florid countenance, sit 
ting at his accustomed desk ! How intelligent his 
countenance, how kind his expressions, how prom 
ising his prospects, how bright his hopes ! After 
he had departed from his accustomed place, which 
it seemed that he might yet fill for years, in our 
issue of the AMERICAN WESLEYAN, August 19th, 
1874, we published the following: 

PERSONAL. 

" KEY. A. CROOKS, whose checful face and friendly 
words we miss, has left his busy financial desk for a tour 



216 THE LIFE OF 

of the Western Conferences, to be gone about three months. 
Although he is to spend but a little time in each place, so 
extended will be his tour, it will require many oppressive 
days and cheerless night-rides to accomplish the journey. 
Though mid summer is decorating our valleys now, the 
sere and yellow leaf will rustle to the tread, and from 
murky skies may form and fall the snow ere his return. 
These columns need not commend him and the important 
enterprises he represents to the favorable consideration of 
the brethren to whom he as God s servant once more 
comes. Soon agent and actors will take their last journey, 
do their last duty, aad pass up to tl-e auditing rooms of the 
Eternal Judge. For the golden bowl at last is broken, 
and the pitcher carried often to the fountain at length re 
turns no more. We believe the lesson these facts teach 
will be heeded by us all." 

It seemed almost prophetic. The feeling whicb 
prompted the expression was perhaps the out 
growth of that sad uncertainty which lies just be 
hind the dim veil of futurity. Then, too, the 
dangers and exposures intensified the thought, and 
that this like other earthly things must end. Well, 
soitpro\ed. He attended two dedications after 
the Conferences, and then, amid the chill and gloom 
of late October s dripping, he returned. A car 
riage brought him from the depot, first to the office 
and then to his home. Home had always been 
secondary to the office, and so was it still. In the 
next issue of the AMERICAN WESLEY AN we gave 
him mention in the following personal : 
PERSONAL. 

" REV. A. CROOKS, whose labors, successes, sickness 
and return have been duly noticed by our city papers and 
a multitude of his friends, has beeu at home since Tue&- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 217 

tlay, October 27th. He claims to be much better, and no 
doubt is ; but he is coming up very slowly. He has been 
on the street a few times, and appeared, the ghost of his 
former self, at the office perhaps thrice since his return. 
He has lost thirty pounds from his two hundred and ten, 
and his physical strength has turned to the weakness of a 
child. His eyes seem large, his voice hollow, and his step 
unsteady. But his mind is clear, his thoughts active, and 
his soul growing brighter and more serene as he arises 
from the clouds and smoke of the battle toward the bliss 
of the everlasting gates. We do not believe that the Lord 
is about to take him home now, but only intends to show 
him both worlds from a point between ; a point where 
the true value of the two appears more nearly correct than 
is usually manifest. May prayers still go up in clouds to 
Heaven s windows for him. 

We have attempted to show why he thought 
himself in no danger. I seemed to see him on the 
verge of a chasm, invisible to himself, and over 
which it appeared to me there was great danger of 
his falling. But so Spartan-like and heroic, so 
dead to pain and careless of toil was he, that he 
had no fear of death. And when at length I wrote, 
"ADAM CKOOKS is DEAD," this hand never penned 
so sad a sentence, nor this heart felt so deep a 
pang. Not only was it for our own sakes who 
were here, and would feel his loss the most, but 
everywhere among our people, from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, we knew a sad wail would go up to 
the gates of Heaven. Blinding tears fell upon the 
blackened columns of the AMERICAN WESLEYAN, in 
mourning, and many laid it aside for a time, not 
daring to risk their fluttering, almost murmuring 
10 



TEE LIFE 0^ 

hearts, to open it. From twenty to thirty thousand 
people knew him well and loved him much. He 
Was humanity s well-tried friend. 

His faithful and devoted wife bears with patience 
and Christian resignation her loss. She seems to 
see him, not in the silent grave, but in a Christian s 
Paradise. She cannot, does not wish him back. 
And why should she? Hi& battle is fought, his- 
crown is gained, and he has entered into rest, 
From the clangor of arms and the rush of battle, 
he entered an open sesame at the side of the way, 
and stepped through into glory. Among the last 
sane words he spoke to me, he said : " My soul 
has been riding all night in a chariot ofjire." Yes-, 
for but a little time the angel charioteer let him 
step out again. Then, when the Master wanted 
him, he did not let him suffer long dragging slowly 
through the valley of the shadow of death but he 
gent his swift coursers again. Our brother seemed 
to see them coming, and exclaimed to his wife : 
" Quick ! Be quick 1" He kissed her hastily, spoke 
of the "rest beyond the skies/ and before there 
was time to realize the danger, the angel whipped 
back through "the dark valley," and entered, with 
his prize, into the eternal morning. 

We gladly let him rest. No winds can chill 
him there. No fevers fret his flesh. No earth-born 
hopes inspire new activities, and no earthly morn 
ing will call him to the front again. 

" Servant of God ! well done I 
Rest from thy loved employ ; 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 219 

The battle fought, the victory won, 
Enter thy Master s joy. 

" In condescending love, 

Thy ceaseless prayer he heard, 
And bade thee suddenly remove 

To thy complete reward. 

"The pains ot death are past, 

Labor and sorrow cease ; 
And life s long warfare closed at last, 

Thy soul was foun 1 in peace. 

" Redeemed from earth and pain, 

Oh, may we all ascend ! 
And there in Jesus presence reign, 

With our translated friend." 

HOME LIFE. 

For nearly twenty-two years the Lord permitted 
me to walk beside one of his own faithful servants- 
He was my all of earthly home, and my heart safe 
ly trusted in him. He was firm as the " everlast 
ing hilts" where right or wrong was concerned ; yet 
kind always careful of the comfort tender of 
the feelings and reciprocal in his affections. He 
often said, " Home is the dearest spot on earth to 
me ;" yet where duty called him away, he was quick 
to obey, and while duty held him, he was content. 
At times I seem to hear him saying now, as so of 
ten in the past he has said, " We ll make our home 
a little heaven, where we can be quiet and rest af 
ter the battles of the day are all over; but we 
must be sure and not make unto us anv idols. I 



220 THE LIFE OF 

believe God and His cause are first in my heart; 
and you are next to those" .For years I tried con 
scientiously to submit patiently to his long and oft 
repeated absences, knowing that he went from his 
home because duty led him, yet all the time feeling 
that it was a hardship that I had to sacrifice so 
much, for my home was very lonely without him. 
He was so rejoiced when I could say, I will, and 
do, let you go for Jesus sake I will stay alone, 
when the cause of God requires you, and do it 
cheerfully, as unto the Lord. His eye was surely 
" single" to the glory of God. When any measure 
was proposed, his first thought was, how will it af 
fect the work, and no difference how hard the re 
quirement, he always forgot self, and self inter 
ests. He was always cheerful, and hopeful. If 
any clouds arose he always said " let us get into 
the sunshine." With all his cares, and while 
pressed down with such a weight of anxieties, he 
never gave place to fretfulness, for his mind was 
stayed on One of whom it is said " Thou wilt keep 
him in perfect peace whose mind is stayed on thee, 
because he trusted in thee." 

In looking back over all those years in which I 
have been so securely sheltered by his love, and 
through which we have tried hand in hand to 
walk in the way the Lord has led us, I can say, 
" surely goodness and mercy have followed us," 
and although our trials and conflicts at the time 
< seemed grievous," yet I now count it all joy that, 
I was privileged to labor and suffer with him for 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 221 

the Master here, and that through Christ I hope to 
share the Christian s rest with him in heaven. 

I will give extracts from some of his letters to 
myself. Several of these were written before our 
marriage, and the remainder after the lapse of 
years. 

MEDINA, OHIO, Nov. 10, 1852. 
" DEAR ELIZABETH : 

This is my eighth year in the traveling ministry, four 
years of which were spent in the South. It is highly pre 
sumable I shall live and die a " preacher of the Gospel." 
My principal business will then be to save souls. The of 
fice is an awfully responsible one, and its duties are ar 
duous. Nor is it desirable to be the wife of a minister. 
This position too, is a responsible and laborious one. Not 
the position for a pleasure -seeker, or the lover of honor, 
ease or fashion. For it, such have no taste; in it they can 
take no pleasure. But I will say on the other hand, if the 
heart is in the work, if the soul sympathizes with the Sa 
vior, notwithstanding all its responsibilities, labors, and 
pressing cares, it is a rich moral luxury to live and work 
in this glorious God-like cause that of. saving mankind." 
Another time he said to me, "I expect always to be a 
Wesleyan Methodist minister. As long as I live, I intend 
to be in the active work. I cannot give you gold, nor 
promise you a permanent home. We shall be wayfarers 
we must be ready to follow wherever duty leads us. But 
if we love God, and each other we may be very happy." 

MEDINA, OHIO, March 8, 1853. 
11 DEAR ELIZABETH : 

Yesterday, after riding thirty miles through mud and 
mortar, over hill and dale, I had the exquisite satisfaction 
of finding your excellent epistle awaiting my arrival. 
And as I have many other things to write, I shall leave 
you to conjecture how well I was pleased with its con- 



222 THE LIFE OF 

tents. Yes : and ere my heart had ceased to throb with 
joy, and as I was thinking of an answer to-day, behold ! 
another swift winged angel of good, dropped another 
sheet well filled with words of comfort words which warm 
the heart, fire the soul, swell the bosom, light up the eye, 
radiate the countenance with sentiments of delight. I am 
satisfied, that as hunger prepares to enjoy food sickness 
to appreciate health fatigae to enjoy repose so do the 
frowns and threats of foes prepare the heart to gladden 
and glow at the smiles and warm words of true friends. I 
leave you to make the application. 

I thank God on your behalf, that Our Father, how sweet 
the name, vouchsafes his rich blessings to cheer your 
heart, and inspire the still firmer resolve to be his and al 
ways his. Sometimes I fear I have an idol, and that if 
required to give thee up for Christ s sake, I would be slow 
to make the sacrifice. I want to, aye, I do love you most 
dearly, but I would not love you more than I as a Chris 
tian ought. You beautifully express the feelings of my 
heart " that we should first live for God and then for each 
other." If we do this, we shall be happy. I hope I may 
ever prove worthy the confidence you have reposed in, and 
aifection lavished upon me. Could I be so base as to win 
a heart as pure as thine, and take it fi-om it.s girlhood 
home out upon the rough sea of life the tempest-tossed 
ocean of time and then prove unfaithful, I surely would 
most richly merit the righteous retributions of God ; I 
should expect them. Well do I know, and glad I am it is 
so, that I cannot make you unhappy without rendering 
myself miserable. The reverse is no less true. To make 
you happy is to bless myself. God knows it is my pur 
pose to live so as to enjoy his approving smile." 

MEDINA, OHIO, April 6, 1853. 

< DEAR ELIZABETH : 

Your birthday favor camo to hand yesterday. Lan 
guage is too weak to tell with how much interest and pleas 
ure 1 perused its rich lines. I incline to the opinion how- 



BEV. ADAM CROOKS. 

ever that your feelings were very varied not unnaingled 
with sadness. But how eould it be otherwise ? and, indeed, 
there are times when I love to be a little sad. It seems to 
mend the heart. You are about to bid adieu to scenes 
around which the tendrils of your generous affections have 
twisted and tied to leave friends tried and true, and aa 
occupation in which your heart has been enlisted for years^ 
a calling of which good angels might be proud carv 
ing ineffaceable hieroglyphics upon the imperishable gran 
ite of the eternity expanding intellect ! Writing epitaphs 
which will be read by the light of the judgment As aa 
artist taking likenesses, which I trust will shine in the 
beauty of unfading youth, and glory of undying day 1 Wh& 
would envy a heart which unmoved could leave such a 
work ! Not I. Your school days over ! Nay verily. 
They have scarce begun. Life is a university of experi 
ence. And here we are only in the primary department. 
In the vestibule taking some preparatory lessons, previous 
to entering upon the enrapturing investigation of the sci 
ence of Universal Being. What boundless fields of glori 
ous discovery are before us; what limitless regions of 
knowledge are urging the eager mind onward onward 

still, and ever onward! Cease to learn cease to do 

cease to be happy never. That change will come dis 
appointment and discouragement to be met, without 
doubt; but they too are teachers, good teachers in this 
great school of experience. 77 

WEST CHAZF, May 1, 1873. 

" DEAR WIFE : 

" It is too bad, but this is the very best I can do. I had 
no thought of any such thing until it was too late ; maH. 
went out this morning at six o clock and I cannot send a 
letter until to-morrow the same hour, so that you will not 
get this until Saturday ; yet this is atoned for to some ex 
tent from the fact that you will get it the anniversary of 
our marriage. 

Twenty years will have passed: 0, how time flies! But 



224 THE LILE OF 

thank God, our marriage is not the grave of love/ as? 
some modern Reformers would style it The sun of love 
shines much more brightly on us to-day than twenty years 
ago. How much better thus to wear in than wear out/ 
So may it ever be. Young folks think they know some 
thing of love, and so they do ; but there is large margin 
for it to grow and ripen. Where shall we be twenty years- 
from this? If living we shall be among the old folks. I 
sixty-nine, and you sixty-one or two; but mayhap one or 
both of us may be in Heaven. In all this, the will of the 
Lord be done. Yet it is a fact, that the longer I live the 
more Hove to live ; not that I hold on to the thing of liv 
ing here with greater tenacity, but more and more I love 
to labor for God and the good of others. For this, I 
should be willing to live a thousand years; aside from 
this, Hie to me would lose the lustre of its grandest signifi 
cance. It amounts to this. The more we ripen up into- 
the spirit of Jesus, the more we love to work for Him. 

But I must stop writing, or I shall not get this into the 
mail for to-morrow morning, and that I must do without 
fail. Well, I shall think of thee often Saturday. We will 
not be separated in thought, and in our consecrations, in 
cur hearts: we can be re- wed though thus remote. t Hav 
ing many things to write unto you, I would not write with 
pen and ink ; but I trust to come unto you, and speak 
* face to face, that our joy may be full. Peace be to thee* 
Greet the friends by name/ Ever lovingly yours. n 



"DEAR WIFET 

We are having an excellent meeting. I wish you were 
here. I trust the good Lord is preciously near with you at 
home that ev^ry meal is a sacrament that you have mo 
mentary communion with God. Hope you are well and 
happy. I fancy I see you in your cosy home, while I am 
a pilgrim." Rejoice evermore. 7 Pray without ceasing/ 
In all things give thanks. 7 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 225 

1873. 

WIFE: 

This is a real bright morning. Hope it is with thee, 
both external and internal. Well, there is not much in this 
letter, but from it you may learn that I think of you right 
early in the morning. Be sure and keep the City in view, 
and keep step with the Captain. Love to all. Pray for 
me. A few days and I will be at home, the Lord willing. I 
will keep him in perfect peace whose mind is stayed on 
me." 

Aug. 29, 1873. 

" DEAR WIFE : 

Both of your good letters are received. I read with 
tearful joy the victory you have gained, to endure hardness 
cheerfully for Jesus sake. What a blessed victory. God 
be praised. I am trying to live on the mountain top of 
communion with God, and often feel that I am prayed for 
at home. The Lord give us glorious victory. Surely He 
will. All things work together for good to those who 
love God. Christ in you the hope of glory What a 
wonderful blessing to have Christ in us. His pure lov 
ing spirit. Fare thee well till we meet again. Ever faith 
fully and lovingly." 

Sept. 11, 1873. 

" DEAR WIFE ; 

I have just come up out of Indiana struck the M. S. 
R. R. here at Jones ville, fifteen miles from Cold water. 
Have to wait for the train, so I write you. I shall expect 
to get a letter from you at Coldwater ; then I will finish 
up this. I had to travel on a cross track yesterday up out 
of Indiana an inferior affair ; so about fceven o clock last 
eve it stopped and put up for the night. This was a new 
experience since I came from the South. There I was a 
whole day traveling some sixty miles, and then put up for 
the night; that was twenty-five years ago. Last night I 
improved the time. I wrote till a late hour retired had 



226 THE LIFE OF 

a refreshing sleep woke up feeling quite wakeful ^ 
and svrote two or three hours, finishing up my account of* 
the Conference. Thank God thus far, my health has been 
very good. Oh, how different from last year ! Yours of 
the 7th received. So glad you are contented to suffer for 1 
Jesus. It makes you so much dearer to me. All well. 
Fare thee well. Love and blessing to you and all. Faith 
fully thine husband." 

Oct. 4, 1873. 

" DEAR WIFE : 

Yours of the 29th ult ? is received. Oh, it don t seem so 
far to Kansas when you once get there ! It requires only 
four days for a letter to come. I like the Kansas brethren 
very much. They seem like a noble baud of self-sacrific 
ing moral heroes. Six have joined the Conference this 
session. This Conference is alive and wide awake. I lit 
tle thought of meeting persons I had met before ; yet here 
are a brother and sister Foster who lived a few miles from 
my native town and a brother Hosford, whom I knew 
twenty-eight years ago. Three weeks will soon speed by. 
You must not allow yourself to feel lonely. Especially 
you must not repine. When you feel so inclined, go to 
Jesus. He is the best of company. I write on this paper 
because the other is all used up. I write by lamplight, 
and the family is not up yet; will get this mailed to-day 
if possible. Best love and blessing to you and all. God is 
love. Love one another. 7 Love fulfills the law. 7 For 
ever yours in love. 77 

KANSAS, Oct. 7, 1873. 

"DEAR WIFE: 

Here I am among my relations at a cousin s Was at 
Bro. Henry s to-day assisted him in raising his house. 
We all go to Robert s in Kansas City this eve. Henry and 
wife, Robert and wife, cousin Thomas and wife will all be 
there, but near fifteen hundred miles intervene between 
us. If you were only here ! I have thought much of thee 



fcEV. ADAM CROOKS. 227 

%o -dayespecially because I have been visiting. If I only 
had wings, or could take cars drawn by lightning, would I 
not see you this very night ? But time is on the wiag; only 
a few days more and then I can go to stay sometime worth 
while. Hope you are well and ever so happy. Let me 
see ! You will get this about Saturday. Then only two 
weeks more. Bless rne ! Busy thought can briisg us side 
by side, and we can have many a visit between this and 
then. My health continues as usual. God be praised. I 
shall hope to hear from you at Wasioja . I have a long 
ride night and day before me. The weather is beautiful 
here. Fare thee welL "Keep your heart in the love of 
God." 

Oct. 17, 1873. 

" DEAR WIFE: 

Your good letter of the 9th not received until yester 
day I began to feel hungry to hear from you. Your letters 
have so much better ring to them, than of yore. You have 
gotten into a better land than that in which you used to 
live ; I know not how sufficiently to praise Grod. With you, 
I hope you may be kept there forever. How did you corrre 
to say you hoped there would be but one Sabbath more 
for you to be alone, if it is the Lord s will? How did you 
come to put that in ? Well, it so happens that I have to 
turn about at Pittsford, Michigan, and go away back to 
Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and dedicate a church. They had 
posters printed and all the arrangements made and I knew 
nothing of it until I come here. Letters had been written, 
but I did not get them. It is a great thing to pray from 
the heart the Lord s prayer Thy will bt> done. And it 
is a blessed thing to realize My grace is sufficient. 7 This 
is a possible experience and one we all need. Still beau 
tiful weather. A good session of Conference thus far. I 
have to dedicate the church in which Conference is held, 
on Sabbath then three more that week, making four 
churches in eight days Then in a month or so come back 
to Iowa to dedicate another. This looks some like pros- 



228 * THE LIFE OF 

perity ; God be praised Glad God is reviving his work in? 
Syracuse. May the time of captivity there be ended speed 
ily. I am sure God is hearing prayer. Great peace have 
they that love thy law, and nothing shall offend them/ 
1 In the world ye shall have tribulation, but in me ye have 
peace. 7 Peace be unto you. My peace I give unto you. 
Not as the world giveth, give I unto you Peace like a 
river, and righteousness like the waves of the sea/ How 
blessed to daily and hourly commune with our Saviour 
consciously. But remember still there are heights beyond. 
Let us, Forgetting the things behind and reaching ta 
those before, press toward the mark for the prize of our 
high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 7 

LETTER WRITING. 

His letter writing while at home was no small 
tax upon his time and sympathies. Many of his 
hours were spent in writing the absent. Encour 
aging those who needed encouragement. Sympa 
thizing with those in sorrow, reproving in love, 
those who needed reproof, and in even so small a 
denomination as ours, there is often need of a 
peace-maker. Jesus will surely say to him, 
" Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be 
called the children of God," Many times he has 
come from the office weary in body and mind, yet 
no rest until some plan of action was arranged to 
help those in difficulty. Many times in the small 
hours of the night have I listened to the advice he 
thought he should give the parties concerned. It 
seemed a relief to tell some one of his cares. Per 
haps the difficulty was concerning trifling matters, 
yet, there was danger that the cause of God would 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 229 

suffer, if oil were not poured upon the troubled 
waters. He seemed to have the faculty of gaining 
the confidence of all ; for every one felt a freedom 
in confiding their interests into his keeping. They 
expected sympathy in joy or sorrow. Standing as 
he did at the centre of our denominational inter 
ests visiting as he did for so many years our an 
nual Conferences, he became well acquainted with 
our work all through the Connection. Almost knew 
individual churches. He was personally acquaint 
ed with nearly all the ministers -knew their suc 
cesses and their failures knew all they had to 
contend against their self-denial for the Master 
their zeal, their devotion and consecration. He 
often wrote, " We do have a band of noble breth 
ren." His letters from the Conferences almost in 
variably testified to the presence of the Lord in 
their annual gatherings, and the faithful work done 
by the brethren. In looking over his letters I find 
often such expressions as these " We have had a 
glorious session of Conference ; for the Lord has 
been with us in mighty power." Souls were con 
verted, and believers were strengthened." " The 
brethren go to their work with a renewed conse 
cration. I expect great results, because of the 
baptism of power received." Also, " This has been a 
good year for this Conference. Thanks be unto God 
who giveth us such victories. Its all of the Lord 

or Brother is on the mountain top. This has 

been his best year over one hundred conversions. 
Prospects good, but our hope is in God. May He 



230 THE LIFE OF 

use us to His glory. I preached last night a 
good time. Tlie good Lord blesses me in His 
work. How much I need His grace, I am sure 
many are praying for me. Let us be more and 
more given to God. I think I know something of 
what Paul wrote of the care of all the Churches. 
Seek daily communion with God. Be as busy as 
may be about His work and time will speed quick 
ly. God bless you." 

THE LAST YEAR. 

The last year of Mr. Crook s life was if possible 
crowded with more than usual labor. He returned 
from his visit to the Coferences in the Fall of 1873 
feeling well in body and mind. The people had 
responded to his calls for subscriptions to the new 
Publishing House with great liberality. The work 
throughout the Connection was in a growing, pros 
perous condition. The Lord was with them at 
each session of Conference, to bless and strengthen. 
The brethren went to their respective fields of la 
bor with fresh courage and renewed consecration. 
New fields were opening, and new laborers were 
coming up to the work. He thanked God and took 
courage. He almost immediately, in connection 
with his office work, took charge of a Mission 
Church about one mile and a half from his home, 
preaching twice on each Sabbath. A few weeks 
after his return, Bro. Stratton-was taken sick, and 
for weeks was so feeble that we were all greatly 
alarmed about his recovery. Mr. Crooks took 



&EV. ADAM CROOKS. 231 

charge of the editorial work, and while all this 
was upon his hands, the clerk was also taken sick, 
which made additional labor. Before either was 
able to do full duty, he commenced a series of 
meetings at the Mission Chapel. Working hard 
at the office all day, he would walk to the meeting, 
preach, exhort, conduct altar services, and late in 
evening would walk home, take a few hours rest, 
and then commence the labors of another day. 
This continued until time for the Spring Confer 
ences. He attended the last of those in May, and 
in June, Bro. Stratton and family went West on a 
visit, and were absent four weeks. Mr. Crooks 
took entire charge of papers and office again. He 
attended the dedication of a church in Vermont, 
in July, and in August went to Michigan for the 
same purpose. 

Immediately upon his return from the last dedi 
cation, he commenced his preparations for his usual 
Fall journeyings. His hands were full of buiness 
until the last moment. At dinner, on the last day, 
he said: "I am going to try to get through with 
my work in time to have a half hour to rest and 
visit with you before I leave for the train." But 
there are always so many arrangements to make, 
so much to attend to, before leaving for such a 
length of time, that lie could spare but a few mo 
ments for supper and the last u God bless you I" 
We expected to meet again in Michigan after a few 
weeks. He left home on the evening train, for 
East Orange, Delaware Co., Ohio, where the ses- 



232 THE LIFE Off 

sion of the Central Ohio Conference Was to be helcL 
Three years of our life had been spent happily in 
the cozy little parsonage at that place, He arrived 
in safety and good health, and wrote rne a long 
letter, telling of old friends and his pleasant 
visit with them. He left there for the Miami Con 
ference, and the week following he was in Rich 
mond, Ind., attending the Indiana Conference. I 
will give an extract from one of his letters written 
while there : - 

Sept. 3, 1874. 

"DEAR WIFE: 

My health is still good, for me, at this season of the 
year. Some catarrh, but I think I am over the worst. 
The attendance is large some say the largest ever known 
in this Conference. Six came to unite with the Conference. 
How thankful to G-od we should be for the success he is 
giving us. I am very thankful. Soon as possible I will 
let, you know whether you may look for me Monday or* 
Tuesday. Good-bye till evening. Mail is in now, and no 
letter from you. Hope now for to-morrow morning, but I 
send you this. I am much better to-day. The Lord be 
praised. Take good care of yourself; I know you will of 
mother. Don t too strongly look for me next week. Case 
is looking doubtful. Best love and blessings. Thine own 
loving husband. 

He found that by r?ding all night he could come 
to my mother s on his way to the Michigan Confer 
ence, and spend a day with us. He was very 
weary, but enjoyed his visit very much. He had a 
long talk with mother. She did not think she 
should see him again, for she expected to be called 
soon to her " Heavenly home," 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 233 

While making preparations for his departure, I 
could not entirely control my feelings. Seeing this, 
he came to me and said : " It s hard, but we ll do 
this for Jesus sake." We went to the depot; bade 
each other farewell. That was the last time I saw 
my husband when he looked like himself. 

IONIA, MICH., Sept. 14, 1874. 

" DEAR WIFE : 

I Lad expected to communicate with you again last 
week, but was away five miles from the post office; hence, 
I write this morning, immediately. We have had an ex 
cellent Conference session. Good attendance, a blessed 
spirit of harmony and zeal. Six were ordained. My 
health is now about perfect. I have recovered from my 
annual attack of catarrh, and this morning, after the labors 
of yesterday, am feeling splendidly. 0, how I thank God 
for good health ! I hope you are well by this time. You 
must take good care of yourself for my sake. To look 
forward, it seems a long time until November; yet we 
know how fast time flies. You will be content taking care 
of mother. Bro. Curtis sends love to you all ; he is quite 
fee ble. Time is manifestly making its mark upon him. 
So it does and is upon us all. Now, be good, and do good. 
Let me hear from you often. Love and blessing to you 
and all. Thine own in love. 77 

While going from the Michigan to the Illinois 
Conference, he had a severe chill, It lasted hours. 
In speaking of it after he came home, he said, " I 
thought I never could get warm again. The very 
marrow in my bones seemed frozen." He sent me 
a card from Sycamore, saying he was sick, and he 
would write me again soon. 



234 THE LIFE OP 

SYCAMORE, ILL., Sept. 23. 

"DEAR WIFE : 

No doubt you have been anxious to hear from me. 
Thursday eve I sent a card to you, reporting my sickness 
then started to ride five miles to the Conference ; or rather 
to my stopping place, which was two miles from the place 
of Conference. This was too bad for a sick man, to ride 
four miles each-day. I would go in the morning and stay 
till evening, remaining in- doors at night. I eat almost 
nothing. This wretched Hay-fever. I preached Sabbath, 
and came to this place Monday, too late to get a letter to 
you. I write this before breakfast. I am feeling better, 
but not well. Pray for me ; I do for you. Write me 
often. Love to you, mother, and all. Ever thine own/ 

SYCAMORE, ILL., Sept. 24. 

"DEAR WIFE: 

[I write you by the handj of another, not being able to 
write now. I have been stopping here at Bro. Clark s, 
pastor of the Church at Sycamore, trying to rest up and 
doctor up. The Doctor says I am better, and thinks I 
will not have a run of fever. I am very weak. I start for 
Iowa to-day. Bro. Clark is going with me to take care of 
me and do the work. I shall do my very best to take ?are 
of myself, and will write you again when I get to Iowa. 
I know you will not cease to pray for me ; I will not for 
thee. Hope in God. Don t be discouraged. All will 
come out right. Very best love and blessing to you and all. 
This is written by the hand of our excellent Sister Shep- 
ardson, for your loving husband." 

IOWA CONFERENCE, Ser>t. 28, 1874. 
"DEAR WIFE: 

I wrote you by the hand of Sister Shepardson, in Illi 
nois, and by the hand of Bro. Clark, in Iowa, on oar way 
to the seat of Conference, and would now write you by the 
hand of Bro. Shepardson, who is to accompany me to 
Kansas. It required nearly a superhuman effort to reach 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 235 

tills place. Having started Thursday noon, from Syca 
more, 111., we arrived at midnight at State Line, Iowa. 
There stretched out before us some fifteen miles of rough 
road, and it was raining furiously. This was rather a gloomy 
prospect for a sick man, but our good Heavenly Father 
brought us safely through it all. To his Holy name be 
rendered grateful praise. I left almost the entire business 
to Brothers Shepardson and Clark, simply settling with our 
Missionaries, and making my official report to the Confer 
ence. I only attended services Sabbath morning. The 
good brethren and sisters having kindly furnished me a 
couch on which to lie, and now having done all this, Mon 
day morning, I find myself vastly better than when we left 
Sycamore. It is truly wonderful how our good Heavenly 
Father can sustain amid suffering, toil and sickness. He 
shall have all the glory. And now, dear wife, be patient, 
trustful, and ever praise the Lord. This letter is quite ex- 
ten^. I had better rest. Give love to mother and all 
the family, and accept without measure, from your pilgrim, 
yet faithful and loving husband. 

"P. S. Your two good letters addressed me here, were 
received Saturday evening. 

11 P. S. Sept. 29th. Programme changed. I have con 
cluded to stop here a week and rest, and let Bro. Shepard- 
do the business in Kansas. This will give me opportunity 
to rest and rally for the remainder of the tour. Young 
Bro. McGrilvra consents to stay and care for me. Ever 
loving, &c." 

Oct. 5, 1874. 

" DEAR WIFE : * 

I promised to write the next letter with my own hands, 
but I find it much easier to employ the hand of another. 
I came here last Monday, and have been stopping here un 
til this Monday morning, to rest up and get well. Have 
had excellent care taken of me, God appointing a Sister 
Riley and Bro . McGilvra to this work. Now the fever 
seems to be gone, but it leaves me quite weak. It will re- 



236 THE LIFE OF 

quire some days to recruit, before I can renew my journey. 
I mean first, by the blessing of God, to take care of self, 
and theu do my utmost for His cause. It may be I will 
remain here until Wednesday, before trying to start out on 
my tour. Only two more Conferences to attend, and two 
more churches to dedicate. I expect to return to Syracuse 
by the way of Leesvilie ; but I do not expect to remain 
there very long. I wish the Estate affairs were all settled 
up. God will bring it about after a while. Take good 
care of yourself. Let me hear from you as often as possi 
ble. Give love to mother and all. Please accept a bound 
less share for yourself. Be sure and live very near to the 

dear Lord, and do all the good you can. From your ever 

loving husband. 7 

I received a number of postals written for him? 
all full of hope for a speedy recovery, and thank 
fulness for blessings given. After ten days reskhe 
started alone for the Minnesota Conference, He 
was not fit to make the journey, especially alone, 
but he said, " God took care of me." The next is 
written in a trembling hand, by himself. 

WASIOJA, MINN., Oct. J3, 1874. 
" DEAR WIFE: 

Your two letters were brought from Kansas, also the 
one to this place received. I am improving slowly. Ap 
petite does not seem to come. I think the attack was bil 
ious. I start^to Wisconsin to-day. A long visit with 
Professor Hand. He looks about as of yore. He is absent 
from his family nearly all the time. He sends kindest re 
gards to Libbie. Well, not long now, if God please, till 
we meet at home. Won t it seem good. Dear wife, let us 
live near God. Love and blessing to all. Your ever lov 
ing husband." 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 237 

WISCONSIN CONFERENCE, Oct. 17, 1874. 
"DEAR WIFE: 

Your good letter was received all right. I am still on 
the up grade. Have not preached since in Illinois, May 
next Sabbath, if the Lord helps. Yes, in about three 
weeks, God permitting, I hope to get home about the 
first of November." 

The next is an almost entire copy of his last let 
ter to me, written in weakness and weariness, with 
a trembling hand. 

TREMPELEAU, Wis., Oct. 21, 1874, 
" VERY DEAR WIFE : Your postal was received last 
evening. Hope you are well as usual. lam here to dedi 
cate a church at 2 o clock to-day. Hope God may help 
me. I am still improving slowly, but it almost seems by 
the half inch, yet coming up. Glad to know you are try 
ing to live near God. 0, how important this ! You wish 
to know on what day of next week I expect to get home 
If God will, on Tuesday, if I do not go to Leesville ; if I 
do go there, then Thursday. If you get home first, give 
love to all the friends. Blessings. Thine own loving hus 
band. 

(" Soon face to faee." A. CROOKS. 

After leaving Trempeleau, he had to attend a 
dedication at Xenia, Ohio. On the way, while in 
the cars, he made the acquaintance of two Friends ; 
and as they were conversing about the reforms of 
the day, and the life work of the Christian, he no 
ticed a gentleman seated near by, who seemed very 
much interested in the conversation. As they 
ueared Xcnia, he approached Mr. Crooks, asking 
" To Wiiitt part of the city do you intend going ? I 
live here, and can aid you." Pie told him where. 



238 THE LIFE OP 

Then the stranger said, " It is but a short distance, 
I am going the same way, and will carry your 
satchel for you. I have been listening to your talk, 
and I like the ring of it." They stepped to the 
door and found it raining. Then the gentleman 
said, " Let me call a carriage for you." He did 
so, and after helping him in, bade him a good day. 
Mr. Crooks rested very well that night, and the 
next day attended the dedication. After preach 
ing, there were twelve hundred dollars to raise, in % 
order to clear the church from indebtedness. They 
succeeded in raising the greater portion of it, and 
thinking they would not be able to finish it entire 
ly, dismissed the congregation. He went to his 
resting place, lay down a few hours, thought of 
another plan, arose, went to the evening service^ 
and completed the work. He was too feeble to go 
to Leesville, as he had purposed doing, so he came 
directly home. 

He was so thankful to get home once more. He 
was very grateful for the kindness and care be 
stowed upon him by others. Several times he said ? 
" I could not have had better care if you had been 
at my side; but it is so pleasant to be in my own 
little home again." He had every attention possi. 
ble while traveling. At one time, the Superintend, 
eiit of the road was at the depot when the train 
was being made up, and seeing Mr. Crooks condi 
tion, he ordered a more comfortable car to be 
added to the train. Another time, the Conductor 
of a train had a lounge put into the baggage car; 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 239 

so that he could lie down while traveling. The 
hands employed on the trains seemed to vie with 
each other in kindness to him. The accommoda 
tions in the far West, upon those cross roads, espe 
cially, are not very good. He has journeyed many, 
many miles, upon freight trains, and even upon open 
gravel cars, seated upon his trunk, with his um 
brella to shield him from the sun and rain. Several 
times he has written me of riding with the engineer 
and in one letter, written several years ago, he 
says : " I am getting used to the rough and tumble 
of travel. You would think so, if you had seen 
me riding all night, last night, in a freight carrying 
on a board for a bed, and my satchel for my pillow." 
He came home the 27th of October. He was 
very feeble, and had changed so in his appearance, 
that he scarcely looked like himself. We all felt 
that he must have been very much worse than we 
realized at the time. That evening, while talking 
of his sickness, I told him of the desolation that 
would come over me at times, while at mother s a 
fear that I should never see him again, and I said, 
"Oh, Mr. Crooks what should I have done if you 
had not come home ?" Laying his hands upon my 
head, he said, "God would have helped you borne 
it." He also said ;< he believed that he was per 
mitted to come home in answer to prayer." I feel 
assured, by some remarks he made as we further 
conversed, that night, that there had been times 
when he had felt his recovery doubtful. He 
traced the hand of a kind and loving Father all 



240 THE LIFE OP 

through his sickness, especially in raising up such 
friends, who were so tireless in their attentions to 
his comfort. He said farther, that " God had so 
prospered us as a denomination, that there would 
not be so much anxiety for the future as there had 
been in the past. He should not have so much 
care, and he was not going to let all his attention 
be given to outside work, for he intended to spare 
a little to his home. For years the Connection 
had claimed his whole time and absorbed his every 
thought; now, God was raising up others, who 
were working so zealously and faithfully that there 
was not that necessity for him to labor as he had 
been doing. He was going to rest and recruit." 

Nearly every day he spent an hour or more at the 
office, having his accounts of business done at the 
Conferences properly recorded on the office books, 
and in answering letters which were awaiting his 
return. Some of these were for advice and coun 
sel, and he wrote as the case seemed to need; 
sometimes planning the work for others, sometimes 
encouraging, and again giving counsel. When at 
home, he lay on the couch nearly all the time. He 
did not suffer much, but seemed so weary. 

The first Sabbath morning after his return, he 
wanted to go to Church, but as it was stormy, he 
concluded to stay at home and rest. I left him 
with that understanding. Shortly after I had gone, 
he changed his mind, arose, protected himself as 
best he could, and came to the house of God. He 
sat by the stove during service, but before the bene 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 241 

diction was pronounced, he asked permission to say 
a few words. He said he wished to thank the 
friends for their kind sympathy and prayers. He 
said it was in answer to prayer that he stood be 
fore them to-day. He spoke of the good dealings 
of God with him, and his perfect submission to the 
will divine. He encouraged them to continue to 
pray ; for God did hear and answer prayer. 

There were several times in which, for a few 
days, he seemed to gain strength ; then he would 
have chills or a return of fever, and he would lose 
all he had gained. At one time he gained several 
pounds in weight; but it could not have been good 
flesh. There was not a perfect circulation of blood 
through his system ; for one foot and limb were 
cold nearly all the time. His appetite was very 
fickle; sometimes craving very little, and then al 
most ravenous in its demands. 

The Mission Church had been without a supply 
for the pulpit for several Sabbaths, and he was so 
anxious for that little flock for which he had labored 
so earnestly, that he walked to the place of worship, 
and preached from these words: "Keep your 
selves in the love of God, looking for the mercy 
of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life." Jude, 
i: 21. He preached about forty minutes. His 
voice, at first, was weak and tremulous; but he 
became so engaged in urging his hearers to faith 
fulness, that it became as strong and powerful as it 
ever was. He rested a while, and walked home, 
11 



THE LIFE OF 

and that night he had another chill, from which, in 
a few days, he seemed to rally. He afterwards 
rode to the place of meeting, and preached his 
farewell sermon to them, as they had succeeded in 
securing the services of another pastor. This 
proved to be the last time he gave the " bread of 
life " to others. His text was : " And when he 
was gone, a lion met him by the way and slew 
him." 1 Kings, xiii : 24, The leading thought he 
tried to impress upon their minds was a care fulness 
in obeying the commands of God. He did not 
remain to Class-meeting, but took each one of them 
by the hand, asking God to bless them, he bade 
them farewell. They never saw him again, until 
they looked upon his shrouded form. 

When expostulated with for working when so 
feeble, he said, " I am doing my duty j God will 
take care of my body." His mind rested calmly, 
trusting in God. He said several times, that he 
never felt he could be spared from the work as 
well as now ; there were so many brave, zealous, 
earnest workers coming into our ranks. The young 
and old were so baptized with the spirit of labor 
and sacrifice for Jesus, that the work would still go 
on ; < but, he always added, " it is just as the Lord 
wills ; I am in his hands, to do his will." 

About this time, letters came, asking advice con 
cerning a Church difficulty on a certain part of the 
work. It seemed to press heavily upon him. He 
exclaimed, " Why cannot brethren bear with each 
other 1" He was advised to send postal cards to 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 243 

the parties, stating his feebleness, and that he would 
write them more fully, as soon as he was better. 
This he did ; but a few days later he wrote several 
long letters, trying to calm the strife among brethren. 
The year was drawing to a close. He felt there 
ought to be some earnest words said to our sub 
scribers, urging renewals and the enlarging of our 
list. He arose one Monday morning, and as soon 
as breakfast and morning devotions were over, he 
drew a stand near the stove, and began to write. 
Nearly the whole forenoon was spent in preparing 
the Prospectus for 1875. Then, there were callers 
who occupied his time for an hour or more. When 
at last alone, he laid his weary body upon the 
couch ; and as I sat beside him, taking my hand in 
his, he said : " I know you are feeling anxious be 
cause I have worked so hard this forenoon. I had 
to do it. The subject was in my mind and on my 
heart. I could not lay it aside. It was time for 
the Prospectus to appear in the paper, and there 
was no one who had the facts as I had. I bad to 
do it. This morning, as I knelt beside my bed, I 
said, 0, Lord, living or dying, I will do my duty. 
It was my duty, and God will take care of the re- 
suits. It has always been my experience, that God 
has given me strength to do the work he has for 
me to do. While attending the Conferences and 
Dedications, as feeble as I was, many times I felt 
that I could not hold up my head; yet, when the 
time came for me to speak, to preach or to present 
the interests of our cause, God was by me, to sup- 



244 THE LIFE OF 

port and strengthen. Now, do not feel worried, 

for I am in the Lord s hands, to do his will." 

He was exceedingly interested in the women s 
temperance work in our city, and was anxious that 
I should attend every meeting. One day, he had 
lain upon the couch nearly all the forenoon ; not in 
much pain, yet suffering from prostration. It 
seemed to require an effort to lift even his hand ; 
yet he urged me to go to the meeting that after, 
noon. He said, " you cannot do anything for me ; I 
will lie here and rest while you are gone." He 
seemed to feel sorry when I told him I could not 
leave him. I did go to a number of meetings, 
partly to please him, when my heart was divided 
between the interests of the cause and my poor 
feeble husband at home. We had many calm, quiet 
talks, during those last weeks, upon personal expe 
rience. He was so restful, and trustful, and hope 
ful, expecting to get well, because he had such 
confidence in the strength of his constitution to 
throw off disease, and there was" so much work to 
be done for the Master, and he had such a love for 
that work, that his mind was almost entirely occu 
pied in arranging work for himself and others. 
Self was so thoroughly crucified; he had no anxi 
ety for the present or future. All was well with 
him, and he lay passive in the hands of the Lord, 
awaiting his guiding, ready to go or stay, just as 
the Lord willed. 

He said, at one time, " I hope to have more time 
to write now, than I have had for the past few 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 245 

years. There are several subjects upon which I 
think I shall write more fully. I think good can 
be done. I want our people established, settled, 
and grounded on these subjects." One was our 
perpetuity as a denomination. If we will, with 
" patient continuance," labor on, success is before 
us. Another one he mentioned, was " the great 
importance of heart and life consecration to God." 
This was a subject of vital importance to him. 
Personally, he drew very near to God ; seemed to 
talk with him, as with a dear friend. His earnest 
prayers for the cause he loved, and was willing to 
labor for, shall never be forgotten. 

Those last weeks were blessed, precious weeks* 
He seemed in spirit so like himself. His cares 
were laid upon One strong to help. He was so 
thankful to get home, he fully entered into the en 
joyment of our quiet, peaceful home. He was ten 
der, loving, cheerful, hopeful and trustful. It was 
quiet rest for body and soul. 

He went to the office nearly every day, until the 
last week. Tuesday, one week before his death, 
he went twice. About eleven o clock he came 
home, very weary, and laid on the couch. He did 
not wish any dinner, but wanted to rest. He 
seemed comfortable as he lay there, and having to 
go out to meet an engagement, at two o clock, I 
left him for an hour or two. When I returned, he 
was feeling badly, but was trying to transact some 
business appertaining to the printing office, with a 
stranger who had called to see him. When we 



246 THE LIFE OF 

were alone, he complained of a pain in his stomach; 
somewhat similar to his old complaint, (Bilious 
Cholic). But as it was not very severe, he said he 
would drink some peppermint tea 7 and be covered 
up warm, and get into a perspiration. He thought 
that would relieve him. He suffered all night, but 
he did not feel anxious. In the morning, we thought 
we ought to be more thorough, and commenced giv 
ing him medicine which was prepared for him, and 
had always given relief. About noon he was bet 
ter of the pain, but had a high fever, which in 
creased as night approached. 

Bro. Stratton called during the afternoon, to make 
arrangements for the missionary meeting, which 
was to be held the next day. I asked him if he 
thought he should be able to attend the meeting. 
He answered, " If I cannot go to the meeting the 
brethren can come here." He felt that the meet 
ing must be held then, for our missionaries were 
needy. During the night his fever was very high. 
His mind -was wandering. He was traveling 
working -had so much to attend to. In the morn 
ing early he was better. I wanted him to have a 
doctor, but he said, " Wait, I think I shall be better 
now," After a time I left him sleeping, and went 
into another part of the house to attend to other 
duties. In a little while hearing him up, I went to 
his room and found him trying to dress himself 
and could not. I asked, " Had you better get up 
now ? he said " yes," and indistinctly referred 
to the missionary meeting. I gave him the aid he 



KEY. ADAM CROOKS, 247 

aeeded, and leaving him a moment I heard his 
voice and went to him immediately. He tried to 
tell me something, but could not articulate clearly. 
Then he laid back upon the bed and motioned me 
to cover him up. I sent immediately for the doc 
tor. He was conscious when he came, yet did nat 
talk coherently. He lay all day in a stupor ; when 
roused he seemed to know what was said to him. 
Several times during the day he would get up and 
out of bed as though he must go somewhere. I 
would quietly arrange his pillows or bed, and say, 
now your bed is nice, he would lie down without 
any resistance and be covered again. This con 
tinued until about midnight. His fever left him 
then, and he slept sweetly until four o clock, whea 
he called me by name. He was perfectly rational, 
and could converse easily. He remembered some 
things that transpired during the previous day, but 
for the most part it was a lost day to him. He now 
seemed more natural than he had for several days 
past. He was his own bright self again. After he 
had eaten a little breakfast he said, " I was so sick 
yesterday morning that I was not conscious of the 
time for morning devotion ; we must not forget our 
family altar ; you will bring the Bible here beside 
my bed and read it to me and we will pray to 
gether." This was done until the last morning, 
when he was again unconscious. When the doctor 
-came, he found him so much better that he encour 
aged us to hope that he would soon be welL 
About eleven o clock that day he had a slight chill, 



248 THE LIFE OF 

but he did not appear any the worse for it, a;s ft 
lasted but a few moments. Saturday morning we 
moved his bed into the sitting room. He seemed 
strong walked quite easily. In the afternoon he 
sat up in the arm chair and said, " he felt better." 1 
He did not suffer except a soreness across his 
stomach. He had some fever nearly all the time. 
He slept quietly that night, awoke refreshed and 
still seemed better. The doctor came about ten 
o clock and was pleased with the improvement in 
his condition. He said he saw nothing in the way 
of his recovery if we used care. The doctor sat 
and conversed some time with us and among oth 
er things he said, " I have been hearing something 
of your hard labors." Mr. Crooks said, "his la 
bors in the past had been very severe, but he now 
felt there was no further need for him to carry 
such a weight of responsibility. In the future he 
was intending to take better care of his health. 
There had no one been wronged but his wife. She 
had been called upon to sacrifice very much for the 
cause for which he was laboring; had in fact given 
up her husband for ten years, but he meant to da 
better by his own home in the future." He con 
tinued, " I cannot of course tell how it will be, but 
I feel as though there were twenty years of service 
for Christ before me yet." The doctor said he 
would not be surprised if there were. He sat up 
twice during the day had very little or no appe 
tite, but was free from pain. We spent a calm, 
bright, joyous Sabbath day, One or two of the 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 249 

friends saw him for a moment. The doctor s order 
was that he should be kept perfectly quiet, for his 
fever still clung to him. He sat up in his arm 
chair twice during the day, but that night he was 
very restless. He was not in pain, but his mind 
was so full of work. He was planning important 
work. Pie said in the morning he had prepared 
several tracts and he thought when he got well he 
should write them out and publish them. He 
thought they would do good. 

When Bro. Stratton called, he told him of one 
or two little matters which had escaped his mind 
when he saw him. After he had finished, he said : 
" There, they are off my mind now." He told him 
of his restless night, the work he had been doing 
during the night. I give Bro. Stratton s account 
of his visit : 

" On Monday morning, he said, in answer to in 
quiries : No, I was not nervous, but I could not 
sleep. My mind was in a chariot of flame. I was 
blocking out tracts, and one article especially. 
One tract on Wlnj be Wesleyan Methodists? He 
mentioned other enterprises by name, and the joy 
of his soul. He expressed the desire to see the 
great work of holiness of heart and life more and 
more developed among our people ; and it seemed 
to us that his countenance glowed like the face of 
Moses, just down from the Mount of God. He 
then spoke with great tenderness of the unwearied 
attentions of his wife, introducing it by saying: 
11* 



250 *HE LIFE OF 

Brother Stratton, I have the best wife in the 

world. " 

He fully appreciated every little attention. Dur 
ing the morning, he called me to his bedside, say 
ing, " I think we will write a < certain letter to-day. 
I told him he was not well enough. He answered, 
" I have all that I am going to say arranged in my 
mind, and if you will write it, then it will be off 
my mind." I promised to do it for him in the 
afternoon; it was not remembered again. He 
slept some during the day. He was perfectly ra 
tional, and sat up a short time. We had several 
conversations about what he intended to do, as soon 
as he was able, One thing, he had promised, as 
soon as he was well enough, to visit a Church where 
there was some misunderstanding among some of 
the members. He spoke of his promise as he lay 
there on his bed. There was such an earnestness 
in his eye, as he said: I shall talk plainly with 
them. I read, years ago, an allegory, which is to 
the point in this case. When the Devil wishes to 
get the control of men, he holds up to them his 
end of the great magnifying glass, through which 
men look at the things of this life, and they see 
everything just as he wants them to see it; so he 
controls them ; when, if they would only turn the 
glass around, look through the other lens, they 
would see just as the Lord wanted them to see. 
They would learn his will in the matter. I shall 
tell them they must be very sure which lens they 
are looking through." The doctor called in the 



REV. ADAH CROOKS. 251 

afternoon, with another physician. As he was not 
well, and feared he was going to be sick, he brought 
this one with him for counsel, and to attend to his 
case if he were not able to come in the morning 
himself. They both encouraged us to hope for re* 
covery. An old friend saw him a moment. He 
was glad to see her, and sent love to all the friends, 
and expressed a hope that he should see them soon, 
A short time after this, he was taken with a chill, 
which lasted about twenty minutes, and during this 
time he was perfectly wild, I never saw him so 
much so before. After using restoratives, the chill 
left him, and he was perfectly rational again. He 
said the chill had not hurt him ; his fever was not 
increased any, and he thought he was weak, and 
perhaps he had not kept covered as well as he 
should. He relished a light supper, and after hav 
ing his head and feet bathed, he fell asleep, and had 
refreshing slumber all night ; yet, every time I went 
to his bedside, he would awake. About midnight, 
he awoke and said : " We have been having such 
a glorious work. We have organized a splendid 
Sabbath school." Then looking at me closely, he 
said, " Why, I am at home ! Really, I do not real 
ize half the time whether I am at home or not, I 
am so very busy." He wanted some snow to eat ; 
and while eating it, told again of his joy at being 
with me. He was his own loving self once more. 
Those last days are beautiful days to remember. 
He was so patient. Not one complaint was heard 
from him. Everything was just as it should be. 



252 THE LIFE OF 

He so often said, " Thank yon/ or " Yon are so* 
kind." It was a pleasure to do for him. For years 
we had not enjoyed such uninterrupted communion 
with each other. He was so quiet, and rested so 
calmly in the arms of the loving Savior. There 
was a halo about him. As I think of those days, 
I remember his face shone with a loving light, not 
of this world. As the day dawned, he said, "Dear 
est, it is daylight." I asked, "Do you wish me to 
get up ?" He answered, " On my awn account, I 
do ; but on yours, I rather you would lie longer. 
As I arose, he wished to change from the bed to the 
couch. After arrangements Were made to make 
him comfortable, he arose, partly dressed himself? 
and walked to the couch. I asked, " How do you 
walk this morning?" He answered, "Quite like 
myself." I covered him warmly, as we supposed ; 
but after a little while, he asked for more covering 
and again, after a short time, asked for more, saying 
he thought he was going to have a chill. I gave him 
warm drinks, and put hot applications to his feet 
and hands. He was not wild, as he was the night 
before ; but sank into a stupor from which it was 
hard to arouse him, and when aroused, he did not 
talk connectedly. 

Soon, the doctor came ; but he was better, and 
conversed with him rationally. I commenced to 
tell the doctor about his chills, and my fears about 
them; and he looked up at me, saying: "Those 
chills have not hurt me. My fever is not increased. 
I am weak, and easily affected by any change. 1 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 253 

The doctor coincided with him, and said we must 
be very careful about the temperature of the room, 
when we made changes. He also said he did not 
sec anything in the way of his recovery, if we used 
care. Soon after this, Bro. Stratton called ; but he 
must have had another chill, and could not tell of 
it ; for he was in a stupor again, and did not talk 
connectedly. He spoke of a beautiful picture, beau 
tiful doors, and beautiful colors. When Bro. Strat 
ton left, I went with him into another room, for a 
few moments. I told him of my fears ; but that 
the doctor did not seem alarmed. 

When I returned, Mr. Crooks had evidently tried 
to arise from the couch, for his feet were on the 
floor. I asked, "Do you want to go to the bed?" 
He answered, "Yes." I helped him to sit up. In 
a moment he fell back, apparently lifeless. I arous 
ed him, by rubbing his hands and face ; and said to 
him, "Now, I will help you get up." I did so ; but 
he fell back a second time. Then I called in 
friends. We used every means to arouse action we 
could devise ; but without success. After carrying 
him back to the bed, we sent to the WESLEYAN Of 
fice and for the doctor. While the messenger was 
gone, we still kept doing all we could for him, and 
finally gave him some wine. After a little, he 
opened his eyes, and tried to speak j but for a while 
did not articulate a word distinctly, except, " Come ! 
Come !" I said to a friend, who stood near by : 
"It is so hard that I cannot understand what he 
says." He heard what I said, and looking at me 



254 THE LIFE OP 

earnestly, he said, distinctly : " Why, I said it three 
times." He had tried three times to tell me some* 
thing ; but failed to speak so as to be understood. 
In a moment there came a great earnestness into 
his eyes, as he grasped my hands, saying, " Be 
quick !" and drew me to him, and kissed me, look 
ing into my eyes as though there was something he 
wanted to make me understand. In a moment, he 
drew me to him again, saying, "Be quick 1" and 
kissed me. After he did this, he said, " There is 
rest beyond the skies," or " There is rest in the 
skies. 7 Three or four times he said, " Be quick !" 
as though he had but a moment in which to say 
"farewell." He held my hands with a close grasp, 
and continued trying to speak ; his head aad lips 
were moving, and a faint sound could be heard ; a 
murmuring of inarticulate words, until he sank, to 
speak no more. 

The doctor came, gave him medicine, and went 
to see the physician who had attended him during 
his sickness, and who had been sent for ; but he 
was not able to leave his room, and returned in 
time to see him 

"Breathe his life out sweetly there* 7 

Tfrus, he quietly, peacefully, " fell asleep in Jesus," 
about thirty minutes after twelve o clock, Tuesday, 
December 15th, 1874. 

OBSEQUIES . AND MEMORIAL SERVICES IN 
HONOR OP REV. ADAM CROOKS. 

"The services at the residence were conducted 



&EV. ADAM CROOKS. 255 

by Rev. Elijah Gaylord, late President of the Sy 
racuse Conference. He spoke as follows : 

"Dearly beloved friends, we have met at this 
house of mourning, and would call upon our hearts 
and all that is within us to magnify His grace 
which has distinguished us as the monuments of 
God s amazing mercy. We all mourn and feel 
deeply afflicted, and yet we feel that God doeth all 
things well. We know there is one heart that 
bleeds at this providence. There are many who 
sympathize. Deeply afflicted, we shall remember 
with sadness this event for many days, but we hope 
and trust that God will bless this affliction, deep as 
it is, to all who were connected with our beloved 
brother who has departed. We feel that we had, 
all of us, an interest in him. He has been, in a 
certain sense, public property. We feel, deeply 
feel the loss of our departed brother, and while we 
mourn we can but realize that our loss is his infi 
nite and eternal gain. We can say in the language 
of one of old, The Lord gave and the Lord hath 
taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord." 
May the spirit of the Lord, the consolation of his 
grace, and the power of the Holy Ghost, rain down 
upon this dear sister, and all the friends of our 
departed brother, and may we all share in the same 
grace and mercy. We bless the name of God that 
He has spared our deceased brother so long, to the 
Connection, and has made him so useful. May his 
mantle fall upon some, yea, upon many devoted 
servants of the cause of Christ, and fit them for 



256 THE LIFE OF 

the important duties that he has so ably conducted; 
and may the dear Lord enable us still to live and 
triumph in his grace. 

" He then closed the services by prayer. 

" SERVICES AT THE CHURCH. 

" Memorial services at the Wesleyan church. 

" The church was hung with black and white, 
arranged in festoons around the entire interior, 
with the pulpit heavily draped with black cloth 
adorned with vines. Within the chancel rail, on 
the communion table, both also draped, stood a 
large and elegant cross composed of calla lilies 
and white flowers. Another cross of white flow 
ers, and an elaborate crown and cross of the same 
pure material, camillias, japonicas, double white 
primroses, daphne odare, with white fringe chri- 
santhemums, the cross sprinkled over with smilax, 
and the crown with white rosebuds, adorned the 
coffin. 

" The remains, enclosed in an elegant rosewood 
casket, were borne by the following named gentle 
men as pall-bearers : 

" Rev. S. H. Foster, pastor of the First Wesleyan 
Church of Syracuse. 

" Rev. L. N. Stratton, assistant editor of the 
AMERICAN WESLEYAN. 

" Rev. D. S. Kinney, President of the Allegheny 
Conference. 

" Rev. J. P. Betker, President of New York 
Conference. 



REV. ADAM CROOKS, 257 

" Rev. A. S. Wightman, President of Syracuse 
Conference. 

"Rev. N. Wardner, President of Champlain Con 
ference. 

" Rev. G. L. Paine, Mexico, N. Y. 

" Rev. A. F. Dempsey, Seneca Falls, N. Y, 

" Rev. E. Barnetson, Groton, N. Y. 

" Rev. S. Burgess, Blodgetts, Mills. 

" Rev. E. Gaylord, Syracuse, N. Y. 

" The relatives and friends of the deceased fol 
lowed, Mrs. Crooks being supported by her brother, 
Edwin Willits, Esq., of Monroe, Michigan, while 
sympathizing friends and neighbors filled the house 
to its utmost capacity. 

" The services, which were under the direction 
of the pastor, Rev. S. H. Foster, were opened with 
reading of the hymn, "Unveil thy bosom, faithful 
tomb," by the Rev. Seth Burgess, followed with 
prayer by the Rev. A. F. Dempsey, the attending 
clergy kneeling around the chancel. 

" Selections from the xxiii Psalm, " The Lord is 
my shepherd," and from 1 Corinthians, xv, "As we 
have borne the image of the earthly, so also we 
shall bear the image of the heavenly," were read 
by the Rev. J. P. Betker, of New York. 

" The hymn, " How blest the righteous when he 
dies," was then sung. 

" Rev. S. H. Foster announced that short address 
es would be made by several friends and co-labor 
ers of the deceased, many of whom had come from 
a distance to attend these memorial services. 



258 THE LIFE OP 

41 As for myself, little did I think, when last I 
shook hands with our departed brother, that he 
was so soon to be taken from us. On that occa 
sion, as I took him by the hand to say good-bye, a 
smile played upon his face and he said to me, "All 
is right, brother, all is right." We are here, as a 
Church and congregation, as mourners to-day. But 
we mourn not as those without hope. There are 
many outside of our own Church and congregation, 
who are in deep sympathy with us in our affliction. 
Our departed brother was to us a leader, and in 
the relations he sustained to us he was our head. 
When in our exodus, we came to the Red Sea, the 
voice of his words, as he essayed to speak on G-od s 
behalf, were, <G-o Forward! He was our Moses? 
who was faithful in all his house, like as ancient 
Moses, in all the relations he sustained to us as a 
denomination, bearing testimony as did Moses of 
old. He will no more be seen by us <in the taber 
nacle of our congregation. No more will he come 
forth from the revealed glory of G-od s approbation 
and presence, to cheer us on. But our hope is, 
that G-od will raise up unto us a Joshua in his 
stead. 

" Two verses of the 837th hymn were then sung. 

" When floating on life s troubled sea, 

By storms and tempests driven, 
Hope with her radiant finger points 

To brighter scenes in heaven. 

She bids the storms of life to cease 
The troubled breast be calm ; 



ftEV. ADAM CROOKS- 259 

And in the wounded heart she pours 
Religion s healing balm." 

REV. J. P. BETKER, OF NEW YORK. 

" None, perhaps, who are present on this occasion 
are in any condition to speak. We are mourners 
around the coffin of our best friend, and we cannot 
speak as in calmer moments We might. I came 
nearly three hundred miles to attend this funeral. 
In my experience as a man, I have found very few 
real friendships in the world. I can count on my 
fingers ends the true and genuine friends of my 
heart. One, is in that coffin to-day. I feel ill- 
qualified to speak here. But in thinking of my 
brother I can think of one thing as true of him 
his great soul ; his great mind. He possessed the 
true elements of greatness ; and if I were to at 
tempt to impress anything upon the brethren here, 
it would be the imitation of that greatness of soul 
that distinguished him. All true greatness has its 
beginning in piety. I knew him when he was al 
most a beardless boy. He and I started in the 
ministry at the same period, belonged to the same 
Conference. 

I remember the first place that I ever preached 
as a Wesleyan minister; the next one who follow 
ed me was brother Adam Crooks. 

I say true greatness begins in real piety ; and I 
never knew one truly great the genuineness of 
whose piety there could be any suspicion. The 
foundational basis of true greatness is integrity. 
And if there was one among us distinguished for 



260 THE LIFE OF 

truth ; for integrity ; for solidity in this respect, it 
was Adam Crooks ; a man of truth in all the de 
velopments of his character ; in all the manifesta 
tions of his spirit. Wherever Adam Crooks was, 
there was a true man. True greatness too is 
characterized by a boundlessness of benevolence. 
A great soul cannot nurse itself in selfishness. 
His spirit was a broad catholic spirit, that took in 
all mankind. There was not a child who was be 
neath his notice. The last time that we put up 
together at our Annual Conference, we slept, 
ate, and talked together; and all the little chil 
dren about the house had a sweet word from him. 
I never knew him to be otherwise than kindly dis 
posed in every respect. And because he was thus 
disposed he made himself what he was great. 

True greatness, too. is estimated by its depths 

of principles^and its breadth of measures. I never 

met a man that I thought was so perfectly settled 

in what he believed to be true as. this dear brother. 

* * * * * 

" True greatness is distinguished by a moral 
courage that takes no account of the odds that are 
against it; makes no arrangement for defeat, and 
assures itself of victory because its cause is just. 

" I do not think I could say anything more true 
of our brother than this ; that he took no odds of 
the mighty forces that were against him. He went 
down to North Carolina in the days when it was 
as much as man s life was worth to call himself an 
Abolitionist ; and he passed through fearful prison 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 261 

scenes there, and all through the history of the 
great war against the fearful system of slavery, he 
went right into the very heat of the battle, not 
asking whether we should be defeated, but having 
the most firm confidence in the justice of our cause 
a cause which he lived to see so gloriously triumph. 

"True greatness knows no fraudulent conceal 
ments of its principles or aims, and whatever you 
and I may think of this brother, especially those 
who differ with him on the question of Secret So 
cieties, we must give him credit for this statement, 
and it grew out of the very nature of his character 
that True greatness knows no fraudulent conceal 
ment of its principles or aims. He was a day-light 
man. His works were done in the light, and not 
in the darkness, and so he stood broadly and firm 
ly fixed in his relation to truth. 

" True greatness may not always convert its op- 
posers to its own standard, but it will command re 
spect. And I venture to say that although our 
brother was firmly seated in his views, and chal 
lenged all combat as to the truth of his position, 
there is not a man in this city whose opinion is 
worthy of respect who would not say, "Adam 

Crooks has deserved my regard and respect." 

# .# "## # 

t 

REV. G. L. PAINE, OF MEXICO, N. Y. 

"As has been said, we are mourners here to-day. 
We cannot talk as we would under other circum 
stances. But I would say, I have been associated 
in Conference capacity with this dear brother in the 



262 THE LIFE OF 

Rochester Conference, ever since he has been here as 
Editor and Agent, up to this last Spring. Our first 
meeting was a happy one. Favorable opinions 
were formed on the first look I had of him, and as 
we met from time to time in Conference relation, 
every word seemed to add to the respect and the 
regard 1 had for him. Often in our Conference 
relations knotty questions came up; something 
that appeared personal, whereby feelings might be 
touched, and I have seen the dear brother start 
across the Conference floor to some person, and it 
seemed as if the magic touch of his hand, and the 
words dropped from his lips, would quiet every 
thing down, and calm all heated feeling. And 
then standing anywhere on the Conference floor, 
when a difficult question would come up, and it 
seemed that there might be a break, he would un 
ravel and point out the course, and the Conference, 
seemingly, would take the course, and all would 
be harmony. These things as they fell from his 
lips brought that brother to my heart. 

" I stand here to-day as a second mourner with 
these brethren that have stood by him; and my 
trust is that by and by we shall meet this loved 
one where parting scenes will never come. 

" Two verses of the 852nd hymn were then sung, 

" I would not lire alvvay ; I ask not to stay. 
Where storm after storm rises dark o er the way ; 
The few lurid mornings that dawn on us here 
Are enough for life s woes, full enough for its cheer." 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 263 

w RET. SETH BURGESS OF BLODGETT s MILLS, N. Y., 

Spoke as follows. There is very much that 
might be said in regard to our brother who is 
gone; much that to our mind is interesting; but 
there is one trait of his character to which I wish 
to call your attention just a few moments ; and that 
is as an honest man and as a successful financier. 
At the time that brother Crooks was elected Agent, 
if my memory is correct, I was elected as one of 
the members of the Book Committee; and that, as 
a matter of course, brought us into an association 
that we otherwise should never have had ; and I 
can say in truth, that with all brother Crook s oth 
er good qualities, he was an honest man ; honest 
I believe to the very letter. It is one of the prom 
inent principles of the Christian religion to be 
strictly honest. Brother Crooks has always sought 
to have his doings examined and investigated; 
and when I proposed a little less than four years 
ago, to have the books of the agent audited, broth 
er Crooks favored it at once ; coveted it ; wished 
to have it done. We appointed a committee who 
examined the books and everything was found sat 
isfactory. 

" Brother Crooks was not only an honest man, 
but he has been a very successful business man in 
our employment. It would require more time than 
I have to give you much of an idea of brother 
Crooks business transactions. But it is enough 
to say that when he became our servant in this de 
partment, we were excessively poor; we were so 



264 THE LIFE OF 

poor that the retiring agent discouraged us from 
trying to carry forward the enterprise. Brother 
Crooks has done well. We are not rich to-day? 
but we are by several thousand dollars better off 
financially than we were when brother Crooks 
came in here as our Agent. Time, as I said, fails 
to tell you what he has done ; but his life with us, 
or so far as we knew of, has not only been a life of 
humble, devoted piety, but it has been a life of suc 
cessful business. And he succeeded, perhaps, be 
yond what any other man we have would have 
done. As to this we do not know ; but we trust 
that God in His providence will raise up another 
man to take brother Crooks place and carry for 
ward that enterprise in which brother Crooks 
whole soul and body was enlisted. I felt more, 
when I came here, like taking a seat down there 
with those mourners, than I did like standing here ; 
and I did not expect to stand here. But I am 
glad to say this much, and I believe that we who 
knew him can bear testimony to the same truth, 
that brother Crooks was an honest man. 

REV. A. S. WlGHTMAN OF SYRACUSE CONFERENCE. 

" My relations with our departed brother, as 
many in this congregation know, were very inti 
mate. I was his pastor for some years, and I can 
see now just the pew where he used to sit, with his 
open, loving, manly face fixed upon me, as I would 
endeavor to preach the Gospel. It is a pleasant 
thing to remember to-day that he always treated 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 265 

me with the most profound respect, and never al 
lowed an opportunity to pass without giving me 
words of marked encouragement. Often when I 
have felt despondent and discouraged, I have 
gained new courage from his hearty and cheerful 
words, which always seemed to be appropriate to 
the very time. There is a kind of friendship that 
might be called sunshine friendship. It is easy to 
be friendly to everybody when it costs us nothing ; 
but it is quite another thing to be a friend in 
need when there requires to be some little outlay 
on the part of the one showing that friendship, in 
order that the benefit designed may be imparted. 

" In my experience with this dear brother, I have 
seen it verified many times that he was truly a 
friend in need. Often in times of trouble and sor 
row he has taken me by the hand with the gen 
erous tear quivering in his eye, and has said, 
Brother, do not be discouraged ; trust in G-od and 
look higher. Oh ! as such reminiscences aa these 
come to my memory, I feel indeed like a mourner 
on this occasion. 

" An incident occurred previous to the election of 
our present editor, Rev. L. N. Stratton. Brother 
Crooks found it necessary to leave the office a part 
of the time to attend to business in distant parts. 
He was in the habit of leaving the editorial work 
in my hands. On one occasion perhaps the first 
occasion of his absence I said, Brother Crooks 
what instructions will you give me now in refer 
ence to the management of the paper during your 



266 THE LIFE OF 

absence, Nothing, my brother, said he, but 
exercise of your own judgment; only remember 
this one thing strike hard and high for the truth. 7 
And there was an expression of nobility, of Chris 
tian strength of character, that he made at that 
time, and has left upon my mind a marked impres 
sion. I seem to have adopted it as a sort of rule 
f life. 

" I feel that I have lost a friend and a brother. 
Such a one perhaps I shall not meet again. But 
this thought is an especial comfort to me. I have 
seen enough of the world s trials and sorrows. I 
feel very often now a longing for quiet rest ; and 
I know that I shall find rest in that home to which 
our dear brother has gone, where there are no 
tears and where sorrows never come." 

REV. D. S. KENNEY, PRESIDENT OF ALLEGHEKT 
CONFERENCE. 

" Receiving at the midnight hour, over three 

Hundred miles distant, the announcement of the sad 

bereavement that convenes us to-day, I stepped 

across the way to one of our " fathers in Israel f 

one whose name is well known as a minister 

among us, in advanced life, walking closely with 

God, and broke to him the sad intelligence, said, 

" Father Lamb, why could not God have taken me 

and left brother Crooks a few years longer?" 

We both knelt before God, and I know that our 

hearts were so moved, that cheerfully, had it been 

God s will, we would have died that he might have 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 267 

lived. I knew nothing about the circumstances 
of the case, but I thought perhaps my dear brother 
Willits here, was so circumstanced in the far 
West that he could not be here and sympathize 
with his sister, and the wife of the dear departed 
might perhaps desire me as among the mourners, 
and I therefore decided to come, and to willingly 
sit, if it might be, by her side, she having been my 
teacher when a boy, and being my teacher at 
the time of her engagement and marriage with 
brother Crooks. I can say that I heartily en 
dorse having been most intimate for over twen 
ty years with our departed brother, all that 
has been said of his traits of character. But 
I wish just here to say that brother Crooks was a 
growingly pious man. He knew the worth of 
prayer, as perhaps many of us do not. I have 
personally, in those fearful conflicts of the recent 
years of his official relationship here among you, 
and with us as a Christian family ; I have known 
him, like the dear Master in the days of his incar 
nation, to spend the whok night in iiraycr. And the 
last years, and months, and weeks of his life, 
marked a growth in intense personal piety and 
devotion to God. The last work that he has 
dictated, that is in our hands, that he sent to me 
in pamphlet form a few days only ago, " Pro 
cesses of Salvation," in which the distinctive 
Wesleyanic and Methodistic view of entire conse 
cration to God and sanctification, is so clearly 
defined and scripturally enforced, has not been 



268 THE LIFE OF 

with him a simple theory, but has been an experi 
mental reality. 

" We frequently have corresponded, as well as 
had personal conversation, these recent months, 
upon this subject. And while brother Crooks was 
a thorough- going reformer, (all that has been said 
with reference to that, I can say amen to) yet after 
all, he did not desire the continuance of our or 
ganization simply on account of our reforms. He 
wanted us to maintain the truth and the right, and 
to be a distinctively holy people. The last letter 
I got from him before he started upon his Western 

t our which proved in my estimation the fatal tour 

of his earthly career he sat down and wrote to 
me a short note. He evidently had been in the 
office, engaged in earnest wrestling prayer ; said 
he, " Brother Kinney, join me in praying that our 
Churches may be set on fire of God." Oh, how 
my heart responded, and how I have endeavored 
to keep that request. And as I learn in the de 
parting moments of our brother; getting a 
glimpse of the glory that was being revealed, 
and uttering, perhaps, in not the clearest articu 
lation, but yet the sentiment that, There is rest 
in the skies." I feel that there is rest in the 
glory of God s grace, or rather, taking the lan 
guage of a letter not long since received, that 
there is, < room in God s golden, spiritual p.hariot 
for us all to ride. By his help and grace I mean 
to ride there, and I expect to greet our dear de 
parted brother in the skies where there is rest. " 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 269 

REV. D. D. LORE, D. D., EDITOR OF THE NORTHERN 
CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE. 

" Dearly beloved Christian brethren ; my friends 
and myself, are here this afternoon to express to 
you our deep sympathy in your affliction, and our 
Christian love. We are not here for the purpose 
of eulogizing the brother which you have lost, 
You knew his worth, well. I have been impressed 
by the remarks made, and am satisfied, and indeed 
was satisfied before this, that he was a great and 
good man. You have lost from your branch of the 
Church of Christ, a leader ; a strong and courage 
ous leader; one who never feared to do the right. 
I loved brother Crooks personally. 

" Similarity of profession brought us into con 
tact. I met him frequently. I never met him 
without pleasure. J never met him without dis 
covering real manhood. We differed with regard 
to some things, and why should we not differ. 
We agreed to differ. Yet I loved him as a 
Christian brother, and his name and memory in 
our Church, so far as he is known, I am sure is 
respected. He commanded respect as has been said 
by one of his brethren here. 

" But we are not here to occupy time so precious, 
and it belongs to others who stood in closer rela 
tions to this dear man than we stand ; closer in 
many respects, but not closer in others. We are 
one in spirit. We are all brethren in Christ Jesus. 
We look forward together through the blinding 
tears of earth, to that happy day when we shall 



270 THE LIFE OF 

meet with our Savior in yonder brighter clime, and 
there greet each other as one common band of 
brothers. " May God bless the afflicted Church," 
is the prayer of those I am permitted to represent 
here. May God bless you, dear brethren, and may 
you be a light in the world, set for holiness of 
heart and of life, pushing forward the victories of 
the Cross," 

REV. L. N. STRATTON OF THE AMERICAN WESLEYAK. 

"It is almost useless for me to attempt to say 
anything to-day. No words I might use could 
express the feeling of my heart. Language is 
lame; it goes limping after thought. The inti 
mate relationship that I sustained to brother 
Crooks as co-editor, was such as to place us in 
constant communion with each other. We saw 
each other by day and by night ; at all hours and 
all seasons. I loved him much. The death of no 
one outside my own family relations could have 
caused me such deep sorrow as his own departure- 
But he is gone. In my dreams he comes back. 
He gives me counsel again as he did while here. 
He came to my office, as it seemed to me, night 
before last, to tell me something, as he has often 
done in the past. 

" He had peculiarities that fitted him, especially 
for the leadership that he had. He turned back 
for no storms. He was courageous. There was 
no night so dark as to keep him at home when 
duty called him away ; no train going so late at 



BEV. ADAM CROOKS. 271 

night, or so early in the morning that he could not 
take it. The miles were not too many, nor the 
roads too bad, nor he too weary, to fill his engage 
ments at the hour. If the railroad station were 
twenty miles from where he might labor on the 
Sabbath, and he should take a train at six o clock 
on Monday morning, he would be there, even if he 
had to travel the distance through rain and dark 
ness, in an open wagon. There was no effort that 
it was too hard for him to make, and make cheer 
fully. He dared everything. He rode over every 
thing. He made events, us it seemed, if they did 
not occur. He bent all his energies with a will 
that was ruthless, to push forward the enterprises 
in Hrhich his soul was enlisted. We never, it 
seems to me now, shall see his like again. But 
God knows. He can raise up such agencies as he 
wants, and can do his work without any of us if 
he wishes us removed. Oh, how gladly would I 
be there in that coffin, if that would place him 
here ! But God knows best. He is our leader. 
Jesus is our friend ; and more than ever I feel like 
putting my head on his breast and saying, 4 Thy 
will be done. 1 

"In our prayer-meetings our dear brother has 
especially been remembered. I suppose a few 
nights since, when there were so many engaged ia 
prayer for his recovery, that victory would turn 
for us. For at first it seemed to us that we could 
not, must not have it so;, but at length all said, 



272 THE LIFE OF 

Thy will, God, be done. I then looked for 
victory, but God knew best, and it is done. 

" A great load rests upon our hearts, upon our 
lives, upon our Connection. We who are brethren 
in this work, must lift the harder now, that the 
weight rests upon us the more heavily. 

" Our brother was a man who had a kind word 
for every one. He was kind in his affections for 
all denominations of the Christian Church. I see 
around me here brethren of whom I have heard 
him speak so highly brethren in the ministry. 
Could I speak his words again, how gladly would 
I give them to these brethren of other Churches, 
who mourn with us his sad loss. His voice we 
shall no more hear ; but his words of admonition 
and encouragement rest in our hearts and in our 
memories. We shall cherish them. We pray 
that God may fit us for all he is fitting for us, 
and help us to bear the burdens that are resting 

upon us. 

" My dear friends, let us be just what the Lord 

would have us to be, that we may meet our dear 
brother in the Paradise of God." 

REV. N. WARDNER, PRESIDENT OF CHAMPLAIN 
CONFERENCE. 



deeply, solemnly sad is this funeral hour. 
Soul s fondest ties are riven, and the falling tears 
of sable widowhood, in silent, speechless grief give 
evidence that the soul s full fountain of sorrow is 
broken up. Friends from near and far gather, and 



HEV. ADAM CROOKS. 273 

their mingled sighs and tears say, See how they 
loved him. For a prince and a great man is fallen 
in Israel to-day; but thank God, fallen with 
his well girt armor bright with use, and his face 
toward the foe. For, our dear brother, in what. 
ever moral conflicts he was engaged, dared to 
do right and to suffer for that right doing if need 
be. Early in life he laid his heart, his body, his 
all at the foot of the Cross, and Heaven sanctified 
the offering. And he went forth to labor in his 
Master s vineyard clothed with power, and when 
I remember with gratitude when freedom and 
oppression grappled in mortal conflict in our land, 
down in the Carolinas, his voice echoed the notes 
of a freedom-loving Gospel. In the very teeth of 
oppression, our brother spoke words of liberty. 
He dared to beard the lion in his lair, and though 
a ruthless mob thrust him into a loathsome, South, 
ern prison, yet he lived to bless his own liberty 
and to see the soul of a nation s martyred Presi 
dent go up to God with the broken manacles of 
four millions of freed men in his hands. And on 
those blood-rusted manacles there were scars me- 
thinks, made by the burnished steel of our brother 
as he wielded the sword of eternal truth for liberty 
and the right. Who wonders that a man who 
dared to stand and defend the right in the face of 
any and every oppression ; who wonders that to 
day a leader as he was, and revered and loved 
as we learned to revere and love him that we 
12* 



274 THE LIFE OF 

gather about his bier and shed tears of affection ; 
pearly drops of love ; for we loved him, and the 
Church bows with speechless grief, and through 
eyes suffused with tears, looks up and struggles to 
say, Heaven help us to say Thy will be done. 
The cause of reform with which he was identified 
in every phase, bows and weeps ; for a friend is 
gone. That heart, that hand, that voice which is 
still to-day was identified with every good word 
and work. Every holy enterprise found a place in 
his heart, in his sympathies, in his prayers. May 
his falling mantle wrap some spirit with the same 
devotion : the same consecration ; yea, wrap many." 
" Mysterious are the ways of Providence ; a busy 
Providence does not stop to explain all its whys 
and wherefores, and yet, I suppose, dear sister 
Crooks and afflicted friends, the light of Heaven 
will dispel all the darkness -and mystery that may 
be gathered around this affliction from the hands of 
Providence. Look up to the light. For just be 
yond these heavy clouds blazes the sunlight of eter 
nal glory. Our brother Kinney has told us, that 
our departed brother with his dying lips sought to 
speak what methinks his vision saw of life, bliss 
and heaven There is rest beyond the skies. 
There is rest beyond the skies. Ah ! it is labor 
here, it was labor with him ; he coveted it ; he threw 
his giant arms around it and prayed Heaven to 
sustain him in it. It is rest now for him ; let it be 
labor for us. Though he was our leader we mourn, 
and it is right we should mourn; we can but 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 275 

ffioarn. Yet yonder, on a throne, high and lifted 
up, sits One who will lead us; and methinks, 
amidst the storm which has gathered around us, 
though the vessel heaves and rocks beneath the 
tempest s power, I hear a voice above the sound of 
the waves, l It is I : be not afraid ; trust thou ia 
Me and all shall be well. " 

The choir and congregation then united in sing 
ing the first two verses of the 808th hyinn, 

Rev. E. Gaylord, of Syracuse, dismissed the con 
gregation with the benediction. 

The choir sang, 

"Asleep in Jesus ! 4>lessed sleep !" 

as the large audience moved around to view the 
remains. Finally the coffin was closed and the re* 
mains were borne away to the hearse and the char- 
nel house in Oakwood. There the coffin was re 
opened, and the relatives took the final leave j the 
affectionate wife placing tenderly a rich bouquet of 
white flowers beside the cheek of her precious one, 
as the last kind act of affection before the final 
adieu. This done, the coffin was closed and low 
ered into the outer case, and left in the house of 
the dead to await the choice of a burial-place. 
The carriages were refilled, and we all mournfully 
passed away through the chilly evening air, leav 
ing the mortal part of our beloved brother in its 
cheerless bed. Let him rest he has often wea 
ried ; let him be quiet now, for often has he borne 
the weight of the charge on the battlements of sin. 



2l(> THE LIFE OF 

Revered, honored, loved; the memory of his natnef 
is fragrant with affection, and its mention will be a 
battle-cry to all our Churches. 

EXPRESSIONS OF SYMPATHY AND APPRECIA 
TION. 

LETTER FROM EEV. L R ROYCE. 

And so my dear brother Crooks sleeps. Fifty 
years on earth, and then away to the cloudless- 
land. I saw him first Sept. 2nd, 1851, then twenty- 
seven years of age. As members of the same Con 
ferences, we were intimate for seventeen years, 
and for twenty-three we have met every year save 
one. In August I saw him for the last time. For 
three days we occupied the same room and the 
same bed. Our last night together we talked late 
and lovingly, all the years of our past were gone} 
over. Much that he said was spoken in confidence 
and must not be repeated. He impressed me in 
that night s talk with his singular honesty, and 
manly affection. I have thought that leadership 
had made him a little forgetful of old friends. The 
thought perished in the warm words of that mid 
night hour. Indeed I found his love as green as a 
maiden s and as steady as the star. I have loved 
him so much, I want, with a trembling hand, to 
drop one little flower on his grave. With a figure 
so commanding, a voice so full and rich, an expe 
rience so Christian, a mind so well stored with 
practical truths, he could have stood in the first 
pulpits, with an executive and financial skill pos- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 277 

sessed by but few ; he could have made for him 
self a grand record in connection with any of the 
great boards. He chose to stay with a people 
who, in the eyes of the world, were feeble, and 
with a small human prospect of a permanent fu 
ture. In this he proved his loyalty to heart-con 
victions and shamed others, who for place and pelf 
put these convictions under their feet. I know 
not that he leaves his wife stocks or money he 
leaves her what is better, " a good name." I 
weep for him as for the kindred of my Father s 
house, and extend to her whose soul is now filled 
with sorrow my prayerful sympathies. I have 
seen his birth-place. I write within a few miles 
of where he entered wedded life. I hope after a 
little to see him on the shining shore." Till then 
I pray for his courage and endurance. 

MEMORIAL MEETIl^J. 

The sad news of the death of Rev. Adam Crooks, 
editor and publisher of the AMERICAN WESLEYAN, 
of Syracuse, N. Y., formerly for many years pastor 
of the Wesleyan Church of this city, was received 
by his many friends and personal acquaintances 
with extreme sorrow and universal regret. An 
impromptu memorial service was held at the 
church Sunday morning, December 27th, when ap 
propriate remarks were made by the pastor, Rev. 
J. E. Carroll, Rev. Mr, Sturtevant, M. B. Clark, 
James Christian and others, all breathing the most 
intense sorrow at the death of Mr. Crooks, and ex- 



278 tHELIFE OP 

pressive of their admiration of him as a Christian 
minister and friend, 

MEMORIAL RESOLUTIONS. 

At the regular meeting of the Syracuse Ministe 
rial Association, held at the parlors of the Fourth 
Presbyterian Church, December 21st, 1874, the 
committee reported the following resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted. 

WHEREAS, Since the last meeting of the Syracuse Min 
isterial Association its circle has been broken by the death 
of one of its most respected and honored members, Re v. 
Adam Crooks, D. D., therefore 

Resolved, That this association has received the sad tid - 
ings of the death of our brother Crooks with most sincere 
and heart-felt sorrow. 

Resolved, That his firmer and decided Christian charac 
ter, his eminent Christian zeal and courage, his untiring 
energy in every good word and work, his spirit of quick 
and fraternal sympathy, his determined adhesion to his 
principles and his confessed abilities, have endeared him to 
his brethren of this association and given him a high place 
in their respect. 

Resolved, That we tender the deep and sincere sympa 
thy of this association to his bereaved wife and kindred. 

Resolved, That we convey our heart-felt condolence to the 
denomination which in the death of Dr. Crooks has suffer 
ed the loss of an acknowledged leader. 

NELSON MILLARD, 

J. L. DARSIE, 

H. A. SIZER, }> Com. 

M. L. BERGER, 

A. F. BEARD. 

FROM RELIGIOUS TELESCOPE. 

A truly great man in Israel has fallen. Eev. 
Adam Crooks, of the American Wesleyan Connec- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 279 

tion, died the 15th of December, aged fifty years. 
For a number of years he had been the publishing 
agent and one of the editors part of the time sole 
editor of the American Wesleyan, and treasurer 
of most or all of the Connectional Boards. In these 
positions he displayed remarkable power, espec 
ially as a financier. He was almost the soul of 
these important departments of the Connection, 
and the last years of his life were, to a considera 
ble extent, given to the raising of a fund for the 
building of a publishing house. At the time of his 
death, though the Wesleyans are not strong, nu 
merically, twenty-two thousand dollars had been 
secured. As a servant of God and a leader of an 
heroic division of the army of Christ, he was an 
extraordinary man. Well may the Wesleyan peo 
ple especially, and true Christians generally, re 
gard with sincere grief the departure of this noble 
leader in Christ s Church militant. 

During the years when the foolish attempt to 
unite the non-episcopal Churches into one Church 
gave so great an impetus to disintegration in the 
Wesleyan Church, Mr. Crooks stood as the chief 
standard-bearer of his Church, and exercised an 
influence which was blessed of God as the chief 
means of saving that denomination from dissolu 
tion, and in turning again in its favor the tide of 
prosperity. His labors, the past ten years, will 
give luster to some of the most important pages in 
the history of a Church which has been more use 
ful in its influence on other Churches, perhaps, than 



280 THE LIFE OF 

in its own direct work, which has been evangelical 
and heroic. He had typhoid fever while visiting 
the Western Conferences last Fall, and, probably 
owing to an energy which denied him that abso 
lute rest from cares and labors which his condi 
tion demanded, he at last yielded before continued 
disease, and fell asleep in Christ, at his home in 
Syracuse, New York, To his worth as a man, as 
a Christian minister and editor, the tears of his 
co-laborers and of his people, the tribute of the 
ministers and members of other Churches of Syra 
cuse, especially the editorial fraternity there, bear 
strong testimony. The great leader fell when all 
eyes were turned to him as a trusted one, but fell 
when his people had reached a point where others 
could, better than ever before, move forward, lead 
ing the Church which he loved so well and for 
which he had toiled so hard, in the pathway of 
safety, and to still greater victory and prosperity. 

As a preacher, editor, and financier, Mr. Crooks 
was no ordinary man. In him were combined, in 
a remarkable degree, gentleness and energy, dis 
cretion and courage, tolerance and radicalism. 

Twice have we heard brother Crooks preach 
before a Conference, and we have enjoyed his com 
pany in our home. He was a genial, pious, whole- 
souled man. And his person and bearing contrib 
uted not a little to his influence as a preacher and 
leader. In the language of Dr. Lore, he was " the 
very personification of mature manhood ; large and 
powerful in physique, active and energetic, culm 



REV ADAM CROOKS. 281 

and dignified in mien, he seemed to be the man of 
the multitude, formed to bear burdens, made to 
live. He was the very embodiment of caution 
and boldness, courtesy and firmness. As a 
preacher, he was clear and able, spiritual and in 
spiring, ever faithful to truth and to the right. 
His eloquence possessed strength rather than pol 
ish, grandeur rather than the flowers of rhetoric 
and elocution. There was, however, in his ser 
mons, a surpassing moral and spiritual beauty, 
combined with other essential elements, which, in 
the estimation of either the learned or the unlearn 
ed, constitute the God-chosen teacher or leader 
Both times we heard him, his sermons were wor 
thy of the body of intelligent ministers present, 
and still " the common people heard him gladly." 
To our departed friend and Christian brother, to 
our fellow-worker in the gospel vineyard, to our 
co-laborer in the great cause of moral reform, to 
the patient sufferer and successful toiler, to the 
great leader and now crowned hero, we pay this 
feeble tribute, and answer back, Farewell ! But 
our farewell is not forever. With thousands that 
have revered and loved him, we hope to greet him 
among the glorified when the voice of Him whose 
throne is ever on the side of truth, purity, and ho 
liness, and against deception, sin, and iniquity, 
shall call his servants from labor to reward, from 
bearing the cross to wearing the crown. 

FROM METHODIST RECORDER. 

" The last American IVeslcyan comes draped in 



282 THE LIFE OP 

mourning at the loss of its editor, brother Adam 
Crooks. It seems that his over work at the Fall 
Conferences, and in the office and pulpit since, has 
prematurely removed this busy man from the ranks 
of Christian laborers. He was a devoted servant 
of the Church of his choice. He was not only the 
editor of the weekly paper, but the treasurer of 
several Boards, and the adviser and friend whom, 
pastors sought from all parts of the Connection. 
He was a strong man, physically, intellectually and 
spiritually; a true reformer, upright, honest? 
straightforward, and full of faith and hope. The 
Wesleyan Church will miss her valiant leader. 
He was true to his paper, true to his people, and 
true to God. We join in sincere lamentation with 
our sister household of faith, and mingle our tears 
with hers at the grave of a good and an eminently 
useful man. He loved liberty more than position, 
truth more than fame, his little, earnest, united, 
and zealous Church more than the popular sects 
with all their emoluments and honors. Peace to 
the ashes of our dear, dead brother. We hope to 
overtake him in the land of rest." 

FROM NORTHERN CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE PUBLISHED 
AT SYRACUSE. 

" The death of this Christian brother shocked 
our citizens by its suddenness on Tuesday, the 15th 
inst. We had been accustomed to see him in our 
streets, the very personification of mature manhood, 
large and powerful in physique, active and ener- 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 283 

gctic, calm and dignified in mien, he seemed to be 
the man of the multitude formed to bear burdens, 
made to live, but he has fallen in the day of his 
strength, amidst a multiplicity of cares, and ap 
parently when most useful and most needed. 
Brother Crooks stood as the head and representa 
tive of the American Wesleyan Church. He was 
Editor and Agent of the publication department, 
and Treasurer of the various Connectional funds, 
and benevolent institutions. In these respects, the 
Church, humanly speaking, depended entirely upon 
his ability and energy. He took this position 
when Dr. Prindle resigned and many others, lead 
ing men of the Wesleyan Church, judging it better 
to abandon their organization and return to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Many of their prom 
inent men did so. A crisis had come in their 
Church alfairs, and dissolution seemed imminent. 
At this juncture brother Crooks threw himself into 
the breach, and as one of the speakers at the fune 
ral said, became their Moses, and cried " Go for 
ward." It is not, perhaps, too much to say, that 
if there had been no Adam Crooks at that crisis, 
there would have been no American Wesleyan 
Church now; certainly it would not have been 
what it now is. His loss to the Church as far as 
human foresight can see is irreparable. 

"Brother Crooks was a devoted Christian min 
ister, moulded after the strictest New Testament 
pattern. He was a man who never chaffered with 
duty, he knew only to do right and was ready to 



284 THE LIFE OP 

meet the consequences. He was religious in his 
emotions as well as in his principles. His Chris 
tian experience was mature, rich, and mellow and 
bright. We were brought into communication 
with him frequently as a brother-editor, and always 
found him genial and manly. At the time of his 
death he was but fifty years of age and had been 
in the ministry about thirty years. Although he 
had been sick for some weeks, up and down with 
fever, contracted during a western tour of Confer 
ence visiting as agent of the Church, neither he nor 
his friends supposed his end was so near. Death 
came unexpectedly to all. Only a few moments 
before he died, he seemed to catch a glimpse of the 
open door through which he was to pass out from 
this to the other world. He said in haste to his 
wife, "Quick, quick," and drew her to him and 
kissed her, and murmured indistinctly that there 
was rest and soon after ceased to breathe. " He 
rests from his labors and his works do follow him." 

FROM THE CHRISTIAN CYNOSURE. 

Our beloved brother Crooks is gone over the 
silent river before us. We shall not attempt his 
biography. 

* ft H * * 

Mr. Crooks took the helm. As was said of Gen. 
Hamilton, "He touched the dead carcass of the 
public credit and it stood up." He restored the 
dilapidated business of the Book Room at Syra 
cuse. The paper American Wesleyan became self- 
sustaining. Without a particle of sectarian feel 
ing, he aided in saving his denomination. H s 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 285 

a true Now Testament bishop without either the 
human prerogative or the name. He was almost 
ready to commence the erection of a new National 
Publishing House at Syracuse ; and there stood 
around him godly and good men who are opposed 
to the world s evils, and who, it is hoped and be 
lieved will carry to completion his designs. 

" Thou hast fallen in thy armor 

Thou beloved of the Lord ; 
With thy last breath crying Onward/ 

And thy hand upon the sword j 
And we ll think of thee, brother, 

In the trials yet to come, 
In the shadow of the prison 

Or in cruel martyrdom." 

EXPRESSION OF THE CORRECTIONAL BOARDS ON THE 
DEATH OF EEV. A. CROOKS. 

In the course of temporal events, the afflictive 
portion of which we could not control, we the vari 
ous Connectioual Boards and Associations of the 
Wcslcyan Methodist Connection of America are as 
sembled. Under a deep sense of our obligation 
to, and dependence upon the infinite wisdom of 
Almighty God we would bow ourselves before the 
dealings of his hand, and ask his divine strength to 
be our portion through the severe trial which is 
now upon us. By the painfully sad circumstance 
of death, we miss to-day the presence, counsel and 
encouragement of our dearly beloved Agent and 
Treasurer, Rev. A. Crooks, and we cannot refrain 



286 THE LIFE OP 

from expressing, by these few words, some slight 
sense of our great bereavement. 

Taking charge of the Connectional finances as 
he did at a time when there was scarce a dollar in 
the treasury, and the means for further conducting 
the publishing interests were alone in the hands of 
a people who had everything to dishearten and dis 
courage them, there seemed little to hope for, save 
the deliverance of that God, who is able to subdue 
his enemies, and bring strength out of weakness. 
As the years passed on, the people learned that it 
was safe to trust their new Agent. None feared 
any alienation of their funds, or that their confi 
dence would in any way be misplaced. 

Since that time, many times ten thousand dollars 
have been paid to him for the various Connectional 
enterprises of our people, and twenty-two thou 
sand dollars pledged toward a new Publishing 
House. With the faithful, trustful spirit which 
was characteristic of himself, the people have ral 
lied to the support of the great principles of our 
denomination, and beneath his financial and 
Christian leadership, unexpected successes have 
been attained. 

His large experience and close observation, his 
cool judgment and undaunted faith, made him a 
valuable adviser, a true friend, and a safe and pru 
dent manager of the Connectional finances entrust 
ed to his care. Thousands of persons had submit 
ted their individual cases to his careful advice, and 
not less than thirty thousand people, within and 



REY. ADAM CROOKS. 287 

Outside of his denomination had known, loved and 
trusted him. 

But he is gone. His voice is hushed at the head 
of the hosts of God s moral army. His toils are 
passed, his work is done, and he has passed within 
the sweet and hallowed quiet of his eternal rest. 
He has left the companionship of his old friends 
and associates, and left them to work on, without 
the advantage of his experience, observation and 
advice. 

But we can not believe that any who are ground 
ed in the faith of the gospel of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and who cling to the distinctive principles 
of American Wesleyanism, but have such faith and 
principles, not simply because our brother had faith 
in them, but because they believe those principles 
to be founded on justice and the eternal rock of 
truth. And now that he has fallen in the harness 
of the battle, at the head of the fearless band he 
led, no true soldier of the Master will, we believe, 
feel like falling back, or " bating one jot of heart 
or hope." The Grand Captain of our salvation 
still lives, and we believe will lead us on to victory. 
Perhaps we were trusting too much in our dear 
brother, and now the God of the armies of Heaven 
and earth wishes to show us that He who can 
thresh a mountain with a worm, can lead us to 
success without any distinguished human agency. 

When we have suffered the loss of leaders in 
other times, our brethren remaining have rallied to 
duty as never before ; and now, perhaps, it remains 



288 THE LIFE OP 

that all our " Churches shall be set on fire of G-od" 
in seeking to work up to the high point of the per 
sonal Christian experience which was lived and 
taught by our devoted brother. 

We can but pause in sorrow to drop our tears 
of grief above the dust of our departed leader. 
But for the sake of the perishing souls for whom 
he labored, and Christ died, we will arise, and with 
hearts undismayed, press forward to duty to the 
end of our days. And we would exhort brethren 
everywhere to rally to the high responsibilities 
resting upon them. Let there be no sluggards 
now. And if every one will " look beyond the 
watchman" to the God of the armies of Israel, we 
may see such a forward movement as never occur 
red even in his own day. And it may come to 
pass that he who slew his thousands in his life 
time, may slay his tens of thousands by the influ 
ence of his own death. God is our leader, in him 
will we trust, PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE 
BOARDS. 

The following tracts are among the last of Mr. 
Crooks writings. It is thought advisable to give 
them this form, in order that their circulation may 
be extended, and their influence widened ; and that 
they may be preserved to bless those who read> for 
years to come. 

COUNSEL TO CONVERTS. 

The most memorable epoch in the soul s history is the 
time of its espousals to Christ. From that moment there 
is a vitalizing and falicitating union between it and the 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 289 

Father, Son and Holy Ghost, to find its high and holy 
complement amid the measureless ages of immortality. 
But in spiritual laws and habits it is but an infant almost 
witnout experience and without knowledge. To begin 
right and to grow and develop in the spiritual in eternal 
life, is of unspeakable importance. Hence please read, with 
fervent, prayer, these earnest words of counsel. 

1. Be certain beyond the- possibility of mistake as to the 
fact of conversion. Do not rest in the judgments of oth 
ers. Know for yourself. Do not settle down satisfied 
while there is a lingering shadow of doubt. The matter 
is too important to allow of doubts. Be sure your experi 
ence is scriptural. Here are some scriptural evidences. 
Peace with God. The Apostle says, " Therefore being jus 
tified by faith, we have peace with God." This peace 
consists in a sweet tranquility of soul arising from pardon 
and conscious reconciliation. God has pardoned us, and 
we are reconciled to him are al-one with him all an 
tagonism has ceased. Love of Christians, is another evi 
dence. " By this we know we have passed from death unto 
life, because we love the brethren." This is much more 
than a mere respect for Christians. Most persons have 
this. But it is a knitting of soul with soul an instinctive 
drawing to Christians, as a part of ourselves, or as belong 
ing to the same family a secret, but strong spiritual affini 
ty. New interest in, and better understanding of the 
Bible, resulting from having the eyes of the understanding 
opened, is another evidence. Love of enemies conscious 
communion with God minding spiritual things having 
keen spiritual appetite and relish are all evidences of con 
version. But though scriptural and valid, yet these are 
all inferential. We have peace with God ; love the breth 
ren ; love our enemies, &c. &c., therefore we are convert 
ed. But there is a higher evidence, There is the direct 
witness of the Spirit. We may argue that because we 
see, and hear, and love and hate, and enjoy, and suffer 
&c., that therefore we exist; that it is conclusive. But 
13 



290 THE LIFE OF 

aside from all this, there is a consciousness of existence. 
So too, aside from all inferential evidence, there may be a 
direct consciousness of spiritual life. This is the witness of 
the Holy Spirit. Let no convert stop short of this highest 
evidence. It is of infinite importance to begin right that 
the conversion is both genuine and thorough. 

2. Bear every cross. This is a fundamental condition of 
discipleship. At the very outset of your Christian career 
settle it well to shun no cross, however heavy. Every 
time the cross is borne there will be an increase of strength 
with conscious Divine approval. Every time you bear the 
cross you will learn more and more, that at least one half 
of it is borne by the Savior. When lifted, it is not so pon 
derous as it had seemed ; and every successive time it is 
lighter than the preceding. On the other hard, when 
shunned, the cross grows heavier and heavier, until there is 
neither strength nor fortitude to take it up. As one has 
beautifully said, ** The cross is like the wings of a bird- 
The bird must bear its wings, and then the wings bear the 
bird." You will find this to be eminently true. Then, from 
the first, be cross-bearing Christians. There are none 
others. 

1 Bold to take up, and firm to sustain 
The consecrated cross." 

3. Be zealous workers. The Churches have too many 
drones already. You are wanted for no such purpose. 
Just in proportion as you are a blessing to the Church will 
the Church be a blessing to you. The Church and world 
are filled with backsliders, because filled with idlers. By 
all means find something to do for Jesus. Seek to be use 
ful. Be earnest workers. Your alternative is work or die! 
By all means let these words characterize you truly 
" Zealous of good work." The command of the Master to 
each and to all is, " Go work to-day in my vineyard. 7 Be 
strict in your obedience to this Divine command ; and 
"ready to every good word and work." Do something 
for Jesus each day, and not only will you not backslide, 



REV. ADAM CROOKS- 291 

but you will be a healthy, happy, useful, growing Christian. 
We repeat it The one alternative is Work or die. 
Action is a law of spiritual, no less than of natural life and 
development. It is palpable that in the absence of life 
there can be no intelligent, well-directed, effective and 
remunerative action. And it is equally true that in the ab 
sence of such action there can be no healthful, growing, 
happy, vigorous, spiritual life. In such case, there may 
be the form without the power the body without the soul ; 
the shadow without the substance, the corpse without the 
shroud and coffin ; but little more is possible. You do not 
wish to belong to an army of corpses, an assemblage of 
skeletons, a valley of dry bones;" or even disciplined 
infants, invalids, dyspeptics and dwarfs. What miserable 
substitutes these, for spiritual athletes and giants! Not 
enough that a mere tithe of the professed soldiers of Christ, 
are pressing the battle with the vigor of desperation 
Twere madness to even hope for brilliant achievement 
until the whole army comes into such determined action. 
"The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the vio 
lent take it by force." Among the Lacedemonians, every 
citizen was a soldier. So let it be with you. Let every 
man, woman and child professing to love the Lord Jesus, 
" come up to the help of the Lord, to the help of the Lord 
against the mighty." 

4. Be scrupulously conscientious. " Shun all appear 
ance of evil." Never give the devil the benefit of your 
doubt. Never allow large margin between sin and holi 
ness. Draw the lines sharply and distinctly. Never be 
found ia proximity with Satan s territory. Make the dis 
tance between you and it as great as possible. For every 
temptation have a prompt and emphatic No ! Thoughts of 
evil, when indulged, instantly become evil thoughts. These 
are the only doors through which the devil can gain en 
trance into the heart, As you regard the life and liberty 
of your souls, keep these doors well bolted, and you are 
comparatively safe. But without this there absolutely can 



292 THE LIFE OF 

be no safety. * Lust, when it hath conceived, bringeth 
forth sin; 71 and " the wages of sin is death." Avoid every 
wrong. Practice every right. Do every duty. Be strict 
ly, scrupulously, uniformly conscientious. Keep your con 
science as the apple of the eye of your soul. Prefer death 
to sin. 

" What conscience dictates to be done 

Or warns me not to do ; 
This teaches more than hell to shun, 

That more than heaven to pursue." 

5. Too much account cannot be made of prayer. " Pray 
without ceasing." " Instant in prayer," ready for it at all 
times. "Praying all prayer and supplication in the Spir 
it." For everything we need. " Pray everywhere 7 in 
secret in family in social and business walks in the 
great congregation. " Lifting up holy hands without wrath 
and doubting." No sin in the hand no wrath in the mind 
no doubting in the heart. Emphatically, the Christian life 
is one of prayer. 

"Prayer is the Christian s vital breath ; 

The Christian s native air, 
His watch-word at the ates of death, 

He enters heaven with prayer." 

" But pray with faith in Jesus name." 

Just as well hope to live physically without breathing, as 
to live spiritually without praying. Prayer exhales sin, 
and inhales holiness exhales the human, and inhales the 
divine exhales self and inhales God ! To cease to pray is 
to cease to live. 

6. Study the Bible much, and make it your guide. Read 
good books ; counsel with Christians ; give good heed to 
preaching ; but allow none of these, nor all of them togeth 
er, the place of the Bible. Make the Bible alone, the 
ultimate rule of faith and practice. Young converts often 
select out eminent Christians as their patterns, thinking if 
only as good as these, that is all they could hope. But 
even a Paul could only say, " follow me as T follow Christ." 
Christ is the only perfect model, and the Bible the only sure 



REV. ADAM CROOKS, 293 

guide. A neglected Bible neglected closet, and a neglected 
Christ, is salvation neglected. 

7. Seek to be useful. There are a thousand ways in 
which to do good. Reckon that day as lost which records 
no good accomplished no word of caution, reproof, or 
comfort spoken no deed of charity done no look of pity 
ing kindness given. So taught even Pythagorus, a heathen 
philosopher. Let the sun go down upon no such day of 
your life. Do not be mere absorbents mere receptives of 
good ; but give out good in return. " Freely ye have re 
ceived ; freely give." Let heart, and hand, and feet, and 
tongue, and eyes be avenues for the out-flow of good to 
others. Seek to be eminently wise and good, that you may 
be thus eminently useful. And be ready for any errand of 
mercy, any post of service that Heaven may appoint. Shine 
like the sun ; not for yourself, but for others. But shine ! 
Make mountain and valley lustrous with the light of intelli 
gent Christian example. If others are indifferent, or walk 
in darkness, let not the fault lie at your door. 

8. Be punctual in the observance of all the means of 
grace, private and public. These are your spiritual meals, 
and regularity is essential to spiritual health and growth. 
Never suffer business nor any earthly interest to encroach 
upon these. 

9. Be select of your companions. Not that they must 
be of the rich and cultured; but they that belong to the 
royal family of Heaven. And not merely nominal, world 
ly, unspiritual, and lukewarm formalists ; but those who 
live nearest the summit of the mount of heavenly commun 
ion. And read none but the best of books. Select your 
companions from among the spiritual giants and Princes of 
the House of Israel. 

10. Do not be too much the subject of mere emotions. 
Not evanescent emotions, but fixed principles ; not delight- 
but duty ; not greatness, but goodness ; not happiness, but 
holiness ; not rapture, but running ; not words, but wis 
dom ; not lust, but love ; not glory, but God? Too many 



294 THE LIFE OP 

mistake here. Be sure you do not. It leads either to sen- 
suosity in religion, or otherwise to measuring our grace by 
the false rule of mere feeling. Shun this rock. 

11. Studiously avoid spiritual pride. " Esteeming others 
better than yourselves." As above, goodness, not great 
ness. Rejoice in the successes of others. Let there be no 
bitter jealousies, envying, strife, or evil speaking. The 
largest corn and fattest pastures are found in the valleys. 
So do Christian graces grow best in the valley of true hu 
mility. 

12. From the first, learn to be liberal. <k The liberal 
soul shall be made fat. 17 " The Lord loveth a cheerful 
giver." As Wesley taught Get all you can honestly of 
course ; save all you can ; give all you can. Get and save 
not to hoard; but that you may have wherewith to give, 
Just as well talk of a sober sot, as of a stingy Christian. 

13. Never rest satisfied in present attainments. But, 
taking the Apostle s rule, forgetting things behind, and 
reaching to those before, press toward the mark, for the 
prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. High 
er ! and still higher ! ! 

Do these things, and thou shalt not only save thyself, 
but also many others, 

PLEA FOR HOLINESS. 

Holiness is personal purity. It combines the two con 
ditions of the absence of all that is wrong, and the pre 
sence of all that is right complete death to sin and life 
to righteousness. It is pre-eminent personal. Separate 
*rom the individual, there can be no holiness. It does not 
consist in externalities, nor yet in mere emotions, but in a 
fixed state of the heart. Upon both of these points there has 
been vast confusion. Implanted in the heart, it finds cer 
tain development in the life. Its highest statement is lov 
ing God with all the heart, soul, mind and strength, and 
loving our neighbor, (friend or foe,) as ourself. Not that 
we are to approve either the character or conduct of our 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 295 

foes. God does not approbate his enemies. But we must 
have for them no malignity nothing contrary to good-will. 
But perforce of an eternal law of our being, to thus love 
God we must be like him. We must be " created anew 
after the image of God in righteousness and true holiness." 
For " like loves its like." But the object of these lines is a 
plea for holiness. 

1. God commands it. His language is plain, pointed, 
and positive. " Be ye holy ; for I the Lord your God am 
holy." This of itself is sufficient. When God commands, 
let angels and men obey. Holiness is the supreme law of 
the Moral Universe. If we would no^t be in vital antago 
nism with this great law, let us be holy. 

2. Sin is essentially hateful and wrong; is hateful because 
wrong. For this reason God hates it with a perfect hatred. 
If he did not hate it with all the powers of his being he 
would be a sinner. Then, as we would not give place in 

our heart to that which is thus hateful in the eyes of God 
and of all sinless beings, let us be holy. 

3. Sin is essentially subversive of the Divine Govern 
ment. But this government is an infinite good, and its 
overthrow would be an infinite calamity. Who can fully 
estimate the magnitude of the consequences of the destruc 
tion of God s government. Surely none but God himself. 
Then if we would not allow that which would be thus disas- 
terous to God and his boundless universe to attach to our 
deathless nature, let us be holy. Let us antagonize sin as 
we ought. 

4. But again : Sin shuts us away from communion with 
God. Out of fellowship with God and all the good. Aye 
more ; in desperate warfare with all these : who can 
abide the thought! Yet sin imooses and eternalizes this 
dreadful necessity. Yet holiness is the only door of escape 
from this direful calamity. To the account of sin is to be 
put down unmeasured evil, and to the account of holiness 
unmeasured good. Then by all this double possibility of 
geod and evil, are we called to an existence of ceaseless 



29 6- THE LIFE OF 

holiness. Shall we hold ourselves proof against such mo 
tives as these ? If not, let us be holy. 

5. If we would bear a resemblance of God and all the 
good of the universe, we must be holy. 

6. If our relationship to God and the virtuous of all 
worlds would be friendly, we must be holy. 

7. If we would not be in identification with all the abom 
inable of all worlds, we must be holy. 

8. Without holiness, all our prayers and acts of worship 
must be without avail. Holiness is a condition fundamen 
tal to acceptable worship. If we regard iniquity in our 
heart any iniquity the Lord will not hear us. 

9. Holiness is the life-principle of every form of virtue. 
Hence, in its absence, even these forms will eventually 
decompose and disappear. 

10. By a powerful law of our being, we assimilate to those 
whom we venerate and love. The loving child becomes 
like his parent, and the admiring pupil like his preceptor. 
Love and admiration of the Divine Being are essential ele 
ments of holiness. Hence, by virtue of this law, holy moral 
agents become more and more holy : or more and more 
like God. Hence, too, the language of the great Apostle 
"But we pll with open face beholdirg as in a glass the 
glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from 
glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord." Hence, 
also, the "Beloved Disciple" " We know that when he 

. shall appear, we shall be like him ; for we shall see him a 
be is." How distinct and marked this resemblance shall 
become by virtue of the operations of this law during an 
endless eternity, may not be thought nor told ; but if holy, 
it shall stamp our eternal experience. And is it unreason 
able to suppose that perforce of a law of like potency, the 
unholy and unhappy lost will wax worse and worse during 
eternal ages? All these trtmtrdous results concenter up 
on the sirgle condition of being holy. Then, how shall 
it be? Shall we spend our eternity in rising higher and 
higher in every moral excellence; approximating nearer- 



ADAM CROOKS. 297 

and nearer the exact image of the Divine ; or shall it be 
spent in sinking deeper and still deeper into unmeasured 
depths of moral deformity and obliquy? Reader: This 
tremendous question confronts your soul at each succes 
sive moment for decision. Oh, let it be made now in such 
manner as all the facts of time and eternity shall approve ! 

11. As sin is the greatest possible evil to moral agents, 
so is holiness the greatest possible good. Holiness alone 
can adjust our being in self-harmony, as in harmony with 
God, his law, and plans, and purposes, and the administra 
tion of the affairs of his boundless empire. Holiness ren 
ders all the infinite resources of Jehovah, and all the mighty 
forces at his command, tributary to the highest good of its 
possessor. Sin sets all these infinite resources and mighty 
forces at war upon the interests of its guilty perpetrator. 
Every where, all over the Divine nature and administration, 
may be seen written in emblazoned characters " WITH 
OUT HOLINESS NONE SHALL SEE THE LORD." 

And now, dear reader : What is your attitude to these 
over-mastering truths ? Are the infinite resources of Je 
hovah, with all the mighty forces of the universe at work 
for your highest good ; or are their concerted activities 
effectuating your utmost ruin for time and eternity? The 
answer depends upon your relation to holiness. What is 
that relation ? What shall it be? Can the fleeting pleas 
ures of sin compensate the soul s eternal undoing ? Surely 
not. Then, by all its priceless interests determine to be 
holy from this very hour. Let the decision render the 
memory of the hour precious and hallowed amid the peer 
less glories of the palace of God ! 

12. But in its far-reaching influences this subject is not 
limited to the individual moral agent. For, as it is written, 
" No man liveth unto himself." In the immediate and 
sundry relations of husband, wife, parent, child, brother, 
sister, friend, &c., &c., our character must affect for weal 
or for woe, the character and destiny of many others. Nor 
is this tidal- wave of contagion, holy or sinful confined to 
13* 



298 THE LIFE OF 

the immediate circle of relatives, friends and cotempora" 
ries ; but with the ceaseless flow of time sweeps on to bless 
or blast countless thousands : may be millions ! Thus 
has the guilty taint of the sinning pair in Eden infected 
their countless, progeny. So, in like manner, the blessed 
influence of the good is unconfined and undying. Shall we 
commit sad havoc among immortal souls until God s angel 
shall strike the knell of time? The subject is unspeaka 
bly awful And were it possible, the pleadings and pro 
tests of unborn millions might well be in favor of the 
holiness of all now living. But in this they are wholly de- 
enseless. Then let us make their cause our own, and for 
their sakes as well as our own ; and as we would not, in the 
form of our influence, be guilty of committing soul-mur 
der during all time, let us be holy. 

13. Our final plea is made in the name of our adorable 
Savior. His mission to earth finds final culmination in 
man s holiness and happiness. Therefore, by his incarna 
tion, poverty, passion, illustrious example, betrayal and 
denial, cruel mockings and scourgings, boundless sufferings 
and agonizing cry upon the cross ; by his death, burial, re 
surrection, ascension and intercessions ; by the gift of the 
Spirit, establishment of his Church and institution of his min 
istry ; by all of these, as in one united call, are we impor 
tuned to be holy. If we are holy, we come into the rightful 
possession of all the blessed benefits of the atonement, 
both for time and eternity. But if not holy, the blood of 
atonement will cry for vengeance, as the guilt of all other 
sins combined cannot cry. This is the pivotal point upon 
which all turns. If holy, the atonement becomes to us 
the source of peerless blessings ; but if not holy, the blood 
of the Son of God shed for our redemption thunders for 
our eternal undoing. Reader : How shall it be ? Shall 
God s munificent expenditures for our salvation, be so per 
verted by our own act, as to deepen our eternal damnation ? 
Awful thought! Shall we thus at once abuse God s bound 
less love, dash beyond the limits of recovery, the bliss of 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 299 

heaven, and plunge our souls beneath the fiercest waves of 
endless woe ? If not, we must be holy. 

The foregoing considerations appeal alike to all ; but 
super-added to these are others which apply exclusively to 
Christians. Here are some of them. 

1. If you would have power with God and man for 
good, you must be holy. 

2. If you would not mar and scar the beauty and symme 
try of the Church of God, and blight the healthy growth in 
grace in those with whom you are in holiest fellowship, you 
must be holy. 

3. If you would not hold out false lights, and guide an 
already perishing world against the ruinouskrocks of sin ; 
if for the saving salt of holiness you would not give the 
world the fatal virus of sin, you must be holy. 

4. If you would not be a false witness against Christ, 
and bring his matchless cause into disrepute with mankind, 
you must be holy. To be intrusted with the honor and 
reputation of Jesus, involves a fearful responsibility. If 
you would not basely betray this holy trust confided, you 
must be holy. 

5. The Church is the conservator of the nations, and of 
the world. It is the salt of the earth, and the light of the 
woild. If it does not sufficiently possess the conserving 
and saving properties, the nations must relapse into barbar 
ism, moral rottenness and ruin. Here again are involved 
fearful responsibilities ; and to fully respond to these, you 
must be holy. 

Finally : If you would not transmit to coming genera 
tions a type of Christianity that will blast, blacken, and 
ruin souls, instead of blessing and saving them, you must 
be holy. 

Thus, if you would be true to your own interests, and 
the interests of God, and of all others for tims.and eter 
nity, you must be holy. 

What do you say? What is your answer? Decide this 
great question now. This instant. Upon your knees be- 



300 THE LIFE OF 

fore God ! Will you now make a perfect offering of time, 
talent, ease, pleasure, property, reputation, friends, and if 
need so require, life itself? Will you keep tbis offering 
upon the altar forever % And making this offering a per 
petual act, do you now take Jesus Christ as a Savior from 
all sin ? WILL YOU BE HOLY ? 

May the great God, Father, Son and Holy Ghost help 
you! Amen. 

PROCESSES OF SALVATION. 

Salvation, in a gospel sense, means complete deliverance 
from sin, and thereby deliverance from its consequences, 
and the eternftl exaltation of the soul and body to all pos 
sible perfectability and blessedness in heaven. The theme 
of salvation is the greatest of all themes. And the work of 
salvation is the greatest of all works. And although the en 
tire work is expressed by the one word salvation ; yet it 
has its processes. Concerning some of these processes, 
vast confusion exists even in the minds of many Christians. 
Well-defined views upon this subject are of very great im 
portance. Hence we would dissipate this confusion, and 
make each point as plain as possible. 

The first step we name is conviction. This is a com 
plex state, implying a knowledge of God and his law, with 
a pungent sense of guilt or of ill-desert because of the vio 
lation of this law. Now conscience is thoroughly awake 
and at work. And although tbis state may be wholly in 
voluntary and even against the will, and therefore posses 
ses no moral character, it is yet indispensable to salvation j 
for without it no one will seek salvation. 

The second preliminary step in this process is penitence. 
By this we mean sincere sorrow over our past sins. Now 
sin begins to be seen and regarded in its true light, as ex 
ceedingly offensive to Gcd, and detrimental to every inter 
est of man, both for time and eternity. Now we begin in 
earnest to deplore our sinful state. The direct tendency 
of this sorrow is to produce repentance. Hence says the 



&EV. ADASf CROOKS. 301 

Apostle, " Godly sorrow worketh repentance." Not 
enough that we are deeply convicted ; not enough that the 
soul is sorrowful because of sins committed. All this may 
be, and yet we persistently refuse to cease our sinning. 

Another step must be taken viz : repentance. Genuine 
repentance consists in a present and complete abandon 
ment of all known sin, together with a determined struggle 
for deliverance therefrom. Mark ! Not a purpose to aban 
don sin after-while nor yet to abandon some sins and con 
tinue to cling to others ; neither to abandon them for any 
limited period. But this abandonment, in purpose at least, 
must be present, complete, and perpetual, The surrender 
must be unconditional. The purposed obedience must be 
absolute and unqualified, at any and every cost, be it life 
itself, otherwise our repentance is a sham and a mockery. 
It is to be greatly feared that in these times of shams and 
superficialities, the repentance of too many is only in the 
seemings. Reader ! Has yours been genuine and thorough ? 
If you would have your conversion genuine, your repentance 
must be thorough. 

Repentance prepares the way for justification, or par 
don. The soul may now be said to be in moral attitude to 
be forgiven. Not that repentance is in the least degree 
meritorious. For while it is fitting and indispensable, it 
yet in no sense, nor to any extent, merits pardon. The 
meritorious cause of our justification inheres exclusively 
in the complete atonement made by the sufferings and 
death of our Lord Jesus Christ; he having " by the grace 
of God, tasted death for every man." As the poet sings : 

" Jesus paid it all 
All the debt I owe." 

Hence, " God can be just and the justifier of him that be- 
lieveth in Jesus." And hence again, the moment we cease 
our agonizing efforts to make ourselves better, or to free 
ourselves from guilt, and trust for salvation simply and con 
fidingly in " the redemption which is in Christ Jesus," that 
very moment all our sins will be freely forgiven, and we 



302 THE LIFE OP 

shall stand justified before God as really and as fully as if 
we had never sinned. This act of pardon is at once in 
stantaneous and complete. And now becomes apropos the 
simple and beautifully expressive language of the great 
Apostle, " Therefore being justified by faith, we have 
peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ." And 
with speechless rapture we can sing 

" My God is reconciled ; 

His pard ning voice I hear ; 
He owns me for his child, 

I can no longer fear." 

Coetaneous with pardon, and its invariable attendant, is 
regeneration. When freely pardoned by the Father, through 
the Son, we are, the same instant, regenerated by the Holy 
Ghost, adopted into the heavenly family, and receive the 
Spirit of adoption, " crying Father, Father." This work 
is instantaneous ; done in a moment, in the twinkling of an 
eye. As regeneration is the unvarying concomitant or 
accompaniment of justification or pardon, theologians fre 
quently employ the terms, justification and regeneration 
interchangably, as designating the same state. The Scrip 
tures characterize it being bora again created anew in 
Christ Jesus the love of God shed abroad in the heart 
by the Holy Ghost, and like forceful language. In all 
these processes the Holy Ghost has been active. In pro 
ducing conviction, contrition, repentance, inspiring the 
faith which trusts only in Christ for pardon ; for " no man 
can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost" 
active also in creating the heart anew, and then in witness 
ing to its own blessed work. 

We would award to the justified or regenerate state all 
that the Scriptures authorize. In this state there exist 
all the Christian graces. The current of our being is 
reversed. Love is the soul s ruling impulse, and obedience 
is not only possible, but also delightful. A growth in the 
Christian graces is also possible ; and indeed if justification 
is retained there must be this growth. At the moment the 



KEY. ADAM CROOKS. 303 

soul is regenerated it is conscious of nothing averse to love. 
It bears the image of Christ. In some sense, God is loved 
with all the heart the heart is pure sanctified free from 
sin, in the sense of voluntary transgression communes 
with God, and has an assurance of a title to heaven. 

These things being conceded, many erroneously teach 
that beyond what is known as justification and regeneration, 
nothing is either necessary or possible. Then what are the 
facts? What is truth concerning this most important sub 
ject? We conceive it to be as follows : 

1. Although at the time of regeneration the soul is un 
conscious of anything averse to the reign of love, yet in 
after experience and while enjoying a sense of the Divine 
favor, it becomes clearly conscious of the presence of 
appetites, passions, propensities, impulses, dispositions 
and tempers, unfriendly to the unqualified reign of our 
only Lord and Savior, and to yield to which is sin. Not 
that these are sin; but if allowed to become active or rul 
ing, they develop into sin. 

2. These propensities, impulses, &c., are traceable to 
and consequent upon the fall. But for the fall they would, 
with us, have no existence. 

3. These adverse impulsions are not produced by voli 
tions, but are back of and beneath the will, and ever and 
anon act upon it. They are interior fountains, deep within 
the citadel of the soul, ever ready to spring up and pour out 
their murky contents. And coming as they do within the 
field of consciousness, their presence cannot be denied. 
Hence they are distinctly noted by all trust-worthy theolo 
gians, as Wesley, Watson, Clarke, Cook, Fletcher, Finney, 
Buck, Dwight, Hill, Helffenstein, Lee, Foster, Dempster] 
&c. The Presbyterian Confession of Faith not only makes 
note of the presence of these tendencies to sin in the re 
generate heart, but teaches also that they cannot be com 
pletely extirpated in this life. And all these authorities 
admit that when regenerated, the soul is, iu a modified 
sense, pure and sanctified ; but not that it is wholly pure 
aud sanctified. 



304 THE LIFE OF 

As Finney, Lee, and others clearly teach, existing in the 
sensibilities as mere passive states, they are not sin in tJie 
sense of transgression, But (1.) To yield to them even in 
intention or by consent, in the absense of the opportunity 
to yield in the overt act, is sin. (2.) Being adverse of 
the Cross of Christ, and to his unqualified reign in and 
over the soul, it is his prerogative to cast them out. (3.) 
To make truce with them so far as to consent to their con 
tinued presence, while knowing that they may be cast out, 
is sin. In such case their very presence involves moral 
culpability. To make truce with the foes of Christ in any 
form, is criminally sinful. Hence relentless warfare upon 
those impulsions, is fundamentally necessary to continued 
justification. (4.) That these tendencies to sin are not 
cast out by regeneration is self-manifest, from the fact that 
usually, if not universally, they exist in the heart after it 
has been regenerated. (5.) Since mere regeneration, (be 
ing born again,) does not cast out these internal foes, 
their extirpation must, in this sense, and on this account, 
be a distinct work. This is as plain as that two and two 
equal four, or that a circle, square and triangle are not the 
same. And as sanctification begins with regeneration, the 
extirpation of those impulsions and attendant baptism of 
the Holy Ghost, may on this account be called the con 
tinuance of the same work. It is the completion of a work 
begun in regeneration. Hence contention over the ques 
tion whether it is a distinct work or only the same work 
continued to completion, is not wise ; being more specu 
lative than practical, and hence is styled by Mr. Wesley 
a "war of words;" and it may serve to divert attention 
from the great and vital work of having our internal foes 
extirpated, and the occupancy of the whole territory of 
the soul by the pure love of Christ. Being a distinct 
work, it very properly has a distinct designation. And 
being the completion of a work commenced in regenera 
tion, it is very properly designated entire sanctification. 

That this designation is in consonance with the teaching 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 305 

of Inspiration, as well as in accord with experience, is 
apparent in the light of the following with other passages of 
Holy Writ. 

"Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let 
us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, 
perfecting holiness in the fear of God." 2 Cor. vii : 1. 
This passage clearly assumes (1.) That the Christians 
addressed may not have been cleansed from all filthiness 
of flesh and spirit. For why exhort to the doing of a 
work already completed? (2.) That there is such thing as 
an imperfect state of holiness ; otherwise there could be 
no such process as " perfecting- holiness." 

" And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly ; and I 
pray God that your whole spirit and soul and body be 
preserved blameless, unto the coming of our Lord Jesus 
Christ." 2 Thess. v: 23. As Dr. Lee well says "This 
text supposes that sanctification in part without being en 
tirely sanctified, is a possible condition ; for it would be 
absurd to pray to be sanctified wholly, if there is no such 
thing as being sanctified in part without being wholly sanc 
tified." 

The foregoing truths furnish large margin for variety in 
the experience of Christians. Here is a soul regenerated ; 
but on the one hand neglecting to cultivate the good, and 
on the other to suppress its tendencies to sin, hence apos 
tatizes. A sad experience this, which fills the land with 
backsliders. Here is another with whom the warfare be 
tween the good infused, and the tendencies to sin not yet 
extirpated, is almost equal. He alternates between light 
and darkness, justification and condemnation, sinning and 
repenting. But little, if any, real progress is made. Alas, 
that this should be the exact experience of so many ! 
Still another, not knowing his right to full gospel free 
dom, seeks no greater victory than to control his tendencies 
to sin anger, pride, envy, jealously, Jove of the world, 
&c. ; yet holding the evil in constant restraint it becomes 
less potent, while the good, carefully cultured, grows and 



306 THE LIFE OP 

strengthens. Here is steady progress ; but not complete 
victory. Stoutly denying the possibility of complete deliv 
erance in this life, the measure of exparience, and the 
contest with its internal foes is ended only " down at the 
river." A fourth gains successive victories over these inter 
nal foes ; and receives new baptisms of the Holy Ghost, 
just as those foes come conspicuously within the field of 
the soul s consciousness. Each successive victory is com 
plete in kind, but limited in extent. Impulsions adverse 
to spiritual life and growth, in ambush, still tenant the 
heart, until the last one is brought to view and cast out ; 
each successive victory being attended with deeper and 
still deeper baptisms of the Holy Ghost, until the work of 
entire sanctification is completed. Dr. Lee styles this, 
gradual or progressive sanctification. But a fifth surveys 
the whole field of the soul s wants at one searching and 
appalling view. And oh, how appalling ! He sees and feels 
the mighty work to be done ; and is as clearly and deeply 
convicted of the necessity of a clean heart, as formerly o* 
the necessity of pardon. In the strength of Divine grace 
the resolution if formed. The single sentiment of " Victory 
or Death" permeates every part and power of the deathless 
spirit, now stirred to its uttermost profound. The life-and- 
death struggle is terrible. For these internal foes die 
hard. Consecration of the entire being deeper, broader, 
higher than ever before reached, is now made; taking 
houses, lands, time, talent, reputation, friends, wife, child 
ren, life ; everything. Faith in Christ as a perfect Sivior 
and all-conquering Captain, measures up to the full de 
mands of the occasion, and trusts him for complete deliv 
erance from these tendencies to sin just as fully as it trust 
ed him for pardon ; and in a moment the mighty work is 
wrought! Self dies, that Christ may hold undisputed sway 
over the entire empire of the soul, Now ensue unutterable 
joy the perfect Rest of Faith a life of light and love 
the sweet tranquility of heaven. 

Now, why admit the reality of the first four experiences 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 307 

above delineated, and deny the fifth, which is indefinitely 
the most glorbus, and is attested by the open profession 
and holy lives of such shining names as Messrs. Fletcher, 
Bramwell, Carvosso, Nelson, Mrs. Hester Ann Rogers, 
Mrs. Fletcher, Lady Maxwell, and a host of others, God s 
noble men and women who testify that " the blood of Jesus 
Christ his Son, cleanseth from all sin ? " 

Reader! Does your name, of right, belong to this list? 
What does conscience answer? Shall it be there? 

Between the extremes above indicated is margin for many 
shades of experience; and this variety in experience gives 
origin to variety in theories. We are now prepared to note 
some points of difference between the states of regeneration 
and entire sanctification. These are marked and well-de 
fined. 

1. The convictions preceding those states are different. 
Sinners are convicted of sin, guilt, and of the need of par 
don and reconciliation. The regenerate are convicted of 
internal tendencies to sin, in the form of passions, propen 
sities, tempers and dispositions, and are deeply conscious 
that continued justification and the favor of Heaven, are 
conditioned upon their extirpation. Of course this con 
sciousness does not attach to those who do not apprehend 
the possibility of complete deliverance, in this life, from 
these impulsions to sin. 

2. There is difference in the consecrations made. In the 
case of the repentant sinner, it is usually less or more con 
fused, vague and limited; owing to abounding spiritual 
darkness. In the case of the soul intelligently seeking full 
redemption, the consecration is clear, well-defined, deep, 
broad, high, and all-comprehending, 

3. There is a difference in the blessings sought. The 
repentant sinner seeks, believes for, and experiences par 
don and reconciliation. Beyond this, the knowledge of his 
needs does not extend. The regenerate seek, believe for, 
and experience complete deliverance from the foes lurking 
within, with the attendant baptism of the Holy Ghost. One 



308 THE LIFE OF 

apprehends and trusts in Christ as a Savior from the guilt 
and dreadful consequences of sin. The other apprehends 
and trusts in Christ as the complete deliverer from all 
indwelling tendencies to revolt and rebellion. 

4. Hence there is a difference in those states themselves. 
With the regenerate, the tendencies to sin are only con 
trolled. With the entirely sanctified they are extirpated. 
With the regenerate, there are deep under- currents of the 
soul averse to a life of entire consecration impulsions 
clamoring for both existence and indulgence. In the wholly 
sanctified, all those deep under-currents are friendly and 
helpful to a life of unqualified holiness. So that, so far 
as internal foes are concerned, the empire of the soul is left 
in peace. 

5. Hence again : there is marked difference in the temp 
tations of the two states. With the regenerate or partially 
sanctified, many of their temptations are from within, while 
with the wholly sanctified, they are from without. The re 
generate are conscious of something within, in sympathy 
with suggested evil ; while with the wholly sanctified, there 
is no such sympathy, but positive and intense antagonism 
to all known sin. The regenerate are often tempted di 
rectly to sin ; whereas the wholly sanctified seldom are. 
With these, Satan, coming in the guise of an angel of light, 
operates upon and through something in itself innocent, or 
it may be morally excellent ; to secure an illegitimate use 
of these. As in the case of Eve, her desire for food, or 
wish to be wise. Or in the case of Jesus his hunger ; 
or his perceived faith in Divine Providence, to cast him 
self from the pinacle of the temple ; or of his dread for 
terrible sufferings, as in the garden of " strong crying and 
tears." Sometimes be seeks to take advantage of the holi 
est sentiments of the soul, and mis-lead and mis-direct, 
for example, our tender regard for the honor of God, and 
the success of his cause. On the one hand, he may seek 
to hold us back we must have our faith to ourselves must 
be prudently zealous we must not be too forward, or we 
will be thought officious, and our power to do good thus 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 309 

be destroyed, or on the other hand, he may urge us too 
fast and too far; and thus beguile into fanaticism; or as in 
the case of Paul, he may send a " messenger of Satan to 
buffet us 1 a brother, or sister, or wife, or husband, or 
pastor, or private church-member, or sinners. But per 
haps the master device of Satan in this regard, is to lead 
us, all undiscovered, to the excessive indulgence of that 
which, in itself, is innocent; such as love of husband, wife, 
children, reputation, or appetite, or native impulsions, in 
themselves entirely legitimate. At this point especially, 
there is necessity for eternal vigilance. Thus in a thou 
sand ways Satan may buffet, annoy and embarrass those 
who are wholly sanctified. It is well to be wise, and know 
" The depths of Satan." 

And just here it is in place to guard our readers against 
fatal mistakes. And, 

1. Be slow to make your own experience the primal test 
of truth, respecting this great subject. Especially do not 
say "When first converted, I was more happy, and loved 
more than at any period since ; therefore there is no such 
thing as progress in the experience of salvation." Is not 
such an experience sadly defective ? What meaneth the 
parable of the one, two, and five talents ? The Scriptures 
and all nature, alike teach the doctrine of progress. 

2. Do not mistake mere regeneration for entire sanctifi- 
cation. It may well be feared that there are those in the 
Church who are destitute of the grace of Christ; and, 
deeply conscious of the immense vr.cuum in their souls, 
come to Jesus humbly and devoutly, and being greatly 
blessed, assume that they are wholly sanctified, while they 
have received no^Ying beyond justification; a blessing of 
which, up to this time, they were destitute. 

3. Bo particular not to mistake partial for complete sanc- 
tif; ation. Be not deceived. Be thorough. Go to the very 
bottom in this experience. Leave no ground to doubt that 
either the consecration or the faith is complete. 

4. With the utmost care guard against every species of 



310 THE LIFE OP 

fanaticism. Satan is just as well pleased to push us a little 
too far as to have us Jail below privilege and duty. 
Hence, some believe themselves so much beyond where 
the Savior was, that they cannot be tempted. Others 
again think themselves so much in advance of the inspired 
Apostle, who said " we know but in part, and prophesy 
but in pait, that they are away above mistake have no 
need of the Scriptures; being in all things led by the 
Holy Ghost. And still others separate themselves from 
those dear children of God who kavs been only regenera 
ted, and fellowship those only who are wholly sanctified ; 
and thus produce schism in the body of Christ. By these 
and other devices, Satan succeeds in distracting the Church, 
and bringing the blessed doctrine of holiness into disrepute, 
ai-u ven ridicule. But of course it is no valid objection 
to a doctrine-, that it can be perverted. 

o. Too many, having professed entire sanctification cease 
their e orts for progress ; forgetting that there is a funda 
mental difference between purity and maturity. By all 
means, and with all possible assiduity, avoid this error. 
The sanctified soul is only in good position for bolder 
flights into the measureless beyond. When fields are 
cleared of all wild-growth, we expect the grains to grow 
the faster, and the gathered harvests to be the richer. 
But in neglected fields, the enemy will sow tares. Present 
grace can be retained only by getting more. Neglected 
conformity to this fundamental principle in the economy of 
grace accounts for the sad fact that so few who profess en 
tire sanctification succeed in retaining it. The honor of 
God and salvation of souls demand that this ruinous evil 
be remedied. When the demand of the age is spiritual 
athletes, shall we supply it with an army of infants ? This 
must not be. But we proceed. 

Distinct from the baptism of purity, is the baptism of 
power. The promises are distinct, and so are the bless 
ings. How much the whole Church needs this mighty bap 
tism ! How her hallowed interests lie in waste from its 



REV. ADAM CROOKS. 311 

want. How considerations weighty as the worth of souls 
and measureless as eternity, with voices, plaintive as the 
pleadings of Heaven s own pity, invoke the Church to a 
universal and perpetual Pentecost! Only this can make 
her " fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an 
army with banners." 

But still beyond, is the sealing of tlie Holy Spirit. As, 
in this life, the sinner can overleap the bounds of possible 
return to God, so this sealing " unto the day of redemp 
tion" make its possessor, quite as certain of the boundless 
bliss of heaven, as if already approved and crowned. Not 
that there is any absolute impossibility that they should 
sin, fall, and be lost; but only that all who know them 
are well persuaded that they will persevere and be eter 
nally crowned. We do not unduly magnify the grace of 
God. Read the prayer of the inspired Apostle, Eph. iii : 
16 21 That they might be rooted and grounded in love 
that they might kncrw the love of Christ, which passeth 
knowledge might be filled with all the fullness of God and 
then, " unto Him that is able to do exceeding abundantly 
above all that we ask or think." etc. 

No, we do not exaggerate. Are we all "agonizing to 
enter in at the straight gate, and to come up to the full 
measure of privilege and duty ? Reader, are you seeking 
to be thus thorough } Are you " forgetting things behind, 
and reaching to those before ? Are you allowing those im~ 
pulsions or tendencies, which if indulged, crystalize into sin, 
peaceable possession of a single inch of the territory cf your 
soul ; or is the entire being, with all and singular of ap 
purtenances, consecrated to the undisputed reign of Jesus ? 
Do you momentarily apprehend Christ your complete Sav 
ior? Do you live up to the highest point of Gospel privi 
lege ; or are you content to live below it? Can you live 
below privilege and be even justified? But are you emp 
tied of sin and filled with God ? 



312 THE LIFE OF REV. ADAM CROOKS. 



CONTENTS. 



Early History -. . 7 

Early Ministry, 11 

Call to the South 13 

Dedication of the First Wesleyan Meeting House in 

North Carolina 28 

Opposition 31 

Visit to Virginia 33 

Camp Meeting 38 

In Bonds 45 

Other Persecutions 66 

A Mob 76 

In Jail 94 

Release from Jail - 1 00 

Observations 109 

Further Activities Ill 

His Marriage 112 

Labors at Cleveland, Ohio 118 

Election to Editorship 125 

Denominational Union Movement 139 

The Rally and Restoration of Confidence 151 

Extract from an Inquiry into Masonry and Odd Fel 
lowship 15? 

Extract from Editorials , 175 

Character and Characteristics 207 

Home Life 219 

Letter Writing 228 

The Last Year 230 

Obsequies and Memorial Services 256 

Expressions of Sympathy and Appreciation 276 

Counsel to Converts 288 

Plea for Holiness 294 

Processes of Salvation 300 



BX Crooks, E. W. 

3495 Life of Rev. A. Crooks 

C7C7 



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